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Sample records for peripheral myelinated axons

  1. Proteolipid protein modulates preservation of peripheral axons and premature death when myelin protein zero is lacking.

    PubMed

    Patzig, Julia; Kusch, Kathrin; Fledrich, Robert; Eichel, Maria A; Lüders, Katja A; Möbius, Wiebke; Sereda, Michael W; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Martini, Rudolf; Werner, Hauke B

    2016-01-01

    Protein zero (P0) is the major structural component of peripheral myelin. Lack of this adhesion protein from Schwann cells causes a severe dysmyelinating neuropathy with secondary axonal degeneration in humans with the neuropathy Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS) and in the corresponding mouse model (P0(null)-mice). In the mammalian CNS, the tetraspan-membrane protein PLP is the major structural myelin constituent and required for the long-term preservation of myelinated axons, which fails in hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG type-2) and the relevant mouse model (Plp(null)-mice). The Plp-gene is also expressed in Schwann cells but PLP is of very low abundance in normal peripheral myelin; its function has thus remained enigmatic. Here we show that the abundance of PLP but not of other tetraspan myelin proteins is strongly increased in compact peripheral myelin of P0(null)-mice. To determine the functional relevance of PLP expression in the absence of P0, we generated P0(null)*Plp(null)-double-mutant mice. Compared with either single-mutant, P0(null)*Plp(null)-mice display impaired nerve conduction, reduced motor functions, and premature death. At the morphological level, axonal segments were frequently non-myelinated but in a one-to-one relationship with a hypertrophic Schwann cell. Importantly, axonal numbers were reduced in the vital phrenic nerve of P0(null)*Plp(null)-mice. In the absence of P0, thus, PLP also contributes to myelination by Schwann cells and to the preservation of peripheral axons. These data provide a link between the Schwann cell-dependent support of peripheral axons and the oligodendrocyte-dependent support of central axons. PMID:26393339

  2. Proteolipid protein modulates preservation of peripheral axons and premature death when myelin protein zero is lacking.

    PubMed

    Patzig, Julia; Kusch, Kathrin; Fledrich, Robert; Eichel, Maria A; Lüders, Katja A; Möbius, Wiebke; Sereda, Michael W; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Martini, Rudolf; Werner, Hauke B

    2016-01-01

    Protein zero (P0) is the major structural component of peripheral myelin. Lack of this adhesion protein from Schwann cells causes a severe dysmyelinating neuropathy with secondary axonal degeneration in humans with the neuropathy Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS) and in the corresponding mouse model (P0(null)-mice). In the mammalian CNS, the tetraspan-membrane protein PLP is the major structural myelin constituent and required for the long-term preservation of myelinated axons, which fails in hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG type-2) and the relevant mouse model (Plp(null)-mice). The Plp-gene is also expressed in Schwann cells but PLP is of very low abundance in normal peripheral myelin; its function has thus remained enigmatic. Here we show that the abundance of PLP but not of other tetraspan myelin proteins is strongly increased in compact peripheral myelin of P0(null)-mice. To determine the functional relevance of PLP expression in the absence of P0, we generated P0(null)*Plp(null)-double-mutant mice. Compared with either single-mutant, P0(null)*Plp(null)-mice display impaired nerve conduction, reduced motor functions, and premature death. At the morphological level, axonal segments were frequently non-myelinated but in a one-to-one relationship with a hypertrophic Schwann cell. Importantly, axonal numbers were reduced in the vital phrenic nerve of P0(null)*Plp(null)-mice. In the absence of P0, thus, PLP also contributes to myelination by Schwann cells and to the preservation of peripheral axons. These data provide a link between the Schwann cell-dependent support of peripheral axons and the oligodendrocyte-dependent support of central axons.

  3. Myelinated sensory and alpha motor axon regeneration in peripheral nerve neuromas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macias, M. Y.; Lehman, C. T.; Sanger, J. R.; Riley, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    Histochemical staining for carbonic anhydrase and cholinesterase (CE) activities was used to analyze sensory and motor axon regeneration, respectively, during neuroma formation in transected and tube-encapsulated peripheral nerves. Median-ulnar and sciatic nerves in the rodent model permitted testing whether a 4 cm greater distance of the motor neuron soma from axotomy site or intrinsic differences between motor and sensory neurons influenced regeneration and neuroma formation 10, 30, and 90 days later. Ventral root radiculotomy confirmed that CE-stained axons were 97% alpha motor axons. Distance significantly delayed axon regeneration. When distance was negligible, sensory axons grew out sooner than motor axons, but motor axons regenerated to a greater quantity. These results indicate regeneration differences between axon subtypes and suggest more extensive branching of motor axons within the neuroma. Thus, both distance from injury site to soma and inherent motor and sensory differences should be considered in peripheral nerve repair strategies.

  4. Oligodendrocytes: Myelination and Axonal Support.

    PubMed

    Simons, Mikael; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2015-06-22

    Myelinated nerve fibers have evolved to enable fast and efficient transduction of electrical signals in the nervous system. To act as an electric insulator, the myelin sheath is formed as a multilamellar membrane structure by the spiral wrapping and subsequent compaction of the oligodendroglial plasma membrane around central nervous system (CNS) axons. Current evidence indicates that the myelin sheath is more than an inert insulating membrane structure. Oligodendrocytes are metabolically active and functionally connected to the subjacent axon via cytoplasmic-rich myelinic channels for movement of macromolecules to and from the internodal periaxonal space under the myelin sheath. This review summarizes our current understanding of how myelin is generated and also the role of oligodendrocytes in supporting the long-term integrity of myelinated axons.

  5. Automated tracing of myelinated axons and detection of the nodes of Ranvier in serial images of peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Kreshuk, A; Walecki, R; Koethe, U; Gierthmuehlen, M; Plachta, D; Genoud, C; Haastert-Talini, K; Hamprecht, F A

    2015-08-01

    The development of realistic neuroanatomical models of peripheral nerves for simulation purposes requires the reconstruction of the morphology of the myelinated fibres in the nerve, including their nodes of Ranvier. Currently, this information has to be extracted by semimanual procedures, which severely limit the scalability of the experiments. In this contribution, we propose a supervised machine learning approach for the detailed reconstruction of the geometry of fibres inside a peripheral nerve based on its high-resolution serial section images. Learning from sparse expert annotations, the algorithm traces myelinated axons, even across the nodes of Ranvier. The latter are detected automatically. The approach is based on classifying the myelinated membranes in a supervised fashion, closing the membrane gaps by solving an assignment problem, and classifying the closed gaps for the nodes of Ranvier detection. The algorithm has been validated on two very different datasets: (i) rat vagus nerve subvolume, SBFSEM microscope, 200 × 200 × 200 nm resolution, (ii) rat sensory branch subvolume, confocal microscope, 384 × 384 × 800 nm resolution. For the first dataset, the algorithm correctly reconstructed 88% of the axons (241 out of 273) and achieved 92% accuracy on the task of Ranvier node detection. For the second dataset, the gap closing algorithm correctly closed 96.2% of the gaps, and 55% of axons were reconstructed correctly through the whole volume. On both datasets, training the algorithm on a small data subset and applying it to the full dataset takes a fraction of the time required by the currently used semiautomated protocols. Our software, raw data and ground truth annotations are available at http://hci.iwr.uni-heidelberg.de/Benchmarks/. The development version of the code can be found at https://github.com/RWalecki/ATMA.

  6. Identifying motor and sensory myelinated axons in rabbit peripheral nerves by histochemical staining for carbonic anhydrase and cholinesterase activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Danny A.; Sanger, James R.; Matloub, Hani S.; Yousif, N. John; Bain, James L. W.

    1988-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) and cholinesterase (CE) histochemical staining of rabbit spinal nerve roots and dorsal root ganglia demonstrated that among the reactive myeliated axons, with minor exceptions, sensory axons were CA positive and CE negative whereas motor axons were CA negative and CE positive. The high specificity was achieved by adjusting reaction conditions to stain subpopulations of myelinated axons selectively while leaving 50 percent or so unstained. Fixation with glutaraldehyde appeared necessary for achieving selectivity. Following sciatic nerve transection, the reciprocal staining pattern persisted in damaged axons and their regenerating processes which formed neuromas within the proximal nerve stump. Within the neuromas, CA-stained sensory processes were elaborated earlier and in greater numbers than CE-stained regenerating motor processes. The present results indicate that histochemical axon typing can be exploited to reveal heterogeneous responses of motor and sensory axons to injury.

  7. AxonSeg: Open Source Software for Axon and Myelin Segmentation and Morphometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zaimi, Aldo; Duval, Tanguy; Gasecka, Alicja; Côté, Daniel; Stikov, Nikola; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Segmenting axon and myelin from microscopic images is relevant for studying the peripheral and central nervous system and for validating new MRI techniques that aim at quantifying tissue microstructure. While several software packages have been proposed, their interface is sometimes limited and/or they are designed to work with a specific modality (e.g., scanning electron microscopy (SEM) only). Here we introduce AxonSeg, which allows to perform automatic axon and myelin segmentation on histology images, and to extract relevant morphometric information, such as axon diameter distribution, axon density and the myelin g-ratio. AxonSeg includes a simple and intuitive MATLAB-based graphical user interface (GUI) and can easily be adapted to a variety of imaging modalities. The main steps of AxonSeg consist of: (i) image pre-processing; (ii) pre-segmentation of axons over a cropped image and discriminant analysis (DA) to select the best parameters based on axon shape and intensity information; (iii) automatic axon and myelin segmentation over the full image; and (iv) atlas-based statistics to extract morphometric information. Segmentation results from standard optical microscopy (OM), SEM and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy are presented, along with validation against manual segmentations. Being fully-automatic after a quick manual intervention on a cropped image, we believe AxonSeg will be useful to researchers interested in large throughput histology. AxonSeg is open source and freely available at: https://github.com/neuropoly/axonseg.

  8. AxonSeg: Open Source Software for Axon and Myelin Segmentation and Morphometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zaimi, Aldo; Duval, Tanguy; Gasecka, Alicja; Côté, Daniel; Stikov, Nikola; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Segmenting axon and myelin from microscopic images is relevant for studying the peripheral and central nervous system and for validating new MRI techniques that aim at quantifying tissue microstructure. While several software packages have been proposed, their interface is sometimes limited and/or they are designed to work with a specific modality (e.g., scanning electron microscopy (SEM) only). Here we introduce AxonSeg, which allows to perform automatic axon and myelin segmentation on histology images, and to extract relevant morphometric information, such as axon diameter distribution, axon density and the myelin g-ratio. AxonSeg includes a simple and intuitive MATLAB-based graphical user interface (GUI) and can easily be adapted to a variety of imaging modalities. The main steps of AxonSeg consist of: (i) image pre-processing; (ii) pre-segmentation of axons over a cropped image and discriminant analysis (DA) to select the best parameters based on axon shape and intensity information; (iii) automatic axon and myelin segmentation over the full image; and (iv) atlas-based statistics to extract morphometric information. Segmentation results from standard optical microscopy (OM), SEM and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy are presented, along with validation against manual segmentations. Being fully-automatic after a quick manual intervention on a cropped image, we believe AxonSeg will be useful to researchers interested in large throughput histology. AxonSeg is open source and freely available at: https://github.com/neuropoly/axonseg. PMID:27594833

  9. AxonSeg: Open Source Software for Axon and Myelin Segmentation and Morphometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zaimi, Aldo; Duval, Tanguy; Gasecka, Alicja; Côté, Daniel; Stikov, Nikola; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Segmenting axon and myelin from microscopic images is relevant for studying the peripheral and central nervous system and for validating new MRI techniques that aim at quantifying tissue microstructure. While several software packages have been proposed, their interface is sometimes limited and/or they are designed to work with a specific modality (e.g., scanning electron microscopy (SEM) only). Here we introduce AxonSeg, which allows to perform automatic axon and myelin segmentation on histology images, and to extract relevant morphometric information, such as axon diameter distribution, axon density and the myelin g-ratio. AxonSeg includes a simple and intuitive MATLAB-based graphical user interface (GUI) and can easily be adapted to a variety of imaging modalities. The main steps of AxonSeg consist of: (i) image pre-processing; (ii) pre-segmentation of axons over a cropped image and discriminant analysis (DA) to select the best parameters based on axon shape and intensity information; (iii) automatic axon and myelin segmentation over the full image; and (iv) atlas-based statistics to extract morphometric information. Segmentation results from standard optical microscopy (OM), SEM and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy are presented, along with validation against manual segmentations. Being fully-automatic after a quick manual intervention on a cropped image, we believe AxonSeg will be useful to researchers interested in large throughput histology. AxonSeg is open source and freely available at: https://github.com/neuropoly/axonseg. PMID:27594833

  10. The extent of axonal exposure and axo-axonal apposition in the non-myelinated nerve fibres of peripheral nerve trunks and their dependence on buffer molarity.

    PubMed

    Holland, G R

    1982-03-01

    Nineteen rats were perfused intracardially with a 2% glutaraldehyde solution in cacodylate buffers adjusted in molarity from 0 to 0 . 4 m. Ultrathin sections of the inferior alveolar nerve were photographed in the electron microscopy. From prints of unmyelinated nerve fibres, the following measurements were made: axon circumference, the proportion of axons which were incompletely covered by the Schwann cell and the extent of this 'exposure', the proportion of axons which were apparently in contact with each other and the extent of this contact and the axon-Schwann cell gap. Axonal size and the spacing between the axon and Schwann cell were not related to buffer molarity. Very few (0-3 . 4%) of the axons were in contact and the degree of contact was unrelated to buffer concentration. Of the axons, 10-34% were partially unsheathed, the proportion being linearly related to the molarity of the buffer vehicle. It is concluded that axo-axonal apposition is an insignificant feature in this nerve trunk, but that axonal exposure is a constant finding although its extent is dependent on the conditions of fixation.

  11. A Model of Tight Junction Function In CNS Myelinated Axons

    PubMed Central

    Gow, Alexander; Devaux, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    The insulative properties of myelin sheaths in the central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS and PNS) are widely thought to derive from the high resistance and low capacitance of the constituent membranes. Although this view adequately accounts for myelin function in large diameter PNS fibers, it poorly reflects the behavior of small fibers that are prominent in many regions of the CNS. Herein, we develop a computational model to more accurately represent conduction in small fibers. By incorporating structural features that, hitherto, have not been simulated, we demonstrate that myelin tight junctions improve saltatory conduction by reducing current flow through the myelin, limiting axonal membrane depolarization and restraining the activation of ion channels beneath the myelin sheath. Accordingly, our simulations provide a novel view of myelin by which tight junctions minimize charging of the membrane capacitance and lower the membrane time constant to improve the speed and accuracy of transmission in small diameter fibers. This study establishes possible mechanisms whereby TJs affect conduction in the absence of overt perturbations to myelin architecture and may in part explain the tremor and gait abnormalities observed in Claudin 11-null mice. PMID:20102674

  12. Formation of compact myelin is required for maturation of the axonal cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, S. T.; Witt, A. S.; Kirkpatrick, L. L.; de Waegh, S. M.; Readhead, C.; Tu, P. H.; Lee, V. M.

    1999-01-01

    Although traditional roles ascribed to myelinating glial cells are structural and supportive, the importance of compact myelin for proper functioning of the nervous system can be inferred from mutations in myelin proteins and neuropathologies associated with loss of myelin. Myelinating Schwann cells are known to affect local properties of peripheral axons (de Waegh et al., 1992), but little is known about effects of oligodendrocytes on CNS axons. The shiverer mutant mouse has a deletion in the myelin basic protein gene that eliminates compact myelin in the CNS. In shiverer mice, both local axonal features like phosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins and neuronal perikaryon functions like cytoskeletal gene expression are altered. This leads to changes in the organization and composition of the axonal cytoskeleton in shiverer unmyelinated axons relative to age-matched wild-type myelinated fibers, although connectivity and patterns of neuronal activity are comparable. Remarkably, transgenic shiverer mice with thin myelin sheaths display an intermediate phenotype indicating that CNS neurons are sensitive to myelin sheath thickness. These results indicate that formation of a normal compact myelin sheath is required for normal maturation of the neuronal cytoskeleton in large CNS neurons.

  13. Proton hopping: a proposed mechanism for myelinated axon nerve impulses.

    PubMed

    Kier, Lemont B; Tombes, Robert M

    2013-04-01

    Myelinated axon nerve impulses travel 100 times more rapidly than impulses in non-myelinated axons. Increased speed is currently believed to be due to 'hopping' or 'saltatory propagation' along the axon, but the mechanism by which impulses flow has never been adequately explained. We have used modeling approaches to simulate a role for proton hopping in the space between the plasma membrane and myelin sheath as the mechanism of nerve action-potential flow.

  14. Electromagnetic induction between axons and their schwann cell myelin-protein sheaths.

    PubMed

    Goodman, G; Bercovich, D

    2013-12-01

    Two concepts have long dominated vertebrate nerve electrophysiology: (a) Schwann cell-formed myelin sheaths separated by minute non-myelinated nodal gaps and spiraling around axons of peripheral motor nerves reduce current leakage during propagation of trains of axon action potentials; (b) "jumping" by action potentials between successive nodes greatly increases signal conduction velocity. Long-held and more recent assumptions and issues underlying those concepts have been obscured by research emphasis on axon-sheath biochemical symbiosis and nerve regeneration. We hypothesize: mutual electromagnetic induction in the axon-glial sheath association, is fundamental in signal conduction in peripheral and central myelinated axons, explains the g-ratio and is relevant to animal navigation.

  15. Axon-glia interaction and membrane traffic in myelin formation

    PubMed Central

    White, Robin; Krämer-Albers, Eva-Maria

    2014-01-01

    In vertebrate nervous systems myelination of neuronal axons has evolved to increase conduction velocity of electrical impulses with minimal space and energy requirements. Myelin is formed by specialized glial cells which ensheath axons with a lipid-rich insulating membrane. Myelination is a multi-step process initiated by axon-glia recognition triggering glial polarization followed by targeted myelin membrane expansion and compaction. Thereby, a myelin sheath of complex subdomain structure is established. Continuous communication between neurons and glial cells is essential for myelin maintenance and axonal integrity. A diverse group of diseases, from multiple sclerosis to schizophrenia, have been linked to malfunction of myelinating cells reflecting the physiological importance of the axon-glial unit. This review describes the mechanisms of axonal signal integration by oligodendrocytes emphasizing the central role of the Src-family kinase Fyn during central nervous system (CNS) myelination. Furthermore, we discuss myelin membrane trafficking with particular focus on endocytic recycling and the control of proteolipid protein (PLP) transport by soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins. Finally, PLP mistrafficking is considered in the context of myelin diseases. PMID:24431989

  16. Optimal myelin elongation relies on YAP activation by axonal growth and inhibition by Crb3/Hippo pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Ruani N.; Cotter, Laurent; Perrin-Tricaud, Claire; Berthelot, Jade; Bartolami, Sylvain; Pereira, Jorge A.; Gonzalez, Sergio; Suter, Ueli; Tricaud, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Fast nerve conduction relies on successive myelin segments that electrically isolate axons. Segment geometry—diameter and length—is critical for the optimization of nerve conduction and the molecular mechanisms allowing this optimized geometry are partially known. We show here that peripheral myelin elongation is dynamically regulated by stimulation of YAP (Yes-associated protein) transcription cofactor activity during axonal elongation and limited by inhibition of YAP activity via the Hippo pathway. YAP promotes myelin and non-myelin genes transcription while the polarity protein Crb3, localized at the tips of the myelin sheath, activates the Hippo pathway to temper YAP activity, therefore allowing for optimal myelin growth. Dystrophic Dy2j/2j mice mimicking human peripheral neuropathy with reduced internodal lengths have decreased nuclear YAP which, when corrected, leads to longer internodes. These data show a novel mechanism controlling myelin growth and nerve conduction, and provide a molecular ground for disease with short myelin segments. PMID:27435623

  17. Optimal myelin elongation relies on YAP activation by axonal growth and inhibition by Crb3/Hippo pathway.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Ruani N; Cotter, Laurent; Perrin-Tricaud, Claire; Berthelot, Jade; Bartolami, Sylvain; Pereira, Jorge A; Gonzalez, Sergio; Suter, Ueli; Tricaud, Nicolas

    2016-07-20

    Fast nerve conduction relies on successive myelin segments that electrically isolate axons. Segment geometry-diameter and length-is critical for the optimization of nerve conduction and the molecular mechanisms allowing this optimized geometry are partially known. We show here that peripheral myelin elongation is dynamically regulated by stimulation of YAP (Yes-associated protein) transcription cofactor activity during axonal elongation and limited by inhibition of YAP activity via the Hippo pathway. YAP promotes myelin and non-myelin genes transcription while the polarity protein Crb3, localized at the tips of the myelin sheath, activates the Hippo pathway to temper YAP activity, therefore allowing for optimal myelin growth. Dystrophic Dy(2j/2j) mice mimicking human peripheral neuropathy with reduced internodal lengths have decreased nuclear YAP which, when corrected, leads to longer internodes. These data show a novel mechanism controlling myelin growth and nerve conduction, and provide a molecular ground for disease with short myelin segments.

  18. Signals regulating myelination in peripheral nerves and the Schwann cell response to injury

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Thomas D.; Talbot, William S.

    2013-01-01

    In peripheral nerves, Schwann cells form myelin, which facilitates the rapid conduction of action potentials along axons in the vertebrate nervous system. Myelinating Schwann cells are derived from neural crest progenitors in a step-wise process that is regulated by extracellular signals and transcription factors. In addition to forming the myelin sheath, Schwann cells orchestrate much of the regenerative response that occurs after injury to peripheral nerves. In response to injury, myelinating Schwann cells dedifferentiate into repair cells that are essential for axonal regeneration, and then redifferentiate into myelinating Schwann cells to restore nerve function. Although this remarkable plasticity has long been recognized, many questions remain unanswered regarding the signaling pathways regulating both myelination and the Schwann cell response to injury. PMID:23896313

  19. AFM combines functional and morphological analysis of peripheral myelinated and demyelinated nerve fibers.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Alejandro; Bui, Chin Chu; Suter, Ueli; Young, Peter; Schäffer, Tilman E

    2007-10-01

    Demyelination of the myelinated peripheral or central axon is a common pathophysiological step in the clinical manifestation of several human diseases of the peripheral and the central nervous system such as the majority of Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndromes and multiple sclerosis, respectively. The structural degradation of the axon insulating myelin sheath has profound consequences for ionic conduction and nerve function in general, but also affects the micromechanical properties of the nerve fiber. We have for the first time investigated mechanical properties of rehydrated, isolated peripheral nerve fibers from mouse using atomic force microscopy (AFM). We have generated quantitative maps of elastic modulus along myelinated and demyelinated axons, together with quantitative maps of axon topography. This study shows that AFM can combine functional and morphological analysis of neurological tissue at the level of single nerve fibers.

  20. Axonal Transport and Morphology: How Myelination gets Nerves into Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Peter; Zhao, Peng; Monsma, Paula; Brown, Tony

    2011-03-01

    The local caliber of mature axons is largely determined by neurofilament (NF) content. The axoskeleton, mainly consisting of NFs, however, is dynamic. NFs are assembled in the cell body and are transported by molecular motors on microtubule tracks along the axon at a slow rate of fractions of mm per day. We combine live cell fluorescent imaging techniques to access NF transport in myelinated and non-myelinated segments of axons with computational modeling of the active NF flow to show that a), myelination locally slows NF transport rates by regulating duty ratios and b), that the predicted increase in axon caliber agrees well with experiments. This study, for the first time, links NF kinetics directly to axonal morphology, providing a novel conceptual framework for the physical understanding of processes leading to the formation of axonal structures such as the ``Nodes of Ranvier'' as well as abnormal axonal swellings associated with neurodegenerative diseases like Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). NSF grants # IOS-0818412(PJ) and IOS-0818653 (AB).

  1. Peripheral Axons of the Adult Zebrafish Maxillary Barbel Extensively Remyelinate During Sensory Appendage Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Alex C.; Mark, Tiffany E.; Hogan, Ann K.; Topczewski, Jacek; LeClair, Elizabeth E.

    2013-01-01

    Myelination is a cellular adaptation allowing rapid conduction along axons. We have investigated peripheral axons of the zebrafish maxillary barbel (ZMB), an optically clear sensory appendage. Each barbel carries taste buds, solitary chemosensory cells, and epithelial nerve endings, all of which regenerate after amputation (LeClair and Topczewski [2010] PLoS One 5:e8737). The ZMB contains axons from the facial nerve; however, myelination within the barbel itself has not been established. Transcripts of myelin basic protein (mbp) are expressed in normal and regenerating adult barbels, indicating activity in both maintenance and repair. Myelin was confirmed in situ by using toluidine blue, an anti-MBP antibody, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The adult ZMB contains ~180 small-diameter axons (<2 μm), approximately 60% of which are myelinated. Developmental myelination was observed via whole-mount immunohistochemistry 4-6 weeks postfertilization, showing myelin sheaths lagging behind growing axons. Early-regenerating axons (10 days postsurgery), having no or few myelin layers, were disorganized within a fibroblast-rich collagenous scar. Twenty-eight days postsurgery, barbel axons had grown out several millimeters and were organized with compact myelin sheaths. Fiber types and axon areas were similar between normal and regenerated tissue; within 4 weeks, regenerating axons restored ~85% of normal myelin thickness. Regenerating barbels express multiple promyelinating transcription factors (sox10, oct6 = pou3f1; krox20a/b = egr2a/b) typical of Schwann cells. These observations extend our understanding of the zebrafish peripheral nervous system within a little-studied sensory appendage. The accessible ZMB provides a novel context for studying axon regeneration, Schwann cell migration, and remyelination in a model vertebrate. PMID:22592645

  2. Regulating Axonal Responses to Injury: The Intersection between Signaling Pathways Involved in Axon Myelination and The Inhibition of Axon Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sudheendra N R; Pearse, Damien D

    2016-01-01

    Following spinal cord injury (SCI), a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors adversely affect the gene programs that govern the expression of regeneration-associated genes (RAGs) and the production of a diversity of extracellular matrix molecules (ECM). Insufficient RAG expression in the injured neuron and the presence of inhibitory ECM at the lesion, leads to structural alterations in the axon that perturb the growth machinery, or form an extraneous barrier to axonal regeneration, respectively. Here, the role of myelin, both intact and debris, in antagonizing axon regeneration has been the focus of numerous investigations. These studies have employed antagonizing antibodies and knockout animals to examine how the growth cone of the re-growing axon responds to the presence of myelin and myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs) within the lesion environment and caudal spinal cord. However, less attention has been placed on how the myelination of the axon after SCI, whether by endogenous glia or exogenously implanted glia, may alter axon regeneration. Here, we examine the intersection between intracellular signaling pathways in neurons and glia that are involved in axon myelination and axon growth, to provide greater insight into how interrogating this complex network of molecular interactions may lead to new therapeutics targeting SCI.

  3. Regulating Axonal Responses to Injury: The Intersection between Signaling Pathways Involved in Axon Myelination and The Inhibition of Axon Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sudheendra N. R.; Pearse, Damien D.

    2016-01-01

    Following spinal cord injury (SCI), a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors adversely affect the gene programs that govern the expression of regeneration-associated genes (RAGs) and the production of a diversity of extracellular matrix molecules (ECM). Insufficient RAG expression in the injured neuron and the presence of inhibitory ECM at the lesion, leads to structural alterations in the axon that perturb the growth machinery, or form an extraneous barrier to axonal regeneration, respectively. Here, the role of myelin, both intact and debris, in antagonizing axon regeneration has been the focus of numerous investigations. These studies have employed antagonizing antibodies and knockout animals to examine how the growth cone of the re-growing axon responds to the presence of myelin and myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs) within the lesion environment and caudal spinal cord. However, less attention has been placed on how the myelination of the axon after SCI, whether by endogenous glia or exogenously implanted glia, may alter axon regeneration. Here, we examine the intersection between intracellular signaling pathways in neurons and glia that are involved in axon myelination and axon growth, to provide greater insight into how interrogating this complex network of molecular interactions may lead to new therapeutics targeting SCI. PMID:27375427

  4. Study of the Peripheral Nerve Fibers Myelin Structure Changes during Activation of Schwann Cell Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Verdiyan, Ekaterina E.; Allakhverdiev, Elvin S.; Maksimov, Georgy V.

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we consider a new type of mechanism by which neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) regulates the properties of peripheral nerve fibers myelin. Our data show the importance of the relationship between the changes in the number of Schwann cell (SC) acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and the axon excitation (different intervals between action potentials (APs)). Using Raman spectroscopy, an effect of activation of SC AChRs on the myelin membrane fluidity was investigated. It was found, that ACh stimulates an increase in lipid ordering degree of the myelin lipids, thus providing evidence for specific role of the “axon-SC” interactions at the axon excitation. It was proposed, that during the axon excitation, the SC membrane K+- depolarization and the Ca2+—influx led to phospholipase activation or exocytosis of intracellular membrane vesicles and myelin structure reorganization. PMID:27455410

  5. Altered potassium channel distribution and composition in myelinated axons suppresses hyperexcitability following injury

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Margarita; Richards, Natalie; Schmid, Annina B; Barroso, Alejandro; Zhu, Lan; Ivulic, Dinka; Zhu, Ning; Anwandter, Philipp; Bhat, Manzoor A; Court, Felipe A; McMahon, Stephen B; Bennett, David LH

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury is associated with hyperexcitability in damaged myelinated sensory axons, which begins to normalise over time. We investigated the composition and distribution of shaker-type-potassium channels (Kv1 channels) within the nodal complex of myelinated axons following injury. At the neuroma that forms after damage, expression of Kv1.1 and 1.2 (normally localised to the juxtaparanode) was markedly decreased. In contrast Kv1.4 and 1.6, which were hardly detectable in the naïve state, showed increased expression within juxtaparanodes and paranodes following injury, both in rats and humans. Within the dorsal root (a site remote from injury) we noted a redistribution of Kv1-channels towards the paranode. Blockade of Kv1 channels with α-DTX after injury reinstated hyperexcitability of A-fibre axons and enhanced mechanosensitivity. Changes in the molecular composition and distribution of axonal Kv1 channels, therefore represents a protective mechanism to suppress the hyperexcitability of myelinated sensory axons that follows nerve injury. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12661.001 PMID:27033551

  6. Altered potassium channel distribution and composition in myelinated axons suppresses hyperexcitability following injury.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Margarita; Richards, Natalie; Schmid, Annina B; Barroso, Alejandro; Zhu, Lan; Ivulic, Dinka; Zhu, Ning; Anwandter, Philipp; Bhat, Manzoor A; Court, Felipe A; McMahon, Stephen B; Bennett, David L H

    2016-04-19

    Neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury is associated with hyperexcitability in damaged myelinated sensory axons, which begins to normalise over time. We investigated the composition and distribution of shaker-type-potassium channels (Kv1 channels) within the nodal complex of myelinated axons following injury. At the neuroma that forms after damage, expression of Kv1.1 and 1.2 (normally localised to the juxtaparanode) was markedly decreased. In contrast Kv1.4 and 1.6, which were hardly detectable in the naïve state, showed increased expression within juxtaparanodes and paranodes following injury, both in rats and humans. Within the dorsal root (a site remote from injury) we noted a redistribution of Kv1-channels towards the paranode. Blockade of Kv1 channels with α-DTX after injury reinstated hyperexcitability of A-fibre axons and enhanced mechanosensitivity. Changes in the molecular composition and distribution of axonal Kv1 channels, therefore represents a protective mechanism to suppress the hyperexcitability of myelinated sensory axons that follows nerve injury.

  7. Altered potassium channel distribution and composition in myelinated axons suppresses hyperexcitability following injury.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Margarita; Richards, Natalie; Schmid, Annina B; Barroso, Alejandro; Zhu, Lan; Ivulic, Dinka; Zhu, Ning; Anwandter, Philipp; Bhat, Manzoor A; Court, Felipe A; McMahon, Stephen B; Bennett, David L H

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury is associated with hyperexcitability in damaged myelinated sensory axons, which begins to normalise over time. We investigated the composition and distribution of shaker-type-potassium channels (Kv1 channels) within the nodal complex of myelinated axons following injury. At the neuroma that forms after damage, expression of Kv1.1 and 1.2 (normally localised to the juxtaparanode) was markedly decreased. In contrast Kv1.4 and 1.6, which were hardly detectable in the naïve state, showed increased expression within juxtaparanodes and paranodes following injury, both in rats and humans. Within the dorsal root (a site remote from injury) we noted a redistribution of Kv1-channels towards the paranode. Blockade of Kv1 channels with α-DTX after injury reinstated hyperexcitability of A-fibre axons and enhanced mechanosensitivity. Changes in the molecular composition and distribution of axonal Kv1 channels, therefore represents a protective mechanism to suppress the hyperexcitability of myelinated sensory axons that follows nerve injury. PMID:27033551

  8. Integration of engrafted Schwann cells into injured peripheral nerve: axonal association and nodal formation on regenerated axons.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Christine; Akiyama, Yukinori; Lankford, Karen L; Vogt, Peter M; Krause, Diane S; Kocsis, Jeffery D

    2005-10-21

    Transplantation of myelin-forming cells can remyelinate axons, but little is known of the sodium channel organization of axons myelinated by donor cells. Sciatic nerve axons of female wild type mice were transected by a crush injury and Schwann cells (SCs) from green fluorescence protein (GFP)-expressing male mice were transplanted adjacent to the crush site. The male donor cells were identified by GFP fluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for Y chromosome. In nerves of GFP-expressing mice, GFP was observed in the axoplasm and in the cytoplasmic compartments of the Schwann cells, but not in the myelin. Following transplantation of GFP-SCs into crushed nerve of wild type mice, immuno-electron microscopic analysis indicated that GFP was observed in the cytoplasmic compartments of engrafted Schwann cells which formed myelin. Nodal and paranodal regions of the axons myelinated by the GFP-SCs were identified by Na(v)1.6 sodium channel and Caspr immunostaining, respectively. Nuclear identification of the Y chromosome by FISH confirmed the donor origin of the myelin-forming cells. These results indicate that engrafted GFP-SCs participate in myelination of regenerated peripheral nerve fibers and that Na(v)1.6 sodium channel, which is the dominant sodium channel at normal nodes, is reconstituted on the regenerated axons. PMID:16084645

  9. Axon-glia interactions and the domain organization of myelinated axons requires neurexin IV/Caspr/Paranodin.

    PubMed

    Bhat, M A; Rios, J C; Lu, Y; Garcia-Fresco, G P; Ching, W; St Martin, M; Li, J; Einheber, S; Chesler, M; Rosenbluth, J; Salzer, J L; Bellen, H J

    2001-05-01

    Myelinated fibers are organized into distinct domains that are necessary for saltatory conduction. These domains include the nodes of Ranvier and the flanking paranodal regions where glial cells closely appose and form specialized septate-like junctions with axons. These junctions contain a Drosophila Neurexin IV-related protein, Caspr/Paranodin (NCP1). Mice that lack NCP1 exhibit tremor, ataxia, and significant motor paresis. In the absence of NCP1, normal paranodal junctions fail to form, and the organization of the paranodal loops is disrupted. Contactin is undetectable in the paranodes, and K(+) channels are displaced from the juxtaparanodal into the paranodal domains. Loss of NCP1 also results in a severe decrease in peripheral nerve conduction velocity. These results show a critical role for NCP1 in the delineation of specific axonal domains and the axon-glia interactions required for normal saltatory conduction. PMID:11395000

  10. Adenomatous polyposis coli regulates radial axonal sorting and myelination in the PNS.

    PubMed

    Elbaz, Benayahu; Traka, Maria; Kunjamma, Rejani B; Dukala, Danuta; Brosius Lutz, Amanda; Anton, E S; Barres, Ben A; Soliven, Betty; Popko, Brian

    2016-07-01

    The tumor suppressor protein adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is multifunctional - it participates in the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction pathway as well as modulating cytoskeleton function. Although APC is expressed by Schwann cells, the role that it plays in these cells and in the myelination of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is unknown. Therefore, we used the Cre-lox approach to generate a mouse model in which APC expression is specifically eliminated from Schwann cells. These mice display hindlimb weakness and impaired axonal conduction in sciatic nerves. Detailed morphological analyses revealed that APC loss delays radial axonal sorting and PNS myelination. Furthermore, APC loss delays Schwann cell differentiation in vivo, which correlates with persistent activation of the Wnt signaling pathway and results in perturbed extension of Schwann cell processes and disrupted lamellipodia formation. In addition, APC-deficient Schwann cells display a transient diminution of proliferative capacity. Our data indicate that APC is required by Schwann cells for their timely differentiation to mature, myelinating cells and plays a crucial role in radial axonal sorting and PNS myelination.

  11. Changes in microtubule stability and density in myelin-deficient shiverer mouse CNS axons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, L. L.; Witt, A. S.; Payne, H. R.; Shine, H. D.; Brady, S. T.

    2001-01-01

    Altered axon-Schwann cell interactions in PNS myelin-deficient Trembler mice result in changed axonal transport rates, neurofilament and microtubule-associated protein phosphorylation, neurofilament density, and microtubule stability. To determine whether PNS and CNS myelination have equivalent effects on axons, neurofilaments, and microtubules in CNS, myelin-deficient shiverer axons were examined. The genetic defect in shiverer is a deletion in the myelin basic protein (MBP) gene, an essential component of CNS myelin. As a result, shiverer mice have little or no compact CNS myelin. Slow axonal transport rates in shiverer CNS axons were significantly increased, in contrast to the slowing in demyelinated PNS nerves. Even more striking were substantial changes in the composition and properties of microtubules in shiverer CNS axons. The density of axonal microtubules is increased, reflecting increased expression of tubulin in shiverer, and the stability of microtubules is drastically reduced in shiverer axons. Shiverer transgenic mice with two copies of a wild-type myelin basic protein transgene have an intermediate level of compact myelin, making it possible to determine whether the actual level of compact myelin is an important regulator of axonal microtubules. Both increased microtubule density and reduced microtubule stability were still observed in transgenic mouse nerves, indicating that signals beyond synaptogenesis and the mere presence of compact myelin are required for normal regulation of the axonal microtubule cytoskeleton.

  12. Genome-wide analysis of EGR2/SOX10 binding in myelinating peripheral nerve

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Rajini; Sun, Guannan; Keles, Sunduz; Jones, Erin A.; Jang, Sung-Wook; Krueger, Courtney; Moran, John J.; Svaren, John

    2012-01-01

    Myelin is essential for the rapidity of saltatory nerve conduction, and also provides trophic support for axons to prevent axonal degeneration. Two critical determinants of myelination are SOX10 and EGR2/KROX20. SOX10 is required for specification of Schwann cells from neural crest, and is required at every stage of Schwann cell development. Egr2/Krox20 expression is activated by axonal signals in myelinating Schwann cells, and is required for cell cycle arrest and myelin formation. To elucidate the integrated function of these two transcription factors during peripheral nerve myelination, we performed in vivo ChIP-Seq analysis of myelinating peripheral nerve. Integration of these binding data with loss-of-function array data identified a range of genes regulated by these factors. In addition, although SOX10 itself regulates Egr2/Krox20 expression, leading to coordinate activation of several major myelin genes by the two factors, there is a large subset of genes that are activated independent of EGR2. Finally, the results identify a set of SOX10-dependent genes that are expressed in early Schwann cell development, but become subsequently repressed by EGR2/KROX20. PMID:22492709

  13. White matter involvement after TBI: Clues to axon and myelin repair capacity.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Regina C; Mierzwa, Amanda J; Marion, Christina M; Sullivan, Genevieve M

    2016-01-01

    Impact-acceleration forces to the head cause traumatic brain injury (TBI) with damage in white matter tracts comprised of long axons traversing the brain. White matter injury after TBI involves both traumatic axonal injury (TAI) and myelin pathology that evolves throughout the post-injury time course. The axon response to initial mechanical forces and secondary insults follows the process of Wallerian degeneration, which initiates as a potentially reversible phase of intra-axonal damage and proceeds to an irreversible phase of axon fragmentation. Distal to sites of axon disconnection, myelin sheaths remain for prolonged periods, which may activate neuroinflammation and inhibit axon regeneration. In addition to TAI, TBI can cause demyelination of intact axons. These evolving features of axon and myelin pathology also represent opportunities for repair. In experimental TBI, demyelinated axons exhibit remyelination, which can serve to both protect axons and facilitate recovery of function. Myelin remodeling may also contribute to neuroplasticity. Efficient clearance of myelin debris is a potential target to attenuate the progression of chronic pathology. During the early phase of Wallerian degeneration, interventions that prevent the transition from reversible damage to axon disconnection warrant the highest priority, based on the poor regenerative capacity of axons in the CNS. Clinical evaluation of TBI will need to address the challenge of accurately detecting the extent and stage of axon damage. Distinguishing the complex white matter changes associated with axons and myelin is necessary for interpreting advanced neuroimaging approaches and for identifying a broader range of therapeutic opportunities to improve outcome after TBI.

  14. Axonal and Periaxonal Swelling Precede Peripheral Neurodegeneration in KCC3 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Nellie; Delpire, Eric

    2007-01-01

    We have previously reported CNS and locomotor deficits in KCC3 knockout mice, an animal model of agenesis of the corpus callosum associated with peripheral neuropathy (ACCPN) (Howard, et al., 2002)). To assess the role of KCC3 in peripheral axon and/or myelin development and maintenance, we determined its expression and performed a detailed morphometric analysis of sciatic nerves. Sciatic nerves of juvenile wild-type mice, but not in adult, express KCC3. In the knockout, Schwann cell/myelin development appears normal at P3, but axons are swollen. At P8 and into P30, some fibers accumulate fluid periaxonally. These initial swelling pathologies are followed by myelin degeneration in adult nerves, leading to reduction in nerve conduction velocity. Mutant mice also exhibit decreased sensitivity to noxious pain. This evidence for swollen axons and fluid-related axonopathy, which ultimately result in neurodegeneration, implicates cell volume regulation as a critical component of peripheral nerve maintenance. PMID:17659877

  15. An essential role of MAG in mediating axon-myelin attachment in Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A disease

    PubMed Central

    Kinter, Jochen; Lazzati, Thomas; Schmid, Daniela; Zeis, Thomas; Erne, Beat; Lützelschwab, Roland; Steck, Andreas J.; Pareyson, Davide; Peles, Elior; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is a hereditary demyelinating peripheral neuropathy caused by the duplication of the PMP22 gene. Demyelination precedes the occurrence of clinical symptoms that correlate with axonal degeneration. It was postulated that a disturbed axon-glia interface contribute to altered myelination consequently leading to axonal degeneration. In this study, we examined the expression of MAG and Necl4, two critical adhesion molecules that are present at the axon-glia interface, in sural nerve biopsies of CMT1A patients and in peripheral nerves of mice overexpressing human PMP22, an animal model for CMT1A. We show an increase in the expression of MAG and a strong decrease of Necl4 in biopsies of CMT1A patients as well as in CMT1A mice. Expression analysis revealed that MAG is strongly upregulated during peripheral nerve maturation, whereas Necl4 expression remains very low. Ablating MAG in CMT1A mice results in separation of axons from their myelin sheath. Our data show that MAG is important for axon-glia contact in a model for CMT1A, and suggest that its increased expression in CMT1A disease has a compensatory role in the pathology of the disease. Thus, we demonstrate that MAG together with other adhesion molecules such as Necl4 is important in sustaining axonal integrity. PMID:22940629

  16. Neuroactive steroids and peripheral myelin proteins.

    PubMed

    Magnaghi, V; Cavarretta, I; Galbiati, M; Martini, L; Melcangi, R C

    2001-11-01

    The present review summarizes observations obtained in our laboratories which underline the importance of neuroactive steroids (i.e., progesterone (PROG), dihydroprogesterone (5alpha-DH PROG), tetrahydroprogesterone (3alpha, 5alpha-TH PROG), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5alpha-androstan-3alpha,17beta-diol (3alpha-diol)) in the control of the gene expression of myelin proteins (i.e. glycoprotein Po (Po) and the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22)) in the peripheral nervous system. Utilizing different in vivo (aged and adult male rats) and in vitro (Schwann cell cultures) experimental models, we have observed that neuroactive steroids are able to stimulate the mRNA levels of Po and PMP22. The effects of these neuroactive steroids, which are able to interact with classical (progesterone receptor, PR, and androgen receptor, AR) and non-classical (GABA(A) receptor) steroid receptors is further supported by our demonstration in sciatic nerve and/or Schwann cells of the presence of these receptors. On the basis of the observations obtained in the Schwann cells cultures, we suggest that the stimulatory effect of neuroactive steroids on Po is acting through PR, while that on PMP22 needs the GABA(A) receptor. The present findings might be of importance for the utilization of specific receptor ligands as new therapeutical approaches for the rebuilding of the peripheral myelin, particularly in those situations in which the synthesis of Po and PMP22 is altered (i.e. demyelinating diseases like Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A and type 1B, hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and the Déjérine-Sottas syndrome, aging, and after peripheral injury). PMID:11744100

  17. Enhanced Action Potential Passage Through the Node of Ranvier of Myelinated Axons via Proton Hopping.

    PubMed

    Kier, Lemont; Hall, Lowell; Tombes, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Nerve impulses travel along myelinated axons as much as 300-fold faster than they do along unmyelinated axons. Myelination is essential for normal nervous system behavior in vertebrates as illustrated by leukodystrophies, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or multiple sclerosis (MS), where myelin is degenerated or damaged. The increased conduction velocity that occurs in myelinated axons is dependent on gaps in the myelin called Nodes of Ranvier that are enriched in ion channels. These Nodes are separated by long stretches of myelin insulation where no transmembrane ion conductance occurs. It is believed that the action potential jumps or skips between nodes, conserving its information content, while maintaining its speed. In this study, a model is presented that implicates Nodes of Ranvier as responsible for regenerating the proton hopping that is responsible for nerve impulse conductance in myelinated axons.

  18. Uncompacted myelin lamellae in peripheral nerve biopsy.

    PubMed

    Vital, Claude; Vital, Anne; Bouillot, Sandrine; Favereaux, Alexandre; Lagueny, Alain; Ferrer, Xavier; Brechenmacher, Christiane; Petry, Klaus G

    2003-01-01

    Since 1979, the authors have studied 49 peripheral nerve biopsies presenting uncompacted myelin lamellae (UML). Based on the ultrastructural pattern of UML they propose a 3-category classification. The first category includes cases displaying regular UML, which was observed in 43 cases; it was more frequent in 9 cases with polyneuropathy organomegaly endocrinopathy m-protein skin changes (POEMS) syndrome as well as in 1 case of Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B with a novel point mutation in the P0 gene. The second category consists of cases showing irregular UML, observed in 4 cases with IgM monoclonal gammopathy and anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) activity. This group included 1 benign case and 3 B-cell malignant lymphomas. The third category is complex UML, which was present in 2 unrelated patients with an Arg 98 His missense mutation in the P0 protein gene. Irregular and complex UML are respectively related to MAG and P0, which play a crucial role in myelin lamellae compaction and adhesion.

  19. Localization of Caspr2 in myelinated nerves depends on axon-glia interactions and the generation of barriers along the axon.

    PubMed

    Poliak, S; Gollan, L; Salomon, D; Berglund, E O; Ohara, R; Ranscht, B; Peles, E

    2001-10-01

    Cell recognition proteins of the contactin-associated protein (Caspr) family demarcate distinct domains along myelinated axons. Caspr is present at the paranodal junction formed between the axon and myelinating glial cells, whereas Caspr2 is localized and associates with K(+) channels at the adjacent juxtaparanodal region. Here we investigated the distribution of Caspr2 during development of peripheral nerves of normal and galactolipids-deficient [ceramide galactosyl transferase (CGT)-/-] mice. This mutant exhibits paranodal abnormalities, lacking all putative adhesion components of this junction, including Caspr, contactin, and neurofascin 155. In sciatic nerves of this mutant, Caspr2 was not found at the juxtaparanodal region but was concentrated instead at the paranodes with Kv1.2. Similar distribution of Caspr2 was found in the PNS of contactin knock-out mice, which also lack Caspr in their paranodes. During development of wild-type peripheral nerves, Caspr2 and Kv1.2 were initially detected at the paranodes before relocating to the adjacent juxtaparanodal region. This transition was not observed in CGT mice, where Caspr2 and Kv1.2 remained paranodal. Double labeling for Caspr and Caspr2 demonstrated that these two related proteins occupied mutually excluding domains along the axon and revealed the presence of both paranodal and internodal barrier-like structures that are delineated by Caspr. Finally, we found that the disruption of axon-glia contact in CGT-/- nerves also affects the localization of the cytoskeleton-associated protein 4.1B along the axon. Altogether, our results reveal a sequential appearance of members of the Caspr family at different domains along myelinated axons and suggest that the localization of Caspr2 may be controlled by the generation of Caspr-containing barriers along the axon. PMID:11567047

  20. Akt Regulates Axon Wrapping and Myelin Sheath Thickness in the PNS

    PubMed Central

    Baloui, Hasna; Meng, Xiaosong; Zhang, Yanqing; Deinhardt, Katrin; Dupree, Jeff L.; Einheber, Steven; Chrast, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The signaling pathways that regulate myelination in the PNS remain poorly understood. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase 1A, activated in Schwann cells by neuregulin and the extracellular matrix, has an essential role in the early events of myelination. Akt/PKB, a key effector of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase 1A, was previously implicated in CNS, but not PNS myelination. Here we demonstrate that Akt plays a crucial role in axon ensheathment and in the regulation of myelin sheath thickness in the PNS. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt in DRG neuron-Schwann cell cocultures dramatically decreased MBP and P0 levels and myelin sheath formation without affecting expression of Krox20/Egr2, a key transcriptional regulator of myelination. Conversely, expression of an activated form of Akt in purified Schwann cells increased expression of myelin proteins, but not Krox20/Egr2, and the levels of activated Rac1. Transgenic mice expressing a membrane-targeted, activated form of Akt under control of the 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase promoter, exhibited thicker PNS and CNS myelin sheaths, and PNS myelin abnormalities, such as tomacula and myelin infoldings/outfoldings, centered around the paranodes and Schmidt Lanterman incisures. These effects were corrected by rapamycin treatment in vivo. Importantly, Akt activity in the transgenic mice did not induce myelination of nonmyelinating Schwann cells in the sympathetic trunk or Remak fibers of the dorsal roots, although, in those structures, they wrapped membranes redundantly around axons. Together, our data indicate that Akt is crucial for PNS myelination driving axonal wrapping by unmyelinated and myelinated Schwann cells and enhancing myelin protein synthesis in myelinating Schwann cells. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although the role of the key serine/threonine kinase Akt in promoting CNS myelination has been demonstrated, its role in the PNS has not been established and remains

  1. Axonal activity-dependent myelination in development: Insights for myelin repair.

    PubMed

    Mitew, Stanislaw; Xing, Yao Lulu; Merson, Tobias D

    2016-10-01

    Recent advances in transgenic tools have allowed us to peek into the earliest stages of vertebrate development to study axon-glial communication in the control of peri-natal myelination. The emerging role of neuronal activity in regulating oligodendrocyte progenitor cell behavior during developmental myelination has opened up an exciting possibility-a role for neuronal activity in the early stages of remyelination. Recent work from our laboratory and others has also shown that contrary to previously established dogma in the field, complete remyelination up to pre-demyelination levels can be achieved in mouse models of MS by oligodendrogenic neural precursor cells that derive from the adult subventricular zone. These cells are electrically active and can be depolarized, suggesting that neuronal activity may have a modulatory role in their development and remyelination potential. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the development of axon-glia communication and apply those same concepts to remyelination, with an emphasis on the particular roles of different sources of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells.

  2. Neutron scattering studies on protein dynamics using the human myelin peripheral membrane protein P2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laulumaa, Saara; Kursula, Petri; Natali, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Myelin is a multilayered proteolipid membrane structure surrounding selected axons in the vertebrate nervous system, which allows the rapid saltatory conduction of nerve impulses. Deficits in myelin formation and maintenance may lead to chronic neurological disease. P2 is an abundant myelin protein from peripheral nerves, binding between two apposing lipid bilayers. We studied the dynamics of the human myelin protein P2 and its mutated P38G variant in hydrated powders using elastic incoherent neutron scattering. The local harmonic vibrations at low temperatures were very similar for both samples, but the mutant protein had increased flexibility and softness close to physiological temperatures. The results indicate that a drastic mutation of proline to glycine at a functional site can affect protein dynamics, and in the case of P2, they may explain functional differences between the two proteins.

  3. Distinct profiles of myelin distribution along single axons of pyramidal neurons in the neocortex.

    PubMed

    Tomassy, Giulio Srubek; Berger, Daniel R; Chen, Hsu-Hsin; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Hayworth, Kenneth J; Vercelli, Alessandro; Seung, H Sebastian; Lichtman, Jeff W; Arlotta, Paola

    2014-04-18

    Myelin is a defining feature of the vertebrate nervous system. Variability in the thickness of the myelin envelope is a structural feature affecting the conduction of neuronal signals. Conversely, the distribution of myelinated tracts along the length of axons has been assumed to be uniform. Here, we traced high-throughput electron microscopy reconstructions of single axons of pyramidal neurons in the mouse neocortex and built high-resolution maps of myelination. We find that individual neurons have distinct longitudinal distribution of myelin. Neurons in the superficial layers displayed the most diversified profiles, including a new pattern where myelinated segments are interspersed with long, unmyelinated tracts. Our data indicate that the profile of longitudinal distribution of myelin is an integral feature of neuronal identity and may have evolved as a strategy to modulate long-distance communication in the neocortex.

  4. Flipping the transcriptional switch from myelin inhibition to axon growth in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Carmel, Jason B.; Young, Wise; Hart, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Poor regeneration of severed axons in the central nervous system (CNS) limits functional recovery. Regeneration failure involves interplay of inhibitory environmental elements and the growth state of the neuron. To find internal changes in gene expression that might overcome inhibitory environmental cues, we compared several paradigms that allow growth in the inhibitory environment. Conditions that allow axon growth by axotomized and cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons on CNS myelin include immaturity (the first few postnatal days), high levels of cyclic adenosine mono phosphate (cAMP), and conditioning with a peripheral nerve lesion before explant. This shift from inhibition to growth depends on transcription. Seeking to understand the transcriptome changes that allow axon growth in the CNS, we collaborated with the Marie Filbin laboratory to identify several mRNAs that are functionally relevant, as determined by gain- and loss-of-function studies. In this Perspective, we review evidence from these experiments and discuss the merits of comparing multiple regenerative paradigms to identify a core transcriptional program for CNS axon regeneration. PMID:26236189

  5. Hematopoietic progenitors express myelin basic protein and ensheath axons in Shiverer brain.

    PubMed

    Goolsby, James; Makar, Tapas; Dhib-Jalbut, Suhayl; Bever, Christopher T; Pessac, Bernard; Trisler, David

    2013-04-15

    Oligodendroglia are cells of the central nervous system (CNS) that form myelin sheath, which insulates neuronal axons. Neuropathologies of the CNS include dysmyelination of axons in multiple sclerosis and CNS trauma. Cell replacement is a promising but largely untested therapy for dysmyelination. Shiverer mouse, a genetic mutant that does not synthesize full-length myelin basic protein (MBP), a critical prerequisite protein in CNS myelin sheath formation, provides an unequivocal model for determining the potential of stem cells to become oligodendroglia. We demonstrate that adult wild-type mouse bone marrow stem cells can express MBP and ensheath axons when transplanted into Shiverer brain.

  6. Abnormal morphology of myelin and axon pathology in murine models of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bando, Yoshio; Nomura, Taichi; Bochimoto, Hiroki; Murakami, Koichi; Tanaka, Tatsuhide; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Shigetaka

    2015-02-01

    Demyelination and axonal damage are responsible for neurological deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. However, the pathology of axonal damage in MS is not fully understood. In this study, histological analysis of morphological changes of axonal organelles during demyelination in murine models was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using an osmium-maceration method. In cuprizone-induced demyelination, SEM showed typical morphology of demyelination in the corpus callosum of mouse brain. In contrast, SEM displayed variations in ultrastructural abnormalities of myelin structures and axonal organelles in spinal cord white matter of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice, an animal model of MS. Myelin detachment and excessive myelin formation were observed as typical morphological myelin abnormalities in EAE. In addition, well-developed axoplasmic reticulum-like structures and accumulated mitochondria were observed in tortuous degenerating/degenerated axons and the length of mitochondria in axons of EAE spinal cord was shorter compared with naïve spinal cord. Immunohistochemistry also revealed dysfunction of mitochondrial fusion/fission machinery in EAE spinal cord axons. Moreover, the number of Y-shaped mitochondria was significantly increased in axons of the EAE spinal cord. Axonal morphologies in myelin basic protein-deficient shiverer mice were similar to those in EAE. However, shiverer mice had "tortuous" (S-curve shaped mitochondria) and larger mitochondria compared with wild-type and EAE mice. Lastly, analysis of human MS patient autopsied brains also demonstrated abnormal myelin structures in demyelinating lesions. These results indicate that morphological abnormalities of myelin and axonal organelles play important role on the pathogenesis of axonal injury in demyelinating diseases.

  7. Systematic and differential myelination of axon collaterals in the mammalian auditory brainstem.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Armin H; Rubel, Edwin W

    2016-04-01

    A brainstem circuit for encoding the spatial location of sounds involves neurons in the cochlear nucleus that project to medial superior olivary (MSO) neurons on both sides of the brain via a single bifurcating axon. Neurons in MSO act as coincidence detectors, responding optimally when signals from the two ears arrive within a few microseconds. To achieve this, transmission of signals along the contralateral collateral must be faster than transmission of the same signals along the ipsilateral collateral. We demonstrate that this is achieved by differential regulation of myelination and axon caliber along the ipsilateral and contralateral branches of single axons; ipsilateral axon branches have shorter internode lengths and smaller caliber than contralateral branches. The myelination difference is established prior to the onset of hearing. We conclude that this differential myelination and axon caliber requires local interactions between axon collaterals and surrounding oligodendrocytes on the two sides of the brainstem.

  8. Myelin Lipids Inhibit Axon Regeneration Following Spinal Cord Injury: a Novel Perspective for Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mar, Fernando M; da Silva, Tiago F; Morgado, Marlene M; Rodrigues, Lorena G; Rodrigues, Daniel; Pereira, Marta I L; Marques, Ana; Sousa, Vera F; Coentro, João; Sá-Miranda, Clara; Sousa, Mónica M; Brites, Pedro

    2016-03-01

    Lack of axon regeneration following spinal cord injury has been mainly ascribed to the inhibitory environment of the injury site, i.e., to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs). Here, we used shiverer (shi) mice to assess axon regeneration following spinal cord injury in the presence of MAIs and CSPG but in the absence of compact myelin. Although in vitro shi neurons displayed a similar intrinsic neurite outgrowth to wild-type neurons, in vivo, shi fibers had increased regenerative capacity, suggesting that the wild-type spinal cord contains additional inhibitors besides MAIs and CSPG. Our data show that besides myelin protein, myelin lipids are highly inhibitory for neurite outgrowth and suggest that this inhibitory effect is released in the shi spinal cord given its decreased lipid content. Specifically, we identified cholesterol and sphingomyelin as novel myelin-associated inhibitors that operate through a Rho-dependent mechanism and have inhibitory activity in multiple neuron types. We further demonstrated the inhibitory action of myelin lipids in vivo, by showing that delivery of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, a drug that reduces the levels of lipids specifically in the injury site, leads to increased axon regeneration of wild-type (WT) dorsal column axons following spinal cord injury. In summary, our work shows that myelin lipids are important modulators of axon regeneration that should be considered together with protein MAIs as critical targets in strategies aiming at improving axonal growth following injury.

  9. Parameter exploration of staircase-shape extracellular stimulation for targeted stimulation of myelinated axon.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Ayako; Karashima, Akihiro; Nakao, Mitsuyuki; Katayama, Norihiro

    2011-01-01

    Spatio-temporal dynamics of a mathematical model of myelinated axon in response to staircase-shape extracellular electrical stimulation, which was developed for selective nerve stimulation, is investigated by the computer simulation. It is shown that the response is classified into four types: subthreshold response, cathodic excitation, anodal block and anodal break excitation. Based on the simulation results, simple diagrams representing the response characteristics of the axon are constructed as functions of stimulation parameters and distance between the axon and electrode. The diagram would be useful for determining simulation parameters for dynamic targeted stimulation of myelinated axon. PMID:22254459

  10. Axonal transport disruption in peripheral nerve disease

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative diseases and neuropathies have been proposed to be caused by a disruption of axonal transport. However, the mechanisms whereby impaired transport causes disease remain unclear. Proposed mechanisms include impairment in delivery of organelles such as mitochondria, defective retrograde neurotrophic signaling, and disruption of the synaptic vesicle cycle within the synaptic terminal. Simple model organisms such as the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, allow live imaging of axonal transport to be combined with high-throughput genetic screens and are providing insights into the pathophysiology of peripheral nerve diseases. PMID:23279432

  11. A role of peripheral myelin protein 2 in lipid homeostasis of myelinating Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Zenker, Jennifer; Stettner, Mark; Ruskamo, Salla; Domènech-Estévez, Enric; Baloui, Hasna; Médard, Jean-Jacques; Verheijen, Mark H G; Brouwers, Jos F; Kursula, Petri; Kieseier, Bernd C; Chrast, Roman

    2014-09-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 2 (Pmp2, P2 or Fabp8), a member of the fatty acid binding protein family, was originally described together with myelin basic protein (Mbp or P1) and myelin protein zero (Mpz or P0) as one of the most abundant myelin proteins in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Although Pmp2 is predominantly expressed in myelinated Schwann cells, its role in glia is currently unknown. To study its function in PNS biology, we have generated a complete Pmp2 knockout mouse (Pmp2(-/-) ). Comprehensive characterization of Pmp2(-/-) mice revealed a temporary reduction in their motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV). While this change was not accompanied by any defects in general myelin structure, we detected transitory alterations in the myelin lipid profile of Pmp2(-/-) mice. It was previously proposed that Pmp2 and Mbp have comparable functions in the PNS suggesting that the presence of Mbp can partially mask the Pmp2(-/-) phenotype. Indeed, we found that Mbp lacking Shi(-/-) mice, similar to Pmp2(-/-) animals, have preserved myelin structure and reduced MNCV, but this phenotype was not aggravated in Pmp2(-/-) /Shi(-/-) mutants indicating that Pmp2 and Mbp do not substitute each other's functions in the PNS. These data, together with our observation that Pmp2 binds and transports fatty acids to membranes, uncover a role for Pmp2 in lipid homeostasis of myelinating Schwann cells.

  12. A large fraction of neocortical myelin ensheathes axons of local inhibitory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Micheva, Kristina D; Wolman, Dylan; Mensh, Brett D; Pax, Elizabeth; Buchanan, JoAnn; Smith, Stephen J; Bock, Davi D

    2016-01-01

    Myelin is best known for its role in increasing the conduction velocity and metabolic efficiency of long-range excitatory axons. Accordingly, the myelin observed in neocortical gray matter is thought to mostly ensheath excitatory axons connecting to subcortical regions and distant cortical areas. Using independent analyses of light and electron microscopy data from mouse neocortex, we show that a surprisingly large fraction of cortical myelin (half the myelin in layer 2/3 and a quarter in layer 4) ensheathes axons of inhibitory neurons, specifically of parvalbumin-positive basket cells. This myelin differs significantly from that of excitatory axons in distribution and protein composition. Myelin on inhibitory axons is unlikely to meaningfully hasten the arrival of spikes at their pre-synaptic terminals, due to the patchy distribution and short path-lengths observed. Our results thus highlight the need for exploring alternative roles for myelin in neocortical circuits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15784.001 PMID:27383052

  13. Disposition of axonal caspr with respect to glial cell membranes: Implications for the process of myelination.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Liliana; Huang, Jeffrey K; Colman, David

    2009-11-15

    Neurofascin-155 (NF155) and caspr are transmembrane proteins found at discrete locations early during development of the nervous system. NF155 is present in the oligodendrocyte cell body and processes, whereas caspr is on the axonal surface. In mature nerves, these proteins are clustered at paranodes, flanking the node of Ranvier. To understand how NF155 and caspr become localized to the paranodal regions of myelinated nerves, we have studied their distribution over time in myelinating cultures. Our observations indicate that these two proteins are recruited to the cell surface at the contact zone between axons and oligodendrocytes, where they trans-interact. This association explains the early pattern of caspr distribution, a helical coil that winds around the axon, resembling the turns of the myelin sheath. Caspr, an axonal membrane protein, therefore seems to move in register with the overlying myelinating cell via its interactions with myelin proteins. We suggest that NF155 is the glial cell membrane protein responsible for caspr distribution. The pair act as interacting partners on either side of the axoglial contact area. Most likely, there are other proteins on the axonal surface whose distribution is equally influenced by interaction with the nascent myelin sheath. The fact that caspr follows the movement of the spiraling membrane has a direct affect on the interpretation of the way in which myelin is formed. PMID:19170162

  14. Depth-sensing nano-indentation on a myelinated axon at various stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Chin; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Lin, Chou-Ching K.; Ju, Ming-Shaung

    2011-07-01

    A nano-mechanical characterization of a multi-layered myelin sheath structure, which enfolds an axon and plays a critical role in the transmission of nerve impulses, is conducted. Schwann cells co-cultured in vitro with PC12 cells for various co-culture times are differentiated to form a myelinated axon, which is then observed using a transmission electron microscope. Three major myelination stages, with distinct structural characteristics and thicknesses around the axon, can be produced by varying the co-culture time. A dynamic contact module and continuous depth-sensing nano-indentation are used on the myelinated structure to obtain the load-on-sample versus measured displacement curve of a multi-layered myelin sheath, which is used to determine the work required for the nano-indentation tip to penetrate the myelin sheath. By analyzing the harmonic contact stiffness versus the measured displacement profile, the results can be used to estimate the three stages of the multi-layered structure on a myelinated axon. The method can also be used to evaluate the development stages of myelination or demyelination during nerve regeneration.

  15. Insulin influenced expression of myelin proteins in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rachana, Kuruvanthe S; Manu, Mallahalli S; Advirao, Gopal M

    2016-08-26

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the downstream complications of diabetes. This complication is caused by the deficiency of insulin action and subsequent hyperglycemia, but the details of their pathogenesis remain unclear. Hence, it is of critical importance to understand how such hormonal variation affects the expression of myelin proteins such as myelin basic protein (MBP) and myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) in the peripheral nerve. An earlier report from our lab has demonstrated the expression of insulin receptors (IR) in Schwann cells (SCs) of sciatic nerve. To assess the neurotrophic role of insulin in diabetic neuropathy, we studied the expression of these myelin proteins under control, DPN and insulin treated DPN subjects at developmental stages. Further, the expression of these myelin proteins was correlated with the expression of insulin receptor. Expression of myelin proteins was significantly reduced in the diabetic model compared to normal, and upregulated in insulin treated diabetic rats. Similarly, an in vitro study was also carried out in SCs grown at high glucose and insulin treated conditions. The expression pattern of myelin proteins in SCs was comparable to that of in vivo samples. In addition, quantitative study of myelin genes by real time PCR has also showed the significant expression pattern change in the insulin treated and non-treated DPN subjects. Taken together, these results corroborate the critical importance of insulin as a neurotrophic factor in demyelinized neurons in diabetic neuropathy.

  16. Tuning of Ranvier node and internode properties in myelinated axons to adjust action potential timing

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Marc C.; Alexandrova, Olga; Cossell, Lee; Stange-Marten, Annette; Sinclair, James; Kopp-Scheinpflug, Conny; Pecka, Michael; Attwell, David; Grothe, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    Action potential timing is fundamental to information processing; however, its determinants are not fully understood. Here we report unexpected structural specializations in the Ranvier nodes and internodes of auditory brainstem axons involved in sound localization. Myelination properties deviated significantly from the traditionally assumed structure. Axons responding best to low-frequency sounds had a larger diameter than high-frequency axons but, surprisingly, shorter internodes. Simulations predicted that this geometry helps to adjust the conduction velocity and timing of action potentials within the circuit. Electrophysiological recordings in vitro and in vivo confirmed higher conduction velocities in low-frequency axons. Moreover, internode length decreased and Ranvier node diameter increased progressively along the distal axon segments, which simulations show was essential to ensure precisely timed depolarization of the giant calyx of Held presynaptic terminal. Thus, individual anatomical parameters of myelinated axons can be tuned to optimize pathways involved in temporal processing. PMID:26305015

  17. Axonal selection and myelin sheath generation in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Simons, Mikael; Lyons, David A

    2013-08-01

    The formation of myelin in the central nervous system is a multi-step process that involves coordinated cell-cell interactions and dramatic changes in plasma membrane architecture. First, oligodendrocytes send our numerous highly ramified processes to sample the axonal environment and decide which axon(s) to select for myelination. After this decision is made and individual axon to oligodendrocyte contact has been established, the exploratory process of the oligodendrocyte is converted into a flat sheath that spreads and winds along and around its associated axon to generate a multilayered membrane stack. By compaction of the opposing extracellular layers of membrane and extrusion of almost all cytoplasm from the intracellular domain of the sheath, the characteristic membrane-rich multi-lamellar structure of myelin is formed. Here we highlight recent advances in identifying biophysical and signalling based mechanisms that are involved in axonal selection and myelin sheath generation by oligodendrocytes. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying these events is a prerequisite for the design of novel myelin repair strategies in demyelinating and dysmyelinating diseases.

  18. The myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein directly binds nerve growth factor to modulate central axon circuitry.

    PubMed

    von Büdingen, H-Christian; Mei, Feng; Greenfield, Ariele; Jahn, Sarah; Shen, Yun-An A; Reid, Hugh H; McKemy, David D; Chan, Jonah R

    2015-09-14

    Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a central nervous system myelin-specific molecule expressed on the outer lamellae of myelin. To date, the exact function of MOG has remained unknown, with MOG knockout mice displaying normal myelin ultrastructure and no apparent specific phenotype. In this paper, we identify nerve growth factor (NGF) as a binding partner for MOG and demonstrate that this interaction is capable of sequestering NGF from TrkA-expressing neurons to modulate axon growth and survival. Deletion of MOG results in aberrant sprouting of nociceptive neurons in the spinal cord. Binding of NGF to MOG may offer widespread implications into mechanisms that underlie pain pathways.

  19. Myelination and nodal formation of regenerated peripheral nerve fibers following transplantation of acutely prepared olfactory ensheathing cells.

    PubMed

    Dombrowski, Mary A; Sasaki, Masanori; Lankford, Karen L; Kocsis, Jeffery D; Radtke, Christine

    2006-12-13

    Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) into injured spinal cord results in improved functional outcome. Mechanisms suggested to account for this functional improvement include axonal regeneration, remyelination and neuroprotection. OECs transplanted into transected peripheral nerve have been shown to modify peripheral axonal regeneration and functional outcome. However, little is known of the detailed integration of OECs at the transplantation site in peripheral nerve. To address this issue, cell populations enriched in OECs were isolated from the olfactory bulbs of adult green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing transgenic rats and transplanted into a sciatic nerve crush lesion which transects all axons. Five weeks to 6 months after transplantation, the nerves were studied histologically. GFP-expressing OECs survived in the lesion and distributed longitudinally across the lesion zone. The internodal regions of individual teased fibers distal to the transection site were characterized by GFP expression in the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments of cells surrounding the axons. Immunoelectron microscopy for GFP indicated that the transplanted OECs formed peripheral type myelin. Immunostaining for sodium channel and Caspr revealed a high density of Na(v)1.6 at the newly formed nodes of Ranvier which were flanked by paranodal Caspr staining. These results indicate that transplanted OECs extensively integrate into transected peripheral nerve and form myelin on regenerated peripheral nerve fibers, and that nodes of Ranvier of these axons display proper sodium channel organization. PMID:17112480

  20. Association of Myosin Va and Schwann cells-derived RNA in mammal myelinated axons, analyzed by immunocytochemistry and confocal FRET microscopy.

    PubMed

    Canclini, Lucía; Wallrabe, Horst; Di Paolo, Andrés; Kun, Alejandra; Calliari, Aldo; Sotelo-Silveira, José Roberto; Sotelo, José Roberto

    2014-03-15

    Evidence from multiple sources supports the hypothesis that Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system transfer messenger RNA and ribosomes to the axons they ensheath. Several technical and methodological difficulties exist for investigators to unravel this process in myelinated axons - a complex two-cell unit. We present an experimental design to demonstrate that newly synthesized RNA is transferred from Schwann cells to axons in association with Myosin Va. The use of quantitative confocal FRET microscopy to track newly-synthesized RNA and determine the molecular association with Myosin Va, is described in detail.

  1. The influence of predegenerated nerve grafts on axonal regeneration from prelesioned peripheral nerves.

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, N A; Neumann, M M; de Souky, M A; So, K F; Bedi, K S

    1996-01-01

    Recent in vitro work has indicated that predegenerated segments of peripheral nerve are more capable of supporting neurite growth from adult neurons than fresh segments of nerve, whereas previous in vivo studies which investigated whether predegenerated nerve segments used as grafts are capable of enhancing axonal regeneration produced conflicting results. We have reinvestigated this question by using predegenerated nerve grafts in combination with conditioning lesions of the host nerve to determine the optimal conditions for obtaining the maximal degree of regeneration of myelinated axons. The sciatic nerve of adult Dark Agouti rats were sectioned at midthigh level, and the distal portion was allowed to predegenerate for 0, 6 or 12 d in situ. 10-15 mm lengths of these distal nerve segments were then syngenically grafted onto the central stumps of sciatic nerves which had themselves received a conditioning lesion 0, 6, and 12 d previously, making a total of 9 different donor-host combinations. The grafts were assessed histologically 3 or 8 wk after grafting. Axonal regeneration in the 9 different donor-host combinations was determined by counting the numbers of myelinated axons in transverse sections through the grafts. All grafts examined contained regenerating myelinated axons. The rats given a 3 wk postgrafting survival period had an average of between 1400 and 5300 such axons. The rats given an 8 wk postgrafting survival period had between about 13,000 and 25,000 regenerating myelinated axons. Analysis of variance revealed significant main effects for both the Donor and Host conditions as well as Weeks (i.e. survival period after grafting). These results indicate that both a conditioning lesion of the host neurons and the degree of predegeneration of peripheral nerve segments to be used as grafts are of importance in influencing the degree of axonal regeneration. Of these 2 factors the conditioning lesion of the host appears to have the greater effect on the

  2. Persistent reduction of conduction velocity and myelinated axon damage in vibrated rat tail nerves.

    PubMed

    Loffredo, Michael A; Yan, Ji-Geng; Kao, Dennis; Zhang, Lin Ling; Matloub, Hani S; Riley, Danny A

    2009-06-01

    Prolonged hand-transmitted vibration exposure in the workplace has been recognized for almost a century to cause neurodegenerative and vasospastic disease. Persistence of the diseased state for years after cessation of tool use is of grave concern. To understand persistence of vibration injury, the present study examined recovery of nerve conduction velocity and structural damage of myelinated axons in a rat tail vibration model. Both 7 and 14 days of vibration (4 h/day) decreased conduction velocity. The decrease correlated directly with the increased percentage of disrupted myelinated axons. The total number of myelinated axons was unchanged. During 2 months of recovery, conduction velocity returned to control level after 7-day vibration but remained decreased after 14-day vibration. The rat tail model provides insight into understanding the persistence of neural deficits in hand-arm vibration syndrome.

  3. Myelin Loss and Axonal Ion Channel Adaptations Associated with Gray Matter Neuronal Hyperexcitability

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Mustafa S.

    2015-01-01

    Myelination and voltage-gated ion channel clustering at the nodes of Ranvier are essential for the rapid saltatory conduction of action potentials. Whether myelination influences the structural organization of the axon initial segment (AIS) and action potential initiation is poorly understood. Using the cuprizone mouse model, we combined electrophysiological recordings with immunofluorescence of the voltage-gated Nav1.6 and Kv7.3 subunits and anchoring proteins to analyze the functional and structural properties of single demyelinated neocortical L5 axons. Whole-cell recordings demonstrated that neurons with demyelinated axons were intrinsically more excitable, characterized by increased spontaneous suprathreshold depolarizations as well as antidromically propagating action potentials ectopically generated in distal parts of the axon. Immunofluorescence examination of demyelinated axons showed that βIV-spectrin, Nav1.6, and the Kv7.3 channels in nodes of Ranvier either dissolved or extended into the paranodal domains. In contrast, while the AIS in demyelinated axons started more closely to the soma, ankyrin G, βIV-spectrin, and the ion channel expression were maintained. Structure–function analysis and computational modeling, constrained by the AIS location and realistic dendritic and axonal morphologies, confirmed that a more proximal onset of the AIS slightly reduced the efficacy of action potential generation, suggesting a compensatory role. These results suggest that oligodendroglial myelination is not only important for maximizing conduction velocity, but also for limiting hyperexcitability of pyramidal neurons. PMID:25948275

  4. Myelin loss and axonal ion channel adaptations associated with gray matter neuronal hyperexcitability.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Mustafa S; Kole, Maarten H P

    2015-05-01

    Myelination and voltage-gated ion channel clustering at the nodes of Ranvier are essential for the rapid saltatory conduction of action potentials. Whether myelination influences the structural organization of the axon initial segment (AIS) and action potential initiation is poorly understood. Using the cuprizone mouse model, we combined electrophysiological recordings with immunofluorescence of the voltage-gated Nav1.6 and Kv7.3 subunits and anchoring proteins to analyze the functional and structural properties of single demyelinated neocortical L5 axons. Whole-cell recordings demonstrated that neurons with demyelinated axons were intrinsically more excitable, characterized by increased spontaneous suprathreshold depolarizations as well as antidromically propagating action potentials ectopically generated in distal parts of the axon. Immunofluorescence examination of demyelinated axons showed that βIV-spectrin, Nav1.6, and the Kv7.3 channels in nodes of Ranvier either dissolved or extended into the paranodal domains. In contrast, while the AIS in demyelinated axons started more closely to the soma, ankyrin G, βIV-spectrin, and the ion channel expression were maintained. Structure-function analysis and computational modeling, constrained by the AIS location and realistic dendritic and axonal morphologies, confirmed that a more proximal onset of the AIS slightly reduced the efficacy of action potential generation, suggesting a compensatory role. These results suggest that oligodendroglial myelination is not only important for maximizing conduction velocity, but also for limiting hyperexcitability of pyramidal neurons.

  5. Polarization-dependent responses of fluorescent indicators partitioned into myelinated axons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micu, Ileana; Brideau, Craig; Stys, Peter K.

    2012-02-01

    Myelination, i.e. the wrapping of axons in multiple layers of lipid-rich membrane, is a unique phenomenon in the nervous systems of both vertebrates and invertebrates, that greatly increases the speed and efficiency of signal transmission. In turn, disruption of axo-myelinic integrity underlies disability in numerous clinical disorders. The dependence of myelin physiology on nanometric organization of its lamellae makes it difficult to accurately study this structure in the living state. We expected that fluorescent probes might become highly oriented when partitioned into the myelin sheath, and in turn, this anisotropy could be interrogated by controlling the polarization state of the exciting laser field used for 2-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF). Live ex vivo myelinated rodent axons were labeled with a series of lipohilic and hydrophilic fluorescenct probes, and TPEF images acquired while laser polarization was varied at the sample over a broad range of ellipticities and orientations of the major angle [see Brideau, Micu & Stys, abstract this meeting]. We found that most probes exhibited strong dependence on both the major angle of polarization, and perhaps more surprisingly, on ellipticity as well. Lipophilic vs. hydrophilic probes exhibited distinctly different behavior. We propose that polarization-dependent TPEF microscopy represents a powerful tool for probing the nanostructural architecture of both myelin and axonal cytoskeleton in a domain far below the resolution limit of visible light microscopy. By selecting probes with different sizes and physicochemical properties, distinct aspects of cellular nanoarchitecture can be accurately interrogated in real-time in living tissue.

  6. EGFR Activation Mediates Inhibition of Axon Regeneration by Myelin and Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprivica, Vuk; Cho, Kin-Sang; Park, Jong Bae; Yiu, Glenn; Atwal, Jasvinder; Gore, Bryan; Kim, Jieun A.; Lin, Estelle; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Chen, Dong Feng; He, Zhigang

    2005-10-01

    Inhibitory molecules associated with myelin and the glial scar limit axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS), but the underlying signaling mechanisms of regeneration inhibition are not fully understood. Here, we show that suppressing the kinase function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blocks the activities of both myelin inhibitors and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in inhibiting neurite outgrowth. In addition, regeneration inhibitors trigger the phosphorylation of EGFR in a calcium-dependent manner. Local administration of EGFR inhibitors promotes significant regeneration of injured optic nerve fibers, pointing to a promising therapeutic avenue for enhancing axon regeneration after CNS injury.

  7. Chronic intermittent ethanol induced axon and myelin degeneration is attenuated by calpain inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Samantaray, Supriti; Knaryan, Varduhi H.; Patel, Kaushal S.; Mulholland, Patrick J.; Becker, Howard C.; Banik, Naren L.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption causes multifaceted damage to the central nervous system (CNS), underlying mechanisms of which are gradually being unraveled. In our previous studies, activation of calpain, a calcium-activated neutral protease has been found to cause detrimental alterations in spinal motor neurons following ethanol (EtOH) exposure in vitro. However, it is not known whether calpain plays a pivotal role in chronic EtOH exposure-induced structural damage to CNS in vivo. To test the possible involvement of calpain in EtOH-associated neurodegenerative mechanisms the present investigation was conducted in a well-established mouse model of alcohol dependence - chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) exposure and withdrawal. Our studies indicated significant loss of axonal proteins (neurofilament light and heavy, 50-60 %), myelin proteins (myelin basic protein, 20-40 % proteolipid protein, 25 %) and enzyme (2′, 3′-cyclic-nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase, 21-55 %) following CIE in multiple regions of brain including hippocampus, corpus callosum, cerebellum, and importantly in spinal cord. These CIE-induced deleterious effects escalated after withdrawal in each CNS region tested. Increased expression and activity of calpain along with enhanced ratio of active calpain to calpastatin (sole endogenous inhibitor) was observed after withdrawal compared to EtOH exposure. Pharmacological inhibition of calpain with calpeptin (25 μg/kg) prior to each EtOH vapor inhalation significantly attenuated damage to axons and myelin as demonstrated by immuno-profiles of axonal and myelin proteins, and Luxol Fast Blue staining. Calpain inhibition significantly protected the ultrastructural integrity of axons and myelin compared to control as confirmed by electron microscopy. Together, these findings confirm CIE exposure and withdrawal induced structural alterations in axons and myelin, predominantly after withdrawal and corroborate calpain inhibition as a potential protective strategy

  8. Chronic intermittent ethanol induced axon and myelin degeneration is attenuated by calpain inhibition.

    PubMed

    Samantaray, Supriti; Knaryan, Varduhi H; Patel, Kaushal S; Mulholland, Patrick J; Becker, Howard C; Banik, Naren L

    2015-10-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption causes multifaceted damage to the central nervous system (CNS), underlying mechanisms of which are gradually being unraveled. In our previous studies, activation of calpain, a calcium-activated neutral protease has been found to cause detrimental alterations in spinal motor neurons following ethanol (EtOH) exposure in vitro. However, it is not known whether calpain plays a pivotal role in chronic EtOH exposure-induced structural damage to CNS in vivo. To test the possible involvement of calpain in EtOH-associated neurodegenerative mechanisms the present investigation was conducted in a well-established mouse model of alcohol dependence - chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) exposure and withdrawal. Our studies indicated significant loss of axonal proteins (neurofilament light and heavy, 50-60%), myelin proteins (myelin basic protein, 20-40% proteolipid protein, 25%) and enzyme (2', 3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, 21-55%) following CIE in multiple regions of brain including hippocampus, corpus callosum, cerebellum, and importantly in spinal cord. These CIE-induced deleterious effects escalated after withdrawal in each CNS region tested. Increased expression and activity of calpain along with enhanced ratio of active calpain to calpastatin (sole endogenous inhibitor) was observed after withdrawal compared to EtOH exposure. Pharmacological inhibition of calpain with calpeptin (25 μg/kg) prior to each EtOH vapor inhalation significantly attenuated damage to axons and myelin as demonstrated by immuno-profiles of axonal and myelin proteins, and Luxol Fast Blue staining. Calpain inhibition significantly protected the ultrastructural integrity of axons and myelin compared to control as confirmed by electron microscopy. Together, these findings confirm CIE exposure and withdrawal induced structural alterations in axons and myelin, predominantly after withdrawal and corroborate calpain inhibition as a potential protective strategy against

  9. Proteolipid protein cannot replace P0 protein as the major structural protein of peripheral nervous system myelin.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xinghua; Kiryu-Seo, Sumiko; Kidd, Grahame J; Feltri, M Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Trapp, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) of terrestrial vertebrates underwent a prominent molecular change when proteolipid protein (PLP) replaced P0 protein as the most abundant protein of CNS myelin. However, PLP did not replace P0 in peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin. To investigate the possible consequences of a PLP to P0 shift in PNS myelin, we engineered mice to express PLP instead of P0 in PNS myelin (PLP-PNS mice). PLP-PNS mice had severe neurological disabilities and died between 3 and 6 months of age. Schwann cells in sciatic nerves from PLP-PNS mice sorted axons into one-to-one relationships but failed to form myelin internodes. Mice with equal amounts of P0 and PLP had normal PNS myelination and lifespans similar to wild-type (WT) mice. When PLP was overexpressed with one copy of the P0 gene, sciatic nerves were hypomyelinated; mice displayed motor deficits, but had normal lifespans. These data support the hypothesis that while PLP can co-exist with P0 in PNS myelin, PLP cannot replace P0 as the major structural protein of PNS myelin. PMID:25066805

  10. Proteolipid protein cannot replace P0 protein as the major structural protein of peripheral nervous system myelin

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xinghua; Kiryu-Seo, Sumiko; Kidd, Grahame J.; Feltri, M. Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Trapp, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) of terrestrial vertebrates underwent a prominent molecular change when proteolipid protein (PLP) replaced P0 protein as the most abundant protein of CNS myelin. However, PLP did not replace P0 in peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin. To investigate the possible consequences of a PLP to P0 shift in PNS myelin, we engineered mice to express PLP instead of P0 in PNS myelin (PLP-PNS mice). PLP-PNS mice had severe neurological disabilities and died between 3 and 6 months of age. Schwann cells in sciatic nerves from PLP-PNS mice sorted axons into one-to-one relationships but failed to form myelin internodes. Mice with equal amounts of P0 and PLP had normal PNS myelination and lifespans similar to wild-type (WT) mice. When PLP was overexpressed with one copy of the P0 gene, sciatic nerves were hypomyelinated; mice displayed motor deficits but had normal lifespans. These data support the hypothesis that while PLP can co-exist with P0 in PNS myelin, PLP cannot replace P0 as the major structural protein of PNS myelin. PMID:25066805

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Myelin and Axonal Remodeling in the Uninjured Motor Network After Stroke.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Chia; Daducci, Alessandro; Meskaldji, Djalel Eddine; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Michel, Patrik; Meuli, Reto; Krueger, Gunnar; Menegaz, Gloria; Granziera, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Contralesional brain connectivity plasticity was previously reported after stroke. This study aims at disentangling the biological mechanisms underlying connectivity plasticity in the uninjured motor network after an ischemic lesion. In particular, we measured generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) to assess whether poststroke connectivity remodeling depends on axonal and/or myelin changes. Diffusion-spectrum imaging and magnetization transfer MRI at 3T were performed in 10 patients in acute phase, at 1 and 6 months after stroke, which was affecting motor cortical and/or subcortical areas. Ten age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were scanned 1 month apart for longitudinal comparison. Clinical assessment was also performed in patients prior to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the contralesional hemisphere, average measures and tract-based quantitative analysis of GFA and MTR were performed to assess axonal integrity and myelination along motor connections as well as their variations in time. Mean and tract-based measures of MTR and GFA showed significant changes in a number of contralesional motor connections, confirming both axonal and myelin plasticity in our cohort of patients. Moreover, density-derived features (peak height, standard deviation, and skewness) of GFA and MTR along the tracts showed additional correlation with clinical scores than mean values. These findings reveal the interplay between contralateral myelin and axonal remodeling after stroke.

  12. YAP and TAZ control peripheral myelination and the expression of laminin receptors in Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Poitelon, Yannick; Lopez-Anido, Camila; Catignas, Kathleen; Berti, Caterina; Palmisano, Marilena; Williamson, Courtney; Ameroso, Dominique; Abiko, Kansho; Hwang, Yoonchan; Gregorieff, Alex; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Asmani, Mohammadnabi; Zhao, Ruogang; Sim, Fraser James; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Svaren, John; Feltri, Maria Laura

    2016-07-01

    Myelination is essential for nervous system function. Schwann cells interact with neurons and the basal lamina to myelinate axons using known receptors, signals and transcription factors. In contrast, the transcriptional control of axonal sorting and the role of mechanotransduction in myelination are largely unknown. Yap and Taz are effectors of the Hippo pathway that integrate chemical and mechanical signals in cells. We describe a previously unknown role for the Hippo pathway in myelination. Using conditional mutagenesis in mice, we show that Taz is required in Schwann cells for radial sorting and myelination and that Yap is redundant with Taz. Yap and Taz are activated in Schwann cells by mechanical stimuli and regulate Schwann cell proliferation and transcription of basal lamina receptor genes, both necessary for radial sorting of axons and subsequent myelination. These data link transcriptional effectors of the Hippo pathway and of mechanotransduction to myelin formation in Schwann cells.

  13. Neuroimaging evidence of deficient axon myelination in Wolfram syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lugar, Heather M.; Koller, Jonathan M.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Marshall, Bess A.; Kanekura, Kohsuke; Urano, Fumihiko; Bischoff, Allison N.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Hershey, Tamara; Austin, P.; Beato, B.; Bihun, E.; Doty, T.; Earhart, G.; Eisenstein, S.; Hoekel, J.; Karzon, R.; Licis, A.; Manwaring, L.; Paciorkowski, A. R.; Pepino de Gruev, Y.; Permutt, A.; Pickett, K.; Ranck, S.; Reiersen, A.; Tychsen, L.; Viehoever, A.; Wasson, J.; White, N. H.

    2016-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease characterized by insulin dependent diabetes and vision, hearing and brain abnormalities which generally emerge in childhood. Mutations in the WFS1 gene predispose cells to endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis and may induce myelin degradation in neuronal cell models. However, in vivo evidence of this phenomenon in humans is lacking. White matter microstructure and regional volumes were measured using magnetic resonance imaging in children and young adults with Wolfram syndrome (n = 21) and healthy and diabetic controls (n = 50). Wolfram patients had lower fractional anisotropy and higher radial diffusivity in major white matter tracts and lower volume in the basilar (ventral) pons, cerebellar white matter and visual cortex. Correlations were found between key brain findings and overall neurological symptoms. This pattern of findings suggests that reduction in myelin is a primary neuropathological feature of Wolfram syndrome. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-related dysfunction in Wolfram syndrome may interact with the development of myelin or promote degeneration of myelin during the progression of the disease. These measures may provide objective indices of Wolfram syndrome pathophysiology that will be useful in unraveling the underlying mechanisms and in testing the impact of treatments on the brain. PMID:26888576

  14. TRANSDUCED SCHWANN CELLS PROMOTE AXON GROWTH AND MYELINATION AFTER SPINAL CORD INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Kevin L.; Pearse, Damien D.; Blits, Bas; Garg, Maneesh S.; Oudega, Martin; Wood, Patrick M.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett

    2007-01-01

    We sought to directly compare growth and myelination of local and supraspinal axons by implanting into the injured spinal cord Schwann cells (SCs) transduced ex vivo with adenoviral (AdV) or lentiviral (LV) vectors encoding a bifunctional neurotrophin molecule (D15A). D15A mimics actions of both neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Transduced SCs were injected into the injury center one week after a moderate thoracic (T8) adult rat spinal cord contusion. D15A expression and bioactivity in vitro; D15A levels in vivo; and graft volume, SC number, implant axon number and cortico-, reticulo-, raphe-, coerulo-spinal and sensory axon growth were determined for both types of vectors employed to transduce SCs. ELISAs revealed that D15A-secreting SC implants contained significantly higher levels of neurotrophin than non-transduced SC and AdV/GFP and LV/GFP SC controls early after implantation. At 6 wk post-implantation, D15A-secreting SC grafts exhibited 5-fold increases in graft volume, SC number and myelinated axon counts and a 3-fold increase in myelinated to unmyelinated (ensheathed) axon ratios. The total number of axons within grafts of LV/GFP/D15A SCs was estimated to be over 70,000. Also 5-HT, DβH, and CGRP axon length was increased up to 5-fold within D15A grafts. In sum, despite qualitative differences using the two vectors, increased neurotrophin secretion by the implanted D15A SCs led to the presence of a significantly increased number of axons in the contusion site. These results demonstrate the therapeutic potential for utilizing neurotrophin-transduced SCs to repair the injured spinal cord. PMID:17719577

  15. Lesioned corticospinal tract axons regenerate in myelin-free rat spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Savio, T.; Schwab, M.E. )

    1990-06-01

    In the adult central nervous system (CNS) of higher vertebrates lesioned axons seemed unable to regenerate and reach their former target regions due to influences of the CNS microenvironment. Evidence from in vitro and biochemical experiments has demonstrated the presence of inhibitory substrate components in CNS tissue, in particular in white matter. These CNS components, which strongly inhibit neurite growth, were identified as minor membrane proteins of defined molecular mass (35 and 250 kDa) in oligodendrocyte membranes and CNS myelin. Oligodendrocyte development and myelin formation can be prevented by x-irradiation of newborn rats. Here we show that in myelin-free spinal cords cortico-spinal tract fibers transected at 2 weeks of age show reelongation of many millimeters within 2-3 weeks after the lesion. In normally myelinated controls, regenerative sprouts grew less than 1.7 mm caudal to the lesion.

  16. Lesioned corticospinal tract axons regenerate in myelin-free rat spinal cord.

    PubMed Central

    Savio, T; Schwab, M E

    1990-01-01

    In the adult central nervous system (CNS) of higher vertebrates lesioned axons seemed unable to regenerate and reach their former target regions due to influences of the CNS microenvironment. Evidence from in vitro and biochemical experiments has demonstrated the presence of inhibitory substrate components in CNS tissue, in particular in white matter. These CNS components, which strongly inhibit neurite growth, were identified as minor membrane proteins of defined molecular mass (35 and 250 kDa) in oligodendrocyte membranes and CNS myelin. Oligodendrocyte development and myelin formation can be prevented by x-irradiation of newborn rats. Here we show that in myelin-free spinal cords cortico-spinal tract fibers transected at 2 weeks of age show reelongation of many millimeters within 2-3 weeks after the lesion. In normally myelinated controls, regenerative sprouts grew less than 1.7 mm caudal to the lesion. Images PMID:2349222

  17. The function of RhoGTPases in axon ensheathment and myelination

    PubMed Central

    Feltri, M. Laura; Suter, Ueli; Relvas, João B.

    2008-01-01

    RhoGTPases are molecular switches that integrate extracellular signals to perform diverse cellular responses. This ability relies on the network of proteins regulating RhoGTPases activity and localization, and on the interaction of RhoGTPases with many different cellular effectors. Myelination is an ideal place for RhoGTPases regulation, as it is the result of fine orchestration of many stimuli from at least two cell types. Recent work has revealed that RhoGTPases are required for Schwann cells to sort, ensheath and myelinate axons. Here we will review recent advances showing the critical roles for RhoGTPases in various aspects of Schwann development and myelination, including the recent discovery of their involvement in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Comparison with potential roles of RhoGTPases in central nervous system myelination will be drawn. PMID:18803320

  18. Peripheral nervous system plasmalogens regulate Schwann cell differentiation and myelination

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Tiago Ferreira; Eira, Jessica; Lopes, André T.; Malheiro, Ana R.; Sousa, Vera; Luoma, Adrienne; Avila, Robin L.; Wanders, Ronald J.A.; Just, Wilhelm W.; Kirschner, Daniel A.; Sousa, Mónica M.; Brites, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP) is a developmental disorder characterized by hypotonia, cataracts, abnormal ossification, impaired motor development, and intellectual disability. The underlying etiology of RCDP is a deficiency in the biosynthesis of ether phospholipids, of which plasmalogens are the most abundant form in nervous tissue and myelin; however, the role of plasmalogens in the peripheral nervous system is poorly defined. Here, we used mouse models of RCDP and analyzed the consequence of plasmalogen deficiency in peripheral nerves. We determined that plasmalogens are crucial for Schwann cell development and differentiation and that plasmalogen defects impaired radial sorting, myelination, and myelin structure. Plasmalogen insufficiency resulted in defective protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation and subsequent signaling, causing overt activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) in nerves of mutant mice. Treatment with GSK3β inhibitors, lithium, or 4-benzyl-2-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione (TDZD-8) restored Schwann cell defects, effectively bypassing plasmalogen deficiency. Our results demonstrate the requirement of plasmalogens for the correct and timely differentiation of Schwann cells and for the process of myelination. In addition, these studies identify a mechanism by which the lack of a membrane phospholipid causes neuropathology, implicating plasmalogens as regulators of membrane and cell signaling. PMID:24762439

  19. The peripheral myelin protein 22 and epithelial membrane protein family.

    PubMed

    Jetten, A M; Suter, U

    2000-01-01

    The peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) and the epithelial membrane proteins (EMP-1, -2, and -3) comprise a subfamily of small hydrophobic membrane proteins. The putative four-transmembrane domain structure as well as the genomic structure are highly conserved among family members. PMP22 and EMPs are expressed in many tissues, and functions in cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis have been reported. EMP-1 is highly up-regulated during squamous differentiation and in certain tumors, and a role in tumorigenesis has been proposed. PMP22 is most highly expressed in peripheral nerves, where it is localized in the compact portion of myelin. It plays a crucial role in normal physiological and pathological processes in the peripheral nervous system. Progress in molecular genetics has revealed that genetic alterations in the PMP22 gene, including duplications, deletions, and point mutations, are responsible for several forms of hereditary peripheral neuropathies, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DDS), and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). The natural mouse mutants Trembler and Trembler-J contain a missense mutation in different hydrophobic domains of PMP22, resulting in demyelination and Schwann cell proliferation. Transgenic mice carrying many copies of the PMP22 gene and PMP22-null mice display a variety of defects in the initial steps of myelination and/or maintenance of myelination, whereas no pathological alterations are detected in other tissues normally expressing PMP22. Further characterization of the interactions of PMP22 and EMPs with other proteins as well as their regulation will provide additional insight into their normal physiological function and their roles in disease and possibly will result in the development of therapeutic tools. PMID:10697408

  20. Data supporting the role of Fyn in initiating myelination in the peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Tamano, Moe; Torii, Tomohiro; Kawahara, Kazuko; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Tanoue, Akito; Takada, Shuji; Yamauchi, Junji

    2016-06-01

    Transgenic mice, which express active Fyn tyrosine kinase under the control of a glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter, have been produced. This promoter induces protein expression in the initiation stage of myelination in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) "Phosphorylation of cytohesin-1 by Fyn is required for initiation of myelination and the extent of myelination during development (Yamauchi et al., 2015 [1])". Herein we provide the data regarding myelination-related protein markers and myelin ultrastructure in transgenic mice.

  1. Distribution of neurofilaments in myelinated axons of the optic nerve of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    PubMed

    Matheson, D F; Diocee, M S; Roots, B I

    1980-11-01

    Neurofilaments were counted in myelinated axons of the optic nerve of goldfish which were acclimated to 5 degrees and 25 degrees C. The number of neurofilaments increases markedly with increasing axonal size; axons of less than 0.1 micrometer 2 in area contain between 25 and 60 neurofilaments, while in the larger axons of area greater than 1.0 micrometer 2 there are approximately 190. The densities of the neurofilaments in the small axons are noticeably higher than in the larger ones (507 and 160, respectively). A variety of fixation procedures i.e. osmium tetroxide (OsO4) in phosphate buffer, glutaraldehyde (4%) in phosphate buffer or in ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and piperazine-N-N'-bis-(2-ethanesulphonic acid) (PIPES) and post-fixed with OsO4 had no effect on the numbers of neurofilaments relative to the size of axon. The anaesthetic MS-222 (tricaine methanesulphonate) likewise had no effect on the numbers of neurofilaments. It is proposed that temperature acclimation alters the axon diameter concomitant with an alteration in the number of neurofilaments to fit the new diameter of the axons. PMID:6253602

  2. Sodium Channels, Mitochondria, and Axonal Degeneration in Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Persson, Anna-Karin; Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Estacion, Mark; Black, Joel A; Waxman, Stephen G

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral neuropathy results from damage to peripheral nerves and is often accompanied by pain in affected limbs. Treatment represents an unmet medical need and a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying axonal injury is needed. Longer nerve fibers tend to degenerate first (length-dependence), and patients carrying pathogenic mutations throughout life usually become symptomatic in mid- or late-life (time-dependence). The activity of voltage-gated sodium channels can contribute to axonal injury and sodium channel gain-of-function mutations have been linked to peripheral neuropathy. Recent studies have implicated sodium channel activity, mitochondrial compromise, and reverse-mode Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange in time- and length-dependent axonal injury. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying axonal injury in peripheral neuropathy may provide new therapeutic strategies for this painful and debilitating condition.

  3. Axon-Schwann cell interaction in degenerating and regenerating peripheral nerve

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrino, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Severance of a peripheral nerve stimulates a characteristic sequence of events in the distal stump, including the dissolution of axons and myelin and the proliferation of Schwann cells within their basal lamina. The first part of this thesis employs the cat tibial nerve to examine the relationship between the spatio-temporal pattern of Schwann cell mitosis, loss of the structural and functional properties of axolemma, synthesis of P/sub 0/, the major myelin glycoprotein, and the clearance of morphological myelin. Induction of S phase was measured by determining the uptake of /sup 3/H thymidine into trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitates following a 3 hour in vitro incubation in Krebs-Ringers buffer containing /sup 3/H thymidine. Nerve transection stimulated a monophasic increase in /sup 3/H thymidine uptake that peaked at 4 days post-transection throughout an 80 mm length of distal stump. Light microscope autoradiography revealed prominent incorporation into Schwann cells of myelinated fibers. Nerve transection also produced dramatic changes in the intrafascicular binding of /sup 3/H STX which binds to voltage-sensitive sodium channels STX binding fell precipitously to 20% of normal at 4 days post-transection, concurrent with the peak of /sup 3/H thymidine uptake. In conclusion, these studies suggest: (a) Schwann cells divide more or less contemporaneously throughout the distal stump; (b) changes in axons rather than myelin are likely to stimulate the Schwann cell to divide; (c) mitosis regulates other events during Wallerian degeneration, including myelin degeneration and the clearance of sodium channels from nodal axolemma.

  4. Clinical implications of peripheral myelin protein 22 for nerve compression and neural regeneration: a review.

    PubMed

    Hui-Chou, Helen G; Hashemi, Sharyhar S; Hoke, Ahmet; Dellon, A Lee

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is a major component of the peripheral myelin sheath. The PMP22 gene is located on chromosome 17p11.2, and defects in PMP22 gene have been implicated in several common inherited peripheral neuropathies. Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), Charcot-Marie Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), Dejerine-Sottas syndrome, and congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy are all associated with defects in PMP22 gene. The disease phenotypes mirror the range of expression of PMP22 due to the corresponding genetic defect. HNPP, characterized by a milder recurrent episodic focal demyelinating neuropathy, is attributed to a deletion leading to PMP22 underexpression. On the other end of the spectrum, CMT1A leads to a more uniform demyelination and axonal loss, resulting in severe progressive distal weakness and paresthesias; it is due to a duplication at 17p11.2 leading to PMP22 overexpression. Additional point mutations result in varying phenotypes due to dysfunction of the resultant PMP22 protein. All inherited neuropathies are diagnosed with a combination of physical findings on examination, electromyography, sural nerve biopsies, and genetic testing. Treatment and management of these disorders differ depending on the underlying genetic defect, nerves involved, and resulting functional impairments. A review of current literature elucidates clinical, microsurgical implications, and management of patients with PMP22-related neuropathy. PMID:20976668

  5. PirB is a functional receptor for myelin inhibitors of axonal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Atwal, Jasvinder K; Pinkston-Gosse, Julie; Syken, Josh; Stawicki, Scott; Wu, Yan; Shatz, Carla; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc

    2008-11-01

    A major barrier to regenerating axons after injury in the mammalian central nervous system is an unfavorable milieu. Three proteins found in myelin--Nogo, MAG, and OMgp--inhibit axon regeneration in vitro and bind to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Nogo receptor (NgR). However, genetic deletion of NgR has only a modest disinhibitory effect, suggesting that other binding receptors for these molecules probably exist. With the use of expression cloning, we have found that paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), which has been implicated in nervous system plasticity, is a high-affinity receptor for Nogo, MAG, and OMgp. Interfering with PirB activity, either with antibodies or genetically, partially rescues neurite inhibition by Nogo66, MAG, OMgp, and myelin in cultured neurons. Blocking both PirB and NgR activities leads to near-complete release from myelin inhibition. Our results implicate PirB in mediating regeneration block, identify PirB as a potential target for axon regeneration therapies, and provide an explanation for the similar enhancements of visual system plasticity in PirB and NgR knockout mice.

  6. Specificity of peripheral nerve regeneration: interactions at the axon level.

    PubMed

    Allodi, Ilary; Udina, Esther; Navarro, Xavier

    2012-07-01

    Peripheral nerves injuries result in paralysis, anesthesia and lack of autonomic control of the affected body areas. After injury, axons distal to the lesion are disconnected from the neuronal body and degenerate, leading to denervation of the peripheral organs. Wallerian degeneration creates a microenvironment distal to the injury site that supports axonal regrowth, while the neuron body changes in phenotype to promote axonal regeneration. The significance of axonal regeneration is to replace the degenerated distal nerve segment, and achieve reinnervation of target organs and restitution of their functions. However, axonal regeneration does not always allows for adequate functional recovery, so that after a peripheral nerve injury, patients do not recover normal motor control and fine sensibility. The lack of specificity of nerve regeneration, in terms of motor and sensory axons regrowth, pathfinding and target reinnervation, is one the main shortcomings for recovery. Key factors for successful axonal regeneration include the intrinsic changes that neurons suffer to switch their transmitter state to a pro-regenerative state and the environment that the axons find distal to the lesion site. The molecular mechanisms implicated in axonal regeneration and pathfinding after injury are complex, and take into account the cross-talk between axons and glial cells, neurotrophic factors, extracellular matrix molecules and their receptors. The aim of this review is to look at those interactions, trying to understand if some of these molecular factors are specific for motor and sensory neuron growth, and provide the basic knowledge for potential strategies to enhance and guide axonal regeneration and reinnervation of adequate target organs. PMID:22609046

  7. Caspr and Caspr2 Are Required for Both Radial and Longitudinal Organization of Myelinated Axons

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Aaron; Adamsky, Konstantin; Vainshtein, Anya; Frechter, Shahar; Dupree, Jeffrey L.; Rosenbluth, Jack

    2014-01-01

    In myelinated peripheral axons, Kv1 potassium channels are clustered at the juxtaparanodal region and at an internodal line located along the mesaxon and below the Schmidt-Lanterman incisures. This polarized distribution is controlled by Schwann cells and requires specific cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). The accumulation of Kv1 channels at the juxtaparanodal region depends on the presence of Caspr2 at this site, as well as on the presence of Caspr at the adjacent paranodal junction. However, the localization of these channels along the mesaxonal internodal line still persists in the absence of each one of these CAMs. By generating mice lacking both Caspr and Caspr2 (caspr−/−/caspr2−/−), we now reveal compensatory functions of the two proteins in the organization of the axolemma. Although Kv1 channels are clustered along the inner mesaxon and in a circumferential ring below the incisures in the single mutants, in sciatic nerves of caspr−/−/caspr2−/− mice, these channels formed large aggregates that were dispersed along the axolemma, demonstrating that internodal localization of Kv1 channels requires either Caspr or Caspr2. Furthermore, deletion of both Caspr and Caspr2 also resulted in widening of the nodes of Ranvier, suggesting that Caspr2 (which is present at paranodes in the absence of Caspr) can partially compensate for the barrier function of Caspr at this site even without the formation of a distinct paranodal junction. Our results indicate that Caspr and Caspr2 are required for the organization of the axolemma both radially, manifested as the mesaxonal line, and longitudinally, demarcated by the nodal domains. PMID:25378149

  8. Caspr and caspr2 are required for both radial and longitudinal organization of myelinated axons.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Aaron; Adamsky, Konstantin; Vainshtein, Anya; Frechter, Shahar; Dupree, Jeffrey L; Rosenbluth, Jack; Peles, Elior

    2014-11-01

    In myelinated peripheral axons, Kv1 potassium channels are clustered at the juxtaparanodal region and at an internodal line located along the mesaxon and below the Schmidt-Lanterman incisures. This polarized distribution is controlled by Schwann cells and requires specific cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). The accumulation of Kv1 channels at the juxtaparanodal region depends on the presence of Caspr2 at this site, as well as on the presence of Caspr at the adjacent paranodal junction. However, the localization of these channels along the mesaxonal internodal line still persists in the absence of each one of these CAMs. By generating mice lacking both Caspr and Caspr2 (caspr(-/-)/caspr2(-/-)), we now reveal compensatory functions of the two proteins in the organization of the axolemma. Although Kv1 channels are clustered along the inner mesaxon and in a circumferential ring below the incisures in the single mutants, in sciatic nerves of caspr(-/-)/caspr2(-/-) mice, these channels formed large aggregates that were dispersed along the axolemma, demonstrating that internodal localization of Kv1 channels requires either Caspr or Caspr2. Furthermore, deletion of both Caspr and Caspr2 also resulted in widening of the nodes of Ranvier, suggesting that Caspr2 (which is present at paranodes in the absence of Caspr) can partially compensate for the barrier function of Caspr at this site even without the formation of a distinct paranodal junction. Our results indicate that Caspr and Caspr2 are required for the organization of the axolemma both radially, manifested as the mesaxonal line, and longitudinally, demarcated by the nodal domains. PMID:25378149

  9. Salvianolic acid B protects the myelin sheath around injured spinal cord axons

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhe; Ding, Lu; Qiu, Wen-feng; Wu, Hong-fu; Li, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B, an active pharmaceutical compound present in Salvia miltiorrhiza, exerts a neuroprotective effect in animal models of brain and spinal cord injury. Salvianolic acid B can promote recovery of neurological function; however, its protective effect on the myelin sheath after spinal cord injury remains poorly understood. Thus, in this study, in vitro tests showed that salvianolic acid B contributed to oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation, and the most effective dose was 20 μg/mL. For in vivo investigation, rats with spinal cord injury were intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg salvianolic acid B for 8 weeks. The amount of myelin sheath and the number of regenerating axons increased, neurological function recovered, and caspase-3 expression was decreased in the spinal cord of salvianolic acid B-treated animals compared with untreated control rats. These results indicate that salvianolic acid B can protect axons and the myelin sheath, and can promote the recovery of neurological function. Its mechanism of action is likely to be associated with inhibiting apoptosis and promoting the differentiation and maturation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. PMID:27127491

  10. Myelination and axonal electrical activity modulate the distribution and motility of mitochondria at CNS nodes of Ranvier.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Nobuhiko; Kidd, Grahame J; Mahad, Don; Kiryu-Seo, Sumiko; Avishai, Amir; Komuro, Hitoshi; Trapp, Bruce D

    2011-05-18

    Energy production presents a formidable challenge to axons as their mitochondria are synthesized and degraded in neuronal cell bodies. To meet the energy demands of nerve conduction, small mitochondria are transported to and enriched at mitochondrial stationary sites located throughout the axon. In this study, we investigated whether size and motility of mitochondria in small myelinated CNS axons are differentially regulated at nodes, and whether mitochondrial distribution and motility are modulated by axonal electrical activity. The size/volume of mitochondrial stationary sites was significantly larger in juxtaparanodal/internodal axoplasm than in nodal/paranodal axoplasm. With three-dimensional electron microscopy, we observed that axonal mitochondrial stationary sites were composed of multiple mitochondria of varying length, except at nodes where mitochondria were uniformly short and frequently absent altogether. Mitochondrial transport speed was significantly reduced in nodal axoplasm compared with internodal axoplasm. Increased axonal electrical activity decreased mitochondrial transport and increased the size of mitochondrial stationary sites in nodal/paranodal axoplasm. Decreased axonal electrical activity had the opposite effect. In cerebellar axons of the myelin-deficient rat, which contain voltage-gated Na(+) channel clusters but lack paranodal specializations, axonal mitochondrial motility and stationary site size were similar at Na(+) channel clusters and other axonal regions. These results demonstrate juxtaparanodal/internodal enrichment of stationary mitochondria and neuronal activity-dependent dynamic modulation of mitochondrial distribution and transport in nodal axoplasm. In addition, the modulation of mitochondrial distribution and motility requires oligodendrocyte-axon interactions at paranodal specializations. PMID:21593309

  11. On the resemblance of synapse formation and CNS myelination.

    PubMed

    Almeida, R G; Lyons, D A

    2014-09-12

    The myelination of axons in the central nervous system (CNS) is essential for nervous system formation, function and health. CNS myelination continues well into adulthood, but not all axons become myelinated. Unlike the peripheral nervous system, where we know of numerous axon-glial signals required for myelination, we have a poor understanding of the nature or identity of such molecules that regulate which axons are myelinated in the CNS. Recent studies have started to elucidate cell behavior during myelination in vivo and indicate that the choice of which axons are myelinated is made prior to myelin sheath generation. Here we propose that interactions between axons and the exploratory processes of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) lead to myelination and may be similar to those between dendrites and axons that prefigure and lead to synapse formation. Indeed axons and OPCs form synapses with striking resemblance to those of neurons, suggesting a similar mode of formation. We discuss families of molecules with specific functions at different stages of synapse formation and address studies that implicate the same factors during axon-OPC synapse formation and myelination. We also address the possibility that the function of such synapses might directly regulate the myelinating behavior of oligodendrocyte processes in vivo. In the future it may be of benefit to consider these similarities when taking a candidate-based approach to dissect mechanisms of CNS myelination.

  12. Data supporting the role of Fyn in initiating myelination in the peripheral nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Tamano, Moe; Torii, Tomohiro; Kawahara, Kazuko; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Tanoue, Akito; Takada, Shuji; Yamauchi, Junji

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic mice, which express active Fyn tyrosine kinase under the control of a glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter, have been produced. This promoter induces protein expression in the initiation stage of myelination in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) “Phosphorylation of cytohesin-1 by Fyn is required for initiation of myelination and the extent of myelination during development (Yamauchi et al., 2015 [1])”. Herein we provide the data regarding myelination-related protein markers and myelin ultrastructure in transgenic mice. PMID:27115022

  13. A regenerative microchannel neural interface for recording from and stimulating peripheral axons in vivo.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, James J; Lago, Natalia; Benmerah, Samia; Serra, Jordi; Watling, Christopher P; Cameron, Ruth E; Tarte, Edward; Lacour, Stéphanie P; McMahon, Stephen B; Fawcett, James W

    2012-02-01

    Neural interfaces are implanted devices that couple the nervous system to electronic circuitry. They are intended for long term use to control assistive technologies such as muscle stimulators or prosthetics that compensate for loss of function due to injury. Here we present a novel design of interface for peripheral nerves. Recording from axons is complicated by the small size of extracellular potentials and the concentration of current flow at nodes of Ranvier. Confining axons to microchannels of ~100 µm diameter produces amplified potentials that are independent of node position. After implantation of microchannel arrays into rat sciatic nerve, axons regenerated through the channels forming 'mini-fascicles', each typically containing ~100 myelinated fibres and one or more blood vessels. Regenerated motor axons reconnected to distal muscles, as demonstrated by the recovery of an electromyogram and partial prevention of muscle atrophy. Efferent motor potentials and afferent signals evoked by muscle stretch or cutaneous stimulation were easily recorded from the mini-fascicles and were in the range of 35-170 µV. Individual motor units in distal musculature were activated from channels using stimulus currents in the microampere range. Microchannel interfaces are a potential solution for applications such as prosthetic limb control or enhancing recovery after nerve injury.

  14. A regenerative microchannel neural interface for recording from and stimulating peripheral axons in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGerald, James J.; Lago, Natalia; Benmerah, Samia; Serra, Jordi; Watling, Christopher P.; Cameron, Ruth E.; Tarte, Edward; Lacour, Stéphanie P.; McMahon, Stephen B.; Fawcett, James W.

    2012-02-01

    Neural interfaces are implanted devices that couple the nervous system to electronic circuitry. They are intended for long term use to control assistive technologies such as muscle stimulators or prosthetics that compensate for loss of function due to injury. Here we present a novel design of interface for peripheral nerves. Recording from axons is complicated by the small size of extracellular potentials and the concentration of current flow at nodes of Ranvier. Confining axons to microchannels of ˜100 µm diameter produces amplified potentials that are independent of node position. After implantation of microchannel arrays into rat sciatic nerve, axons regenerated through the channels forming ‘mini-fascicles’, each typically containing ˜100 myelinated fibres and one or more blood vessels. Regenerated motor axons reconnected to distal muscles, as demonstrated by the recovery of an electromyogram and partial prevention of muscle atrophy. Efferent motor potentials and afferent signals evoked by muscle stretch or cutaneous stimulation were easily recorded from the mini-fascicles and were in the range of 35-170 µV. Individual motor units in distal musculature were activated from channels using stimulus currents in the microampere range. Microchannel interfaces are a potential solution for applications such as prosthetic limb control or enhancing recovery after nerve injury.

  15. A regenerative microchannel neural interface for recording from and stimulating peripheral axons in vivo.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, James J; Lago, Natalia; Benmerah, Samia; Serra, Jordi; Watling, Christopher P; Cameron, Ruth E; Tarte, Edward; Lacour, Stéphanie P; McMahon, Stephen B; Fawcett, James W

    2012-02-01

    Neural interfaces are implanted devices that couple the nervous system to electronic circuitry. They are intended for long term use to control assistive technologies such as muscle stimulators or prosthetics that compensate for loss of function due to injury. Here we present a novel design of interface for peripheral nerves. Recording from axons is complicated by the small size of extracellular potentials and the concentration of current flow at nodes of Ranvier. Confining axons to microchannels of ~100 µm diameter produces amplified potentials that are independent of node position. After implantation of microchannel arrays into rat sciatic nerve, axons regenerated through the channels forming 'mini-fascicles', each typically containing ~100 myelinated fibres and one or more blood vessels. Regenerated motor axons reconnected to distal muscles, as demonstrated by the recovery of an electromyogram and partial prevention of muscle atrophy. Efferent motor potentials and afferent signals evoked by muscle stretch or cutaneous stimulation were easily recorded from the mini-fascicles and were in the range of 35-170 µV. Individual motor units in distal musculature were activated from channels using stimulus currents in the microampere range. Microchannel interfaces are a potential solution for applications such as prosthetic limb control or enhancing recovery after nerve injury. PMID:22258138

  16. Early axonal damage and progressive myelin pathology define the kinetics of CNS histopathology in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Recks, Mascha S; Stormanns, Eva R; Bader, Jonas; Arnhold, Stefan; Addicks, Klaus; Kuerten, Stefanie

    2013-10-01

    Studies of MS histopathology are largely dependent on suitable animal models. While light microscopic analysis gives an overview of tissue pathology, it falls short in evaluating detailed changes in nerve fiber morphology. The ultrastructural data presented here and obtained from studies of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG):35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice delineate that axonal damage and myelin pathology follow different kinetics in the disease course. While myelin pathology accumulated with disease progression, axonal damage coincided with the initial clinical disease symptoms and remained stable over time. This pattern applied both to irreversible axolysis and early axonal pathology. Notably, these histopathological patterns were reflected by the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM), suggesting that the NAWM is also in an active neurodegenerative state. The data underline the need for neuroprotection in MS and suggest the MOG model as a highly valuable tool for the assessment of different therapeutic strategies.

  17. Activation of the unfolded protein response promotes axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Oñate, Maritza; Catenaccio, Alejandra; Martínez, Gabriela; Armentano, Donna; Parsons, Geoffrey; Kerr, Bredford; Hetz, Claudio; Court, Felipe A.

    2016-01-01

    Although protein-folding stress at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is emerging as a driver of neuronal dysfunction in models of spinal cord injury and neurodegeneration, the contribution of this pathway to peripheral nerve damage remains poorly explored. Here we targeted the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive reaction against ER stress, in mouse models of sciatic nerve injury and found that ablation of the transcription factor XBP1, but not ATF4, significantly delay locomotor recovery. XBP1 deficiency led to decreased macrophage recruitment, a reduction in myelin removal and axonal regeneration. Conversely, overexpression of XBP1s in the nervous system in transgenic mice enhanced locomotor recovery after sciatic nerve crush, associated to an improvement in key pro-regenerative events. To assess the therapeutic potential of UPR manipulation to axonal regeneration, we locally delivered XBP1s or an shRNA targeting this transcription factor to sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia using a gene therapy approach and found an enhancement or reduction of axonal regeneration in vivo, respectively. Our results demonstrate a functional role of specific components of the ER proteostasis network in the cellular changes associated to regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26906090

  18. Exposure to As, Cd and Pb-mixture impairs myelin and axon development in rat brain, optic nerve and retina.

    PubMed

    Rai, Nagendra Kumar; Ashok, Anushruti; Rai, Asit; Tripathi, Sachin; Nagar, Geet Kumar; Mitra, Kalyan; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are the major metal contaminants of ground water in India. We have reported the toxic effect of their mixture (metal mixture, MM), at human relevant doses, on developing rat astrocytes. Astrocyte damage has been shown to be associated with myelin disintegration in CNS. We, therefore, hypothesized that the MM would perturb myelinating white matter in cerebral cortex, optic nerve (O.N.) and retina. We observed modulation in the levels of myelin and axon proteins, such as myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein, 2'-, 3'-cyclic-nucleotide-3'-phosphodiesterase, myelin-associated glycoprotein and neurofilament (NF) in the brain of developing rats. Dose and time-dependent synergistic toxic effect was noted. The MBP- and NF-immunolabeling, as well as luxol-fast blue (LFB) staining demonstrated a reduction in the area of intact myelin-fiber, and an increase in vacuolated axons, especially in the corpus-callosum. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of O.N. revealed a reduction in myelin thickness and axon-density. The immunolabeling with MBP, NF, and LFB staining in O.N. supported the TEM data. The hematoxylin and eosin staining of retina displayed a decrease in the thickness of nerve-fiber, plexiform-layer, and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) count. Investigating the mechanism revealed a loss in glutamine synthetase activity in the cerebral cortex and O.N., and a fall in the brain derived neurotrophic factor in retina. An enhanced apoptosis in MBP, NF and Brn3b-containing cells justified the diminution in myelinating axons in CNS. Our findings for the first time indicate white matter damage by MM, which may have significance in neurodevelopmental-pediatrics, neurotoxicology and retinal-cell biology.

  19. Regional node-like membrane specializations in non-myelinated axons of rat retinal nerve fiber layer.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, C; Waxman, S G

    1983-01-01

    The axons in the nerve fiber layer (NFL) of the adult rat retina were examined by transmission electron microscopy. NFL axons range in size from 0.12 to about 2.0 microm, with a peak at 0.3-0.4 microm. In addition to conventional small mitochondria in the NFL axons contain some large ones, which are similar to astrocytic gliosomes. Two types of regional axon membrane specialization are found in the NFL. One of these represents portions of the initial axon segments of retinal ganglion cells. Apart from features typical for initial axon segments in general, a corona of lamelliform, villous or blunt glial processes is always present. The glial processes originate from MUller cells. The other regional axon membrane specialization consists of patches of an electron-dense subaxolemmal undercoating with associated tufts of Miller cell processes. These patches cover a varying but always limited proportion of the axon circumference and their longitudinal extent varies between 0.5 and 5.0 microm. They are clearly distinct from the initial axon segment and from the initial heminode in the optic nerve. Similar undercoated patches in the optic disc axons are apposed by astrocytic processes. It is concluded that rat NFL axons represent an example of central non-myelinated axons with distinct regional membrane specializations, which have some structural characteristics in common with nodes of Ranvier. PMID:24010160

  20. BMP7 retards peripheral myelination by activating p38 MAPK in Schwann cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Yahong; Peng, Su; Zhang, Shuqiang; Wang, Meihong; Chen, Yeyue; Zhang, Shan; Yang, Yumin; Sun, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Schwann cell (SC) myelination is pivotal for the proper physiological functioning of the nervous system, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains less well understood. Here, we showed that the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) inversely correlates with myelin gene expression during peripheral myelination, which suggests that BMP7 is likely a negative regulator for myelin gene expression. Our experiments further showed that the application of BMP7 attenuates the cAMP induced myelin gene expression in SCs. Downstream pathway analysis suggested that both p38 MAPK and SMAD are activated by exogenous BMP7 in SCs. The pharmacological intervention and gene silence studies revealed that p38 MAPK, not SMAD, is responsible for BMP7-mediated suppression of myelin gene expression. In addition, c-Jun, a potential negative regulator for peripheral myelination, was up-regulated by BMP7. In vivo experiments showed that BMP7 treatment greatly impaired peripheral myelination in newborn rats. Together, our results established that BMP7 is a negative regulator for peripheral myelin gene expression and that p38 MAPK/c-Jun axis might be the main downstream target of BMP7 in this process. PMID:27491681

  1. BMP7 retards peripheral myelination by activating p38 MAPK in Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Yahong; Peng, Su; Zhang, Shuqiang; Wang, Meihong; Chen, Yeyue; Zhang, Shan; Yang, Yumin; Sun, Cheng

    2016-08-05

    Schwann cell (SC) myelination is pivotal for the proper physiological functioning of the nervous system, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains less well understood. Here, we showed that the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) inversely correlates with myelin gene expression during peripheral myelination, which suggests that BMP7 is likely a negative regulator for myelin gene expression. Our experiments further showed that the application of BMP7 attenuates the cAMP induced myelin gene expression in SCs. Downstream pathway analysis suggested that both p38 MAPK and SMAD are activated by exogenous BMP7 in SCs. The pharmacological intervention and gene silence studies revealed that p38 MAPK, not SMAD, is responsible for BMP7-mediated suppression of myelin gene expression. In addition, c-Jun, a potential negative regulator for peripheral myelination, was up-regulated by BMP7. In vivo experiments showed that BMP7 treatment greatly impaired peripheral myelination in newborn rats. Together, our results established that BMP7 is a negative regulator for peripheral myelin gene expression and that p38 MAPK/c-Jun axis might be the main downstream target of BMP7 in this process.

  2. Mechanisms of Distal Axonal Degeneration in Peripheral Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Cashman, Christopher R.; Höke, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of a variety of diseases and treatments, including diabetes, cancer chemotherapy, and infectious causes (HIV, hepatitis C, and Campylobacter jejuni). Despite the fundamental difference between these insults, peripheral neuropathy develops as a combination of just six primary mechanisms: altered metabolism, covalent modification, altered organelle function and reactive oxygen species formation, altered intracellular and inflammatory signaling, slowed axonal transport, and altered ion channel dynamics and expression. All of these pathways converge to lead to axon dysfunction and symptoms of neuropathy. The detailed mechanisms of axon degeneration itself have begun to be elucidated with studies of animal models with altered degeneration kinetics, including the slowed Wallerian degeneration (Wlds) and Sarmknockout animal models. These studies have shown axonal degeneration to occur througha programmed pathway of injury signaling and cytoskeletal degradation. Insights into the common disease insults that converge on the axonal degeneration pathway promise to facilitate the development of therapeutics that may be effective against other mechanisms of neurodegeneration. PMID:25617478

  3. Mechanisms of distal axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Christopher R; Höke, Ahmet

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of a variety of diseases and treatments, including diabetes, cancer chemotherapy, and infectious causes (HIV, hepatitis C, and Campylobacter jejuni). Despite the fundamental difference between these insults, peripheral neuropathy develops as a combination of just six primary mechanisms: altered metabolism, covalent modification, altered organelle function and reactive oxygen species formation, altered intracellular and inflammatory signaling, slowed axonal transport, and altered ion channel dynamics and expression. All of these pathways converge to lead to axon dysfunction and symptoms of neuropathy. The detailed mechanisms of axon degeneration itself have begun to be elucidated with studies of animal models with altered degeneration kinetics, including the slowed Wallerian degeneration (Wld(S)) and Sarm knockout animal models. These studies have shown axonal degeneration to occur through a programmed pathway of injury signaling and cytoskeletal degradation. Insights into the common disease insults that converge on the axonal degeneration pathway promise to facilitate the development of therapeutics that may be effective against other mechanisms of neurodegeneration.

  4. Mechanisms of distal axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Christopher R; Höke, Ahmet

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of a variety of diseases and treatments, including diabetes, cancer chemotherapy, and infectious causes (HIV, hepatitis C, and Campylobacter jejuni). Despite the fundamental difference between these insults, peripheral neuropathy develops as a combination of just six primary mechanisms: altered metabolism, covalent modification, altered organelle function and reactive oxygen species formation, altered intracellular and inflammatory signaling, slowed axonal transport, and altered ion channel dynamics and expression. All of these pathways converge to lead to axon dysfunction and symptoms of neuropathy. The detailed mechanisms of axon degeneration itself have begun to be elucidated with studies of animal models with altered degeneration kinetics, including the slowed Wallerian degeneration (Wld(S)) and Sarm knockout animal models. These studies have shown axonal degeneration to occur through a programmed pathway of injury signaling and cytoskeletal degradation. Insights into the common disease insults that converge on the axonal degeneration pathway promise to facilitate the development of therapeutics that may be effective against other mechanisms of neurodegeneration. PMID:25617478

  5. Dejerine-sottas disease with a novel de novo dominant mutation, Ser 149 Arg, of the peripheral myelin protein 22.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, A; Yamamoto, T; Izawa, K; Yamamori, S; Takahashi, K; Mega, H; Jinnai, K

    2000-03-01

    The Ser149Arg mutation of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) was found in a 19-year-old woman with a sporadic case of Dejerine-Sottas disease. The patient showed delayed motor development. She walked for the first time with support at the age of 2 years. Scoliosis developed at age 4 years. Her walking ability was best at age 11. Thereafter, she showed progressive muscle weakness and sensory disturbances in the distal extremities. At the age of 18 years, the use of a wheelchair became necessary. Motor and sensory nerve conduction studies showed absent motor and sensory responses on electrical stimulation of the limb nerves. A sural nerve biopsy specimen showed marked decreases in the numbers of both large and small myelinated fibers, abundant onion-bulb formation, and hypomyelination. Electron microscopic observation revealed the presence of demyelinated axons and myelin sheaths disproportionately thin relative to axon diameter. That this was a de novo mutation was established by parentage testing and PMP22 gene analysis of the parents. The mutation seems to be novel and dominant. PMID:10663978

  6. Cholesterol in myelin biogenesis and hypomyelinating disorders.

    PubMed

    Saher, Gesine; Stumpf, Sina Kristin

    2015-08-01

    The largest pool of free cholesterol in mammals resides in myelin membranes. Myelin facilitates rapid saltatory impulse propagation by electrical insulation of axons. This function is achieved by ensheathing axons with a tightly compacted stack of membranes. Cholesterol influences myelination at many steps, from the differentiation of myelinating glial cells, over the process of myelin membrane biogenesis, to the functionality of mature myelin. Cholesterol emerged as the only integral myelin component that is essential and rate-limiting for the development of myelin in the central and peripheral nervous system. Moreover, disorders that interfere with sterol synthesis or intracellular trafficking of cholesterol and other lipids cause hypomyelination and neurodegeneration. This review summarizes recent results on the roles of cholesterol in CNS myelin biogenesis in normal development and under different pathological conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brain Lipids.

  7. A myelin galactolipid, sulfatide, is essential for maintenance of ion channels on myelinated axon but not essential for initial cluster formation.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Tomoko; Dupree, Jeffrey L; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro; Hirahara, Yukie; Honke, Koichi; Peles, Elior; Popko, Brian; Suzuki, Kinuko; Nishino, Hitoo; Baba, Hiroko

    2002-08-01

    Myelinated axons are divided into four distinct regions: the node of Ranvier, paranode, juxtaparanode, and internode, each of which is characterized by a specific set of axonal proteins. Voltage-gated Na+ channels are clustered at high densities at the nodes, whereas shaker-type K+ channels are concentrated at juxtaparanodal regions. These channels are separated by the paranodal regions, where septate-like junctions are formed between the axon and the myelinating glial cells. Although oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths are believed to play an instructive role in the local differentiation of the axon to distinct domains, the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In the present study, we have examined the distribution of axonal components in mice incapable of synthesizing sulfatide by disruption of the galactosylceramide sulfotransferase gene. These mice displayed abnormal paranodal junctions in the CNS and PNS, whereas their compact myelin was preserved. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a decrease in Na+ and K+ channel clusters, altered nodal length, abnormal localization of K+ channel clusters appearing primarily in the presumptive paranodal regions, and diffuse distribution of contactin-associated protein along the internode. Similar abnormalities have been reported previously in mice lacking both galactocerebroside and sulfatide. Interestingly, although no demyelination was observed, these channel clusters decreased markedly with age. The initial timing and the number of Na+ channel clusters formed were normal during development. These results indicate a critical role for sulfatide in proper localization and maintenance of ion channels clusters, whereas they do not appear to be essential for initial cluster formation of Na+ channels. PMID:12151530

  8. Effects of ionic strength of immersion medium on the structure of peripheral nerve myelin.

    PubMed

    FINEAN, J B; MILLINGTON, P F

    1957-01-25

    A study of the effects of hypertonic solutions on the structure of peripheral nerve myelin reveals an expansion rather than a contraction of the layer spacing. This suggests the absence of "free" water between the myelin layers. Hypotonic solutions bring about a change in radial repeat period from 171 A to 250 to 270 A. These findings are of significance in relation to the structure of myelin.

  9. Myelin injury induces axonal transport impairment but not AD-like pathology in the hippocampus of cuprizone-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Junjun; Zhou, Hong; Bai, Feng; Ren, Qingguo; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Both multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are progressive neurological disorders with myelin injury and memory impairment. However, whether myelin impairment could cause AD-like neurological pathology remains unclear. To explore neurological pathology following myelin injury, we assessed cognitive function, the expression of myelin proteins, axonal transport-associated proteins, axonal structural proteins, synapse-associated proteins, tau and beta amyloid and the status of neurons, using the cuprizone mouse model of demyelination. We found the mild impairment of learning ability in cuprizone-fed mice and the decreased expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the hippocampus. And anti-LINGO-1 improved learning ability and partly restored MBP level. Furthermore, we also found kinesin light chain (KLC), neurofilament light chain (NFL) and neurofilament heavy chain (NF200) were declined in demyelinated hippocampus, which could be partly improved by treatment with anti-LINGO-1. However, we did not observe the increased expression of beta amyloid, hyperphosphorylation of tau and loss of neurons in demyelinated hippocampus. Our results suggest that demyelination might lead to the impairment of neuronal transport, but not cause increased level of hyperphosphorylated tau and beta amyloid. Our research demonstrates remyelination might be an effective pathway to recover the function of neuronal axons and cognition in MS. PMID:27129150

  10. Myelin injury induces axonal transport impairment but not AD-like pathology in the hippocampus of cuprizone-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junjun; Zhou, Hong; Bai, Feng; Ren, Qingguo; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-05-24

    Both multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are progressive neurological disorders with myelin injury and memory impairment. However, whether myelin impairment could cause AD-like neurological pathology remains unclear. To explore neurological pathology following myelin injury, we assessed cognitive function, the expression of myelin proteins, axonal transport-associated proteins, axonal structural proteins, synapse-associated proteins, tau and beta amyloid and the status of neurons, using the cuprizone mouse model of demyelination. We found the mild impairment of learning ability in cuprizone-fed mice and the decreased expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the hippocampus. And anti-LINGO-1 improved learning ability and partly restored MBP level. Furthermore, we also found kinesin light chain (KLC), neurofilament light chain (NFL) and neurofilament heavy chain (NF200) were declined in demyelinated hippocampus, which could be partly improved by treatment with anti-LINGO-1. However, we did not observe the increased expression of beta amyloid, hyperphosphorylation of tau and loss of neurons in demyelinated hippocampus. Our results suggest that demyelination might lead to the impairment of neuronal transport, but not cause increased level of hyperphosphorylated tau and beta amyloid. Our research demonstrates remyelination might be an effective pathway to recover the function of neuronal axons and cognition in MS. PMID:27129150

  11. Exposure to As, Cd and Pb-mixture impairs myelin and axon development in rat brain, optic nerve and retina

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Nagendra Kumar; Ashok, Anushruti; Rai, Asit; Tripathi, Sachin; Nagar, Geet Kumar; Mitra, Kalyan; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are the major metal contaminants of ground water in India. We have reported the toxic effect of their mixture (metal mixture, MM), at human relevant doses, on developing rat astrocytes. Astrocyte damage has been shown to be associated with myelin disintegration in CNS. We, therefore, hypothesized that the MM would perturb myelinating white matter in cerebral cortex, optic nerve (O.N.) and retina. We observed modulation in the levels of myelin and axon proteins, such as myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein, 2′-, 3′-cyclic-nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase, myelin-associated glycoprotein and neurofilament (NF) in the brain of developing rats. Dose and time-dependent synergistic toxic effect was noted. The MBP- and NF-immunolabeling, as well as luxol-fast blue (LFB) staining demonstrated a reduction in the area of intact myelin-fiber, and an increase in vacuolated axons, especially in the corpus-callosum. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of O.N. revealed a reduction in myelin thickness and axon-density. The immunolabeling with MBP, NF, and LFB staining in O.N. supported the TEM data. The hematoxylin and eosin staining of retina displayed a decrease in the thickness of nerve-fiber, plexiform-layer, and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) count. Investigating the mechanism revealed a loss in glutamine synthetase activity in the cerebral cortex and O.N., and a fall in the brain derived neurotrophic factor in retina. An enhanced apoptosis in MBP, NF and Brn3b-containing cells justified the diminution in myelinating axons in CNS. Our findings for the first time indicate white matter damage by MM, which may have significance in neurodevelopmental-pediatrics, neurotoxicology and retinal-cell biology. - Highlights: • As, Cd and Pb-mixture, at human relevant dose, demyelinate developing rat CNS. • The attenuation in myelin and axon is synergistic. • The optic nerve and brain demonstrate reduced glutamine synthetase.

  12. ADAM22, A KV1 CHANNEL INTERACTING PROTEIN, RECRUITS MAGUKS TO JUXTAPARANODES OF MYELINATED AXONS

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Oses-Prieto, Juan; Kim, Moon Young; Horresh, Ido; Peles, Elior; Burlingame, Alma L.; Trimmer, James S.; Meijer, Dies; Rasband, Matthew N.

    2009-01-01

    Clustered Kv1 K+ channels regulate neuronal excitability at juxtaparanodes of myelinated axons, axon initial segments (AIS), and cerebellar basket cell terminals (BCTs). These channels are part of a larger protein complex that includes cell adhesion molecules and scaffolding proteins. To identify proteins that regulate assembly, clustering, and/or maintenance of axonal Kv1 channel protein complexes, we immunoprecipitated Kv1.2 α subunits, then used mass-spectrometry to identify interacting proteins. We found that ADAM22 (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 22) is a component of the Kv1 channel complex, and that ADAM22 co-immunoprecipitates Kv1.2 and the MAGUKs PSD-93 and PSD-95. When co-expressed with MAGUKs in heterologous cells, ADAM22 and Kv1 channels are recruited into membrane surface clusters. However, co-expression of Kv1.2 with ADAM22 and MAGUKs does not alter channel properties. Among all the known Kv1 channel interacting proteins, only ADAM22 is found at every site where Kv1 channels are clustered. Analysis of Caspr-null mice showed that like other previously described juxtaparanodal proteins, disruption of the paranodal junction resulted in redistribution of ADAM22 into paranodal zones. Analysis of Caspr2-, PSD-93-, PSD-95-, and double PSD-93/PSD-95-null mice showed ADAM22 clustering at BCTs requires PSD-95, but ADAM22 clustering at juxtaparanodes requires neither PSD-93 nor PSD-95. In direct contrast, analysis of ADAM22-null mice demonstrated juxtaparanodal clustering of PSD-93 and PSD-95 requires ADAM22, whereas Kv1.2 and Caspr2 clustering is normal in ADAM22-null mice. Thus, ADAM22 is an axonal component of the Kv1 K+ channel complex that recruits MAGUKs to juxtaparanodes. PMID:20089912

  13. Transplantation of Glial Cells Enhances Action Potential Conduction of Amyelinated Spinal Cord Axons in the Myelin-Deficient Rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utzschneider, David A.; Archer, David R.; Kocsis, Jeffery D.; Waxman, Stephen G.; Duncan, Ian D.

    1994-01-01

    A central issue in transplantation research is to determine how and when transplantation of neural tissue can influence the development and function of the mammalian central nervous system. Of particular interest is whether electrophysiological function in the traumatized or diseased mammalian central nervous system can be improved by the replacement of cellular elements that are missing or damaged. Although it is known that transplantation of neural tissue can lead to functional improvement in models of neurological disease characterized by neuronal loss, less is known about results of transplantation in disorders of myelin. We report here that transplantation of glial cells into the dorsal columns of neonatal myelin-deficient rat spinal cords leads to myelination and a 3-fold increase in conduction velocity. We also show that impulses can propagate into and out of the transplant region and that axons myelinated by transplanted cells do not have impaired frequency-response properties. These results demonstrate that myelination following central nervous system glial cell transplantation enhances action potential conduction in myelin-deficient axons, with conduction velocity approaching normal values.

  14. GDNF-Enhanced Axonal Regeneration and Myelination Following Spinal Cord Injury is Mediated by Primary Effects on Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liqun; Ma, Zhengwen; Smith, George M.; Wen, Xuejun; Pressman, Yelena; Wood, Patrick M.; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2010-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that coadministration of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) with grafts of Schwann cells (SCs) enhanced axonal regeneration and remyelination following spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the cellular target through which GDNF mediates such actions was unclear. Here, we report that GDNF enhanced both the number and caliber of regenerated axons in vivo and increased neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGN) in vitro, suggesting that GDNF has a direct effect on neurons. In SC-DRGN coculture, GDNF significantly increased the number of myelin sheaths produced by SCs. GDNF treatment had no effect on the proliferation of isolated SCs but enhanced the proliferation of SCs already in contact with axons. GDNF increased the expression of the 140 kDa neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in isolated SCs but not their expression of the adhesion molecule L1 or the secretion of the neurotrophins NGF, NT3, or BDNF. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that GDNF-enhanced axonal regeneration and SC myelination is mediated mainly through a direct effect of GDNF on neurons. They also suggest that the combination of GDNF administration and SC transplantation may represent an effective strategy to promote axonal regeneration and myelin formation after injury in the spinal cord. PMID:19170182

  15. BK Channels Localize to the Paranodal Junction and Regulate Action Potentials in Myelinated Axons of Cerebellar Purkinje Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hirono, Moritoshi; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Misono, Kaori; Zollinger, Daniel R.; Trimmer, James S.

    2015-01-01

    In myelinated axons, K+ channels are clustered in distinct membrane domains to regulate action potentials (APs). At nodes of Ranvier, Kv7 channels are expressed with Na+ channels, whereas Kv1 channels flank nodes at juxtaparanodes. Regulation of axonal APs by K+ channels would be particularly important in fast-spiking projection neurons such as cerebellar Purkinje cells. Here, we show that BK/Slo1 channels are clustered at the paranodal junctions of myelinated Purkinje cell axons of rat and mouse. The paranodal junction is formed by a set of cell-adhesion molecules, including Caspr, between the node and juxtaparanodes in which it separates nodal from internodal membrane domains. Remarkably, only Purkinje cell axons have detectable paranodal BK channels, whose clustering requires the formation of the paranodal junction via Caspr. Thus, BK channels occupy this unique domain in Purkinje cell axons along with the other K+ channel complexes at nodes and juxtaparanodes. To investigate the physiological role of novel paranodal BK channels, we examined the effect of BK channel blockers on antidromic AP conduction. We found that local application of blockers to the axon resulted in a significant increase in antidromic AP failure at frequencies above 100 Hz. We also found that Ni2+ elicited a similar effect on APs, indicating the involvement of Ni2+-sensitive Ca2+ channels. Furthermore, axonal application of BK channel blockers decreased the inhibitory synaptic response in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Thus, paranodal BK channels uniquely support high-fidelity firing of APs in myelinated Purkinje cell axons, thereby underpinning the output of the cerebellar cortex. PMID:25948259

  16. Contactin orchestrates assembly of the septate-like junctions at the paranode in myelinated peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Boyle, M E; Berglund, E O; Murai, K K; Weber, L; Peles, E; Ranscht, B

    2001-05-01

    Rapid nerve impulse conduction depends on specialized membrane domains in myelinated nerve, the node of Ranvier, the paranode, and the myelinated internodal region. We report that GPI-linked contactin enables the formation of the paranodal septate-like axo-glial junctions in myelinated peripheral nerve. Contactin clusters at the paranodal axolemma during Schwann cell myelination. Ablation of contactin in mutant mice disrupts junctional attachment at the paranode and reduces nerve conduction velocity 3-fold. The mutation impedes intracellular transport and surface expression of Caspr and leaves NF155 on apposing paranodal myelin disengaged. The contactin mutation does not affect sodium channel clustering at the nodes of Ranvier but alters the location of the Shaker-type Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 potassium channels. Thus, contactin is a crucial part in the machinery that controls junctional attachment at the paranode and ultimately the physiology of myelinated nerve. PMID:11395001

  17. Neurotrophins are key mediators of the myelination program in the peripheral nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jonah R.; Cosgaya, José Miguel; Wu, Yong Jian; Shooter, Eric M.

    2001-01-01

    Although knowledge of the functions of neurotrophins has advanced rapidly in recent years, studies concerning the involvement of neurotrophins in glial–neuronal interactions rarely extend further than their roles in supporting the survival and differentiation of neuronal cells. In this study endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT3) were identified in Schwann cell/dorsal root ganglia neuronal cocultures and shown to modulate the myelination program of the peripheral nervous system. The differential expression of BDNF and NT3 were examined and compared with the expression profiles of myelin proteins in the cocultures throughout the myelination process. BDNF levels correlated with active myelin formation, whereas NT3 expression was initially high and then down regulated throughout the proliferation and premyelination periods. Addition of exogenous BDNF enhanced myelination, whereas the removal of the endogenous BDNF by using the BDNF receptor TrkB-Fc fusion protein inhibited the formation of mature myelin internodes. Interestingly, exogenous NT3 significantly inhibited myelination, whereas the removal of the endogenous NT3 by using the NT3 receptor TrkC-Fc fusion protein resulted in an enhancement similar to that obtained with the addition of BDNF. In addition, in vivo studies were performed during the development of the mouse sciatic nerve. Subcutaneous injections of BDNF resulted in an enhancement of myelin formation in the sciatic nerve, whereas the removal of the endogenous BDNF dramatically inhibited myelination. Injections of NT3 inhibited myelin formation, and the removal of the endogenous NT3 enhanced myelination. These results demonstrate that BDNF and NT3 possess different modulatory roles in the myelination program of the peripheral nervous system and that their mechanisms of action are specific and highly regulated. PMID:11717413

  18. Missense mutations in TENM4, a regulator of axon guidance and central myelination, cause essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    Hor, Hyun; Francescatto, Ludmila; Bartesaghi, Luca; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Kousi, Maria; Lorenzo-Betancor, Oswaldo; Jiménez-Jiménez, Felix J.; Gironell, Alexandre; Clarimón, Jordi; Drechsel, Oliver; Agúndez, José A. G.; Kenzelmann Broz, Daniela; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth; Lleó, Alberto; Coria, Francisco; García-Martin, Elena; Alonso-Navarro, Hortensia; Martí, Maria J.; Kulisevsky, Jaume; Hor, Charlotte N.; Ossowski, Stephan; Chrast, Roman; Katsanis, Nicholas; Pastor, Pau; Estivill, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is a common movement disorder with an estimated prevalence of 5% of the population aged over 65 years. In spite of intensive efforts, the genetic architecture of ET remains unknown. We used a combination of whole-exome sequencing and targeted resequencing in three ET families. In vitro and in vivo experiments in oligodendrocyte precursor cells and zebrafish were performed to test our findings. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a missense mutation in TENM4 segregating in an autosomal-dominant fashion in an ET family. Subsequent targeted resequencing of TENM4 led to the discovery of two novel missense mutations. Not only did these two mutations segregate with ET in two additional families, but we also observed significant over transmission of pathogenic TENM4 alleles across the three families. Consistent with a dominant mode of inheritance, in vitro analysis in oligodendrocyte precursor cells showed that mutant proteins mislocalize. Finally, expression of human mRNA harboring any of three patient mutations in zebrafish embryos induced defects in axon guidance, confirming a dominant-negative mode of action for these mutations. Our genetic and functional data, which is corroborated by the existence of a Tenm4 knockout mouse displaying an ET phenotype, implicates TENM4 in ET. Together with previous studies of TENM4 in model organisms, our studies intimate that processes regulating myelination in the central nervous system and axon guidance might be significant contributors to the genetic burden of this disorder. PMID:26188006

  19. Regional Myelin and Axon Damage and Neuroinflammation in the Adult Mouse Brain After Long-Term Postnatal Vanadium Exposure.

    PubMed

    Azeez, Idris A; Olopade, Funmilayo; Laperchia, Claudia; Andrioli, Anna; Scambi, Ilaria; Onwuka, Silas K; Bentivoglio, Marina; Olopade, James O

    2016-09-01

    Environmental exposure to vanadium occurs in areas of persistent burning of fossil fuels; this metal is known to induce oxidative stress and oligodendrocyte damage. Here, we determined whether vanadium exposure (3 mg/kg) in mice during the first 3 postnatal months leads to a sustained neuroinflammatory response. Body weight monitoring, and muscle strength and open field tests showed reduction of body weight gain and locomotor impairment in vanadium-exposed mice. Myelin histochemistry and immunohistochemistry for astrocytes, microglia, and nonphosphorylated neurofilaments revealed striking regional heterogeneity. Myelin damage involved the midline corpus callosum and fibers in cortical gray matter, hippocampus, and diencephalon that were associated with axonal damage. Astrocyte and microglial activation was identified in the same regions and in the internal capsule; however, no overt myelin and axon damage was observed in the latter. Double immunofluorescence revealed induction of high tumor necrosis factor (TNF) immunoreactivity in reactive astrocytes. Western blotting analysis showed significant induction of TNF and interleukin-1β expression. Together these findings show that chronic postnatal vanadium exposure leads to functional deficit and region-dependent myelin damage that does not spare axons. This injury is associated with glial cell activation and proinflammatory cytokine induction, which may reflect both neurotoxic and neuroprotective responses. PMID:27390101

  20. A Novel Asp121Asn Mutation of Myelin Protein Zero Is Associated with Late-Onset Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, Hearing Loss and Pupil Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaohui; Gu, Weihong; Hao, Ying; Wang, Renbin; Wen, Hong; Sun, Shaojie; Jiao, Jinsong; Fan, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Myelin protein zero (MPZ) is a major component of compact myelin in peripheral nerves. Mutations in MPZ have been associated with different Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT) phenotypes (CMT1B, CMT2I/J, CMTDI), Dejerine–Sottas syndrome, and congenital hypomyelination neuropathy. Here, we report phenotypic variability in a four-generation Chinese family with the MPZ mutation Asp121Asn. Genetic testing was performed on nine family members and 200 controls. Clinical, electrophysiological and skeletal muscle MRI assessments were available for review in six family members. A novel heterozygous missense mutation, Asp121Asn, was observed in five affected members of the family. Unaffected relatives and 200 normal controls were without the mutation. Four of the affected members of the family displayed late-onset, predominantly axonal sensory and motor neuropathy, pupil abnormalities, and progressive sensorineural hearing loss. One young affected member presented with Argyll–Robertson pupils and diminished deep tendon reflexes in the lower limbs. The MPZ mutation Asp121Asn may be associated with late-onset axonal neuropathy, early onset hearing loss and pupil abnormalities. Our report expands the number and phenotypic spectrum of MPZ mutations. PMID:27774063

  1. Regional differences in myelination of chick vestibulocochlear ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-Jie; Kobayashi, Hiroto; Yoshida, Saori; Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Naito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    In vertebrates, vestibular and cochlear ganglion (VG and CG, respectively) cells are bipolar neurons with myelinated axons and perikarya. The time course of the myelination of the VG and CG cells during development of chick embryos was investigated. Chick VG and CG from embryonic day at 7-20 (E7-20) were prepared for a transmission electron microscopy, myelin basic protein immunohistochemistry, and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. In the VG cells, myelination was first observed on the peripheral axons of the ampullar nerves at E10, on the utricular and saccular nerves at E12, and on the lagenar and neglecta nerves at E13. In the VG central axons, myelination was first seen on the ampullar nerves at E11, on the utricular and saccular nerves at E13, and on the lagenar nerves at E13. In the CG cells, the myelination was first observed on the peripheral and central axons at E14. In both VG and CG, myelination was observed on the perikarya at E17. These results suggest that the onset of the axonal myelination on the VG cells occurred earlier than that on the CG cells, whereas the perikaryal myelination occurred at about the same time on the both types of ganglion cells. Moreover, the myelination on the ampullar nerves occurred earlier than that on the utricular and saccular nerves. The myelination on the peripheral axons occurred earlier than that on the central axons of the VG cells, whereas that on the central and peripheral axons of the CG cells occurred at about the same time. The regional differences in myelination in relation to the onset of functional activities in the VG and CG cells are discussed.

  2. Molecular anatomy and genetics of myelin proteins in the peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Snipes, G J; Suter, U

    1995-01-01

    Myelin contains a number of proteins, the major examples of which are protein zero (Po), P2 protein, peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), myelin basic proteins (MBPs), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and the recently described connexin 32 (Cx32). This list is probably still incomplete. The localisation and possible functions of these proteins are reviewed. In the past few years a number of inherited demyelinating neuropathies in mice and the human have been shown to be due to mutations affecting the genes PMP22, Po and Cx32 so that it has become possible to characterise the molecular pathology of the majority of these disorders. This has provided important insights into the relationships between the structure of myelin and the function of its constituent proteins. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7559122

  3. Differentiation of axon-related Schwann cells in vitro. I. Ascorbic acid regulates basal lamina assembly and myelin formation

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Rat Schwann cells cultured with dorsal root ganglion neurons in a serum- free defined medium fail to ensheathe or myelinate axons or assemble basal laminae. Replacement of defined medium with medium that contains human placental serum (HPS) and chick embryo extract (EE) results in both basal lamina and myelin formation. In the present study, the individual effects of HPS and EE on basal lamina assembly and on myelin formation by Schwann cells cultured with neurons have been examined. Some batches of HPS were unable to promote myelin formation in the absence of EE, as assessed by quantitative evaluation of cultures stained with Sudan black; such HPS also failed to promote basal lamina assembly, as assessed by immunofluorescence using antibodies against laminin, type IV collagen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The addition of EE or L-ascorbic acid with such HPS led to the formation of large quantities of myelin and to the assembly of basal laminae. Pretreatment of EE with ascorbic acid oxidase abolished the EE activity, whereas trypsin did not. Other batches of HPS were found to promote both basal lamina and myelin formation in the absence of either EE or ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid oxidase treatment or dialysis of these batches of HPS abolished their ability to promote Schwann cell differentiation, whereas the subsequent addition of ascorbic acid restored that ability. Ascorbic acid in the absence of serum was relatively ineffective in promoting either basal lamina or myelin formation. Fetal bovine serum was as effective as HPS in allowing ascorbic acid (and several analogs but not other reducing agents) to manifest its ability to promote Schwann cell differentiation. We suggest that ascorbic acid promotes Schwann cell myelin formation by enabling the Schwann cell to assemble a basal lamina, which is required for complete differentiation. PMID:3624305

  4. Analytical theory for extracellular electrical stimulation of nerve with focal electrodes. II. Passive myelinated axon.

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, J T

    1991-01-01

    The cable model of a passive, myelinated fiber is derived using the theory of electromagnetic propagation in periodic structures. The cable may be excited by an intracellular source or by an arbitrary, time-varying, applied extracellular field. When the cable is stimulated by a distant source, its properties are qualitatively similar to an unmyelinated fiber. Under these conditions relative threshold is proportional to the cube of the source distance and inversely proportional to the square of the fiber diameter. Electrical parameters of the model are chosen where possible, from mammalian peripheral nerve and anatomic parameters from cat auditory nerve. Several anatomic representations of the paranodal region are analyzed for their effects on the length and time constants of the fibers. Sensitivity of the model to parameter changes is studied. The linear model reliably predicts the effects of fiber size and electrode-fiber separation on threshold of cat dorsal column fibers to extracellular electrical stimulation. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:1932546

  5. The 4.1B cytoskeletal protein regulates the domain organization and sheath thickness of myelinated axons.

    PubMed

    Einheber, Steven; Meng, Xiaosong; Rubin, Marina; Lam, Isabel; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli; Shrager, Peter; Kissil, Joseph; Maurel, Patrice; Salzer, James L

    2013-02-01

    Myelinated axons are organized into specialized domains critical to their function in saltatory conduction, i.e., nodes, paranodes, juxtaparanodes, and internodes. Here, we describe the distribution and role of the 4.1B protein in this organization. 4.1B is expressed by neurons, and at lower levels by Schwann cells, which also robustly express 4.1G. Immunofluorescence and immuno-EM demonstrates 4.1B is expressed subjacent to the axon membrane in all domains except the nodes. Mice deficient in 4.1B have preserved paranodes, based on marker staining and EM in contrast to the juxtaparanodes, which are substantially affected in both the PNS and CNS. The juxtaparanodal defect is evident in developing and adult nerves and is neuron-autonomous based on myelinating cocultures in which wt Schwann cells were grown with 4.1B-deficient neurons. Despite the juxtaparanodal defect, nerve conduction velocity is unaffected. Preservation of paranodal markers in 4.1B deficient mice is associated with, but not dependent on an increase of 4.1R at the axonal paranodes. Loss of 4.1B in the axon is also associated with reduced levels of the internodal proteins, Necl-1 and Necl-2, and of alpha-2 spectrin. Mutant nerves are modestly hypermyelinated and have increased numbers of Schmidt-Lanterman incisures, increased expression of 4.1G, and express a residual, truncated isoform of 4.1B. These results demonstrate that 4.1B is a key cytoskeletal scaffold for axonal adhesion molecules expressed in the juxtaparanodal and internodal domains that unexpectedly regulates myelin sheath thickness.

  6. Earthworm extracts facilitate PC12 cell differentiation and promote axonal sprouting in peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Tsung; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lu, Tung-Wu; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Huang, Chih-Yang; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Chen, Yueh-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    The present study provides in vitro and in vivo evaluations of earthworm (Pheretima aspergilum) on peripheral nerve regeneration. In the in vitro study, we found the earthworm (EW) water extracts caused a marked enhancement of the nerve growth factor-mediated neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells as well as the expressions of growth associated protein 43 and synapsin I. In the in vivo study, silicone rubber chambers filled with EW extracts were used to bridge a 10 mm sciatic nerve defect in rats. Eight weeks after implantation, the group receiving EW extracts had a much higher success percentage of regeneration (90%) compared to the control (60%) receiving the saline. In addition, quantitative histology of the successfully regenerated nerves revealed that myelinated axons in EW group at 31.25 microg/ml was significantly more than those in the controls (p < 0.05). These results showed that EW extracts can be a potential growth-promoting factor on regenerating peripheral nerves. PMID:20503471

  7. Spatial mapping of juxtacrine axo-glial interactions identifies novel molecules in peripheral myelination

    PubMed Central

    Poitelon, Y.; Bogni, S.; Matafora, V.; Della-Flora Nunes, G.; Hurley, E.; Ghidinelli, M.; Katzenellenbogen, B. S.; Taveggia, C.; Silvestri, N.; Bachi, A.; Sannino, A.; Wrabetz, L.; Feltri, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Cell–cell interactions promote juxtacrine signals in specific subcellular domains, which are difficult to capture in the complexity of the nervous system. For example, contact between axons and Schwann cells triggers signals required for radial sorting and myelination. Failure in this interaction causes dysmyelination and axonal degeneration. Despite its importance, few molecules at the axo-glial surface are known. To identify novel molecules in axo-glial interactions, we modified the ‘pseudopodia' sub-fractionation system and isolated the projections that glia extend when they receive juxtacrine signals from axons. By proteomics we identified the signalling networks present at the glial-leading edge, and novel proteins, including members of the Prohibitin family. Glial-specific deletion of Prohibitin-2 in mice impairs axo-glial interactions and myelination. We thus validate a novel method to model morphogenesis and juxtacrine signalling, provide insights into the molecular organization of the axo-glial contact, and identify a novel class of molecules in myelination. PMID:26383514

  8. The Lin28/let-7 axis is critical for myelination in the peripheral nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Gökbuget, Deniz; Pereira, Jorge A.; Bachofner, Sven; Marchais, Antonin; Ciaudo, Constance; Stoffel, Markus; Schulte, Johannes H.; Suter, Ueli

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial regulators of myelination in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). However, the miRNAs species involved and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We found that let-7 miRNAs are highly abundant during PNS myelination and that their levels are inversely correlated to the expression of lin28 homolog B (Lin28B), an antagonist of let-7 accumulation. Sustained expression of Lin28B and consequently reduced levels of let-7 miRNAs results in a failure of Schwann cell myelination in transgenic mouse models and in cell culture. Subsequent analyses revealed that let-7 miRNAs promote expression of the myelination-driving master transcription factor Krox20 (also known as Egr2) through suppression of myelination inhibitory Notch signalling. We conclude that the Lin28B/let-7 axis acts as a critical driver of PNS myelination, in particular by regulating myelination onset, identifying this pathway also as a potential therapeutic target in demyelinating diseases. PMID:26466203

  9. The Lin28/let-7 axis is critical for myelination in the peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Gökbuget, Deniz; Pereira, Jorge A; Bachofner, Sven; Marchais, Antonin; Ciaudo, Constance; Stoffel, Markus; Schulte, Johannes H; Suter, Ueli

    2015-10-14

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial regulators of myelination in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). However, the miRNAs species involved and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We found that let-7 miRNAs are highly abundant during PNS myelination and that their levels are inversely correlated to the expression of lin28 homolog B (Lin28B), an antagonist of let-7 accumulation. Sustained expression of Lin28B and consequently reduced levels of let-7 miRNAs results in a failure of Schwann cell myelination in transgenic mouse models and in cell culture. Subsequent analyses revealed that let-7 miRNAs promote expression of the myelination-driving master transcription factor Krox20 (also known as Egr2) through suppression of myelination inhibitory Notch signalling. We conclude that the Lin28B/let-7 axis acts as a critical driver of PNS myelination, in particular by regulating myelination onset, identifying this pathway also as a potential therapeutic target in demyelinating diseases.

  10. Effects of halothane and enflurane on firing threshold of frog myelinated axons.

    PubMed Central

    Butterworth, J F; Raymond, S A; Roscoe, R F

    1989-01-01

    1. Firing thresholds and conduction latencies of single myelinated axons in frog sciatic nerves were monitored during impulse activity in vitro. Resting threshold and the activity dependence of threshold were studied as a function of the concentration of two inhalational anaesthetic agents, halothane and enflurane. 2. At concentrations comparable to those obtained during general anaesthesia both agents produced biphasic effects on the resting threshold. A step increase in the partial pressure of anaesthetic was followed first by a transient lowering of threshold, then by a slow rise to a steady-state level above the original baseline. Step decreases in anaesthetic were followed by transient rises before threshold dropped. Transients lasted 20-30 min. During these threshold transients, the average latency of impulse conduction changed monotonically. The prolongation of latency following an increase in anaesthetic was progressive, reaching steady state concurrently with threshold (20 min to greater than 1 h). 3. The anaesthetics reduced the long-lasting increased threshold ('depression') which normally follows repetitive impulse activity in axon membrane. 4. These actions of halothane at concentrations of 0.25-2.7% (0.14-1.54 mM) and enflurane at concentrations of 0.62-3.08% (0.35-1.73 mM) on resting threshold and on the activity-dependent increase in threshold increased monotonically with anaesthetic concentration. 5. The effects on excitability at steady state are consistent with block of voltage-dependent Na+ and K+ channels by these inhalational agents. Reduced depression may occur because the anaesthetics reduce the net ion transfer per impulse, slowing the substrate-driven Na+-K+-ATPase and thereby reducing electrogenic hyper-polarization. 6. The finding that general anaesthetics inhibit depression at clinically relevant concentrations supports the possibility that general anaesthesia is produced by inhibition of processes that modulate excitability of nerve

  11. On the number and nature of regenerating myelinated axons after lesions of cutaneous nerves in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Horch, K W; Lisney, S J

    1981-01-01

    1. Electrophysiological and anatomical techniques were used to investigate normal and regenerating sural and posterior femoral cutaneous nerve fibres in the cat. 2. One and a half years after transection of these nerves it was found that the regenerating neurones supported multiple sprouts in the distal stump of the nerve. The branching occurred at or beyond the level of the neuroma and some of the branched fibres innervated split receptive fields on the skin. 3. Counts of the number of axons in the proximal stumps of transected nerves showed that the whole original population of myelinated fibres persisted for at least 18 months. About 75% of these fibres successfully crossed the unrepaired transection site and regenerated into the distal stump of the nerve to re-form functional connexions in the skin. 4. After nerve crush all the myelinated axons regenerated. None showed signs of abnormal branching. 5. After crush the conduction velocities of the regenerated axons in the distal stump of the nerve reached nearly normal values by 6 months. After nerve transection the distal conduction velocities were reduced to 50% of normal even 18 months after the injury. 6. The implications of these findings for the recovery of function after nerve injury in man are discussed. PMID:7277219

  12. Q-space and Conventional Diffusion Imaging of Axon and Myelin Damage in the Rat Spinal Cord after Axotomy

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Jonathan A.D.; Zhang, Jiangyang; Jones, Melina V.; DeBoy, Cynthia A.; Hoffman, Paul N.; Landman, Bennett A.; Smith, Seth A.; Reich, Daniel S.; Calabresi, Peter A.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Parallel and perpendicular diffusion properties of water in the rat spinal cord were investigated 3 and 30 days after dorsal root axotomy, a specific insult resulting in early axonal degeneration followed by later myelin damage in the dorsal column white matter (WM). Results from q-space analysis (i.e. the diffusion probability density function, PDF) obtained with strong diffusion weighting were compared to conventional anisotropy and diffusivity measurements at low b-values, as well as to histology for axon and myelin damage. Q-space contrasts included the height (PZERO), full width at half maximum (FWHM), root mean square displacement (RMSD), and kurtosis excess (KE) of the PDF, which quantifies the deviation from Gaussian diffusion. Following axotomy, a significant increase in perpendicular diffusion (with decreased KE) and decrease in parallel diffusion (with increased KE) were found in lesions relative to uninjured WM. Notably, a significant change in abnormal parallel diffusion was detected from 3 to 30 days with FWHM, but not with conventional diffusivity. Also, directional FWHM and RMSD measurements exhibited different sensitivities to WM damage. When compared to histology, the increase in perpendicular diffusion was not specific to demyelination, whereas combined reduced parallel diffusion and increased perpendicular diffusion was associated with axon damage. PMID:20432303

  13. Peripheral Glia Have a Pivotal Role in the Initial Response to Axon Degeneration of Peripheral Sensory Neurons in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Holly M.; Voigt, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    Axon degeneration is a feature of many peripheral neuropathies. Understanding the organismal response to this degeneration may aid in identifying new therapeutic targets for treatment. Using a transgenic zebrafish line expressing a bacterial nitroreductase (Ntr)/mCherry fusion protein in the peripheral sensory neurons of the V, VII, IX, and X cranial nerves, we were able to induce and visualize the pathology of axon degeneration in vivo. Exposure of 4 days post fertilization Ntr larvae to the prodrug metronidazole (Met), which Ntr metabolizes into cytotoxic metabolites, resulted in dose-dependent cell death and axon degeneration. This was limited to the Ntr-expressing sensory neurons, as neighboring glia and motor axons were unaffected. Cell death was rapid, becoming apparent 3–4 hours after Met treatment, and was followed by phagocytosis of soma and axon debris by cells within the nerves and ganglia beginning at 4–5 hours of exposure. Although neutrophils appear to be activated in response to the degenerating neurons, they did not accumulate at the sites of degeneration. In contrast, macrophages were found to be attracted to the sites of the degenerating axons, where they phagocytosed debris. We demonstrated that peripheral glia are critical for both the phagocytosis and inflammatory response to degenerating neurons: mutants that lack all peripheral glia (foxD3−/−; Ntr) exhibit a much reduced reaction to axonal degeneration, resulting in a dramatic decrease in the clearance of debris, and impaired macrophage recruitment. Overall, these results show that this zebrafish model of peripheral sensory axon degeneration exhibits many aspects common to peripheral neuropathies and that peripheral glia play an important role in the initial response to this process. PMID:25058656

  14. Axons provide the secretory machinery for trafficking of voltage-gated sodium channels in peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    González, Carolina; Cánovas, José; Fresno, Javiera; Couve, Eduardo; Court, Felipe A; Couve, Andrés

    2016-02-16

    The regulation of the axonal proteome is key to generate and maintain neural function. Fast and slow axoplasmic waves have been known for decades, but alternative mechanisms to control the abundance of axonal proteins based on local synthesis have also been identified. The presence of the endoplasmic reticulum has been documented in peripheral axons, but it is still unknown whether this localized organelle participates in the delivery of axonal membrane proteins. Voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for action potentials and are mostly concentrated in the axon initial segment and nodes of Ranvier. Despite their fundamental role, little is known about the intracellular trafficking mechanisms that govern their availability in mature axons. Here we describe the secretory machinery in axons and its contribution to plasma membrane delivery of sodium channels. The distribution of axonal secretory components was evaluated in axons of the sciatic nerve and in spinal nerve axons after in vivo electroporation. Intracellular protein trafficking was pharmacologically blocked in vivo and in vitro. Axonal voltage-gated sodium channel mRNA and local trafficking were examined by RT-PCR and a retention-release methodology. We demonstrate that mature axons contain components of the endoplasmic reticulum and other biosynthetic organelles. Axonal organelles and sodium channel localization are sensitive to local blockade of the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport. More importantly, secretory organelles are capable of delivering sodium channels to the plasma membrane in isolated axons, demonstrating an intrinsic capacity of the axonal biosynthetic route in regulating the axonal proteome in mammalian axons. PMID:26839409

  15. Axons provide the secretory machinery for trafficking of voltage-gated sodium channels in peripheral nerve

    PubMed Central

    González, Carolina; Cánovas, José; Fresno, Javiera; Couve, Eduardo; Court, Felipe A.; Couve, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of the axonal proteome is key to generate and maintain neural function. Fast and slow axoplasmic waves have been known for decades, but alternative mechanisms to control the abundance of axonal proteins based on local synthesis have also been identified. The presence of the endoplasmic reticulum has been documented in peripheral axons, but it is still unknown whether this localized organelle participates in the delivery of axonal membrane proteins. Voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for action potentials and are mostly concentrated in the axon initial segment and nodes of Ranvier. Despite their fundamental role, little is known about the intracellular trafficking mechanisms that govern their availability in mature axons. Here we describe the secretory machinery in axons and its contribution to plasma membrane delivery of sodium channels. The distribution of axonal secretory components was evaluated in axons of the sciatic nerve and in spinal nerve axons after in vivo electroporation. Intracellular protein trafficking was pharmacologically blocked in vivo and in vitro. Axonal voltage-gated sodium channel mRNA and local trafficking were examined by RT-PCR and a retention-release methodology. We demonstrate that mature axons contain components of the endoplasmic reticulum and other biosynthetic organelles. Axonal organelles and sodium channel localization are sensitive to local blockade of the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport. More importantly, secretory organelles are capable of delivering sodium channels to the plasma membrane in isolated axons, demonstrating an intrinsic capacity of the axonal biosynthetic route in regulating the axonal proteome in mammalian axons. PMID:26839409

  16. Channeling of developing rat corticospinal tract axons by myelin-associated neurite growth inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, M.E.; Schnell, L. )

    1991-03-01

    CNS myelin contains 2 membrane proteins that are potent inhibitors of neurite growth (NI-35 and NI-250). Because myelin formation starts at different times in different regions and tracts of the CNS, this inhibitory property of myelin could serve boundary and guidance functions for late-growing fiber tracts. In the rat, the corticospinal tract (CST) grows into and down the spinal cord during the first 10 postnatal days, in close proximity to the sensory tracts fasciculus cuneatus and gracilis. Immunofluorescence for myelin constituents showed that, in the rostral half of the spinal cord, the myelinating tissue of these ascending tracts surrounds the growing, myelin-free CST in a channellike fashion. Elimination of oligodendrocytes by x-irradiation of the newborn rats, or application of antibody IN-1, which neutralizes the inhibitory substrate property of CNS myelin, resulted in significant anatomical aberration of CST fibers. In particular, the tract was larger in cross-section, and aberrant CST fibers and fascicles intermixed with the neighboring sensory ascending tracts. These results assign an important channeling and guard-rail function to the oligodendrocyte-associated neurite growth inhibitors for the developing CST in the rat spinal cord.

  17. Peripheral myelin of Xenopus laevis: Role of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in membrane compaction

    PubMed Central

    Luo, XiaoYang; Cerullo, Jana; Dawli, Tamara; Priest, Christina; Haddadin, Zaid; Kim, Angela; Inouye, Hideyo; Suffoletto, Brian P.; Avila, Robin L.; Lees, Jonathan P.B.; Sharma, Deepak; Xie, Bo; Costello, Catherine E.; Kirschner, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    P0 glycoprotein is the major structural protein of peripheral nerve myelin where it is thought to modulate inter-membrane adhesion at both the extracellular apposition, which is labile upon changes in pH and ionic strength, and the cytoplasmic apposition, which is resistant to such changes. Most studies on P0 have focused on structure-function correlates in higher vertebrates. Here, we focused on its role in the structure and interactions of frog (Xenopus laevis) myelin, where it exists primarily in a dimeric form. As part of our study, we deduced the full sequence of Xenopus laevis P0 (xP0) from its cDNA. The xP0 sequence was found to be similar to P0 sequences of higher vertebrates, suggesting that a common mechanism of PNS myelin compaction via P0 interaction might have emerged through evolution. As previously reported for mouse PNS myelin, a similar change of extracellular apposition in frog PNS myelin as a function of pH and ionic strength was observed, which can be explained by a conformational change of P0 due to protonation-deprotonation of His52 at P0’s putative adhesive interface. On the other hand, the cytoplasmic apposition in frog PNS myelin, like that in the mouse, remained unchanged at different pH and ionic strength. The contribution of hydrophobic interactions to stabilizing the cytoplasmic apposition was tested by incubating sciatic nerves with detergents. Dramatic expansion at the cytoplasmic apposition was observed for both frog and mouse, indicating a common hydrophobic nature at this apposition. Urea also expanded the cytoplasmic apposition of frog myelin likely owing to denaturation of P0. Removal of the fatty acids that attached to the single Cys residue in the cytoplasmic domain of P0 did not change PNS myelin structure of either frog or mouse, suggesting that the P0-attached fatty acyl chain does not play a significant role in PNS myelin compaction and stability. These results help clarify the present understanding of P0’s adhesion

  18. Perinatal chronic hypoxia induces cortical inflammation, hypomyelination, and peripheral myelin-specific T cell autoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Sterling B; Kong, Xiagmei; Venkataraman, Ramgopal; Savedra, Allen Michael; Kernie, Steven G; Stowe, Ann M; Raman, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    pCH is an important risk factor for brain injury and long-term morbidity in children, occurring during the developmental stages of neurogenesis, neuronal migration, and myelination. We show that a rodent model of pCH results in an early decrease in mature myelin. Although pCH does increase progenitor oligodendrocytes in the developing brain, BrdU labeling revealed a loss in dividing progenitor oligodendrocytes, indicating a defect in mature cell replacement and myelinogenesis. Mice continued to exhibited hypomyelination, concomitant with long-term impairment of motor function, weeks after cessation of pCH. The implication of a novel neuroimmunologic interplay, pCH also induced a significant egress of infiltrating CD4 T cells into the developing brain. This pCH-mediated neuroinflammation included oligodendrocyte-directed autoimmunity, with an increase in peripheral myelin-specific CD4 T cells. Thus, both the loss of available, mature, myelin-producing glial cells and an active increase in autoreactive, myelin-specific CD4 T cell infiltration into pCH brains may contribute to early pCH-induced hypomyelination in the developing CNS. The elucidation of potential mechanisms of hypoxia-driven autoimmunity will expand our understanding of the neuroimmune axis during perinatal CNS disease states that may contribute to long-term functional disability.

  19. Microchannels as axonal amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, James J; Lacour, Stéphanie P; McMahon, Stephen B; Fawcett, James W

    2008-03-01

    An implantable neural interface capable of reliable long-term high-resolution recording from peripheral nerves has yet to be developed. Device design is challenging because extracellular axonal signals are very small, decay rapidly with distance from the axon, and in myelinated fibres are concentrated close to nodes of Ranvier, which are around 1 mum long and spaced several hundred micrometers apart. We present a finite element model examining the electrical behavior of axons in microchannels, and demonstrate that confining axons in such channels substantially amplifies the extracellular signal. For example, housing a 10-microm myelinated axon in a 1-cm-long channel with a 1000-microm(2) cross section is predicted to generate a peak extracellular voltage of over 10 mV. Furthermore, there is little radial signal decay within the channel, and a smooth axial variation of signal amplitude along the channel, irrespective of node location. Additional benefits include a greater extracellular voltage generated by large myelinated fibres compared to small unmyelinated axons, and the reduction of gain to unity at the end of the channel which ensures that there can be no crosstalk with electrodes in other channels nearby. A microchannel architecture seems well suited to the requirements of a peripheral nerve interface.

  20. Structure and localization of the gene encoding human peripheral myelin protein 2 (PMP2)

    SciTech Connect

    Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Himoro, Masato; Takada, Goro ); Takahashi, Ei-Ichi ); Minoshima, Shinsei; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi )

    1993-11-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 2 (PMP2) is a small, basic, and cytoplasmic lipid-binding protein of peripheral myelin. In this paper, the authors describe the cloning, characterization, and chromosomal mapping of the human PMP2 gene. The gene is about 8 kb long and consists of four exons. All exon-intron junction sequences conform to the GT/AG rule. The 5[prime]-flanking region of the gene has a TA-rich element (TATA-like box) and a single defined transcription initiation site detected by the primer extension method. The gene for human PMP2 was assigned to chromosome 8q21.3-q22.1 by spot hybridization of flow-sorted human chromosomes and fluorescence in situ hybridization. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Distribution of monocarboxylate transporters in the peripheral nervous system suggests putative roles in lactate shuttling and myelination.

    PubMed

    Domènech-Estévez, Enric; Baloui, Hasna; Repond, Cendrine; Rosafio, Katia; Médard, Jean-Jacques; Tricaud, Nicolas; Pellerin, Luc; Chrast, Roman

    2015-03-11

    Lactate, a product of glycolysis, has been shown to play a key role in the metabolic support of neurons/axons in the CNS by both astrocytes and oligodendrocytes through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Despite such importance in the CNS, little is known about MCT expression and lactate function in the PNS. Here we show that mouse MCT1, MCT2, and MCT4 are expressed in the PNS. While DRG neurons express MCT1, myelinating Schwann cells (SCs) coexpress MCT1 and MCT4 in a domain-specific fashion, mainly in regions of noncompact myelin. Interestingly, SC-specific downregulation of MCT1 expression in rat neuron/SC cocultures led to increased myelination, while its downregulation in neurons resulted in a decreased amount of neurofilament. Finally, pure rat SCs grown in the presence of lactate exhibited an increase in the level of expression of the main myelin regulator gene Krox20/Egr2 and the myelin gene P0. These data indicate that lactate homeostasis participates in the regulation of the SC myelination program and reveal that similar to CNS, PNS axon-glial metabolic interactions are most likely mediated by MCTs. PMID:25762662

  2. Morphology of central terminations of intra-axonally stained, large, myelinated primary afferent fibers from facial skin in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, H

    1985-07-01

    Horseradish peroxidase was intra-axonally injected into functionally identified primary afferent fibers within the rat spinal trigeminal tract in order to study the morphology of their central terminations. They were physiologically determined to be large, myelinated, cutaneous primary afferents by means of electrical and mechanical stimulation of their receptive fields. Ninety-three axons that innervated vibrissa follicles, guard hair follicles, and slowly adapting receptors were stained for distances of 4-12 mm at the levels of the main sensory nucleus, spinal trigeminal nucleus, and rostral cervical spinal cord. The collaterals of single axons from these receptors formed terminal arbors in the outer part of the spinal trigeminal nucleus rostral to and near the level of the obex (rostral type collaterals). In the rostral part of the subnucleus caudalis (Vc) they were confined to lamina V (caudalis type collaterals) and in the caudal part of Vc and in cervical segments they were confined to lamina III/IV (spinal-dorsal-horn-type collaterals). There were no transitional forms between the rostral and caudalis types, but there was a transitional form between the caudalis and spinal dorsal horn types. This transitional form was distributed in laminae III/IV and V. The terminal arbors of the rostral type of collaterals formed an interrupted, rostrocaudally oriented column like those seen in the lumbar dorsal horn, but the column shifted down to lamina V near the obex, and more caudally, gradually shifted upward to lamina III. Major morphological differences were not observed among the three different functional types of collaterals with respect to the rostrocaudal distribution of collaterals, and the shape and location of collaterals. The differential laminar distribution of collateral arbors of single axons along the rostrocaudal axis distinguishes the spinal trigeminal nucleus from the spinal dorsal horn where functional types of mechanoreceptive afferents form

  3. ADAM22, a Kv1 channel-interacting protein, recruits membrane-associated guanylate kinases to juxtaparanodes of myelinated axons.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Oses-Prieto, Juan; Kim, Moon Young; Horresh, Ido; Peles, Elior; Burlingame, Alma L; Trimmer, James S; Meijer, Dies; Rasband, Matthew N

    2010-01-20

    Clustered Kv1 K(+) channels regulate neuronal excitability at juxtaparanodes of myelinated axons, axon initial segments, and cerebellar basket cell terminals (BCTs). These channels are part of a larger protein complex that includes cell adhesion molecules and scaffolding proteins. To identify proteins that regulate assembly, clustering, and/or maintenance of axonal Kv1 channel protein complexes, we immunoprecipitated Kv1.2 alpha subunits, and then used mass spectrometry to identify interacting proteins. We found that a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 22 (ADAM22) is a component of the Kv1 channel complex and that ADAM22 coimmunoprecipitates Kv1.2 and the membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) PSD-93 and PSD-95. When coexpressed with MAGUKs in heterologous cells, ADAM22 and Kv1 channels are recruited into membrane surface clusters. However, coexpression of Kv1.2 with ADAM22 and MAGUKs does not alter channel properties. Among all the known Kv1 channel-interacting proteins, only ADAM22 is found at every site where Kv1 channels are clustered. Analysis of Caspr-null mice showed that, like other previously described juxtaparanodal proteins, disruption of the paranodal junction resulted in redistribution of ADAM22 into paranodal zones. Analysis of Caspr2-, PSD-93-, PSD-95-, and double PSD-93/PSD-95-null mice showed ADAM22 clustering at BCTs requires PSD-95, but ADAM22 clustering at juxtaparanodes requires neither PSD-93 nor PSD-95. In direct contrast, analysis of ADAM22-null mice demonstrated juxtaparanodal clustering of PSD-93 and PSD-95 requires ADAM22, whereas Kv1.2 and Caspr2 clustering is normal in ADAM22-null mice. Thus, ADAM22 is an axonal component of the Kv1 K(+) channel complex that recruits MAGUKs to juxtaparanodes. PMID:20089912

  4. Temporal and spatial expression analysis of peripheral myelin protein 22 (Pmp22) in developing Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Tae, Hyun-Jin; Rahman, Md Mahfujur; Park, Byung-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (Pmp22), a member of the junction protein family Claudin/EMP/PMP22, contributes to the formation and maintenance of myelin sheaths in the peripheral nervous system. Apart from the establishment and maintenance of peripheral nerves, Pmp22 and its family member have also participated in a broad range of more general processes including cell cycle regulation and apoptosis during development. Pmp22 has been identified from several vertebrate species including mouse, human and zebrafish. However, Pmp22 has not been identified from Xenopus embryos yet. In this paper, we cloned Pmp22 from Xenopus laevis and evaluated its expression during embryogenesis. We found that Pmp22 was initially expressed in the mesoderm and cement gland during the neurula stage. At early tailbud stage, strong expression of Pmp22 was detected in the trigeminal and profundal ganglia as well as developing somites and branchial arches. Later in development, Pmp22 was expressed specifically in cranio-facial cartilage, roof plate and floor plate of the developing brain, otic vesicle and lens. Pmp22 is also strongly expressed in the developing trachea and lungs. Based on its expression in facial tissues, we propose that Pmp22 may be involved in the formation of head structure in addition to the maintenance of functional peripheral nerves in Xenopus embryos.

  5. Dynamics of axonal mRNA transport and implications for peripheral nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Soonmoon; van Niekerk, Erna A.; Merianda, Tanuja T.; Twiss, Jeffery L.

    2009-01-01

    Locally generating new proteins in subcellular regions provides means to spatially and temporally modify protein content in polarized cells. Recent years have seen resurgence of the concept that axonal processes of neurons can locally synthesize proteins. Experiments from a number of groups have now shown that axonal protein synthesis helps to initiate growth, provides a means to respond to guidance cues, and generates retrograde signaling complexes. Additionally, there is increasing evidence that locally synthesized proteins provide functions beyond injury responses and growth in the mature peripheral nervous system. A key regulatory event in this translational regulation is moving the mRNA templates into the axonal compartment. Transport of mRNAs into axons is a highly regulated and specific process that requires interaction of RNA binding proteins with specific cis-elements or structures within the mRNAs. mRNAs are transported in ribonucleoprotein particles that interact with microtubule motor proteins for long-range axonal transport and likely use microfilaments for short-range movement in the axons. The mature axon is able to recruit mRNAs into translation with injury and possibly other stimuli suggesting that mRNAs can be stored in a dormant state in the distal axon until needed. Axotomy triggers a shift in the populations of mRNAs localized to axons indicating a dynamic regulation of the specificity of the axonal transport machinery. In this review, we discuss how axonal mRNA transport and localization are regulated to achieve specific changes in axonal RNA content in response to axonal stimuli. PMID:19699200

  6. Method for morphometric analysis of axons in experimental peripheral nerve reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Heijke, G C; Klopper, P J; Baljet, B; Van Doorn, I B; Dutrieux, R P

    2000-01-01

    A new method for morphometric analysis of axons in experimental peripheral nerve reconstruction is presented. Twelve adult female rabbits were used. In nine animals the saphenous nerve was transected and stitched epineurially. Three animals functioned as control. After 3, 6, and 12 months, the nerves were harvested, fixed in Kryofix and embedded in Histowax. Transverse sections of 6 microm were cut, immunohistochemically stained for NF 90, and counterstained by Sirius Red. Quantification of nerve fibers in cross sections was performed by using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), and the images were stored digitally. Data analyzing was performed by the Optimas program (5.2). Calculations were done with Microsoft Excel. The total number of axons, the mean axon diameter and the percentage axon area/fascicle area were evaluated statistically. This method for morphologic analysis provides automatically complete registration of axons and so different methods of experimental nerve reconstruction can be compared in a fast and reliable way.

  7. Uptake of nerve growth factor along peripheral and spinal axons of primary sensory neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, P.M.; Riopelle, R.J.

    1984-07-01

    To investigate the distribution of nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors on peripheral and central axons, (/sup 125/I)NGF was injected into the sciatic nerve or spinal cord of adult rats. Accumulation of (/sup 125/I)NGF in lumbar dorsal root ganglia was monitored by gamma emission counting and radioautography. (/sup 125/I)NGF, injected endoneurially in small quantities, was taken into sensory axons by a saturable process and was transported retrogradely to their cell bodies at a maximal rate of 2.5 to 7.5 mm/hr. Because very little (/sup 125/I)NGF reached peripheral terminals, the results were interpreted to indicate that receptors for NGF are present on nonterminal segments of sensory axons. The specificity and high affinity of NGF uptake were illustrated by observations that negligible amounts of gamma activity accumulated in lumbar dorsal root ganglia after comparable intraneural injection of (/sup 125/I) cytochrome C or (/sup 125/I)oxidized NGF. Similar techniques were used to demonstrate avid internalization and retrograde transport of (/sup 125/I)NGF by intraspinal axons arising from dorsal root ganglia. Following injection of (/sup 125/I)NGF into lumbar or cervical regions of the spinal cord, neuronal perikarya were clearly labeled in radioautographs of lumbar dorsal root ganglia. Sites for NGF uptake on primary sensory neurons in the adult rat are not restricted to peripheral axon terminals but are extensively distributed along both peripheral and central axons. Receptors on axons provide a mechanism whereby NGF supplied by glia could influence neuronal maintenance or axonal regeneration.

  8. Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imitola, Jaime; Côté, Daniel; Rasmussen, Stine; Xie, X. Sunney; Liu, Yingru; Chitnis, Tanuja; Sidman, Richard L.; Lin, Charles. P.; Khoury, Samia J.

    2011-02-01

    Myelin loss and axonal degeneration predominate in many neurological disorders; however, methods to visualize them simultaneously in live tissue are unavailable. We describe a new imaging strategy combining video rate reflectance and fluorescence confocal imaging with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy tuned to CH2 vibration of myelin lipids, applied in live tissue of animals with chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our method allows monitoring over time of demyelination and neurodegeneration in brain slices with high spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. Local areas of severe loss of lipid signal indicative of demyelination and loss of the reflectance signal from axons were seen in the corpus callosum and spinal cord of EAE animals. Even in myelinated areas of EAE mice, the intensity of myelin lipid signals is significantly reduced. Using heterozygous knock-in mice in which green fluorescent protein replaces the CX3CR1 coding sequence that labels central nervous system microglia, we find areas of activated microglia colocalized with areas of altered reflectance and CARS signals reflecting axonal injury and demyelination. Our data demonstrate the use of multimodal CARS microscopy for characterization of demyelinating and neurodegenerative pathology in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, and further confirm the critical role of microglia in chronic inflammatory neurodegeneration.

  9. Growth of White Matter in the Adolescent Brain: Myelin or Axon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paus, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    White matter occupies almost half of the human brain. It contains axons connecting spatially segregated modules and, as such, it is essential for the smooth flow of information in functional networks. Structural maturation of white matter continues during adolescence, as reflected in age-related changes in its volume, as well as in its…

  10. Small-molecule trkB agonists promote axon regeneration in cut peripheral nerves

    PubMed Central

    English, Arthur W.; Liu, Kevin; Nicolini, Jennifer M.; Mulligan, Amanda M.; Ye, Keqiang

    2013-01-01

    Treatments with two-small molecule tropomyosin receptor kinase B (trkB) ligands, 7,8 dihydroxyflavone (7,8 DHF) and deoxygedunin, were evaluated for their ability to promote the regeneration of cut axons in injured peripheral nerves in mice in which sensory and motor axons are marked by YFP. Peripheral nerves were cut and repaired with grafts from strain-matched, nonfluorescent donors and secured in place with fibrin glue. Lengths of profiles of regenerating YFP+ axons were measured 2 wk later from confocal images. Axon regeneration was enhanced when the fibrin glue contained dilutions of 500-nM solution of either small-molecule trkB agonist. In mice in which the neurotrophin receptor trkB is knocked out selectively in neurons, axon regeneration is very weak, and topical treatment with 7,8 DHF had no effect on axon regeneration. Similar treatments with deoxygedunin had only a modest effect. In conditional BDNF knockout mice, topical treatments with either 7,8 DHF or deoxygedunin resulted in a reversal of the poor regeneration found in controls and produced significant enhancement of regeneration. In WT mice treated with 2 wk of daily i.p. injections of either 7,8 DHF or deoxygedunin (5 mg/kg), regenerating axon profiles were nearly twice as long as in controls. Restoration of direct muscle responses evoked by sciatic nerve stimulation to pretransection levels over an 8-wk survival period was found only in the treated mice. Treatments with either small-molecule trkB agonist enhanced axon regeneration and muscle reinnervation after peripheral nerve injuries. PMID:24043773

  11. Small-molecule trkB agonists promote axon regeneration in cut peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    English, Arthur W; Liu, Kevin; Nicolini, Jennifer M; Mulligan, Amanda M; Ye, Keqiang

    2013-10-01

    Treatments with two-small molecule tropomyosin receptor kinase B (trkB) ligands, 7,8 dihydroxyflavone (7,8 DHF) and deoxygedunin, were evaluated for their ability to promote the regeneration of cut axons in injured peripheral nerves in mice in which sensory and motor axons are marked by YFP. Peripheral nerves were cut and repaired with grafts from strain-matched, nonfluorescent donors and secured in place with fibrin glue. Lengths of profiles of regenerating YFP(+) axons were measured 2 wk later from confocal images. Axon regeneration was enhanced when the fibrin glue contained dilutions of 500-nM solution of either small-molecule trkB agonist. In mice in which the neurotrophin receptor trkB is knocked out selectively in neurons, axon regeneration is very weak, and topical treatment with 7,8 DHF had no effect on axon regeneration. Similar treatments with deoxygedunin had only a modest effect. In conditional BDNF knockout mice, topical treatments with either 7,8 DHF or deoxygedunin resulted in a reversal of the poor regeneration found in controls and produced significant enhancement of regeneration. In WT mice treated with 2 wk of daily i.p. injections of either 7,8 DHF or deoxygedunin (5 mg/kg), regenerating axon profiles were nearly twice as long as in controls. Restoration of direct muscle responses evoked by sciatic nerve stimulation to pretransection levels over an 8-wk survival period was found only in the treated mice. Treatments with either small-molecule trkB agonist enhanced axon regeneration and muscle reinnervation after peripheral nerve injuries. PMID:24043773

  12. Short-term peripheral nerve stimulation ameliorates axonal dysfunction after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael; Kiernan, Matthew C; Macefield, Vaughan G; Lee, Bonne B; Lin, Cindy S-Y

    2015-05-01

    There is accumulating evidence that peripheral motor axons deteriorate following spinal cord injury (SCI). Secondary axonal dysfunction can exacerbate muscle atrophy, contribute to peripheral neuropathies and neuropathic pain, and lead to further functional impairment. In an attempt to ameliorate the adverse downstream effects that developed following SCI, we investigated the effects of a short-term peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) program on motor axonal excitability in 22 SCI patients. Axonal excitability studies were undertaken in the median and common peroneal nerves (CPN) bilaterally before and after a 6-wk unilateral PNS program. PNS was delivered percutaneously over the median nerve at the wrist and CPN around the fibular head, and the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) from the abductor pollicis brevis and tibialis anterior was recorded. Stimulus intensity was above motor threshold, and pulses (450 μs) were delivered at 100 Hz with a 2-s on/off cycle for 30 min 5 days/wk. SCI patients had consistently high thresholds with a reduced CMAP consistent with axonal loss; in some patients the peripheral nerves were completely inexcitable. Nerve excitability studies revealed profound changes in membrane potential, with a "fanned-in" appearance in threshold electrotonus, consistent with membrane depolarization, and significantly reduced superexcitability during the recovery cycle. These membrane dysfunctions were ameliorated after 6 wk of PNS, which produced a significant hyperpolarizing effect. The contralateral, nonstimulated nerves remained depolarized. Short-term PNS reversed axonal dysfunction following SCI, may provide an opportunity to prevent chronic changes in axonal and muscular function, and may improve rehabilitation outcomes. PMID:25787956

  13. Predicting myelinated axon activation using spatial characteristics of the extracellular field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, E. J.; Izad, O.; Tyler, D. J.

    2011-08-01

    The computation time required for modeling the nonlinear response of an axon to an applied electric field is a significant limitation to optimizing a large number of neural interface design parameters through use of advanced computer algorithms. This paper introduces two methods of predicting axon activation that incorporate a threshold that includes the magnitude of the extracellular potential to achieve increased accuracy over previous computationally efficient methods. Each method uses a modified driving function that includes the second spatial difference of the applied extracellular voltage to predict the electrical excitation of a nerve. The first method uses the second spatial difference taken at a single node of Ranvier, while the second uses a weighted sum of the second spatial differences taken at all nodes of Ranvier. This study quantifies prediction accuracy for cases with single and multiple point source stimulating electrodes. While both new methods address the major criticism of linearized prediction models, the weighted sum method provides the most robust response across single and multiple point sources. These methods improve prediction of axon activation based on properties of the applied field in a computationally efficient manner.

  14. The cytoskeletal adaptor protein band 4.1B is required for the maintenance of paranodal axoglial septate junctions in myelinated axons.

    PubMed

    Buttermore, Elizabeth D; Dupree, Jeffrey L; Cheng, JrGang; An, Xiuli; Tessarollo, Lino; Bhat, Manzoor A

    2011-06-01

    Precise targeting and maintenance of axonal domains in myelinated axons is essential for saltatory conduction. Caspr and Caspr2, which localize at paranodal and juxtaparanodal domains, contain binding sites for the cytoskeletal adaptor protein 4.1B. The exact role of 4.1B in the organization and maintenance of axonal domains is still not clear. Here, we report the generation and characterization of 4.1B-null mice. We show that loss of 4.1B in the PNS results in mislocalization of Caspr at paranodes and destabilization of paranodal axoglial septate junctions (AGSJs) as early as postnatal day 30. In the CNS, Caspr localization is progressively disrupted and ultrastructural analysis showed paranodal regions that were completely devoid of AGSJs, with axolemma separated from the myelin loops, and loops coming off the axolemma. Most importantly, our phenotypic analysis of previously generated 4.1B mutants, used in the study by Horresh et al. (2010), showed that Caspr localization was not affected in the PNS, even after 1 year; and 4.1R was neither expressed, nor enriched at the paranodes. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis of these 4.1B mutants showed destabilization of CNS AGSJs at ∼ 1 year. We also discovered that the 4.1B locus is differentially expressed in the PNS and CNS, and generates multiple splice isoforms in the PNS, suggesting 4.1B may function differently in the PNS versus CNS. Together, our studies provide direct evidence that 4.1B plays a pivotal role in interactions between the paranodal AGSJs and axonal cytoskeleton, and that 4.1B is critically required for long-term maintenance of axonal domains in myelinated axons. PMID:21632923

  15. The Cytoskeletal Adaptor Protein Band 4.1B is Required for the Maintenance of Paranodal Axo-Glial Septate Junctions in Myelinated Axons

    PubMed Central

    Buttermore, Elizabeth D.; Dupree, Jeffrey L.; Cheng, JrGang; An, Xiuli; Tessarollo, Lino; Bhat, Manzoor A.

    2011-01-01

    Precise targeting and maintenance of axonal domains in myelinated axons is essential for saltatory conduction. Caspr and Caspr2, which localize at paranodal and juxtaparanodal domains, contain binding sites for the cytoskeletal adaptor protein 4.1B. The exact role of 4.1B in the organization and maintenance of axonal domains is still not clear. Here we report the generation and characterization of 4.1B null mice. We show that loss of 4.1B in the PNS results in mislocalization of Caspr at paranodes and destabilization of paranodal axo-glial septate junctions (AGSJs) as early as postnatal day 30. In the CNS, Caspr localization is progressively disrupted and ultrastructural analysis showed paranodal regions that were completely devoid of AGSJs, with axolemma separated from the myelin loops, and loops coming off the axolemma. Most importantly, our phenotypic analysis of previously generated 4.1B mutants, used in Horresh et al. (2010), showed that Caspr localization was not affected in the PNS, even after one year; and 4.1R was neither expressed, nor enriched at the paranodes. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis of these 4.1B mutants showed destabilization of CNS AGSJs at about one year. We also discovered that the 4.1B locus is differentially expressed in the PNS and CNS, and generates multiple splice isoforms in the PNS, suggesting 4.1B may function differently in the PNS versus CNS. Together, our studies provide direct evidence that 4.1B plays a pivotal role in interactions between the paranodal AGSJs and axonal cytoskeleton, and that 4.1B is critically required for long-term maintenance of axonal domains in myelinated axons. PMID:21632923

  16. Three-dimensional ultra-structures of myelin and the axons in the spinal cord: application of SEM with the osmium maceration method to the central nervous system in two mouse models.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Taichi; Bando, Yoshio; Bochimoto, Hiroki; Koga, Daisuke; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Shigetaka

    2013-03-01

    Axonal injury and demyelination are observed in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. However, pathological changes that underlie these morphologies are not fully understood. We examined in vivo morphological changes using a new histological technique, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with osmium maceration method to observe three-dimensional structures such as myelin and axons in the spinal cord. Myelin basic protein-deficient shiverer mice and mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) were used to visualize how morphological changes in myelin and axons are induced by dysmyelination and demyelination. SEM revealed following morphological changes during dysmyelination of shiverer mice. First, enriched mitochondria and well-developed sER in axons were observed in shiverer, but not in wild-type mice. Second, the processes from some perinodal glial cells ran parallel to internodes of axons in addition to the process that covered the nodal region of the axon in shiverer mice. Last, this technique left myelin and axonal structures undisturbed. Moreover, SEM images showed clear variations in the ultrastructural abnormalities of myelin and axons in the white matter of the EAE spinal cord. This technique will be a powerful tool for identifying the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis in demyelination.

  17. Production, crystallization and neutron diffraction of fully deuterated human myelin peripheral membrane protein P2.

    PubMed

    Laulumaa, Saara; Blakeley, Matthew P; Raasakka, Arne; Moulin, Martine; Härtlein, Michael; Kursula, Petri

    2015-11-01

    The molecular details of the formation of the myelin sheath, a multilayered membrane in the nervous system, are to a large extent unknown. P2 is a peripheral membrane protein from peripheral nervous system myelin, which is believed to play a role in this process. X-ray crystallographic studies and complementary experiments have provided information on the structure-function relationships in P2. In this study, a fully deuterated sample of human P2 was produced. Crystals that were large enough for neutron diffraction were grown by a ten-month procedure of feeding, and neutron diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.4 Å from a crystal of 0.09 mm(3) in volume. The neutron crystal structure will allow the positions of H atoms in P2 and its fatty-acid ligand to be visualized, as well as shedding light on the fine details of the hydrogen-bonding networks within the P2 ligand-binding cavity.

  18. The tumour suppressor LKB1 regulates myelination through mitochondrial metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Pooya, Shabnam; Liu, Xiaona; Kumar, V.B. Sameer; Anderson, Jane; Imai, Fumiyasu; Zhang, Wujuan; Ciraolo, Georgianne; Ratner, Nancy; Setchell, Kenneth D.R.; Yoshida, Yutaka; Jankowski, Michael P.; Dasgupta, Biplab

    2015-01-01

    A prerequisite to myelination of peripheral axons by Schwann cells (SCs) is SC differentiation, and recent evidence indicates that reprogramming from a glycolytic to oxidative metabolism occurs during cellular differentiation. Whether this reprogramming is essential for SC differentiation, and the genes that regulate this critical metabolic transition are unknown. Here we show that the tumour suppressor Lkb1 is essential for this metabolic transition and myelination of peripheral axons. Hypomyelination in the Lkb1-mutant nerves and muscle atrophy lead to hindlimb dysfunction and peripheral neuropathy. Lkb1-null SCs failed to optimally activate mitochondrial oxidative metabolism during differentiation. This deficit was caused by Lkb1-regulated diminished production of the mitochondrial Krebs cycle substrate citrate, a precursor to cellular lipids. Consequently, myelin lipids were reduced in Lkb1-mutant mice. Restoring citrate partially rescued Lkb1-mutant SC defects. Thus, Lkb1-mediated metabolic shift during SC differentiation increases mitochondrial metabolism and lipogenesis, necessary for normal myelination. PMID:25256100

  19. Axonal transport of neurofilament is accelerated in peripheral nerve during 2,5-hexanedione intoxication.

    PubMed

    Monaco, S; Jacob, J; Jenich, H; Patton, A; Autilio-Gambetti, L; Gambetti, P

    1989-07-10

    The neurotoxic compound 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) causes an axonopathy characterized by the presence of neurofilament (NF)-containing enlargements in the preterminal segments of central and peripheral axons. The 2,5-HD axonopathy is a good model for human acquired and inherited giant axonal neuropathies. Recently, we reported that following 2,5-HD administration, axonal transport of NF is markedly and selectively accelerated in the primary visual system. We have now studied slow axonal transport in the sciatic system of rats intoxicated with 0.5% 2,5-HD in drinking water. Following radiolabeling, transported proteins were examined after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. The bulk of radiolabeled NF subunits was located 30-50 mm from the spinal cord in 2,5-HD treated animals and 10-25 mm in controls. The rate of transport of the three NF subunits was 0.7 mm/day in controls and 1.2 mm/day in 2,5-HD treated animals. The rate of transport of tubulin was not significantly changed. Electrophysiological studies of soleus nerve and muscle showed no evidence of denervation after 6 weeks of intoxication. It is concluded that, following 2,5-HD administration, transport of NF is preferentially accelerated in both central and peripheral axons. A pathogenetic mechanism based on the acceleration of NF transport is proposed, which may explain the formation and the distal or proximal location of NF-containing axonal enlargements in giant axonopathies.

  20. Structural and dynamical properties of reconstituted myelin sheaths in the presence of myelin proteins MBP and P2 studied by neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Wiebke; Peters, Judith; Kursula, Petri; Gerelli, Yuri; Ollivier, Jacques; Demé, Bruno; Telling, Mark; Kemner, Ewout; Natali, Francesca

    2014-01-21

    The myelin sheath is a tightly packed, multilayered membrane structure wrapped around selected nerve axons in the central and the peripheral nervous system. Because of its electrical insulation of the axons, which allows fast, saltatory nerve impulse conduction, myelin is crucial for the proper functioning of the vertebrate nervous system. A subset of myelin-specific proteins is well-defined, but their influence on membrane dynamics, i.e. myelin stability, has not yet been explored in detail. We investigated the structure and the dynamics of reconstituted myelin membranes on a pico- to nanosecond timescale, influenced by myelin basic protein (MBP) and myelin protein 2 (P2), using neutron diffraction and quasi-elastic neutron scattering. A model for the scattering function describing molecular lipid motions is suggested. Although dynamical properties are not affected significantly by MBP and P2 proteins, they act in a highly synergistic manner influencing the membrane structure.

  1. Arf6 mediates Schwann cell differentiation and myelination.

    PubMed

    Torii, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Yuki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Tsumura, Hideki; Kawahara, Kazuko; Tanoue, Akito; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Junji

    2015-09-25

    During development of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), Schwann cells wrap neuronal axons, becoming the myelin sheaths that help axonal functions. While the intercellular signals controlling the myelination process between Schwann cells and peripheral neurons are well studied, the transduction of these signals in Schwann cells still remains elusive. Here, we show that Arf6, an Arf protein of the small GTPase family, is involved in promoting the myelination process. Knockdown of Arf6 with the small-interfering (si)RNA in primary Schwann cells markedly decreases dibutyl-cyclic AMP-induced myelin marker protein expression, indicating that Arf6 plays a role in differentiation-like phenotypic changes. To obtain in vivo evidence, we generated small-hairpin (sh)RNA transgenic mice targeting Arf6 for Schwann cells. Transgenic mice exhibited reduced myelin thickness compared to littermate controls, consistent with the defective myelin formation observed in the transgenic mouse-derived Schwann cell and neuronal culture system. Transgenic mice also exhibited decreased phosphorylation of myelination-related signaling molecules such as Akt kinase cascade proteins as well as downregulation of myelin marker proteins. These results suggest that signaling through Arf6 is required for Schwann cell myelination, adding Arf6 to the list of intracellular signaling molecules involved in the myelination process.

  2. Lithium Enhances Axonal Regeneration in Peripheral Nerve by Inhibiting Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Activation

    PubMed Central

    Su, Huanxing; Yuan, Qiuju; Qin, Dajiang; Yang, Xiaoying; So, Kwok-Fai; Wu, Wutian

    2014-01-01

    Brachial plexus injury often involves traumatic root avulsion resulting in permanent paralysis of the innervated muscles. The lack of sufficient regeneration from spinal motoneurons to the peripheral nerve (PN) is considered to be one of the major causes of the unsatisfactory outcome of various surgical interventions for repair of the devastating injury. The present study was undertaken to investigate potential inhibitory signals which influence axonal regeneration after root avulsion injury. The results of the study showed that root avulsion triggered GSK-3β activation in the injured motoneurons and remaining axons in the ventral funiculus. Systemic application of a clinical dose of lithium suppressed activated GSK-3β in the lesioned spinal cord to the normal level and induced extensive axonal regeneration into replanted ventral roots. Our study suggests that GSK-3β activity is involved in negative regulation for axonal elongation and regeneration and lithium, the specific GSK-3β inhibitor, enhances motoneuron regeneration from CNS to PNS. PMID:24967390

  3. Myelin-specific T cells induce interleukin-1beta expression in lesion-reactive microglial-like cells in zones of axonal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Grebing, Manuela; Nielsen, Helle H; Fenger, Christina D; T Jensen, Katrine; von Linstow, Christian U; Clausen, Bettina H; Söderman, Martin; Lambertsen, Kate L; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A; Finsen, Bente

    2016-03-01

    Infiltration of myelin-specific T cells into the central nervous system induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We have previously shown that myelin-specific T cells are recruited into zones of axonal degeneration, where they stimulate lesion-reactive microglia. To gain mechanistic insight, we used RNA microarray analysis to compare the transcript profile in hippocampi from perforant pathway axonal-lesioned mice with and without adoptively transferred myelin-specific T cells 2 days postlesion, when microglia are clearly lesion reactive. Pathway analysis revealed that, among the 1,447 differently expressed transcripts, the interleukin (IL)-1 pathway including all IL-1 receptor ligands was upregulated in the presence of myelin-specific T cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed increased mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-1α, and IL-1 receptor antagonist in the T-cell-infiltrated hippocampi from axonal-lesioned mice. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed a T-cell-enhanced lesion-specific expression of IL-1β mRNA and protein, respectively, and induction of the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, ASC, in CD11b(+) cells. Double in situ hybridization showed colocalization of IL-1β mRNA in a subset of CD11b mRNA(+) cells, of which many were part of cellular doublets or clusters, characteristic of proliferating, lesion-reactive microglia. Double-immunofluorescence showed a T-cell-enhanced colocalization of IL-1β to CD11b(+) cells, including lesion-reactive CD11b(+) ramified microglia. These results suggest that myelin-specific T cells stimulate lesion-reactive microglial-like cells to produce IL-1β. These findings are relevant to understand the consequences of T-cell infiltration in white and gray matter lesions in patients with MS.

  4. Depleting endogenous neurotrophin-3 enhances myelin formation in the Trembler-J mouse, a model of a peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Varma, Sushama; Tsao, David; Shooter, Eric M; Tolwani, Ravi J

    2007-10-01

    The heterozygous Trembler-J (TrJ/+) mouse, containing a point mutation in the peripheral myelin protein 22 (Pmp22) gene, is characterized by severe hypomyelination and is a representative model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A) disease/Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS). Given that the neurotrophin-3 (NT3)-TrkC signaling pathway is inhibitory to myelination during development, we investigated the role of the NT3-TrkC pathway in myelination and manipulated this pathway to improve myelin formation in the CMT1A/DSS mouse model. Injection of NT3 to the TrJ/+ mice decreased the myelin protein P(0) level in the sciatic nerves. Suppressing the NT3-TrkC pathway with TrkC-Fc, an NT3 scavenger, enhanced myelination in vitro and in vivo in the TrJ/+ mouse. Furthermore, we found that full-length TrkC was expressed in adult TrJ/+ mouse sciatic nerves but was not detected in the wild-type adults, suggesting that the full-length TrkC is a potential target of treatment to enhance myelination in the TrJ/+ mouse. PMID:17628499

  5. Combining Peripheral Nerve Grafts and Chondroitinase Promotes Functional Axonal Regeneration in the Chronically Injured Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Tom, Veronica J.; Sandrow-Feinberg, Harra R.; Miller, Kassi; Santi, Lauren; Connors, Theresa; Lemay, Michel A.; Houlé, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Because there currently is no treatment for spinal cord injury, most patients are living with long-standing injuries. Therefore, strategies aimed at promoting restoration of function to the chronically injured spinal cord have high therapeutic value. For successful regeneration, long-injured axons must overcome their poor intrinsic growth potential as well as the inhibitory environment of the glial scar established around the lesion site. Acutely injured axons that regenerate into growth-permissive peripheral nerve grafts (PNGs) reenter host tissue to mediate functional recovery if the distal graft– host interface is treated with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) to cleave inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the scar matrix. To determine whether a similar strategy is effective for a chronic injury, we combined grafting of a peripheral nerve into a highly relevant, chronic, cervical contusion site with ChABC treatment of the glial scar and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) stimulation of long-injured axons. We tested this combination in two grafting paradigms: (1) a peripheral nerve that was grafted to span a chronic injury site or (2) a PNG that bridged a chronic contusion site with a second, more distal injury site. Unlike GDNF–PBS treatment, GDNF–ChABC treatment facilitated axons to exit the PNG into host tissue and promoted some functional recovery. Electrical stimulation of axons in the peripheral nerve bridge induced c-Fos expression in host neurons, indicative of synaptic contact by regenerating fibers. Thus, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that administering ChABC to a distal graft interface allows for functional axonal regeneration by chronically injured neurons. PMID:19940184

  6. Combining peripheral nerve grafts and chondroitinase promotes functional axonal regeneration in the chronically injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Tom, Veronica J; Sandrow-Feinberg, Harra R; Miller, Kassi; Santi, Lauren; Connors, Theresa; Lemay, Michel A; Houlé, John D

    2009-11-25

    Because there currently is no treatment for spinal cord injury, most patients are living with long-standing injuries. Therefore, strategies aimed at promoting restoration of function to the chronically injured spinal cord have high therapeutic value. For successful regeneration, long-injured axons must overcome their poor intrinsic growth potential as well as the inhibitory environment of the glial scar established around the lesion site. Acutely injured axons that regenerate into growth-permissive peripheral nerve grafts (PNGs) reenter host tissue to mediate functional recovery if the distal graft-host interface is treated with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) to cleave inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the scar matrix. To determine whether a similar strategy is effective for a chronic injury, we combined grafting of a peripheral nerve into a highly relevant, chronic, cervical contusion site with ChABC treatment of the glial scar and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) stimulation of long-injured axons. We tested this combination in two grafting paradigms: (1) a peripheral nerve that was grafted to span a chronic injury site or (2) a PNG that bridged a chronic contusion site with a second, more distal injury site. Unlike GDNF-PBS treatment, GDNF-ChABC treatment facilitated axons to exit the PNG into host tissue and promoted some functional recovery. Electrical stimulation of axons in the peripheral nerve bridge induced c-Fos expression in host neurons, indicative of synaptic contact by regenerating fibers. Thus, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that administering ChABC to a distal graft interface allows for functional axonal regeneration by chronically injured neurons.

  7. Peripheral nerve explants grafted into the vitreous body of the eye promote the regeneration of retinal ganglion cell axons severed in the optic nerve.

    PubMed

    Berry, M; Carlile, J; Hunter, A

    1996-02-01

    limitans was not formed. These observations suggest that regenerating fibres may interfere with scarring. Viable Schwann cells were found in the vitreal grafts in the cellular peripheral nerve group only, supporting the proposition that Schwann cell derived trophic molecules secreted into the vitreous stimulated retinal ganglion cell axon growth in the severed optic nerve. The regenerative response of acellular peripheral nerve-transplanted animals was probably promoted by residual amounts of these molecules present in the transplants after freezing and thawing. In the optic nerves of all groups the astrocyte, microglia and macrophage reactions were similar. Moreover, oligodendrocytes and myelin debris were also uniformly distributed throughout all nerves. Our results suggest either that none of the above elements inhibit CNS regeneration after perineuronal neurotrophin delivery, or that the latter, in addition to mobilising and maintaining regeneration, also down regulates the expression of axonal growth cone-located receptors, which normally mediate growth arrest by engaging putative growth inhibitory molecules of the CNS neuropil. PMID:8699196

  8. Increased Cx32 expression in spinal cord TrkB oligodendrocytes following peripheral axon injury.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Aminata P; Isaacson, Lori G

    2016-08-01

    Following injury to motor axons in the periphery, retrograde influences from the injury site lead to glial cell plasticity in the vicinity of the injured neurons. Following the transection of peripherally located preganglionic axons of the cervical sympathetic trunk (CST), a population of oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells expressing full length TrkB, the cognate receptor for brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is significantly increased in number in the spinal cord. Such robust plasticity in OL lineage cells in the spinal cord following peripheral axon transection led to the hypothesis that the gap junction communication protein connexin 32 (Cx32), which is specific to OL lineage cells, was influenced by the injury. Following CST transection, Cx32 expression in the spinal cord intermediolateral cell column (IML), the location of the parent cell bodies, was significantly increased. The increased Cx32 expression was localized specifically to TrkB OLs in the IML, rather than other cell types in the OL cell lineage, with the population of Cx32/TrkB cells increased by 59%. Cx32 expression in association with OPCs was significantly decreased at one week following the injury. The results of this study provide evidence that peripheral axon injury can differentially affect the gap junction protein expression in OL lineage cells in the adult rat spinal cord. We conclude that the retrograde influences originating from the peripheral injury site elicit dramatic changes in the CNS expression of Cx32, which in turn may mediate the plasticity of OL lineage cells observed in the spinal cord following peripheral axon injury.

  9. Increased Cx32 expression in spinal cord TrkB oligodendrocytes following peripheral axon injury.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Aminata P; Isaacson, Lori G

    2016-08-01

    Following injury to motor axons in the periphery, retrograde influences from the injury site lead to glial cell plasticity in the vicinity of the injured neurons. Following the transection of peripherally located preganglionic axons of the cervical sympathetic trunk (CST), a population of oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells expressing full length TrkB, the cognate receptor for brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is significantly increased in number in the spinal cord. Such robust plasticity in OL lineage cells in the spinal cord following peripheral axon transection led to the hypothesis that the gap junction communication protein connexin 32 (Cx32), which is specific to OL lineage cells, was influenced by the injury. Following CST transection, Cx32 expression in the spinal cord intermediolateral cell column (IML), the location of the parent cell bodies, was significantly increased. The increased Cx32 expression was localized specifically to TrkB OLs in the IML, rather than other cell types in the OL cell lineage, with the population of Cx32/TrkB cells increased by 59%. Cx32 expression in association with OPCs was significantly decreased at one week following the injury. The results of this study provide evidence that peripheral axon injury can differentially affect the gap junction protein expression in OL lineage cells in the adult rat spinal cord. We conclude that the retrograde influences originating from the peripheral injury site elicit dramatic changes in the CNS expression of Cx32, which in turn may mediate the plasticity of OL lineage cells observed in the spinal cord following peripheral axon injury. PMID:27246301

  10. Role of macrophages in Wallerian degeneration and axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiwen; Piao, Xianhua; Bonaldo, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    The peripheral nervous system (PNS) has remarkable regenerative abilities after injury. Successful PNS regeneration relies on both injured axons and non-neuronal cells, including Schwann cells and immune cells. Macrophages are the most notable immune cells that play key roles in PNS injury and repair. Upon peripheral nerve injury, a large number of macrophages are accumulated at the injury sites, where they not only contribute to Wallerian degeneration, but also are educated by the local microenvironment and polarized to an anti-inflammatory phenotype (M2), thus contributing to axonal regeneration. Significant progress has been made in understanding how macrophages are educated and polarized in the injured microenvironment as well as how they contribute to axonal regeneration. Following the discussion on the main properties of macrophages and their phenotypes, in this review, we will summarize the current knowledge regarding the mechanisms of macrophage infiltration after PNS injury. Moreover, we will discuss the recent findings elucidating how macrophages are polarized to M2 phenotype in the injured PNS microenvironment, as well as the role and underlying mechanisms of macrophages in peripheral nerve injury, Wallerian degeneration and regeneration. Furthermore, we will highlight the potential application by targeting macrophages in treating peripheral nerve injury and peripheral neuropathies.

  11. Neuronal Regulation of Schwann Cell Mitochondrial Ca(2+) Signaling during Myelination.

    PubMed

    Ino, Daisuke; Sagara, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Junji; Kanemaru, Kazunori; Okubo, Yohei; Iino, Masamitsu

    2015-09-29

    Schwann cells (SCs) myelinate peripheral neurons to promote the rapid conduction of action potentials, and the process of myelination is known to be regulated by signals from axons to SCs. Given that SC mitochondria are one of the potential regulators of myelination, we investigated whether SC mitochondria are regulated by axonal signaling. Here, we show a purinergic mechanism that sends information from neurons to SC mitochondria during myelination. Our results show that electrical stimulation of rat sciatic nerve increases extracellular ATP levels enough to activate purinergic receptors. Indeed, electrical stimulation of sciatic nerves induces Ca(2+) increases in the cytosol and the mitochondrial matrix of surrounding SCs via purinergic receptor activation. Chronic suppression of this pathway during active myelination suppressed the longitudinal and radial development of myelinating SCs and caused hypomyelination. These results demonstrate a neuron-to-SC mitochondria signaling, which is likely to have an important role in proper myelination.

  12. Upslope treadmill exercise enhances motor axon regeneration but not functional recovery following peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Cannoy, Jill; Crowley, Sam; Jarratt, Allen; Werts, Kelly LeFevere; Osborne, Krista; Park, Sohee; English, Arthur W

    2016-09-01

    Following peripheral nerve injury, moderate daily exercise conducted on a level treadmill results in enhanced axon regeneration and modest improvements in functional recovery. If the exercise is conducted on an upwardly inclined treadmill, even more motor axons regenerate successfully and reinnervate muscle targets. Whether this increased motor axon regeneration also results in greater improvement in functional recovery from sciatic nerve injury was studied. Axon regeneration and muscle reinnervation were studied in Lewis rats over an 11 wk postinjury period using stimulus evoked electromyographic (EMG) responses in the soleus muscle of awake animals. Motor axon regeneration and muscle reinnervation were enhanced in slope-trained rats. Direct muscle (M) responses reappeared faster in slope-trained animals than in other groups and ultimately were larger than untreated animals. The amplitude of monosynaptic H reflexes recorded from slope-trained rats remained significantly smaller than all other groups of animals for the duration of the study. The restoration of the amplitude and pattern of locomotor EMG activity in soleus and tibialis anterior and of hindblimb kinematics was studied during treadmill walking on different slopes. Slope-trained rats did not recover the ability to modulate the intensity of locomotor EMG activity with slope. Patterned EMG activity in flexor and extensor muscles was not noted in slope-trained rats. Neither hindblimb length nor limb orientation during level, upslope, or downslope walking was restored in slope-trained rats. Slope training enhanced motor axon regeneration but did not improve functional recovery following sciatic nerve transection and repair. PMID:27466130

  13. Effect of acclimation temperature on the axon and fiber diameter spectra and thickness of myelin of fibers of the optic nerve of goldfish.

    PubMed

    Matheson, D F; Roots, B I

    1988-07-01

    The optic nerves of common goldfish acclimated to 5 and 25 degrees C were fixed with glutaraldehyde in either phosphate buffer or PIPES with EGTA, post-fixed with osmium tetroxide, and examined by electron microscopy. The axon diameter spectra, from axons measured in electron micrographs and those measured on the electron microscope screen, differ noticeably with acclimation temperature. At the lower temperature, there is a definite shift toward the occurrence of larger fibers compared with the spectrum of the 25 degrees C fish. Although the number of fibers assessed is small compared with the total number in the goldfish nerve, these results confirm our previous study. These findings could be attributed to an increase in the number of new fibers during the acclimation to the higher temperature. We discuss this possibility and on the available evidence find it unlikely. Other changes in the axon and fiber are also seen with acclimation temperature. The axon to fiber diameter ratio, made directly from the electron micrographs, shows that axons from the nerves of the higher acclimation temperature fish possess consistently thicker myelin sheaths than are found for axons in nerves of the lower temperature fish. This finding is also in agreement with results obtained by us from measurements independent of each other. PMID:3391258

  14. Doxycycline-regulated GDNF expression promotes axonal regeneration and functional recovery in transected peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Shakhbazau, Antos; Mohanty, Chandan; Shcharbin, Dzmitry; Bryszewska, Maria; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Alant, Jacob; Midha, Rajiv

    2013-12-28

    Increased production of neurotrophic factors (NTFs) is one of the key responses seen following peripheral nerve injury, making them an attractive choice for pro-regenerative gene therapies. However, the downside of over-expression of certain NTFs, including glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), was earlier found to be the trapping and misdirection of regenerating axons, the so-called 'candy-store' effect. We report a proof-of-principle study on the application of conditional GDNF expression system in injured peripheral nerve. We engineered Schwann cells (SCs) using dendrimers or lentiviral transduction with the vector providing doxycycline-regulated GDNF expression. Injection of GDNF-modified cells into the injured peripheral nerve followed by time-restricted administration of doxycycline demonstrated that GDNF expression in SCs can also be controlled locally in the peripheral nerves of the experimental animals. Cell-based GDNF therapy was shown to increase the extent of axonal regeneration, while controlled deactivation of GDNF effectively prevented trapping of regenerating axons in GDNF-enriched areas, and was associated with improved functional recovery.

  15. Peripheral nerve: from the microscopic functional unit of the axon to the biomechanically loaded macroscopic structure.

    PubMed

    Topp, Kimberly S; Boyd, Benjamin S

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral nerves are composed of motor and sensory axons, associated ensheathing Schwann cells, and organized layers of connective tissues that are in continuity with the tissues of the central nervous system. Nerve fiber anatomy facilitates conduction of electrical impulses to convey information over a distance, and the length of these polarized cells necessitates regulated axonal transport of organelles and structural proteins for normal cell function. Nerve connective tissues serve a protective function as the limb is subjected to the stresses of myriad limb positions and postures. Thus, the tissues are uniquely arranged to control the local nerve fiber environment and modulate physical stresses. In this brief review, we describe the microscopic anatomy and physiology of peripheral nerve and the biomechanical properties that enable nerve to withstand the physical stresses of everyday life. PMID:22133662

  16. The acquisition of myelin: An evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Zalc, B

    2016-06-15

    It has been postulated that the emergence of vertebrates was made possible by the acquisition of neural crest cells, which then led to the development of evolutionarily advantageous complex head structures (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). In this regard the contribution of one important neural crest derivative-the peripheral myelin sheath-to the success of the vertebrates has to be pointed out. Without this structure, the vertebrates, as we know them, simply could not exist. After briefly reviewing the major functions of the myelin sheath we will ask and provide tentative answers to the following three questions: when during evolution has myelin first appeared? Where has myelin initially appeared: in the CNS or in the PNS? Was it necessary to acquire a new cell type to form a myelin sheath? Careful examination of fossils lead us to conclude that myelin was acquired 425 MY ago by placoderms, the earliest hinge-jaw fishes. I argue that the acquisition of myelin during evolution has been a necessary prerequisite to permit gigantism of gnathostome species, including the sauropods. I propose that this acquisition occurred simultaneously in the PNS and CNS and that myelin forming cells are the descendants of ensheathing glia, already present in invertebrates, that have adapted their potential to synthesize large amount of membrane in response to axonal requirements. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Myelin Evolution. PMID:26367449

  17. Molecular characterization of myelin protein zero in Xenopus laevis peripheral nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Bo; Luo, Xiaoyang; Zhao, Cheng; Priest, Christina Marie; Chan, Shiu-Yung; O'Connor, Peter B.; Kirschner, Daniel A.; Costello, Catherine E.

    2007-12-01

    Myelin protein zero (P0), a glycosylated single-pass transmembrane protein, is essential in the formation and maintenance of peripheral nervous system (PNS) compact myelin. P0 in Xenopus (xP0) exists primarily as a dimeric form that remains stable after various physical and chemical treatments. In exploring the nature of the interactions underlying the dimer stability, we found that xP0 dimer dissociated into monomer during continuous elution gel electrophoresis and conventional SDS-PAGE, indicating that the dimer is stabilized by non-covalent interactions. Furthermore, as some of the gel-purified monomer re-associated into dimer on SDS-PAGE gels, there is likely a dynamic equilibrium between xP0 dimer and monomer in vivo. Because the carbohydrate and fatty acyl moieties may be crucial for the adhesion role of P0, we used sensitive mass spectrometry approaches to elucidate the detailed N-glycosylation and S-acylation profiles of xP0. Asn92 was determined to be the single, fully-occupied glycosylation site of xP0, and a total of 12 glycans was detected that exhibited new structural features compared with those observed from P0 in other species: (1) the neutral glycans were composed mainly of high mannose and hybrid types; (2) 5 of 12 were acidic glycans, among which three were sialylated and the other two were sulfated; (3) none of the glycans had core fucosylation; and (4) no glucuronic acid, hence no HNK-1 epitope, was detected. The drastically different carbohydrate structures observed here support the concept of the species-specific variation in N-glycosylation of P0. Cys152 was found to be acylated with stearoyl (C18:0), whereas palmitoyl (C16:0) is the corresponding predominant fatty acyl group on P0 from higher vertebrates. We propose that the unique glycosylation and acylation patterns of Xenopus P0 may underlie its unusual dimerization behavior. Our results should shed light on the understanding of the phylogenetic development of P0's adhesion role in PNS

  18. Unravelling crucial biomechanical resilience of myelinated peripheral nerve fibres provided by the Schwann cell basal lamina and PMP22

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Gonzalo; Liashkovich, Ivan; Gess, Burkhard; Young, Peter; Kun, Alejandra; Shahin, Victor

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent need for the research of the close and enigmatic relationship between nerve biomechanics and the development of neuropathies. Here we present a research strategy based on the application atomic force and confocal microscopy for simultaneous nerve biomechanics and integrity investigations. Using wild-type and hereditary neuropathy mouse models, we reveal surprising mechanical protection of peripheral nerves. Myelinated peripheral wild-type fibres promptly and fully recover from acute enormous local mechanical compression while maintaining functional and structural integrity. The basal lamina which enwraps each myelinated fibre separately is identified as the major contributor to the striking fibre's resilience and integrity. In contrast, neuropathic fibres lacking the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), which is closely connected with several hereditary human neuropathies, fail to recover from light compression. Interestingly, the structural arrangement of the basal lamina of Pmp22−/− fibres is significantly altered compared to wild-type fibres. In conclusion, the basal lamina and PMP22 act in concert to contribute to a resilience and integrity of peripheral nerves at the single fibre level. Our findings and the presented technology set the stage for a comprehensive research of the links between nerve biomechanics and neuropathies. PMID:25446378

  19. Unravelling crucial biomechanical resilience of myelinated peripheral nerve fibres provided by the Schwann cell basal lamina and PMP22.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Gonzalo; Liashkovich, Ivan; Gess, Burkhard; Young, Peter; Kun, Alejandra; Shahin, Victor

    2014-12-02

    There is an urgent need for the research of the close and enigmatic relationship between nerve biomechanics and the development of neuropathies. Here we present a research strategy based on the application atomic force and confocal microscopy for simultaneous nerve biomechanics and integrity investigations. Using wild-type and hereditary neuropathy mouse models, we reveal surprising mechanical protection of peripheral nerves. Myelinated peripheral wild-type fibres promptly and fully recover from acute enormous local mechanical compression while maintaining functional and structural integrity. The basal lamina which enwraps each myelinated fibre separately is identified as the major contributor to the striking fibre's resilience and integrity. In contrast, neuropathic fibres lacking the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), which is closely connected with several hereditary human neuropathies, fail to recover from light compression. Interestingly, the structural arrangement of the basal lamina of Pmp22(-/-) fibres is significantly altered compared to wild-type fibres. In conclusion, the basal lamina and PMP22 act in concert to contribute to a resilience and integrity of peripheral nerves at the single fibre level. Our findings and the presented technology set the stage for a comprehensive research of the links between nerve biomechanics and neuropathies.

  20. Axonal oscillations in developing mammalian nerve axons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Shangyou; Jung, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We study neuronal spike propagation in a developing myelinated axon in various stages of its development through detailed computational modeling. Recently, a form of bursting (axonal bursting), has been reported in axons in developing nerves in the absence of potassium channels. We present a computational study using a detailed model for a myelinated nerve in development to explore under what circumstances such an effect can be expected. It is shown that axonal oscillation may be caused by backfiring between the nodes of Ranvier or through backfiring from internodal sodium channels or by reducing the thickness of the myelin wrapping the axon between the nodes of Ranvier.

  1. Sex differences in morphometric aspects of the peripheral nerves and related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Shogo; Inoue, Yuriko; Itoh, Masahiro; Otsuka, Naruhito

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The elucidation of the relationship between the morphology of the peripheral nerves and the diseases would be valuable in developing new medical treatments on the assumption that characteristics of the peripheral nerves in females are different from those in males. METHODS: We used 13 kinds of the peripheral nerve. The materials were obtained from 10 Japanese female and male cadavers. We performed a morphometric analysis of nerve fibers. We estimated the total number of myelinated axons, and calculated the average transverse area and average circularity ratio of myelinated axons in the peripheral nerves. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the total number, average transverse area, or average circularity ratio of myelinated axons between the female and male specimens except for the total number of myelinated axons in the vestibular nerve and the average circularity ratio of myelinated axons in the vagus nerve. CONCLUSIONS: The lower number of myelinated axons in the female vestibular nerve may be one of the reasons why vestibular disorders have a female preponderance. Moreover, the higher average circularity ratio of myelinated axons in the male vagus nerve may be one reason why vagus nerve activity to modulate pain has a male preponderance. PMID:27589511

  2. Localized regulation of axonal RanGTPase controls retrograde injury signaling in peripheral nerve

    PubMed Central

    Yudin, Dmitry; Hanz, Shlomit; Yoo, Soonmoon; Iavnilovitch, Elena; Willis, Dianna; Gradus, Tal; Vuppalanchi, Deepika; Segal-Ruder, Yael; Ben-Yaakov, Keren; Hieda, Miki; Yoneda, Yoshihiro; Twiss, Jeffery L.; Fainzilber, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Summary Peripheral sensory neurons respond to axon injury by activating an importin-dependent retrograde signaling mechanism. How is this mechanism regulated? Here we show that Ran GTPase and its associated effectors RanBP1 and RanGAP regulate the formation of importin signaling complexes in injured axons. A gradient of nuclear RanGTP versus cytoplasmic RanGDP is thought to be fundamental for the organization of eukaryotic cells. Surprisingly, we find RanGTP in sciatic nerve axoplasm, distant from neuronal cell bodies and nuclei, and in association with dynein and importin α. Following injury, localized translation of RanBP1 stimulates RanGTP dissociation from importins and subsequent hydrolysis, thereby allowing binding of newly synthesized importin β to importin α and dynein. Perturbation of RanGTP hydrolysis or RanBP1 blockade at axonal injury sites reduces the neuronal conditioning lesion response. Thus, neurons employ localized mechanisms of Ran regulation to control retrograde injury signaling in peripheral nerve. PMID:18667152

  3. PTEN inhibition to facilitate intrinsic regenerative outgrowth of adult peripheral axons.

    PubMed

    Christie, Kimberly J; Webber, Christine A; Martinez, Jose A; Singh, Bhagat; Zochodne, Douglas W

    2010-07-01

    In vivo regeneration of peripheral neurons is constrained and rarely complete, and unfortunately patients with major nerve trunk transections experience only limited recovery. Intracellular inhibition of neuronal growth signals may be among these constraints. In this work, we investigated the role of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) during regeneration of peripheral neurons in adult Sprague Dawley rats. PTEN inhibits phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt signaling, a common and central outgrowth and survival pathway downstream of neuronal growth factors. While PI3-K and Akt outgrowth signals were expressed and activated within adult peripheral neurons during regeneration, PTEN was similarly expressed and poised to inhibit their support. PTEN was expressed in neuron perikaryal cytoplasm, nuclei, regenerating axons, and Schwann cells. Adult sensory neurons in vitro responded to both graded pharmacological inhibition of PTEN and its mRNA knockdown using siRNA. Both approaches were associated with robust rises in the plasticity of neurite outgrowth that were independent of the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. Importantly, this accelerated outgrowth was in addition to the increased outgrowth generated in neurons that had undergone a preconditioning lesion. Moreover, following severe nerve transection injuries, local pharmacological inhibition of PTEN or siRNA knockdown of PTEN at the injury site accelerated axon outgrowth in vivo. The findings indicated a remarkable impact on peripheral neuron plasticity through PTEN inhibition, even within a complex regenerative milieu. Overall, these findings identify a novel route to propagate intrinsic regeneration pathways within axons to benefit nerve repair.

  4. Modeling the Chronic Loss of Optic Nerve Axons and the Effects on the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Structure in Primary Disorder of Myelin

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Leandro B. C.; Ver Hoeve, James N.; Mayer, Joshua A.; Dubielzig, Richard R.; Smith, Chelsey M.; Radcliff, Abigail B.; Duncan, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We determined whether the chronic lack of optic nerve myelination and subsequent axon loss is associated with optical coherence tomography (OCT) changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and whether this models what occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS) and confers its use as a surrogate marker for axon degeneration. Methods Using an animal model of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (shp) bilateral longitudinal measurements of the peripapillary RNFL (spectral-domain OCT), electroretinograms (ERG), and visual evoked potentials (VEP) were performed in affected and control animals from 5 months to 2 years and in individual animals at single time points. Light and electron microscopy of the optic nerve and retina and histomorphometric measurements of the RNFL were compared to OCT data. Results Of the shp animals, 17% had an average reduction of OCT RNFL thickness on the superior retinal quadrant compared to controls (P < 0.05). Electroretinograms showed normal photopic A- and B-waves but flash VEPs were disorganized in shp animals. Morphologically, the shp retinas and optic nerves revealed significant RNFL thinning (P < 0.001) without retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, decrease total and relative retinal axonal area, and loss of optic nerve axons. There was strong positive correlation between OCT and morphometric RNFL thickness measurements (r = 0.878, P = 0.004). Conclusion The loss of optic nerve axons demonstrated in the shp model resulted in moderate thinning of the RNFL confirmed by OCT and histology. These results indicate that OCT-derived RNFL measurement can be a useful surrogate biomarker of optic nerve axon loss and potentially disease progression in demyelinating diseases. PMID:27654412

  5. Reversible Folding of Human Peripheral Myelin Protein 22, a Tetraspan Membrane Protein†

    PubMed Central

    Schlebach, Jonathan P.; Peng, Dungeng; Kroncke, Brett M.; Mittendorf, Kathleen F.; Narayan, Malathi; Carter, Bruce D.; Sanders, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Misfolding of the α-helical membrane protein peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the common neurodegenerative disease known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTD) and also several other related peripheral neuropathies. Emerging evidence suggests that the propensity of PMP22 to misfold in the cell may be due to an intrinsic lack of conformational stability. Therefore, quantitative studies of the conformational equilibrium of PMP22 are needed to gain insight into the molecular basis of CMTD. In this work, we have investigated the folding and unfolding of wild type (WT) human PMP22 in mixed micelles. Both kinetic and thermodynamic measurements demonstrate that the denaturation of PMP22 by n-lauroyl sarcosine (LS) in dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles is reversible. Assessment of the conformational equilibrium indicates that a significant fraction of unfolded PMP22 persists even in the absence of the denaturing detergent. However, we find the stability of PMP22 is increased by glycerol, which facilitates quantitation of thermodynamic parameters. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of reversible unfolding of a eukaryotic multispan membrane protein. The results indicate that WT PMP22 possesses minimal conformational stability in micelles, which parallels its poor folding efficiency in the endoplasmic reticulum. Folding equilibrium measurements for PMP22 in mixed micelles may provide an approach to assess the effects of cellular metabolites or potential therapeutic agents on its stability. Furthermore, these results pave the way for future investigation of the effects of pathogenic mutations on the conformational equilibrium of PMP22. PMID:23639031

  6. Molecular alterations resulting from frameshift mutations in peripheral myelin protein 22: implications for neuropathy severity.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J S; Roux, K J; Fletcher, B S; Fortun, J; Notterpek, L

    2005-12-15

    Alterations in peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) expression are associated with a heterogeneous group of hereditary demyelinating peripheral neuropathies. Two mutations at glycine 94, a single guanine insertion or deletion in PMP22, result in different reading frameshifts and, consequently, an extended G94fsX222 or a truncated G94fsX110 protein, respectively. Both of these autosomal dominant mutations alter the second half of PMP22 and yet are linked to clinical phenotypes with distinct severities. The G94fsX222 is associated with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies, whereas G94fsX110 causes severe neuropathy diagnosed as Dejerine-Sottas disease or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type IA. To investigate the subcellular changes associated with the G94 frameshift mutations, we expressed epitope-tagged forms in primary rat Schwann cells. Biochemical and immunolabeling studies indicate that, unlike the wild-type protein, which is targeted for the plasma membrane, frameshift PMP22s are retained in the cell, prior to reaching the medial Golgi compartment. Similar to Wt-PMP22, both frameshift mutants are targeted for proteasomal degradation and accumulate in detergent-insoluble, ubiquitin-containing aggregates upon inhibition of this pathway. The extended frameshift PMP22 shows the ability to form spontaneous aggregates in the absence of proteasome inhibition. On the other hand, Schwann cells expressing the truncated protein proliferate at a significantly higher rate than Schwann cells expressing the wild-type or the extended PMP22. In summary, these results suggest that a greater potential for PMP22 aggregation is associated with a less severe phenotype, whereas dysregulation of Schwann cell proliferation is linked to severe neuropathy. PMID:16273544

  7. Influence of breaching the connective sheaths of the donor nerve on its myelinated sensory axons and on their sprouting into the end-to-side coapted nerve in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kovačič, Uroš; Zele, Tilen; Tomšič, Martin; Sketelj, Janez; Bajrović, Fajko F

    2012-12-10

    The influence of breaching the connective sheaths of the donor sural nerve on axonal sprouting into the end-to-side coapted peroneal nerve was examined in the rat. In parallel, the effect of these procedures on the donor nerve was assessed. The sheaths of the donor nerve at the coaptation site were either left completely intact (group A) or they were breached by epineurial sutures (group B), an epineurial window (group C), or a perineurial window (group D). In group A, the compound action potential (CAP) of sensory axons was detected in ~10% and 40% of the recipient nerves at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively, which was significantly less frequently than in group D at both recovery periods. In addition, the number of myelinated axons in the recipient nerve was significantly larger in group D than in other groups at 4 weeks. At 8 weeks, the number of axons in group A was only ~15% of the axon numbers in other groups (p<0.05). Focal subepineurial degenerative changes in the donor nerves were only seen after 4 weeks, but not later. The average CAP area and the total number of myelinated axons in the donor nerves were not different among the experimental groups. In conclusion, myelinated sensory axons are able to penetrate the epiperineurium of donor nerves after end-to-side nerve coaption; however, their ingrowth into recipient nerves is significantly enhanced by breaching the epiperineurial sheets at the coaptation site. Breaching does not cause permanent injury to the donor nerve.

  8. In vivo time-lapse imaging of mitochondria in healthy and diseased peripheral myelin sheath.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Sergio; Fernando, Ruani; Berthelot, Jade; Perrin-Tricaud, Claire; Sarzi, Emmanuelle; Chrast, Roman; Lenaers, Guy; Tricaud, Nicolas

    2015-07-01

    The myelin sheath that covers a large amount of neurons is critical for their homeostasis, and myelinating glia mitochondria have recently been shown to be essential for neuron survival. However morphological and physiological properties of these organelles remain elusive. Here we report a method to analyze mitochondrial dynamics and morphology in myelinating Schwann cells of living mice using viral transduction and time-lapse multiphoton microscopy. We describe the distribution, shape, size and dynamics of mitochondria in live cells. We also report mitochondrial alterations in Opa1(delTTAG) mutant mice cells at presymptomatic stages, suggesting that mitochondrial defects in myelin contribute to OPA1 related neuropathy and represent a biomarker for the disease.

  9. Regulation of tissue-specific expression of alternative peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22) gene transcripts by two promoters

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, P.I.; Schoener-Scott, R.; Lupski, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    Mutations affecting the peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22) gene have been shown to be associated with inherited peripheral neuropathies. We have cloned and characterized the human PMP22 gene which spans approximately 40 kilobases and contains four coding exons. Towards developing gene therapy regimens for the associated peripheral neuropathies, we have initiated detailed analysis of the 5{prime} flanking region of the PMP22 gene and identified two alternatively transcribed, but untranslated exons. Mapping of separate PMP22 mRNA transcription initiation sites to each of these exons indicates that PMP22 expression is regulated by two alternatively used promoters. Both putative promoter sequences demonstrated the ability to drive expression of reporter genes in transfection experiments. Furthermore, the structure of the 5{prime} portion of the PMP22 gene appears to be identical in rat and human, supporting the biological significance of the observed arrangement of regulatory regions. The relative expression of the alternative PMP22 transcripts is tissue-specific and high levels of the exon 1A-containing transcript are tightly coupled to myelin formation. In contrast, exon 1B-containing transcripts are predominant in non-neural tissues and in growth-arrested primary fibroblasts. The observed regulation of the PMP22 by a complex molecular mechanism is consistent with the proposed dual role of PMP22 in neural and non-neural tissue.

  10. High frequency of mutations in codon 98 of the peripheral myelin protein Po gene in 20 French CMT1 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Rougher, H.; LeGuern, E. Gouider, R.

    1996-03-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, characterized by distal muscle weakness and amyotrophy, decreased or absent tendon reflexes, and high arched feet, is the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy, with a prevalence of 1 in 2,500. Two types of CMT have been distinguished on the basis of nerve conduction velocities. CMT type 1 is the most frequent, with markedly slowed velocities ({<=}40 m/s) associated with hypertrophic onion bulb changes on nerve biopsy. Autosomal dominant CMT1 is genetically heterogeneous: CMT1A is caused by a 1.5-Mb duplication in 17p11.2 and, more rarely, by a point mutation in tha PMP22 (peripheral myelin protein, 22 kD) gene located in the duplicated region; CMT1B results from mutations in the Po (peripheral myelin protein zero) gene in 1q22-23. Forty-five percent (7/16) of the published mutations associated with CMT1 occur in exon 3 of Po. In order to determine the cause of CMT1 in 20 unrelated patients without 17p11.2 duplications, mutations were sought in exon 3 of Po with three techniques: nonradioactive SSCP, automated sequencing, and PCR enzymatic restriction. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Atomic resolution view into the structure–function relationships of the human myelin peripheral membrane protein P2

    SciTech Connect

    Ruskamo, Salla; Yadav, Ravi P.; Sharma, Satyan; Lehtimäki, Mari; Laulumaa, Saara; Aggarwal, Shweta; Simons, Mikael; Bürck, Jochen; Ulrich, Anne S.; Juffer, André H.; Kursula, Inari; Kursula, Petri

    2014-01-01

    The structure of the human myelin peripheral membrane protein P2 has been refined at 0.93 Å resolution. In combination with functional experiments in vitro, in vivo and in silico, the fine details of the structure–function relationships in P2 are emerging. P2 is a fatty acid-binding protein expressed in vertebrate peripheral nerve myelin, where it may function in bilayer stacking and lipid transport. P2 binds to phospholipid membranes through its positively charged surface and a hydrophobic tip, and accommodates fatty acids inside its barrel structure. The structure of human P2 refined at the ultrahigh resolution of 0.93 Å allows detailed structural analyses, including the full organization of an internal hydrogen-bonding network. The orientation of the bound fatty-acid carboxyl group is linked to the protonation states of two coordinating arginine residues. An anion-binding site in the portal region is suggested to be relevant for membrane interactions and conformational changes. When bound to membrane multilayers, P2 has a preferred orientation and is stabilized, and the repeat distance indicates a single layer of P2 between membranes. Simulations show the formation of a double bilayer in the presence of P2, and in cultured cells wild-type P2 induces membrane-domain formation. Here, the most accurate structural and functional view to date on P2, a major component of peripheral nerve myelin, is presented, showing how it can interact with two membranes simultaneously while going through conformational changes at its portal region enabling ligand transfer.

  12. Neutron scattering from myelin revisited: bilayer asymmetry and water-exchange kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Denninger, Andrew R.; Demé, Bruno; Cristiglio, Viviana; LeDuc, Géraldine; Feller, W. Bruce; Kirschner, Daniel A.

    2014-12-01

    The structure of internodal myelin in the rodent central and peripheral nervous systems has been determined using neutron diffraction. The kinetics of water exchange in these tissues is also described. Rapid nerve conduction in the central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS and PNS, respectively) of higher vertebrates is brought about by the ensheathment of axons with myelin, a lipid-rich, multilamellar assembly of membranes. The ability of myelin to electrically insulate depends on the regular stacking of these plasma membranes and on the presence of a number of specialized membrane-protein assemblies in the sheath, including the radial component, Schmidt–Lanterman incisures and the axo–glial junctions of the paranodal loops. The disruption of this fine-structure is the basis for many demyelinating neuropathies in the CNS and PNS. Understanding the processes that govern myelin biogenesis, maintenance and destabilization requires knowledge of myelin structure; however, the tight packing of internodal myelin and the complexity of its junctional specializations make myelin a challenging target for comprehensive structural analysis. This paper describes an examination of myelin from the CNS and PNS using neutron diffraction. This investigation revealed the dimensions of the bilayers and aqueous spaces of myelin, asymmetry between the cytoplasmic and extracellular leaflets of the membrane, and the distribution of water and exchangeable hydrogen in internodal multilamellar myelin. It also uncovered differences between CNS and PNS myelin in their water-exchange kinetics.

  13. Tuning PAK Activity to Rescue Abnormal Myelin Permeability in HNPP.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Arpag, Sezgi; Zhang, Xuebao; Möbius, Wiebke; Werner, Hauke; Sosinsky, Gina; Ellisman, Mark; Zhang, Yang; Hamilton, Audra; Chernoff, Jonathan; Li, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous systems extend their membranes to wrap axons concentrically and form the insulating sheath, called myelin. The spaces between layers of myelin are sealed by myelin junctions. This tight insulation enables rapid conduction of electric impulses (action potentials) through axons. Demyelination (stripping off the insulating sheath) has been widely regarded as one of the most important mechanisms altering the action potential propagation in many neurological diseases. However, the effective nerve conduction is also thought to require a proper myelin seal through myelin junctions such as tight junctions and adherens junctions. In the present study, we have demonstrated the disruption of myelin junctions in a mouse model (Pmp22+/-) of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) with heterozygous deletion of Pmp22 gene. We observed a robust increase of F-actin in Pmp22+/- nerve regions where myelin junctions were disrupted, leading to increased myelin permeability. These abnormalities were present long before segmental demyelination at the late phase of Pmp22+/- mice. Moreover, the increase of F-actin levels correlated with an enhanced activity of p21-activated kinase (PAK1), a molecule known to regulate actin polymerization. Pharmacological inhibition of PAK normalized levels of F-actin, and completely prevented the progression of the myelin junction disruption and nerve conduction failure in Pmp22+/- mice. Our findings explain how abnormal myelin permeability is caused in HNPP, leading to impaired action potential propagation in the absence of demyelination. We call it "functional demyelination", a novel mechanism upstream to the actual stripping of myelin that is relevant to many demyelinating diseases. This observation also provides a potential therapeutic approach for HNPP.

  14. Tuning PAK Activity to Rescue Abnormal Myelin Permeability in HNPP

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bo; Zhang, Xuebao; Möbius, Wiebke; Werner, Hauke; Sosinsky, Gina; Ellisman, Mark; Zhang, Yang; Hamilton, Audra; Chernoff, Jonathan; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous systems extend their membranes to wrap axons concentrically and form the insulating sheath, called myelin. The spaces between layers of myelin are sealed by myelin junctions. This tight insulation enables rapid conduction of electric impulses (action potentials) through axons. Demyelination (stripping off the insulating sheath) has been widely regarded as one of the most important mechanisms altering the action potential propagation in many neurological diseases. However, the effective nerve conduction is also thought to require a proper myelin seal through myelin junctions such as tight junctions and adherens junctions. In the present study, we have demonstrated the disruption of myelin junctions in a mouse model (Pmp22+/-) of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) with heterozygous deletion of Pmp22 gene. We observed a robust increase of F-actin in Pmp22+/- nerve regions where myelin junctions were disrupted, leading to increased myelin permeability. These abnormalities were present long before segmental demyelination at the late phase of Pmp22+/- mice. Moreover, the increase of F-actin levels correlated with an enhanced activity of p21-activated kinase (PAK1), a molecule known to regulate actin polymerization. Pharmacological inhibition of PAK normalized levels of F-actin, and completely prevented the progression of the myelin junction disruption and nerve conduction failure in Pmp22+/- mice. Our findings explain how abnormal myelin permeability is caused in HNPP, leading to impaired action potential propagation in the absence of demyelination. We call it “functional demyelination”, a novel mechanism upstream to the actual stripping of myelin that is relevant to many demyelinating diseases. This observation also provides a potential therapeutic approach for HNPP. PMID:27583434

  15. Tuning PAK Activity to Rescue Abnormal Myelin Permeability in HNPP.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Arpag, Sezgi; Zhang, Xuebao; Möbius, Wiebke; Werner, Hauke; Sosinsky, Gina; Ellisman, Mark; Zhang, Yang; Hamilton, Audra; Chernoff, Jonathan; Li, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous systems extend their membranes to wrap axons concentrically and form the insulating sheath, called myelin. The spaces between layers of myelin are sealed by myelin junctions. This tight insulation enables rapid conduction of electric impulses (action potentials) through axons. Demyelination (stripping off the insulating sheath) has been widely regarded as one of the most important mechanisms altering the action potential propagation in many neurological diseases. However, the effective nerve conduction is also thought to require a proper myelin seal through myelin junctions such as tight junctions and adherens junctions. In the present study, we have demonstrated the disruption of myelin junctions in a mouse model (Pmp22+/-) of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) with heterozygous deletion of Pmp22 gene. We observed a robust increase of F-actin in Pmp22+/- nerve regions where myelin junctions were disrupted, leading to increased myelin permeability. These abnormalities were present long before segmental demyelination at the late phase of Pmp22+/- mice. Moreover, the increase of F-actin levels correlated with an enhanced activity of p21-activated kinase (PAK1), a molecule known to regulate actin polymerization. Pharmacological inhibition of PAK normalized levels of F-actin, and completely prevented the progression of the myelin junction disruption and nerve conduction failure in Pmp22+/- mice. Our findings explain how abnormal myelin permeability is caused in HNPP, leading to impaired action potential propagation in the absence of demyelination. We call it "functional demyelination", a novel mechanism upstream to the actual stripping of myelin that is relevant to many demyelinating diseases. This observation also provides a potential therapeutic approach for HNPP. PMID:27583434

  16. Myelin Avoids the JAM.

    PubMed

    Follis, Rose M; Carter, Bruce D

    2016-08-17

    In this issue of Neuron, Redmond et al. (2016) identify junction adhesion molecule 2 (JAM2) as an inhibitor of somatodendritic myelination in spinal cord neurons, thereby elucidating how myelin forms on axons but avoids dendrites and cell bodies. PMID:27537479

  17. The cell biology of CNS myelination.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Ethan G; Appel, Bruce

    2016-08-01

    Myelination of axons in the central nervous system results from the remarkable ability of oligodendrocytes to wrap multiple axons with highly specialized membrane. Because myelin membrane grows as it ensheaths axons, cytoskeletal rearrangements that enable ensheathment must be coordinated with myelin production. Because the myelin sheaths of a single oligodendrocyte can differ in thickness and length, mechanisms that coordinate axon ensheathment with myelin growth likely operate within individual oligodendrocyte processes. Recent studies have revealed new information about how assembly and disassembly of actin filaments helps drive the leading edge of nascent myelin membrane around and along axons. Concurrently, other investigations have begun to uncover evidence of communication between axons and oligodendrocytes that can regulate myelin formation.

  18. Copper Accumulation and Lipid Oxidation Precede Inflammation and Myelin Lesions in N,N-Diethyldithiocarbamate Peripheral Myelinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Viquez, Olga M.; Valentine, Holly L.; Amarnath, Kalyani; Milatovic, Dejan; Valentine, William M.

    2008-01-01

    Dithiocarbamates have a wide spectrum of applications in industry, agriculture and medicine with new applications being actively investigated. One adverse effect of dithiocarbamates is the neurotoxicity observed in humans and experimental animals. Results from previous studies have suggested that dithiocarbamates elevate copper and promote lipid oxidation within myelin membranes. In the current study, copper levels, lipid oxidation, protein oxidative damage and markers of inflammation were monitored as a function of N,N-diethyldithiocarbmate (DEDC) exposure duration in an established model for DEDC-mediated myelinopathy in the rat. Intraabdominal administration of DEDC was performed using osmotic pumps for periods of 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Metals in brain, liver and tibial nerve were measured using ICP-MS and lipid oxidation assessed through HPLC measurement of malondialdehyde in tibial nerve, and GC/MS measurement of F2 isoprostanes in sciatic nerve. Protein oxidative injury of sciatic nerve proteins was evaluated through quantification of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts using immunoassay, and inflammation monitored by quantifying levels of IgGs and activated macrophages using immunoassay and immunhistochemistry methods, respectively. Changes in these parameters were then correlated to the onset of structural lesions, determined by light and electron microscopy, to delineate the temporal relationship of copper accumulation and oxidative stress in peripheral nerve to the onset of myelin lesions. The data provide evidence that DEDC mediates lipid oxidation and elevation of total copper in peripheral nerve well before myelin lesions or activated macrophages are evident. This relationship is consistent with copper-mediated oxidative stress contributing to the myelinopathy. PMID:18284930

  19. Copper accumulation and lipid oxidation precede inflammation and myelin lesions in N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate peripheral myelinopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Viquez, Olga M.; Valentine, Holly L.; Amarnath, Kalyani; Milatovic, Dejan; Valentine, William M.

    2008-05-15

    Dithiocarbamates have a wide spectrum of applications in industry, agriculture and medicine with new applications being actively investigated. One adverse effect of dithiocarbamates is the neurotoxicity observed in humans and experimental animals. Results from previous studies have suggested that dithiocarbamates elevate copper and promote lipid oxidation within myelin membranes. In the current study, copper levels, lipid oxidation, protein oxidative damage and markers of inflammation were monitored as a function of N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDC) exposure duration in an established model for DEDC-mediated myelinopathy in the rat. Intra-abdominal administration of DEDC was performed using osmotic pumps for periods of 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Metals in brain, liver and tibial nerve were measured using ICP-MS and lipid oxidation assessed through HPLC measurement of malondialdehyde in tibial nerve, and GC/MS measurement of F{sub 2} isoprostanes in sciatic nerve. Protein oxidative injury of sciatic nerve proteins was evaluated through quantification of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts using immunoassay, and inflammation monitored by quantifying levels of IgGs and activated macrophages using immunoassay and immunohistochemistry methods, respectively. Changes in these parameters were then correlated to the onset of structural lesions, determined by light and electron microscopy, to delineate the temporal relationship of copper accumulation and oxidative stress in peripheral nerve to the onset of myelin lesions. The data provide evidence that DEDC mediates lipid oxidation and elevation of total copper in peripheral nerve well before myelin lesions or activated macrophages are evident. This relationship is consistent with copper-mediated oxidative stress contributing to the myelinopathy.

  20. Atomic resolution view into the structure–function relationships of the human myelin peripheral membrane protein P2

    PubMed Central

    Ruskamo, Salla; Yadav, Ravi P.; Sharma, Satyan; Lehtimäki, Mari; Laulumaa, Saara; Aggarwal, Shweta; Simons, Mikael; Bürck, Jochen; Ulrich, Anne S.; Juffer, André H.; Kursula, Inari; Kursula, Petri

    2014-01-01

    P2 is a fatty acid-binding protein expressed in vertebrate peripheral nerve myelin, where it may function in bilayer stacking and lipid transport. P2 binds to phospholipid membranes through its positively charged surface and a hydrophobic tip, and accommodates fatty acids inside its barrel structure. The structure of human P2 refined at the ultrahigh resolution of 0.93 Å allows detailed structural analyses, including the full organization of an internal hydrogen-bonding network. The orientation of the bound fatty-acid carboxyl group is linked to the protonation states of two coordinating arginine residues. An anion-binding site in the portal region is suggested to be relevant for membrane interactions and conformational changes. When bound to membrane multilayers, P2 has a preferred orientation and is stabilized, and the repeat distance indicates a single layer of P2 between membranes. Simulations show the formation of a double bilayer in the presence of P2, and in cultured cells wild-type P2 induces membrane-domain formation. Here, the most accurate structural and functional view to date on P2, a major component of peripheral nerve myelin, is presented, showing how it can interact with two membranes simultaneously while going through conformational changes at its portal region enabling ligand transfer. PMID:24419389

  1. Oxidative damage to mitochondria at the nodes of Ranvier precedes axon degeneration in ex vivo transected axons.

    PubMed

    Bros, Helena; Millward, Jason M; Paul, Friedemann; Niesner, Raluca; Infante-Duarte, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction appear to contribute to axon degeneration in numerous neurological disorders. However, how these two processes interact to cause axonal damage-and how this damage is initiated-remains unclear. In this study we used transected motor axons from murine peripheral roots to investigate whether oxidative stress alters mitochondrial dynamics in myelinated axons. We show that the nodes of Ranvier are the initial sites of mitochondrial damage induced by oxidative stress. There, mitochondria became depolarized, followed by alterations of the external morphology and disruption of the cristae, along with reduced mitochondrial transport. These mitochondrial changes expanded from the nodes of Ranvier bidirectionally towards both internodes and eventually affected the entire mitochondrial population in the axon. Supplementing axonal bioenergetics by applying nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and methyl pyruvate, rendered the mitochondria at the nodes of Ranvier resistant to these oxidative stress-induced changes. Importantly, this inhibition of mitochondrial damage protected the axons from degeneration. In conclusion, we present a novel ex vivo approach for monitoring mitochondrial dynamics within axons, which proved suitable for detecting mitochondrial changes upon exogenous application of oxidative stress. Our results indicate that the nodes of Ranvier are the site of initial mitochondrial damage in peripheral axons, and suggest that dysregulation of axonal bioenergetics plays a critical role in oxidative stress-triggered mitochondrial alterations and subsequent axonal injury. These novel insights into the mechanisms underlying axon degeneration may have implications for neurological disorders with a degenerative component.

  2. Lipid membrane association of myelin proteins and peptide segments studied by oriented and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Muruganandam, Gopinath; Bürck, Jochen; Ulrich, Anne S; Kursula, Inari; Kursula, Petri

    2013-12-01

    Myelin-specific proteins are either integral or peripheral membrane proteins that, in complex with lipids, constitute a multilayered proteolipid membrane system, the myelin sheath. The myelin sheath surrounds the axons of nerves and enables rapid conduction of axonal impulses. Myelin proteins interact intimately with the lipid bilayer and play crucial roles in the assembly, function, and stability of the myelin sheath. Although myelin proteins have been investigated for decades, their structural properties upon membrane surface binding are still largely unknown. In this study, we have used simplified model systems consisting of synthetic peptides and membrane mimics, such as detergent micelles and/or lipid vesicles, to probe the conformation of peptides using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy (SRCD). Additionally, oriented circular dichroism spectroscopy (OCD) was employed to examine the orientation of myelin peptides in macroscopically aligned lipid bilayers. Various representative peptides from the myelin basic protein (MBP), P0, myelin/oligodencrocyte glycoprotein, and connexin32 (cx32) were studied. A helical peptide from the central immunodominant epitope of MBP showed a highly tilted orientation with respect to the membrane surface, whereas the N-terminal cytoplasmic segment of cx32 folded into a helical structure that was only slightly tilted. The folding of full-length myelin basic protein was, furthermore, studied in a bicelle environment. Our results provide information on the conformation and membrane alignment of important membrane-binding peptides in a membrane-mimicking environment, giving novel insights into the mechanisms of membrane binding and stacking by myelin proteins.

  3. N- and L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels Mediate Fast Calcium Transients in Axonal Shafts of Mouse Peripheral Nerve.

    PubMed

    Barzan, Ruxandra; Pfeiffer, Friederike; Kukley, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In the peripheral nervous system (PNS) a vast number of axons are accommodated within fiber bundles that constitute peripheral nerves. A major function of peripheral axons is to propagate action potentials along their length, and hence they are equipped with Na(+) and K(+) channels, which ensure successful generation, conduction and termination of each action potential. However little is known about Ca(2+) ion channels expressed along peripheral axons and their possible functional significance. The goal of the present study was to test whether voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) are present along peripheral nerve axons in situ and mediate rapid activity-dependent Ca(2+) elevations under physiological circumstances. To address this question we used mouse sciatic nerve slices, Ca(2+) indicator Oregon Green BAPTA-1, and 2-photon Ca(2+) imaging in fast line scan mode (500 Hz). We report that transient increases in intra-axonal Ca(2+) concentration take place along peripheral nerve axons in situ when axons are stimulated electrically with single pulses. Furthermore, we show for the first time that Ca(2+) transients in peripheral nerves are fast, i.e., occur in a millisecond time-domain. Combining Ca(2+) imaging and pharmacology with specific blockers of different VGCCs subtypes we demonstrate that Ca(2+) transients in peripheral nerves are mediated mainly by N-type and L-type VGCCs. Discovery of fast Ca(2+) entry into the axonal shafts through VGCCs in peripheral nerves suggests that Ca(2+) may be involved in regulation of action potential propagation and/or properties in this system, or mediate neurotransmitter release along peripheral axons as it occurs in the optic nerve and white matter of the central nervous system (CNS).

  4. N- and L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels Mediate Fast Calcium Transients in Axonal Shafts of Mouse Peripheral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Barzan, Ruxandra; Pfeiffer, Friederike; Kukley, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In the peripheral nervous system (PNS) a vast number of axons are accommodated within fiber bundles that constitute peripheral nerves. A major function of peripheral axons is to propagate action potentials along their length, and hence they are equipped with Na+ and K+ channels, which ensure successful generation, conduction and termination of each action potential. However little is known about Ca2+ ion channels expressed along peripheral axons and their possible functional significance. The goal of the present study was to test whether voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) are present along peripheral nerve axons in situ and mediate rapid activity-dependent Ca2+ elevations under physiological circumstances. To address this question we used mouse sciatic nerve slices, Ca2+ indicator Oregon Green BAPTA-1, and 2-photon Ca2+ imaging in fast line scan mode (500 Hz). We report that transient increases in intra-axonal Ca2+ concentration take place along peripheral nerve axons in situ when axons are stimulated electrically with single pulses. Furthermore, we show for the first time that Ca2+ transients in peripheral nerves are fast, i.e., occur in a millisecond time-domain. Combining Ca2+ imaging and pharmacology with specific blockers of different VGCCs subtypes we demonstrate that Ca2+ transients in peripheral nerves are mediated mainly by N-type and L-type VGCCs. Discovery of fast Ca2+ entry into the axonal shafts through VGCCs in peripheral nerves suggests that Ca2+ may be involved in regulation of action potential propagation and/or properties in this system, or mediate neurotransmitter release along peripheral axons as it occurs in the optic nerve and white matter of the central nervous system (CNS). PMID:27313508

  5. Similarities between inherited demyelinating neuropathies and Wallerian degeneration: an old repair program may cause myelin and axon perturbation under nonlesion conditions.

    PubMed

    Martini, Rudolf; Klein, Dennis; Groh, Janos

    2013-09-01

    Wallerian degeneration (WD) and inherited demyelinating neuropathies of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 (CMT1) appear to represent completely distinct events. CMT1-like diseases are chronic disorders of peripheral nerves that are genetically caused and lead to secondary neurodegenerative events, resulting in usually non-treatable disabilities, whereas WD is an acute, usually transient, reaction on injuries, aiming to allow peripheral nerve regeneration. Despite these differences, there are some striking similarities regarding molecular characteristics of neural cells in the affected peripheral nerves. The most conspicuous similarities might comprise the inflammatory component in both situations, as identified in appropriate mouse models. However, although inflammation is a beneficial component in WD, leading to removal of regrowth-repellent myelin debris, inflammation in CMT1 mouse models causes damage of initially intact nerve fibers. We hypothesize that, in CMT1 models, molecular pathways are activated that are shared with an important repair program after peripheral nerve injury, but lead to neural perturbation when activated under nonlesion conditions, as is the case in CMT1. These novel insights into the pathogenesis of CMT1 might be instrumental for the development of new therapeutic options in humans.

  6. Unconventional myosin ID is expressed in myelinating oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Reiji; Ishibashi, Tomoko; Baba, Hiroko; Yamaguchi, Yoshihide

    2014-10-01

    Myelin is a dynamic multilamellar structure that ensheathes axons and is crucial for normal neuronal function. In the central nervous system (CNS), myelin is produced by oligodendrocytes that wrap many layers of plasma membrane around axons. The dynamic membrane trafficking system, which relies on motor proteins, is required for myelin formation and maintenance. Previously, we found that myosin ID (Myo1d), a class I myosin, is enriched in the rat CNS myelin fraction. Myo1d is an unconventional myosin and has been shown to be involved in membrane trafficking in the recycling pathway in an epithelial cell line. Western blotting revealed that Myo1d expression begins early in myelinogenesis and continues to increase into adulthood. The localization of Myo1d in CNS myelin has not been reported, and the function of Myo1d in vivo remains unknown. To demonstrate the expression of Myo1d in CNS myelin and to begin to explore the function of Myo1d in myelination, we produced a new antibody against Myo1d that has a high titer and specificity for rat Myo1d. By using this antibody, we demonstrated that Myo1d is expressed in rat CNS myelin and is especially abundant in abaxonal and adaxonal regions (the outer and inner cytoplasm-containing loops, respectively), but that expression is low in peripheral nervous system myelin. In culture, Myo1d was expressed in mature rat oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, an increase in expression of Myo1d during maturation of CNS white matter (cerebellum and corpus callosum) was demonstrated by histological analysis. These results suggest that Myo1d may be involved in the formation and/or maintenance of CNS myelin.

  7. Fibrin glue repair leads to enhanced axonal elongation during early peripheral nerve regeneration in an in vivo mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Koulaxouzidis, Georgios; Reim, Gernot; Witzel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Microsurgical suturing is the gold standard of nerve coaptation. Although literature on the usefulness of fibrin glue as an alternative is becoming increasingly available, it remains contradictory. Furthermore, no data exist on how both repair methods might influence the morphological aspects (arborization; branching) of early peripheral nerve regeneration. We used the sciatic nerve transplantation model in thy-1 yellow fluorescent protein mice (YFP; n = 10). Pieces of nerve (1cm) were grafted from YFP-negative mice (n = 10) into those expressing YFP. We performed microsuture coaptations on one side and used fibrin glue for repair on the contralateral side. Seven days after grafting, the regeneration distance, the percentage of regenerating and arborizing axons, the number of branches per axon, the coaptation failure rate, the gap size at the repair site and the time needed for surgical repair were all investigated. Fibrin glue repair resulted in regenerating axons travelling further into the distal nerve. It also increased the percentage of arborizing axons. No coaptation failure was detected. Gap sizes were comparable in both groups. Fibrin glue significantly reduced surgical repair time. The increase in regeneration distance, even after the short period of time, is in line with the results of others that showed faster axonal regeneration after fibrin glue repair. The increase in arborizing axons could be another explanation for better functional and electrophysiological results after fibrin glue repair. Fibrin glue nerve coaptation seems to be a promising alternative to microsuture repair. PMID:26330844

  8. In vivo optical microscopy of peripheral nerve myelination with polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Francis P.; Wang, Yan; Rodriguez, Carissa L. R.; Randolph, Mark A.; Rust, Esther A. Z.; Winograd, Jonathan M.; de Boer, Johannes F.; Park, B. Hyle

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Assessing nerve integrity and myelination after injury is necessary to provide insight for treatment strategies aimed at restoring neuromuscular function. Currently, this is largely done with electrical analysis, which lacks direct quantitative information. In vivo optical imaging with sufficient imaging depth and resolution could be used to assess the nerve microarchitecture. In this study, we examine the use of polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) to quantitatively assess the sciatic nerve microenvironment through measurements of birefringence after applying a nerve crush injury in a rat model. Initial loss of function and subsequent recovery were demonstrated by calculating the sciatic function index (SFI). We found that the PS-OCT phase retardation slope, which is proportional to birefringence, increased monotonically with the SFI. Additionally, histomorphometric analysis of the myelin thickness and g-ratio shows that the PS-OCT slope is a good indicator of myelin health and recovery after injury. These results demonstrate that PS-OCT is capable of providing nondestructive and quantitative assessment of nerve health after injury and shows promise for continued use both clinically and experimentally in neuroscience. PMID:25858593

  9. In vivo optical microscopy of peripheral nerve myelination with polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Henry, Francis P; Wang, Yan; Rodriguez, Carissa L R; Randolph, Mark A; Rust, Esther A Z; Winograd, Jonathan M; de Boer, Johannes F; Park, B Hyle

    2015-04-01

    Assessing nerve integrity and myelination after injury is necessary to provide insight for treatment strategies aimed at restoring neuromuscular function. Currently, this is largely done with electrical analysis, which lacks direct quantitative information. In vivo optical imaging with sufficient imaging depth and resolution could be used to assess the nerve microarchitecture. In this study, we examine the use of polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) to quantitatively assess the sciatic nerve microenvironment through measurements of birefringence after applying a nerve crush injury in a rat model. Initial loss of function and subsequent recovery were demonstrated by calculating the sciatic function index (SFI). We found that the PS-OCT phase retardation slope, which is proportional to birefringence, increased monotonically with the SFI. Additionally, histomorphometric analysis of the myelin thickness and g-ratio shows that the PS-OCT slope is a good indicator of myelin health and recovery after injury. These results demonstrate that PS-OCT is capable of providing nondestructive and quantitative assessment of nerve health after injury and shows promise for continued use both clinically and experimentally in neuroscience. PMID:25858593

  10. Exposure of rats to a high but not low dose of ethanol during early postnatal life increases the rate of loss of optic nerve axons and decreases the rate of myelination

    PubMed Central

    HARRIS, SIMON J.; WILCE, PETER; BEDI, KULDIP S.

    2000-01-01

    Visual system abnormalities are commonly encountered in the fetal alcohol syndrome although the level of exposure at which they become manifest is uncertain. In this study we have examined the effects of either low (ETLD) or high dose (ETHD) ethanol, given between postnatal days 4–9, on the axons of the rat optic nerve. Rats were exposed to ethanol vapour in a special chamber for a period of 3 h per day during the treatment period. The blood alcohol concentration in the ETLD animals averaged ∼ 171 mg/dl and in the ETHD animals ∼ 430 mg/dl at the end of the treatment on any given day. Groups of 10 and 30-d-old mother-reared control (MRC), separation control (SC), ETLD and ETHD rats were anaesthetised with an intraperitoneal injection of ketamine and xylazine, and killed by intracardiac perfusion with phosphate-buffered glutaraldehyde. In the 10-d-old rat optic nerves there was a total of ∼ 145000–165000 axons in MRC, SC and ETLD animals. About 4% of these fibres were myelinated. The differences between these groups were not statistically significant. However, the 10-d-old ETHD animals had only about 75000 optic nerve axons (P < 0.05) of which about 2.8% were myelinated. By 30 d of age there was a total of between 75000–90000 optic nerve axons, irrespective of the group examined. The proportion of axons which were myelinated at this age was still significantly lower (P < 0.001) in the ETHD animals (∼ 77%) than in the other groups (about 98%). It is concluded that the normal stages of development and maturation of the rat optic nerve axons, as assessed in this study, can be severely compromised by exposure to a relatively high (but not low) dose of ethanol between postnatal d 4 and 9. PMID:11117631

  11. Analysis of Gpr126 function defines distinct mechanisms controlling the initiation and maturation of myelin.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Thomas D; Talbot, William S

    2013-08-01

    In peripheral nerves, Schwann cells form the myelin sheath, which allows the efficient propagation of action potentials along axons. The transcription factor Krox20 regulates the initiation of myelination in Schwann cells and is also required to maintain mature myelin. The adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) Gpr126 is essential for Schwann cells to initiate myelination, but previous studies have not addressed the role of Gpr126 signaling in myelin maturation and maintenance. Through analysis of Gpr126 in zebrafish, we define two distinct mechanisms controlling the initiation and maturation of myelin. We show that gpr126 mutant Schwann cells elaborate mature myelin sheaths and maintain krox20 expression for months, provided that the early signaling defect is bypassed by transient elevation of cAMP. At the onset of myelination, Gpr126 and protein kinase A (PKA) function as a switch that allows Schwann cells to initiate krox20 expression and myelination. After myelination is initiated, krox20 expression is maintained and myelin maturation proceeds independently of Gpr126 signaling. Transgenic analysis indicates that the Krox20 cis-regulatory myelinating Schwann cell element (MSE) becomes active at the onset of myelination and that this activity is dependent on Gpr126 signaling. Activity of the MSE declines after initiation, suggesting that other elements are responsible for maintaining krox20 expression in mature nerves. We also show that elevated cAMP does not initiate myelination in the absence of functional Neuregulin 1 (Nrg1) signaling. These results indicate that the mechanisms regulating the initiation of myelination are distinct from those mediating the maturation and maintenance of myelin.

  12. A semi-automated method for identifying and measuring myelinated nerve fibers in scanning electron microscope images.

    PubMed

    More, Heather L; Chen, Jingyun; Gibson, Eli; Donelan, J Maxwell; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2011-09-30

    Diagnosing illnesses, developing and comparing treatment methods, and conducting research on the organization of the peripheral nervous system often require the analysis of peripheral nerve images to quantify the number, myelination, and size of axons in a nerve. Current methods that require manually labeling each axon can be extremely time-consuming as a single nerve can contain thousands of axons. To improve efficiency, we developed a computer-assisted axon identification and analysis method that is capable of analyzing and measuring sub-images covering the nerve cross-section, acquired using a scanning electron microscope. This algorithm performs three main procedures - it first uses cross-correlation to combine the acquired sub-images into a large image showing the entire nerve cross-section, then identifies and individually labels axons using a series of image intensity and shape criteria, and finally identifies and labels the myelin sheath of each axon using a region growing algorithm with the geometric centers of axons as seeds. To ensure accurate analysis of the image, we incorporated manual supervision to remove mislabeled axons and add missed axons. The typical user-assisted processing time for a two-megapixel image containing over 2000 axons was less than 1h. This speed was almost eight times faster than the time required to manually process the same image. Our method has proven to be well suited for identifying axons and their characteristics, and represents a significant time savings over traditional manual methods.

  13. Morphological analysis of Drosophila larval peripheral sensory neuron dendrites and axons using genetic mosaics.

    PubMed

    Karim, M Rezaul; Moore, Adrian W

    2011-11-07

    Nervous system development requires the correct specification of neuron position and identity, followed by accurate neuron class-specific dendritic development and axonal wiring. Recently the dendritic arborization (DA) sensory neurons of the Drosophila larval peripheral nervous system (PNS) have become powerful genetic models in which to elucidate both general and class-specific mechanisms of neuron differentiation. There are four main DA neuron classes (I-IV)(1). They are named in order of increasing dendrite arbor complexity, and have class-specific differences in the genetic control of their differentiation(2-10). The DA sensory system is a practical model to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind the control of dendritic morphology(11-13) because: 1) it can take advantage of the powerful genetic tools available in the fruit fly, 2) the DA neuron dendrite arbor spreads out in only 2 dimensions beneath an optically clear larval cuticle making it easy to visualize with high resolution in vivo, 3) the class-specific diversity in dendritic morphology facilitates a comparative analysis to find key elements controlling the formation of simple vs. highly branched dendritic trees, and 4) dendritic arbor stereotypical shapes of different DA neurons facilitate morphometric statistical analyses. DA neuron activity modifies the output of a larval locomotion central pattern generator(14-16). The different DA neuron classes have distinct sensory modalities, and their activation elicits different behavioral responses(14,16-20). Furthermore different classes send axonal projections stereotypically into the Drosophila larval central nervous system in the ventral nerve cord (VNC)(21). These projections terminate with topographic representations of both DA neuron sensory modality and the position in the body wall of the dendritic field(7,22,23). Hence examination of DA axonal projections can be used to elucidate mechanisms underlying topographic mapping(7,22,23), as well as

  14. Involvement of the Tyro3 receptor and its intracellular partner Fyn signaling in Schwann cell myelination.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Torii, Tomohiro; Takada, Shuji; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Saitoh, Yurika; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Ito, Akihito; Ogata, Toru; Terada, Nobuo; Tanoue, Akito; Yamauchi, Junji

    2015-10-01

    During early development of the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cell precursors proliferate, migrate, and differentiate into premyelinating Schwann cells. After birth, Schwann cells envelop neuronal axons with myelin sheaths. Although some molecular mechanisms underlying myelination by Schwann cells have been identified, the whole picture remains unclear. Here we show that signaling through Tyro3 receptor tyrosine kinase and its binding partner, Fyn nonreceptor cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, is involved in myelination by Schwann cells. Impaired formation of myelin segments is observed in Schwann cell neuronal cultures established from Tyro3-knockout mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Indeed, Tyro3-knockout mice exhibit reduced myelin thickness. By affinity chromatography, Fyn was identified as the binding partner of the Tyro3 intracellular domain, and activity of Fyn is down-regulated in Tyro3-knockout mice, suggesting that Tyro3, acting through Fyn, regulates myelination. Ablating Fyn in mice results in reduced myelin thickness. Decreased myelin formation is observed in cultures established from Fyn-knockout mouse DRG. Furthermore, decreased kinase activity levels and altered expression of myelination-associated transcription factors are observed in these knockout mice. These results suggest the involvement of Tyro3 receptor and its binding partner Fyn in Schwann cell myelination. This constitutes a newly recognized receptor-linked signaling mechanism that can control Schwann cell myelination.

  15. The sodium channel isoform transition at developing nodes of Ranvier in the peripheral nervous system: dependence on a Genetic program and myelination-induced cluster formation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Songjiang; Jaegle, Martine; Li, Roy; Ehring, George R; Meijer, Dies; Levinson, Simon R

    2014-12-15

    Among sodium channel isoforms, Nav 1.6 is selectively expressed at nodes of Ranvier in both the CNS and the PNS. However, non-Nav 1.6 isoforms such as Nav 1.2 are also present at the CNS nodes in early development but gradually diminish later. It has been proposed that myelination is part of a glia-neuron signaling mechanism that produces this change in nodal isoform expression. The present study used isoform-specific antibodies to demonstrate that, in the PNS, four other neuronal sodium channel isoforms were also clustered at nodes in early development but eventually disappeared during maturation. To study possible roles of myelination in such transitions, we investigated the nodal expression of selected isoforms in the sciatic nerve of the transgenic mouse Oct6(ΔSCE/βgeo) , whose PNS myelination is delayed in the first postnatal week but eventually resumes. We found that delayed myelination retarded the formation of nodal channel clusters and altered the expression-elimination patterns of sodium channel isoforms, resulting in significantly reduced expression levels of non-Nav 1.6 isoforms in such delayed nodes. However, delayed myelination did not significantly affect the gene expression, protein synthesis, or axonal trafficking of any isoform studied. Rather, we found evidence for a developmentally programmed increase in neuronal Nav 1.6 expression with constant or decreasing neuronal expression of other isoforms that were unaffected by delayed myelination. Thus our results suggest that, in the developmental isoform switch of the PNS, myelination does not play a signaling role as that proposed for the CNS but rather serves only to form nodal clusters from existing isoform pools.

  16. Involvement of both sodium influx and potassium efflux in ciguatoxin-induced nodal swelling of frog myelinated axons.

    PubMed

    Mattei, César; Molgó, Jordi; Benoit, Evelyne

    2014-10-01

    Ciguatoxins, mainly produced by benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus species, are responsible for a complex human poisoning known as ciguatera. Previous pharmacological studies revealed that these toxins activate voltage-gated Na+ channels. In frog nodes of Ranvier, ciguatoxins induce spontaneous and repetitive action potentials (APs) and increase axonal volume that may explain alterations of nerve functioning in intoxicated humans. The present study aimed determining the ionic mechanisms involved in Pacific ciguatoxin-1B (P-CTX-1B)-induced membrane hyperexcitability and subsequent volume increase in frog nodes of Ranvier, using electrophysiology and confocal microscopy. The results reveal that P-CTX-1B action is not dependent on external Cl- ions since it was not affected by substituting Cl- by methylsulfate ions. In contrast, substitution of external Na+ by Li+ ions suppressed spontaneous APs and prevented nodal swelling. This suggests that P-CTX-1B-modified Na+ channels are not selective to Li+ ions and/or are blocked by these ions, and that Na+ influx through Na+ channels opened during spontaneous APs is required for axonal swelling. The fact that the K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium modified, but did not suppress, spontaneous APs and greatly reduced nodal swelling induced by P-CTX-1B indicates that K+ efflux might also be involved. This is supported by the fact that P-CTX-1B, when tested in the presence of both tetraethylammonium and the K+ ionophore valinomycin, produced the characteristic nodal swelling. It is concluded that, during the action of P-CTX-1B, water movements responsible for axonal swelling depend on both Na+ influx and K+ efflux. These results pave the way for further studies regarding ciguatera treatment. PMID:24950451

  17. Long-term daily vibration exposure alters current perception threshold (CPT) sensitivity and myelinated axons in a rat-tail model of vibration-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Krajnak, Kristine; Raju, Sandya G; Miller, G Roger; Johnson, Claud; Waugh, Stacey; Kashon, Michael L; Riley, Danny A

    2016-01-01

    Repeated exposure to hand-transmitted vibration through the use of powered hand tools may result in pain and progressive reductions in tactile sensitivity. The goal of the present study was to use an established animal model of vibration-induced injury to characterize changes in sensory nerve function and cellular mechanisms associated with these alterations. Sensory nerve function was assessed weekly using the current perception threshold test and tail-flick analgesia test in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 28 d of tail vibration. After 28 d of exposure, Aβ fiber sensitivity was reduced. This reduction in sensitivity was partly attributed to structural disruption of myelin. In addition, the decrease in sensitivity was also associated with a reduction in myelin basic protein and 2',3'- cyclic nucleotide phosphodiasterase (CNPase) staining in tail nerves, and an increase in circulating calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) concentrations. Changes in Aβ fiber sensitivity and CGRP concentrations may serve as early markers of vibration-induced injury in peripheral nerves. It is conceivable that these markers may be utilized to monitor sensorineural alterations in workers exposed to vibration to potentially prevent additional injury. PMID:26852665

  18. Long-term daily vibration exposure alters current perception threshold (CPT) sensitivity and myelinated axons in a rat-tail model of vibration-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Krajnak, Kristine; Raju, Sandya G; Miller, G Roger; Johnson, Claud; Waugh, Stacey; Kashon, Michael L; Riley, Danny A

    2016-01-01

    Repeated exposure to hand-transmitted vibration through the use of powered hand tools may result in pain and progressive reductions in tactile sensitivity. The goal of the present study was to use an established animal model of vibration-induced injury to characterize changes in sensory nerve function and cellular mechanisms associated with these alterations. Sensory nerve function was assessed weekly using the current perception threshold test and tail-flick analgesia test in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 28 d of tail vibration. After 28 d of exposure, Aβ fiber sensitivity was reduced. This reduction in sensitivity was partly attributed to structural disruption of myelin. In addition, the decrease in sensitivity was also associated with a reduction in myelin basic protein and 2',3'- cyclic nucleotide phosphodiasterase (CNPase) staining in tail nerves, and an increase in circulating calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) concentrations. Changes in Aβ fiber sensitivity and CGRP concentrations may serve as early markers of vibration-induced injury in peripheral nerves. It is conceivable that these markers may be utilized to monitor sensorineural alterations in workers exposed to vibration to potentially prevent additional injury.

  19. The role of water in the structure of peripheral nerve myelin.

    PubMed

    FINEAN, J B

    1957-01-25

    In the study of the drying kinetics of nerve fibres, at least five "phases" of water evaporation can be distinguished. A consideration of the accompanying changes in low-angle x-ray diffraction patterns permits a tentative identification of the "phases" and a quantitative interpretation of the data in terms of the water distribution in nerve fibres. These results suggest that the myelin sheath of frog sciatic nerve contains 40 to 50 per cent water, and it is suggested further that the greater part of this water is "organised" in relation to the hydrophilic groups of the lipide and protein components.

  20. Electrical stimulation accelerates axonal and functional peripheral nerve regeneration across long gaps.

    PubMed

    Haastert-Talini, Kirsten; Schmitte, Ruth; Korte, Nele; Klode, Dorothee; Ratzka, Andreas; Grothe, Claudia

    2011-04-01

    Short-term low-frequency electrical stimulation (ESTIM) of proximal peripheral nerve stumps prior to end-to-end coaptation or tubular bridging of small distances has been reported to increase preferential motor reinnervation and functional motor recovery in animal models and human patients undergoing carpal tunnel release surgery. We investigated the effects of ESTIM on regeneration across rat sciatic nerve gaps, which exceed distances that allow spontaneous regeneration. Three different reconstruction approaches were combined with ESTIM in the experimental groups. Nerve gaps (13 mm) were bridged using (I) nerve autotransplantation, (II) transplantation of differentially filled silicone tubes, or (III) transplantation of tubular grafts containing fibroblast growth factor-2 overexpressing Schwann cells (SCs) for gene therapy. The regeneration outcome was followed for up to 8 weeks, and functionally as well as histomorphometrically analyzed in comparison to non-stimulated control groups. Combining ESTIM with nerve autotransplantation significantly increased the nerve fiber density in the regenerated nerve, and the grade of functional recovery as detected by electrodiagnostic recordings from the gastrocnemius muscle. The combination of ESTIM with transplantation of naïve SCs increased the regeneration of gap-bridging nerve tissue. Although macroscopic tissue regeneration was not further improved after combining ESTIM with FGF-2(21/23-kD) gene therapy, the latter resulted in a high rate of regenerated nerves that functionally reconnected to the target muscle. Based on our results, brief ESTIM shows high potential to accelerate axonal as well as functional (motor and sensory) outcomes in the clinical setting of peripheral nerve gap reconstruction in human patients. PMID:21265597

  1. High-resolution fluorescence microscopy of myelin without exogenous probes.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Pia Crone; Brideau, Craig; Poon, Kelvin W C; Döring, Axinia; Yong, V Wee; Stys, Peter K

    2014-02-15

    Myelin is a critical element of the central and peripheral nervous systems of all higher vertebrates. Any disturbance in the integrity of the myelin sheath interferes with the axon's ability to conduct action potentials. Thus, the study of myelin structure and biochemistry is critically important. Accurate and even staining of myelin is often difficult because of its lipid-rich nature and multiple tight membrane wraps, hindering penetration of immunoprobes. Here we show a method of visualizing myelin that is fast, inexpensive and reliable using the cross-linking fixative glutaraldehyde that produces strong, broad-spectrum auto-fluorescence in fixed tissue. Traditionally, effort is generally aimed at eliminating this auto-fluorescence. However, we show that this intrinsic signal, which is very photostable and particularly strong in glutaraldehyde-fixed myelin, can be exploited to visualize this structure to produce very detailed images of myelin morphology. We imaged fixed rodent tissues from the central and peripheral nervous systems using spectral confocal microscopy to acquire high-resolution 3-dimensional images spanning the visual range of wavelengths (400-750 nm). Mathematical post-processing allows accurate and unequivocal separation of broadband auto-fluorescence from exogenous fluorescent probes such as DAPI and fluorescently-tagged secondary antibodies. We additionally show the feasibility of immunohistochemistry with antigen retrieval, which allows co-localization of proteins of interest together with detailed myelin morphology. The lysolecithin model of de- and remyelination is shown as an example of a practical application of this technique, which can be routinely applied when high-resolution microscopy of central or peripheral myelinated tracts is required.

  2. Rapid progression of late onset axonal Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease associated with a novel MPZ mutation in the extracellular domain

    PubMed Central

    Laurà, Matilde; Milani, Micaela; Morbin, Michela; Moggio, Maurizio; Ripolone, Michela; Jann, Stefano; Scaioli, Vidmer; Taroni, Franco; Pareyson, Davide

    2007-01-01

    Myelin protein zero (MPZ) is a major component of compact myelin in peripheral nerves where it plays an essential role in myelin formation and adhesion. MPZ gene mutations are usually responsible for demyelinating neuropathies, namely Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) type 1B, Déjèrine–Sottas neuropathy and congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy. Less frequently, axonal CMT (CMT2) associated with MPZ mutations has been described. We report six patients (one sporadic case and five subjects from two apparently unrelated families) with a late onset, but rapidly progressive, axonal peripheral neuropathy. In all patients, molecular analysis demonstrated a novel heterozygous missense mutation (208C>T) in MPZ exon 2, causing the Pro70Ser substitution in the extracellular domain. The diagnosis of CMT2 associated with MPZ mutations should be considered in both sporadic and familial cases of late onset, progressive polyneuropathy. The mechanism whereby compact myelin protein mutations cause axonal neuropathy remains to be elucidated. PMID:17940173

  3. Rapid progression of late onset axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease associated with a novel MPZ mutation in the extracellular domain.

    PubMed

    Laurà, Matilde; Milani, Micaela; Morbin, Michela; Moggio, Maurizio; Ripolone, Michela; Jann, Stefano; Scaioli, Vidmer; Taroni, Franco; Pareyson, Davide

    2007-11-01

    Myelin protein zero (MPZ) is a major component of compact myelin in peripheral nerves where it plays an essential role in myelin formation and adhesion. MPZ gene mutations are usually responsible for demyelinating neuropathies, namely Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) type 1B, Déjèrine-Sottas neuropathy and congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy. Less frequently, axonal CMT (CMT2) associated with MPZ mutations has been described. We report six patients (one sporadic case and five subjects from two apparently unrelated families) with a late onset, but rapidly progressive, axonal peripheral neuropathy. In all patients, molecular analysis demonstrated a novel heterozygous missense mutation (208C>T) in MPZ exon 2, causing the Pro70Ser substitution in the extracellular domain. The diagnosis of CMT2 associated with MPZ mutations should be considered in both sporadic and familial cases of late onset, progressive polyneuropathy. The mechanism whereby compact myelin protein mutations cause axonal neuropathy remains to be elucidated. PMID:17940173

  4. What Is the Optimal Value of the g-Ratio for Myelinated Fibers in the Rat CNS? A Theoretical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chomiak, Taylor; Hu, Bin

    2009-01-01

    Background The biological process underlying axonal myelination is complex and often prone to injury and disease. The ratio of the inner axonal diameter to the total outer diameter or g-ratio is widely utilized as a functional and structural index of optimal axonal myelination. Based on the speed of fiber conduction, Rushton was the first to derive a theoretical estimate of the optimal g-ratio of 0.6 [1]. This theoretical limit nicely explains the experimental data for myelinated axons obtained for some peripheral fibers but appears significantly lower than that found for CNS fibers. This is, however, hardly surprising given that in the CNS, axonal myelination must achieve multiple goals including reducing conduction delays, promoting conduction fidelity, lowering energy costs, and saving space. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we explore the notion that a balanced set-point can be achieved at a functional level as the micro-structure of individual axons becomes optimized, particularly for the central system where axons tend to be smaller and their myelin sheath thinner. We used an intuitive yet novel theoretical approach based on the fundamental biophysical properties describing axonal structure and function to show that an optimal g-ratio can be defined for the central nervous system (≈0.77). Furthermore, by reducing the influence of volume constraints on structural design by about 40%, this approach can also predict the g-ratio observed in some peripheral fibers (≈0.6). Conclusions/Significance These results support the notion of optimization theory in nervous system design and construction and may also help explain why the central and peripheral systems have evolved different g-ratios as a result of volume constraints. PMID:19915661

  5. Nerve Regeneration in the Peripheral Nervous System versus the Central Nervous System and the Relevance to Speech and Hearing after Nerve Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Tessa; Gordon, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Schwann cells normally form myelin sheaths around axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and support nerve regeneration after nerve injury. In contrast, nerve regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is not supported by the myelinating cells known as oligodendrocytes. We have found that: 1) low frequency electrical stimulation can be…

  6. Neutron scattering from myelin revisited: bilayer asymmetry and water-exchange kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Denninger, Andrew R.; Demé, Bruno; Cristiglio, Viviana; LeDuc, Géraldine; Feller, W. Bruce; Kirschner, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid nerve conduction in the central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS and PNS, respectively) of higher vertebrates is brought about by the ensheathment of axons with myelin, a lipid-rich, multilamellar assembly of membranes. The ability of myelin to electrically insulate depends on the regular stacking of these plasma membranes and on the presence of a number of specialized membrane-protein assemblies in the sheath, including the radial component, Schmidt–Lanterman incisures and the axo–glial junctions of the paranodal loops. The disruption of this fine-structure is the basis for many demyelinating neuropathies in the CNS and PNS. Understanding the processes that govern myelin biogenesis, maintenance and destabilization requires knowledge of myelin structure; however, the tight packing of internodal myelin and the complexity of its junctional specializations make myelin a challenging target for comprehensive structural analysis. This paper describes an examination of myelin from the CNS and PNS using neutron diffraction. This investigation revealed the dimensions of the bilayers and aqueous spaces of myelin, asymmetry between the cytoplasmic and extracellular leaflets of the membrane, and the distribution of water and exchangeable hydrogen in internodal multilamellar myelin. It also uncovered differences between CNS and PNS myelin in their water-exchange kinetics. PMID:25478838

  7. Increased Axonal Ribosome Numbers Is an Early Event in the Pathogenesis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Verheijen, Mark H. G.; Peviani, Marco; Hendricusdottir, Rita; Bell, Erin M.; Lammens, Martin; Smit, August B.; Bendotti, Caterina; van Minnen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Myelinating glia cells support axon survival and functions through mechanisms independent of myelination, and their dysfunction leads to axonal degeneration in several diseases. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal motor neurons undergo retrograde degeneration, and slowing of axonal transport is an early event that in ALS mutant mice occurs well before motor neuron degeneration. Interestingly, in familial forms of ALS, Schwann cells have been proposed to slow disease progression. We demonstrated previously that Schwann cells transfer polyribosomes to diseased and regenerating axons, a possible rescue mechanism for disease-induced reductions in axonal proteins. Here, we investigated whether elevated levels of axonal ribosomes are also found in ALS, by analysis of a superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1)G93A mouse model for human familial ALS and a patient suffering from sporadic ALS. In both cases, we found that the disorder was associated with an increase in the population of axonal ribosomes in myelinated axons. Importantly, in SOD1G93A mice, the appearance of axonal ribosomes preceded the manifestation of behavioral symptoms, indicating that upregulation of axonal ribosomes occurs early in the pathogenesis of ALS. In line with our previous studies, electron microscopy analysis showed that Schwann cells might serve as a source of axonal ribosomes in the disease-compromised axons. The early appearance of axonal ribosomes indicates an involvement of Schwann cells early in ALS neuropathology, and may serve as an early marker for disease-affected axons, not only in ALS, but also for other central and peripheral neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24498056

  8. Immunocytochemical Localization of Monoamine Oxidase Type B in Rat's Peripheral Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Hui; Tan, Xiao; Liu, Shu Hui; Yan, Fen

    2015-11-01

    Immunohistochemistry is used to investigate subcellular localization of monoamine oxidase type B (MAOB) in the axon of the rat's peripheral nervous system. Through light and electron microscopy, the presence of MAOB-immunoreactive structures in the propria lamina of tongue and on the outer membranes of mitochondria in both myelinated and unmyelinated axons can be detected. As a result, MAOB may potentially play a crucial role in the axons of the rat's peripheral nervous system and may be closely associated with both axonal transport and nerve conduction.

  9. Atf3 mutant mice show reduced axon regeneration and impaired regeneration-associated gene induction after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Gey, Manuel; Wanner, Renate; Schilling, Corinna; Pedro, Maria T; Sinske, Daniela; Knöll, Bernd

    2016-08-01

    Axon injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) induces a regeneration-associated gene (RAG) response. Atf3 (activating transcription factor 3) is such a RAG and ATF3's transcriptional activity might induce 'effector' RAGs (e.g. small proline rich protein 1a (Sprr1a), Galanin (Gal), growth-associated protein 43 (Gap43)) facilitating peripheral axon regeneration. We provide a first analysis of Atf3 mouse mutants in peripheral nerve regeneration. In Atf3 mutant mice, facial nerve regeneration and neurite outgrowth of adult ATF3-deficient primary dorsal root ganglia neurons was decreased. Using genome-wide transcriptomics, we identified a neuropeptide-encoding RAG cluster (vasoactive intestinal peptide (Vip), Ngf, Grp, Gal, Pacap) regulated by ATF3. Exogenous administration of neuropeptides enhanced neurite growth of Atf3 mutant mice suggesting that these molecules might be effector RAGs of ATF3's pro-regenerative function. In addition to the induction of growth-promoting molecules, we present data that ATF3 suppresses growth-inhibiting molecules such as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2. In summary, we show a pro-regenerative ATF3 function during PNS nerve regeneration involving transcriptional activation of a neuropeptide-encoding RAG cluster. ATF3 is a general injury-inducible factor, therefore ATF3-mediated mechanisms identified herein might apply to other cell and injury types. PMID:27581653

  10. Targeted axonal import (TAxI) peptide delivers functional proteins into spinal cord motor neurons after peripheral administration.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Drew L; Bergen, Jamie M; Johnson, Russell N; Back, Heidi; Ravits, John M; Horner, Philip J; Pun, Suzie H

    2016-03-01

    A significant unmet need in treating neurodegenerative disease is effective methods for delivery of biologic drugs, such as peptides, proteins, or nucleic acids into the central nervous system (CNS). To date, there are no operative technologies for the delivery of macromolecular drugs to the CNS via peripheral administration routes. Using an in vivo phage-display screen, we identify a peptide, targeted axonal import (TAxI), that enriched recombinant bacteriophage accumulation and delivered protein cargo into spinal cord motor neurons after intramuscular injection. In animals with transected peripheral nerve roots, TAxI delivery into motor neurons after peripheral administration was inhibited, suggesting a retrograde axonal transport mechanism for delivery into the CNS. Notably, TAxI-Cre recombinase fusion proteins induced selective recombination and tdTomato-reporter expression in motor neurons after intramuscular injections. Furthermore, TAxI peptide was shown to label motor neurons in the human tissue. The demonstration of a nonviral-mediated delivery of functional proteins into the spinal cord establishes the clinical potential of this technology for minimally invasive administration of CNS-targeted therapeutics.

  11. Targeted axonal import (TAxI) peptide delivers functional proteins into spinal cord motor neurons after peripheral administration

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, Drew L.; Bergen, Jamie M.; Johnson, Russell N.; Back, Heidi; Ravits, John M.; Horner, Philip J.; Pun, Suzie H.

    2016-01-01

    A significant unmet need in treating neurodegenerative disease is effective methods for delivery of biologic drugs, such as peptides, proteins, or nucleic acids into the central nervous system (CNS). To date, there are no operative technologies for the delivery of macromolecular drugs to the CNS via peripheral administration routes. Using an in vivo phage-display screen, we identify a peptide, targeted axonal import (TAxI), that enriched recombinant bacteriophage accumulation and delivered protein cargo into spinal cord motor neurons after intramuscular injection. In animals with transected peripheral nerve roots, TAxI delivery into motor neurons after peripheral administration was inhibited, suggesting a retrograde axonal transport mechanism for delivery into the CNS. Notably, TAxI-Cre recombinase fusion proteins induced selective recombination and tdTomato-reporter expression in motor neurons after intramuscular injections. Furthermore, TAxI peptide was shown to label motor neurons in the human tissue. The demonstration of a nonviral-mediated delivery of functional proteins into the spinal cord establishes the clinical potential of this technology for minimally invasive administration of CNS-targeted therapeutics. PMID:26888285

  12. Atf3 mutant mice show reduced axon regeneration and impaired regeneration-associated gene induction after peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Gey, Manuel; Wanner, Renate; Schilling, Corinna; Pedro, Maria T.; Sinske, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Axon injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) induces a regeneration-associated gene (RAG) response. Atf3 (activating transcription factor 3) is such a RAG and ATF3's transcriptional activity might induce ‘effector’ RAGs (e.g. small proline rich protein 1a (Sprr1a), Galanin (Gal), growth-associated protein 43 (Gap43)) facilitating peripheral axon regeneration. We provide a first analysis of Atf3 mouse mutants in peripheral nerve regeneration. In Atf3 mutant mice, facial nerve regeneration and neurite outgrowth of adult ATF3-deficient primary dorsal root ganglia neurons was decreased. Using genome-wide transcriptomics, we identified a neuropeptide-encoding RAG cluster (vasoactive intestinal peptide (Vip), Ngf, Grp, Gal, Pacap) regulated by ATF3. Exogenous administration of neuropeptides enhanced neurite growth of Atf3 mutant mice suggesting that these molecules might be effector RAGs of ATF3's pro-regenerative function. In addition to the induction of growth-promoting molecules, we present data that ATF3 suppresses growth-inhibiting molecules such as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2. In summary, we show a pro-regenerative ATF3 function during PNS nerve regeneration involving transcriptional activation of a neuropeptide-encoding RAG cluster. ATF3 is a general injury-inducible factor, therefore ATF3-mediated mechanisms identified herein might apply to other cell and injury types. PMID:27581653

  13. Arf6 guanine-nucleotide exchange factor cytohesin-2 regulates myelination in nerves.

    PubMed

    Torii, Tomohiro; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Miyamoto, Yuki; Kawahara, Kazuko; Saitoh, Yurika; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Takashima, Shou; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Tanoue, Akito; Yamauchi, Junji

    2015-05-01

    In postnatal development of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), Schwann cells differentiate to insulate neuronal axons with myelin sheaths, increasing the nerve conduction velocity. To produce the mature myelin sheath with its multiple layers, Schwann cells undergo dynamic morphological changes. While extracellular molecules such as growth factors and cell adhesion ligands are known to regulate the myelination process, the intracellular molecular mechanism underlying myelination remains unclear. In this study, we have produced Schwann cell-specific conditional knockout mice for cytohesin-2, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) specifically activating Arf6. Arf6, a member of the Ras-like protein family, participates in various cellular functions including cell morphological changes. Cytohesin-2 knockout mice exhibit decreased Arf6 activity and reduced myelin thickness in the sciatic nerves, with decreased expression levels of myelin protein zero (MPZ), the major myelin marker protein. These results are consistent with those of experiments in which Schwann cell-neuronal cultures were treated with pan-cytohesin inhibitor SecinH3. On the other hand, the numbers of Ki67-positive cells in knockout mice and controls are comparable, indicating that cytohesin-2 does not have a positive effect on cell numbers. Thus, signaling through cytohesin-2 is required for myelination by Schwann cells, and cytohesin-2 is added to the list of molecules known to underlie PNS myelination.

  14. Influence of myelin proteins on the structure and dynamics of a model membrane with emphasis on the low temperature regime

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, W.; Peters, J.; Kursula, P.; Gerelli, Y.; Natali, F.

    2014-11-28

    Myelin is an insulating, multi-lamellar membrane structure wrapped around selected nerve axons. Increasing the speed of nerve impulses, it is crucial for the proper functioning of the vertebrate nervous system. Human neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, are linked to damage to the myelin sheath through demyelination. Myelin exhibits a well defined subset of myelin-specific proteins, whose influence on membrane dynamics, i.e., myelin flexibility and stability, has not yet been explored in detail. In a first paper [W. Knoll, J. Peters, P. Kursula, Y. Gerelli, J. Ollivier, B. Demé, M. Telling, E. Kemner, and F. Natali, Soft Matter 10, 519 (2014)] we were able to spotlight, through neutron scattering experiments, the role of peripheral nervous system myelin proteins on membrane stability at room temperature. In particular, the myelin basic protein and peripheral myelin protein 2 were found to synergistically influence the membrane structure while keeping almost unchanged the membrane mobility. Further insight is provided by this work, in which we particularly address the investigation of the membrane flexibility in the low temperature regime. We evidence a different behavior suggesting that the proton dynamics is reduced by the addition of the myelin basic protein accompanied by negligible membrane structural changes. Moreover, we address the importance of correct sample preparation and characterization for the success of the experiment and for the reliability of the obtained results.

  15. Influence of myelin proteins on the structure and dynamics of a model membrane with emphasis on the low temperature regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoll, W.; Peters, J.; Kursula, P.; Gerelli, Y.; Natali, F.

    2014-11-01

    Myelin is an insulating, multi-lamellar membrane structure wrapped around selected nerve axons. Increasing the speed of nerve impulses, it is crucial for the proper functioning of the vertebrate nervous system. Human neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, are linked to damage to the myelin sheath through demyelination. Myelin exhibits a well defined subset of myelin-specific proteins, whose influence on membrane dynamics, i.e., myelin flexibility and stability, has not yet been explored in detail. In a first paper [W. Knoll, J. Peters, P. Kursula, Y. Gerelli, J. Ollivier, B. Demé, M. Telling, E. Kemner, and F. Natali, Soft Matter 10, 519 (2014)] we were able to spotlight, through neutron scattering experiments, the role of peripheral nervous system myelin proteins on membrane stability at room temperature. In particular, the myelin basic protein and peripheral myelin protein 2 were found to synergistically influence the membrane structure while keeping almost unchanged the membrane mobility. Further insight is provided by this work, in which we particularly address the investigation of the membrane flexibility in the low temperature regime. We evidence a different behavior suggesting that the proton dynamics is reduced by the addition of the myelin basic protein accompanied by negligible membrane structural changes. Moreover, we address the importance of correct sample preparation and characterization for the success of the experiment and for the reliability of the obtained results.

  16. Influence of myelin proteins on the structure and dynamics of a model membrane with emphasis on the low temperature regime.

    PubMed

    Knoll, W; Peters, J; Kursula, P; Gerelli, Y; Natali, F

    2014-11-28

    Myelin is an insulating, multi-lamellar membrane structure wrapped around selected nerve axons. Increasing the speed of nerve impulses, it is crucial for the proper functioning of the vertebrate nervous system. Human neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, are linked to damage to the myelin sheath through demyelination. Myelin exhibits a well defined subset of myelin-specific proteins, whose influence on membrane dynamics, i.e., myelin flexibility and stability, has not yet been explored in detail. In a first paper [W. Knoll, J. Peters, P. Kursula, Y. Gerelli, J. Ollivier, B. Demé, M. Telling, E. Kemner, and F. Natali, Soft Matter 10, 519 (2014)] we were able to spotlight, through neutron scattering experiments, the role of peripheral nervous system myelin proteins on membrane stability at room temperature. In particular, the myelin basic protein and peripheral myelin protein 2 were found to synergistically influence the membrane structure while keeping almost unchanged the membrane mobility. Further insight is provided by this work, in which we particularly address the investigation of the membrane flexibility in the low temperature regime. We evidence a different behavior suggesting that the proton dynamics is reduced by the addition of the myelin basic protein accompanied by negligible membrane structural changes. Moreover, we address the importance of correct sample preparation and characterization for the success of the experiment and for the reliability of the obtained results.

  17. Nuc-ErbB3 regulates H3K27me3 levels and HMT activity to establish epigenetic repression during peripheral myelination.

    PubMed

    Ness, Jennifer K; Skiles, Amanda A; Yap, Eng-Hui; Fajardo, Eduardo J; Fiser, Andras; Tapinos, Nikos

    2016-06-01

    Nuc-ErbB3 an alternative transcript from the ErbB3 locus binds to a specific DNA motif and associates with Schwann cell chromatin. Here we generated a nuc-ErbB3 knockin mouse that lacks nuc-ErbB3 expression in the nucleus without affecting the neuregulin-ErbB3 receptor signaling. Nuc-ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit hypermyelination and aberrant myelination at the paranodal region. This phenotype is attributed to de-repression of myelination associated gene transcription following loss of nuc-ErbB3 and histone H3K27me3 promoter occupancy. Nuc-ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit reduced association of H3K27me3 with myelination-associated gene promoters and increased RNA Pol-II rate of transcription of these genes. In addition, nuc-ErbB3 directly regulates levels of H3K27me3 in Schwann cells. Nuc-ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit significant decrease of histone H3K27me3 methyltransferase (HMT) activity and reduced levels of H3K27me3. Collectively, nuc-ErbB3 is a master transcriptional repressor, which regulates HMT activity to establish a repressive chromatin landscape on promoters of genes during peripheral myelination.

  18. The history of myelin.

    PubMed

    Boullerne, Anne Isabelle

    2016-09-01

    Andreas Vesalius is attributed the discovery of white matter in the 16th century but van Leeuwenhoek is arguably the first to have observed myelinated fibers in 1717. A globular myelin theory followed, claiming all elements of the nervous system except for Fontana's primitive cylinder with outer sheath in 1781. Remak's axon revolution in 1836 relegated myelin to the unknown. Ehrenberg described nerve tubes with double borders in 1833, and Schwann with nuclei in 1839, but the medullary sheath acquired its name of myelin, coined by Virchow, only in 1854. Thanks to Schultze's osmium specific staining in 1865, myelin designates the structure known today. The origin of myelin though was baffling. Only after Ranvier discovered a periodic segmentation, which came to us as nodes of Ranvier, did he venture suggesting in 1872 that the nerve internode was a fatty cell secreting myelin in cytoplasm. Ranvier's hypothesis was met with high skepticism, because nobody could see the cytoplasm, and the term Schwann cell very slowly emerged into the vocabulary with von Lenhossék in 1895. When Cajal finally admitted the concept of Schwann cell internode in 1912, he still firmly believed myelin was secreted by the axon. Del Río-Hortega re-discovered oligodendrocytes in 1919 (after Robertson in 1899) and named them oligodendroglia in 1921, thereby antagonizing Cajal for discovering a second cell type in his invisible third element. Penfield had to come to del Río-Hortega's rescue in 1924 for oligodendrocytes to be accepted. They jointly hypothesized myelin could be made by oligodendrocytes, considered the central equivalent of Schwann cells. Meanwhile myelin birefringence properties observed by Klebs in 1865 then Schmidt in 1924 confirmed its high fatty content, ascertained by biochemistry by Thudichum in 1884. The 20th century saw X-ray diffraction developed by Schmitt, who discovered in 1935 the crystal-like organization of this most peculiar structure, and devised the g

  19. Neurofilament gene expression: a major determinant of axonal caliber

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, P.N.; Cleveland, D.W.; Griffin, J.W.; Landes, P.W.; Cowan, N.J.; Price, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    Within the wide spectrum of axonal diameters occurring in mammalian nerve fibers, each class of neurons has a relatively restricted range of axonal calibers. The control of caliber has functional significance because diameter is the principal determinant of conduction velocity in myelinated nerve fibers. Previous observations support the hypothesis that neurofilaments (NF) are major intrinsic determinants of axonal caliber in large myelinated nerve fibers. Following interruption of axons (axotomy) by crushing or cutting a peripheral nerve, caliber is reduced in the proximal axonal stumps, which extend from the cell bodies to the site of axotomy. This reduction in axonal caliber in the proximal stumps is associated with a selective diminution in the amount of NF protein undergoing slow axonal transport in these axons, with a decrease in axonal NF content, and with reduced conduction velocity. The present report demonstrates that changes in axonal caliber after axotomy correlate with a selective alteration in NF gene expression. Hybridization with specific cDNAs was used to measure levels of mRNA encoding the 68-kDa neurofilament protein (NF68), ..beta..-tubulin, and actin in lumbar sensory neurons of rat at various times after crushing the sciatic nerve. Between 4 and 42 days after axotomy by nerve crush, the levels of NF68 mRNA were reduced 2- to 3-fold. At the same times, the levels of tubulin and actin mRNAs were increased several-fold. These findings support the hypothesis that the expression of a single set of neuron-specific genes (encoding NF) directly determines axonal caliber, a feature neuronal morphology with important consequences for physiology and behavior.

  20. A coin-like peripheral small cell lung carcinoma associated with acute paraneoplastic axonal Guillain-Barre-like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ioan; Gurzu, Simona; Balasa, Rodica; Motataianu, Anca; Contac, Anca Otilia; Halmaciu, Ioana; Popescu, Septimiu; Simu, Iunius

    2015-06-01

    A 65-year-old previously healthy male heavy smoker was hospitalized with a 2-week history of progressive muscle weakness in the lower and upper extremities. After 10 days of hospitalization, urinary sphincter incompetence and fecal incontinence were added and tetraparesis was established. The computer-tomography scan examination revealed a massive right hydrothorax and multifocal solid acinar structures with peripheral localization in the left lung, which suggested pulmonary cancer. Bone marrow metastases were also suspected. Based on the examination results, the final diagnosis was acute paraneoplastic axonal Guillain-Barre-like syndrome. The patient died 3 weeks after hospitalization. At autopsy, bronchopneumonia and a right hydrothorax were confirmed. Several 4 to 5-mm-sized round peripherally located white nodules were identified in the left lung, without any central tumor mass. Under microscope, a coin-shaped peripheral/subpleural small cell carcinoma was diagnosed, with generalized bone metastases. A huge thrombus in the abdominal aorta and acute pancreatitis was also seen at autopsy. This case highlights the difficulty of diagnosis of lung carcinomas and the necessity of a complex differential diagnosis of severe progressive ascending neuropathies. This is the 6th reported case of small cell lung cancer-associated acute Guillain-Barre-like syndrome and the first report about an association with a coin-like peripheral pattern. PMID:26039124

  1. Gliomedin mediates Schwann cell-axon interaction and the molecular assembly of the nodes of Ranvier.

    PubMed

    Eshed, Yael; Feinberg, Konstantin; Poliak, Sebastian; Sabanay, Helena; Sarig-Nadir, Offra; Spiegel, Ivo; Bermingham, John R; Peles, Elior

    2005-07-21

    Accumulation of Na(+) channels at the nodes of Ranvier is a prerequisite for saltatory conduction. In peripheral nerves, clustering of these channels along the axolemma is regulated by myelinating Schwann cells through a yet unknown mechanism. We report the identification of gliomedin, a glial ligand for neurofascin and NrCAM, two axonal immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecules that are associated with Na+ channels at the nodes of Ranvier. Gliomedin is expressed by myelinating Schwann cells and accumulates at the edges of each myelin segment during development, where it aligns with the forming nodes. Eliminating the expression of gliomedin by RNAi, or the addition of a soluble extracellular domain of neurofascin to myelinating cultures, which caused the redistribution of gliomedin along the internodes, abolished node formation. Furthermore, a soluble gliomedin induced nodal-like clusters of Na+ channels in the absence of Schwann cells. We propose that gliomedin provides a glial cue for the formation of peripheral nodes of Ranvier. PMID:16039564

  2. The effect of buffer molarity on the size, shape and sheath thickness of peripheral myelinated nerve fibres.

    PubMed

    Holland, G R

    1982-08-01

    Nineteen rats were perfused intracardially with a 2% glutaraldehyde solution in cacodylate buffers adjusted in molarity from 0 to 0.4 M. Ultrathin sections of the inferior alveolar nerve were photographed in the electron microscope. The circumference, a shape factor, small diameter and myelin sheath thickness of each myelinated nerve fibre were measured using a semi-automatic image analysis system. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the nerve profiles increasingly deviate from a true circle with higher concentrations of buffer. The small diameter of the myelinated nerve fibres declines linearly with increasing buffer molarity whereas circumference is unaffected. Myelin sheath thickness is correlated with fibre size but is not affected by changes in buffer molarity. The use of fibre circumference is recommended to allow valid comparison of results between studies in which fixation protocols may differ.

  3. Myelin regeneration: a recapitulation of development?

    PubMed

    Fancy, Stephen P J; Chan, Jonah R; Baranzini, Sergio E; Franklin, Robin J M; Rowitch, David H

    2011-01-01

    The developmental process of myelination and the adult regenerative process of remyelination share the common objective of investing nerve axons with myelin sheaths. A central question in myelin biology is the extent to which the mechanisms of these two processes are conserved, a concept encapsulated in the recapitulation hypothesis of remyelination. This question also has relevance for translating myelin biology into a better understanding of and eventual treatments for human myelin disorders. Here we review the current evidence for the recapitulation hypothesis and discuss recent findings in the development and regeneration of myelin in the context of human neurological disease.

  4. Paranodal dysmyelination in peripheral nerves of Trembler mice.

    PubMed

    Rosenbluth, Jack; Bobrowski-Khoury, Natasha

    2014-04-01

    Subtle defects in paranodes of myelinated nerve fibers can cause significant physiological malfunction. We have investigated myelinated fibers in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) of the Trembler mouse, a model of CMT-1A neuropathy, for evidence of such defects. Ultrastructural analysis shows that the "transverse bands," which attach the myelin sheath to the axon at the paranodal axoglial junction, are grossly diminished in number in Trembler nerve fibers. Although paranodes often appear to be greatly elongated, it is only a short region immediately adjacent to the node of Ranvier that displays transverse bands. Where transverse bands are missing, the junctional gap widens, thus reducing resistance to short circuiting of nodal action currents during saltatory conduction and increasing the likelihood that axonal K(+) channels under the myelin sheath will be activated. In addition, we find evidence that structural domains in Trembler axons are incompletely differentiated, consistent with diminution in nodal Na channel density, which could further compromise conduction. Deficiency of transverse bands may also increase susceptibility to disruption of the paranodal junction and retraction of the myelin sheath. We conclude that Trembler PNS myelinated fibers display subtle defects in paranodal and nodal regions that could contribute significantly to conduction defects and increased risk of myelin detachment.

  5. Nuclear Factor-κB Activation in Schwann Cells Regulates Regeneration and Re-myelination

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Paul D.; Johnstone, Joshua T.; Ramos, Angel Y.; Liebl, Daniel J.; Bunge, Mary B.; Bethea, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) are crucial for peripheral nerve development and regeneration; however, the intrinsic regulatory mechanisms governing post-injury responses are poorly understood. Activation and deacetylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF- κB) in SCs have been implicated as prerequisites for peripheral nerve myelination. Using GFAP-IκBα-dn mice in which NF- κB transcriptional activation is inhibited in SCs we found no discernable differences in the quantity or structure of myelinated axons in adult facial nerves. Following crush injury, axonal regeneration was impaired at 31 days and significantly enhanced at 65 days in transgenic animals. Compact re-myelination and Remak bundle organization were significantly compromised at 31 days and restored by 65 days post injury. Together, these data indicate that inhibition of NF- κB activation in SCs transiently delays axonal regeneration and compact re-myelination. Manipulating the temporal activation of nuclear factor-κB in Schwann cells may offer new therapeutic avenues for PNS and CNS regeneration. PMID:22275133

  6. Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Proteins in a Novel Mechanism of Axon Guidance and Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Landowski, Lila M; Pavez, Macarena; Brown, Lachlan S; Gasperini, Robert; Taylor, Bruce V; West, Adrian K; Foa, Lisa

    2016-01-15

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein receptors 1 and 2 (LRP1 and LRP2) are emerging as important cell signaling mediators in modulating neuronal growth and repair. We examined whether LRP1 and LRP2 are able to mediate a specific aspect of neuronal growth: axon guidance. We sought to identify LRP1 and LRP2 ligands that could induce axonal chemoattraction, which might have therapeutic potential. Using embryonic sensory neurons (rat dorsal root ganglia) in a growth cone turning assay, we tested a range of LRP1 and LRP2 ligands for the ability to guide growth cone navigation. Three ligands were chemorepulsive: α-2-macroglobulin, tissue plasminogen activator, and metallothionein III. Conversely, only one LRP ligand, metallothionein II, was found to be chemoattractive. Chemoattraction toward a gradient of metallothionein II was calcium-dependent, required the expression of both LRP1 and LRP2, and likely involves further co-receptors such as the tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) receptor. The potential for LRP-mediated chemoattraction to mediate axonal regeneration was examined in vivo in a model of chemical denervation in adult rats. In these in vivo studies, metallothionein II was shown to enhance epidermal nerve fiber regeneration so that it was complete within 7 days compared with 14 days in saline-treated animals. Our data demonstrate that both LRP1 and LRP2 are necessary for metallothionein II-mediated chemotactic signal transduction and that they may form part of a signaling complex. Furthermore, the data suggest that LRP-mediated chemoattraction represents a novel, non-classical signaling system that has therapeutic potential as a disease-modifying agent for the injured peripheral nervous system.

  7. Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Proteins in a Novel Mechanism of Axon Guidance and Peripheral Nerve Regeneration*

    PubMed Central

    Landowski, Lila M.; Pavez, Macarena; Brown, Lachlan S.; Gasperini, Robert; Taylor, Bruce V.; West, Adrian K.; Foa, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein receptors 1 and 2 (LRP1 and LRP2) are emerging as important cell signaling mediators in modulating neuronal growth and repair. We examined whether LRP1 and LRP2 are able to mediate a specific aspect of neuronal growth: axon guidance. We sought to identify LRP1 and LRP2 ligands that could induce axonal chemoattraction, which might have therapeutic potential. Using embryonic sensory neurons (rat dorsal root ganglia) in a growth cone turning assay, we tested a range of LRP1 and LRP2 ligands for the ability to guide growth cone navigation. Three ligands were chemorepulsive: α-2-macroglobulin, tissue plasminogen activator, and metallothionein III. Conversely, only one LRP ligand, metallothionein II, was found to be chemoattractive. Chemoattraction toward a gradient of metallothionein II was calcium-dependent, required the expression of both LRP1 and LRP2, and likely involves further co-receptors such as the tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) receptor. The potential for LRP-mediated chemoattraction to mediate axonal regeneration was examined in vivo in a model of chemical denervation in adult rats. In these in vivo studies, metallothionein II was shown to enhance epidermal nerve fiber regeneration so that it was complete within 7 days compared with 14 days in saline-treated animals. Our data demonstrate that both LRP1 and LRP2 are necessary for metallothionein II-mediated chemotactic signal transduction and that they may form part of a signaling complex. Furthermore, the data suggest that LRP-mediated chemoattraction represents a novel, non-classical signaling system that has therapeutic potential as a disease-modifying agent for the injured peripheral nervous system. PMID:26598525

  8. Effect of myelination on the conduction velocity of optic nerve fibres.

    PubMed

    Tolhurst, D J; Lewis, P R

    1992-04-01

    It was proposed by Rushton in 1951, from theoretical considerations, that myelinated fibres less than 1 micron in diameter would conduct more slowly than unmyelinated fibres of the same size and that myelinated fibres below about 0.7 micron would not conduct at all. The experimental data on which he based his theory are all from the peripheral nervous system where small myelinated fibres are rare, and no experimental verification of Rushton's hypothesis has been attempted. In mammalian optic nerve, nearly all the fibres are myelinated; yet half have diameters below 1 micron, with many below 0.7 micron. The many studies of conduction velocities in the visual system enable a test of Rushton's hypothesis to be made. We have examined the correlations between conduction velocity and fibre diameter from a wide range of published studies of the mammalian visual system. The results of our analysis suggest that the small myelinated fibres of the optic nerve and optic tract conduct action potentials more rapidly than is predicted by Rushton's hypothesis, while the unmyelinated axons within the retina actually conduct more slowly than predicted. There is no reason to believe, in this case, that myelination of a small axon will reduce its conduction velocity.

  9. Nuc‐ErbB3 regulates H3K27me3 levels and HMT activity to establish epigenetic repression during peripheral myelination

    PubMed Central

    Ness, Jennifer K.; Skiles, Amanda A.; Yap, Eng‐Hui; Fajardo, Eduardo J.; Fiser, Andras

    2016-01-01

    Nuc‐ErbB3 an alternative transcript from the ErbB3 locus binds to a specific DNA motif and associates with Schwann cell chromatin. Here we generated a nuc‐ErbB3 knockin mouse that lacks nuc‐ErbB3 expression in the nucleus without affecting the neuregulin‐ErbB3 receptor signaling. Nuc‐ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit hypermyelination and aberrant myelination at the paranodal region. This phenotype is attributed to de‐repression of myelination associated gene transcription following loss of nuc‐ErbB3 and histone H3K27me3 promoter occupancy. Nuc‐ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit reduced association of H3K27me3 with myelination‐associated gene promoters and increased RNA Pol‐II rate of transcription of these genes. In addition, nuc‐ErbB3 directly regulates levels of H3K27me3 in Schwann cells. Nuc‐ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit significant decrease of histone H3K27me3 methyltransferase (HMT) activity and reduced levels of H3K27me3. Collectively, nuc‐ErbB3 is a master transcriptional repressor, which regulates HMT activity to establish a repressive chromatin landscape on promoters of genes during peripheral myelination. GLIA 2016;64:977–992 PMID:27017927

  10. Anti-synaptic antibody in allergic encephalomyelitis. I. Neurophysiological studies, in guinea pigs, on the exposed cerebral cortex and peripheral nerves, following immunological challenges with myelin and synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Lumsden, C E; Howard, L; Aparicio, S R

    1975-08-01

    The potential evoked at the surface of the cerebral cortex of a guinea pig, by stimulation of the contralateral forepaw, usually consists of an initial double positive wave whose waveform remains unchanged during rapid stimulation. In a guinea pig with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) the response is attenuated at low frequencies of stimulation. Observations were also made on animals with experimental allergic neuritis (AEN). These animals showed a peripheral specificity for decreased conduction velocity, but have normal cortical evoked responses. Histological studies were undertaken in parallel with the electrophysiological studies and the concordance and discordance between the two is discussed. We conclude that there is no evident correlation between the severity of the electrophysiological effects and the histological lesions. An attempt was also made to induce an immunological challenge in guinea pigs, in the same way that EAE and EAN is produced, by the injection of synaptosomes. No clinical signs or alterations in the histology or electrophysiology of the animals were seen. A discussion is included on the elucidation of the site of action of EAE by discriminating between the direct effects on myelin and synapses and by the indirect effects of myelin damage on synapses. No firm conclusion is reached and the matter is left for further analysis in the subsequent paper. Finally, the neurophysiological alterations, demonstrated in the EAE and EAN situations, are discussed in terms of a humoral factor possibly acting on the myelin sheath and indirectly affecting synaptic function. This matter is further discussed in the subsequent paper.

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells attenuate peripheral neuronal degeneration in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 knockin mice.

    PubMed

    Mieda, Tokue; Suto, Nana; Iizuka, Akira; Matsuura, Serina; Iizuka, Haku; Takagishi, Kenji; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Hirai, Hirokazu

    2016-03-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder in which an abnormally expanded polyglutamine tract is inserted into causative ataxin-1 proteins. We have previously shown that SCA1 knockin (SCA1-KI) mice over 6 months of age exhibit a degeneration of motor neuron axons and their encasing myelin sheaths, as reported in SCA1 patients. We examined whether axon degeneration precedes myelin degeneration or vice versa in SCA1-KI mice and then attempted to mitigate motor neuron degeneration by intrathecally administering mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Temporal examination of the diameters of motor neuron axons and their myelin sheaths revealed a decrease in diameter of the axon but not of the myelin sheaths in SCA1-KI mice as early as 1 month of age, which suggests secondary degeneration of the myelin sheaths. We injected MSCs into the intrathecal space of SCA1-KI mice at 1 month of age, which resulted in a significant suppression of degeneration of both motor neuron axons and myelin sheaths, even 6 months after the MSC injection. Thus, MSCs effectively suppressed peripheral nervous system degeneration in SCA1-KI mice. It has not yet been clarified how clinically administered MSCs exhibit significant therapeutic effects in patients with SCA1. The morphological evidence presented in this current mouse study might explain the mechanisms that underlie the therapeutic effects of MSCs that are observed in patients with SCA1.

  12. Signaling through ERK1/2 controls myelin thickness during myelin repair in the adult central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Fyffe-Maricich, Sharyl L; Schott, Alexandra; Karl, Molly; Krasno, Janet; Miller, Robert H

    2013-11-20

    Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells of the CNS, exquisitely tailor the thickness of individual myelin sheaths to the diameter of their target axons to maximize the speed of action potential propagation, thus ensuring proper neuronal connectivity and function. Following demyelinating injuries to the adult CNS, newly formed oligodendrocytes frequently generate new myelin sheaths. Following episodes of demyelination such as those that occur in patients with multiple sclerosis, however, the matching of myelin thickness to axon diameter fails leaving remyelinated axons with thin myelin sheaths potentially compromising function and leaving axons vulnerable to damage. How oligodendrocytes determine the appropriate thickness of myelin for an axon of defined size during repair is unknown and identifying the signals that regulate myelin thickness has obvious therapeutic implications. Here, we show that sustained activation of extracellular-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in oligodendrocyte lineage cells results in accelerated myelin repair after injury, and is sufficient for the generation of thick myelin sheaths around remyelinated axons in the adult mouse spinal cord. Our findings suggest a model where ERK1/2 MAP kinase signaling acts as a myelin thickness rheostat that instructs oligodendrocytes to generate axon-appropriate quantities of myelin.

  13. Delaying the onset of treadmill exercise following peripheral nerve injury has different effects on axon regeneration and motoneuron synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Jaclyn; Evans, Jonathan T; Mildenhall, Taylor; Mulligan, Amanda; Konieczny, Aimee; Rose, Samuel J; English, Arthur W

    2015-04-01

    Transection of a peripheral nerve results in withdrawal of synapses from motoneurons. Some of the withdrawn synapses are restored spontaneously, but those containing the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), and arising mainly from primary afferent neurons, are withdrawn permanently. If animals are exercised immediately after nerve injury, regeneration of the damaged axons is enhanced and no withdrawal of synapses from injured motoneurons can be detected. We investigated whether delaying the onset of exercise until after synapse withdrawal had occurred would yield similar results. In Lewis rats, the right sciatic nerve was cut and repaired. Reinnervation of the soleus muscle was monitored until a direct muscle (M) response was observed to stimulation of the tibial nerve. At that time, rats began 2 wk of daily treadmill exercise using an interval training protocol. Both M responses and electrically-evoked H reflexes were monitored weekly for an additional seven wk. Contacts made by structures containing VGLUT1 or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) with motoneurons were studied from confocal images of retrogradely labeled cells. Timing of full muscle reinnervation was similar in both delayed and immediately exercised rats. H reflex amplitude in delayed exercised rats was only half that found in immediately exercised animals. Unlike immediately exercised animals, motoneuron contacts containing VGLUT1 in delayed exercised rats were reduced significantly, relative to intact rats. The therapeutic window for application of exercise as a treatment to promote restoration of synaptic inputs onto motoneurons following peripheral nerve injury is different from that for promoting axon regeneration in the periphery. PMID:25632080

  14. Metabolism and functions of lipids in myelin.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Sebastian; Castelvetri, Ludovici Cantuti; Simons, Mikael

    2015-08-01

    Rapid conduction of nerve impulses requires coating of axons by myelin sheaths, which are lipid-rich and multilamellar membrane stacks. The lipid composition of myelin varies significantly from other biological membranes. Studies in mutant mice targeting various lipid biosynthesis pathways have shown that myelinating glia have a remarkable capacity to compensate the lack of individual lipids. However, compensation fails when it comes to maintaining long-term stability of myelin. Here, we summarize how lipids function in myelin biogenesis, axon-glia communication and in supporting long-term maintenance of myelin. We postulate that change in myelin lipid composition might be relevant for our understanding of aging and demyelinating diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue titled Brain Lipids.

  15. Contactin-1 regulates myelination and nodal/paranodal domain organization in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Çolakoğlu, Gülsen; Bergstrom-Tyrberg, Ulrika; Berglund, Erik O.; Ranscht, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Myelin, a multilayered membrane sheath formed by oligodendrocytes around axons in the CNS, enables rapid nerve impulse conduction and sustains neuronal health. The signals exchanged between axons and oligodendrocytes in myelin remain to be fully elucidated. Here we provide genetic evidence for multiple and critical functions of Contactin-1 in central myelin. We document dynamic Contactin-1 expression on oligodendrocytes in vivo, and progressive accumulation at nodes of Ranvier and paranodes during postnatal mouse development. Nodal and paranodal expression stabilized in mature myelin, but overall membranous expression diminished. Contactin-1–deficiency disrupted paranodal junction formation as evidenced by loss of Caspr, mislocalized potassium Kv1.2 channels, and abnormal myelin terminal loops. Reduced numbers and impaired maturation of sodium channel clusters accompanied this phenotype. Histological, electron microscopic, and biochemical analyses uncovered significant hypomyelination in Contactin-1–deficient central nerves, with up to 60% myelin loss. Oligodendrocytes were present in normal numbers, albeit a minor population of neuronal/glial antigen 2-positive (NG2+) progenitors lagged in maturation by postnatal day 18, when the mouse null mutation was lethal. Major contributing factors to hypomyelination were defects in the generation and organization of myelin membranes, as judged by electron microscopy and quantitative analysis of oligodendrocyte processes labeled by GFP transgenically expressed from the proteolipid protein promoter. These data reveal that Contactin-1 regulates both myelin formation and organization of nodal and paranodal domains in the CNS. These multiple roles distinguish central Contactin-1 functions from its specific role at paranodes in the periphery, and emphasize mechanistic differences in central and peripheral myelination. PMID:24385581

  16. Overexpression of neurofilament subunit M accelerates axonal transport of neurofilaments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Tung, V W

    2000-06-01

    Neurofilaments are composed of three polypeptide subunits (NF-H, NF-M and NF-L). They are the most abundant cytoskeletal element in large myelinated axons and play a central role in development of axonal caliber. To perform this role, neurofilaments are transported from their site of synthesis, the cell bodies, to the distal axons. Previous studies showed that overexpression of NF-M in transgenic mice led to accumulation of neurofilaments in neurons and a reduction in the number of neurofilaments in axons, suggesting that axonal transport of neurofilaments was slowed. To determine whether this was the case, we measured axonal transport velocities in the wild type and transgenic mice overexpressing NF-M by the classical pulse-labeling method using 35S-methionine. We found that neurofilament transport in peripheral motor axons can be described with a model consistent with two linear velocities. Contrary to expectations, both velocities were accelerated by overexpression of NF-M. These results suggest that subunit composition in neurofilaments play a regulatory role in neurofilament transport. In addition, these results show that there are regional differences in neurofilament transport along long axons and these differences may be the basis for selective regional accumulation of neurofilaments in various neurological disorders.

  17. CNS myelin sheath is stochastically built by homotypic fusion of myelin membranes within the bounds of an oligodendrocyte process.

    PubMed

    Szuchet, Sara; Nielsen, Lauren L; Domowicz, Miriam S; Austin, Jotham R; Arvanitis, Dimitrios L

    2015-04-01

    Myelin - the multilayer membrane that envelops axons - is a facilitator of rapid nerve conduction. Oligodendrocytes form CNS myelin; the prevailing hypothesis being that they do it by extending a process that circumnavigates the axon. It is pertinent to ask how myelin is built because oligodendrocyte plasma membrane and myelin are compositionally different. To this end, we examined oligodendrocyte cultures and embryonic avian optic nerves by electron microscopy, immuno-electron microscopy and three-dimensional electron tomography. The results support three novel concepts. Myelin membranes are synthesized as tubules and packaged into "myelinophore organelles" in the oligodendrocyte perikaryon. Myelin membranes are matured in and transported by myelinophore organelles within an oligodendrocyte process. The myelin sheath is generated by myelin membrane fusion inside an oligodendrocyte process. These findings abrogate the dogma of myelin resulting from a wrapping motion of an oligodendrocyte process and open up new avenues in the quest for understanding myelination in health and disease.

  18. The scales and tales of myelination: using zebrafish and mouse to study myelinating glia.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Sarah D; Monk, Kelly R

    2016-06-15

    Myelin, the lipid-rich sheath that insulates axons to facilitate rapid conduction of action potentials, is an evolutionary innovation of the jawed-vertebrate lineage. Research efforts aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms governing myelination have primarily focused on rodent models; however, with the advent of the zebrafish model system in the late twentieth century, the use of this genetically tractable, yet simpler vertebrate for studying myelination has steadily increased. In this review, we compare myelinating glial cell biology during development and regeneration in zebrafish and mouse and enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of using each model to study myelination. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Myelin Evolution.

  19. Muscle Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor α Promotes Axonal Regeneration and Functional Recovery Following Peripheral Nerve Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nancy; Spearry, Rachel P.; Leahy, Kendra M.; Robitz, Rachel; Trinh, Dennis S.; Mason, Carter O.; Zurbrugg, Rebekah J.; Batt, Myra K.; Paul, Richard J.; Maclennan, A. John

    2014-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) administration maintains, protects, and promotes the regeneration of both motor neurons (MNs) and skeletal muscle in a wide variety of models. Expression of CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα), an essential CNTF receptor component, is greatly increased in skeletal muscle following neuromuscular insult. Together the data suggest that muscle CNTFRα may contribute to neuromuscular maintenance, protection, and/or regeneration in vivo. To directly address the role of muscle CNTFRα, we selectively-depleted it in vivo by using a “floxed” CNTFRα mouse line and a gene construct (mlc1f-Cre) that drives the expression of Cre specifically in skeletal muscle. The resulting mice were challenged with sciatic nerve crush. Counting of nerve axons and retrograde tracing of MNs indicated that muscle CNTFRα contributes to MN axonal regeneration across the lesion site. Walking track analysis indicated that muscle CNTFRα is also required for normal recovery of motor function. However, the same muscle CNTFRα depletion unexpectedly had no detected effect on the maintenance or regeneration of the muscle itself, even though exogenous CNTF has been shown to affect these functions. Similarly, MN survival and lesion-induced terminal sprouting were unaffected. Therefore, muscle CNTFRα is an interesting new example of a muscle growth factor receptor that, in vivo under physiological conditions, contributes much more to neuronal regeneration than to the maintenance or regeneration of the muscle itself. This novel form of muscle–neuron interaction also has implications in the therapeutic targeting of the neuromuscular system in MN disorders and following nerve injury. PMID:23504871

  20. TDP6, a brain-derived neurotrophic factor-based trkB peptide mimetic, promotes oligodendrocyte myelination.

    PubMed

    Wong, Agnes W; Giuffrida, Lauren; Wood, Rhiannon; Peckham, Haley; Gonsalvez, David; Murray, Simon S; Hughes, Richard A; Xiao, Junhua

    2014-11-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays critical roles in the development and maintenance of the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems (PNS). BDNF exerts its biological effects via tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). We have recently identified that BDNF promotes CNS myelination via oligodendroglial TrkB receptors. In order to selectively target TrkB to promote CNS myelination, we have used a putative TrkB agonist, a small multicyclic peptide (tricyclic dimeric peptide 6, TDP6) previously described by us that structurally mimics a region of BDNF that binds TrkB. We confirmed that TDP6 acts as a TrkB agonist as it provoked autophosphorylation of TrkB and its downstream signalling effector extracellular related-kinase 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) in primary oligodendrocytes. Using an in vitro myelination assay, we show that TDP6 significantly promotes myelination by oligodendrocytes in vitro, as evidenced by enhanced myelin protein expression and an increased number of myelinated axonal segments. In contrast, a second, structurally distinct BDNF mimetic (cyclo-dPAKKR) that targets p75NTR had no effect upon oligodendrocyte myelination in vitro, despite the fact that cyclo-dPAKKR is a very effective promoter of peripheral (Schwann cell) myelination. The selectivity of TDP6 was further verified by using TrkB-deficient oligodendrocytes, in which TDP6 failed to promote myelination, indicating that the pro-myelinating effect of TDP6 is oligodendroglial TrkB-dependent. Together, our results demonstrate that TDP6 is a novel BDNF mimetic that promotes oligodendrocyte myelination in vitro via targeting TrkB.

  1. Sox4 participates in the modulation of Schwann cell myelination.

    PubMed

    Bartesaghi, Luca; Arnaud Gouttenoire, Estelle; Prunotto, Andrea; Médard, Jean-Jacques; Bergmann, Sven; Chrast, Roman

    2015-07-01

    In order to identify new regulators of Schwann cell myelination potentially playing a role in peripheral nervous system (PNS) pathologies, we analysed gene expression profiling data from three mouse models of demyelinating neuropathies and from the developing PNS. This analysis revealed that Sox4, which encodes a member of the Sry-related high-mobility group box protein family, was consistently upregulated in all three analysed models of neuropathy. Moreover, Sox4 showed a peak in its expression during development that corresponded with the onset of myelination. To gain further insights into the role of Sox4 in PNS development, we generated a transgenic mouse that specifically overexpresses Sox4 in Schwann cells. Sox4 overexpression led to a temporary delay in PNS myelination without affecting axonal sorting. Importantly, we observed that, whereas Sox4 mRNA could be efficiently overexpressed, Sox4 protein expression in Schwann cells was strictly regulated. Finally, our data showed that enforced expression of Sox4 in the mouse model for Charcot-Marie-Tooth 4C aggravated its neuropathic phenotype. Together, these observations reveal that Sox4 contributes to the regulation of Schwann cell myelination, and also indicates its involvement in the pathophysiology of peripheral neuropathies.

  2. The molecular physiology of the axo-myelinic synapse.

    PubMed

    Micu, Ileana; Plemel, Jason R; Lachance, Celia; Proft, Juliane; Jansen, Andrew J; Cummins, Karen; van Minnen, Jan; Stys, Peter K

    2016-02-01

    Myelinated axons efficiently transmit information over long distances. The apposed myelin sheath confers favorable electrical properties, but restricts access of the axon to its extracellular milieu. Therefore, axonal metabolic support may require specific axo-myelinic communication. Here we explored activity-dependent glutamate-mediated signaling from axon to myelin. 2-Photon microscopy was used to image Ca(2+) changes in myelin in response to electrical stimulation of optic nerve axons ex vivo. We show that optic nerve myelin responds to axonal action potentials by a rise in Ca(2+) levels mediated by GluN2D and GluN3A-containing NMDA receptors. Glutamate is released from axons in a vesicular manner that is tetanus toxin-sensitive. The Ca(2+) source for vesicular fusion is provided by ryanodine receptors on axonal Ca(2+) stores, controlled by L-type Ca(2+) channels that sense depolarization of the internodal axolemma. Genetic ablation of GluN2D and GluN3A subunits results in greater lability of the compact myelin. Our results support the existence of a novel synapse between the axon and its myelin, suggesting a means by which traversing action potentials can signal the overlying myelin sheath. This may be an important physiological mechanism by which an axon can signal companion glia for metabolic support or adjust properties of its myelin in a dynamic manner. The axo-myelinic synapse may contribute to learning, while its disturbances may play a role in the pathophysiology of central nervous system disorders such as schizophrenia, where subtle abnormalities of myelinated white matter tracts have been shown in the human, or to frank demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis.

  3. Demyelination increases axonal stationary mitochondrial size and the speed of axonal mitochondrial transport

    PubMed Central

    Kiryu-Seo, Sumiko; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Kidd, Grahame J.; Komuro, Hitoshi; Trapp, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Axonal degeneration contributes to permanent neurological disability in inherited and acquired diseases of myelin. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed as a major contributor to this axonal degeneration. It remains to be determined, however, if myelination, demyelination or remyelination alter the size and distribution of axonal mitochondrial stationary sites or the rates of axonal mitochondrial transport. Using live myelinated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cultures, we investigated whether myelination and lysolecithin-induced demyelination affect axonal mitochondria. Myelination increased the size of axonal stationary mitochondrial sites by 2.3 fold. Following demyelination, the size of axonal stationary mitochondrial sites was increased by an additional 2.2 fold and the transport velocity of motile mitochondria was increased by 47%. These measures returned to the levels of myelinated axons following remyelination. Demyelination induced activating transcription factor (ATF) 3 in DRG neurons. Knockdown of neuronal ATF3 by shRNA abolished the demyelination-induced increase in axonal mitochondrial transport and increased nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in axonal mitochondria, suggesting that neuronal ATF3 expression and increased mitochondrial transport protect demyelinated axons from oxidative damage. In response to insufficient ATP production, demyelinated axons increase the size of stationary mitochondrial sites and thereby balance ATP production with the increased energy needs of nerve conduction. PMID:20463228

  4. Disruption of myelin leads to ectopic expression of K(V)1.1 channels with abnormal conductivity of optic nerve axons in a cuprizone-induced model of demyelination.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Bandita; Al-Sabi, Ahmed; Kaza, Seshu; Scholz, Dimitri; O'Leary, Valerie B; Dolly, J Oliver; Ovsepian, Saak V

    2014-01-01

    The molecular determinants of abnormal propagation of action potentials along axons and ectopic conductance in demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system, like multiple sclerosis (MS), are poorly defined. Widespread interruption of myelin occurs in several mouse models of demyelination, rendering them useful for research. Herein, considerable myelin loss is shown in the optic nerves of cuprizone-treated demyelinating mice. Immuno-fluorescence confocal analysis of the expression and distribution of voltage-activated K⁺ channels (K(V)1.1 and 1.2 α subunits) revealed their spread from typical juxta-paranodal (JXP) sites to nodes in demyelinated axons, albeit with a disproportionate increase in the level of K(V)1.1 subunit. Functionally, in contrast to monophasic compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded in controls, responses derived from optic nerves of cuprizone-treated mice displayed initial synchronous waveform followed by a dispersed component. Partial restoration of CAPs by broad spectrum (4-aminopyridine) or K(V)1.1-subunit selective (dendrotoxin K) blockers of K⁺ currents suggest enhanced K(V)1.1-mediated conductance in the demyelinated optic nerve. Biophysical profiling of K⁺ currents mediated by recombinant channels comprised of different K(V)1.1 and 1.2 stoichiometries revealed that the enrichment of K(V)1 channels K(V)1.1 subunit endows a decrease in the voltage threshold and accelerates the activation kinetics. Together with the morphometric data, these findings provide important clues to a molecular basis for temporal dispersion of CAPs and reduced excitability of demyelinated optic nerves, which could be of potential relevance to the patho-physiology of MS and related disorders.

  5. Early cyclosporin A treatment retards axonal degeneration in an experimental peripheral nerve injection injury model

    PubMed Central

    Erkutlu, Ibrahim; Alptekin, Mehmet; Geyik, Sirma; Geyik, Abidin Murat; Gezgin, Inan; Gök, Abdulvahap

    2015-01-01

    Injury to peripheral nerves during injections of therapeutic agents such as penicillin G potassium is common in developing countries. It has been shown that cyclosporin A, a powerful immunosuppressive agent, can retard Wallerian degeneration after peripheral nerve crush injury. However, few studies are reported on the effects of cyclosporin A on peripheral nerve drug injection injury. This study aimed to assess the time-dependent efficacy of cyclosporine-A as an immunosuppressant therapy in an experimental rat nerve injection injury model established by penicillin G potassium injection. The rats were randomly divided into three groups based on the length of time after nerve injury induced by cyclosporine-A administration (30 minutes, 8 or 24 hours). The compound muscle action potentials were recorded pre-injury, early post-injury (within 1 hour) and 4 weeks after injury and compared statistically. Tissue samples were taken from each animal for histological analysis. Compared to the control group, a significant improvement of the compound muscle action potential amplitude value was observed only when cyclosporine-A was administered within 30 minutes of the injection injury (P < 0.05); at 8 or 24 hours after cyclosporine-A administration, compound muscle action potential amplitude was not changed compared with the control group. Thus, early immunosuppressant drug therapy may be a good alternative neuroprotective therapy option in experimental nerve injection injury induced by penicillin G potassium injection. PMID:25883626

  6. Optogenetic stimulation of myelination (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, In Hong; Lee, Hae Ung; Thakor, Nitish V.

    2016-03-01

    Myelination is governed by axon-glia interaction which is modulated by neural activity. Currently, the effects of subcellular activation of neurons which induce neural activity upon myelination are not well understood. To identify if subcellular neuronal stimulation can enhance myelination, we developed a novel system for focal stimulation of neural activity with optogenetic in a compartmentalized microfluidic platform. In our systems, stimulation for neurons in restricted subcellular parts, such as cell bodies and axons promoted oligodendrocyte differentiation and the myelination of axons the just as much as whole cell activation of neurons did. The number of premature O4 positive oligodendrocytes was reduced and the numbers of mature and myelin basic protein-positive oligodendrocytes was increased both by subcellular optogenetic stimulation.

  7. Axonal Pathology Precedes Demyelination in a Mouse Model of X-Linked Demyelinating/ Type I Charcot-Marie Tooth (CMT1X) Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Vavlitou, Natalie; Sargiannidou, Irene; Markoullis, Kyriaki; Kyriacou, Kyriacos; Scherer, Steven S.; Kleopa, Kleopas A.

    2010-01-01

    X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT1X) is an inherited peripheral neuropathy caused by mutations in GJB1, the gene that encodes the gap junction protein connexin32 (Cx32). Cx32 is expressed by myelinating Schwann cells and forms gap junctions in non-compact myelin areas but axonal involvement is more prominent in X-linked compared to other forms of demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. To clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms of axonal pathology in CMT1X, we studied Gjb1-null mice at early stages (i.e. 2- to 4-month-old) of the neuropathy, when there is minimal or no demyelination. The diameters of large myelinated axons were progressively reduced in Gjb1-null mice compared to those in wild type littermates. Furthermore, neurofilaments were relatively more dephosphorylated and more densely packed starting at 2 months of age. Increased expression of β-amyloid precursor protein, a marker of axonal damage, was also detected in Gjb1-null nerves. Finally, fast axonal transport, assayed by sciatic nerve ligation experiments, was slower in distal axons of Gjb1-null vs. wild type animals with reduced accumulation of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins. These findings demonstrate that axonal abnormalities including impaired cytoskeletal organization and defects in axonal transport precede demyelination in this mouse model of CMT1-X. PMID:20720503

  8. Axonal pathology precedes demyelination in a mouse model of X-linked demyelinating/type I Charcot-Marie Tooth neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vavlitou, Natalie; Sargiannidou, Irene; Markoullis, Kyriaki; Kyriacou, Kyriacos; Scherer, Steven S; Kleopa, Kleopas A

    2010-09-01

    The X-linked demyelinating/type I Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT1X) is an inherited peripheral neuropathy caused by mutations in GJB1, the gene that encodes the gap junction protein connexin32. Connexin32 is expressed by myelinating Schwann cells and forms gap junctions in noncompact myelin areas, but axonal involvement is more prominent in X-linked compared with other forms of demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. To clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms of axonal pathology in CMT1X, we studied Gjb1-null mice at early stages (i.e. 2-4 months old) of the neuropathy, when there is minimal or no demyelination. The diameters of large myelinated axons were progressively reduced in Gjb1-null mice compared with those in wild-type littermates. Furthermore, neurofilaments were relatively more dephosphorylated and more densely packed starting at 2 months of age. Increased expression of β-amyloid precursor protein, a marker of axonal damage, was also detected in Gjb1-null nerves. Finally, fast axonal transport, assayed by sciatic nerve ligation experiments, was slower in distal axons of Gjb1-null versus wild-type animals with reduced accumulation of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins. These findings demonstrate that axonal abnormalities including impaired cytoskeletal organization and defects in axonal transport precede demyelination in this mouse model of CMT1X. PMID:20720503

  9. Late form of Pompe disease with glycogen storage in peripheral nerves axons.

    PubMed

    Fidziańska, Anna; Ługowska, Agnieszka; Tylki-Szymańska, Anna

    2011-02-15

    Pompe disease is caused by the deficiency of acid α-glucosidase (GAA), which degrades glycogen into glucose. Its manifestation is characterized by a broad and continuous spectrum of clinical severity ranging from severe infantile to relatively benign adult form. We describe a 12-year-old girl diagnosed at a presymptomatic stage of late form Pompe disease due to fortuitous detection of an elevated level of serum creatine kinase (CK) at the age of 4. Biopsies were taken from the quadriceps muscle and studied with histological and histochemical techniques, as well as in electron microscope. Sporadic muscle cells showed the accumulation of lysosomal glycogen, suggesting Pompe disease. Interestingly, we found lysosomal bound glycogen, located in the axons of intramuscular nerves. The diagnosis was confirmed by deficient GAA activity in leukocytes. Mutation analysis revealed changes IVS1-13T>G and p.C103G in the GAA gene. The patient was able to obtain enzyme replacement therapy in the early asymptomatic stage of the disease.

  10. Somatodendritic Expression of JAM2 Inhibits Oligodendrocyte Myelination.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Stephanie A; Mei, Feng; Eshed-Eisenbach, Yael; Osso, Lindsay A; Leshkowitz, Dena; Shen, Yun-An A; Kay, Jeremy N; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Lyons, David A; Peles, Elior; Chan, Jonah R

    2016-08-17

    Myelination occurs selectively around neuronal axons to increase the efficiency and velocity of action potentials. While oligodendrocytes are capable of myelinating permissive structures in the absence of molecular cues, structurally permissive neuronal somata and dendrites remain unmyelinated. Utilizing a purified spinal cord neuron-oligodendrocyte myelinating co-culture system, we demonstrate that disruption of dynamic neuron-oligodendrocyte signaling by chemical cross-linking results in aberrant myelination of the somatodendritic compartment of neurons. We hypothesize that an inhibitory somatodendritic cue is necessary to prevent non-axonal myelination. Using next-generation sequencing and candidate profiling, we identify neuronal junction adhesion molecule 2 (JAM2) as an inhibitory myelin-guidance molecule. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the somatodendritic compartment directly inhibits myelination and suggest a model in which broadly indiscriminate myelination is tailored by inhibitory signaling to meet local myelination requirements.

  11. The transcriptome of mouse central nervous system myelin

    PubMed Central

    Thakurela, Sudhir; Garding, Angela; Jung, Ramona B.; Müller, Christina; Goebbels, Sandra; White, Robin; Werner, Hauke B.; Tiwari, Vijay K.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid nerve conduction in the CNS is facilitated by insulation of axons with myelin, a specialized oligodendroglial compartment distant from the cell body. Myelin is turned over and adapted throughout life; however, the molecular and cellular basis of myelin dynamics remains elusive. Here we performed a comprehensive transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq) of myelin biochemically purified from mouse brains at various ages and find a surprisingly large pool of transcripts enriched in myelin. Further computational analysis showed that the myelin transcriptome is closely related to the myelin proteome but clearly distinct from the transcriptomes of oligodendrocytes and brain tissues, suggesting a highly selective incorporation of mRNAs into the myelin compartment. The mRNA-pool in myelin displays maturation-dependent dynamic changes of composition, abundance, and functional associations; however ageing-dependent changes after 6 months were minor. We suggest that this transcript pool enables myelin turnover and the local adaptation of individual pre-existing myelin sheaths. PMID:27173133

  12. The transcriptome of mouse central nervous system myelin.

    PubMed

    Thakurela, Sudhir; Garding, Angela; Jung, Ramona B; Müller, Christina; Goebbels, Sandra; White, Robin; Werner, Hauke B; Tiwari, Vijay K

    2016-01-01

    Rapid nerve conduction in the CNS is facilitated by insulation of axons with myelin, a specialized oligodendroglial compartment distant from the cell body. Myelin is turned over and adapted throughout life; however, the molecular and cellular basis of myelin dynamics remains elusive. Here we performed a comprehensive transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq) of myelin biochemically purified from mouse brains at various ages and find a surprisingly large pool of transcripts enriched in myelin. Further computational analysis showed that the myelin transcriptome is closely related to the myelin proteome but clearly distinct from the transcriptomes of oligodendrocytes and brain tissues, suggesting a highly selective incorporation of mRNAs into the myelin compartment. The mRNA-pool in myelin displays maturation-dependent dynamic changes of composition, abundance, and functional associations; however ageing-dependent changes after 6 months were minor. We suggest that this transcript pool enables myelin turnover and the local adaptation of individual pre-existing myelin sheaths. PMID:27173133

  13. Ephaptic coupling of myelinated nerve fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binczak, S.; Eilbeck, J. C.; Scott, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical predictions of a simple myelinated nerve fiber model are compared with theoretical results in the continuum and discrete limits, clarifying the nature of the conduction process on an isolated nerve axon. Since myelinated nerve fibers are often arranged in bundles, this model is used to study ephaptic (nonsynaptic) interactions between impulses on parallel fibers, which may play a functional role in neural processing.

  14. Effects of eribulin, vincristine, paclitaxel and ixabepilone on fast axonal transport and kinesin-1 driven microtubule gliding: Implications for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    LaPointe, Nichole E.; Morfini, Gerardo; Brady, Scott T.; Feinstein, Stuart C.; Wilson, Leslie; Jordan, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a serious, painful and dose-limiting side effect of cancer drugs that target microtubules. The mechanisms underlying the neuronal damage are unknown, but may include disruption of fast axonal transport, an essential microtubule-based process that moves cellular components over long distances between neuronal cell bodies and nerve terminals. This idea is supported by the “dying back” pattern of degeneration observed in CIPN, and by the selective vulnerability of sensory neurons bearing the longest axonal projections. In this study, we test the hypothesis that microtubule-targeting drugs disrupt fast axonal transport using vesicle motility assays in isolated squid axoplasm and a cell-free microtubule gliding assay with defined components. We compare four clinically-used drugs, eribulin, vincristine, paclitaxel and ixabepilone. Of these, eribulin is associated with a relatively low incidence of severe neuropathy, while vincristine has a relatively high incidence. In vesicle motility assays, we found that all four drugs inhibited anterograde (conventional kinesin-dependent) fast axonal transport, with the potency being vincristine = ixabepilone > paclitaxel = eribulin. Interestingly, eribulin and paclitaxel did not inhibit retrograde (cytoplasmic dynein-dependent) fast axonal transport, in contrast to vincristine and ixabepilone. Similarly, vincristine and ixabepilone both exerted significant inhibitory effects in an in vitro microtubule gliding assay consisting of recombinant kinesin (kinesin-1) and microtubules composed of purified bovine brain tubulin, whereas paclitaxel and eribulin had negligible effects. Our results suggest that (i) inhibition of microtubule-based fast axonal transport may be a significant contributor to neurotoxicity induced by microtubule-targeting drugs, and (ii) that individual microtubule-targeting drugs affect fast axonal transport through different mechanisms. PMID:23711742

  15. Rer1 and calnexin regulate endoplasmic reticulum retention of a peripheral myelin protein 22 mutant that causes type 1A Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Taichi; Hashimoto, Yukiko; Akuzawa, Tomoko; Hirai, Rika; Kobayashi, Hisae; Sato, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) resides in the plasma membrane and is required for myelin formation in the peripheral nervous system. Many PMP22 mutants accumulate in excess in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and lead to the inherited neuropathies of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. However, the mechanism through which PMP22 mutants accumulate in the ER is unknown. Here, we studied the quality control mechanisms for the PMP22 mutants L16P and G150D, which were originally identified in mice and patients with CMT. We found that the ER-localised ubiquitin ligase Hrd1/SYVN1 mediates ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of PMP22(L16P) and PMP22(G150D), and another ubiquitin ligase, gp78/AMFR, mediates ERAD of PMP22(G150D) as well. We also found that PMP22(L16P), but not PMP22(G150D), is partly released from the ER by loss of Rer1, which is a Golgi-localised sorting receptor for ER retrieval. Rer1 interacts with the wild-type and mutant forms of PMP22. Interestingly, release of PMP22(L16P) from the ER was more prominent with simultaneous knockdown of Rer1 and the ER-localised chaperone calnexin than with the knockdown of each gene. These results suggest that CMT disease-related PMP22(L16P) is trapped in the ER by calnexin-dependent ER retention and Rer1-mediated early Golgi retrieval systems and partly degraded by the Hrd1-mediated ERAD system. PMID:25385046

  16. Genetic Deletion of Cadm4 Results in Myelin Abnormalities Resembling Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Neev; Kartvelishvily, Elena; Spiegel, Ivo; Salomon, Daniela; Sabanay, Helena; Rechav, Katya; Vainshtein, Anya; Frechter, Shahar; Maik-Rachline, Galia; Eshed-Eisenbach, Yael; Momoi, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between myelinating Schwann cells and the axons they ensheath is mediated by cell adhesion molecules of the Cadm/Necl/SynCAM family. This family consists of four members: Cadm4/Necl4 and Cadm1/Necl2 are found in both glia and axons, whereas Cadm2/Necl3 and Cadm3/Necl1 are expressed by sensory and motor neurons. By generating mice lacking each of the Cadm genes, we now demonstrate that Cadm4 plays a role in the establishment of the myelin unit in the peripheral nervous system. Mice lacking Cadm4 (PGK-Cre/Cadm4fl/fl), but not Cadm1, Cadm2, or Cadm3, develop focal hypermyelination characterized by tomacula and myelin outfoldings, which are the hallmark of several Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies. The absence of Cadm4 also resulted in abnormal axon–glial contact and redistribution of ion channels along the axon. These neuropathological features were also found in transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative mutant of Cadm4 lacking its cytoplasmic domain in myelinating glia Tg(mbp-Cadm4dCT), as well as in mice lacking Cadm4 specifically in Schwann cells (DHH-Cre/Cadm4fl/fl). Consistent with these abnormalities, both PGK-Cre/Cadm4fl/fl and Tg(mbp-Cadm4dCT) mice exhibit impaired motor function and slower nerve conduction velocity. These findings indicate that Cadm4 regulates the growth of the myelin unit and the organization of the underlying axonal membrane. PMID:23825401

  17. Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) Improves Myelination and Recovery after Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chabas, Jean-Francois; Stephan, Delphine; Marqueste, Tanguy; Garcia, Stephane; Lavaut, Marie-Noelle; Nguyen, Catherine; Legre, Regis; Khrestchatisky, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated i) that ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) increases axon diameter and potentiates nerve regeneration in a rat model of transected peripheral nerve and ii) that cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) improves breathing and hyper-reflexia in a rat model of paraplegia. However, before bringing this molecule to the clinic, it was of prime importance i) to assess which form – ergocalciferol versus cholecalciferol – and which dose were the most efficient and ii) to identify the molecular pathways activated by this pleiotropic molecule. The rat left peroneal nerve was cut out on a length of 10 mm and autografted in an inverted position. Animals were treated with either cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol, at the dose of 100 or 500 IU/kg/day, or excipient (Vehicle), and compared to unlesioned rats (Control). Functional recovery of hindlimb was measured weekly, during 12 weeks, using the peroneal functional index. Ventilatory, motor and sensitive responses of the regenerated axons were recorded and histological analysis was performed. In parallel, to identify the genes regulated by vitamin D in dorsal root ganglia and/or Schwann cells, we performed an in vitro transcriptome study. We observed that cholecalciferol is more efficient than ergocalciferol and, when delivered at a high dose (500 IU/kg/day), cholecalciferol induces a significant locomotor and electrophysiological recovery. We also demonstrated that cholecalciferol increases i) the number of preserved or newly formed axons in the proximal end, ii) the mean axon diameter in the distal end, and iii) neurite myelination in both distal and proximal ends. Finally, we found a modified expression of several genes involved in axogenesis and myelination, after 24 hours of vitamin supplementation. Our study is the first to demonstrate that vitamin D acts on myelination via the activation of several myelin-associated genes. It paves the way for future randomised controlled clinical trials for peripheral nerve or

  18. Morphology and neurophysiology of focal axonal injury experimentally induced in the guinea pig optic nerve.

    PubMed

    Tomei, G; Spagnoli, D; Ducati, A; Landi, A; Villani, R; Fumagalli, G; Sala, C; Gennarelli, T

    1990-01-01

    A new model of focal axonal injury was reproduced by rapid and controlled elongation (uniaxial stretch) of the guinea pig optic nerve. Light microscopy study of optic nerve specimens after horseradish peroxidase injection into the vitreous of the animal's eye showed that axonal lesions were identical to those seen in human and primate post-traumatic diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The lesions were characterized by the formation of terminal clubs in severed axons and focal axonal enlargements in those axons that were lesioned-in-continuity. Visual-evoked potentials upon flash stimulation were recorded before and after injury. Mean amplitude and mean latency of occipital peaks were significantly elongated in the acute post-traumatic phase. Electron microscopy examination showed that the main axonal changes observed in this model were cytoskeleton disorganization, accumulation of axoplasm membrane-bound bodies at the site of terminal balls and dilatations-in-continuity and detachment of the axolemma from the myelin sheath. Such axonal alterations were similar to those found in many other biological models of central and peripheral axonal injuries in which the lesion was produced by invasive methods. This model is unique since it reproduces the same mechanism of injury and the identical lesions that have been demonstrated in humans and primates with post-traumatic (DAI).

  19. Crystal structure of the extracellular domain of human myelin protein zero

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Yong; Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Kovari, Iulia A.; Sohi, Jasloveleen; Kamholz, John; Kovari, Ladislau C.

    2012-03-27

    different mutations in the MPZ gene leading to peripheral neuropathy in patients have been reported worldwide (http://www.molgen. ua.ac.be/CMTMutations). All identified mutations resulting in a change or deletion of amino acid residues in MPZ give rise to neuropathy with the exception of R215L, which instead causes a benign polymorphism. Furthermore, more detailed analysis has classified the MPZ mutations into two major groups. In the first group, the mutations disrupt the intracellular processing of MPZ and are primarily associated with early onset neuropathy. It has been proposed that the mutated MPZ is trapped inside the cell rather than being transported to the plasma membrane. However, other evidence suggests that the mutated MPZ protein is expressed on the plasma membrane, but dominant-negatively disrupts the structure of myelin. In the second group, the MPZ mutations are associated with late onset neuropathy as these mutations cause only mild demyelination. The underlying mechanism is elusive with the hypothesis being that the second group of mutations cause minor abnormalities in the myelin sheath that over time may lead to aberrant Schwann cell-axon interactions and subsequently to axonal degeneration. The crystal structure of the extracellular domain of human MPZ (hP0ex) fused with maltose binding protein (MBP) is reported at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution. While the crystal structure of rat MPZ extracellular domain (rP0ex) is available, the crystal structure of the human counterpart is useful for the analysis of the two homologs as well as a comparison between the two species. The hP0ex molecule reveals subtle structural variations between two homologs allowing comparison of the human myelin protein zero to that of the rat protein. The alignment of these homologs is shown in Figure 1(a).

  20. In vitro myelin formation using embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kerman, Bilal E.; Kim, Hyung Joon; Padmanabhan, Krishnan; Mei, Arianna; Georges, Shereen; Joens, Matthew S.; Fitzpatrick, James A. J.; Jappelli, Roberto; Chandross, Karen J.; August, Paul; Gage, Fred H.

    2015-01-01

    Myelination in the central nervous system is the process by which oligodendrocytes form myelin sheaths around the axons of neurons. Myelination enables neurons to transmit information more quickly and more efficiently and allows for more complex brain functions; yet, remarkably, the underlying mechanism by which myelination occurs is still not fully understood. A reliable in vitro assay is essential to dissect oligodendrocyte and myelin biology. Hence, we developed a protocol to generate myelinating oligodendrocytes from mouse embryonic stem cells and established a myelin formation assay with embryonic stem cell-derived neurons in microfluidic devices. Myelin formation was quantified using a custom semi-automated method that is suitable for larger scale analysis. Finally, early myelination was followed in real time over several days and the results have led us to propose a new model for myelin formation. PMID:26015546

  1. In vitro myelin formation using embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kerman, Bilal E; Kim, Hyung Joon; Padmanabhan, Krishnan; Mei, Arianna; Georges, Shereen; Joens, Matthew S; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Jappelli, Roberto; Chandross, Karen J; August, Paul; Gage, Fred H

    2015-06-15

    Myelination in the central nervous system is the process by which oligodendrocytes form myelin sheaths around the axons of neurons. Myelination enables neurons to transmit information more quickly and more efficiently and allows for more complex brain functions; yet, remarkably, the underlying mechanism by which myelination occurs is still not fully understood. A reliable in vitro assay is essential to dissect oligodendrocyte and myelin biology. Hence, we developed a protocol to generate myelinating oligodendrocytes from mouse embryonic stem cells and established a myelin formation assay with embryonic stem cell-derived neurons in microfluidic devices. Myelin formation was quantified using a custom semi-automated method that is suitable for larger scale analysis. Finally, early myelination was followed in real time over several days and the results have led us to propose a new model for myelin formation.

  2. Subcellular patterning: axonal domains with specialized structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Normand, Elizabeth A.; Rasband, Matthew N.

    2015-01-01

    Myelinated axons are patterned into discrete and often repeating domains responsible for the efficient and rapid transmission of electrical signals. These domains include nodes of Ranvier and axon initial segments. Disruption of axonal patterning leads to nervous system dysfunction. In this review we introduce the concept of subcellular patterning as applied to axons and discuss how these patterning events depend on both intrinsic, cytoskeletal mechanisms, and extrinsic, myelinating-glia dependent mechanisms. PMID:25710532

  3. Loss of the E3 ubiquitin ligase LRSAM1 sensitizes peripheral axons to degeneration in a mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanik, Laurent P.; Sleigh, James N.; Tian, Cong; Samuels, Mark E.; Bedard, Karen; Seburn, Kevin L.; Burgess, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by peripheral axon degeneration with subsequent motor and sensory deficits. Several CMT gene products function in endosomal sorting and trafficking to the lysosome, suggesting that defects in this cellular pathway might present a common pathogenic mechanism for these conditions. LRSAM1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is implicated in this process, and mutations in LRSAM1 have recently been shown to cause CMT. We have generated mouse mutations in Lrsam1 to create an animal model of this form of CMT (CMT2P). Mouse Lrsam1 is abundantly expressed in the motor and sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Both homozygous and heterozygous mice have largely normal neuromuscular performance and only a very mild neuropathy phenotype with age. However, Lrsam1 mutant mice are more sensitive to challenge with acrylamide, a neurotoxic agent that causes axon degeneration, indicating that the axons in the mutant mice are indeed compromised. In transfected cells, LRSAM1 primarily localizes in a perinuclear compartment immediately beyond the Golgi and shows little colocalization with components of the endosome to lysosome trafficking pathway, suggesting that other cellular mechanisms also merit consideration. PMID:23519028

  4. Generalized peripheral neuropathy in a dental technician exposed to methyl methacrylate monomer

    SciTech Connect

    Donaghy, M.; Rushworth, G.; Jacobs, J.M. )

    1991-07-01

    A 58-year-old dental prosthetic technician developed generalized sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. Neurophysiologic studies showed a generalized sensorimotor neuropathy of axonal degeneration type. Examination of a sural nerve biopsy showed a moderately severe axonal neuropathy with loss of large myelinated fibers and unmyelinated axons. There was evidence of slow ongoing degeneration and considerable fiber regeneration. Electron microscopy showed increased numbers of filaments in a few fibers. These findings show resemblances to the nerve changes caused by another acrylic resin, acrylamide. They suggest that the neuropathy may have been caused by 30 years of occupational cutaneous and inhalational exposure to methyl methacrylate monomer since they excluded other recognized causes of neuropathy.

  5. Myelin ultrastructure of sciatic nerve in rat experimental autoimmune neuritis model and its correlation with associated protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiao-Jing; Wei, Yu-Jun; Ao, Qiang; Gong, Kai; Wang, Jian-Yong; Sun, Qiang-San; Zhang, Ling; Zheng, Zun-Cheng; Chen, Lin

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship of peripheral nerve ultrastructure and its associated protein expression in experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN). EAN was established in Lewis rats using an emulsified mixture of P0 peptide 180-199, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and incomplete Freund’s adjuvant. Rats immunized with saline solution were used as a control group. Sciatic nerve ultrastructure and immunofluorescence histopathology were measured at the neuromuscular severity peak on day 18 post-induction. Cell-specific protein markers were used for immunofluorescence histopathology staining to characterize sciatic nerve cells: CD3 (T cell), Iba-1 (microglia), S100 (myelin), and neurofilament 200 (axon). The results showed that swelling of the myelin lamellae, vesicular disorganization, separation of the myelin lamellae, and an attenuation or disappearance of the axon were observed by transmission electron microscopy in the EAN group. CD3 and Iba-1 increased significantly in the structures characterized by separation or swelling of the myelin lamellae, and increased slightly in the structures characterized by vesicular of the myelin lamellae, S100 decreased in the structures characterized by vesicular disorganization or separation of the myelin lamellae. And neurofilament 200 decreased in the structures characterized by separation of the myelin lamellae. Furthermore, we found that Iba1 were positive in the myelin sheath, and overlapped with S100, which significantly indicated that Schwann cells played as macrophage-like cells during the disease progression of ENA. Our findings may be a significant supplement for the knowledge of EAN model, and may offer a novel sight on the treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome. PMID:26339349

  6. Zeb2 is essential for Schwann cell differentiation, myelination and nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Quintes, Susanne; Brinkmann, Bastian G; Ebert, Madlen; Fröb, Franziska; Kungl, Theresa; Arlt, Friederike A; Tarabykin, Victor; Huylebroeck, Danny; Meijer, Dies; Suter, Ueli; Wegner, Michael; Sereda, Michael W; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2016-08-01

    Schwann cell development and peripheral nerve myelination require the serial expression of transcriptional activators, such as Sox10, Oct6 (also called Scip or Pou3f1) and Krox20 (also called Egr2). Here we show that transcriptional repression, mediated by the zinc-finger protein Zeb2 (also known as Sip1), is essential for differentiation and myelination. Mice lacking Zeb2 in Schwann cells develop a severe peripheral neuropathy, caused by failure of axonal sorting and virtual absence of myelin membranes. Zeb2-deficient Schwann cells continuously express repressors of lineage progression. Moreover, genes for negative regulators of maturation such as Sox2 and Ednrb emerge as Zeb2 target genes, supporting its function as an 'inhibitor of inhibitors' in myelination control. When Zeb2 is deleted in adult mice, Schwann cells readily dedifferentiate following peripheral nerve injury and become repair cells. However, nerve regeneration and remyelination are both perturbed, demonstrating that Zeb2, although undetectable in adult Schwann cells, has a latent function throughout life.

  7. Complement Protein C1q Modulates Neurite Outgrowth In Vitro and Spinal Cord Axon Regeneration In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Sheri L.; Nguyen, Hal X.; Mendez, Oscar A.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic injury to CNS fiber tracts is accompanied by failure of severed axons to regenerate and results in lifelong functional deficits. The inflammatory response to CNS trauma is mediated by a diverse set of cells and proteins with varied, overlapping, and opposing effects on histological and behavioral recovery. Importantly, the contribution of individual inflammatory complement proteins to spinal cord injury (SCI) pathology is not well understood. Although the presence of complement components increases after SCI in association with axons and myelin, it is unknown whether complement proteins affect axon growth or regeneration. We report a novel role for complement C1q in neurite outgrowth in vitro and axon regrowth after SCI. In culture, C1q increased neurite length on myelin. Protein and molecular assays revealed that C1q interacts directly with myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) in myelin, resulting in reduced activation of growth inhibitory signaling in neurons. In agreement with a C1q-outgrowth-enhancing mechanism in which C1q binding to MAG reduces MAG signaling to neurons, complement C1q blocked both the growth inhibitory and repulsive turning effects of MAG in vitro. Furthermore, C1q KO mice demonstrated increased sensory axon turning within the spinal cord lesion after SCI with peripheral conditioning injury, consistent with C1q-mediated neutralization of MAG. Finally, we present data that extend the role for C1q in axon growth and guidance to include the sprouting patterns of descending corticospinal tract axons into spinal gray matter after dorsal column transection SCI. PMID:25762679

  8. Aging-associated changes in motor axon voltage-gated Na(+) channel function in mice.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Mihai; Rosberg, Mette Romer; Alvarez, Susana; Klein, Dennis; Martini, Rudolf; Krarup, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Accumulating myelin abnormalities and conduction slowing occur in peripheral nerves during aging. In mice deficient of myelin protein P0, severe peripheral nervous system myelin damage is associated with ectopic expression of Nav1.8 voltage-gated Na(+) channels on motor axons aggravating the functional impairment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of regular aging on motor axon function with particular emphasis on Nav1.8. We compared tibial nerve conduction and excitability measures by threshold tracking in 12 months (mature) and 20 months (aged) wild-type (WT) mice. With aging, deviations during threshold electrotonus were attenuated and the resting current-threshold slope and early refractoriness were increased. Modeling indicated that, in addition to changes in passive membrane properties, motor fibers in aged WT mice were depolarized. An increased Nav1.8 isoform expression was found by immunohistochemistry. The depolarizing excitability features were absent in Nav1.8 null mice, and they were counteracted in WT mice by a Nav1.8 blocker. Our data suggest that alteration in voltage-gated Na(+) channel isoform expression contributes to changes in motor axon function during aging. PMID:26923409

  9. Label-free photoacoustic microscopy of peripheral nerves

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Thomas Paul; Zhang, Chi; Yao, Da-Kang; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Peripheral neuropathy is a common neurological problem that affects millions of people worldwide. Diagnosis and treatment of this condition are often hindered by the difficulties in making objective, noninvasive measurements of nerve fibers. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) has the ability to obtain high resolution, specific images of peripheral nerves without exogenous contrast. We demonstrated the first proof-of-concept imaging of peripheral nerves using PAM. As validated by both standard histology and photoacoustic spectroscopy, the origin of photoacoustic signals is myelin, the primary source of lipids in the nerves. An extracted sciatic nerve sandwiched between two layers of chicken tissue was imaged by PAM to mimic the in vivo case. Ordered fibrous structures inside the nerve, caused by the bundles of myelin-coated axons, could be observed clearly. With further technical improvements, PAM can potentially be applied to monitor and diagnose peripheral neuropathies. PMID:24395587

  10. Effects of pyrethroid molecules on rat nerves in vitro: potential to reverse temperature-sensitive conduction block of demyelinated peripheral axons

    PubMed Central

    Lees, George

    1998-01-01

    Prolongation of action potentials by cooling or pharmacological treatment can restore conduction in demyelinated axons. We have assessed the ability of pyrethroids (in vitro) to modify action potential kinetics and to reverse conduction block in lesioned peripheral nerve. Fast Na+ currents were isolated in mammalian neuroblastoma (NIE115). Pyrethroids (4 μM) concurrently slowed inactivation and produced a spectrum of pronounced tail currents: s-bioallethrin (duration 12.2±7 ms), permethrin (24.2±3 ms) and deltamethrin (2230±100 ms). Deltamethrin (5 μM) effected a slowly developing depression of compound action potential (CAP) amplitude in peroneal nerve trunks (P<0.05). Permethrin produced no net effect on CAP amplitude, area or repolarization time. s-Bioallethrin (5 μM) enhanced CAP area, time for 90% repolarization and induced regenerative activity in a subpopulation of axons. Tibial nerve trunks were demyelinated by lysolecithin (2 μl) injection: 6–14 days later, slowly-conducting axons in the CAP (and peri-axonal microelectrode recordings) were selectively blocked by warming to 37°C. At 37°C, s-bioallethrin (45 min, 5 μM) produced much greater after-potentials in lesioned nerves than in uninjected controls: area (P<0.05) and relative amplitude ratios (P<0.0001) were significantly altered. In 3 of 4 cells (single-unit recording), s-bioallethrin restored conduction through axons exhibiting temperature-dependent block by raising blocking temperature (by 1.5 to >3°C) and reducing refractory period. s-Bioallethrin induced temperature-dependent regenerative activity only in a sub-population of axons even after prolonged superfusion (>1 h). It was concluded that pyrethroids differentially alter Na+ current kinetics and action potential kinetics. The effects of s-bioallethrin are consistent with reversal of conduction block by demyelinated axons but regenerative/ectopic firing even in normal cells is likely to underpin its acknowledged

  11. Cytoskeletal Linker Protein Dystonin Is Not Critical to Terminal Oligodendrocyte Differentiation or CNS Myelination.

    PubMed

    Kornfeld, Samantha F; Lynch-Godrei, Anisha; Bonin, Sawyer R; Gibeault, Sabrina; De Repentigny, Yves; Kothary, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte differentiation and central nervous system myelination require massive reorganization of the oligodendrocyte cytoskeleton. Loss of specific actin- and tubulin-organizing factors can lead to impaired morphological and/or molecular differentiation of oligodendrocytes, resulting in a subsequent loss of myelination. Dystonin is a cytoskeletal linker protein with both actin- and tubulin-binding domains. Loss of function of this protein results in a sensory neuropathy called Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy VI in humans and dystonia musculorum in mice. This disease presents with severe ataxia, dystonic muscle and is ultimately fatal early in life. While loss of the neuronal isoforms of dystonin primarily leads to sensory neuron degeneration, it has also been shown that peripheral myelination is compromised due to intrinsic Schwann cell differentiation abnormalities. The role of this cytoskeletal linker in oligodendrocytes, however, remains unclear. We sought to determine the effects of the loss of neuronal dystonin on oligodendrocyte differentiation and central myelination. To address this, primary oligodendrocytes were isolated from a severe model of dystonia musculorum, Dstdt-27J, and assessed for morphological and molecular differentiation capacity. No defects could be discerned in the differentiation of Dstdt-27J oligodendrocytes relative to oligodendrocytes from wild-type littermates. Survival was also compared between Dstdt-27J and wild-type oligodendrocytes, revealing no significant difference. Using a recently developed migration assay, we further analysed the ability of primary oligodendrocyte progenitor cell motility, and found that Dstdt-27J oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were able to migrate normally. Finally, in vivo analysis of oligodendrocyte myelination was done in phenotype-stage optic nerve, cerebral cortex and spinal cord. The density of myelinated axons and g-ratios of Dstdt-27J optic nerves was normal, as was myelin basic

  12. Intravital assessment of myelin molecular order with polarimetric multiphoton microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Turcotte, Raphaël; Rutledge, Danette J.; Bélanger, Erik; Dill, Dorothy; Macklin, Wendy B.; Côté, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Myelin plays an essential role in the nervous system and its disruption in diseases such as multiple sclerosis may lead to neuronal death, thus causing irreversible functional impairments. Understanding myelin biology is therefore of fundamental and clinical importance, but no tools currently exist to describe the fine spatial organization of myelin sheaths in vivo. Here we demonstrate intravital quantification of the myelin molecular structure using a microscopy method based on polarization-resolved coherent Raman scattering. Developmental myelination was imaged noninvasively in live zebrafish. Longitudinal imaging of individual axons revealed changes in myelin organization beyond the diffraction limit. Applied to promyelination drug screening, the method uniquely enabled the identification of focal myelin regions with differential architectures. These observations indicate that the study of myelin biology and the identification of therapeutic compounds will largely benefit from a method to quantify the myelin molecular organization in vivo. PMID:27538357

  13. Intravital assessment of myelin molecular order with polarimetric multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, Raphaël; Rutledge, Danette J.; Bélanger, Erik; Dill, Dorothy; Macklin, Wendy B.; Côté, Daniel C.

    2016-08-01

    Myelin plays an essential role in the nervous system and its disruption in diseases such as multiple sclerosis may lead to neuronal death, thus causing irreversible functional impairments. Understanding myelin biology is therefore of fundamental and clinical importance, but no tools currently exist to describe the fine spatial organization of myelin sheaths in vivo. Here we demonstrate intravital quantification of the myelin molecular structure using a microscopy method based on polarization-resolved coherent Raman scattering. Developmental myelination was imaged noninvasively in live zebrafish. Longitudinal imaging of individual axons revealed changes in myelin organization beyond the diffraction limit. Applied to promyelination drug screening, the method uniquely enabled the identification of focal myelin regions with differential architectures. These observations indicate that the study of myelin biology and the identification of therapeutic compounds will largely benefit from a method to quantify the myelin molecular organization in vivo.

  14. Intravital assessment of myelin molecular order with polarimetric multiphoton microscopy.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Raphaël; Rutledge, Danette J; Bélanger, Erik; Dill, Dorothy; Macklin, Wendy B; Côté, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Myelin plays an essential role in the nervous system and its disruption in diseases such as multiple sclerosis may lead to neuronal death, thus causing irreversible functional impairments. Understanding myelin biology is therefore of fundamental and clinical importance, but no tools currently exist to describe the fine spatial organization of myelin sheaths in vivo. Here we demonstrate intravital quantification of the myelin molecular structure using a microscopy method based on polarization-resolved coherent Raman scattering. Developmental myelination was imaged noninvasively in live zebrafish. Longitudinal imaging of individual axons revealed changes in myelin organization beyond the diffraction limit. Applied to promyelination drug screening, the method uniquely enabled the identification of focal myelin regions with differential architectures. These observations indicate that the study of myelin biology and the identification of therapeutic compounds will largely benefit from a method to quantify the myelin molecular organization in vivo. PMID:27538357

  15. Screening for mutations in the peripheral myelin genes PMP22, MPZ and Cx32 (GJB1) in Russian Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy patients.

    PubMed

    Mersiyanova, I V; Ismailov, S M; Polyakov, A V; Dadali, E L; Fedotov, V P; Nelis, E; Löfgren, A; Timmerman, V; van Broeckhoven, C; Evgrafov, O V

    2000-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) and related inherited peripheral neuropathies, including Dejerine-Sottas syndrome, congenital hypomyelination, and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), are caused by mutations in three myelin genes: PMP22, MPZ and Cx32 (GJB1). The most common mutations are the 1.5 Mb CMT1A tandem duplication on chromosome 17p11.2-p12 in CMT1 patients and the reciprocal 1.5 Mb deletion in HNPP patients. We performed a mutation screening in 174 unrelated CMT patients and three HNPP families of Russian origin. The unrelated CMT patients included 108 clinically and electrophysiologically diagnosed CMT1 cases, 32 CMT2 cases, and 34 cases with unspecified CMT. Fifty-nine CMT1A duplications were found, of which 58 belonged to the CMT1 patient group. We found twelve distinct mutations in Cx32, six mutations in MPZ, and two mutations in PMP22. Of these respectively, eight, five, and two lead to a CMT1 phenotype. Eight mutations (Cx32: Ile20Asn/Gly21Ser, Met34Lys, Leu90Val, and Phe193Leu; MPZ: Asp134Gly, Lys138Asn, and Thr139Asn; PMP22: ValSer25-26del) were not reported previously. Phenotype-genotype correlations were based on nerve conduction velocity studies and mutation type. PMID:10737979

  16. A unified cell biological perspective on axon–myelin injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Demyelination and axon loss are pathological hallmarks of the neuroinflammatory disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). Although we have an increasingly detailed understanding of how immune cells can damage axons and myelin individually, we lack a unified view of how the axon–myelin unit as a whole is affected by immune-mediated attack. In this review, we propose that as a result of the tight cell biological interconnection of axons and myelin, damage to either can spread, which might convert a local inflammatory disease process early in MS into the global progressive disorder seen during later stages. This mode of spreading could also apply to other neurological disorders. PMID:25092654

  17. Prolonged myelination in human neocortical evolution

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Daniel J.; Duka, Tetyana; Stimpson, Cheryl D.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Baze, Wallace B.; McArthur, Mark J.; Fobbs, Archibald J.; Sousa, André M. M.; Šestan, Nenad; Wildman, Derek E.; Lipovich, Leonard; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Hof, Patrick R.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2012-01-01

    Nerve myelination facilitates saltatory action potential conduction and exhibits spatiotemporal variation during development associated with the acquisition of behavioral and cognitive maturity. Although human cognitive development is unique, it is not known whether the ontogenetic progression of myelination in the human neocortex is evolutionarily exceptional. In this study, we quantified myelinated axon fiber length density and the expression of myelin-related proteins throughout postnatal life in the somatosensory (areas 3b/3a/1/2), motor (area 4), frontopolar (prefrontal area 10), and visual (areas 17/18) neocortex of chimpanzees (N = 20) and humans (N = 33). Our examination revealed that neocortical myelination is developmentally protracted in humans compared with chimpanzees. In chimpanzees, the density of myelinated axons increased steadily until adult-like levels were achieved at approximately the time of sexual maturity. In contrast, humans displayed slower myelination during childhood, characterized by a delayed period of maturation that extended beyond late adolescence. This comparative research contributes evidence crucial to understanding the evolution of human cognition and behavior, which arises from the unfolding of nervous system development within the context of an enriched cultural environment. Perturbations of normal developmental processes and the decreased expression of myelin-related molecules have been related to psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Thus, these species differences suggest that the human-specific shift in the timing of cortical maturation during adolescence may have implications for vulnerability to certain psychiatric disorders. PMID:23012402

  18. Myelin architecture: zippering membranes tightly together.

    PubMed

    Bakhti, Mostafa; Aggarwal, Shweta; Simons, Mikael

    2014-04-01

    Rapid nerve conduction requires the coating of axons by a tightly packed multilayered myelin membrane. In the central nervous system, myelin is formed from cellular processes that extend from oligodendrocytes and wrap in a spiral fashion around an axon, resulting in the close apposition of adjacent myelin membrane bilayers. In this review, we discuss the physical principles underlying the zippering of the plasma membrane of oligodendrocytes at the cytoplasmic and extracellular leaflet. We propose that the interaction of the myelin basic protein with the cytoplasmic leaflet of the myelin bilayer triggers its polymerization into a fibrous network that drives membrane zippering and protein extrusion. In contrast, the adhesion of the extracellular surfaces of myelin requires the down-regulation of repulsive components of the glycocalyx, in order to uncover weak and unspecific attractive forces that bring the extracellular surfaces into close contact. Unveiling the mechanisms of myelin membrane assembly at the cytoplasmic and extracelluar sites may help to understand how the myelin bilayers are disrupted and destabilized in the different demyelinating diseases.

  19. Major isoform of zebrafish P0 is a 23.5 kDa myelin glycoprotein expressed in selected white matter tracts of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Bai, Qing; Sun, Ming; Stolz, Donna B; Burton, Edward A

    2011-06-01

    The zebrafish mpz gene, encoding the ortholog of mammalian myelin protein zero, is expressed in oligodendrocytes of the zebrafish central nervous system (CNS). The putative gene product, P0, has been implicated in promoting axonal regeneration in addition to its proposed structural functions in compact myelin. We raised novel zebrafish P0-specific antibodies and established that P0 is a 23.5 kDa glycoprotein containing a 3 kDa N-linked carbohydrate moiety. P0 was localized to myelin sheaths surrounding axons, but was not detected in the cell bodies or proximal processes of oligodendrocytes. Many white matter tracts in the adult zebrafish CNS were robustly immunoreactive for P0, including afferent visual and olfactory pathways, commissural and longitudinal tracts of the brain, and selected ascending and descending tracts of the spinal cord. P0 was first detected during development in premyelinating oligodendrocytes of the ventral hindbrain at 48 hours postfertilization (hpf). By 72 hpf, short segments of longitudinally oriented P0-immunoreactive myelinating axons were seen in the hindbrain; expression in the spinal cord, optic pathways, hindbrain commissures, midbrain, and peripheral nervous system followed. The mpz transcript was found to be alternatively spliced, giving rise to P0 isoforms with alternative C-termini. The 23.5 kDa isoform was most abundant in the CNS, but other isoforms predominated in the myelin sheath surrounding the Mauthner axon. These data provide a detailed account of P0 expression and demonstrate novel P0 isoforms, which may have discrete functional properties. The restriction of P0 immunoreactivity to myelin sheaths indicates that the protein is subject to stringent intracellular compartmentalization, which likely occurs through posttranslational mechanisms.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of acrolein-mediated myelin destruction in CNS trauma and disease.

    PubMed

    Shi, R; Page, J C; Tully, M

    2015-01-01

    Myelin is a critical component of the nervous system facilitating efficient propagation of electrical signals and thus communication between the central and peripheral nervous systems and the organ systems that they innervate throughout the body. In instances of neurotrauma and neurodegenerative disease, injury to myelin is a prominent pathological feature responsible for conduction deficits, and leaves axons vulnerable to damage from noxious compounds. Although the pathological mechanisms underlying myelin loss have yet to be fully characterized, oxidative stress (OS) appears to play a prominent role. Specifically, acrolein, a neurotoxic aldehyde that is both a product and an instigator of OS, has been observed in studies to elicit demyelination through calcium-independent and -dependent mechanisms and also by affecting glutamate uptake and promoting excitotoxicity. Furthermore, pharmacological scavenging of acrolein has demonstrated a neuroprotective effect in animal disease models, by conserving myelin's structural integrity and alleviating functional deficits. This evidence indicates that acrolein may be a key culprit of myelin damage while acrolein scavenging could potentially be a promising therapeutic approach for patients suffering from nervous system trauma and disease.

  1. Synaptic vesicle release regulates myelin sheath number of individual oligodendrocytes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mensch, Sigrid; Baraban, Marion; Almeida, Rafael; Czopka, Tim; Ausborn, Jessica; El Manira, Abdeljabbar; Lyons, David A

    2015-05-01

    The myelination of axons by oligodendrocytes markedly affects CNS function, but how this is regulated by neuronal activity in vivo is not known. We found that blocking synaptic vesicle release impaired CNS myelination by reducing the number of myelin sheaths made by individual oligodendrocytes during their short period of formation. We also found that stimulating neuronal activity increased myelin sheath formation by individual oligodendrocytes. These data indicate that neuronal activity regulates the myelinating capacity of single oligodendrocytes.

  2. Poor efficacy of the phosphorylated high-molecular-weight neurofilament heavy subunit serum level, a biomarker of axonal damage, as a marker of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    SUMITANI, MASAHIKO; OGATA, TORU; NATORI, AKINA; HOZUMI, JUN; SHIMOJO, NOBUTAKE; KIDA, KUMIKO; YAMAUCHI, HIDEKO; YAMAUCHI, TERUO

    2016-01-01

    The phosphorylated form of the high-molecular-weight neurofilament heavy subunit (pNF-H) is a major structural protein in axons. The pNF-H level is elevated in the serum of certain patients with central nervous disorders, including chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment. The present study was conducted to elucidate the potential role of pNF-H as a marker of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). A total of 71 patients with early breast cancer in various stages of treatment (following 1, 3 or 7 cycles of chemotherapy, or a previous history of breast cancer chemotherapy) were assessed with a self-administered PainDETECT questionnaire [pain location, pain intensity on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS), and various pain qualities] and a single serum pNF-H measurement. Patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of bilateral symmetric pain in the distal portions of the extremities [CIPN(+) or CIPN(−)]. The χ2 and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analyses. Among the participants, only 8 patients complained of CIPN. Their pain intensity was 3.5±1.9 (mean ± standard deviation) compared with 1.5±1.8 in the CIPN(−) group (P<0.01). The NRS of numbness in the CIPN(+) group was significantly higher (2.4±1.4) than that of the CIPN(−) group (1.0±1.0). Increased pNF-H levels were observed in 37.5% of the CIPN(+) patients and in 23.8% of CIPN(−) patients (P=0.40). In conclusion, CIPN is observed in the most distal portions of the peripheral nerves that are composed of dendrites but not axons. Although serum pNF-H is a biomarker of axonal damage, it is not useful as a marker of CIPN. PMID:27284419

  3. Glycogen function in adult central and peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Evans, Richard D; Brown, Angus M; Ransom, Bruce R

    2013-08-01

    We studied the roles of glycogen in axonal pathways of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). By using electrophysiological recordings, in combination with biochemical glycogen assay, it was possible to determine whether glycogen was crucial to axon function under different conditions. Glycogen was present both in mouse optic nerve (MON) and in mouse sciatic nerve (MSN). Aglycemia caused loss of the compound action potential (CAP) in both pathways after a latency of 15 min (MON) and 120 min for myelinated axons (A fibers) in the MSN. With the exception of unmyelinated axons (C fibers) in the MSN, CAP decline began when usable glycogen was exhausted. Glycogen was located in astrocytes in the MON and in myelinating Schwann cells in the MSN; it was absent from the Schwann cells surrounding unmyelinated C fibers. In MON, astrocytic glycogen is metabolized to lactate and "shuttled" to axons to support metabolism. The ability of lactate to support A fiber conduction in the absence of glucose suggests a common pathway in both the CNS and the PNS. Lactate is released from MON and MSN in substantial quantities. That lactate levels fall in MSN in the presence of diaminobenzidine, which inhibits glycogen phosphorylase, strongly suggests that glycogen metabolism contributes to lactate release under resting conditions. Glycogen is a "backup" energy substrate in both the CNS and the PNS and, beyond sustaining excitability during glucose deprivation, has the capacity to subsidize the axonal energy demands during times of intense activity in the presence of glucose.

  4. The axon as a physical structure in health and acute trauma.

    PubMed

    Kirkcaldie, Matthew T K; Collins, Jessica M

    2016-10-01

    The physical structure of neurons - dendrites converging on the soma, with an axon conveying activity to distant locations - is uniquely tied to their function. To perform their role, axons need to maintain structural precision in the soft, gelatinous environment of the central nervous system and the dynamic, flexible paths of nerves in the periphery. This requires close mechanical coupling between axons and the surrounding tissue, as well as an elastic, robust axoplasm resistant to pinching and flattening, and capable of sustaining transport despite physical distortion. These mechanical properties arise primarily from the properties of the internal cytoskeleton, coupled to the axonal membrane and the extracellular matrix. In particular, the two large constituents of the internal cytoskeleton, microtubules and neurofilaments, are braced against each other and flexibly interlinked by specialised proteins. Recent evidence suggests that the primary function of neurofilament sidearms is to structure the axoplasm into a linearly organised, elastic gel. This provides support and structure to the contents of axons in peripheral nerves subject to bending, protecting the relatively brittle microtubule bundles and maintaining them as transport conduits. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of axons are myelinated, and this thick jacket of membrane wrappings alters the form, function and internal composition of the axons to which it is applied. Together these structures determine the physical properties and integrity of neural tissue, both under conditions of normal movement, and in response to physical trauma. The effects of traumatic injury are directly dependent on the physical properties of neural tissue, especially axons, and because of axons' extreme structural specialisation, post-traumatic effects are usually characterised by particular modes of axonal damage. The physical realities of axons in neural tissue are integral to both normal function and their response to

  5. Pathology of a mouse mutation in peripheral myelin protein P0 is characteristic of a severe and early onset form of human Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1B disorder.

    PubMed

    Rünker, Annette E; Kobsar, Igor; Fink, Torsten; Loers, Gabriele; Tilling, Thomas; Putthoff, Peggy; Wessig, Carsten; Martini, Rudolf; Schachner, Melitta

    2004-05-24

    Mutations in the gene of the peripheral myelin protein zero (P0) give rise to the peripheral neuropathies Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1B disease (CMT1B), Déjérine-Sottas syndrome, and congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy. To investigate the pathomechanisms of a specific point mutation in the P0 gene, we generated two independent transgenic mouse lines expressing the pathogenic CMT1B missense mutation Ile106Leu (P0sub) under the control of the P0 promoter on a wild-type background. Both P0sub-transgenic mouse lines showed shivering and ultrastructural abnormalities including retarded myelination, onion bulb formation, and dysmyelination seen as aberrantly folded myelin sheaths and tomacula in all nerve fibers. Functionally, the mutation leads to dispersed compound muscle action potentials and severely reduced conduction velocities. Our observations support the view that the Ile106Leu mutation acts by a dominant-negative gain of function and that the P0sub-transgenic mouse represents an animal model for a severe, tomaculous form of CMT1B. PMID:15148307

  6. Signals to promote myelin formation and repair

    PubMed Central

    Taveggia, Carla; Feltri, Maria Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    The myelin sheath wraps large axons in both the CNS and the PNS, and is a key determinant of efficient axonal function and health. Myelin is targeted in a series of diseases, notably multiple sclerosis (MS). In MS, demyelination is associated with progressive axonal damage, which determines the level of patient disability. Few treatments are available for combating myelin damage in MS and related disorders. These treatments, which largely comprise anti-inflammatory drugs, only show limited efficacy in subsets of patients. More-effective treatment of myelin disorders will probably result from early intervention with combinatorial therapies that target inflammation and other processes—for example, signaling pathways that promote remyelination. Indeed, evidence suggests that such pathways might be impaired in pathology and, hence, contribute to the failure of remyelination in such diseases. In this article, we review the molecular basis of signaling pathways that regulate myelination in the CNS and PNS with a focus on differentiation of myelinating glia. We also discuss factors such as extracellular molecules that act as modulators of these pathways. Finally, we consider the few preclinical and clinical trials of agents that augment this signaling. PMID:20404842

  7. Binary Imaging Analysis for Comprehensive Quantitative Assessment of Peripheral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Daniel A.; Moradzadeh, Arash; Whitlock, Elizabeth L.; Brenner, Michael J.; Myckatyn, Terence M.; Wei, Cindy H.; Tung, Thomas H.H.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative histomorphometry is the current gold standard for objective measurement of nerve architecture and its components. Many methods still in use rely heavily upon manual techniques that are prohibitively time consuming, predisposing to operator fatigue, sampling error, and overall limited reproducibility. More recently, investigators have attempted to combine the speed of automated morphometry with the accuracy of manual and semi-automated methods. Systematic refinements in binary imaging analysis techniques combined with an algorithmic approach allow for more exhaustive characterization of nerve parameters in the surgically relevant injury paradigms of regeneration following crush, transection, and nerve gap injuries. The binary imaging method introduced here uses multiple bitplanes to achieve reproducible, high throughput quantitative assessment of peripheral nerve. Number of myelinated axons, myelinated fiber diameter, myelin thickness, fiber distributions, myelinated fiber density, and neural debris can be quantitatively evaluated with stratification of raw data by nerve component. Results of this semi-automated method are validated by comparing values against those obtained with manual techniques. The use of this approach results in more rapid, accurate, and complete assessment of myelinated axons than manual techniques. PMID:17675163

  8. Septin/anillin filaments scaffold central nervous system myelin to accelerate nerve conduction

    PubMed Central

    Patzig, Julia; Erwig, Michelle S; Tenzer, Stefan; Kusch, Kathrin; Dibaj, Payam; Möbius, Wiebke; Goebbels, Sandra; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Werner, Hauke B

    2016-01-01

    Myelination of axons facilitates rapid impulse propagation in the nervous system. The axon/myelin-unit becomes impaired in myelin-related disorders and upon normal aging. However, the molecular cause of many pathological features, including the frequently observed myelin outfoldings, remained unknown. Using label-free quantitative proteomics, we find that the presence of myelin outfoldings correlates with a loss of cytoskeletal septins in myelin. Regulated by phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2)-levels, myelin septins (SEPT2/SEPT4/SEPT7/SEPT8) and the PI(4,5)P2-adaptor anillin form previously unrecognized filaments that extend longitudinally along myelinated axons. By confocal microscopy and immunogold-electron microscopy, these filaments are localized to the non-compacted adaxonal myelin compartment. Genetic disruption of these filaments in Sept8-mutant mice causes myelin outfoldings as a very specific neuropathology. Septin filaments thus serve an important function in scaffolding the axon/myelin-unit, evidently a late stage of myelin maturation. We propose that pathological or aging-associated diminishment of the septin/anillin-scaffold causes myelin outfoldings that impair the normal nerve conduction velocity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17119.001 PMID:27504968

  9. Septin/anillin filaments scaffold central nervous system myelin to accelerate nerve conduction.

    PubMed

    Patzig, Julia; Erwig, Michelle S; Tenzer, Stefan; Kusch, Kathrin; Dibaj, Payam; Möbius, Wiebke; Goebbels, Sandra; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Werner, Hauke B

    2016-01-01

    Myelination of axons facilitates rapid impulse propagation in the nervous system. The axon/myelin-unit becomes impaired in myelin-related disorders and upon normal aging. However, the molecular cause of many pathological features, including the frequently observed myelin outfoldings, remained unknown. Using label-free quantitative proteomics, we find that the presence of myelin outfoldings correlates with a loss of cytoskeletal septins in myelin. Regulated by phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2)-levels, myelin septins (SEPT2/SEPT4/SEPT7/SEPT8) and the PI(4,5)P2-adaptor anillin form previously unrecognized filaments that extend longitudinally along myelinated axons. By confocal microscopy and immunogold-electron microscopy, these filaments are localized to the non-compacted adaxonal myelin compartment. Genetic disruption of these filaments in Sept8-mutant mice causes myelin outfoldings as a very specific neuropathology. Septin filaments thus serve an important function in scaffolding the axon/myelin-unit, evidently a late stage of myelin maturation. We propose that pathological or aging-associated diminishment of the septin/anillin-scaffold causes myelin outfoldings that impair the normal nerve conduction velocity. PMID:27504968

  10. Aquaporin-1 water permeability as a novel determinant of axonal regeneration in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Verkman, A S

    2015-03-01

    Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons transduce peripheral pain signals through small-diameter, non-myelinated C-fibers, which, when injured, can regenerate to restore pain sensation. Water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is expressed at the plasma membrane of cell bodies and axons of DRG neurons, where it modulates the sensing of certain types of pain. Here, we found that AQP1 is also involved in DRG axonal growth and regeneration by a mechanism that may involve water transport-facilitated extension of axonal outgrowths. Spontaneous and nerve growth factor-stimulated axonal extension was reduced in cultures of AQP1-deficient DRG neurons and DRG explants compared to the wildtype. Axonal growth in AQP1-deficient DRG cultures was rescued by transfection with AQP1 or a different water-transporting AQP (AQP4), but not by a non-water-transporting AQP1 mutant. Following sciatic nerve compression injury AQP1 expression was increased in DRG neurons in wildtype mice, and DRG axonal growth was impaired in AQP1-deficient mice. Our results indicate AQP1 as a novel determinant of DRG axonal regeneration and hence a potential therapeutic target to accelerate neuronal regeneration.

  11. AQUAPORIN-1 WATER PERMEABILITY AS A NOVEL DETERMINANT OF AXONAL REGENERATION IN DORSAL ROOT GANGLION NEURONS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Verkman, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons transduce peripheral pain signals through small-diameter, non-myelinated C-fibers, which, when injured, can regenerate to restore pain sensation. Water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is expressed at the plasma membrane of cell bodies and axons of DRG neurons, where it modulates the sensing of certain types of pain. Here, we found that AQP1 is also involved in DRG axonal growth and regeneration by a mechanism that may involve water transport-facilitated extension of axonal outgrowths. Spontaneous and nerve growth factor-stimulated axonal extension was reduced in cultures of AQP1-deficient DRG neurons and DRG explants compared to the wildtype. Axonal growth in AQP1-deficient DRG cultures was rescued by transfection with AQP1 or a different water-transporting AQP (AQP4), but not by a non-water-transporting AQP1 mutant. Following sciatic nerve compression injury AQP1 expression was increased in DRG neurons in wildtype mice, and DRG axonal growth was impaired in AQP1-deficient mice. Our results indicate AQP1 as a novel determinant of DRG axonal regeneration and hence a potential therapeutic target to accelerate neuronal regeneration. PMID:25585012

  12. Dynamic Regulation of Schwann Cell Enhancers after Peripheral Nerve Injury*

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Holly A.; Sun, Guannan; Keles, Sunduz; Svaren, John

    2015-01-01

    Myelination of the peripheral nervous system is required for axonal function and long term stability. After peripheral nerve injury, Schwann cells transition from axon myelination to a demyelinated state that supports neuronal survival and ultimately remyelination of axons. Reprogramming of gene expression patterns during development and injury responses is shaped by the actions of distal regulatory elements that integrate the actions of multiple transcription factors. We used ChIP-seq to measure changes in histone H3K27 acetylation, a mark of active enhancers, to identify enhancers in myelinating rat peripheral nerve and their dynamics after demyelinating nerve injury. Analysis of injury-induced enhancers identified enriched motifs for c-Jun, a transcription factor required for Schwann cells to support nerve regeneration. We identify a c-Jun-bound enhancer in the gene for Runx2, a transcription factor induced after nerve injury, and we show that Runx2 is required for activation of other induced genes. In contrast, enhancers that lose H3K27ac after nerve injury are enriched for binding sites of the Sox10 and early growth response 2 (Egr2/Krox20) transcription factors, which are critical determinants of Schwann cell differentiation. Egr2 expression is lost after nerve injury, and many Egr2-binding sites lose H3K27ac after nerve injury. However, the majority of Egr2-bound enhancers retain H3K27ac, indicating that other transcription factors maintain active enhancer status after nerve injury. The global epigenomic changes in H3K27ac deposition pinpoint dynamic changes in enhancers that mediate the effects of transcription factors that control Schwann cell myelination and peripheral nervous system responses to nerve injury. PMID:25614629

  13. The scales and tales of myelination: using zebrafish and mouse to study myelinating glia.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Sarah D; Monk, Kelly R

    2016-06-15

    Myelin, the lipid-rich sheath that insulates axons to facilitate rapid conduction of action potentials, is an evolutionary innovation of the jawed-vertebrate lineage. Research efforts aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms governing myelination have primarily focused on rodent models; however, with the advent of the zebrafish model system in the late twentieth century, the use of this genetically tractable, yet simpler vertebrate for studying myelination has steadily increased. In this review, we compare myelinating glial cell biology during development and regeneration in zebrafish and mouse and enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of using each model to study myelination. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Myelin Evolution. PMID:26498880

  14. Equine laryngeal hemiplegia. Part II. An electron microscopic study of peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Cahill, J I; Goulden, B E

    1986-10-01

    The recurrent laryngeal nerves were examined by electron microscopy in five control, four subclinical and four clinical laryngeal hemiplegic horses. In addition, the peroneal nerve was examined in two horses in the latter group. The distally distributed loss of large myelinated fibres in the left recurrent laryngeal nerve seen by light microscopy was confirmed. In addition, active axonal pathology was found to be more evident than indicated by light microscopic investigations. The onion bulb formations observed indicated the repetitive nature of the damaging influence to nerve fibres. Although the pathological changes were most obvious in the distal left recurrent laryngeal nerve, alterations similar in type and distribution were present in other areas of the left and right nerves, and in the distal hindlimb nerves. The observation of fibres with inappropriately thick myelin sheaths relative to their axonal calibre, was confirmed statistically by determining the regressions of axis cylinder perimeter against the number of myelin lamellae. In conclusion, the peripheral nerve pathology of equine laryngeal hemiplegia was demonstrated to be a distally distributed loss of myelinated fibres, with considerable active axonal damage, in conjunction with axonal atrophy. These features suggest that this disease may be classified as a distal axonopathy.

  15. Myelinated fibers of the mouse spinal cord after a 30-day space flight.

    PubMed

    Povysheva, T V; Rezvyakov, P N; Shaimardanova, G F; Nikolskii, E E; Islamov, R R; Chelyshev, Yu A; Grygoryev, A I

    2016-07-01

    Myelinated fibers and myelin-forming cells in the spinal cord at the L3-L5 level were studied in C57BL/6N mice that had spent 30 days in space. Signs of destruction of myelin in different areas of white matter, reduction of the thickness of myelin sheath and axon diameter, decreased number of myelin-forming cells were detected in "flight" mice. The stay of mice in space during 30 days had a negative impact on the structure of myelinated fibers and caused reduced expression of the markers myelin-forming cells. These findings can complement the pathogenetic picture of the development of hypogravity motor syndrome.

  16. Myelinated fibers of the mouse spinal cord after a 30-day space flight.

    PubMed

    Povysheva, T V; Rezvyakov, P N; Shaimardanova, G F; Nikolskii, E E; Islamov, R R; Chelyshev, Yu A; Grygoryev, A I

    2016-07-01

    Myelinated fibers and myelin-forming cells in the spinal cord at the L3-L5 level were studied in C57BL/6N mice that had spent 30 days in space. Signs of destruction of myelin in different areas of white matter, reduction of the thickness of myelin sheath and axon diameter, decreased number of myelin-forming cells were detected in "flight" mice. The stay of mice in space during 30 days had a negative impact on the structure of myelinated fibers and caused reduced expression of the markers myelin-forming cells. These findings can complement the pathogenetic picture of the development of hypogravity motor syndrome. PMID:27595822

  17. Axonal change in minor head injury.

    PubMed

    Povlishock, J T; Becker, D P; Cheng, C L; Vaughan, G W

    1983-05-01

    Anterograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in selected cerebral and cerebellar efferents was studied in cats subjected to minor head injury. After trauma, the animals were allowed to survive from one to 24 hours, when they were perfused with aldehydes and processed for the light and electron microscopic visualization of the peroxidase reaction product. By light microscopy, the brain injury elicited an initial intra-axonal peroxidase pooling. With longer post-traumatic survival, HRP pooling increased in size, demonstrated frequent lobulation, and ultimately formed large ball- or club-like swellings which suggested frank axonal separation from the distal axonal segment. Ultrastructural examination revealed that the initial intra-axonal peroxidase pooling was associated with organelle accumulation which occurred without any other form of axonal change or related parenchymal or vascular damage. This accumulation of organelles increased with time and was associated with conspicuous axonal swelling. Ultimately these organelle-laden swellings lost continuity with the distal axonal segment and the axonal swelling was either completely invested by a thin myelin sheath or protruded without myelin investment into the brain parenchyma. This study suggests that axonal change is a consistent feature of minor head injury. Since these axonal changes occurred without any evidence of focal parenchymal or vascular damage, minor brain injury may ultimately disrupt axons without physically shearing or tearing them. PMID:6188807

  18. Cdc42 regulates Schwann cell radial sorting and myelin sheath folding through NF2/merlin-dependent and independent signaling.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Moon, Chandra; Zheng, Yi; Ratner, Nancy

    2013-11-01

    The Rho family GTPase Cdc42 has been implicated in developmental Schwann cell (SC) proliferation, providing sufficient SCs for radial sorting of axons preceding SC differentiation in the peripheral nervous system. We generated Cdc42 conditional knockout (Cdc42-CKO) mice and confirmed aberrant axon sorting in Cdc42-CKO nerves. In adult Cdc42-CKO nerves, blood vessels were enlarged, and mature Remak bundles containing small axons were absent. Abnormal infoldings and outfoldings of myelin sheaths developed in Cdc42-CKO nerves, mimicking pathological features of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. The NF2/merlin tumor suppressor has been implicated up- and down-stream of Cdc42. In Cdc42-CKO;NF2-del double mutant mice, radial sorting defects seen in Cdc42-CKO nerves were rescued, while changes in myelin sheaths in Cdc42-CKO nerves were not. Phosphorylation of Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and P-GSK3β, as well as expression of β-catenin were decreased in Cdc42-CKO nerves, and these changes were rescued by NF2/merlin mutation in Cdc42-CKO;NF2-del double mutant mice. Thus, Cdc42 regulates SC radial sorting in vivo through NF2/merlin dependent signaling pathways, while Cdc42 modulation of myelin sheath folding is NF2/merlin independent.

  19. Proposed evolutionary changes in the role of myelin

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Klaus M.; Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; Coggan, Jay S.

    2013-01-01

    Myelin is the multi-layered lipid sheet periodically wrapped around neuronal axons. It is most frequently found in vertebrates. Myelin allows for saltatory action potential (AP) conduction along axons. During this form of conduction, the AP travels passively along the myelin-covered part of the axon, and is recharged at the intermittent nodes of Ranvier. Thus, myelin can reduce the energy load needed and/or increase the speed of AP conduction. Myelin first evolved during the Ordovician period. We hypothesize that myelin's first role was mainly energy conservation. During the later “Mesozoic marine revolution,” marine ecosystems changed toward an increase in marine predation pressure. We hypothesize that the main purpose of myelin changed from energy conservation to conduction speed increase during this Mesozoic marine revolution. To test this hypothesis, we optimized models of myelinated axons for a combination of AP conduction velocity and energy efficiency. We demonstrate that there is a trade-off between these objectives. We then compared the simulation results to empirical data and conclude that while the data are consistent with the theory, additional measurements are necessary for a complete evaluation of the proposed hypothesis. PMID:24265603

  20. Proposed evolutionary changes in the role of myelin.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, Klaus M; Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; Coggan, Jay S

    2013-01-01

    Myelin is the multi-layered lipid sheet periodically wrapped around neuronal axons. It is most frequently found in vertebrates. Myelin allows for saltatory action potential (AP) conduction along axons. During this form of conduction, the AP travels passively along the myelin-covered part of the axon, and is recharged at the intermittent nodes of Ranvier. Thus, myelin can reduce the energy load needed and/or increase the speed of AP conduction. Myelin first evolved during the Ordovician period. We hypothesize that myelin's first role was mainly energy conservation. During the later "Mesozoic marine revolution," marine ecosystems changed toward an increase in marine predation pressure. We hypothesize that the main purpose of myelin changed from energy conservation to conduction speed increase during this Mesozoic marine revolution. To test this hypothesis, we optimized models of myelinated axons for a combination of AP conduction velocity and energy efficiency. We demonstrate that there is a trade-off between these objectives. We then compared the simulation results to empirical data and conclude that while the data are consistent with the theory, additional measurements are necessary for a complete evaluation of the proposed hypothesis. PMID:24265603

  1. Proposed evolutionary changes in the role of myelin.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, Klaus M; Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; Coggan, Jay S

    2013-01-01

    Myelin is the multi-layered lipid sheet periodically wrapped around neuronal axons. It is most frequently found in vertebrates. Myelin allows for saltatory action potential (AP) conduction along axons. During this form of conduction, the AP travels passively along the myelin-covered part of the axon, and is recharged at the intermittent nodes of Ranvier. Thus, myelin can reduce the energy load needed and/or increase the speed of AP conduction. Myelin first evolved during the Ordovician period. We hypothesize that myelin's first role was mainly energy conservation. During the later "Mesozoic marine revolution," marine ecosystems changed toward an increase in marine predation pressure. We hypothesize that the main purpose of myelin changed from energy conservation to conduction speed increase during this Mesozoic marine revolution. To test this hypothesis, we optimized models of myelinated axons for a combination of AP conduction velocity and energy efficiency. We demonstrate that there is a trade-off between these objectives. We then compared the simulation results to empirical data and conclude that while the data are consistent with the theory, additional measurements are necessary for a complete evaluation of the proposed hypothesis.

  2. Electrophysiology of Axonal Constrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Christopher; Jung, Peter; Brown, Anthony

    2013-03-01

    Axons of myelinated neurons are constricted at the nodes of Ranvier, where they are directly exposed to the extracellular space and where the vast majority of the ion channels are located. These constrictions are generated by local regulation of the kinetics of neurofilaments the most important cytoskeletal elements of the axon. In this paper we discuss how this shape affects the electrophysiological function of the neuron. Specifically, although the nodes are short (about 1 μm) in comparison to the distance between nodes (hundreds of μm) they have a substantial influence on the conduction velocity of neurons. We show through computational modeling that nodal constrictions (all other features such as numbers of ion channels left constant) reduce the required fiber diameter for a given target conduction velocity by up to 50% in comparison to an unconstricted axon. We further show that the predicted optimal fiber morphologies closely match reported fiber morphologies. Supported by The National Science Foundation (IOS 1146789)

  3. Functional delay of myelination of auditory delay lines in the nucleus laminaris of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shih-Min; Carr, Catherine E

    2007-12-01

    In the barn owl, maps of interaural time difference (ITD) are created in the nucleus laminaris (NL) by interdigitating axons that act as delay lines. Adult delay line axons are myelinated, and this myelination is timely, coinciding with the attainment of adult head size, and stable ITD cues. The proximal portions of the axons become myelinated in late embryonic life, but the delay line portions of the axon in NL remain unmyelinated until the first postnatal week. Myelination of the delay lines peaks at the third week posthatch, and myelinating oligodendrocyte density approaches adult levels by one month, when the head reaches its adult width. Migration of oligodendrocyte progenitors into NL and the subsequent onset of myelination may be restricted by a glial barrier in late embryonic stages and the first posthatch week, since the loss of tenascin-C immunoreactivity in NL is correlated with oligodendrocyte progenitor migration into NL.

  4. Coculture of Primary Motor Neurons and Schwann Cells as a Model for In Vitro Myelination

    PubMed Central

    Hyung, Sujin; Yoon Lee, Bo; Park, Jong-Chul; Kim, Jinseok; Hur, Eun-Mi; Francis Suh, Jun-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    A culture system that can recapitulate myelination in vitro will not only help us better understand the mechanism of myelination and demyelination, but also find out possible therapeutic interventions for treating demyelinating diseases. Here, we introduce a simple and reproducible myelination culture system using mouse motor neurons (MNs) and Schwann cells (SCs). Dissociated motor neurons are plated on a feeder layer of SCs, which interact with and wrap around the axons of MNs as they differentiate in culture. In our MN-SC coculture system, MNs survived over 3 weeks and extended long axons. Both viability and axon growth of MNs in the coculture were markedly enhanced as compared to those of MN monoculture. Co-labeling of myelin basic proteins (MBPs) and neuronal microtubules revealed that SC formed myelin sheaths by wrapping around the axons of MNs. Furthermore, using the coculture system we found that treatment of an antioxidant substance coenzyme Q10 (Co-Q10) markedly facilitated myelination. PMID:26456300

  5. Coculture of Primary Motor Neurons and Schwann Cells as a Model for In Vitro Myelination.

    PubMed

    Hyung, Sujin; Yoon Lee, Bo; Park, Jong-Chul; Kim, Jinseok; Hur, Eun-Mi; Francis Suh, Jun-Kyo

    2015-10-12

    A culture system that can recapitulate myelination in vitro will not only help us better understand the mechanism of myelination and demyelination, but also find out possible therapeutic interventions for treating demyelinating diseases. Here, we introduce a simple and reproducible myelination culture system using mouse motor neurons (MNs) and Schwann cells (SCs). Dissociated motor neurons are plated on a feeder layer of SCs, which interact with and wrap around the axons of MNs as they differentiate in culture. In our MN-SC coculture system, MNs survived over 3 weeks and extended long axons. Both viability and axon growth of MNs in the coculture were markedly enhanced as compared to those of MN monoculture. Co-labeling of myelin basic proteins (MBPs) and neuronal microtubules revealed that SC formed myelin sheaths by wrapping around the axons of MNs. Furthermore, using the coculture system we found that treatment of an antioxidant substance coenzyme Q10 (Co-Q10) markedly facilitated myelination.

  6. Effect of Limb Lengthening on Internodal Length and Conduction Velocity of Peripheral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Gillingwater, Thomas H.; Anderson, Heather; Cottrell, David; Sherman, Diane L.; Ribchester, Richard R.; Brophy, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    The influences of axon diameter, myelin thickness, and internodal length on the velocity of conduction of peripheral nerve action potentials are unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong dependence of conduction velocity on internodal length. However, a theoretical analysis has suggested that this relationship may be lost above a nodal separation of ∼0.6 mm. Here we measured nerve conduction velocities in a rabbit model of limb lengthening that produced compensatory increases in peripheral nerve growth. Divided tibial bones in one hindlimb were gradually lengthened at 0.7 mm per day using an external frame attached to the bone. This was associated with a significant increase (33%) of internodal length (0.95–1.3 mm) in axons of the tibial nerve that varied in proportion to the mechanical strain in the nerve of the lengthened limb. Axonal diameter, myelin thickness, and g-ratios were not significantly altered by limb lengthening. Despite the substantial increase in internodal length, no significant change was detected in conduction velocity (∼43 m/s) measured either in vivo or in isolated tibial nerves. The results demonstrate that the internode remains plastic in the adult but that increases in internodal length of myelinated adult nerve axons do not result in either deficiency or proportionate increases in their conduction velocity and support the view that the internodal lengths of nerves reach a plateau beyond which their conduction velocities are no longer sensitive to increases in internodal length. PMID:23467369

  7. Pathogenesis of axonal dystrophy and demyelination in αA-crystallin-expressing transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Van Rijk, AF; Sweers, MAM; Merkx, GFM; Lammens, M; Bloemendal, H

    2003-01-01

    We recently described a transgenic mouse strain overexpressing hamster αA-crystallin, a small heat shock protein, under direction of the hamster vimentin promoter. As a result myelin was degraded and axonal dystrophy in both central nervous system (especially spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system occurred. Homozygous transgenic mice developed hind limb paralysis after 8 weeks of age and displayed progressive loss of myelin and axonal dystrophy in both the central and peripheral nervous system with ongoing age. Pathologically the phenotype resembled, to a certain extent, neuroaxonal dystrophy. The biochemical findings presented in this paper (activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and transglutamase, myelin protein zero expression levels and blood sugar levels) confirm this pathology and exclude other putative pathologies like Amyothrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy. Consequently, an excessive cytoplasmic accumulation of the transgenic protein or a disturbance of the normal metabolism are considered to cause the observed neuropathology. Therefore, extra-ocular αA-crystallin-expressing transgenic mice may serve as a useful animal model to study neuroaxonal dystrophy. PMID:12801283

  8. Axonal retraction and regeneration induced by N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC) in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Junyent, Fèlix; Utrera, Juana; Auladell, Carme

    2006-12-01

    Dithiocarbamates (DTCs), such as disulfiram, have been used in aversion therapy for alcoholism even though an inherent toxicity is induced, which is related mainly to peripheral neuropathy and is associated with behavioural and neurological complications. At anatomical and histopathological levels, DTCs affect structural elements in nervous tissue, such as axonal degeneration and alterations in the cytoskeletal proteins of astrocytes. Therefore, given the axonal effects of DTCs and to gain further insight into axonal growth and axonal pathfinding in the central nervous system (CNS), here we established an in vivo experimental model of mouse development. Daily intraperitoneal injections of N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC), the first metabolite of disulfiram, were given from postnatal day 2 (P2) until P15. From P16 until P30, animals were not treated. Treatment induced considerable physiological alterations, such as growth delay, throughout postnatal development. Moreover, by immunohistochemistry techniques, we observed important alterations in the cytoskeletal glial protein at early stages of postnatal development. At later stages (P15), the immunoreactivity pattern detected by an antibody against axonal neurofilaments (anti-NF-H) showed alteration in the axonal distribution pattern followed by drastic axonal loss at P22, data that were corroborated using an anti-MBP (myelin basic protein) antibody. Using an antibody against the beta amyloid precursor protein (APP), we detected axonal injury. Furthermore, given that we observed axonal re-growth in adulthood in the in vivo model presented, we propose that this model would be a good system in which to identify new strategies for inducing regenerative growth in neural diseases in which axonal regeneration is blocked. PMID:17156377

  9. Myelin-associated glycoprotein gene mutation causes Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease-like disorder

    PubMed Central

    Elazar, Nimrod; Lerer, Israela; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Fellig, Yakov; Glick, Benjamin; Zimmerman, Bat-El; Azulay, Haim; Dotan, Shlomo; Goldberg, Sharon; Gomori, John M.; Ponger, Penina; Newman, J. P.; Marreed, Hodaifah; Steck, Andreas J.; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Mor, Nofar; Harel, Michal; Geiger, Tamar; Eshed-Eisenbach, Yael; Peles, Elior

    2015-01-01

    Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease is an X-linked hypomyelinating leukodystrophy caused by mutations or rearrangements in PLP1. It presents in infancy with nystagmus, jerky head movements, hypotonia and developmental delay evolving into spastic tetraplegia with optic atrophy and variable movement disorders. A clinically similar phenotype caused by recessive mutations in GJC2 is known as Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease. Both genes encode proteins associated with myelin. We describe three siblings of a consanguineous family manifesting the typical infantile-onset Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease-like phenotype slowly evolving into a form of complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia with mental retardation, dysarthria, optic atrophy and peripheral neuropathy in adulthood. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy were consistent with a demyelinating leukodystrophy. Using genetic linkage and exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous missense c.399C>G; p.S133R mutation in MAG. This gene, previously associated with hereditary spastic paraplegia, encodes myelin-associated glycoprotein, which is involved in myelin maintenance and glia-axon interaction. This mutation is predicted to destabilize the protein and affect its tertiary structure. Examination of the sural nerve biopsy sample obtained in childhood in the oldest sibling revealed complete absence of myelin-associated glycoprotein accompanied by ill-formed onion-bulb structures and a relatively thin myelin sheath of the affected axons. Immunofluorescence, cell surface labelling, biochemical analysis and mass spectrometry-based proteomics studies in a variety of cell types demonstrated a devastating effect of the mutation on post-translational processing, steady state expression and subcellular localization of myelin-associated glycoprotein. In contrast to the wild-type protein, the p.S133R mutant was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and was subjected to endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation by the

  10. Ndrg1 in development and maintenance of the myelin sheath.

    PubMed

    King, Rosalind H M; Chandler, David; Lopaticki, Sash; Huang, Dexing; Blake, Julian; Muddle, John R; Kilpatrick, Trevor; Nourallah, Michelle; Miyata, Toshiyuki; Okuda, Tomohiko; Carter, Kim W; Hunter, Michael; Angelicheva, Dora; Morahan, Grant; Kalaydjieva, Luba

    2011-06-01

    CMT4D disease is a severe autosomal recessive demyelinating neuropathy with extensive axonal loss leading to early disability, caused by mutations in the N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1). NDRG1 is expressed at particularly high levels in the Schwann cell (SC), but its physiological function(s) are unknown. To help with their understanding, we characterise the phenotype of a new mouse model, stretcher (str), with total Ndrg1 deficiency, in comparison with the hypomorphic Ndrg1 knock-out (KO) mouse. While both models display normal initial myelination and a transition to overt pathology between weeks 3 and 5, the markedly more severe str phenotype suggests that even low Ndrg1 expression results in significant phenotype rescue. Neither model replicates fully the features of CMT4D: although axon damage is present, regenerative capacity is unimpaired and the mice do not display the early severe axonal loss typical of the human disease. The widespread large fibre demyelination coincides precisely with the period of rapid growth of the animals and the dramatic (160-500-fold) increase in myelin volume and length in large fibres. This is followed by stabilisation after week 10, while small fibres remain unaffected. Gene expression profiling of str peripheral nerve reveals non-specific secondary changes at weeks 5 and 10 and preliminary data point to normal proteasomal function. Our findings do not support the proposed roles of NDRG1 in growth arrest, terminal differentiation, gene expression regulation and proteasomal degradation. Impaired SC trafficking failing to meet the considerable demands of nerve growth, emerges as the likely pathogenetic mechanism in NDRG1 deficiency.

  11. Prolonged Subdural Infusion of Kynurenic Acid Is Associated with Dose-Dependent Myelin Damage in the Rat Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Dabrowski, Wojciech; Kwiecien, Jacek M.; Rola, Radoslaw; Klapec, Michal; Stanisz, Greg J.; Kotlinska-Hasiec, Edyta; Oakden, Wendy; Janik, Rafal; Coote, Margaret; Frey, Benicio N.; Turski, Waldemar A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is the end stage metabolite of tryptophan produced mainly by astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). It has neuroprotective activities but can be elevated in the neuropsychiatric disorders. Toxic effects of KYNA in the CNS are unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the subdural KYNA infusion on the spinal cord in adult rats. Methods A total of 42 healthy adult rats were randomly assigned into six groups and were infused for 7 days with PBS (control) or 0.0002 pmol/min, 0.01 nmol/min, 0.1 nmol/min, 1 nmol/min, and 10 nmol/min of KYNA per 7 days. The effect of KYNA on spinal cord was determined using histological and electron microscopy examination. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) was measured in the blood serum to assess a degree of myelin damage. Result In all rats continuous long-lasting subdural KYNA infusion was associated with myelin damage and myelin loss that was increasingly widespread in a dose-depended fashion in peripheral, sub-pial areas. Damage to myelin sheaths was uniquely related to the separation of lamellae at the intraperiod line. The damaged myelin sheaths and areas with complete loss of myelin were associated with limited loss of scattered axons while vast majority of axons in affected areas were morphologically intact. The myelin loss-causing effect of KYNA occurred with no necrosis of oligodendrocytes, with locally severe astrogliosis and no cellular inflammatory response. Additionally, subdural KYNA infusion increased blood MOG concentration. Moreover, the rats infused with the highest doses of KYNA (1 and 10 nmol/min) demonstrated adverse neurological signs including weakness and quadriplegia. Conclusions We suggest, that subdural infusion of high dose of KYNA can be used as an experimental tool for the study of mechanisms of myelin damage and regeneration. On the other hand, the administration of low, physiologically relevant doses of KYNA may help to discover the role

  12. Peripherin Is a Subunit of Peripheral Nerve Neurofilaments: Implications for Differential Vulnerability of CNS and PNS Axons

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Aidong; Sasaki, Takahiro; Kumar, Asok; Peterhoff, Corrinne M.; Rao, Mala V.; Liem, Ronald K.; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Nixon, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    Peripherin, a neuronal intermediate filament protein implicated in neurodegenerative disease, coexists with the neurofilament triplet proteins (NFL, NFM, and NFH) but has an unknown function. The earlier peak expression of peripherin than the triplet during brain development and its ability to form homopolymers, unlike the triplet, which are obligate heteropolymers, have supported a widely held view that peripherin and neurofilament triplet form separate filament systems. Here, we demonstrate, however, that despite a postnatal decline in expression, peripherin is as abundant as the triplet in the adult PNS and exists in a relatively fixed stoichiometry with these subunits. Peripherin exhibits a distribution pattern identical to those of triplet proteins in sciatic axons and co-localizes with NFL on single neurofilament by immunogold electron microscopy. Peripherin also co-assembles into a single network of filaments containing NFL, NFM, NFH with and without α-internexin in quadruple- or quintuple-transfected SW13 vim (−) cells. Genetically deleting NFL in mice dramatically reduces peripherin content in sciatic axons. Moreover, peripherin mutations has been shown to disrupt the neurofilament network in transfected SW13 vim(−) cells. These data show that peripherin and the neurofilament proteins are functionally interdependent. The results strongly support the view that rather than forming an independent structure, peripherin is a subunit of neurofilaments in the adult PNS. Our findings provide a basis for its close relationship with neurofilaments in PNS diseases associated with neurofilament accumulation. PMID:22723690

  13. Myelinated mouse nerves studied by X-ray phase contrast zoom tomography.

    PubMed

    Bartels, M; Krenkel, M; Cloetens, P; Möbius, W; Salditt, T

    2015-12-01

    We have used X-ray phase contrast tomography to resolve the structure of uncut, entire myelinated optic, saphenous and sciatic mouse nerves. Intrinsic electron density contrast suffices to identify axonal structures. Specific myelin labeling by an osmium tetroxide stain enables distinction between axon and surrounding myelin sheath. Utilization of spherical wave illumination enables zooming capabilities which enable imaging of entire sciatic internodes as well as identification of sub-structures such as nodes of Ranvier and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures. PMID:26546551

  14. Myelinated mouse nerves studied by X-ray phase contrast zoom tomography.

    PubMed

    Bartels, M; Krenkel, M; Cloetens, P; Möbius, W; Salditt, T

    2015-12-01

    We have used X-ray phase contrast tomography to resolve the structure of uncut, entire myelinated optic, saphenous and sciatic mouse nerves. Intrinsic electron density contrast suffices to identify axonal structures. Specific myelin labeling by an osmium tetroxide stain enables distinction between axon and surrounding myelin sheath. Utilization of spherical wave illumination enables zooming capabilities which enable imaging of entire sciatic internodes as well as identification of sub-structures such as nodes of Ranvier and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures.

  15. Sexual dimorphism of the electrosensory system: a quantitative analysis of nerve axons in the dorsal anterior lateral line nerve of the blue-spotted Fantail Stingray (Taeniura lymma).

    PubMed

    Kempster, R M; Garza-Gisholt, E; Egeberg, C A; Hart, N S; O'Shea, O R; Collin, S P

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative studies of sensory axons provide invaluable insights into the functional significance and relative importance of a particular sensory modality. Despite the important role electroreception plays in the behaviour of elasmobranchs, to date, there have been no studies that have assessed the number of electrosensory axons that project from the peripheral ampullae to the central nervous system (CNS). The complex arrangement and morphology of the peripheral electrosensory system has a significant influence on its function. However, it is not sufficient to base conclusions about function on the peripheral system alone. To fully appreciate the function of the electrosensory system, it is essential to also assess the neural network that connects the peripheral system to the CNS. Using stereological techniques, unbiased estimates of the total number of axons were obtained for both the electrosensory bundles exiting individual ampullary organs and those entering the CNS (via the dorsal root of the anterior lateral line nerve, ALLN) in males and females of different sizes. The dorsal root of the ALLN consists solely of myelinated electrosensory axons and shows both ontogenetic and sexual dimorphism. In particular, females exhibit a greater abundance of electrosensory axons, which may result in improved sensitivity of the electrosensory system and may facilitate mate identification for reproduction. Also presented are detailed morphological data on the peripheral electrosensory system to allow a complete interpretation of the functional significance of the sexual dimorphism found in the ALLN. PMID:23817033

  16. Myelin basic protein-positive nerve fibres in human Meissner corpuscles.

    PubMed

    García-Suárez, O; Montaño, J A; Esteban, I; González-Martínez, T; Alvarez-Abad, C; López-Arranz, E; Cobo, J; Vega, J A

    2009-06-01

    Myelinated nerve fibres forming sensory corpuscles become amyelinic before entering the corpuscle. Interestingly, in Meissner corpuscles from monkey myelin basic protein (MBP), a specific component of myelin sheath co-localized with neuronal markers. To investigate whether or not this also occurs in human digital Meissner corpuscles, we used single and double immunohistochemistry to detect MBP associated with axonic (protein gene product (PGP) 9.5) or Schwann and Schwann-related cell (S100 protein) markers. We also studied these markers in Pacinian corpuscles. Nerve fibres immunoreactive for MBP were detected in about 25% of the Meissner corpuscles examined; however, MBP never co-localized with PGP 9.5 and MBP occasionally co-localized with S100 protein. MBP-immunoreactive fibres associated with Meissner corpuscles were observed at the periphery of the lamellar cells or within the corpuscle between the lamellar cells. These results describe the distribution of myelinated nerve fibres expressing MBP in human Meissner corpuscles, which is important when studying Meissner corpuscles in cutaneous biopsies used for the diagnosis of peripheral and degenerative neuropathies.

  17. Myelin basic protein-positive nerve fibres in human Meissner corpuscles

    PubMed Central

    García-Suárez, O; Montaño, J A; Esteban, I; González-Martínez, T; Alvarez-Abad, C; López-Arranz, E; Cobo, J; Vega, J A

    2009-01-01

    Myelinated nerve fibres forming sensory corpuscles become amyelinic before entering the corpuscle. Interestingly, in Meissner corpuscles from monkey myelin basic protein (MBP), a specific component of myelin sheath co-localized with neuronal markers. To investigate whether or not this also occurs in human digital Meissner corpuscles, we used single and double immunohistochemistry to detect MBP associated with axonic (protein gene product (PGP) 9.5) or Schwann and Schwann-related cell (S100 protein) markers. We also studied these markers in Pacinian corpuscles. Nerve fibres immunoreactive for MBP were detected in about 25% of the Meissner corpuscles examined; however, MBP never co-localized with PGP 9.5 and MBP occasionally co-localized with S100 protein. MBP-immunoreactive fibres associated with Meissner corpuscles were observed at the periphery of the lamellar cells or within the corpuscle between the lamellar cells. These results describe the distribution of myelinated nerve fibres expressing MBP in human Meissner corpuscles, which is important when studying Meissner corpuscles in cutaneous biopsies used for the diagnosis of peripheral and degenerative neuropathies. PMID:19538632

  18. Myelin Under Stress

    PubMed Central

    D’Antonio, Maurizio; Feltri, M. Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    The capacity to fold proteins properly is fundamental for cell survival. Secreted and transmembrane proteins are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an organelle that has the ability to discriminate between native and non-native proteins, in a process called protein quality control. When folding is not properly achieved, misfolded proteins can accumulate. The terminally misfolded proteins are typically retro-translocated into the cytoplasm for degradation by the proteasome, in a process known as endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation. However, if the degradation is insufficient, accumulation of abnormal proteins in the ER activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), a complex set of new signals aimed to further reduce the load of abnormal protein in the ER. Massive synthesis of myelin lipids and proteins is necessary to support myelinogenesis. Not surprisingly, therefore, ER stress (including the UPR), the proteasome and autophagy (lysosomes), have been implicated in myelin disorders, such as Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease and vanishing white matter disease in the central nervous system and Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies in the peripheral nervous system. Here we will discuss recent evidence supporting an important role for ER stress in myelin disorders. PMID:19330777

  19. Myelin-specific proteins: a structurally diverse group of membrane-interacting molecules.

    PubMed

    Han, Huijong; Myllykoski, Matti; Ruskamo, Salla; Wang, Chaozhan; Kursula, Petri

    2013-01-01

    The myelin sheath is a multilayered membrane in the nervous system, which has unique biochemical properties. Myelin carries a set of specific high-abundance proteins, the structure and function of which are still poorly understood. The proteins of the myelin sheath are involved in a number of neurological diseases, including autoimmune diseases and inherited neuropathies. In this review, we briefly discuss the structural properties and functions of selected myelin-specific proteins (P0, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, myelin-associated glycoprotein, myelin basic protein, myelin-associated oligodendrocytic basic protein, P2, proteolipid protein, peripheral myelin protein of 22 kDa, 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, and periaxin); such properties include, for example, interactions with lipid bilayers and the presence of large intrinsically disordered regions in some myelin proteins. A detailed understanding of myelin protein structure and function at the molecular level will be required to fully grasp their physiological roles in the myelin sheath.

  20. Myelin regeneration in multiple sclerosis: targeting endogenous stem cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jeffrey K; Fancy, Stephen P J; Zhao, Chao; Rowitch, David H; Ffrench-Constant, Charles; Franklin, Robin J M

    2011-10-01

    Regeneration of myelin sheaths (remyelination) after central nervous system demyelination is important to restore saltatory conduction and to prevent axonal loss. In multiple sclerosis, the insufficiency of remyelination leads to the irreversible degeneration of axons and correlated clinical decline. Therefore, a regenerative strategy to encourage remyelination may protect axons and improve symptoms in multiple sclerosis. We highlight recent studies on factors that influence endogenous remyelination and potential promising pharmacological targets that may be considered for enhancing central nervous system remyelination.

  1. The origin of the myelination program in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Zalc, B; Goujet, D; Colman, D

    2008-06-24

    The myelin sheath was a transformative vertebrate acquisition, enabling great increases in impulse propagation velocity along axons. Not all vertebrates possess myelinated axons, however, and when myelin first appeared in the vertebrate lineage is an important open question. It has been suggested that the dual, apparently unrelated acquisitions of myelin and the hinged jaw were actually coupled in evolution [1,2]. If so, it would be expected that myelin was first acquired during the Devonian period by the oldest jawed fish, the placoderms [3]. Although myelin itself is not retained in the fossil record, within the skulls of fossilized Paleozoic vertebrate fish are exquisitely preserved imprints of cranial nerves and the foramina they traversed. Examination of these structures now suggests how the nerves functioned in vivo. In placoderms, the first hinge-jawed fish, oculomotor nerve diameters remained constant, but nerve lengths were ten times longer than in the jawless osteostraci. We infer that to accommodate this ten-fold increase in length, while maintaining a constant diameter, the oculomotor system in placoderms must have been myelinated to function as a rapidly conducting motor pathway. Placoderms were the first fish with hinged jaws and some can grow to formidable lengths, requiring a rapid conduction system, so it is highly likely that they were the first organisms with myelinated axons in the craniate lineage.

  2. Remodeling myelination: implications for mechanisms of neural plasticity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kae-Jiun; Redmond, Stephanie A; Chan, Jonah R

    2016-02-01

    One of the most significant paradigm shifts in membrane remodeling is the emerging view that membrane transformation is not exclusively controlled by cytoskeletal rearrangement, but also by biophysical constraints, adhesive forces, membrane curvature and compaction. One of the most exquisite examples of membrane remodeling is myelination. The advent of myelin was instrumental in advancing the nervous system during vertebrate evolution. With more rapid and efficient communication between neurons, faster and more complex computations could be performed in a given time and space. Our knowledge of how myelin-forming oligodendrocytes select and wrap axons has been limited by insufficient spatial and temporal resolution. By virtue of recent technological advances, progress has clarified longstanding controversies in the field. Here we review insights into myelination, from target selection to axon wrapping and membrane compaction, and discuss how understanding these processes has unexpectedly opened new avenues of insight into myelination-centered mechanisms of neural plasticity.

  3. Acute anoxic changes in peripheral nerve: anatomic and physiologic correlations

    PubMed Central

    Punsoni, Michael; Drexler, Steven; Palaia, Thomas; Stevenson, Matthew; Stecker, Mark M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The response of the peripheral nerve to anoxia is modulated by many factors including glucose and temperature. The purposes of this article are to demonstrate the effects of these factors on the pathological changes induced by anoxia and to compare the electrophysiologic changes and pathological changes in the same nerves. Methods Sciatic nerves were harvested from rats and placed in a perfusion apparatus where neurophysiologic responses could be recorded continuously during a 16 h experiment. After the experiment, light microscopy and electron microscopy were performed. Results Light microscopic images showed mild changes from anoxia at normoglycemia. Hypoglycemic anoxia produced massive axonal swelling while hyperglycemic anoxia produced apparent changes in the myelin. Anoxic changes were not uniform in all axons. Electron microscopy showed only minor disruptions of the cytoskeleton with anoxia during normoglycemia. At the extremes of glucose concentration especially with hyperglycemia, there was a more severe disruption of intermediate filaments and loss of axonal structure with anoxia. Hypothermia protected axons from the effect of anoxia and produced peak axonal swelling in the 17–30°C range. Conclusions The combination of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia and anoxia produces extremely severe axonal disruption. Changes in axonal diameter are complex and are influenced by many factors. PMID:26221572

  4. ERK1/ERK2 MAPK signaling is required to increase myelin thickness independent of oligodendrocyte differentiation and initiation of myelination.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akihiro; Fyffe-Maricich, Sharyl L; Furusho, Miki; Miller, Robert H; Bansal, Rashmi

    2012-06-27

    Wrapping of the myelin sheath around axons by oligodendrocytes is critical for the rapid conduction of electrical signals required for the normal functioning of the CNS. Myelination is a multistep process where oligodendrocytes progress through a well coordinated differentiation program regulated by multiple extracellular growth and differentiation signals. The intracellular transduction of the extracellular signals that regulate myelination is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate a critical role for two important signaling molecules, extracelluar signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/ERK2), downstream mediators of mitogen-activated protein kinases, in the control of CNS myelin thickness. We generated and analyzed two lines of mice lacking both ERK1/ERK2 function specifically in oligodendrocyte-lineage cells. In the absence of ERK1/ERK2 signaling NG2⁺ oligodendrocyte progenitor cells proliferated and differentiated on schedule. Mutant oligodendrocytes also ensheathed axons normally and made a few wraps of compact myelin. However, the subsequent increase in myelination that correlated myelin thickness in proportion to the axon caliber failed to occur. Furthermore, although the numbers of differentiated oligodendrocytes in the adult mutants were unchanged, they showed an inability to upregulate the transcription of major myelin genes that normally occurs during active myelination. Similarly, in vitro ERK1/ERK2-deficient oligodendrocytes differentiated normally but failed to form typical myelin-like membrane sheets. None of these effects were observed in single ERK1 or ERK2 mutants. These studies suggest that the predominant role of ERK1/ERK2 signaling in vivo is in promoting rapid myelin growth to increase its thickness, subsequent to oligodendrocyte differentiation and the initiation of myelination.

  5. Peripheral prostaglandin E2 prolongs the sensitization of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons possibly by facilitating the synthesis and anterograde axonal trafficking of EP4 receptors.

    PubMed

    St-Jacques, Bruno; Ma, Weiya

    2014-11-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a well-known pain mediator enriched in inflamed tissues, plays a pivotal role in the genesis of chronic pain conditions such as inflammatory and neuropathic pain. PGE2-prolonged sensitization of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (nociceptors) may contribute to the transition from acute to chronic pain. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that facilitating synthesis and anterograde axonal trafficking of EP receptors contribute to PGE2-prolonged nociceptor sensitization. Intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of a stabilized PGE2 analog, 16,16 dimethyl PGE2 (dmPGE2), in a dose- and time-dependent manner, not only elicited primary tactile allodynia which lasted for 1d, but also prolonged tactile allodynia evoked by a subsequent i.pl. injection of dmPGE2 from 1d to 4d. Moreover, the duration of tactile allodynia was progressively prolonged following multiple sequential i.pl. injections of dmPGE2. Co-injection of the selective EP1 or EP4 receptor antagonist, the inhibitors of cAMP, PKA, PKC, PKCε or PLC as well as an interleukin-6 (IL-6) neutralizing antiserum differentially blocked primary tactile allodynia elicited by the 1st dmPGE2 and the prolonged tactile allodynia evoked by the 2nd dmPGE2, suggesting the involvement of these signaling events in dmPGE2-induced nociceptor activation and sensitization. Co-injection of a selective COX2 inhibitor or two EP4 antagonists prevented or shortened inflammagen-prolonged nociceptor sensitization. I.pl. injection of dmPGE2 or carrageenan time-dependently increased EP4 levels in L4-6 DRG neurons and peripheral nerves. EP4 was expressed in almost half of IB4-binding nociceptors of L4-6 DRG. Taken together, our data suggest that stimulating the synthesis and anterograde axonal trafficking to increase EP4 availability at the axonal terminals of nociceptors is likely a novel mechanism underlying PGE2-prolonged nociceptor

  6. Verapamil inhibits scar formation after peripheral nerve repair in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Han, A-chao; Deng, Jing-xiu; Huang, Qi-shun; Zheng, Huai-yuan; Zhou, Pan; Liu, Zhi-wei; Chen, Zhen-bing

    2016-01-01

    The calcium channel blocker, verapamil, has been shown to reduce scar formation by inhibiting fibroblast adhesion and proliferation in vitro. It was not clear whether topical application of verapamil after surgical repair of the nerve in vivo could inhibit the formation of excessive scar tissue. In this study, the right sciatic nerve of adult Sprague-Dawley rats was transected and sutured with No. 10-0 suture. The stoma was wrapped with gelfoam soaked with verapamil solution for 4 weeks. Compared with the control group (stoma wrapped with gelfoam soaked with physiological saline), the verapamil application inhibited the secretion of extracellular matrix from fibroblasts in vivo, suppressed type I and III collagen secretion and increased the total number of axons and the number of myelinated axons. These findings suggest that verapamil could reduce the formation of scar tissue and promote axon growth after peripheral nerve repair. PMID:27127494

  7. Regulation of conduction time along axons.

    PubMed

    Seidl, A H

    2014-09-12

    Timely delivery of information is essential for proper functioning of the nervous system. Precise regulation of nerve conduction velocity is needed for correct exertion of motor skills, sensory integration and cognitive functions. In vertebrates, the rapid transmission of signals along nerve fibers is made possible by the myelination of axons and the resulting saltatory conduction in between nodes of Ranvier. Myelin is a specialization of glia cells and is provided by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. Myelination not only maximizes conduction velocity, but also provides a means to systematically regulate conduction times in the nervous system. Systematic regulation of conduction velocity along axons, and thus systematic regulation of conduction time in between neural areas, is a common occurrence in the nervous system. To date, little is understood about the mechanism that underlies systematic conduction velocity regulation and conduction time synchrony. Node assembly, internode distance (node spacing) and axon diameter - all parameters determining the speed of signal propagation along axons - are controlled by myelinating glia. Therefore, an interaction between glial cells and neurons has been suggested. This review summarizes examples of neural systems in which conduction velocity is regulated by anatomical variations along axons. While functional implications in these systems are not always clear, recent studies on the auditory system of birds and mammals present examples of conduction velocity regulation in systems with high temporal precision and a defined biological function. Together these findings suggest an active process that shapes the interaction between axons and myelinating glia to control conduction velocity along axons. Future studies involving these systems may provide further insight into how specific conduction times in the brain are established and maintained in development. Throughout the text, conduction velocity is used for the

  8. Computer modeling of mild axonal injury: implications for axonal signal transmission.

    PubMed

    Volman, Vladislav; Ng, Laurel J

    2013-10-01

    Diffusion imaging and postmortem studies of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) of the concussive type are consistent with the observations of diffuse axonal injury to the white matter axons. Mechanical trauma to axons affects the properties of tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels at the nodes of Ranvier, leading to axonal degeneration through intra-axonal accumulation of calcium ions and activation of calcium proteases; however, the immediate implications of axonal trauma regarding axonal functionality and their relevance to transient impairment of function as observed in concussion remain elusive. A biophysically realistic computational model of a myelinated axon was developed to investigate how mTBI could immediately affect axonal function. Traumatized axons showed alterations in signal propagation properties that nonlinearly depended on the level of trauma; subthreshold traumatized axons had decreased spike propagation time, whereas suprathreshold traumatized axons exhibited a slowdown of spike propagation and spike propagation failure. Trauma had consistently reduced axonal spike amplitude. The susceptibility of an axon to trauma could be modulated by the function of an ATP-dependent sodium-potassium pump. The results suggest a mechanism by which concussive mTBI could lead to the immediate impairment of signal propagation through the axon and the emerging dysfunctional neuronal information exchange.

  9. Exclusive expression of the Rab11 effector SH3TC2 in Schwann cells links integrin-α6 and myelin maintenance to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4C.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Sauparnika; Chiu, Meagan; Dacks, Joel B; Roberts, Rhys C

    2016-07-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4C (CMT4C) is one of the commonest autosomal recessive inherited peripheral neuropathies and is associated with mutations in the Rab11 effector, SH3TC2. Disruption of the SH3TC2-Rab11 interaction is the molecular abnormality underlying this disease. However, why SH3TC2 mutations cause an isolated demyelinating neuropathy remains unanswered. Here we show that SH3TC2 is an exclusive Schwann cell protein expressed late in myelination and is downregulated following denervation suggesting a functional role in myelin sheath maintenance. We support our data with an evolutionary cell biological analysis showing that the SH3TC2 gene, and its paralogue SH3TC1, are derived from an ancestral homologue, the duplication of which occurred in the common ancestor of jawed vertebrates, coincident with the appearance of Schwann cells and peripheral axon myelination. Furthermore, we report that SH3TC2 associates with integrin-α6, suggesting that aberrant Rab11-dependent endocytic trafficking of this critical laminin receptor in myelinated Schwann cells is connected to the demyelination seen in affected nerves. Our study therefore highlights the inherent evolutionary link between SH3TC2 and peripheral nerve myelination, pointing also towards a molecular mechanism underlying the specific demyelinating neuropathy that characterizes CMT4C.

  10. Remyelination reporter reveals prolonged refinement of spontaneously regenerated myelin

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Berit E.; Sellers, Drew L.; Lovelett, Emilie A.; Cheung, Willy; Aalami, Sheida P.; Zapertov, Nikolai; Maris, Don O.; Horner, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Neurological diseases and trauma often cause demyelination, resulting in the disruption of axonal function and integrity. Endogenous remyelination promotes recovery, but the process is not well understood because no method exists to definitively distinguish regenerated from preexisting myelin. To date, remyelinated segments have been defined as anything abnormally short and thin, without empirical data to corroborate these morphological assumptions. To definitively identify regenerated myelin, we used a transgenic mouse with an inducible membrane-bound reporter and targeted Cre recombinase expression to a subset of glial progenitor cells after spinal cord injury, yielding remarkably clear visualization of spontaneously regenerated myelin in vivo. Early after injury, the mean length of sheaths regenerated by Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes (OLs) was significantly shorter than control, uninjured myelin, confirming past assumptions. However, OL-regenerated sheaths elongated progressively over 6 mo to approach control values. Moreover, OL-regenerated myelin thickness was not significantly different from control myelin at most time points after injury. Thus, many newly formed OL sheaths were neither thinner nor shorter than control myelin, vitiating accepted dogmas of what constitutes regenerated myelin. We conclude that remyelination, once thought to be static, is dynamic and elongates independently of axonal growth, in contrast to stretch-based mechanisms proposed in development. Further, without clear identification, past assessments have underestimated the extent and quality of regenerated myelin. PMID:23431182

  11. Evolution of a neuroprotective function of central nervous system myelin.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xinghua; Baek, Rena C; Kirschner, Daniel A; Peterson, Alan; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Macklin, Wendy B; Trapp, Bruce D

    2006-01-30

    The central nervous system (CNS) of terrestrial vertebrates underwent a prominent molecular change when a tetraspan membrane protein, myelin proteolipid protein (PLP), replaced the type I integral membrane protein, P0, as the major protein of myelin. To investigate possible reasons for this molecular switch, we genetically engineered mice to express P0 instead of PLP in CNS myelin. In the absence of PLP, the ancestral P0 provided a periodicity to mouse compact CNS myelin that was identical to mouse PNS myelin, where P0 is the major structural protein today. The PLP-P0 shift resulted in reduced myelin internode length, degeneration of myelinated axons, severe neurological disability, and a 50% reduction in lifespan. Mice with equal amounts of P0 and PLP in CNS myelin had a normal lifespan and no axonal degeneration. These data support the hypothesis that the P0-PLP shift during vertebrate evolution provided a vital neuroprotective function to myelin-forming CNS glia. PMID:16449196

  12. Shortened internodal length of dermal myelinated nerve fibres in Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease type 1A

    PubMed Central

    Saporta, Mario A.; Katona, Istvan; Lewis, Richard A.; Masse, Stacey; Shy, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease type 1A is the most common inherited neuropathy and is caused by duplication of chromosome 17p11.2 containing the peripheral myelin protein-22 gene. This disease is characterized by uniform slowing of conduction velocities and secondary axonal loss, which are in contrast with non-uniform slowing of conduction velocities in acquired demyelinating disorders, such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Mechanisms responsible for the slowed conduction velocities and axonal loss in Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease type 1A are poorly understood, in part because of the difficulty in obtaining nerve samples from patients, due to the invasive nature of nerve biopsies. We have utilized glabrous skin biopsies, a minimally invasive procedure, to evaluate these issues systematically in patients with Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (n = 32), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (n = 4) and healthy controls (n = 12). Morphology and molecular architecture of dermal myelinated nerve fibres were examined using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Internodal length was uniformly shortened in patients with Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease type 1A, compared with those in normal controls (P < 0.0001). Segmental demyelination was absent in the Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease type 1A group, but identifiable in all patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Axonal loss was measurable using the density of Meissner corpuscles and associated with an accumulation of intra-axonal mitochondria. Our study demonstrates that skin biopsy can reveal pathological and molecular architectural changes that distinguish inherited from acquired demyelinating neuropathies. Uniformly shortened internodal length in Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease type 1A suggests a potential developmental defect of internodal lengthening. Intra-axonal accumulation of mitochondria provides new insights into the

  13. A phenotypic culture system for the molecular analysis of CNS myelination in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Davis, Hedvika; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Stancescu, Maria; Love, Rachal; Hickman, James J; Lambert, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Studies of central nervous system myelination lack defined in vitro models which would effectively dissect molecular mechanisms of myelination that contain cells of the correct phenotype. Here we describe a co-culture of purified motoneurons and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, isolated from rat embryonic spinal cord using a combination of immunopanning techniques. This model illustrates differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitors into fully functional mature oligodendrocytes that myelinate axons. It also illustrates a contribution of axons to the rate of oligodendrocyte maturation and myelin gene expression. The defined conditions used allow molecular analysis of distinct stages of myelination and precise manipulation of inductive cues affecting axonal-oligodendrocyte interactions. This phenotypic in vitro myelination model can provide valuable insight into our understanding of demyelinating disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and traumatic diseases such as spinal cord injury where demyelination represents a contributing factor to the pathology of the disorder.

  14. Diminished Schwann cell repair responses underlie age-associated impaired axonal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Painter, Michio W; Brosius Lutz, Amanda; Cheng, Yung-Chih; Latremoliere, Alban; Duong, Kelly; Miller, Christine M; Posada, Sean; Cobos, Enrique J; Zhang, Alice X; Wagers, Amy J; Havton, Leif A; Barres, Ben; Omura, Takao; Woolf, Clifford J

    2014-07-16

    The regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system declines with age. Why this occurs, however, is unknown. We demonstrate that 24-month-old mice exhibit an impairment of functional recovery after nerve injury compared to 2-month-old animals. We find no difference in the intrinsic growth capacity between aged and young sensory neurons in vitro or in their ability to activate growth-associated transcriptional programs after injury. Instead, using age-mismatched nerve transplants in vivo, we show that the extent of functional recovery depends on the age of the nerve graft, and not the age of the host. Molecular interrogation of the sciatic nerve reveals that aged Schwann cells (SCs) fail to rapidly activate a transcriptional repair program after injury. Functionally, aged SCs exhibit impaired dedifferentiation, myelin clearance, and macrophage recruitment. These results suggest that the age-associated decline in axonal regeneration results from diminished Schwann cell plasticity, leading to slower myelin clearance.

  15. Bioenergetic deficits in peripheral nerve sensory axons during chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain resulting from peroxynitrite-mediated post-translational nitration of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Janes, Kali; Doyle, Timothy; Bryant, Leesa; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Ryerse, Jan; Bennett, Gary J.; Salvemini, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Many of the widely used anticancer drugs induce dose-limiting peripheral neuropathies that undermine their therapeutic efficacy. Animal models of chemotherapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) evoked by a variety of drug classes, including taxanes, vinca alkaloids, platinum-complexes, and proteasome-inhibitors, suggest that the common underlying mechanism in the development of these neuropathies is mitotoxicity in primary nerve sensory axons (PNSAs) arising from reduced mitochondrial bioenergetics [eg adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production deficits due to compromised respiratory complex I and II activity]. The causative mechanisms of this mitotoxicity remain poorly defined. However, peroxynitrite, an important pro-nociceptive agent, has been linked to mitotoxicity in several disease states and may also drive the mitotoxicity associated with CIPN. Our findings reveal that the development of mechano-hypersensitivity induced by paclitaxel, oxaliplatin, and bortezomib was prevented by administration of the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst Mn(III) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-n-hexylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP5+) without interfering with their anti-tumor effects. Peak CIPN was associated with the nitration and inactivation of superoxide dismutase in the mitochondria, but not in the cytosol, as well as a significant decrease in ATP production within the PNSAs; all of these events were attenuated by MnTE-2-PyP5+. Our results provide continued support for the role of mitotoxicity in the development of CIPN across chemotherapeutic drug classes, and identify peroxynitrite as a key mediator in these processes, thereby providing the rationale towards development of “peroxynitrite-targeted” therapeutics for CIPN. PMID:23891899

  16. Support of Nerve Conduction by Respiring Myelin Sheath: Role of Connexons.

    PubMed

    Ravera, Silvia; Bartolucci, Martina; Adriano, Enrico; Garbati, Patrizia; Ferrando, Sara; Ramoino, Paola; Calzia, Daniela; Morelli, Alessandro; Balestrino, Maurizio; Panfoli, Isabella

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that myelin conducts an extramitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, hypothesizing a novel supportive role for myelin in favor of the axon. We have also hypothesized that the ATP produced in myelin could be transferred thought gap junctions. In this work, by biochemical, immunohistochemical, and electrophysiological techniques, the existence of a connection among myelin to the axon was evaluated, to understand how ATP could be transferred from sheath to the axoplasm. Data confirm a functional expression of oxidative phosphorylation in isolated myelin. Moreover, WB and immunohistochemistry on optic nerve slices show that connexins 32 and 43 are present in myelin and colocalize with myelin basic protein. Interestingly, addition of carbenoxolone or oleamide, two gap junction blockers, causes a decrease in oxidative metabolism in purified myelin, but not in mitochondria. Similar effects were observed on conduction speed in hippocampal Schaffer collateral, in the presence of oleamide. Confocal analysis of optic nerve slices showed that lucifer yellow (that only passes through aqueous pores) signal was found in both the sheath layers and the axoplasma. In the presence of oleamide, but not with oleic acid, signal significantly decreased in the sheath and was lost inside the axon. This suggests the existence of a link among myelin and axons. These results, while supporting the idea that ATP aerobically synthesized in myelin sheath could be transferred to the axoplasm through gap junctions, shed new light on the function of the sheath.

  17. Exogenous tissue plasminogen activator enhances peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery after injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Zou, Tie; Ling, Changchun; Xiao, Yao; Tao, Xianmei; Ma, Duan; Chen, Zu-Lin; Strickland, Sidney; Song, Houyan

    2006-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is an essential component of the proteolytic cascade that lyses blood clots. Various studies also suggest that tPA plays important roles in the nervous system. We show that exogenous tPA or tPA/plasminogen (plg) promotes axonal regeneration, remyelination, and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in the mouse. Local application of tPA or tPA/plg 7 days after sciatic nerve crush significantly increased the total number of axons and myelinated axons, which is accompanied by enhanced expression of neurofilament. Treatment with tPA or tPA/plg reduced the deposition of fibrin(ogen) after nerve injury. Moreover, tPA or tPA/plg increased the number of macrophages and induced MMP-9 expression at the injury site, coincident with reduced collagen scar formation and accelerated clearance of myelin and lipid debris after treatment. Consequently, tPA or tPA/plg treatment protected muscles from atrophy after nerve injury, indicating better functional recovery. These results suggest that administration of exogenous tPA or tPA/plg promotes axonal regeneration and remyelination through removal of fibrin deposition and activation of MMP-9-positive macrophages, which may be responsible for myelin debris clearance and preventing collagen scar formation. Therefore, tPA may be useful for treatment of peripheral nerve injury.

  18. Individual Neuronal Subtypes Exhibit Diversity in CNS Myelination Mediated by Synaptic Vesicle Release.

    PubMed

    Koudelka, Sigrid; Voas, Matthew G; Almeida, Rafael G; Baraban, Marion; Soetaert, Jan; Meyer, Martin P; Talbot, William S; Lyons, David A

    2016-06-01

    Regulation of myelination by oligodendrocytes in the CNS has important consequences for higher-order nervous system function (e.g., [1-4]), and there is growing consensus that neuronal activity regulates CNS myelination (e.g., [5-9]) through local axon-oligodendrocyte synaptic-vesicle-release-mediated signaling [10-12]. Recent analyses have indicated that myelination along axons of distinct neuronal subtypes can differ [13, 14], but it is not known whether regulation of myelination by activity is common to all neuronal subtypes or only some. This limits insight into how specific neurons regulate their own conduction. Here, we use a novel fluorescent fusion protein reporter to study myelination along the axons of distinct neuronal subtypes over time in zebrafish. We find that the axons of reticulospinal and commissural primary ascending (CoPA) neurons are among the first myelinated in the zebrafish CNS. To investigate how activity regulates myelination by different neuronal subtypes, we express tetanus toxin (TeNT) in individual reticulospinal or CoPA neurons to prevent synaptic vesicle release. We find that the axons of individual tetanus toxin expressing reticulospinal neurons have fewer myelin sheaths than controls and that their myelin sheaths are 50% shorter than controls. In stark contrast, myelination along tetanus-toxin-expressing CoPA neuron axons is entirely normal. These results indicate that while some neuronal subtypes modulate myelination by synaptic vesicle release to a striking degree in vivo, others do not. These data have implications for our understanding of how different neurons regulate myelination and thus their own function within specific neuronal circuits.

  19. Oligodendrocyte Development in the Absence of Their Target Axons In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, David

    2016-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes form myelin around axons of the central nervous system, enabling saltatory conduction. Recent work has established that axons can regulate certain aspects of oligodendrocyte development and myelination, yet remarkably oligodendrocytes in culture retain the ability to differentiate in the absence of axons and elaborate myelin sheaths around synthetic axon-like substrates. It remains unclear the extent to which the life-course of oligodendrocytes requires the presence of, or signals derived from axons in vivo. In particular, it is unclear whether the specific axons fated for myelination regulate the oligodendrocyte population in a living organism, and if so, which precise steps of oligodendrocyte-cell lineage progression are regulated by target axons. Here, we use live-imaging of zebrafish larvae carrying transgenic reporters that label oligodendrocyte-lineage cells to investigate which aspects of oligodendrocyte development, from specification to differentiation, are affected when we manipulate the target axonal environment. To drastically reduce the number of axons targeted for myelination, we use a previously identified kinesin-binding protein (kbp) mutant, in which the first myelinated axons in the spinal cord, reticulospinal axons, do not fully grow in length, creating a region in the posterior spinal cord where most initial targets for myelination are absent. We find that a 73% reduction of reticulospinal axon surface in the posterior spinal cord of kbp mutants results in a 27% reduction in the number of oligodendrocytes. By time-lapse analysis of transgenic OPC reporters, we find that the reduction in oligodendrocyte number is explained by a reduction in OPC proliferation and survival. Interestingly, OPC specification and migration are unaltered in the near absence of normal axonal targets. Finally, we find that timely differentiation of OPCs into oligodendrocytes does not depend at all on the presence of target axons. Together, our data

  20. CNS Myelin Sheath Lengths Are an Intrinsic Property of Oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bechler, Marie E; Byrne, Lauren; Ffrench-Constant, Charles

    2015-09-21

    Since Río-Hortega's description of oligodendrocyte morphologies nearly a century ago, many studies have observed myelin sheath-length diversity between CNS regions. Myelin sheath length directly impacts axonal conduction velocity by influencing the spacing between nodes of Ranvier. Such differences likely affect neural signal coordination and synchronization. What accounts for regional differences in myelin sheath lengths is unknown; are myelin sheath lengths determined solely by axons or do intrinsic properties of different oligodendrocyte precursor cell populations affect length? The prevailing view is that axons provide molecular cues necessary for oligodendrocyte myelination and appropriate sheath lengths. This view is based upon the observation that axon diameters correlate with myelin sheath length, as well as reports that PNS axonal neuregulin-1 type III regulates the initiation and properties of Schwann cell myelin sheaths. However, in the CNS, no such instructive molecules have been shown to be required, and increasing in vitro evidence supports an oligodendrocyte-driven, neuron-independent ability to differentiate and form initial sheaths. We test this alternative signal-independent hypothesis--that variation in internode lengths reflects regional oligodendrocyte-intrinsic properties. Using microfibers, we find that oligodendrocytes have a remarkable ability to self-regulate the formation of compact, multilamellar myelin and generate sheaths of physiological length. Our results show that oligodendrocytes respond to fiber diameters and that spinal cord oligodendrocytes generate longer sheaths than cortical oligodendrocytes on fibers, co-cultures, and explants, revealing that oligodendrocytes have regional identity and generate different sheath lengths that mirror internodes in vivo.

  1. Social Experience-Dependent Myelination: An Implication for Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Toritsuka, Michihiro; Makinodan, Manabu; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Myelination is one of the strategies to promote the conduction velocity of axons in order to adjust to evolving environment in vertebrates. It has been shown that myelin formation depends on genetic programing and experience, including multiple factors, intracellular and extracellular molecules, and neuronal activities. Recently, accumulating studies have shown that myelination in the central nervous system changes more dynamically in response to neuronal activities and experience than expected. Among experiences, social experience-dependent myelination draws attention as one of the critical pathobiologies of psychiatric disorders. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of neuronal activity-dependent and social experience-dependent myelination and discuss the contribution of social experience-dependent myelination to the pathology of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26078885

  2. Social Experience-Dependent Myelination: An Implication for Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Toritsuka, Michihiro; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Myelination is one of the strategies to promote the conduction velocity of axons in order to adjust to evolving environment in vertebrates. It has been shown that myelin formation depends on genetic programing and experience, including multiple factors, intracellular and extracellular molecules, and neuronal activities. Recently, accumulating studies have shown that myelination in the central nervous system changes more dynamically in response to neuronal activities and experience than expected. Among experiences, social experience-dependent myelination draws attention as one of the critical pathobiologies of psychiatric disorders. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of neuronal activity-dependent and social experience-dependent myelination and discuss the contribution of social experience-dependent myelination to the pathology of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26078885

  3. Social Experience-Dependent Myelination: An Implication for Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Toritsuka, Michihiro; Makinodan, Manabu; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Myelination is one of the strategies to promote the conduction velocity of axons in order to adjust to evolving environment in vertebrates. It has been shown that myelin formation depends on genetic programing and experience, including multiple factors, intracellular and extracellular molecules, and neuronal activities. Recently, accumulating studies have shown that myelination in the central nervous system changes more dynamically in response to neuronal activities and experience than expected. Among experiences, social experience-dependent myelination draws attention as one of the critical pathobiologies of psychiatric disorders. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of neuronal activity-dependent and social experience-dependent myelination and discuss the contribution of social experience-dependent myelination to the pathology of psychiatric disorders.

  4. CNS myelin wrapping is driven by actin disassembly.

    PubMed

    Zuchero, J Bradley; Fu, Meng-Meng; Sloan, Steven A; Ibrahim, Adiljan; Olson, Andrew; Zaremba, Anita; Dugas, Jason C; Wienbar, Sophia; Caprariello, Andrew V; Kantor, Christopher; Leonoudakis, Dmitri; Leonoudakus, Dmitri; Lariosa-Willingham, Karen; Kronenberg, Golo; Gertz, Karen; Soderling, Scott H; Miller, Robert H; Barres, Ben A

    2015-07-27

    Myelin is essential in vertebrates for the rapid propagation of action potentials, but the molecular mechanisms driving its formation remain largely unknown. Here we show that the initial stage of process extension and axon ensheathment by oligodendrocytes requires dynamic actin filament assembly by the Arp2/3 complex. Unexpectedly, subsequent myelin wrapping coincides with the upregulation of actin disassembly proteins and rapid disassembly of the oligodendrocyte actin cytoskeleton and does not require Arp2/3. Inducing loss of actin filaments drives oligodendrocyte membrane spreading and myelin wrapping in vivo, and the actin disassembly factor gelsolin is required for normal wrapping. We show that myelin basic protein, a protein essential for CNS myelin wrapping whose role has been unclear, is required for actin disassembly, and its loss phenocopies loss of actin disassembly proteins. Together, these findings provide insight into the molecular mechanism of myelin wrapping and identify it as an actin-independent form of mammalian cell motility.

  5. Oligodendroglial NMDA Receptors Regulate Glucose Import and Axonal Energy Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Saab, Aiman S; Tzvetavona, Iva D; Trevisiol, Andrea; Baltan, Selva; Dibaj, Payam; Kusch, Kathrin; Möbius, Wiebke; Goetze, Bianka; Jahn, Hannah M; Huang, Wenhui; Steffens, Heinz; Schomburg, Eike D; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Pérez-Cerdá, Fernando; Bakhtiari, Davood; Matute, Carlos; Löwel, Siegrid; Griesinger, Christian; Hirrlinger, Johannes; Kirchhoff, Frank; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2016-07-01

    Oligodendrocytes make myelin and support axons metabolically with lactate. However, it is unknown how glucose utilization and glycolysis are adapted to the different axonal energy demands. Spiking axons release glutamate and oligodendrocytes express NMDA receptors of unknown function. Here we show that the stimulation of oligodendroglial NMDA receptors mobilizes glucose transporter GLUT1, leading to its incorporation into the myelin compartment in vivo. When myelinated optic nerves from conditional NMDA receptor mutants are challenged with transient oxygen-glucose deprivation, they show a reduced functional recovery when returned to oxygen-glucose but are indistinguishable from wild-type when provided with oxygen-lactate. Moreover, the functional integrity of isolated optic nerves, which are electrically silent, is extended by preincubation with NMDA, mimicking axonal activity, and shortened by NMDA receptor blockers. This reveals a novel aspect of neuronal energy metabolism in which activity-dependent glutamate release enhances oligodendroglial glucose uptake and glycolytic support of fast spiking axons. PMID:27292539

  6. CFTR-deficient pigs display peripheral nervous system defects at birth

    PubMed Central

    Reznikov, Leah R.; Dong, Qian; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Moninger, Thomas O.; Park, Jung Min; Zhang, Yuzhou; Hildebrand, Michael S.; Smith, Richard J. H.; Randak, Christoph O.; Stoltz, David A.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral nervous system abnormalities, including neuropathy, have been reported in people with cystic fibrosis. These abnormalities have largely been attributed to secondary manifestations of the disease. We tested the hypothesis that disruption of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene directly influences nervous system function by studying newborn CFTR−/− pigs. We discovered CFTR expression and activity in Schwann cells, and loss of CFTR caused ultrastructural myelin sheath abnormalities similar to those in known neuropathies. Consistent with neuropathic changes, we found increased transcripts for myelin protein zero, a gene that, when mutated, can cause axonal and/or demyelinating neuropathy. In addition, axon density was reduced and conduction velocities of the trigeminal and sciatic nerves were decreased. Moreover, in vivo auditory brainstem evoked potentials revealed delayed conduction of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Our data suggest that loss of CFTR directly alters Schwann cell function and that some nervous system defects in people with cystic fibrosis are likely primary. PMID:23382208

  7. Dimethyl Fumarate Ameliorates Lewis Rat Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis and Mediates Axonal Protection

    PubMed Central

    Pitarokoili, Kalliopi; Ambrosius, Björn; Meyer, Daniela; Schrewe, Lisa; Gold, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Dimethyl fumarate is an immunomodulatory and neuroprotective drug, approved recently for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. In view of the limited therapeutic options for human acute and chronic polyneuritis, we used the animal model of experimental autoimmune neuritis in the Lewis rat to study the effects of dimethyl fumarate on autoimmune inflammation and neuroprotection in the peripheral nervous system. Methods and Findings Experimental autoimmune neuritis was induced by immunization with the neuritogenic peptide (amino acids 53–78) of P2 myelin protein. Preventive treatment with dimethyl fumarate given at 45 mg/kg twice daily by oral gavage significantly ameliorated clinical neuritis by reducing demyelination and axonal degeneration in the nerve conduction studies. Histology revealed a significantly lower degree of inflammatory infiltrates in the sciatic nerves. In addition, we detected a reduction of early signs of axonal degeneration through a reduction of amyloid precursor protein expressed in axons of the peripheral nerves. This reduction correlated with an increase of nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2)-related factor 2 positive axons, supporting the neuroprotective potential of dimethyl fumarate. Furthermore, nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2)-related factor 2 expression in Schwann cells was only rarely detected and there was no increase of Schwann cells death during EAN. Conclusions We conclude that immunmodulatory and neuroprotective dimethyl fumarate may represent an innovative therapeutic option in human autoimmune neuropathies. PMID:26618510

  8. Neurotoxic fragrance produces ceroid and myelin disease.

    PubMed

    Spencer, P S; Sterman, A B; Horoupian, D S; Foulds, M M

    1979-05-11

    Acetyl ethyl tetramethyl tetralin (AETT), a component of soaps, deodorants, and cosmetics, produces hyperirritability and limb weakness in rats repeatedly exposed to the compound. Brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves are discolored blue, show progressive neuronal ceroid degeneration, and develop spectacular myelin bubbling. These neurotoxic properties of AETT provide the basis for industry's decision to withdraw the compound from consumer products. In addition, AETT offers the experimentalist a new probe to explore the etiology and pathogeneses of human ceroid and myelin diseases.

  9. Microscopic and submicroscopic studies on the peripheral nerve and the skeletal muscle of the female. cadaver found in the Han Tomb No.1.

    PubMed

    Zheng, G Z; Feng, W H; Boa, Y H; Xue, J N; Ying, Y S

    1979-09-01

    The present paper deals with the microscopic and submicroscopic structures of the peripheral nerve of the lumbar plexus and the skeletal muscle of the m. psoas major of the ancient female cadaver buried about 2100 years ago, which was excavated from the Han Tomb No. 1 at Mawangdui (Mawangtui) near Changsha, Hunan Province. The connective tissues in the peripheral nerve and the skeletal muscle of the ancient cadaver were found well preserved. Under the electron microscope were observed the characteristic periodic bands of the collagenous fibrils as well as some axons and degenerated myelin sheath in the lumbar plexus. And in some of the better preserved nerve fibers, their axons and myelin sheaths are readily discernible. In the m. psoas major, cross striations are clearly visible in some muscle fibers. The remains of a blood vessel with only their connective tissues left were observed in the nerve of the lumbar plexus. Bacterial spores appeared in the two tissues.

  10. c-Jun activation in Schwann cells protects against loss of sensory axons in inherited neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Hantke, Janina; Carty, Lucy; Wagstaff, Laura J.; Turmaine, Mark; Wilton, Daniel K.; Quintes, Susanne; Koltzenburg, Martin; Baas, Frank; Mirsky, Rhona

    2014-01-01

    Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1A is the most frequent inherited peripheral neuropathy. It is generally due to heterozygous inheritance of a partial chromosomal duplication resulting in over-expression of PMP22. A key feature of Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1A is secondary death of axons. Prevention of axonal loss is therefore an important target of clinical intervention. We have previously identified a signalling mechanism that promotes axon survival and prevents neuron death in mechanically injured peripheral nerves. This work suggested that Schwann cells respond to injury by activating/enhancing trophic support for axons through a mechanism that depends on upregulation of the transcription factor c-Jun in Schwann cells, resulting in the sparing of axons that would otherwise die. As c-Jun orchestrates Schwann cell support for distressed neurons after mechanical injury, we have now asked: do Schwann cells also activate a c-Jun dependent neuron-supportive programme in inherited demyelinating disease? We tested this by using the C3 mouse model of Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1A. In line with our previous findings in humans with Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1A, we found that Schwann cell c-Jun was elevated in (uninjured) nerves of C3 mice. We determined the impact of this c-Jun activation by comparing C3 mice with double mutant mice, namely C3 mice in which c-Jun had been conditionally inactivated in Schwann cells (C3/Schwann cell-c-Jun−/− mice), using sensory-motor tests and electrophysiological measurements, and by counting axons in proximal and distal nerves. The results indicate that c-Jun elevation in the Schwann cells of C3 nerves serves to prevent loss of myelinated sensory axons, particularly in distal nerves, improve behavioural symptoms, and preserve F-wave persistence. This suggests that Schwann cells have two contrasting functions in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1A: on the one hand they are the genetic source of

  11. Electron microscope and x-ray diffraction studies of the effects of dehydrations on the structure of nerve myelin. I. Peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    FINEAN, J B

    1960-09-01

    The dehydration of frog sciatic nerve has been studied by allowing specimens to become partially or fully dried before fixation and preparation for electron microscopy. Low magnification electron micrographs of OsO(4)-fixed preparations showed marked tissue shrinkage which could be correlated quantitatively with the loss of water during the preliminary drying. KMnO(4)-fixation appeared to cause a rehydration of the dried tissue. Higher magnification electron micrographs of the OsO(4)-fixed preparations showed a sequence of modifications of the myelin layers which could be correlated with changes in the small-angle x-ray diffraction data which were recorded during drying. An intermediate stage of drying was characterised by a partial collapse of layers and a disappearance of the intraperiod dense line in some regions of the myelin sheath. Continuity between collapsed and non-collapsed layers was maintained throughout the sheath. The fully dried preparation showed two main modifications of the myelin layers. In many regions the layers (principal layers) resembled those of normal preparations, but showed an intensification and frequently a doubling of the intraperiod dense line. In addition, there was a very extensive system of fine (40 A periodicity) dense layers, some of which could be demonstrated to be continuous with the principal layers. In such cases it was observed that two of the fine layers were related to each principal layer. The correlation between diffraction data and electron microscope data is discussed, and some speculations are made concerning the molecular significance of the observations.

  12. Microfluidic control of axonal guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ling; Black, Bryan; Ordonez, Simon; Mondal, Argha; Jain, Ankur; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2014-10-01

    The precision of axonal pathfinding and the accurate formation of functional neural circuitry are crucial for an organism during development as well as during adult central and peripheral nerve regeneration. While chemical cues are believed to be primarily responsible for axonal pathfinding, we hypothesize that forces due to localized fluid flow may directly affect neuronal guidance during early organ development. Here, we report direct evidence of fluid flow influencing axonal migration, producing turning angles of up to 90°. Microfluidic flow simulations indicate that an axon may experience significant bending force due to cross-flow, which may contribute to the observed axonal turning. This method of flow-based guidance was successfully used to fasciculate one advancing axon onto another, showcasing the potential of this technique to be used for the formation of in vitro neuronal circuits.

  13. The neural androgen receptor: a therapeutic target for myelin repair in chronic demyelination.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Rashad; Ghoumari, Abdel M; Bielecki, Bartosz; Steibel, Jérôme; Boehm, Nelly; Liere, Philippe; Macklin, Wendy B; Kumar, Narender; Habert, René; Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina; Tronche, François; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Schumacher, Michael; Ghandour, M Said

    2013-01-01

    Myelin regeneration is a major therapeutic goal in demyelinating diseases, and the failure to remyelinate rapidly has profound consequences for the health of axons and for brain function. However, there is no efficient treatment for stimulating myelin repair, and current therapies are limited to anti-inflammatory agents. Males are less likely to develop multiple sclerosis than females, but often have a more severe disease course and reach disability milestones at an earlier age than females, and these observations have spurred interest in the potential protective effects of androgens. Here, we demonstrate that testosterone treatment efficiently stimulates the formation of new myelin and reverses myelin damage in chronic demyelinated brain lesions, resulting from the long-term administration of cuprizone, which is toxic for oligodendrocytes. In addition to the strong effect of testosterone on myelin repair, the number of activated astrocytes and microglial cells returned to low control levels, indicating a reduction of neuroinflammatory responses. We also identify the neural androgen receptor as a novel therapeutic target for myelin recovery. After the acute demyelination of cerebellar slices in organotypic culture, the remyelinating actions of testosterone could be mimicked by 5α-dihydrotestosterone, a metabolite that is not converted to oestrogens, and blocked by the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide. Testosterone treatment also failed to promote remyelination after chronic cuprizone-induced demyelination in mice with a non-functional androgen receptor. Importantly, testosterone did not stimulate the formation of new myelin sheaths after specific knockout of the androgen receptor in neurons and macroglial cells. Thus, the neural brain androgen receptor is required for the remyelination effect of testosterone, whereas the presence of the receptor in microglia and in peripheral tissues is not sufficient to enhance remyelination. The potent synthetic

  14. Exercise dependent increase in axon regeneration into peripheral nerve grafts by propriospinal but not sensory neurons after spinal cord injury is associated with modulation of regeneration-associated genes.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Rahul; Theisen, Catherine C; Ninan, Vinu; Twiss, Jeffery L; Houlé, John D

    2016-02-01

    Insufficient regeneration of central nervous system (CNS) axons contributes to persisting neurological dysfunction after spinal cord injury (SCI). Peripheral nerve grafts (PNGs) support regeneration by thousands of injured intraspinal axons and help them bypass some of the extracellular barriers that form after SCI. However this number represents but a small portion of the total number of axons that are injured. Here we tested if rhythmic sensory stimulation during cycling exercise would boost the intrinsic regenerative state of neurons to enhance axon regeneration into PNGs after a lower thoracic (T12) spinal transection of adult rats. Using True Blue retrograde tracing, we show that 4 weeks of cycling improves regeneration into a PNG from lumbar interneurons but not by primary sensory neurons. The majority of neurons that regenerate their axon are within 5 mm of the lesion and their number increased 70% with exercise. Importantly propriospinal neurons in more distant regions (5-20 mm from the lesion) that routinely exhibit very limited regeneration responded to exercise by increasing the number of regenerating neurons by 900%. There was no exercise-associated increase in regeneration from sensory neurons. Analyses using fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that this increase in regenerative response is associated with changes in levels of mRNAs encoding the regeneration associated genes (RAGs) GAP43, β-actin and Neuritin. While propriospinal neurons showed increased mRNA levels in response to SCI alone and then to grafting and exercise, sensory neurons did not respond to SCI, but there was a response to the presence of a PNG. Thus, exercise is a non-invasive approach to modulate gene expression in injured neurons leading to an increase in regeneration. This sets the stage for future studies to test whether exercise will promote axon outgrowth beyond the PNG and reconnection with spinal cord neurons, thereby demonstrating a potential clinical application of

  15. Exercise dependent increase in axon regeneration into peripheral nerve grafts by propriospinal but not sensory neurons after spinal cord injury is associated with modulation of regeneration-associated genes.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Rahul; Theisen, Catherine C; Ninan, Vinu; Twiss, Jeffery L; Houlé, John D

    2016-02-01

    Insufficient regeneration of central nervous system (CNS) axons contributes to persisting neurological dysfunction after spinal cord injury (SCI). Peripheral nerve grafts (PNGs) support regeneration by thousands of injured intraspinal axons and help them bypass some of the extracellular barriers that form after SCI. However this number represents but a small portion of the total number of axons that are injured. Here we tested if rhythmic sensory stimulation during cycling exercise would boost the intrinsic regenerative state of neurons to enhance axon regeneration into PNGs after a lower thoracic (T12) spinal transection of adult rats. Using True Blue retrograde tracing, we show that 4 weeks of cycling improves regeneration into a PNG from lumbar interneurons but not by primary sensory neurons. The majority of neurons that regenerate their axon are within 5 mm of the lesion and their number increased 70% with exercise. Importantly propriospinal neurons in more distant regions (5-20 mm from the lesion) that routinely exhibit very limited regeneration responded to exercise by increasing the number of regenerating neurons by 900%. There was no exercise-associated increase in regeneration from sensory neurons. Analyses using fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that this increase in regenerative response is associated with changes in levels of mRNAs encoding the regeneration associated genes (RAGs) GAP43, β-actin and Neuritin. While propriospinal neurons showed increased mRNA levels in response to SCI alone and then to grafting and exercise, sensory neurons did not respond to SCI, but there was a response to the presence of a PNG. Thus, exercise is a non-invasive approach to modulate gene expression in injured neurons leading to an increase in regeneration. This sets the stage for future studies to test whether exercise will promote axon outgrowth beyond the PNG and reconnection with spinal cord neurons, thereby demonstrating a potential clinical application of

  16. Peripheral facial nerve axotomy in mice causes sprouting of motor axons into perineuronal central white matter: time course and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Makwana, Milan; Werner, Alexander; Acosta-Saltos, Alejandro; Gonitel, Roman; Pararajasingam, Abirami; Pararajasingham, Abirami; Ruff, Crystal; Rumajogee, Prakasham; Cuthill, Dan; Galiano, Mathias; Bohatschek, Marion; Wallace, Adam S; Anderson, Patrick N; Mayer, Ulrike; Behrens, Axel; Raivich, Gennadij

    2010-03-01

    Generation of new axonal sprouts plays an important role in neural repair. In the current study, we examined the appearance, composition and effects of gene deletions on intrabrainstem sprouts following peripheral facial nerve axotomy. Axotomy was followed by the appearance of galanin(+) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)(+) sprouts peaking at day 14, matching both large, neuropeptide(+) subpopulations of axotomized facial motoneurons, but with CGRP(+) sprouts considerably rarer. Strong immunoreactivity for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and retrogradely transported MiniRuby following its application on freshly cut proximal facial nerve stump confirmed their axotomized motoneuron origin; the sprouts expressed CD44 and alpha7beta1 integrin adhesion molecules and grew apparently unhindered along neighboring central white matter tracts. Quantification of the galanin(+) sprouts revealed a stronger response following cut compared with crush (day 7-14) as well as enhanced sprouting after recut (day 8 + 6 vs. 14; 14 + 8 vs. 22), arguing against delayed appearance of sprouting being the result of the initial phase of reinnervation. Sprouting was strongly diminished in brain Jun-deficient mice but enhanced in alpha7 null animals that showed apparently compensatory up-regulation in beta1, suggesting important regulatory roles for transcription factors and the sprout-associated adhesion molecules. Analysis of inflammatory stimuli revealed a 50% reduction 12-48 hours following systemic endotoxin associated with neural inflammation and a tendency toward more sprouts in TNFR1/2 null mutants (P = 10%) with a reduced inflammatory response, indicating detrimental effects of excessive inflammation. Moreover, the study points to the usefulness of the facial axotomy model in exploring physiological and molecular stimuli regulating central sprouting. PMID:20034058

  17. Schwann cell autophagy, myelinophagy, initiates myelin clearance from injured nerves.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Sanchez, Jose A; Carty, Lucy; Iruarrizaga-Lejarreta, Marta; Palomo-Irigoyen, Marta; Varela-Rey, Marta; Griffith, Megan; Hantke, Janina; Macias-Camara, Nuria; Azkargorta, Mikel; Aurrekoetxea, Igor; De Juan, Virginia Gutiérrez; Jefferies, Harold B J; Aspichueta, Patricia; Elortza, Félix; Aransay, Ana M; Martínez-Chantar, María L; Baas, Frank; Mato, José M; Mirsky, Rhona; Woodhoo, Ashwin; Jessen, Kristján R

    2015-07-01

    Although Schwann cell myelin breakdown is the universal outcome of a remarkably wide range of conditions that cause disease or injury to peripheral nerves, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that make Schwann cell-mediated myelin digestion possible have not been established. We report that Schwann cells degrade myelin after injury by a novel form of selective autophagy, myelinophagy. Autophagy was up-regulated by myelinating Schwann cells after nerve injury, myelin debris was present in autophagosomes, and pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy impaired myelin clearance. Myelinophagy was positively regulated by the Schwann cell JNK/c-Jun pathway, a central regulator of the Schwann cell reprogramming induced by nerve injury. We also present evidence that myelinophagy is defective in the injured central nervous system. These results reveal an important role for inductive autophagy during Wallerian degeneration, and point to potential mechanistic targets for accelerating myelin clearance and improving demyelinating disease.

  18. Schwann cell autophagy, myelinophagy, initiates myelin clearance from injured nerves

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Sanchez, Jose A.; Carty, Lucy; Iruarrizaga-Lejarreta, Marta; Palomo-Irigoyen, Marta; Varela-Rey, Marta; Griffith, Megan; Hantke, Janina; Macias-Camara, Nuria; Azkargorta, Mikel; Aurrekoetxea, Igor; De Juan, Virginia Gutiérrez; Jefferies, Harold B.J.; Aspichueta, Patricia; Elortza, Félix; Aransay, Ana M.; Martínez-Chantar, María L.; Baas, Frank; Mato, José M.; Mirsky, Rhona

    2015-01-01

    Although Schwann cell myelin breakdown is the universal outcome of a remarkably wide range of conditions that cause disease or injury to peripheral nerves, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that make Schwann cell–mediated myelin digestion possible have not been established. We report that Schwann cells degrade myelin after injury by a novel form of selective autophagy, myelinophagy. Autophagy was up-regulated by myelinating Schwann cells after nerve injury, myelin debris was present in autophagosomes, and pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy impaired myelin clearance. Myelinophagy was positively regulated by the Schwann cell JNK/c-Jun pathway, a central regulator of the Schwann cell reprogramming induced by nerve injury. We also present evidence that myelinophagy is defective in the injured central nervous system. These results reveal an important role for inductive autophagy during Wallerian degeneration, and point to potential mechanistic targets for accelerating myelin clearance and improving demyelinating disease. PMID:26150392

  19. Myelin water fraction in human cervical spinal cord in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yijing; Alexander, Andrew L; Fleming, John O; Duncan, Ian D; Field, Aaron S

    2006-01-01

    The noninvasive discrimination of myelin disease from axonal loss and other pathologic confounds remains an unsolved problem in multiple sclerosis but may be possible through magnetic resonance quantitation of the intramyelinic water compartment. Technical challenges have limited the study of this approach in the spinal cord, a common site of involvement in multiple sclerosis. This technical note reports the test-retest reproducibility of a short T2-based estimate of myelin content in human spinal cord in vivo.

  20. Progressive disorganization of paranodal junctions and compact myelin due to loss of DCC expression by oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bull, Sarah-Jane; Bin, Jenea M; Beaumont, Eric; Boutet, Alexandre; Krimpenfort, Paul; Sadikot, Abbas F; Kennedy, Timothy E

    2014-07-16

    Paranodal axoglial junctions are critical for maintaining the segregation of axonal domains along myelinated axons; however, the proteins required to organize and maintain this structure are not fully understood. Netrin-1 and its receptor Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) are proteins enriched at paranodes that are expressed by neurons and oligodendrocytes. To identify the specific function of DCC expressed by oligodendrocytes in vivo, we selectively eliminated DCC from mature myelinating oligodendrocytes using an inducible cre regulated by the proteolipid protein promoter. We demonstrate that DCC deletion results in progressive disruption of the organization of axonal domains, myelin ultrastructure, and myelin protein composition. Conditional DCC knock-out mice develop balance and coordination deficits and exhibit decreased conduction velocity. We conclude that DCC expression by oligodendrocytes is required for the maintenance and stability of myelin in vivo, which is essential for proper signal conduction in the CNS.

  1. Correlation of peripheral innervation density and dorsal horn map scale.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Millecchia, R; Brown, P B

    1997-08-01

    Dorsal horn map scale and peripheral innervation density were compared to test a hypothesized linear relationship. In anesthetized cats, low-threshold mechanoreceptive peripheral nerve innervation fields (IFs) were measured by outlining areas of skin from which action potentials could be elicited in cutaneous nerves. The same nerves were processed histologically and used to count myelinated axons. Innervation density for each nerve was calculated as number of axons divided by IF area. Single units were recorded throughout the hindlimb representation, in laminae III and IV. These data, combined with single-unit data from other animals and with cell counts in laminae III and IV, permitted estimation of numbers of cells whose receptive field centers fell in contiguous 1-cm bands from tips of toes to proximal thigh. A similar estimate was performed with the use of the nerve innervation data, so that peripheral innervation densities and map scales for the different 1-cm bands of skin could be compared. Correlation between the two was quite high (r = 0.8), and highly significant (P = 2.5 x 10(-7)). These results are consistent with a proposed developmental model in which map scale, peripheral innervation density, and reciprocal of dorsal horn cell receptive field size are mutually proportional, as a result of developmental mechanisms that produce constant divergence and convergence between primary afferent axons and dorsal horn cells. PMID:9307105

  2. The formation of axonal caliber and nodes of Ranvier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinyun; Jung, Peter; Brown, Anthony

    2013-03-01

    A remarkable feature of myelinated neurons is that their axons are constricted at the nodes of Ranvier. These are the locations where axons are directly exposed to the extracellular space and where the vast majority of the ion channels are located. These constrictions emerge during development and have been observed to reduce axonal cross sectional area by factors of more than 10. Combining fluorescent imaging methods with computational modeling, we describe how the nervous system regulates the local caliber of its axons through the regulation of the transport kinetics of its most important cytoskeletal elements, the neurofilaments, matching axon caliber and shape to its physiologic function. National Science Foundation IOS 1146789

  3. Evolution of the CNS myelin gene regulatory program.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiliang; Richardson, William D

    2016-06-15

    Myelin is a specialized subcellular structure that evolved uniquely in vertebrates. A myelinated axon conducts action potentials many times faster than an unmyelinated axon of the same diameter; for the same conduction speed, the unmyelinated axon would need a much larger diameter and volume than its myelinated counterpart. Hence myelin speeds information transfer and saves space, allowing the evolution of a powerful yet portable brain. Myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) is controlled by a gene regulatory program that features a number of master transcriptional regulators including Olig1, Olig2 and Myrf. Olig family genes evolved from a single ancestral gene in non-chordates. Olig2, which executes multiple functions with regard to oligodendrocyte identity and development in vertebrates, might have evolved functional versatility through post-translational modification, especially phosphorylation, as illustrated by its evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine phospho-acceptor sites and its accumulation of serine residues during more recent stages of vertebrate evolution. Olig1, derived from a duplicated copy of Olig2 in early bony fish, is involved in oligodendrocyte development and is critical to remyelination in bony vertebrates, but is lost in birds. The origin of Myrf orthologs might be the result of DNA integration between an invading phage or bacterium and an early protist, producing a fusion protein capable of self-cleavage and DNA binding. Myrf seems to have adopted new functions in early vertebrates - initiation of the CNS myelination program as well as the maintenance of mature oligodendrocyte identity and myelin structure - by developing new ways to interact with DNA motifs specific to myelin genes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Myelin Evolution.

  4. AMIGO3 is an NgR1/p75 co-receptor signalling axon growth inhibition in the acute phase of adult central nervous system injury.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zubair; Douglas, Michael R; John, Gabrielle; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Axon regeneration in the injured adult CNS is reportedly inhibited by myelin-derived inhibitory molecules, after binding to a receptor complex comprised of the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR1) and two transmembrane co-receptors p75/TROY and LINGO-1. However, the post-injury expression pattern for LINGO-1 is inconsistent with its proposed function. We demonstrated that AMIGO3 levels were significantly higher acutely than those of LINGO-1 in dorsal column lesions and reduced in models of dorsal root ganglion neuron (DRGN) axon regeneration. Similarly, AMIGO3 levels were raised in the retina immediately after optic nerve crush, whilst levels were suppressed in regenerating optic nerves, induced by intravitreal peripheral nerve implantation. AMIGO3 interacted functionally with NgR1-p75/TROY in non-neuronal cells and in brain lysates, mediating RhoA activation in response to CNS myelin. Knockdown of AMIGO3 in myelin-inhibited adult primary DRG and retinal cultures promoted disinhibited neurite growth when cells were stimulated with appropriate neurotrophic factors. These findings demonstrate that AMIGO3 substitutes for LINGO-1 in the NgR1-p75/TROY inhibitory signalling complex and suggests that the NgR1-p75/TROY-AMIGO3 receptor complex mediates myelin-induced inhibition of axon growth acutely in the CNS. Thus, antagonizing AMIGO3 rather than LINGO-1 immediately after CNS injury is likely to be a more effective therapeutic strategy for promoting CNS axon regeneration when combined with neurotrophic factor administration. PMID:23613963

  5. Characterization of the shark myelin Po protein.

    PubMed

    Rotenstein, L; Herath, K; Gould, R M; de Bellard, M E

    2008-01-01

    Myelin, the insulating sheath made by extensive plasma membrane wrapping, is dependent on the presence of highly adhesive molecules that keep the two sides of the membrane in tight contact. The Po glycoprotein (Po) is the major component of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin of mammals. The exact role that Po protein has played in the evolution of myelin is still unclear, but several phylogenetic observations suggest that it is a crucial component in the development of myelin as a multi-lamellar membrane structure. Sharks, which appeared in the fossil record about 400 million years ago, are the first fully myelinated organisms. In this study we investigated the expression pattern of shark myelin Po to suggest a way it might have played a role in the evolution of myelin in the central nervous system. We found that sharks have more than two isoforms (32, 28 and 25 kD), and that some of these might not be fully functional because they lack the domains known for Po homophilic adhesion.

  6. A Phenotypic Culture System for the Molecular Analysis of CNS Myelination in the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Hedvika; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Stancescu, Maria; Love, Rachal; Hickman, James J.; Lambert, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Studies of central nervous system myelination lack defined in vitro models which would effectively dissect molecular mechanisms of myelination that contain cells of the correct phenotype. Here we describe a co-culture of purified motoneurons and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, isolated from rat embryonic spinal cord using a combination of immunopanning techniques. This model illustrates differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitors into fully functional mature oligodendrocytes that myelinate axons. It also illustrates a contribution of axons to the rate of oligodendrocyte maturation and myelin gene expression. The defined conditions used allow molecular analysis of distinct stages of myelination and precise manipulation of inductive cues affecting axonal–oligodendrocyte interactions. This phenotypic in vitro myelination model can provide valuable insight into our understanding of demyelinating disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and traumatic diseases such as spinal cord injury where demyelination represents a contributing factor to the pathology of the disorder. PMID:25064806

  7. Axo-Glia Interaction Preceding CNS Myelination Is Regulated by Bidirectional Eph-Ephrin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Linneberg, Cecilie; Harboe, Mette; Laursen, Lisbeth S

    2015-01-01

    In the central nervous system, myelination of axons is required to ensure fast saltatory conduction and for survival of neurons. However, not all axons are myelinated, and the molecular mechanisms involved in guiding the oligodendrocyte processes toward the axons to be myelinated are not well understood. Only a few negative or positive guidance clues that are involved in regulating axo-glia interaction prior to myelination have been identified. One example is laminin, known to be required for early axo-glia interaction, which functions through α6β1 integrin. Here, we identify the Eph-ephrin family of guidance receptors as novel regulators of the initial axo-glia interaction, preceding myelination. We demonstrate that so-called forward and reverse signaling, mediated by members of both Eph and ephrin subfamilies, has distinct and opposing effects on processes extension and myelin sheet formation. EphA forward signaling inhibits oligodendrocyte process extension and myelin sheet formation, and blocking of bidirectional signaling through this receptor enhances myelination. Similarly, EphB forward signaling also reduces myelin membrane formation, but in contrast to EphA forward signaling, this occurs in an integrin-dependent manner, which can be reversed by overexpression of a constitutive active β1-integrin. Furthermore, ephrin-B reverse signaling induced by EphA4 or EphB1 enhances myelin sheet formation. Combined, this suggests that the Eph-ephrin receptors are important mediators of bidirectional signaling between axons and oligodendrocytes. It further implies that balancing Eph-ephrin forward and reverse signaling is important in the selection process of axons to be myelinated.

  8. Inefficient clearance of myelin debris by microglia impairs remyelinating processes

    PubMed Central

    Lampron, Antoine; Larochelle, Antoine; Laflamme, Nathalie; Préfontaine, Paul; Plante, Marie-Michèle; Sánchez, Maria Gabriela; Yong, V. Wee; Stys, Peter K.; Tremblay, Marie-Ève

    2015-01-01

    An imbalance between remyelinating and demyelinating rates underlies degenerative processes in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. An optimal therapeutic strategy would be to stimulate remyelination while limiting demyelination. Although accumulation of myelin debris impairs remyelination, the mechanisms regulating the clearance of such debris by mononuclear phagocytic cells are poorly understood. We demonstrate that after cuprizone intoxication, CCR2-dependent infiltration of mouse bone marrow–derived cells is abundant in demyelinating areas, but that these cells do not impact demyelination. However, in CX3CR1-deficient mice, the clearance of myelin debris by microglia was blocked greatly, affecting the integrity of the axon and myelin sheaths and thus preventing proper remyelination. These results highlight the crucial role played by CX3CR1 in myelin removal and show that there can be no efficient remyelination after a primary demyelinating insult if myelin clearance by microglia is impaired. PMID:25779633

  9. Zebrafish as a Model to Investigate CNS Myelination

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Marnie A.; Macklin, Wendy B.

    2015-01-01

    Myelin plays a critical role in proper neuronal function by providing trophic and metabolic support to axons and facilitating energy-efficient saltatory conduction. Myelination is influenced by numerous molecules including growth factors, hormones, transmembrane receptors and extracellular molecules, which activate signaling cascades that drive cellular maturation. Key signaling molecules and downstream signaling cascades controlling myelination have been identified in cell culture systems. However, in vitro systems are not able to faithfully replicate the complex in vivo signaling environment that occurs during development or following injury. Currently, it remains time-consuming and expensive to investigate myelination in vivo in rodents, the most widely used model for studying mammalian myelination. As such, there is a need for alternative in vivo myelination models, particularly ones that can test molecular mechanisms without removing oligodendrocyte lineage cells from their native signaling environment or disrupting intercellular interactions with other cell types present during myelination. Here, we review the ever-increasing role of zebrafish in studies uncovering novel mechanisms controlling vertebrate myelination. These innovative studies range from observations of the behavior of single cells during in vivo myelination as well as mutagenesis- and pharmacology-based screens in whole animals. Additionally, we discuss recent efforts to develop novel models of demyelination and oligodendrocyte cell death in adult zebrafish for the study of cellular behavior in real time during repair and regeneration of damaged nervous systems. PMID:25263121

  10. Zebrafish as a model to investigate CNS myelination.

    PubMed

    Preston, Marnie A; Macklin, Wendy B

    2015-02-01

    Myelin plays a critical role in proper neuronal function by providing trophic and metabolic support to axons and facilitating energy-efficient saltatory conduction. Myelination is influenced by numerous molecules including growth factors, hormones, transmembrane receptors and extracellular molecules, which activate signaling cascades that drive cellular maturation. Key signaling molecules and downstream signaling cascades controlling myelination have been identified in cell culture systems. However, in vitro systems are not able to faithfully replicate the complex in vivo signaling environment that occurs during development or following injury. Currently, it remains time-consuming and expensive to investigate myelination in vivo in rodents, the most widely used model for studying mammalian myelination. As such, there is a need for alternative in vivo myelination models, particularly ones that can test molecular mechanisms without removing oligodendrocyte lineage cells from their native signaling environment or disrupting intercellular interactions with other cell types present during myelination. Here, we review the ever-increasing role of zebrafish in studies uncovering novel mechanisms controlling vertebrate myelination. These innovative studies range from observations of the behavior of single cells during in vivo myelination as well as mutagenesis- and pharmacology-based screens in whole animals. Additionally, we discuss recent efforts to develop novel models of demyelination and oligodendrocyte cell death in adult zebrafish for the study of cellular behavior in real time during repair and regeneration of damaged nervous systems.

  11. Cdon, a cell surface protein, mediates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Chun; Almazan, Guillermina

    2016-06-01

    During central nervous system development, oligodendrocyte progenitors (OLPs) establish multiple branched processes and axonal contacts to initiate myelination. A complete understanding of the molecular signals implicated in cell surface interaction to initiate myelination/remyelination is currently lacking. The objective of our study was to assess whether Cdon, a cell surface protein that was shown to participate in muscle and neuron cell development, is involved in oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation and myelination. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous Cdon protein is expressed in OLPs, increasing in the early differentiation stages and decreasing in mature OLGs. Immunocytochemistry of endogenous Cdon showed localization on both OLG cell membranes and cellular processes exhibiting puncta- or varicosity-like structures. Cdon knockdown with siRNA decreased protein levels by 62% as well as two myelin-specific proteins, MBP and MAG. Conversely, overexpression of full-length rat Cdon increased myelin proteins in OLGs. The complexity of OLGs branching and contact point numbers with axons were also increased in Cdon overexpressing cells growing alone or in coculture with dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs). Furthermore, myelination of DRGNs was decreased when OLPs were transfected with Cdon siRNA. Altogether, our results suggest that Cdon participates in OLG differentiation and myelination, most likely in the initial stages of development.

  12. Insights into mechanisms of central nervous system myelination using zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Czopka, Tim

    2016-03-01

    Myelin is the multi-layered membrane that surrounds most axons and is produced by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition to its important role in enabling rapid nerve conduction, it has become clear in recent years that myelin plays additional vital roles in CNS function. Myelinating oligodendrocytes provide metabolic support to axons and active myelination is even involved in regulating forms of learning and memory formation. However, there are still large gaps in our understanding of how myelination by oligodendrocytes is regulated. The small tropical zebrafish has become an increasingly popular model organism to investigate many aspects of nervous system formation, function, and regeneration. This is mainly due to two approaches for which the zebrafish is an ideally suited vertebrate model--(1) in vivo live cell imaging using vital dyes and genetically encoded reporters, and (2) gene and target discovery using unbiased screens. This review summarizes how the use of zebrafish has helped understand mechanisms of oligodendrocyte behavior and myelination in vivo and discusses the potential use of zebrafish to shed light on important future questions relating to myelination in the context of CNS development, function and repair.

  13. Localisation of N-acetylaspartate in oligodendrocytes/myelin.

    PubMed

    Nordengen, Kaja; Heuser, Christoph; Rinholm, Johanne Egge; Matalon, Reuben; Gundersen, Vidar

    2015-03-01

    The role of N-acetylaspartate in the brain is unclear. Here we used specific antibodies against N-acetylaspartate and immunocytochemistry of carbodiimide-fixed adult rodent brain to show that, besides staining of neuronal cell bodies in the grey matter, N-acetylaspartate labelling was present in oligodendrocytes/myelin in white matter tracts. Immunoelectron microscopy of the rat hippocampus showed that N-acetylaspartate was concentrated in the myelin. Also neuronal cell bodies and axons contained significant amounts of N-acetylaspartate, while synaptic elements and astrocytes were low in N-acetylaspartate. Mitochondria in axons and neuronal cell bodies contained higher levels of N-acetylaspartate compared to the cytosol, compatible with synthesis of N-acetylaspartate in mitochondria. In aspartoacylase knockout mice, in which catabolism of N-acetylaspartate is blocked, the levels of N-acetylaspartate were largely increased in oligodendrocytes/myelin. In these mice, the highest myelin concentration of N-acetylaspartate was found in the cerebellum, a region showing overt dysmyelination. In organotypic cortical slice cultures there was no evidence for N-acetylaspartate-induced myelin toxicity, supporting the notion that myelin damage is induced by the lack of N-acetylaspartate for lipid production. Our findings also implicate that N-acetylaspartate signals on magnetic resonance spectroscopy reflect not only vital neurons but also vital oligodendrocytes/myelin.

  14. Making myelin basic protein -from mRNA transport to localized translation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christina; Bauer, Nina M; Schäfer, Isabelle; White, Robin

    2013-09-27

    In the central nervous system (CNS) of most vertebrates, oligodendrocytes enwrap neuronal axons with extensions of their plasma membrane to form the myelin sheath. Several proteins are characteristically found in myelin of which myelin basic protein (MBP) is the second most abundant one after proteolipid protein. The lack of functional MBP in rodents results in a severe hypomyelinated phenotype in the CNS demonstrating its importance for myelin synthesis. Mbp mRNA is transported from the nucleus to the plasma membrane and is translated locally at the axon-glial contact site. Axonal properties such as diameter or electrical activity influence the degree of myelination. As oligodendrocytes can myelinate many axonal segments with varying properties, localized MBP translation represents an important part of a rapid and axon-tailored synthesis machinery. MBP's ability to compact cellular membranes may be problematic for the integrity of intracellular membranous organelles and can also explain why MBP is transported in oligodendrocytes in the form of an mRNA rather than as a protein. Here we review the recent findings regarding intracellular transport and signaling mechanisms leading to localized translation of Mbp mRNA in oligodendrocytes. More detailed insights into the MBP synthesis pathway are important for a better understanding of the myelination process and may foster the development of remyelination therapies for demyelinating diseases.

  15. E-cadherin enhances neuregulin signaling and promotes Schwann cell myelination.

    PubMed

    Basak, Sayantani; Desai, Darshan J; Rho, Esther H; Ramos, Roselle; Maurel, Patrice; Kim, Haesun A

    2015-09-01

    In myelinating Schwann cells, E-cadherin is a component of the adherens junctions that stabilize the architecture of the noncompact myelin region. In other cell types, E-cadherin has been considered as a signaling receptor that modulates intracellular signal transduction and cellular responses. To determine whether E-cadherin plays a regulatory role during Schwann cell myelination, we investigated the effects of E-cadherin deletion and over-expression in Schwann cells. In vivo, Schwann cell-specific E-cadherin ablation results in an early myelination delay. In Schwann cell-dorsal root ganglia neuron co-cultures, E-cadherin deletion attenuates myelin formation and shortens the myelin segment length. When over-expressed in Schwann cells, E-cadherin improves myelination on Nrg1 type III(+/-) neurons and induces myelination on normally non-myelinated axons of sympathetic neurons. The pro-myelinating effect of E-cadherin is associated with an enhanced Nrg1-erbB receptor signaling, including activation of the downstream Akt and Rac. Accordingly, in the absence of E-cadherin, Nrg1-signaling is diminished in Schwann cells. Our data also show that E-cadherin expression in Schwann cell is induced by axonal Nrg1 type III, indicating a reciprocal interaction between E-cadherin and the Nrg1 signaling. Altogether, our data suggest a regulatory function of E-cadherin that modulates Nrg1 signaling and promotes Schwann cell myelin formation.

  16. Saltatory conduction in unmyelinated axons: clustering of Na(+) channels on lipid rafts enables micro-saltatory conduction in C-fibers.

    PubMed

    Neishabouri, Ali; Faisal, A Aldo

    2014-01-01

    THE ACTION POTENTIAL (AP), THE FUNDAMENTAL SIGNAL OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM, IS CARRIED BY TWO TYPES OF AXONS: unmyelinated and myelinated fibers. In the former the action potential propagates continuously along the axon as established in large-diameter fibers. In the latter axons the AP jumps along the nodes of Ranvier-discrete, anatomically specialized regions which contain very high densities of sodium ion (Na(+)) channels. Therefore, saltatory conduction is thought as the hallmark of myelinated axons, which enables faster and more reliable propagation of signals than in unmyelinated axons of same outer diameter. Recent molecular anatomy showed that in C-fibers, the very thin (0.1 μm diameter) axons of the peripheral nervous system, Nav1.8 channels are clustered together on lipid rafts that float in the cell membrane. This localized concentration of Na(+) channels resembles in structure the ion channel organization at the nodes of Ranvier, yet it is currently unknown whether this translates into an equivalent phenomenon of saltatory conduction or related-functional benefits and efficiencies. Therefore, we modeled biophysically realistic unmyelinated axons with both conventional and lipid-raft based organization of Na(+) channels. We find that APs are reliably conducted in a micro-saltatory fashion along lipid rafts. Comparing APs in unmyelinated fibers with and without lipid rafts did not reveal any significant difference in either the metabolic cost or AP propagation velocity. By investigating the efficiency of AP propagation over Nav1.8 channels, we find however that the specific inactivation properties of these channels significantly increase the metabolic cost of signaling in C-fibers. PMID:25352785

  17. Severe demyelinating hypertrophic polyneuropathy caused by a de novo frameshift mutation within the intracellular domain of myelin protein zero (MPZ/P0).

    PubMed

    Zschüntzsch, Jana; Dibaj, Payam; Pilgram, Sara; Kötting, Judith; Gerding, Wanda M; Neusch, C

    2009-06-15

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), also known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous neuropathies classically divided into demyelinating (CMT1) and axonal forms (CMT2). The most common demyelinating form is CMT1A with an underlying duplication in the gene coding for the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22). Less frequently, mutations in the myelin protein zero gene (MPZ/P(0)) account for demyelinating CMT1B, Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS), or congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy (CHN). Here, we report a patient with a severe, early-onset hypertrophic and dysmyelinating neuropathy. The patient exhibits a novel frameshift mutation with an insertion of a single T-nucleotide on position c.618_619 of the MPZ gene resulting in a premature stop M207fsX38. PMID:19344920

  18. Myelin membrane assembly is driven by a phase transition of myelin basic proteins into a cohesive protein meshwork.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Shweta; Snaidero, Nicolas; Pähler, Gesa; Frey, Steffen; Sánchez, Paula; Zweckstetter, Markus; Janshoff, Andreas; Schneider, Anja; Weil, Marie-Theres; Schaap, Iwan A T; Görlich, Dirk; Simons, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Rapid conduction of nerve impulses requires coating of axons by myelin. To function as an electrical insulator, myelin is generated as a tightly packed, lipid-rich multilayered membrane sheath. Knowledge about the mechanisms that govern myelin membrane biogenesis is required to understand myelin disassembly as it occurs in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Here, we show that myelin basic protein drives myelin biogenesis using weak forces arising from its inherent capacity to phase separate. The association of myelin basic protein molecules to the inner leaflet of the membrane bilayer induces a phase transition into a cohesive mesh-like protein network. The formation of this protein network shares features with amyloid fibril formation. The process is driven by phenylalanine-mediated hydrophobic and amyloid-like interactions that provide the molecular basis for protein extrusion and myelin membrane zippering. These findings uncover a physicochemical mechanism of how a cytosolic protein regulates the morphology of a complex membrane architecture. These results provide a key mechanism in myelin membrane biogenesis with implications for disabling demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system.

  19. Specificity of motor axon regeneration: a comparison of recovery following biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization and epineurial neurorrhaphy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Youlai; Zhang, Peixun; Yin, Xiaofeng; Han, Na; Kou, Yuhui; Jiang, Baoguo

    2015-01-01

    Functional recovery is often unsatisfactory after lesions in the peripheral nervous system despite the strong potential for regeneration and advances in microsurgical techniques. Axonal regeneration in mixed nerve into inappropriate pathways is a major contributing factor to this failure. In this study, the rat femoral nerve model of transection and surgical repair was used to evaluate the specificity of motor axon regeneration as well as functional and morphological recovery using biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization compared to epineurial neurorrhaphy. 12 weeks after nerve repair, the specificity was assessed using the retrograde neurotracers TB and DiI to backlabel motor neurons that regenerate axons into muscle and cutaneous pathways. To evaluate the functional recovery of the quadriceps muscle, the quadriceps muscle forces were examined. The quadriceps muscle and myelinated axons were assessed using electrophysiology and histology. The results showed that the specificity of motor axon regeneration (preferential reinnervation) was significantly higher when the nerve transection was treated by biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization and there was no significant difference between the two suture methods with respect to the functional and morphological recovery. This study demonstrated that the quicker and easier biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization may get more accurate reinnervation than traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy and produced functional and morphological recovery equal to traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy. PMID:25755828

  20. Schwann cell myelination of the myelin deficient rat spinal cord following X-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, I.D.; Hammang, J.P.; Gilmore, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    The myelin-deficient (md) rat is an X-linked myelin mutant that has an abnormality of oligodendrocytes and a severe paucity of myelin throughout the CNS. This lack of myelin makes it an ideal model in which to study the cellular interactions that occur when foreign myelinating cells are induced in the milieu of this nonmyelinated CNS. In this study, Schwann cells were induced in the lumbosacral spinal cord by exposing it to radiation, a technique demonstrated repeatedly in other nonmutant strains of rats. Md rats and their age-matched littermates were irradiated (3,000 to 4,000 R) at 3 days of age and perfused 16-22 days later after pulse labeling with tritiated thymidine. In the md rat, Schwann cell invasion progressed from the area of the spinal cord-nerve root junction and extended into the dorsal columns and adjacent gray matter. Autoradiographic evidence revealed that many of these cells incorporated 3H-thymidine, indicating that they were undergoing proliferation. Ultrastructural observations showed that there was an integration of these intraspinal Schwann cells with the cells normally occurring in this environment, i.e., oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. The extent of migration and division of Schwann cells, as well as their interactions with glial cells, were similar to those seen in the nonmutant irradiated littermates. These studies provide conclusive evidence that md rat axons are normal with respect to their ability to provide trophic and mitogenic signals to myelinating cells.

  1. Molecular evolution of myelin basic protein, an abundant structural myelin component.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Schanila; Schweitzer, Jörn; Jahn, Olaf; Werner, Hauke B

    2013-08-01

    Rapid nerve conduction in jawed vertebrates is facilitated by the myelination of axons, which evolved in ancient cartilaginous fish. We aim to understand the coevolution of myelin and the major myelin proteins. We found that myelin basic protein (MBP) derived from living cartilaginous fish (sharks and rays) associated with the plasma membrane of glial cells similar to the phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP₂)-binding marker PH-PLCδ1, and that ionomycin-induced PIP₂-hydrolysis led to its cellular redistribution. We identified two paralogous mbp genes in multiple teleost species, consistent with a genome duplication at the root of the teleost clade. Zebrafish mbpb is organized in a complex transcription unit together with the unrelated gene-of-the-oligodendrocyte-lineage (golli) while mbpa does not encode GOLLI. Moreover, the embryonic expression of mbpa and mbpb differed, indicating functional specialization after duplication. However, both mbpa and mbpb-mRNAs were detected in mature oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, MBPa and MBPb were mass spectrometrically identified in zebrafish myelin, both associated with the plasma membrane via PIP₂, and the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide-substitution rates (Ka/Ks) was low. Together, this indicates selective pressure to conserve many aspects of the cellular expression and function of MBP across vertebrate species. We propose that the PIP₂-binding function of MBP is evolutionarily old and that its emergence in ancient gnathostomata provided glial cells with the competence to myelinate. PMID:24040667

  2. Molecular evolution of myelin basic protein, an abundant structural myelin component.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Schanila; Schweitzer, Jörn; Jahn, Olaf; Werner, Hauke B

    2013-08-01

    Rapid nerve conduction in jawed vertebrates is facilitated by the myelination of axons, which evolved in ancient cartilaginous fish. We aim to understand the coevolution of myelin and the major myelin proteins. We found that myelin basic protein (MBP) derived from living cartilaginous fish (sharks and rays) associated with the plasma membrane of glial cells similar to the phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP₂)-binding marker PH-PLCδ1, and that ionomycin-induced PIP₂-hydrolysis led to its cellular redistribution. We identified two paralogous mbp genes in multiple teleost species, consistent with a genome duplication at the root of the teleost clade. Zebrafish mbpb is organized in a complex transcription unit together with the unrelated gene-of-the-oligodendrocyte-lineage (golli) while mbpa does not encode GOLLI. Moreover, the embryonic expression of mbpa and mbpb differed, indicating functional specialization after duplication. However, both mbpa and mbpb-mRNAs were detected in mature oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, MBPa and MBPb were mass spectrometrically identified in zebrafish myelin, both associated with the plasma membrane via PIP₂, and the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide-substitution rates (Ka/Ks) was low. Together, this indicates selective pressure to conserve many aspects of the cellular expression and function of MBP across vertebrate species. We propose that the PIP₂-binding function of MBP is evolutionarily old and that its emergence in ancient gnathostomata provided glial cells with the competence to myelinate.

  3. No evidence for chronic demyelination in spared axons after spinal cord injury in a mouse.

    PubMed

    Lasiene, Jurate; Shupe, Larry; Perlmutter, Steve; Horner, Philip

    2008-04-01

    The pattern of remyelination after traumatic spinal cord injury remains elusive, with animal and human studies reporting partial to complete demyelination followed by incomplete remyelination. In the present study, we found that spared rubrospinal tract (RST) axons of passage traced with actively transported dextrans and examined caudally to the lesion 12 weeks after mouse spinal cord contusion injury were fully remyelinated. Spared axons exhibited a marginally reduced myelin thickness and significantly shorter internodes. CASPR (contactin-associated protein) and K(v)1.2 channels were used to identify internodes and paranodal protein distribution properties were used as an index of myelin integrity. This is the first time the CNS myelin internode length was measured in a mouse. To better understand the significance of shortened internodes and thinner myelin in spared axons, we modeled conduction properties using McIntyre's et al. model of myelinated axons. Mathematical modeling predicted a 21% decrease in the conduction velocity of remyelinated RST axons attributable to shortened internodes. To determine whether demyelination could be present on axons exhibiting a pathological transport system, we used the retroviral reporter system. Virally delivered green fluorescent protein unveiled a small population of dystrophic RST axons that persist chronically with evident demyelination or abnormal remyelination. Collectively, these data show that lasting demyelination in spared axons is rare and that remyelination of axons of passage occurs in the chronically injured mouse spinal cord. PMID:18400887

  4. Mitochondrial fission augments capsaicin-induced axonal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hao; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Hsieh, Yu-Lin; Mahad, Don J; Kikuchi, Shin; Komuro, Hitoshi; Hsieh, Sung-Tsang; Trapp, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin, an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1, induces axonal degeneration of peripheral sensory nerves and is commonly used to treat painful sensory neuropathies. In this study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial dynamics in capsaicin-induced axonal degeneration. In capsaicin-treated rodent sensory axons, axonal swellings, decreased mitochondrial stationary site length and reduced mitochondrial transport preceded axonal degeneration. Increased axoplasmic Ca(2+) mediated the alterations in mitochondrial length and transport. While sustaining mitochondrial transport did not reduce axonal swellings in capsaicin-treated axons, preventing mitochondrial fission by overexpression of mutant dynamin-related protein 1 increased mitochondrial length, retained mitochondrial membrane potentials and reduced axonal loss upon capsaicin treatment. These results establish that mitochondrial stationary site size significantly affects axonal integrity and suggest that inhibition of Ca(2+)-dependent mitochondrial fission facilitates mitochondrial function and axonal survival following activation of axonal cationic channels.

  5. The Polarity Protein Pals1 Regulates Radial Sorting of Axons.

    PubMed

    Zollinger, Daniel R; Chang, Kae-Jiun; Baalman, Kelli; Kim, Seonhee; Rasband, Matthew N

    2015-07-22

    Myelin is essential for rapid and efficient action potential propagation in vertebrates. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating myelination remain incompletely characterized. For example, even before myelination begins in the PNS, Schwann cells must radially sort axons to form 1:1 associations. Schwann cells then ensheathe and wrap axons, and establish polarized, subcellular domains, including apical and basolateral domains, paranodes, and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures. Intriguingly, polarity proteins, such as Pals1/Mpp5, are highly enriched in some of these domains, suggesting that they may regulate the polarity of Schwann cells and myelination. To test this, we generated mice with Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes that lack Pals1. During early development of the PNS, Pals1-deficient mice had impaired radial sorting of axons, delayed myelination, and reduced nerve conduction velocities. Although myelination and conduction velocities eventually recovered, polyaxonal myelination remained a prominent feature of adult Pals1-deficient nerves. Despite the enrichment of Pals1 at paranodes and incisures of control mice, nodes of Ranvier and paranodes were unaffected in Pals1-deficient mice, although we measured a significant increase in the number of incisures. As in other polarized cells, we found that Pals1 interacts with Par3 and loss of Pals1 reduced levels of Par3 in Schwann cells. In the CNS, loss of Pals1 affected neither myelination nor the establishment of polarized membrane domains. These results demonstrate that Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes use distinct mechanisms to control their polarity, and that radial sorting in the PNS is a key polarization event that requires Pals1. Significance statement: This paper reveals the role of the canonical polarity protein Pals1 in radial sorting of axons by Schwann cells. Radial sorting is essential for efficient and proper myelination and is disrupted in some types of congenital muscular dystrophy.

  6. Human Neuroma-in-Continuity Contains Focal Deficits in Myelination.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Arie C; Tannemaat, Martijn R; van Duinen, Sjoerd G; Verhaagen, Joost; Malessy, Martijn J A; De Winter, Fred

    2015-09-01

    Functional recovery does not occur in 10% of patients with neonatal brachial plexus palsy. In these patients, resection of a neuroma-in-continuity (NIC) and surgical nerve reconstruction are required. The formation of a NIC seems to prohibit functional recovery, but the underlying biologic mechanisms for this failure are poorly understood. We systematically analyzed a large series of NIC tissue samples from 17 neonatal and 3 adult patients using an array of immunohistochemical techniques. In a large proportion of patients (74%), the NIC contained multiple focal globular areas with markedly diminished myelination. These focal myelin deficits (FMDs) contain Schwann cells that enwrap axons in an apparently normal configuration but do not form myelin. Biomathematical analysis of a 2-cm neuroma predicted a higher-than-95% probability that an axon would encounter 10 FMDs. Axon segments in FMDs also had disturbed nodes of Ranvier (i.e., FMDs contained significantly fewer clustered Na(v)1.6 channels and decreased Caspr and ankyrin G). These observations indicate that axons in NIC course through multiple FMDs and that this may be the pathobiologic basis for conduction blocks in patients with neonatal brachial plexus palsy. These observations indicate the need for novel strategies to promote functional recovery after neonatal brachial plexus palsy by improving myelination in the NIC.

  7. Schwann Cell Myelination Requires Timely and Precise Targeting of P0 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yin, X.; Kidd, G.J.; Wrabetz, L.; Feltri, M.L.; Messing, A.; Trapp, B.D.

    2000-01-01

    This report investigated mechanisms responsible for failed Schwann cell myelination in mice that overexpress P0 (P0tg), the major structural protein of PNS myelin. Quantitative ultrastructural immunocytochemistry established that P0 protein was mistargeted to abaxonal, periaxonal, and mesaxon membranes in P0tg Schwann cells with arrested myelination. The extracellular leaflets of P0-containing mesaxon membranes were closely apposed with periodicities of compact myelin. The myelin-associated glycoprotein was appropriately sorted in the Golgi apparatus and targeted to periaxonal membranes. In adult mice, occasional Schwann cells myelinated axons possibly with the aid of endocytic removal of mistargeted P0. These results indicate that P0 gene multiplication causes P0 mistargeting to mesaxon membranes, and through obligate P0 homophilic adhesion, renders these dynamic membranes inert and halts myelination. PMID:10704450

  8. NF-κB signalling requirement for brain myelin formation is shown by genotype/MRI phenotype correlations in patients with Xq28 duplications

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, Orianne; Rio, Marlène; Malan, Valérie; Van Esch, Hilde; Baujat, Geneviève; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Gesny, Roseline; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Munnich, Arnold; Froyen, Guy; Amiel, Jeanne; Boddaert, Nathalie; Colleaux, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    One of the key signals regulating peripheral myelin formation by Schwann cell is the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Yet, whether NF-κB exerts similar functions in central myelin formation by oligodendrocytes remains largely unknown. We previously reported white matter abnormalities with unusual discordance between T2 and FLAIR sequences in a patient with intellectual disability and defective NF-κB signalling. These observations prompted us to hypothesise that NF-κB signalling may have a role in the axon myelination process of central neurons. We report here on five male patients with Xq28 duplications encompassing MECP2, three of which presented white matter anomalies on brain MRI. Array-CGH and FISH analyses demonstrated that brain abnormalities correlate with additional copies of the IKBKG, a gene encoding a key regulator of NF-κB activation. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments and κB-responsive reporter gene assays provide evidence that IKBKG overexpression causes impaired NF-κB signalling in skin fibroblasts derived from patients with white matter anomalies. These data further support the role of NF-κB signalling in astroglial cells for normal myelin formation of the central nervous system. PMID:22805531

  9. NF-κB signalling requirement for brain myelin formation is shown by genotype/MRI phenotype correlations in patients with Xq28 duplications.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Orianne; Rio, Marlène; Malan, Valérie; Van Esch, Hilde; Baujat, Geneviève; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Gesny, Roseline; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Munnich, Arnold; Froyen, Guy; Amiel, Jeanne; Boddaert, Nathalie; Colleaux, Laurence

    2013-02-01

    One of the key signals regulating peripheral myelin formation by Schwann cell is the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Yet, whether NF-κB exerts similar functions in central myelin formation by oligodendrocytes remains largely unknown. We previously reported white matter abnormalities with unusual discordance between T2 and FLAIR sequences in a patient with intellectual disability and defective NF-κB signalling. These observations prompted us to hypothesise that NF-κB signalling may have a role in the axon myelination process of central neurons. We report here on five male patients with Xq28 duplications encompassing MECP2, three of which presented white matter anomalies on brain MRI. Array-CGH and FISH analyses demonstrated that brain abnormalities correlate with additional copies of the IKBKG, a gene encoding a key regulator of NF-κB activation. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments and κB-responsive reporter gene assays provide evidence that IKBKG overexpression causes impaired NF-κB signalling in skin fibroblasts derived from patients with white matter anomalies. These data further support the role of NF-κB signalling in astroglial cells for normal myelin formation of the central nervous system.

  10. The evolution of vertebrate and invertebrate myelin: a theoretical computational study.

    PubMed

    Castelfranco, Ann M; Hartline, Daniel K

    2015-06-01

    Multilayered, lipid-rich myelin increases nerve impulse conduction velocity, contributes to compact nervous systems, and reduces metabolic costs of neural activity. Based on the hypothesis that increased impulse conduction velocity provides a selective advantage that drives the evolution of myelin, we simulated a sequence of plausible intermediate stages of myelin evolution, each of which providing an enhancement of conduction speed. We started with the expansion of insulating glial coverage, which led first to a single layer of myelin surrounding the axon and then to multiple myelin wraps with well-organized nodes. The myelinated fiber was modeled at three levels of complexity as the hypothesized evolutionary progression became more quantitatively exacting: 1) representing the fiber as a mathematically-tractable uniform active cylinder with the effect of myelination approximated by changing its specific capacitance (C(m)); 2) representing it as a chain of simple, cable-model compartments having alternating nodal and internodal parameters subject to optimization, and 3) representing it in a double cable model with the axon and myelin sheath treated separately. Conduction velocity was optimized at each stage. To maintain optimal conduction velocities, increased myelin coverage of axonal surface must be accompanied by an increase in channel density at the evolving nodes, but along with increases in myelin thickness, a reduction in overall average channel density must occur. Leakage under the myelin sheath becomes more of a problem with smaller fiber diameters, which may help explain the tendency for myelin to occur preferentially in larger nerve fibers in both vertebrates and invertebrates.

  11. The protein kinase A regulatory subunit R1A (Prkar1a) plays critical roles in peripheral nerve development.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Lee, Audrey A; Rizvi, Tilat A; Ratner, Nancy; Kirschner, Lawrence S

    2013-11-13

    Signaling through cAMP has been implicated in Schwann cell (SC) proliferation and myelination, but the signaling pathway components downstream of cAMP required for SC function remain unknown. Protein kinase A (PKA) is a potential downstream effector of cAMP. Here, we induced loss of Prkar1a, the gene encoding the type 1A regulatory subunit of PKA, in SC to study its role in nerve development; loss of Prkar1a is predicted to elevate PKA activity. Conditional Prkar1a knock-out in mouse SC (Prkar1a-SCKO) resulted in a dramatic and persistent axonal sorting defect, and unexpectedly decreased SC proliferation in Prkar1a-SCKO nerves in vivo. Effects were cell autonomous as they were recapitulated in vitro in Prkar1a-SCKO SC, which showed elevated PKA activity. In the few SCs sorted into 1:1 relationships with axons in vivo, SC myelination was premature in Prkar1a-SCKO nerves, correlating with global increase in the cAMP-regulated transcription factor Oct-6 and expression of myelin basic protein. These data reveal a previously unknown role of PKA in axon sorting, an unexpected inhibitory role of PKA on SC cell proliferation in vivo and define the importance of Prkar1a in peripheral nerve development. PMID:24227708

  12. MHC-I and PirB Upregulation in the Central and Peripheral Nervous System following Sciatic Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    Bombeiro, André Luis; Thomé, Rodolfo; Oliveira Nunes, Sérgio Luiz; Monteiro Moreira, Bárbara; Verinaud, Liana; Oliveira, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class one (MHC-I) antigen-presenting molecules participate in central nervous system (CNS) synaptic plasticity, as does the paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), an MHC-I ligand that can inhibit immune-cells and bind to myelin axon growth inhibitors. Based on the dual roles of both molecules in the immune and nervous systems, we evaluated their expression in the central and peripheral nervous system (PNS) following sciatic nerve injury in mice. Increased PirB and MHC-I protein and gene expression is present in the spinal cord one week after nerve transection, PirB being mostly expressed in the neuropile region. In the crushed nerve, MHC-I protein levels increased 2 weeks after lesion (wal) and progressively decreased over the next eight weeks. The same kinetics were observed for infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) but not for PirB expression, which continuously increased. Both MHC-I and PirB were found in macrophages and Schwann cells but rarely in axons. Interestingly, at 8 wal, PirB was mainly restricted to the myelin sheath. Our findings reinforce the participation of MHC-I and PirB in CNS plasticity events. In contrast, opposing expression levels of these molecules were found in the PNS, so that MHC-I and PirB seem to be mostly implicated in antigen presentation to CTLs and axon myelination, respectively. PMID:27551751

  13. MHC-I and PirB Upregulation in the Central and Peripheral Nervous System following Sciatic Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bombeiro, André Luis; Thomé, Rodolfo; Oliveira Nunes, Sérgio Luiz; Monteiro Moreira, Bárbara; Verinaud, Liana; de Oliveira, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class one (MHC-I) antigen-presenting molecules participate in central nervous system (CNS) synaptic plasticity, as does the paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), an MHC-I ligand that can inhibit immune-cells and bind to myelin axon growth inhibitors. Based on the dual roles of both molecules in the immune and nervous systems, we evaluated their expression in the central and peripheral nervous system (PNS) following sciatic nerve injury in mice. Increased PirB and MHC-I protein and gene expression is present in the spinal cord one week after nerve transection, PirB being mostly expressed in the neuropile region. In the crushed nerve, MHC-I protein levels increased 2 weeks after lesion (wal) and progressively decreased over the next eight weeks. The same kinetics were observed for infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) but not for PirB expression, which continuously increased. Both MHC-I and PirB were found in macrophages and Schwann cells but rarely in axons. Interestingly, at 8 wal, PirB was mainly restricted to the myelin sheath. Our findings reinforce the participation of MHC-I and PirB in CNS plasticity events. In contrast, opposing expression levels of these molecules were found in the PNS, so that MHC-I and PirB seem to be mostly implicated in antigen presentation to CTLs and axon myelination, respectively. PMID:27551751

  14. Oligodendrocyte, Astrocyte, and Microglia Crosstalk in Myelin Development, Damage, and Repair.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Helena S; Portugal, Camila C; Socodato, Renato; Relvas, João B

    2016-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating glia of the central nervous system. Myelination of axons allows rapid saltatory conduction of nerve impulses and contributes to axonal integrity. Devastating neurological deficits caused by demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, illustrate well the importance of the process. In this review, we focus on the positive and negative interactions between oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia during developmental myelination and remyelination. Even though many lines of evidence support a crucial role for glia crosstalk during these processes, the nature of such interactions is often neglected when designing therapeutics for repair of demyelinated lesions. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying glial cell communication and how they influence oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination is fundamental to uncover novel therapeutic strategies for myelin repair. PMID:27551677

  15. Functional organization of an Mbp enhancer exposes striking transcriptional regulatory diversity within myelinating glia.

    PubMed

    Dionne, Nancy; Dib, Samar; Finsen, Bente; Denarier, Eric; Kuhlmann, Tanja; Drouin, Régen; Kokoeva, Maia; Hudson, Thomas J; Siminovitch, Kathy; Friedman, Hana C; Peterson, Alan C

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, large caliber axons are ensheathed by myelin, a glial specialization supporting axon integrity and conferring accelerated and energy-efficient action potential conduction. Myelin basic protein (MBP) is required for normal myelin elaboration with maximal mbp transcription in oligodendrocytes requiring the upstream M3 enhancer. To further characterize the mechanism regulating mbp transcription, we defined M3 structure/function relationships by evaluating its evolutionary conservation, DNA footprints and the developmental programing conferred in mice by M3 derivatives. Multiple M3 regulatory element combinations were found to drive expression in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells with a minimal 129 bp sequence conferring expression in oligodendrocytes throughout myelin elaboration, maintenance and repair. Unexpectedly, M3 derivatives conferred markedly different spatial and temporal expression programs thus illuminating striking transcriptional heterogeneity within post-mitotic oligodendrocytes. Finally, one M3 derivative engaged only during primary myelination, not during adult remyelination, demonstrating that transcriptional regulation in the two states is not equivalent. PMID:26507463

  16. Oligodendrocyte, Astrocyte, and Microglia Crosstalk in Myelin Development, Damage, and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Helena S.; Portugal, Camila C.; Socodato, Renato; Relvas, João B.

    2016-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating glia of the central nervous system. Myelination of axons allows rapid saltatory conduction of nerve impulses and contributes to axonal integrity. Devastating neurological deficits caused by demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, illustrate well the importance of the process. In this review, we focus on the positive and negative interactions between oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia during developmental myelination and remyelination. Even though many lines of evidence support a crucial role for glia crosstalk during these processes, the nature of such interactions is often neglected when designing therapeutics for repair of demyelinated lesions. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying glial cell communication and how they influence oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination is fundamental to uncover novel therapeutic strategies for myelin repair. PMID:27551677

  17. Actin filament turnover drives leading edge growth during myelin sheath formation in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Schanila; Sánchez, Paula; Schmitt, Sebastian; Snaidero, Nicolas; Mitkovski, Mišo; Velte, Caroline; Brückner, Bastian R; Alexopoulos, Ioannis; Czopka, Tim; Jung, Sang Y; Rhee, Jeong S; Janshoff, Andreas; Witke, Walter; Schaap, Iwan A T; Lyons, David A; Simons, Mikael

    2015-07-27

    During CNS development, oligodendrocytes wrap their plasma membrane around axons to generate multilamellar myelin sheaths. To drive growth at the leading edge of myelin at the interface with the axon, mechanical forces are necessary, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Using an interdisciplinary approach that combines morphological, genetic, and biophysical analyses, we identified a key role for actin filament network turnover in myelin growth. At the onset of myelin biogenesis, F-actin is redistributed to the leading edge, where its polymerization-based forces push out non-adhesive and motile protrusions. F-actin disassembly converts protrusions into sheets by reducing surface tension and in turn inducing membrane spreading and adhesion. We identified the actin depolymerizing factor ADF/cofilin1, which mediates high F-actin turnover rates, as an essential factor in this process. We propose that F-actin turnover is the driving force in myelin wrapping by regulating repetitive cycles of leading edge protrusion and spreading.

  18. Loss of distal axons and sensory Merkel cells and features indicative of muscle denervation in hindlimbs of P0-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Frei, R; Mötzing, S; Kinkelin, I; Schachner, M; Koltzenburg, M; Martini, R

    1999-07-15

    Mice lacking the major Schwann cell myelin component P0 show a severe dysmyelination with pathological features reminiscent of the Déjérine-Sottas syndrome in humans. Previous morphological and electrophysiological studies on these mice did not only demonstrate a compromised myelination and myelin maintenance, but were suggestive of an impairment of axons as well. Here, we studied the axonal pathology in P0-deficient mice by quantitative electron microscopy. In addition, we investigated epidermal receptor end organs by immunocytochemistry and muscle pathology by histochemistry. In proximal sections of facial and femoral nerves, axon calibers were significantly reduced, whereas the number of myelin-competent axons was not diminished in 5- and 17-month-old P0-deficient mice. However, in distal branches of the femoral and sciatic nerve (digital nerves innervating the skin of the first toe) the numbers of myelin-competent axons were reduced by 70% in 6-month-old P0-deficient mice. Immunolabeling of foot pads revealed a corresponding loss of Merkel cells by 75%, suggesting that survival of these cells is dependent on the presence or maintenance of their innervating myelinated axons. In addition, quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles showed pathological features indicative of denervation and axonal sprouting. These findings demonstrate that loss of an important myelin component can initiate degenerative mechanisms not only in the Schwann cell but also in the distal portions of myelinated axons, leading to the degeneration of specialized receptor end organs and impairment of muscle innervation. PMID:10407042

  19. Changes in the expression and localization of the paranodal protein Caspr on axons in chronic multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wolswijk, Guus; Balesar, Rawien

    2003-07-01

    The presence of intact paranodal junctions on myelinated axons in the CNS and PNS is crucial for both myelin sheath attachment and saltatory impulse conduction. The axonal glycoprotein contactin-associated protein (Caspr) is expressed in the paranodal region and plays an important role in the creation and maintenance of these adhesive junctions. In the present study, antibodies to Caspr were used to assess the integrity of paranodal junctions on myelinated axons in brain and spinal cord tissue from subjects with longstanding multiple sclerosis, a neurological disorder that affects both myelin and axons. Triple immunofluorescence combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that axons in the demyelinated centre of the 36 brain and 16 spinal cord multiple sclerosis lesions studied were devoid of Caspr immunoreactivity, suggesting that axons down regulate the expression of Caspr following demyelination. Additional data indicated that Caspr reappears in the paranodal region with the formation of new myelin sheaths. Immuno labelling further revealed that Caspr on myelinated axons in border regions was often no longer concentrated in the paranodal region, but was also present in the internodal region-a phenomenon particularly common in the borders of the more chronic lesions in the collection. Myelinated axons with long Caspr-positive stretches were often present at a considerable distance from the lesion edges. These findings raise the possibility that the aberrant location of Caspr is an early sign of impending myelin loss. This would imply that demyelination continues at a slow rate in established lesions. The diameters of Caspr-positive structures on some myelinated axons near the lesion edges were also increased. Moreover, the gap between individual myelin sheaths on these apparently swollen axons was widened occasionally and a very small myelin sheath plus additional Caspr-positive structures had sometimes formed in the enlarged space. This finding thus

  20. Label-free real-time imaging of myelination in the Xenopus laevis tadpole by in vivo stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chun-Rui; Zhang, Delong; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Hu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. The myelin sheath plays an important role as the axon in the functioning of the neural system, and myelin degradation is a hallmark pathology of multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Electron microscopy, fluorescent microscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging are three major techniques used for myelin visualization. However, microscopic observation of myelin in living organisms remains a challenge. Using a newly developed stimulated Raman scattering microscopy approach, we report noninvasive, label-free, real-time in vivo imaging of myelination by a single-Schwann cell, maturation of a single node of Ranvier, and myelin degradation in the transparent body of the Xenopus laevis tadpole. PMID:25104411

  1. Label-free real-time imaging of myelination in the Xenopus laevis tadpole by in vivo stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chun-Rui; Zhang, Delong; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Hu, Bing

    2014-08-01

    The myelin sheath plays an important role as the axon in the functioning of the neural system, and myelin degradation is a hallmark pathology of multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Electron microscopy, fluorescent microscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging are three major techniques used for myelin visualization. However, microscopic observation of myelin in living organisms remains a challenge. Using a newly developed stimulated Raman scattering microscopy approach, we report noninvasive, label-free, real-time in vivo imaging of myelination by a single-Schwann cell, maturation of a single node of Ranvier, and myelin degradation in the transparent body of the Xenopus laevis tadpole.

  2. Neurophysiological approach to disorders of peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Crone, Clarissa; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of the peripheral nerve system (PNS) are heterogeneous and may involve motor fibers, sensory fibers, small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers and autonomic nerve fibers, with variable anatomical distribution (single nerves, several different nerves, symmetrical affection of all nerves, plexus, or root lesions). Furthermore pathological processes may result in either demyelination, axonal degeneration or both. In order to reach an exact diagnosis of any neuropathy electrophysiological studies are crucial to obtain information about these variables. Conventional electrophysiological methods including nerve conduction studies and electromyography used in the study of patients suspected of having a neuropathy and the significance of the findings are discussed in detail and more novel and experimental methods are mentioned. Diagnostic considerations are based on a flow chart classifying neuropathies into eight categories based on mode of onset, distribution, and electrophysiological findings, and the electrophysiological characteristics in each type of neuropathy are discussed. PMID:23931776

  3. Peripheral nerve morphogenesis induced by scaffold micropatterning

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Danish; Boneschi, Filippo Martinelli; Madaghiele, Marta; Brambilla, Paola; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Taveggia, Carla; Riva, Nilo; Trimarco, Amelia; Lopez, Ignazio D.; Comi, Giancarlo; Pluchino, Stefano; Martino, Gianvito; Sannino, Alessandro; Quattrini, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Several bioengineering approaches have been proposed for peripheral nervous system repair, with limited results and still open questions about the underlying molecular mechanisms. We assessed the biological processes that occur after the implantation of collagen scaffold with a peculiar porous microstructure of the wall in a rat sciatic nerve transection model compared to commercial collagen conduits and nerve crush injury using functional, histological and genome wide analyses. We demonstrated that within 60 days, our conduit had been completely substituted by a normal nerve. Gene expression analysis documented a precise sequential regulation of known genes involved in angiogenesis, Schwann cells/axons interactions and myelination, together with a selective modulation of key biological pathways for nerve morphogenesis induced by porous matrices. These data suggest that the scaffold’s microstructure profoundly influences cell behaviors and creates an instructive micro-environment to enhance nerve morphogenesis that can be exploited to improve recovery and understand the molecular differences between repair and regeneration. PMID:24559639

  4. Plasmalogen phospholipids protect internodal myelin from oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Luoma, Adrienne M; Kuo, Fonghsu; Cakici, Ozgur; Crowther, Michelle N; Denninger, Andrew R; Avila, Robin L; Brites, Pedro; Kirschner, Daniel A

    2015-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in a range of degenerative conditions, including aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and neurological disorders. Myelin is a lipid-rich multilamellar sheath that facilitates rapid nerve conduction in vertebrates. Given the high energetic demands and low antioxidant capacity of the cells that elaborate the sheaths, myelin is considered intrinsically vulnerable to oxidative damage, raising the question whether additional mechanisms prevent structural damage. We characterized the structural and biochemical basis of ROS-mediated myelin damage in murine tissues from both central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). To determine whether ROS can cause structural damage to the internodal myelin, whole sciatic and optic nerves were incubated ex vivo with a hydroxyl radical-generating system consisting of copper (Cu), hydrogen peroxide (HP), and ortho-phenanthroline (OP). Quantitative assessment of unfixed tissue by X-ray diffraction revealed irreversible compaction of myelin membrane stacking in both sciatic and optic nerves. Incubation in the presence of the hydroxyl radical scavenger sodium formate prevented this damage, implicating hydroxyl radical species. Myelin membranes are particularly enriched in plasmalogens, a class of ether-linked phospholipids proposed to have antioxidant properties. Myelin in sciatic nerve from plasmalogen-deficient (Pex7 knockout) mice was significantly more vulnerable to Cu/OP/HP-mediated ROS-induced compaction than myelin from WT mice. Our results directly support the role of plasmalogens as endogenous antioxidants providing a defense that protects ROS-vulnerable myelin.

  5. Inherited peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Keller, M P; Chance, P F

    1999-01-01

    Hereditary disorders of the peripheral nerves constitute a group of frequently encountered neurological diseases. Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 1 (CMT1) is genetically heterogeneous and characterized by demyelination with moderately to severely reduced nerve conduction velocities, absent muscle stretch reflexes and onion bulb formation. Genetic loci for CMT1 map to chromosome 17 (CMT1A), chromosome 1 (CMT1B), and another unknown autosome (CMT1C). CMT1A is most often associated with a tandem 1.5-megabase (Mb) duplication in chromosome 17p11.2-12, or in rare patients may result from a point mutation in the peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22) gene. CMT1 B result from point mutations in the myelin protein zero (Po or MPZ) gene. The molecular defect in CMT1 C is unknown. Mutations in the early growth response 2 gene (EGR2) are also associated with demyelinating neuropathy. Other rare forms of demyelinating peripheral neuropathies map to chromosome 8q, 10q, and 11q. X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMTX), which has clinical features similar to CMT1, is associated with mutations in the connexin32 gene. Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 2 (CMT2) is characterized by normal or mildly reduced nerve conduction velocity with decreased amplitude and axonal loss without hypertrophic features. One form of CMT2 maps to chromosome 1 p36 (CMT2A), another to chromosome 3p (CMT2B) and another to 7p (CMT2D). Dejerine-Sottas disease (DSD), also called hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type III (HMSNIII), is a severe, infantile-onset demyelinating polyneuropathy that may be associated with point mutations in either the PMP22 gene or the Po gene and shares considerable clinical and pathological features with CMT1. Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder that results in a recurrent, episodic demyelinating neuropathy. HNPP is associated with a 1.5-Mb deletion in chromosome 17p11.2-12 and results from reduced

  6. Progesterone Synthesis in the Nervous System: Implications for Myelination and Myelin Repair

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Michael; Hussain, Rashad; Gago, Nathalie; Oudinet, Jean-Paul; Mattern, Claudia; Ghoumari, Abdel M.

    2011-01-01

    Progesterone is well known as a female reproductive hormone and in particular for its role in uterine receptivity, implantation, and the maintenance of pregnancy. However, neuroendocrine research over the past decades has established that progesterone has multiple functions beyond reproduction. Within the nervous system, its neuromodulatory and neuroprotective effects are much studied. Although progesterone has been shown to also promote myelin repair, its influence and that of other steroids on myelination and remyelination is relatively neglected. Reasons for this are that hormonal influences are still not considered as a central problem by most myelin biologists, and that neuroendocrinologists are not sufficiently concerned with the importance of myelin in neuron functions and viability. The effects of progesterone in the nervous system involve a variety of signaling mechanisms. The identification of the classical intracellular progesterone receptors as therapeutic targets for myelin repair suggests new health benefits for synthetic progestins, specifically designed for contraceptive use and hormone replacement therapies. There are also major advantages to use natural progesterone in neuroprotective and myelin repair strategies, because progesterone is converted to biologically active metabolites in nervous tissues and interacts with multiple target proteins. The delivery of progesterone however represents a challenge because of its first-pass metabolism in digestive tract and liver. Recently, the intranasal route of progesterone administration has received attention for easy and efficient targeting of the brain. Progesterone in the brain is derived from the steroidogenic endocrine glands or from local synthesis by neural cells. Stimulating the formation of endogenous progesterone is currently explored as an alternative strategy for neuroprotection, axonal regeneration, and myelin repair. PMID:22347156

  7. Phase separation of myelin proteins in triton X-114: differential behavior of myelin basic protein in purified myelin and in cultured oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bürgisser, P; Matthieu, J M

    1989-01-01

    Rabbit central (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin, as well as nonmyelinating pig oligodendrocytes in culture, were extracted at 0-4 degrees C with the nonionic detergent Triton X-114. The solubilized proteins were partitioned into the detergent-rich and detergent-depleted (aqueous) phases that form upon heating to 37 degrees C. The proteolipid protein (PLP), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and P0 extracted from myelin were found exclusively in the detergent phase which is characteristic of the intrinsic membrane proteins. This was also the case for Wolfgram protein (WP), although this protein lacks transmembrane domains. A small fraction of the MAG and MOG extracted from oligodendrocytes partitioned into the aqueous phase, suggesting an altered conformation outside myelin or a different state of glycosylation. P2 and myelin basic protein (MBP) showed distinct patterns of behavior. P2 was found mainly in the aqueous phase giving strong support to its theoretically predicted conformation. Eighty-nine percent of the MBP extracted from CNS myelin and 81% of the pure MBP partitioned into the detergent phase. Surprisingly, most of the MBP extracted from the oligodendrocytes was recovered in the aqueous phase. We speculate that, in these cells, a hydrophilic protein might bind to the MBP in a specific manner, thereby preventing it from binding inappropriately to cellular components before its insertion into myelin.

  8. Excitability properties of motor axons in adults with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Cliff S.; Zhou, Ping; Marciniak, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a permanent disorder caused by a lesion to the developing brain that significantly impairs motor function. The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying motor impairment are not well understood. Specifically, few have addressed whether motoneuron or peripheral axon properties are altered in CP, even though disruption of descending inputs to the spinal cord may cause them to change. In the present study, we have compared nerve excitability properties in seven adults with CP and fourteen healthy controls using threshold tracking techniques by stimulating the median nerve at the wrist and recording the compound muscle action potential over the abductor pollicis brevis. The excitability properties in the CP subjects were found to be abnormal. Early and late depolarizing and hyperpolarizing threshold electrotonus was significantly larger (i.e., fanning out), and resting current–threshold (I/V) slope was smaller, in CP compared to control. In addition resting threshold and rheobase tended to be larger in CP. According to a modeling analysis of the data, an increase in leakage current under or through the myelin sheath, i.e., the Barrett–Barrett conductance, combined with a slight hyperpolarization of the resting membrane potential, best explained the group differences in excitability properties. There was a trend for those with greater impairment in gross motor function to have more abnormal axon properties. The findings indicate plasticity of motor axon properties far removed from the site of the lesion. We suspect that this plasticity is caused by disruption of descending inputs to the motoneurons at an early age around the time of their injury. PMID:26089791

  9. Regulation of prefrontal cortex myelination by the microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Hoban, A E; Stilling, R M; Ryan, F J; Shanahan, F; Dinan, T G; Claesson, M J; Clarke, G; Cryan, J F

    2016-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a key region implicated in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, schizophrenia and autism. In parallel, the role of the gut microbiota in contributing to these disorders is emerging. Germ-free (GF) animals, microbiota-deficient throughout life, have been instrumental in elucidating the role of the microbiota in many aspects of physiology, especially the role of the microbiota in anxiety-related behaviours, impaired social cognition and stress responsivity. Here we aim to further elucidate the mechanisms of the microbial influence by investigating changes in the homeostatic regulation of neuronal transcription of GF mice within the PFC using a genome-wide transcriptome profiling approach. Our results reveal a marked, concerted upregulation of genes linked to myelination and myelin plasticity. This coincided with upregulation of neural activity-induced pathways, potentially driving myelin plasticity. Subsequent investigation at the ultrastructural level demonstrated the presence of hypermyelinated axons within the PFC of GF mice. Notably, these changes in myelin and activity-related gene expression could be reversed by colonization with a conventional microbiota following weaning. In summary, we believe we demonstrate for the first time that the microbiome is necessary for appropriate and dynamic regulation of myelin-related genes with clear implications for cortical myelination at an ultrastructural level. The microbiota is therefore a potential therapeutic target for psychiatric disorders involving dynamic myelination in the PFC. PMID:27045844

  10. Regulation of prefrontal cortex myelination by the microbiota.

    PubMed

    Hoban, A E; Stilling, R M; Ryan, F J; Shanahan, F; Dinan, T G; Claesson, M J; Clarke, G; Cryan, J F

    2016-04-05

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a key region implicated in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, schizophrenia and autism. In parallel, the role of the gut microbiota in contributing to these disorders is emerging. Germ-free (GF) animals, microbiota-deficient throughout life, have been instrumental in elucidating the role of the microbiota in many aspects of physiology, especially the role of the microbiota in anxiety-related behaviours, impaired social cognition and stress responsivity. Here we aim to further elucidate the mechanisms of the microbial influence by investigating changes in the homeostatic regulation of neuronal transcription of GF mice within the PFC using a genome-wide transcriptome profiling approach. Our results reveal a marked, concerted upregulation of genes linked to myelination and myelin plasticity. This coincided with upregulation of neural activity-induced pathways, potentially driving myelin plasticity. Subsequent investigation at the ultrastructural level demonstrated the presence of hypermyelinated axons within the PFC of GF mice. Notably, these changes in myelin and activity-related gene expression could be reversed by colonization with a conventional microbiota following weaning. In summary, we believe we demonstrate for the first time that the microbiome is necessary for appropriate and dynamic regulation of myelin-related genes with clear implications for cortical myelination at an ultrastructural level. The microbiota is therefore a potential therapeutic target for psychiatric disorders involving dynamic myelination in the PFC.

  11. CXXC5 plays a role as a transcription activator for myelin genes on oligodendrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Hyun-Yi; Hong, Jiso; Kim, Daesoo; Lee, Hyojung; Cheong, Eunji; Lee, Yangsin; Roth, Jürgen; Kim, Dong Goo; Min, Do Sik; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2016-03-01

    Myelination in corpus callosum plays important role for normal brain functions by transferring neurological information between various brain regions. However, the factors controlling expression of myelin genes in myelination are poorly understood. Here, CXXC5, a recently identified protein with CXXC-type zinc finger DNA binding motif, was characterized as a transcriptional activator of major myelin genes. We identified expression of CXXC5 expression was increased by Wnt/β-catenin signaling. CXXC5 specifically expressed in the white matter induced expression of myelin genes through the direct binding of CXXC DNA-binding motif of CXXC5 on the MBP promoter. During the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) of CXXC5(-/-) mice, the expressions of myelin genes were simultaneously reduced. The CXXC5(-/-) mice exhibited severely reduction of myelin genes expression in corpus callosum as well as abnormalities in myelin structure. The disrupted structural integrity of myelin in the CXXC5(-/-) mice resulted in reduced electrical conduction amplitudes at corpus callosum. These findings indicate that the regulation of myelin genes expression by CXXC5 is important for forming myelin structure involved with axonal electrical signal transfer in the corpus callosum.

  12. Electrical stimulation of embryonic neurons for 1 hour improves axon regeneration and the number of reinnervated muscles that function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Grumbles, Robert M; Thomas, Christine K

    2013-07-01

    Motoneuron death after spinal cord injury or disease results in muscle denervation, atrophy, and paralysis. We have previously transplanted embryonic ventral spinal cord cells into the peripheral nerve to reinnervate denervated muscles and to reduce muscle atrophy, but reinnervation was incomplete. Here, our aim was to determine whether brief electrical stimulation of embryonic neurons in the peripheralnerve changes motoneuron survival, axon regeneration, and muscle reinnervation and function because neural depolarization is crucial for embryonic neuron survival and may promote activity-dependent axon growth. At 1 week after denervation by sciatic nerve section, embryonic day 14 to 15 cells were purified for motoneurons, injected into the tibial nerve of adult Fischer rats, and stimulated immediatelyfor up to 1 hour. More myelinated axons were present in tibial nerves 10 weeks after transplantation when transplants had been stimulated acutely at 1 Hz for 1 hour. More muscles were reinnervated if the stimulation treatment lasted for 1 hour. Reinnervation reduced muscle atrophy, with or without the stimulation treatment. These data suggest that brief stimulation of embryonic neurons promotes axon growth, which has a long-term impact on muscle reinnervation and function. Muscle reinnervation is important because it may enable the use of functional electrical stimulation to restore limb movements. PMID:23771218

  13. SncRNA715 Inhibits Schwann Cell Myelin Basic Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christina; Hochhaus, Nina M.; Fontana, Xavier; Luhmann, Heiko J.; White, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Myelin basic proteins (MBP) are major constituents of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In the CNS Mbp translation occurs locally at the axon-glial contact site in a neuronal activity-dependent manner. Recently we identified the small non-coding RNA 715 (sncRNA715) as a key inhibitor of Mbp translation during transport in oligodendrocytes. Mbp mRNA localization in Schwann cells has been observed, but has not been investigated in much detail. Here we could confirm translational repression of Mbp mRNA in Schwann cells. We show that sncRNA715 is expressed and its levels correlate inversely with MBP in cultured Schwann cells and in the sciatic nerve in vivo. Furthermore we could reduce MBP protein levels in cultured Schwann cells by increasing the levels of the inhibitory sncRNA715. Our findings suggest similarities in sncRNA715-mediated translational repression of Mbp mRNA in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells. PMID:26317513

  14. SncRNA715 Inhibits Schwann Cell Myelin Basic Protein Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christina; Hochhaus, Nina M; Fontana, Xavier; Luhmann, Heiko J; White, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Myelin basic proteins (MBP) are major constituents of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In the CNS Mbp translation occurs locally at the axon-glial contact site in a neuronal activity-dependent manner. Recently we identified the small non-coding RNA 715 (sncRNA715) as a key inhibitor of Mbp translation during transport in oligodendrocytes. Mbp mRNA localization in Schwann cells has been observed, but has not been investigated in much detail. Here we could confirm translational repression of Mbp mRNA in Schwann cells. We show that sncRNA715 is expressed and its levels correlate inversely with MBP in cultured Schwann cells and in the sciatic nerve in vivo. Furthermore we could reduce MBP protein levels in cultured Schwann cells by increasing the levels of the inhibitory sncRNA715. Our findings suggest similarities in sncRNA715-mediated translational repression of Mbp mRNA in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells.

  15. Promoting myelin repair and return of function in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingya; Kramer, Elisabeth G; Asp, Linnea; Dutta, Dipankar J; Navrazhina, Kristina; Pham, Trinh; Mariani, John N; Argaw, Azeb Tadesse; Melendez-Vasquez, Carmen V; John, Gareth R

    2011-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS. Conduction block in demyelinated axons underlies early neurological symptoms, but axonal transection and neuronal loss are believed to be responsible for more permanent chronic deficits. Several therapies are approved for treatment of relapsing-remitting MS, all of which are immunoregulatory and clinically proven to reduce the rate of lesion formation and exacerbation. However, existing approaches are only partially effective in preventing the onset of disability in MS patients, and novel treatments to protect myelin-producing oligodendrocytes and enhance myelin repair may improve long-term outcomes. Studies in vivo in genetically modified mice have assisted in the characterization of mechanisms underlying the generation of neuropathology in MS patients, and have identified potential avenues for oligodendrocyte protection and myelin repair. However, no treatments are yet approved that target these areas directly, and in addition, the relationship between demyelination and axonal transection in the lesions of the disease remains unclear. Here, we review translational research targeting oligodendrocyte protection and myelin repair in models of autoimmune demyelination, and their potential relevance as therapies in MS. PMID:21864535

  16. Overcoming remyelination failure in multiple sclerosis and other myelin disorders.

    PubMed

    Fancy, Stephen P J; Kotter, Mark R; Harrington, Emily P; Huang, Jeffrey K; Zhao, Chao; Rowitch, David H; Franklin, Robin J M

    2010-09-01

    Protecting axons from degeneration represents a major unmet need in the treatment of myelin disorders and especially the currently untreatable secondary progressive stages of multiple sclerosis (MS). Several lines of evidence indicate that ensuring myelin sheaths are restored to demyelinated axons, the regenerative process of remyelination, represents one of the most effective means of achieving axonal protection. Remyelination can occur as a highly effective spontaneous regenerative process following demyelination. However, for reasons that have not been fully understood, this process is often incomplete or fails in MS. Recognizing the reasons for remyelination failure and hence identifying therapeutic targets will depend on detailed histopathological studies of myelin disorders and a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating remyelination. Pathology studies have revealed that chronically demyelinated lesions in MS often fail to repair because of a failure of differentiation of the precursor cell responsible for remyelination rather than a failure of their recruitment. In this article we review three mechanisms by which differentiation of precursor cells into remyelinating oligodendrocytes are regulated-the Notch pathway, the Wnt pathway and the pathways activated by inhibitor of differentiation in myelin debris-and indicate how these might be pharmacologically targeted to overcome remyelination failure.

  17. TACE (ADAM17) inhibits Schwann cell myelination.

    PubMed

    La Marca, Rosa; Cerri, Federica; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Bachi, Angela; Feltri, M Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Blobel, Carl P; Quattrini, Angelo; Salzer, James L; Taveggia, Carla

    2011-06-12

    Tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme (TACE; also known as ADAM17) is a proteolytic sheddase that is responsible for the cleavage of several membrane-bound molecules. We report that TACE cleaves neuregulin-1 (NRG1) type III in the epidermal growth factor domain, probably inactivating it (as assessed by deficient activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase pathway), and thereby negatively regulating peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelination. Lentivirus-mediated knockdown of TACE in vitro in dorsal root ganglia neurons accelerates the onset of myelination and results in hypermyelination. In agreement, motor neurons of conditional knockout mice lacking TACE specifically in these cells are significantly hypermyelinated, and small-caliber fibers are aberrantly myelinated. Further, reduced TACE activity rescues hypomyelination in NRG1 type III haploinsufficient mice in vivo. We also show that the inhibitory effect of TACE is neuron-autonomous, as Schwann cells lacking TACE elaborate myelin of normal thickness. Thus, TACE is a modulator of NRG1 type III activity and is a negative regulator of myelination in the PNS.

  18. Schwann Cell Expressed Nogo-B Modulates Axonal Branching of Adult Sensory Neurons Through the Nogo-B Receptor NgBR

    PubMed Central

    Eckharter, Christoph; Junker, Nina; Winter, Lilli; Fischer, Irmgard; Fogli, Barbara; Kistner, Steffen; Pfaller, Kristian; Zheng, Binhai; Wiche, Gerhard; Klimaschewski, Lars; Schweigreiter, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the central nervous system (CNS) nerve fibers do regenerate in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) although in a clinically unsatisfying manner. A major problem is excessive sprouting of regenerating axons which results in aberrant reinnervation of target tissue and impaired functional recovery. In the CNS, the reticulon protein Nogo-A has been identified as a prominent oligodendrocyte expressed inhibitor of long-distance growth of regenerating axons. We show here that the related isoform Nogo-B is abundantly expressed in Schwann cells in the PNS. Other than Nogo-A in oligodendrocytes, Nogo-B does not localize to the myelin sheath but is detected in the ER and the plasma membrane of Schwann cells. Adult sensory neurons that are cultured on nogo-a/b deficient Schwann cells form significantly fewer axonal branches vs. those on wildtype Schwann cells, while their maximal axonal extension is unaffected. We demonstrate that this effect of Nogo-B on neuronal morphology is restricted to undifferentiated Schwann cells and is mediated by direct physical contact between these two cell types. Moreover, we show that blocking the Nogo-B specific receptor NgBR, which we find expressed on sensory neurons and to interact with Schwann cell expressed Nogo-B, produces the same branching phenotype as observed after deletion of Nogo-B. These data provide evidence for a novel function of the nogo gene that is implemented by the Nogo-B isoform. The remarkably specific effects of Nogo-B/NgBR on axonal branching, while leaving axonal extension unaffected, are of potential clinical relevance in the context of excessive axonal sprouting after peripheral nerve injury. Main Points Nogo-B is prominently expressed in Schwann cells and localizes to the ER and plasma membrane. It distributes to the external cytoplasmic compartment of Schwann cells in vivo, but is absent from the myelin sheath. Genetic deletion of Nogo-B in Schwann cells reduces axonal branching, but not long

  19. An ex vivo laser-induced spinal cord injury model to assess mechanisms of axonal degeneration in real-time.

    PubMed

    Okada, Starlyn L M; Stivers, Nicole S; Stys, Peter K; Stirling, David P

    2014-11-25

    Injured CNS axons fail to regenerate and often retract away from the injury site. Axons spared from the initial injury may later undergo secondary axonal degeneration. Lack of growth cone formation, regeneration, and loss of additional myelinated axonal projections within the spinal cord greatly limits neurological recovery following injury. To assess how central myelinated axons of the spinal cord respond to injury, we developed an ex vivo living spinal cord model utilizing transgenic mice that express yellow fluorescent protein in axons and a focal and highly reproducible laser-induced spinal cord injury to document the fate of axons and myelin (lipophilic fluorescent dye Nile Red) over time using two-photon excitation time-lapse microscopy. Dynamic processes such as acute axonal injury, axonal retraction, and myelin degeneration are best studied in real-time. However, the non-focal nature of contusion-based injuries and movement artifacts encountered during in vivo spinal cord imaging make differentiating primary and secondary axonal injury responses using high resolution microscopy challenging. The ex vivo spinal cord model described here mimics several aspects of clinically relevant contusion/compression-induced axonal pathologies including axonal swelling, spheroid formation, axonal transection, and peri-axonal swelling providing a useful model to study these dynamic processes in real-time. Major advantages of this model are excellent spatiotemporal resolution that allows differentiation between the primary insult that directly injures axons and secondary injury mechanisms; controlled infusion of reagents directly to the perfusate bathing the cord; precise alterations of the environmental milieu (e.g., calcium, sodium ions, known contributors to axonal injury, but near impossible to manipulate in vivo); and murine models also offer an advantage as they provide an opportunity to visualize and manipulate genetically identified cell populations and subcellular

  20. An ex vivo laser-induced spinal cord injury model to assess mechanisms of axonal degeneration in real-time.

    PubMed

    Okada, Starlyn L M; Stivers, Nicole S; Stys, Peter K; Stirling, David P

    2014-01-01

    Injured CNS axons fail to regenerate and often retract away from the injury site. Axons spared from the initial injury may later undergo secondary axonal degeneration. Lack of growth cone formation, regeneration, and loss of additional myelinated axonal projections within the spinal cord greatly limits neurological recovery following injury. To assess how central myelinated axons of the spinal cord respond to injury, we developed an ex vivo living spinal cord model utilizing transgenic mice that express yellow fluorescent protein in axons and a focal and highly reproducible laser-induced spinal cord injury to document the fate of axons and myelin (lipophilic fluorescent dye Nile Red) over time using two-photon excitation time-lapse microscopy. Dynamic processes such as acute axonal injury, axonal retraction, and myelin degeneration are best studied in real-time. However, the non-focal nature of contusion-based injuries and movement artifacts encountered during in vivo spinal cord imaging make differentiating primary and secondary axonal injury responses using high resolution microscopy challenging. The ex vivo spinal cord model described here mimics several aspects of clinically relevant contusion/compression-induced axonal pathologies including axonal swelling, spheroid formation, axonal transection, and peri-axonal swelling providing a useful model to study these dynamic processes in real-time. Major advantages of this model are excellent spatiotemporal resolution that allows differentiation between the primary insult that directly injures axons and secondary injury mechanisms; controlled infusion of reagents directly to the perfusate bathing the cord; precise alterations of the environmental milieu (e.g., calcium, sodium ions, known contributors to axonal injury, but near impossible to manipulate in vivo); and murine models also offer an advantage as they provide an opportunity to visualize and manipulate genetically identified cell populations and subcellular

  1. Mutations in the MORC2 gene cause axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Sevilla, Teresa; Lupo, Vincenzo; Martínez-Rubio, Dolores; Sancho, Paula; Sivera, Rafael; Chumillas, María J; García-Romero, Mar; Pascual-Pascual, Samuel I; Muelas, Nuria; Dopazo, Joaquín; Vílchez, Juan J; Palau, Francesc; Espinós, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a complex disorder with wide genetic heterogeneity. Here we present a new axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease form, associated with the gene microrchidia family CW-type zinc finger 2 (MORC2). Whole-exome sequencing in a family with autosomal dominant segregation identified the novel MORC2 p.R190W change in four patients. Further mutational screening in our axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease clinical series detected two additional sporadic cases, one patient who also carried the same MORC2 p.R190W mutation and another patient that harboured a MORC2 p.S25L mutation. Genetic and in silico studies strongly supported the pathogenicity of these sequence variants. The phenotype was variable and included patients with congenital or infantile onset, as well as others whose symptoms started in the second decade. The patients with early onset developed a spinal muscular atrophy-like picture, whereas in the later onset cases, the initial symptoms were cramps, distal weakness and sensory impairment. Weakness and atrophy progressed in a random and asymmetric fashion and involved limb girdle muscles, leading to a severe incapacity in adulthood. Sensory loss was always prominent and proportional to disease severity. Electrophysiological studies were consistent with an asymmetric axonal motor and sensory neuropathy, while fasciculations and myokymia were recorded rather frequently by needle electromyography. Sural nerve biopsy revealed pronounced multifocal depletion of myelinated fibres with some regenerative clusters and occasional small onion bulbs. Morc2 is expressed in both axons and Schwann cells of mouse peripheral nerve. Different roles in biological processes have been described for MORC2. As the silencing of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease genes have been associated with DNA damage response, it is tempting to speculate that a deregulation of this pathway may be linked to the axonal degeneration observed in MORC2 neuropathy, thus adding a

  2. MAG, myelin and overcoming growth inhibition in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    McKerracher, Lisa; Rosen, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    While neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) have the capacity to regenerate their axons after injury, they fail to do so, in part because regeneration is limited by growth inhibitory proteins present in CNS myelin. Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) was the first myelin-derived growth inhibitory protein identified, and its inhibitory activity was initially elucidated in 1994 independently by the Filbin lab and the McKerracher lab using cell-based and biochemical techniques, respectively. Since that time we have gained a wealth of knowledge concerning the numerous growth inhibitory proteins that are present in myelin, and we also have dissected many of the neuronal signaling pathways that act as stop signs for axon regeneration. Here we give an overview of the early research efforts that led to the identification of myelin-derived growth inhibitory proteins, and the importance of this family of proteins for understanding neurotrauma and CNS diseases. We further provide an update on how this knowledge has been translated towards current clinical studies in regenerative medicine. PMID:26441514

  3. A zinc finger protein that regulates oligodendrocyte specification, migration and myelination in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sidik, Harwin; Talbot, William S

    2015-12-01

    Precise control of oligodendrocyte migration and development is crucial for myelination of axons in the central nervous system (CNS), but important questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms controlling these processes. In a zebrafish screen for myelination mutants, we identified a mutation in zinc finger protein 16-like (znf16l). znf16l mutant larvae have reduced myelin basic protein (mbp) expression and reduced CNS myelin. Marker, time-lapse and ultrastructural studies indicated that oligodendrocyte specification, migration and myelination are disrupted in znf16l mutants. Transgenic studies indicated that znf16l acts autonomously in oligodendrocytes. Expression of Zfp488 from mouse rescued mbp expression in znf16l mutants, indicating that these homologs have overlapping functions. Our results defined the function of a new zinc finger protein with specific function in oligodendrocyte specification, migration and myelination in the developing CNS.

  4. Axonal interferon responses and alphaherpesvirus neuroinvasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ren

    Infection by alphaherpesviruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV), typically begins at a peripheral epithelial surface and continues into the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that innervates this tissue. Inflammatory responses are induced at the infected peripheral site prior to viral invasion of the PNS. PNS neurons are highly polarized cells with long axonal processes that connect to distant targets. When the peripheral tissue is first infected, only the innervating axons are exposed to this inflammatory milieu, which include type I interferon (e.g. IFNbeta) and type II interferon (i.e. IFNgamma). IFNbeta can be produced by all types of cells, while IFNgamma is secreted by some specific types of immune cells. And both types of IFN induce antiviral responses in surrounding cells that express the IFN receptors. The fundamental question is how do PNS neurons respond to the inflammatory milieu experienced only by their axons. Axons must act as potential front-line barriers to prevent PNS infection and damage. Using compartmented cultures that physically separate neuron axons from cell bodies, I found that pretreating isolated axons with IFNbeta or IFNgamma significantly diminished the number of HSV-1 and PRV particles moving from axons to the cell bodies in an IFN receptor-dependent manner. Furthermore, I found the responses in axons are activated differentially by the two types of IFNs. The response to IFNbeta is a rapid, axon-only response, while the response to IFNgamma involves long distance signaling to the PNS cell body. For example, exposing axons to IFNbeta induced STAT1 phosphorylation (p-STAT1) only in axons, while exposure of axons to IFNgamma induced p-STAT1 accumulation in distant cell body nuclei. Blocking transcription in cell bodies eliminated IFNgamma-, but not IFNbeta-mediated antiviral effects. Proteomic analysis of IFNbeta- or IFNgamma-treated axons identified several differentially regulated proteins. Therefore

  5. Mapping an index of the myelin g-ratio in infants using magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Douglas C.; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Dirks, Holly; Travers, Brittany G.; Adluru, Nagesh; Alexander, Andrew L.; Deoni, Sean C.L.

    2016-01-01

    Optimal myelination of neuronal axons is essential for effective brain and cognitive function. The ratio of the axon diameter to the outer fiber diameter, known as the g-ratio, is a reliable measure to assess axonal myelination and is an important index reflecting the efficiency and maximal conduction velocity of white matter pathways. Although advanced neuroimaging techniques including multicomponent relaxometry (MCR) and diffusion tensor imaging afford insight into the microstructural characteristics of brain tissue, by themselves they do not allow direct analysis of the myelin g-ratio. Here, we show that by combining myelin content information (obtained with mcDESPOT MCR) with neurite density information (obtained through NODDI diffusion imaging) an index of the myelin g-ratio may be estimated. Using this framework, we present the first quantitative study of myelin g-ratio index changes across childhood, examining 18 typically developing children 3 months to 7.5 years of age. We report a spatio-temporal pattern of maturation that is consistent with histological and developmental MRI studies, as well as theoretical studies of the myelin g-ratio. This work represents the first ever in vivo visualization of the evolution of white matter g-ratio indices throughout early childhood. PMID:26908314

  6. Mapping an index of the myelin g-ratio in infants using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dean, Douglas C; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Dirks, Holly; Travers, Brittany G; Adluru, Nagesh; Alexander, Andrew L; Deoni, Sean C L

    2016-05-15

    Optimal myelination of neuronal axons is essential for effective brain and cognitive function. The ratio of the axon diameter to the outer fiber diameter, known as the g-ratio, is a reliable measure to assess axonal myelination and is an important index reflecting the efficiency and maximal conduction velocity of white matter pathways. Although advanced neuroimaging techniques including multicomponent relaxometry (MCR) and diffusion tensor imaging afford insight into the microstructural characteristics of brain tissue, by themselves they do not allow direct analysis of the myelin g-ratio. Here, we show that by combining myelin content information (obtained with mcDESPOT MCR) with neurite density information (obtained through NODDI diffusion imaging) an index of the myelin g-ratio may be estimated. Using this framework, we present the first quantitative study of myelin g-ratio index changes across childhood, examining 18 typically developing children 3months to 7.5years of age. We report a spatio-temporal pattern of maturation that is consistent with histological and developmental MRI studies, as well as theoretical studies of the myelin g-ratio. This work represents the first ever in vivo visualization of the evolution of white matter g-ratio indices throughout early childhood.

  7. Neurite outgrowth inhibitor Nogo-A establishes spatial segregation and extent of oligodendrocyte myelination.

    PubMed

    Chong, S Y Christin; Rosenberg, Sheila S; Fancy, Stephen P J; Zhao, Chao; Shen, Yun-An A; Hahn, Angela T; McGee, Aaron W; Xu, Xiaomei; Zheng, Binhai; Zhang, Li I; Rowitch, David H; Franklin, Robin J M; Lu, Q Richard; Chan, Jonah R

    2012-01-24

    A requisite component of nervous system development is the achievement of cellular recognition and spatial segregation through competition-based refinement mechanisms. Competition for available axon space by myelinating oligodendrocytes ensures that all relevant CNS axons are myelinated properly. To ascertain the nature of this competition, we generated a transgenic mouse with sparsely labeled oligodendrocytes and establish that individual oligodendrocytes occupying similar axon tracts can greatly vary the number and lengths of their myelin internodes. Here we show that intercellular interactions between competing oligodendroglia influence the number and length of myelin internodes, referred to as myelinogenic potential, and identify the amino-terminal region of Nogo-A, expressed by oligodendroglia, as necessary and sufficient to inhibit this process. Exuberant and expansive myelination/remyelination is detected in the absence of Nogo during development and after demyelination, suggesting that spatial segregation and myelin extent is limited by microenvironmental inhibition. We demonstrate a unique physiological role for Nogo-A in the precise myelination of the developing CNS. Maximizing the myelinogenic potential of oligodendrocytes may offer an effective strategy for repair in future therapies for demyelination.

  8. Spiking synchronization of ion channel clusters on an axon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng,