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Sample records for peripheral lymphoid organs

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF A NOVEL CELL TYPE IN PERIPHERAL LYMPHOID ORGANS OF MICE

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, Ralph M.; Cohn, Zanvil A.

    1973-01-01

    A novel cell type has been identified in adherent cell populations prepared from mouse peripheral lymphoid organs (spleen, lymph node, Peyer's patch). Though present in small numbers (0.1–1.6% of the total nucleated cells) the cells have distinct morphological features. The nucleus is large, retractile, contorted in shape, and contains small nucleoli (usually two). The abundant cytoplasm is arranged in processes of varying length and width and contains many large spherical mitochondria. In the living state, the cells undergo characteristic movements, and unlike macrophages, do not appear to engage in active endocytosis. The term, dendritic cell, is proposed for this novel cell type. PMID:4573839

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF A NOVEL CELL TYPE IN PERIPHERAL LYMPHOID ORGANS OF MICE

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, Ralph M.; Cohn, Zanvil A.

    1974-01-01

    Dendritic cells are morphologically distinct cells isolated in vitro from peripheral lymphoid organs of mice. They have a buoyant density of less than 1.082 and can be enriched 7–20-fold by isopycnic centrifugation in albumin columns. Surface adherence of enriched populations may yield cultures containing 50% dendritic cells—preparations which can then be studied in more detail. By functional tests, dendritic cells do not represent morphological variants of either lymphocytes or macrophages. They lack lymphocyte surface differentiation markers and do not exhibit the endocytic capacities of macrophages. In tissue culture, they do not differentiate into macrophages. Dendritic cells have a low labeling index in vitro (1.5–2.5%) following administration of [3H]thymidine, and this property distinguishes them from large lymphocytes and promonocytes. Dendritic cells also do not possess the functional properties of other types of reticular cells proposed to exist in lymphoid organs, i.e., they do not synthesize collagen-like macromolecules, they are not stem cells for erythroid and myeloid colony formation, and they do not retain antigens or immune complexes on their cell surface. Dendritic cells thus represent a novel cell type on both functional and morphological grounds. PMID:4589990

  3. The morphological changes in lymphoid organs and peripheral blood indicators in rats after peroral administration of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucharskaya, A. B.; Pakhomy, S. S.; Zlobina, O. V.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Matveeva, O. V.; Bugaeva, I. O.; Navolokin, N. A.; Khlebtsov, B. N.; Bogatyrev, V. A.; Khlebtsov, N. G.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The wide application of nanotechnologies in medicine requires the careful study of various aspects of their potential safety. The effects of prolonged peroral administration of gold nanoparticles on morphological changes in lymphoid organs and indicators of peripheral blood of laboratory animals were investigated in experiment. The gold nanospheres functionalized with thiolated polyethylene glycol sizes 2, 15 and 50 nm were administered orally for 15 days to outbred white rats at a dosage of 190 μg/kg of animal body weight. The standard histological and hematological staining were used for morphological study of lymphoid organs and bone marrow smears. The size-dependent decrease of the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes was noted in the study of peripheral blood, especially pronounced after administration of gold nanoparticles with size of 50 nm. The stimulation of myelocytic germ of hematopoiesis was recorded at morphological study of the bone marrow. The signs of strengthening of the processes of differentiation and maturation of cellular elements were found in lymph nodes, which were showed as the increasing number of immunoblasts and large lymphocytes. The quantitative changes of cellular component morphology of lymphoid organs due to activation of migration, proliferation and differentiation of immune cells indicate the presence of immunostimulation effect of gold nanoparticles.

  4. Janus kinase 3-deficient T lymphocytes have an intrinsic defect in CCR7-mediated homing to peripheral lymphoid organs

    PubMed Central

    García-Zepeda, Eduardo A; Licona-Limón, Ileana; Jiménez-Sólomon, M Fernanda; Soldevila, Gloria

    2007-01-01

    Chemokine-mediated signalling involves the activation of a Janus kinase (Jak) pathway. We have previously shown that Jak3 mediates CCR9 and CXCR4 signalling in response to CCL25 and CXCL12 in BM progenitors and thymocytes. The lack of peripheral lymph nodes and Peyer's patches observed in Jak3–/– mice suggested a possible role of Jak3 in CCR7-mediated homing to these organs. Here, we demonstrate phosphorylation of Jak3 in peripheral lymphocytes in response CCL19 and CCL21. In addition, Jak3–/– naïve T cells and pharmacologically inhibited Jak3+/+ T lymphocytes have impaired chemotactic responses towards these ligands. Interestingly, CCR7 expression was higher in Jak3–/– thymocytes compared to their Jak3+/– littermates, indicating that the impaired migration must be caused by impaired CCR7-mediated signalling, in the absence of Jak3. In addition, adoptive transfer experiments showed that Jak3+/+ mice reconstituted with Jak3–/– green fluorescent protein (GFP)+ bone marrow progenitors had reduced T-lymphocyte homing to peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes, compared to reconstitution with Jak3+/+ GFP+ progenitors. Furthermore, reciprocal transfer experiments indicated that Jak3–/– stromal cells were not responsible for the deficient T-cell homing. Finally, we performed direct competitive homing assays and demonstrated that Jak3–/– T lymphocytes have a clear defect in homing to peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes, while migration to spleen was moderately impaired. Our data demonstrates that Jak3–/– T lymphocytes have an intrinsic defect in CCR7-mediated homing to peripheral lymphoid organs. PMID:17521370

  5. Innate lymphoid cells in secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Bar-Ephraïm, Yotam E; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-05-01

    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has attracted attention in recent years as its members are important regulators of immunity, while they can also cause pathology. In both mouse and man, ILCs were initially discovered in developing lymph nodes as lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. These cells form the prototypic members of the ILC family and play a central role in the formation of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). In the absence of LTi cells, lymph nodes (LN) and Peyer's Patches (PP) fail to form in mice, although the splenic white pulp can develop normally. Besides LTi cells, the ILC family encompasses helper-like ILCs with functional distinctions as seen by T-helper cells, as well as cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells. ILCs are still present in adult SLOs where they have been shown to play a role in lymphoid tissue regeneration. Furthermore, ILCs were implicated to interact with adaptive lymphocytes and influence the adaptive immune response. Here, we review the recent literature on the role of ILCs in secondary lymphoid tissue from the formation of SLOs to mature SLOs in adults, during homeostasis and pathology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of xenogeneic, allogeneic and isogeneic thymus grafts on lymphocyte populations in peripheral lymphoid organs of the nude rat.

    PubMed

    Hougen, H P; Klausen, B; Stenvang, J P; Kraemmer, J; Rygaard, J

    1987-04-01

    In order to gain information about the effect of xenografted, allografted and isografted thymic tissue on peripheral lymphoid organs of immune-deficient rats, athymic nude LEW rats of ninth backcross-intercross were grafted with fetal calf and neonatal BDIX and LEW thymus. Adrenalectomy was also performed in some animals in order to obtain a possible enhancement of the immunological reconstitution. Both groups of isogeneic-thymus-grafted animals had more T helper cells than the nude controls. Furthermore, they had more densely populated paracortical areas in the inguinal lymph nodes and higher lymphocyte counts in the thoracic duct lymph. Finally, the inguinal lymph nodes contained germinal centres. Xenogeneic and allogeneic thymus transplants did not induce constant changes in the parameters observed compared with the untreated nudes. No clear difference was observed between the adrenalectomized and non-adrenalectomized thymic-isografted animals. We therefore conclude that of all the experimental animals examined the isografted nude rats show by far the best response and that adrenalectomy seems unnecessary for the success of neonatal isogeneic thymus grafts. We also conclude that the isogeneic-thymus-grafted nude rat is a suitable tool for immunological reconstitution studies.

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF A NOVEL CELL TYPE IN PERIPHERAL LYMPHOID ORGANS OF MICE

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, Ralph M.; Lustig, Dinah S.; Cohn, Zanvil A.

    1974-01-01

    Several properties of lymphoid dendritic cells in situ have been determined, and contrasted to information previously established for lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes. Dendritic cells are not found in newborn mice, and their concentration in both spleen and mesenteric lymph node does not reach adult levels until 3–4 wk of age. Dendritic cells largely disappear from adherent populations following administration of steroids (2.5 mg hydrocortisone acetate s.c.) and ionizing radiation (Do of 100 rads for Co60). Splenic dendritic cells can originate from precursors located in both bone marrow and spleen itself, probably the red pulp. The mature splenic population does not actively divide (pulse labeling index with [3H]thymidine of 1.5–2.5%), but does turnover at substantial rate, 10+% of the total pool per day. The influx of new cells appears to be derived from a proliferating precursor compartment, but the mechanism for efflux or turnover is not known. Dendritic cells in spleen and node undergo little or moderate increase in numbers during development of a primary immune response. These in vivo characteristics, taken together, further distinguish dendritic cells as a novel cell type, distinct from mononuclear phagocytes and lymphocytes. PMID:4598015

  8. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs

    PubMed Central

    Nosenko, M. A.; Drutskaya, M. S.; Moisenovich, M. M.; Nedospasov, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed. PMID:27437136

  9. Immunohistochemical evidences showing the presence of thymulin containing cells located in involuted thymus and in peripheral lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Folch, Hugo; Villegas, Juana V; Leyan, Víctor; Barría, Miguel; Eller, Gisela; Esquivel, Patricio

    2010-01-01

    Thymulin is a well-characterized thymic hormone that exists as a nonapeptide coupled to equimolar amounts of Zn2+. Thymulin is known to have multiple biological roles, including T cell differentiation, immune regulation, and analgesic functions. It has been shown that thymulin is produced by the reticulo-epithelial cells of the thymus, and it circulates in the blood from the moment of birth, maintain its serum level until puberty diminishing thereafter in life. To study the localization of this hormone, we prepared polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against the commercial peptide and utilized immunocytochemical techniques for visualization. The results indicate that thymulin stains the thymic reticular cells, the outer layers of Hassall's corpuscles and a large round cellular type, which is keratin-negative and does not show affinity for the common leukocyte antigen (CD-45). In mice, this thymulin-positive cell remains in the thymus throughout life and even appears in relatively increased numbers in old involuted thymi. It also appears in thymus-dependent areas of the spleen and lymph nodes, demonstrating that at least one of the thymus cells containing this peptide can be found in peripheral lymphoid tissue.

  10. Lymphoid Neogenesis and Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Transplanted Organs

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Alice; Thaunat, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The progressive organization of immune effectors into functional ectopic lymphoid structures, named tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO), has been observed in many conditions in which target antigens fail to be eliminated by the immune system. Not surprisingly, TLO have been recurrently identified in chronically rejected allografts. Although significant progress has been made over the last decades in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in TLO development (a process named lymphoid neogenesis), the role of intragraft TLO (if any) in chronic rejection remains elusive. The prevailing dogma is that TLO contribute to graft rejection by generating and propagating local humoral and cellular alloimmune responses. However, TLO have been recently observed in long-term accepting allografts, suggesting that they might also be able to regulate alloimmune responses. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how TLO are induced and propose a unified model in which TLO can play deleterious or regulatory roles and therefore actively modulate the kinetics of chronic rejection. PMID:28082981

  11. Tissue residency of innate lymphoid cells in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Gasteiger, Georg; Fan, Xiying; Dikiy, Stanislav; Lee, Sue Y; Rudensky, Alexander Y

    2015-11-20

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) contribute to barrier immunity, tissue homeostasis, and immune regulation at various anatomical sites throughout the body. How ILCs maintain their presence in lymphoid and peripheral tissues thus far has been unclear. We found that in the lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs of adult mice, ILCs are tissue-resident cells that were maintained and expanded locally under physiologic conditions, upon systemic perturbation of immune homeostasis and during acute helminth infection. However, at later time points after infection, cells from hematogenous sources helped to partially replenish the pool of resident ILCs. Thus, ILCs are maintained by self-renewal in broadly different microenvironments and physiological settings. Such an extreme "sedentary" lifestyle is consistent with the proposed roles of ILCs as sentinels and local keepers of tissue function. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Histological and three dimensional organizations of lymphoid tubules in normal lymphoid organ of Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Duangsuwan, Pornsawan; Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Sobhon, Prasert

    2008-04-01

    The normal lymphoid organ of Penaeus monodon (which tested negative for WSSV and YHV) was composed of two parts: lymphoid tubules and interstitial spaces, which were permeated with haemal sinuses filled with large numbers of haemocytes. There were three permanent types of cells present in the wall of lymphoid tubules: endothelial, stromal and capsular cells. Haemocytes penetrated the endothelium of the lymphoid tubule's wall to reside among the fixed cells. The outermost layer of the lymphoid tubule was covered by a network of fibers embedded in a PAS-positive extracellular matrix, which corresponded to a basket-like network that covered all the lymphoid tubules as visualized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Argyrophilic reticular fibers surrounded haemal sinuses and lymphoid tubules. Together they formed the scaffold that supported the lymphoid tubule. Using vascular cast and SEM, the three dimensional structure of the subgastric artery that supplies each lobe of the lymphoid organ was reconstructed. This artery branched into highly convoluted and blind-ending terminal capillaries, each forming the lumen of a lymphoid tubule around which haemocytes and other cells aggregated to form a cuff-like wall. Stromal cells which form part of the tubular scaffold were immunostained for vimentin. Examination of the whole-mounted lymphoid organ, immunostained for vimentin, by confocal microscopy exhibited the highly branching and convoluted lymphoid tubules matching the pattern of the vascular cast observed in SEM.

  13. Lymphoid organs function as major reservoirs for human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Pantaleo, G; Graziosi, C; Butini, L; Pizzo, P A; Schnittman, S M; Kotler, D P; Fauci, A S

    1991-01-01

    The total number of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes is considered to be a reflection of the HIV burden at any given time during the course of HIV infection. However, the low frequency of HIV-infected circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes and the low level or absence of plasma viremia in the early stages of infection do not correlate with the progressive immune dysfunction characteristic of HIV infection. In this study, we have determined whether HIV-infected circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes are a correct reflection of the total pool of HIV-infected CD4+ T cells (i.e., HIV burden). To this end, HIV burden has been comparatively analyzed in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues (lymph nodes, adenoids, and tonsils) from the same patients. The presence of HIV-1 DNA in mononuclear cells isolated simultaneously from peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues of the same patients was determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification. We found that the frequency of HIV-1-infected cells in unfractionated or sorted CD4+ cell populations isolated from lymphoid tissues was significantly higher (0.5-1 log10 unit) than the frequency in peripheral blood. Comparable results were obtained in five HIV seropositive patients in the early stages of disease and in one patient with AIDS. These results demonstrate that a heavy viral load does reside in the lymphoid organs, indicating that they may function as major reservoirs for HIV. In addition, the finding of a heavy viral load in the lymphoid organs of patients in the early stages of disease may explain the progressive depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes and the immune dysfunction associated with the early stages of HIV infection. Images PMID:1682922

  14. Prion pathogenesis and secondary lymphoid organs (SLO)

    PubMed Central

    Mabbott, Neil A.

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are subacute neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and a range of domestic and free-ranging animal species. These diseases are characterized by the accumulation of PrPSc, an abnormally folded isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrPC), in affected tissues. The pathology during prion disease appears to occur almost exclusively within the central nervous system. The extensive neurodegeneration which occurs ultimately leads to the death of the host. An intriguing feature of the prion diseases, when compared with other protein-misfolding diseases, is their transmissibility. Following peripheral exposure, some prion diseases accumulate to high levels within lymphoid tissues. The replication of prions within lymphoid tissue has been shown to be important for the efficient spread of disease to the brain. This article describes recent progress in our understanding of the cellular mechanisms that influence the propagation of prions from peripheral sites of exposure (such as the lumen of the intestine) to the brain. A thorough understanding of these events will lead to the identification of important targets for therapeutic intervention, or alternatively, reveal additional processes that influence disease susceptibility to peripherally-acquired prion diseases. PMID:22895090

  15. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Cancer Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Ino, Yoshinori; Yamazaki-Itoh, Rie

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are induced postnatally in non-lymphoid tissues such as those affected by chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, and chronic allograft rejection, and also in cancer tissues. TLOs are thought to provide important lymphocytic functional environments for both cellular and humoral immunity, similar to lymph nodes or Peyer’s patches. TLOs have a structure similar to that of lymph nodes or Peyer’s patches, including T cell zones, B cell follicles, and high endothelial venules (HEV) without encapsulation. Here, we review recent advances in our knowledge of TLOs in human solid cancers, including their location, structure, methods of evaluation, and clinicopathological impact. We also discuss the formation and/or maintenance of TLOs in cancer tissues in association with the tumor immune microenvironment, cancer invasion, and the tissue structure of the cancer stroma. PMID:27446075

  16. Antigen-Presenting Cells and Antigen Presentation in Tertiary Lymphoid Organs

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Catherine E.; Benson, Robert A.; Bedaj, Marija; Maffia, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) form in territorialized niches of peripheral tissues characterized by the presence of antigens; however, little is known about mechanism(s) of antigen handling by ectopic lymphoid structures. In this mini review, we will discuss the role of antigen-presenting cells and mechanisms of antigen presentation in TLOs, summarizing what is currently known about this facet of the formation and function of these tissues as well as identifying questions yet to be addressed. PMID:27872626

  17. Peripheral Tissue Homing Receptor Control of Naïve, Effector, and Memory CD8 T Cell Localization in Lymphoid and Non-Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, C. Colin; Peske, J. David; Engelhard, Victor Henry

    2013-01-01

    T cell activation induces homing receptors that bind ligands on peripheral tissue vasculature, programing movement to sites of infection and injury. There are three major types of CD8 effector T cells based on homing receptor expression, which arise in distinct lymphoid organs. Recent publications indicate that naïve, effector, and memory T cell migration is more complex than once thought; while many effectors enter peripheral tissues, some re-enter lymph nodes (LN), and contain central memory precursors. LN re-entry can depend on CD62L or peripheral tissue homing receptors. Memory T cells in LN tend to express the same homing receptors as their forebears, but often are CD62Lneg. Homing receptors also control CD8 T cell tumor entry. Tumor vasculature has low levels of many peripheral tissue homing receptor ligands, but portions of it resemble high endothelial venules (HEV), enabling naïve T cell entry, activation, and subsequent effector activity. This vasculature is associated with positive prognoses in humans, suggesting it may sustain ongoing anti-tumor responses. These findings reveal new roles for homing receptors expressed by naïve, effector, and memory CD8 T cells in controlling entry into lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. PMID:23966998

  18. Tolerance and Lymphoid Organ Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Burrell, Bryna E.; Ding, Yaozhong; Nakayama, Yumi; Park, Kyung-Su; Xu, Jiangnan; Yin, Na; Bromberg, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    This issue of Frontiers in Immunologic Tolerance explores barriers to tolerance from a variety of views of cells, molecules, and processes of the immune system. Our laboratory has spent over a decade focused on the migration of the cells of the immune system, and dissecting the signals that determine how and where effector and suppressive regulatory T cells traffic from one site to another in order to reject or protect allografts. These studies have led us to a greater appreciation of the anatomic structure of the immune system, and the realization that the path taken by lymphocytes during the course of the immune response to implanted organs determines the final outcome. In particular, the structures, microanatomic domains, and the cells and molecules that lymphocytes encounter during their transit through blood, tissues, lymphatics, and secondary lymphoid organs are powerful determinants for whether tolerance is achieved. Thus, the understanding of complex cellular and molecular processes of tolerance will not come from “96-well plate immunology,” but from an integrated understanding of the temporal and spatial changes that occur during the response to the allograft. The study of the precise positioning and movement of cells in lymphoid organs has been difficult since it is hard to visualize cells within their three-dimensional setting; instead techniques have tended to be dominated by two-dimensional renderings, although advanced confocal and two-photon systems are changing this view. It is difficult to precisely modify key molecules and events in lymphoid organs, so that existing knockouts, transgenics, inhibitors, and activators have global and pleiotropic effects, rather than precise anatomically restricted influences. Lastly, there are no well-defined postal codes or tracking systems for leukocytes, so that while we can usually track cells from point A to point B, it is exponentially more difficult or even impossible to track them to point C and beyond

  19. Human secondary lymphoid organs typically contain polyclonally-activated proliferating regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jorieke H; Koenen, Hans J P M; Fasse, Esther; Tijssen, Henk J; Ijzermans, Jan N M; Groenen, Patricia J T A; Schaap, Nicolaas P M; Kwekkeboom, Jaap; Joosten, Irma

    2013-09-26

    Immunomodulating regulatory T-cell (Treg) therapy is a promising strategy in autoimmunity and transplantation. However, to achieve full clinical efficacy, better understanding of in vivo human Treg biology is warranted. Here, we demonstrate that in contrast to blood and bone marrow Tregs, which showed a resting phenotype, the majority of CD4(pos)CD25(pos)CD127(neg)FoxP3(pos) Tregs in secondary lymphoid organs were proliferating activated CD69(pos)CD45RA(neg) cells with a hyperdemethylated FOXP3 gene and a broad T-cell receptor-Vβ repertoire, implying polyclonal activation. Activated CD69(pos) Tregs were distributed over both T-cell and B-cell areas, distant from Aire(pos) and CD11c(pos) cells. In contrast to the anergic peripheral blood Tregs, lymphoid organ Tregs had significant ex vivo proliferative capacity and produced cytokines like interleukin-2, while revealing similar suppressive potential. Also, next to Treg-expressing chemokine receptors important for a prolonged stay in lymphoid organs, a significant part of the cells expressed peripheral tissue-associated, functional homing markers. In conclusion, our data suggest that human secondary lymphoid organs aid in the maintenance and regulation of Treg function and homeostasis. This knowledge may be exploited for further optimization of Treg immunotherapy, for example, by ex vivo selection of Tregs with capacity to migrate to lymphoid organs providing an in vivo platform for further Treg expansion.

  20. Long-term immunologically competent human peripheral lymphoid tissue cultures in a 3D bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Kuzin, Igor; Sun, Hongliang; Moshkani, Safiekhatoon; Feng, Changyong; Mantalaris, Athanasios; Wu, JH David; Bottaro, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral lymphoid organs (PLOs), the primary sites of development of adaptive immune responses, display a complex structural organization reflecting separation of cellular subsets (e.g. T and B lymphocytes) and functional compartments which is critical for immune function. The generation of in vitro culture systems capable of recapitulating salient features of PLOs for experimental, biotechnological and clinical applications would be highly desirable, but has been hampered so far by the complexity of these systems. We have previously developed a three-dimensional bioreactor system for long-term, functional culture of human bone marrow cells on macroporous microspheres in a packed-bed bioreactor with frequent medium change. Here we adapt the same system for culture of human primary cells from PLOs (tonsil) in the absence of specific exogenous growth factors or activators. Cells in this system displayed higher viability over several weeks, and maintain population diversity and cell surface markers largely comparable to primary cells. Light microscopy showed cells organizing in large diverse clusters within the scaffold pores and presence of B cell-enriched areas. Strikingly, these cultures generated a significant number of antibody-producing B cells when challenged with a panel of diverse antigens, as expected from a lymphoid tissue. Thus the three-dimensional tonsil bioreactor culture system may serve as a useful model of PLOs by recapitulating their structural organization and function ex vivo. PMID:21309085

  1. Transcriptional profiling of peripheral lymphoid tissue reveals genes and networks linked to SSBP/1 scrapie pathology in sheep.

    PubMed

    Gossner, Anton; Roupaka, Sofia; Foster, Jim; Hunter, Nora; Hopkins, John

    2011-12-15

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are slow and progressive neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals. The major target organ for all TSEs is the brain but some TSE agents are associated with prior accumulation within the peripheral lymphoid system. Many studies have examined the effects of scrapie infection on the expression of central nervous system (CNS) genes, but this study examines the progression of scrapie pathology in the peripheral lymphoid system and how scrapie infection affects the transcriptome of the lymph nodes and spleen. Infection of sheep with SSBP/1 scrapie resulted in PrP(Sc) deposition in the draining prescapular lymph node (PSLN) by 25 days post infection (dpi) in VRQ/VRQ genotype sheep and 75 dpi in tonsils and spleen. Progression of PrP(Sc) deposition in VRQ/ARR animals was 25 dpi later in the PSLN and 250 dpi later in spleen. Microarray analysis of 75 dpi tissues from VRQ/VRQ sheep identified 52 genes in PSLN and 37 genes in spleen cells that showed significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) between scrapie-infected and mock-infected animals. Transcriptional pathway analysis highlighted immunological disease, cell death and neurological disease as the biological pathways associated with scrapie pathogenesis in the peripheral lymphoid system. PrP(Sc) accumulation of lymphoid tissue resulted in the repression of genes linked to inflammation and oxidative stress, and the up-regulation of genes related to apoptosis.

  2. Homeostatic migration and distribution of innate immune cells in primary and secondary lymphoid organs with ageing.

    PubMed

    Nikolich-Žugich, J; Davies, J S

    2017-03-01

    Ageing of the innate and adaptive immune system, collectively termed immune senescence, is a complex process. One method to understand the components of ageing involves dissociating the effects of ageing on the cells of the immune system, on the microenvironment in lymphoid organs and tissues where immune cells reside and on the circulating factors that interact with both immune cells and their microenvironment. Heterochronic parabiosis, a surgical union of two organisms of disparate ages, is ideal for this type of study, as it has the power to dissociate the age of the cell and the age of the microenvironment into which the cell resides or is migrating. So far, however, it has been used sparingly to study immune ageing. Here we review the limited literature on homeostatic innate immune cell trafficking in ageing in the absence of chronic inflammation. We also review our own recent data on trafficking of innate immune subsets between primary and secondary lymphoid organs in heterochronic parabiosis. We found no systemic bias in retention or acceptance of neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells or natural killer cells with ageing in primary and secondary lymphoid organs. We conclude that these four innate immune cell types migrate to and populate lymphoid organs (peripheral lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow), regardless of their own age and of the age of lymphoid organs. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  3. Prions and lymphoid organs: solved and remaining mysteries.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Tracy; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Prion colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is a critical step preceding neuroinvasion in prion pathogenesis. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which depend on both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling for maintenance, are thought to be the primary sites of prion accumulation in SLOs. However, prion titers in RML-infected TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes and rates of neuroinvasion in TNFR1 (-/-) mice remain high despite the absence of mature FDCs. Recently, we discovered that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes relies on LTβR signaling. Loss of LTβR signaling in TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes coincided with the de-differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs)-the primary sites of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. These findings suggest that HEVs are the sites through which prions initially invade lymph nodes from the bloodstream. Identification of HEVs as entry portals for prions clarifies a number of previous observations concerning peripheral prion pathogenesis. However, a number of questions still remain: What is the mechanism by which prions are taken up by HEVs? Which cells are responsible for delivering prions to lymph nodes? Are HEVs the main entry site for prions into lymph nodes or do alternative routes also exist? These questions and others are considered in this article.

  4. Collaboration of epithelial cells with organized mucosal lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed

    Neutra, M R; Mantis, N J; Kraehenbuhl, J P

    2001-11-01

    Immune surveillance of mucosal surfaces requires the delivery of intact macromolecules and microorganisms across epithelial barriers to organized mucosal lymphoid tissues. Transport, processing and presentation of foreign antigens, as well as local induction and clonal expansion of antigen-specific effector lymphocytes, involves a close collaboration between organized lymphoid tissues and the specialized follicle-associated epithelium. M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium transport foreign macromolecules and microorganisms to antigen-presenting cells within and under the epithelial barrier. Determination of the earliest cellular interactions that occur in and under the follicle-associated epithelium could greatly facilitate the design of effective mucosal vaccines in the future.

  5. [Meningeal tertiary lymphoid organs: Major actors in intrathecal autoimmunity].

    PubMed

    Bonnan, M

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by an intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulins synthesized by B-cell clones and by a brain infiltrate of clonal T-cells. The clonal maturation of these lymphocytes takes place in tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO) developed in the intrathecal compartment. TLO are acquired lymphoid organs able to develop in the vicinity of the inflammatory sites, where they mount a complete antigen-driven immune response. We here review TLO pathophysiology in animal models of MS and human MS. Several pieces of evidence suggest that intrathecal TLO may play a major role in the clinical impairment. Potential therapeutic applications are examined.

  6. Human Ia-like antigens in non-lymphoid organs.

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, K; Fukunishi, T; Barcos, M; Tanigaki, N; Pressman, D

    1979-01-01

    Human Ia-like antigens in liver and kidney were shown by the immunofluorescence assay to be present mostly in the endothelial-mesenchymal cells of these organs. The parenchymal cells apparently contained no human Ia-like antigens. The antigens in liver and kidney were purified and shown to have the same subunit structure as human Ia-like antigens of cultured B-lymphoid cells. The human Ia-like antigens in non-lymphoid organs, not only in liver and kidney but also in testis, heart, muscle and brain, carried all the xenoantigenic characteristics of human Ia-like antigens expressed on lymphoid cells of B-cell lineage. Images Figure 1 PMID:389786

  7. Effects of homozygosity of the nude (rnu) gene in an inbred strain of rats: studies of lymphoid and non--lymphoid organs in different age groups of nude rats of LEW background at a stage in the gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Hougen, H P; Klausen, B

    1984-01-01

    Several age groups of nude homozygous rnu/rnu and heterozygous rnu/+ rats of the same genetic background at an early stage of back-crossing (LEW/Mol) were compared as to body and organ weights, histological appearance and cell density of lymphoid organs, haematological values and differential counts of bone marrow and peripheral blood. No thymic tissue was found in the nude animals. 7-week-old nudes were smaller than control animals and had relatively larger non-lymphoid organs and cell-depleted peripheral lymphoid organs. Other age groups showed little difference. Peripheral blood of nude rats showed no signs of lymphopaenia in contrast with the findings in nude mice. The number of thoracic duct lymphocytes was, however, significantly smaller in all age groups of the nude rats, and the bone marrow tended to contain fewer lymphocytes.

  8. Donor lymphoid organs are a major site of alloreactive T-cell priming following intestinal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Dong, Y; Sun, J-Z; Taylor, R T; Guo, C; Alegre, M-L; Williams, I R; Newell, K A

    2006-11-01

    We hypothesized that lymphoid organs within intestinal allografts contribute to their immunogenicity. Consistent with this hypothesis recipient T cells rapidly migrated to the lymph nodes and Peyer's patches of syngeneic and allogeneic intestinal grafts such that at 24 h approximately 50% of the lymphocytes isolated from donor lymphoid organs were of recipient origin. However, only in the lymphoid organs of allografts did recipient T cells display an activated phenotype, proliferate and produce IFNgamma. Rejection of allogeneic intestines lacking lymphoid organs was dramatically impaired in splenectomized, lymph node-deficient recipients compared to lymph node bearing, wild-type allogeneic intestines. This demonstrates the important role of donor lymphoid organs in the rejection process. Furthermore, recipient T cells proliferated more extensively and produced more IFNgamma in donor lymphoid organs than in recipient lymphoid organs, indicating that donor lymphoid organs play a dominant role in initiating the recipient anti-donor immune response following intestinal transplantation.

  9. Characterization and automatic screening of reactive and abnormal neoplastic B lymphoid cells from peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Alférez, S; Merino, A; Bigorra, L; Rodellar, J

    2016-04-01

    The objective was to advance in the automatic, image-based, characterization and recognition of a heterogeneous set of lymphoid cells from peripheral blood, including normal, reactive, and five groups of abnormal lymphocytes: hairy cells, mantle cells, follicular lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and prolymphocytes. A number of 4389 images from 105 patients were selected by pathologists, based on morphologic visual appearance, from patients whose diagnosis was confirmed by all the remaining complementary tests. Besides geometry, new color and texture features were extracted using six alternative color spaces to obtain rich information to characterize the cell groups. The recognition system was designed using support vector machines trained with the whole image set. In the experimental tests, individual sets of images from 21 new patients were analyzed by the trained recognition system and compared with the true diagnosis. An overall recognition accuracy of 97.67% was achieved when the cell screening was performed into three groups: normal lymphocytes, abnormal lymphoid cells, and reactive lymphocytes. The accuracy of the whole experimental study was 91.23% when considering the further discrimination of the abnormal lymphoid cells into the specific five groups. The excellent automatic screening of the three groups of normal, reactive, and abnormal lymphocytes is useful as it discriminates between malignancy and not malignancy. The discrimination of the five groups of abnormal lymphoid cells is encouraging toward the idea that the system could be an automated image-based screening method to identify blood involvement by a variety of B lymphomas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The induction of human peripheral blood lymphoid colonies by conditioned media from human tumour cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Vesole, D H; Moore, G E

    1980-01-01

    Conditioned medium (CM) from 29 human tumour cell lines and 3 malignant pleural fluids were tested for their ability to stimulate lymphoid colony formation in semi-solid agar; 9 of 14 malignant melanomas, 3 of 6 colonic carcinomas, 2 of 5 ovarian carcinomas, 3 of 4 breast carcinomas and 1 of 3 pleural fluids from breast cancer patients contained colony-stimulating activity (CSA) for human peripheral blood lymphoid cells (PBL) in semi-solid agar. Conditioned media also stimulated PBL proliferation in liquid medium; these effects were dose dependent. With the exception of one pleural fluid, extensive dialysis of CM did not significantly increase colony formation; CM from two tumour cell lines demonstrated a significant decrease in the induction of colony formation after dialysis. PMID:6970165

  11. Artery Tertiary Lymphoid Organs: Powerhouses of Atherosclerosis Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Changjun; Mohanta, Sarajo Kumar; Srikakulapu, Prasad; Weber, Christian; Habenicht, Andreas J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Artery tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs) are atherosclerosis-associated lymphoid aggregates with varying degrees of complexity ranging from small T/B-cell clusters to well-structured lymph node-like though unencapsulated lymphoid tissues. ATLOs arise in the connective tissue that surrounds diseased arteries, i.e., the adventitia. ATLOs have been identified in aged atherosclerosis-prone hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice: they are organized into distinct immune cell compartments, including separate T-cell areas, activated B-cell follicles, and plasma cell niches. Analyses of ATLO immune cell subsets indicate antigen-specific T- and B-cell immune reactions within the atherosclerotic arterial wall adventitia. Moreover, ATLOs harbor innate immune cells, including a large component of inflammatory macrophages, B-1 cells, and an aberrant set of antigen-presenting cells. There is marked neoangiogenesis, irregular lymphangiogenesis, neoformation of high endothelial venules, and de novo synthesis of lymph node-like conduits. Molecular mechanisms of ATLO formation remain to be identified though media vascular smooth muscle cells may adopt features of lymphoid tissue organizer-like cells by expressing lymphorganogenic chemokines, i.e., CXCL13 and CCL21. Although these data are consistent with the view that ATLOs participate in primary T- and B-cell responses against elusive atherosclerosis-specific autoantigens, their specific protective or disease-promoting roles remain to be identified. In this review, we discuss what is currently known about ATLOs and their potential impact on atherosclerosis and make attempts to define challenges ahead. PMID:27777573

  12. Evidence that somatostatin is localized and synthesized in lymphoid organs

    SciTech Connect

    Aguila, M.C.; McCann, S.M. ); Dees, W.L.; Haensly, W.E. )

    1991-12-15

    Because several peptides originally found in the pituitary as within the central nervous system have been localized in lymphoid tissues and because somatostatin (somatotropin-release-inhibiting hormone, SRIH) can act on cells of the immune system, the authors searched for this peptide in lymphoid organs. The authors demonstrated that SRIH mRNA exists in lymphoid tissue, albeit in smaller levels that in the periventricular region of the hypothalamus, the brain region that contains the highest level of this mRNA. SRIH mRNA was found in the spleen and thymus of male rats and in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius of the chicken. Its localization in the Bursa indicates that the peptide must be present in B lymphocytes since this is the site of origin of B lymphocytes in birds. The SRIH concentration in these lymphoid organs as determined by radioimmunoassay was greater in the thymus than in the spleen of the rat. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry revealed the presence of SRIH-positive cells in clusters inside the white pulp and more dispersed within the red pulp of the spleen of both the rat and the chicken. The thymus from these species also contained SRIH-positive cells within the medulla and around the corticomedullary junction. In the chicken, there were large cluster of SRIH-positive cells in the medullary portion of each nodule of the bursa of Fabricius. The results indicate that SRIH is synthesized and stored in cells of the immune system. SRIH may be secreted from these cells to exert paracrine actions that alter the function of immune cells in spleen and thymus.

  13. Tertiary lymphoid organs in systemic autoimmune diseases:  pathogenic or protective?

    PubMed Central

    Shipman, William D.; Dasoveanu, Dragos C.; Lu, Theresa T.

    2017-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid organs are found at sites of chronic inflammation in autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. These organized accumulations of T and B cells resemble secondary lymphoid organs and generate autoreactive effector cells. However, whether they contribute to disease pathogenesis or have protective functions is unclear. Here, we discuss how tertiary lymphoid organs can generate potentially pathogenic cells but may also limit the extent of the response and damage in autoimmune disease. PMID:28344775

  14. The development and function of mucosal lymphoid tissues: a balancing act with micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Randall, T D; Mebius, R E

    2014-05-01

    Mucosal surfaces are constantly exposed to environmental antigens, colonized by commensal organisms and used by pathogens as points of entry. As a result, the immune system has devoted the bulk of its resources to mucosal sites to maintain symbiosis with commensal organisms, prevent pathogen entry, and avoid unnecessary inflammatory responses to innocuous antigens. These functions are facilitated by a variety of mucosal lymphoid organs that develop during embryogenesis in the absence of microbial stimulation as well as ectopic lymphoid tissues that develop in adults following microbial exposure or inflammation. Each of these lymphoid organs samples antigens from different mucosal sites and contributes to immune homeostasis, commensal containment, and immunity to pathogens. Here we discuss the mechanisms, mostly based on mouse studies, that control the development of mucosal lymphoid organs and how the various lymphoid tissues cooperate to maintain the integrity of the mucosal barrier.

  15. High Endothelial Venules and Other Blood Vessels: Critical Regulators of Lymphoid Organ Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Ager, Ann

    2017-01-01

    The blood vasculature regulates both the development and function of secondary lymphoid organs by providing a portal for entry of hemopoietic cells. During the development of lymphoid organs in the embryo, blood vessels deliver lymphoid tissue inducer cells that initiate and sustain the development of lymphoid tissues. In adults, the blood vessels are structurally distinct from those in other organs due to the requirement for high levels of lymphocyte recruitment under non-inflammatory conditions. In lymph nodes (LNs) and Peyer’s patches, high endothelial venules (HEVs) especially adapted for lymphocyte trafficking form a spatially organized network of blood vessels, which controls both the type of lymphocyte and the site of entry into lymphoid tissues. Uniquely, HEVs express vascular addressins that regulate lymphocyte entry into lymphoid organs and are, therefore, critical to the function of lymphoid organs. Recent studies have demonstrated important roles for CD11c+ dendritic cells in the induction, as well as the maintenance, of vascular addressin expression and, therefore, the function of HEVs. Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are HEV containing LN-like structures that develop inside organized tissues undergoing chronic immune-mediated inflammation. In autoimmune lesions, the development of TLOs is thought to exacerbate disease. In cancerous tissues, the development of HEVs and TLOs is associated with improved patient outcomes in several cancers. Therefore, it is important to understand what drives the development of HEVs and TLOs and how these structures contribute to pathology. In several human diseases and experimental animal models of chronic inflammation, there are some similarities between the development and function of HEVs within LN and TLOs. This review will summarize current knowledge of how hemopoietic cells with lymphoid tissue-inducing, HEV-inducing, and HEV-maintaining properties are recruited from the bloodstream to induce the development and

  16. The thymus exports long-lived fully committed T cell precursors that can colonize primary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Lambolez, Florence; Arcangeli, Marie-Laure; Joret, Anne-Marie; Pasqualetto, Valérie; Cordier, Corinne; Di Santo, James P; Rocha, Benedita; Ezine, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    Thymic export of cells is believed to be restricted to mature T cells. Here we show that the thymus also exports fully committed T cell precursors that colonize primary lymphoid organs. These precursor cells exited the thymus before T cell receptor rearrangements and colonized lymphoid organs such as the thymus and the gut. Migration of the thymic T cell-committed precursors led to permanent colonization of the gut precursor compartment, improved the capacity of gut precursors to further differentiate into T cells and was sufficient for the generation of 'euthymic like' CD8alphaalpha(+) intraepithelial lymphocytes. These data demonstrate a new function for the thymus in peripheral seeding with T cell precursors that become long lived after thymus export.

  17. Issues in diagnosis of small B cell lymphoid neoplasms involving the bone marrow and peripheral blood. Report on the Bone Marrow Workshop of the XVIIth meeting of the European Association for Haematopathology and the Society for Hematopathology.

    PubMed

    Porwit, Anna; Fend, Falko; Kremer, Marcus; Orazi, Attilio; Safali, Mükerrem; van der Walt, Jon

    2016-09-01

    Small B cell lymphoid neoplasms are the most common lymphoproliferative disorders involving peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM). The Bone Marrow Workshop (BMW) organized by the European Bone Marrow Working Group (EBMWG) of the European Association for Haematopathology (EAHP) during the XVIIth EAHP Meeting in Istanbul, October 2014, was dedicated to discussion of cases illustrating how the recent advances in immunophenotyping, molecular techniques and cytogenetics provide better understanding and classification of these entities. Submitted cases were grouped into following categories: (i) cases illustrating diagnostic difficulties in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL); (ii) cases of BM manifestations of small B cell lymphoid neoplasms other than CLL; (iii) transformation of small B cell lymphoid neoplasms in the BM; and (iv) multiclonality and composite lymphomas in the BM. This report summarizes presented cases and conclusions of the BMW and provides practical recommendations for classification of the BM manifestations of small B cell lymphoid neoplasms based on the current state of knowledge.

  18. Lymphoid Organ-Resident Dendritic Cells Exhibit Unique Transcriptional Fingerprints Based on Subset and Site

    PubMed Central

    Elpek, Kutlu G.; Bellemare-Pelletier, Angelique; Malhotra, Deepali; Reynoso, Erika D.; Lukacs-Kornek, Veronika; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.; Turley, Shannon J.

    2011-01-01

    Lymphoid organ-resident DC subsets are thought to play unique roles in determining the fate of T cell responses. Recent studies focusing on a single lymphoid organ identified molecular pathways that are differentially operative in each DC subset and led to the assumption that a given DC subset would more or less exhibit the same genomic and functional profiles throughout the body. Whether the local milieu in different anatomical sites can also influence the transcriptome of DC subsets has remained largely unexplored. Here, we interrogated the transcriptional relationships between lymphoid organ-resident DC subsets from spleen, gut- and skin-draining lymph nodes, and thymus of C57BL/6 mice. For this purpose, major resident DC subsets including CD4 and CD8 DCs were sorted at high purity and gene expression profiles were compared using microarray analysis. This investigation revealed that lymphoid organ-resident DC subsets exhibit divergent genomic programs across lymphoid organs. Interestingly, we also found that transcriptional and biochemical properties of a given DC subset can differ between lymphoid organs for lymphoid organ-resident DC subsets, but not plasmacytoid DCs, suggesting that determinants of the tissue milieu program resident DCs for essential site-specific functions. PMID:21886840

  19. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Central Nervous System Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Mitsdoerffer, Meike; Peters, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS), which results in permanent neuronal damage and substantial disability in patients. Autoreactive T cells are important drivers of the disease; however, the efficacy of B cell depleting therapies uncovered an essential role for B cells in disease pathogenesis. They can contribute to inflammatory processes via presentation of autoantigen, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and production of pathogenic antibodies. Recently, B cell aggregates reminiscent of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) were discovered in the meninges of MS patients, leading to the hypothesis that differentiation and maturation of autopathogenic B and T cells may partly occur inside the CNS. Since these structures were associated with a more severe disease course, it is extremely important to gain insight into the mechanism of induction, their precise function, and clinical significance. Mechanistic studies in patients are limited. However, a few studies in the MS animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) recapitulate TLO formation in the CNS and provide new insight into CNS TLO features, formation, and function. This review summarizes what we know so far about CNS TLOs in MS and what we have learned about them from EAE models. It also highlights the areas that are in need of further experimental work, as we are just beginning to understand and evaluate the phenomenon of CNS TLOs. PMID:27826298

  20. Phenotypic characterisation of peripheral blood lymphoid cells in people exposed to fibrous zeolite.

    PubMed Central

    Ozesmi, M; Karlsson-Parra, A; Hillerdal, G; Forsum, U

    1986-01-01

    Among inhabitants of the village of Karain in Turkey there is an extremely high incidence of malignant mesothelioma, most probably due to exposure to erionite, which is a fibrous zeolite and similar in appearance and properties to asbestos. This mineral may be found in the dust in the village. To characterise possible disturbances in the immune system of people exposed to fibrous zeolite, a phenotypic characterisation of lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood of 74 immigrants to Sweden from Karain was performed. Compared with normal controls, the mean percentages of Leu 4+ cells (Pan-T) and Leu 3a+ cells ("helper/inducer" T cells) were significantly decreased, whereas the mean percentage of Leu 2a+ cells ("suppressor/cytotoxic" T cells) was normal, leading to a significant reduction of the Leu 3a/Leu 2a subset ratio. The percentage of B cells (Leu 12+ cells) was significantly increased, whereas the percentages of both HLA-DR+ and HLA-DQ+ cells were normal. The percentage of natural killer cells (NK) and killer (K) cells as defined by the monoclonal anti-Leu 7 and anti-Leu 11b were also normal. These findings indicate that exposure to fibrous zeolite causes a numerical imbalance between the two phenotypically different T cell subsets similar to that seen in asbestos exposed individuals. PMID:3026434

  1. Development and Function of Secondary and Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in the Small Intestine and the Colon

    PubMed Central

    Buettner, Manuela; Lochner, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The immune system of the gut has evolved a number of specific lymphoid structures that contribute to homeostasis in the face of microbial colonization and food-derived antigenic challenge. These lymphoid organs encompass Peyer’s patches (PP) in the small intestine and their colonic counterparts that develop in a programed fashion before birth. In addition, the gut harbors a network of lymphoid tissues that is commonly designated as solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILT). In contrast to PP, SILT develop strictly after birth and consist of a dynamic continuum of structures ranging from small cryptopatches (CP) to large, mature isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF). Although the development of PP and SILT follow similar principles, such as an early clustering of lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the requirement for lymphotoxin beta (LTβ) receptor-mediated signaling, the formation of CP and their further maturation into ILF is associated with additional intrinsic and environmental signals. Moreover, recent data also indicate that specific differences exist in the regulation of ILF formation between the small intestine and the colon. Importantly, intestinal inflammation in both mice and humans is associated with a strong expansion of the lymphoid network in the gut. Recent experiments in mice suggest that these structures, although they resemble large, mature ILF in appearance, may represent de novo-induced tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO). While, so far, it is not clear whether intestinal TLO contribute to the exacerbation of inflammatory pathology, it has been shown that ILF provide the critical microenvironment necessary for the induction of an effective host response upon infection with enteric bacterial pathogens. Regarding the importance of ILF for intestinal immunity, interfering with the development and maturation of these lymphoid tissues may offer novel means for manipulating the immune response during intestinal infection or inflammation. PMID

  2. Effect of peripheral lymphoid cells on the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease following allogeneic mouse bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Almaraz, R.; Ballinger, W.; Sachs, D.H.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1983-02-01

    Experiments were performed to study the role of circulating lymphoid cells in the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease (GVHD) in radiation-induced fully allogeneic mouse chimeras. The incidence of GVHD was reduced significantly in BALB/c leads to C57BL/6 radiation chimeras if bone marrow donors were exsanguinated immediately prior to marrow harvest. Chimeras resulting from the injection of bone marrow from bled donors exhibited only donor cells in spleen, bone marrow and peripheral blood and normal levels of Thy 1+ and Ia+ cells were found in each of these lymphoid compartments. The addition of as few as 3 X 10(4) peripheral mononuclear cells to the marrow from exsanguinated donors uniformly led to lethal GVHD. /sup 51/Cr-labeled cell traffic studies revealed that prior exsanguination of marrow donors led to about a 70% reduction in the number of circulating mononuclear cells contaminating the bone marrow at the time of marrow harvest. This decrease in contaminating peripheral cells was calculated to be in the appropriate range to account for the decreased GVHD seen when marrow from exsanguinated donors was used. It thus appears that peripheral cells contaminating marrow can be an important factor in causing lethal GVHD in allogeneic radiation chimeras.

  3. Stromal cells in chronic inflammation and tertiary lymphoid organ formation.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Christopher D; Barone, Francesca; Nayar, Saba; Bénézech, Cecile; Caamaño, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is an unstable state. It either resolves or persists. Why inflammation persists and the factors that define tissue tropism remain obscure. Increasing evidence suggests that tissue-resident stromal cells not only provide positional memory but also actively regulate the differential accumulation of inflammatory cells within inflamed tissues. Furthermore, at many sites of chronic inflammation, structures that mimic secondary lymphoid tissues are observed, suggesting that chronic inflammation and lymphoid tissue formation share common activation programs. Similarly, blood and lymphatic endothelial cells contribute to tissue homeostasis and disease persistence in chronic inflammation. This review highlights our increasing understanding of the role of stromal cells in inflammation and summarizes the novel immunological role that stromal cells exert in the persistence of inflammatory diseases.

  4. [Response of immune system and lymphoid tissue of respiratory and gastrointestinal organs to space flight factors].

    PubMed

    Sapin, M R; Erofeeva, L M; Grigorenko, D E

    1999-01-01

    The studies demonstrated that gamma-radiation drastically enhanced destructive processes and suppressed the mitotic activity of lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen. This resulted in the altered morphological picture of immune organs: the inversion of layers occurred in the thymus, the splenic white pulp increased by three times, lymphoid nodules with germinating centers disappeared, the marginal area became thinner. Following gamma-radiation, restorative processes in the thymus and spleen were noticeable just on day 3 and 7, respectively. However, the cell composition of murine immune organs failed to achieve control values by day 60 after exposure. Examining the responses of respiratory and digestive lymphoid tissue to acetaldehyde and drinking water organisms indicated that as the concentration of an acting agent and the time of exposure increased, there was lymphocytopoietic inhibition in the lymphoid formations whereas its small doses activated a local immune response.

  5. Stromal and hematopoietic cells in secondary lymphoid organs: partners in immunity

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Deepali; Fletcher, Anne L.; Turley, Shannon J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), including lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and the spleen, have evolved to bring cells of the immune system together. In these collaborative environments, lymphocytes scan the surfaces of antigen-presenting cells for cognate antigens, while moving along stromal networks. The cell-cell interactions between stromal and hematopoietic cells in SLOs are therefore integral to the normal functioning of these tissues. Not only do stromal cells physically construct SLO architecture, but they are essential for regulating hematopoietic populations within these domains. Stromal cells interact closely with lymphocytes and dendritic cells, providing scaffolds on which these cells migrate, and recruiting them into niches by secreting chemokines. Within lymph nodes, stromal cell-ensheathed conduit networks transport small antigens deep into the SLO parenchyma. More recently, stromal cells have been found to induce peripheral CD8+ T-cell tolerance and control the extent to which newly activated T cells proliferate within lymph nodes. Thus, stromal-hematopoietic crosstalk has important consequences for regulating immune cell function within SLOs. In addition, stromal cell interactions with hematopoietic cells, other stroma, and the inflammatory milieu have profound effects on key stromal functions. Here, we examine ways in which these interactions within the lymph node environment influence the adaptive immune response. PMID:23278748

  6. Stromal and hematopoietic cells in secondary lymphoid organs: partners in immunity.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Deepali; Fletcher, Anne L; Turley, Shannon J

    2013-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), including lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and the spleen, have evolved to bring cells of the immune system together. In these collaborative environments, lymphocytes scan the surfaces of antigen-presenting cells for cognate antigens, while moving along stromal networks. The cell-cell interactions between stromal and hematopoietic cells in SLOs are therefore integral to the normal functioning of these tissues. Not only do stromal cells physically construct SLO architecture but they are essential for regulating hematopoietic populations within these domains. Stromal cells interact closely with lymphocytes and dendritic cells, providing scaffolds on which these cells migrate, and recruiting them into niches by secreting chemokines. Within lymph nodes, stromal cell-ensheathed conduit networks transport small antigens deep into the SLO parenchyma. More recently, stromal cells have been found to induce peripheral CD8(+) T-cell tolerance and control the extent to which newly activated T cells proliferate within lymph nodes. Thus, stromal-hematopoietic crosstalk has important consequences for regulating immune cell function within SLOs. In addition, stromal cell interactions with hematopoietic cells, other stroma, and the inflammatory milieu have profound effects on key stromal functions. Here, we examine ways in which these interactions within the lymph node environment influence the adaptive immune response.

  7. Autotaxin, a lysophosphatidic acid-producing ectoenzyme, promotes lymphocyte entry into secondary lymphoid organs

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Hidenobu; Newton, Rebecca; Klein, Russell; Morita, Yuka; Gunn, Michael D.; Rosen, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    The extracellular lysophospholipase D, autotaxin (ATX), and its product lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) have diverse roles in development and cancer, but little is known about functions in the immune system. We found that ATX was highly expressed in high endothelial venules (HEVs) of lymphoid organs and was secreted. Chemokine-activated lymphocytes expressed enhanced receptors for ATX, providing a mechanism to target the secreted ATX onto lymphocytes undergoing recruitment. LPA induced chemokinesis in T-cells. Intravenous injection of enzymatically inactive ATX attenuated homing of T-cells to lymphoid tissues, likely by competing with endogenous ATX and exerting a dominant-negative effect. Our results support a novel and general step in the homing cascade, in which the ectoenzyme ATX facilitates lymphocyte entry into lymphoid organs. PMID:18327261

  8. Artery Tertiary Lymphoid Organs Control Aorta Immunity and Protect against Atherosclerosis via Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Lymphotoxin β Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Desheng; Mohanta, Sarajo K.; Yin, Changjun; Peng, Li; Ma, Zhe; Srikakulapu, Prasad; Grassia, Gianluca; MacRitchie, Neil; Dever, Gary; Gordon, Peter; Burton, Francis L.; Ialenti, Armando; Sabir, Suleman R.; McInnes, Iain B.; Brewer, James M.; Garside, Paul; Weber, Christian; Lehmann, Thomas; Teupser, Daniel; Habenicht, Livia; Beer, Michael; Grabner, Rolf; Maffia, Pasquale; Weih, Falk; Habenicht, Andreas J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) emerge during nonresolving peripheral inflammation, but their impact on disease progression remains unknown. We have found in aged Apoe−/− mice that artery TLOs (ATLOs) controlled highly territorialized aorta T cell responses. ATLOs promoted T cell recruitment, primed CD4+ T cells, generated CD4+, CD8+, T regulatory (Treg) effector and central memory cells, converted naive CD4+ T cells into induced Treg cells, and presented antigen by an unusual set of dendritic cells and B cells. Meanwhile, vascular smooth muscle cell lymphotoxin β receptors (VSMC-LTβRs) protected against atherosclerosis by maintaining structure, cellularity, and size of ATLOs though VSMC-LTβRs did not affect secondary lymphoid organs: Atherosclerosis was markedly exacerbated in Apoe−/−Ltbr−/− and to a similar extent in aged Apoe−/−Ltbrfl/flTagln-cre mice. These data support the conclusion that the immune system employs ATLOs to organize aorta T cell homeostasis during aging and that VSMC-LTβRs participate in atherosclerosis protection via ATLOs. PMID:26084025

  9. Effect of selenium and vitamin E dietary deficiencies on chick lymphoid organ development (42361)

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, J.A.; Combs, G.F. Jr.; Whitacre, M.E.; Dietert, R.R.

    1986-09-01

    Diets specifically deficient in selenium (Se) and/or vitamin E or adequate in both nutrients were fed to chicks from the time of hatching. Lymphoid organs (bursa, thymus, and in some instances, spleen) were collected from chicks 7-35 days of age. Growth of the chicks fed these diets was monitored over the experimental period as was lymphoid organ growth. The development of the primary lymphoid organs was further assessed by histological techniques and the organ contents of vitamin E (..cap alpha..-tocopherol) and Se were determined. Specific deficiencies of either Se or vitamin E were found to significantly impair bursal growth as did a combined deficiency. Thymic growth was impaired only by the combined deficiency diet. Severe histopathological changes in the bursa resulted from the combined deficiency and these were detectable by 10-14 days after hatching. These changes were characterized by a gradual degeneration of the epithelium and an accompanying depletion of lymphocytes. Similar changes, although slower to develop and less severe, were observed in the thymus as a result of the combined deficiency. When both serum and tissue levels of vitamin E and Se were monitored, it was observed that these were rapidly and independently depleted by the specific deficiency diets. These data suggest that the primary lymphoid organs are major targets of Se and vitamin E dietary deficiencies and provide a possible mechanism by which immune function may be impaired.

  10. Is secondary lymphoid-organ chemokine (SLC/CCL21) much more than a constitutive chemokine?

    PubMed

    Serra, H M; Baena-Cagnani, C E; Eberhard, Y

    2004-11-01

    Chemokines are a superfamily of small cytokines with activities ranging from leukocyte traffick to hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, and tissue organogenesis. Secondary lymphoid-organ chemokine (SLC/CCL21) was originally reported as a chemokine constitutively expressed by stromal cells and high endothelial venules in secondary lymphoid tissues and endothelium of afferent lymphatics, directing CCR7+ cells. More recently, others and we have demonstrated that SLC/CCL21 is up-regulated in different skin inflammatory conditions. Thereafter, this molecule is much more than a constitutive chemokine, which could play a role in effector and regulatory immune functions.

  11. Morphology of the lymphoid organs of the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus

    PubMed Central

    COWAN, DANIEL F.; SMITH, TOBY L.

    1999-01-01

    The anatomy of the lymphoid organs was studied during the course of detailed dissections of 50 beach-stranded bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus. Constant lymph nodes occur in 4 groups, based on their location and structure. These groups are somatic, including nodes of the cervical region and pelvic recess; lung-associated, included marginal, diaphragmatic and hilar nodes; visceral, including the mesenteric, pancreatic, pericolic and porta hepatis nodes; and aortic arch nodes. Lymphatic drainage of the lung is primarily to the marginal and diaphragmatic nodes. The mesenteric node mass is well-endowed with capsular and trabecular smooth muscle, and a network of muscle fascicles within the organ implies an important contractile function in the circulation of lymph. In addition to constant nodes, occasionally nodes are found in relation to the thoracic aorta, the kidney, and under the scapula. Gut-associated structures include dorsal and ventral oropharyngeal tonsils, mucosal aggregates in the straight segment of the intestine (colon) and anal tonsils; this gut-associated lymphoid tissue tends to involute with age, being greatly reduced by puberty. Formed lymphoid organs include the thymus and the spleen, the latter being relatively small in relation to body size. None of these structures is unique among cetaceans, but the anal tonsils are particularly well developed in T. truncatus. The lymphoid aggregates in the colon resemble the arrangement in the vermiform appendix, which is lacking in most cetaceans, and may have functions analogous to that organ. PMID:10445819

  12. The 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A revision of the nearly 8-year-old World Health Organization classification of the lymphoid neoplasms and the accompanying monograph is being published. It reflects a consensus among hematopathologists, geneticists, and clinicians regarding both updates to current entities as well as the addition of a limited number of new provisional entities.

  13. African Lungfish Reveal the Evolutionary Origins of Organized Mucosal Lymphoid Tissue in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Tacchi, Luca; Larragoite, Erin T.; Muñoz, Pilar; Amemiya, Chris T.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY One of the most remarkable innovations of the vertebrate adaptive immune system is the progressive organization of the lymphoid tissues that leads to increased efficiency of immune surveillance and cell interactions. The mucosal immune system of endotherms has evolved organized secondary mucosal lymphoid tissues (O-MALT) such as Peyer’s patches, tonsils, and adenoids. Primitive semi-organized lymphoid nodules or aggregates (LAs) were found in the mucosa of anuran amphibians [1], suggesting that O-MALT evolved from amphibian LAs_250 million years ago [1–4]. This study shows for the first time the presence of O-MALT in the mucosa of the African lungfish, an extant representative of the closest ancestral lineage to all tetrapods. Lungfish LAs are lymphocyte-rich structures associated with a modified covering epithelium and express all IGH genes except for IGHW2L. In response to infection, nasal LAs doubled their size and increased the expression of CD3 and IGH transcripts. Additionally, de novo organogenesis of inducible LAs resembling mammalian tertiary lymphoid structures was observed. Using deep-sequencing transcriptomes, we identified several members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, and subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed its extraordinary diversification within sarcopterygian fish. Attempts to find AICDA in lungfish transcriptomes or by RT-PCR failed, indicating the possible absence of somatic hypermutation in lungfish LAs. These findings collectively suggest that the origin of O-MALT predates the emergence of tetrapods and that TNF family members play a conserved role in the organization of vertebrate mucosal lymphoid organs. PMID:26344090

  14. African Lungfish Reveal the Evolutionary Origins of Organized Mucosal Lymphoid Tissue in Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Tacchi, Luca; Larragoite, Erin T; Muñoz, Pilar; Amemiya, Chris T; Salinas, Irene

    2015-09-21

    One of the most remarkable innovations of the vertebrate adaptive immune system is the progressive organization of the lymphoid tissues that leads to increased efficiency of immune surveillance and cell interactions. The mucosal immune system of endotherms has evolved organized secondary mucosal lymphoid tissues (O-MALT) such as Peyer's patches, tonsils, and adenoids. Primitive semi-organized lymphoid nodules or aggregates (LAs) were found in the mucosa of anuran amphibians, suggesting that O-MALT evolved from amphibian LAs ∼250 million years ago. This study shows for the first time the presence of O-MALT in the mucosa of the African lungfish, an extant representative of the closest ancestral lineage to all tetrapods. Lungfish LAs are lymphocyte-rich structures associated with a modified covering epithelium and express all IGH genes except for IGHW2L. In response to infection, nasal LAs doubled their size and increased the expression of CD3 and IGH transcripts. Additionally, de novo organogenesis of inducible LAs resembling mammalian tertiary lymphoid structures was observed. Using deep-sequencing transcriptomes, we identified several members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, and subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed its extraordinary diversification within sarcopterygian fish. Attempts to find AICDA in lungfish transcriptomes or by RT-PCR failed, indicating the possible absence of somatic hypermutation in lungfish LAs. These findings collectively suggest that the origin of O-MALT predates the emergence of tetrapods and that TNF family members play a conserved role in the organization of vertebrate mucosal lymphoid organs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The thymus in autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis: Paradigm for a tertiary lymphoid organ.

    PubMed

    Weiss, J-M; Cufi, P; Le Panse, R; Berrih-Aknin, S

    2013-01-01

    In autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis (MG), a neuromuscular disease generally mediated by autoantibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), the muscle is the target organ of the autoimmune attack, while the thymus seems to be the primary production site of the autoantibodies. In the majority of patients with anti-AChR antibodies, it is characterized by the presence of germinal centers, which contain B cells that produce anti-AChR antibodies. In this review, we summarize recent results regarding neoangiogenic processes, cell infiltration and modified chemokine expression in the MG thymus, which are typical features of secondary lymphoid organs. The structural and functional changes in the MG thymus therefore allow us to declare it to be an archetype for tertiary lymphoid neogenesis providing optimal settings for the interaction between lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells in order to elicit an immune response. We further discuss factors that may have a key role in the transformation of the MG thymus into a tertiary lymphoid organ, such as IFN type I and dsRNA signaling. These factors could also be of importance in other autoimmune diseases, especially those characterized by tertiary lymphoid neogenesis.

  16. Prion pathogenesis and secondary lymphoid organs (SLO): tracking the SLO spread of prions to the brain.

    PubMed

    Mabbott, Neil A

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are subacute neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and a range of domestic and free-ranging animal species. These diseases are characterized by the accumulation of PrP (Sc), an abnormally folded isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrP (C)), in affected tissues. The pathology during prion disease appears to occur almost exclusively within the central nervous system. The extensive neurodegeneration which occurs ultimately leads to the death of the host. An intriguing feature of the prion diseases, when compared with other protein-misfolding diseases, is their transmissibility. Following peripheral exposure, some prion diseases accumulate to high levels within lymphoid tissues. The replication of prions within lymphoid tissue has been shown to be important for the efficient spread of disease to the brain. This article describes recent progress in our understanding of the cellular mechanisms that influence the propagation of prions from peripheral sites of exposure (such as the lumen of the intestine) to the brain. A thorough understanding of these events will lead to the identification of important targets for therapeutic intervention, or alternatively, reveal additional processes that influence disease susceptibility to peripherally-acquired prion diseases.

  17. Organ transplantation in mongrel dogs using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI)

    SciTech Connect

    Koretz, S.H.; Gottlieb, M.S.; Strober, S.; Pennock, J.; Bieber, C.P.; Hoppe, R.T.; Reitz, B.A.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-03-01

    Although we were able to establish bone marrow chimerism in mongrel dogs using TLI at a cumulative dose of 1800 rad, it was more difficult to establish prolonged organ allograft survival in this system. We review here our experience with allogeneic heart transplantation in dogs using TLI combined with limited courses of pharmacologic immunosuppression, an approach that appears to hold considerable promise for clinical organ transplantation.

  18. High Endothelial Venules and Lymphatic Vessels in Tertiary Lymphoid Organs: Characteristics, Functions, and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Ruddle, Nancy H

    2016-01-01

    High endothelial venules (HEVs) and lymphatic vessels (LVs) are essential for the function of the immune system, by providing communication between the body and lymph nodes (LNs), specialized sites of antigen presentation and recognition. HEVs bring in naïve and central memory cells and LVs transport antigen, antigen-presenting cells, and lymphocytes in and out of LNs. Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are accumulations of lymphoid and stromal cells that arise and organize at ectopic sites in response to chronic inflammation in autoimmunity, microbial infection, graft rejection, and cancer. TLOs are distinguished from primary lymphoid organs - the thymus and bone marrow, and secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) - the LNs, spleen, and Peyer's patches, in that they arise in response to inflammatory signals, rather than in ontogeny. TLOs usually do not have a capsule but are rather contained within the confines of another organ. Their structure, cellular composition, chemokine expression, and vascular and stromal support resemble SLOs and are the defining aspects of TLOs. T and B cells, antigen-presenting cells, fibroblast reticular cells, and other stromal cells and vascular elements including HEVs and LVs are all typical components of TLOs. A key question is whether the HEVs and LVs play comparable roles and are regulated similarly to those in LNs. Data are presented that support this concept, especially with regard to TLO HEVs. Emerging data suggest that the functions and regulation of TLO LVs are also similar to those in LNs. These observations support the concept that TLOs are not merely cellular accumulations but are functional entities that provide sites to generate effector cells, and that their HEVs and LVs are crucial elements in those activities.

  19. The effect of PrP(Sc) accumulation on inflammatory gene expression within sheep peripheral lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed

    Gossner, Anton G; Hopkins, John

    2015-12-31

    Accumulation of the misfolded prion protein, PrP(Sc) in the central nervous system (CNS) is strongly linked to progressive neurodegenerative disease. For many transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), peripheral lymphoid tissue is an important site of PrP(Sc) amplification but without gross immunological consequence. Susceptible VRQ homozygous New Zealand Cheviot sheep were infected with SSBP/1 scrapie by inoculation in the drainage area of the prescapular lymph nodes. The earliest time that PrP(Sc) was consistently detected by immunohistology in these nodes was D50 post infection. This transcriptomic study of lymph node taken before (D10) and after (D50) the detection of PrP(Sc), aimed to identify the genes and physiological pathways affected by disease progression within the nodes as assessed by PrP(Sc) detection. Affymetrix Ovine Gene arrays identified 75 and 80 genes as differentially-expressed at D10 and D50, respectively, in comparison with control sheep inoculated with uninfected brain homogenate. Approximately 70% of these were repressed at each time point. RT-qPCR analysis of seven genes showed statistically significant correlation with the array data, although the results for IL1RN and TGIF were different between the two technologies. The ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) and general low level of repression of gene expression in lymphoid tissue, including many inflammatory genes, contrasts with the pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic events that occur within the CNS at equivalent stages of disease progression as assessed by PrP(Sc) accumulation.

  20. Understanding Immune Cells in Tertiary Lymphoid Organ Development: It Is All Starting to Come Together.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth W; Hill, David G; Jones, Simon A

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are frequently observed in tissues affected by non-resolving inflammation as a result of infection, autoimmunity, cancer, and allograft rejection. These highly ordered structures resemble the cellular composition of lymphoid follicles typically associated with the spleen and lymph node compartments. Although TLOs within tissues show varying degrees of organization, they frequently display evidence of segregated T and B cell zones, follicular dendritic cell networks, a supporting stromal reticulum, and high endothelial venules. In this respect, they mimic the activities of germinal centers and contribute to the local control of adaptive immune responses. Studies in various disease settings have described how these structures contribute to either beneficial or deleterious outcomes. While the development and architectural organization of TLOs within inflamed tissues requires homeostatic chemokines, lymphoid and inflammatory cytokines, and adhesion molecules, our understanding of the cells responsible for triggering these events is still evolving. Over the past 10-15 years, novel immune cell subsets have been discovered that have more recently been implicated in the control of TLO development and function. In this review, we will discuss the contribution of these cell types and consider the potential to develop new therapeutic strategies that target TLOs.

  1. Understanding Immune Cells in Tertiary Lymphoid Organ Development: It Is All Starting to Come Together

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Gareth W.; Hill, David G.; Jones, Simon A.

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are frequently observed in tissues affected by non-resolving inflammation as a result of infection, autoimmunity, cancer, and allograft rejection. These highly ordered structures resemble the cellular composition of lymphoid follicles typically associated with the spleen and lymph node compartments. Although TLOs within tissues show varying degrees of organization, they frequently display evidence of segregated T and B cell zones, follicular dendritic cell networks, a supporting stromal reticulum, and high endothelial venules. In this respect, they mimic the activities of germinal centers and contribute to the local control of adaptive immune responses. Studies in various disease settings have described how these structures contribute to either beneficial or deleterious outcomes. While the development and architectural organization of TLOs within inflamed tissues requires homeostatic chemokines, lymphoid and inflammatory cytokines, and adhesion molecules, our understanding of the cells responsible for triggering these events is still evolving. Over the past 10–15 years, novel immune cell subsets have been discovered that have more recently been implicated in the control of TLO development and function. In this review, we will discuss the contribution of these cell types and consider the potential to develop new therapeutic strategies that target TLOs. PMID:27752256

  2. [Morphological characteristics of the lymphoid tissues in the newborn children].

    PubMed

    Aminova, G G; Grigorenko, D E; Rusina, A K; Erofeeva, L M

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative analysis and statistical processing of thymus, trachea, duodenum ileum, coecum and appendix in newborns demonstrated that by the moment of birth peripheral immunogenesis organs were not equally formed due to peculiarities of their function in postnatal ontogenesis. Lymphoid nodules were absent in tracheal mucosa and adjacent lymph nodes showed loss of lymphoid noules aswell. However intensive formation of lymphoid structures took place in the walls of the gut, especially large intestine. The appendix, lymphoid tissue of which was not, in fact, developed at all, made an exception.

  3. Multispectral imaging reveals the tissue distribution of tetraspanins in human lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    de Winde, Charlotte M; Zuidscherwoude, Malou; Vasaturo, Angela; van der Schaaf, Alie; Figdor, Carl G; van Spriel, Annemiek B

    2015-08-01

    Multispectral imaging is a novel microscopy technique that combines imaging with spectroscopy to obtain both quantitative expression data and tissue distribution of different cellular markers. Tetraspanins CD37 and CD53 are four-transmembrane proteins involved in cellular and humoral immune responses. However, comprehensive immunohistochemical analyses of CD37 and CD53 in human lymphoid organs have not been performed so far. We investigated CD37 and CD53 protein expression on primary human immune cell subsets in blood and in primary and secondary lymphoid organs. Both tetraspanins were prominently expressed on antigen-presenting cells, with highest expression of CD37 on B lymphocytes. Analysis of subcellular distribution showed presence of both tetraspanins on the plasma membrane and on endosomes. In addition, CD53 was also present on lysosomes. Quantitative analysis of expression and localization of CD37 and CD53 on lymphocytes within lymphoid tissues by multispectral imaging revealed high expression of both tetraspanins on CD20(+) cells in B cell follicles in human spleen and appendix. CD3(+) T cells within splenic T cell zones expressed lower levels of CD37 and CD53 compared to T cells in the red pulp of human spleen. B cells in human bone marrow highly expressed CD37, whereas the expression of CD53 was low. In conclusion, we demonstrate differential expression of CD37 and CD53 on primary human immune cells, their subcellular localization and their quantitative distribution in human lymphoid organs. This study provides a solid basis for better insight into the function of tetraspanins in the human immune response.

  4. The hidden maternal-fetal interface: events involving the lymphoid organs in maternal-fetal tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Taglauer, Elizabeth S.; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; Petroff, Margaret G.

    2010-01-01

    The genetic disparity between the mother and fetus has long enticed immunologists to search for mechanisms of maternal tolerance to fetal antigens. The study of antigen-specific tolerance in murine and human pregnancy has gained new momentum in recent years through the focus on antigen-presenting cells, uterine lymphatics and fetal antigen-specific maternal T cell responses. In mice, we now know that these responses occur within the secondary lymphoid structures as they can be conveniently tracked through the use of defined, often transgenic fetal antigens and maternal T cell receptors. Although the secondary lymphoid organs are sites of both immunization and tolerization to antigens, the immunological processes that occur in response to fetal antigens during the healthy pregnancy must invariably lead to tolerance. The molecular properties of these maternal-fetal tolerogenic interactions are still being unraveled, and are likely to be greatly influenced by tissue-specific microenvironments and the hormonal milieu of pregnancy. In this article, we discuss the events leading to antigen-specific maternal tolerance, including the trafficking of fetal antigens to secondary lymphoid organs, the properties of the antigen-presenting cells that display them to maternal T lymphocytes, and the nature of the ensuing tolerogenic response. Experimental data generated from human biological specimens as well as murine transgenic models are considered. PMID:19876825

  5. CollagenVI-Cre mice: A new tool to target stromal cells in secondary lymphoid organs

    PubMed Central

    Prados, Alejandro; Kollias, George; Koliaraki, Vasiliki

    2016-01-01

    Stromal cells in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are non-hematopoietic cells involved in the regulation of adaptive immune responses. Three major stromal populations have been identified in adult SLOs: fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and marginal reticular cells (MRCs). The properties of these individual populations are not clearly defined, mainly due to the lack of appropriate genetic tools, especially for MRCs. Here, we analyzed stromal cell targeting in SLOs from a transgenic mouse strain that expresses Cre recombinase under the CollagenVI promoter, using lineage tracing approaches. We show that these mice target specifically MRCs and FDCs, but not FRCs in Peyer’s patches and isolated lymphoid follicles in the intestine. In contrast, stromal cells in lymph nodes and the spleen do not express the transgene, which renders ColVI-cre mice ideal for the specific targeting of stromal cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). This funding further supports the hypothesis of organ-specific stromal precursors in SLOs. Interestingly, in all tissues analyzed, there was also high specificity for perivascular cells, which have been proposed to act as FDC precursors. Taken together, ColVI-Cre mice are a useful new tool for the dissection of MRC- and FDC-specific functions and plasticity in the GALT. PMID:27604178

  6. Persistence and responsiveness of immunologic memory in the absence of secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Moyron-Quiroz, Juan E; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Hartson, Louise; Kusser, Kim; Tighe, Michael P; Klonowski, Kimberly D; Lefrançois, Leo; Cauley, Linda S; Harmsen, Allen G; Lund, Frances E; Randall, Troy D

    2006-10-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) promote primary immune responses by recruiting naive lymphocytes and activated APCs. However, their role in the persistence or responsiveness of memory lymphocytes is unclear. We tested whether memory cells were maintained and could respond to challenge in the absence of SLOs. We found that influenza-specific CD8 cells in the lung acquired a memory phenotype, underwent homeostatic proliferation, recirculated through nonlymphoid tissues, and responded to and cleared a challenge infection in the complete absence of SLOs. Similarly, influenza-specific virus-neutralizing antibody was generated and maintained in the absence of SLOs. Inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) was also formed in the lungs of previously infected mice and may provide a niche for the maintenance of memory cells at the local level. These data show that SLOs are dispensable for the maintenance of immunologic memory and directly demonstrate the utility of local tissues, such as iBALT, in secondary immune responses.

  7. IL-27 in human secondary lymphoid organs attracts myeloid dendritic cells and impairs HLA class I-restricted antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Fabio; Di Carlo, Emma; Ferrone, Soldano; Petretto, Andrea; Pistoia, Vito; Airoldi, Irma

    2014-03-15

    Different cytokines play crucial roles in inflammation and in polarizing immune responses, including IL-27 that exerts pro- and anti-inflammatory functions. Although the activity of IL-27 is well characterized in murine immune cells, only limited information is available regarding the natural cellular sources of IL-27 in humans and its effects on human immune cells. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent professional APCs that in the immature state are positioned throughout peripheral tissues by acting as sentinels, sensing the presence of Ags. Activated DCs migrate into the lymph nodes and direct Ag-specific T cell responses, thus acting as key players in both adaptive and innate immunity. In this study we asked whether IL-27 is produced by human secondary lymphoid organs and what is its functional role on human DCs. To our knowledge, we provide the first evidence that 1) in lymph nodes, macrophages are the major source for IL-27; 2) immature and mature human DCs express functional IL-27R; 3) IL-27 exerts immunosuppressive activity by crippling the Ag processing machinery in immature DCs under steady-state conditions and after pulsing with a viral Ag; and 4) IL-27 is chemotactic for human DCs. Our findings highlight novel mechanisms underlying the immunosuppressive activity of IL-27, suggesting that this cytokine may function as a homeostatic cytokine in secondary lymphoid organs by limiting duration and/or intensity of ongoing adaptive immune responses. The results presented in this study pave the way to future studies aimed at investigating whether dysregulation of IL-27 expression and function may be involved in pathogenesis of autoimmune disease and cancer.

  8. Local glucocorticoid production in lymphoid organs of mice and birds: Functions in lymphocyte development.

    PubMed

    Taves, Matthew D; Hamden, Jordan E; Soma, Kiran K

    2017-02-01

    Circulating glucocorticoids (GCs) are powerful regulators of immunity. Stress-induced GC secretion by the adrenal glands initially enhances and later suppresses the immune response. GC targets include lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system, which are well known for their sensitivity to GCs. Less appreciated, however, is that GCs are locally produced in lymphoid organs, such as the thymus, where GCs play a critical role in selection of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire. Here, we review the roles of systemic and locally-produced GCs in T lymphocyte development, which has been studied primarily in laboratory mice. By antagonizing TCR signaling in developing T cells, thymus-derived GCs promote selection of T cells with stronger TCR signaling. This results in increased T cell-mediated immune responses to a range of antigens. We then compare local and systemic GC patterns in mice to those in several bird species. Taken together, these studies suggest that a combination of adrenal and lymphoid GC production might function to adaptively regulate lymphocyte development and selection, and thus antigen-specific immune reactivity, to optimize survival under different environmental conditions. Future studies should examine how lymphoid GC patterns vary across other vertebrates, how GCs function in B lymphocyte development in the bone marrow, spleen, and the avian bursa of Fabricius, and whether GCs adaptively program immunity in free-living animals.

  9. Impairment of the peripheral lymphoid compartment in iron-deficient piglets.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, M; Drabek, J; Krejci, J; Rehakova, Z; Faldyna, M

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neonatal iron deficiency on immune functions in young piglets. While control piglets were not given any iron preparation until the age of 21 days, another group of piglets was given 200 mg of Fe(3+)-dextran i.m. on day 3. Red blood cell parameters in the former, iron-deficient group were characteristic of hypochromic anaemia. In addition, the total leucocyte count (P < 0.01), relative and absolute neutrophil count (P < 0.01) and absolute lymphocyte count (P < 0.05) in peripheral blood were found significantly lower in iron-deficient piglets than in their iron-supplemented counterparts. Lymphocyte activity as measured by in vitro lymphocyte transformation test was impaired in iron-deficient piglets. A statistically significant decrease in circulating B-lymphocyte numbers was found in non-supplemented animals. Iron deficiency apparently negatively influenced the immunocompetence in piglets.

  10. The effect of peripheral lymphoid cells on the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease following allogeneic mouse bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Almaraz, R.; Ballinger, W.; Sachs, D.H.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1983-02-01

    Experiments were performed to study the role of circulating lymphoid cells in the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease (GVHD) in radiation-induced fully allogeneic mouse chimeras. The incidence of GVHD was reduced significantly in BALB/c leads to C57BL/6 radiation chimeras if bone marrow donors were exsanguinated immediately prior to marrow harvest. Chimeras resulting from the injection of bone marrow from bled donors exhibited only donor cells in spleen, bone marrow and peripheral blood and normal levels of Thy 1+ and Ia+ cells were found in each of these lymphoid compartments. The addition of as few as 3 X 10(4) peripheral mononuclear cells to the marrow from exsanguinated donors uniformly led to lethal GVHD. /sup 51/Cr-labeled cell traffic studies revealed that prior exsanguination of marrow donors led to about a 70% reduction in the number of circulating mononuclear cells contaminating the bone marrow at the time of marrow harvest. This decrease in contaminating peripheral cells was calculated to be in the appropriate range to account for the decreased GVHD seen when marrow from exsanguinated donors was used. It thus appears that peripheral cells contaminating marrow can be an important factor in causing lethal GVHD in allogeneic radiation chimeras. These results raise the possibility that the fulminant GVHD seen in human marrow transplantation is in part due to the major contamination of bone marrow with peripheral blood that results from the techniques currently used for human bone marrow harvest.

  11. For3D: Full organ reconstruction in 3D, an automatized tool for deciphering the complexity of lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Sergé, Arnauld; Bailly, Anne-Laure; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Imhof, Beat A; Irla, Magali

    2015-09-01

    To decipher the complex topology of lymphoid structures, we developed an automated process called Full Organ Reconstruction in 3D (For3D). A dedicated image-processing pipeline is applied to entire collections of immunolabeled serial sections, acquired with a slide-scanning microscope. This method is automated, flexible and readily applicable in two days to frozen or paraffin-embedded organs stained by fluorescence or brightfield immunohistochemistry. 3D-reconstructed organs can be visualized, rotated and analyzed to quantify substructures of interest. Usefulness of For3D is exemplified here through topological analysis of several mouse lymphoid organs exhibiting a complex organization: (i) the thymus, composed of two compartments, a medulla intricately imbricated into a surrounding cortex, (ii) lymph nodes, also highly compartmentalized into cortex, paracortex and medulla and (iii) the vascularization of an EG7 primary thymoma. This open-source algorithm, based on ImageJ and Matlab scripts, offers a user-friendly interface and is widely applicable to any organ or tissue, hence readily adaptable to a broad range of biomedical samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Extracellular matrix of secondary lymphoid organs impacts on B-cell fate and survival

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Nathalie; Ruegg, Markus A.; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Georges-Labouesse, Elisabeth; Winkler, Thomas H.; Kearney, John F.; Cardell, Susanna; Sorokin, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    We describe a unique extracellular matrix (ECM) niche in the spleen, the marginal zone (MZ), characterized by the basement membrane glycoproteins, laminin α5 and agrin, that promotes formation of a specialized population of MZ B lymphocytes that respond rapidly to blood-borne antigens. Mice with reduced laminin α5 expression show reduced MZ B cells and increased numbers of newly formed (NF) transitional B cells that migrate from the bone marrow, without changes in other immune or stromal cell compartments. Transient integrin α6β1-mediated interaction of NF B cells with laminin α5 in the MZ supports the MZ B-cell population, their long-term survival, and antibody response. Data suggest that the unique 3D structure and biochemical composition of the ECM of lymphoid organs impacts on immune cell fate. PMID:23847204

  13. Choreography of Cell Motility and Interaction Dynamics Imaged by Two-Photon Microscopy in Lymphoid Organs

    PubMed Central

    Cahalan, Michael D.; Parker, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The immune system is the most diffuse cellular system in the body. Accordingly, long-range migration of cells and short-range communication by local chemical signaling and by cell-cell contacts are vital to the control of an immune response. Cellular homing and migration within lymphoid organs, antigen recognition, and cell signaling and activation are clearly vital during an immune response, but these events had not been directly observed in vivo until recently. Introduced to the field of immunology in 2002, two-photon microscopy is the method of choice for visualizing living cells deep within native tissue environments, and it is now revealing an elegant cellular choreography that underlies the adaptive immune response to antigen challenge. We review cellular dynamics and molecular factors that contribute to basal motility of lymphocytes in the lymph node and cellular interactions leading to antigen capture and recognition, T cell activation, B cell activation, cytolytic effector function, and antibody production. PMID:18173372

  14. Choreography of cell motility and interaction dynamics imaged by two-photon microscopy in lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Cahalan, Michael D; Parker, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The immune system is the most diffuse cellular system in the body. Accordingly, long-range migration of cells and short-range communication by local chemical signaling and by cell-cell contacts are vital to the control of an immune response. Cellular homing and migration within lymphoid organs, antigen recognition, and cell signaling and activation are clearly vital during an immune response, but these events had not been directly observed in vivo until recently. Introduced to the field of immunology in 2002, two-photon microscopy is the method of choice for visualizing living cells deep within native tissue environments, and it is now revealing an elegant cellular choreography that underlies the adaptive immune response to antigen challenge. We review cellular dynamics and molecular factors that contribute to basal motility of lymphocytes in the lymph node and cellular interactions leading to antigen capture and recognition, T cell activation, B cell activation, cytolytic effector function, and antibody production.

  15. Comparing CDRH3 diversity captured from secondary lymphoid organs for the generation of recombinant human antibodies.

    PubMed

    Venet, Sophie; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie; Fischer, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The plasticity of natural immunoglobulin repertoires can be exploited for the generation of phage display libraries. Secondary lymphoid organs, such as the spleen and the lymph nodes, constitute interesting sources of diversity because they are rich in B cells, part of which can be affinity matured. These organs, however, differ in their anatomical structure, reflecting the different fluids they drain, which affects the B cell repertoires. The CDRH3 repertoires from these organs, extracted from naïve or immunized mice, were compared in the context of phage display libraries using human antibody framework families. Deep sequencing analysis revealed that all libraries displayed different CDRH3 repertoires, but the one derived from lymph nodes of naïve mice was the most diverse. Library performance was assessed by in vitro selection. For both organs, immunization increased substantially the frequency of molecules able to bind to the immunogen. The library derived from lymph nodes from naïve mice, however, was the most effective in generating diverse and high affinity candidates. These results illustrate that the use of a biased CDRH3 repertoire increases the performance of libraries, but reduces the clonal diversity, which may be detrimental for certain strategies.

  16. Human skin: an independent peripheral endocrine organ.

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, C C

    2000-01-01

    factor-binding proteins. Therefore, the human skin fulfils all requirements for being the largest, independent peripheral endocrine organ.

  17. Marginal reticular cells: a stromal subset directly descended from the lymphoid tissue organizer

    PubMed Central

    Katakai, Tomoya

    2012-01-01

    The architecture of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is supported by several non-hematopoietic stromal cells. Currently it is established that two distinct stromal subsets, follicular dendritic cells and fibroblastic reticular cells, play crucial roles in the formation of tissue compartments within SLOs, i.e., the follicle and T zone, respectively. Although stromal cells in the anlagen are essential for SLO development, the relationship between these primordial cells and the subsets in adulthood remains poorly understood. In addition, the roles of stromal cells in the entry of antigens into the compartments through some tissue structures peculiar to SLOs remain unclear. A recently identified stromal subset, marginal reticular cells (MRCs), covers the margin of SLOs that are primarily located in the outer edge of follicles and construct a unique reticulum. MRCs are closely associated with specialized endothelial or epithelial structures for antigen transport. The similarities in marker expression profiles and successive localization during development suggest that MRCs directly descend from organizer stromal cells in the anlagen. Therefore, MRCs are thought to be a crucial stromal component for the organization and function of SLOs. PMID:22807928

  18. Reaction of lymphoid organs to laser radiation with different pulsation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapinosov, Ivan K.; Bugaeva, Irine O.; Kolokolov, George R.; Provozina, Helen J.

    1996-05-01

    Experimental studies were performed on 220 male rats of Wistar line to reveal optimal parameters of laser radiation causing positive changes in biotissues and to select methods of laser therapy. Irradiation of the ventral abdominal wall performed by arsenide-gallium injector (710 - 890 nm, exposure - 128 sec) in pulse rate: 3000 Hz, 1500 Hz, 80 Hz. Content of lymphoblasts, medium and small lymphocytes, plasmocytes, T-lymphocytes and T-helpers as well as the activity of chromatin and lysosomal enzymes were determined in the dynamics of thymus, spleen and lymph nodes. During irradiation with the rate of 3000 Hz prevailing inhibiting influence on the immumocytopoesis and functional activity of lymphocytes in all organs studied was state, the effect being manifested by the decrease in the number of all forms of lymphocytes particular on the 3rd-5th-7th day followed by normalization on the 15th- 21st-30th day. Irradiation with the rate of 1500 Hz produced stimulating effect on the immune organs accompanied by reliable excess of control indices of lymphocyte content particularly of poorly differentiated forms (blasts and medium ones), as well as by the increase of the number of plasmocytes, T-lymphocytes, T-helpers with maximum manifestation on the 7th day. On the 15th day there is a decrease, and on the 21st-30th day--there is normalization. Irradiation with the rate of 80 Hz produced the smallest but most marked effect, particularly on the number of lymphoblasts. Peculiarities in kinetics of cellular elements studied were revealed in different lymphoid organs and in different functional zones of these organs.

  19. Lymphotoxin organizes contributions to host defense and metabolic illness from innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Vaibhav; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2014-04-01

    The lymphotoxin (LT)-pathway is a unique constituent branch of the Tumor Necrosis Superfamily (TNFSF). Use of LT is a critical mechanism by which fetal innate lymphoid cells regulate lymphoid organogenesis. Within recent years, adult innate lymphoid cells have been discovered to utilize this same pathway to regulate IL-22 and IL-23 production for host defense. Notably, genetic studies have linked polymorphisms in the genes encoding LTα to several phenotypes contributing to metabolic syndrome. The role of the LT-pathway may lay the foundation for a bridge between host immune response, microbiota, and metabolic syndrome. The contribution of the LT-pathway to innate lymphoid cell function and metabolic syndrome will be visited in this review. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Urocortin-like immunoreactivity in the primary lymphoid organs of the duck (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, A.; Squillacioti, C.; Pero, M. E.; Paino, S.; Langella, E.; Mirabella, N.

    2009-01-01

    Urocortin (UCN) is a 40 aminoacid peptide which belongs to corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family. This family of peptides stimulates the secretion of proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), β-endorphin and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) in the pituitary gland. In the present study, using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, the distribution of UCN in the primary lymphoid organs of the duck was investigated at different ages. In the cloacal burse and thymus, Western blot demonstrated the presence of a peptide having a molecular weight compatible with that of the mammalian UCN. In the cloacal burse, immunoreactivity was located in the medullary epithelial cells and in the follicular associated and corticomedullary epithelium. In the thymus, immunoreactivity was located in single epithelial cells. Double labelling immunofluorescence studies showed that UCN immunoreactivity completely colocalised with cytokeratin immunoreactivity in both the thymus and cloacal burse. Statistically significant differences in the percentage of UCN immunoreactivity were observed between different age periods in the cloacal burse. The results suggest that, in birds, urocortin has an important role in regulating the function of the immune system.

  1. The effects of gamma irradiation on the lymphoid organs of rainbow trout and subsequent susceptibility to fish pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chilmonczyk, S; Oui, E

    1988-03-01

    Fish were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays at doses ranging from 10 to 50 Gy. Lethal doses were determined in fishes of different ages. For a given dose, fry and fingerlings were more susceptible than subadults. Whatever the irradiation dose was, the fish displayed a sharp decrease in blood leucocyte count. At the lowest doses, this acute leucopaenia was reversible. The cellular damage in the lymphoid organs was particularly obvious in the thymus. The depletion of lymphoid cells from immunocompetent organs decreased (viral hemorrhagic septicaemia, VHS) or increased (Y. ruckeri, A salmonicida) the susceptibility of trout to pathogens. The suppressive effect of radiation was age dependent. Irradiation appeared to be a reliable technique to detect asymptomatic carrier fish.

  2. Evidence of a true pharyngeal tonsil in birds: a novel lymphoid organ in Dromaius novaehollandiae and Struthio camelus (Palaeognathae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tonsils are secondary lymphoid organs located in the naso- and oropharynx of most mammalian species. Most tonsils are characterised by crypts surrounded by dense lymphoid tissue. However, tonsils without crypts have also been recognised. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), although not well-organised and lacking tonsillar crypts, is abundant in the avian oropharynx and has been referred to as the “pharyngeal tonsil”. In this context the pharyngeal folds present in the oropharynx of ratites have erroneously been named the pharyngeal tonsils. This study distinguishes between the different types and arrangements of lymphoid tissue in the pharyngeal region of D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus and demonstrates that both species possess a true pharyngeal tonsil which fits the classical definition of tonsils in mammals. Results The pharyngeal tonsil (Tonsilla pharyngea) of D. novaehollandiae was located on the dorsal free surface of the pharyngeal folds and covered by a small caudo-lateral extension of the folds whereas in S. camelus the tonsil was similarly located on the dorsal surface of the pharyngeal folds but was positioned retropharyngeally and encapsulated by loose connective tissue. The pharyngeal tonsil in both species was composed of lymph nodules, inter-nodular lymphoid tissue, mucus glands, crypts and intervening connective tissue septa. In S. camelus a shallow tonsillar sinus was present. Aggregated lymph nodules and inter-nodular lymphoid tissue was associated with the mucus glands on the ventral surface of the pharyngeal folds in both species and represented the Lymphonoduli pharyngeales. Similar lymphoid tissue, but more densely packed and situated directly below the epithelium, was present on the dorsal, free surface of the pharyngeal folds and represented a small, non-follicular tonsil. Conclusions The follicular pharyngeal tonsils in D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus are distinct from the pharyngeal folds in these species and

  3. A study of lymphoid organs and serum proinflammatory cytokines in pigs infected with African swine fever virus genotype II.

    PubMed

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Cholakyans, Victorya; Simonyan, Lusine; Misakyan, Alla; Karalova, Elena; Chavushyan, Andranik; Karalyan, Zaven

    2015-06-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV), the causative agent of one of the most important viral diseases of domestic pigs for which no vaccine is available, causes immune system disorders in infected animals. In this study, the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as the histological and cellular constitution of lymphoid organs of pigs infected with ASFV genotype II were investigated. The results showed a high degree of lymphocyte depletion in the lymphoid organs, particularly in the spleen and lymph nodes, where ASFV infection led to a twofold decrease in the number of lymphocytes on the final day of infection. Additionally, ASFV-infected pigs had atypical forms of lymphocytes found in all lymphoid organs. In contrast to lymphocytes, the number of immature immune cells, particularly myelocytes, increased dramatically and reached a maximum on day 7 postinfection. The serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 were evaluated. Proinflammatory cytokines showed increased levels after ASFV infection, with peak values at 7 days postinfection, and this highlights their role in the pathogenesis of ASFV. In conclusion, this study showed that ASFV genotype II, like other highly virulent strains, causes severe pathological changes in the immune system of pigs.

  4. Lymphoid organ cell culture system from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) as a platform for white spot syndrome virus and shrimp immune-related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Jose, S; Jayesh, P; Sudheer, N S; Poulose, G; Mohandas, A; Philip, R; Singh, I S Bright

    2012-05-01

    Shrimp cell lines are yet to be reported and this restricts the prospects of investigating the associated viral pathogens, especially white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In this context, development of primary cell cultures from lymphoid organs was standardized. Poly-l-lysine-coated culture vessels enhanced growth of lymphoid cells, while the application of vertebrate growth factors did not, except insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Susceptibility of the lymphoid cells to WSSV was confirmed by immunofluoresence assay using monoclonal antibody against the 28 kDa envelope protein of WSSV. Expression of viral and immune-related genes in WSSV-infected lymphoid cultures could be demonstrated by RT-PCR. This emphasizes the utility of lymphoid primary cell culture as a platform for research in virus-cell interaction, virus morphogenesis, up and downregulation of shrimp immune-related genes, and also for the discovery of novel drugs to combat WSSV in shrimp culture.

  5. Hypergravity-induced immunomodulation in a rodent model: lymphocytes and lymphoid organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gridley, Daila S.; Pecaut, Michael J.; Green, Lora M.; Miller, Glen M.; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to quantify changes in lymphoid organs and cells over time due to centrifugation-induced hypergravity. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 1, 2 and 3 G and the following assays were performed on days 1, 4, 7, 10, and 21: spleen, thymus, lung, and liver masses; total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte/macrophage, and granulocyte counts; level of splenocyte apoptosis; enumeration of CD3+ T, CD3+/CD4+ T helper, CD3+/CD8+ T cytotoxic, B220+ B, and NK1.1+ natural killer cells; and quantification of cells expressing CD25, CD69, and CD71 activation markers. The data show that increased gravity resulted in decreased body, spleen, thymus, and liver, but not lung, mass. Significant reductions were noted in all three major leukocyte populations (lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocyte/macrophages) [correction of macrphages] with increased gravity; persistent depletion was noted in blood but not spleen. Among the various lymphocyte populations, the CD3+/CD8+ T cells and B220+ B cells were the most affected and NK1.1+ NK cells the least affected. Overall, the changes were most evident during the first week, with a greater influence noted for cells in the spleen. A linear relationship was found between some of the measurements and the level of gravity, especially on day 4. These findings indicate that hypergravity profoundly alters leukocyte number and distribution in a mammalian model and that some aberrations persisted throughout the three weeks of the study. In certain cases, the detected changes were similar to those observed after whole-body irradiation. In future investigations we hope to combine hypergravity with low-dose rate irradiation and immune challenge.

  6. Hypergravity-induced immunomodulation in a rodent model: lymphocytes and lymphoid organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gridley, Daila S.; Pecaut, Michael J.; Green, Lora M.; Miller, Glen M.; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to quantify changes in lymphoid organs and cells over time due to centrifugation-induced hypergravity. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 1, 2 and 3 G and the following assays were performed on days 1, 4, 7, 10, and 21: spleen, thymus, lung, and liver masses; total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte/macrophage, and granulocyte counts; level of splenocyte apoptosis; enumeration of CD3+ T, CD3+/CD4+ T helper, CD3+/CD8+ T cytotoxic, B220+ B, and NK1.1+ natural killer cells; and quantification of cells expressing CD25, CD69, and CD71 activation markers. The data show that increased gravity resulted in decreased body, spleen, thymus, and liver, but not lung, mass. Significant reductions were noted in all three major leukocyte populations (lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocyte/macrophages) [correction of macrphages] with increased gravity; persistent depletion was noted in blood but not spleen. Among the various lymphocyte populations, the CD3+/CD8+ T cells and B220+ B cells were the most affected and NK1.1+ NK cells the least affected. Overall, the changes were most evident during the first week, with a greater influence noted for cells in the spleen. A linear relationship was found between some of the measurements and the level of gravity, especially on day 4. These findings indicate that hypergravity profoundly alters leukocyte number and distribution in a mammalian model and that some aberrations persisted throughout the three weeks of the study. In certain cases, the detected changes were similar to those observed after whole-body irradiation. In future investigations we hope to combine hypergravity with low-dose rate irradiation and immune challenge.

  7. Secondary Lymphoid Organ Homing Phenotype of Human Myeloid Dendritic Cells Disrupted by an Intracellular Oral Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Brodie; Zakhary, Ibrahim; El-Awady, Ahmed; Scisci, Elizabeth; Carrion, Julio; O'Neill, John C.; Rawlings, Aaron; Stern, J. Kobi; Susin, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    Several intracellular pathogens, including a key etiological agent of chronic periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, infect blood myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs). This infection results in pathogen dissemination to distant inflammatory sites (i.e., pathogen trafficking). The alteration in chemokine-chemokine receptor expression that contributes to this pathogen trafficking function, particularly toward sites of neovascularization in humans, is unclear. To investigate this, we utilized human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) and primary endothelial cells in vitro, combined with ex vivo-isolated blood mDCs and serum from chronic periodontitis subjects and healthy controls. Our results, using conditional fimbria mutants of P. gingivalis, show that P. gingivalis infection of MoDCs induces an angiogenic migratory profile. This profile is enhanced by expression of DC-SIGN on MoDCs and minor mfa-1 fimbriae on P. gingivalis and is evidenced by robust upregulation of CXCR4, but not secondary lymphoid organ (SLO)-homing CCR7. This disruption of SLO-homing capacity in response to respective chemokines closely matches surface expression of CXCR4 and CCR7 and is consistent with directed MoDC migration through an endothelial monolayer. Ex vivo-isolated mDCs from the blood of chronic periodontitis subjects, but not healthy controls, expressed a similar migratory profile; moreover, sera from chronic periodontitis subjects expressed elevated levels of CXCL12. Overall, we conclude that P. gingivalis actively “commandeers” DCs by reprogramming the chemokine receptor profile, thus disrupting SLO homing, while driving migration toward inflammatory vascular sites. PMID:24126519

  8. Adventitial Tertiary Lymphoid Organs as Potential Source of MicroRNA Biomarkers for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Spear, Rafaelle; Boytard, Ludovic; Blervaque, Renaud; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Hot, David; Vanhoutte, Jonathan; Staels, Bart; Lemoine, Yves; Lamblin, Nicolas; Pruvot, François-René; Haulon, Stephan; Amouyel, Philippe; Pinet, Florence

    2015-05-18

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an inflammatory disease associated with marked changes in the cellular composition of the aortic wall. This study aims to identify microRNA (miRNA) expression in aneurysmal inflammatory cells isolated by laser microdissection from human tissue samples. The distribution of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, B and T lymphocytes, mast cells) was evaluated in human AAA biopsies. We observed in half of the samples that adventitial tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs) with a thickness from 0.5 to 2 mm were located exclusively in the adventitia. Out of the 850 miRNA that were screened by microarray in isolated ATLOs (n = 2), 164 miRNAs were detected in ATLOs. The three miRNAs (miR-15a-3p, miR-30a-5p and miR-489-3p) with the highest expression levels were chosen and their expression quantified by RT-PCR in isolated ATLOs (n = 4), M1 (n = 2) and M2 macrophages (n = 2) and entire aneurysmal biopsies (n = 3). Except for the miR-30a-5p, a similar modulation was found in ATLOs and the two subtypes of macrophages. The modulated miRNAs were then evaluated in the plasma of AAA patients for their potential as AAA biomarkers. Our data emphasize the potential of miR-15a-3p and miR-30a-5p as biomarkers of AAA but also as triggers of ATLO evolution. Further investigations will be required to evaluate their targets in order to better understand AAA pathophysiology.

  9. Effect of in ovo-delivered prebiotics and synbiotics on lymphoid-organs' morphology in chickens.

    PubMed

    Madej, J P; Stefaniak, T; Bednarczyk, M

    2015-06-01

    Prebiotics and probiotics, either alone or together (synbiotics), can influence the intestinal microbiota and modulate the immune response. We aimed to investigate the effects of prebiotic and synbiotic administration during the early stage of development on the histological structures of central (bursa of Fabricius and thymus) and peripheral (spleen) lymphatic organs in broilers. We used 800 hatching eggs from meat-type hens (Ross 308). Prebiotics and synbiotics were administered in ovo into the air chamber of chicken eggs at d 12 incubation, as follows: prebiotic inulin (Pre1), Bi2tos (Pre2), a synbiotic composed of inulin and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IBB SL1 (Syn1), a synbiotic composed of Bi2tos and L. lactis subsp. cremoris IBB SC1 (Syn2), or physiological saline (control group, C). In ovo delivery of prebiotics and synbiotics had no adverse effect on the development of the immune system in exposed chickens. Administration of Bi2tos with L. lactis subsp. cremoris (Syn2) decreased the cortex/medulla ratio in the thymus and slowed the development of the cortex in bursal follicles on d 21 posthatching, with consequent impacts on the primary lymphatic organs. The above treatment also stimulated germinal centers' formation in the spleens of 21- and 35-day-old chickens, indicating enhanced B-cell proliferation in secondary lymphatic organs. Syn2 also caused an age-dependent increase in the spleen/bursa of Fabricius ratio. In conclusion, the in ovo administration of pre- and synbiotics at d 12 incubation can modulate the central and peripheral lymphatic organ development in broilers. This effect is more pronounced after synbiotic treatment than in prebiotic-treated groups. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Sensory Biology: Novel Peripheral Organization for Better Smell.

    PubMed

    Wall, Crystal M; Zhao, Haiqing

    2015-10-05

    Sensory systems have adopted various ways to enhance detection and discrimination. A recent study shows a novel spatial organization of sensory cells in the peripheral olfactory system in mice for better odor detection.

  11. Functional contributions of N- and O-glycans to L-selectin ligands in murine and human lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Arata-Kawai, Hanayo; Singer, Mark S; Bistrup, Annette; Zante, Annemieke van; Wang, Yang-Qing; Ito, Yuki; Bao, Xingfeng; Hemmerich, Stefan; Fukuda, Minoru; Rosen, Steven D

    2011-01-01

    L-selectin initiates lymphocyte interactions with high endothelial venules (HEVs) of lymphoid organs through binding to ligands with specific glycosylation modifications. 6-Sulfo sLe(x), a sulfated carbohydrate determinant for L-selectin, is carried on core 2 and extended core 1 O-glycans of HEV-expressed glycoproteins. The MECA-79 monoclonal antibody recognizes sulfated extended core 1 O-glycans and partially blocks lymphocyte-HEV interactions in lymphoid organs. Recent evidence has identified the contribution of 6-sulfo sLe(x) carried on N-glycans to lymphocyte homing in mice. Here, we characterize CL40, a novel IgG monoclonal antibody. CL40 equaled or surpassed MECA-79 as a histochemical staining reagent for HEVs and HEV-like vessels in mouse and human. Using synthetic carbohydrates, we found that CL40 bound to 6-sulfo sLe(x) structures, on both core 2 and extended core 1 structures, with an absolute dependency on 6-O-sulfation. Using transfected CHO cells and gene-targeted mice, we observed that CL40 bound its epitope on both N-glycans and O-glycans. Consistent with its broader glycan-binding, CL40 was superior to MECA-79 in blocking lymphocyte-HEV interactions in both wild-type mice and mice deficient in forming O-glycans. This superiority was more marked in human, as CL40 completely blocked lymphocyte binding to tonsillar HEVs, whereas MECA-79 inhibited only 60%. These findings extend the evidence for the importance of N-glycans in lymphocyte homing in mouse and indicate that this dependency also applies to human lymphoid organs.

  12. Effects of lactational exposure of olanzapine and risperidone on hematology and lymphoid organs histopathology: a comparative study in mice neonates.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Akash C; Mohanty, Banalata

    2010-05-25

    Body weight gain, sexual/reproductive dysfunction and hematological abnormalities are serious consequences of atypical antipsychotics treatment. No attempts however have been made preclinically to elucidate the adverse hematological impacts. Presently, effects of lactational exposure of olanzapine (4, 8 and 10 mg/kg) and risperidone (1 and 2 mg/kg) on hematology as well as lymphoid organ histopathology of mice neonates were investigated. Both olanzapine and risperidone transfers through milk and make the neonates susceptible to their adverse side effects. Corticosterone elevation tendency of both the drugs further enhance the susceptibility for immune dysfunction. Analysis of total and differential leukocytes counts revealed neutropenia with all the doses of olanzapine but only with risperidone 2mg/kg. Weight analysis and histopathology of thymus and spleen indicated a state of suppression; less in the risperidone-exposed groups. Significant plasma corticosterone elevation occurred on 4 and 8 mg/kg olanzapine exposures but not with 10 mg/kg as well as with both the risperidone doses. Elevation of plasma prolactin levels occurred dose-dependently for both the drugs. Hematological toxicity (neutropenia) might be the direct toxic effects of the drugs/unstable metabolites on circulating neutrophils and/or on the bone marrow hemopoietic cells. Direct toxicity of the drugs might also have suppressed the lymphoid organs thymus and spleen. Further, it could be associated to hormonal imbalance induced by adverse pharmacological effects of the drugs on the endocrine system. Suppression of lymphoid organs in olanzapine groups might have resulted because of corticosteronemia and hyperprolactinemia, while in risperidone it could be mediated by pronounced hyperprolactinemic effect alone.

  13. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  14. Gel-Trapped Lymphorganogenic Chemokines Trigger Artificial Tertiary Lymphoid Organs and Mount Adaptive Immune Responses In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    We previously generated artificial lymph node-like tertiary lymphoid organs (artTLOs) in mice using lymphotoxin α-expressing stromal cells. Here, we show the construction of transplantable and functional artTLOs by applying soluble factors trapped in slow-releasing gels in the absence of lymphoid tissue organizer stromal cells. The resultant artTLOs were easily removable, transplantable, and were capable of attracting memory B and T cells. Importantly, artTLOs induced a powerful antigen-specific secondary immune response, which was particularly pronounced in immune-compromised hosts. Synthesis of functionally stable immune tissues/organs like those described here may be a first step to eventually develop immune system-based therapeutics. Although much needs to be learned from the precise mechanisms of action, they may offer ways in the future to reestablish immune functions to overcome hitherto untreatable diseases, including severe infection, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and various forms of immune deficiencies, including immune-senescence during aging.

  15. Protein deficiency alters impact of intestinal nematode infection on intestinal, visceral and lymphoid organ histopathology in lactating mice.

    PubMed

    Starr, Lisa M; Odiere, Maurice R; Koski, Kristine G; Scott, Marilyn E

    2014-05-01

    Protein deficiency impairs local and systemic immune responses to Heligmosomoides bakeri infection but little is known about their individual and interactive impacts on tissue architecture of maternal lymphoid (thymus, spleen) and visceral (small intestine, kidney, liver, pancreas) organs during the demanding period of lactation. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, pregnant CD1 mice were fed a 24% protein sufficient (PS) or a 6% protein deficient (PD) isoenergetic diet beginning on day 14 of pregnancy and were infected with 100 H. bakeri larvae four times or exposed to four sham infections. On day 20 of lactation, maternal organs were examined histologically and serum analytes were assayed as indicators of organ function. The absence of villus atrophy in response to infection was associated with increased crypt depth and infiltration of mast cells and eosinophils but only in lactating dams fed adequate protein. Infection-induced lobular liver inflammation was reduced in PD dams, however, abnormalities in the kidney caused by protein deficiency were absent in infected dams. Bilirubin and creatinine were highest in PD infected mice. Infection-induced splenomegaly was not due to an increase in the lymphoid compartment of the spleen. During lactation, infection and protein deficiency have interactive effects on extra-intestinal pathologies.

  16. Differentiation of human peripheral blood Vδ1+ T cells expressing the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp30 for recognition of lymphoid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Correia, Daniel V; Fogli, Manuela; Hudspeth, Kelly; da Silva, Maria Gomes; Mavilio, Domenico; Silva-Santos, Bruno

    2011-07-28

    The success of cancer immunotherapy depends on productive tumor cell recognition by killer lymphocytes. γδ T cells are a population of innate-like lymphocytes endowed with strong, MHC-unrestricted cytotoxicity against tumor cells. This notwithstanding, we recently showed that a large proportion of human hematologic tumors is resistant to γδ peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) activated with specific agonists to the highly prevalent Vγ9Vδ2 TCR. Although this probably constitutes an important limitation to current γδ T cell-mediated immunotherapy strategies, we describe here the differentiation of a novel subset of Vδ2(-) Vδ1(+) PBLs expressing natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) that directly mediate killing of leukemia cell lines and chronic lymphocytic leukemia patient neoplastic cells. We show that Vδ1(+) T cells can be selectively induced to express NKp30, NKp44 and NKp46, through a process that requires functional phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/AKT signaling on stimulation with γ(c) cytokines and TCR agonists. The stable expression of NCRs is associated with high levels of granzyme B and enhanced cytotoxicity against lymphoid leukemia cells. Specific gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments demonstrated that NKp30 makes the most important contribution to TCR-independent leukemia cell recognition. Thus, NKp30(+) Vδ1(+) T cells constitute a novel, inducible and specialized killer lymphocyte population with high potential for immunotherapy of human cancer.

  17. A Novel Bacterial Artificial Chromosome-Transgenic Podoplanin–Cre Mouse Targets Lymphoid Organ Stromal Cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Onder, Lucas; Scandella, Elke; Chai, Qian; Firner, Sonja; Mayer, Christian T.; Sparwasser, Tim; Thiel, Volker; Rülicke, Thomas; Ludewig, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    Stromal cells provide the structural foundation of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), and regulate leukocyte access and cell migration within the different compartments of spleen and lymph nodes (LNs). Furthermore, several stromal cell subsets have been implied in shaping of T cell responses through direct presentation of antigen. Despite significant gain of knowledge on the biology of different SLO-resident stromal cell subsets, their molecular and functional characterization has remained incomplete. To address this need, we have generated a bacterial artificial chromosome-transgenic mouse model that utilizes the podoplanin (pdpn) promoter to express the Cre-recombinase exclusively in stromal cells of SLOs. The characterization of the Pdpn–Cre mouse revealed transgene expression in subsets of fibroblastic reticular cells and lymphatic endothelial cells in LNs. Furthermore, the transgene facilitated the identification of a novel splenic perivascular stromal cell subpopulation that forms web-like structures around central arterioles. Assessment of the in vivo antigen expression in the genetically tagged stromal cells in Pdpn–Cre mice revealed activation of both MHC I and II-restricted TCR transgenic T cells. Taken together, stromal pdpn–Cre expression is well-suited to characterize the phenotype and to dissect the function of lymphoid organ stromal cells. PMID:22566840

  18. Neuropilin-1 expression characterizes T follicular helper (Tfh) cells activated during B cell differentiation in human secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Renand, Amédée; Milpied, Pierre; Rossignol, Julien; Bruneau, Julie; Lemonnier, François; Dussiot, Michael; Coulon, Séverine; Hermine, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play an essential role in the development of antigen-specific B cell immunity. Tfh cells regulate the differentiation and survival of activated B cells outside and inside germinal centers (GC) of secondary lymphoid organs. They act through cognate contacts with antigen-presenting B cells, but there is no current marker to specifically identify those Tfh cells which productively interact with B cells. Here we show that neuropilin 1 (Nrp1), a cell surface receptor, is selectively expressed by a subset of Tfh cells in human secondary lymphoid organs. Nrp1 expression on Tfh cells correlates with B cell differentiation in vivo and in vitro, is transient, and can be induced upon co-culture with autologous memory B cells in a cell contact-dependent manner. Comparative analysis of ex vivo Nrp1(+) and Nrp1(-) Tfh cells reveals gene expression modulation during activation. Finally, Nrp1 is expressed by malignant Tfh-like cells in a severe case of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) associated with elevated terminal B cell differentiation. Thus, Nrp1 is a specific marker of Tfh cells cognate activation in humans, which may prove useful as a prognostic factor and a therapeutic target in neoplastic diseases associated with Tfh cells activity.

  19. CD56(bright)perforin(low) noncytotoxic human NK cells are abundant in both healthy and neoplastic solid tissues and recirculate to secondary lymphoid organs via afferent lymph.

    PubMed

    Carrega, Paolo; Bonaccorsi, Irene; Di Carlo, Emma; Morandi, Barbara; Paul, Petra; Rizzello, Valeria; Cipollone, Giuseppe; Navarra, Giuseppe; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Moretta, Lorenzo; Ferlazzo, Guido

    2014-04-15

    As limited information is available regarding the distribution and trafficking of NK cells among solid organs, we have analyzed a wide array of tissues derived from different human compartments. NK cells were widely distributed in most solid tissues, although their amount varied significantly depending on the tissue/organ analyzed. Interestingly, the distribution appeared to be subset specific, as some tissues were preferentially populated by CD56(bright)perforin(low) NK cells, with others by the CD56(dim)perforin(high) cytotoxic counterpart. Nevertheless, most tissues were highly enriched in CD56(bright)perforin(low) cells, and the distribution of NK subsets appeared in accordance with tissue gene expression of chemotactic factors, for which receptors are differently represented in the two subsets. Remarkably, chemokine expression pattern of tissues was modified after neoplastic transformation. As a result, although the total amount of NK cells infiltrating the tissues did not significantly change upon malignant transformation, the relative proportion of NK subsets infiltrating the tissues was different, with a trend toward a tumor-infiltrating NK population enriched in noncytotoxic cells. Besides solid tissues, CD56(bright)perforin(low) NK cells were also detected in seroma fluids, which represents an accrual of human afferent lymph, indicating that they may leave peripheral solid tissues and recirculate to secondary lymphoid organs via lymphatic vessels. Our results provide a comprehensive mapping of NK cells in human tissues, demonstrating that discrete NK subsets populate and recirculate through most human tissues and that organ-specific chemokine expression patterns might affect their distribution. In this context, chemokine switch upon neoplastic transformation might represent a novel mechanism of tumor immune escape.

  20. Crosstalk between the heart and peripheral organs in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Jahng, James Won Suk; Song, Erfei; Sweeney, Gary

    2016-03-11

    Mediators from peripheral tissues can influence the development and progression of heart failure (HF). For example, in obesity, an altered profile of adipokines secreted from adipose tissue increases the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI). Less appreciated is that heart remodeling releases cardiokines, which can strongly impact various peripheral tissues. Inflammation, and, in particular, activation of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors with pyrin domain (NLRP3) inflammasome are likely to have a central role in cardiac remodeling and mediating crosstalk with other organs. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to cardiac injury induces the production and secretion of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. In addition to having local effects in the myocardium, these pro-inflammatory cytokines are released into circulation and cause remodeling in the spleen, kidney, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. The collective effects of various cardiokines on peripheral organs depend on the degree and duration of myocardial injury, with systematic inflammation and peripheral tissue damage observed as HF progresses. In this article, we review mechanisms regulating myocardial inflammation in HF and the role of factors secreted by the heart in communication with peripheral tissues.

  1. Dose and dose rate effects of whole-body proton irradiation on leukocyte populations and lymphoid organs: part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gridley, Daila S.; Pecaut, Michael J.; Dutta-Roy, Radha; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of part I of this study was to evaluate the effects of whole-body proton irradiation on lymphoid organs and specific leukocyte populations. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the entry region of the proton Bragg curve to total doses of 0.5 gray (Gy), 1.5 Gy, and 3.0 Gy, each delivered at a low dose rate (LDR) of 1 cGy/min and high dose rate (HDR) of 80 cGy/min. Non-irradiated and 3 Gy HDR gamma-irradiated groups were included as controls. At 4 days post-irradiation, highly significant radiation dose-dependent reductions were observed in the mass of both lymphoid organs and the numbers of leukocytes and T (CD3(+)), T helper (CD3(+)/CD4(+)), T cytotoxic (CD3(+)/CD8(+)), and B (CD19(+)) cells in both blood and spleen. A less pronounced dose effect was noted for natural killer (NK1.1(+) NK) cells in spleen. Monocyte, but not granulocyte, counts in blood were highly dose-dependent. The numbers for each population generally tended to be lower with HDR than with LDR radiation; a significant dose rate effect was found in the percentages of T and B cells, monocytes, and granulocytes and in CD4(+):CD8(+) ratios. These data indicate that mononuclear cell response to the entry region of the proton Bragg curve is highly dependent upon the total dose and that dose rate effects are evident with some cell types. Results from gamma- and proton-irradiated groups (both at 3 Gy HDR) were similar, although proton-irradiation gave consistently lower values in some measurements.

  2. Virus replication cycle of white spot syndrome virus in secondary cell cultures from the lymphoid organ of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenfeng; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; De Gryse, Gaëtan M A; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Van Tuan, Vo; Van Thuong, Khuong; Bossier, Peter; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2015-09-01

    The replication cycle of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was investigated in secondary cell cultures from the lymphoid organ of Litopenaeus vannamei. The secondary cells formed a confluent monolayer at 24 h post-reseeding, and this monolayer could be maintained for 10 days with a viability of 90 %. Binding of WSSV to cells reached a maximum (73 ± 3 % of cells and 4.84 ± 0.2 virus particles per virus-binding cell) at 120 min at 4 °C. WSSV entered cells by endocytosis. The co-localization of WSSV and early endosomes was observed starting from 30 min post-inoculation (p.i.). Double indirect immunofluorescence staining showed that all cell-bound WSSV particles entered these cells in the period between 0 and 60 min p.i. and that the uncoating of WSSV occurred in the same period. After 1 h inoculation at 27 °C, the WSSV nucleocapsid protein VP664 and envelope protein VP28 started to be synthesized in the cytoplasm from 1 and 3 h p.i., and were transported into nuclei from 3 and 6 h p.i., respectively. The percentage of cells that were VP664- and VP28-positive in their nuclei peaked (50 ± 4 %) at 12 h p.i. Quantitative PCR showed that WSSV DNA started to be synthesized from 6 h p.i. In vivo titration of the supernatants showed that the progeny WSSV were released from 12 h p.i. and peaked at 18 h p.i. In conclusion, the secondary cell cultures from the lymphoid organ were proven to be ideal for examination of the replication cycle of WSSV.

  3. Dose and dose rate effects of whole-body proton irradiation on leukocyte populations and lymphoid organs: part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gridley, Daila S.; Pecaut, Michael J.; Dutta-Roy, Radha; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of part I of this study was to evaluate the effects of whole-body proton irradiation on lymphoid organs and specific leukocyte populations. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the entry region of the proton Bragg curve to total doses of 0.5 gray (Gy), 1.5 Gy, and 3.0 Gy, each delivered at a low dose rate (LDR) of 1 cGy/min and high dose rate (HDR) of 80 cGy/min. Non-irradiated and 3 Gy HDR gamma-irradiated groups were included as controls. At 4 days post-irradiation, highly significant radiation dose-dependent reductions were observed in the mass of both lymphoid organs and the numbers of leukocytes and T (CD3(+)), T helper (CD3(+)/CD4(+)), T cytotoxic (CD3(+)/CD8(+)), and B (CD19(+)) cells in both blood and spleen. A less pronounced dose effect was noted for natural killer (NK1.1(+) NK) cells in spleen. Monocyte, but not granulocyte, counts in blood were highly dose-dependent. The numbers for each population generally tended to be lower with HDR than with LDR radiation; a significant dose rate effect was found in the percentages of T and B cells, monocytes, and granulocytes and in CD4(+):CD8(+) ratios. These data indicate that mononuclear cell response to the entry region of the proton Bragg curve is highly dependent upon the total dose and that dose rate effects are evident with some cell types. Results from gamma- and proton-irradiated groups (both at 3 Gy HDR) were similar, although proton-irradiation gave consistently lower values in some measurements.

  4. The effects of prolonged oral administration of gold nanoparticles on the morphology of hematopoietic and lymphoid organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Pakhomy, Svetlana S.; Zlobina, Olga V.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Matveeva, Olga V.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Bogatyrev, Vladimir A.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2017-02-01

    Currently, the usage of gold nanoparticles as photosensitizers and immunomodulators for plasmonic photothermal therapy has attracted a great attention of researches and end-users. In our work, the influence of prolonged peroral administration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with different sizes on the morphological changes of hematopoietic and lymphoid organs was investigated. The 24 white outbred male rats weighing 180-220 g were randomly divided into groups and administered orally for 30 days the suspension of gold nanospheres with diameters of 2, 15 and 50 nm at a dosage of 190 μg/kg of animal body weight. To prevent GNPs aggregation in a tissue and enhance biocompatibility, they were functionalized with thiolated polyethylene glycol. The withdrawal of the animals from the experiment and sampling of spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow tissues for morphological study were performed a day after the last administration. In the spleen the boundary between the red and white pulp was not clearly differ in all experimental groups, lymphoid follicles were significantly increased in size, containing bright germinative centers represented by large blast cells. The stimulation of lymphocyte and myelocytic series of hematopoiesis was recorded at morphological study of the bone marrow. The number of immunoblasts and large lymphocytes was increased in all structural zones of lymph nodes. The more pronounced changes were found in the group with administration of 15 nm nanoparticles. Thus, the morphological changes of cellular components of hematopoietic organs have size-dependent character and indicate the activation of the migration, proliferation and differentiation of immune cells after prolonged oral administration of GNPs.

  5. Identification of stable reference genes for quantitative PCR in cells derived from chicken lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Borowska, D; Rothwell, L; Bailey, R A; Watson, K; Kaiser, P

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a powerful technique for quantification of gene expression, especially genes involved in immune responses. Although qPCR is a very efficient and sensitive tool, variations in the enzymatic efficiency, quality of RNA and the presence of inhibitors can lead to errors. Therefore, qPCR needs to be normalised to obtain reliable results and allow comparison. The most common approach is to use reference genes as internal controls in qPCR analyses. In this study, expression of seven genes, including β-actin (ACTB), β-2-microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β-glucuronidase (GUSB), TATA box binding protein (TBP), α-tubulin (TUBAT) and 28S ribosomal RNA (r28S), was determined in cells isolated from chicken lymphoid tissues and stimulated with three different mitogens. The stability of the genes was measured using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software. The results from both geNorm and NormFinder were that the three most stably expressed genes in this panel were TBP, GAPDH and r28S. BestKeeper did not generate clear answers because of the highly heterogeneous sample set. Based on these data we will include TBP in future qPCR normalisation. The study shows the importance of appropriate reference gene normalisation in other tissues before qPCR analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. CCR7 guides migration of mesenchymal stem cell to secondary lymphoid organs: a novel approach to separate GvHD from GvL effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Jiang, YanMing; Jiang, XiaoXia; Guo, XiMin; Ning, HongMei; Li, YuHang; Liao, Li; Yao, HuiYu; Wang, XiaoYan; Liu, YuanLin; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Hu; Mao, Ning

    2014-07-01

    Inefficient homing of systemically infused mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) limits the efficacy of existing MSC-based clinical graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) therapies. Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are the major niches for generating immune responses or tolerance. MSCs home to a wide range of organs, but rarely to SLOs after intravenous infusion. Thus, we hypothesized that targeted migration of MSCs into SLOs may significantly improve their immunomodulatory effect. Here, chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) gene, encoding a receptor that specifically guides migration of immune cells into SLOs, was engineered into a murine MSC line C3H10T1/2 by retrovirus transfection system (MSCs/CCR7). We found that infusion of MSCs/CCR7 potently prolonged the survival of GvHD mouse model. The infused MSCs/CCR7 migrate to SLOs, relocate in proximity with T lymphocytes, therefore, potently inhibited their proliferation, activation, and cytotoxicity. Natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the early control of leukemia relapse. Although MSCs/CCR7 inhibited NK cell activity in vitro coculture, they did not impact on the proportion and cytotoxic capacities of NK cells in the peripheral blood of GvHD mice. In an EL4 leukemia cell loaded GvHD model, MSCs/CCR7 infusion preserved the graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effect. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that CCR7 guides migration of MSCs to SLOs and thus highly intensify their in vivo immunomodulatory effect while preserving the GvL activity. This exciting therapeutic strategy may improve the clinical efficacy of MSC based therapy for immune diseases.

  7. A tumor-related lymphoid progenitor population supports hierarchical tumor organization in canine B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ito, D; Endicott, M M; Jubala, C M; Helm, K M; Burnett, R C; Husbands, B D; Borgatti, A; Henson, M S; Burgess, K E; Bell, J S; Kisseberth, W C; Valli, V E; Cutter, G R; Avery, A C; Hahn, K A; O'Brien, T D; Modiano, J F

    2011-01-01

    Tumors have heterogeneous properties, which could be explained by the existence of hierarchically and biologically distinct tumor cells such as tumor-initiating cells (TICs). This model is clinically important, as TICs are promising targets for cancer therapies. However, TICs in spontaneous B-cell lymphoma have not been conclusively identified. Tumor cells with a progenitor phenotype exist in B-cell lymphoma, reflecting a hierarchical organization. Twenty-eight client-owned dogs with previously untreated B-cell lymphoma and 6 healthy dogs. This was a prospective study. Flow cytometry was used to identify lymphoid progenitor cells (LPCs) that coexpressed hematopoietic progenitor antigens CD34, CD117, and CD133, with lymphoid differentiation markers CD21 and/or CD22 in B-cell lymphoma. The polymerase chain reaction for antigen receptor rearrangements was used to analyze clonality and relatedness of tumor populations. A xenograft model with NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγ(-/-) mice was adapted to expand and serially transplant primary canine B-cell lymphoma. LPCs were expanded in lymph nodes from 28 dogs with B-cell lymphoma compared with 6 healthy dogs (P= .0022). LPCs contained a clonal antigen receptor gene rearrangement identical to that of the bulk of tumor cells. Canine B-cell lymphoma xenografts in recipient mice that maintained LPCs in the tumors were recurrently observed. These results suggest the presence of a hierarchy of tumor cells in B-cell lymphoma as has been demonstrated in other cancers. These findings have the potential to impact not only the understanding of lymphoma pathogenesis but also the development of lymphoma therapies by providing novel targets for therapy. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Immunohistochemical investigation of extracellular matrix components in the lymphoid organs of healthy pigs and pigs with systemic disease caused by circovirus type 2.

    PubMed

    Docampo, M J; Cabrera, J; Segalés, J; Bassols, A

    2014-07-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides a scaffold for cell growth, impacts on cellular behaviour and plays an important role in pathological conditions. Several components of the ECM of lymphoid tissues have been shown to be crucial in the maturation, differentiation and migration of lymphocytes and other immune cells and, therefore, in the development of immune responses. Little is known of the composition and function of the ECM in porcine lymphoid tissues. The present study characterizes immunohistochemically the expression of several ECM-related molecules (i.e. hyaluronan [HA] and its receptor CD44, tenascin-C [TN-C] and versican) in primary and secondary lymphoid organs of healthy pigs and animals affected by porcine circovirus type 2-systemic disease (PCV2-SD). These ECM molecules displayed a highly defined expression pattern in healthy animals, suggesting that they may have a role in the compartmentalization of immune cells within lymphoid tissues. HA was abundant in the medulla of the thymus and follicles of secondary organs; CD44 and TN-C were present in the thymic medulla and parafollicular areas of secondary lymphoid organs; however, there was minimal expression of versican in healthy tissues. In PCV2-SD-affected animals, HA and CD44 showed a similar but more diffuse distribution. TN-C was increased in the T-cell-dependent areas and in tonsillar crypts, and versican was more abundantly expressed, with expression restricted to vascular structures and trabeculae and also surrounding tonsillar crypts. The altered expression in PCV2-SD-affected pigs was most probably related to a higher content of connective tissue secondary to tissue destruction and remodelling attempts as part of the disease process.

  9. THE EFFECTS OF THYMUS AND OTHER LYMPHOID ORGANS ENCLOSED IN MILLIPORE DIFFUSION CHAMBERS ON NEONATALLY THYMECTOMIZED MICE

    PubMed Central

    Osoba, David

    1965-01-01

    When neonatally thymectomized CBA mice were implanted at 9 to 12 days of age with Millipore diffusion chambers (pore size, 0.1 µ) containing either syngeneic or allogeneic neonatal thymus, they were subsequently found to have the capacity to reject skin homografts and to form antibodies to sheep erythrocytes. In spite of displaying restored immune reactivity, thymectomized mice bearing thymus-filled diffusion chambers still had a lymphopenia and diminished numbers of small lymphocytes in their spleens, lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Comparison of the lymphoid organs of these mice with those of the thymectomized control mice did not reveal any appreciable difference in the numbers of primary follicles or small lymphocytes. It is postulated that the thymus humoral factor induced immunological competence in lymphoid cells which had left the thymus prior to neonatal thymectomy. The paucity of circulating and tissue small lymphocytes in thymectomized animals, the immune reactivity of which was restored by thymus tissue in diffusion chambers, argues against the theory that the thymus humoral factor has a lymphocytosis-stimulating effect. There was no restoration of immune reactivity in those neonatally thymectomized mice which had been implanted with diffusion chambers containing neonatal or adult spleens, or adult lymph nodes. Thus, the competence-inducing factor is elaborated by the thymus but not by the spleen or lymph nodes. Allogeneic (C57Bl) neonatal thymus tissue, enclosed within diffusion chambers, had the capacity to restore the immune reactivity of totally thymectomized CBA mice, not only to skin homografts of a totally unrelated strain (Ak), but also to grafts isogeneic with the donor of the allogeneic thymus. Therefore, there is no strain barrier to the action of thymus humoral factor. To explain the apparent lack of full participation of thymus lymphocytes in immune reactions it is postulated that thymus lymphocytes are functionally immature in situ, and

  10. TLR activation excludes circulating naive CD8+ T cells from gut-associated lymphoid organs in mice.

    PubMed

    Heidegger, Simon; Kirchner, Sophie-Kathrin; Stephan, Nicolas; Bohn, Bernadette; Suhartha, Nina; Hotz, Christian; Anz, David; Sandholzer, Nadja; Stecher, Bärbel; Rüssmann, Holger; Endres, Stefan; Bourquin, Carole

    2013-05-15

    The trafficking of effector T cells is tightly regulated by the expression of site-specific sets of homing molecules. In contrast, naive T cells are generally assumed to express a uniform pattern of homing molecules and to follow a random distribution within the blood and secondary lymphoid organs. In this study, we demonstrate that systemic infection fundamentally modifies the trafficking of circulating naive CD8(+) T cells. We show that on naive CD8(+) T cells, the constitutive expression of the integrin α4β7 that effects their entry into GALT is downregulated following infection of mice with Salmonella typhimurium. We further show that this downregulation is dependent on TLR signaling, and that the TLR-activated naive CD8(+) T cells are blocked from entering GALT. This contrasts strongly with Ag-experienced effector T cells, for which TLR costimulation in the GALT potently upregulates α4β7 and enhances trafficking to intestinal tissues. Thus, TLR activation leads to opposite effects on migration of naive and effector CD8(+) T cells. Our data identify a mechanism that excludes noncognate CD8(+) T cells from selected immune compartments during TLR-induced systemic inflammation.

  11. CNS: Not an immunoprivilaged site anymore but a virtual secondary lymphoid organ.

    PubMed

    Negi, Neema; Das, Bimal K

    2017-09-29

    The cardinal dogma of central nervous system (CNS) immunology believed brain is an immune privileged site, but scientific evidences gathered so far have overturned this notion proving that CNS is no longer an immune privileged site, but rather an actively regulated site of immune surveillance. Landmark discovery of lymphatic system surrounding the duramater of the brain, made possible by high resolution live imaging technology has given new dimension to neuro-immunology. Here, we discuss the immune privilege status of CNS in light of the previous and current findings, taking into account the differences between a healthy state and changes that occur during an inflammatory response. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) along with interstitial fluid (ISF) drain activated T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages and dendritic cells from brain to regional lymph nodes present in the head and neck region. To keep an eye on inflammation, this system hosts an army of regulatory T cells (CD25+ FoxP3+) that regulate T cell hyper activation, proliferation and cytokine production. This review is an attempt to fill the gaps in our understanding of neuroimmune interactions, role of innate and adaptive immune system in maintaining homeostasis, interplay of different immune cells, immune tolerance, knowledge of communication pathways between the CNS and the peripheral immune system and lastly how interruption of immune surveillance leads to neurodegenerative diseases. We envisage that discoveries should be made not only to decipher underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of immune trafficking, but should aid in identifying targeted cell populations for therapeutic intervention in neurodegenerative and autoimmune disorders.

  12. CD69 acts downstream of interferon-alpha/beta to inhibit S1P1 and lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Shiow, Lawrence R; Rosen, David B; Brdicková, Nadezda; Xu, Ying; An, Jinping; Lanier, Lewis L; Cyster, Jason G; Matloubian, Mehrdad

    2006-03-23

    Naive lymphocytes continually enter and exit lymphoid organs in a recirculation process that is essential for immune surveillance. During immune responses, the egress process can be shut down transiently. When this occurs locally it increases lymphocyte numbers in the responding lymphoid organ; when it occurs systemically it can lead to immunosuppression as a result of the depletion of recirculating lymphocytes. Several mediators of the innate immune system are known to cause shutdown, including interferon alpha/beta (IFN-alpha/beta) and tumour necrosis factor, but the mechanism has been unclear. Here we show that treatment with the IFN-alpha/beta inducer polyinosine polycytidylic acid (hereafter 'poly(I:C)') inhibited egress by a mechanism that was partly lymphocyte-intrinsic. The transmembrane C-type lectin CD69 was rapidly induced and CD69-/- cells were poorly retained in lymphoid tissues after treatment with poly(I:C) or infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Lymphocyte egress requires sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1), and IFN-alpha/beta was found to inhibit lymphocyte responsiveness to S1P. By contrast, CD69-/- cells retained S1P1 function after exposure to IFN-alpha/beta. In coexpression experiments, CD69 inhibited S1P1 chemotactic function and led to downmodulation of S1P1. In a reporter assay, S1P1 crosslinking led to co-crosslinking and activation of a CD69-CD3zeta chimaera. CD69 co-immunoprecipitated with S1P1 but not the related receptor, S1P3. These observations indicate that CD69 forms a complex with and negatively regulates S1P1 and that it functions downstream of IFN-alpha/beta, and possibly other activating stimuli, to promote lymphocyte retention in lymphoid organs.

  13. Lymph node and lymphoid organs fine needle aspiration cytology: historical background.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Immacolata; Vigliar, Elena; Vetrani, Antonio; Zeppa, Pio

    2012-01-01

    Lymph node has probably been the first target of Fine Needle Cytology (FNC) and among the latest to be accepted as an affordable diagnostic procedure. In 1912, dr. Hirschfeld performed FNC to diagnose cutaneous lymphomas and other tumours. Subsequently FNC was used to diagnose lymphoblastoma and splenic FNC to diagnose leishmaniasis on Romanowsky-stained smears. One of the first systematic study on lymph node FNC was then performed at John Hopkins Hospital, in Baltimore (USA) using FNC and Romanowsky stain on air-dried smears. In the twenties, two independent groups from Memorial Hospital (New York, USA), worked on FNC of a large scale of different human pathologies. One of this study reported 1,405 diagnoses of cancer and other diseases by means of FNC, mainly performed on lymph nodes (662 cases). In the sixties, at the Karolinska Hospital (Stockholm, Sweden) a group of cytopathologists started a Cytopathology Service available to the whole Institution, which exploited all fields of FNC. Since then, the procedure spread all over the word and nowadays it is routinely used for the diagnosis of different organs and pathologies including lymph node. Distinguished cytopathologists have worked on lymph nodal FNC producing significant advances and highlighting advantages and inevitable limitations of the technique. Despite some persistent criticism, FNC is a generally accepted procedure in the first diagnosis of lymph nodes enlargement. Moreover, numerous studies have demonstrated that vital cells obtained by FNC are excellent samples suitable for molecular evaluation, offering new challenging application to lymph node FNC.

  14. Green Brazilian Propolis Action on Macrophages and Lymphoid Organs of Chronically Stressed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Missima, Fabiane

    2008-01-01

    Stress is a generic term that summarizes how psychosocial and environmental factors influence physical and mental well-being. The interaction between stress and immunity has been widely investigated, involving the neuroendocrine system and several organs. Assays using natural products in stress models deserve further investigation. Propolis immunomodulatory action has been mentioned and it has been the subject of scientific investigation in our laboratory. The aim of this study was to evaluate if and how propolis activated macrophages in BALB/c mice submitted to immobilization stress, as well as the histopathological analysis of the thymus, bone marrow, spleen and adrenal glands. Stressed mice showed a higher hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation by peritoneal macrophages, and propolis treatment potentiated H2O2 generation and inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production by these cells. Histopathological analysis showed no alterations in the thymus, bone marrow and adrenal glands, but increased germinal centers in the spleen. Propolis treatment counteracted the alterations found in the spleen of stressed mice. New research is being carried out in order to elucidate propolis immunomodulatory action during stress. PMID:18317551

  15. Compartmentalization of Total and Virus-Specific Tissue-Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells in Human Lymphoid Organs.

    PubMed

    Woon, Heng Giap; Braun, Asolina; Li, Jane; Smith, Corey; Edwards, Jarem; Sierro, Frederic; Feng, Carl G; Khanna, Rajiv; Elliot, Michael; Bell, Andrew; Hislop, Andrew D; Tangye, Stuart G; Rickinson, Alan B; Gebhardt, Thomas; Britton, Warwick J; Palendira, Umaimainthan

    2016-08-01

    Disruption of T cell memory during severe immune suppression results in reactivation of chronic viral infections, such as Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV). How different subsets of memory T cells contribute to the protective immunity against these viruses remains poorly defined. In this study we examined the compartmentalization of virus-specific, tissue resident memory CD8+ T cells in human lymphoid organs. This revealed two distinct populations of memory CD8+ T cells, that were CD69+CD103+ and CD69+CD103-, and were retained within the spleen and tonsils in the absence of recent T cell stimulation. These two types of memory cells were distinct not only in their phenotype and transcriptional profile, but also in their anatomical localization within tonsils and spleen. The EBV-specific, but not CMV-specific, CD8+ memory T cells preferentially accumulated in the tonsils and acquired a phenotype that ensured their retention at the epithelial sites where EBV replicates. In vitro studies revealed that the cytokine IL-15 can potentiate the retention of circulating effector memory CD8+ T cells by down-regulating the expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, required for T cell exit from tissues, and its transcriptional activator, Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). Within the tonsils the expression of IL-15 was detected in regions where CD8+ T cells localized, further supporting a role for this cytokine in T cell retention. Together this study provides evidence for the compartmentalization of distinct types of resident memory T cells that could contribute to the long-term protection against persisting viral infections.

  16. Compartmentalization of Total and Virus-Specific Tissue-Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells in Human Lymphoid Organs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jane; Smith, Corey; Edwards, Jarem; Sierro, Frederic; Feng, Carl G.; Khanna, Rajiv; Bell, Andrew; Hislop, Andrew D.; Tangye, Stuart G.; Rickinson, Alan B.; Gebhardt, Thomas; Britton, Warwick J.

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of T cell memory during severe immune suppression results in reactivation of chronic viral infections, such as Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV). How different subsets of memory T cells contribute to the protective immunity against these viruses remains poorly defined. In this study we examined the compartmentalization of virus-specific, tissue resident memory CD8+ T cells in human lymphoid organs. This revealed two distinct populations of memory CD8+ T cells, that were CD69+CD103+ and CD69+CD103—, and were retained within the spleen and tonsils in the absence of recent T cell stimulation. These two types of memory cells were distinct not only in their phenotype and transcriptional profile, but also in their anatomical localization within tonsils and spleen. The EBV-specific, but not CMV-specific, CD8+ memory T cells preferentially accumulated in the tonsils and acquired a phenotype that ensured their retention at the epithelial sites where EBV replicates. In vitro studies revealed that the cytokine IL-15 can potentiate the retention of circulating effector memory CD8+ T cells by down-regulating the expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, required for T cell exit from tissues, and its transcriptional activator, Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). Within the tonsils the expression of IL-15 was detected in regions where CD8+ T cells localized, further supporting a role for this cytokine in T cell retention. Together this study provides evidence for the compartmentalization of distinct types of resident memory T cells that could contribute to the long-term protection against persisting viral infections. PMID:27540722

  17. Dose and dose rate effects of whole-body gamma-irradiation: I. Lymphocytes and lymphoid organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecaut, M. J.; Nelson, G. A.; Gridley, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The major goal of part I of this study was to compare varying doses and dose rates of whole-body gamma-radiation on lymphoid cells and organs. C57BL/6 mice (n = 75) were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 Gy gamma-rays (60Co) at 1 cGy/min (low-dose rate, LDR) and 80 cGy/min (high-dose rate, HDR) and euthanized 4 days later. A significant dose-dependent loss of spleen mass was observed with both LDR and HDR irradiation; for the thymus this was true only with HDR. Decreasing leukocyte and lymphocyte numbers occurred with increasing dose in blood and spleen at both dose rates. The numbers (not percentages) of CD3+ T lymphocytes decreased in the blood in a dose-dependent manner at both HDR and LDR. Splenic T cell counts decreased with dose only in HDR groups; percentages increased with dose at both dose rates. Dose-dependent decreases occurred in CD4+ T helper and CD8+ T cytotoxic cell counts at HDR and LDR. In the blood the percentages of CD4+ cells increased with increasing dose at both dose rates, whereas in the spleen the counts decreased only in the HDR groups. The percentages of the CD8+ population remained stable in both blood and spleen. CD19+ B cell counts and percentages in both compartments declined markedly with increasing HDR and LDR radiation. NK1.1+ natural killer cell numbers and proportions remained relatively stable. Overall, these data indicate that the observed changes were highly dependent on the dose, but not dose rate, and that cells in the spleen are more affected by dose rate than those in blood. The results also suggest that the response of lymphocytes in different body compartments may be variable.

  18. Artery Tertiary Lymphoid Organs Control Multilayered Territorialized Atherosclerosis B-Cell Responses in Aged ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Srikakulapu, Prasad; Hu, Desheng; Yin, Changjun; Mohanta, Sarajo K.; Bontha, Sai Vineela; Peng, Li; Beer, Michael; Weber, Christian; McNamara, Coleen A.; Grassia, Gianluca; Maffia, Pasquale; Manz, Rudolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective— Explore aorta B-cell immunity in aged apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice. Approach and Results— Transcript maps, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, immunofluorescence analyses, cell transfers, and Ig-ELISPOT (enzyme-linked immunospot) assays showed multilayered atherosclerosis B-cell responses in artery tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs). Aging-associated aorta B-cell–related transcriptomes were identified, and transcript atlases revealed highly territorialized B-cell responses in ATLOs versus atherosclerotic lesions: ATLOs showed upregulation of bona fide B-cell genes, including Cd19, Ms4a1 (Cd20), Cd79a/b, and Ighm although intima plaques preferentially expressed molecules involved in non–B effector responses toward B-cell–derived mediators, that is, Fcgr3 (Cd16), Fcer1g (Cd23), and the C1q family. ATLOs promoted B-cell recruitment. ATLO B-2 B cells included naive, transitional, follicular, germinal center, switched IgG1+, IgA+, and IgE+ memory cells, plasmablasts, and long-lived plasma cells. ATLOs recruited large numbers of B-1 cells whose subtypes were skewed toward interleukin-10+ B-1b cells versus interleukin-10− B-1a cells. ATLO B-1 cells and plasma cells constitutively produced IgM and IgG and a fraction of plasma cells expressed interleukin-10. Moreover, ApoE−/− mice showed increased germinal center B cells in renal lymph nodes, IgM-producing plasma cells in the bone marrow, and higher IgM and anti–MDA-LDL (malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein) IgG serum titers. Conclusions— ATLOs orchestrate dichotomic, territorialized, and multilayered B-cell responses in the diseased aorta; germinal center reactions indicate generation of autoimmune B cells within the diseased arterial wall during aging. PMID:27102965

  19. The roles of haemocytes and the lymphoid organ in the clearance of injected Vibrio bacteria in Penaeus monodon shrimp.

    PubMed

    van de Braak, C B T; Botterblom, M H A; Taverne, N; van Muiswinkel, W B; Rombout, J H W M; van der Knaap, W P W

    2002-10-01

    In order to study the reaction of Penaeus monodon haemocytes, live Vibrio anguillarum bacteria were injected and the shrimp were periodically sampled. Immuno-double staining analysis with specific antisera against the haemocyte granules and bacteria showed that large numbers of haemocytes encapsulated the bacteria at the site of injection. A rapid decrease of live circulating bacteria was detected in the haemolymph. Bacterial clearance in the haemolymph was induced by humoral factors, as observed by agglutinated bacteria, and followed by uptake in different places in the body. Bacteria mainly accumulated in the lymphoid organ (LO), where they, or their degradation products, could be detected for at least 7 days after injection. The LO consists of folded tubules with a central haemal lumen and a wall, layered with cells. The haemolymph, including the antigens, seemed to migrate from the central tubular lumen through the wall, where the bacteria are arrested and their degradation is started. Electron microscopy of the LO revealed the presence of many phagocytic cells that morphologically resemble small-granular haemocytes. It is proposed that haemocytes settle in the tubule walls before they phagocytose. Immunostaining suggests that many of the haemocytes degranulate in the LO, producing a layer of fibrous material in the outer tubule wall. These findings might contribute to the reduced haemocyte concentration in the haemolymph of diseased animals or following injection of foreign material. It is proposed that the LO is a filter for virtually all foreign material encountered in the haemolymph. Observations from the present study are similar to clearance mechanisms in the hepatic haemolymph vessel in most decapod crustaceans that do not possess a LO. The experimental shrimp appeared to contain many LO spheroids, where bacterial antigens were finally observed as well. It is proposed that the spheroids have a degradation function for both bacterial and viral material

  20. Dose and dose rate effects of whole-body gamma-irradiation: I. Lymphocytes and lymphoid organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecaut, M. J.; Nelson, G. A.; Gridley, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The major goal of part I of this study was to compare varying doses and dose rates of whole-body gamma-radiation on lymphoid cells and organs. C57BL/6 mice (n = 75) were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 Gy gamma-rays (60Co) at 1 cGy/min (low-dose rate, LDR) and 80 cGy/min (high-dose rate, HDR) and euthanized 4 days later. A significant dose-dependent loss of spleen mass was observed with both LDR and HDR irradiation; for the thymus this was true only with HDR. Decreasing leukocyte and lymphocyte numbers occurred with increasing dose in blood and spleen at both dose rates. The numbers (not percentages) of CD3+ T lymphocytes decreased in the blood in a dose-dependent manner at both HDR and LDR. Splenic T cell counts decreased with dose only in HDR groups; percentages increased with dose at both dose rates. Dose-dependent decreases occurred in CD4+ T helper and CD8+ T cytotoxic cell counts at HDR and LDR. In the blood the percentages of CD4+ cells increased with increasing dose at both dose rates, whereas in the spleen the counts decreased only in the HDR groups. The percentages of the CD8+ population remained stable in both blood and spleen. CD19+ B cell counts and percentages in both compartments declined markedly with increasing HDR and LDR radiation. NK1.1+ natural killer cell numbers and proportions remained relatively stable. Overall, these data indicate that the observed changes were highly dependent on the dose, but not dose rate, and that cells in the spleen are more affected by dose rate than those in blood. The results also suggest that the response of lymphocytes in different body compartments may be variable.

  1. Direct effects of hepatitis C virus on the lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yasuteru; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2013-11-28

    It has been reported that the direct binding of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and/or the replication of HCV in the extrahepatic organs and, especially, lymphoid cells, might affect the pathogenesis of extrahepatic diseases with HCV infection. More than one decade ago, several reports described the existence of HCV-RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Moreover, many reports describing the existence of HCV in B lymphocytes and B cell lymphoma have been published. In addition to B lymphocytes, it was reported that HCV replication could be detected in T lymphocytes and T cell lines. Among the extrahepatic diseases with HCV infection, mixed cryoglobulinemia-related diseases and autoimmune-related diseases are important for understanding the immunopathogensis of HCV persistent infection. Moreover, HCV persistent infection can cause malignant lymphoma. The biological significance of lymphotropic HCV has not yet become clear. However, several candidates have been considered for a long time. One is that lymphotropic HCV is an HCV reservoir that might contribute to the recurrence of HCV infection and difficult-to-treat disease status. The other important issue is the carcinogenesis of the lymphoid cells and disturbances of the immune responses. Therefore, the extrahepatic diseases might be induced by direct interaction between HCV and lymphoid cells. In this article, we summarize various studies showing the direct effect of HCV on lymphoid cells and discuss the biological significance of lymphotropic HCV.

  2. Kurloff cells in peripheral blood and organs of wild capybaras.

    PubMed

    Jara, Luis Fernando; Sánchez, Jairo Mauricio; Alvarado, Hernán; Nassar-Montoya, Fernando

    2005-04-01

    Peripheral blood and tissue from twenty-two free-ranging, hunter-killed capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) collected between December 1996 and April 1997 in Casanare, Colombia (5 degrees 58'N and 71 degrees 33'W), were examined by light microscopy for Kurloff cells (KCs). Kurloff cells were observed in the blood of one pregnant adult female, and in organs from all the animals, including spleen (21 of 22 animals), liver (18 of 21), lungs (13 of 21), ovary (8 of 11), uterus (7 of 10), bone marrow (13 of 20), kidney (8 of 22), adrenal gland (6 of 20), and lymph node (4 of 14). The anatomic distribution of the KC in the wild capybaras was similar to that of the guinea pig.

  3. PrP(d) accumulation in organs of ARQ/ARQ sheep experimentally infected with BSE by peripheral routes.

    PubMed

    Lezmi, Stéphane; Ronzon, Frédéric; Bencsik, Anna; Bedin, Alexandre; Calavas, Didier; Richard, Yves; Simon, Stéphanie; Grassi, Jacques; Baron, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    To study the pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy infection in small ruminants, two Lacaune sheep with the AA136RR154QQ171 and one with the AA136RR154RR171 genotype for the prion protein, were inoculated with a brain homogenate from a French cattle BSE case by peripheral routes. Sheep with the ARQ/ARQ genotype are considered as susceptible to prion diseases contrary to those with the ARR/ARR genotype. The accumulation of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)) was analysed by biochemical and immunohistochemical methods. No PrP(d) accumulation was detected in samples from the ARR/ARR sheep 2 years post inoculation. In the two ARQ/ARQ sheep that had scrapie-like clinical symptoms, PrP(d) was found in the central, sympathetic and enteric nervous systems and in lymphoid organs. Remarkably, PrP(d) was also detected in some muscle types as well as in all peripheral nerves that had not been reported previously thus revealing a widespread distribution of BSE-associated PrP(d) in sheep tissues.

  4. CXCL13 Blockade Disrupts B Lymphocyte Organization in Tertiary Lymphoid Structures without Altering B Cell Receptor Bias or Preventing Diabetes in Nonobese Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Rachel A.; Kendall, Peggy L.

    2013-01-01

    Lymphocytes that invade nonlymphoid tissues often organize into follicle-like structures known as tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs). These structures resemble those found in spleen or lymph nodes, but their function is unknown. TLOs are recognized in many autoimmune diseases, including the NOD mouse model of type 1 diabetes. In some cases, TLOs have been associated with the B lymphocyte chemoattractant, CXCL13. Studies presented in this article show that CXCL13 is present in inflamed islets of NOD mice. Ab blockade of this chemokine unraveled B lymphocyte organization in islet TLOs, without reducing their proportion in the islets. These chaotic milieus contained B lymphocytes with the same distinct repertoire of B cell receptors as those found in mice with well-organized structures. Somatic hypermutation, associated with T–B interactions, was not impaired in these disorganized insulitis lesions. Finally, loss of B lymphocyte organization in islets did not provide disease protection. Thus, B lymphocytes infiltrating islets in NOD mice do not require the morphology of secondary lymphoid tissues to support their role in disease. PMID:20574003

  5. Functional Differences between Human NKp44(-) and NKp44(+) RORC(+) Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Hoorweg, Kerim; Peters, Charlotte P; Cornelissen, Ferry; Aparicio-Domingo, Patricia; Papazian, Natalie; Kazemier, Geert; Mjösberg, Jenny M; Spits, Hergen; Cupedo, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Human RORC(+) lymphoid tissue inducer cells are part of a rapidly expanding family of innate lymphoid cells (ILC) that participate in innate and adaptive immune responses as well as in lymphoid tissue (re) modeling. The assessment of a potential role for innate lymphocyte-derived cytokines in human homeostasis and disease is hampered by a poor characterization of RORC(+) innate cell subsets and a lack of knowledge on the distribution of these cells in adults. Here we show that functionally distinct subsets of human RORC(+) innate lymphoid cells are enriched for secretion of IL-17a or IL-22. Both subsets have an activated phenotype and can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp44. NKp44(+) IL-22 producing cells are present in tonsils while NKp44(-) IL-17a producing cells are present in fetal developing lymph nodes. Development of human intestinal NKp44(+) ILC is a programmed event that is independent of bacterial colonization and these cells colonize the fetal intestine during the first trimester. In the adult intestine, NKp44(+) ILC are the main ILC subset producing IL-22. NKp44(-) ILC remain present throughout adulthood in peripheral non-inflamed lymph nodes as resting, non-cytokine producing cells. However, upon stimulation lymph node ILC can swiftly initiate cytokine transcription suggesting that secondary human lymphoid organs may function as a reservoir for innate lymphoid cells capable of participating in inflammatory responses.

  6. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry, in situ apoptosis, and ultrastructure characterization of the digestive and lymphoid organs of new type gosling viral enteritis virus experimentally infected gosling.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Cheng, A C; Wang, M S; Zhu, D K; Jia, R Y; Luo, Q H; Cui, H M; Zhou, Y; Wang, Y; Xu, Z W; Chen, Z L; Chen, X Y; Wang, X Y

    2010-04-01

    Here, for the first time, to colocalize new type gosling viral enteritis virus (NGVEV) with histological lesions and in situ apoptosis in the digestive organs (esophagus, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine, cecum, rectum, liver, and pancreas) and the lymphoid organs (bursa of Fabricius, thymus, Harderian gland, and spleen) of experimentally infected goslings, portions of tissues were collected at sequential infection time points and examined by histopathology for histological lesions, immunohistochemical staining for viral antigens, ultrastructural observation by transmission electron microscope (TEM) for virus particles and apoptotic cells, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling assay for in situ apoptosis. The hyperemia, hemorrhage, infiltration of lymphocytes, progressive lymphoid depletion, apoptosis, and necrosis were readily observed in the lymphoid organs and intestine tract by histopathological examination. The NGVEV particles and viral antigens widely appeared in the small intestine and bursa of Fabricius as early as 2 d postinfection (PI) by TEM and immunohistochemical staining, and the presence and quantity of it reached a maximum during 6 to 12 d PI. The principal sites for NGVEV were endothelial cells, epithelia, mucosal cells, glandular cells, fibrocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes. A series of apoptotic morphological changes including chromatin condensation and margination, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and formation of apoptotic body were observed by TEM, and the number of apoptotic cells was largely increased from 4 d PI and peaked at 9 d PI by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling analysis. The histological organ lesions and apoptosis in vivo were generally associated with sites of NGVEV localization, which can be regarded as the cause of death. This work may shed light on the pathogenesis of new type gosling viral enteritis and put new

  7. Does disease-irrelevant intrathecal synthesis in multiple sclerosis make sense in the light of tertiary lymphoid organs?

    PubMed

    Bonnan, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    Although partly disease-irrelevant, intrathecal immunoglobulins (Ig) synthesis is a typical feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) and is driven by the tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO). A long-known hallmark of this non-specific intrathecal synthesis is the MRZ pattern, an intrathecal synthesis of Ig against measles, rubella, and zoster viruses. This non-specific intrathecal synthesis could also be directed against a wide range of pathogens. However, it is highly problematic since brain TLO should not be able to drive the clonal expansion of lymphocytes against alien antigens that are thought to be absent in MS brain. We propose to explain the paradox of non-specific intrathecal synthesis by discussing the natural properties of TLO. In fact, besides local antigen-driven clonal expansion, circulating plasmablasts and plasma cells (PC) are non-specifically recruited from blood and gain access to survival niches in the inflammatory CNS. This mechanism, which has been described in other inflammatory disorders, takes place in the TLO. As a consequence, PCs recruited in brain mirror the individual's history of immunization and intrathecal synthesis of IgG in MS may target a broad range of common infectious agents, a hypothesis in line with epidemiological data. Moreover, the immunization schedule and its timing may interfere with PC recruitment. If this hypothesis is correct, the reaction against EBV appears paradoxical: although early infection of MS patients is systematic, intrathecal synthesis is far lower than expected, suggesting a crucial interaction between MS onset and timing of EBV infection. A growing body of evidence suggests that the non-specific intrathecal synthesis observed in MS is also common in many chronic CNS inflammatory disorders. Assuming that cortical TLO in MS are associated with typical sub-pial lesions, we have coined the concept of "TLO-pathy" to describe these lesions and take examples of them from non-MS disorders. Lastly, we propose that

  8. Does Disease-Irrelevant Intrathecal Synthesis in Multiple Sclerosis Make Sense in the Light of Tertiary Lymphoid Organs?

    PubMed Central

    Bonnan, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    Although partly disease-irrelevant, intrathecal immunoglobulins (Ig) synthesis is a typical feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) and is driven by the tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO). A long-known hallmark of this non-specific intrathecal synthesis is the MRZ pattern, an intrathecal synthesis of Ig against measles, rubella, and zoster viruses. This non-specific intrathecal synthesis could also be directed against a wide range of pathogens. However, it is highly problematic since brain TLO should not be able to drive the clonal expansion of lymphocytes against alien antigens that are thought to be absent in MS brain. We propose to explain the paradox of non-specific intrathecal synthesis by discussing the natural properties of TLO. In fact, besides local antigen-driven clonal expansion, circulating plasmablasts and plasma cells (PC) are non-specifically recruited from blood and gain access to survival niches in the inflammatory CNS. This mechanism, which has been described in other inflammatory disorders, takes place in the TLO. As a consequence, PCs recruited in brain mirror the individual’s history of immunization and intrathecal synthesis of IgG in MS may target a broad range of common infectious agents, a hypothesis in line with epidemiological data. Moreover, the immunization schedule and its timing may interfere with PC recruitment. If this hypothesis is correct, the reaction against EBV appears paradoxical: although early infection of MS patients is systematic, intrathecal synthesis is far lower than expected, suggesting a crucial interaction between MS onset and timing of EBV infection. A growing body of evidence suggests that the non-specific intrathecal synthesis observed in MS is also common in many chronic CNS inflammatory disorders. Assuming that cortical TLO in MS are associated with typical sub-pial lesions, we have coined the concept of “TLO-pathy” to describe these lesions and take examples of them from non-MS disorders. Lastly, we propose that

  9. HIV-1 Infected Lymphoid Organs Upregulate Expression and Release of the Cleaved Form of uPAR That Modulates Chemotaxis and Virus Expression

    PubMed Central

    Nebuloni, Manuela; Zawada, Lidia; Ferri, Angelita; Tosoni, Antonella; Zerbi, Pietro; Resnati, Massimo; Poli, Guido; Genovese, Luca; Alfano, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Cell-associated receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) is released as both full-length soluble uPAR (suPAR) and cleaved (c-suPAR) form that maintain ability to bind to integrins and other receptors, thus triggering and modulating cell signaling responses. Concerning HIV-1 infection, plasma levels of suPAR have been correlated with the severity of disease, levels of immune activation and ineffective immune recovery also in individuals receiving combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART). However, it is unknown whether and which suPAR forms might contribute to HIV-1 induced pathogenesis and to the related state of immune activation. In this regard, lymphoid organs represent an import site of chronic immune activation and virus persistence even in individuals receiving cART. Lymphoid organs of HIV-1+ individuals showed an enhanced number of follicular dendritic cells, macrophages and endothelial cells expressing the cell-associated uPAR in comparison to those of uninfected individuals. In order to investigate the potential role of suPAR forms in HIV-1 infection of secondary lymphoid organs, tonsil histocultures were established from HIV-1 seronegative individuals and infected ex vivo with CCR5- and CXCR4-dependent HIV-1 strains. The levels of suPAR and c-suPAR were significantly increased in HIV-infected tonsil histocultures supernatants in comparison to autologous uninfected histocultures. Supernatants from infected and uninfected cultures before and after immunodepletion of suPAR forms were incubated with the chronically infected promonocytic U1 cell line characterized by a state of proviral latency in unstimulated conditions. In the contest of HIV-conditioned supernatants we established that c-suPAR, but not suPAR, inhibited chemotaxis and induced virus expression in U1 cells. In conclusion, lymphoid organs are an important site of production and release of both suPAR and c-suPAR, this latter form being endowed with the capacity of inhibiting

  10. Multiple mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue organs involving marginal zone B cell lymphoma: organ-specific relationships and the prognostic factors. Consortium for improving survival of lymphoma study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung Yong; Kim, Won Seog; Kim, Jin Seok; Kim, Seok Jin; Lee, Suee; Lee, Dae Ho; Won, Jong-Ho; Hwang, In Gyu; Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Soon Il; Chae, Yee Soo; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Kang, Hye Jin; Choi, Chul Won; Park, Jinny; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kwon, Jung Hye; Lee, Ho Sup; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Eom, Hyeon Seok; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Lee, Won Sik; Suh, Cheolwon; Kim, Hyo-Jin

    2010-10-01

    According to a previous review, multiple mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-organs involving marginal zone B cell lymphomas (MZLs) are present in 10-30% of patients. However, the clinical features and specific relationships among involved organs are yet to be clearly identified. In this study, we conducted retrospective analyses of multiple MALT organs involving MZLs (MM-MZLs) to identify their clinical features, treatment, prognosis, and specific relationships among involved organs. For analysis, between June 1987 and June 2009, a total of 55 patients from 17 different institutions in Korea, all of whom were histologically diagnosed with MM-MZL, were included in this study. MM-MZL was defined as MZL involving more than 2 different MALT organs. Multiple involvements within one MALT organ (e.g. both side ocular lesions, multiple lung nodules, and multiple stomach lesions, etc.) were excluded from this study. The male/female ratio of the 55 patients was 41/14. The median age of our subjects was 59 years (range 30-82 years). MM-MZL without lymph node (LN) was detected only in 9 patients (36.2%). Bone marrow (BM) involvement was observed in 17 patients (30.9%). The most common site of involvement was the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (25 patients, 45.5%) followed by the lung (40%), Waldeyer's ring (WR) (27.3%), and ocular area (25.5%). Ocular MZLs were commonly accompanied with WR- or lung-MZLs. GI-MZLs were WR or GI-MZLs. Lung-MZLs were frequently observed with ocular and GI-MZLs. WR-MZLs were ocular or GI-MZLs. A total of 53 patients were treated, and 2 on watchful wait. As much as 48 patients received chemotherapy-based treatment. Among them, CR or PR was achieved in 38 patients (79.2%, 95% CI 67-91%). Median time to progression (TTP) was 2.3 years (95% CI 1.4-3.2 years). Cause-specific overall survival (OS) did not reach the median value. The 5-year OS rate was 84.9%. MM-MZLs tend to be an indolent disease, characterized by prolonged survival with frequent

  11. Antigen-bearing dendritic cells from the sublingual mucosa recirculate to distant systemic lymphoid organs to prime mucosal CD8 T cells.

    PubMed

    Hervouet, C; Luci, C; Bekri, S; Juhel, T; Bihl, F; Braud, V M; Czerkinsky, C; Anjuère, F

    2014-03-01

    Effector T cells are described to be primed in the lymph nodes draining the site of immunization and to recirculate to effector sites. Sublingual immunization generates effector T cells able to disseminate to the genital tract. Herein, we report an alternative mechanism that involves the recirculation of antigen-bearing dendritic cells (DCs) in remote lymphoid organs to prime T cells. Sublingual immunization with a muco-adhesive model antigen unable to diffuse through lymphatic or blood vessels induced genital CD8 T cells. The sublingual draining lymph nodes were not mandatory to generate these lymphocytes, and antigen-bearing DCs from distant lymph nodes and spleen were able to prime specific CD8 T cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that antigen-bearing DCs originating from the site of immunization recirculate to distant lymphoid organs and provides insights into the mechanism of distant CD8 T-cell generation by sublingual immunization.

  12. A double WAP domain-containing protein PmDWD from the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon is involved in the controlling of proteinase activities in lymphoid organ.

    PubMed

    Suthianthong, Pranisa; Pulsook, Naritsara; Supungul, Premruethai; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien

    2011-03-01

    A homolog of mammalian secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor or SLPI known as a double WAP domain (DWD) protein has been found in penaeid shrimp and believed to play an important role in innate immune system of the shrimp. The PmDWD identified from the Penaeus monodon EST database was investigated for its expression under pathogen infection. Infections by Vibrio harveyi and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) up-regulated the expression of the PmDWD, which was peaked at about 24 h post infection and, then, subsided to more or less normal level. The PmDWD was expressed in various tissues of normal, 24-h WSSV-injected and leg-amputated shrimp, predominantly in the hemocytes. The expression was dramatically increased in lymphoid organ upon WSSV infection and leg amputation. The recombinant PmDWD (rPmDWD) was not active against the commercial proteinases: trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase and subtilisin while its mutant rPmDWD_F70R was active against the subtilisin. By using agar diffusion assay, the rPmDWD inhibited the crude proteinases from lymphoid organs of leg-amputated and WSSV-infected shrimp. It inhibited the crude proteinases from Bacillus subtilis as well. Unlike the mammalian SLPIs, the rPmDWD had no antimicrobial activity against various bacteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunohistowax processing, a new fixation and embedding method for light microscopy, which preserves antigen immunoreactivity and morphological structures: visualisation of dendritic cells in peripheral organs

    PubMed Central

    Pajak, B.; De Smedt, T.; Moulin, V.; De Trez, C.; Maldonado-Lopez, R.; Vansanten, G.; Briend, E.; Urbain, J.; Leo, O.; Moser, M.

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To describe a new fixation and embedding method for tissue samples, immunohistowax processing, which preserves both morphology and antigen immunoreactivity, and to use this technique to investigate the role of dendritic cells in the immune response in peripheral tissues. Methods—This technique was used to stain a population of specialised antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells) that have the unique capacity to sensitise naive T cells, and therefore to induce primary immune responses. The numbers of dendritic cells in peripheral organs of mice either untreated or injected with live Escherichia coli were compared. Results—Numbers of dendritic cells were greatly decreased in heart, kidney, and intestine after the inoculation of bacteria. The numbers of dendritic cells in the lung did not seem to be affected by the injection of E coli. However, staining of lung sections revealed that some monocyte like cells acquired morphological and phenotypic features of dendritic cells, and migrated into blood vessels. Conclusions—These observations suggest that the injection of bacteria induces the activation of dendritic cells in peripheral organs, where they play the role of sentinels, and/or their movement into lymphoid organs, where T cell priming is likely to occur. Key Words: dendritic cell • Escherichia coli • immunohistochemistry PMID:10961175

  14. Practical Implications of the 2016 Revision of the World Health Organization Classification of Lymphoid and Myeloid Neoplasms and Acute Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Leonard, John P; Martin, Peter; Roboz, Gail J

    2017-08-10

    A major revision of the WHO classification of lymphoid and myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia was released in 2016. A key motivation for this update was to include new information available since the 2008 version with clinical relevance for the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of patients. With > 100 entities described, it is important for the clinician to understand features that may be important in daily practice, whereas researchers need to incorporate the new classification scheme into study development and analysis. In this review, we highlight the key aspects of the 2016 update with particular importance to routine patient care and clinical trial design.

  15. Flagellin modulates functions of the follicle-associated epithelium to facilitate uptake of particles into organized mucosal lymphoid tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chabot, Sophie M.; Shawi, May; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia; Neutra, Marian R.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial flagellin activates innate immune responses by signaling through TLR5, and is a potential vaccine adjuvant. Mucosal lymphoid follicles, inductive sites for adaptive mucosal immune responses, are covered by a follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) specialized for uptake of antigens. This study demonstrates that mucosal application of S.dublin flagellin enhanced transepithelial transport of microparticles by the FAE of mouse Peyer's patch in vivo. Flagellin also induced rapid, matrix metalloproteinase-dependent migration of subepithelial dendritic cells (DCs) into the FAE, better positioning DCs for antigen capture. These innate responses to flagellin enhance FAE functions and may promote adaptive immune responses in the mucosa. PMID:18721059

  16. Regulation of murine lymphokine production in vivo. III. The lymphoid tissue microenvironment exerts regulatory influences over T helper cell function

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the capacity of murine T lymphocytes, isolated from various lymphoid organs of normal or antigen-primed donors, to produce IL-2 or IL-4 after activation with anti-CD3 or specific antigen. Our results established that T cells resident within lymphoid organs being drained by nonmucosal tissue sites (e.g., axillary, inguinal, brachial lymph nodes, or spleen) produced IL-2 as the predominant T cell growth factor (TCGF) after activation. Conversely, activated T cells from lymphoid organs being drained by mucosal tissues (Peyer's patches, and cervical, periaortic, and parathymic lymph nodes) produced IL-4 as the major species of TCGF. Analysis of the lymphoid tissues obtained from adoptive recipients of antigen-primed lymphocytes provided by syngeneic donors provided evidence that direct influences were being exerted on T cells during their residence within defined lymphoid compartments. These lymphoid tissue influences appeared to be responsible for altering the potential of resident T cells to produce distinct species of TCGF. Steroid hormones, known transcriptional enhancers and repressors of specific cellular genes, were implicated in the controlling mechanisms over TCGF production. Glucocorticoids (GCs) were found to exert a systemic effect on all recirculating T cells, evidenced by a marked dominance in IL-4 production by T cells obtained from all lymphoid organs of GC-treated mice, or after a direct exposure of normal lymphoid cells to GCs in vitro before cellular activation with T cell mitogens. Further, the androgen steroid DHEA appeared to be responsible for providing an epigenetic influence to T cells trafficking through peripheral lymphoid organs. This steroid influence resulted in an enhanced potential for IL-2 secretion after activation. Anatomic compartmentalization of the DHEA-facilitated influence appears to be mediated by differential levels of DHEA-sulfatase in lymphoid tissues. DHEA-sulfatase is an enzyme capable of converting DHEA

  17. Janus Green B as a rapid, vital stain for peripheral nerves and chordotonal organs in insects.

    PubMed

    Yack, J E

    1993-08-01

    Effective staining of peripheral nerves in live insects is achieved with the vital stain Janus Green B. A working solution of 0.02% Janus Green B in saline is briefly applied to the exposed peripheral nervous system. The stain is then decanted and the dissection flooded with fresh saline, resulting in whole nerves being stained dark blue in contrast to surrounding tissues. This simple and reliable technique is useful in describing the distribution of nerves to their peripheral innervation sites, and in locating small nerve branches for extracellular physiological recordings. The stain is also shown to be useful as a means of enhancing the contrast between scolopale caps and surrounding tissues in chordotonal organs, staining chordotonal organ attachment strands, and the crista acustica (tympanal organ) of crickets and katydids. The advantages of Janus Green B over traditional peripheral nerve strains, in addition to its shortcomings, are discussed.

  18. Malignant catarrhal fever induced by Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 is characterized by an expansion of activated CD3+CD8+CD4- T cells expressing a cytotoxic phenotype in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed

    Dewals, Benjamin G; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2011-08-22

    Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) is carried by wildebeest asymptomatically. It causes a fatal lymphoproliferative disease named wildebeest-derived malignant catarrhal fever (WD-MCF) when cross-species transmitted to a variety of susceptible species of the Artiodactyla order. WD-MCF can be reproduced experimentally in rabbits. In a previous report, we demonstrated that WD-MCF induced by AlHV-1 is associated with a severe proliferation of CD8(+) T cells in the lymphoid tissues. Here, we further studied the mononuclear leukocytic populations in both the lymphoid (throughout the infection and at time of euthanasia) and non-lymphoid (at time of euthanasia) organs during WD-MCF induced experimentally in rabbits. To reach that goal, we performed multi-colour flow cytometry stainings. The results obtained demonstrate that the development of WD-MCF correlates in peripheral blood with a severe increase of CD8(+) cell percentages; and that CD3(+)CD8(+)CD4(-) T cells were the predominant cell type in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs at time of euthanasia. Further characterization of the mononuclear leukocytes isolated from both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues revealed that the CD8(+) T cells express high levels of the activation markers CD25 and CD44, produce high amount of gamma-interferon (IFN-γ) and perforin, and showed a reduction of interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene expression. These data demonstrate that the development of WD-MCF is associated with the expansion and infiltration of activated and cytotoxic CD3(+)CD8(+)CD4(-) T cells secreting high amount of IFN-γ but low IL-2.

  19. [Immunological profile of lymphoid cells in patients with chronic lymphoid leukemia and immunological complications during the treatment with prednisolone and chlorambucil].

    PubMed

    Lohins'kyĭ, V O; Karol', Iu S; Tsiapka, O M; Vyhovs'ka, Ia I

    2009-01-01

    Comparative study of immunological phenotype of lymphoid cells of peripheral blood of patients with chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) and immune cytopenia at the treatment with prednisolone and chlorambucil has been carried out. It was shown, that inclusion in the treatment of chlorambucil (chlorambucil + prednisolone) enabled the achievement of remission of immune process at the majority of patients though average duration of remission essentially did not differ. The best clinical result was accompanied by more essential variations of leukemic B-cellular population than during the treatment with prednisolone alone. The reduction of absolute number of lymphocytes in patients with CLL under the treatment with chlorambucil and prednisolone was accompanied by reduction of expression of separate B-cellular antigens of mature cells with minimal signs of their activation. The expediency of a combination of prednisolone with chlorambucil in cases of high leukocytosis and expressed hyperplasia of organs of the limphoid systems.

  20. Total lymphoid irradiation in alloimmunity and autoimmunity

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.

    1987-12-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation has been used as an immunosuppressive regimen in autoimmune disease and organ transplantation. The rationale for its use originated from studies of patients with Hodgkin disease, in whom this radiotherapy regimen was noted to induce profound and long-lasting immune suppression and yet was well tolerated, with few long-term side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation is a unique immunosuppressive regimen that produces a selective (and long-lasting) reduction in the number and function of helper T cells and certain subsets of B cells. Conventional immunosuppressive drugs show little selectivity, and their effects are short-lived. The most important aspect of total lymphoid irradiation is the potential for achieving transplantation tolerance and permanent remissions in autoimmune disease in laboratory animals. Attempts are being made to achieve similar goals in humans given total lymphoid irradiation, so that immunosuppressive drugs can be ultimately withdrawn from transplant recipients and patients with lupus nephritis. 28 references.

  1. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation. [X-ray

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.J.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  2. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  3. Immune suppression and histophysiology of the immune response. I. Cortisone acetate and lymphoid cell migration.

    PubMed

    Van den Broek, A A; Keuning, F J; Soeharto, R; Prop, N

    1983-01-01

    Seven daily intramuscular (im) injections of cortisone acetate (25 mg/Kg b.w.) given to rats or rabbits produced, (i) a pronounced reduction in the numbers of small lymphocytes in thymus-independent areas, (ii) atrophy of the thymic cortex, (iii) atrophy of germinal centres and (iv) a consequent depressed production of germinal centre-derived cells. Lymphocyte depletion was not caused by cell lysis. Moreover cell traffic between peripheral lymphoid organs did not seem to be altered. A revival of the depressed germinal centres in cortisone-treated (inbred) rats could be achieved by a transfer of bone-marrow cell suspensions from normal, cortisone-treated or T-cell-deprived animals. It was concluded that cortisone acetate arrests the migration of B-lymphocytes from the bone marrow to germinal centres in peripheral lymphoid organs, and that the accumulations of lymphoid cells in the bone marrow of cortison-treated animals might be composed of immature or mature T- and B-lymphocytes.

  4. Mouse Aorta Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiate Into Lymphoid Tissue Organizer-Like Cells on Combined Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-1/Lymphotoxin β-Receptor NF-κB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lötzer, Katharina; Döpping, Sandra; Connert, Sabine; Gräbner, Rolf; Spanbroek, Rainer; Lemser, Birgit; Beer, Michael; Hildner, Markus; Hehlgans, Thomas; van der Wall, Michael; Mebius, Reina E.; Lovas, Agnes; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Weih, Falk; Habenicht, Andreas J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Mouse aorta smooth muscle cells (SMC) express tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFR-1) and lymphotoxin β-receptor (LTβR). Circumstantial evidence has linked the SMC LTβR to tertiary lymphoid organogenesis in hyperlipidemic mice. Here, we explored TNFR-1 and LTβR signaling in cultured SMC. Methods and Results TNFR-1 signaling activated the classical RelA NF-κB pathway, whereas LTβR signaling activated the classical RelA and alternative RelB NF-κB pathways, and both signaling pathways synergized to enhance p100 inhibitor processing to the p52 subunit of NF-κB. Microarrays showed that simultaneous TNFR-1/LTβR activation resulted in elevated mRNA encoding leukocyte homeostatic chemokines CCL2, CCL5, CXCL1, and CX3CL1. Importantly, SMC acquired features of lymphoid tissue organizers, which control tertiary lymphoid organogenesis in autoimmune diseases through hyperinduction of CCL7, CCL9, CXCL13, CCL19, CXCL16, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. TNFR-1/LTβR cross-talk resulted in augmented secretion of lymphorganogenic chemokine proteins. Supernatants of TNFR-1/LTβR–activated SMC markedly supported migration of splenic T cells, B cells, and macrophages/dendritic cells. Experiments with ltbr−/− SMC indicated that LTβR-RelB activation was obligatory to generate the lymphoid tissue organizer phenotype. Conclusion SMC may participate in the formation of tertiary lymphoid tissue in atherosclerosis by upregulation of lymphorganogenic chemokines involved in T-lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte, and macrophage/dendritic cell attraction. PMID:20139367

  5. Decreased human immunodeficiency virus type 1 plasma viremia during antiretroviral therapy reflects downregulation of viral replication in lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, O J; Pantaleo, G; Holodniy, M; Schnittman, S; Niu, M; Graziosi, C; Pavlakis, G N; Lalezari, J; Bartlett, J A; Steigbigel, R T

    1995-01-01

    Although several immunologic and virologic markers measured in peripheral blood are useful for predicting accelerated progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, their validity for evaluating the response to antiretroviral therapy and their ability to accurately reflect changes in lymphoid organs remain unclear. In the present study, changes in certain virologic markers have been analyzed in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissue during antiretroviral therapy. Sixteen HIV-infected individuals who were receiving antiretroviral therapy with zidovudine for > or = 6 months were randomly assigned either to continue on zidovudine alone or to add didanosine for 8 weeks. Lymph node biopsies were performed at baseline and after 8 weeks. Viral burden (i.e., HIV DNA copies per 10(6) mononuclear cells) and virus replication in mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood and lymph node and plasma viremia were determined by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. Virologic and immunologic markers remained unchanged in peripheral blood and lymph node of patients who continued on zidovudine alone. In contrast, a decrease in virus replication in lymph nodes was observed in four of six patients who added didanosine to their regimen, and this was associated with a decrease in plasma viremia. These results indicate that decreases in plasma viremia detected during antiretroviral therapy reflect downregulation of virus replication in lymphoid tissue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7597072

  6. The CC chemokine thymus-derived chemotactic agent 4 (TCA-4, secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine, 6Ckine, exodus-2) triggers lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1-mediated arrest of rolling T lymphocytes in peripheral lymph node high endothelial venules.

    PubMed

    Stein, J V; Rot, A; Luo, Y; Narasimhaswamy, M; Nakano, H; Gunn, M D; Matsuzawa, A; Quackenbush, E J; Dorf, M E; von Andrian, U H

    2000-01-03

    T cell homing to peripheral lymph nodes (PLNs) is defined by a multistep sequence of interactions between lymphocytes and endothelial cells in high endothelial venules (HEVs). After initial tethering and rolling via L-selectin, firm adhesion of T cells requires rapid upregulation of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) adhesiveness by a previously unknown pathway that activates a Galpha(i)-linked receptor. Here, we used intravital microscopy of murine PLNs to study the role of thymus-derived chemotactic agent (TCA)-4 (secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine, 6Ckine, Exodus-2) in homing of adoptively transferred T cells from T-GFP mice, a transgenic strain that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) selectively in naive T lymphocytes (T(GFP) cells). TCA-4 was constitutively presented on the luminal surface of HEVs, where it was required for LFA-1 activation on rolling T(GFP) cells. Desensitization of the TCA-4 receptor, CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7), blocked T(GFP) cell adherence in wild-type HEVs, whereas desensitization to stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1alpha (the ligand for CXC chemokine receptor 4 [CXCR4]) did not affect T(GFP) cell behavior. TCA-4 protein was not detected on the luminal surface of PLN HEVs in plt/plt mice, which have a congenital defect in T cell homing to PLNs. Accordingly, T(GFP) cells rolled but did not arrest in plt/plt HEVs. When TCA-4 was injected intracutaneously into plt/plt mice, the chemokine entered afferent lymph vessels and accumulated in draining PLNs. 2 h after intracutaneous injection, luminal presentation of TCA-4 was detectable in a subset of HEVs, and LFA-1-mediated T(GFP) cell adhesion was restored in these vessels. We conclude that TCA-4 is both required and sufficient for LFA-1 activation on rolling T cells in PLN HEVs. This study also highlights a hitherto undocumented role for chemokines contained in afferent lymph, which may modulate leukocyte recruitment in draining PLNs.

  7. Luminescent analysis of lymphocytes of peripheral blood in definition of organism's sensitivity to specific antigene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusupova, Lira B.

    1994-01-01

    Possibility for definition of organism's sensitivity to specific allergen by means of luminescent analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes was shown. The positive correlation dependence between luminescence intensity increase at 640 nm of acridine orange colored lymphocytes after simulation by specific allergene in vitro and the serum antiallergene antibodies level was detected.

  8. Ectopic Lymphoid Structures: Powerhouse of Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Corsiero, Elisa; Nerviani, Alessandra; Bombardieri, Michele; Pitzalis, Costantino

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic lymphoid structures (ELS) often develop at sites of inflammation in target tissues of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. ELS are characterized by the formation of organized T/B cells aggregates, which can acquire follicular dendritic cells network supporting an ectopic germinal center response. In this review, we shall summarize the mechanisms that regulate the formation of ELS in tertiary lymphoid organs, with particular emphasis on the role of lymphoid chemokines in both formation and maintenance of ELS, the role of emerging positive and negative regulators of ELS development and function, including T follicular helper cells and IL-27, respectively. Finally, we shall discuss the main functions of ELS in supporting the affinity maturation, clonal selection, and differentiation of autoreactive B cells contributing to the maintenance and perpetuation of humoral autoimmunity. PMID:27799933

  9. Peripheral Reproductive Organ Health and Melatonin: Ready for Prime Time

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Russel J.; Rosales-Corral, Sergio A.; Manchester, Lucien C.; Tan, Dun-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin has a wide variety of beneficial actions at the level of the gonads and their adnexa. Some actions are mediated via its classic membrane melatonin receptors while others seem to be receptor-independent. This review summarizes many of the published reports which confirm that melatonin, which is produced in the ovary, aids in advancing follicular maturation and preserving the integrity of the ovum prior to and at the time of ovulation. Likewise, when ova are collected for in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer, treating them with melatonin improves implantation and pregnancy rates. Melatonin synthesis as well as its receptors have also been identified in the placenta. In this organ, melatonin seems to be of particular importance for the maintenance of the optimal turnover of cells in the villous trophoblast via its ability to regulate apoptosis. For male gametes, melatonin has also proven useful in protecting them from oxidative damage and preserving their viability. Incubation of ejaculated animal sperm improves their motility and prolongs their viability. For human sperm as well, melatonin is also a valuable agent for protecting them from free radical damage. In general, the direct actions of melatonin on the gonads and adnexa of mammals indicate it is an important agent for maintaining optimal reproductive physiology. PMID:23549263

  10. Effect of free-range days on a local chicken breed: growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index.

    PubMed

    Tong, H B; Wang, Q; Lu, J; Zou, J M; Chang, L L; Fu, S Y

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of free-range days on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index of a local chicken breed. In total, 1,000 one-day-old male Suqin yellow chickens were raised for 21 d. On d 21, 720 birds with similar BW (536 ± 36 g) were selected and randomly assigned to free-range treatment at 21, 28, 35, and 42 d of age (assigned to free-range treatment for 21, 14, 7, and 0 d, respectively). Each treatment was represented by 5 replicates (pens) containing 36 birds (180 birds per treatment). All the birds were raised in indoor floor pens measuring 1.42 × 1.42 m (2 m(2), 18 birds/m(2)) in conventional poultry research houses before free-range treatment. In the free-range treatment, the chickens were raised in indoor floor houses measuring 3 × 5 m (15 m(2), 2.4 birds/m(2)). In addition, they also had an outdoor free-range paddock measuring 3 × 8 m (24 m(2), 1.5 birds/m(2)). The BW of birds after being assigned to free-range treatment for 7 d decreased significantly compared with that in the conventional treatment (P < 0.05). However, there was no effect of the free-range days on the BW at 42 d of age (P > 0.05). The daily weight gain, feed per gain, daily feed intake, and mortality from 21 to 42 d of age were unaffected by free-range days (P > 0.05). At 42 d of age, the breast yield increased linearly with increasing free-range days (P < 0.05), whereas the thigh, leg, thigh bone, and foot yields decreased linearly (P < 0.05). The lung yield showed a significant increasing and then decreasing quadratic response to increasing free-range days (P < 0.05). The water-holding capacity of the thigh muscle decreased linearly with increasing free-range days (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in the meat color, shear force, and muscle pH (P > 0.05). The absolute thymus weight and thymus:BW ratio showed a significant increasing and then decreasing quadratic response to increasing free

  11. Long-term effects of early life L-arginine supplementation on growth performance, lymphoid organs and immune responses in Leghorn-type chickens.

    PubMed

    Deng, K; Wong, C W; Nolan, J V

    2005-06-01

    The effects of a short-term dietary arginine supplementation after hatching on subsequent growth and the immune system were assessed in growing male Leghorn-type chickens. An arginine-deficient basal diet (67 g/kg) supplemented with 0 (control), 2.7 (LA) or 5.4 (HA) g L-arginine/kg, was offered ad libitum to 1-d-old male ISA Brown chicks for 4 weeks, then all birds were offered ad libitum a commercial pullet grower feed (8.9 g arginine/kg) for another 8 weeks. Supplemented birds had higher growth rates and feed intake than control birds during the 4-week supplementation period, but these effects did not persist into the subsequent periods. When the supplementation ceased at week 4, no differences in lymphoid organ weights relative to body weight (BW), primary serum antibody levels against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or cutaneous reactivity of toe webs to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) were detected. LA-fed birds had lower immunoglobulin (Ig) G levels against bovine serum albumin (BSA) than the control at week 4, but this effect did not persist at weeks 8 and 12. No difference in anti-BSA IgM levels was detected among birds at week 4; at week 12, however, the LA-fed birds had a significantly higher anti-BSA IgM level than the control. An increased anti-SRBC antibody level and a reduced relative bursa weight in HA-fed birds were evident at week 8, without any prior effects. It is concluded that short-term supplementary L-arginine had minimal effects on immunity, but some enhancement of SRBC antibody responses in later stages of growth was observed with previous L-arginine administration.

  12. Organization of peripheral nerves and spinal roots of the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina.

    PubMed

    Coggeshall, R E; Leonard, R B; Applebaum, M L; Willis, W D

    1978-01-01

    1. The sizes and numbers of axons in peripheral nerves and spinal roots were investigated in the stingray, Dasyatis sabina. 2. The axons of the dorsal and ventral roots do not mingle in peripheral nerves of this animal as they do in higher vertebrates. Thus, it was usually possible to split the peripheral nerve into two portions, one containing only dorsal root axons, the other containing only ventral root axons. This feature was useful for the analysis of certain aspects of spinal cord organization. 3. The fact that dorsal and ventral root axons were segregated in peripheral nerves enabled us to demonstrate, without experimental surgery, that the central processes of the dorsal root ganglion cells and the proximal ventral root axons were 10-20% narrower, on the average, than the distal processes of the same dorsal root ganglion cells or the distal parts of the same ventral root axons. 4. The stingray is remarkable in having very few unmyelinated axons in the dorsal roots, ventral roots, or peripheral nerves. This paucity of unmyelinated axons distinguishes the Atlantic stingrays from all other vertebrates whose roots and nerves have been examined for unmyelinated fibers. 5. Similar findings were obtained for one spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari) and two cow-nose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus).

  13. [Splenic lymphoid structures reorganization in gerbils after space flight].

    PubMed

    Grigorenko, D E; Sapin, M R

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effects of weightlessness on the organism of mammals, splenic lymphoid tissue was studied in 10 intact Mongolian gerbils and in 10 animals after a 12-days-long spaceflight. In experimental animals the body mass and splenic, thymic and adrenal mass indexes were sharply reduced. In the spleen, the red pulp area was significantly increased, there appeared the areas of fibrous tissue proliferation, and extensive hemorrhage. Lymphoid nodules with germinal centers disappeared, while periarterial lymphoid sheaths were depleted. Quantitative analysis of cellular content of the lymphoid structures of the spleen showed dramatic activation of cell destruction, lymphocytopoiesis suppression with the disappearance of mitotically dividing cells and a decrease in the number of blast cells. The absence of plasma cells indicates the suppression of the processes of the immunocytopoiesis. The complex of changes noted suggests the decrease of immunological barrier of lymphoid tissue in the spleen and in the whole organism, in gerbils under the conditions of weightlessness in the spaceflight.

  14. A novel NKR-P1B(bright) NK cell subset expresses an activated CD25(+)CX(3)CR1(+)CD62L(-)CD11b(-)CD27(-) phenotype and is prevalent in blood, liver, and gut-associated lymphoid organs of rats.

    PubMed

    Inngjerdingen, Marit; Kveberg, Lise; Vaage, John T

    2012-03-15

    The inhibitory NKR-P1B receptor identifies a subset of rat splenic NK cells that is low in Ly49 receptors but enriched for CD94/NKG2 receptors. We report in this study a novel NKR-P1B(bright) NK subpopulation that is prevalent in peripheral blood, liver, and gut-associated lymphoid organs and scarce in the spleen, peripheral lymph nodes, bone marrow, and lungs. This NKR-P1B(bright) NK subset displays an activated phenotype, expressing CD25, CD93, CX(3)CR1 and near absence of CD62-L, CD11b, and CD27. Functionally, NKR-P1B(bright) NK cells are highly responsive in terms of IFN-γ production and exert potent cytolytic activity. They show little spontaneous proliferation, are reduced in numbers upon in vivo activation with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, and have poor survival in ex vivo cytokine cultures. Our findings suggest that NKR-P1B(bright) NK cells are fully differentiated effector cells that rapidly die upon further activation. The identification of this novel rat NK cell subset may facilitate future translational research of the role of distinct NK cell subsets under normal physiological conditions and during ongoing immune responses.

  15. Human innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2016-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly acknowledged as important mediators of immune homeostasis and pathology. ILCs act as early orchestrators of immunity, responding to epithelium-derived signals by expressing an array of cytokines and cell-surface receptors, which shape subsequent immune responses. As such, ILCs make up interesting therapeutic targets for several diseases. In patients with allergy and asthma, group 2 innate lymphoid cells produce high amounts of IL-5 and IL-13, thereby contributing to type 2-mediated inflammation. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells are implicated in intestinal homeostasis and psoriasis pathology through abundant IL-22 production, whereas group 1 innate lymphoid cells are accumulated in chronic inflammation of the gut (inflammatory bowel disease) and lung (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), where they contribute to IFN-γ-mediated inflammation. Although the ontogeny of mouse ILCs is slowly unraveling, the development of human ILCs is far from understood. In addition, the growing complexity of the human ILC family in terms of previously unrecognized functional heterogeneity and plasticity has generated confusion within the field. Here we provide an updated view on the function and plasticity of human ILCs in tissue homeostasis and disease. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Different expression of TNF-alpha in brain and peripheral organs after cerebral contusion of rats].

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhi; Sun, Xiao-Li; Hu, Yu-Lian; Liu, Min

    2012-08-01

    To compare the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) between brain and peripheral organs after cerebral contusion in order to provide the scientific theoretical basis for forensic pathological diagnosis and wound age estimation. Brain and peripheral organs including heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney tissues of 45 SD rats after the cerebral contusion were obtained and TNF-alpha of these tissues were analyzed with immunohistochemistry methods. TNF-alpha was detected at 1 h in brain, reaching maximum at 6 h and 3 d after the cerebral contusion, and then decreased but still kept at high expression level at 7 d. TNF-alpha was detected at 1 h after the cerebral contusion in heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney tissues. The number of cells expressing TNF-alpha increased gradually, reaching maximum at 3 d after the contusion of brain, and then decreased but still kept at high expression level at 7 d. Besides the change of cerebral contusion, this study considered both the brain and peripheral organs. It is helpful for forensic pathological diagnosis and wound age estimation after contusion of brain.

  17. Upregulation of CC Chemokine Receptor 7 (CCR7) Enables Migration of Xenogeneic Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Rat Secondary Lymphoid Organs

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tian; Luan, Shao-Liang; Huang, Hong; Sun, Xing-Kun; Yang, Yan-Mei; Zhang, Hui; Han, Wei-dong; Li, Hong; Han, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) expression is vital for cell migration to secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). Our previous work showed that inducing CCR7 expression enabled syngeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to migrate into SLOs, resulting in enhanced immunosuppressive performance in mice. Given that human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are widely used in clinical therapy, we further investigated whether upregulation of CCR7 enables xenogeneic hASCs to migrate to rat SLOs. Material/Methods hASCs rarely express CCR7; therefore, hASCs were transfected with lentivirus encoding rat CCR7 (rCCR7) plus green fluorescence protein (GFP) or GFP alone. CCR7 mRNA and cell surface expression of rCCR7-hASCs and GFP-hASCs were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry (FCM), respectively. The phenotype, differentiation, and proliferation capacity of each cell type was also determined. To examine migration, rCCR7-hASCs and GFP-hASCs were injected intravenously into Lewis rats, and the proportion of GFP-positive cells in the spleen and lymph nodes was determined with FCM. Results mRNA and cell surface protein expression of CCR7 was essentially undetectable in hASCs and GFP-ASCs; however, CCR7 was highly expressed in rCCR7-ASCs. rCCR7-hASCs, GFP-hASCs, and hASCs shared a similar immunophenotype, and maintained the ability of multilineage differentiation and proliferation. In addition, the average proportion of GFP-positive cells was significantly higher following transplantation of rCCR7-hASCs compared with GFP-hASCs (p<0.01). Conclusions These results suggest that upregulation of rat CCR7 expression does not change the phenotype, differentiation, or proliferation capacity of hASCs, but does enable efficient migration of hASCs to rat SLOs. PMID:28035134

  18. Upregulation of CC Chemokine Receptor 7 (CCR7) Enables Migration of Xenogeneic Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Rat Secondary Lymphoid Organs.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tian; Luan, Shao-Liang; Huang, Hong; Sun, Xing-Kun; Yang, Yan-Mei; Zhang, Hui; Han, Wei-Dong; Li, Hong; Han, Yan

    2016-12-30

    BACKGROUND CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) expression is vital for cell migration to secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). Our previous work showed that inducing CCR7 expression enabled syngeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to migrate into SLOs, resulting in enhanced immunosuppressive performance in mice. Given that human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are widely used in clinical therapy, we further investigated whether upregulation of CCR7 enables xenogeneic hASCs to migrate to rat SLOs. MATERIAL AND METHODS hASCs rarely express CCR7; therefore, hASCs were transfected with lentivirus encoding rat CCR7 (rCCR7) plus green fluorescence protein (GFP) or GFP alone. CCR7 mRNA and cell surface expression of rCCR7-hASCs and GFP-hASCs were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry (FCM), respectively. The phenotype, differentiation, and proliferation capacity of each cell type was also determined. To examine migration, rCCR7-hASCs and GFP-hASCs were injected intravenously into Lewis rats, and the proportion of GFP-positive cells in the spleen and lymph nodes was determined with FCM. RESULTS mRNA and cell surface protein expression of CCR7 was essentially undetectable in hASCs and GFP-ASCs; however, CCR7 was highly expressed in rCCR7-ASCs. rCCR7-hASCs, GFP-hASCs, and hASCs shared a similar immunophenotype, and maintained the ability of multilineage differentiation and proliferation. In addition, the average proportion of GFP-positive cells was significantly higher following transplantation of rCCR7-hASCs compared with GFP-hASCs (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that upregulation of rat CCR7 expression does not change the phenotype, differentiation, or proliferation capacity of hASCs, but does enable efficient migration of hASCs to rat SLOs.

  19. Cocaine exposure alters H2S tissue concentrations in peripheral mouse organs.

    PubMed

    Frankowska, Małgorzata; Wiliński, Bogdan; Somogyi, Eugeniusz; Piotrowska, Joanna; Filip, Małgorzata; Opoka, Włodzimierz

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is well-known as a physiological mediator in the mammalian brain and peripheral tissues. Among several factors that change the concentration of H2S, oxidative stress and generation of reactive oxygen species, which accompany neurochemical actions of drugs of abuse, are of recent interest. Limited data on the connection of cocaine and H2S levels prompted us to investigate the effect of this psychostimulant on the H2S concentration in the mouse brain and peripheral organs. Male BALB/C mice were given several cocaine dosage and treatment regimens, and the free and acid-labile H2S tissue concentrations were determined with a modified spectrophotometric method of Siegel. We demonstrated the dose- and treatment-dependent decreases in the H2S level in the heart (83% of control level), and in the liver and kidney (17-34% of control levels) homogenates, but no changes were seen in the mouse brain. The strongest effect occurred after repeated administration of cocaine (20mg/kg) in all peripheral tissues. A reduction in the peripheral tissue H2S level in the heart, liver and kidney homogenates after repeated injections of cocaine may be the result of a strong toxic effect of the drug. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  20. Ectopic lymphoid-like structures in infection, cancer and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Pitzalis, Costantino; Jones, Gareth W; Bombardieri, Michele; Jones, Simon A

    2014-07-01

    Ectopic lymphoid-like structures often develop at sites of inflammation where they influence the course of infection, autoimmune disease, cancer and transplant rejection. These lymphoid aggregates range from tight clusters of B cells and T cells to highly organized structures that comprise functional germinal centres. Although the mechanisms governing ectopic lymphoid neogenesis in human pathology remain poorly defined, the presence of ectopic lymphoid-like structures within inflamed tissues has been linked to both protective and deleterious outcomes in patients. In this Review, we discuss investigations in both experimental model systems and patient cohorts to provide a perspective on the formation and functions of ectopic lymphoid-like structures in human pathology, with particular reference to the clinical implications and the potential for therapeutic targeting.

  1. Innate lymphoid cells, precursors and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Gronke, Konrad; Kofoed-Nielsen, Michael; Diefenbach, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) have only recently been recognized as a separate entity of the lymphoid lineage. Their subpopulations share common characteristics in terms of early development and major transcriptional circuitry with their related cousins of the T cell world. It is currently hypothesized that ILCs constitute an evolutionary older version of the lymphoid immune system. They are found at all primary entry points for pathogens such as mucosal surfaces of the lung and gastrointestinal system, the skin and the liver, which is the central contact point for pathogens that breach the intestinal barrier and enter the circulation. There, ILC contribute to the first line defense as well as to organ homeostasis. However, ILC are not only involved in classical defense tasks, but also contribute to the organogenesis of lymphoid organs as well as tissue remodeling and even stem cell regeneration. ILC may, therefore, implement different functions according to their emergence in ontogeny, their development and their final tissue location. We will review here their early development from precursors of the fetal liver and the adult bone marrow as well as their late plasticity in adaptation to their environment. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of Lymphoid Neogenesis in Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Hsao, Hsi-Min; Li, Wenjun; Gelman, Andrew E.; Krupnick, Alexander S.; Kreisel, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    De novo induction of organized lymphoid aggregates at non-lymphoid sites has been observed in many chronic inflammatory conditions where foreign antigens such as infectious agents, auto- or alloantigens, persist. The prevailing opinion in the field of transplantation is that lymphoid neogenesis within allografts is detrimental to the establishment of immune tolerance. These structures, commonly referred to as tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs), are thought to contribute to graft rejection by generating and propagating local alloimmune responses. However, recent studies have shown that TLOs rich in regulatory Foxp3+ cells are present in long term accepting allografts. The notion that TLOs can contribute to the local downregulation of immune responses has been corroborated in other chronic inflammation models. These findings suggest that contrary to previous suggestions that the induction of TLOs in allografts is necessarily harmful, the induction of “tolerogenic” TLOs may prove advantageous. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how TLOs are induced and how they regulate immune responses with a particular focus on alloimmunity. PMID:26614734

  3. Mechanistic relationship between the vagal afferent pathway, central nervous system and peripheral organs in appetite regulation.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiroaki; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2016-11-01

    The hypothalamus is a center of food intake and energy metabolism regulation. Information signals from peripheral organs are mediated through the circulation or the vagal afferent pathway and input into the hypothalamus, where signals are integrated to determine various behaviors, such as eating. Numerous appetite-regulating peptides are expressed in the central nervous system and the peripheral organs, and interact in a complex manner. Of such peptides, gut peptides are known to bind to receptors at the vagal afferent pathway terminal that extend into the mucosal layer of the digestive tract, modulate the electrical activity of the vagus nerve, and subsequently send signals to the solitary nucleus and furthermore to the hypothalamus. All peripheral peptides other than ghrelin suppress appetite, and they synergistically suppress appetite through the vagus nerve. In contrast, the appetite-enhancing peptide, ghrelin, antagonizes the actions of appetite-suppressing peptides through the vagus nerve, and appetite-suppressing peptides have attenuated effects in obesity as a result of inflammation in the vagus nerve. With greater understanding of the mechanism for food intake and energy metabolism regulation, medications that apply the effects of appetite-regulating peptides or implantable devices that electrically stimulate the vagus nerve are being investigated as novel treatments for obesity in basic and clinical studies.

  4. Role of lymphoid chemokines in the development of functional ectopic lymphoid structures in rheumatic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Corsiero, Elisa; Bombardieri, Michele; Manzo, Antonio; Bugatti, Serena; Uguccioni, Mariagrazia; Pitzalis, Costantino

    2012-07-30

    A sizeable subset of patients with the two most common organ-specific rheumatic autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Sjögren's syndrome (SS) develop ectopic lymphoid structures (ELS) in the synovial tissue and salivary glands, respectively. These structures are characterized by perivascular (RA) and periductal (SS) clusters of T and B lymphocytes, differentiation of high endothelial venules and networks of stromal follicular dendritic cells (FDC). Accumulated evidence from other and our group demonstrated that the formation and maintenance of ELS in these chronic inflammatory conditions is critically dependent on the ectopic expression of lymphotoxins (LT) and lymphoid chemokines CXCL13, CCL19, CCL21 and CXCL12. In this review we discuss recent advances highlighting the cellular and molecular mechanisms, which regulate the formation of ELS in RA and SS, with particular emphasis on the role of lymphoid chemokines. In particular, we shall focus on the evidence that in the inflammatory microenvironment of the RA synovium and SS salivary glands, several cell types, including resident epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells as well as different subsets of infiltrating immune cells, have been shown to be capable of producing lymphoid chemokines. Finally, we summarize accumulating data supporting the conclusion that ELS in RA and SS represent functional niches for B cells to undergo affinity maturation, clonal selection and differentiation into plasma cells autoreactive against disease-specific antigens, thus contributing to humoral autoimmunity over and above that of secondary lymphoid organs.

  5. A histological and immunohistochemical analysis of lymphoid tissues of the Tasmanian devil.

    PubMed

    Kreiss, Alexandre; Obendorf, David L; Hemsley, Susan; Canfield, Paul J; Woods, Gregory M

    2009-05-01

    Tasmanian devil lymphoid tissues (thymus, spleen, and lymph node) from seven animals, including pouch young, juvenile, and adult devils, were investigated using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. Antibodies against the conserved intracytoplasmic portion of CD3 and CD79b (T- and B-cell markers, respectively) and MHC II were used to label immune cells. The thymus from the juvenile devils and the pouch young had CD3+ cells that were primarily located in the medulla of the organ. The spleen consisted of red and white pulp areas with characteristic lymphoid follicles with CD79b+ and MHC II+ cells and nonfollicular T-cell-dominated periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths. Peripheral lymph nodes presented three distinct regions, outer cortex and medulla (both with primarily CD79b+ and MHC II+ cells) and paracortex (mainly CD3+ cells). Tissue architecture and distribution of the immune cells were similar to that seen in eutherian mammals and other marsupials, indicating that the Tasmanian devil has all the structural elements necessary for effective adaptive immunity.

  6. Locations of gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the 3-month-old chicken: a review.

    PubMed

    Casteleyn, C; Doom, M; Lambrechts, E; Van den Broeck, W; Simoens, P; Cornillie, P

    2010-06-01

    The lymphoid tissue that is associated with the intestinal tract, the so-called gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), is well developed in the chicken. Depending on the location, it is present as aggregations of lymphoid cells, or organized in lymphoid follicles and tonsils. From proximal to distal, the intestinal tract contains a pharyngeal tonsil, diffuse lymphoid tissue and lymphoid follicles in the cervical and thoracic parts of the oesophagus, an oesophageal tonsil, diffuse lymphoid tissue in the proventriculus, a pyloric tonsil, Peyer's patches, Meckel's diverticulum, two caecal tonsils, diffuse lymphoid tissue in the rectum, the bursa of Fabricius, and diffuse lymphoid tissue in the wall of the proctodeum. The lymphoid tissues are frequently covered by a lympho-epithelium that is infiltrated by lymphoid cells. Such an epithelium often contains M or microfold cells, which are specialized in antigen sampling and transport antigens to the underlying lymphoid tissue. A solid knowledge of the avian GALT could contribute to the development of vaccines to be administered orally. Additionally, immune stimulation via pre- and probiotics is based on the presence of a well-developed intestinal immune system.

  7. Role of lymphotoxin and homeostatic chemokines in the development and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Carragher, Damian; Randall, Troy D

    2007-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs are strategically placed to recruit locally activated antigen presenting cells (APCs) as well as naïve, recirculating T and B cells. The structure of secondary lymphoid organs - separated B and T zones, populations of specialized stromal cells, high endothelial venules and lymphatic vessles - has also evolved to maximize encounters between APCs and lymphocytes and to facilitate the expansion and differentiation of antigen-stimulated T and B cells. Many of the general mechanisms that govern the development and organization of secondary lymphoid organs have been identified over the last decade. However, the specific cellular and molecular interactions involved in the development and organization of each secondary lymphoid organ are slightly different and probably reflect the cell types available at that time and location. Here we review the mechanisms involved in the development, organization and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract, including Nasal Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) and inducible Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue (iBALT).

  8. Oxidative stress biomarkers in some rat brain structures and peripheral organs underwent cocaine.

    PubMed

    Pomierny-Chamioło, Lucyna; Moniczewski, Andrzej; Wydra, Karolina; Suder, Agata; Filip, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) generates or intensifies cocaine-evoked toxicity in the brain and peripheral organs. The aim of this study was to examine superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and lipid peroxidation [measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels] in rats during maintenance of cocaine self-administration and after withdrawal by a yoked-triad procedure. Our results indicate that repeated cocaine self-administration provoked an elevation of SOD activity in the hippocampus, frontal cortex, dorsal striatum, and liver. MDA levels were reduced in the brain, increased in the liver, kidney, and heart during maintenance of self-administration, and increased in the kidney in cocaine-yoked rats. In addition, following extinction training, we found enhanced MDA levels and SOD activity in the rat hippocampus, while changes in the activity of OS biomarkers in other brain structures and peripheral tissues were reminiscent of the changes seen during cocaine self-administration. These findings highlight the association between OS biomarkers in motivational processes related to voluntary cocaine intake in rats. OS participates in memory and learning impairments that could be involved in drug toxicity and addiction mechanisms. Therefore, further studies are necessary to address protective mechanisms against cocaine-induced brain and peripheral tissue damage.

  9. Lymphoma and other lymphoid lesions of the orbit. Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Kleener, J

    1975-03-01

    The orbit differs from the rest of the organism, excluding the central nervous system, as concerns lymph drainage. This may possible explain some of the peculiar features in lymphoid orbital lesions. The lymphoid tumours of the orbit are discussed on the basis of the classification most widely applied. An illustrative case is reported and it is concluded that even if local therapy may prove successful, patients in whom orbital lymphoid tumours have been diagnosed should be kept under constant observation with a view to prompt institution of treatment upon evidence of generalized disease.

  10. Effects of outdoor access days on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index of a local chicken breed.

    PubMed

    Tong, H B; Cai, J; Lu, J; Wang, Q; Shao, D; Zou, J M

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of outdoor access days on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index of a local chicken breed. In total, 864 twenty one-day-old male Suqin yellow chickens, with similar body weight (536±36g), were selected and raised in indoor floor pens that measured 1.42×1.42 m (2 m2, 18 birds/m2) in conventional poultry research houses (36 birds per pen). Two hundred and sixteen birds were allowed outdoor access treatments at 21, 28, 35, and 42 d of age, respectively (access to outdoor for 35, 28, 21, and 14 days, respectively). Each treatment was represented by 6 replicates (pens) containing 36 birds (216 birds per treatment). In the outdoor access treatment, the birds had an outdoor free-range paddock that measured 3×8 m (24 m2, 1.5 birds/m2). The body weight of birds at 56 d of age increased linearly with increasing outdoor access days (P<0.001), but there was no effect of the outdoor access days on the body weight at 42 d of age (P=0.161). The daily weight gain, daily feed intake, and feed per gain from 21 to 42 d of age were unaffected by outdoor access days (P=0.401, P=0.463, P=0.223, respectively). However, the daily weight gain and daily feed intake from 42 to 56 and from 21 to 56 d of age increased linearly with increasing outdoor access days (P=0.002, P<0.001; P=0.001, P=0.004; respectively), while the feed per gain tended to decrease linearly from 21 to 56 d of age (P=0.060). The mortality from 21 to 56 d of age was unaffected by outdoor access days (P=0.261). At 56 d of age, the breast yield increased linearly with increasing outdoor access days (P<0.001), while the foot yield decreased linearly (P=0.016). The light (L*) and red (b*) values of leg meat color increased linearly with increasing outdoor access days (P=0.032, P=0.013, respectively). The spleen: the body weight ratio showed a decreasing and then increasing quadratic response to increasing outdoor access days (P=0

  11. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Targeting of CXCR3(+) CD4(+) T Cells in Secondary Lymphoid Organs Is Associated with Robust CXCL10 Expression in Monocyte/Macrophage Subsets.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Masayuki; Sato, Hirotaka; Okamura, Tomotaka; Uda, Akihiko; Takeda, Satoshi; Ahmed, Nursarat; Shichino, Shigeyuki; Shiino, Teiichiro; Saito, Yohei; Watanabe, Satoru; Sugimoto, Chie; Kuroda, Marcelo J; Ato, Manabu; Nagai, Yoshiyuki; Izumo, Shuji; Matsushima, Kouji; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Ansari, Aftab A; Villinger, Francois; Mori, Kazuyasu

    2017-07-01

    Glycosylation of Env defines pathogenic properties of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We previously demonstrated that pathogenic SIVmac239 and a live-attenuated, quintuple deglycosylated Env mutant (Δ5G) virus target CD4(+) T cells residing in different tissues during acute infection. SIVmac239 and Δ5G preferentially infected distinct CD4(+) T cells in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) and within the lamina propria of the small intestine, respectively (C. Sugimoto et al., J Virol 86:9323-9336, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00948-12). Here, we studied the host responses relevant to SIV targeting of CXCR3(+) CCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells in SLOs. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses revealed that Th1-polarized inflammatory responses, defined by expression of CXCR3 chemokines, were distinctly induced in the SIVmac239-infected animals. Consistent with robust expression of CXCL10, CXCR3(+) T cells were depleted from blood in the SIVmac239-infected animals. We also discovered that elevation of CXCL10 expression in blood and SLOs was secondary to the induction of CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes and MAC387(+) macrophages, respectively. Since the significantly higher levels of SIV infection in SLOs occurred with a massive accumulation of infiltrated MAC387(+) macrophages, T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and residential macrophages near high endothelial venules, the results highlight critical roles of innate/inflammatory responses in SIVmac239 infection. Restricted infection in SLOs by Δ5G also suggests that glycosylation of Env modulates innate/inflammatory responses elicited by cells of monocyte/macrophage/DC lineages.IMPORTANCE We previously demonstrated that a pathogenic SIVmac239 virus and a live-attenuated, deglycosylated mutant Δ5G virus infected distinct CD4(+) T cell subsets in SLOs and the small intestine, respectively (C. Sugimoto et al., J Virol 86:9323-9336, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00948-12). Accordingly, infections with SIVmac239, but not with Δ5G

  12. Neuropilin-1 Is Expressed on Lymphoid Tissue Residing LTi-like Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells and Associated with Ectopic Lymphoid Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Shikhagaie, Medya Mara; Björklund, Åsa K; Mjösberg, Jenny; Erjefält, Jonas S; Cornelissen, Anne S; Ros, Xavier Romero; Bal, Suzanne M; Koning, Jasper J; Mebius, Reina E; Mori, Michiko; Bruchard, Melanie; Blom, Bianca; Spits, Hergen

    2017-02-14

    Here, we characterize a subset of ILC3s that express Neuropilin1 (NRP1) and are present in lymphoid tissues, but not in the peripheral blood or skin. NRP1(+) group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) display in vitro lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) activity. In agreement with this, NRP1(+) ILC3s are mainly located in proximity to high endothelial venules (HEVs) and express cell surface molecules involved in lymphocyte migration in secondary lymphoid tissues via HEVs. NRP1 was also expressed on mouse fetal LTi cells, indicating that NRP1 is a conserved marker for LTi cells. Human NRP1(+) ILC3s are primed cells because they express CD45RO and produce higher amounts of cytokines than NRP1(-) cells, which express CD45RA. The NRP1 ligand vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) served as a chemotactic factor for NRP1(+) ILC3s. NRP1(+) ILC3s are present in lung tissues from smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting a role in angiogenesis and/or the initiation of ectopic pulmonary lymphoid aggregates. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Morphology of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in odontocetes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernanda M O; Guimarães, Juliana P; Vergara-Parente, Jociery E; Carvalho, Vitor L; Carolina, Ana; Meirelles, O; Marmontel, Miriam; Oliveira, Bruno S S P; Santos, Silvanise M; Becegato, Estella Z; Evangelista, Janaina S A M; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in odontocetes from the Brazilian coast and freshwater systems. Seven species were evaluated and tissue samples were analyzed by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. Laryngeal tonsil was a palpable oval mass located in the larynx, composed of a lymphoepithelial complex. Dense collections of lymphocytes were found in the skin of male fetus and calf. Clusters of lymphoid tissue were found in the uterine cervix of a reproductively active juvenile female and along the pulmonary artery of an adult female. Lymphoid tissues associated with the gastrointestinal tract were characterized by diffusely arranged or organized lymphocytes. The anal tonsil was composed of an aggregate of lymphoid tissue occurring exclusively in the anal canal, being composed of squamous epithelium branches. MALT was present in different tissues and organic systems of cetaceans, providing constant protection against mucosal pathogens present in their environment.

  14. Occupation and lymphoid neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; D'Avanzo, B.; Franceschi, S.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between occupation and exposure to a number of occupational agents and lymphoid neoplasms was investigated in a case-control study of 69 cases of Hodgkin's disease, 153 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 110 multiple myelomas and 396 controls admitted for acute diseases to a network of teaching and general hospitals in the greater Milan area. Among the cases, there was a significant excess of individuals ever occupied in agriculture and food processing: the multivariate relative risks (RR) were 2.1 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.0-3.8) for Hodgkin's disease, 1.9 (95% CI = 1.2-3.0) for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and 2.0 (95% CI = 1.1-3.5) for multiple myeloma. Significant trends for duration of exposure to herbicides were observed for lymphomas, but the association was stronger for overall occupation in agriculture than with the specific question of herbicide use. History of occupation in the chemical industry was more frequent among Hodgkin's disease (RR = 4.3, 95% CI = 1.4-10.2), and a significant trend in risk was observed between duration of exposure to benzene and other solvents and multiple myeloma. No significant relation was found between any of the lymphoid neoplasms considered and rubber, dye, painting, printing, tanning leather, photography, pharmaceuticals, wood, coal/gas and nuclear industries. PMID:2789947

  15. The Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursor.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Constantinides, Michael G; Gudjonson, Herman; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-05-20

    The discovery of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cell populations effecting different forms of type 1, 2, and 3 immunity; tissue repair; and immune regulation has transformed our understanding of mucosal immunity and allergy. The emerging complexity of these populations along with compounding issues of redundancy and plasticity raise intriguing questions about their precise lineage relationship. Here we review advances in mapping the emergence of these lineages from early lymphoid precursors. We discuss the identification of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor characterized by transient expression of the transcription factor PLZF, and the lineage relationships of innate lymphoid cells with conventional natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We also review the rapidly growing understanding of the network of transcription factors that direct the development of these lineages.

  16. Age-related changes and distribution of T cell markers (CD3 and CD4) and toll-like receptors(TLR2, TLR3,TLR4 and TLR7) in the duck lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aiguo; Xu, Jiahua; Lai, Hanzhang; Huang, Wenke; Fang, Niran; Chen, Ruiai

    2017-03-10

    T lymphocytes and Toll-like receptors have been confirmed to have correlation with the ability to resistance to pathogenic challenges and play an important role in duck immune system. However, the information of ontogeny of T lymphocytes and Toll-like receptors is scarcely in duck. Therefore, to address these questions, we report the development and distribution of CD3 and CD4 by immunocytochemistry and the age-related mRNA level of duck T cell markers (CD3 and CD4) and Toll-like receptors (TLR2, TLR3, TLR4 and TLR7) by real time quantitative PCR in duck lymphoid organs (thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen). Results indicated that CD3 and CD4 positive cells can be observed in all test organs and partly change in an age-related way. CD4 positive T cell of duck spleen mainly distributed in periarterial lymphatic sheaths and red pulp, not in white pulp. Both of CD3 and CD4 were experienced significant increased wave twice in duck lymphoid organs and T cell dependent cellular immunity of duck may well established until 5 weeks old. The mRNA expression levels of duck TLRs were age and organ dependent, and duck TLR3 and TLR7 were significantly lower abundance in the spleen but higher in thymus and bursa of Fabricius, respectively. This study provide the essential knowledge of the ontogeny of T cells and Toll-like receptors in duck, which may shed lights on the T-cell mediate immunity and innate immunity in duck.

  17. Biosynthesis and Functional Significance of Peripheral Node Addressin in Cancer-Associated TLO

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Aliyah M.; Storkus, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral node addressin (PNAd) marks high endothelial venules (HEV), which are crucial for the recruitment of lymphocytes into lymphoid organs in non-mucosal tissue sites. PNAd is a sulfated and fucosylated glycoprotein recognized by the prototypic monoclonal antibody, MECA-79. PNAd is the ligand for L-selectin, which is expressed on the surface of naive and central memory T cells, where it mediates leukocyte rolling on vascular endothelial surfaces. Although PNAd was first identified in the HEV of peripheral lymph nodes, recent work suggests a critical role for PNAd in the context of chronic inflammatory diseases, where it can be used as a marker for the formation of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs). TLO form in tissues impacted by sustained inflammation, such as the tumor microenvironment where they function as local sites of adaptive immune cell priming. This allows for specific B- and T-cell responses to be initiated or reactivated in inflamed tissues without dependency on secondary lymphoid organs. Recent studies of cancer in mice and humans have identified PNAd as a biomarker of improved disease prognosis. Blockade of PNAd or its ligand, L-selectin, can abrogate protective antitumor immunity in murine models. This review examines pathways regulating PNAd biosynthesis by the endothelial cells integral to HEV and the formation and maintenance of lymphoid structures throughout the body, particularly in the setting of cancer. PMID:27555845

  18. Ionizing radiation and autoimmunity: Induction of autoimmune disease in mice by high dose fractionated total lymphoid irradiation and its prevention by inoculating normal T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, N.; Sakaguchi, S. Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA PRESTO, JRDC, Institute of Phical and Chemical Research, Tsukuba, Ibaraki ); Miyai, K. )

    1992-11-01

    Ionizing radiation can functionally alter the immune system and break self-tolerance. High dose (42.5 Gy), fractionated (2.5 Gy 17 times) total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on mice caused various organ-specific autoimmune diseases, such as gastritis, thyroiditis, and orchitis, depending on the radiation dosages, the extent of lymphoid irradiation, and the genetic background of the mouse strains. Radiation-induced tissue damage is not the primary cause of the autoimmune disease because irradiation of the target organs alone failed to elicit the autoimmunity and shielding of the organs from irradiation was unable to prevent it. In contrast, irradiation of both the thymus and the peripheral lymphoid organs/tissues was required for efficient induction of autoimmune disease by TLI. TLI eliminated the majority of mature thymocytes and the peripheral T cells for 1 mo, and inoculation of spleen cell, thymocyte, or bone marrow cell suspensions (prepared from syngeneic nonirradiated mice) within 2 wk after TLI effectively prevented the autoimmune development. Depletion of T cells from the inocula abrogated the preventive activity. CD4[sup +] T cells mediated the autoimmune prevention but CD8[sup +] T cells did not. CD4[sup +] T cells also appeared to mediate the TLI-induced autoimmune disease because CD4[sup +] T cells from disease-bearing TLI mice adoptively transferred the autoimmune disease to syngeneic naive mice. Taken together, these results indicate that high dose, fractionated ionizing radiation on the lymphoid organs/tissues can cause autoimmune disease by affecting the T cell immune system, rather than the target self-Ags, presumably by altering T cell-dependent control of self-reactive T cells. 62 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. A new online detector for estimation of peripheral neutron equivalent dose in organ.

    PubMed

    Irazola, L; Lorenzoli, M; Bedogni, R; Pola, A; Terrón, J A; Sanchez-Nieto, B; Expósito, M R; Lagares, J I; Sansaloni, F; Sanchez-Doblado, F

    2014-11-01

    Peripheral dose in radiotherapy treatments represents a potential source of secondary neoplasic processes. As in the last few years, there has been a fast-growing concern on neutron collateral effects, this work focuses on this component. A previous established methodology to estimate peripheral neutron equivalent doses relied on passive (TLD, CR39) neutron detectors exposed in-phantom, in parallel to an active [static random access memory (SRAMnd)] thermal neutron detector exposed ex-phantom. A newly miniaturized, quick, and reliable active thermal neutron detector (TNRD, Thermal Neutron Rate Detector) was validated for both procedures. This first miniaturized active system eliminates the long postprocessing, required for passive detectors, giving thermal neutron fluences in real time. To validate TNRD for the established methodology, intrinsic characteristics, characterization of 4 facilities [to correlate monitor value (MU) with risk], and a cohort of 200 real patients (for second cancer risk estimates) were evaluated and compared with the well-established SRAMnd device. Finally, TNRD was compared to TLD pairs for 3 generic radiotherapy treatments through 16 strategic points inside an anthropomorphic phantom. The performed tests indicate similar linear dependence with dose for both detectors, TNRD and SRAMnd, while a slightly better reproducibility has been obtained for TNRD (1.7% vs 2.2%). Risk estimates when delivering 1000 MU are in good agreement between both detectors (mean deviation of TNRD measurements with respect to the ones of SRAMnd is 0.07 cases per 1000, with differences always smaller than 0.08 cases per 1000). As far as the in-phantom measurements are concerned, a mean deviation smaller than 1.7% was obtained. The results obtained indicate that direct evaluation of equivalent dose estimation in organs, both in phantom and patients, is perfectly feasible with this new detector. This will open the door to an easy implementation of specific

  20. Peripheral protein organization and its influence on lipid diffusion in biomimetic membranes

    PubMed Central

    Vats, Kanika; Knutson, Kristofer; Hinderliter, Anne; Sheets, Erin D.

    2010-01-01

    Protein organization on biomembranes and their dynamics are essential for cellular function. It is not clear, however, how protein binding may influence the assembly of underlying lipids or how the membrane structure leads to functional protein organization. Toward this goal, we investigated the effects of annexin a5 binding to biomimetic membranes using fluorescence imaging and correlation spectroscopy. Annexin a5 (anx a5), a peripheral intracellular protein that plays a membrane remodeling role in addition to other functions, binds specifically and tightly to anionic (e.g., phosphatidylserine)-containing membranes in the presence of calcium ion. Our fluorescence microscopy reveals that annexin likely forms assemblies, along with a more dispersed population, upon binding to anionic biomembranes in the presence of calcium ion, which is reflected in its two-component Brownian motion. To investigate the effects of annexin binding on the underlying lipids, we used specific acyl chain-labeled phospholipid analogs, NBD-phosphatidylcholine (NBD-PC) and NBD-phosphatidylserine (NBD-PS). We find that both NBD-labeled lipids cluster under anx a5 assemblies, as compared with when they are found under the dispersed annexin population, and NBD-PS exhibits two-component lateral diffusion under the annexin assemblies. In contrast, NBD-PC diffusion is slower by an order of magnitude under the annexin assemblies in contrast to its diffusion when not localized under anx a5 assemblies. Our results indicate that upon binding to membranes, the peripheral protein annexin organizes the underlying lipids into domains, which may have functional implications in vivo. PMID:20175560

  1. Mutation of Pten/Mmac1 in mice causes neoplasia in multiple organ systems

    PubMed Central

    Podsypanina, Katrina; Ellenson, Lora Hedrick; Nemes, Adriana; Gu, Jianguo; Tamura, Masahito; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Catoretti, Giorgio; Fisher, Peter E.; Parsons, Ramon

    1999-01-01

    Pten/Mmac1+/− heterozygous mice exhibited neoplasms in multiple organs including the endometrium, liver, prostate, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid, and thymus. Loss of the wild-type allele was detected in neoplasms of the thymus and liver. Surprisingly, tumors of the gastrointestinal epithelium developed in association with gut lymphoid tissue. Tumors of the endometrium, thyroid, prostate, and liver were not associated with lymphoid tissue and appeared to be highly mitotic. In addition, these mice have nonneoplastic hyperplasia of lymph nodes that was caused by an inherited defect in apoptosis detected in B cells and macrophages. Examination of peripheral lymphoid tissue including lymphoid aggregates associated with polyps revealed that the normal organization of B and T cells was disrupted in heterozygous animals. Taken together, these data suggest that PTEN is a regulator of apoptosis and proliferation that behaves as a “landscaper” tumor suppressor in the gut and a “gatekeeper” tumor suppressor in other organs. PMID:9990064

  2. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus–infected macaques

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit+IL-7Rα+ (CD117+CD127+) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼63%), IL-22 (∼36%), and TNF-α (∼72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4+ T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P < 0.001). Notably, ILC3 could be induced to undergo apoptosis by microbial products through the TLR2 (lipoteichoic acid) and/or TLR4 (LPS) pathway. These findings indicated that persistent microbial translocation may result in loss of ILC3 in lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues.—Xu, H., Wang, X., Lackner, A. A., Veazey, R. S. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus–infected macaques. PMID:26283536

  3. Developmental study of tripeptidyl peptidase I activity in the mouse central nervous system and peripheral organs.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Mashenka; Deleva, Denislava; Pavlova, Velichka; Ivanov, Ivaylo

    2011-11-01

    Tripeptidyl peptidase I (TPPI) - a lysosomal serine protease - is encoded by the CLN2 gene, mutations that cause late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL) connected with profound neuronal loss, severe clinical symptoms and early death at puberty. Developmental studies of TPPI activity levels and distribution have been done in the human and rat central nervous systems (CNS) and visceral organs. Similar studies have not been performed in mouse. In this paper, we follow up on the developmental changes in the enzyme activity and localization pattern in the CNS and visceral organs of mouse over the main periods of life - embryonic, neonate, suckling, infantile, juvenile, adult and aged - using biochemical assays and enzyme histochemistry. In the studied peripheral organs (liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas and lung) TPPI is present at birth but further its pattern is not consistent in different organs over different life periods. TPPI activity starts to be expressed in the brain at the 10th embryonic day but in most neuronal types it appears at the early infantile period, increases during infancy, reaches high activity levels in the juvenile period and is highest in adult and aged animals. Thus, in mice TPPI activity becomes crucial for the neuronal functions later in development (juvenile period) than in humans and does not decrease with aging. These results are essential as a basis for comparison between normal and pathological TPPI patterns in mice. They can be valuable in view of the use of animal models for studying LINCL and other neurodegenerative disorders.

  4. Identification of characteristic molecular signature for volatile organic compounds in peripheral blood of rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jeong Kyu; Jung, Kwang Hwa; Noh, Ji Heon; Eun, Jung Woo; Bae, Hyun Jin; Xie, Hong Jian; Jang, Ja-June; Ryu, Jae Chun; Park, Won Sang; Lee, Jung Young; Nam, Suk Woo

    2011-01-15

    In a previous report we demonstrated that the transcriptomic response of liver tissue was specific to toxicants, and a characteristic molecular signature could be used as an early prognostic biomarker in rats. It is necessary to determine the transcriptomic response to toxicants in peripheral blood for application to the human system. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise a major group of pollutants which significantly affect the chemistry of the atmosphere and human health. In this study we identified and validated the specific molecular signatures of toxicants in rat whole blood as early predictors of environmental toxicants. VOCs (dichloromethane, ethylbenzene, and trichloroethylene) were administered to 11-week-old SD male rats after 48 h of exposure, peripheral whole blood was subjected to expression profiling analysis. Unsupervised gene expression analysis resulted in a characteristic molecular signature for each toxicant, and supervised analysis identified 1,217 outlier genes as distinct molecular signatures discerning VOC exposure from healthy controls. Further analysis of multi-classification suggested 337 genes as early detective molecular markers for three VOCs with 100% accuracy. A large-scale gene expression analysis of a different VOC exposure animal model suggested that characteristic expression profiles exist in blood cells and multi-classification of this VOC-specific molecular signature can discriminate each toxicant at an early exposure time. This blood expression signature can thus be used as discernable surrogate marker for detection of biological responses to VOC exposure in an environment.

  5. The Role of Lymphoid Neogenesis in Allografts.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, H-M; Li, W; Gelman, A E; Krupnick, A S; Kreisel, D

    2016-04-01

    De novo induction of organized lymphoid aggregates at nonlymphoid sites has been observed in many chronic inflammatory conditions where foreign antigens such as infectious agents, autoantigens or alloantigens, persist. The prevailing opinion in the field of transplantation is that lymphoid neogenesis within allografts is detrimental to the establishment of immune tolerance. These structures, commonly referred to as tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs), are thought to contribute to graft rejection by generating and propagating local alloimmune responses. However, recent studies have shown that TLOs rich in regulatory Foxp3(+) cells are present in long-term accepting allografts. The notion that TLOs can contribute to the local downregulation of immune responses has been corroborated in other chronic inflammation models. These findings suggest that contrary to previous suggestions that the induction of TLOs in allografts is necessarily harmful, the induction of "tolerogenic" TLOs may prove advantageous. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how TLOs are induced and how they regulate immune responses with a particular focus on alloimmunity.

  6. Kidney allograft survival in dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, R.J.; Sutherland, D.E.R.; Lum, C.T.; Lewis, W.I.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1981-02-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is immunosuppressive and, in rodents, can induce a state where transplantation of allogenic bone marrow results in chimerism and permanent acceptance of organ allografts from the donor strain. Twelve splenectomized dogs were treated with TLI (150 rads per fraction, total dose 1950 to 3000 rads) before bilateral nephrectomy and renal allotransplantation. Eight dogs received bone marrow from the kidney donor. In 13 untreated control dogs renal allografts functioned for a mean +- (SE) of 4.7 +- 0.3 days. In the four TLI treated dogs who did not receive bone marrow the renal allografts functioned for 15 to 76 days (two dogs died with functioning grafts). In the eight TLI treated dogs who received donor bone marrow, two died immediately after transplantation, two rejected at 3 and 13 days, one died at 13 days with a functioning graft, and two have had the grafts function for longer than 500 days. Chimerism was not detected in the one dog tested. The response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to stimulation with phytohemaglutinin and in mixed lymphocyte culture was suppressed for at least one month after TLI. The results confirm the immunosuppressive effect of TLI. The absence of kidney rejection in two recipients of donor bone marrow show the potential of this approach to induce long-term immunologic unresponsiveness as to an organ allograft, but the outcome is unpredictable and further experiments are needed to define the optimal conditions for administration of TLI and bone marrow to the recipients.

  7. Alloantigens of human lymphoid cell lines; `human Ia-like antigens'

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, K.; Nakamuro, K.; Tanigaki, N.; Pressman, D.

    1977-01-01

    Membrane glycoproteins that appear to belong to a new alloantigen system were partially purified by gel filtration and lentil-lectin affinity chromatography from a non-ionic detergent (Renex 30) solubilized membrane fraction of each of two Burkitt lymphoma cell lines, B46M and Daudi. The preparations were radioiodinated and further purified by gel filtration, lentil—lectin affinity chromatography and anti-HLA antibody affinity chromatography. The labelled preparations thus obtained did not have binding activity with any of rabbit anti-HLA, rabbit anti-human β2-microglobulin and rabbit anti-human IgG-Fab antisera, but did have a high level of binding activity with rabbit anti-B-cell membrane antiserum. Moreover, the labelled preparations showed relatively high binding activity with some conventional HLA typing sera. Out of sixty-eight human tissue typing alloantisera tested, three (Berlin 373, Betz and TO-29-01) gave especially high binding with both of the labeled preparations. The antigens involved in reaction with these alloantisera and also with the rabbit anti-B-cell membrane antiserum contained two components, one 31,000 ∼ 32,000 daltons and another 24,000 ∼ 25,000 daltons, bound non-covalently. The alloantigens were specific to B cell type cell lines (B-lymphoid cell lines and Burkitt-lymphoma cell lines) in cultured cell lines and also to B lymphocytes in peripheral blood. In organs and tissues, however, they were found to be present widely distributed in lymphoid organs (thymus as well as spleen and lymph node) and in non-lymphoid organs (including liver, kidney, testis and heart). PMID:24587

  8. Prenatal benzodiazepine immunosuppression: possible involvement of peripheral benzodiazepine site.

    PubMed

    Schlumpf, M; Parmar, R; Ramseier, H R; Lichtensteiger, W

    1990-01-01

    Treatment of pregnant Long Evans rats with a low dose of diazepam (1.25 mg/kg from gestational day 14-20) produced offspring suffering from suppression of cellular immune responses. Analogous effects were produced by clonazepam, a benzodiazepine (BDZ) with high affinity for the central-type, and Ro 5-4864, a BDZ with selective affinity for the peripheral-type BDZ receptor. Peripheral-type BDZ receptors are found to develop early in fetal life in peripheral organs including primary (thymus) and secondary (spleen) lymphoid organs, in the central nervous system and on immune cells (lymphocytes). In prenatally diazepam-exposed offspring the affinity constant is significantly changed. BDZ and PK 11195 also inhibit mitogen and alloantigen-induced T and B cell proliferation in vitro in adult murine lymphocytes. Diazepam, Ro 5-4864 and PK 11195 were found to be the most active compounds.

  9. Control of central and peripheral tolerance by Aire.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Todd C; Anderson, Mark S

    2011-05-01

    The negative selection of self-reactive thymocytes depends on the expression of tissue-specific antigens by medullary thymic epithelial cells. The autoimmune regulator (Aire) protein plays an important role in turning on these antigens, and the absence of even one Aire-induced tissue-specific antigen in the thymus can lead to autoimmunity in the antigen-expressing target organ. Recently, Aire protein has been detected in peripheral lymphoid organs, suggesting that peripheral Aire plays a complementary role here. In these peripheral sites, Aire was found to regulate the expression of a group of tissue-specific antigens that is distinct from those expressed in the thymus. Furthermore, transgenic antigen expression in extrathymic Aire-expressing cells (eTACs) can mediate deletional tolerance, but the immunological relevance of Aire-dependent, endogenous tissue-specific antigens remains to be determined. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Control of Central and Peripheral Tolerance by Aire

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Todd C.; Anderson, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The negative selection of self-reactive thymocytes depends on the induction of tissue-specific antigens by medullary thymic epithelial cells. The autoimmune regulator (Aire) protein plays an important role in turning on these antigens, and the absence of even one Aire-induced tissue-specific antigen in the thymus can lead to autoimmunity in the antigen-expressing target organ. Recently, Aire protein has been detected in peripheral lymphoid organs, suggesting that peripheral Aire plays a complementary role here. In these peripheral sites, Aire was found to regulate the expression of a group of tissue-specific antigens that is distinct from those expressed in the thymus. Furthermore, transgenic antigen expression in extrathymic Aire-expressing cells (eTACs) can mediate deletional tolerance, but the immunological relevance of Aire-dependent, endogenous tissue-specific antigens remains to be determined. PMID:21488892

  11. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Akitoshi Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased

  12. Combined Effect of Low-Intensity Helium-Neon Laser and X-Ray Radiation on in Vivo Cellular Response of the Whole Blood and Lymphoid Organs in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zaichkina, S I; Dyukina, A R; Rozanova, O M; Romanchenko, S P; Sirota, N P; Kuznetsova, E A; Simonova, N B; Sorokina, S S; Zakrzhevskaya, D T; Yusupov, V I; Bagratishvili, V N

    2016-09-01

    We studied the effect of exposure to helium-neon laser (dose range 0.16-50 mJ/cm(2)) on activation of natural protection reserve in mice using the adaptive response test. DNA comets method revealed a protective response manifested in DNA damage level in whole blood leukocytes of mice and in lymphoid organs by the thymus and spleen weight index; preexposure to laser did not induce the adaptive response. ROS level in the whole blood was assessed by the level of zymosan-induced luminol chemiluminescence. In mice subjected to adaptive laser irradiation in doses of 0.16-5 mJ/cm(2) followed by X-ray irradiation in a dose of 1.5 Gy, the activation index calculated as the ratio of induced to spontaneous area of luminescence was by 1.4 times lower than that in non-irradiated animals, which attested to reduced ROSgeneration reserve capacity of neutrophils.

  13. Differential effects of light and feeding on circadian organization of peripheral clocks in a forebrain Bmal1 mutant.

    PubMed

    Izumo, Mariko; Pejchal, Martina; Schook, Andrew C; Lange, Ryan P; Walisser, Jacqueline A; Sato, Takashi R; Wang, Xiaozhong; Bradfield, Christopher A; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2014-12-19

    In order to assess the contribution of a central clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) to circadian behavior and the organization of peripheral clocks, we generated forebrain/SCN-specific Bmal1 knockout mice by using floxed Bmal1 and pan-neuronal Cre lines. The forebrain knockout mice showed >90% deletion of BMAL1 in the SCN and exhibited an immediate and complete loss of circadian behavior in constant conditions. Circadian rhythms in peripheral tissues persisted but became desynchronized and damped in constant darkness. The loss of synchrony was rescued by light/dark cycles and partially by restricted feeding (only in the liver and kidney but not in the other tissues) in a distinct manner. These results suggest that the forebrain/SCN is essential for internal temporal order of robust circadian programs in peripheral clocks, and that individual peripheral clocks are affected differently by light and feeding in the absence of a functional oscillator in the forebrain.

  14. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Akitoshi; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence.

  15. Suppression of HIV replication by lymphoid tissue CD8+ cells correlates with the clinical state of HIV-infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Blackbourn, David J.; Mackewicz, Carl E.; Barker, Edward; Hunt, Thomas K.; Herndier, Brian; Haase, Ashley T.; Levy, Jay A.

    1996-01-01

    Lymphoid tissues from asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals, as compared with symptomatic HIV-infected subjects, show limited histopathological changes and lower levels of HIV expression. In this report we correlate the control of HIV replication in lymph nodes to the non-cytolytic anti-HIV activity of lymphoid tissue CD8+ cells. Five subjects at different stages of HIV-related disease were studied and the ability of their CD8+ cells, isolated from both lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood, to inhibit HIV replication was compared. CD8+ cells from lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood of two HIV-infected long-term survivors suppressed HIV replication at a low CD8+:CD4+ cell ratio of 0.1. The CD8+ cells from the lymphoid tissue of a third asymptomatic subject suppressed HIV replication at a CD8+:CD4+ cell ratio of 0.25; the subject’s peripheral blood CD8+ cells showed this antiviral response at a lower ratio of 0.05. The lymphoid tissue CD8+ cells from two AIDS patients were not able to suppress HIV replication, and the peripheral blood CD8+ cells of only one of them suppressed HIV replication. The plasma viremia, cellular HIV load as well as the extent of pathology and virus expression in the lymphoid tissue of the two long-term survivors, were reduced compared with these parameters in the three other subjects. The data suggest that the extent of anti-HIV activity by CD8+ cells from lymphoid tissue relative to peripheral blood correlates best with the clinical state measured by lymphoid tissue pathology and HIV burden in lymphoid tissues and blood. The results add further emphasis to the importance of this cellular immune response in controlling HIV pathogenesis. PMID:8917555

  16. Suppression of HIV Replication by Lymphoid Tissue CD8+ Cells Correlates with the Clinical State of HIV-Infected Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackbourn, David J.; Mackewicz, Carl E.; Barker, Edward; Hunt, Thomas K.; Herndier, Brian; Haase, Ashley T.; Levy, Jay A.

    1996-11-01

    Lymphoid tissues from asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals, as compared with symptomatic HIV-infected subjects, show limited histopathological changes and lower levels of HIV expression. In this report we correlate the control of HIV replication in lymph nodes to the non-cytolytic anti-HIV activity of lymphoid tissue CD8+ cells. Five subjects at different stages of HIV-related disease were studied and the ability of their CD8+ cells, isolated from both lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood, to inhibit HIV replication was compared. CD8+ cells from lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood of two HIV-infected long-term survivors suppressed HIV replication at a low CD8+:CD4+ cell ratio of 0.1. The CD8+ cells from the lymphoid tissue of a third asymptomatic subject suppressed HIV replication at a CD8+:CD4+ cell ratio of 0.25; the subject's peripheral blood CD8+ cells showed this antiviral response at a lower ratio of 0.05. The lymphoid tissue CD8+ cells from two AIDS patients were not able to suppress HIV replication, and the peripheral blood CD8+ cells of only one of them suppressed HIV replication. The plasma viremia, cellular HIV load as well as the extent of pathology and virus expression in the lymphoid tissue of the two long-term survivors, were reduced compared with these parameters in the three other subjects. The data suggest that the extent of anti-HIV activity by CD8+ cells from lymphoid tissue relative to peripheral blood correlates best with the clinical state measured by lymphoid tissue pathology and HIV burden in lymphoid tissues and blood. The results and further emphasis to the importance of this cellular immune response in controlling HIV pathogenesis.

  17. Circulating myeloid and lymphoid precursor dendritic cells are clonally involved in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ma, L; Delforge, M; van Duppen, V; Verhoef, G; Emanuel, B; Boogaerts, M; Hagemeijer, A; Vandenberghe, P

    2004-09-01

    Circulating myeloid and lymphoid precursor dendritic cell (pDC) counts were determined in peripheral blood from 22 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) by a single-platform flow cytometric protocol. The absolute count of myeloid and lymphoid pDC, as well as their relative number (as proportion of mononuclear cells or total leukocytes) was significantly lower in MDS (n=22) than in healthy controls (n=41). In 11 patients with chromosomal aberrations, purified pDC were examined by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. This revealed clonal involvement of myeloid as well as lymphoid pDC in all of them. These data therefore strongly suggest that myeloid and lymphoid pDC share a common precursor. Whether reduced peripheral blood counts of pDC contribute to the immunological abnormalities observed in MDS remains to be investigated.

  18. Effects of Nocturnal Light on (Clock) Gene Expression in Peripheral Organs: A Role for the Autonomic Innervation of the Liver

    PubMed Central

    van der Vliet, Jan; van Heijningen, Caroline; van Eden, Corbert G.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Pévet, Paul; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The biological clock, located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), controls the daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. Early studies demonstrated that light exposure not only affects the phase of the SCN but also the functional activity of peripheral organs. More recently it was shown that the same light stimulus induces immediate changes in clock gene expression in the pineal and adrenal, suggesting a role of peripheral clocks in the organ-specific output. In the present study, we further investigated the immediate effect of nocturnal light exposure on clock genes and metabolism-related genes in different organs of the rat. In addition, we investigated the role of the autonomic nervous system as a possible output pathway of the SCN to modify the activity of the liver after light exposure. Methodology and Principal Findings First, we demonstrated that light, applied at different circadian times, affects clock gene expression in a different manner, depending on the time of day and the organ. However, the changes in clock gene expression did not correlate in a consistent manner with those of the output genes (i.e., genes involved in the functional output of an organ). Then, by selectively removing the autonomic innervation to the liver, we demonstrated that light affects liver gene expression not only via the hormonal pathway but also via the autonomic input. Conclusion Nocturnal light immediately affects peripheral clock gene expression but without a clear correlation with organ-specific output genes, raising the question whether the peripheral clock plays a “decisive” role in the immediate (functional) response of an organ to nocturnal light exposure. Interestingly, the autonomic innervation of the liver is essential to transmit the light information from the SCN, indicating that the autonomic nervous system is an important gateway for the SCN to cause an immediate resetting of peripheral physiology after phase-shift inducing light

  19. Distribution of B lymphocyte subsets in normal lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, L J; Swerdlow, S H; Habeshaw, J A

    1984-01-01

    Using the ABC avidin-biotin peroxidase techniques and a series of monoclonal antibodies against B cell associated antigens, the anatomical distribution of B lymphocyte subsets was studied in reactive lymph node, tonsil and spleen. Evidence is presented for at least five major phenotypically distinct B cell subsets, each localized to specific compartments of peripheral lymphoid tissue. The possible relationship of these subsets of B lymphocytes to activation, maturation and function in the B cell lineage is discussed. Images Fig. 2 PMID:6375918

  20. The effect of ionizing radiation on lipid metabolism in lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Kolomiytseva, I K; Novoselova, E G; Kulagina, T P; Kuzin, A M

    1987-01-01

    Lipid metabolism was studied in lymphoid tissues of rats after whole body irradiation with doses producing damage of different degrees to lymphoid cells (4-10 Gy). The content of free cholesterol, cholesterol esters, and total phospholipids was determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes and thymocytes 1-2 h after exposure. Simultaneously, the rate of in vitro incorporation of 2 14C-acetate into total lipids, phospholipids, and cholesterol of lymphoid cells was estimated. It was shown that exposure of rats to ionizing radiation caused activation of lipogenesis. Cholesterol synthesis was activated after a dose of 4 Gy and decreased with increasing dose.

  1. Pyloric tonsil as a novel gut-associated lymphoepithelial organ of the chicken.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Nándor; Oláh, Imre

    2007-09-01

    The pyloric tonsil is a novel peripheral lymphoepithelial organ of the gastrointestinal tract in the chicken. It forms a complete lymphoid ring at the beginning of the duodenum, where crypts of Lieberkühn are transformed to tonsillar crypts with lymphoepithelial lining. The oesophageal (described previously) and pyloric tonsils are characteristic of the chicken, while they are absent in mammals. The lymphoid system develops from the middle germ layer, the mesoderm, and forms connections with the ecto- and endoderm, namely the skin and gut, respectively. These connections are based on the lymphoepithelial lining of the crypts, and provide gates for environmental antigens. Recent findings, taken together with the literature, suggest that in birds the lymphoid system forms connections with the endoderm-derived organs that are anatomically and histologically more extensive than the ectoderm-derived ones, which may be explained by the absence of regional lymph nodes, and the less developed lymphoid circulation of the skin.

  2. Localization of Distinct Peyer's Patch Dendritic Cell Subsets and Their Recruitment by Chemokines Macrophage Inflammatory Protein (Mip)-3α, Mip-3β, and Secondary Lymphoid Organ Chemokine

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Akiko; Kelsall, Brian L.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the anatomical localization of three distinct dendritic cell (DC) subsets in the murine Peyer's patch (PP) and explore the role of chemokines in their recruitment. By two-color in situ immunofluorescence, CD11b+ myeloid DCs were determined to be present in the subepithelial dome (SED) region, whereas CD8α+ lymphoid DCs are present in the T cell–rich interfollicular region (IFR). DCs that lack expression of CD8α or CD11b (double negative) are present in both the SED and IFR. By in situ hybridization, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3α mRNA was dramatically expressed only by the follicle-associated epithelium overlying the SED, while its receptor, CCR6, was concentrated in the SED. In contrast, CCR7 was expressed predominantly in the IFR. Consistent with these findings, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis and in vitro chemotaxis assays using freshly isolated DCs revealed that CCR6 was functionally expressed only by DC subsets present in the SED, while all subsets expressed functional CCR7. Moreover, none of the splenic DC subsets migrated toward MIP-3α. These data support a distinct role for MIP-3α/CCR6 in recruitment of CD11b+ DCs toward the mucosal surfaces and for MIP-3β/CCR7 in attraction of CD8α+ DCs to the T cell regions. Finally, we demonstrated that all DC subsets expressed an immature phenotype when freshly isolated and maintained expression of subset markers upon maturation in vitro. In contrast, CCR7 expression by myeloid PP DCs was enhanced with maturation in vitro. In addition, this subset disappeared from the SED and appeared in the IFR after microbial stimulation in vivo, suggesting that immature myeloid SED DCs capture antigens and migrate to IFR to initiate T cell responses after mucosal microbial infections. PMID:10770804

  3. [Correlation of the frequency of surgical procedures on the peripheral immunologic organs with the frequency of oncologic and other somatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Dobzhanskiĭ, A V; Matrosov, V M; Parusov, M V; Pavlov, N I; Travin, M V

    2006-01-01

    Regional Oncological Dispensary, Kostroma The study included 388 cancer patients (group 1) and 381 cases of other pathologies (group 2). Surgery on lymphoid organs was performed in 121 patients (31%) in group 1 and 150 in group 2. It was concluded that such intervention in the immune system was not an oncological hazard. That phenomenon might be accounted for by the specificity of immune response in patients suffering from such diseases.

  4. Involvement of Sialic Acid on Endothelial Cells in Organ-Specific Lymphocyte Recirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Steven D.; Singer, Mark S.; Yednock, Ted A.; Stoolman, Lloyd M.

    1985-05-01

    Mouse lymphocytes incubated on cryostat-cut sections of lymphoid organs (lymph nodes and Peyer's patches) specifically adhere to the endothelium of high endothelial venules (HEV), the specialized blood vessels to which recirculating lymphocytes attach as they migrate from the blood into the parenchyma of the lymphoid organs. Treatment of sections with sialidase eliminated the binding of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph node HEV, had no effect on binding to Peyer's patch HEV, and had an intermediate effect on mesenteric lymph node HEV. These results suggest that sialic acid on endothelial cells may be an organ-specific recognition determinant for lymphocyte attachment.

  5. Mechanisms of decompensation and organ failure in cirrhosis: From peripheral arterial vasodilation to systemic inflammation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Mauro; Moreau, Richard; Angeli, Paolo; Schnabl, Bernd; Arroyo, Vicente

    2015-11-01

    The peripheral arterial vasodilation hypothesis has been most influential in the field of cirrhosis and its complications. It has given rise to hundreds of pathophysiological studies in experimental and human cirrhosis and is the theoretical basis of life-saving treatments. It is undisputed that splanchnic arterial vasodilation contributes to portal hypertension and is the basis for manifestations such as ascites and hepatorenal syndrome, but the body of research generated by the hypothesis has revealed gaps in the original pathophysiological interpretation of these complications. The expansion of our knowledge on the mechanisms regulating vascular tone, inflammation and the host-microbiota interaction require a broader approach to advanced cirrhosis encompassing the whole spectrum of its manifestations. Indeed, multiorgan dysfunction and failure likely result from a complex interplay where the systemic spread of bacterial products represents the primary event. The consequent activation of the host innate immune response triggers endothelial molecular mechanisms responsible for arterial vasodilation, and also jeopardizes organ integrity with a storm of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Thus, the picture of advanced cirrhosis could be seen as the result of an inflammatory syndrome in contradiction with a simple hemodynamic disturbance. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. MicroRNA-125b expands hematopoietic stem cells and enriches for the lymphoid-balanced and lymphoid-biased subsets

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, A. G. Lisa; Sahoo, Debashis; Adorno, Maddalena; Wang, Yulei; Weissman, Irving L.; Park, Christopher Y.

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs profoundly impact hematopoietic cells by regulating progenitor cell-fate decisions, as well as mature immune effector function. However to date, microRNAs that regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function have been less well characterized. Here we show that microRNA-125b (miR-125b) is highly expressed in HSCs and its expression decreases in committed progenitors. Overexpression of miR-125b in mouse HSC enhances their function, demonstrated through serial transplantation of highly purified HSC, and enriches for the previously described Slamf1loCD34− lymphoid-balanced and the Slamf1negCD34− lymphoid-biased cell subsets within the multipotent HSC (CD34-KLS) fraction. Mature peripheral blood cells derived from the miR-125b–overexpressing HSC are skewed toward the lymphoid lineage. Consistent with this observation, miR-125b overexpression significantly increases the number of early B-progenitor cells within the spleen and induces the expansion and enrichment of the lymphoid-balanced and lymphoid-biased HSC subset via an antiapoptotic mechanism, reducing the mRNA expression levels of two proapoptotic targets, Bmf and KLF13. The antiapoptotic effect of miR-125b is more pronounced in the lymphoid-biased HSC subset because of their intrinsic higher baseline levels of apoptosis. These effects of miR-125b are associated with the development of lymphoproliferative disease, marked by expansion of CD8+ T lymphocytes. Taken together, these data reveal that miR-125b regulates HSC survival and can promote lymphoid-fate decisions at the level of the HSC by preferentially expanding lymphoid-balanced and lymphoid-biased HSC. PMID:21118986

  7. MicroRNA-125b expands hematopoietic stem cells and enriches for the lymphoid-balanced and lymphoid-biased subsets.

    PubMed

    Ooi, A G Lisa; Sahoo, Debashis; Adorno, Maddalena; Wang, Yulei; Weissman, Irving L; Park, Christopher Y

    2010-12-14

    MicroRNAs profoundly impact hematopoietic cells by regulating progenitor cell-fate decisions, as well as mature immune effector function. However to date, microRNAs that regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function have been less well characterized. Here we show that microRNA-125b (miR-125b) is highly expressed in HSCs and its expression decreases in committed progenitors. Overexpression of miR-125b in mouse HSC enhances their function, demonstrated through serial transplantation of highly purified HSC, and enriches for the previously described Slamf1(lo)CD34(-) lymphoid-balanced and the Slamf1(neg)CD34(-) lymphoid-biased cell subsets within the multipotent HSC (CD34-KLS) fraction. Mature peripheral blood cells derived from the miR-125b-overexpressing HSC are skewed toward the lymphoid lineage. Consistent with this observation, miR-125b overexpression significantly increases the number of early B-progenitor cells within the spleen and induces the expansion and enrichment of the lymphoid-balanced and lymphoid-biased HSC subset via an antiapoptotic mechanism, reducing the mRNA expression levels of two proapoptotic targets, Bmf and KLF13. The antiapoptotic effect of miR-125b is more pronounced in the lymphoid-biased HSC subset because of their intrinsic higher baseline levels of apoptosis. These effects of miR-125b are associated with the development of lymphoproliferative disease, marked by expansion of CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Taken together, these data reveal that miR-125b regulates HSC survival and can promote lymphoid-fate decisions at the level of the HSC by preferentially expanding lymphoid-balanced and lymphoid-biased HSC.

  8. Behavior of autologous indium-114m-labeled lymphocytes in patients with lymphoid cell malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, D.; Cowan, R.A.; Sharma, H.L.; Drayson, M.; Nuttall, P.M.; Wagstaff, J.; Deakin, D.P.; Crowther, D.

    1988-04-01

    It has been shown that radioactive material can be localized to lymphocyte traffic areas using radiolabeled autologous lymphocytes and that /sup 114m/In deposited in such a way in rats produces a lymphopoenia by establishing a selective internal irradiation of circulating lymphocytes. The study reported here was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of using this technique in patients with lymphoid cell malignancy. Up to 22.7 MBq was administered to seven patients with active non-Hodgkin's lymphoma involving the spleen and the behavior of the radioactive material was followed over subsequent months. Estimates of the activity in peripheral blood, bone marrow, excreta samples, and of the variation in the whole-body distribution were obtained. The administered radioactive material cleared rapidly from the blood, 85% being removed within the first 30 min. There was an almost immediate uptake of most of this by the spleen and liver with less than 5% of administered activity accumulating in the bone marrow. After 48 hr, the whole-body distribution changed only slowly and there was a regular decrease of the activity in the spleen. Excretion of radioactive material occurred via both the urine and feces and amounted to less than 1% of administered activity per day. This pharmacokinetic data was used to calculate radiation absorbed doses to various organs for a standard man. It is concluded that this represents a feasible technique for the targeting of radioactive material for the treatment of lymphoid malignancy.

  9. A novel human B-lymphocyte antigen shared with lymphoid dendritic cells: characterization by monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Y; Takami, T; Kokai, Y; Yuasa, H; Fujimoto, J; Takei, T; Kikuchi, K

    1985-01-01

    A novel cell-surface antigen (L25) expressed on human B cells was identified using a B cell-reactive monoclonal antibody (TB1-4D5). This L25 antigen was expressed on most B-lineage cells but not other cell types including thymocytes, T cells, granulocytes and monocytes. Thus, L25 existed on the majority of normal B cells present in the blood and lymphoid tissues, on cultured cell lines derived from normal and malignant B cells, and on neoplastic cells isolated from patients with B cell-derived malignancies. Though L25 was persistently expressed on B cells until 7 days after their activation with pokeweed mitogen (PWM), neither normal nor neoplastic plasma cells expressed L25. Moreover, L25 was present on cultured as well as freshly isolated leukaemic cells with common acute lymphatic leukaemia (CALL) antigen, which have been thought to correspond to the early B-cell ontogeny. Besides pan-B cell reactivity of TB1-4D5 antibody, it apparently cross-reacted with so-called dendritic or interdigitating cells located in the thymic-dependent areas of peripheral lymphoid organs, which have been presumably ascribed to those associated with accessory-cell function. Functional studies showed that anti-L25 (TB1-4D5) antibody had inhibitory effect on induction of immunoglobulin synthesis by PWM-stimulated B cells. Images Fig. 2 PMID:3907905

  10. Morphological spectrum of peripheral nerve sheath tumors: An insight into World Health Organization 2013 classification

    PubMed Central

    Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Boovalli, Mythri M.; Nathiyal, Velusamy; Venkataramappa, Srinivasamurthy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) are neuroectodermal in origin. Now these tumors are classified under World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of soft tissue and bone 2013. Objective: To study the morphological spectrum of PNST and to study the secondary degenerative changes associated with it. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted from January 2010 to June 2015. The gross details of tumor and patient's demographic profiles were reviewed. The hematoxylin and eosin stained slides were reassessed and the lesions were categorized and classified as per the WHO 2013 classification. The tumors were also assessed for secondary degenerative changes. Results: Our study comprised 143 cases of PNST. Age of the patients ranged from 5 to 75 years. 21–30 years is the most common age of occurrence with head and neck being the most common site. The PNSTs observed in the present study were neurofibroma (NF) (61.5%), schwannoma (36%), malignant PNST (2%), and granular cell tumor (0.5%). Nearly 10% of NF fulfilled the criteria for neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). Rare tumors such as plexiform schwannoma and granular cell tumor were also observed. Malignant tumors were larger in dimension than benign. Myxoid, cystic, and hyaline changes were commonly associated with benign tumors while necrosis, hemorrhage, and mitotic activity were seen with malignant tumors. Conclusion: This series highlights the pathological variants of PNST along with their morphological changes and NF1 association. It is essential to be familiar with all these variants of PNST for accurate diagnosis as they have varied biological behavior. PMID:27365950

  11. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We next introduce a category of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells, and describe their classification and function in intestinal immunology. Finally, we discuss the effects of the intestinal microbiota on innate lymphoid cells. PMID:24418741

  12. Characterization of lymphoid cells in the blood of healthy adults: sequential immunological, cytochemical and cytokinetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hirt, A.; Wagner, H.P.

    1980-01-01

    With a new method, sequential immunological, cytochemical and cytokinetic studies were done on lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood of 12 healthy adults. Every single lymphoid cell could therefore be characterized by the following markers: surface immunoglobulins (sIg); rosetting with sheep red blood cells (E); unspecific acid alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE); and 3HdT incorporation. Significantly more E+sIg-ANAE-cells (51% and 22% of all lymphoid cells, respectively). Of all ANAE+ cells 90% were E+, but 64% of all ANAE- cells were also E+. In all individuals a subpopulation of E+sIg+ cells was found. The esterase pattern of these cells was similar to that of E-sIg+ cells. The overall labeling index of the lymphoid cells examined was less than or equal to 0.2%.

  13. Treatment of intractable rheumatoid arthritis with lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.; Kotzin, B.L.; Hoppe, R.T.; Slavin, S.; Gottlieb, M.; Calin, A.; Fuks, Z.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    Subdiaphragmatic lymphoid radiation was used as an alternative to cytotoxic drug therapy to treat six patients with progressive erosive rheumatoid arthritis. All were previously unresponsive to conventional therapy. Radiation (4,000 rad) was given to subdiaphragmatic lymphoid tissues in fractionated doses of 150 to 250 rad each. Three of the six patients demonstrated long-lasting clinical improvement with a decrease in synovitis and morning stiffness and an increase in joint function. All six patients showed a profound depression in the peripheral blood lymphocyte count which persisted for at least six months. The irradiation was well tolerated; there have been no serious complications due to radiotherapy with follow-up ranging from 13 to 36 months. The substantial efficacy in some patients and the lack of severe toxicity in all suggests that radiotherapy deserves further study as an alternative to cytotoxic drugs in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  14. Dendritic cell-derived VEGF-A plays a role in inflammatory angiogenesis of human secondary lymphoid organs and is driven by the coordinated activation of multiple transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Valentina; Vermi, William; Gianello, Veronica; Lonardi, Silvia; Gagliostro, Vincenzo; Naldini, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Lymph node expansion during inflammation is essential to establish immune responses and relies on the development of blood and lymph vessels. Previous work in mice has shown that this process depends on the presence of VEGF-A produced by B cells, macrophages and stromal cells. In humans, however, the cell types and the mechanisms regulating the intranodal production of VEGF-A remain elusive. Here we show that CD11c+ cells represent the main VEGF-A-producing cell population in human reactive secondary lymphoid organs. In addition we find that three transcription factors, namely CREB, HIF-1α and STAT3, regulate the expression of VEGF-A in inflamed DCs. Both HIF-1α and STAT3 are activated by inflammatory agonists. Conversely, CREB phosphorylation represents the critical contribution of endogenous or exogenous PGE2. Taken together, these results propose a crucial role for DCs in lymph node inflammatory angiogenesis and identify novel potential cellular and molecular targets to limit inflammation in chronic diseases and tumors. PMID:27256980

  15. Dendritic cell-derived VEGF-A plays a role in inflammatory angiogenesis of human secondary lymphoid organs and is driven by the coordinated activation of multiple transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Valentina; Vermi, William; Gianello, Veronica; Lonardi, Silvia; Gagliostro, Vincenzo; Naldini, Antonella; Sozzani, Silvano; Bosisio, Daniela

    2016-06-28

    Lymph node expansion during inflammation is essential to establish immune responses and relies on the development of blood and lymph vessels. Previous work in mice has shown that this process depends on the presence of VEGF-A produced by B cells, macrophages and stromal cells. In humans, however, the cell types and the mechanisms regulating the intranodal production of VEGF-A remain elusive. Here we show that CD11c+ cells represent the main VEGF-A-producing cell population in human reactive secondary lymphoid organs. In addition we find that three transcription factors, namely CREB, HIF-1α and STAT3, regulate the expression of VEGF-A in inflamed DCs. Both HIF-1α and STAT3 are activated by inflammatory agonists. Conversely, CREB phosphorylation represents the critical contribution of endogenous or exogenous PGE2. Taken together, these results propose a crucial role for DCs in lymph node inflammatory angiogenesis and identify novel potential cellular and molecular targets to limit inflammation in chronic diseases and tumors.

  16. Differential effects of light and feeding on circadian organization of peripheral clocks in a forebrain Bmal1 mutant

    PubMed Central

    Izumo, Mariko; Pejchal, Martina; Schook, Andrew C; Lange, Ryan P; Walisser, Jacqueline A; Sato, Takashi R; Wang, Xiaozhong; Bradfield, Christopher A; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the contribution of a central clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) to circadian behavior and the organization of peripheral clocks, we generated forebrain/SCN-specific Bmal1 knockout mice by using floxed Bmal1 and pan-neuronal Cre lines. The forebrain knockout mice showed >90% deletion of BMAL1 in the SCN and exhibited an immediate and complete loss of circadian behavior in constant conditions. Circadian rhythms in peripheral tissues persisted but became desynchronized and damped in constant darkness. The loss of synchrony was rescued by light/dark cycles and partially by restricted feeding (only in the liver and kidney but not in the other tissues) in a distinct manner. These results suggest that the forebrain/SCN is essential for internal temporal order of robust circadian programs in peripheral clocks, and that individual peripheral clocks are affected differently by light and feeding in the absence of a functional oscillator in the forebrain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04617.001 PMID:25525750

  17. Ampullary sense organs, peripheral, central and behavioral electroreception in chimeras (Hydrolagus, Holocephali, Chondrichthyes).

    PubMed

    Fields, R D; Bullock, T H; Lange, G D

    1993-01-01

    Ampullary sense organs are distributed in groups over the head of Hydrolagus colliei with their pores in clusters and innervated by the buccal, hyomandibular and superficial ophthalmic branches of the anterior lateral line nerve. The ampullae contain ciliated sense cells in an alveolate-shaped epithelium, which communicates to the surface through a jelly-filled tube. The sense cells synapse at their bases with the afferent nerve fibers that terminate in the dorsal nucleus of the anterior lateral line lobe of the medulla. The anatomy and ultrastructure support the homology with the ampullae of Lorenzini of elasmobranchs. Single units recorded from the buccal branch of the anterior lateral line nerve are either lateral line or ampullary in character, the former being sensitive only to mechanical stimuli, the latter to both mechanical and to weak electric stimuli. They are also distinguished by the positions of their receptive fields. The electroreceptive units are spontaneously active and are excited by a cathode placed near the opening of their pore and inhibited by an anode. Compound evoked potentials are recorded from beneath the lateral aspect of the tectum in response to weak electric fields in the bath. Each recording locus has a best position and orientation of the electric field. The electric fields are effective if their duration is longer than ca. 2 ms; longer than 10 ms makes no difference until an OFF effect becomes distinct at ca. 50 ms. The reception is tuned to low frequencies but is not sensitive to maintained current (DC). Evoked potentials summating moderate numbers of responses are clear at < 1 microV/cm. Ratfish were conditioned in a ring-shaped tank to reverse the direction of swimming when an electric field was switched ON. The stimulus was a 5 Hz square wave or the onset of a DC of 1-10 microA between a pair of electrodes on the floor of the tank. The fish responded to fields as weak as 0.2 microV/cm. A specialized sense modality for

  18. The Cc Chemokine Thymus-Derived Chemotactic Agent 4 (Tca-4, Secondary Lymphoid Tissue Chemokine, 6ckine, Exodus-2) Triggers Lymphocyte Function–Associated Antigen 1–Mediated Arrest of Rolling T Lymphocytes in Peripheral Lymph Node High Endothelial Venules

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Jens V.; Rot, Antal; Luo, Yi; Narasimhaswamy, Manjunath; Nakano, Hideki; Gunn, Michael D.; Matsuzawa, Akio; Quackenbush, Elizabeth J.; Dorf, Martin E.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    2000-01-01

    T cell homing to peripheral lymph nodes (PLNs) is defined by a multistep sequence of interactions between lymphocytes and endothelial cells in high endothelial venules (HEVs). After initial tethering and rolling via L-selectin, firm adhesion of T cells requires rapid upregulation of lymphocyte function–associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) adhesiveness by a previously unknown pathway that activates a Gαi-linked receptor. Here, we used intravital microscopy of murine PLNs to study the role of thymus-derived chemotactic agent (TCA)-4 (secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine, 6Ckine, Exodus-2) in homing of adoptively transferred T cells from T-GFP mice, a transgenic strain that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) selectively in naive T lymphocytes (TGFP cells). TCA-4 was constitutively presented on the luminal surface of HEVs, where it was required for LFA-1 activation on rolling TGFP cells. Desensitization of the TCA-4 receptor, CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7), blocked TGFP cell adherence in wild-type HEVs, whereas desensitization to stromal cell–derived factor (SDF)-1α (the ligand for CXC chemokine receptor 4 [CXCR4]) did not affect TGFP cell behavior. TCA-4 protein was not detected on the luminal surface of PLN HEVs in plt/plt mice, which have a congenital defect in T cell homing to PLNs. Accordingly, TGFP cells rolled but did not arrest in plt/plt HEVs. When TCA-4 was injected intracutaneously into plt/plt mice, the chemokine entered afferent lymph vessels and accumulated in draining PLNs. 2 h after intracutaneous injection, luminal presentation of TCA-4 was detectable in a subset of HEVs, and LFA-1–mediated TGFP cell adhesion was restored in these vessels. We conclude that TCA-4 is both required and sufficient for LFA-1 activation on rolling T cells in PLN HEVs. This study also highlights a hitherto undocumented role for chemokines contained in afferent lymph, which may modulate leukocyte recruitment in draining PLNs. PMID:10620605

  19. Potential of Cells and Cytokines/Chemokines to Regulate Tertiary Lymphoid Structures in Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Feifeng

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) are ectopic lymphoid tissues involved in chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection and cancer. They exhibit almost all the characteristics of secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), which are associated with adaptive immune responses; as such, they contain organized B-cell follicles with germinal centers, distinct areas containing T cells and dendritic cells, high endothelial venules, and lymphatics. In this review, we briefly describe the formation of SLO, and describe the cellular subsets and molecular cues involved in the formation and maintenance of TLS. Finally, we discuss the associations of TLS with human diseases, especially autoimmune diseases, and the potential for therapeutic targeting. PMID:27799872

  20. Innate lymphoid cells and asthma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sanhong; Kim, Hye Young; Chang, Ya-Jen; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H; Umetsu, Dale T

    2014-04-01

    Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease with several phenotypes, including an allergic asthma phenotype characterized by TH2 cytokine production and associated with allergen sensitization and adaptive immunity. Asthma also includes nonallergic asthma phenotypes, such as asthma associated with exposure to air pollution, infection, or obesity, that require innate rather than adaptive immunity. These innate pathways that lead to asthma involve macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer T cells, and innate lymphoid cells, newly described cell types that produce a variety of cytokines, including IL-5 and IL-13. We review the recent data regarding innate lymphoid cells and their role in asthma. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Innate lymphoid cells in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Engelbertsen, Daniel; Lichtman, Andrew H

    2017-04-25

    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) consisting of NK cells, lymphoid tissue inducer cells and the 'helper'-like ILC subsets ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 have been shown to have important roles in protection against microbes, regulation of inflammatory diseases and involved in allergic reactions. ILC1s produce IFN-γ upon stimulation with IL-12 and IL-18, ILC2s produce IL-5 and IL-13 responding to IL-33 and IL-25 while ILC3s produce IL-17 and IL-22 after stimulation with IL-23 or IL-1. Although few studies have directly investigated the role for ILCs in atherosclerosis, several studies have investigated transcription factors and cytokines shared by ILCs and T helper cells. In this review we summarize our current understanding of the role of ILC in atherosclerosis and discuss future directions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF CHICKEN LYMPHOID SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yong Sung; Good, Robert A.

    1972-01-01

    Synthesis and secretion of Ig by chicken lymphoid cells was studied. Both spleen and bursa cells synthesize and secrete IgM and IgG whereas Ig was not detected in thymus cells. In contrast to the spleen cells which synthesize H and L chains in balanced quantities, the bursa cells synthesize and secrete free L chains. In addition to the lymphoid cells which secrete IgM or IgG, the bursa appears to contain a cell population which synthesizes nonsecretory Ig. The structure of this Ig was studied by specific serological precipitation and by SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The H chains of this nonsecretory Ig are serologically related to µ-chains and exhibit a smaller molecular weight (i.e., ∼50,000) in SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis than H chains of IgG and IgM synthesized by the spleen cells (i.e., ∼70,000). PMID:5022177

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF CHICKEN LYMPHOID SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yong Sung; Good, Robert A.

    1972-01-01

    Development of Ig-synthesizing cells in the bursa of chick embryo was studied by immunohistochemical staining method as well as by in vitro incorporation of leucine-3H into Ig. Ig-synthesizing cells are first detected in the bursa of a 14 day old chick embryo and increase with the maturation of the embryo. Acrylamide gel analysis of leucine-3H-labeled Ig shows that synthesis of nonsecretory IgM-H0 precedes that of secretory IgM-H, reflecting an ontogenetic sequence of development of lymphoid cells synthesizing IgM. Since IgM-H0 is not secreted, we further studied biochemical differences between two heavy chains. The difference is attributable to lack of galactose attachment to H0 chains. It is proposed that during differentiation of lymphoid cells synthesizing and secreting Ig, attachment of galactose may play an obligatory role in the development of cellular capacity for Ig secretion. PMID:5033422

  4. Dietary β-glucans differentially modulate immune and stress-related gene expression in lymphoid organs from healthy and Aeromonas hydrophila-infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Douxfils, Jessica; Fierro-Castro, Camino; Mandiki, S N M; Emile, Wakson; Tort, Lluis; Kestemont, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Although β-glucans stimulating effects have already been demonstrated on the immune system of numerous animal species, available data remain relatively variable and more research should be done regarding the complexity of underlying mechanisms. In this context, the present study aimed to evaluate the stress and immune-related effects of dietary β-glucans (i.e. Macrogard(®)) by considering a number of influencing factors such as the dose (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5% in food), feeding duration (15 versus 30 days), tissue (blood, kidney, spleen, gills) and infection status (healthy or infected). Blood parameters (lysozyme, ACH50 activities, leucocyte populations) and mRNA expression level of several immune- and stress-related genes (TFN-α1, IL-1β, IL10, COX-2, TGF-β, MC2R, HSP70) were measured. Our results suggest that spleen may be a highly responsive organ to dietary β-glucans both in healthy or infected fish, and that this organ may therefore significantly contribute to the immune reinforcement induced by such immunostimulatory diet. Our study further reveals that overdoses of β-glucans and/or prolonged medication can lead to a non-reactive physiological status and, consequently, to a poor immune response. All in all, the current data emphasizes the need for further extensive research in the field of dietary β-glucans as a preventive method for farmed fish protection.

  5. Organizing a mucosal defense.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Rodney D; Lorenz, Robin G

    2005-08-01

    Gastrointestinal associated lymphoid tissue can be divided into loosely organized effector sites, which include the lamina propria and intraepithelial lymphocytes, and more organized structures, such as mesenteric lymph nodes (LNs), Peyer's patches (PPs), isolated lymphoid follicles, and cryptopatches (CPs). These organized structures in the gastrointestinal tract have been hypothesized to play the role of primary lymphoid organ, supporting the extrathymic development of T lymphocytes (CPs), secondary lymphoid organs involved in the induction of the mucosal immune response (PPs), and tertiary lymphoid structures whose function is still under debate (isolated lymphoid follicles). The most widely studied lymphoid structure found in the small intestine is the PP. PPs are secondary lymphoid structures, and their development and function have been extensively investigated. However, single lymphoid aggregates resembling PPs have been also described in humans and in the murine small intestines. These isolated lymphoid follicles have both germinal centers and an overlying follicle-associated epithelium, suggesting that they also can function as inductive sites for the mucosal immune response. This review compares and contrasts the development and function of the four main organized gastrointestinal lymphoid tissues: CPs, isolated lymphoid follicles, PPs, and mesenteric LNs.

  6. Blood myeloid and lymphoid dendritic cells reflect Th1/Th2 balance in sarcoidosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Buczkowski, Jarosław; Krawczyk, Paweł; Chocholska, Sylwia; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Kieszko, Robert; Michnar, Marek; Milanowski, Janusz; Roliński, Jacek

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells play a specific regulatory role in the immune system. In this paper, the significance of myeloid and lymphoid dendritic cells in sarcoidosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) was evaluated. Myeloid dendritic cells are connected with Th1 type of immunological response, whereas lymphoid ones--with Th2 type. The latest findings indicate that both diseases are characterized by serious disturbances of Th1/Th2 response to Th1 dominance. Our studies seem to confirm these suggestions. In the peripheral blood of patients with sarcoidosis as well as with EAA, myeloid dendritic cells outnumbered lymphoid ones.

  7. Stress-induced alterations in the programmed natural cycles of post-natal lymphoid organ development in C57BL/6 mice: Evidence for a regulatory feedback relationship between bone marrow and thymus.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Gerpe, Lourdes

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated some effects of weaning and immobilization stress in C57BL/6 mice aged 22-68 days, i.e., over a period including activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and puberty. Specifically, the study evaluated the evolution, over the referred age interval, of a set of variables (body, thymus, spleen and axillary lymph nodes weights, the proportion of lymphoid cells in the bone marrow, the relative chemoattraction capacity of thymic supernatants for lymphoid cells and the migratory capacity of bone marrow lymphoid cells) in either weaned mice or weaned mice subjected to immobilization stress, compared to "non-stressed" unweaned mice. Cyclic patterns, observed for most variables in unweaned mice, were especially pronounced in two cases: the relative migratory capacity of bone marrow lymphoid cells collected at different ages towards neonatal thymic supernatant, and the relative chemoattraction capacity of thymic supernatants of different ages as tested against a sample of bone marrow lymphoid cells from mice aged 35 days. Weaning stress tended to intensify the involution stages of the cycles in thymus, spleen and lymph node weight, but increased the relative proportion of lymphoid cells in the bone marrow cell population. Both types of exogenous stress tended to affect cycle phase, i.e., cycle peaks and troughs were shifted in time. Correlations were observed between patterns seen in the thymus and bone marrow, suggesting the existence of an autoregulatory feedback loop governing pre-T cell migration and bone marrow/thymus homeostasis. These results also suggest that exogenous stress acts as a non-programmed regulator, modulating the naturally programmed cyclic patterns.

  8. Endogenous IL-33 is highly expressed in mouse epithelial barrier tissues, lymphoid organs, brain, embryos, and inflamed tissues: in situ analysis using a novel Il-33-LacZ gene trap reporter strain.

    PubMed

    Pichery, Mélanie; Mirey, Emilie; Mercier, Pascale; Lefrancais, Emma; Dujardin, Arnaud; Ortega, Nathalie; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2012-04-01

    IL-33 (previously known as NF from high endothelial venules) is an IL-1 family cytokine that signals through the ST2 receptor and drives cytokine production in mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, invariant NKT and NK cells, Th2 lymphocytes, and type 2 innate immune cells (natural helper cells, nuocytes, and innate helper 2 cells). Little is known about endogenous IL-33; for instance, the cellular sources of IL-33 in mouse tissues have not yet been defined. In this study, we generated an Il-33-LacZ gene trap reporter strain (Il-33(Gt/Gt)) and used this novel tool to analyze expression of endogenous IL-33 in vivo. We found that the Il-33 promoter exhibits constitutive activity in mouse lymphoid organs, epithelial barrier tissues, brain, and embryos. Immunostaining with anti-IL-33 Abs, using Il-33(Gt/Gt) (Il-33-deficient) mice as control, revealed that endogenous IL-33 protein is highly expressed in mouse epithelial barrier tissues, including stratified squamous epithelia from vagina and skin, as well as cuboidal epithelium from lung, stomach, and salivary gland. Constitutive expression of IL-33 was not detected in blood vessels, revealing the existence of species-specific differences between humans and mice. Importantly, IL-33 protein was always localized in the nucleus of producing cells with no evidence for cytoplasmic localization. Finally, strong expression of the Il-33-LacZ reporter was also observed in inflamed tissues, in the liver during LPS-induced endotoxin shock, and in the lung alveoli during papain-induced allergic airway inflammation. Together, our findings support the possibility that IL-33 may function as a nuclear alarmin to alert the innate immune system after injury or infection in epithelial barrier tissues.

  9. [Effects of low-intensity extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation on chromatin structure of lymphoid cells in vivo and in vitro].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Lushnikov, K V; Shumilina, Iu V; Sirota, N P; Sadovnikov, V B; Chemeris, N K

    2003-01-01

    Using a comet assay technique, it was shown for the first time that low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) in vivo causes oppositely directed effects on spatial organization of chromatin in cells of lymphoid organs. In 3 hrs after single whole-body exposure of NMRI mice for 20 min at 42.0 GHz and 0.15 mW/cm2, an increase by 16% (p < 0.03 as compared with control) and a decrease by 16% (p < 0.001) in fluorescence intensity of nucleoids stained with ethidium bromide were found in thymocytes and splenocytes, respectively. The fluorescence intensity of stained nucleoids in peripheral blood leukocytes was not changed after the exposure. The exposure of cells of Raji hunan lymphoid line and peripheral blood leukocytes to the EHF EMR in vitro induced a decrease in fluorescence intensity by 23% (p < 0.001) and 18% (p < 0.05), respectively. These effects can be determined by changes in a number of physiological alkali-labile sites in DNA of exposed cells. We suggested that the effects of low-intensity EHF EMR on the immune system cells are realized with the participation of neuroendocrine and central nervous systems.

  10. Peripheral autonomic nerves of human pineal organ terminate on vessels, their supposed role in the periodic secretion of pineal melatonin.

    PubMed

    Manzano E Silva, Maria Joao; Singh, Royana; Haldar, Chandana; Vigh, Béla; Szél, Ágoston

    2012-08-01

    Nonvisual pineal and retinal photoreceptors are synchronizing circadian and circannual periodicity to the environmental light periods in the function of various organs. Melatonin of the pineal organ is secreted at night and represents an important factor of this periodic regulation. Night illumination suppressing melatonin secretion may result in pathological events like breast and colorectal cancer. Experimental works demonstrated the role of autonomic nerves in the pineal melatonin secretion. It was supposed that mammalian pineals have lost their photoreceptor capacity that is present in submammalians, and sympathetic fibers would mediate light information from the retina to regulate melatonin secretion. Retinal afferentation may reach the organ by central nerve fibers via the pineal habenulae as well. In our earlier works we have found that the pineal organ developing from lobular evaginations of the epithalamus differs from peripheral endocrine glands and is composed of a retina-like central nervous tissue that is comprised of cone-like pinealocytes, secondary pineal neurons and glial cells. Their autonomic nerves in submammalians as well as in mammalian animals do not terminate on pineal cells, rather, they run in the meningeal septa among pineal lobules and form vasomotor nerve endings. Concerning the adult human pineal there are no detailed fine structural data about the termination of autonomic fibers, therefore, in the present work we investigated the ultrastructure of the human pineal peripheral autonomic nerve fibers. It was found, that similarly to other parts of the brain, autonomic nerves do not enter the human pineal nervous tissue itself but separated by glial limiting membranes take their course in the meningeal septa of the organ and terminate on vessels by vasomotor endings. We suppose that these autonomic vasomotor nerves serve the regulation of the pineal blood supply according to the circadian and circannual changes of the metabolic activity

  11. A Stromal Cell Niche for Human and Mouse Type 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Hoorweg, Kerim; Narang, Priyanka; Li, Zhi; Thuery, Anne; Papazian, Natalie; Withers, David R; Coles, Mark C; Cupedo, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Adaptive immunity critically depends on the functional compartmentalization of secondary lymphoid organs. Mesenchymal stromal cells create and maintain specialized niches that support survival, activation, and expansion of T and B cells, and integrated analysis of lymphocytes and their niche has been instrumental in understanding adaptive immunity. Lymphoid organs are also home to type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), innate effector cells essential for barrier immunity. However, a specialized stromal niche for ILC3 has not been identified. A novel lineage-tracing approach now identifies a subset of murine fetal lymphoid tissue organizer cells that gives rise exclusively to adult marginal reticular cells. Moreover, both cell types are conserved from mice to humans and colocalize with ILC3 in secondary lymphoid tissues throughout life. In sum, we provide evidence that fetal stromal organizers give rise to adult marginal reticular cells and form a dedicated stromal niche for innate ILC3 in adaptive lymphoid organs. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Dissection of the mechanisms of immune injury in rheumatoid arthritis, using total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gaston, J.S.; Strober, S.; Solovera, J.J.; Gandour, D.; Lane, N.; Schurman, D.; Hoppe, R.T.; Chin, R.C.; Eugui, E.M.; Vaughan, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation. After radiotherapy, there was a marked decrease in the number and function of peripheral blood helper/inducer (Leu-3+) T lymphocytes, in the spontaneous secretion of interleukin-1 by synovial biopsy specimens, and in the activity of the joint disease. In contrast, levels of IgM, IgA, and IgG rheumatoid factors and C3 concentrations in blood and synovial fluid samples did not change significantly after therapy with total lymphoid irradiation.

  13. Combined effects of noise and hand-arm vibration on auditory organ and peripheral circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakita, T.; Miura, H.; Futatsuka, M.

    1991-12-01

    This paper first presents an overview of an epidemiological study on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in relation to vibration-induced white finger (VWF). Secondly, the results obtained in a model experiment with a chain-saw under laboratory conditions are discussed from the viewpoints of elucidating the etiological mechanisms of VWF and NIHL. In the epidemiological study, in which 499 chain-saw workers were examined, chain-saw workers with VWF showed a significantly greater hearing loss at high frequencies than those without VWF. Next, an experimental study was designed to determine whether a combination of noise and vibration produced more pronounced changes in temporary shifts of finger skin temperature and temporary threshold shift (TTS) of hearing than those resulting from exposure to either stress alone. The results suggested that noise might play a part in inducing the constriction of the peripheral vessels seen with local exposure to vibration, and that hand-arm vibration may produce an additive effect on the noise-induced TTS. Furthermore, finger skin temperature and finger blood flow were measured simultaneously as indicators of peripheral circulatory movement for five healthy subjects. The relation between the synergistic action of noise and vibration and the participation of the sympathetic nervous system are also discussed.

  14. Maternal retinoids control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and set the offspring immunity.

    PubMed

    van de Pavert, Serge A; Ferreira, Manuela; Domingues, Rita G; Ribeiro, Hélder; Molenaar, Rosalie; Moreira-Santos, Lara; Almeida, Francisca F; Ibiza, Sales; Barbosa, Inês; Goverse, Gera; Labão-Almeida, Carlos; Godinho-Silva, Cristina; Konijn, Tanja; Schooneman, Dennis; O'Toole, Tom; Mizee, Mark R; Habani, Yasmin; Haak, Esther; Santori, Fabio R; Littman, Dan R; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Dzierzak, Elaine; Simas, J Pedro; Mebius, Reina E; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2014-04-03

    The impact of nutritional status during fetal life on the overall health of adults has been recognized; however, dietary effects on the developing immune system are largely unknown. Development of secondary lymphoid organs occurs during embryogenesis and is considered to be developmentally programmed. Secondary lymphoid organ formation depends on a subset of type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) named lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Here we show that mouse fetal ILC3s are controlled by cell-autonomous retinoic acid (RA) signalling in utero, which pre-sets the immune fitness in adulthood. We found that embryonic lymphoid organs contain ILC progenitors that differentiate locally into mature LTi cells. Local LTi cell differentiation was controlled by maternal retinoid intake and fetal RA signalling acting in a haematopoietic cell-autonomous manner. RA controlled LTi cell maturation upstream of the transcription factor RORγt. Accordingly, enforced expression of Rorgt restored maturation of LTi cells with impaired RA signalling, whereas RA receptors directly regulated the Rorgt locus. Finally, we established that maternal levels of dietary retinoids control the size of secondary lymphoid organs and the efficiency of immune responses in the adult offspring. Our results reveal a molecular link between maternal nutrients and the formation of immune structures required for resistance to infection in the offspring.

  15. Maternal retinoids control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and set the offspring immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Pavert, Serge A.; Ferreira, Manuela; Domingues, Rita G.; Ribeiro, Hélder; Molenaar, Rosalie; Moreira-Santos, Lara; Almeida, Francisca F.; Ibiza, Sales; Barbosa, Inês; Goverse, Gera; Labão-Almeida, Carlos; Godinho-Silva, Cristina; Konijn, Tanja; Schooneman, Dennis; O'Toole, Tom; Mizee, Mark R.; Habani, Yasmin; Haak, Esther; Santori, Fabio R.; Littman, Dan R.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Dzierzak, Elaine; Simas, J. Pedro; Mebius, Reina E.; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2014-04-01

    The impact of nutritional status during fetal life on the overall health of adults has been recognized; however, dietary effects on the developing immune system are largely unknown. Development of secondary lymphoid organs occurs during embryogenesis and is considered to be developmentally programmed. Secondary lymphoid organ formation depends on a subset of type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) named lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Here we show that mouse fetal ILC3s are controlled by cell-autonomous retinoic acid (RA) signalling in utero, which pre-sets the immune fitness in adulthood. We found that embryonic lymphoid organs contain ILC progenitors that differentiate locally into mature LTi cells. Local LTi cell differentiation was controlled by maternal retinoid intake and fetal RA signalling acting in a haematopoietic cell-autonomous manner. RA controlled LTi cell maturation upstream of the transcription factor RORγt. Accordingly, enforced expression of Rorgt restored maturation of LTi cells with impaired RA signalling, whereas RA receptors directly regulated the Rorgt locus. Finally, we established that maternal levels of dietary retinoids control the size of secondary lymphoid organs and the efficiency of immune responses in the adult offspring. Our results reveal a molecular link between maternal nutrients and the formation of immune structures required for resistance to infection in the offspring.

  16. [Lymphoid neogenesis and lymphangiogenesis: two newcomers in the pathophysiology of chronic rejection].

    PubMed

    Attuil-Audenis, Valérie; Duthey, Aurélie; Patey, Natacha; Gautreau, Chantal; McGregor, Brigitte; Morelon, Emmanuel; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Nicoletti, Antonino; Thaunat, Olivier

    2009-04-01

    Chronic rejection is one of the main causes of late allograft failure and no therapy is currently available to prevent efficiently its development. Improving the comprehension of the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of chronic rejection is a mandatory step to propose innovative therapies that would prolong grafts' survival. Using the rat aortic interposition model of chronic vascular rejection, we have demonstrated that the intragraft inflammatory infiltrate progressively organized itself into a functional ectopic lymphoid tissue (tertiary lymphoid organ) supporting the local synthesis of alloantibody. Thus, during chronic rejection the graft is at the same time the target and the site of elaboration of the humoral allo-immune response. This hypothesis has been confirmed in the clinical setting by the analysis of human grafts (kidneys, hearts and lungs) removed for terminal failure due to chronic rejection. This lymphoid neogenesis process, previously identified in other chronic inflammatory diseases, occurs with a strikingly high frequency in chronically rejected grafts, suggesting that an additional mechanism synergizes to initiate the development of tertiary lymphoid organs during chronic rejection. We propose that the defective lymphatic drainage of chronically rejected organs triggers lymphoid neogenesis and we discuss the complex crosstalk between lymphoid neogenesis and lymphangiogenesis that takes place during chronic rejection.

  17. Enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration by the combination of a polycaprolactone tubular prosthesis and a scaffold of collagen with supramolecular organization

    PubMed Central

    Maturana, Luiz G; Pierucci, Amauri; Simões, Gustavo F; Vidigal, Mateus; Duek, Eliana A R; Vidal, Benedicto C; Oliveira, Alexandre L R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of implanting collagen with a supramolecular organization on peripheral nerve regeneration, using the sciatic nerve tubulization technique. For this purpose, adult female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups: (1) TP – sciatic nerve repaired with empty polyethylene tubular prothesis (n = 10), (2) TPCL – nerve repair with empty polycaprolactone (PCL) tubing (n = 8), (3) TPCLF – repair with PCL tubing filled with an implant of collagen with a supramolecular organization (n = 10), (4) AG – animals that received a peripheral nerve autograft (n = 8), and (5) Normal nerves (n = 8). The results were assessed by quantification of the regenerated fibers, nerve morphometry, and transmission electron microscopy, 60 days after surgery. Immunohistochemistry and polarization microscopy were also used to analyze the regenerated nerve structure and cellular elements. The results showed that the AG group presented a larger number of regenerated axons. However, the TPCL and TPCLF groups presented more compact regenerated fibers with a morphometric profile closer to normal, both at the tube midpoint and 2 mm distal to the prosthesis. These findings were reinforced by polarization microscopy, which indicated a better collagen/axons suprastructural organization in the TPCLF derived samples. In addition, the immunohistochemical results obtained using the antibody anti-p75NTR as a Schwann cell reactivity marker demonstrated that the Schwann cells were more reactive during the regenerative process in the TPCLF group as compared to the TPCL group and the normal sciatic nerve. Altogether, the results of this study indicated that the implant of collagen with a supramolecular organization positively influenced and stimulated the regeneration process through the nerve gap, resulting in the formation of a better morphologically arranged tissue. PMID:24381812

  18. Development, differentiation and diversity of innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Diefenbach, Andreas; Colonna, Marco; Koyasu, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the discovery of an unprecedented complexity in innate lymphocyte lineages, now collectively referred to as innate lymphoid cells (ILC). ILC are preferentially located at barrier surfaces and are important for protection against pathogens and for the maintenance of organ homeostasis. Inappropriate activation of ILC has been linked to the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Recent evidence suggests that ILC can be grouped into two separate lineages, cytotoxic ILC represented by conventional natural killer (cNK) cells and cytokine-producing helper-like ILC (i.e., ILC1, ILC2, ILC3). We will focus here on current work in humans and mice that has identified core transcriptional circuitry required for the commitment of lymphoid progenitors to the ILC lineage. The striking similarities in transcriptional control of ILC and T cell lineages reveal important insights into the evolution of transcriptional programs required to protect multicellular organisms against infections and to fortify barrier surfaces. PMID:25238093

  19. Total lymphoid irradiation leads to transient depletion of the mouse thymic medulla and persistent abnormalities among medullary stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, B.; Gandour, D.; Strober, S.; Weissman, I.

    1988-05-15

    Mice given multiple doses of sublethal irradiation to both the thymus and the peripheral lymphoid tissues showed major transient, and some persistent disruptions in general thymic architecture and in thymic stromal components. At 2 wk after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), the thymus lacked identifiable medullary regions by immunohistochemical analyses. Medullary stromal cells expression MHC Ag or a medullary epithelial cell Ag, as well as medullary macrophages, were undetectable. Instead, the processes of cortical epithelial cells were observed throughout the entire thymus. Strikingly, thymocyte subsets with mature phenotypes (CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+) were present in the apparent absence of a medulla. This early, gross effect was rapidly reversed such that by 1 to 2 mo after TLI, medullary areas with MHC Ag-positive cells were evident. However, abnormalities in a subset of medullary stromal cells appeared to be more persistent. Medullary epithelial cells, identified by the MD1 mAb, were greatly reduced in number and abnormally organized for at least 4 mo after TLI. In addition, macrophages containing endogenous peroxidase activity, normally abundant in medullary regions, were undetectable at all times examined after TLI. Therefore, this irradiation regimen induced both transient and long term effects in the thymus, primarily in medullary regions. These results suggest that TLI may be used as an experimental tool for studying the impact of selective depletion of medullary stromal cells on the development of specific T cell functions.

  20. Secondary Lymphoid Tissue Chemokine as an Immunotherapeutic Against Primary and Metastatic Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    common receptor, CCR7 , which binds the chemokine SLC/CCL21. SLC/CCL21 is normally expressed in the lymphoid organs and coordinates the interactions...dendritic cells (DCs). T cells and DCs, as well as natural killer (NK) cells (which also have anti-tumor activity), express a common receptor, CCR7 , which...binds secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC, also known as CCL21). Expression of CCR7 allows these cells to migrate along gradients of this chemokine

  1. Peripheral neuropathic pain: a mechanism-related organizing principle based on sensory profiles.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ralf; Maier, Christoph; Attal, Nadine; Binder, Andreas; Bouhassira, Didier; Cruccu, Giorgio; Finnerup, Nanna B; Haanpää, Maija; Hansson, Per; Hüllemann, Philipp; Jensen, Troels S; Freynhagen, Rainer; Kennedy, Jeffrey D; Magerl, Walter; Mainka, Tina; Reimer, Maren; Rice, Andrew S C; Segerdahl, Märta; Serra, Jordi; Sindrup, Sören; Sommer, Claudia; Tölle, Thomas; Vollert, Jan; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2017-02-01

    Patients with neuropathic pain are heterogeneous in etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical appearance. They exhibit a variety of pain-related sensory symptoms and signs (sensory profile). Different sensory profiles might indicate different classes of neurobiological mechanisms, and hence subgroups with different sensory profiles might respond differently to treatment. The aim of the investigation was to identify subgroups in a large sample of patients with neuropathic pain using hypothesis-free statistical methods on the database of 3 large multinational research networks (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS), IMI-Europain, and Neuropain). Standardized quantitative sensory testing was used in 902 (test cohort) and 233 (validation cohort) patients with peripheral neuropathic pain of different etiologies. For subgrouping, we performed a cluster analysis using 13 quantitative sensory testing parameters. Three distinct subgroups with characteristic sensory profiles were identified and replicated. Cluster 1 (sensory loss, 42%) showed a loss of small and large fiber function in combination with paradoxical heat sensations. Cluster 2 (thermal hyperalgesia, 33%) was characterized by preserved sensory functions in combination with heat and cold hyperalgesia and mild dynamic mechanical allodynia. Cluster 3 (mechanical hyperalgesia, 24%) was characterized by a loss of small fiber function in combination with pinprick hyperalgesia and dynamic mechanical allodynia. All clusters occurred across etiologies but frequencies differed. We present a new approach of subgrouping patients with peripheral neuropathic pain of different etiologies according to intrinsic sensory profiles. These 3 profiles may be related to pathophysiological mechanisms and may be useful in clinical trial design to enrich the study population for treatment responders.

  2. Peripheral neuropathic pain: a mechanism-related organizing principle based on sensory profiles

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Ralf; Maier, Christoph; Attal, Nadine; Binder, Andreas; Bouhassira, Didier; Cruccu, Giorgio; Finnerup, Nanna B.; Haanpää, Maija; Hansson, Per; Hüllemann, Philipp; Jensen, Troels S.; Freynhagen, Rainer; Kennedy, Jeffrey D.; Magerl, Walter; Mainka, Tina; Reimer, Maren; Rice, Andrew S.C.; Segerdahl, Märta; Serra, Jordi; Sindrup, Sören; Sommer, Claudia; Tölle, Thomas; Vollert, Jan; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with neuropathic pain are heterogeneous in etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical appearance. They exhibit a variety of pain-related sensory symptoms and signs (sensory profile). Different sensory profiles might indicate different classes of neurobiological mechanisms, and hence subgroups with different sensory profiles might respond differently to treatment. The aim of the investigation was to identify subgroups in a large sample of patients with neuropathic pain using hypothesis-free statistical methods on the database of 3 large multinational research networks (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS), IMI-Europain, and Neuropain). Standardized quantitative sensory testing was used in 902 (test cohort) and 233 (validation cohort) patients with peripheral neuropathic pain of different etiologies. For subgrouping, we performed a cluster analysis using 13 quantitative sensory testing parameters. Three distinct subgroups with characteristic sensory profiles were identified and replicated. Cluster 1 (sensory loss, 42%) showed a loss of small and large fiber function in combination with paradoxical heat sensations. Cluster 2 (thermal hyperalgesia, 33%) was characterized by preserved sensory functions in combination with heat and cold hyperalgesia and mild dynamic mechanical allodynia. Cluster 3 (mechanical hyperalgesia, 24%) was characterized by a loss of small fiber function in combination with pinprick hyperalgesia and dynamic mechanical allodynia. All clusters occurred across etiologies but frequencies differed. We present a new approach of subgrouping patients with peripheral neuropathic pain of different etiologies according to intrinsic sensory profiles. These 3 profiles may be related to pathophysiological mechanisms and may be useful in clinical trial design to enrich the study population for treatment responders. PMID:27893485

  3. A Progenitor Cell Expressing Transcription Factor RORγt Generates All Human Innate Lymphoid Cell Subsets.

    PubMed

    Scoville, Steven D; Mundy-Bosse, Bethany L; Zhang, Michael H; Chen, Li; Zhang, Xiaoli; Keller, Karen A; Hughes, Tiffany; Chen, Luxi; Cheng, Stephanie; Bergin, Stephen M; Mao, Hsiaoyin C; McClory, Susan; Yu, Jianhua; Carson, William E; Caligiuri, Michael A; Freud, Aharon G

    2016-05-17

    The current model of murine innate lymphoid cell (ILC) development holds that mouse ILCs are derived downstream of the common lymphoid progenitor through lineage-restricted progenitors. However, corresponding lineage-restricted progenitors in humans have yet to be discovered. Here we identified a progenitor population in human secondary lymphoid tissues (SLTs) that expressed the transcription factor RORγt and was unique in its ability to generate all known ILC subsets, including natural killer (NK) cells, but not other leukocyte populations. In contrast to murine fate-mapping data, which indicate that only ILC3s express Rorγt, these human progenitor cells as well as human peripheral blood NK cells and all mature ILC populations expressed RORγt. Thus, all human ILCs can be generated through an RORγt(+) developmental pathway from a common progenitor in SLTs. These findings help establish the developmental signals and pathways involved in human ILC development.

  4. Neuromodulation of olfactory sensitivity in the peripheral olfactory organs of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Jung, Je Won; Kim, Jin-Hee; Pfeiffer, Rita; Ahn, Young-Joon; Page, Terry L; Kwon, Hyung Wook

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory sensitivity exhibits daily fluctuations. Several studies have suggested that the olfactory system in insects is modulated by both biogenic amines and neuropeptides. However, molecular and neural mechanisms underlying olfactory modulation in the periphery remain unclear since neuronal circuits regulating olfactory sensitivity have not been identified. Here, we investigated the structure and function of these signaling pathways in the peripheral olfactory system of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, utilizing in situ hybridization, qRT-PCR, and electrophysiological approaches. We showed that tachykinin was co-localized with the octopamine receptor in antennal neurons located near the antennal nerves. In addition, the tachykinin receptor was found to be expressed in most of the olfactory receptor neurons in antennae. Functionally, the effects of direct injection of tachykinin peptides, dsRNAs of tachykinin, tachykinin receptors, and octopamine receptors provided further support for the view that both octopamine and tachykinin modulate olfactory sensitivity. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that octopamine and tachykinin in antennal neurons are olfactory regulators in the periphery. We propose here the hypothesis that octopamine released from neurons in the brain regulates the release of tachykinin from the octopamine receptor neurons in antennae, which in turn modulates the olfactory sensitivity of olfactory receptor neurons, which house tachykinin receptors.

  5. Characterization of crystal polymorphs of the organic semiconductor non-peripheral octa-hexyl phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneya, Makoto; Miyamoto, Ayano; Shimizu, Yo; Ohmori, Masashi; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2017-08-01

    The carrier-transport and thermodynamic properties of two crystal polymorphs, i.e., bulk and needle polymorphs, of non-peripheral octa-hexyl substituted phthalocyanine were investigated using density functional theory calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated results show that the bulk and needle polymorphs have hole mobilities of the same order of magnitude and that the hole mobility of the bulk polymorph was approximately twice that of the needle polymorph. For ideal one-dimensional transport along π stacking columns, the difference in mobility between the two polymorphs was larger by a factor of approximately 8. Therefore, we can expect the bulk polymorph to have 2 (or 8) times higher mobility than the values for the needle polymorph. These results predict that the bulk polymorph has the potential to show higher device performance than the needle polymorph. We also obtained the results that imply that a needle-polymorph-like phase with uniform (monoclinic) phthalocyanine-core tilting (instead of the alternative tilting of the needle polymorph) could be a new polymorph in this crystal system.

  6. Lymphoid tissue inducer cells: architects of CD4 immune responses in mice and men.

    PubMed

    Kim, M-Y; Kim, K-S; McConnell, F; Lane, P

    2009-07-01

    In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the multiple functions of the mouse lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells in: (i) the development of organized lymphoid tissue, (ii) the generation and maintenance of CD4-dependent immunity in adult lymphoid tissues; and (iii) the regulation of central tolerance in thymus. By contrast with mouse LTi cells, which have been well described, the human equivalent is only just beginning to be characterized. Human LTi-like cells expressing interleukin (IL)-22 have been identified recently and found to differentiate into natural killer (NK) cells. The relationship of LTi cells to NK cells is discussed in the light of several studies reporting a close relationship in the mouse between LTi cells and transcription factor retinoid-related orphan receptor gammat-dependent IL-22 producing NK cells in the gut. We also outline our data suggesting that these cells are present in adult human lymphoid tissues.

  7. Lymphocyte trafficking and HIV infection of human lymphoid tissue in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, L. B.; Fitzgerald, W.; Glushakova, S.; Hatfill, S.; Amichay, N.; Baibakov, B.; Zimmerberg, J.

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenesis of HIV infection involves a complex interplay between both the infected and noninfected cells of human lymphoid tissue, the release of free viral particles, the de novo infection of cells, and the recirculatory trafficking of peripheral blood lymphocytes. To develop an in vitro model for studying these various aspects of HIV pathogenesis we have utilized blocks of surgically excised human tonsils and a rotating wall vessel (RWV) cell culture system. Here we show that (1) fragments of the surgically excised human lymphoid tissue remain viable and retain their gross cytoarchitecture for at least 3 weeks when cultured in the RWV system; (2) such lymphoid tissue gradually shows a loss of both T and B cells to the surrounding growth medium; however, this cellular migration is reversible as demonstrated by repopulation of the tissue by labeled cells from the growth medium; (3) this cellular migration may be partially or completely inhibited by embedding the blocks of lymphoid tissue in either a collagen or agarose gel matrix; these embedded tissue blocks retain most of the basic elements of a normal lymphoid cytoarchitecture; and (4) both embedded and nonembedded RWV-cultured blocks of human lymphoid tissue are capable of productive infection by HIV-1 of at least three various strains of different tropism and phenotype, as shown by an increase in both p24 antigen levels and free virus in the culture medium, and by the demonstration of HIV-1 RNA-positive cells inside the tissue identified by in situ hybridization. It is therefore reasonable to suggest that gel-embedded and nonembedded blocks of human lymphoid tissue, cocultured with a suspension of tonsillar lymphocytes in an RWV culture system, constitute a useful model for simulating normal lymphocyte recirculatory traffic and provide a new tool for testing the various aspects of HIV pathogenesis.

  8. Lymphocyte trafficking and HIV infection of human lymphoid tissue in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, L. B.; Fitzgerald, W.; Glushakova, S.; Hatfill, S.; Amichay, N.; Baibakov, B.; Zimmerberg, J.

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenesis of HIV infection involves a complex interplay between both the infected and noninfected cells of human lymphoid tissue, the release of free viral particles, the de novo infection of cells, and the recirculatory trafficking of peripheral blood lymphocytes. To develop an in vitro model for studying these various aspects of HIV pathogenesis we have utilized blocks of surgically excised human tonsils and a rotating wall vessel (RWV) cell culture system. Here we show that (1) fragments of the surgically excised human lymphoid tissue remain viable and retain their gross cytoarchitecture for at least 3 weeks when cultured in the RWV system; (2) such lymphoid tissue gradually shows a loss of both T and B cells to the surrounding growth medium; however, this cellular migration is reversible as demonstrated by repopulation of the tissue by labeled cells from the growth medium; (3) this cellular migration may be partially or completely inhibited by embedding the blocks of lymphoid tissue in either a collagen or agarose gel matrix; these embedded tissue blocks retain most of the basic elements of a normal lymphoid cytoarchitecture; and (4) both embedded and nonembedded RWV-cultured blocks of human lymphoid tissue are capable of productive infection by HIV-1 of at least three various strains of different tropism and phenotype, as shown by an increase in both p24 antigen levels and free virus in the culture medium, and by the demonstration of HIV-1 RNA-positive cells inside the tissue identified by in situ hybridization. It is therefore reasonable to suggest that gel-embedded and nonembedded blocks of human lymphoid tissue, cocultured with a suspension of tonsillar lymphocytes in an RWV culture system, constitute a useful model for simulating normal lymphocyte recirculatory traffic and provide a new tool for testing the various aspects of HIV pathogenesis.

  9. B cell repertoire expansion occurs in meningeal ectopic lymphoid tissue

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann-Horn, Klaus; Wang, Sheng-zhi; Sagan, Sharon A.; Zamvil, Scott S.

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic lymphoid tissues (ELT) can be found in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other organ-specific inflammatory conditions. Whether ELT in the meninges of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disease exhibit local germinal center (GC) activity remains unknown. In an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of CNS autoimmunity, we found activation-induced cytidine deaminase, a GC-defining enzyme, in meningeal ELT (mELT) densely populated by B and T cells. To determine GC activity in mELT, we excised meningeal lymphoid aggregates using laser capture microscopy and evaluated B cell repertoires in mELT and secondary lymphoid organs by next-generation immune repertoire sequencing. We found immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region sequences that were unique to mELT and had accumulated functionally relevant somatic mutations, together indicating localized antigen-driven affinity maturation. Our results suggest that B cells in mELT actively participate in CNS autoimmunity, which may be relevant to mELT in MS and ELT in other chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:27942581

  10. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Brian S.; Artis, David

    2015-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play critical roles in anti-helminth immunity, airway epithelial repair, and metabolic homeostasis. Recently, these cells have also emerged as key players in the development of allergic inflammation at multiple barrier surfaces. ILC2s arise from common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow, are dependent on the transcription factors RORα, GATA3, and TCF-1, and produce the type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9, and/or IL-13. The epithelial cell–derived cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP regulate the activation and effector functions of ILC2s, and recent studies suggest that their responsiveness to these cytokines and other factors may depend on their tissue environment. In this review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of the various factors that regulate ILC2 function in the context of immunity, inflammation, and tissue repair across multiple organ systems. PMID:25573713

  11. Multiphasic Regulation of Systemic and Peripheral Organ Metabolic Responses to Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Liew, Chong Wee; Xu, Shanshan; Wang, Xuerong; McCann, Maximilian; Whang Kong, Hyerim; Carley, Andrew C; Pang, Jingbo; Fantuzzi, Giamila; O'Donnell, J Michael; Lewandowski, E Douglas

    2017-04-01

    Reduced fat oxidation in hypertrophied hearts coincides with a shift of carnitine palmitoyl transferase I from muscle to increased liver isoforms. Acutely increased carnitine palmitoyl transferase I in normal rodent hearts has been shown to recapitulate the reduced fat oxidation and elevated atrial natriuretic peptide message of cardiac hypertrophy. Because of the potential for reduced fat oxidation to affect cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide, and thus, induce adipose lipolysis, we studied peripheral and systemic metabolism in male C57BL/6 mice model of transverse aortic constriction in which left ventricular hypertrophy occurred by 2 weeks without functional decline until 16 weeks (ejection fraction, -45.6%; fractional shortening, -22.6%). We report the first evidence for initially improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in response to 2 weeks transverse aortic constriction versus sham, linked to enhanced insulin signaling in liver and visceral adipose tissue (epididymal white adipose tissue [WAT]), reduced WAT inflammation, elevated adiponectin, mulitilocular subcutaneous adipose tissue (inguinal WAT) with upregulated oxidative/thermogenic gene expression, and downregulated lipolysis and lipogenesis genes in epididymal WAT. By 6 weeks transverse aortic constriction, the metabolic profile reversed with impaired insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, reduced insulin signaling in liver, epididymal WAT and heart, and downregulation of oxidative enzymes in brown adipose tissue and oxidative and lipogenic genes in inguinal WAT. Changes in insulin signaling, circulating natriuretic peptides and adipokines, and varied expression of adipose genes associated with altered insulin response/glucose handling and thermogenesis occurred prior to any functional decline in transverse aortic constriction hearts. The findings demonstrate multiphasic responses in extracardiac metabolism to pathogenic cardiac stress, with early iWAT browning providing potential

  12. Auditory Temporal-Organization Abilities in School-Age Children with Peripheral Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koravand, Amineh; Jutras, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to assess auditory sequential organization (ASO) ability in children with and without hearing loss. Method: Forty children 9 to 12 years old participated in the study: 12 with sensory hearing loss (HL), 12 with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), and 16 with normal hearing. They performed an ASO task in which…

  13. Auditory Temporal-Organization Abilities in School-Age Children with Peripheral Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koravand, Amineh; Jutras, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to assess auditory sequential organization (ASO) ability in children with and without hearing loss. Method: Forty children 9 to 12 years old participated in the study: 12 with sensory hearing loss (HL), 12 with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), and 16 with normal hearing. They performed an ASO task in which…

  14. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Tumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Jasper J. P.; Martens, Anne W. J.; Bakdash, Ghaith; de Vries, I. Jolanda M.

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of immune cells of the lymphoid lineage that do not possess antigen specificity. The group includes natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the recently identified ILC1s, ILC2s and ILC3s. Although the role of NK cells in the context of cancer has been well established, the involvement of other ILC subsets in cancer progression and resistance is just emerging. Here, we review the literature on the role of the different ILC subsets in tumor immunity and discuss its implications for cancer treatment and monitoring. PMID:28536374

  15. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Tumor Immunity.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Jasper J P; Martens, Anne W J; Bakdash, Ghaith; de Vries, I Jolanda M

    2016-02-25

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of immune cells of the lymphoid lineage that do not possess antigen specificity. The group includes natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the recently identified ILC1s, ILC2s and ILC3s. Although the role of NK cells in the context of cancer has been well established, the involvement of other ILC subsets in cancer progression and resistance is just emerging. Here, we review the literature on the role of the different ILC subsets in tumor immunity and discuss its implications for cancer treatment and monitoring.

  16. [Molecular targeted therapy in lymphoid leukemias].

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kensuke; Ando, Toshihiko; Kimura, Shinya

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in the treatment of lymphoid leukemias have incorporated molecular targeted drugs (CD20-targeting rituximab and BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors) into the traditional chemotherapeutic agents. This article reviews novel molecular targeted therapies for patients with lymphoid leukemias including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, hairly cell leukemia and HTLV-I-related adult T-cell leukemia. Investigational agents that will be discussed in this review include inotuzumab, blinatumomab, alemtuzumab, ofatumumab, ibrutinib, idelalisib, bafetinib, lenalidomide, ABT-199 and mogamulizumab. Novel approaches warrant continued research to improve outcomes for patients with lymphoid leukemias.

  17. Serum Procalcitonin and Peripheral Venous Lactate for Predicting Dengue Shock and/or Organ Failure: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Thanachartwet, Vipa; Desakorn, Varunee; Sahassananda, Duangjai; Jittmittraphap, Akanitt; Oer-areemitr, Nittha; Osothsomboon, Sathaporn; Surabotsophon, Manoon; Wattanathum, Anan

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently, there are no biomarkers that can predict the incidence of dengue shock and/or organ failure, although the early identification of risk factors is important in determining appropriate management to reduce mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the factors associated with dengue shock and/or organ failure and to evaluate the prognostic value of serum procalcitonin (PCT) and peripheral venous lactate (PVL) levels as biomarkers of dengue shock and/or organ failure. Methodology/Principal Findings A prospective observational study was conducted among adults hospitalized for confirmed viral dengue infection at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Bangkok, Thailand between October 2013 and July 2015. Data, including baseline characteristics, clinical parameters, laboratory findings, serum PCT and PVL levels, management, and outcomes, were recorded on pre-defined case report forms. Of 160 patients with dengue, 128 (80.0%) patients had dengue without shock or organ failure, whereas 32 (20.0%) patients developed dengue with shock and/or organ failure. Using a stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, PCT ≥0.7 ng/mL (odds ratio [OR]: 4.80; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.60–14.45; p = 0.005) and PVL ≥2.5 mmol/L (OR: 27.99, 95% CI: 8.47–92.53; p <0.001) were independently associated with dengue shock and/or organ failure. A combination of PCT ≥0.7 ng/mL and PVL ≥2.5 mmol/L provided good prognostic value for predicting dengue shock and/or organ failure, with an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74–0.92), a sensitivity of 81.2% (95% CI: 63.6–92.8%), and a specificity of 84.4% (95% CI: 76.9–90.2%). Dengue shock patients with non-clearance of PCT and PVL expired during hospitalization. Conclusions/Significance PCT ≥0.7 ng/mL and PVL ≥2.5 mmol/L were independently associated with dengue shock and/or organ failure. The combination of PCT and PVL levels could be used as prognostic

  18. Automatic classification of atypical lymphoid B cells using digital blood image processing.

    PubMed

    Alférez, S; Merino, A; Mujica, L E; Ruiz, M; Bigorra, L; Rodellar, J

    2014-08-01

    There are automated systems for digital peripheral blood (PB) cell analysis, but they operate most effectively in nonpathological blood samples. The objective of this work was to design a methodology to improve the automatic classification of abnormal lymphoid cells. We analyzed 340 digital images of individual lymphoid cells from PB films obtained in the CellaVision DM96:150 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells, 100 hairy cell leukemia (HCL) cells, and 90 normal lymphocytes (N). We implemented the Watershed Transformation to segment the nucleus, the cytoplasm, and the peripheral cell region. We extracted 44 features and then the clustering Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) was applied in two steps for the lymphocyte classification. The images were automatically clustered in three groups, one of them with 98% of the HCL cells. The set of the remaining cells was clustered again using FCM and texture features. The two new groups contained 83.3% of the N cells and 71.3% of the CLL cells, respectively. The approach has been able to automatically classify with high precision three types of lymphoid cells. The addition of more descriptors and other classification techniques will allow extending the classification to other classes of atypical lymphoid cells. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Differential Phasing between Circadian Clocks in the Brain and Peripheral Organs in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hughey, Jacob J.; Butte, Atul J.

    2016-01-01

    The daily timing of mammalian physiology is coordinated by circadian clocks throughout the body. Although measurements of clock gene expression indicate that these clocks in mice are normally in phase with each other, the situation in humans remains unclear. We used publicly available data from five studies, comprising over 1000 samples, to compare the phasing of circadian gene expression in human brain and human blood. Surprisingly, after controlling for age, clock gene expression in brain was phase-delayed by ~8.5 h relative to that of blood. We then examined clock gene expression in two additional human organs and in organs from nine other mammalian species, as well as in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In most tissues outside the SCN, the expression of clock gene orthologs showed a phase difference of ~12 h between diurnal and nocturnal species. The exception to this pattern was human brain, whose phasing resembled that of the SCN. Our results highlight the value of a multi-tissue, multi-species meta-analysis, and have implications for our understanding of the human circadian system. PMID:27702781

  20. Novel immunotherapies in lymphoid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Batlevi, Connie Lee; Matsuki, Eri; Brentjens, Renier J.; Younes, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The success of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies provided proof-of-principle for exploiting the immune system therapeutically. Since the FDA approval of rituximab in 1997, several novel strategies that harness the ability of T cells to target cancer cells have emerged. Reflecting on the promising clinical efficacy of these novel immunotherapy approaches, the FDA has recently granted ‘breakthrough’ designation to three novel treatments with distinct mechanisms. First, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy is promising for the treatment of adult and paediatric relapsed and/or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Second, blinatumomab, a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE®) antibody, is now approved for the treatment of adults with Philadelphia-chromosome-negative relapsed and/or refractory B-precursor ALL. Finally, the monoclonal antibody nivolumab, which targets the PD-1 immune-checkpoint receptor with high affinity, is used for the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma following treatment failure with autologous-stem-cell transplantation and brentuximab vedotin. Herein, we review the background and development of these three distinct immunotherapy platforms, address the scientific advances in understanding the mechanism of action of each therapy, and assess the current clinical knowledge of their efficacy and safety. We also discuss future strategies to improve these immunotherapies through enhanced engineering, biomarker selection, and mechanism-based combination regimens. PMID:26525683

  1. Innate lymphoid cells and their stromal microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Kellermayer, Zoltán; Vojkovics, Dóra; Balogh, Péter

    2017-09-01

    In addition to the interaction between antigen presenting cells, T and B lymphocytes, recent studies have revealed important roles for a diverse set of auxiliary cells that profoundly influence the induction and regulation of immune responses against pathogens. Of these the stromal cells composed of various non-hematopoietic constituents are crucial for the creation and maintenance of specialized semi-static three-dimensional lymphoid tissue microenvironment, whereas the more recently described innate lymphoid cells are generated by the diversification of committed lymphoid precursor cells independently from clonally rearranged antigen receptor genes. Recent findings have revealed important contributions by innate lymphoid cells in inflammation and protection against pathogens in a tissue-specific manner. Importantly, lymphoid stromal cells also influence the onset of immune responses in tissue-specific fashion, raising the possibility of tissue-specific stromal - innate lymphoid cell collaboration. In this review we summarize the main features and interactions between these two cells types, with particular emphasis on ILC type 3 cells and their microenvironmental partners. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Total lymphoid irradiation and discordant cardiac xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, E.; Dresdale, A.R.; Diehl, J.T.; Katzen, N.A.; Aronovitz, M.J.; Konstam, M.A.; Payne, D.D.; Cleveland, R.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation can prolong concordant cardiac xenografts. The effects of total lymphoid irradiation in a discordant xenograft model (guinea pig to rat) were studied with and without adjuvant pharmacologic immunosuppression. Inbred Lewis rats were randomly allocated to one of four groups. Group 1 (n = 6) served as a control group and rats received no immunosuppression. Group 2 (n = 5) received triple-drug therapy that consisted of intraperitoneal azathioprine (2 mg/kg), cyclosporine (20 mg/kg), and methylprednisolone (1 mg/kg) for 1 week before transplantation. Group 3 animals (n = 5) received 15 Gy of total lymphoid irradiation in 12 divided doses over a 3-week period. Group 4 (n = 6) received both triple-drug therapy and total lymphoid irradiation as described for groups 2 and 3. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay was performed to determine if a correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and rejection-free interval existed. Rejection was defined as cessation of graft pulsation and was confirmed by histologic test results. Only groups 1 and 2 showed a difference in survival (group 1, 6.9 +/- 1.0 minutes; group 2, 14.2 +/- 2.7 minutes, p = 0.02). Although total lymphoid irradiation did decrease complement-dependent cytotoxicity, linear regression revealed no correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and graft survival (coefficient of correlation, 0.30). Unlike concordant cardiac xenografts, total lymphoid irradiation with or without triple-drug therapy does not prolong graft survival.

  3. Classification of lymphoid neoplasms: the microscope as a tool for disease discovery

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Nancy Lee; Stein, Harald; Isaacson, Peter G.

    2008-01-01

    In the past 50 years, we have witnessed explosive growth in the understanding of normal and neoplastic lymphoid cells. B-cell, T-cell, and natural killer (NK)–cell neoplasms in many respects recapitulate normal stages of lymphoid cell differentiation and function, so that they can be to some extent classified according to the corresponding normal stage. Likewise, the molecular mechanisms involved the pathogenesis of lymphomas and lymphoid leukemias are often based on the physiology of the lymphoid cells, capitalizing on deregulated normal physiology by harnessing the promoters of genes essential for lymphocyte function. The clinical manifestations of lymphomas likewise reflect the normal function of lymphoid cells in vivo. The multiparameter approach to classification adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) classification has been validated in international studies as being highly reproducible, and enhancing the interpretation of clinical and translational studies. In addition, accurate and precise classification of disease entities facilitates the discovery of the molecular basis of lymphoid neoplasms in the basic science laboratory. PMID:19029456

  4. Sustained improvement of intractable rheumatoid arthritis after total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Field, E.H.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Calin, A.; Engleman, E.G.; Kotzin, B.L.; Tanay, A.S.; Calin, H.J.; Terrell, C.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1983-08-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was administered to 11 patients who had intractable rheumatoid arthritis that was unresponsive to conventional medical therapy, including aspirin, multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, gold salts, and D-penicillamine. Total lymphoid irradiation was given as an alternative to cytotoxic drugs such as azathioprine and cyclophosphamide. After radiotherapy, 9 of the 11 patients showed a marked improvement in clinical disease activity as measured by morning stiffness, joint tenderness, joint swelling, and overall functional abilities. The mean improvement of disease activity in all patients ranged from 40-70 percent and has persisted throughout a 13-28 month followup period. This improvement permitted the mean daily steroid dose to be reduced by 54%. Complications included severe fatigue and other constitutional symptoms during radiotherapy, development of Felty's syndrome in 1 patient, and an exacerbation of rheumatoid lung disease in another. After therapy, all patients exhibited a profound T lymphocytopenia, and a reversal in their T suppressor/cytotoxic cell to helper cell ratio. The proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and allogeneic leukocytes (mixed leukocyte reaction) were markedly reduced, as was in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen. Alterations in T cell numbers and function persisted during the entire followup period, except that the mixed leukocyte reaction showed a tendency to return to normal values.

  5. Peripheral organ perfusion augmentation during left ventricular failure. A controlled bovine comparison between the intraaortic balloon pump and the Hemopump.

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, R T; Radovancević, B; Conger, J L; Matsuwaka, R; Duncan, J M; Vaughn, W K; Wampler, R K; Frazier, O H

    1993-01-01

    Despite the use of inotropic therapy and the intraaortic balloon pump (IABP), inadequate peripheral organ perfusion and subsequent multiorgan failure from left ventricular dysfunction is a major cause of death following cardiac surgery. To compare the end-organ perfusion provided by the IABP with that of the recently developed Hemopump Cardiac Assist System, blood flow from visceral organs was measured by ultrasonic flow probes during separate periods of support with each of these pumps. Ten calves underwent coronary artery ligations with beta-receptor blockade; hemodynamic parameters were recorded before the induction of failure, during unsupported cardiac failure, and during Hemopump and IABP support. Improvement in mean cardiac output, mixed venous oxygen saturation, and pulmonary artery wedge pressure was significantly greater (p < 0.05) during Hemopump support than during IABP support. Renal artery flow was significantly greater during Hemopump support (276 +/- 74.2 cc/min) than during IABP support (164 +/- 79.6 cc/min). Hepatic artery flow was significantly greater during Hemopump support (34.7 +/- 25.7 cc/min) than during IABP support (24.4 +/- 18.9 cc/min), and portal vein flow was significantly greater during Hemopump support (1588 +/- 315 cc/min) than IABP support (1259 +/- 310 cc/min). There were no significant differences, however, between carotid artery flow during Hemopump support (292 +/- 171 cc/min) and that during IABP support (317 +/- 204 cc/min). We conclude that renal, hepatic, and mesenteric perfusion provided by the nonpulsatile Hemopump is superior to that of the IABP in this bovine model of left ventricular failure. Therefore, the Hemopump may be more effective in preventing multiorgan failure during recovery of ventricular function. PMID:8298324

  6. Migration and Tissue Tropism of Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang H.; Hashimoto-Hill, Seika; Kim, Myunghoo

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cell (ILCs) subsets differentially populate various barrier and non-barrier tissues, where they play important roles in tissue homeostasis and tissue-specific responses to pathogen attack. Recent findings have provided insight into the molecular mechanisms that guide ILC migration into peripheral tissues, revealing common features among different ILC subsets as well as important distinctions. Recent studies have also highlighted the impact of tissue-specific cues on ILC migration, and the importance of the local immunological milieu. We review these findings here and discuss how the migratory patterns and tissue tropism of different ILC subsets relate to the development and differentiation of these cells, and to ILC-mediated tissue-specific regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. In this context we outline open questions and important areas of future research. PMID:26708278

  7. Aging affects B-cell antigen receptor repertoire diversity in primary and secondary lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed

    Tabibian-Keissar, Hilla; Hazanov, Lena; Schiby, Ginette; Rosenthal, Noemie; Rakovsky, Aviya; Michaeli, Miri; Shahaf, Gitit Lavy; Pickman, Yishai; Rosenblatt, Kinneret; Melamed, Doron; Dunn-Walters, Deborah; Mehr, Ramit; Barshack, Iris

    2016-02-01

    The elderly immune system is characterized by reduced responses to infections and vaccines, and an increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases and cancer. Age-related deficits in the immune system may be caused by peripheral homeostatic pressures that limit bone marrow B-cell production or migration to the peripheral lymphoid tissues. Studies of peripheral blood B-cell receptor spectratypes have shown that those of the elderly are characterized by reduced diversity, which is correlated with poor health status. In the present study, we performed for the first time high-throughput sequencing of immunoglobulin genes from archived biopsy samples of primary and secondary lymphoid tissues in old (74 ± 7 years old, range 61-89) versus young (24 ± 5 years old, range 18-45) individuals, analyzed repertoire diversities and compared these to results in peripheral blood. We found reduced repertoire diversity in peripheral blood and lymph node repertoires from old people, while in the old spleen samples the diversity was larger than in the young. There were no differences in somatic hypermutation characteristics between age groups. These results support the hypothesis that age-related immune frailty stems from altered B-cell homeostasis leading to narrower memory B-cell repertoires, rather than changes in somatic hypermutation mechanisms. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. “Galectin-1 Induces Central and Peripheral Cell Death: Implications in T-Cell Physiopathology”

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich, G. A.

    2000-01-01

    The immune system has a remarkable capacity to maintain a state of equilibrium even as it responds to a diverse array of foreign proteins and despite its contact exposure to self-antigens. Apoptosis is one of the mechanisms aimed at preserving the homeostasis after the completion of an immune response, thus returning the immune system to a basal state and warranting the elimination of autoagressive cells in both central and peripheral lymphoid organs. Targeted deletions in critical genes involved in the apoptotic death machinery together with natural spontaneous mutations have clearly shown the importance of apoptosis in the regulation of the immune response. This complex scenario of stimulatory and inhibitory genes has been enriched with the finding that galectin-1, a 14.5 kDa β-galactoside-binding protein, is able to induce apoptosis of immature cortical thymocytes and mature T cells by cross-linking cell surface glycoconjugates. Galectin-1 is present not only in central and peripheral lymphoid organs, but also at sites of immune privilege. In the present article we will discuss the implications of galectin-1-induced apoptosis in T-cell physiopathology in an attempt to validate its therapeutic potential in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:11097206

  9. Interplay of innate lymphoid cells and the microbiota.

    PubMed

    Britanova, Liudmila; Diefenbach, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are a recently identified group of innate lymphocytes that are preferentially located at barrier surfaces. Barrier surfaces are in direct contact with complex microbial ecosystems, collectively referred to as the microbiota. It is now believed that the interplay of the microbiota with host components (i.e. epithelial cells and immune cells) promotes host fitness by regulating organ homeostasis, metabolism, and host defense against pathogens. In this review, we will give an overview of this multifaceted interplay between ILC and components of the microbiota. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Vagal innervation is required for the formation of tertiary lymphoid tissue in colitis.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Brenda J; Cailotto, Cathy; van der Vliet, Jan; Knippenberg, Marlene; Greuter, Mascha J; Hilbers, Francisca W; Konijn, Tanja; Te Velde, Anje A; Nolte, Martijn A; Boeckxstaens, Guy E; de Jonge, Wouter J; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-10-01

    Tertiary lymphoid tissue (TLT) is lymphoid tissue that forms in adult life as a result of chronic inflammation in a tissue or organ. TLT has been shown to form in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, though it is not clear if and how TLT develops in the inflamed colon during inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we show that TLT develops as newly formed lymphoid tissue in the colon following dextran sulphate sodium induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice, where it can be distinguished from the preexisting colonic patches and solitary intestinal lymphoid tissue. TLT in the inflamed colon develops following the expression of lymphoid tissue-inducing chemokines and adhesion molecules, such as CXCL13 and VCAM-1, respectively, which are produced by stromal organizer cells. Surprisingly, this process of TLT formation was independent of the lymphotoxin signaling pathway, but rather under neuronal control, as we demonstrate that selective surgical ablation of vagus nerve innervation inhibits CXCL13 expression and abrogates TLT formation without affecting colitis. Sympathetic neuron denervation does not affect TLT formation. Hence, we reveal that inflammation in the colon induces the formation of TLT, which is controlled by innervation through the vagus nerve.

  11. Blood borne hormones in a cross-talk between peripheral and brain mechanisms regulating blood pressure, the role of circumventricular organs.

    PubMed

    Ufnal, Marcin; Skrzypecki, Janusz

    2014-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that blood borne hormones modulate brain mechanisms regulating blood pressure. This appears to be mediated by the circumventricular organs which are located in the walls of the brain ventricular system and lack the blood-brain barrier. Recent evidence shows that neurons of the circumventricular organs express receptors for the majority of cardiovascular hormones. Intracerebroventricular infusions of hormones and their antagonists is one approach to evaluate the influence of blood borne hormones on the neural mechanisms regulating arterial blood pressure. Interestingly, there is no clear correlation between peripheral and central effects of cardiovascular hormones. For example, angiotensin II increases blood pressure acting peripherally and centrally, whereas peripherally acting pressor catecholamines decrease blood pressure when infused intracerebroventricularly. The physiological role of such dual hemodynamic responses has not yet been clarified. In the paper we review studies on hemodynamic effects of catecholamines, neuropeptide Y, angiotensin II, aldosterone, natriuretic peptides, endothelins, histamine and bradykinin in the context of their role in a cross-talk between peripheral and brain mechanisms involved in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The biology of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Artis, David; Spits, Hergen

    2015-01-15

    The innate immune system is composed of a diverse array of evolutionarily ancient haematopoietic cell types, including dendritic cells, monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes. These cell populations collaborate with each other, with the adaptive immune system and with non-haematopoietic cells to promote immunity, inflammation and tissue repair. Innate lymphoid cells are the most recently identified constituents of the innate immune system and have been the focus of intense investigation over the past five years. We summarize the studies that formally identified innate lymphoid cells and highlight their emerging roles in controlling tissue homeostasis in the context of infection, chronic inflammation, metabolic disease and cancer.

  13. Twenty-four-hour central blood pressure is not better associated with hypertensive target organ damage than 24-h peripheral blood pressure.

    PubMed

    de la Sierra, Alejandro; Pareja, Julia; Fernández-Llama, Patricia; Armario, Pedro; Yun, Sergi; Acosta, Eva; Calero, Francesca; Vázquez, Susana; Blanch, Pedro; Sierra, Cristina; Oliveras, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) is increasingly considered as a better estimator of hypertension associated risks. We aimed to evaluate the association of 24-h central BP, in comparison with 24-h peripheral BP, with the presence of target organ damage (TOD). Cross-sectional study of 208 hypertensive patients, aged 57 ± 12 years, 34% women. Office (mean of 4 measurements) and 24-h central and peripheral BP were measured by the oscillometric Mobil-O-Graph device. TOD was assessed at cardiac (left ventricular hypertrophy by echocardiography), renal (reduction of glomerular filtration rate and/or microalbuminuria), and arterial (increased aortic pulse wave velocity) levels. A total of 107 patients (51.4%) had TOD (77, 35% patients left ventricular hypertrophy; 54, 25.9% renal abnormalities; and 40, 19.2% arterial stiffness). All SBP and pulse BP estimates (office, 24-h, daytime, and night-time) were associated with the presence of TOD, after adjustment for age, sex, and antihypertensive treatment, with higher odds ratios for ambulatory-derived values. Odds ratios for central and peripheral BP were similar for all office, 24-h, daytime, and night-time BP. After simultaneous adjustment, peripheral, but not central, 24-h and night-time SBP and pulse pressures were associated with the presence of TOD. TOD in hypertension is associated with BP elevation, independently of the type of measurement (office or ambulatory, central or peripheral). Central BP, even monitored during 24 h, is not better associated with TOD than peripheral BP. These results do not support a routine measurement of 24-h central BP.

  14. Investigation of medico-biological action of intravasular irradiation of blood on the immune system of an organism at some pathological state of the peripheral nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapina, Victoria A.; Tanina, Raisa M.

    1994-02-01

    We investigated the influence of intravenous laser irradiation of blood (ILIB) on the immune system of the organism at vertebrogenic disorders of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) with a prominent pain syndrome. It has been found that ILIB produces a positive effect on the immunity T-link increasing the proliferative activity of T-lymphocytes, has positive dynamics in clinics, doesn't cause any side or negative effects.

  15. Mitogen-induced upregulation of hepatitis C virus expression in human lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tram N Q; Macparland, Sonya A; Coffin, Carla S; Lee, Samuel S; Bursey, Ford R; Michalak, Tomasz I

    2005-03-01

    Considering growing evidence indicating that hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicates in lymphoid cells, establishment of a reliable and sensitive method for detection of HCV in these cells may provide means for monitoring the infection and the efficacy of sterilizing antiviral therapy. In this study, conditions for ex vivo augmentation and detection of the HCV genome in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) or after a sustained virological response (SVR) to antiviral treatment were assessed. Following stimulation with combinations of mitogens and/or cytokines, PBMCs and, in certain cases, affinity-purified T and B cells were examined for HCV positive- and negative-strand RNA by using RT-PCR followed by nucleic acid hybridization, while the presence of viral NS3 protein was determined by flow cytometry. HCV RNA augmentation was assessed by quantification of Southern and dot-blot hybridization signals. The results showed that treatment of peripheral lymphoid cells with mitogens stimulating T- and B-cell proliferation and with cytokines supporting their growth significantly increased HCV RNA detection in patients with both CHC and SVR. This enhancement was up to 100-fold for the HCV genome and fivefold for the NS3 protein compared with untreated cells. In conclusion, HCV RNA can be readily detected in circulating lymphoid cells in progressing hepatitis C and following SVR after ex vivo cell stimulation. As such, this method offers a new investigative tool to study HCV lymphotropism and to monitor virus presence during the course of HCV infection.

  16. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in lymphoid tissues of the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Peña, Laura; Garcia, Pilar; Jiménez, Maria Angeles; Benito, Alberto; Pérez Alenza, Maria Dolores; Sánchez, Belén

    2006-01-01

    The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most threatened wild feline in the world. Little is known about the diseases and pathology that affect this animal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathological status of the peripheral lymphoid tissues and thymus of Iberian lynxes necropsied between 1998 and 2003. Seventeen animals including females (n=8) and males (n=9), age range of 10 months to 16 years, with different causes of death were histopathologically and immunohistochemically (anti-CD3, CD79, MAC387, CD68) studied. Feline immunosuppressive virus laboratorial tests were negative. Five individuals presented neoplasia and/or tuberculosis. All animals presented some degree of both B and T cells depletion in peripheral lymphoid tissues and follicular hyalinosis in the center of depleted follicles. A viral origin of the lymphoid depletion is postulated although other causes (inbreeding, stress, toxic) are not ruled out. The loss of the effectiveness of the immune system increases the vulnerability of the critically endangered Iberian lynx to pathogens.

  17. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the thyroid followed by systemic autoimmune diseases: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia is a benign nodular lesion characterized by marked proliferation of non-neoplastic, polyclonal lymphocytes forming follicles. The lesion is found in various organs such as skin, orbit, lung, gastrointestinal tract, and liver. However, reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in the thyroid gland is extremely rare. Here, we present an interesting case of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in the thyroid, which suggests the nature of the disease. Case presentation A 74-year-old Japanese man was referred to our institute because of a growing well-demarcated irregular-shaped mass in the right lobe of the thyroid. Malignant lymphoma was suspected by cytology, and right lobectomy was conducted. A final diagnosis of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia was made by the intimate investigation of the surgical specimen, with evidence of polyclonal and non-neoplastic lymphatic proliferations forming follicles with an active germinal center. After an initial uneventful postoperative course, our patient developed severe symptoms of systemic rheumatic arthritis, and alterations in autoimmune reaction, including clinically overt chronic thyroiditis, were identified. Conclusions Our case demonstrated important clinical information on reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the thyroid, and suggested the importance of differential diagnosis, and possible close correlation between systemic autoimmune disorder and the disease. PMID:25005726

  18. Presentation of Autoantigen in Peripheral Lymph Nodes Is Sufficient for Priming Autoreactive CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Honke, Nadine; Shaabani, Namir; Teijaro, John R.; Christen, Urs; Hardt, Cornelia; Bezgovsek, Judith; Lang, Philipp A.; Lang, Karl S.

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral tolerance is an important mechanism by which the immune system can guarantee a second line of defense against autoreactive T and B cells. One autoimmune disease that is related to a break of peripheral tolerance is diabetes mellitus type 1. Using the RIP-GP mouse model, we analyzed the role of the spleen and lymph nodes (LNs) in priming CD8+ T cells and breaking peripheral tolerance. We found that diabetes developed in splenectomized mice infected with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a finding showing that the spleen was not necessary in generating autoimmunity. By contrast, the absence of LNs prevented the priming of LCMV-specific CD8+ T cells, and diabetes did not develop in these mice. Additionally, we found that dendritic cells are responsible for the distribution of virus in secondary lymphoid organs, when LCMV was administered intravenously. Preventing this distribution with the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor antagonist FTY720 inhibits the transport of antigen to peripheral LNs and consequently prevented the onset of diabetes. However, in case of subcutaneous infection, administration of FTY720 could not inhibit the onset of diabetes because the viral antigen is already presented in the peripheral LNs. These findings demonstrate the importance of preventing the presence of antigen in LNs for maintaining tolerance. PMID:28239381

  19. [Innate Lymphoid Cells: new actors of immunity].

    PubMed

    Cypowyj, Sophie; Vivier, Éric

    2016-03-01

    The world of lymphocytes has recently expanded. A new group of cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has been defined. It includes lymphoid cells that have been known for decades, such as natural killer (NK) cells, and lymphoid tissue--inducer (LTi) cells. NK cells recognize a vast array of tumor cells, which they help to eliminate through cytotoxicity and the production of cytokines, such as interferon-γ). (IFN-γ). Advances in our understanding of NK cell biology have led to a growing interest in the clinical manipulation of these cells in cancer. The other ILCs are found mostly in the mucosae and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues, where they rapidly initiate immune responses to pathogens in the absence of specific sensitization. Here, we outline the basic features of ILCs and review the role of ILCs other than NK cells in cancer. Much of the role of ILCs in cancer remains unknown, but several findings should lead to further efforts to dissect the contribution of different ILC subsets to the promotion, maintenance, or elimination of tumors at various anatomic sites. This will require the development of standardized reagents and protocols for monitoring the presence and function of ILCs in human blood and tissue samples.

  20. The evolution of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Vivier, Eric; van de Pavert, Serge A; Cooper, Max D; Belz, Gabrielle T

    2016-06-21

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the most recently discovered group of immune cells. Understanding their biology poses many challenges. We discuss here the current knowledge on the appearance of ILC subsets during evolution and propose how the connection between ILCs and T cells contributes to the robustness of immunity and hence to the fitness of the hosts.

  1. The evolution of innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Vivier, Eric; van de Pavert, Serge A; Cooper, Max D; Belz, Gabrielle T

    2017-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the most recently discovered group of immune cells. Understanding their biology poses many challenges. We discuss here the current knowledge on the appearance of ILC subsets during evolution and propose how the connection between ILCs and T cells contributes to the robustness of immunity and hence to the fitness of the hosts. PMID:27328009

  2. Lymphocyte culture: induction of colonies by conditioned medium from human lymphoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, R M; Goust, J M; Fudenberg, H H

    1977-12-01

    The presence of phytohemagglutinin or pokeweed mitogen in cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in agar is known to stimulate the formation of lymphoid colonies. We now report that similar colonies can be induced in the absence of plant lectins upon addition of filtered and ultracentrifuged conditioned medium (CM) obtained from certain human lymphoblastoid cell lines. Colony formation required at least 6 X 10(5) mononuclear cells per milliliter, and optimum results were obtained at concentrations of 1 X 10(6) cells/ml in the presence of 20% CM (50-500 colonies per 10(6) cells cultured). Individual cells within colonies displayed uniform morphological characteristics of lymphoid cells, and the majority formed rosettes with sheep erythrocytes, suggesting that they were of T-cell type.

  3. Complex expression patterns of lymphocyte-specific genes during the development of cartilaginous fish implicate unique lymphoid tissues in generating an immune repertoire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miracle, A. L.; Anderson, M. K.; Litman, R. T.; Walsh, C. J.; Luer, C. A.; Rothenberg, E. V.; Litman, G. W.

    2001-01-01

    Cartilaginous fish express canonical B and T cell recognition genes, but their lymphoid organs and lymphocyte development have been poorly defined. Here, the expression of Ig, TCR, recombination-activating gene (Rag)-1 and terminal deoxynucleosidase (TdT) genes has been used to identify roles of various lymphoid tissues throughout development in the cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria (clearnose skate). In embryogenesis, Ig and TCR genes are sharply up-regulated at 8 weeks of development. At this stage TCR and TdT expression is limited to the thymus; later, TCR gene expression appears in peripheral sites in hatchlings and adults, suggesting that the thymus is a source of T cells as in mammals. B cell gene expression indicates more complex roles for the spleen and two special organs of cartilaginous fish-the Leydig and epigonal (gonad-associated) organs. In the adult, the Leydig organ is the site of the highest IgM and IgX expression. However, the spleen is the first site of IgM expression, while IgX is expressed first in gonad, liver, Leydig and even thymus. Distinctive spatiotemporal patterns of Ig light chain gene expression also are seen. A subset of Ig genes is pre-rearranged in the germline of the cartilaginous fish, making expression possible without rearrangement. To assess whether this allows differential developmental regulation, IgM and IgX heavy chain cDNA sequences from specific tissues and developmental stages have been compared with known germline-joined genomic sequences. Both non-productively rearranged genes and germline-joined genes are transcribed in the embryo and hatchling, but not in the adult.

  4. Complex expression patterns of lymphocyte-specific genes during the development of cartilaginous fish implicate unique lymphoid tissues in generating an immune repertoire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miracle, A. L.; Anderson, M. K.; Litman, R. T.; Walsh, C. J.; Luer, C. A.; Rothenberg, E. V.; Litman, G. W.

    2001-01-01

    Cartilaginous fish express canonical B and T cell recognition genes, but their lymphoid organs and lymphocyte development have been poorly defined. Here, the expression of Ig, TCR, recombination-activating gene (Rag)-1 and terminal deoxynucleosidase (TdT) genes has been used to identify roles of various lymphoid tissues throughout development in the cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria (clearnose skate). In embryogenesis, Ig and TCR genes are sharply up-regulated at 8 weeks of development. At this stage TCR and TdT expression is limited to the thymus; later, TCR gene expression appears in peripheral sites in hatchlings and adults, suggesting that the thymus is a source of T cells as in mammals. B cell gene expression indicates more complex roles for the spleen and two special organs of cartilaginous fish-the Leydig and epigonal (gonad-associated) organs. In the adult, the Leydig organ is the site of the highest IgM and IgX expression. However, the spleen is the first site of IgM expression, while IgX is expressed first in gonad, liver, Leydig and even thymus. Distinctive spatiotemporal patterns of Ig light chain gene expression also are seen. A subset of Ig genes is pre-rearranged in the germline of the cartilaginous fish, making expression possible without rearrangement. To assess whether this allows differential developmental regulation, IgM and IgX heavy chain cDNA sequences from specific tissues and developmental stages have been compared with known germline-joined genomic sequences. Both non-productively rearranged genes and germline-joined genes are transcribed in the embryo and hatchling, but not in the adult.

  5. Effects of caffeine on circadian phase, amplitude and period evaluated in cells in vitro and peripheral organs in vivo in PER2::LUCIFERASE mice.

    PubMed

    Narishige, Seira; Kuwahara, Mari; Shinozaki, Ayako; Okada, Satoshi; Ikeda, Yuko; Kamagata, Mayo; Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2014-12-01

    Caffeine is one of the most commonly used psychoactive substances. Circadian rhythms consist of the main suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) clocks and peripheral clocks. Although caffeine lengthens circadian rhythms and modifies phase changes in SCN-operated rhythms, the effects on caffeine on the phase, period and amplitude of peripheral organ clocks are not known. In addition, the role of cAMP/Ca(2+) signalling in effects of caffeine on rhythm has not been fully elucidated. We examined whether chronic or transient application of caffeine affects circadian period/amplitude and phase by evaluating bioluminescence rhythm in PER2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice. Circadian rhythms were monitored in vitro using fibroblasts and ex vivo and in vivo for monitoring of peripheral clocks. Chronic application of caffeine (0.1-10 mM) increased period and amplitude in vitro. Transient application of caffeine (10 mM) near the bottom of the decreasing phase of bioluminescence rhythm caused phase advance in vitro. Caffeine (0.1%) intake caused a phase delay under light-dark or constant dark conditions, suggesting a period-lengthening effect in vivo. Caffeine (20 mg·kg(-1) ) at daytime or at late night-time caused phase advance or delay in bioluminescence rhythm in the liver and kidney respectively. The complicated roles of cAMP/Ca(2+) signalling may be involved in the caffeine-induced increase of period and amplitude in vitro. Caffeine affects circadian rhythm in mice by lengthening the period and causing a phase shift of peripheral clocks. These results suggest that caffeine intake with food/drink may help with food-induced resetting of peripheral circadian clocks. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Effects of caffeine on circadian phase, amplitude and period evaluated in cells in vitro and peripheral organs in vivo in PER2::LUCIFERASE mice

    PubMed Central

    Narishige, Seira; Kuwahara, Mari; Shinozaki, Ayako; Okada, Satoshi; Ikeda, Yuko; Kamagata, Mayo; Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Caffeine is one of the most commonly used psychoactive substances. Circadian rhythms consist of the main suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) clocks and peripheral clocks. Although caffeine lengthens circadian rhythms and modifies phase changes in SCN-operated rhythms, the effects on caffeine on the phase, period and amplitude of peripheral organ clocks are not known. In addition, the role of cAMP/Ca2+ signalling in effects of caffeine on rhythm has not been fully elucidated. Experimental Approach We examined whether chronic or transient application of caffeine affects circadian period/amplitude and phase by evaluating bioluminescence rhythm in PER2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice. Circadian rhythms were monitored in vitro using fibroblasts and ex vivo and in vivo for monitoring of peripheral clocks. Key Results Chronic application of caffeine (0.1–10 mM) increased period and amplitude in vitro. Transient application of caffeine (10 mM) near the bottom of the decreasing phase of bioluminescence rhythm caused phase advance in vitro. Caffeine (0.1%) intake caused a phase delay under light–dark or constant dark conditions, suggesting a period-lengthening effect in vivo. Caffeine (20 mg·kg−1) at daytime or at late night-time caused phase advance or delay in bioluminescence rhythm in the liver and kidney respectively. The complicated roles of cAMP/Ca2+ signalling may be involved in the caffeine-induced increase of period and amplitude in vitro. Conclusions and Implications Caffeine affects circadian rhythm in mice by lengthening the period and causing a phase shift of peripheral clocks. These results suggest that caffeine intake with food/drink may help with food-induced resetting of peripheral circadian clocks. PMID:25160990

  7. Clinical analysis of 670 cases in two trials of the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Cooperative Group subtyped according to the Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms: a comparison with the Working Formulation.

    PubMed

    Pittaluga, S; Bijnens, L; Teodorovic, I; Hagenbeek, A; Meerwaldt, J H; Somers, R; Thomas, J; Noordijk, E M; De Wolf-Peeters, C

    1996-05-15

    In the Working Formulation (WF), non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are grouped according to their clinical behavior. These disorders are listed as entities defined by morphology, phenotype, and cytogenetics in the proposed Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms (REAL), the clinical relevance of which is still debated. We analyzed 670 NHL cases included in two randomized clinical trials (EORTC 20855 WF-intermediate/high-grade and 20856 WF-low-grade malignancy) with histologic material available for review. Based on hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections, 77% of cases could be subtyped. Immunophenotyping was considered to be mandatory only in diagnosing T-cell lymphoma and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Of 522 cases subtyped, 11% were mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), 5% were marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL), 46% were follicle center lymphoma, and 32% were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Statistical analysis and comparisons between classifications were made only within each trial and treatment group. MCL and MZBCL were characterized by a shorter median survival (3.4 and 4.1 years, respectively) in comparison with low- and intermediate-grade WF groups (> 9.3 and 5.8 years, respectively). In terms of progression-free survival, MCL showed a behavior similar to the low-grade group, with frequent relapses. Follicle center cell lymphomas behaved as low-grade lymphomas as defined by the WF and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas as the WF-intermediate grade group. Because several NHL entities have a clinical behavior of their own, their recognition by the REAL classification offers clinicians additional information that is not obtained when the WF is used.

  8. Histological and immunohistological investigation of the lymphoid tissue in normal and mycobacteria-affected specimens of the Rufous Hare-wallaby (Lagorchestes hirsutus)

    PubMed Central

    Young, LJ; McFarlane, R; Slender, AL; Deane, EM

    2003-01-01

    The histology of the spleen, lymph nodes, Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) are described for samples collected opportunistically from healthy and mycobacteria-affected specimens of the endangered marsupial Lagorchestes hirsutus, the Rufous Hare-wallaby. The structural elements, organization and distribution of T and B lymphocytes determined by immunohistological techniques using species cross-reactive antibodies in the lymph nodes, spleen and GALT of this species demonstrated lymphoid cell distributions that were consistent with other marsupial and eutherian mammals. The tissues of animals identified as acid-fast positive displayed immunopathology consistent with the responses to intracellular bacteria displayed in some eutherian mammals and included the presence of focal lesions, giant cells in the lung and lymphoid aggregations situated adjacent to blood and airway vessels. This is the first study to describe the lymphoid tissue of this rare macropod species and the first to document the tissue bed response to mycobacteria. PMID:12713272

  9. Accumulation of L-type Bovine Prions in Peripheral Nerve Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Morikazu; Matsuura, Yuichi; Masujin, Kentaro; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Shu, Yujing; Kurachi, Megumi; Kasai, Kazuo; Murayama, Yuichi; Fukuda, Shigeo; Onoe, Sadao; Hagiwara, Ken’ichi; Yamakawa, Yoshio; Sata, Tetsutaro; Mohri, Shirou; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported the intraspecies transmission of L-type atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). To clarify the peripheral pathogenesis of L-type BSE, we studied prion distribution in nerve and lymphoid tissues obtained from experimentally challenged cattle. As with classical BSE prions, L-type BSE prions accumulated in central and peripheral nerve tissues. PMID:20587193

  10. Peripheral organ doses from radiotherapy for heterotopic ossification of non-hip joints: is there a risk for radiation-induced malignancies?

    PubMed

    Berris, Theocharis; Mazonakis, Michalis; Kachris, Stefanos; Damilakis, John

    2014-05-01

    Radiotherapy, used for heterotopic ossification (HO) management, may increase radiation risk to patients. This study aimed to determine the peripheral dose to radiosensitive organs and the associated cancer risks due to radiotherapy of HO in common non-hip joints. A Monte Carlo model of a medical linear accelerator combined with a mathematical phantom representing an average adult patient were employed to simulate radiotherapy for HO with standard AP and PA fields in the regions of shoulder, elbow and knee. Radiation dose to all out-of-field radiosensitive organs defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection was calculated. Cancer induction risk was estimated using organ-specific risk coefficients. Organ dose change with increased field dimensions was also evaluated. Radiation therapy for HO with a 7 Gy target dose in the sites of shoulder, elbow and knee, resulted in the following equivalent organ dose ranges of 0.85-62 mSv, 0.28-1.6 mSv and 0.04-1.6 mSv, respectively. Respective ranges for cancer risk were 0-5.1, 0-0.6 and 0-1.3 cases per 10(4) persons. Increasing the field size caused an average increase of peripheral doses by 15-20%. Individual organ dose increase depends upon the primary treatment site and the distance between organ of interest and treatment volume. Relatively increased risks of more than 1 case per 10,000 patients were found for skin, breast and thyroid malignancies after treatment in the region of shoulder and for skin cancer following elbow irradiation. The estimated risk for inducing any other malignant disease ranges from negligible to low.

  11. Innate lymphoid cells in inflammation and immunity.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Andrew N J; Spits, Hergen; Eberl, Gerard

    2014-09-18

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were first described as playing important roles in the development of lymphoid tissues and more recently in the initiation of inflammation at barrier surfaces in response to infection or tissue damage. It has now become apparent that ILCs play more complex roles throughout the duration of immune responses, participating in the transition from innate to adaptive immunity and contributing to chronic inflammation. The proximity of ILCs to epithelial surfaces and their constitutive strategic positioning in other tissues throughout the body ensures that, in spite of their rarity, ILCs are able to regulate immune homeostasis effectively. Dysregulation of ILC function might result in chronic pathologies such as allergies, autoimmunity, and inflammation. A new role for ILCs in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis has started to emerge, underlining their importance in fundamental physiological processes beyond infection and immunity.

  12. STUDIES ON TRANSMISSIBLE LYMPHOID LEUCEMIA OF MICE.

    PubMed

    Furth, J; Strumia, M

    1931-04-30

    Lymphoid leucemia of the mouse is readily transmitted by intravenous inoculations. The majority of the mice inoculated successfully develop leucemic, a smaller number of them, aleucemic lymphadenosis. The data presented favor the view that leucemic and aleucemic lymphadenosis are essentially the same condition. Leucemia produced by transmission is preceded by an aleucemic stage, in which the lymph nodes and the spleen are uniformly enlarged, and the white blood count and the percentage of lymphocytes are within the normal range but immature lymphocytes are numerous in the circulating blood. Young as well as old mice may develop leucemia if leucotic material enters their circulation. Studies of transmissible leucemia favor the view that leucemia of mammals is a neoplastic disease. The basic problem of leucemia would seem to be determination of the factors that bring about a malignant transformation of lymphoid cells.

  13. STUDIES ON TRANSMISSIBLE LYMPHOID LEUCEMIA OF MICE

    PubMed Central

    Furth, J.; Strumia, M.

    1931-01-01

    Lymphoid leucemia of the mouse is readily transmitted by intravenous inoculations. The majority of the mice inoculated successfully develop leucemic, a smaller number of them, aleucemic lymphadenosis. The data presented favor the view that leucemic and aleucemic lymphadenosis are essentially the same condition. Leucemia produced by transmission is preceded by an aleucemic stage, in which the lymph nodes and the spleen are uniformly enlarged, and the white blood count and the percentage of lymphocytes are within the normal range but immature lymphocytes are numerous in the circulating blood. Young as well as old mice may develop leucemia if leucotic material enters their circulation. Studies of transmissible leucemia favor the view that leucemia of mammals is a neoplastic disease. The basic problem of leucemia would seem to be determination of the factors that bring about a malignant transformation of lymphoid cells. PMID:19869876

  14. 'Trained immunity': consequences for lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Wendy B C; Netea, Mihai G; Kater, Arnon P; van der Velden, Walter J F M

    2016-12-01

    In hematological malignancies complex interactions exist between the immune system, microorganisms and malignant cells. On one hand, microorganisms can induce cancer, as illustrated by specific infection-induced lymphoproliferative diseases such as Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. On the other hand, malignant cells create an immunosuppressive environment for their own benefit, but this also results in an increased risk of infections. Disrupted innate immunity contributes to the neoplastic transformation of blood cells by several mechanisms, including the uncontrolled clearance of microbial and autoantigens resulting in chronic immune stimulation and proliferation, chronic inflammation, and defective immune surveillance and anti-cancer immunity. Restoring dysfunction or enhancing responsiveness of the innate immune system might therefore represent a new angle for the prevention and treatment of hematological malignancies, in particular lymphoid malignancies and associated infections. Recently, it has been shown that cells of the innate immune system, such as monocytes/macrophages and natural killer cells, harbor features of immunological memory and display enhanced functionality long-term after stimulation with certain microorganisms and vaccines. These functional changes rely on epigenetic reprogramming and have been termed 'trained immunity'. In this review the concept of 'trained immunity' is discussed in the setting of lymphoid malignancies. Amelioration of infectious complications and hematological disease progression can be envisioned to result from the induction of trained immunity, but future studies are required to prove this exciting new hypothesis. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  15. Calcium-activated potassium channel SK1 is widely expressed in the peripheral nervous system and sensory organs of adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Cabo, R; Zichichi, R; Viña, E; Guerrera, M C; Vázquez, G; García-Suárez, O; Vega, J A; Germanà, A

    2013-10-25

    Sensory cells contain ion channels involved in the organ-specific transduction mechanisms that convert different types of stimuli into electric energy. Here we focus on small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 1 (SK1) which plays an important role in all excitable cells acting as feedback regulators in after-hyperpolarization. This study was undertaken to analyze the pattern of expression of SK1 in the zebrafish peripheral nervous system and sensory organs using RT-PRC, Westernblot and immunohistochemistry. Expression of SK1 mRNA was observed at all developmental stages analyzed (from 10 to 100 days post fertilization, dpf), and the antibody used identified a protein with a molecular weight of 70kDa, at 100dpf (regarded to be adult). Cell expressing SK1 in adult animals were neurons of dorsal root and cranial nerve sensory ganglia, sympathetic neurons, sensory cells in neuromasts of the lateral line system and taste buds, crypt olfactory neurons and photoreceptors. Present results report for the first time the expression and the distribution of SK1 in the peripheral nervous system and sensory organs of adult zebrafish, and may contribute to set zebrafish as an interesting experimental model for calcium-activated potassium channels research. Moreover these findings are of potential interest because the potential role of SK as targets for the treatment of neurological diseases and sensory disorders.

  16. Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Central Nervous System and Peripheral Organs of Stramonita haemastoma: Protein Distribution and Gene Expression in Response to Thermal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Toni, Mattia; De Angelis, Federica; Bonaccorsi di Patti, Maria Carmela; Cioni, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is generated via the oxidation of l-arginine by the enzyme NO synthase (NOS) both in vertebrates and invertebrates. Three NOS isoforms, nNOS, iNOS and eNOS, are known in vertebrates, whereas a single NOS isoform is usually expressed in invertebrates, sharing structural and functional characteristics with nNOS or iNOS depending on the species. The present paper is focused on the constitutive Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent nNOS recently sequenced by our group in the neogastropod Stramonita haemastoma (ShNOS). In this paper we provide new data on cellular distribution of ShNOS in the CNS (pedal ganglion) and peripheral organs (osphradium, tentacle, eye and foot) obtained by WB, IF, CM and NADPHd. Results demonstrated that NOS-like proteins are widely expressed in sensory receptor elements, neurons and epithelial cells. The detailed study of NOS distribution in peripheral and central neurons suggested that NOS is both intracellular and presynaptically located. Present findings confirm that NO may have a key role in the central neuronal circuits of gastropods and in sensory perception. The physiological relevance of NOS enzymes in the same organs was suggested by thermal stress experiments demonstrating that the constitutive expression of ShNOS is modulated in a time- and organ-dependent manner in response to environmental stressors. PMID:26528988

  17. The uleine-rich fraction of Himatanthus lancifolius blocks proliferative responses of human lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Nardin, Jeanine Marie; Lima, Melissa Pires; Machado, Julio Cesar; Hilst, Luciana Farhat; Santos, Cid Aimbiré de Moraes; Weffort-Santos, Almeriane Maria

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the present work is to report the effects shown by the uleine-rich fraction extracted from the barks of Himatanthus lancifolius (Muell. Arg.) Woodson (Apocynaceae) on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in which we were able to inhibit the proliferation of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes by blocking their transformation into blast-dividing cells. Furthermore, it inhibited the proliferation of Daudi and Reh cells, two leukemic cell lines of lymphoid origin. The present study widens the biological applications of H. lancifolius' alkaloids to include its possible use as a modulator of the immune system.

  18. Peripheral tolerance can be modified by altering KLF2-regulated Treg migration

    PubMed Central

    Pabbisetty, Sudheer K.; Rabacal, Whitney; Volanakis, Emmanuel J.; Parekh, Vrajesh V.; Olivares-Villagómez, Danyvid; Cendron, Delphine; Boyd, Kelli L.; Van Kaer, Luc; Sebzda, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Tregs are essential for maintaining peripheral tolerance, and thus targeting these cells may aid in the treatment of autoimmunity and cancer by enhancing or reducing suppressive functions, respectively. Before these cells can be harnessed for therapeutic purposes, it is necessary to understand how they maintain tolerance under physiologically relevant conditions. We now report that transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) controls naive Treg migration patterns via regulation of homeostatic and inflammatory homing receptors, and that in its absence KLF2-deficient Tregs are unable to migrate efficiently to secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). Diminished Treg trafficking to SLOs is sufficient to initiate autoimmunity, indicating that SLOs are a primary site for maintaining peripheral tolerance under homeostatic conditions. Disease severity correlates with impaired Treg recruitment to SLOs and, conversely, promotion of Tregs into these tissues can ameliorate autoimmunity. Moreover, stabilizing KLF2 expression within the Treg compartment enhances peripheral tolerance by diverting these suppressive cells from tertiary tissues into SLOs. Taken together, these results demonstrate that peripheral tolerance is enhanced or diminished through modulation of Treg trafficking to SLOs, a process that can be controlled by adjusting KLF2 protein levels. PMID:27462110

  19. Vitamin A supplementation redirects the flow of retinyl esters from peripheral to central organs of neonatal rats raised under vitamin A-marginal conditions.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Joanna K; Tan, Libo; Green, Michael H; Ross, A Catharine

    2017-05-01

    Background: Vitamin A (VA; retinol) supplementation is used to reduce child mortality in countries with high rates of malnutrition. Existing research suggests that neonates (<1 mo old) may have a limited capacity to store VA in organs other than the liver; however, knowledge about VA distribution and kinetics in individual, nonhepatic organs is limited.Objective: We examined retinol uptake and turnover in nonhepatic organs, including skin, brain, and adipose tissue, in neonatal rats without and after VA supplementation.Design: Sprague-Dawley neonatal rats (n = 104) were nursed by mothers fed a VA-marginal diet (0.35 mg retinol/kg diet) and treated on postnatal day 4 with an oral dose of either VA (6 μg retinyl palmitate/g body weight) or canola oil (control), both containing 1.8 μCi of [(3)H]retinol. Subsequently, pups (n = 4 · group(-1) · time(-1)) were killed at 13 different times from 30 min to 24 d after dosing. The fractional and absolute transfer of chylomicron retinyl esters (CM-REs), retinol bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP-ROH), and total retinol were estimated in WinSAAM software.Results: VA supplementation redirected the flow of CM-REs from peripheral to central organs and accumulated mainly in the liver. The RBP-ROH released from the liver was acquired mainly by the peripheral tissues but not retained efficiently, causing repeated recycling of retinol between plasma and tissues (541 compared with 5 times in the supplemented group and control group, respectively) and its rapid turnover in all organs, except the brain and white adipose tissue. Retinol stores in the liver lasted for ∼2 wk before being gradually transferred to other organs.Conclusions: VA supplementation administered in a single high dose during the first month after birth is readily acquired but not retained efficiently in peripheral tissues of neonatal rats, suggesting that a more frequent, lower-dose supplementation may be necessary to maintain steady VA concentrations in

  20. Constitutive expression of tenascin in T-dependent zones of human lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Chilosi, M.; Lestani, M.; Benedetti, A.; Montagna, L.; Pedron, S.; Scarpa, A.; Menestrina, F.; Hirohashi, S.; Pizzolo, G.; Semenzato, G.

    1993-01-01

    Tenascin is a major extracellular matrix glycoprotein that can interfere with the action of fibronectin by inhibiting cell adhesion and spreading. Although tenascin is able to exert important immunomodulatory activities on T and B cells and macrophages, little is known about its distribution in different lymphohemopoietic tissues. In this study we have analyzed tenascin immunoreactivity on cryostat and paraffin sections of normal and pathological lymphoid tissues using two different monoclonal antibodies. We demonstrated strong tenascin expression in all peripheral lymphoid tissues, whereas it was barely detectable in the thymus and in bone marrow. In reactive lymph nodes, tenascin was mainly found in T-dependent zones, forming a variably close-woven reticular network corresponding to fibroblastic reticulum cells and blood vessels basal laminae, showing a partial co-localization with fibronectin. In B-dependent zones, tenascin was restricted to blood vessels. Using double-marker analysis, we performed a thorough study comparing tenascin expression in different compartments of lymphoid microenvironments. Tenascin network appeared much thicker in chronically stimulated tissues, where CD4+ lymphocytes with "memory" phenotype (CD45RO+/CD45RA-) were predominant, and at sites of ongoing inflammation. In particular, a striking increase of tenascin was observed in sarcoid lymph node, as well as in myasthenic hyperplastic thymuses. In addition, tenascin can be abnormally synthesized in tissue involved by various types of lymphomas, including Hodgkin's disease and hairy cell leukemia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7694469

  1. Lymphoid irradiation in intractable rheumatoid arthritis: effects on the production of immunoglobulins and rheumatoid factors.

    PubMed Central

    Hanly, J G; Hassan, J; Moriarty, M; Whelan, A; Feighery, C; Bresnihan, B

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the production of immunoglobulins and rheumatoid factors (RF's) were studied in 20 patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis (RA) following total doses of 750 rad or 2,000 rad lymphoid irradiation. Over a 12 month follow up period there was no consistent change in absolute serum or synovial fluid levels, or in synovial membrane production of either total IgG, IgA or IgM, or the corresponding RF fractions. The invitro production of immunoglobulins and IgM RF by peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also unaltered, except for one patient who had a dramatic rise in IgM RF production. Over the same period there was a significant overall reduction in disease activity following both doses of radiotherapy. It is concluded that the clinical response which occurs following lymphoid irradiation is not due to a reduction in RF production. Furthermore, the production of RF's appears to be unaffected by the changes in T cell immunity which occur following lymphoid irradiation. PMID:4085151

  2. Relationship of lymphoid lesions to disease course in mucosal feline immunodeficiency virus type C infection.

    PubMed

    Obert, L A; Hoover, E A

    2000-09-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection typically has a prolonged and variable disease course in cats, which can limit its usefulness as a model for human immunodeficiency virus infection. A clade C FIV isolate (FIV-C) has been associated with high viral burdens and rapidly progressive disease in cats. FIV-C was transmissible via oral-nasal, vaginal, or rectal mucosal exposure, and infection resulted in one of three disease courses: rapid, conventional/slow, or regressive. The severity of the pathologic changes paralleled the disease course. Thymic depletion was an early lesion and was correlated with detection of FIV RNA in thymocytes by in situ hybridization. The major changes in thymic cell populations were depletion of p55+/S100+ dendritic cells, CD3- cells, CD4+/CD8- cells, and CD4+/CD8+ cells and increases in apoptosis, CD45R+ B cells, and lymphoid follicles. In contrast to thymic depletion, peripheral lymphoid tissues often were hyperplastic. Mucosally transmitted FIV-C is thymotropic and induces a spectrum of lymphoid lesions and disease mirroring that seen with the human and simian immunodeficiency virus infections.

  3. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells in the lung.

    PubMed

    Drake, Li Yin; Kita, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    As the first line of defense, innate immunity plays an important role in protecting the host against pathogens. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are emerging as important effector cells in the innate immune system and the cell type that regulate immune and tissue homeostases. Group 2 ILCs (ILC2s) are a subset of ILCs and are characterized by their capacity to produce large quantities of type 2 cytokines and certain tissue growth factors. In animal models, lung ILC2s are involved in allergic airway inflammation induced by exposure to allergens even in the absence of CD4(+) T cells and are likely responsible for tissue repair and recovery after respiratory virus infection. ILC2s are also identified in various organs in humans, and the numbers are increased in mucosal tissues from patients with allergic disorders. Further investigations of this novel cell type will provide major conceptual advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of asthma and allergic diseases.

  4. Depletion and recovery of lymphoid subsets following morphine administration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, EY; Xiong, J; Parker, BL; Chen, AY; Fields, PE; Ma, X; Qiu, J; Yankee, TM

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Opioid use and abuse has been linked to significant immunosuppression, which has been attributed, in part, to drug-induced depletion of lymphocytes. We sought to define the mechanisms by which lymphocyte populations are depleted and recover following morphine treatment in mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Mice were implanted with morphine pellets and B- and T-cell subsets in the bone marrow, thymus, spleen and lymph nodes were analysed at various time points. We also examined the effects of morphine on T-cell development using an ex vivo assay. KEY RESULTS The lymphocyte populations most susceptible to morphine-induced depletion were the precursor cells undergoing selection. As the lymphocytes recovered, more lymphocyte precursors proliferated than in control mice. In addition, peripheral T-cells displayed evidence that they had undergone homeostatic proliferation during the recovery phase of the experiments. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The recovery of lymphocytes following morphine-induced depletion occurred in the presence of morphine and via increased proliferation of lymphoid precursors and homeostatic proliferation of T-cells. LINKED ARTICLE This article is commented on by Eisenstein, pp. 1826–1828 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01513.x PMID:21557737

  5. Expression of hpttg proto-oncogene in lymphoid neoplasias.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Carmen; Pereda, Teresa; Borrero, Juan J; Espina, Agueda; Romero, Francisco; Tortolero, María; Pintor-Toro, José A; Segura, Dolores I; Japón, Miguel A

    2002-11-21

    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene (pttg) is a distinct proto-oncogene which is expressed in certain normal tissues with high proliferation rate and in a variety of tumors. PTTG is the vertebrate analog of yeast securins Pds1 and Cut2 with a key role in the regulation of sister chromatid separation during mitosis. Impairment of PTTG regulated functions is expected to lead to chromosomal instability and aneuploidy. Human pttg (hpttg) is abundantly expressed in Jurkat T lymphoblastic lymphoma cells but not in normal peripheral blood leukocytes. To obtain additional data on the potential role of hpttg in lymphomagenesis we selected 150 cases of lymphoid tumors for the assessment of hpttg expression in tumor tissues. Immunohistochemical studies on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues revealed hPTTG in 38.8% of B-cell lymphomas, 70.2% of T-cell lymphomas, and 73.1% of Hodgkin's lymphomas. Among B-cell lymphomas, the most frequently immunostained tumors were plasma cell tumors, diffuse large cell lymphomas, and follicle center cell lymphomas. In Hodgkin's disease, immunoreactivity was mainly noted in Reed-Sternberg cells. In conclusion, the frequent overexpression of hpttg in many histological subtypes of lymphoma suggests the involvement of this proto-oncogene in lymphomagenesis.

  6. Defining HIV and SIV Reservoirs in Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Deleage, Claire; Wietgrefe, Stephen W.; Del Prete, Gregory; Morcock, David R.; Hao, Xing Pei; Piatak, Michael; Bess, Julian; Anderson, Jodi L.; Perkey, Katherine E.; Reilly, Cavan; McCune, Joseph M.; Haase, Ashley T.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Schacker, Timothy W.; Estes, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    A primary obstacle to an HIV-1 cure is long-lived viral reservoirs, which must be eliminated or greatly reduced. Cure strategies have largely focused on monitoring changes in T cell reservoirs in peripheral blood (PB), even though the lymphoid tissues (LT) are primary sites for viral persistence. To track and discriminate viral reservoirs within tissue compartments we developed a specific and sensitive next-generation in situ hybridization approach to detect vRNA, including vRNA+ cells and viral particles (“RNAscope”), vDNA+ cells (“DNAscope”) and combined vRNA and vDNA with immunohistochemistry to detect and phenotype active and latently infected cells in the same tissue section. RNAscope is highly sensitive with greater speed of analysis compared to traditional in situ hybridization. The highly sensitive and specific DNAscope detected SIV/HIV vDNA+ cells, including duplexed detection of vDNA and vRNA or immunophenotypic markers in the same section. Analysis of LT samples from macaques prior to and during combination antiretroviral therapy demonstrated that B cell follicles are an important anatomical compartment for both latent and active viral persistence during treatment. These new tools should allow new insights into viral reservoir biology and evaluation of cure strategies. PMID:27430032

  7. Defining HIV and SIV Reservoirs in Lymphoid Tissues.

    PubMed

    Deleage, Claire; Wietgrefe, Stephen W; Del Prete, Gregory; Morcock, David R; Hao, Xing Pei; Piatak, Michael; Bess, Julian; Anderson, Jodi L; Perkey, Katherine E; Reilly, Cavan; McCune, Joseph M; Haase, Ashley T; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Schacker, Timothy W; Estes, Jacob D

    2016-01-01

    A primary obstacle to an HIV-1 cure is long-lived viral reservoirs, which must be eliminated or greatly reduced. Cure strategies have largely focused on monitoring changes in T cell reservoirs in peripheral blood (PB), even though the lymphoid tissues (LT) are primary sites for viral persistence. To track and discriminate viral reservoirs within tissue compartments we developed a specific and sensitive next-generation in situ hybridization approach to detect vRNA, including vRNA+ cells and viral particles ("RNAscope"), vDNA+ cells ("DNAscope") and combined vRNA and vDNA with immunohistochemistry to detect and phenotype active and latently infected cells in the same tissue section. RNAscope is highly sensitive with greater speed of analysis compared to traditional in situ hybridization. The highly sensitive and specific DNAscope detected SIV/HIV vDNA+ cells, including duplexed detection of vDNA and vRNA or immunophenotypic markers in the same section. Analysis of LT samples from macaques prior to and during combination antiretroviral therapy demonstrated that B cell follicles are an important anatomical compartment for both latent and active viral persistence during treatment. These new tools should allow new insights into viral reservoir biology and evaluation of cure strategies.

  8. [Function of Aire in central and peripheral immune tolerance].

    PubMed

    Hanafusa, Takaaki

    2014-01-01

    Negative selection induces central tolerance in which self-reactive T cells are deleted by medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) to prevent autoimmunity. The transcriptional factor, autoimmune regulator (Aire), controls the expression of tissue-specific antigens (TSAs) by mTECs for negative selection. The mechanisms by which Aire targets loci which encode TSAs are unknown in detail; recently, however, the ATF7ip-MBD1 complex was identified as an Aire-interacting transcriptional protein complex required for its targeting the loci. Lineage tracing of Aire(+) mTECs identified that mTECs have a post-Aire stage during the development, where they lost maturation markers but maintained intermediate TSA expression, and Aire is required for the terminal differentiation of mTEC's. Extrathymic Aire-expressing cells (eTACs) are identified in murine and human secondary lymphoid organs. eTACs express major histocompatibility complex class II(hi), CD80(lo), CD86(lo), epithelial cell adhesion molecule(hi), CD45(lo) bone marrow-derived peripheral antigen-presenting cell population, which is distinct from mTECs and dendritic cells. They can induce activation-induced cell death of self-reactive CD8(+) T cells and unresponsiveness of self-reactive CD4(+) T cells through a mechanism that does not require regulatory T cells, suggesting that peripheral Aire plays a complementary role for central tolerance.

  9. Stromal Fibroblasts in Tertiary Lymphoid Structures: A Novel Target in Chronic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Barone, Francesca; Gardner, David H; Nayar, Saba; Steinthal, Nathalie; Buckley, Christopher D; Luther, Sanjiv A

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) are organized aggregates of lymphocytes, myeloid, and stromal cells that provide ectopic hubs for acquired immune responses. TLS share phenotypical and functional features with secondary lymphoid organs (SLO); however, they require persistent inflammatory signals to arise and are often observed at target sites of autoimmune disease, chronic infection, cancer, and organ transplantation. Over the past 10 years, important progress has been made in our understanding of the role of stromal fibroblasts in SLO development, organization, and function. A complex and stereotyped series of events regulate fibroblast differentiation from embryonic life in SLOs to lymphoid organ architecture observed in adults. In contrast, TLS-associated fibroblasts differentiate from postnatal, locally activated mesenchyme, predominantly in settings of inflammation and persistent antigen presentation. Therefore, there are critical differences in the cellular and molecular requirements that regulate SLO versus TLS development that ultimately impact on stromal and hematopoietic cell function. These differences may contribute to the pathogenic nature of TLS in the context of chronic inflammation and malignant transformation and offer a window of opportunity for therapeutic interventions in TLS associated pathologies.

  10. Stromal Fibroblasts in Tertiary Lymphoid Structures: A Novel Target in Chronic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Francesca; Gardner, David H.; Nayar, Saba; Steinthal, Nathalie; Buckley, Christopher D.; Luther, Sanjiv A.

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) are organized aggregates of lymphocytes, myeloid, and stromal cells that provide ectopic hubs for acquired immune responses. TLS share phenotypical and functional features with secondary lymphoid organs (SLO); however, they require persistent inflammatory signals to arise and are often observed at target sites of autoimmune disease, chronic infection, cancer, and organ transplantation. Over the past 10 years, important progress has been made in our understanding of the role of stromal fibroblasts in SLO development, organization, and function. A complex and stereotyped series of events regulate fibroblast differentiation from embryonic life in SLOs to lymphoid organ architecture observed in adults. In contrast, TLS-associated fibroblasts differentiate from postnatal, locally activated mesenchyme, predominantly in settings of inflammation and persistent antigen presentation. Therefore, there are critical differences in the cellular and molecular requirements that regulate SLO versus TLS development that ultimately impact on stromal and hematopoietic cell function. These differences may contribute to the pathogenic nature of TLS in the context of chronic inflammation and malignant transformation and offer a window of opportunity for therapeutic interventions in TLS associated pathologies. PMID:27877173

  11. [Multiple organ failure presumably due to alkylating agents used as preconditioning drugs for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in an acute promyelocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Ida, Tori; Hashimoto, Shigeo; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Ebe, Yusuke; Yano, Toshio; Sato, Naoko; Koike, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old male was diagnosed as having acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in 2006. He received induction chemotherapy including all-trans retinoic acid and initially achieved a complete remission (CR). After several courses of consolidation therapy combining anthracyclines and cytarabine, he maintained CR. In 2009, an APL relapse was diagnosed, and he was treated with arsenic trioxide. Since he achieved a second CR, he underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT) with a conditioning regimen consisting of busulfan and melphalan. At four months after auto-PBSCT, he developed a pneumothorax and acute respiratory failure. He died despite intensive therapy. Autopsy findings included various atypical and apoptotic cells in his pulmonary tissue. These changes were confirmed in multiple organs throughout the body, suggesting them to be drug-induced. The findings in this case suggested multiple organ failure due to alkylating agents.

  12. Assessing the end-organ in peripheral arterial occlusive disease—from contrast—enhanced ultrasound to blood-oxygen-level-dependent MR imaging

    PubMed Central

    Partovi, Sasan; Jacobi, Bjoern; Fergus, Nathan; Schulte, Anja-Carina; Robbin, Mark R.; Bilecen, Deniz; Staub, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) is a result of atherosclerotic disease which is currently the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Patients with PAOD may present with intermittent claudication or symptoms related to critical limb ischemia. PAOD is associated with increased mortality rates. Stenoses and occlusions are usually detected by macrovascular imaging, including ultrasound and cross-sectional methods. From a pathophysiological view these stenoses and occlusions are affecting the microperfusion in the functional end-organs, such as the skin and skeletal muscle. In the clinical arena new imaging technologies enable the evaluation of the microvasculature. Two technologies currently under investigation for this purpose on the end-organ level in PAOD patients are contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) MR imaging (MRI). The following article is providing an overview about these evolving techniques with a specific focus on skeletal muscle microvasculature imaging in PAOD patients. PMID:24834413

  13. Establishment and function of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cells in the skin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Zhao, Luming; Xu, Ming; Xiong, Na

    2017-07-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a newly classified family of immune cells of the lymphoid lineage. While they could be found in both lymphoid organs and non-lymphoid tissues, ILCs are preferentially enriched in barrier tissues such as the skin, intestine, and lung where they could play important roles in maintenance of tissue integrity and function and protection against assaults of foreign agents. On the other hand, dysregulated activation of ILCs could contribute to tissue inflammatory diseases. In spite of recent progress towards understanding roles of ILCs in the health and disease, mechanisms regulating specific establishment, activation, and function of ILCs in barrier tissues are still poorly understood. We herein review the up-to-date understanding of tissue-specific relevance of ILCs. Particularly we will focus on resident ILCs of the skin, the outmost barrier tissue critical in protection against various foreign hazardous agents and maintenance of thermal and water balance. In addition, we will discuss remaining outstanding questions yet to be addressed.

  14. Interleukin-27 inhibits ectopic lymphoid-like structure development in early inflammatory arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bombardieri, Michele; Greenhill, Claire J.; McLeod, Louise; Nerviani, Alessandra; Rocher-Ros, Vidalba; Cardus, Anna; Williams, Anwen S.; Pitzalis, Costantino; Jenkins, Brendan J.

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic lymphoid-like structures (ELSs) reminiscent of secondary lymphoid organs often develop at sites of chronic inflammation where they contribute to immune-mediated pathology. Through evaluation of synovial tissues from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, we now show that low interleukin-27 (IL-27) expression corresponds with an increased incidence of ELS and gene signatures associated with their development and activity. The presence of synovial ELS was also noted in mice deficient in the IL-27 receptor (IL-27R) after the onset of inflammatory arthritis. Here, pathology was associated with increased synovial expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, homeostatic chemokines, and transcriptional regulators linked with lymphoid neogenesis. In both clinical and experimental RA, synovial ELS coincided with the heightened local expression of cytokines and transcription factors of the Th17 and T follicular helper (Tfh) cell lineages, and included podoplanin-expressing T cells within lymphoid aggregates. IL-27 inhibited the differentiation of podoplanin-expressing Th17 cells, and an increased number of these cells were observed in IL-27R–deficient mice with inflammatory arthritis. Thus, IL-27 appears to negatively regulate ELS development in RA through control of effector T cells. These studies open new opportunities for patient stratification and treatment. PMID:26417004

  15. Interleukin-27 inhibits ectopic lymphoid-like structure development in early inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth W; Bombardieri, Michele; Greenhill, Claire J; McLeod, Louise; Nerviani, Alessandra; Rocher-Ros, Vidalba; Cardus, Anna; Williams, Anwen S; Pitzalis, Costantino; Jenkins, Brendan J; Jones, Simon A

    2015-10-19

    Ectopic lymphoid-like structures (ELSs) reminiscent of secondary lymphoid organs often develop at sites of chronic inflammation where they contribute to immune-mediated pathology. Through evaluation of synovial tissues from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, we now show that low interleukin-27 (IL-27) expression corresponds with an increased incidence of ELS and gene signatures associated with their development and activity. The presence of synovial ELS was also noted in mice deficient in the IL-27 receptor (IL-27R) after the onset of inflammatory arthritis. Here, pathology was associated with increased synovial expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, homeostatic chemokines, and transcriptional regulators linked with lymphoid neogenesis. In both clinical and experimental RA, synovial ELS coincided with the heightened local expression of cytokines and transcription factors of the Th17 and T follicular helper (Tfh) cell lineages, and included podoplanin-expressing T cells within lymphoid aggregates. IL-27 inhibited the differentiation of podoplanin-expressing Th17 cells, and an increased number of these cells were observed in IL-27R-deficient mice with inflammatory arthritis. Thus, IL-27 appears to negatively regulate ELS development in RA through control of effector T cells. These studies open new opportunities for patient stratification and treatment. © 2015 Jones et al.

  16. G9a regulates group 2 innate lymphoid cell development by repressing the group 3 innate lymphoid cell program

    PubMed Central

    Chenery, Alistair L.; Burrows, Kyle; Gold, Matthew J.; Cait, Alissa; Rossi, Fabio M.

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are emerging as important regulators of homeostatic and disease-associated immune processes. Despite recent advances in defining the molecular pathways that control development and function of ILCs, the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate ILC biology are unknown. Here, we identify a role for the lysine methyltransferase G9a in regulating ILC2 development and function. Mice with a hematopoietic cell–specific deletion of G9a (Vav.G9a−/− mice) have a severe reduction in ILC2s in peripheral sites, associated with impaired development of immature ILC2s in the bone marrow. Accordingly, Vav.G9a−/− mice are resistant to the development of allergic lung inflammation. G9a-dependent dimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) is a repressive histone mark that is associated with gene silencing. Genome-wide expression analysis demonstrated that the absence of G9a led to increased expression of ILC3-associated genes in developing ILC2 populations. Further, we found high levels of G9a-dependent H3K9me2 at ILC3-specific genetic loci, demonstrating that G9a-mediated repression of ILC3-associated genes is critical for the optimal development of ILC2s. Together, these results provide the first identification of an epigenetic regulatory mechanism in ILC development and function. PMID:27298444

  17. Expansion of inflammatory innate lymphoid cells in patients with common variable immune deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cols, Montserrat; Rahman, Adeeb; Maglione, Paul J; Garcia-Carmona, Yolanda; Simchoni, Noa; Ko, Huai-Bin M; Radigan, Lin; Cerutti, Andrea; Blankenship, Derek; Pascual, Virginia; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an antibody deficiency treated with immunoglobulin; however, patients can have noninfectious inflammatory conditions that lead to heightened morbidity and mortality. Modular analyses of RNA transcripts in whole blood previously identified an upregulation of many interferon-responsive genes. In this study we sought the cell populations leading to this signature. Lymphoid cells were measured in peripheral blood of 55 patients with CVID (31 with and 24 without inflammatory/autoimmune complications) by using mass cytometry and flow cytometry. Surface markers, cytokines, and transcriptional characteristics of sorted innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were defined by using quantitative PCR. Gastrointestinal and lung biopsy specimens of subjects with inflammatory disease were stained to seek ILCs in tissues. The linage-negative, CD127(+), CD161(+) lymphoid population containing T-box transcription factor, retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (ROR) γt, IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-22, all hallmarks of type 3 innate lymphoid cells, were expanded in the blood of patients with CVID with inflammatory conditions (mean, 3.7% of PBMCs). ILCs contained detectable amounts of the transcription factors inhibitor of DNA binding 2, T-box transcription factor, and RORγt and increased mRNA transcripts for IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) and IL-26, demonstrating inflammatory potential. In gastrointestinal and lung biopsy tissues of patients with CVID, numerous IFN-γ(+)RORγt(+)CD3(-) cells were identified, suggesting a role in these mucosal inflammatory states. An expansion of this highly inflammatory ILC population is a characteristic of patients with CVID with inflammatory disease; ILCs and the interferon signature are markers for the uncontrolled inflammatory state in these patients. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Expansion of inflammatory innate lymphoid cells in patients with common variable immune deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cols, Montserrat; Rahman, Adeeb; Maglione, Paul J.; Garcia-Carmona, Yolanda; Simchoni, Noa; Ko, Huai-Bin M.; Radigan, Lin; Cerutti, Andrea; Blankenship, Derek; Pascual, Virginia; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an antibody deficiency treated with immunoglobulin; however, patients can have noninfectious inflammatory conditions that lead to heightened morbidity and mortality. Objectives Modular analyses of RNA transcripts in whole blood previously identified an upregulation of many interferon-responsive genes. In this study we sought the cell populations leading to this signature. Methods Lymphoid cells were measured in peripheral blood of 55 patients with CVID (31 with and 24 without inflammatory/autoimmune complications) by using mass cytometry and flow cytometry. Surface markers, cytokines, and transcriptional characteristics of sorted innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were defined by using quantitative PCR. Gastrointestinal and lung biopsy specimens of subjects with inflammatory disease were stained to seek ILCs in tissues. Results The linage-negative, CD127+, CD161+ lymphoid population containing T-box transcription factor, retinoic acid–related orphan receptor (ROR) γt, IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-22, all hallmarks of type 3 innate lymphoid cells, were expanded in the blood of patients with CVID with inflammatory conditions (mean, 3.7% of PBMCs). ILCs contained detectable amounts of the transcription factors inhibitor of DNA binding 2, T-box transcription factor, and RORγt and increased mRNA transcripts for IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) and IL-26, demonstrating inflammatory potential. In gastrointestinal and lung biopsy tissues of patients with CVID, numerous IFN-γ+RORγt+CD3− cells were identified, suggesting a role in these mucosal inflammatory states. Conclusions An expansion of this highly inflammatory ILC population is a characteristic of patients with CVID with inflammatory disease; ILCs and the interferon signature are markers for the uncontrolled inflammatory state in these patients. PMID:26542033

  19. Peripheral T Cell Survival Requires Continual Ligation of the T Cell Receptor to Major Histocompatibility Complex–Encoded Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kirberg, Jörg; Berns, Anton; Boehmer, Harald von

    1997-01-01

    In the thymus, T cells are selected according to their T cell receptor (TCR) specificity. After positive selection, mature cells are exported from primary lymphoid organs to seed the secondary lymphoid tissue. An important question is whether survival of mature T cells is an intrinsic property or requires continuous survival signals, i.e., engagement of the TCR by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the periphery, perhaps in a similar way as occurring during thymic positive selection. To address this issue we used recombination-activating gene (Rag)-deficient H-2b mice expressing a transgenic TCR restricted by I-Ed class II MHC molecules. After engraftment with Rag−/− H-2d fetal thymi, CD4+8− peripheral T cells emerged. These cells were isolated and transferred into immunodeficient hosts of H-2b or H-2d haplotype, some of the latter being common cytokine receptor γ chain deficient to exclude rejection of H-2b donor cells by host natural killer cells. Our results show that in the absence, but not in the presence, of selecting MHC molecules, peripheral mature T cells are short lived and disappear within 7 wk, indicating that continuous contact of the TCR with selecting MHC molecules is required for survival of T cells. PMID:9334366

  20. Tertiary lymphoid neogenesis is a component of pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia in patients with common variable immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Maglione, Paul J.; Ko, Huaibin M.; Beasley, Mary B.; Strauchen, James A.; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite reducing pneumonia and other infections, antibody replacement does not appear to treat pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia (PLH) in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). The pathogenesis and optimal treatments remain to be clarified. Objective We aimed to better understand the pathology of CVID-associated lung disease. Tertiary lymphoneogenesis, although a component of interstitial lung disease associated with autoimmune diseases, has not previously been explored in patients with CVID. Methods We examined the clinical characteristics and pathologic findings of 6 patients with CVID with nodular/infiltrative lung disease who had biopsy specimens demonstrating PLH. Results In these subjects regions of PLH contained distinct Band T-cell zones, with B-cell predominance in 1 patient and T-cell predominance in the others. Colocalization of Ki67, Bcl6, and CD23 within this ectopic lymphoid architecture demonstrated tertiary lymphoneogenesis with active centers of cellular proliferation. One patient received rituximab with improved pulmonary radiologic findings. Conclusion Ectopic lymphoid tissue forming germinal centers suggest tertiary lymphoneogenesis in CVID-associated lung disease. B cell–targeted therapy might disrupt CVID-associated lymphoid hyperplasia. PMID:24131823

  1. Tertiary lymphoid neogenesis is a component of pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia in patients with common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Maglione, Paul J; Ko, Huaibin M; Beasley, Mary B; Strauchen, James A; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2014-02-01

    Despite reducing pneumonia and other infections, antibody replacement does not appear to treat pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia (PLH) in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). The pathogenesis and optimal treatments remain to be clarified. We aimed to better understand the pathology of CVID-associated lung disease. Tertiary lymphoneogenesis, although a component of interstitial lung disease associated with autoimmune diseases, has not previously been explored in patients with CVID. We examined the clinical characteristics and pathologic findings of 6 patients with CVID with nodular/infiltrative lung disease who had biopsy specimens demonstrating PLH. In these subjects regions of PLH contained distinct B- and T-cell zones, with B-cell predominance in 1 patient and T-cell predominance in the others. Colocalization of Ki67, Bcl6, and CD23 within this ectopic lymphoid architecture demonstrated tertiary lymphoneogenesis with active centers of cellular proliferation. One patient received rituximab with improved pulmonary radiologic findings. Ectopic lymphoid tissue forming germinal centers suggest tertiary lymphoneogenesis in CVID-associated lung disease. B cell-targeted therapy might disrupt CVID-associated lymphoid hyperplasia. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Development of Adult Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qi; Bhandoola, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are a specialized family of effector lymphocytes that transcriptionally and functionally mirror effector subsets of T cells, but differ from T cells in that they lack clonally-distributed adaptive antigen receptors. Our understanding of this family of lymphocytes is still in its infancy. In this review, we summarize current understanding and discuss recent insights into the cellular and molecular events that occur during early ILC development in adult mice. We discuss how these events overlap and diverge with the early development of adaptive T cells, and how they may influence the molecular and functional properties of mature ILC. PMID:26871595

  3. Characterization of the diffuse mucosal associated lymphoid tissue of feline small intestine.

    PubMed

    Roccabianca, P; Woo, J C; Moore, P F

    2000-06-30

    Characterization of the feline intestinal mucosal associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) will facilitate investigation of intestinal disease in the cat and promote the cat as an animal model for a range of human diseases which involve the intestinal lymphoid tissue. This includes inflammatory bowel disease, viral and non-viral associated intestinal lymphomas and immunodeficiency associated syndromes. Morphologic and phenotypic characterization of the normal small intestinal diffuse MALT in 22 SPF cats was performed using flow cytometry and cytology on isolated intestinal leukocytes from the intra-epithelial and lamina proprial compartments, as well as immunohistology on tissues from the feline duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The intra-epithelial compartment (IEC) was dominated by lymphocytes (>85%) which frequently contained intracytoplasmic granules. The most striking findings in the IEC were the elevated percentages of CD8 alpha+ lymphocytes (40%), presumed to express CD8 alpha alpha chains, and CD4-/CD8- (double negative) lymphocytes (44%), and the consistent presence of a minor subpopulation of CD3+/CD11d+ IELs (6%). Small percentages of CD4+ lymphocytes (10%) were observed such that the IEL CD4:CD8 ratio (0.25) was low. The LPC also contained a majority of T cells and few plasma cells. However, this compartment had reduced percentages of CD8 alpha+ lymphocytes (28%) and increased percentages of CD4+ lymphocytes (27%) relative to the IEC. However, the LPL CD4:CD8 ratio (1.0) remained low compared with the ratio in peripheral blood. In feline MALT, MHC class II expression was lower than in other peripheral lymphoid compartments. The results of this study provide important reference values for future investigations involving feline intestinal lymphocytes and demonstrates that the leukocyte distribution and phenotypic characteristics of the feline diffuse MALT appear largely similar to the murine, rat and human counterparts.

  4. Peripheral Organs of Dengue Fatal Cases Present Strong Pro-Inflammatory Response with Participation of IFN-Gamma-, TNF-Alpha- and RANTES-Producing Cells.

    PubMed

    Póvoa, Tiago F; Oliveira, Edson R A; Basílio-de-Oliveira, Carlos A; Nuovo, Gerard J; Chagas, Vera L A; Salomão, Natália G; Mota, Ester M; Paes, Marciano V

    2016-01-01

    Dengue disease is an acute viral illness caused by dengue virus (DENV) that can progress to hemorrhagic stages leading to about 20000 deaths every year worldwide. Despite many clinical investigations regarding dengue, the immunopathogenic process by which infected patients evolve to the severe forms is not fully understood. Apart from differences in virulence and the antibody cross reactivity that can potentially augment virus replication, imbalanced cellular immunity is also seen as a major concern in the establishment of severe dengue. In this context, the investigation of cellular immunity and its products in dengue fatal cases may provide valuable data to help revealing dengue immunopathogenesis. Here, based in four dengue fatal cases infected by the serotype 3 in Brazil, different peripheral organs (livers, lungs and kidneys) were studied to evaluate the presence of cell infiltrates and the patterns of local cytokine response. The overall scenario of the studied cases revealed a considerable systemic involvement of infection with mononuclear cells targeted to all of the evaluated organs, as measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Quantification of cytokine-expressing cells in peripheral tissues was also performed to characterize the ongoing inflammatory process by the severe stage of the disease. Increased levels of IFN-γ- and TNF-α-expressing cells in liver, lung and kidney samples of post-mortem subjects evidenced a strong pro-inflammatory induction in these tissues. The presence of increased RANTES-producing cell numbers in all analyzed organs suggested a possible link between the clinical status and altered vascular permeability. Co-staining of DENV RNA and IFN-γ or TNF-α using in situ hibridization and IHC confirmed the virus-specific trigger of the pro-inflammatory response. Taken together, this work provided additional evidences that corroborated with the traditional theories regarding the "cytokine storm" and the occurrence of uneven cellular

  5. Peripheral Organs of Dengue Fatal Cases Present Strong Pro-Inflammatory Response with Participation of IFN-Gamma-, TNF-Alpha- and RANTES-Producing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Basílio-de-Oliveira, Carlos. A.; Nuovo, Gerard J.; Chagas, Vera L. A.; Salomão, Natália G.; Mota, Ester M.; Paes, Marciano V.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue disease is an acute viral illness caused by dengue virus (DENV) that can progress to hemorrhagic stages leading to about 20000 deaths every year worldwide. Despite many clinical investigations regarding dengue, the immunopathogenic process by which infected patients evolve to the severe forms is not fully understood. Apart from differences in virulence and the antibody cross reactivity that can potentially augment virus replication, imbalanced cellular immunity is also seen as a major concern in the establishment of severe dengue. In this context, the investigation of cellular immunity and its products in dengue fatal cases may provide valuable data to help revealing dengue immunopathogenesis. Here, based in four dengue fatal cases infected by the serotype 3 in Brazil, different peripheral organs (livers, lungs and kidneys) were studied to evaluate the presence of cell infiltrates and the patterns of local cytokine response. The overall scenario of the studied cases revealed a considerable systemic involvement of infection with mononuclear cells targeted to all of the evaluated organs, as measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Quantification of cytokine-expressing cells in peripheral tissues was also performed to characterize the ongoing inflammatory process by the severe stage of the disease. Increased levels of IFN-γ- and TNF-α-expressing cells in liver, lung and kidney samples of post-mortem subjects evidenced a strong pro-inflammatory induction in these tissues. The presence of increased RANTES-producing cell numbers in all analyzed organs suggested a possible link between the clinical status and altered vascular permeability. Co-staining of DENV RNA and IFN-γ or TNF-α using in situ hibridization and IHC confirmed the virus-specific trigger of the pro-inflammatory response. Taken together, this work provided additional evidences that corroborated with the traditional theories regarding the “cytokine storm” and the occurrence of uneven cellular

  6. Mechanisms of organogenesis of primary lymphoid follicles.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Tilo; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Primary lymphoid follicles (PLFs) in secondary lymphoid tissue (SLT) of mammals are the backbone for the formation of follicular dendritic cell (FDC) networks. These are important for germinal center reactions during which affinity maturation creates optimized antibodies in adaptive immune responses. In the context of organogenesis, molecular requirements for the formation of follicles have been identified. The present study complements these findings with a simulation of the dynamics of the PLF formation, and a critical analysis of the relevant molecular interactions. In contrast to other problems of pattern formation, the homeostasis of cell populations in SLTs is not governed by a growth-death balance but by a flow equilibrium of migrating cells. The influx of cells into these tissues has been extensively studied. However, less information is available about the efflux of lymphocytes from SLTs. This study formulates the minimal requirements for cell efflux that guarantee a flow equilibrium and, thus, a stable PLF. The model predicts that in addition to already identified regulatory mechanisms, a negative regulation of the generation of FDCs is required. Furthermore, a comparison with data concerning the microanatomy of SLTs yields the conclusion that dynamical changes of the lymphatic endothelium during the formation of FDC networks are necessary to understand the genesis and maintenance of follicles.

  7. Retinoids Accelerate B Lineage Lymphoid Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinrong; Esplin, Brandt L.; Garrett, Karla P.; Welner, Robert S.; Webb, Carol F.

    2008-01-01

    Retinoids are known to have potent effects on hematopoietic stem cell integrity, and our objective was to learn if they influence cells destined to replenish the immune system. Total CD19+ B lineage cells increased substantially in marrow and spleens of ATRA treated C57BL6 mice, while lymphoid progenitors were reduced. All B lymphoid progenitors were targets of ATRA in culture and overall cell yields declined without reductions in proliferation. Remarkably, ATRA shortened the time required for primitive progenitors to generate CD19+ cells. PCR analysis and a panel of RAR/RXR agonist treatments suggested that RARα mediates these responses. The transcription factors EBF1 and Pax-5 were elevated during treatment and ATRA had similar effects on human B cell differentiation. That is, it inhibited the expansion of human progenitor cells and accelerated their differentiation to B lineage cells. There may be previously unsuspected side effects of ATRA therapy, and the new findings suggest retinoids can normally contribute to the lymphopoietic environment in bone marrow. PMID:18097013

  8. Reliability of tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte and tertiary lymphoid structure assessment in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Buisseret, Laurence; Desmedt, Christine; Garaud, Soizic; Fornili, Marco; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Van den Eyden, Gert; de Wind, Alexandre; Duquenne, Sebastien; Boisson, Anais; Naveaux, Celine; Rothé, Francoise; Rorive, Sandrine; Decaestecker, Christine; Larsimont, Denis; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine; Biganzoli, Elia; Sotiriou, Christos; Willard-Gallo, Karen

    2017-09-01

    The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), reflecting host immune activity, is frequently correlated with better clinical outcomes, particularly in HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancer. Recent findings suggest that organization of immune infiltrates in tertiary lymphoid structures also has a beneficial effect on survival. This study investigated inter- and intra-observer variation in TIL assessment using conventional hematoxylin-eosin versus immunohistochemical staining to identify immune cells. Global, intratumoral, and stromal TIL, as well as tertiary lymphoid structures were scored independently by experienced pathologists on full-face tumor sections (n=124). The fidelity of scoring infiltrates in core biopsies compared to surgical specimens, and pathological assessment compared to quantitative digital analysis was also evaluated. The inter-observer concordance correlation coefficient was 0.80 for global, 0.72 for intratumoral, and 0.71 for stromal TIL, while the intra-observer concordance correlation coefficient was 0.90 for global, 0.77 for intratumoral, and 0.89 for stromal TIL using immunohistochemical stains. Correlations were lower with hematoxylin-eosin stains, particularly for intratumoral TIL, while global scores had the highest concordance correlation coefficients. Our study concluded that tertiary lymphoid structures are accurately and consistently scored using immunohistochemical but not hematoxylin-eosin stains. A strong association was observed between TIL in core biopsies and surgical samples (R(2)=0.74) but this did not extend to tertiary lymphoid structures (R(2)=0.26). TIL scored by pathologists and digital analysis were correlated but our analysis reveals a constant bias between these methods. These data challenge current criteria for TIL and tertiary lymphoid structure assessment in breast cancer and recommend that how pathologists evaluate immune infiltrates be reexamined for future studies.

  9. Thymic lymphoid hyperplasia with multilocular thymic cysts diagnosed before the Sjögren syndrome diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Minato, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Eriko; Nakada, Satoko; Nojima, Takayuki; Tanaka, Makoto; Usuda, Katsuo; Sagawa, Motoyasu; Iwao, Haruka; Tanaka, Masao; Doai, Mariko; Takahashi, Tomoko; Shibata, Naoko

    2015-07-16

    Thymic lymphoid hyperplasia is often present with myasthenia gravis as well as other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Of the 4 cases of thymic lymphoid hyperplasia associated with Sjögren syndrome that have been reported, no case with a thymic lesion diagnosis that led to the diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome has been reported. We herein report a case of thymic lymphoid hyperplasia with multilocular thymic cysts, diagnosed before Sjögren syndrome. A 37-year-old Japanese woman had an approximate 5-cm anterior mediastinal mass detected by chest imaging. The resected lesion revealed multilocular thymic cysts that were filled with colloid-like material. Histology showed lymph follicular hyperplasia with many epithelial cysts. The epithelium consisted of thymic medullary epithelium, and no epithelial proliferation was seen in the lymphoid tissue. Lymphocytes were composed of an organized mixed population of mature T and B cells without significant atypia. The infiltrated B cells did not reveal light chain restriction or immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement. After the pathological diagnosis of thymic lesion, tests for the presence of autoantibodies were positive for antinuclear antibodies, rheumatic factor, and anti-SSA/Ro antibodies. The Schirmer's, chewing gum, and Saxon tests showed decreased salivary and lacrimal secretion. Lip biopsy showed focal lymphocytic sialadenitis. The signs and symptoms of Sjögren syndrome had not resolved, without aggravation, 1 year after the thymectomy. When a case with thymic lymphoid hyperplasia without myasthenia gravis is encountered, it is essential to consider the presence of another autoimmune disease including Sjögren syndrome.

  10. Immunohistochemical investigation of cells expressing CD21, membrane IgM, CD32 and a follicular dendritic cell marker in the lymphoid tissues of neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Chattha, Kuldeep S; Hodgins, Douglas C; DeLay, Josepha; Antoine, Nadine; Shewen, Patricia E

    2010-10-15

    Activation of B lymphocytes in the presence of passive maternal antibodies depends on expression of CD21, membrane IgM and CD32. On colligation with IgM, CD32 inhibits activation whereas CD21 enhances it. Recently, we assessed expression of CD21 and CD32 on IgM(+) cells from lymphoid tissues of newborn calves by flow cytometry, but this approach does not provide information about spatial distribution within lymphoid compartments. Therefore, histologic sections of lymphoid tissues from newborn and 7-month-old calves were examined using an immunoperoxidase technique. In all calves, CD21 and IgM stained cells were collocated in the cortex and paracortex of the retropharyngeal lymph node, in the marginal zone of the spleen and in lymphoid aggregates of palatine tonsils. Most CD32(+) cells were in the mantle zone of lymphoid follicles in 7-month-old calves, whereas only weak staining was observed in newborns. A few CD32(+) cells were also observed in the paracortex at both ages. Absence of CD32(+) cells in the center of follicles suggests that IgM(+)CD32(-) cells observed previously by flow cytometry were from germinal centers. Overall, there were few organized lymphoid aggregates within lymphoid tissues of newborn calves, and follicular dendritic cells were virtually undetectable. Their absence may be an important limitation for neonatal immunization.

  11. Genomic instability and cellular stress in organ biopsies and peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with colorectal cancer and predisposing pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Sara; Fuoco, Ilenia; di Fluri, Giorgia; Costa, Francesco; Ricchiuti, Angelo; Biondi, Graziano; Nardini, Vincenzo; Scarpato, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and polyps, are common colorectal pathologies in western society and are risk factors for development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Genomic instability is a cancer hallmark and is connected to changes in chromosomal structure, often caused by double strand break formation (DSB), and aneuploidy. Cellular stress, may contribute to genomic instability. In colorectal biopsies and peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with IBD, polyps and CRC, we evaluated 1) genomic instability using the γH2AX assay as marker of DSB and micronuclei in mononuclear lymphocytes kept under cytodieresis inhibition, and 2) cellular stress through expression and cellular localization of glutathione-S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1). Colon biopsies showed γH2AX increase starting from polyps, while lymphocytes already from IBD. Micronuclei frequency began to rise in lymphocytes of subjects with polyps, suggesting a systemic genomic instability condition. Colorectal tissues lost GSTO1 expression but increased nuclear localization with pathology progression. Lymphocytes did not change GSTO1 expression and localization until CRC formation, where enzyme expression was increased. We propose that the growing genomic instability found in our patients is connected with the alteration of cellular environment. Evaluation of genomic damage and cellular stress in colorectal pathologies may facilitate prevention and management of CRC. PMID:26046795

  12. Stearidonic acid, a plant-based dietary fatty acid, enhances the chemosensitivity of canine lymphoid tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Pondugula, Satyanarayana R; Ferniany, Glennie; Ashraf, Farah; Abbott, Kodye L; Smith, Bruce F; Coleman, Elaine S; Mansour, Mahmoud; Bird, R Curtis; Smith, Annette N; Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Trivedi, Piyush; Tiwari, Amit K

    2015-05-15

    Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic tumor in dogs and humans, with similar pathogenesis and therapeutic responses. Anticancer drugs like vincristine (VCR) and doxorubicin (DOX) are often used in treating lymphoma. However, the cure rate is generally poor due to chemoresistance. Here, we sought to determine whether stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-based dietary fatty acid, sensitizes chemoresistant canine lymphoid-tumor cells. GL-1 B-cell lymphoid-tumor cells were found to be highly sensitive to the antitumor-activity of VCR and DOX, while OSW T-cell and 17-71 B-cell lymphoid-tumor cells were moderately and fully resistant, respectively. SDA, at its non-toxic concentrations, significantly promoted the antitumor action of VCR and DOX in both OSW and 17-71 cells. SDA-mediated chemosensitization was associated with SDA inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function. This was confirmed in HEK293 cells stably expressing P-gp as well as by increased binding-affinity of SDA to P-gp in P-gp docking analysis. SDA at its chemosensitizing concentrations did not affect the viability of healthy dog peripheral blood mononuclear cells, suggesting that SDA is non-toxic to normal dog peripheral blood leucocytes at its chemosensitizing concentrations. Our study identifies a novel dietary fatty acid that may be used as a dietary supplement in combination with chemotherapy to promote the antitumor efficacy of the chemotherapy drugs in dogs and possibly in humans with chemoresistant lymphoma.

  13. Organic extract of diesel exhaust particles stimulates expression of Ia and costimulatory molecules associated with antigen presentation in rat peripheral blood monocytes but not in alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Eiko . E-mail: ekoike@nies.go.jp; Kobayashi, Takahiro

    2005-12-15

    We hypothesized that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induce the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in lung. The present study was designed to clarify the following about DEP: (1) whether it affects the expression of Ia and B7 molecules in alveolar macrophages (AM) as a mature cell or in peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) as an immature cell (2) if it affects the antigen-presenting (AP) activity of PBM (3) what component of DEP is responsible for the effects, and (4) whether the effect of DEP is related to oxidative stress. DEP was extracted with methylene chloride. Cells were exposed to whole DEP, organic extract, or residual particles for 24 h. Cell-surface molecules were measured by flow cytometry. AP activity was assessed by antigen-specific T cell proliferation. Whole DEP or organic extract significantly increased the expression of Ia and B7 molecules on PBM but not on AM. No significant effect of residual particles was observed. A low concentration of organic extract also increased the AP activity of PBM. When the induction of an antioxidative enzyme was assessed, heme oxygenase-1 protein was found to be significantly increased by exposure to whole DEP, and the organic extract was more effective than the residual particles. Furthermore, the organic extract-induced expression of Ia antigen on PBM was reduced by the addition of an antioxidative agent. These results suggest that DEP may act on immature APC and enhance their AP activity and that the action contributing to oxidative stress may be mediated by organic compounds of DEP.

  14. Temporal behavior of peripheral organ distribution volume in mammillary systems. II. Application to background correction in separate glomerular filtration rate estimation in man

    SciTech Connect

    Decostre, P.L.; Salmon, Y. )

    1990-10-01

    An original approach to background subtraction is presented for 99mTc-DTPA separate glomerular filtration rate (SGFR) estimation in man. The method is based on the properties of the peripheral organ distribution volume (PODV) in mammillary systems. These PODV properties allow easy separation of the components of the renogram, i.e., interstitial fluid, plasma and renal activities. The proposed algorithm takes advantage of the linear time dependence of the kidney distribution volume, during the renal uptake phase, to correct for the plasma residual activity, which always remains after classical background correction. Theoretically, the ratio between kidney uptake and SGFR should be identical for both left and right kidneys, even for very asymmetrical kidney functions. This is best verified when the proposed plasma residual activity correction is applied.

  15. Expression and distribution of octopus gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the central nervous system and peripheral organs of the octopus (Octopus vulgaris) by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Ukena, Kazuyoshi; Takuwa-Kuroda, Kyoko; Kanda, Atshuhiro; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Minakata, Hiroyuki

    2004-09-20

    We recently purified a peptide with structural features similar to vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the brain of Octopus vulgaris, cloned a cDNA encoding the precursor protein, and named it oct-GnRH. In the current study, we investigated the expression and distribution of oct-GnRH throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral organs of Octopus by in situ hybridization on the basis of the cDNA sequence and by immunohistochemistry using a specific antiserum against oct-GnRH. Oct-GnRH mRNA-expressing cell bodies were located in 10 of 19 lobes in the supraesophageal and subesophageal parts of the CNS. Several oct-GnRH-like immunoreactive fibers were seen in all the neuropils of the CNS lobes. The sites of oct-GnRH mRNA expression and the mature peptide distribution were consistent with each other as judged by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In addition, many immunoreactive fibers were distributed in peripheral organs such as the heart, the oviduct, and the oviducal gland. Modulatory effects of oct-GnRH on the contractions of the heart and the oviduct were demonstrated. The results suggested that, in the context of reproduction, oct-GnRH is a key peptide in the subpedunculate lobe and/or posterior olfactory lobe-optic gland-gonadal axis, an octopus analogue of the hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis. It may also act as a modulatory factor in controlling higher brain functions such as feeding, memory, movement, maturation, and autonomic functions

  16. A Reproducible Method for Isolation and In Vitro Culture of Functional Human Lymphoid Stromal Cells from Tonsils

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Ephraim, Yotam E.; Konijn, Tanja; Gönültas, Mehmet; Mebius, Reina E.

    2016-01-01

    The stromal compartment of secondary lymphoid organs is classicaly known for providing a mechanical scaffold for the complex interactions between hematopoietic cells during immune activation as well as for providing a niche which is favorable for survival of lymphocytes. In recent years, it became increasingly clear that these cells also play an active role during such a response. Currently, knowledge of the interactions between human lymphoid stroma and hematopoietic cells is still lacking and most insight is based on murine systems. Although methods to isolate stromal cells from tonsils have been reported, data on stability in culture, characterization, and functional properties are lacking. Here, we describe a reproducible and easy method for isolation and in vitro culture of functional human lymphoid stromal cells from palatine tonsils. The cells isolated express markers and characteristics of T cell zone fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) and react to inflammatory stimuli by upregulating inflammatory cytokines and chemokines as well as adhesion molecules, as previously described for mouse lymphoid stroma. Also, cultured tonsil stromal cells support survival of human innate lymphoid cells, showing that these stromal cells can function as bone fide FRCs, providing a favorable microenvironment for hematopoietic cells. PMID:27907202

  17. [Comparative study of lymphoid follicles in mucosa of pharynx and mucosal associated lymphoid tissues in paranasal sinuses].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Weigang; Yao, Min; Chen, Jue

    2013-08-01

    To study the relationship between the lymphoid follicles in mucous membrane of pharynx and mucosal associated lymphoid tissues (MALT). Ten folliculi obtained from 10 patients of follicular pharyngitis and mucosa taken form 10 patients of paranasal sinusitis were fixed in neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections were prepared, stained by H. E and by immunohistochemical method staining with S-100,and observe by light microscopy. We observed the morphology of lymphoid follicles in mucous membrane of pharynx with MALT in mucosa of paranasal sinusitis as the contrast. Lymphoid follicles in mucosa of pharynx compared with MALT in the mucosa of paranasal sinuses, there was no mantle zone, no typical germinal center and no mucosal epithelium, immunological staining with S-100 was week. The lymphoid follicles in mucosa of pharynx does not belong to the MALT.

  18. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Peripheral artery disease (PAD) refers to ... is peripheral artery disease treated? What is peripheral artery disease (PAD)? Peripheral artery disease, or PAD, refers ...

  19. Innate lymphoid cells and the MHC.

    PubMed

    Robinette, M L; Colonna, M

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a new class of immune cells that include natural killer (NK) cells and appear to be the innate counterparts to CD4(+) helper T cells and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells based on developmental and functional similarities. Like T cells, both NK cells and other ILCs also show connections to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In human and mouse, NK cells recognize and respond to classical and nonclassical MHC I molecules as well as structural homologues, whereas mouse ILCs have recently been shown to express MHC II. We describe the history of MHC I recognition by NK cells and discuss emerging roles for MHC II expression by ILC subsets, making comparisons between both mouse and human when possible. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Lymphoid papillary hyperplasia of the palatine tonsils.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Farga, J; Abbud-Neme, F; Deutsch, E

    1983-09-01

    A rare case of papillary hyperplasia of the palatine tonsils is reported in a 9-year-old girl who presented with pharyngeal obstruction. The obstruction was due to the bilateral enlargement of the palatine tonsils with a papillary surface configuration so atypical that a diagnosis of malignant neoplasm was clinically considered. Histopathological study showed a peculiar form of lymphoid hyperplasia. No other members of the family were affected. As far as we know, this is the only case reported in recent years in an Occidental patient although a few similar cases have been reported from Japan. The importance of recognizing this peculiar abnormality rests in the fact that in spite of the clinical features simulating a cancer or multiple epithelial papillomas, the process is benign, probably non-neoplastic, and easily cured by bilateral tonsillectomy.

  1. Tbet and IL-36γ cooperate in therapeutic DC-mediated promotion of ectopic lymphoid organogenesis in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Aliyah M; Chen, Lu; Brzana, Emily A; Patil, Prashanti R; Taylor, Jennifer L; Fabian, Kellsye L; Wallace, Callen T; Jones, Sabrina D; Watkins, Simon C; Lu, Binfeng; Stroncek, David F; Denning, Timothy L; Fu, Yang-Xin; Cohen, Peter A; Storkus, Walter J

    2017-01-01

    We have previously reported that direct injection of dendritic cells (DC) engineered to express the Type-1 transactivator Tbet (i.e., DC.Tbet) into murine tumors results in antitumor efficacy in association with the development of structures resembling tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO) in the tumor microenvironment (TME). These TLO contained robust infiltrates of B cells, DC, NK cells, and T cells in proximity to PNAd(+) blood vessels; however, they were considered incomplete, since the recruited B cells failed to organize into classic germinal center-like structures. We now report that antitumor efficacy and TLO-inducing capacity of DC.Tbet-based i.t. therapy is operational in peripheral lymph node-deficient LTA(-/-) mice, and that it is highly dependent upon a direct Tbet target gene product, IL-36γ/IL-1F9. Intratumoral DC.Tbet fails to provide protection to tumor-bearing IL-36R(-/-) hosts, or to tumor-bearing wild-type recipient mice co-administered rmIL-1F5/IL-36RN, a natural IL-36R antagonist. Remarkably, the injection of tumors with DC engineered to secrete a bioactive form of mIL-36γ (DC.IL36γ) also initiated therapeutic TLO and slowed tumor progression in vivo. Furthermore, DC.IL36γ cells strongly upregulated their expression of Tbet, suggesting that Tbet and IL-36γ cooperate to reinforce each other's expression in DC, rendering them competent to promote TLO formation in an "immunologically normalized," therapeutic TME.

  2. Dynamics of HIV infection in lymphoid tissue network.

    PubMed

    Nakaoka, Shinji; Iwami, Shingo; Sato, Kei

    2016-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a fast replicating ribonucleic acid virus, which can easily mutate in order to escape the effects of drug administration. Hence, understanding the basic mechanisms underlying HIV persistence in the body is essential in the development of new therapies that could eradicate HIV infection. Lymphoid tissues are the primary sites of HIV infection. Despite the recent progress in real-time monitoring technology, HIV infection dynamics in a whole body is unknown. Mathematical modeling and simulations provide speculations on global behavior of HIV infection in the lymphatic system. We propose a new mathematical model that describes the spread of HIV infection throughout the lymphoid tissue network. In order to represent the volume difference between lymphoid tissues, we propose the proportionality of several kinetic parameters to the lymphoid tissues' volume distribution. Under this assumption, we perform extensive numerical computations in order to simulate the spread of HIV infection in the lymphoid tissue network. Numerical computations simulate single drug treatments of an HIV infection. One of the important biological speculations derived from this study is a drug saturation effect generated by lymphoid network connection. This implies that a portion of reservoir lymphoid tissues to which drug is not sufficiently delivered would inhibit HIV eradication despite of extensive drug injection.

  3. Peripheral T-cell lymphomas: diagnosis and treatment options. Proceedings from a live roundtable, August 17, 2011, Kauai, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Cheson, Bruce D; Horwitz, Steven M; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2011-11-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas are a collection of rare diseases, most of which have a poor prognosis. The basic categories include precursor lymphoid neoplasms (eg, lymphoblastic lymphoma); mature natural killer/T-cell neoplasms and extranodal lymphomas, including enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma; hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma; and subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma. The most common varieties are the nodal types, which include peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified, anaplastic large cell lymphomas, and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas. Each of the subtypes has characteristic clinical manifestations. The frequencies of the subtypes vary by geographic region. The diagnosis can be difficult, and the World Health Organization classification system was recently evaluated to assess its clinical applicability and reproducibility for peripheral T-cell lymphomas and natural killer/T-cell lymphomas. At least 10% of patients are incorrectly diagnosed by local laboratories, and many subtypes need better diagnostic markers and criteria. Currently, an increasing number of effective and tolerable therapies are becoming available, including pralatrexate, brentuximab vedotin, romidepsin, and bendamustine. Accurate diagnosis is necessary to allow appropriate treatment, as exemplified by patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma that expresses high levels of CD30, who have high response rates to brentuximab vedotin. Patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma should be enrolled in clinical trials when possible. New medications should be incorporated into therapies in well-designed clinical trials to develop appropriate safety and efficacy data.

  4. The 2008 WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms and beyond: evolving concepts and practical applications

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Elias; Swerdlow, Steven H.; Harris, Nancy L.; Pileri, Stefano; Stein, Harald

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms updated in 2008 represents a worldwide consensus on the diagnosis of these tumors and is based on the recognition of distinct diseases, using a multidisciplinary approach. The updated classification refined the definitions of well-recognized diseases, identified new entities and variants, and incorporated emerging concepts in the understanding of lymphoid neoplasms. However, some questions were unresolved, such as the extent to which specific genetic or molecular alterations define certain tumors, and the status of provisional entities, categories for which the World Health Organization working groups felt there was insufficient evidence to recognize as distinct diseases at this time. In addition, since its publication, new findings and ideas have been generated. This review summarizes the scientific rationale for the classification, emphasizing changes that have had an effect on practice guidelines. The authors address the criteria and significance of early or precursor lesions and the identification of certain lymphoid neoplasms largely associated with particular age groups, such as children and the elderly. The issue of borderline categories having overlapping features with large B-cell lymphomas, as well as several provisional entities, is reviewed. These new observations chart a course for future research in the field. PMID:21300984

  5. Ectopic Tertiary Lymphoid Tissue in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Protective or Provocateur?

    PubMed Central

    McNamee, Eóin N.; Rivera-Nieves, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Organized lymphoid tissues like the thymus first appeared in jawed vertebrates around 500 million years ago and have evolved to equip the host with a network of specialized sites, strategically located to orchestrate strict immune-surveillance and efficient immune responses autonomously. The gut-associated lymphoid tissues maintain a mostly tolerant environment to dampen our responses to daily dietary and microbial products in the intestine. However, when this homeostasis is perturbed by chronic inflammation, the intestine is able to develop florid organized tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLT), which heralds the onset of regional immune dysregulation. While TLT are a pathologic hallmark of Crohn’s disease (CD), their role in the overall process remains largely enigmatic. A critical question remains; are intestinal TLT generated by the immune infiltrated intestine to modulate immune responses and rebuild tolerance to the microbiota or are they playing a more sinister role by generating dysregulated responses that perpetuate disease? Herein, we discuss the main theories of intestinal TLT neogenesis and focus on the most recent findings that open new perspectives to their role in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27579025

  6. Back to the drawing board: Understanding the complexity of hepatic innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Marotel, Marie; Hasan, Uzma; Viel, Sébastien; Marçais, Antoine; Walzer, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies of immune populations in nonlymphoid organs have highlighted the great diversity of the innate lymphoid system. It has also become apparent that mouse and human innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have distinct phenotypes and properties. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Harmon et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2016. 46: 2111-2120] characterized human hepatic NK-cell subsets. The authors report that hepatic CD56(bright) NK cells resemble mouse liver ILC1s in that they express CXCR6 and have an immature phenotype. However, unlike mouse ILC1s, they express high levels of Eomes and low levels of T-bet, and upon stimulation with tumor cells, secrete low amounts of cytokines. These unexpected findings further support the differences between human and mouse immune populations and prompt the study of the role of hepatic ILC subsets in immune responses. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Insulin–InsR signaling drives multipotent progenitor differentiation toward lymphoid lineages

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Pengyan; Wang, Shuo; Du, Ying; Huang, Guanling; Satoh, Takashi; Akira, Shizuo

    2015-01-01

    The lineage commitment of HSCs generates balanced myeloid and lymphoid populations in hematopoiesis. However, the underlying mechanisms that control this process remain largely unknown. Here, we show that insulin–insulin receptor (InsR) signaling is required for lineage commitment of multipotent progenitors (MPPs). Deletion of Insr in murine bone marrow causes skewed differentiation of MPPs to myeloid cells. mTOR acts as a downstream effector that modulates MPP differentiation. mTOR activates Stat3 by phosphorylation at serine 727 under insulin stimulation, which binds to the promoter of Ikaros, leading to its transcription priming. Our findings reveal that the insulin–InsR signaling drives MPP differentiation into lymphoid lineages in early lymphopoiesis, which is essential for maintaining a balanced immune system for an individual organism. PMID:26573296

  8. Establishment of an in vitro system representing the chicken gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed

    Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; McClure, Susan Jane; Yeap, Swee Keong; Kristeen-Teo, Ye Wen; Tan, Sheau Wei; McCullagh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The bursa of Fabricius is critical for B cell development and differentiation in chick embryos. This study describes the production in vitro, from dissociated cell suspensions, of cellular agglomerates with functional similarities to the chicken bursa. Co-cultivation of epithelial and lymphoid cells obtained from embryos at the appropriate developmental stage regularly led to agglomerate formation within 48 hours. These agglomerates resembled bursal tissue in having lymphoid clusters overlaid by well organized epithelium. Whereas lymphocytes within agglomerates were predominantly Bu-1a(+), a majority of those emigrating onto the supporting membrane were Bu-1a(-) and IgM(+). Both agglomerates and emigrant cells expressed activation-induced deaminase with levels increasing after 24 hours. Emigrating cells were actively proliferating at a rate in excess of both the starting cell population and the population of cells remaining in agglomerates. The potential usefulness of this system for investigating the response of bursal tissue to avian Newcastle disease virus (strain AF2240) was examined.

  9. Inducible Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue: Taming Inflammation in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ji Young; Randall, Troy D.; Silva-Sanchez, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Following pulmonary inflammation, leukocytes that infiltrate the lung often assemble into structures known as inducible Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (iBALT). Like conventional lymphoid organs, areas of iBALT have segregated B and T cell areas, specialized stromal cells, high endothelial venules, and lymphatic vessels. After inflammation is resolved, iBALT is maintained for months, independently of inflammation. Once iBALT is formed, it participates in immune responses to pulmonary antigens, including those that are unrelated to the iBALT-initiating antigen, and often alters the clinical course of disease. However, the mechanisms that govern immune responses in iBALT and determine how iBALT impacts local and systemic immunity are poorly understood. Here, we review our current understanding of iBALT formation and discuss how iBALT participates in pulmonary immunity. PMID:27446088

  10. Innate lymphoid cells in allergic and nonallergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Morita, Hideaki; Moro, Kazuyo; Koyasu, Shigeo

    2016-11-01

    In the last decade, the full picture of the role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has been gradually revealed. ILCs are classified into 3 groups based on their transcription factors and cytokine production patterns, which mirror helper T-cell subsets. Unlike T cells and B cells, ILCs do not have antigen receptors. They promptly respond to multiple tissue-derived factors, such as cytokines and alarmins, and produce multiple proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines. It has been reported that ILC-derived cytokines are important for the induction and regulation of inflammation. Accumulating evidence suggests that ILCs play substantial roles in protection against infection and the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, such as allergic diseases and autoimmune diseases. Different ILC subsets localize in distinct tissue/organ niches and receive tissue-derived signals on different types of inflammation, which allows them to acquire diverse phenotypes with specialized effector capacities. In this review we highlight the roles of ILCs in a variety of organs, such as the airway, skin, and gastrointestinal tract, in the context of allergic and nonallergic inflammation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Macrophage entry mediated by HIV Envs from brain and lymphoid tissues is determined by the capacity to use low CD4 levels and overall efficiency of fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Elaine R.; Dunfee, Rebecca L.; Stanton, Jennifer; Bogdan, Derek; Taylor, Joann; Kunstman, Kevin; Bell, Jeanne E.; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Gabuzda, Dana . E-mail: dana_gabuzda@dfci.harvard.edu

    2007-03-30

    HIV infects macrophages and microglia in the central nervous system (CNS), which express lower levels of CD4 than CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood. To investigate mechanisms of HIV neurotropism, full-length env genes were cloned from autopsy brain and lymphoid tissues from 4 AIDS patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Characterization of 55 functional Env clones demonstrated that Envs with reduced dependence on CD4 for fusion and viral entry are more frequent in brain compared to lymphoid tissue. Envs that mediated efficient entry into macrophages were frequent in brain but were also present in lymphoid tissue. For most Envs, entry into macrophages correlated with overall fusion activity at all levels of CD4 and CCR5. gp160 nucleotide sequences were compartmentalized in brain versus lymphoid tissue within each patient. Proline at position 308 in the V3 loop of gp120 was associated with brain compartmentalization in 3 patients, but mutagenesis studies suggested that P308 alone does not contribute to reduced CD4 dependence or macrophage-tropism. These results suggest that HIV adaptation to replicate in the CNS selects for Envs with reduced CD4 dependence and increased fusion activity. Macrophage-tropic Envs are frequent in brain but are also present in lymphoid tissues of AIDS patients with HAD, and entry into macrophages in the CNS and other tissues is dependent on the ability to use low receptor levels and overall efficiency of fusion.

  12. EVIDENCE FOR THE PRESENCE OF MULTILINEAGE CHIMERISM AND PROGENITORS OF DONOR DENDRITIC CELLS IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD OF BONE MARROW-AUGMENTED ORGAN TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS1

    PubMed Central

    Rugeles, Marla T.; Aitouche, Abdelouahab; Zeevi, Adriana; Fung, John J.; Watkins, Simon C.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Rao, Abdul S.

    2010-01-01

    We have postulated that the donor leukocyte microchimerism plays a seminal role in the acceptance of allografts by inducing and perpetuating variable degree of donor-specific nonreactivity in long-surviving organ recipients. Limited information is available, however, concerning the phenotype and function of these chimeric cells in humans. The unequivocal presence of donor dendritic cells (DCs), a prominent lineage in the microchimerism observed in rodents and clinical organ recipients, was difficult to demonstrate in bone marrow (BM)-augmented organ transplant recipients. This enigma was resolved by the recent description of a method for propagating circulating human DCs from their progenitors by culture in a medium enriched with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin 4, a condition known to inhibit outgrowth of monocytes, thus providing a selective growth advantage to committed progenitors of the myeloid lineage. Cells from BM-augmented organ recipients and normal control subjects harvested from 12- to 14-day cultures exhibited dendritic morphology and potent allostimulatory capacity. Using appropriate primers, the presence of donor DNA was verified by polymerase chain reaction within the lineagenull/class IIbright sorted DC. Phenotypic analysis of cultured DCs from BM-augmented patients, unlike that of controls, exhibited a marked down-regulation of B7–1 (CD80) while retaining normal levels of expression of B7–2 (CD86) cell surface molecules. The presence of donor DNA was also confirmed by polymerase chain reaction in individually sorted lineage + (T, B, and NK) cells and macrophages, suggesting that the chimerism in BM-augmented patients is multilineage. The presence of progenitors of donor DCs in the peripheral blood of BM-augmented patients further substantiates the already convincing evidence of stem cell engraftment. PMID:9311712

  13. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Accumulate in Peripheral Blood Vessels and Compromise Organ Function in Tumor-Bearing Animals.

    PubMed

    Cedervall, Jessica; Zhang, Yanyu; Huang, Hua; Zhang, Lei; Femel, Julia; Dimberg, Anna; Olsson, Anna-Karin

    2015-07-01

    Cancer produces a variety of collateral effects in patients beyond the malignancy itself, including threats to distal organ functions. However, the basis for such effects, associated with either primary or metastatic tumors, are generally poorly understood. In this study, we show how heart and kidney vascular function is impaired by neutrophils that accumulate in those tissues as a result of tumor formation in two different transgenic mouse models of cancer (RIP1-Tag2 model of insulinoma and MMTV-PyMT model of breast cancer). Neutrophil depletion by systemic administration of an anti-Gr1 antibody improved vascular perfusion and prevented vascular leakage in kidney vessels. We also observed the accumulation of platelet-neutrophil complexes, a signature of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET), in the kidneys of tumor-bearing mice that were completely absent from healthy nontumor-bearing littermates. NET accumulation in the vasculature was associated with upregulation of the proinflammatory adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin, as well as the proinflammatory cytokines IL1β, IL6, and the chemokine CXCL1. Administering DNase I to dissolve NETs, which have a high DNA content, restored perfusion in the kidney and heart to levels seen in nontumor-bearing mice, and also prevented vessel leakage in the blood vasculature of these organs. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that NETs mediate the negative collateral effects of tumors on distal organs, acting to impair vascular function, and to heighten inflammation at these sites. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Retention of Ag-specific memory CD4(+) T cells in the draining lymph node indicates lymphoid tissue resident memory populations.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Clare L; Dutton, Emma E; Tomura, Michio; Withers, David R

    2017-05-01

    Several different memory T-cell populations have now been described based upon surface receptor expression and migratory capabilities. Here we have assessed murine endogenous memory CD4(+) T cells generated within a draining lymph node and their subsequent migration to other secondary lymphoid tissues. Having established a model response targeting a specific peripheral lymph node, we temporally labelled all the cells within draining lymph node using photoconversion. Tracking of photoconverted and non-photoconverted Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells revealed the rapid establishment of a circulating memory population in all lymph nodes within days of immunisation. Strikingly, a resident memory CD4(+) T cell population became established in the draining lymph node and persisted for several months in the absence of detectable migration to other lymphoid tissue. These cells most closely resembled effector memory T cells, usually associated with circulation through non-lymphoid tissue, but here, these cells were retained in the draining lymph node. These data indicate that lymphoid tissue resident memory CD4(+) T-cell populations are generated in peripheral lymph nodes following immunisation. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Hanewinckel, R; Ikram, M A; Van Doorn, P A

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are diseases of the peripheral nervous system that can be divided into mononeuropathies, multifocal neuropathies, and polyneuropathies. Symptoms usually include numbness and paresthesia. These symptoms are often accompanied by weakness and can be painful. Polyneuropathies can be divided into axonal and demyelinating forms, which is important for diagnostic reasons. Most peripheral neuropathies develop over months or years, but some are rapidly progressive. Some patients only suffer from mild, unilateral, slowly progressive tingling in the fingers due to median nerve compression in the wrist (carpal tunnel syndrome), while other patients can be tetraplegic, with respiratory insufficiency within 1-2 days due to Guillain-Barré syndrome. Carpal tunnel syndrome, with a prevalence of 5% and incidence of 1-2 per 1000 person-years, is the most common mononeuropathy. Population-based data for chronic polyneuropathy are relatively scarce. Prevalence is estimated at 1% and increases to 7% in persons over 65 years of age. Incidence is approximately 1 per 1000 person-years. Immune-mediated polyneuropathies like Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy are rare diseases, with an annual incidence of approximately 1-2 and 0.2-0.5 per 100 000 persons respectively. Most peripheral neuropathies are more prevalent in older adults and in men, except for carpal tunnel syndrome, which is more common in women. Diabetes is a common cause of peripheral neuropathy and is associated with both mono- and polyneuropathies. Among the group of chronic polyneuropathies, in about 20-25% no direct cause can be found. These are slowly progressive axonal polyneuropathies. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitamin A Controls the Presence of RORγ+ Innate Lymphoid Cells and Lymphoid Tissue in the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Goverse, Gera; Labao-Almeida, Carlos; Ferreira, Manuela; Molenaar, Rosalie; Wahlen, Sigrid; Konijn, Tanja; Koning, Jasper; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-06-15

    Changes in diet and microbiota have determining effects on the function of the mucosal immune system. For example, the active metabolite of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA), has been described to maintain homeostasis in the intestine by its influence on both lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Additionally, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), important producers of cytokines necessary for intestinal homeostasis, are also influenced by vitamin A in the small intestines. In this study, we show a reduction of both NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets in the small intestine of mice raised on a vitamin A-deficient diet. Additionally, the percentages of IL-22-producing ILCs were reduced in the absence of dietary vitamin A. Conversely, mice receiving additional RA had a specific increase in the NCR(-) ILC3 subset, which contains the lymphoid tissue inducer cells. The dependence of lymphoid tissue inducer cells on vitamin A was furthermore illustrated by impaired development of enteric lymphoid tissues in vitamin A-deficient mice. These effects were a direct consequence of ILC-intrinsic RA signaling, because retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt-Cre × RARα-DN mice had reduced numbers of NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets within the small intestine. However, lymphoid tissue inducer cells were not affected in these mice nor was the formation of enteric lymphoid tissue, demonstrating that the onset of RA signaling might take place before retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt is expressed on lymphoid tissue inducer cells. Taken together, our data show an important role for vitamin A in controlling innate lymphoid cells and, consequently, postnatal formed lymphoid tissues within the small intestines. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Distribution of Peripheral PrPSc in Sheep with Naturally Acquired Scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Garza, María Carmen; Monzón, Marta; Marín, Belén; Badiola, Juan José; Monleón, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of prion protein (PrPSc) in the central nervous system is the hallmark of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, in some of these diseases such as scrapie or chronic wasting disease, the PrPSc can also accumulate in other tissues, particularly in the lymphoreticular system. In recent years, PrPSc in organs other than nervous and lymphoid have been described, suggesting that distribution of this protein in affected individuals may be much larger than previously thought. In the present study, 11 non-nervous/non-lymphoid organs from 16 naturally scrapie infected sheep in advanced stages of the disease were examined for the presence of PrPSc. Fourteen infected sheep were of the ARQ/ARQ PRNP genotype and 2 of the VRQ/VRQ, where the letters A, R, Q, and V represent the codes for amino-acids alanine, arginine, glutamine and valine, respectively. Adrenal gland, pancreas, heart, skin, urinary bladder and mammary gland were positive for PrPSc by immunohistochemistry and IDEXX HerdChek scrapie/BSE Antigen EIA Test in at least one animal. Lung, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle exhibited PrPSc deposits by immunohistochemistry only. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the presence of PrPSc in the heart, pancreas and urinary bladder in naturally acquired scrapie infections. In some other organs examined, in which PrPSc had been previously detected, PrPSc immunolabeling was observed to be associated with new structures within those organs. The results of the present study illustrate a wide dissemination of PrPSc in both ARQ/ARQ and VRQ/VRQ infected sheep, even when the involvement of the lymphoreticular system is scarce or absent, thus highlighting the role of the peripheral nervous system in the spread of PrPSc. PMID:24828439

  18. Distribution of peripheral PrP(Sc) in sheep with naturally acquired scrapie.

    PubMed

    Garza, María Carmen; Monzón, Marta; Marín, Belén; Badiola, Juan José; Monleón, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of prion protein (PrPSc) in the central nervous system is the hallmark of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, in some of these diseases such as scrapie or chronic wasting disease, the PrPSc can also accumulate in other tissues, particularly in the lymphoreticular system. In recent years, PrPSc in organs other than nervous and lymphoid have been described, suggesting that distribution of this protein in affected individuals may be much larger than previously thought. In the present study, 11 non-nervous/non-lymphoid organs from 16 naturally scrapie infected sheep in advanced stages of the disease were examined for the presence of PrPSc. Fourteen infected sheep were of the ARQ/ARQ PRNP genotype and 2 of the VRQ/VRQ, where the letters A, R, Q, and V represent the codes for amino-acids alanine, arginine, glutamine and valine, respectively. Adrenal gland, pancreas, heart, skin, urinary bladder and mammary gland were positive for PrPSc by immunohistochemistry and IDEXX HerdChek scrapie/BSE Antigen EIA Test in at least one animal. Lung, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle exhibited PrPSc deposits by immunohistochemistry only. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the presence of PrPSc in the heart, pancreas and urinary bladder in naturally acquired scrapie infections. In some other organs examined, in which PrPSc had been previously detected, PrPSc immunolabeling was observed to be associated with new structures within those organs. The results of the present study illustrate a wide dissemination of PrPSc in both ARQ/ARQ and VRQ/VRQ infected sheep, even when the involvement of the lymphoreticular system is scarce or absent, thus highlighting the role of the peripheral nervous system in the spread of PrPSc.

  19. Fat-Associated Lymphoid Clusters in Inflammation and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Migoni, Sara; Caamaño, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Fat-associated lymphoid clusters (FALCs) are atypical lymphoid tissues that were originally identified in mouse and human mesenteries due to that they contain a high number of type 2 innate lymphoid cells/nuocytes/natural helper cells. FALCs are located on adipose tissues in mucosal surfaces such as the mediastinum, pericardium, and gonadal fat. Importantly, these clusters contain B1, B2 and T lymphocytes as well as myeloid and other innate immune cell populations. The developmental cues of FALC formation have started to emerge, showing that these clusters depend on a different set of molecules and cells than secondary lymphoid tissues for their formation. Here, we review the current knowledge on FALC formation, and we compare FALCs and omental milky spots and their responses to inflammation. PMID:28066422

  20. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in individuals with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Olegario, Janainna Grazielle Pacheco; Silva, Renata Calciolari Rossi e; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Castro, Eumênia Costa da Cunha; Corrêa, Rosana Rosa Miranda

    2011-06-01

    Vestibular folds (VF) protect upper airways, but contain fewer immune cells in AIDS patients, which affects the structure of lymphoid follicles (LF). To characterize fibrosis and immunoglobulin production in vestibular fold lymphoid tissues of AIDS patients with or with no infection and malnutrition. A retrospective study of 71 adult vestibular fold autopsy specimens. The morphological analysis was done using the picrosirius staining method. Immunohistochemical methods consisted of anti-IgA, anti IgG, and anti IgM antibodies. Fibrosis was less intense in AIDS patients compared to subjects without AIDS; the same applied to patients with infection or malnutrition. IgA and IgG titers were higher in AIDS patients; IgM titers were higher in cases with infection. This study helps understand variations in lymphoid follicle components of AIDS patients; it also shows the influence of architectural changes and the effect of associated respiratory infection and malnutrition on lymphoid follicle function.

  1. Total lymphoid irradiation for treatment of intractable cardiac allograft rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, S.A.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Stinson, E.B. )

    1991-03-01

    The ability of postoperative total lymphoid irradiation to reverse otherwise intractable cardiac allograft rejection was examined in a group of 10 patients in whom conventional rejection therapy (including pulsed steroids and monoclonal or polyclonal anti-T-cell antibody therapy) had failed to provide sustained freedom from rejection. Follow-up periods range from 73 to 1119 days since the start of total lymphoid irradiation. No patient died or sustained serious morbidity because of the irradiation. Three patients have had no further rejection (follow-up periods, 105 to 365 days). Two patients died--one in cardiogenic shock during the course of total lymphoid irradiation, the other with recurrent rejection caused by noncompliance with his medical regimen. Total lymphoid irradiation appears to be a safe and a moderately effective immunosuppressive modality for 'salvage' therapy of cardiac allograft rejection unresponsive to conventional therapy.

  2. Maintenance of Mouse Gustatory Terminal Field Organization Is Disrupted following Selective Removal of Peripheral Sodium Salt Taste Activity at Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Skyberg, Rolf; Sun, Chengsan; Hill, David L

    2017-08-09

    Neural activity plays a critical role in the development of central circuits in sensory systems. However, the maintenance of these circuits at adulthood is usually not dependent on sensory-elicited neural activity. Recent work in the mouse gustatory system showed that selectively deleting the primary transduction channel for sodium taste, the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), throughout development dramatically impacted the organization of the central terminal fields of three nerves that carry taste information to the nucleus of the solitary tract. More specifically, deleting ENaCs during development prevented the normal maturation of the fields. The present study was designed to extend these findings by testing the hypothesis that the loss of sodium taste activity impacts the maintenance of the normal adult terminal field organization in male and female mice. To do this, we used an inducible Cre-dependent genetic recombination strategy to delete ENaC function after terminal field maturation occurred. We found that removal of sodium taste neural activity at adulthood resulted in significant reorganization of mature gustatory afferent terminal fields in the nucleus of the solitary tract. Specifically, the chorda tympani and greater superficial petrosal nerve terminal fields were 1.4× and 1.6× larger than age-matched controls, respectively. By contrast, the glossopharyngeal nerve, which is not highly sensitive to sodium taste stimulation, did not undergo terminal field reorganization. These surprising results suggest that gustatory nerve terminal fields remain plastic well into adulthood, which likely impacts central coding of taste information and taste-related behaviors with altered taste experience.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neural activity plays a major role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. However, the importance of sensory-driven activity in maintaining these circuits at adulthood, especially in subcortical structures, appears to be

  3. Human beta-mannosidase deficiency associated with peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Levade, T; Graber, D; Flurin, V; Delisle, M B; Pieraggi, M T; Testut, M F; Carrière, J P; Salvayre, R

    1994-01-01

    Human beta-mannosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder described in only seven families. We present a further case in a black African 14-year-old boy with severely deficient beta-mannosidase activity, bilateral thenar and hypothenar amyotrophy, electrophysiologically demonstrable demyelinating peripheral neuropathy, and cytoplasmic vacuolation of skin fibroblasts and lymphoid cells. The clinical and biochemical features of our patient are compared to those of previously reported patients.

  4. Morphological and functional development of the interbranchial lymphoid tissue (ILT) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L).

    PubMed

    Dalum, Alf Seljenes; Griffiths, David James; Valen, Elin Christine; Amthor, Karoline Skaar; Austbø, Lars; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Press, Charles McLean; Kvellestad, Agnar

    2016-11-01

    The interbranchial lymphoid tissue (ILT) of Atlantic salmon originates from an embryological location that in higher vertebrates gives rise to both primary and secondary lymphoid tissues. Still much is unknown about the morphological and functional development of the ILT. In the present work a standardized method of organ volume determination was established to study its development in relation to its containing gill and the thymus. Based on morphological findings and gene transcription data, the ILT shows no signs of primary lymphoid function. In contrast to the thymus, an ILT-complex first became discernible after the yolk-sac period. After its appearance, the ILT-complex constitutes 3-7% of the total volume of the gill (excluding the gill arch) with the newly described distal ILT constituting a major part, and in adult fish it is approximately 13 times larger than the thymus. Confined regions of T-cell proliferation are present within the ILT. Communication with systemic circulation through the distal ILT is also highly plausible thus offering both internal and external recruitment of immune cells in the growing ILT.

  5. Retinoic acid differentially regulates the migration of innate lymphoid cell subsets to the gut

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung H.; Taparowsky, Elizabeth J.; Kim, Chang H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Distinct groups of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) such as ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 populate the intestine, but how these ILCs develop tissue tropism for this organ is unclear. We report that prior to migration to the intestine ILCs first undergo a `switch' in their expression of homing receptors from lymphoid to gut homing receptors. This process is regulated by mucosal dendritic cells and the gut-specific tissue factor retinoic acid (RA). This change in homing receptors is required for long-term population and effector function of ILCs in the intestine. Only ILC1 and ILC3, but not ILC2, undergo the RA-dependent homing receptor switch in gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In contrast, ILC2 acquire gut homing receptors in a largely RA-independent manner during their development in the bone marrow and can migrate directly to the intestine. Thus, distinct programs regulate the migration of ILC subsets to the intestine for regulation of innate immunity. PMID:26141583

  6. Immunohistochemical study of lymphoid tissues in adjuvant arthritis (AA) by image analysis; relationship with synovial lesions

    PubMed Central

    Carol, M; Pelegrí, C; Castellote, C; Franch, A; Castell, M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine leucocyte populations in lymphoid organs during AA and to ascertain the relationship with lesions in synovial joints. Popliteal lymph nodes, spleen and knee synovial membranes were removed from both healthy and AA rats at intervals of 3–4 days over a 3-week period. Cryostat sections were stained with MoAbs directed against lymphocyte and macrophage subpopulations, and studied by image analysis. Throughout the arthritic period, high numbers of ED1+ and ED3+ macrophages were seen in both lymphoid compartments and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression also increased in some zones of lymph nodes and spleen. The percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells rose in the splenic zones studied but fell in the lymph node cortex. Very few natural killer (NK) cells were found in lymphoid tissues, but the number rose after AA induction. In synovia from AA rats, ED2+ macrophages proliferated but α/β T cell infiltration was only occasionally observed, accompanied by ED1+ cells and ICAM-1 expression. In conclusion, synovitis developing after AA induction seems to be caused directly by macrophages and indirectly by lymphocytes placed both in popliteal lymph nodes and spleen. PMID:10759784

  7. Signaling Pathway and Dysregulation of PD1 and its Ligands in Lymphoid Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yi; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Young, Ken H.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells evade immune destruction, at least partially, by upregulating inhibitory signals to limit effector T cell activation. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is one of the most critical co-inhibitory molecules limiting the T-cell antitumor response. PD-1 and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, are overexpressed by various types of tumors as well as reactive cells in the tumor microenvironment. A growing body of evidence has shown the clinical efficiency and minimal toxicity of PD-1 pathway inhibitors in patients with solid tumors, but the role of these inhibitors in lymphoid malignancies is much less well studied. In this review, we review the pathologic role of the PD-1 pathway in most common lymphoid malignancies and we organize the clinical data from clinical trials of PD-1 pathway inhibitors. Several anti–PD-1 regimens have shown encouraging therapeutic effects in patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Additional progress is needed to foster an improved understanding of the role of anti–PD-1 therapy in reconstituting antitumor immunity in patients with lymphoid malignancies. Upcoming trials will explore the clinical efficiency of combining PD-1 pathway inhibitors and various agents with diverse mechanisms of action and create more therapeutic possibilities for afflicted patients. PMID:26432723

  8. Signaling pathway and dysregulation of PD1 and its ligands in lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yi; Jeffrey Medeiros, L; Young, Ken H

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells evade immune destruction, at least partially, by upregulating inhibitory signals to limit effector T cell activation. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is one of the most critical co-inhibitory molecules limiting the T-cell antitumor response. PD-1 and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, are overexpressed by various types of tumors as well as reactive cells in the tumor microenvironment. A growing body of evidence has shown the clinical efficiency and minimal toxicity of PD-1 pathway inhibitors in patients with solid tumors, but the role of these inhibitors in lymphoid malignancies is much less well studied. In this review, we analyze the pathologic role of the PD-1 pathway in most common lymphoid malignancies and we organize the clinical data from clinical trials of PD-1 pathway inhibitors. Several anti-PD-1 regimens have shown encouraging therapeutic effects in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Additional progress is needed to foster an improved understanding of the role of anti-PD-1 therapy in reconstituting antitumor immunity in patients with lymphoid malignancies. Upcoming trials will explore the clinical efficiency of combining PD-1 pathway inhibitors and various agents with diverse mechanisms of action and create more therapeutic possibilities for afflicted patients.

  9. Conjunctival lymphoid follicles in new world rodents.

    PubMed

    Astley, Roger A; Chodosh, James; Caire, William; Wilson, Gregory M

    2007-09-01

    We report for the first time, the detection of conjunctival lymphoid follicles (CLF) in the eyes of New World rodents. CLF were found in 7 of the 15 species examined, 6 of the 10 genera, and in at least one individual in four families of rodents. These follicles are dense collections of leukocytes in the conjunctival substantia propria with a thinned overlying epithelium lacking in goblet cells. Although the precise location of CLF within the conjunctiva varied from species to species, all CLF were found in the fornix of the conjunctival sac. In general, size and complexity of CLF varied with the size of the eye; the larger the eye, the larger and more complex the CLF. Our findings also reveal that some species of New World rodents, like the majority of Old World rodents examined in this and previous studies might lack CLF. However, until larger samples are examined, this is difficult to state with certainty. Consequently, the presence/absence of CLF at this point might not be informative for phylogenetic comparisons. Our findings also suggest the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, might serve as a useful model species for studying ocular infections and immunology of the eye.

  10. Acute lymphoid leukemia following polycythemia vera.

    PubMed

    Camós, M; Cervantes, F; Montoto, S; Hernández-Boluda, J C; Villamor, N; Montserrat, E

    1999-01-01

    The tendency to evolve into acute leukemia is a well-known characteristic of polycythemia vera (PV), which is shared with the remaining chronic myeloproliferative disorders and increases after the administration of cytotoxic agents. Acute transformation is usually of myeloid phenotype, whereas acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) following PV is seldom observed. A 63-year-old woman is described who developed ALL at 6 years from the initial diagnosis of PV, for which she had received radioactive phosphorus and hydroxyurea. The ALL was of B-cell type, corresponding to the L-3 subtype of the FAB classification. Despite the administration of combination chemotherapy the patient died shortly after the diagnosis of acute leukemia. The present case adds to seven previously described patients with the above association, all of whom had received cytotoxic therapy for PV. Median interval from PV to ALL diagnosis was 10 years, and there was a predominance of the B-cell phenotype. The prognosis was poor since all but one of the patients had a short survival after ALL diagnosis. The possible etiological and pathogenetic link between PV and the subsequent ALL is discussed.

  11. Superficially located enlarged lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Takuma; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Hoshino, Hitomi; Iwaya, Yugo; Tanaka, Eiji; Kobayashi, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Nodular gastritis is a form of chronic Helicobacter pylori gastritis affecting the gastric antrum and characterised endoscopically by the presence of small nodular lesions resembling gooseflesh. It is generally accepted that hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles histologically characterises nodular gastritis; however, quantitative analysis in support of this hypothesis has not been reported. Our goal was to determine whether nodular gastritis is characterised by lymphoid follicle hyperplasia.The number, size, and location of lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were determined and those properties compared to samples of atrophic gastritis. The percentages of high endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels were also evaluated.The number of lymphoid follicles was comparable between nodular and atrophic gastritis; however, follicle size in nodular gastritis was significantly greater than that seen in atrophic gastritis. Moreover, lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were positioned more superficially than were those in atrophic gastritis. The percentage of MECA-79 HEV-like vessels was greater in areas with gooseflesh-like lesions in nodular versus atrophic gastritis.Superficially located hyperplastic lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis, and these follicles correspond to gooseflesh-like nodular lesions observed endoscopically. These observations suggest that MECA-79 HEV-like vessels could play at least a partial role in the pathogenesis of nodular gastritis.

  12. Tissue-specific effector functions of innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Björkström, Niklas K; Kekäläinen, Eliisa; Mjösberg, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) is the collective term for a group of related innate lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells and the more recently discovered non-NK ILCs, which all lack rearranged antigen receptors such as those expressed by T and B cells. Similar to NK cells, the newly discovered ILCs depend on the transcription factor Id2 and the common γ-chain of the interleukin-2 receptor for development. However, in contrast to NK cells, non-NK ILCs also require interleukin-7. In addition to the cytotoxic functions of NK cells, assuring protection against tumour development and viruses, new data indicate that ILCs contribute to a wide range of homeostatic and pathophysiological conditions in various organs via specialized cytokine production capabilities. Here we summarize current knowledge on ILCs with a particular emphasis on their tissue-specific effector functions, in the gut, liver, lungs and uterus. When possible, we try to highlight the role that these cells play in humans. PMID:23489335

  13. Multispectral imaging fluorescence microscopy for lymphoid tissue analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monici, Monica; Agati, Giovanni; Fusi, Franco; Mazzinghi, Piero; Romano, Salvatore; Pratesi, Riccardo; Alterini, Renato; Bernabei, Pietro A.; Rigacci, Luigi

    1999-01-01

    Multispectral imaging autofluorescence microscopy (MIAM) is used here for the analysis of lymphatic tissues. Lymph node biopsies, from patients with lympthoadenopathy of different origin have been examined. Natural fluorescence (NF) images of 3 micrometers sections were obtained using three filters peaked at 450, 550 and 680 nm with 50 nm bandpass. Monochrome images were combined together in a single RGB image. NF images of lymph node tissue sections show intense blue-green fluorescence of the connective stroma. Normal tissue shows follicles with faintly fluorescent lymphocytes, as expected fro the morphologic and functional characteristics of these cells. Other more fluorescent cells (e.g., plasma cells and macrophages) are evidenced. Intense green fluorescence if localized in the inner wall of the vessels. Tissues coming from patients affected by Hodgkin's lymphoma show spread fluorescence due to connective infiltration and no evidence of follicle organization. Brightly fluorescent large cells, presumably Hodgkin cells, are also observed. These results indicate that MIAM can discriminate between normal and pathological tissues on the basis of their natural fluorescence pattern, and, therefore, represent a potentially useful technique for diagnostic applications. Analysis of the fluorescence spectra of both normal and malignant lymphoid tissues resulted much less discriminatory than MIAM.

  14. Clinical drawbacks of total lymphoid irradiation: the cons

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, L.W.; Ellison, G.W.; Fahey, J.L.; Tesler, A.; Gottlieb, M.S.

    1988-07-01

    Success has been reported with use of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in organ transplant recipients and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. In a well-conducted randomized double blind clinical trial, Cook et al have found that TLI was superior to sham irradiation of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it is clear from looking at this data that not all patients responded to TLI and that with time disease activity returned. Our own experience with TLI in two MS patients was very disappointing. Despite its apparent benefit in some conditions, considerable drawbacks are associated with TLI. These include high financial cost, unpleasant treatment-related side effects, and the possibility that more serious morbidity as well as mortality may be treatment-related. Furthermore, the optimum therapeutic regimen for TLI has not yet been established. Issues related to cumulative dose, dose per fraction, frequency of fractions, field of irradiation, and interaction with other therapies still need clarification. For these reasons we do not recommend TLI as a treatment for MS.

  15. Post-conversion sialylation of prions in lymphoid tissues

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Saurabh; Makarava, Natallia; Katorcha, Elizaveta; Savtchenko, Regina; Brossmer, Reinhard; Baskakov, Ilia V.

    2015-01-01

    Sialylated glycans on the surface of mammalian cells act as part of a “self-associated molecular pattern,” helping the immune system to recognize “self” from “altered self” or “nonself.” To escape the host immune system, some bacterial pathogens have evolved biosynthetic pathways for host-like sialic acids, whereas others recruited host sialic acids for decorating their surfaces. Prions lack nucleic acids and are not conventional pathogens. Nevertheless, prions might use a similar strategy for invading and colonizing the lymphoreticular system. Here we show that the sialylation status of the infectious, disease-associated state of the prion protein (PrPSc) changes with colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). As a result, spleen-derived PrPSc is more sialylated than brain-derived PrPSc. Enhanced sialylation of PrPSc is recapitulated in vitro by incubating brain-derived PrPSc with primary splenocytes or cultured macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. General inhibitors of sialyltranserases (STs), the enzymes that transfer sialic acid residues onto terminal positions of glycans, suppressed extrasialylation of PrPSc. A fluorescently labeled precursor of sialic acid revealed ST activity associated with RAW macrophages. This study illustrates that, upon colonization of SLOs, the sialylation status of prions changes by host STs. We propose that this mechanism is responsible for camouflaging prions in SLOs and has broad implications. PMID:26627256

  16. The chemokine receptor CXCR5 is pivotal for ectopic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue neogenesis in chronic Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Winter, Susann; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Aebischer, Anton; Räbel, Katrin; Hoffmann, Kirstin; Meyer, Thomas F; Lipp, Martin; Höpken, Uta E

    2010-11-01

    Ectopic lymphoid follicles are a key feature of chronic inflammatory autoimmune and infectious diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis. Homeostatic chemokines are considered to be involved in the formation of such tertiary lymphoid tissue. High expression of CXCL13 and its receptor, CXCR5, has been associated with the formation of ectopic lymphoid follicles in chronic infectious diseases. Here, we defined the role of CXCR5 in the development of mucosal tertiary lymphoid tissue and gastric inflammation in a mouse model of chronic H. pylori infection. CXCR5-deficient mice failed to develop organized gastric lymphoid follicles despite similar bacterial colonization density as infected wild-type mice. CXCR5 deficiency altered Th17 responses but not Th1-type cellular immune responses to H. pylori infection. Furthermore, CXCR5-deficient mice exhibited lower H. pylori-specific serum IgG and IgA levels and an overall decrease in chronic gastric immune responses. In conclusion, the development of mucosal tertiary ectopic follicles during chronic H. pylori infection is strongly dependent on the CXCL13/CXCR5 signaling axis, and lack of de novo lymphoid tissue formation attenuates chronic immune responses.

  17. Nucleotide Analog Prodrug, Tenofovir Disoproxil, Enhances Lymphoid Cell Loading Following Oral Administration in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Durand-Gasselin, Lucie; Van Rompay, Koen K.A.; Vela, Jennifer E.; Henne, Ilana N.; Lee, William A.; Rhodes, Gerry R.; Ray, Adrian S.

    2009-01-01

    The antiviral drug tenofovir (TFV) is orally administered as the fumarate salt of its disoproxil prodrug (TFV disoproxil fumarate (TDF)). TFV is a di-anion at physiological pH and, as a result, has poor lipid membrane permeability. Administration of the lipophilic and cell permeable prodrug, TFV disoproxil, enhances the oral absorption of TFV. In order to determine if oral administration of TDF also increases distribution to sites of viral infection, the plasma and circulating lymphoid cell pharmacokinetics of TFV and its phosphorylated metabolites were assessed following a single oral TDF or subcutaneous TFV administration at doses yielding equivalent plasma exposures to TFV in macaques. Despite TFV disoproxil’s lack of plasma stability and undetectable levels in the first plasma samples taken, oral administration of TDF resulted in 7.9-fold higher peripheral blood mononuclear cell exposures to the active metabolite, TFV-diphosphate. The apparent plasma terminal half-life (t1/2) of TFV was also longer following oral TDF relative to subcutaneous TFV administration (median t1/2 of 15.3 and 3.9 h, respectively), suggesting broader distribution to cells and tissues outside of the central plasma compartment. In conclusion, the disoproxil pro-moiety not only enhances the oral absorption of TFV but also tissue and lymphoid cell loading. These results illustrate that administration of even a fleeting prodrug can increase target tissue loading and gives valuable insight for future prodrug development. PMID:19545170

  18. Calpain expression in lymphoid cells. Increased mRNA and protein levels after cell activation.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Chakrabarti, A K; Barbosa, E; Hogan, E L; Banik, N L

    1995-02-10

    Although calpain is ubiquitously present in human tissues and is thought to play a role in demyelination, its activity is very low in resting normal lymphocytes. To determine the nature of calpain expression at the mRNA and protein levels in human lymphoid cells, we studied human T lymphocytic, B lymphocytic, and monocytic lines as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Stimulation of cells with the phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate and the calcium ionophore A23187 resulted in increased calpain mRNA and protein expression. Calpain mRNA expression is also increased in human T cells stimulated with anti-CD3. A dissociation between the increases of RNA and protein suggested that calpain could be released from the cells; the subsequent experiments showed its presence in the extracellular environment. 5,6-Dichloro-1b-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, a reversible inhibitor of mRNA synthesis, reduced calpain mRNA levels by 50-67% and protein levels by 72-91%. Its removal resulted in resumption of both calpain mRNA and protein synthesis. Cycloheximide, a translational inhibitor, reduced calpain protein levels by 77-81% and calpain mRNA levels by 96% in activated THP-1 cells. Interferon-gamma induced calpain mRNA and protein in U-937 and THP-1 cells. Dexamethasone increased mRNA expression in THP-1 cells. Our results indicate that activation of lymphoid cells results in de novo synthesis and secretion of calpain.

  19. Dietary restriction improves repopulation but impairs lymphoid differentiation capacity of hematopoietic stem cells in early aging

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Duozhuang; Tao, Si; Chen, Zhiyang; Koliesnik, Ievgen Oleksandrovich; Calmes, Philip Gerald; Hoerr, Verena; Han, Bing; Gebert, Nadja; Zörnig, Martin; Löffler, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) improves health, delays tissue aging, and elongates survival in flies and worms. However, studies on laboratory mice and nonhuman primates revealed ambiguous effects of DR on lifespan despite improvements in health parameters. In this study, we analyzed consequences of adult-onset DR (24 h to 1 yr) on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function. DR ameliorated HSC aging phenotypes, such as the increase in number of HSCs and the skewing toward myeloid-biased HSCs during aging. Furthermore, DR increased HSC quiescence and improved the maintenance of the repopulation capacity of HSCs during aging. In contrast to these beneficial effects, DR strongly impaired HSC differentiation into lymphoid lineages and particularly inhibited the proliferation of lymphoid progenitors, resulting in decreased production of peripheral B lymphocytes and impaired immune function. The study shows that DR-dependent suppression of growth factors and interleukins mediates these divergent effects caused by DR. Supplementation of insulin-like growth factor 1 partially reverted the DR-induced quiescence of HSCs, whereas IL-6/IL-7 substitutions rescued the impairment of B lymphopoiesis exposed to DR. Together, these findings delineate positive and negative effects of long-term DR on HSC functionality involving distinct stress and growth signaling pathways. PMID:26951333

  20. Dietary restriction improves repopulation but impairs lymphoid differentiation capacity of hematopoietic stem cells in early aging.

    PubMed

    Tang, Duozhuang; Tao, Si; Chen, Zhiyang; Koliesnik, Ievgen Oleksandrovich; Calmes, Philip Gerald; Hoerr, Verena; Han, Bing; Gebert, Nadja; Zörnig, Martin; Löffler, Bettina; Morita, Yohei; Rudolph, Karl Lenhard

    2016-04-04

    Dietary restriction (DR) improves health, delays tissue aging, and elongates survival in flies and worms. However, studies on laboratory mice and nonhuman primates revealed ambiguous effects of DR on lifespan despite improvements in health parameters. In this study, we analyzed consequences of adult-onset DR (24 h to 1 yr) on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function. DR ameliorated HSC aging phenotypes, such as the increase in number of HSCs and the skewing toward myeloid-biased HSCs during aging. Furthermore, DR increased HSC quiescence and improved the maintenance of the repopulation capacity of HSCs during aging. In contrast to these beneficial effects, DR strongly impaired HSC differentiation into lymphoid lineages and particularly inhibited the proliferation of lymphoid progenitors, resulting in decreased production of peripheral B lymphocytes and impaired immune function. The study shows that DR-dependent suppression of growth factors and interleukins mediates these divergent effects caused by DR. Supplementation of insulin-like growth factor 1 partially reverted the DR-induced quiescence of HSCs, whereas IL-6/IL-7 substitutions rescued the impairment of B lymphopoiesis exposed to DR. Together, these findings delineate positive and negative effects of long-term DR on HSC functionality involving distinct stress and growth signaling pathways. © 2016 Tang et al.

  1. The bovine lymphoid system. III. A monoclonal antibody specific for bovine cell surface and serum IgM.

    PubMed Central

    Pinder, M; Musoke, A J; Morrison, W I; Roelants, G E

    1980-01-01

    Mouse spleen cells from animals immunized with bovine peripheral blood lymphocytes were fused to X63 . Ag8 myeloma cells and the activity of one of the resulting myeloma hybrids was characterized. The product of this clone (B5/4.1.4) binds to pentameric bovine IgM isolated from serum but not to serum IgG1 or IgG2. This reagent also binds to cell surface (monomeric) IgM and can be used in immunofluorescence assays to enumerate IgM-bearing cells in lymphoid cell suspensions and to examine B lymphocytes or B lymphocyte derived cells in tissue sections. Images Figure 4 PMID:7000680

  2. THE SEPARATION OF DIFFERENT CELL CLASSES FROM LYMPHOID ORGANS

    PubMed Central

    Shortman, Ken; Seligman, Kathrin

    1969-01-01

    1. Mammalian erythrocytes swell as the pH of the isotonic suspending medium is lowered, as a direct consequence of the specialized permeability properties of the erythrocyte membrane. Lymphocytes and granulocytes from a variety of sources did not exhibit this property. 2. The behaviour of mouse bone marrow erythroid cells at various stages of differentiation was studied by using a change in buoyant density with pH as an index of swelling. The ability to swell with a pH drop was acquired while the cell was still nucleated. All non-nucleated cells showed swelling. Most small erythroblasts shared this property, whereas most large erythroblasts did not. 3. The density shift with pH was used to provide a purification scheme specific for erythroid cells. The bone marrow cells were first centrifuged to equilibrium in an isotonic albumin density gradient at neutral pH. Regions of the gradient containing the erythroid cells were collected, and the cells were recovered and redistributed in an albumin gradient at acid pH. The erythroid cells showed a specific density shift which removed them from contaminants. Preparations containing 90–97% erythroblasts were obtained by this technique. 4. Differentiation within the erythroid series was accompanied by a general increase in cell buoyant density at neutral pH. This density increase may have been a discontinuous process, since erythroid cells appeared to form a number of density peaks. 5. The pH shift technique, in association with established density distribution and sedimentation velocity procedures, provides a range of cell separation techniques for biological or biochemical studies of erythroid cell differentiation in the complex cell mixtures in bone marrow or spleen. PMID:5801428

  3. The human syndrome of dendritic cell, monocyte, B and NK lymphoid deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bigley, Venetia; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Doulatov, Sergei; Wang, Xiao-Nong; Dickinson, Rachel; McGovern, Naomi; Jardine, Laura; Pagan, Sarah; Dimmick, Ian; Chua, Ignatius; Wallis, Jonathan; Lordan, Jim; Morgan, Cliff; Kumararatne, Dinakantha S.; Doffinger, Rainer; van der Burg, Mirjam; van Dongen, Jacques; Cant, Andrew; Dick, John E.; Hambleton, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Congenital or acquired cellular deficiencies in humans have the potential to reveal much about normal hematopoiesis and immune function. We show that a recently described syndrome of monocytopenia, B and NK lymphoid deficiency additionally includes the near absence of dendritic cells. Four subjects showed severe depletion of the peripheral blood HLA-DR+ lineage− compartment, with virtually no CD123+ or CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs) and very few CD14+ or CD16+ monocytes. The only remaining HLA-DR+ lineage− cells were circulating CD34+ progenitor cells. Dermal CD14+ and CD1a+ DC were also absent, consistent with their dependence on blood-derived precursors. In contrast, epidermal Langerhans cells and tissue macrophages were largely preserved. Combined loss of peripheral DCs, monocytes, and B and NK lymphocytes was mirrored in the bone marrow by complete absence of multilymphoid progenitors and depletion of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. Depletion of the HLA-DR+ peripheral blood compartment was associated with elevated serum fms-like tyrosine kinase ligand and reduced circulating CD4+CD25hiFoxP3+ T cells, supporting a role for DC in T reg cell homeostasis. PMID:21242295

  4. Type 1 Innate Lymphoid Cell Biology: Lessons Learnt from Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yuhao; Huntington, Nicholas D.; Belz, Gabrielle T.; Seillet, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Group 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) comprise the natural killer (NK) cells and ILC1s that reside within peripheral tissues. Several different ILC1 subsets have recently been characterized; however, no unique markers have been identified that uniquely define these subsets. Whether ILC1s and NK cells are in fact distinct lineages, or alternately exhibit transitional molecular programs that allow them to adapt to different tissue niches remains an open question. NK cells are the prototypic member of the Group 1 ILCs and have been historically assigned the functions of what now appears to be a multi-subset family that are distributed throughout the body. This raises the question of whether each of these populations mediate distinct functions during infection and tumor immunosurveillance. Here, we review the diversity of the Group 1 ILC subsets in their transcriptional regulation, localization, mobility, and receptor expression, and highlight the challenges in unraveling the individual functions of these different populations of cells. PMID:27785129

  5. Type 1 Innate Lymphoid Cell Biology: Lessons Learnt from Natural Killer Cells.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yuhao; Huntington, Nicholas D; Belz, Gabrielle T; Seillet, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Group 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) comprise the natural killer (NK) cells and ILC1s that reside within peripheral tissues. Several different ILC1 subsets have recently been characterized; however, no unique markers have been identified that uniquely define these subsets. Whether ILC1s and NK cells are in fact distinct lineages, or alternately exhibit transitional molecular programs that allow them to adapt to different tissue niches remains an open question. NK cells are the prototypic member of the Group 1 ILCs and have been historically assigned the functions of what now appears to be a multi-subset family that are distributed throughout the body. This raises the question of whether each of these populations mediate distinct functions during infection and tumor immunosurveillance. Here, we review the diversity of the Group 1 ILC subsets in their transcriptional regulation, localization, mobility, and receptor expression, and highlight the challenges in unraveling the individual functions of these different populations of cells.

  6. Tertiary Lymphoid Structure-Associated B Cells are Key Players in Anti-Tumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Claire; Gnjatic, Sacha; Dieu-Nosjean, Marie-Caroline

    2015-01-01

    It is now admitted that the immune system plays a major role in tumor control. Besides the existence of tumor-specific T cells and B cells, many studies have demonstrated that high numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are associated with good clinical outcome. In addition, not only the density but also the organization of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been shown to determine patient survival. Indeed, more and more studies describe the development within the tumor microenvironment of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS), whose presence has a positive impact on tumor prognosis. TLS are transient ectopic lymphoid aggregates displaying the same organization and functionality as canonical secondary lymphoid organs, with T-cell-rich and B-cell-rich areas that are sites for the differentiation of effector and memory T cells and B cells. However, factors favoring the emergence of such structures within tumors still need to be fully characterized. In this review, we survey the state of the art of what is known about the general organization, induction, and functionality of TLS during chronic inflammation, and more especially in cancer, with a particular focus on the B-cell compartment. We detail the role played by TLS B cells in anti-tumor immunity, both as antigen-presenting cells and tumor antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells, and raise the question of the capacity of chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic agents to induce the development of TLS within tumors. Finally, we explore how to take advantage of our knowledge on TLS B cells to develop new therapeutic tools. PMID:25755654

  7. Milky spots in the omentum develop in the absence of lymphoid tissue inducer cells and independently support B and T cell responses to peritoneal antigens

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Moyron-Quiroz, Juan E.; Carragher, Damian M.; Kusser, Kim; Hartson, Louise; Moquin, Amy; Randall, Troy D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The omentum is a site of B1 lymphopoiesis and immune responsiveness to T-independent antigens. However, it is unknown whether it supports immune responses independently of conventional lymphoid organs. We show that the omentum collects antigens and cells from the peritoneal cavity and supports T-dependent B cell responses, including isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and limited affinity maturation, despite the lack of identifiable follicular dendritic cells. The omentum also supports CD4 and CD8 responses to peritoneal antigens and recruits effector T cells primed in other locations. Unlike conventional lymphoid organs, milky spots in the omentum develop in the absence of lymphoid tissue inducer cells, but require CXCL13. Although the lymphoid architecture of milky spots is disrupted in lymphotoxin-deficient mice, normal architecture is restored by reconstitution with lymphotoxin-sufficient hematopoietic cells. These results indicate that the milky spots of the omentum function as unique secondary lymphoid organs that promote immunity to peritoneal antigens. PMID:19427241

  8. Transplantability of human lymphoid cell line, lymphoma, and leukemia in splenectomized and/or irradiated nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, S.; Shimosato, Y.; Kuroki, M.; Sato, Y.; Nakajima, T.

    1980-07-01

    The effects of splenectomy and/or whole-body irradiation of nude mice before xenotransplantation of lymphoid cell lines, lymphoma, and leukemia were studied. Transplantation after whole-body irradiation resulted in the increased ''take'' rate of three cultured cell lines (two of T-cell-derived acute lymphocytic leukemia and one of B-cell derived acute lymphocytic leukemia) and in the tumorous growth of Burkitt-derived Raji and spontaneously transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. With splenectomy plus irradiation as a pretreatment, tumorous growth occurred in four other cell lines which were not transplantable after irradiation only (two cell lines of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed cord blood cells and one each of null acute lymphocytic leukemia and nodular lymphoma-derived cell lines). Direct transplantation of leukemia and lymphoma cells into the pretreated mice was successful in 7 of 24 cases (29%). B-cell-derived diffuse large lymphoid lymphoma was transplantable in three of seven cases (43%). However, lymphoma and leukemia of peripheral T-cell origin was difficult to transplant even with pretreatment, and only one pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma grew to a significant size (2 cm). One tumor each of B-cell-derived diffuse large lymphoid and T-cell diffuse lymphoblastic lymphoma became transplantable.

  9. Restriction of transgene expression to the B-lymphoid progeny of human lentivirally transduced CD34+ cells.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Thomas; Bardin, Florence; Imbert, Jean; Chabannon, Christian; Tonnelle, Cécile

    2004-07-01

    Development of gene transfer strategies will necessitate improved efficiency and control of transduction and transgene expression. We here provide evidence that targeting expression of the GFP reporter gene to the B-lymphoid progeny of genetically modified human hematopoietic progenitor cells can be achieved through the insertion of regulatory sequences from the human CD19 gene promoter into a lentiviral vector. Based on a bioinformatics approach, three human CD19-derived sequences were designed and inserted into a self-inactivated lentiviral vector backbone upstream of the GFP gene: S.CD19 (230 bp), M.CD19 (464 bp), and L.CD19 (1274 bp). These new lentiviral vectors efficiently transduced cord blood CD34(+) cells. The M.CD19 and especially L.CD19 sequences preferentially targeted GFP expression to in vitro and in vivo differentiated CD19(+) progeny; moreover, transgene expression was detected from the CD34(+) pro/pre-B cell to the mature peripheral IgM(+) B cell stage. In contrast, GFP expression was weak or absent in primary T-lymphoid and uncommitted progenitor cells or in erythroid, natural killer, or myeloid differentiated cells. Such B-lineage-specific lentiviral vectors may be useful for correcting inherited disorders that affect B-lymphoid cells or for deciphering the transcriptional program that controls B cell commitment and differentiation.

  10. Cardiac allograft prolongation in mice treated with combined posttransplantation total-lymphoid irradiation and anti-L3T4 antibody therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Trager, D.K.; Banks, B.A.; Rosenbaum, G.E.; Holm, B.I.; Shizuru, J.A.; Strober, S.; Fathman, C.G.

    1989-04-01

    Neonatal cardiac allograft survival was examined in mice treated with anti-L3T4 antibody, posttransplantation total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) or a combination of both therapies. Independently, both posttransplantation TLI and short-course antibody treatment allowed minimal prolongation. However, synergistic prolongation in graft survival was observed with the combination (synergistic) therapy. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes from animals treated with combined anti-L3T4 and posttransplantation TLI additionally revealed ''synergy'' with respect to the degree of peripheral lymphocyte depletion.

  11. Close Encounters of Lymphoid Cells and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Adalia, Aranzazu; Veiga, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    During infections, the first reaction of the host against microbial pathogens is carried out by innate immune cells, which recognize conserved structures on pathogens, called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Afterward, some of these innate cells can phagocytose and destroy the pathogens, secreting cytokines that would modulate the immune response to the challenge. This rapid response is normally followed by the adaptive immunity, more specific and essential for a complete pathogen clearance in many cases. Some innate immune cells, usually named antigen-presenting cells, such as macrophages or dendritic cells, are able to process internalized invaders and present their antigens to lymphocytes, triggering the adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, the traditional boundary of separated roles between innate and adaptive immunity has been blurred by several studies, showing that very specialized populations of lymphocytes (cells of the adaptive immunity) behave similarly to cells of the innate immunity. These “innate-like” lymphocytes include γδ T cells, invariant NKT cells, B-1 cells, mucosal-associated invariant T cells, marginal zone B cells, and innate response activator cells, and together with the newly described innate lymphoid cells are able to rapidly respond to bacterial infections. Strikingly, our recent data suggest that conventional CD4+ T cells, the paradigm of cells of the adaptive immunity, also present innate-like behavior, capturing bacteria in a process called transinfection. Transinfected CD4+ T cells digest internalized bacteria like professional phagocytes and secrete large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, protecting for further bacterial challenges. In the present review, we will focus on the data showing such innate-like behavior of lymphocytes following bacteria encounter. PMID:27774092

  12. Total lymphoid irradiation for multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Devereux, C.K.; Vidaver, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Troiano, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Although chemical immunosuppression has been shown to benefit patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it appears that chemotherapy has an appreciable oncogenic potential in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, we developed a modified total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) regimen designed to reduce toxicity and applied it to a randomized double blind trial of TLI or sham irradiation in MS. Standard TLI regimens were modified to reduce dose to 1,980 rad, lowering the superior mantle margin to midway between the thyroid cartilage and angle of the mandible (to avert xerostomia) and the lower margin of the mantle field to the inferior margin of L1 (to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity by dividing abdominal radiation between mantle and inverted Y), limiting spinal cord dose to 1,000 rad by custom-made spine blocks in the mantle and upper 2 cm of inverted Y fields, and also protecting the left kidney even if part of the spleen were shielded. Clinical efficacy was documented by the less frequent functional scale deterioration of 20 TLI treated patients with chronic progressive MS compared to to 20 sham-irradiated progressive MS patients after 12 months (16% versus 55%, p less than 0.03), 18 months (28% versus 63%, p less than 0.03), and 24 months (44% versus 74%, N.S.). Therapeutic benefit during 3 years follow-up was related to the reduction in lymphocyte count 3 months post-irradiation (p less than 0.02). Toxicity was generally mild and transient, with no instance of xerostomia, pericarditis, herpes zoster, or need to terminate treatment in TLI patients. However, menopause was induced in 2 patients and staphylococcal pneumonia in one.

  13. [Peripheral pancytopenia].

    PubMed

    Bello-González, S A; Bergés-García, A

    1990-11-01

    Peripheral pancytopenia is a syndrome which allows for an early diagnosis, and although is may cover a large number of pathological entities, it can be clearly defined into three groups of illnesses which evolve with this syndromal manifestations. The first group includes non-neoplastic illnesses which include aplastic anemia, hemophagocytic syndrome associated to infection, immunological diseases and the deficiency of folates or vitamin B12. The second group includes neoplastic diseases as acute leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and Hodgkin's lymphoma with myelofibrosis, malignant histiocytosis and non-hematological neoplasms, like the neuroblastoma and the embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. The third group is formed by illnesses which have some similarity with neoplasms.

  14. CC Chemokine Receptor 6 Expression by B Lymphocytes Is Essential for the Development of Isolated Lymphoid Follicles

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Keely G.; McDonough, Jacquelyn S.; Wang, Caihong; Kucharzik, Torsten; Williams, Ifor R.; Newberry, Rodney D.

    2007-01-01

    Isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) are organized lymphoid structures that facilitate the efficient interaction of antigen, antigen-presenting cells, and lymphocytes to generate controlled adaptive immune responses within the intestine. Because CC chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) deficiency affects the generation of mucosal immune responses, we evaluated a potential role for CCR6 in the development of ILFs. We observed that CCR6 and its ligand CCL20 are highly expressed within ILFs and that B lymphocytes are the largest CCR6-expressing population within ILFs. ILF development was profoundly arrested in the absence of CCR6. Concordant with a block in ILF development at a stage corresponding to the influx of B lymphocytes, we observed that CCR6-deficient mice had a diminished population of intestinal B lymphocytes. Bone marrow reconstitution studies demonstrated that ILF development is dependent on CCR6-sufficient B lymphocytes, and adoptive transfers demonstrated that CCR6−/− B lymphocytes were inefficient at localizing to intestinal lymphoid structures. Paralleling these findings, we observed that CCR6-deficient mice had a reduced proportion of Peyer’s patch B lymphocytes and an associated reduction in the number and size of Peyer’s patch follicular domes. These observations define an essential role for CCR6 expression by B lymphocytes in localizing to intestinal lymphoid structures and in ILF development. PMID:17392163

  15. Preferential Reduction of Circulating Innate Lymphoid Cells Type 2 in Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency with Secondary Complications Is Part of a Broader Immune Dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, David; Keller, Baerbel; Harder, Ina; Schupp, Jonas; Tanriver, Yakup; Unger, Susanne; Warnatz, Klaus

    2017-09-21

    Over a third of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) suffer from secondary complications like inflammatory organ disease, autoimmune manifestations, or lymphoproliferation contributing to increased morbidity and mortality in affected patients. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have emerging roles in setting the milieu for physiological, but also pathological, immune responses and inflammation. We therefore sought to correlate the recently identified disturbed homeostasis of ILCs with alterations of the adaptive immune system in complex CVID patients (CVIDc). We quantified peripheral blood ILC and T helper cell subsets of 58 CVID patients by flow cytometry and compared the results to the clinical and immunological phenotype. Total ILCs were significantly reduced in peripheral blood of CVIDc patients compared to healthy individuals, but not to CVID patients who suffered only from infections (CVIDio). This reduction was mainly due to a decrease in ILC2s, while ILC3s were relatively increased in CVIDc compared to CVIDio patients. This alteration in ILC phenotype was more prominent in patients with an expansion of CD21(low) B cells, but we could not detect an association of the altered ILC phenotype with a TH1-shift among circulating CD4 T cells, which was also prominent in CVIDc patients. We confirm a relative shift in ILCs of CVIDc patients towards ILC3s which was associated with the expansion of CD21(low) B cells, but not overtly with the relative expansion of TH1-like T cells. Given the relative abundance of TH1-like T cells compared to ILCs, these probably represent a more prominent source of the observed IFNγ-signature in CVIDc patients.

  16. Characterization of nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue in ducks.

    PubMed

    Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2014-05-01

    The nasal mucosa is involved in immune defense, as it is the first barrier for pathogens entering the body through the respiratory tract. The nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), which is found in the mucosa of the nasal cavity, is considered to be the main mucosal immune inductive site in the upper respiratory tract. NALT has been found in humans and many mammals, which contributes to local and systemic immune responses after intranasal vaccination. However, there are very few data on NALT in avian species, especially waterfowl. For this study, histological sections of the nasal cavities of Cherry Valley ducks were used to examine the anatomical location and histological characteristics of NALT. The results showed that several lymphoid aggregates are present in the ventral wall of the nasal cavity near the choanal cleft, whereas several more lymphoid aggregates were located on both sides of the nasal septum. In addition, randomly distributed intraepithelial lymphocytes and isolated lymphoid follicles were observed in the regio respiratoria of the nasal cavity. There were also a few lymphoid aggregates located in the lamina propria of the regio vestibularis, which was covered with a stratified squamous epithelium. This study focused on the anatomic and histological characteristics of the nasal cavity of the duck and performed a systemic overview of NALT. This will be beneficial for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and the development of effective nasal vaccines for waterfowls. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sarcoidosis of the peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Said, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Neurological manifestations of sarcoidosis are relatively rare but constitute a treatable cause of central and peripheral neurological manifestations. Regarding the peripheral nervous system, cranial nerves are predominantly affected, and peripheral facial nerve palsy, often bilateral, is the most common neurological manifestation of sarcoidosis. Multifocal peripheral neuropathy is a rare event in sarcoidosis. In some cases, however, peripheral neuropathy is the presenting manifestation and seemingly the only organ affected. Definite diagnosis of sarcoidosis rests ideally on histological demonstration of sarcoid granulomas in tissue biopsy specimens.

  18. [Peripheral alexias].

    PubMed

    Jianu, Silviana Nina; Jianu, Dragoş Cătălin

    2004-01-01

    The brain lesions could lead to impairments of the comprehension and production of written language. This acquired inability is named alexia. It is a significant problem for neurologists and ophthalmologists. Our study presents a classification of the alexias, whose pathology was describe first by Dejerine (1891; 1892). There are two varieties of alexias: central alexias and peripheral alexias (especially agnozic alexia and attentional alexia). In agnozic alexia, the patient cannot read, but can write, understand and speak. It results from a type of cerebral disconnection in which the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere is disconnected from its bilateral visual input. The most commonly reported pathology is occlusion of the dominant (left) posterior cerebral artery, which leads to infarction of both the left occipital lobe (causing partial or complete right homonymous hemianpsia) and the splenium of the corpus callosum.

  19. Similar blood-borne DNA methylation alterations in cancer and inflammatory diseases determined by subpopulation shifts in peripheral leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Zheng, T; Chen, B; Hong, G; Zhang, W; Shi, T; Li, S; Ao, L; Wang, C; Guo, Z

    2014-07-29

    Although many DNA methylation (DNAm) alterations observed in peripheral whole blood/leukocytes and serum have been considered as potential diagnostic markers for cancer, their origin and their specificity for cancer (e.g., vs inflammatory diseases) remain unclear. From publicly available datasets, we identified changes in the methylation of blood-borne DNA for multiple cancers and inflammatory diseases. We compared the identified changes with DNAm difference between myeloid and lymphoid cells extracted from two datasets. At least 94.7% of the differentially methylated DNA loci (DM loci) observed in peripheral whole blood/leukocytes and serum of cancer patients overlapped with DM loci that distinguish between myeloid and lymphoid cells and >99.9% of the overlapped DM loci had consistent alteration states (hyper- or hypomethylation) in cancer samples compared to normal controls with those in myeloid cells compared to lymphoid cells (binomial test, P-value <2.2 × 10(-16)). Similar results were observed for DM loci in peripheral whole blood/leukocytes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory bowel diseases. The direct comparison between DM loci observed in the peripheral whole blood/leukocytes of patients with inflammatory diseases and DM loci observed in the peripheral whole blood of patients with cancer showed that DM loci detected from cancer and inflammatory diseases also had significantly consistent alteration states (binomial test, P-value <2.2 × 10(-16)). DNAm changes observed in the peripheral whole blood/leukocytes and serum of cancer patients and in the peripheral whole blood/leukocytes of inflammatory disease patients are predominantly determined by the increase of myeloid cells and the decrease of lymphoid cells under the disease conditions, in the sense that their alteration states in disease samples compared to normal controls mainly reflect the DNAm difference between myeloid and lymphoid cells. These analyses highlight the importance of

  20. Regulation of the adaptive immune system by innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Hepworth, Matthew R.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of lymphocytes that promote rapid cytokine-dependent innate immunity, inflammation and tissue repair. In addition, a growing body of evidence suggests ILCs can influence adaptive immune cell responses. During fetal development a subset of ILCs orchestrate the generation and maturation of secondary lymphoid tissues. Following birth, ILCs continue to modulate adaptive immune cell responses indirectly through interactions with stromal cells in lymphoid tissues and epithelial cells at barrier surfaces. In this review we summarize the current understanding of how ILCs modulate the magnitude and quality of adaptive immune cell responses, and in particular focus on recent evidence suggesting that ILCs can also directly regulate CD4+ T cells. Further, we discuss the implications that these pathways may have on human health and disease. PMID:24594491

  1. [Currently available classifications of lymphoid neoplasia and their clinical applicability].

    PubMed

    Nakamine, H; Nanba, K

    1996-11-01

    Controversy and confusion in the classification of lymphoid neoplasia have long been sources of frustration as exemplifed by the statement of Rupert A. Willis in 1948, that "Nowhere in pathology has a chaos of names so clouded clear concept as in the subject of lymphoid tumors." Taxonomically, "Classifications are theories about the basis of natural order, not dull catalogues compiled only to avoid chaos." (Stephen J. Gould, 1989), but this definition can not always be applicable to the classifications of human diseases, even though they themselves are also biologic phenomena. The International Lymphoma Study Group has recently proposed "a revised European-American classification of lymphoid neoplasms", which has again resulted in the time of "the great debate". The major purpose of this article is, therefore, to assess the above classification.

  2. Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of lung: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Subir; Deb, Asit Ranjan; Aich, Ranen Karti; Chakraborty, Sudipto; Das, Diptimoy; Dee, Abhijit

    2010-07-01

    Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is a rare disease particularly when occurring in the lungs. In 1983, Issacson and Wright first described it as a distinct clinicopathological entity. A 39-year-old woman was suffering from mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the lung and was treated with moderate dose radiotherapy only. Six months after treatment the woman is symptom free and without any evidence of relapse. The disease undergoes a very indolent course and local form of treatment like surgery or radiotherapy is effective though radiotherapy is probably associated with higher local control rate and event free survival particularly in early stages. But for diagnostic purpose thoracotomy is generally required in pulmonary variety. Due to rarity of cases it is almost impossible to compare surgery with radiotherapy in mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma disorder in a prospective manner. Radiotherapy is the preferred mode of treatment either alone or in combination with surgery.

  3. Quantitative Image Analysis of HIV-1 Infection in Lymphoid Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, Ashley T.; Henry, Keith; Zupancic, Mary; Sedgewick, Gerald; Faust, Russell A.; Melroe, Holly; Cavert, Winston; Gebhard, Kristin; Staskus, Katherine; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Dailey, Peter J.; Balfour, Henry H., Jr.; Erice, Alejo; Perelson, Alan S.

    1996-11-01

    Tracking human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection at the cellular level in tissue reservoirs provides opportunities to better understand the pathogenesis of infection and to rationally design and monitor therapy A quantitative technique was developed to determine viral burden in two important cellular compartments in lymphoid tissues. Image analysis and in situ hybridization were combined to show that in the presymptomatic stages of infection there is a large, relatively stable pool of virions on the surfaces of follicular dendritic cells and a smaller pool of productively infected cells Despite evidence of constraints on HIV-1 replication in the infected cell population in lymphoid tissues, estimates of the numbers of these cells and the virus they could produce are consistent with the quantities of virus that have been detected in the bloodstream. The cellular sources of virus production and storage in lymphoid tissues can now be studied with this approach over the course of infection and treatment.

  4. Differential distribution of calpain in human lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Banik, N L

    1993-07-01

    Calpain, a calcium-activated neutral proteinase, is ubiquitously present in human tissues. To determine if lymphoid cells implicated in pathogenesis of demyelination may harbor calpain in a functionally active form, we determined both muCalpain and mCalpain activities in human lymphoid cell lines. DEAE-cellulose and phenylsepharose column chromatography were used to isolate the enzyme from the natural inhibitor, calpastatin. Lymphocytic lines (CCRF-CEM, MOLT-3, MOLT-4, M.R.) showed predominance of muCalpain (55-80%) whereas the monocytic line (U-937) showed predominance of mCalpain (77%). Proportion and subcellular distribution of both isoforms varied among cell lines. Calpains isolated from U-937 cells degraded myelin basic protein. These results indicate that human lymphoid cells harbor functionally active calpain that can degrade myelin components in vitro. The study suggests a degradative role for calpain in demyelinating diseases.

  5. CAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELLS BE USED AS A PROXY FOR MITOCHONDRIAL DYSFUNCTION IN VITAL ORGANS DURING HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK AND RESUSCITATION?

    PubMed Central

    Karamercan, Mehmet Akif; Weiss, Scott L.; Villarroel, Jose Paul Perales; Guan, Yuxia; Werlin, Evan; Figueredo, Ronald; Becker, Lance B.; Sims, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Although mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to contribute to the development of post-traumatic organ failure, current techniques to assess mitochondrial function in tissues are invasive and clinically impractical. We hypothesized that mitochondrial function in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) would reflect cellular respiration in other organs during hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HS&R). METHODS Using a fixed pressure HS model, Long Evan’s rats were bled to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 mmHg. When blood pressure could no longer be sustained without intermittent fluid infusion (Decompensated HS), Lactated Ringer’s (LR) was incrementally infused to maintain the MAP at 40 mmHg until 40% of the shed blood volume was returned (Severe HS). Animals were then resuscitated with 4X total shed volume in LR over 60 minutes (Resuscitation). Control animals underwent the same surgical procedures, but were not hemorrhaged. Animals were randomized to Control (n=6), Decompensated HS (n=6), Severe HS (n=6) or Resuscitation (n=6) groups. Kidney, liver, and heart tissues as well as PBMC’s were harvested from animals in each group to measure mitochondrial oxygen consumption using high resolution respirometry. Flow cytometry was used to assess mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm) in PBMCs. One-way ANOVA and Pearson correlations were performed. RESULTS Mitochondrial oxygen consumption decreased in all tissues, including PBMC’s, following Decompensated HS, Severe HS, and Resuscitation. However, the degree of impairment varied significantly across tissues during HS&R. Of the tissues investigated, PBMC mitochondrial oxygen consumption and Ψm provided the closest correlation to kidney mitochondrial function during HS (complex I: r =0.65; complex II: r=0.65; complex IV: r=0.52; p<0.05). This association, however, disappeared with resuscitation. A weaker association between PBMC and heart mitochondrial function was observed but no association was

  6. Can peripheral blood mononuclear cells be used as a proxy for mitochondrial dysfunction in vital organs during hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation?

    PubMed

    Karamercan, Mehmet Akif; Weiss, Scott L; Villarroel, Jose Paul Perales; Guan, Yuxia; Werlin, Evan; Figueredo, Ronald; Becker, Lance B; Sims, Carrie

    2013-12-01

    Although mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to contribute to the development of posttraumatic organ failure, current techniques to assess mitochondrial function in tissues are invasive and clinically impractical. We hypothesized that mitochondrial function in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) would reflect cellular respiration in other organs during hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. Using a fixed-pressure HS model, Long-Evans rats were bled to a mean arterial pressure of 40 mmHg. When blood pressure could no longer be sustained without intermittent fluid infusion (decompensated HS), lactated Ringer's solution was incrementally infused to maintain the mean arterial pressure at 40 mmHg until 40% of the shed blood volume was returned (severe HS). Animals were then resuscitated with 4× total shed volume in lactated Ringer's solution over 60 min (resuscitation). Control animals underwent the same surgical procedures, but were not hemorrhaged. Animals were randomized to control (n = 6), decompensated HS (n = 6), severe HS (n = 6), or resuscitation (n = 6) groups. Kidney, liver, and heart tissues as well as PBMCs were harvested from animals in each group to measure mitochondrial oxygen consumption using high-resolution respirometry. Flow cytometry was used to assess mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm) in PBMCs. One-way analysis of variance and Pearson correlations were performed. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption decreased in all tissues, including PBMCs, following decompensated HS, severe HS, and resuscitation. However, the degree of impairment varied significantly across tissues during hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. Of the tissues investigated, PBMC mitochondrial oxygen consumption and Ψm provided the closest correlation to kidney mitochondrial function during HS (complex I: r = 0.65; complex II: r = 0.65; complex IV: r = 0.52; P < 0.05). This association, however, disappeared with resuscitation. A weaker association between PBMC and heart

  7. Primary esophageal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiang; Zhang, Chun; Fang, San’gao; Zhong, Peng; Zhu, Xiangfeng; Lin, Li; Xiao, Hualiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a low grade malignant B cell lymphoma which occurs mainly in the organs having mucosal layer. Though gastrointestinal tract is the most commonly involved extranodal site, primary esophageal MALT lymphoma is very rare with less than 20 cases reported in literature. Patient concerns: A 75-year-old man was referred to our hospital for evaluation of dysphagia. Endoscopy revealed a submucosal tumor located in the middle and lower third of esophagus. CT chest and endoscopic ultrasound revealed a 15.5 × 5.9 × 4.0 cm well circumscribed submucosa esophageal tumor. Test for serum antibody against H. pylori was negative. Due to the large tumor size, patient underwent surgical resection. Histological examination showed a submucosal tumor consisting of multiple nodules of varying sizes with intact covering squamous epithelium. The nodules were mainly composed of diffusely and monoclonal proliferating centrocyte-like or monocyte-like cells. Follicular colonizations were observed without lymphoepithelial lesions. The tumor cells were diffusely positive for CD20, PAX-5, Bcl-2 and follicular dendritic cells were positive for CD21, CD23. Monoclonal gene rearrangement was positive for immunoglobulin heavy chain gene, Kappa light chain gene and Lambda light chain gene. Diagnoses: Based on these findings, final diagnosis of esophageal MALT lymphoma was made. Outcomes: At 8 month follow up, no recurrence or metastases was detected. Lessons: Esophageal MALT lymphoma is a rare disease with definitive diagnosis possible only after histopathological examination. It carries good prognosis due to low malignant potential. PMID:28353588

  8. Duct-associated lymphoid tissue (DALT) of minor salivary glands and mucosal immunity.

    PubMed Central

    Nair, P N; Schroeder, H E

    1986-01-01

    Minor salivary glands (MSG) play a substantial role in the secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA)-mediated immunity of the oral cavity. There are two possibilities for the induction of this immunity: (i) an explicitly local antigenic stimulus, or (ii) a remote stimulus as part of the so-called 'common mucosal immune system'. This communication is an attempt to consolidate available evidence in support of both possibilities and to address the former in detail. Although there is strong circumstantial evidence supporting the feasibility of MSG functioning as a part of the common mucosal immune system, direct experimental evidence is yet to emerge. On the other hand, there is increasing structural and physiological evidence in support of MSG serving as a local immunological organ. The purely local response is attributed to the presence of MSG duct-associated lymphoid tissue (DALT), which is comparable to gut- or bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT or BALT) in origin, tissue organization and function. DALT is accessible to oral antigens by retrograde passage through MSG ducts. Repeated topical antigenic challenging via the oral mucosa may result in the appearance of interacinar plasma cells carrying specific homologous antibodies in MSG. Gut or enteric priming of the same antigen, by passing the oral mucosa by gastric intubation, need not evoke a remote immune response in MSG. Since DALT is more likely to occur in healthy, young growing individuals, who are less likely to undergo bioptic examination of MSG, it has not yet been documented in humans. The physiologically induced DALT is apt to be confused with focal accumulations of lymphoid tissue in pathologically altered MSG, as a consequence of local and some systemic autoimmune diseases. An attempt is made to demarcaate healthy and pathological MSG on the basis of currently available clinical, serological, immunological and genetic evidence. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3512423

  9. Molecular characterization of early human T/NK and B-lymphoid progenitor cells in umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Rima; Guardiola, Philippe; Izac, Brigitte; Thibault, Christelle; Radich, Jerry; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Baillou, Claude; Lemoine, François M; Gluckman, Jean Claude; Pflumio, Françoise; Canque, Bruno

    2004-12-15

    The early stages of human lymphopoiesis are poorly characterized. Here, we compared the lymphoid potential of a novel umbilical cord blood CD34(+)CD45RA(hi)CD7(+) hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) population with that of CD34(+)CD45RA(hi)Lin(-)CD10(+) HPCs, previously proposed as candidate common lymphoid progenitors. Limiting-dilution and clonal analysis, fetal thymic organ cultures, and culture onto Notch ligand Delta-like-1-expressing OP9 cells, showed that although CD34(+)CD45RA(hi)CD7(+) HPCs could generate cells of the 3 lymphoid lineages, their potential was skewed toward the T/natural killer (T/NK) lineages. In contrast, CD34(+)CD45RA(hi)Lin(-)CD10(+) HPCs predominantly exhibited a B-cell potential. Gene expression profiling with DNA microarrays confirmed that CD34(+)CD45RA(hi)CD7(+) HPCs selectively expressed T-lymphoid and NK lineage-committed genes while retaining expression of genes affiliated to the granulomonocytic lineage, whereas CD34(+)CD45RA(hi)Lin(-)CD10(+) HPCs displayed a typical pro-B-cell transcription profile and essentially lacked genes unrelated to the B lineage. In addition, both populations could be generated in vitro from CD34(+)CD45RA(int)CD7(-) and CD34(+)CD45RA(hi)Lin(-) HPCs with mixed lymphomyeloid potential, from which they emerged independently with different growth/differentiation factor requirements. These findings indicate that CD34(+)CD45RA(hi)CD7(+) and CD34(+)CD45RA(hi)Lin(-)CD10(+) HPCs correspond to multipotent early lymphoid progenitors polarized toward either the T/NK or B lineage, respectively.

  10. [Clonality lymphoid study through rearrangement analysis of antigen receptor].

    PubMed

    Villamizar-Rivera, Nicolás; Olaya, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    As a rule, malignant lymphoid proliferations are clonal. While most of the time the biological potential can be established through routine pathologic examination and auxiliary techniques, some cases are difficult to classify. Moreover, there are situations in which there are dominant clones whose analysis are important, such as occur in autoimmune diseases and immunodeficiency. This paper presents in an understandable way the main techniques for the study of clonality in lymphoid lesions, i.e. the analysis of rearrangements of antigen receptor genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based tests.

  11. The development of innate lymphoid cells requires TOX-dependent generation of a common innate lymphoid cell progenitor.

    PubMed

    Seehus, Corey R; Aliahmad, Parinaz; de la Torre, Brian; Iliev, Iliyan D; Spurka, Lindsay; Funari, Vincent A; Kaye, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Diverse innate lymphoid cell (ILC) subtypes have been defined on the basis of effector function and transcription factor expression. ILCs derive from common lymphoid progenitors, although the transcriptional pathways that lead to ILC-lineage specification remain poorly characterized. Here we found that the transcriptional regulator TOX was required for the in vivo differentiation of common lymphoid progenitors into ILC lineage-restricted cells. In vitro modeling demonstrated that TOX deficiency resulted in early defects in the survival or proliferation of progenitor cells, as well as ILC differentiation at a later stage. In addition, comparative transcriptome analysis of bone marrow progenitors revealed that TOX-deficient cells failed to upregulate many genes of the ILC program, including genes that are targets of Notch, which indicated that TOX is a key determinant of early specification to the ILC lineage.

  12. A Chemokine Expressed in Lymphoid High Endothelial Venules Promotes the Adhesion and Chemotaxis of Naive T Lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, Michael D.; Tangemann, Kirsten; Tam, Carmen; Cyster, Jason G.; Rosen, Steven D.; Williams, Lewis T.

    1998-01-01

    Preferential homing of naive lymphocytes to secondary lymphoid organs is thought to involve the action of chemokines, yet no chemokine has been shown to have either the expression pattern or the activities required to mediate this process. Here we show that a chemokine represented in the EST database, secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine (SLC), is expressed in the high endothelial venules of lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, in the T cell areas of spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches, and in the lymphatic endothelium of multiple organs. SLC is a highly efficacious chemoattractant for lymphocytes with preferential activity toward naive T cells. Moreover, SLC induces firm adhesion of naive T lymphocytes via β 2 integrin binding to the counter receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, a necessary step for lymphocyte recruitment. SLC is the first chemokine demonstrated to have the characteristics required to mediate homing of lymphocytes to secondary lymphoid organs. In addition, the expression of SLC in lymphatic endothelium suggests that the migration of lymphocytes from tissues into efferent lymphatics may be an active process mediated by this molecule.

  13. Activated group 3 innate lymphoid cells promote T-cell-mediated immune responses.

    PubMed

    von Burg, Nicole; Chappaz, Stéphane; Baerenwaldt, Anne; Horvath, Edit; Bose Dasgupta, Somdeb; Ashok, Devika; Pieters, Jean; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne; Rolink, Antonius; Acha-Orbea, Hans; Finke, Daniela

    2014-09-02

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) have emerged as important cellular players in tissue repair and innate immunity. Whether these cells meaningfully regulate adaptive immune responses upon activation has yet to be explored. Here we show that upon IL-1β stimulation, peripheral ILC3s become activated, secrete cytokines, up-regulate surface MHC class II molecules, and express costimulatory molecules. ILC3s can take up latex beads, process protein antigen, and consequently prime CD4(+) T-cell responses in vitro. The cognate interaction of ILC3s and CD4(+) T cells leads to T-cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, whereas its disruption impairs specific T-cell and T-dependent B-cell responses in vivo. In addition, the ILC3-CD4(+) T-cell interaction is bidirectional and leads to the activation of ILC3s. Taken together, our data reveal a novel activation-dependent function of peripheral ILC3s in eliciting cognate CD4(+) T-cell immune responses.

  14. Activated group 3 innate lymphoid cells promote T-cell–mediated immune responses

    PubMed Central

    von Burg, Nicole; Chappaz, Stéphane; Baerenwaldt, Anne; Horvath, Edit; Bose Dasgupta, Somdeb; Ashok, Devika; Pieters, Jean; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne; Rolink, Antonius; Acha-Orbea, Hans; Finke, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) have emerged as important cellular players in tissue repair and innate immunity. Whether these cells meaningfully regulate adaptive immune responses upon activation has yet to be explored. Here we show that upon IL-1β stimulation, peripheral ILC3s become activated, secrete cytokines, up-regulate surface MHC class II molecules, and express costimulatory molecules. ILC3s can take up latex beads, process protein antigen, and consequently prime CD4+ T-cell responses in vitro. The cognate interaction of ILC3s and CD4+ T cells leads to T-cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, whereas its disruption impairs specific T-cell and T-dependent B-cell responses in vivo. In addition, the ILC3–CD4+ T-cell interaction is bidirectional and leads to the activation of ILC3s. Taken together, our data reveal a novel activation-dependent function of peripheral ILC3s in eliciting cognate CD4+ T-cell immune responses. PMID:25136120

  15. ID'ing innate and innate-like lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Verykokakis, Mihalis; Zook, Erin C; Kee, Barbara L

    2014-09-01

    The immune system can be divided into innate and adaptive components that differ in their rate and mode of cellular activation, with innate immune cells being the first responders to invading pathogens. Recent advances in the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells have revealed reiterative developmental programs that result in cells with effector fates that parallel those of adaptive lymphoid cells and are tailored to effectively eliminate a broad spectrum of pathogenic challenges. However, activation of these cells can also be associated with pathologies such as autoimmune disease. One major distinction between innate and adaptive immune system cells is the constitutive expression of ID proteins in the former and inducible expression in the latter. ID proteins function as antagonists of the E protein transcription factors that play critical roles in lymphoid specification as well as B- and T-lymphocyte development. In this review, we examine the transcriptional mechanisms controlling the development of innate lymphocytes, including natural killer cells and the recently identified innate lymphoid cells (ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3), and innate-like lymphocytes, including natural killer T cells, with an emphasis on the known requirements for the ID proteins. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Innate lymphoid cells: the new kids on the block.

    PubMed

    Withers, David R; Mackley, Emma C; Jones, Nick D

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to review recent advances in our understanding of innate lymphoid cell function and to speculate on how these cells may become activated and influence the immune response to allogeneic tissues and cells following transplantation. Innate lymphoid cells encompass several novel cell types whose wide-ranging roles in the immune system are only now being uncovered. Through cytokine production, cross-talk with both haematopoietic and nonhaematopoietic populations and antigen presentation to T cells, these cells have been shown to be key regulators in maintaining tissue integrity, as well as initiating and then sustaining immune responses. It is now clear that innate lymphoid cells markedly contribute to immune responses and tissue repair in a number of disease contexts. Although experimental and clinical data on the behaviour of these cells following transplantation are scant, it is highly likely that innate lymphoid cells will perform similar functions in the alloimmune response following transplantation and therefore may be potential therapeutic targets for manipulation to prevent allograft rejection.

  17. ID’ing Innate and Innate-like Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Verykokakis, Mihalis; Zook, Erin C.; Kee, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The immune system can be divided into innate and adaptive components that differ in their rate and mode of cellular activation, with innate immune cells being the first responders to invading pathogens. Recent advances in the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells have revealed reiterative developmental programs that result in cells with effector fates that parallel those of adaptive lymphoid cells and are tailored to effectively eliminate a broad spectrum of pathogenic challenges. However, activation of these cells can also be associated with pathologies such as autoimmune disease. One major distinction between innate and adaptive immune system cells is the constitutive expression of ID proteins in the former and inducible expression in the latter. ID proteins function as antagonists of the E protein transcription factors that play critical roles in lymphoid specification as well as B and T-lymphocyte development. In this review, we examine the transcriptional mechanisms controlling the development of innate lymphocytes, including natural killer cells and the recently identified innate lymphoid cells (ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3), and innate-like lymphocytes, including natural killer T cells, with an emphasis on the known requirements for the ID proteins. PMID:25123285

  18. 'Managing' the immune system with total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.

    1981-06-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), which in the past was limited to the treatment of malignant disease, is now emerging as a practical technique in the management of unwanted immune reactions in the areas of transplant tolerance and various autoimmune diseases. Current studies are particularly promising for application of TLI in rheumatoid arthritis and lupus nephritis.

  19. Quantitative image analysis of HIV-1 infection in lymphoid tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, A.T.; Zupancic, M.; Cavert, W.

    1996-11-08

    Tracking human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection at the cellular level in tissue reservoirs provides opportunities to better understand the pathogenesis of infection and to rationally design and monitor therapy. A quantitative technique was developed to determine viral burden in two important cellular compartments in lymphoid developed to determine viral burden in two important cellular compartments in lymphoid tissues. Image analysis and in situ hybridization were combined to show that in the presymptomatic stages of infection there is a large, relatively stable pool of virions on the surfaces of follicular dendritic cells and a smaller pool of productivity infected cells. Despite evidence of constraints on HIV-1 replication in the infected cell population in lymphoid tissues, estimates of the numbers of these cells and the virus they could produce are consistent with the quantities of virus that have been detected in the bloodstream. The cellular sources of virus production and storage in lymphoid tissues can now be studied with this approach over the course of infection and treatment. 22 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Developmental acquisition of regulomes underlies innate lymphoid cell functionality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play key roles in host defense, barrier integrity, and homeostasis, and they mirror adaptive CD4+ T helper (Th) cell subtypes in both usages of effector molecules and ·transcription factors. To better understand ILC subsets and their relationship with Th cells, we measur...

  1. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis. 113.31 Section 113.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... inactivated viral product shall be exempt from this requirement if the licensee can demonstrate to Animal and...

  2. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis. 113.31 Section 113.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... inactivated viral product shall be exempt from this requirement if the licensee can demonstrate to Animal and...

  3. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis. 113.31 Section 113.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... inactivated viral product shall be exempt from this requirement if the licensee can demonstrate to Animal and...

  4. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis. 113.31 Section 113.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... inactivated viral product shall be exempt from this requirement if the licensee can demonstrate to Animal and...

  5. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis. 113.31 Section 113.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... inactivated viral product shall be exempt from this requirement if the licensee can demonstrate to Animal and...

  6. Growth-inhibitory activity of lymphoid cell plasma membranes. II. Partial characterization of the inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    We have shown that plasma membranes from lymphoid cells have inhibitory activity for the growth of normal lymphocytes and lymphoid tumor cells (Stallcup, K. C., A. Dawson, and M. F. Mescher, J. Cell Biol. 99:1221- 1226). This growth-inhibitory activity has been found to co-purify with major histocompatibility complex class I antigens (H-2K and D) when these cell surface glycoproteins are isolated from detergent lysates of cells by affinity chromatography on monoclonal antibody columns. When incorporated into liposomes, the affinity-purified H-2 antigens inhibited the growth of both normal lymphocytes and tumor cells at concentrations of 1-3 micrograms/ml. Inhibition was readily reversed upon removal of the liposomes from the cell cultures, even after several days of exposure of cells to the inhibitor. Inhibitory activity was insensitive to protease digestion or heat treatment, indicating that it was not due to the H-2 glycoproteins. This was confirmed by the demonstration that inhibitory activity could be separated from the H-2 protein by gel filtration in the presence of deoxycholate and could be extracted from membranes or H-2 antigen preparations with organic solvents. The results demonstrate that the growth-inhibitory component(s) of the plasma membrane is a minor lipid or lipid-like molecule which retains activity in the absence of other membrane components. The findings reported here and in the preceding article suggest that this novel membrane component may have a role in control of lymphoid cell growth, possibly mediated by cell contacts. PMID:6332814

  7. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation and pretransplant blood transfusion on pancreatic islet allograft survival

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez-Picon, G.; McGeorge, M.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been shown to have a strong immunosuppressive effect both experimentally and clinically. Pretransplant blood transfusions have also been shown to have a strong beneficial effect in the outcome of organ transplantation. A study was made of the effect of TLI and pretransplant blood transfusions, alone and in combination, as an immunosuppressive modality in the isolated pancreatic islet transplant in the rat model. Donor rats (Fischer RT1v1) were kept on a 50% DL-ethionine supplemented diet for 4-6 weeks prior to pancreas removal. Recipient rats (Lewis RT1) were made diabetics prior to transplantation by iv injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). Transfusion protocol consisted of a biweekly transfusion of 2 ml of either donor specific or third party transfusions. Total lymphoid irradiation was carried out by daily administration of 200 rads during one week prior to transplantation. Transplantation of the isolated islets was performed by intraportal injection. Syngeneic transplant of one and a half donor pancreata in each recipient reverted the diabetic condition indefinitely (greater than 100 days). Untreated allogenic grafts had a mean survival time (MST) of 5.2 days. Total lymphoid irradiation in dosages of 800, 1000, and 1200 rads, as the only immunosuppressive regimen, prolonged the MST of allografts to 15.3, 16.5, and 21.8 days, respectively (P less than .05). Pretransplant third party blood transfusion had no effect on allograft survival (MST 6.0). When donor specific blood transfusions were given, the MST was prolonged to 25.3 days (P less than .05). When TLI was administered to recipients of donor specific transfusions, the MST of the allografts did not show any statistical significant difference when compared with untreated animals. This abrogation of the beneficial effect of specific blood transfusion was observed in all dosages of TLI employed: 800 rad (MST 3.0), 1000 rad (MST 8.0), 1200 rad (MST 5.18).

  8. Dendritic cell potentials of early lymphoid and myeloid progenitors.

    PubMed

    Manz, M G; Traver, D; Miyamoto, T; Weissman, I L; Akashi, K

    2001-06-01

    It has been proposed that there are at least 2 classes of dendritic cells (DCs), CD8alpha(+) DCs derived from the lymphoid lineage and CD8alpha(-) DCs derived from the myeloid lineage. Here, the abilities of lymphoid- and myeloid-restricted progenitors to generate DCs are compared, and their overall contributions to the DC compartment are evaluated. It has previously been shown that primitive myeloid-committed progenitors (common myeloid progenitors [CMPs]) are efficient precursors of both CD8alpha(+) and CD8alpha(-) DCs in vivo. Here it is shown that the earliest lymphoid-committed progenitors (common lymphoid progenitors [CLPs]) and CMPs and their progeny granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs) can give rise to functional DCs in vitro and in vivo. CLPs are more efficient in generating DCs than their T-lineage descendants, the early thymocyte progenitors and pro-T cells, and CMPs are more efficient DC precursors than the descendant GMPs, whereas pro-B cells and megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors are incapable of generating DCs. Thus, DC developmental potential is preserved during T- but not B-lymphoid differentiation from CLP and during granulocyte-macrophage but not megakaryocyte-erythrocyte development from CMP. In vivo reconstitution experiments show that CLPs and CMPs can reconstitute CD8alpha(+) and CD8alpha(-) DCs with similar efficiency on a per cell basis. However, CMPs are 10-fold more numerous than CLPs, suggesting that at steady state, CLPs provide only a minority of splenic DCs and approximately half the DCs in thymus, whereas most DCs, including CD8alpha(+) and CD8alpha(-) subtypes, are of myeloid origin. (Blood. 2001;97:3333-3341)

  9. Ovine lentivirus lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Rapid induction in neonatal lambs.

    PubMed Central

    Lairmore, M. D.; Rosadio, R. H.; DeMartini, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    For examination of the characteristics of lentivirus-induced pulmonary disease in an animal model, neonatal lambs were given intratracheal injections of high-and low-passage ovine lentivirus (OvLV) isolates. In 6 of 6 lambs inoculated with low-passage OvLV or OvLV from lung lavage fluid, lesions of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) developed. In none of 7 lambs inoculated with a high-passage OvLV or 4 control lambs inoculated with medium alone or ultrafiltered lung fluid did lung lesions develop. Systemic distribution of lentivirus was greater and development of lentivirus antibody was more rapid in lambs inoculated with low-passage OvLV, compared with lambs inoculated with high passage OvLV. The number of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage samples was increased in lambs with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. The development of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia was markedly accelerated, in comparison with previous reports of experimentally induced lentivirus pneumonia in sheep. In lentivirus-inoculated lambs pulmonary lesions developed comparable to lymphoid interstitial pneumonia associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and other human benign lymphoid disorders of the lung. Similarities between the disease manifestations and virologic properties of OvLV and human T-cell lymphotropic virus III argue for the relevance of OvLV-induced disease as a model for human retrovirus diseases. The ability of OvLV to cause accelerated pulmonary disease in neonates may be due to age-related susceptibility factors that enhance the pathogenicity of lentiviruses. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3022591

  10. Lymphoid irradiation in intractable rheumatoid arthritis. A double-blind, randomized study comparing 750-rad treatment with 2,000-rad treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hanly, J.G.; Hassan, J.; Moriarty, M.; Barry, C.; Molony, J.; Casey, E.; Whelan, A.; Feighery, C.; Bresnihan, B.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with 750-rad or 2,000-rad lymphoid irradiation in a randomized double-blind comparative study. Over a 12-month followup period, there was a significant improvement in 4 of 7 and 6 of 7 standard parameters of disease activity following treatment with 750 rads and 2,000 rads, respectively. Transient, short-term toxicity was less frequent with the lower dose. In both groups, there was a sustained peripheral blood lymphopenia, a selective depletion of T helper (Leu-3a+) lymphocytes, and reduced in vitro mitogen responses. These changes did not occur, however, in synovial fluid. These results suggest that 750-rad lymphoid irradiation is as effective as, but less toxic than, that with 2,000 rads in the management of patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis.

  11. Dysregulated Lymphoid Cell Populations in Mouse Models of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    De Groof, Aurélie; Hémon, Patrice; Mignen, Olivier; Pers, Jacques-Olivier; Wakeland, Edward K; Renaudineau, Yves; Lauwerys, Bernard R

    2017-05-13

    Biases in the distribution and phenotype of T, B, and antigen-presenting cell populations are strongly connected to mechanisms of disease development in mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we describe longitudinal changes in lymphoid and antigen-presenting cell subsets in bone marrow, blood and spleen from two lupus-prone strains (MRL/lpr and B6.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 tri-congenic mice), and how they integrate in our present understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease. In particular, we focus on (autoreactive) T cell activation patterns in lupus-prone mice. Break of T cell tolerance to chromatin constituents (histone peptides) is key to the development of the disease and is related to T cell intrinsic defects, contributed by genetic susceptibility factors and by extrinsic amplificatory mechanisms, in particular over-stimulation by antigen-presenting cells. We also describe shifts in B cell sub-populations, going from skewed immature B cell populations as an indication of disturbed central and peripheral tolerance checkpoints, to enriched long-lived plasma cells, which are key to persistent autoantibody production in the disease. B cell activation mechanisms in SLE are both T cell-dependent (break of tolerance and production of specific autoantibodies) and -independent (polyclonal B cell activation, production of autoantibodies by long-lived plasma cells). By providing a comprehensive evaluation of B and T cell surface markers in two major mouse models of SLE and a description of their changes before and after disease onset, this review illustrates how the study of lymphoid cell phenotype delivers key information regarding pathogenic pathways and supplies tools to assess the beneficial effects of novel therapeutic interventions.

  12. Changes in lymphocyte number and phenotype in seven lymphoid compartments after thermal injury.

    PubMed Central

    Organ, B C; Antonacci, A C; Chiao, J; Chiao, J; Kumar, A; de Riesthal, H F; Yuan, L; Black, D; Calvano, S E

    1989-01-01

    Thermal injury is associated with dysfunction of host defense systems. The present study used flow cytometric immunofluorescence analyses to investigate changes in number and phenotype of lymphocytes in seven different lymphoid compartments at 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 60 days after 50% total body-surface area thermal injury in the rat. Relative to sham-injured control rats, at postburn day 2, significant lymphopenia was observed in the peripheral blood along with depletion of lymphocytes from the spleen and thymus. By day 6 after injury, lymphocytes in the bone marrow and cervical lymph nodes decreased significantly while numbers in the spleen and thymus remained depressed. Splenic and cervical node lymphocyte numbers normalized by day 12, the bone marrow and thymus numbers still were significantly lower than control, and a 6.5-fold increase in number of lymphocytes was observed in the nodes draining the burn wound, pooled axillary, brachial, inguinal, and lumbar lymph nodes. At day 24 after injury, the thymus and bone marrow virtually were depleted of lymphocytes, the mesenteric lymph nodes manifested a significant decrease, and lymphocytes in the nodes draining the burn wound continued to increase in number. This same pattern was maintained on day 48, but numbers of lymphocytes in the mesenteric nodes normalized. At day 60 after injury, lymphocyte numbers in all tissues were normalized, but the spleen and nodes draining the burn wound where increased numbers compared to control persisted. Cell-surface phenotyping was performed on all lymphoid tissues at all time intervals to determine the percentages of lymphocytes comprising the following subsets: Ia+ cells (B cells and activated T cells), T cells, T-Helper/Inducer cells (T-H/I), and T-Suppressor/Cytotoxic (T-S/C) cells. Although changes in lymphocyte subset percentages were complex, they could be divided grossly into two phases. First, all compartments showed significant phenotypic changes in the first six days

  13. The E-Id Protein Axis Specifies Adaptive Lymphoid Cell Identity and Suppresses Thymic Innate Lymphoid Cell Development.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Masaki; Miyazaki, Kazuko; Chen, Kenian; Jin, Yi; Turner, Jacob; Moore, Amanda J; Saito, Rintaro; Yoshida, Kenichi; Ogawa, Seishi; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Lin, Yin C; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Murre, Cornelis

    2017-05-16

    Innate and adaptive lymphoid development is orchestrated by the activities of E proteins and their antagonist Id proteins, but how these factors regulate early T cell progenitor (ETP) and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) development remains unclear. Using multiple genetic strategies, we demonstrated that E proteins E2A and HEB acted in synergy in the thymus to establish T cell identity and to suppress the aberrant development of ILCs, including ILC2s and lymphoid-tissue-inducer-like cells. E2A and HEB orchestrated T cell fate and suppressed the ILC transcription signature by activating the expression of genes associated with Notch receptors, T cell receptor (TCR) assembly, and TCR-mediated signaling. E2A and HEB acted in ETPs to establish and maintain a T-cell-lineage-specific enhancer repertoire, including regulatory elements associated with the Notch1, Rag1, and Rag2 loci. On the basis of these and previous observations, we propose that the E-Id protein axis specifies innate and adaptive lymphoid cell fate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reevaluating and Refining Peripherality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Erik R.

    The idea that vowel nuclei in many northern European languages can be divided into peripheral and non-peripheral categories is discussed. Peripheral vowels are those located at the edge of the vowel envelope, and non-peripheral nuclei are those located on the inside. This assertion has not received as much scrutiny as it should. There are at least…

  15. Macrophage and Innate Lymphoid Cell Interplay in the Genesis of Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hams, Emily; Bermingham, Rachel; Fallon, Padraic G.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis is a characteristic pathological feature of an array of chronic diseases, where development of fibrosis in tissue can lead to marked alterations in the architecture of the affected organs. As a result of this process of sustained attrition to organs, many diseases that involve fibrosis are often progressive conditions and have a poor long-term prognosis. Inflammation is often a prelude to fibrosis, with innate and adaptive immunity involved in both the initiation and regulation of the fibrotic process. In this review, we will focus on the emerging roles of the newly described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the generation of fibrotic disease with an examination of the potential interplay between ILC and macrophages and the adaptive immune system. PMID:26635811

  16. Transplantation tolerance in primates after total lymphoid irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow injection

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, J.A.; Hill, R.R.H.; Myburgh, J.A.; Browde, S.

    1980-08-01

    After total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), allogeneic bone marrow (BM) injection, and organ transplantation in baboons, there is a prolonged period of reduced lymphocyte proliferative responsiveness to polyclonal mitogens and allogeneic lymphocytes. The effect observed is greater with the use of fractionated TLI than after single doses of irradiation. Suppressor cell activity can be demonstrated in vitro in most animals by inhibition of mixed lymphocyte reactivity (MLR) by mitomycin-treated recipient lymphocytes harvested after TLI, with or without allogeneic BM injection, and organ transplantation. Preliminary data suggest the presence of both donor-specific and nondonor-specific suppression, although other interpretations are possible, and suppressor phenomena may not be responsible for the transplantation tolerance observed.

  17. IL-18 associated with lung lymphoid aggregates drives IFNγ production in severe COPD.

    PubMed

    Briend, Emmanuel; Ferguson, G John; Mori, Michiko; Damera, Gautam; Stephenson, Katherine; Karp, Natasha A; Sethi, Sanjay; Ward, Christine K; Sleeman, Matthew A; Erjefält, Jonas S; Finch, Donna K

    2017-08-22

    Increased interferon gamma (IFNγ) release occurs in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) lungs. IFNγ supports optimal viral clearance, but if dysregulated could increase lung tissue destruction. The present study investigates which mediators most closely correlate with IFNγ in sputum in stable and exacerbating disease, and seeks to shed light on the spatial requirements for innate production of IFNγ, as reported in mouse lymph nodes, to observe whether such microenvironmental cellular organisation is relevant to IFNγ production in COPD lung. We show tertiary follicle formation in severe disease alters the dominant mechanistic drivers of IFNγ production, because cells producing interleukin-18, a key regulator of IFNγ, are highly associated with such structures. Interleukin-1 family cytokines correlated with IFNγ in COPD sputum. We observed that the primary source of IL-18 in COPD lungs was myeloid cells within lymphoid aggregates and IL-18 was increased in severe disease. IL-18 released from infected epithelium or from activated myeloid cells, was more dominant in driving IFNγ when IL-18-producing and responder cells were in close proximity. Unlike tight regulation to control infection spread in lymphoid organs, this local interface between IL-18-expressing and responder cell is increasingly supported in lung as disease progresses, increasing its potential to increase tissue damage via IFNγ.

  18. Inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B activation reduces Coxsackievirus B3 replication in lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Sobotta, Katharina; Wilsky, Steffi; Althof, Nadine; Wiesener, Nadine; Wutzler, Peter; Henke, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Interactions between viral replication machineries and host cell metabolism display interesting information how certain viruses capitalize cellular pathways to support progeny production. Among those pathogens, Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) has been identified to manipulate intracellular signaling very comprehensively. Next to others, this human pathogenic virus causes acute and chronic forms of myocarditis, pancreatitis, and meningitis. Here, activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signaling appears to be involved in successful infection. Viral replication is not restricted to solid organs but involves susceptible immune cells as well. In the present study, p65 phosphorylation as one aspect of NFκB activation and inhibition via BAY 11-7085 administration was analyzed in the context of CVB3 replication in lymphoid cells. During CVB3 infection, an up-regulation of p65 translation is detectable, which is accompanied by noticeable phosphorylation. Inhibition of NFκB signaling reduces viral replication in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, these results indicate that during CVB3 replication in human and murine lymphoid cells, NFκB signaling is activated and facilitates viral replication. Therefore, antiviral strategies to target such central cellular signaling pathways may represent potential possibilities for the development of new virostatica.

  19. T-cell acute lymphoid leukemia resembling Burkitt leukemia cell morphology: A case report

    PubMed Central

    YUE, QINGFANG; LIU, XINYUE; CHEN, LEI; LIU, ZHONGPING; CHEN, WANXIN

    2015-01-01

    Biphenotypic acute leukemia (BAL) is an uncommon type of cancer, which accounts for <5% of all adult ALs. Based upon a previously described scoring system, the European Group for the Immunological Classification of Leukemias (EGIL) proposed a set of diagnostic criteria for BAL. This scoring system is based upon the number and degree of specificity of several markers for myeloid or T/B-lymphoid blasts. The present study describes a case of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) with Burkitt-like cytology, which according to the French-American-British classification, corresponded to a diagnosis of Burkitt type L3 ALL. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that the blasts were positive for T-lymphoid markers, cytoplasmic cluster of differentiation (CD)3, CD7 and CD56, and myeloid markers, CD13, CD33 and CD15. At first, a diagnosis of BAL was suggested by the EGIL score, however, according to the 2008 World Health Organization criteria, a case of T-ALL with aberrant myeloid markers was established. The study also reviewed the literature and discussed the limitations of the EGIL scoring system in clinical decision making, to aid in the selection of an appropriate therapeutic regimen. PMID:25663889

  20. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells promote HIV-1–induced group 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheng; Cheng, Liang; Zhao, Juanjuan; Li, Guangming; Zhang, Liguo; Chen, Weiwei; Nie, Weiming; Reszka-Blanco, Natalia J.; Wang, Fu-Sheng; Su, Lishan

    2015-01-01

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) have demonstrated roles in promoting antibacterial immunity, maintaining epithelial barrier function, and supporting tissue repair. ILC3 alterations are associated with chronic inflammation and inflammatory disease; however, the characteristics and relevant regulatory mechanisms of this cell population in HIV-1 infection are poorly understood due in part to a lack of a robust model. Here, we determined that functional human ILC3s develop in lymphoid organs of humanized mice and that persistent HIV-1 infection in this model depletes ILC3s, as observed in chronic HIV-1–infected patients. In HIV-1–infected mice, effective antiretroviral therapy reversed the loss of ILC3s. HIV-1–dependent reduction of ILC3s required plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), IFN-I, and the CD95/FasL pathway, as targeted depletion or blockade of these prevented HIV-1–induced ILC3 depletion in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Finally, we determined that HIV-1 infection induces CD95 expression on ILC3s via a pDC- and IFN-I–dependent mechanism that sensitizes ILC3s to undergo CD95/FasL-mediated apoptosis. We conclude that chronic HIV-1 infection depletes ILC3s through pDC activation, induction of IFN-I, and CD95-mediated apoptosis. PMID:26301812

  1. Survival of primates following orthotopic cardiac transplantation treated with total lymphoid irradiation and chemical immune suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Pennock, J.L.; Reitz, B.A.; Bieber, C.P.; Aziz, S.; Oyer, P.E.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.; Kaplan, H.S.; Stinson, E.B.; Shumway, N.E.

    1981-12-01

    Fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been used for attempts at induction of a donor-specific tolerant-like state in allograft recipients and for immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporin A (Cy A) has been shown to suppress rejection of organ grafts in many species including man. The present study was designed to test the effectiveness of TLI in combination with either CY A or rabbit anticynomolgus thymocyte globulin (ATG) and azathioprine. Thirty-one orthotopic cardiac allografts were performed using surface cooling and total circulatory arrest in outbred cynomolgus monkeys. TLI was administered preoperatively in fractions of 100 rad until a total of 600 or 1800 rad was achieved. Cy A was administered 17 mg/kg/day. All treatment groups demonstrated extended survival. Myocardial biopsies as early as 4 weeks were consistent with mild rejection in all treatment groups. No significant synergistic effect upon survival could be demonstrated utilizing TLI plus Cy A when compared with using Cy A alone. TLI (1800 rad) plus ATG and azathioprine was associated with a high incidence of early death attributable to leukopenia and infection. Cy A alone or in combination with TLI was associated with the development of lymphoid malignancy.

  2. Survival of primates following orthotopic cardiac transplantation treated with total lymphoid irradiation and chemical immune suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Pennock, J.L.; Reitz, B.A.; Beiber, C.P.; Aziz, S.; Oyer, P.E.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.; Kaplan, H.S.; Stinson, E.B.; Shumway, N.E.

    1981-12-01

    Fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been used for attempts at induction of a donor-specific tolerant-like state in allograft recipients and for immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporin A (Cy A) has been shown to suppress rejection of organ grafts in many species including man. The present study was designed to test the effectiveness of TLI in combination with either Cy A or rabbit anticynomolgus thymocyte globulin (ATG) and azathioprine. Thirty-one orthotopic cardiac allografts were performed using surface cooling and total circulatory arrest in outbred cynomolgus monkeys. TLI was administered preoperatively in fractions of 100 rad until a total of 600 or 1800 rad was achieved. Cy A was administered 17 mg/kg/day. All treatment groups demonstrated extended survival. Myocardial biopsies as early as 4 weeks were consistent with mild rejection in all treatment groups. No significant synergistic effect upon survival could be demonstrated utilizing TLI (1800 rad) plus ATG and azathioprine was associated with a high incidence of early death attributable to leukopenia and infection. Cy A alone or in combination with TLI was associated with the development of lymphoid malignancy.

  3. Lymphoid Aggregates Remodel Lymphatic Collecting Vessels that Serve Mesenteric Lymph Nodes in Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Gwendalyn J; Bala, Shashi; Rahier, Jean-François; Johnson, Michael W; Wang, Peter L; Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Chau, Amélie; Pariente, Benjamin; Kartheuser, Alex; Zinselmeyer, Bernd H; Colombel, Jean-Frederic

    2016-12-01

    Early pathological descriptions of Crohn disease (CD) argued for a potential defect in lymph transport; however, this concept has not been thoroughly investigated. In mice, poor healing in response to infection-induced tissue damage can cause hyperpermeable lymphatic collecting vessels in mesenteric adipose tissue that impair antigen and immune cell access to mesenteric lymph nodes (LNs), which normally sustain appropriate immunity. To investigate whether analogous changes might occur in human intestinal disease, we established a three-dimensional imaging approach to characterize the lymphatic vasculature in mesenteric tissue from controls or patients with CD. In CD specimens, B-cell-rich aggregates resembling tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) impinged on lymphatic collecting vessels that enter and exit LNs. In areas of creeping fat, which characterizes inflammation-affected areas of the bowel in CD, we observed B cells and apparent innate lymphoid cells that had invaded the lymphatic vessel wall, suggesting these cells may be mediators of lymphatic remodeling. Although TLOs have been described in many chronic inflammatory states, their anatomical relationship to preestablished LNs has never been revealed. Our data indicate that, at least in the CD-affected mesentery, TLOs are positioned along collecting lymphatic vessels in a manner expected to affect delivery of lymph to LNs. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatic nodular lymphoid lesion with increased IgG4-positive plasma cells associated with primary biliary cirrhosis: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Jessica; Carbonell, Nicolas; Scatton, Olivier; Marzac, Christophe; Ganne-Carrie, Nathalie; Wendum, Dominique

    2015-11-01

    The nodular lymphoid lesion of the liver known as reactive lymphoid hyperplasia or pseudolymphoma is rare and its pathogenesis is unknown. We report two cases of nodular lymphoid lesions of the liver with numerous IgG4-positive plasma cells in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Histologically, in both cases, the lesion showed a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with lymphoid follicles and granulomas. Fibrous tissue was scarce and without a storiform pattern. Obliterative phlebitis was not identified. The IgG4+ plasma cell counts were 82 and 76 per high power field, with an IgG4/IgG ratio of 75 and 64 %, respectively, which qualifies the lesions according to the diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease as « probable histological feature of IgG4-related disease ». There were no rearrangements of immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes and plasma cells had a polytypic pattern of kappa and lambda light-chain expression. The non-tumor liver showed primary biliary cirrhosis with destructive cholangitis without IgG4 plasma cells. In both cases, IgG4-related disease was not found in other organs neither at the time of diagnosis nor 3 years later. Serum IgG4 levels normalized after local ablation of the lesions. It seems unlikely that these lesions are a manifestation of IgG4-related disease. However, because the pathogenesis of both nodular lymphoid lesions and IgG4-related disease remains unclear, further studies are needed to elucidate a potential link between nodular lymphoid lesions of the liver and an increased number of IgG4 plasma cells. More definite conclusions will be possible when the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease has been clarified.

  5. Functional and phenotypic heterogeneity of group 3 innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Melo-Gonzalez, Felipe; Hepworth, Matthew R

    2017-03-01

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), defined by expression of the transcription factor retinoid-related orphan receptor γt, play key roles in the regulation of inflammation and immunity in the gastrointestinal tract and associated lymphoid tissues. ILC3 consist largely of two major subsets, NCR(+) ILC3 and LTi-like ILC3, but also demonstrate significant plasticity and heterogeneity. Recent advances have begun to dissect the relationship between ILC3 subsets and to define distinct functional states within the intestinal tissue microenvironment. In this review we discuss the ever-expanding roles of ILC3 in the context of intestinal homeostasis, infection and inflammation - with a focus on comparing and contrasting the relative contributions of ILC3 subsets. © 2016 The Authors. Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Beyond NK Cells: The Expanding Universe of Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cella, Marina; Miller, Hannah; Song, Christina

    2014-01-01

    For a long time, natural killer (NK) cells were thought to be the only innate immune lymphoid population capable of responding to invading pathogens under the influence of changing environmental cues. In the last few years, an increasing amount of evidence has shown that a number of different innate lymphoid cell (ILC) populations found at mucosal sites rapidly respond to locally produced cytokines in order to establish or maintain homeostasis. These ILC populations closely mirror the phenotype of adaptive T helper subsets in their repertoire of secreted soluble factors. Early in the immune response, ILCs are responsible for setting the stage to mount an adaptive T cell response that is appropriate for the incoming insult. Here, we review the diversity of ILC subsets and discuss similarities and differences between ILCs and NK cells in function and key transcriptional factors required for their development. PMID:24982658

  7. Total lymphoid irradiation in refractory systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Chetrit, E.; Gross, D.J.; Braverman, A.; Weshler, Z.; Fuks, Z.; Slavin, S.; Eliakim, M.

    1986-07-01

    In two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, conventional therapy was considered to have failed because of persistent disease activity and unacceptable side effects. Both were treated with total lymphoid irradiation without clinical benefit, despite adequate immunosuppression as documented by markedly reduced numbers of circulating T lymphocytes and T-lymphocyte-dependent proliferative responses in vitro. The first patient developed herpes zoster, gram-negative septicemia, neurologic symptoms, and deterioration of lupus nephritis. The second patient developed massive bronchopneumonia, necrotic cutaneous lesions, and progressive nephritis and died 2 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. These observations, although limited to two patients, indicate that total lymphoid irradiation in patients with severe systemic lupus erythematosus should be regarded as strictly experimental.

  8. Type-2 innate lymphoid cells in asthma and allergy.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Andrew N J

    2014-12-01

    Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) belong to an expanding family of innate lymphocytes that provide a potent source of immune effector cytokines at the initiation of immune responses. ILC2 arise, under the control of the transcription factors RORα and GATA3, from lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow, to secrete type-2 cytokines including IL-5 and IL-13. Using experimental models, ILC2 have been implicated in allergic diseases, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis, but also in metabolic homeostasis. Furthermore, recent reports have indicated that ILC2 not only play roles at the initiation of type-2 immunity but can also contribute to chronic pathology, such as fibrosis, and can impact on the priming of the adaptive T-cell response. The identification of ILC2 in patients with allergic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis indicates that these cells may represent new therapeutic targets.

  9. Beyond NK cells: the expanding universe of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Cella, Marina; Miller, Hannah; Song, Christina

    2014-01-01

    For a long time, natural killer (NK) cells were thought to be the only innate immune lymphoid population capable of responding to invading pathogens under the influence of changing environmental cues. In the last few years, an increasing amount of evidence has shown that a number of different innate lymphoid cell (ILC) populations found at mucosal sites rapidly respond to locally produced cytokines in order to establish or maintain homeostasis. These ILC populations closely mirror the phenotype of adaptive T helper subsets in their repertoire of secreted soluble factors. Early in the immune response, ILCs are responsible for setting the stage to mount an adaptive T cell response that is appropriate for the incoming insult. Here, we review the diversity of ILC subsets and discuss similarities and differences between ILCs and NK cells in function and key transcriptional factors required for their development.

  10. Inflammation-induced formation of fat-associated lymphoid clusters

    PubMed Central

    Bénézech, Cécile; Kruglov, Andrei A.; Loo, Yunhua; Nakamura, Kyoko; Zhang, Yang; Nayar, Saba; Jones, Lucy H.; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; McIntosh, Alistair; Marshall, Jennifer; Barone, Francesca; Besra, Gurdyal; Miles, Katherine; Allen, Judith E.; Gray, Mohini; Kollias, George; Cunningham, Adam F.; Withers, David R.; Toellner, Kai Michael; Jones, Nick D.; Veldhoen, Marc; Nedospasov, Sergei A.; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.; Caamaño, Jorge H.

    2015-01-01

    Fat-associated lymphoid clusters (FALCs) are a recently discovered type of lymphoid tissue associated with visceral fat. Here we show that distribution of FALCs was heterogeneous with the pericardium containing large numbers of these clusters. FALCs contributed to the retention of B-1 B cells in the peritoneal cavity through high expression of the chemokine CXCL13 and supported B cell proliferation and germinal center differentiation during peritoneal immune challenges. FALC formation was induced by inflammation, which triggered recruitment of myeloid cells that express tumor necrosis factor (TNF) necessary for TNF receptor-signaling in stromal cells. CD1d-restricted Natural killer T (NKT) cells were likewise required for inducible formation of FALCs. Thus, FALCs support and coordinate innate B and T cell activation during serosal immune responses. PMID:26147686

  11. [TINU syndrome and lymphoid interstitial alveolitis: a new observation].

    PubMed

    Khammassi, Naziha; Mohsen, Dorsaf; Ounissi, Mondher; Tougourti, Mohamed Nejib; Hamza, Mohsen

    2011-02-01

    TINU syndrome is a rare entity known Dobrin disease, combining uveitis mostly bilateral and recurrent with acute tubulo interstitial nephritis (AIN) occurring in young adults. The etiology and pathogenesis of this syndrome remain unknown. To report a new case of TINU syndrome and to discuss its etiopathogenesis. This 33 year old women is hospitalized for exploration of acute renal failure, in a context of deterioration of general condition, associated with a unilateral anterior uveitis. The bronchoalveolar lavage showed lymphoid interstitial alveolitis with CD4 and the renal biopsy found lesions characteristic of AIN. Evolution under corticoïd treatment was favorable. Lymphoid interstitial alveolitis associated with TINU syndrome has been reported only twice before. The discovery of a TINU syndrome must practice bronchoalveolar lavage in search of sub clinical pulmonary involvement.

  12. Clinical outcomes of childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Pottern, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to explore the relationship between childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia and the subsequent development of thyroid gland and other head and neck disorders. All individuals under 18 years of age who were x-irradiated for lymphoid hyperplasia during the years 1938-69 at Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston comprised the exposed population. The comparison group consisted of non-exposed, surgically treated individuals. The study included a health questionnaire and a clinical examination component. A history of thyroid cancer was reported by 11 exposed subjects and no non-exposed subjects. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios of thyroid cancer were seen for both exposed males and females, 19.9 and 12.1, respectively. The average thyroid radiation dose was 25.8 rads and the mean latency period was 17.3 years.

  13. Enrichment of distinct microfilament-associated and GTP-binding-proteins in membrane/microvilli fractions from lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jian-Jiang; Wang, Guanghui; Pisitkun, Trairak; Patino-Lopez, Genaro; Nagashima, Kunio; Knepper, Mark A.; Shen, Rong-Fong; Shaw, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Summary Lymphocyte microvilli mediate initial adhesion to endothelium during lymphocyte transition from blood into tissue but their molecular organization is incompletely understood. We modified a shear-based procedure to prepare biochemical fractions enriched for membrane/microvilli (MMV) from both human peripheral blood T-lymphocytes (PBT) and a mouse pre-B lymphocyte line (300.19). Enrichment of proteins in MMV relative to post nuclear lysate was determined by LC/MS/MS analysis and label-free quantitation. Subsequent analysis emphasized the 291 proteins shared by PBT and 300.19 and estimated by MS peak area to be highest abundance. Validity of the label-free quantitation was confirmed by many internal consistencies and by comparison with Western blot analyses. The MMV fraction was enriched primarily for subsets of cytoskeletal proteins, transmembrane proteins and G-proteins, with similar patterns in both lymphoid cell types. The most enriched cytoskeletal proteins were microfilament-related proteins NHERF1, Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin (ERMs), ADF/cofilin and Myosin1G. Other microfilament proteins such as talin, gelsolin, myosin II and profilin were markedly reduced in MMV, as were intermediate filament- and microtubule-related proteins. Heterotrimeric G-proteins and some small G-proteins (especially Ras and Rap1) were enriched in the MMV preparation. Two notable general observations also emerged. There was less overlap between the two cells in their transmembrane proteins than in other classes of proteins, consistent with a special role of plasma membrane proteins in differentiation. Second, unstimulated primary T-lymphocytes have an unusually high concentration of actin and other microfilament related proteins, consistent with the singular role of actin-mediated motility in the immunological surveillance performed by these primary cells. Lymphocyte microvilli initiate adhesion to endothelium during movement from blood into tissue. Using LC/MS/MS and label

  14. Selective usage of D-type cyclins in lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, R; Kuroda, H; Komatsu, H; Hosokawa, Y; Kagami, Y; Ogura, M; Nakamura, S; Kodera, Y; Morishima, Y; Ueda, R; Seto, M

    1999-09-01

    Three D-type cyclins, cyclin D1, D2 and D3, belong to the G1 cyclin, which regulates the G1/S transition of the cell cycle, and feature highly homologous amino acid sequences. The cyclin D1 gene was found to be transcriptionally activated in B-lymphoid malignancies with t(11;14), but available information is limited regarding expression of cyclin D2 and D3 in hematopoietic malignancies. We examined the expressions of three D-type cyclins to investigate how these homologous genes are differentially used. Northern blot hybridization with densitometric analyses was performed to examine 64 cell lines and 159 patients with various hematopoietic malignancies. Among lymphoid malignancies, cyclin D1 overexpression was exclusively detected in B cell malignancies accompanied by a genetic event consisting of 11q13 chromosomal translocation, consisting of 13 of 19 (68%) patients with mantle cell lymphoma, two of 11 (18%) with B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and one of six (17%) with multiple myeloma. The cyclin D2 expression was significantly higher in T cell malignancies than in B cell malignancies (P = 0.003 for cell lines and P < 0.0001 for patient samples, respectively). In the T cell malignancies, cyclin D2 overexpression was predominantly recognized in those with mature phenotype. Furthermore, cyclin D2 expression was upregulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation of normal T-lymphocytes, suggesting that this simply represents the proliferation status of mature T cells. Although cyclin D3 was ubiquitously expressed, its expression was reduced in lymphoid malignancies with cyclin D1 or D2 overexpression. In myeloid leukemias, although three D-type type cyclins were differentially expressed, no preference for particular D-type cyclins was found. This selective usage of D-type cyclins in lymphoid malignancies suggests an existence of a regulatory mechanism among three D-type cyclins.

  15. Automatic Nervous System Distribution and Function in Lymphoid Tissues.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-15

    thymus, thymic-related lymph nodes, the bone marrow, the spleen, gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and the chick bursa of Fabricius, S. vrifyina...projections in the day-old chick indicates that the chick, like the mouse, receives vagal innervation during embryonic development (these neuronal centers...represent the source for vagal efferents in the chick ). The intrathymic distribution of these vagal cholinergic (AChE-positive) nerves in the chick

  16. Immunosuppression by fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in collagen arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    McCune, W.J.; Buckley, J.A.; Belli, J.A.; Trentham, D.E.

    1982-05-01

    Treatments with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and cyclophosphamide were evaluated for rats injected with type II collagen. Preadministration of TLI and repeated injections of cyclophosphamide suppressed the severity of arthritis and lowered antibody titers to collagen significantly. TLI initiated at the onset of collagen arthritis decreased humoral and cellular responses to collagen but did not affect the severity of arthritis. These data demonstrate that both TLi and cyclophosphamide are immunosuppressive in an experimentally inducible autoimmune disease.

  17. IL-17 producing innate lymphoid cells 3 (ILC3) but not Th17 cells might be the potential danger factor for preeclampsia and other pregnancy associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Barnie, Prince A; Lin, Xin; Liu, Yueqin; Xu, Huaxi; Su, Zhaoliang

    2015-01-01

    In pregnancy, the immunologic system plays an important role that ensures normal pregnancy development and can as well promote the development of complications. Pregnancy success appears to rely on a discrete balance between the Th cytokines, which are involved in fetal growth and development. Preeclampsia and gestational diabetes are known complications associated with pregnancy. However, the source of the increased IL-17 cytokine in preeclampsia and other pregnancy associated diseases still remains unclear amidst numerous inconsistencies. The recent identification of innate lymphoid cells (ILC) has raised more doubts about the sources of most of the Th associated cytokines. We investigated the source of peripheral IL-17 levels in preeclamptic, gestational diabetics and chronic diabetics compared to healthy pregnancy subjects. To evaluate the source of the increased IL-17 cytokine among preeclampsia, chronic diabetic and gestational diabetic patients we investigated the proportion of Th17 cell populations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells using flow cytometry as well as analyzing levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-1β and HMGB1. This study found that the Th17 cell populations in peripheral blood of preeclamptic, gestational nor chronic diabetes during pregnancy did not correlate with the increased IL-17. We report that the increased IL-17 levels observed in patients with preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and chronic diabetes are associated with innate lymphoid cells 3 (ILC3) and may pose threats to the fetus if disregulated.

  18. Genomic Modifiers of Natural Killer Cells, Immune Responsiveness and Lymphoid Tissue Remodeling Together Increase Host Resistance to Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heather; Prince, Jessica; Stadnisky, Michael D.; Anderson, Monique; Nash, William; Rival, Claudia; Wei, Hairong; Gamache, Awndre; Farber, Charles R.; Tung, Kenneth; Brown, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    The MHC class I Dk molecule supplies vital host resistance during murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. Natural killer (NK) cells expressing the Ly49G2 inhibitory receptor, which specifically binds Dk, are required to control viral spread. The extent of Dk-dependent host resistance, however, differs significantly amongst related strains of mice, C57L and MA/My. As a result, we predicted that relatively small-effect modifier genetic loci might together shape immune cell features, NK cell reactivity, and the host immune response to MCMV. A robust Dk-dependent genetic effect, however, has so far hindered attempts to identify additional host resistance factors. Thus, we applied genomic mapping strategies and multicolor flow cytometric analysis of immune cells in naive and virus-infected hosts to identify genetic modifiers of the host immune response to MCMV. We discovered and validated many quantitative trait loci (QTL); these were mapped to at least 19 positions on 16 chromosomes. Intriguingly, one newly discovered non-MHC locus (Cmv5) controlled splenic NK cell accrual, secondary lymphoid organ structure, and lymphoid follicle development during MCMV infection. We infer that Cmv5 aids host resistance to MCMV infection by expanding NK cells needed to preserve and protect essential tissue structural elements, to enhance lymphoid remodeling and to increase viral clearance in spleen. PMID:26845690

  19. Dysregulation of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Maglione, Paul J; Cols, Montserrat; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2017-10-05

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most prevalent symptomatic primary immune deficiency. With widespread use of immunoglobulin replacement therapy, non-infectious complications, such as autoimmunity, chronic intestinal inflammation, and lung disease, have replaced infections as the major cause of morbidity and mortality in this immune deficiency. The pathogenic mechanisms that underlie the development of these complications in CVID are not known; however, there have been numerous associated laboratory findings. Among the most intriguing of these associations is elevation of interferon signature genes in CVID patients with inflammatory/autoimmune complications, as a similar gene expression profile is found in systemic lupus erythematosus and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Linked with this heightened interferon signature in CVID is an expansion of circulating IFN-γ-producing innate lymphoid cells. Innate lymphoid cells are key regulators of both protective and pathogenic immune responses that have been extensively studied in recent years. Further exploration of innate lymphoid cell biology in CVID may uncover key mechanisms underlying the development of inflammatory complications in these patients and may inspire much needed novel therapeutic approaches.

  20. Approach to Cutaneous Lymphoid Infiltrates: When to Consider Lymphoma?

    PubMed Central

    Charli-Joseph, Yann Vincent; Gatica-Torres, Michelle; Pincus, Laura Beth

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates (CLIs) are common in routine dermatopathology. However, differentiating a reactive CLI from a malignant lymphocytic infiltrate is often a significant challenge since many inflammatory dermatoses can clinically and/or histopathologically mimic cutaneous lymphomas, coined pseudolymphomas. We conducted a literature review from 1966 to July 1, 2015, at PubMed.gov using the search terms: Cutaneous lymphoma, cutaneous pseudolymphoma, cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia, simulants/mimics/imitators of cutaneous lymphomas, and cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. The diagnostic approach to CLIs and the most common differential imitators of lymphoma is discussed herein based on six predominant morphologic and immunophenotypic, histopathologic patterns: (1) Superficial dermal T-cell infiltrates (2) superficial and deep dermal perivascular and/or nodular natural killer/T-cell infiltrates (3) pan-dermal diffuse T-cell infiltrates (4) panniculitic T-cell infiltrates (5) small cell predominant B-cell infiltrates, and (6) large-cell predominant B-cell infiltrates. Since no single histopathological feature is sufficient to discern between a benign and a malignant CLI, the overall balance of clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular features should be considered carefully to establish a diagnosis. Despite advances in ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry and molecular clonality, these studies often display specificity and sensitivity limitations. Therefore, proper clinicopathological correlation still remains the gold standard for the precise diagnosis of CLIs. PMID:27512181

  1. Treatment of intractable lupus nephritis with total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.; Field, E.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kotzin, B.L.; Shemesh, O.; Engleman, E.; Ross, J.C.; Myers, B.D.

    1985-04-01

    Ten patients with lupus nephritis and marked proteinuria (3.9 g or more/d) that did not respond adequately to treatment with prednisone alone or prednisone in combination with azathioprine were treated with total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled feasibility study. Within 6 weeks after the start of total lymphoid irradiation, the serum albumin level rose in all patients in association with a reduction in the serum level of anti-DNA antibodies, an increase in the serum complement level, or both. Improvement in these variables persisted in eight patients followed for more than 1 year, with the stabilization or reduction of the serum creatinine level. Urinary leakage of albumin was substantially reduced in all patients. Side effects associated with radiotherapy included transient constitutional complaints in ten patients, transient blood element depressions in three, localized viral and bacterial infections in four, and ovarian failure in one. The results suggest that total lymphoid irradiation may provide an alternative to cytotoxic drugs in the treatment of lupus nephritis.

  2. Development of venetoclax for therapy of lymphoid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huayuan; Almasan, Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) family dysfunction and impairment of apoptosis are common in most B-cell lymphoid malignancies. Venetoclax (Venclexta™, formerly ABT-199, GDC-0199) is a highly selective BCL-2 inhibitor, which mimics its BCL-2 homology 3-domain to induce apoptosis. It was approved for treatment of previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients with 17p deletion early in 2016. It has also been in clinical trials for other B-cell lymphoid malignancies. Unlike the other recently approved targeted agents idelalisib and ibrutinib, so far there has been no relapse reported in some patients. Also, unlike the other targeted agents, it is effective against tumor cells that reside in the blood marrow. Despite its promising outcome in CLL, preclinical data have already uncovered mechanistic insights underlying venetoclax resistance, such as upregulation of MCL-1 or BCL-xL expression and protective signaling from the microenvironment. In this review, we describe the role of the BCL-2 family in the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphoid malignancies, the development of venetoclax, and its current clinical outcome in CLL and other B-cell malignancies. We also discuss the resistance mechanisms that develop following venetoclax therapy, potential strategies to overcome them, and how this knowledge can be translated into clinical applications. PMID:28331288

  3. Human natural killer cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues

    PubMed Central

    Freud, Aharon G.; Yu, Jianhua; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    For nearly a decade it has been appreciated that critical steps in human natural killer (NK) cell development likely occur outside of the bone marrow and potentially necessitate distinct microenvironments within extramedullary tissues. The latter include the liver and gravid uterus as well as secondary lymphoid tissues such as tonsils and lymph nodes. For as yet unknown reasons these tissues are naturally enriched with NK cell developmental intermediates (NKDI) that span a maturation continuum starting from an oligopotent CD34+CD45RA+ hematopoietic precursor cell to a cytolytic mature NK cell. Indeed despite the detection of NKDI within the aforementioned tissues, relatively little is known about how, why, and when these tissues may be most suited to support NK cell maturation and how this process fits in with other components of the human immune system. With the discovery of other innate lymphoid subsets whose immunophenotypes overlap with those of NKDI, there is also need to revisit and potentially re-characterize the basic immunophenotypes of the stages of the human NK cell developmental pathway in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of human NK cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues and discuss the many questions that remain to be answered in this exciting field. PMID:24661538

  4. Total lymphoid irradiation in the Wistar rat: technique and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; de Jong, J.

    1983-01-01

    The technical and dosimetric aspects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the Wistar rat were evaluated as part of a set-up to develop a new model for tumor xenotransplantation. Information obtained from anatomical dissections, radionuclide imaging of the spleen, lymphography and chromolymphography was used to standardize the localization portals cut out in a lead plate. The two portals encompassed the lymphoid tissue above and below the diaphragm. A specially designed masonite phantom was used to measure the dose distribution in the simulated target volumes. Ionization chamber dosimetery, thermoluminescence dosimetry and film densitometry were used for measuring exposure and absorbed dose. Irradiation was performed with 250 kV X rays (HVL 3.1 mm Cu). The dose rate was regulated by adjusting the treatment distance. The dose inhomogeneity measured in the target volumes varied between 80-100%. The side scatter dose to non target tissues under the shielded area between the two portals ranged between 20-30%. The technique and dosimetry of total lymphoid irradiation in Wistar rats are now standardized and validated and pave the way for tumor xenotransplantation experiments.

  5. Logical modeling of lymphoid and myeloid cell specification and transdifferentiation

    PubMed Central

    Collombet, Samuel; van Oevelen, Chris; Sardina Ortega, Jose Luis; Abou-Jaoudé, Wassim; Di Stefano, Bruno; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Graf, Thomas; Thieffry, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Blood cells are derived from a common set of hematopoietic stem cells, which differentiate into more specific progenitors of the myeloid and lymphoid lineages, ultimately leading to differentiated cells. This developmental process is controlled by a complex regulatory network involving cytokines and their receptors, transcription factors, and chromatin remodelers. Using public data and data from our own molecular genetic experiments (quantitative PCR, Western blot, EMSA) or genome-wide assays (RNA-sequencing, ChIP-sequencing), we have assembled a comprehensive regulatory network encompassing the main transcription factors and signaling components involved in myeloid and lymphoid development. Focusing on B-cell and macrophage development, we defined a qualitative dynamical model recapitulating cytokine-induced differentiation of common progenitors, the effect of various reported gene knockdowns, and the reprogramming of pre-B cells into macrophages induced by the ectopic expression of specific transcription factors. The resulting network model can be used as a template for the integration of new hematopoietic differentiation and transdifferentiation data to foster our understanding of lymphoid/myeloid cell-fate decisions. PMID:28584084

  6. Logical modeling of lymphoid and myeloid cell specification and transdifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Collombet, Samuel; van Oevelen, Chris; Sardina Ortega, Jose Luis; Abou-Jaoudé, Wassim; Di Stefano, Bruno; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Graf, Thomas; Thieffry, Denis

    2017-06-06

    Blood cells are derived from a common set of hematopoietic stem cells, which differentiate into more specific progenitors of the myeloid and lymphoid lineages, ultimately leading to differentiated cells. This developmental process is controlled by a complex regulatory network involving cytokines and their receptors, transcription factors, and chromatin remodelers. Using public data and data from our own molecular genetic experiments (quantitative PCR, Western blot, EMSA) or genome-wide assays (RNA-sequencing, ChIP-sequencing), we have assembled a comprehensive regulatory network encompassing the main transcription factors and signaling components involved in myeloid and lymphoid development. Focusing on B-cell and macrophage development, we defined a qualitative dynamical model recapitulating cytokine-induced differentiation of common progenitors, the effect of various reported gene knockdowns, and the reprogramming of pre-B cells into macrophages induced by the ectopic expression of specific transcription factors. The resulting network model can be used as a template for the integration of new hematopoietic differentiation and transdifferentiation data to foster our understanding of lymphoid/myeloid cell-fate decisions.

  7. Human natural killer cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed

    Freud, Aharon G; Yu, Jianhua; Caligiuri, Michael A

    2014-04-01

    For nearly a decade it has been appreciated that critical steps in human natural killer (NK) cell development likely occur outside of the bone marrow and potentially necessitate distinct microenvironments within extramedullary tissues. The latter include the liver and gravid uterus as well as secondary lymphoid tissues such as tonsils and lymph nodes. For as yet unknown reasons these tissues are naturally enriched with NK cell developmental intermediates (NKDI) that span a maturation continuum starting from an oligopotent CD34(+)CD45RA(+) hematopoietic precursor cell to a cytolytic mature NK cell. Indeed despite the detection of NKDI within the aforementioned tissues, relatively little is known about how, why, and when these tissues may be most suited to support NK cell maturation and how this process fits in with other components of the human immune system. With the discovery of other innate lymphoid subsets whose immunophenotypes overlap with those of NKDI, there is also need to revisit and potentially re-characterize the basic immunophenotypes of the stages of the human NK cell developmental pathway in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of human NK cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues and discuss the many questions that remain to be answered in this exciting field.

  8. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Arslantunali, D; Dursun, T; Yucel, D; Hasirci, N; Hasirci, V

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patie