... Other Visiting Your Doctor Evaluation + Tests Autonomic Testing Nerve/Skin/Muscle Biopsy Computerized Axial Tomography Scan (CAT) Electrodiagnostic Testing Lumbar Puncture Imaging Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) Peripheral Neuropathy ...
... sensation or freezing pain Sharp, jabbing, shooting, or electric-like pain Extreme sensitivity to touch Difficulty sleeping ... damaged. There are three types of peripheral nerves: motor, sensory and autonomic. Some neuropathies affect all three ...
Watson, James C; Dyck, P James B
Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most prevalent neurologic conditions encountered by physicians of all specialties. Physicians are faced with 3 distinct challenges in caring for patients with peripheral neuropathy: (1) how to efficiently and effectively screen (in less than 2 minutes) an asymptomatic patient for peripheral neuropathy when they have a disorder in which peripheral neuropathy is highly prevalent (eg, diabetes mellitus), (2) how to clinically stratify patients presenting with symptoms of neuropathy to determine who would benefit from specialty consultation and what testing is appropriate for those who do not need consultation, and (3) how to treat the symptoms of painful peripheral neuropathy. In this concise review, we address these 3 common clinical scenarios. Easily defined clinical patterns of involvement are used to identify patients in need of neurologic consultation, the yield of laboratory and other diagnostic testing is reviewed for the evaluation of length-dependent, sensorimotor peripheral neuropathies (the most common form of neuropathy), and an algorithmic approach with dosing recommendations is provided for the treatment of neuropathic pain associated with peripheral neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hanewinckel, R; Ikram, M A; Van Doorn, P A
Peripheral neuropathies are diseases of the peripheral nervous system that can be divided into mononeuropathies, multifocal neuropathies, and polyneuropathies. Symptoms usually include numbness and paresthesia. These symptoms are often accompanied by weakness and can be painful. Polyneuropathies can be divided into axonal and demyelinating forms, which is important for diagnostic reasons. Most peripheral neuropathies develop over months or years, but some are rapidly progressive. Some patients only suffer from mild, unilateral, slowly progressive tingling in the fingers due to median nerve compression in the wrist (carpal tunnel syndrome), while other patients can be tetraplegic, with respiratory insufficiency within 1-2 days due to Guillain-Barré syndrome. Carpal tunnel syndrome, with a prevalence of 5% and incidence of 1-2 per 1000 person-years, is the most common mononeuropathy. Population-based data for chronic polyneuropathy are relatively scarce. Prevalence is estimated at 1% and increases to 7% in persons over 65 years of age. Incidence is approximately 1 per 1000 person-years. Immune-mediated polyneuropathies like Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy are rare diseases, with an annual incidence of approximately 1-2 and 0.2-0.5 per 100 000 persons respectively. Most peripheral neuropathies are more prevalent in older adults and in men, except for carpal tunnel syndrome, which is more common in women. Diabetes is a common cause of peripheral neuropathy and is associated with both mono- and polyneuropathies. Among the group of chronic polyneuropathies, in about 20-25% no direct cause can be found. These are slowly progressive axonal polyneuropathies. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sim, Mi Kyung; Yoon, Jisun; Park, Dae Hwan; Kim, Yong-Gil
Objective To assess the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) having neuropathic symptoms, and to investigate the relationship between electrophysiological findings of peripheral neuropathy and clinical findings of RA. Methods Patients with a clinical diagnosis of RA and who had tingling or burning sensation in any extremity were electrophysiologically examined for evidence of peripheral neuropathy. Study parameters, including age, gender, laboratory parameters, duration of RA, and medication, were recorded. The symptoms and signs of neuropathy were quantified with the neuropathy symptom score, and the functional statuses of these patients were assessed. Results Out of a total of 30 RA patients, 10 (33%) had peripheral neuropathy: 2 had bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), 5 had unilateral CTS, 1 had sensory polyneuropathy, and 2 had motor-sensory polyneuropathy. The mean ages of the patients with and without peripheral neuropathy were 69.4 and 56.5 years, respectively (p<0.05). A significant relationship was found between peripheral neuropathy and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody. However, no relationship was found between peripheral neuropathy and the type of medication, RA duration, the patients' functional status, neuropathic symptoms, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein values. Conclusion Neuropathic symptoms are common in RA patients, and it is difficult to distinguish peripheral neuropathy symptoms from those of arthritis. Patients with RA, particularly elderly patients and anti-CCP antibody positive patients who complain of neuropathic symptoms should undergo electrophysiological examination. PMID:24855620
Sim, Mi Kyung; Kim, Dae-Yul; Yoon, Jisun; Park, Dae Hwan; Kim, Yong-Gil
To assess the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) having neuropathic symptoms, and to investigate the relationship between electrophysiological findings of peripheral neuropathy and clinical findings of RA. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of RA and who had tingling or burning sensation in any extremity were electrophysiologically examined for evidence of peripheral neuropathy. Study parameters, including age, gender, laboratory parameters, duration of RA, and medication, were recorded. The symptoms and signs of neuropathy were quantified with the neuropathy symptom score, and the functional statuses of these patients were assessed. Out of a total of 30 RA patients, 10 (33%) had peripheral neuropathy: 2 had bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), 5 had unilateral CTS, 1 had sensory polyneuropathy, and 2 had motor-sensory polyneuropathy. The mean ages of the patients with and without peripheral neuropathy were 69.4 and 56.5 years, respectively (p<0.05). A significant relationship was found between peripheral neuropathy and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody. However, no relationship was found between peripheral neuropathy and the type of medication, RA duration, the patients' functional status, neuropathic symptoms, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein values. Neuropathic symptoms are common in RA patients, and it is difficult to distinguish peripheral neuropathy symptoms from those of arthritis. Patients with RA, particularly elderly patients and anti-CCP antibody positive patients who complain of neuropathic symptoms should undergo electrophysiological examination.
Gewandter, Jennifer S; Burke, Laurie; Cavaletti, Guido; Dworkin, Robert H; Gibbons, Christopher; Gover, Tony D; Herrmann, David N; Mcarthur, Justin C; McDermott, Michael P; Rappaport, Bob A; Reeve, Bryce B; Russell, James W; Smith, A Gordon; Smith, Shannon M; Turk, Dennis C; Vinik, Aaron I; Freeman, Roy
No treatments for axonal peripheral neuropathy are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Although patient- and clinician-reported outcomes are central to evaluating neuropathy symptoms, they can be difficult to assess accurately. The inability to identify efficacious treatments for peripheral neuropathies could be due to invalid or inadequate outcome measures. This systematic review examined the content validity of symptom-based measures of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, HIV neuropathy, and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Use of all FDA-recommended methods to establish content validity was only reported for 2 of 18 measures. Multiple sensory and motor symptoms were included in measures for all 3 conditions; these included numbness, tingling, pain, allodynia, difficulty walking, and cramping. Autonomic symptoms were less frequently included. Given significant overlap in symptoms between neuropathy etiologies, a measure with content validity for multiple neuropathies with supplemental disease-specific modules could be of great value in the development of disease-modifying treatments for peripheral neuropathies. Muscle Nerve 55: 366-372, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
GEWANDTER, JENNIFER S.; BURKE, LAURIE; CAVALETTI, GUIDO; DWORKIN, ROBERT H.; GIBBONS, CHRISTOPHER; GOVER, TONY D.; HERRMANN, DAVID N.; MCARTHUR, JUSTIN C.; MCDERMOTT, MICHAEL P.; RAPPAPORT, BOB A.; REEVE, BRYCE B.; RUSSELL, JAMES W.; SMITH, A. GORDON; SMITH, SHANNON M.; TURK, DENNIS C.; VINIK, AARON I.; FREEMAN, ROY
Introduction No treatments for axonal peripheral neuropathy are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Although patient- and clinician-reported outcomes are central to evaluating neuropathy symptoms, they can be difficult to assess accurately. The inability to identify efficacious treatments for peripheral neuropathies could be due to invalid or inadequate outcome measures. Methods This systematic review examined the content validity of symptom-based measures of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, HIV neuropathy, and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Results Use of all FDA-recommended methods to establish content validity was only reported for 2 of 18 measures. Multiple sensory and motor symptoms were included in measures for all 3 conditions; these included numbness, tingling, pain, allodynia, difficulty walking, and cramping. Autonomic symptoms were less frequently included. Conclusions Given significant overlap in symptoms between neuropathy etiologies, a measure with content validity for multiple neuropathies with supplemental disease-specific modules could be of great value in the development of disease-modifying treatments for peripheral neuropathies. PMID:27447116
... and resolve slowly as damaged nerves heal. In chronic forms, symptoms begin subtly and progress slowly. Some ... the same for many months or years. Some chronic neuropathies worsen over time, but very few forms ...
Evliyaoglu, Ferhat; Karadag, Remzi; Burakgazi, Ahmet Z
Ocular movements and coordination require complex and integrated functions of somatic and autonomic nervous systems. Neurological disorders affecting these nervous systems may cause ocular dysfunction involving extraocular muscles and pupils. In this article, the prevalence, clinical presentations, and management of ocular neuropathy related to certain peripheral neuropathies, including diabetic neuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory neuropathies, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neuropathy, and hereditary neuropathies, are examined in detail. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nicholas, P K; Kemppainen, J K; Canaval, G E; Corless, I B; Sefcik, E F; Nokes, K M; Bain, C A; Kirksey, K M; Eller, L Sanzero; Dole, P J; Hamilton, M J; Coleman, C L; Holzemer, W L; Reynolds, N R; Portillo, C J; Bunch, E H; Wantland, D J; Voss, J; Phillips, R; Tsai, Y-F; Mendez, M Rivero; Lindgren, T G; Davis, S M; Gallagher, D M
Peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurological complication in HIV and is often associated with antiretroviral therapy. As part of a larger study on self-care for symptoms in HIV disease, this study analyzed the prevalence and characteristics of peripheral neuropathy in HIV disease, sociodemographic and disease-related correlates and self-care strategies. A convenience sample of 1,217 respondents was recruited from data collection sites in several US cities, Puerto Rico, Colombia and Taiwan. Results of the study indicated that respondents with peripheral neuropathy (n=450) identified 20 self-care behaviors including complementary therapies, use of medications, exercise and rest and/or elevation of extremities. Ratings of frequency and effectiveness were also included. An activities checklist summarized into five categories of self-care behaviors including activities/thoughts, exercise, medications, complementary therapies and substance was used to determine self-care behaviors. Taking a hot bath was the most frequent strategy used by those with peripheral neuropathy (n=292) and received the highest overall rating of effectiveness of any self-management strategies included in this study at 8.1 (scale 1-10). Other self-care strategies to manage this symptom included: staying off the feet (n=258), rubbing the feet with cream (n=177), elevating the feet (n=236), walking (n=262), prescribed anti-epileptic agent (n=80), prescribed analgesics (n=84), over-the-counter medications (n=123), vitamin B (n=122), calcium supplements (n=72), magnesium (n=48), massage (n=156), acupuncture (n=43), reflexology (n=23) and meditation (n=80). Several behaviors that are often deemed unhealthy were included among the strategies reported to alleviate peripheral neuropathy including use of marijuana (n=67), cigarette smoking (n=139), drinking alcohol (n=81) and street drugs (n=30).
Majumder, A; Chatterjee, S; Maji, D
Peripheral neuropathy is common complication of diabetes. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy among diabetic patients on the basis of loss of vibration sensation had been studied. Detailed clinical history of each patient including age, gender, duration of diabetes, foot ulcer and biothesiometry was recorded in 211 diabetic patients between 20 and 80 years of age. It was observed that all patients under 30 years age (n = 8) felt vibration below 15 volts (no risk zone); 77% (24 out of 31) of the patients in the age group of 30-39 years were in the no risk zone, and 23% (n = 7) had mild peripheral neuropathy. Sixty per cent of the patients between 40 and 50 years (n = 44) were in the no risk zone, while 32% (n = 24) had mild peripheral neuropathy, 5% (n = 4) had moderate neuropathy and 3% (n = 2) had severe peripheral neuropathy. Amongst patients above 50 years of age, 31% (n = 31) were in no risk zone, 34% (n = 34) had mild peripheral neuropathy, 22% (n = 20) had moderate peripheral neuropathy and 13% (n = 13) had severe peripheral neuropathy. Of the patients with diabetes for less than 5 years, 58% had no neuropathy, and only 3% had severe neuropathy. Of the patients with diabetes for 5 to 15 years, 50% had no neuropathy, 30% had mild, and 10% had severe peripheral neuropathy. When patients with diabetes for over 15 years were studied, only 6% had no neuropathy and 19% had severe peripheral neuropathy. The study re-establishes that the severity of peripheral neuropathy increases with age and vibration perception decreses progressively with increased duration of diabetes. Vibration perception threshold testing helps to identify the high risk subjects who require special counselling and education to protect their feet.
Nicholas, Patrice K; Voss, Joachim; Wantland, Dean; Lindgren, Teri; Huang, Emily; Holzemer, William L; Cuca, Yvette; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Portillo, Carmen; Willard, Suzanne; Arudo, John; Kirksey, Kenn; Corless, Inge B; Rosa, María E; Robinson, Linda; Hamilton, Mary J; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Human, Sarie; Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Maryland, Mary; Nokes, Kathleen M; Eller, Lucille; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Brion, John M; Bunch, Elli H; Shannon, Maureen; Nicholas, Thomas P; Viamonte-Ros, Ana; Bain, Catherine A
As part of a larger randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of an HIV/AIDS symptom management manual (n = 775), this study examined the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in HIV-infected individuals at 12 sites in the USA, Puerto Rico, and Africa. Neuropathy was reported by 44% of the sample; however, only 29.4% reported initiating self-care behaviors to address the neuropathy symptoms. Antiretroviral therapy was found to increase the frequency of neuropathy symptoms, with an increased mean intensity of 28%. A principal axis factor analysis with Promax rotation was used to assess the relationships in the frequency of use of the 18 self-care activities for neuropathy, revealing three distinct factors: (i) an interactive self-care factor; (ii) a complementary medicine factor; and (iii) a third factor consisting of the negative health items of smoking, alcohol, and street drugs. The study's results suggest that peripheral neuropathy is a common symptom and the presence of neuropathy is associated with self-care behaviors to ameliorate HIV symptoms. The implications for nursing practice include the assessment and evaluation of nursing interventions related to management strategies for neuropathy.
... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset ... percent disabling by VA's rating regulations. About peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is a condition of the peripheral ...
Kolb, Noah A; Smith, A Gordon; Singleton, J Robinson; Beck, Susan L; Stoddard, Gregory J; Brown, Summer; Mooney, Kathi
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common adverse effect of neurotoxic chemotherapy resulting in pain, sensory loss, and decreased quality of life. Few studies have prospectively examined the relationship between sensory neuropathy symptoms, falls, and fall-related injuries for patients receiving neurotoxic chemotherapy. To determine the association between the symptoms of CIPN and the risk of falls for patients receiving neurotoxic chemotherapy. In this secondary analysis of a prospective study, 116 patients with breast, ovarian, or lung cancer who were beginning neurotoxic chemotherapy with a taxane or platinum agent were recruited from oncology clinics. These patients would call a novel automated telephone system daily for 1 full course of chemotherapy. The telephone system (SymptomCare@Home) used a series of relevant CIPN questions to track symptoms on a 0 to 10 ordinal scale and contained a questionnaire about falls. Those reporting a numbness and tingling severity score of 3 or greater for at least 10 days were considered to have significant CIPN symptoms and were compared with those patients who did not. Data analysis was performed in November 2015. Chemotherapy with a neurotoxic taxane or platinum agent. Patient-reported falls or near falls and fall-related injuries. The hypothesis was generated after data collection but prior to data analysis. Of the 116 patients who started neurotoxic chemotherapy (mean [SD] age was 55.5 [11.9] years, and 109 [94.0%] were female), 32 met the predetermined criteria for CIPN symptoms. The mean duration of follow-up was 62 days, with 51 telephone calls completed per participant. Seventy-four falls or near falls were reported. The participants with CIPN symptoms were nearly 3 times more likely to report a fall or near fall than the participants without CIPN symptoms (hazard ratio, 2.67 [95% CI, 1.62-4.41]; P < .001). The participants with CIPN symptoms were more likely than the participants without
Assal, J.P.; Liniger, C.
The authors present results and experience in sixteen specific disciplines related to the study of nerve physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment. Twenty-two different peripheral neuropathies are presented, and different models related to health care strategies are discussed. The authors report on Inflammatory and autoimmune neuropathies and Genetic neuropathies.
Saporta, Mario A; Shy, Michael E
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a heterogeneous group of inherited peripheral neuropathies in which the neuropathy is the sole or primary component of the disorder, as opposed to diseases in which the neuropathy is part of a more generalized neurologic or multisystem syndrome. Because of the great genetic heterogeneity of this condition, it can be challenging for the general neurologist to diagnose patients with specific types of CMT. This article reviews the biology of the inherited peripheral neuropathies, delineates major phenotypic features of the CMT subtypes, and suggest strategies for focusing genetic testing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Saporta, Mario A.; Shy, Michael E.
SYNOPSIS Charcot Marie Tooth disease (CMT) is a heterogeneous group of inherited peripheral neuropathies in which the neuropathy is the sole or primary component of the disorder, as opposed to diseases in which the neuropathy is part of a more generalized neurological or multisystem syndrome. Due to the great genetic heterogeneity of this condition, it can be challenging for the general neurologist to diagnose patients with specific types of CMT. Here, we review the biology of the inherited peripheral neuropathies, delineate major phenotypic features of the CMT subtypes and suggest strategies for focusing genetic testing. PMID:23642725
Miranda-Massari, Jorge R.; Gonzalez, Michael J.; Jimenez, Francisco J.; Allende-Vigo, Myriam Z.; Duconge, Jorge
Current Clinical Management Guidelines of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) are based on adequate glucose control and symptomatic pain relief. However, meticulous glycemic control could delay the onset or slow the progression of diabetic neuropathy in patients with DM type 2, but it does not completely prevent the progression of the disease. Complications of DPN as it continues its natural course, produce increasing pain and discomfort, loss of sensation, ulcers, infections, amputations and even death. In addition to the increased suffering, disability and loss of productivity, there is a very significant economic impact related to the treatment of DPN and its complications. In USA alone, it has been estimated that there are more than 5,000,000 patients suffering from DPN and the total annual cost of treating the disease and its complications is over $10,000 million dollars. In order to be able to reduce complications of DPN, it is crucial to improve or correct the metabolic conditions that lead to the pathology present in this condition. Pathophysiologic mechanisms implicated in diabetic neuropathy include: increased polyol pathway with accumulation of sorbitol and reduced Na+/K+-ATPase activity, microvascular damage and hypoxia due to nitric oxide deficit and increased oxygen free radical activity. Moreover, there is a decrease in glutathione and increase in homocysteine. Clinical trials in the last two decades have demonstrated that the use of specific nutrients can correct some of these metabolic derangements, improving symptom control and providing further benefits such as improved sensorium, blood flow and nerve regeneration. We will discuss the evidence on lipoic acid, acetyi-L-carnitine, benfotiamine and the combination of active B vitamins L-methylfolate, methylcobalamin and piridoxal-6-phosphate. In addition, we discuss the role of metforrnin, an important drug in the management of diabetes, and the presence of specific polymorphic genes, in the risk
Hallett, M; Tandon, D; Berardelli, A
There are three general approaches to treatment of peripheral neuropathy. First, an attempt should be made to reverse the pathophysiological process if its nature can be elucidated. Second, nerve metabolism can be stimulated and regeneration encouraged. Third, even if the neuropathy itself cannot be improved, symptomatic therapy can be employed. This review outlines the options available for each approach. PMID:3003254
Winters-Stone, Kerri M; Horak, Fay; Jacobs, Peter G; Trubowitz, Phoebe; Dieckmann, Nathan F; Stoyles, Sydnee; Faithfull, Sara
Purpose Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) may persist after treatment ends and may lead to functional decline and falls. This study compared objective and self-report measures of physical function, gait patterns, and falls between women cancer survivors with and without symptoms of CIPN to identify targets for functional rehabilitation. Methods A secondary data analysis of 512 women cancer survivors (age, 62 ± 6 years; time since diagnosis, 5.8 ± 4.1 years) categorized and compared women self-reporting symptoms of CIPN (CIPN+) with asymptomatic women (CIPN-) on the following: maximal leg strength, timed chair stand, physical function battery, gait characteristics (speed; step number, rate, and length; base of support), self-report physical function and disability, and falls in the past year. Results After an average of 6 years after treatment, 47% of women still reported symptoms of CIPN. CIPN+ had significantly worse self-report and objectively measured function than did CIPN-, with the exception of maximal leg strength and base of support during a usual walk. Gait was slower among CIPN+, with those women taking significantly more, but slower and shorter, steps than did CIPN- (all P < .05). CIPN+ reported significantly more disability and 1.8 times the risk of falls compared with CIPN- ( P < .0001). Increasing symptom severity was linearly associated with worsening function, increasing disability, and higher fall risk (all P < .05). Conclusion This work makes a significant contribution toward understanding the functional impact of CIPN symptoms on cancer survivors. Remarkably, 47% of women in our sample had CIPN symptoms many years after treatment, together with worse function, greater disability, and more falls. CIPN must be assessed earlier in the clinical pathway, and strategies to limit symptom progression and to improve function must be included in clinical and survivorship care plans.
Brock, C; Graversen, C; Frøkjaer, J B; Søfteland, E; Valeriani, M; Drewes, A M
Long-term diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with neuronal changes in the enteric, peripheral and/or central nervous system. Moreover, abnormal visceral sensation and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are seen in up to 75% of patients. To explore the role of diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) in patients with long-standing DM, we investigated psychophysical responses and neuronal activity recorded as evoked brain potentials and dipolar source modelling. Fifteen healthy volunteers and 14 type-1 DM patients with DAN were assessed with a symptom score index characterizing upper GI abnormalities. Multichannel (62) electroencephalography was recorded during painful electrical stimulation of the lower oesophagus. Brain activity to painful stimulations was modelled using Brain Electrical Source Analysis (besa). Diabetic patients had higher stimulus intensities to evoke painful sensation (p ≤ 0.001), longer latencies of N2 and P2 components (both p ≤ 0.001), and lower amplitudes of P1-N2 and N2-P2 complexes (p ≤ 0.001; p = 0.02). Inverse modelling of brain sources showed deeper bilateral insular dipolar source localization (p = 0.002). Symptom score index was negatively correlated with the depth of insular activity (p = 0.004) and positively correlated with insular dipole strength (p = 0.03). DM patients show peripheral and central neuroplastic changes. Moreover, the role of abnormal insular processing may explain the appearance and persistence of GI symptoms related to DAN. This enhanced understanding of DAN may have future clinical and therapeutical implications. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.
Shy, Michael E
Mutations in genes expressed in Schwann cells and the axons they ensheathe cause the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies, also known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). More than 40 different genes have been shown to cause inherited neuropathies; chromosomal localizations of many other distinct inherited neuropathies have been mapped, and new genetic causes for inherited neuropathies continue to be discovered. How to keep track of all of these disorders, when to pursue genetic testing, and what tests to order for specific patients are difficult challenges for any neurologist. This review addresses these issues and provides illustrative cases to help in dealing with them. CMT serves as a living system to identify molecules necessary for normal peripheral nervous system (PNS) function. Understanding how these various molecules interact will provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathies in general as well as other neurodegenerative disorders involving the PNS.
Léger, Jean-Marc; Guimarães-Costa, Raquel; Muntean, Cristina
Immunotherapy has been investigated in a small subset of peripheral neuropathies, including an acute one, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and 3 chronic forms: chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, and neuropathy associated with IgM anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein. Several experimental studies and clinical data are strongly suggestive of an immune-mediated pathogenesis. Either cell-mediated mechanisms or antibody responses to Schwann cell, compact myelin, or nodal antigens are considered to act together in an aberrant immune response to cause damage to peripheral nerves. Immunomodulatory treatments used in these neuropathies aim to act at various steps of this pathogenic process. However, there are many phenotypic variants and, consequently, there is a significant difference in the response to immunotherapy between these neuropathies, as well as a need to improve our knowledge and long-term management of chronic forms.
Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee; Nair, Pradeep P.
Peripheral neuropathy refers to disorders of the peripheral nervous system. They have numerous causes and diverse presentations; hence, a systematic and logical approach is needed for cost-effective diagnosis, especially of treatable neuropathies. A detailed history of symptoms, family and occupational history should be obtained. General and systemic examinations provide valuable clues. Neurological examinations investigating sensory, motor and autonomic signs help to define the topography and nature of neuropathy. Large fiber neuropathy manifests with the loss of joint position and vibration sense and sensory ataxia, whereas small fiber neuropathy manifests with the impairment of pain, temperature and autonomic functions. Electrodiagnostic (EDx) tests include sensory, motor nerve conduction, F response, H reflex and needle electromyography (EMG). EDx helps in documenting the extent of sensory motor deficits, categorizing demyelinating (prolonged terminal latency, slowing of nerve conduction velocity, dispersion and conduction block) and axonal (marginal slowing of nerve conduction and small compound muscle or sensory action potential and dennervation on EMG). Uniform demyelinating features are suggestive of hereditary demyelination, whereas difference between nerves and segments of the same nerve favor acquired demyelination. Finally, neuropathy is classified into mononeuropathy commonly due to entrapment or trauma; mononeuropathy multiplex commonly due to leprosy and vasculitis; and polyneuropathy due to systemic, metabolic or toxic etiology. Laboratory investigations are carried out as indicated and specialized tests such as biochemical, immunological, genetic studies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination and nerve biopsy are carried out in selected patients. Approximately 20% patients with neuropathy remain undiagnosed but the prognosis is not bad in them. PMID:19893645
Burakgazi, Ahmet Z; AlMahameed, Soufian
Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is the least recognized and understood complication of peripheral neuropathy. However, because of its potential adverse effects including sudden death, CAN is one of the most important forms of autonomic neuropathies. CAN presents with different clinical manifestations including postural hypotension, exercise intolerance, fluctuation of blood pressure and heart rate, arrhythmia, and increased risk of myocardial infarction. In this article, the prevalence, clinical presentations, and management of cardiac involvement in certain peripheral neuropathies, including diabetic neuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy, human immunodeficiency virus-associated neuropathy, hereditary neuropathies, and amyloid neuropathy are examined in detail.
Diagnosing a peripheral neuropathy is sometimes challenging, as the causes are diverse and the clinical pictures heterogeneous. Overall, diagnosing a patient with peripheral neuropathy will require some knowledge in almost every field of medicine. Therefore, it appears crucial to adopt a diagnostic strategy that is based on solid clinical and neurophysiological grounds. The present paper describes a three-step diagnostic strategy: (1) to delineate a clinico-pathologic entity from clinical and electrodiagnostic findings; (2) to propose a list of plausible causes based on step one, history and clinical context; (3) to use appropriate workup in order to determine the cause or mechanism of the neuropathy. The three steps of this diagnostic strategy necessitate a high level of expertise and interaction between physicians is highly desirable. Finally, an aggressive course and a severe impairment should lead to relentlessly look for a curable cause.
Fehrenbacher, Jill C
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is common in patients receiving anticancer treatment and can affect survivability and long-term quality of life of the patient following treatment. The symptoms of CIPN primarily include abnormal sensory discrimination of touch, vibration, thermal information, and pain. There is currently a paucity of pharmacological agents to prevent or treat CIPN. The lack of efficacious therapeutics is due, at least in part, to an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms by which chemotherapies alter the sensitivity of sensory neurons. Although the clinical presentation of CIPN can be similar with the various classes of chemotherapeutic agents, there are subtle differences, suggesting that each class of drugs might induce neuropathy via different mechanisms. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to underlie the development and maintenance of neuropathy; however, most pharmacological agents generated from preclinical experiments have failed to alleviate the symptoms of CIPN in the clinic. Further research is necessary to identify the specific mechanisms by which each class of chemotherapeutics induces neuropathy.
Jayabalan, Bhavani; Low, Lian Leng
Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with significant neurological pathology, especially peripheral neuropathy. This review aims to examine the existing evidence on the effectiveness of vitamin B12 supplementation for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A search of PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for all relevant randomised controlled trials was conducted in December 2014. Any type of therapy using vitamin B12 or its coenzyme forms was assessed for efficacy and safety in diabetics with peripheral neuropathy. Changes in vibration perception thresholds, neuropathic symptoms and nerve conduction velocities, as well as the adverse effects of vitamin B12 therapy, were assessed. Four studies comprising 363 patients met the inclusion criteria. This review found no evidence that the use of oral vitamin B12 supplements is associated with improvement in the clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Furthermore, the majority of studies reported no improvement in the electrophysiological markers of nerve conduction. Copyright © Singapore Medical Association.
Tu, Yiji; Lineaweaver, William C; Zheng, Xianyou; Chen, Zenggan; Mullins, Fred; Zhang, Feng
Peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent disabling neuromuscular complication of burns. However, the insidious and progressive onset of burn neuropathy makes it often undiagnosed or overlooked. In our study, we reviewed the current studies on the burn-related peripheral neuropathy to summarize the morbidity, mechanism, detecting method and management of peripheral neuropathy in burn patients. Of the 1533 burn patients included in our study, 98 cases (6.39%) were presented with peripheral neuropathy. Thermal and electrical burns were the most common etiologies. Surgical procedures, especially nerve decompression, showed good effect on functional recovery of both acute and delayed peripheral neuropathy in burn patients. It is noteworthy that, for early detection and prevention of peripheral neuropathy, electrodiagnostic examinations should be performed on burn patients independent of symptoms. Still, the underlying mechanisms of burn-related peripheral neuropathy remain to be clarified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
... registry health exam . Research on peripheral neuropathy and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (HMD) (formally known ... acute or subacute onset may be associated with herbicide exposure. Based on this evidence, VA presumed an ...
Baloh, Robert H
Peripheral neuropathy is perhaps the archetypal disease of axonal degeneration, characteristically involving degeneration of the longest axons in the body. Evidence from both inherited and acquired forms of peripheral neuropathy strongly supports that the primary pathology is in the axons themselves and points to disruption of axonal transport as an important disease mechanism. Recent studies in human genetics have further identified abnormalities in mitochondrial dynamics--the fusion, fission, and movement of mitochondria--as a player in the pathogenesis of inherited peripheral neuropathy. This review provides an update on the mechanisms of mitochondrial trafficking in axons and the emerging relationship between the disruption of mitochondrial dynamics and axonal degeneration. Evidence suggests mitochondria are a "critical cargo" whose transport is necessary for proper axonal and synaptic function. Importantly, understanding the regulation of mitochondrial movement and the consequences of decreased axonal mitochondrial function may define new paths for therapeutic agents in peripheral neuropathy and other neurodegenerative diseases.
Evans, Scott R.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Chen, Huichao; Yeh, Tzu-min; Lee, Anthony J.; Schifitto, Giovanni; Wu, Kunling; Bosch, Ronald J.; McArthur, Justin C.; Simpson, David M.; Clifford, David B.
Objectives To estimate neuropathic sign/symptom rates with initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected ART-naive patients, and to investigate risk factors for: peripheral neuropathy and symptomatic peripheral neuropathy (SPN), recovery from peripheral neuropathy/SPN after neurotoxic ART (nART) discontinuation, and the absence of peripheral neuropathy/SPN while on nART. Design AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trial participants who initiated cART in randomized trials for ART-naive patients were annually screened for symptoms/signs of peripheral neuropathy. ART use and disease characteristics were collected longitudinally. Methods Peripheral neuropathy was defined as at least mild loss of vibration sensation in both great toes or absent/hypoactive ankle reflexes bilaterally. SPN was defined as peripheral neuropathy and bilateral symptoms. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression was used to estimate associations. Results Two thousand, one hundred and forty-one participants were followed from January 2000 to June 2007. Rates of peripheral neuropathy/SPN at 3 years were 32.1/8.6% despite 87.1% with HIV-1RNA 400 copies/ml or less and 70.3% with CD4 greater than 350 cells/µl. Associations with higher odds of peripheral neuropathy included older patient age and current nART use. Associations with higher odds of SPN included older patient age, nART use, and history of diabetes mellitus. Associations with lower odds of recovery after nART discontinuation included older patient age. Associations with higher odds of peripheral neuropathy while on nART included older patient age and current protease inhibitor use. Associations with higher odds of SPN while on nART included older patient age, history of diabetes, taller height, and protease inhibitor use. Conclusion Signs of peripheral neuropathy remain despite virologic/immunologic control but frequently occurs without symptoms. Aging is a risk factor for
Evans, Scott R; Ellis, Ronald J; Chen, Huichao; Yeh, Tzu-min; Lee, Anthony J; Schifitto, Giovanni; Wu, Kunling; Bosch, Ronald J; McArthur, Justin C; Simpson, David M; Clifford, David B
To estimate neuropathic sign/symptom rates with initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected ART-naive patients, and to investigate risk factors for: peripheral neuropathy and symptomatic peripheral neuropathy (SPN), recovery from peripheral neuropathy/SPN after neurotoxic ART (nART) discontinuation, and the absence of peripheral neuropathy/SPN while on nART. AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trial participants who initiated cART in randomized trials for ART-naive patients were annually screened for symptoms/signs of peripheral neuropathy. ART use and disease characteristics were collected longitudinally. Peripheral neuropathy was defined as at least mild loss of vibration sensation in both great toes or absent/hypoactive ankle reflexes bilaterally. SPN was defined as peripheral neuropathy and bilateral symptoms. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression was used to estimate associations. Two thousand, one hundred and forty-one participants were followed from January 2000 to June 2007. Rates of peripheral neuropathy/SPN at 3 years were 32.1/8.6% despite 87.1% with HIV-1RNA 400 copies/ml or less and 70.3% with CD4 greater than 350 cells/μl. Associations with higher odds of peripheral neuropathy included older patient age and current nART use. Associations with higher odds of SPN included older patient age, nART use, and history of diabetes mellitus. Associations with lower odds of recovery after nART discontinuation included older patient age. Associations with higher odds of peripheral neuropathy while on nART included older patient age and current protease inhibitor use. Associations with higher odds of SPN while on nART included older patient age, history of diabetes, taller height, and protease inhibitor use. Signs of peripheral neuropathy remain despite virologic/immunologic control but frequently occurs without symptoms. Aging is a risk factor for peripheral neuropathy/SPN.
Mimi, O; Teng, C L; Chia, Y C
This study was undertaken to clinically estimate the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy amongst patients attending an outpatient clinic and to evaluate their risk factors for developing peripheral neuropathy. It was a cross-sectional study of 134 diabetes mellitus patients who attended the Primary Care Clinic, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The patients were interviewed for their demographic data, past and present medical/surgical history, social history, personal habits and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Foot examination and clinical neurological tests were conducted and the presence of peripheral neuropathy was assessed. The main outcome measures were the Neuropathy Symptom Score and the Neuropathy Disability Score. The prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy was found to be 50.7%. Peripheral neuropathy was related to the age of the patient and the duration of diabetes but did not seem to be significantly related to diabetic control. To conclude, there was a high prevalence of peripheral neuropathy amongst the diabetics in this study. These patients developed peripheral neuropathy at a younger age and shorter duration of diabetes compared to a similar study that was done in the UK.
Pareyson, Davide; Piscosquito, Giuseppe; Moroni, Isabella; Salsano, Ettore; Zeviani, Massimo
Why is peripheral neuropathy common but mild in many mitochondrial disorders, and why is it, in some cases, the predominant or only manifestation? Although this question remains largely unanswered, recent advances in cellular and molecular biology have begun to clarify the importance of mitochondrial functioning and distribution in the peripheral nerve. Mutations in proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics (ie, fusion and fission) frequently result in a Charcot-Marie-Tooth phenotype. Peripheral neuropathies with different phenotypic presentations occur in mitochondrial diseases associated with abnormalities in mitochondrial DNA replication and maintenance, or associated with defects in mitochondrial respiratory chain complex V. Our knowledge of mitochondrial disorders is rapidly growing as new nuclear genes are identified and new phenotypes described. Early diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders, essential to provide appropriate genetic counselling, has become crucial in a few treatable conditions. Recognising and diagnosing an underlying mitochondrial defect in patients presenting with peripheral neuropathy is therefore of paramount importance.
Strong, Amy L; Agarwal, Shailesh; Cederna, Paul S; Levi, Benjamin
Peripheral neuropathy and nerve compression syndromes lead to substantial morbidity following burn injury. Patients present with pain, paresthesias, or weakness along a specific nerve distribution or experience generalized peripheral neuropathy. The symptoms manifest at various times from within one week of hospitalization to many months after wound closure. Peripheral neuropathy may be caused by vascular occlusion of vasa nervorum, inflammation, neurotoxin production leading to apoptosis, and direct destruction of nerves from the burn injury. This article discusses the natural history, diagnosis, current treatments, and future directions for potential interventions for peripheral neuropathy and nerve compression syndromes related to burn injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Janahi, Noor M; Santos, Derek; Blyth, Christine; Bakhiet, Moiz; Ellis, Mairghread
Autoimmunity has been identified in a significant number of neuropathies, such as, proximal neuropathies, and autonomic neuropathies associated with diabetes mellitus. However, possible correlations between diabetic peripheral neuropathy and autoimmunity have not yet been fully investigated. This study was conducted to investigate whether autoimmunity is associated with the pathogenesis of human diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A case-control analysis included three groups: 30 patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, 30 diabetic control patients without neuropathy, and 30 healthy controls. Blood analysis was conducted to compare the percentages of positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA) between the three groups. Secondary analysis investigated the correlations between the presence of autoimmune antibodies and sample demographics and neurological manifestations. This research was considered as a pilot study encouraging further investigations to take place in the near future. Antinuclear antibodies were significantly present in the blood serum of patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy in comparison to the control groups (p<0.001). The odds of positive values of ANA in the neuropathy group were 50 times higher when compared to control groups. Secondary analysis showed a significant correlation between the presence of ANA and the neurological manifestation of neuropathy (Neuropathy symptom score, Neuropathy disability score and Vibration Perception Threshold). The study demonstrated for the first time that human peripheral diabetic neuropathy may have an autoimmune aetiology. The new pathogenic factors may lead to the consideration of new management plans involving new therapeutic approaches and disease markers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hypothyroidism: Can it cause peripheral neuropathy? Can hypothyroidism cause peripheral neuropathy and, if so, how is it treated? Answers from Todd B. Nippoldt, M.D. Hypothyroidism — a condition in which your ...
Paik, Julie J; Mammen, Andrew L; Wigley, Fredrick M; Shah, Ami A; Hummers, Laura K; Polydefkis, Michael
To determine the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in scleroderma. The prevalence of length-dependent peripheral neuropathy was rigorously assessed using signs and symptoms of neuropathy derived from the Total Neuropathy Score (TNS), and standardized nerve conduction study (NCS). All subjects underwent TNS and NCS. Those who were symptomatic or had NCS evidence of peripheral neuropathy underwent laboratory evaluation for secondary causes of neuropathy. A total of 130 subjects were approached for participation and 60 enrolled. Of the 60 subjects, 50 (83.3%) were female and 37 (61.7%) were of the limited cutaneous subtype. The mean ± SD age was 55 ± 11.1 years, and mean ± SD disease duration was 15.3 ± 10.1 years. A total of 17 of 60 (28%) had evidence of a peripheral neuropathy as defined by the presence of neuropathic symptoms on the TNS (12 of 60) and/or electrophysiologic evidence of neuropathy (5 subjects with neuropathic symptoms and 5 without neuropathic symptoms). Subjects with neuropathy were more likely to be male (60% versus 40%; P = 0.02), African American (41% versus 4.6%; P = 0.001), have diabetes mellitus (17.7% versus 0%; P = 0.02), have limited cutaneous scleroderma (82.3% versus 53.5%; P = 0.04), and have anti-U1 RNP antibodies (23.5% versus 0%; P = 0.009) than those without neuropathy. A potential nonscleroderma etiology for the peripheral neuropathy such as diabetes mellitus was found in 82.3% (14 of 17) of subjects with neuropathy. While symptoms or objective evidence of peripheral neuropathy are common among patients with scleroderma, the cause may often be attributed to comorbid nonscleroderma-related conditions. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.
Helmich, Rick C G; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Schoonderwaldt, Hennie C; Janssen, Mirian C H
Rhabdomyolysis and peripheral neuropathy are two distinct disease entities which are rarely encountered in combination. We present a woman with rhabdomyolysis and peripheral neuropathy 3 weeks postpartum. Her symptoms were caused by bilateral femoral artery thrombosis due to postpartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). This demonstrates that PPCM may present with predominantly non-cardial symptoms and underscores the importance of rapidly recognizing this disorder.
Mitochondrial dynamics describes the continuous change in the position, size, and shape of mitochondria within cells. The morphological and functional complexity of neurons, the remarkable length of their processes, and the rapid changes in metabolic requirements arising from their intrinsic excitability render these cells particularly dependent on effective mitochondrial function and positioning. The rules that govern these changes and their functional significance are not fully understood, yet the dysfunction of mitochondrial dynamics has been implicated as a pathogenetic factor in a number of diseases, including disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems. In recent years, a number of mutations of genes encoding proteins that play important roles in mitochondrial dynamics and function have been discovered in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, a hereditary peripheral neuropathy. These findings have directly linked mitochondrial pathology to the pathology of peripheral nerve and have identified certain aspects of mitochondrial dynamics as potential early events in the pathogenesis of CMT. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction has now been implicated in the pathogenesis of noninherited neuropathies, including diabetic and inflammatory neuropathies. The role of mitochondria in peripheral nerve diseases has been mostly examined in vitro, and less so in animal models. This review examines available evidence for the role of mitochondrial dynamics in the pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathies, their relevance in human diseases, and future challenges for research in this field.
Staff, Nathan P.; Windebank, Anthony J.
Purpose of Review: Peripheral neuropathies secondary to vitamin deficiencies, medications, or toxins are frequently considered but can be difficult to definitively diagnose. Accurate diagnosis is important since these conditions are often treatable and preventable. This article reviews the key features of different types of neuropathies caused by these etiologies and provides a comprehensive list of specific agents that must be kept in mind. Recent Findings: While most agents that cause peripheral neuropathy have been known for years, newly developed medications that cause peripheral neuropathy are discussed. Summary: Peripheral nerves are susceptible to damage by a wide array of toxins, medications, and vitamin deficiencies. It is important to consider these etiologies when approaching patients with a variety of neuropathic presentations; additionally, etiologic clues may be provided by other systemic symptoms. While length-dependent sensorimotor axonal peripheral neuropathy is the most common presentation, several examples present in a subacute severe fashion, mimicking Guillain-Barré syndrome. PMID:25299283
Despite a supposed common mechanism with demyelination, dysimmune peripheral neuropathies compose a heterogeneous group in term of symptoms (sensory, motor, autonomic), localization of lesions (focal, multifocal or widely spreaded) as well as evolutions (acute, relapsing or chronic). The lacks of reliable biological or electrophysiological markers of evolution in dysimmune neuropathies require development of clinical scales for therapeutic trials and therapeutic decisions in daily practice. As elaboration of a universal scale is not a realistic goal, several specific measurement tools have been proposed for dysimmune neuropathies this past ten years. Highlighting the interest of functional scales as the ONLS, the European INCAT group made a remarkable effort to validate these scales in dysimmune neuropathies. However, there is a controversy concerning the relative interest of deficit scales versus functional scales. The deficit scales may be more sensitive to progression of the disease whereas the functional scales reflect the impact of neuropathy. The use of composite scales, mixing the evaluation of deficits, electrophysiological data and functional issues, is a promising solution, but the relative value of these parameters still remains to be defined.
Chung, Tae; Prasad, Kalpana; Lloyd, Thomas E.
This article is a primer on the pathophysiology and clinical evaluation of peripheral neuropathy for the radiologist. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) has utility in the diagnosis of many focal peripheral nerve lesions. When combined with history, examination, electrophysiology, and laboratory data, future advancements in high-field MRN may play an increasingly important role in the evaluation of patients with peripheral neuropathy. PMID:24210312
Callaghan, Brian C.; Price, Ray S.; Chen, Kevin S.; Feldman, Eva L.
Importance Peripheral neuropathy is a prevalent condition that usually warrants a thorough history and examination, but limited diagnostic evaluation. Rare localizations of peripheral neuropathy, however, often require more extensive diagnostic testing and different treatments. Objective To describe rare localizations of peripheral neuropathy, including the appropriate diagnostic evaluation and available treatments. Evidence Review References were identified from PubMed searches with an emphasis on systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials. Articles were also identified through the use of the author's own files. Search terms included common rare neuropathy localizations and their causes, as well as epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Findings Diffuse, non-length dependent neuropathies, multiple mononeuropathies, polyradiculopathies, plexopathies, and radiculoplexus neuropathies are rare peripheral neuropathy localizations that often require extensive diagnostic testing. Atypical neuropathy features, such as acute/subacute onset, asymmetry, and/or motor predominant signs, are frequently present. The most common diffuse, non-length dependent neuropathies are Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Effective disease modifying therapies exist for many diffuse, non-length dependent neuropathies including GBS, CIDP, MMN, and some paraprotein-associated demyelinating neuropathies. Vasculitic neuropathy (multiple mononeuropathy) also has efficacious treatment options, but definitive evidence of a treatment effect for IgM anti-MAG neuropathy and diabetic amyoptrophy (radiculoplexus neuropathy) is lacking. Conclusions and Relevance Recognition of rare localizations of periperhal neuropathy is essential given the implications for diagnostic testing and treatment. Electrodiagnostic studies are an important early step in the
Klein, Christopher J
Peripheral neuropathies have diverse acquired and inherited causes. The autoimmune neuropathies represent an important category where treatment is often available. There are overlapping signs and symptoms between autoimmune neuropathies and other forms. Making a diagnosis can be challenging and first assisted by electrophysiologic and sometimes pathologic sampling, with autoimmune biomarkers providing increased assistance. Here we provide a review of the autoimmune and inflammatory neuropathies, their available biomarkers, and approaches to treatment. Also discussed is new evidence to support a mechanism of autoimmune pain. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Juster-Switlyk, Kelsey; Smith, A. Gordon
Diabetes has become one of the largest global health-care problems of the 21 st century. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the population prevalence of diabetes in the US is approaching 10% and is increasing by 5% each year. Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication associated with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes causes a broad spectrum of neuropathic complications, including acute and chronic forms affecting each level of the peripheral nerve, from the root to the distal axon. This review will focus on the most common form, distal symmetric diabetic polyneuropathy. There has been an evolution in our understanding of the pathophysiology and the management of diabetic polyneuropathy over the past decade. We highlight these new perspectives and provide updates from the past decade of research. PMID:27158461
Juster-Switlyk, Kelsey; Smith, A Gordon
Diabetes has become one of the largest global health-care problems of the 21 (st) century. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the population prevalence of diabetes in the US is approaching 10% and is increasing by 5% each year. Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication associated with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes causes a broad spectrum of neuropathic complications, including acute and chronic forms affecting each level of the peripheral nerve, from the root to the distal axon. This review will focus on the most common form, distal symmetric diabetic polyneuropathy. There has been an evolution in our understanding of the pathophysiology and the management of diabetic polyneuropathy over the past decade. We highlight these new perspectives and provide updates from the past decade of research.
Ng Wing Tin, Sophie; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel; Goujon, Colette; Planté-Bordeneuve, Violaine; Créange, Alain; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal
To characterize sensory threshold alterations in peripheral neuropathies and the relationship between these alterations and the presence of pain. Seventy-four patients with length-dependent sensory axonal neuropathy were enrolled, including 38 patients with painful neuropathy (complaining of chronic, spontaneous neuropathic pain in the feet) and 36 patients with painless neuropathy. They were compared to 28 age-matched normal controls. A standardized quantitative sensory testing protocol was performed in all individuals to assess large and small fiber function at the foot. Large fibers were assessed by measuring mechanical (pressure and vibration) detection thresholds and small fibers by measuring pain and thermal detection thresholds. Between patients with neuropathy and controls, significant differences were found for mechanical and thermal detection thresholds but not for pain thresholds. Patients with painful neuropathy and those with painless neuropathy did not differ regarding mechanical or thermal thresholds, but only by a higher incidence of thermal or dynamic mechanical allodynia in case of painful neuropathy. Pain intensity correlated with the alteration of thermal detection and mechanical pain thresholds. Quantitative sensory testing can support the diagnosis of sensory neuropathy when considering detection threshold measurement. Thermal threshold deterioration was not associated with the occurrence of pain but with its intensity. There is a complex relationship between the loss or functional deficit of large and especially small sensory nerve fibers and the development of pain in peripheral neuropathy. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rosenberg, Casandra J; Watson, James C
Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy impairs quality of life and can be difficult to treat. To discuss current treatment recommendations for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Literature review. Systematic review of the literature discussing treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Existing treatment guidelines were studied and compared. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy occurs in about one in six people with diabetes. This condition impairs quality of life and increases healthcare costs. Treatment recommendations exist, but individual patient therapy can require a trial-and-error approach. Many treatment options have adjuvant benefits or side effects which should be considered prior to initiating therapy. Often, a combination of treatment modalities with various mechanisms of action is required for adequate pain control. Adequate medication titration and a reasonable trial period should be allowed. The treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy can be challenging, but effective management can improve patient's quality of life. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy impairs quality of life and can be difficult to treat. Many treatment options have adjuvant benefits or side effects which should be considered prior to initiating therapy. Often, a combination of treatment modalities with various mechanisms of action is required for adequate pain control. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.
Sonnino, Sandro; Chiricozzi, Elena; Ciampa, Maria Grazia; Mauri, Laura; Prinetti, Alessandro; Toffano, Gino; Aureli, Massimo
In peripheral neuropathies, such as sensorimotor neuropathies, motor neuron diseases, or the Guillain-Barré syndrome, serum antibodies recognizing saccharide units, portion of oligosaccharides, or oligosaccharide chains, have been found. These antibodies are called anti-glycosphingolipid (GSL) or anti-ganglioside antibodies. However, the information on the aglycone carrying the hydrophilic oligosaccharide remains elusive. The absolute and unique association of GSL to the onset, development and symptomatology of the peripheral neuropathies could be misleading. Here, we report some thoughts on the matter.
Trivedi, Sweety; Pandit, Alak; Ganguly, Goutam; Das, Shyamal Kumar
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a common disorder and presents as diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to physicians and neurologists. In epidemiological studies from India from various regions the overall prevalence of PN varied from 5 to 2400 per 10,000 population in various community studies. India is composed of a multiethnic, multicultural population who are exposed to different adverse environmental factors such as arsenic and lead. Use of different chemotherapeutic agents with propensity to affect peripheral nerves, increasing methods of diagnosis of connective tissue disorders and use of immunomodulating drugs, growing aging population is expected to change the spectrum and burden of peripheral neuropathy in the community. The other important aspect of peripheral neuropathies is in terms of the geographical and occupational distribution especially of toxic neuropathies like arsenic which is common in eastern belt; lead, mercury and organo-phosphorous compounds where occupational exposures are major sources. Inflammatory neuropathies either due to vasculitis or G B Syndrome, chronic inflammatory polyradiculopathies are another major group of neuropathies which is increasing due to increase longevity of Indian subjects and immunological impairment, also adds to morbidity of the patients and are potentially treatable. Leprous neuropathy is common in India and although its frequency is significantly decreasing because of national control program yet pure neuritic form still remains a cause of concern and similar is the case with another infective cause like diptheric neurpathy. Thus this article is an attempt to cover major categories and also highlight the areas where further studies are needed. PMID:28904445
Marmiroli, Paola; Cavaletti, Guido
Peripheral neuropathies are frequent in association with systemic diseases as well as isolated disorders. Recent advances in the therapy of specific neuropathies led to the approval of new drugs/treatments. This review selected those peripheral neuropathies where the most recent approvals were provided and revised the potential future developments in diabetic and toxic-induced neuropathies, although they do not have a currently available causal therapy in view of their epidemiological and social relevance. Data have been extracted from the most important published trials and from clinical experience. In addition, data from the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicine Agency indications on the treatment of the selected peripheral neuropathies and from recently updated international guidelines have also been included. The website of the U.S. National Institutes of Health www.clinicaltrials.gov registry has been used as the reference database for phase III clinical trials not yet published or ongoing. This review gives a general overview of the most recent advances in the treatment of amyloid, inflammatory, and paraproteinemic peripheral neuropathies. Moreover, it briefly describes the unmet medical need in disabling and frequent conditions, such as diabetic and chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, highlighting the most promising therapeutic approaches to their treatment.
Monastiriotis, Christodoulos; Papanas, Nikolaos; Veletza, Stavroula; Maltezos, Efstratios
Genetic factors may influence the natural course of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and explain some of its variability. The aim of this review was to examine the association between apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene polymorphisms and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Four relevant studies were identified. The two earlier works provided evidence that the ɛ4 allele is a risk factor for this complication, while the two more recent studies were negative. Important differences in the methodology used and in the populations included are obvious, rendering difficult the comparison between studies. In conclusion, the association between APOE gene polymorphisms and diabetic peripheral neuropathy is still unclear. Available evidence is rather limited and results have so far been contradictory. Future studies should employ more robust methodology, adjusting for potential confounders and for the prevalence of neuropathy in the general population with diabetes.
Pope, Karl; So, Yuen T; Crane, Julian; Bates, Michael N
The mechanism of toxicity of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas is thought mainly to operate through effects on the nervous system. The gas has high acute toxicity, but whether chronic exposure causes effects, including peripheral neuropathy, is yet unclear. The city of Rotorua, New Zealand, sits on an active geothermal field and the population has some of the highest measured ambient H2S exposures. A previous study in Rotorua provided evidence that H2S is associated with peripheral neuropathy. Using clinical methods, the present study sought to investigate and possibly confirm this association in the Rotorua population. The study population comprised 1635 adult residents of Rotorua, aged 18-65. Collected data relevant to the peripheral neuropathy investigation included symptoms, ankle stretch reflex, vibration sensitivity, as measured by the timed-tuning fork test and a Bio-Thesiometer (Bio-Medical Instrument Co., Ohio), and light touch sensitivity measured by monofilaments. An exposure metric, estimating time-weighted H2S exposure across the last 30 years was used. Principal components analysis was used to combine data across the various indicators of possible peripheral neuropathy. The main data analysis used linear regression to examine associations between the peripheral nerve function indicators and H2S exposure. None of the peripheral nerve function indicators were associated with H2S exposure, providing no evidence that H2S exposure at levels found in Rotorua is a cause of peripheral neuropathy. The earlier association between H2S exposure and peripheral neuropathy diagnoses may be attributable to the ecological study design used. The possibility that H2S exposure misclassification could account for the lack of association found cannot be entirely excluded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sarker, U K; Uddin, M J; Chowdhury, R; Roy, N; Bhattacharjee, M; Roy, J
The objectives of the study were to see the association of peripheral neuropathy in leprosy and to find out the clinical profile of peripheral neuropathy and disability status in leprosy. It was descriptive type of cross sectional study was conducted among the cases of leprosy attended in the out-patient departments of neurology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH) and Mymensingh tuberculosis and leprosy hospital that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in this study, during the study period of January 2010 to December 2011.In this study of 62 cases revealed that leprosy is more common in male (71%) people and 21% leprosy patient had contact with known case of leprosy. Leprosy causes peripheral neuropathy (61.3%). Duration of occurrence of peripheral neuropathy was prolonged (>6 month) in most of the patients (47.4%) and the disease progression was also slow (63.2%). Numbness was complained by 89.4% patients and 65.8% subjects complained of weakness of limbs. Deformities and ulcers were present in 26.3% and 50% of patients respectively. Ulnar nerve (43.6%), Lateral popliteal nerve (41.9%), Posterior tibial nerve (41.9%) and Great auricular nerve (17.7%) were the most commonly involved thickened peripheral nerves. The rate of visible physical impairment (WHO Grade 2 disability) among people affected by leprosy in feet was 27.4% and in hands was 16.1%. The position and vibration sense was found to normal all patients of peripheral neuropathy.
Calcutt, Nigel A.; Lopez, Veronica L.; Bautista, Arjel D.; Mizisin, Leah M.; Torres, Brenda R.; Shroads, Albert L.; Mizisin, Andrew P.; Stacpoole, Peter W.
The use of dichloroacetate (DCA) for treating patients with mitochondrial diseases is limited by the induction of peripheral neuropathy. The mechanisms of DCA-induced neuropathy are not known. Oral DCA treatment (50–500 mg/kg/day for up to 16 weeks) induced tactile allodynia in both juvenile and adult rats; concurrent thermal hypoalgesia developed at higher doses. Both juvenile and adult rats treated with DCA developed nerve conduction slowing that was more pronounced in adult rats. No overt axonal or glial cell abnormalities were identified in peripheral nerves or spinal cord of any DCA-treated rats but morphometric analysis identified a reduction of mean axonal caliber of peripheral nerve myelinated fibers. DCA treatment also caused accumulation of oxidative stress markers in the nerves. These data indicate that behavioral, functional and structural indices of peripheral neuropathy may be induced in both juvenile and adult rats treated with DCA at doses similar to those in clinical use. DCA-induced peripheral neuropathy primarily afflicts axons and involves both metabolic and structural disorders. The DCA-treated rat may provide insight into the pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathy and facilitate development of adjuvant therapeutics to prevent this disorder that currently restricts the clinical use of DCA. PMID:19680144
Kramer, Rita; Bielawski, Jacek; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Othman, Alaa; Alecu, Irina; Ernst, Daniela; Kornhauser, Drew; Hornemann, Thorsten; Spassieva, Stefka
Peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy. In the current study, we tested the involvement of a novel class of neurotoxic sphingolipids, the 1-deoxysphingolipids. 1-Deoxysphingolipids are produced when the enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase uses l-alanine instead of l-serine as its amino acid substrate. We tested whether treatment of cells with paclitaxel (250 nM, 1 µM) and cisplatin (250 nM, 1 µM) would result in elevated cellular levels of 1-deoxysphingolipids. Our results revealed that paclitaxel, but not cisplatin treatment, caused a dose-dependent elevation of 1-deoxysphingolipids levels and an increase in the message and activity of serine palmitoyltransferase (P < 0.05). We also tested whether there is an association between peripheral neuropathy symptoms [evaluated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy-20 (CIPN20) instrument] and the 1-deoxysphingolipid plasma levels (measured by mass spectrometry) in 27 patients with breast cancer who were treated with paclitaxel chemotherapy. Our results showed that there was an association between the incidence and severity of neuropathy and the levels of very-long-chain 1-deoxyceramides such as C24 (P < 0.05), with the strongest association being with motor neuropathy (P < 0.001). Our data from cells and from patients with breast cancer suggest that 1-deoxysphingolipids, the very-long-chain in particular, play a role as molecular intermediates of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy.—Kramer, R., Bielawski, J., Kistner-Griffin, E., Othman, A., Alecu, I., Ernst, D., Kornhauser, D., Hornemann, T., Spassieva, S. Neurotoxic 1-deoxysphingolipids and paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. PMID:26198449
Singh, Randhir; Kishore, Lalit; Kaur, Navpreet
Diabetic neuropathy is a heterogeneous group of disorders with extremely complex pathophysiology and affects both somatic and autonomic components of the nervous system. Neuropathy is the most common chronic complication of diabetes mellitus. Metabolic disruptions in the peripheral nervous system, including altered protein kinase C activity, and increased polyol pathway activity in neurons and Schwann cells resulting from hyperglycemia plays a key role in the development of diabetic neuropathy. These pathways are related to the metabolic and/or redox state of the cell and are the major source of damage. Activation of these metabolic pathways leads to oxidative stress, which is a mediator of hyperglycemia induced cell injury and a unifying theme for all mechanisms of diabetic neuropathy. The therapeutic intervention of these metabolic pathways is capable of ameliorating diabetic neuropathy but therapeutics which target one particular mechanism may have a limited success. Available therapeutic approaches are based upon the agents that modulate pathogenetic mechanisms (glycemic control) and relieve the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. This review emphasizes the pathogenesis, presently available therapeutic approaches and future directions for the management of diabetic neuropathy.
Starobova, Hana; Vetter, Irina
Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy is a common, dose-dependent adverse effect of several antineoplastics. It can lead to detrimental dose reductions and discontinuation of treatment, and severely affects the quality of life of cancer survivors. Clinically, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy presents as deficits in sensory, motor, and autonomic function which develop in a glove and stocking distribution due to preferential effects on longer axons. The pathophysiological processes are multi-factorial and involve oxidative stress, apoptotic mechanisms, altered calcium homeostasis, axon degeneration and membrane remodeling as well as immune processes and neuroinflammation. This review focusses on the commonly used antineoplastic substances oxaliplatin, cisplatin, vincristine, docetaxel, and paclitaxel which interfere with the cancer cell cycle—leading to cell death and tumor degradation—and cause severe acute and chronic peripheral neuropathies. We discuss drug mechanism of action and pharmacokinetic disposition relevant to the development of peripheral neuropathy, the epidemiology and clinical presentation of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, emerging insight into genetic susceptibilities as well as current understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment approaches. PMID:28620280
Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A.
Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neuron function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca 2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation with both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20034667
Addington, James; Freimer, Miriam
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a common side effect of selected chemotherapeutic agents. Previous work has suggested that patients often under report the symptoms of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy and physicians fail to recognize the presence of such symptoms in a timely fashion. The precise pathophysiology that underlies chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, in both the acute and the chronic phase, remains complex and appears to be medication specific. Recent work has begun to demonstrate and further clarify potential pathophysiological processes that predispose and, ultimately, lead to the development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. There is increasing evidence that the pathway to neuropathy varies with each agent. With a clearer understanding of how these agents affect the peripheral nervous system, more targeted treatments can be developed in order to optimize treatment and prevent long-term side effects.
Addington, James; Freimer, Miriam
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a common side effect of selected chemotherapeutic agents. Previous work has suggested that patients often under report the symptoms of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy and physicians fail to recognize the presence of such symptoms in a timely fashion. The precise pathophysiology that underlies chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, in both the acute and the chronic phase, remains complex and appears to be medication specific. Recent work has begun to demonstrate and further clarify potential pathophysiological processes that predispose and, ultimately, lead to the development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. There is increasing evidence that the pathway to neuropathy varies with each agent. With a clearer understanding of how these agents affect the peripheral nervous system, more targeted treatments can be developed in order to optimize treatment and prevent long-term side effects. PMID:27408692
Thiam, A; Diagne, M; Ndiaye, Ng; Ngom Gueye, N F; Diakhate, N D; Sow, P S; Ndiaye, I P
In order to appreciate the antiretroviral drugs impact in the HIV positive patients with peripheral neuropathy, a clinical, electrophysiological and neurpathological study of nerve biopsies was performed. A group of 8 HIV seropositive patients with peripheral neuropathy was compared with an other group of 10 HIV seropositive patients treated with multiple antiretroviral drugs. Electrophysiological examination with motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) mesure of the median and the sciatic popliteal nerve was followed by nerve biopsy. Nerve fragments carried out the neuropathological technics for morphological examination. Eighteen seropositive HIV patients (16 HIV-1 and 2 HIV-2) were included in this study. Six patients among them had motor and sensitive neuropathy of the four limbs and 2 patients had sensitive neuropathy associated with pyramidal signs. In fine, 1 patient had sensitive neuropathy with distal amyotrophy of the four limbs. Slow MNCV was observed in all the patients and more severe in the lower limbs. Nerve were unexciting in the lower limbs in 2 patients. Nerve biopsy showed severe axonal loss in all the patients treated but one. They associated axonal lesion in 5 cases and myelinated lesions in 2 cases. Two patients non treated had normal nerve biopsy. Axonal loss was mild in 2 cases and very severe in one case associated with non inflammatory demyelinated lesions. we observed more severe and more frequent nerve lesions in treated patients than in no treated patients, as at the clinical, electrophysiological and neuropathological examination. Antiretroviral drugs cause more frequently pain motor and sensitive neuropathies at usual posologies. The occurence of recrudescence of pain peripheral neuropathy under antiretroviral treatment allows to reconsider drugs posologies.
Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Faber, Catharina G; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Waxman, Stephen G
Peripheral neuropathy can lead to neuropathic pain in a subset of patients. Painful peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating disorder, reflected by a reduced quality of life. Therapeutic strategies are limited and often disappointing, as in most cases targeted treatment is not available. Elucidating pathogenetic factors for pain might provide a target for optimal treatment. Voltage-gated sodium channels NaV1.7-NaV1.9 are expressed in the small-diameter dorsal root ganglion neurons and their axons. By a targeted gene approach, missense gain-of-function mutations of NaV1.7-NaV1.9 have been demonstrated in painful peripheral neuropathy. Functional analyses have shown that these mutations produce a spectrum of pro-excitatory changes in channel biophysics, with the shared outcome at the cellular level of dorsal root ganglion hyperexcitability. Reduced neurite outgrowth may be another consequence of sodium channel mutations, and possible therapeutic strategies include blockade of sodium channels or block of reverse operation of the sodium-calcium exchanger. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of painful peripheral neuropathy offers new targets that may provide a basis for more effective treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Erbas, Tomris; Ertas, Mustafa; Yucel, Aysen; Keskinaslan, Abdulkadir; Senocak, Mustafa
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and neuropathic pain in diabetic patients attending university outpatient clinics in Turkey. In this multicenter cross-sectional study, neurologic examinations and nerve conduction studies along with clinical diabetic neuropathy score, and Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs pain scale were performed on 1,113 patients (46.2% male) from 14 centers. Prevalence of DPN determined only by clinical examination was 40.4% and increased to 62.2%, by combining nerve conduction studies with clinical examination. According to Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs scores, neuropathic pain prevalence was 16.0% in those who reported pain. Poor glycemic control, retinopathy, microalbuminuria, hyperlipidemia, diabetic foot, and foot amputation were more commonly observed in patients with DPN. Clinical DPN affected 40.4% of diabetic patients, and neuropathic pain prevalence in diabetic patient population was 14.0%. Clinical examinations and nerve conduction studies are important components for early detection and accurate diagnosis of DPN and painful DPN.
Jayaprakash, P; Bhansali, Anil; Bhansali, Shobhit; Dutta, Pinaki; Anantharaman, R; Shanmugasundar, G; Ravikiran, M
Vibration perception threshold (VPT) is considered as a gold standard for diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. However, the data are sparse comparing the VPT with commonly used bedside modalities. This study was carried out to evaluate the usefulness of simple bed side screening modalities for peripheral neuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus. A total of 1044 patients with diabetes mellitus attending the Diabetes clinic from January 2007 to May 2008, were included in this study. All subjects had a detailed clinical assessment including Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom (DNS) score, Diabetic Neuropathy Examination (DNE) score, ankle reflex, vibration sensation with a 128 Hz tuning fork, 10 g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament and vibration perception threshold (VPT). The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy was 34.9 per cent with VPT. Foot care practices were followed by only 214 (20.5%) of the study population. When compared with VPT, ankle reflex was the most sensitive (90.7%) but least specific (37.3%). The tuning fork and monofilament tests respectively had lower sensitivity (62.5 and 62.8%) but better specificity (95.3 and 92.9%) and accuracy (78.9 and 77.9%). Significant correlations were observed between the VPT score and the DNE (r = 0.532, P<0.001) and DNS (r = 0.546, P<0.001) scores and absent tuning fork sensation (r = 0.590; P<0.001), monofilament sensation (r = 0.573; P<0.001) and ankle reflex (r = 0.377, P = 0.01). The present findings show that simple bed side tests are useful for assessing peripheral diabetic neuropathy, even in those subjects in whom foot care practices are not followed.
Kramer, Rita; Bielawski, Jacek; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Othman, Alaa; Alecu, Irina; Ernst, Daniela; Kornhauser, Drew; Hornemann, Thorsten; Spassieva, Stefka
Peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy. In the current study, we tested the involvement of a novel class of neurotoxic sphingolipids, the 1-deoxysphingolipids. 1-Deoxysphingolipids are produced when the enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase uses l-alanine instead of l-serine as its amino acid substrate. We tested whether treatment of cells with paclitaxel (250 nM, 1 µM) and cisplatin (250 nM, 1 µM) would result in elevated cellular levels of 1-deoxysphingolipids. Our results revealed that paclitaxel, but not cisplatin treatment, caused a dose-dependent elevation of 1-deoxysphingolipids levels and an increase in the message and activity of serine palmitoyltransferase (P < 0.05). We also tested whether there is an association between peripheral neuropathy symptoms [evaluated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy-20 (CIPN20) instrument] and the 1-deoxysphingolipid plasma levels (measured by mass spectrometry) in 27 patients with breast cancer who were treated with paclitaxel chemotherapy. Our results showed that there was an association between the incidence and severity of neuropathy and the levels of very-long-chain 1-deoxyceramides such as C24 (P < 0.05), with the strongest association being with motor neuropathy (P < 0.001). Our data from cells and from patients with breast cancer suggest that 1-deoxysphingolipids, the very-long-chain in particular, play a role as molecular intermediates of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. © FASEB.
Sykam, Aparna; Gutlapalli, V R; Tenali, Sandeep P; Meena, A K; Chandran, Priscilla; Suneetha, Sujai; Suneetha, Lavanya M
Ceramide is a glycosphingolipid, a component of nerve and non neuronal cell membrane and plays a role in maintaining the integrity of neuronal tissue. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is a multifunctional enzyme, its involvement in neurodegenerative diseases has been well established. Anticeramide antibody (Ab-Cer) and enzyme BChE have been implicated in peripheral neuropathies. The present study investigates whether there is an association between Ab-Cer and BChE activities and peripheral neuropathies. Patients included: human immunodeficiency virus associated peripheral neuropathy (HIV-PN, n=39), paucibacillary leprosy (PB-L, n=36), multibacillary leprosy (MB-L, n=52), diabetic neuropathy (DN, n=22), demyelinating sensory motor polyneuropathy (DSMN, n=13) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP, n=10). Plasma Ab-Cer was measured by indirect enzyme linked immune assay (ELISA) and BChE activity in plasma was measured by colorimetric method. Ab-Cer levels were significantly elevated in MB-L and DN as compared to healthy subjects (HS). BChE levels were significantly higher in MB-L and DN as well as in HIV and HIV-PN. There is no significant difference in either Ab-Cer or BChE levels in DSMN and CIDP. Elevated plasma Ab-Cer and BChE levels may be considered significant in the pathogenesis of neuropathies. The variation in concurrent involvement of both the molecules in the neuropathies of the study, suggest their unique involvement in neurodegenerative pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kerasnoudis, Antonios; Tsivgoulis, Georgios
Peripheral neuropathies are one of the most common reasons for seeking neurological care in everyday practice. Electrophysiological studies remain fundamental for the diagnosis and etiological classification of peripheral nerve impairment. The recent technological development though of high resolution ultrasound has allowed the clinician to obtain detailed structural images of peripheral nerves. Nerve ultrasound mainly focuses on the evaluation of the cross sectional area, cross sectional area variability along the anatomical course, echogenity, vascularity and mobility of the peripheral nerves. An increase of the cross sectional area, hypervascularity, disturbed fascicular echostructure and reduced nerve mobility are some of the most common findings of entrapments neuropathies, such as the carpal or cubital tunnel syndrome. Both the cross-sectional area increase and the hypervascularity detected with the Doppler technique seem to correlate significantly with the clinical and electrophysiological severity of the later mononeuropathies. Significantly greater cross sectional area values of the clinically affected cervical nerve root are often detected in cases of cervical radiculopathy. In such cases, the ultrasound findings seem also to correlate significantly with disease duration. On the other hand, multifocal cross sectional area enlargement of cervical roots and/or peripheral nerves is often documented in cases of immune-mediated neuropathies. None of the later pathological ultrasound findings seem to correlate significantly with the electrophysiological parameters or the functional disability. The aim of this review is to provide a timely update on the role of neuromuscular ultrasound in the diagnostic of the most common entrapment and immune-mediated peripheral neuropathies in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.
Iżycki, Dariusz; Niezgoda, Adam; Kaźmierczak, Maciej; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is one of the most important neurologic complications experienced by patients receiving chemotherapy. The neuropathy often interferes with daily activities and exercise leading to severe impairment of the patient's quality of life (QoL). The evolution of most CIPNs is characterized by a gradual onset of signs/symptoms, beginning in the lower limbs and advancing proximally into a bilateral stocking and glove distribution. Patients often complain of numbness, tingling and pain in the affected areas. The symptoms become aggravated with repeated cycles of chemotherapy. When the offending agent is withheld, the symptoms generally abate, but relief is not guaranteed. The consequences of delay or discontinuation of treatment may affect overall patient survival.
Pagano, Lucia; Proietto, Maria; Biondi, Roberto
About 60 to 70 percent of people with diabetes have some neuropathy. Diabetic neuropathy can be classified as peripheral, autonomic, proximal, focal and multifocal or mixed. Peripheral neuropathy, the most common type of diabetic neuropathy, causes pain and/or loss of feeling in the toes, feet, legs, hands, and arms; extreme sensitivity to touch, loss of balance and coordination; muscle weakness and loss of reflexes, especially at the ankle, leading to changes in the way a person walks. The aim of this study is to underline the importance of drug and rehabilitative approach in the therapy of peripheral neuropathy, that frequently influences both diabetes mellitus type 1 and diabetes mellitus type 2.
Nicholas, Patrice K; Corless, Inge B; Evans, Linda A
Peripheral neuropathy is a common and vexing symptom for people living with HIV infection (PLWH). Neuropathy occurs in several different syndromes and is identified in the literature as distal sensory polyneuropathy or distal sensory peripheral neuropathy. More recently, the HIV literature has focused on the syndrome as painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy, addressing the symptom rather than the underlying pathophysiology. Assessment of neuropathy in PLWH is critical and must be incorporated into nursing practice for each visit. Neuropathy has been attributed to the direct effects of HIV, exposure to antiretroviral medications (particularly the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), advanced immune suppression, and comorbid tuberculosis infection and exposure to antituberculosis medications. Evidence supports the importance of addressing neuropathy in PLWH with pharmacologic treatment regimens and complementary/alternative approaches. This paper examines the pathophysiology, evidence, and approaches to managing peripheral neuropathy. A case study has been included to illustrate a patient's experience with neuropathy symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Papapetrou, Peter; Kumar, Aashish J; Muppuri, Rudram; Chakrabortty, Shushovan
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating side effect of chemotherapy, which manifests as paresthesias, dysesthesias, and numbness in the hands and feet. Numerous chemoprotective agents and treatments have been used with limited success to treat chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. We report a case in which a patient presenting with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy received an IV lidocaine infusion over the course of 60 minutes with complete symptomatic pain relief for a prolonged period of 2 weeks.
Goolsby, Tiffany A; Jakeman, Bernadette; Gaynes, Robert P
The objective of this paper was to review and evaluate the literature on metronidazole-associated peripheral neuropathy and determine the relevance in clinical practice. MEDLINE/PubMed, EBSCO, and Google Scholar were searched through February 2017 using the search terms metronidazole and peripheral neuropathy, or polyneuropathy, or paresthesia, or neurotoxicity. Relevant case reports, retrospective studies, surveys, and review articles were included. Bibliographies of all relevant articles were reviewed for additional sources. Overall, metronidazole is generally well tolerated but serious neurotoxicity, including peripheral neuropathy, has been reported. The overall incidence of peripheral neuropathy associated with metronidazole is unknown. Our review found 36 case reports (40 unique patients) of metronidazole-associated peripheral neuropathy with the majority of cases receiving >42 total grams (>4 weeks) of therapy (31 out of 40). In addition, we reviewed 13 clinical studies and found varying rates of peripheral neuropathy from 0-50%. Within these clinical studies, we found a higher incidence of peripheral neuropathy in patients receiving >42 total grams (>4 weeks) of metronidazole compared to those patients receiving ≤ 42 total grams (17.9% vs 1.7%). Nearly all patients had complete resolution of symptoms. In conclusion, peripheral neuropathy is exceedingly rare in patients who receive ≤ 42 total grams of metronidazole. Patients who receive larger total doses may be at higher risk of peripheral neuropathy but most patients have resolution of symptoms after discontinuing therapy. Antimicrobial stewardship programs may consider use of antibiotic combinations that include metronidazole over broad-spectrum alternatives when treating with ≤42 grams of the drug (≤4 weeks). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Misiunas, A; Niepomniszcze, H; Ravera, B; Faraj, G; Faure, E
Alterations in peripheral nerves are well documented in overt myxedema but not in subclinical hypothyroidism. We performed electrophysiologic studies to investigate such abnormalities in patients with normal serum total T4 and hyperresponsiveness of TSH to TRH, either with normal or high levels of basal circulating TSH. Subjects were divided in three groups: (i) Hypothyroidism Stage I (group () (n = 17, mean age = 39 +/- 34 years), T4 = 9 +/- 0.7 micrograms/dL, TSH = 4.3 +/- 0.4 microU/mL, sTSH post-TRH (peak value) = 37.6 +/- 1.6 microU/mL; (ii) Hypothyroidism Stage II (group II) (n = 10, mean age: 43 +/- 6 years), T4 = 7.7 +/- 0.8 microgram/dL, TSH = 20 +/- 5 microU/mL, TSH post-TRH > 50 microU/mL; (iii) Control Group (n = 20, mean age 41 +/- 5 years), healthy subjects. All patients and controls were women. TRH test consisted in the i.v. injection of 200 micrograms TRH (normal peak value up to 25 microU/mL, normal basal TSH < 5.5 microU/mL. None of the patients had carpal tunnel syndrome or any other neurological or metabolic disturbances. We studied the distal motor latencies, motor and sensory amplitudes, and nerve conduction velocities. The motor parameters were measured in the median and external sciatic popliteal (ESP) nerves, and the sensory parameters in the median and sural nerves. In most cases values were obtained from both right and left nerves. Motor parameters: no differences were found between all groups for conduction velocities (CV).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Chiles, Nancy S.; Phillips, Caroline L.; Volpato, Stefano; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M.; Patel, Kushang V.
Objective Diabetes among older adults causes many complications, including decreased lower extremity function and physical disability. Diabetes can cause peripheral nerve dysfunction, which might be one pathway through which diabetes leads to decreased physical function. The study aims were to determine: (1) whether diabetes and impaired fasting glucose are associated with objective measures of physical function in older adults, (2) which peripheral nerve function (PNF) tests are associated with diabetes, and (3) whether PNF mediates the diabetes-physical function relationship. Research Design and Methods This study included 983 participants, age 65 and older from the InCHIANTI Study. Diabetes was diagnosed by clinical guidelines. Physical performance was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), scored from 0-12 (higher values, better physical function) and usual walking speed (m/s). PNF was assessed via standard surface electroneurographic study of right peroneal nerve conduction velocity, vibration and touch sensitivity. Clinical cut-points of PNF tests were used to create a neuropathy score from 0-5 (higher values, greater neuropathy). Multiple linear regression models were used to test associations. Results and Conclusion 12.8% (n=126) of participants had diabetes. Adjusting for age, sex, education, and other confounders, diabetic participants had decreased SPPB (β= −0.99; p< 0.01), decreased walking speed (β= −0.1m/s; p< 0.01), decreased nerve conduction velocity (β= −1.7m/s; p< 0.01), and increased neuropathy (β= 0.25; p< 0.01) compared to non-diabetic participants. Adjusting for nerve conduction velocity and neuropathy score decreased the effect of diabetes on SPPB by 20%, suggesting partial mediation through decreased PNF. PMID:24120281
Frisk, P; Stålberg, E; Strömberg, B; Jakobson A
Ifosfamide is successfully employed in the treatment of bone and soft tissue sarcomas in children and young adults. Used at high doses (HDI) the drug may cause severe multiorgan toxicity. Peripheral neuropathy is a less well-known side effect that may limit its use. We describe a 16-year-old girl with a Ewing sarcoma who was given post-operative treatment with HDI (15 mg/m(2) infused over 5 days). After the second course she experienced paresthesias in both feet. After the third course she developed signs of severe toxicity in the CNS, kidneys, heart, and severe pain in her feet. Neurologic and neurophysiologic investigations, including neurographic studies of motor and sensory nerves, EMG, and thermotest, were performed in the acute phase and after 6 and 21 months, respectively. Renal and cardiac function was also assessed. She developed generalized weakness of the arms and legs and an extremely painful hyperesthesia of the soles. The symptoms improved gradually during follow-up but remained to some extent even after more than 2 years. Serial neurophysiologic investigations indicated classical signs of axonal neuropathy, which tended to improve during follow-up. After 18 months the glomerular filtration rate and the effective renal plasma flow were 30 and 12% of normal, respectively, while other organ functions had returned to baseline. Symptoms of peripheral neuropathy after HDI may herald severe multiorgan toxicity, if continued. Early administration of anesthetics through the intrathecal route should be considered in case of ifosfamide-induced painful peripheral neuropathy. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Fateh, Hamid R; Madani, Seyed Pezhman; Heshmat, Ramin; Larijani, Bagher
Almost half of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathies (DPNs) are symptom-free. Methods including questionnaires and electrodiagnosis (EDx) can be fruitful for easy reach to early diagnosis, correct treatments of diabetic neuropathy, and so decline of complications for instance diabetic foot ulcer and prevention of high costs. The goal of our study was to compare effectiveness of the Michigan neuropathy screening instrument (MNSI), United Kingdom screening test (UKST) and electrophysiological evaluation in confirming diabetic peripheral neuropathy. One hundred twenty five known diabetes mellitus male and female subjects older than 18 with or without symptoms of neuropathy comprised in this research. All of them were interviewed in terms of demographic data, lipid profile, HbA1C, duration of disease, and history of retinopathy, so examined by Michigan neuropathy screening instrument (MNSI), United Kingdom screening test (UKST), and nerve conduction studies (NCS). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software 18. One hundred twenty five diabetic patients (70 female, 55 male) were recruited in this study with a mean age of 58.7 ± 10.2, and mean duration of diabetes was 10.17 ± 6.9 years. The mean neuropathy score of MNSI and UKST were 2.3 (1.7) and 4.16 (2.9), respectively. Each instrument detected the peripheral neuropathy in 78 (69 %) and 91 (73 %) of patients, respectively. There was a significant relationship between number of neuropathies and mean of diabetes duration and development of retinopathy in both questionnaire evaluations and NCS. By nerve conduction study, neuropathy was detected in 121 (97 %) diabetic patients were reported in order 15 (12 %) mononeuropathy (as 33 % sensory and 67 % motor neuropathy) and 106 (85 %) polyneuropathy (as 31 % motor and 69 % sensorimotor neuropathy). As regards NCS is an objective, simple, and non-invasive tool and also can determine level of damage and regeneration in peripheral nerves, this study
White, Claire M; van Doorn, Pieter A; Garssen, Marcel P J; Stockley, Rachel C
Persistent feelings of fatigue (or subjective fatigue), which may be experienced in the absence of physiological factors, affect many people with peripheral neuropathy. A variety of interventions for subjective fatigue are available, but little is known about their efficacy or the likelihood of any adverse effects for people with peripheral neuropathy. To assess the effects of drugs and physical, psychological or behavioural interventions for fatigue in adults or children with peripheral neuropathy. On 5 November 2013, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, LILACS and AMED. We also searched reference lists of all studies identified for inclusion and relevant reviews, and contacted the authors of included studies and known experts in the field to identify additional published or unpublished data. We also searched trials registries for ongoing studies. We considered for inclusion randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing any form of intervention for fatigue management in adults with peripheral neuropathy with placebo, no intervention or an alternative form of intervention for fatigue. Interventions considered included drugs, pacing and grading of physical activity, general or specific exercise, compensatory strategies such as orthotics, relaxation, counselling, cognitive and educational strategies. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted study data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We collected information on adverse events from the included trials. The review includes three trials, which were all at low risk of bias, involving 530 people with peripheral neuropathy. The effects of amantadine from one randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial comparing amantadine with placebo for the treatment of fatigue in 80 people with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) were uncertain for the proportion of people achieving
Chekh, Viktor; Soliz, Peter; McGrew, Elizabeth; Barriga, Simon; Burge, Mark; Luan, Shuang
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) refers to the nerve damage that can occur in diabetes patients. It most often affects the extremities, such as the feet, and can lead to peripheral vascular disease, deformity, infection, ulceration, and even amputation. The key to managing diabetic foot is prevention and early detection. Unfortunately, current existing diagnostic techniques are mostly based on patient sensations and exhibit significant inter- and intra-observer differences. We have developed a computer aided diagnostic (CAD) system for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The thermal response of the feet of diabetic patients following cold stimulus is captured using an infrared camera. The plantar foot in the images from a thermal video are segmented and registered for tracking points or specific regions. The temperature recovery of each point on the plantar foot is extracted using our bio-thermal model and analyzed. The regions that exhibit abnormal ability to recover are automatically identified to aid the physicians to recognize problematic areas. The key to our CAD system is the segmentation of infrared video. The main challenges for segmenting infrared video compared to normal digital video are (1) as the foot warms up, it also warms up the surrounding, creating an ever changing contrast; and (2) there may be significant motion during imaging. To overcome this, a hybrid segmentation algorithm was developed based on a number of techniques such as continuous max-flow, model based segmentation, shape preservation, convex hull, and temperature normalization. Verifications of the automatic segmentation and registration using manual segmentation and markers show good agreement.
Tariman, Joseph D; Love, Ginger; McCullagh, Emily; Sandifer, Stacey
The novel therapies thalidomide and bortezomib can cause peripheral neuropathy, a challenging adverse event that can affect quality of life and compromise optimal treatment for patients with multiple myeloma. At baseline, patients should be evaluated for signs and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy with a neurotoxicity assessment tool and educated about the symptoms and the importance of reporting them. Signs, symptoms, and the ability to perform activities of daily living should be evaluated regularly so that appropriate interventions can be employed if necessary. Specific management strategies for peripheral neuropathy are based on the grade of severity and on signs and symptoms; strategies include dose and schedule modifications, pharmacologic interventions, nonpharmacologic approaches, and patient education.
Menezes, Manoj P; Ouvrier, Robert A
Mitochondrial diseases in children are often associated with a peripheral neuropathy but the presence of the neuropathy is under-recognized because of the overwhelming involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). These mitochondrial neuropathies are heterogeneous in their clinical, neurophysiological, and histopathological characteristics. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of childhood mitochondrial neuropathy. Early recognition of neuropathy may help with the identification of the mitochondrial syndrome. While it is not definite that the characteristics of the neuropathy would help in directing genetic testing without the requirement for invasive skin, muscle or liver biopsies, there appears to be some evidence for this hypothesis in Leigh syndrome, in which nuclear SURF1 mutations cause a demyelinating neuropathy and mitochondrial DNA MTATP6 mutations cause an axonal neuropathy. POLG1 mutations, especially when associated with late-onset phenotypes, appear to cause a predominantly sensory neuropathy with prominent ataxia. The identification of the peripheral neuropathy also helps to target genetic testing in the mitochondrial optic neuropathies. Although often subclinical, the peripheral neuropathy may occasionally be symptomatic and cause significant disability. Where it is symptomatic, recognition of the neuropathy will help the early institution of rehabilitative therapy. We therefore suggest that nerve conduction studies should be a part of the early evaluation of children with suspected mitochondrial disease.
Tanishima, Hiroyuki; Tominaga, Toshiji; Kimura, Masamichi; Maeda, Tsunehiro; Shirai, Yasutsugu; Horiuchi, Tetsuya
Chronic peripheral neuropathy is a major adverse response to oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy regimens, but there are no established risk factors pertaining to it. We investigated the efficacy of hyperacute peripheral neuropathy (HAPN) as a predictor of oxaliplatin-induced persistent peripheral neuropathy (PPN). Forty-seven cases of stage III colorectal cancer who received adjuvant chemotherapy with oxaliplatin after curative surgery between January 2010 and August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. HAPN was defined as acute peripheral neuropathy (APN) occurring on day 1 (≤24 h after oxaliplatin infusion) of the first cycle. PPN was defined as neuropathy lasting >1 year after oxaliplatin discontinuation. The average total dose of oxaliplatin was 625.8 mg/m(2), and the average relative dose intensity was 66.7%. Twenty-two of the 47 patients (46.8%) had PPN and 13 (27.7%) had HAPN. Male sex, treatment for neuropathy, HAPN, and APN were significantly more frequent in patients with PPN (p = 0.013, 0.02, <0.001, and 0.023, respectively). There was no significant difference in the total oxaliplatin dose between patients with and without PPN (p = 0.061). Multivariate analyses revealed total dose of oxaliplatin and HAPN as independent predictors of PPN [p = 0.015; odds ratio (OR) = 1.005, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.001-1.009 and p = 0.001; OR = 75.307, 5.3-1070.123, respectively]. The total dose of oxaliplatin was relatively lower in patients with HAPN than that in those without HAPN in the PPN-positive group (not significant, p = 0.068). HAPN was found to be a predictor of oxaliplatin-induced PPN.
Peripheral neuropathy is associated with major morbidity in the diabetic population. The detection of whether peripheral neuropathy is simply present or not in patients with diabetes is insufficient. What is required is a reliable measure of both the extent and severity of neuropathy, as this enables the appropriate allocation of resources and improves the quality of care for the patients who need it most. Standardized approaches involving the use of a neurothesiometer and a 10 g monofilament can provide a reliable and objective measure of the extent and severity of neuropathy, and should therefore be adopted into protocols for best practice in the assessment of neuropathy.
Zheng, Huaien; Xiao, Wen Hua; Bennett, Gary J
Cancer chemotherapeutics like paclitaxel and oxaliplatin produce a dose-limiting chronic sensory peripheral neuropathy that is often accompanied by neuropathic pain. The cause of the neuropathy and pain is unknown. In animal models, paclitaxel-evoked and oxaliplatin-evoked painful peripheral neuropathies are accompanied by an increase in the incidence of swollen and vacuolated mitochondria in peripheral nerve axons. It has been proposed that mitochondrial swelling and vacuolation are indicative of a functional impairment and that this results in a chronic axonal energy deficiency that is the cause of the neuropathy's symptoms. However, the significance of mitochondrial swelling and vacuolation is ambiguous and a test of the hypothesis requires a direct assessment of the effects of chemotherapy on mitochondrial function. The results of such an assessment are reported here. Mitochondrial respiration and ATP production were measured in rat sciatic nerve samples taken 1-2 days after and 3-4 weeks after induction of painful peripheral neuropathy with paclitaxel and oxaliplatin. Significant deficits in Complex I-mediated and Complex II-mediated respiration and significant deficits in ATP production were found for both drugs at both time points. In addition, prophylactic treatment with acetyl-l-carnitine, which inhibited the development of paclitaxel-evoked and oxaliplatin-evoked neuropathy, prevented the deficits in mitochondrial function. These results implicate mitotoxicity as a possible cause of chemotherapy-evoked chronic sensory peripheral neuropathy.
Ten Hoope, Werner; Looije, Marjolein; Lirk, Philipp
The aim of this review is to summarize recent relevant literature regarding regional anesthesia in the diabetic neuropathic patient and formulate recommendations for clinical practice. Diabetic neuropathic nerves, but not nerves of diabetic patients per se, exhibit complex functional changes. As a result, they seem more sensitive to local anesthetics, and are more difficult to stimulate. When catheters are used postoperatively, diabetes is an independent risk factor for infection. The pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying diabetic polyneuropathy are complex. Several pathways are thought to contribute to the development of diabetic neuropathy, triggered most importantly by chronic hyperglycemia. The latter induces inflammation and oxidative stress, causing microvascular changes, local ischemia and decreased axonal conduction velocity. Regional anesthesia is different in patients with diabetic neuropathy in several regards. First, the electric stimulation threshold of the nerve is markedly increased whereby the risk for needle trauma in stimulator-guided nerve blocks is theoretically elevated. Second, the diabetic nerve is more sensitive to local anesthetics, which results in longer block duration. Third, local anesthetics have been conjectured to be more toxic in diabetic neuropathy but the evidence is equivocal and should not be a cause to deny regional anesthesia to patients with a valid indication. Lastly, when peripheral nerve catheters are used, diabetes is an independent predisposing factor for infection.
Cassereau, J; Codron, P; Funalot, B
Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) are frequently responsible for neuropathies with variable severity. Mitochondrial diseases causing peripheral neuropathies (PNP) may be due to mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), as is the case in MERRF and MELAS syndromes, or to mutations of nuclear genes. Secondary abnormalities of mtDNA (such as multiple deletions of muscle mtDNA) may result from mitochondrial disorders due to mutations in nuclear genes involved in mtDNA maintenance. This is the case in several syndromes caused by impaired mtDNA maintenance, such as Sensory Ataxic Neuropathy, Dysarthria and Ophthalmoplegia (SANDO) due to recessive mutations in the POLG gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of mtDNA polymerase (DNA polymerase gamma), or Mitochondrial Neuro-Gastro-Intestinal Encephalomyopathy (MNGIE), due to recessive mutations in the TYMP gene, which encodes thymidine phosphorylase. The last years have seen a growing list of evidence demonstrating that mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamics might be dysfunctional in axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT2), and these mechanisms might present a common link between dissimilar CMT2-causing genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Höliner, Isabella; Haslinger, Vera; Lütschg, Jürg; Müller, Guido; Barbarini, Daniela Seick; Fussenegger, Jörg; Zanier, Ulrike; Saely, Christoph H; Drexel, Heinz; Simma, Burkhard
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and examine whether the neurological examination validly diagnoses diabetic peripheral neuropathy as compared with the gold standard of nerve conduction velocity in these patients. Nerve conduction velocity was measured in an unselected consecutive series of patients aged 8-18 years who had been suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus for at least 1 year. For the neurological examination, neuropathy disability scores and neuropathy sign scores were used. Of the 39 patients, six (15%) had clinically evident diabetic peripheral neuropathy, whereas nerve conduction velocity testing revealed diabetic peripheral neuropathy in 15 (38%) patients. Sensitivity and specificity of the neurological examination for the diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy were 40% and 100%, respectively. The corresponding positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 72.7%, respectively. This conclusions from this study are that in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus, diabetic peripheral neuropathy is highly prevalent, but in the majority of patients it is subclinical. Sensitivity and negative predictive values of the neurological examination are low. Therefore, routine nerve conduction velocity measurement for the assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy appears to be warranted in these patients.
Zaroulis, Chrysothea K; Chairopoulos, Konstantinos; Sachanas, Sotirios P; Maltezas, Dimitris; Tzenou, Tatiana; Pessach, Ilias; Koulieris, Efstathios; Koutra, Eleni; Kilindireas, Konstantinos; Pangalis, Gerasimos A; Kyrtsonis, Marie-Christine
We evaluated bortezomib induced peripheral neuropathy (BIPN) characteristics in an attempt to better clarify the type, grade, duration and reversibility of neuropathy as well as investigate possible peripheral neuropathy (PN) risk factors and detect the best way to manage it. We calculated the grading of neuropathy using the Total Neuropathy Score reduced version (TNSr) in a series of 51 patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma treated with bortezomib. Seventy percent developed clinical PN. BIPN, although manageable, is frequently underestimated in patients treated with bortezomib intravenously. Continuous follow-up and management of PN are needed to avoid quality of life impairment.
Carson, Cindy Alberts
Introduction Tart cherries have a long history as a treatment for gout and joint pain. While the exact mechanism of action is unknown, it is believed that acanthocyanin pigments and related bioflavonoids found in tart cherries and other red fruits scavenge free radicals, modulate cytokines, reduce DNA degradation, decrease capillary permeability, inhibit cyclooxygenase, and strengthen biological membranes. Many of these biochemical reactions would be expected to reduce inflammation, pain, and edema. Significance of Study Peripheral polyneuropathies are common and are believed to affect up to 9% of the US population older than 50 y. These neuropathies may develop from direct compression of peripheral nerves, toxic or metabolic injury to nerve tissue, autoimmune attack, or nutritional deficiency. No cause is identified in approximately 30% of patients. The pathophysiology of polyneuropathies is complex and not fully understood, but 3 common patterns of damage occur: (1) distal axonopathy, where the cell bodies remain intact, but axons degenerate from distal to proximal, usually as the result of toxic or metabolic injury; (2) demyelination neuropathy, where damage to the myelin sheath from autoimmune, infectious, or other causes disrupts electrical signaling; and (3) ganglionopathies, where damage occurs at the cell body or neuron, a relatively rare occurrence. While weakness and loss of sensation are common in many peripheral polyneuropathies, “gain of function” symptoms, such as paresthesias and allodynia, are the most distressing and are very difficult to treat. It is believed that these symptoms are caused by alterations in ion channels, alterations in neurotransmitters and their receptors, and altered gene expression. Common conventional treatments include antiepileptics, antidepressants, NSAIDs, and narcotics. These medications alter ion channels and neurotransmitters, decrease the sensitivity of nociceptive receptors, and desensitize C fibers. Most patients
Gewandter, Jennifer S; Freeman, Roy; Kitt, Rachel A; Cavaletti, Guido; Gauthier, Lynn R; McDermott, Michael P; Mohile, Nimish A; Mohlie, Supriya G; Smith, A Gordon; Tejani, Mohamedtaki A; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H
To assess the design characteristics and reporting quality of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for treatments of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) initiated before or during chemotherapy. In this systematic review of RCTs of preventive or symptomatic pharmacologic treatments for CIPN initiated before or during chemotherapy treatment, articles were identified by updating the PubMed search utilized in the CIPN treatment guidelines published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology in 2014. Thirty-eight articles were identified. The majority included only patients receiving platinum therapies (61%) and used a placebo control (79%). Common exclusion criteria were preexisting neuropathy (84%), diabetes (55%), and receiving treatments that could potentially improve neuropathy symptoms (45%). Ninety-five percent of studies initiated the experimental treatment before CIPN symptoms occurred. Although 58% of articles identified a primary outcome measure (POM), only 32% specified a primary analysis. Approximately half (54%) of the POMs were patient-reported outcome measures of symptoms and functional impairment. Other POMs included composite measures of symptoms and clinician-rated signs (23%) and vibration tests (14%). Only 32% of articles indicated how data from participants who prematurely discontinued chemotherapy were analyzed, and 21% and 29% reported the number of participants who discontinued chemotherapy due to neuropathy or other/unspecified reasons, respectively. These data identify reporting practices that could be improved in order to enhance readers' ability to critically evaluate RCTs of CIPN treatments and use the findings to inform the design of future studies and clinical practice. Reporting recommendations are provided. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.
Al-Zuhairy, Ali; Schrøder, Henrik Daa; Plesner, Torben; Abildgaard, Niels; Sindrup, Søren H
For several decades an association between MGUS, IgM-MGUS in particular, and peripheral neuropathy has been suspected. Several histopathology studies have shown binding of IgM to myelin and a secondary widening of myelin lamellae in cutaneous nerves and in the sural nerve of patients with IgM-MGUS, or Waldenström's Macroglobulinaemia (WM), and peripheral neuropathy. In this retrospective study we investigated the value of skin biopsy examination in the diagnosis of MGUS- and WM-associated peripheral neuropathy. A total of 117 patients, who were examined for an M-component in serum with associated nerve symptoms, had a skin biopsy taken and examined for immunoglobulin deposition in cutaneous nerves. Thirty-five patients were diagnosed with MGUS or WM and peripheral neuropathy with no other cause of neuropathy. Nineteen patients had MGUS but no peripheral neuropathy. Of the 35 patients with MGUS or WM and peripheral neuropathy, four had immunoglobulin deposition in the skin biopsy, all of whom had an IgM gammopathy. In the control group of 19 without peripheral neuropathy, three had immunoglobulin deposition in the skin biopsy, all of whom had IgM-MGUS. In both groups, there was a trend towards higher IgM blood levels in patients with immunoglobulin deposition. Half of the patients with IgM gammopathy in the neuropathy group had anti-MAG reactivity, whereas only one in the control group had weak anti-MAG reactivity. Our study indicates that examination of skin biopsies for immunoglobulin deposition does not add significant diagnostic value in the evaluation of neuropathies suspected to be caused by MGUS or WM. IgM immunoglobulin deposition in skin biopsy might merely be an epiphenomenon secondary to high IgM blood levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
It usually starts in the hands and/or feet and creeps up the arms and legs. Sometimes it feels like a tingling or numbness. Other times, it’s more of a shooting and/or burning pain or sensitivity to temperature. It can include sharp, stabbing pain, and it can make it difficult to perform normal day-to-day tasks like buttoning a shirt, sorting coins in a purse, or walking. An estimated 30 to 40 percent of cancer patients treated with chemotherapy experience these symptoms, a condition called chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). |
Cheng, Yiling J; Gregg, Edward W; Kahn, Henry S; Williams, Desmond E; De Rekeneire, Nathalie; Narayan, K M Venkat
The relation between height and lower extremity peripheral insensate neuropathy among persons with and without diabetes was examined by use of the 1999-2002 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with 5,229 subjects aged 40 or more years. A monofilament was used to determine whether any of three areas on each foot were insensate. Peripheral insensate neuropathy was defined as the presence of one or more insensate areas. Its prevalence was nearly twice as high among persons with diabetes (21.2%) as among those without diabetes (11.5%; p < 0.001). Men (16.2%) had 1.7 times the prevalence of peripheral insensate neuropathy as did women (9.4%), but the difference was not significant after adjustment for height. Greater height was associated with increased peripheral insensate neuropathy prevalence among persons with and without diabetes (p < 0.001). This association was characterized by a sharp increase in prevalence among persons who were taller than 175.5 cm. Peripheral insensate neuropathy risk was significantly higher among those taller than 175.5 cm (adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.5, 3.5). The authors conclude that body height is an important correlate of peripheral insensate neuropathy. This association largely accounts for the difference in peripheral insensate neuropathy prevalence between men and women. Height may help health-care providers to identify persons at high risk of peripheral insensate neuropathy.
Snyder, Matthew J; Gibbs, Lawrence M; Lindsay, Tammy J
Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy occurs in approximately 25% of patients with diabetes mellitus who are treated in the office setting and significantly affects quality of life. It typically causes burning pain, paresthesias, and numbness in a stocking-glove pattern that progresses proximally from the feet and hands. Clinicians should carefully consider the patient's goals and functional status and potential adverse effects of medication when choosing a treatment for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Pregabalin and duloxetine are the only medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating this disorder. Based on current practice guidelines, these medications, with gabapentin and amitriptyline, should be considered for the initial treatment. Second-line therapy includes opioid-like medications (tramadol and tapentadol), venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, and topical agents (lidocaine patches and capsaicin cream). Isosorbide dinitrate spray and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation may provide relief in some patients and can be considered at any point during therapy. Opioids and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are optional third-line medications. Acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine, alpha lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, primrose oil, and electromagnetic field application lack high-quality evidence to support their use.
Sridhar, A V; Gosalakkal, J; Pye, I F; Houtman, P
Peripheral neuropathy is an uncommon complication in paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We report the case of a 10-year-old Chinese girl who developed peripheral neuropathy within 3 months of the onset of SLE and presented with bilateral foot drop and sensory symptoms of both hands and feet. There was no involvement of the central nervous system at the time of presentation. The patient was negative for anticardiolipin antibodies, but positive for lupus anticoagulant. She was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone followed by oral steroids, methotrexate, gabapentin and amitryptyline. Although peripheral neuropathy is a rare complication of paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus, one should be vigilant for this entity as part of the neurological spectrum. It may not be associated with involvement of the central nervous system. Antiphospholipid antibodies may have role in the pathogenesis of SLE associated peripheral neuropathy. We speculate that routine nerve conduction studies may have a role in detecting sub-clinical cases.
Nicholas, P K; Voss, J G; Corless, I B; Lindgren, T G; Wantland, D J; Kemppainen, J K; Canaval, G E; Sefcik, E F; Nokes, K M; Bain, C A; Kirksey, K M; Eller, L S; Dole, P J; Hamilton, M J; Coleman, C L; Holzemer, W L; Reynolds, N R; Portillo, C J; Bunch, E H; Tsai, Y-F; Mendez, M R; Davis, S M; Gallagher, D M
The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy is frequent in HIV disease and is often associated with antiretroviral therapy. Unhealthy behaviours, particularly substance-use behaviours, are utilized by many HIV-positive individuals to manage neuropathic symptoms. As part of a larger study on self-care for symptoms in HIV disease, this study analyzed the prevalence and characteristics of unhealthy behaviours to self-manage peripheral neuropathy in HIV disease. Sociodemographic and disease-related correlates and unhealthy behaviours were examined in a convenience sample of 1,217 respondents who were recruited from data collection sites in several US cities, Puerto Rico, Colombia, and Taiwan. Results of the study indicated that respondents with peripheral neuropathy (n=450) identified a variety of unhealthy self-care behaviours including injection drug use, oral drug use, smoking cigarettes and alcohol ingestion. Specific unhealthy behaviours that participants reported to alleviate peripheral neuropathy included use of marijuana (n=67), smoking cigarettes (n=139), drinking alcohol (n=81) and street drugs (n=30). A subset of those individuals (n=160), who identified high levels of neuropathy (greater than five on a scale of 1-10), indicated significantly higher use of amphetamines and injection drug use in addition to alcohol use and cigarette smoking. For participants from Norway, substance use (using alcohol: 56%) was one of the most frequent self-management strategies. Implications for clinical practice include assessment and education of persons with HIV for self-care management of the complex symptom of peripheral neuropathy.
Cashman, Christopher R.; Höke, Ahmet
Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of a variety of diseases and treatments, including diabetes, cancer chemotherapy, and infectious causes (HIV, hepatitis C, and Campylobacter jejuni). Despite the fundamental difference between these insults, peripheral neuropathy develops as a combination of just six primary mechanisms: altered metabolism, covalent modification, altered organelle function and reactive oxygen species formation, altered intracellular and inflammatory signaling, slowed axonal transport, and altered ion channel dynamics and expression. All of these pathways converge to lead to axon dysfunction and symptoms of neuropathy. The detailed mechanisms of axon degeneration itself have begun to be elucidated with studies of animal models with altered degeneration kinetics, including the slowed Wallerian degeneration (Wlds) and Sarmknockout animal models. These studies have shown axonal degeneration to occur througha programmed pathway of injury signaling and cytoskeletal degradation. Insights into the common disease insults that converge on the axonal degeneration pathway promise to facilitate the development of therapeutics that may be effective against other mechanisms of neurodegeneration. PMID:25617478
Peters, Remco P H; Van Ramshorst, Mette S; Struthers, Helen E; McIntyre, James A
Peripheral neuropathy is a well-known side effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in adult patients and is particularly related to the use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. This class of drugs is included in all first-line paediatric ART regimens in Africa, but data on the prevalence of neuropathy in children are scarce. In this cross-sectional study, 182 HIV-infected children on ART in rural South Africa were assessed for peripheral neuropathy using the neuropathy symptom score (NSS) and neuropathy disability score (NDS). Peripheral neuropathy was defined as NSS ≥ 5 or NDS ≥ 3. Neurological assessment was completed for 174 children (96 %). Symptoms of neuropathy were reported in NSS by 48 children (28 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 21-34 %), and signs were observed in NDS in 25 children (14 %; 95 % CI 12-16 %). A diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy was established in 42 children (24 %; 95 % CI 18-30 %). Independent risk factors for peripheral neuropathy were co-trimoxazole prophylaxis (adjusted odds ratio 0.45; 95 % CI 0.21-0.95, p = 0.036) and didanosine use (adjusted odds ratio 12; 95 % CI 1.3-116, p = 0.030). Peripheral neuropathy as determined by clinical assessment is a common condition in African children on ART.
This review attempts to explain the symptoms experienced by patients with inflammatory neuropathies by pathophysiological events. The emphasis is not on the primary events that may cause a particular illness but on downstream events taking place in peripheral nerves or muscles. Symptoms that will be discussed include sensory predominance, motor predominance, activity-induced weakness, heat paresis, and cold paresis. Each symptom is associated with, but not limited to, particular neuropathies.
Singh, Akanksha; Asif, Naiyer; Singh, Paras Nath; Hossain, Mohd Mobarak
The post-menopausal phase is characterized by a decline in the serum oestrogen and progesterone levels. This phase is also associated with higher incidence of peripheral neuropathy. To explore the relationship between the peripheral motor nerve status and serum oestrogen and progesterone levels through assessment of Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity (MNCV) in post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College during 2011-2013. The study included 30 post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy (age: 51.4±7.9) and 30 post-menopausal women without peripheral neuropathy (control) (age: 52.5±4.9). They were compared for MNCV in median, ulnar and common peroneal nerves and serum levels of oestrogen and progesterone estimated through enzyme immunoassays. To study the relationship between hormone levels and MNCV, a stepwise linear regression analysis was done. The post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy had significantly lower MNCV and serum oestrogen and progesterone levels as compared to control subjects. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed oestrogen with main effect on MNCV. The findings of the present study suggest that while the post-menopausal age group is at a greater risk of peripheral neuropathy, it is the decline in the serum estrogen levels which is critical in the development of peripheral neuropathy.
Areti, Aparna; Yerra, Veera Ganesh; Komirishetty, Prashanth; Kumar, Ashutosh
Background: Peripheral neuropathies are a group of diseases characterized by malfunctioning of peripheral nervous system. Neuropathic pain, one of the core manifestations of peripheral neuropathy remains as the most severe disabling condition affecting the social and daily routine life of patients suffering from peripheral neuropathy. Method: The current review is aimed at unfolding the possible role of mitochondrial dysfunction in peripheral nerve damage and to discuss on the probable therapeutic strategies against neuronal mitotoxicity. The article also highlights the therapeutic significance of maintaining a healthy mitochondrial environment in neuronal cells via pharmacological management in context of peripheral neuropathies. Results: Aberrant cellular signaling coupled with changes in neurotransmission, peripheral and central sensitization are found to be responsible for the pathogenesis of variant toxic neuropathies. Current research reports have indicated the possible involvement of mitochondria mediated redox imbalance as one of the principal causes of neuropathy aetiologies. In addition to imbalance in redox homeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction is also responsible for alterations in physiological bioenergetic metabolism, apoptosis and autophagy pathways. Conclusions: In spite of various etiological factors, mitochondrial dysfunction has been found to be a major pathomechanism underlying the neuronal dysfunction associated with peripheral neuropathies. Pharmacological modulation of mitochondria either directly or indirectly is expected to yield therapeutic relief from various primary and secondary mitochondrial diseases. PMID:26818748
Asif, Naiyer; Singh, Paras Nath; Hossain, Mohd Mobarak
Introduction The post-menopausal phase is characterized by a decline in the serum oestrogen and progesterone levels. This phase is also associated with higher incidence of peripheral neuropathy. Aim To explore the relationship between the peripheral motor nerve status and serum oestrogen and progesterone levels through assessment of Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity (MNCV) in post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College during 2011-2013. The study included 30 post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy (age: 51.4±7.9) and 30 post-menopausal women without peripheral neuropathy (control) (age: 52.5±4.9). They were compared for MNCV in median, ulnar and common peroneal nerves and serum levels of oestrogen and progesterone estimated through enzyme immunoassays. To study the relationship between hormone levels and MNCV, a stepwise linear regression analysis was done. Results The post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy had significantly lower MNCV and serum oestrogen and progesterone levels as compared to control subjects. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed oestrogen with main effect on MNCV. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that while the post-menopausal age group is at a greater risk of peripheral neuropathy, it is the decline in the serum estrogen levels which is critical in the development of peripheral neuropathy. PMID:28208850
Areti, Aparna; Yerra, Veera Ganesh; Komirishetty, Prashanth; Kumar, Ashutosh
Peripheral neuropathies are a group of diseases characterized by malfunctioning of peripheral nervous system. Neuropathic pain, one of the core manifestations of peripheral neuropathy remains as the most severe disabling condition affecting the social and daily routine life of patients suffering from peripheral neuropathy. The current review is aimed at unfolding the possible role of mitochondrial dysfunction in peripheral nerve damage and to discuss on the probable therapeutic strategies against neuronal mitotoxicity. The article also highlights the therapeutic significance of maintaining a healthy mitochondrial environment in neuronal cells via pharmacological management in context of peripheral neuropathies. Aberrant cellular signaling coupled with changes in neurotransmission, peripheral and central sensitization are found to be responsible for the pathogenesis of variant toxic neuropathies. Current research reports have indicated the possible involvement of mitochondria mediated redox imbalance as one of the principal causes of neuropathy aetiologies. In addition to imbalance in redox homeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction is also responsible for alterations in physiological bioenergetic metabolism, apoptosis and autophagy pathways. In spite of various etiological factors, mitochondrial dysfunction has been found to be a major pathomechanism underlying the neuronal dysfunction associated with peripheral neuropathies. Pharmacological modulation of mitochondria either directly or indirectly is expected to yield therapeutic relief from various primary and secondary mitochondrial diseases.
Takenaka, Motoyasu; Iida, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Shigemi; Yamaguchi, Shinobu; Yoshimura, Noritaka; Miyamoto, Maki
Although paclitaxel is a commonly used anticancer drug, peripheral neuropathy may develop as a side effect. Worsening of the symptoms with time may cause patients who receive paclitaxel to give up their chemotherapy. Duloxetine, a serotonin- and norepinephrine-reuptake inhibitor, has been used to treat peripheral neuropathic pain. We report the case of a 68-year-old man with gastric cancer, who underwent gastrectomy and then received 8 cycles of chemotherapy involving weekly administrations of paclitaxel. Under this paclitaxel treatment, he complained of severe peripheral neuropathy, leading to a diminished quality of life. Following treatment with a combination of duloxetine and pregabalin, a remission of his symptoms was achieved. Duloxetine plus pregabalin therapy may be useful for the peripheral neuropathy induced by paclitaxel.
Peripheral neuropathy is a common adverse effect of paclitaxel and oxaliplatin treatment. The major dose-limiting side effect of these drugs is peripheral sensory neuropathy. The symptoms of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy are mostly sensory and peripheral in nature, consisting of mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia, tingling, and numbness. Oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity manifests as rapid-onset neuropathic symptoms that are exacerbated by cold exposure and as chronic neuropathy that develops after several treatment cycles. Although many basic and clinical researchers have studied anticancer drug-induced peripheral neuropathy, the mechanism is not well understood. In this review, we focus on (1) analysis of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel expression in the rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after paclitaxel treatment and (2) analysis of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel in the DRG after oxaliplatin treatment. This review describes that (1) paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain may be the result of up-regulation of TRPV1 in small- and medium-diameter DRG neurons. In addition, paclitaxel treatment increases the release of substance P, but not calcitonin gene-related peptide, in the superficial layers of the spinal dorsal horn. (2) TRPA1 expression via activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in small-diameter DRG neurons, at least in part, contributes to the development of oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hyperalgesia. We suggest that TRPV1 or TRPA1 antagonists may be potential therapeutic lead compounds for treating anticancer drug-induced peripheral neuropathy.
Vasculitis can affect the peripheral nervous system alone (nonsystemic vasculitic neuropathy) or can be a part of primary or secondary systemic vasculitis. In cases of pre-existing systemic vasculitis, the diagnosis can easily be made, whereas suspected vasculitic neuropathy as initial or only manifestation of vasculitis requires careful clinical, neurophysiological, laboratory and histopathological workout. The typical clinical syndrome is mononeuropathia multiplex or asymmetric neuropathy, but distal-symmetric neuropathy can frequently be seen. Standard treatments include steroids, azathioprine, methotrexate and cyclophosphamide. More recently the B-cell antibody rituximab and intravenous immunoglobulins have shown to be effective in some vasculitic neuropathy types.
Vasculitis can affect the peripheral nervous system alone (nonsystemic vasculitic neuropathy) or can be a part of primary or secondary systemic vasculitis. In cases of pre-existing systemic vasculitis, the diagnosis can easily be made, whereas suspected vasculitic neuropathy as initial or only manifestation of vasculitis requires careful clinical, neurophysiological, laboratory and histopathological workout. The typical clinical syndrome is mononeuropathia multiplex or asymmetric neuropathy, but distal-symmetric neuropathy can frequently be seen. Standard treatments include steroids, azathioprine, methotrexate and cyclophosphamide. More recently the B-cell antibody rituximab and intravenous immunoglobulins have shown to be effective in some vasculitic neuropathy types. PMID:25829955
Jain, Anuj; Kohli, Ashok; Sachan, Deepak
Sandhoff's disease is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder of sphingolipid metabolism that results from a deficiency of lysosomal enzyme beta-hexosaminidase A and B. The resultant accumulation of GM2 gangliosides within both grey matter and the myelin sheath of white matter results in essential, severe neurodegeneration. We describe a 14-month-old boy with seizures and severe neurodegeneration. His diagnosis was confirmed by neuroimaging and enzyme assay. In addition to the classic features of Sandhoff's disease, the child's clinical features were suggestive of neuropathy as supported by nerve conduction studies indicating that the bilateral median, ulnar, and common peroneal nerves were affected. Peripheral nervous system involvement is not consistently observed in infantile Sandhoff's disease, prompting us to report this case. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Saylor, Deanna; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Nakasujja, Noeline; Robertson, Kevin; Gray, Ronald H; Wawer, Maria J; Sacktor, Ned
To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and functional impairment associated with peripheral neuropathy in a prospective cohort of adults in rural Uganda. Eight hundred participants (400 HIV- and 400 antiretroviral-naive HIV+) in the Rakai Community Cohort Study underwent detailed neurologic evaluations including assessment of neuropathy symptoms, functional measures (Patient Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory and Karnofsky Performance Status scores), and neurologic evaluation by a trained medical officer. Neuropathy was defined as ≥1 subjective symptom and ≥1 sign of neuropathy on examination. Neuropathy risk factors were assessed using log binomial regression. Fifty-three percent of participants were men, with a mean (SD) age of 35 (8) years. Neuropathy was present in 13% of the cohort and was more common in HIV+ vs HIV- participants (19% vs 7%, p < 0.001). Older age (relative risk [RR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.06), female sex (RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.04-2.15), HIV infection (RR 2.82, 95% CI 1.86-4.28), tobacco use (RR 1.59, 95% CI 1.02-2.48), and prior neurotoxic medication use (RR 2.08, 95% CI 1.07-4.05) were significant predictors of neuropathy in the overall cohort. Only older age was associated with neuropathy risk in the HIV+ (RR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) and HIV- (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10) cohorts. Neuropathy was associated with impaired functional status on multiple measures across all participant groups. Peripheral neuropathy is relatively common and associated with impaired functional status among adults in rural Uganda. Older age, female sex, and HIV infection significantly increase the risk of neuropathy. Neuropathy may be an underrecognized but important condition in rural Uganda and warrants further study. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.
Rao, Deepa B; Jortner, Bernard S; Sills, Robert C
Despite the progress in our understanding of pathogeneses and the identification of etiologies of peripheral neuropathy, idiopathic neuropathy remains common. Typically, attention to peripheral neuropathies resulting from exposure to environmental agents is limited relative to more commonly diagnosed causes of peripheral neuropathy (diabetes and chemotherapeutic agents). Given that there are more than 80,000 chemicals in commerce registered with the Environmental Protection Agency and that at least 1000 chemicals are known to have neurotoxic potential, very few chemicals have been established to affect the peripheral nervous system (mainly after occupational exposures). A wide spectrum of exposures, including pesticides, metals, solvents, nutritional sources, and pharmaceutical agents, has been related, both historically and recently, to environmental toxicant-induced peripheral neuropathy. A review of the literature shows that the toxicity and pathogeneses of chemicals adversely affecting the peripheral nervous system have been studied using animal models. This article includes an overview of five prototypical environmental agents known to cause peripheral neuropathy--namely, organophosphates, carbon disulfide, pyridoxine (Vitamin B6), acrylamide, and hexacarbons (mainly n-hexane, 2,5-hexanedione, methyl n-butyl ketone). Also included is a brief introduction to the structural components of the peripheral nervous system and pointers on common methodologies for histopathologic evaluation of the peripheral nerves.
Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Tai, E Shyong; Lee, Jeannette; Lim, Su Chi; Wong, Tien Yin
Retinal vascular caliber changes predict diabetic microvascular complications such as retinopathy, and nephropathy. However, the association between retinal vasculature and peripheral neuropathy is not well studied. We evaluated the association between retinal vascular caliber and peripheral neuropathy in a multi-ethnic Asian population with diabetes (n = 423) in Singapore. Retinal arteriolar and venular caliber was measured from digital retinal photographs and summarized as central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal venular equivalent. Peripheral neuropathy was defined from neurothesiometer or monofilament sensory testing. Larger CRAE was positively associated with peripheral neuropathy independent of age, sex, ethnicity, current smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and duration of diabetes. The multivariable odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] of peripheral neuropathy was 2.81 (1.38-5.73) comparing highest vs. lower three quartiles of CRAE. This association was consistently present in analyses stratified by age, sex and ethnicity. Retinal venular caliber was not associated with peripheral neuropathy. These data suggest that larger retinal arteriolar diameters are associated with peripheral neuropathy independent of major risk factors.
Hansberry, David R; Suresh, Ragha; Agarwal, Nitin; Heary, Robert F; Goldstein, Ira M
Given its practicality, the internet is a primary resource for patients afflicted with diseases like peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, it is important that the readily available online resources on peripheral neuropathy are tailored to the general public, particularly concerning readability. Patient education resources were downloaded from the US National Library of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Neuropathy.org, GBS/CIDP Foundation International, Hereditary Neuropathy Foundation, Charcot-Marie-Tooth Association, Foundation for Peripheral Neuropathy, and Neuropathy Action Foundation websites. All patient education material related to peripheral neuropathy was evaluated for its level of readability using the Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level. The FRE scores averaged 43.4 with only the US National Library of Medicine scoring above 60 (76.5). The Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level scores averaged 11.0. All scores were above a seventh-grade level except the US National Library of Medicine, which had a score of a fifth-grade reading level. Most Americans may not fully benefit from patient education resources concerning peripheral neuropathy education on many of the websites. Only the US National Library of Medicine, which is written at a fifth-grade level, is likely to benefit the average American.
Fu Liong, Hiew; Santhi, Datuk Puvanarajah; Shanthi, Viswanathan; Mohd Hanip, Rafia
Background. Since 2008, we have observed an increasing number of Myanmarese refugees in Malaysia being admitted for acute/subacute onset peripheral neuropathy. Most of them had a preceding history of starvation. Methods. We retrospectively studied the clinical features of all Myanmarese patients admitted with peripheral neuropathy from September 2008 to January 2014. Results. A total of 24 patients from the Chin, Rohingya, and Rakhine ethnicities (mean age, 23.8 years; male, 96%) had symmetrical, ascending areflexic weakness with at least one additional presenting symptom of fever, lower limb swelling, vomiting, abdominal pain, or difficulty in breathing. Twenty (83.3%) had sensory symptoms. Ten (41.6%) had cranial nerve involvement. Nineteen patients had cerebrospinal fluid examinations but none with evidence of albuminocytological dissociation. Neurophysiological assessment revealed axonal polyneuropathy, predominantly a motor-sensory subtype. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies were detected in 31.5% of them. These findings suggested the presence of a polyneuropathy related to nutrition against a backdrop of other possible environmental factors such as infections, metabolic disorders, or exposure to unknown toxin. Supportive treatment with appropriate vitamins supplementation improved functional outcome in most patients. Conclusion. We report a spectrum of acquired reversible neurological manifestations among Myanmarese refugees likely to be multifactorial with micronutrient deficiencies playing an important role in the pathogenesis.
Brewer, Jamie R; Morrison, Gladys; Dolan, M. Eileen; Fleming, Gini F
As there are increasing numbers of cancer survivors, more attention is being paid to the long term unwanted effects patients may experience as a result of their treatment and the impact these side effects can have on their quality of life. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is one of the most common long-term toxicities from chemotherapy. In this review we will briefly review the clinical presentation, evaluation and management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, with a focus on CIPN related to platinum and taxane agents. We will then discuss current clinical models of peripheral neuropathy and ongoing research to better understand CIPN and develop potential treatment options. PMID:26556766
Martin, Catherine L.; Waberski, Barbara H.; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Cleary, Patricia A.; Catton, Sarah; Albers, James W.; Feldman, Eva L.; Herman, William H.
OBJECTIVE To describe the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of vibration perception threshold (VPT) testing in subjects with type 1 diabetes relative to gold standard assessments of peripheral neuropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS VPT was determined in 1,177 adults with type 1 diabetes 13–14 years after participating in a study of intensive (INT) versus conventional (CONV) diabetes treatment. Abnormal VPT was defined by values exceeding 2.5 SD above age-specific normal values. Signs and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy were assessed and electrodiagnostic studies were performed to establish definite clinical neuropathy, abnormal nerve conduction, and confirmed clinical neuropathy (the presence of both definite clinical neuropathy and abnormal nerve conduction). RESULTS Thirty-seven percent of subjects had definite clinical neuropathy, 61% had abnormal nerve conduction, and 30% had confirmed clinical neuropathy. Abnormal VPT was more common among former CONV than among INT subjects (64 vs. 57%, P < 0.05) and was associated with older age. VPT was a sensitive measure of confirmed clinical neuropathy (87%) and of definite clinical neuropathy (80%) and a specific measure of abnormal nerve conduction (62%). Higher VPT cut points improved test sensitivity and lower cut points improved specificity. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves ranged from 0.71–0.83 and were higher for older than for younger subjects and highest for those with confirmed clinical neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS VPT was a sensitive measure of peripheral neuropathy. Future researchers may choose to select VPT cut points for defining abnormality based on the population studied and clinical outcome of interest. PMID:20833868
In 2012, interest remains high in the field of dysimmune neuropathies, chiefly concerning Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The pathophysiological mechanisms are now better known but electrophysiological criteria should be updated. The risk of GBS in H1N1 vaccination is now well evaluated. Nerve ultrasonography provides new prospects for diagnosis and follow-up of dysimmune neuropathies but cannot substitute for electrophysiology. This paper aims to present some noteworthy articles published in 2012 in the field of dysimmune neuropathies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
García-Cabo, Carmen; Morís, Germán
One of the most frequent neurologic complications reported in inflammatory bowel disease population is peripheral neuropathy; however, clinical aspects of peripheral nerve damage are not well characterized. The aim of the review is to present the existing literature on peripheral neuropathy in inflammatory bowel disease patients. A literature search identified the publications reporting on epidemiology, clinical features, underlying mechanisms and management of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease patients with peripheral nerve involvement. The pathogenesis of peripheral nervous system damage in inflammatory bowel disease has yet to be elucidated, although it seems to be related to immune mechanisms; therefore, treatment with immunotherapy is recommended. In addition, peripheral neuropathy may appear as iatrogenic-related disorders associated with several drugs used in controlling inflammatory bowel disease activity; finally, peripheral neuropathy may also be caused by micronutrient deficiencies secondary to malabsorption-related disorders. Although peripheral nervous nerve damage associated with inflammatory bowel disease is rarely reported, clinicians should be aware of the peripheral neuropathy clinical manifestations in order to recognize it and provide early treatment, which is crucial for preventing major neurologic morbidity. Heightened awareness is necessary for the successful management of these patients. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rao, Deepa B.; Jortner, Bernard S.; Sills, Robert C.
Despite the progress in our understanding of pathogeneses and the identification of etiologies of peripheral neuropathy, idiopathic neuropathy remains common. Typically, attention to peripheral neuropathies resulting from exposure to environmental agents is limited relative to more commonly diagnosed causes of peripheral neuropathy (diabetes and chemotherapeutic agents). Given that there are more than 80,000 chemicals in commerce registered with the Environmental Protection Agency and that at least 1000 chemicals are known to have neurotoxic potential, very few chemicals have been established to affect the peripheral nervous system (mainly after occupational exposures). A wide spectrum of exposures, including pesticides, metals, solvents, nutritional sources, and pharmaceutical agents, has been related, both historically and recently, to environmental toxicant-induced peripheral neuropathy. A review of the literature shows that the toxicity and pathogeneses of chemicals adversely affecting the peripheral nervous system have been studied using animal models. This article includes an overview of five prototypical environmental agents known to cause peripheral neuropathy—namely, organophosphates, carbon disulfide, pyridoxine (Vitamin B6), acrylamide, and hexacarbons (mainly n-hexane, 2,5-hexanedione, methyl n-butyl ketone). Also included is a brief introduction to the structural components of the peripheral nervous system and pointers on common methodologies for histopathologic evaluation of the peripheral nerves. PMID:24615445
Hammersla, Margaret; Kapustin, Jane Faith
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a common and often progressive condition frequently seen in primary care. The chronic pain associated with PN, or neuropathic pain, can significantly diminish patients' quality of life and be challenging to treat.
Mendoza, Tito R; Wang, Xin Shelley; Williams, Loretta A; Shi, Qiuling; Vichaya, Elisabeth G; Dougherty, Patrick M; Thomas, Sheeba K; Yucel, Emre; Bastida, Christel C; Woodruff, Jeanie F; Cleeland, Charles S
Various sensory and motor effects are associated with cancer treatment-induced peripheral neuropathy. The current method for capturing the multifaceted nature of neuropathy includes a combination of objective tests, clinician evaluation, and subjective patient report, an approach that is often not logistically feasible, especially for multisite trials. We report the performance of a brief yet comprehensive, easily administered measure, the Treatment-Induced Neuropathy Assessment Scale (TNAS), for assessing the severity and course of neuropathy across various cancer treatments. Data were derived from 4 longitudinal or cross-sectional patient cohorts (N = 573). Patients with multiple myeloma treated primarily with bortezomib and patients with colorectal cancer receiving oxaliplatin evaluated candidate items. Cognitive debriefing showed that all items were easy to understand, and this preliminary TNAS demonstrated reliability, validity, and sensitivity. Numbness/tingling was the most severe item, regardless of therapeutic agent. Although numbness and general pain were moderately correlated, patients perceived them as distinct. Most TNAS items were more severe at follow-up, demonstrating the sensitivity of the instrument to accumulating dose. The TNAS will be refined with further patient input, with final psychometric evaluation conducted in a new patient sample receiving treatments known to be associated with peripheral neuropathy. The nonpainful component of neuropathy may be more disabling than the pain component. Our data suggest that the nonpainful components of neuropathy may be more disabling than the pain component during cancer treatment. Here we report data on sensory and motor symptoms reported by patients receiving neurotoxic cancer therapy, and we detail the development of a neuropathy assessment scale that follows regulatory guidance for patient-reported outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peripheral neuropathy is a common long-term complication of diabetes mellitus. In many patients, neuropathy is accompanied by pain, which is often difficult to manage effectively. Drug treatment options include certain antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs. Another option is the use of topical capsaicin. In this article, we consider the evidence for capsaicin in the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and how it fits with current management strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Syngle, Ashit; Verma, Inderjeet; Krishan, Pawan; Garg, Nidhi; Syngle, Vijaita
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy and diabetic autonomic neuropathy are serious and common complications of diabetes associated with increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease. We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of minocycline in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic peripheral and autonomic neuropathy. In a randomized placebo controlled study, 50 outpatients were randomly assigned to receive 100 mg minocycline or placebo. Outcome measures included the vibration perception threshold (VPT), Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs (LANSS), Pain Disability Index (PDI), Visual Analog Scale (VAS), beck depression inventory (BDI), health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) and autonomic neuropathy, assessed by cardiovascular reflex tests according to Ewing and peripheral sympathetic autonomic function was assessed by FDA approved Sudoscan. At baseline there were no significant differences between demographic variables and the neuropathy variables in the minocycline and placebo groups. After treatment, VPT significantly improved in the minocycline group as compared to the placebo group. Mean posttreatment scores on the LANSS, PDI and HAQ were significantly lower in the minocycline group compared with the placebo group. However, BDI and VAS significantly (p = 0.01) improved in both minocycline and placebo groups (Table 2). After treatment with minocycline, heart rate (HR) response to standing significantly improved, while there was a borderline significance toward a reduction in HR response to deep breath. These finding indicate that 6-week oral treatment with minocycline is safe, well tolerated and significantly improves peripheral and autonomic neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients.
Salehi, Zeinab; Roayaei, Mahnaz
Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most important limitations of oxaliplatin base regimen, which is the standard for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Evidence has shown that Vitamin E may be protective in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Vitamin E administration on prevention of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in patients with colorectal cancer. This was a prospective randomized, controlled clinical trial. Patients with colorectal cancer and scheduled to receive oxaliplatin-based regimens were enrolled in this study. Enrolled patients were randomized into two groups. The first group received Vitamin E at a dose of 400 mg daily and the second group observed, until after the sixth course of the oxaliplatin regimen. For oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy assessment, we used the symptom experience diary questionnaire that completed at baseline and after the sixth course of chemotherapy. Only patients with a score of zero at baseline were eligible for this study. Thirty-two patients were randomized to the Vitamin E group and 33 to the control group. There was no difference in the mean peripheral neuropathy score changes (after - before) between two groups, after sixth course of the oxaliplatin base regimen (mean difference [after - before] of Vitamin E group = 6.37 ± 2.85, control group = 6.57 ± 2.94; P = 0.78). Peripheral neuropathy scores were significantly increased after intervention compared with a base line in each group (P < 0.001). The results from this current trial demonstrate a lack of benefit for Vitamin E in preventing oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy.
Saltık, Sema; Türkeş, Muzaffer; Tüzün, Erdem; Cakır, Arif; Ulusoy, Canan
Autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase are found in some rare neurological diseases. However, acute peripheral neuropathy associated with antiglutamic acid decarboxylase autoimmunity has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of a patient who presented with acute cranial and peripheral neuropathy in association with the presence of serum antiglutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies. A 13-year-old boy was admitted to our pediatric neurology clinic with diplopia due to sixth cranial nerve palsy and ascending motor weakness in all extremities. The nerve conduction studies showed bilateral motor and sensory demyelinating neuropathy. Full recovery was achieved following intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoimmunity-associated neurological diseases spectrum may also include acute demyelinating peripheral neuropathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zheng, H; Xiao, W H; Bennett, G J
Many of the most effective anti-cancer drugs induce a dose-limiting peripheral neuropathy that compromises therapy. Evidence from animal models of chemotherapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy produced by the taxane agent, paclitaxel, and the platinum-complex agent, oxaliplatin, indicate that they produce neuropathy via a common mechanism-a toxic effect on the mitochondria in primary afferent sensory neurons. Bortezomib is from the proteasome-inhibitor class of chemotherapeutics. It also produces a dose-limiting peripheral neuropathy, but its effects on neuronal mitochondria are unknown. To investigate this, we developed a model of bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy in the rat and assessed mitochondrial function (respiration and ATP production) in sciatic nerve samples harvested at two time points: day 7, which is three days after treatment and before pain appears, and day 35, which is one month post-treatment and the time of peak pain severity. We found significant deficits in Complex I-mediated and Complex II-mediated respiration, and in ATP production at both time points. Prophylactic treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine, which has previously been shown to prevent paclitaxel- and oxaliplatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and pain, completely blocked bortezomib's effects on mitochondria and pain. These results suggest that mitotoxicity may be the core pathology for all chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy and that drugs that protect mitochondrial function may be useful chemotherapy adjuncts.
Polycythemia vera is a rare myeloproliferative disease. Cutaneous symptoms are uncommon. We report about a 72-year-old female patient with JAK2(V617F) -positive polycythemia who developed peripheral sensorimotor axonal neuropathy and erythromelalgia. Possible causes and treatment are discussed.
Diabetes is an increasing epidemic in Korea, and associated diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is its most common and disabling complication. DPN has an insidious onset and heterogeneous clinical manifestations, making it difficult to detect high-risk patients of DPN. Early diagnosis is recommended and is the key factor for a better prognosis and preventing diabetic foot ulcers, amputation, or disability. However, diagnostic tests for DPN are not clearly established because of the various pathophysiology developing from the nerve injury to clinical manifestations, differences in mechanisms according to the type of diabetes, comorbidities, and the unclear natural history of DPN. Therefore, DPN remains a challenge for physicians to screen, diagnose, follow up, and evaluate for treatment response. In this review, diagnosing DPN using various methods to assess clinical symptoms and/or signs, sensorineural impairment, and nerve conduction studies will be discussed. Clinicians should rely on established modalities and utilize current available testing as complementary to specific clinical situations. PMID:27246283
Allen, David C; Smallman, Clare A; Mills, Kerry R
A man with multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy (MADSAM), or Lewis-Sumner syndrome, presented with a progressive left lumbosacral plexus lesion resembling a neurofibroma. After 7 years he developed a left ulnar nerve lesion with conduction block in its upper segment. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin improved the symptoms and signs of both lesions. We conclude that inflammatory neuropathy must be considered in the differential diagnosis of peripheral nerve tumors, and that unifocal lesions may precede multifocal involvement in MADSAM by several years. In addition, we discuss the clinical features in 9 patients attending a specialist peripheral nerve clinic and review the literature.
Stino, Amro M; Smith, Albert G
Peripheral neuropathy is a major cause of disability worldwide. Diabetes is the most common cause of neuropathy, accounting for 50% of cases. Over half of people with diabetes develop neuropathy, and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major cause of reduced quality of life due to pain, sensory loss, gait instability, fall-related injury, and foot ulceration and amputation. Most patients with non-diabetic neuropathy have cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy (CSPN). A growing body of literature links prediabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome to the risk of both DPN and CSPN. This association might be particularly strong in type 2 diabetes patients. There are no effective medical treatments for CSPN or DPN, and aggressive glycemic control is an effective approach to neuropathy risk reduction only in type 1 diabetes. Several studies suggest lifestyle-based treatments that integrate dietary counseling with exercise might be a promising therapeutic approach to early DPN in type 2 diabetes and CSPN associated with prediabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Cavana, Paola; Sammartano, Federica; Capucchio, Maria T; Catalano, Deborah; Valazza, Alberto; Farca, Anna M
A 12-year-old male cat was referred for progressive limb weakness lasting 2 weeks. Physical examination detected muscle atrophy and bilateral renomegaly with distortion of the renal contours. The cat was ambulatory but tetraparetic. It showed a peculiar posture on forelimbs with bilateral flexion of the carpi and extrarotation of forearms. The cat was unable to go upstairs or jump. Neurological examination showed findings compatible with peripheral nervous system involvement. Histopathological findings revealed a high grade non-B, non-T cell renal lymphoma and peripheral neuropathy characterised by demyelination, axonal degeneration and muscle denervation. In the absence of congenital, metabolic and infectious diseases or exposure to toxins, a paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathy was hypothesised. In humans and dogs, paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathies have been documented with different neoplastic processes including lymphoproliferative disorders. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of suspected paraneoplastic polyneuropathy in a cat with malignant tumour.
Rusina, R; Keller, O; Síma, R; Zámečník, J
Whipples disease is a chronic multisystem inflammatory disease with predominantly gastrointestinal manifestations due to Tropheryma whipplei infection. Typical neurological abnormalities include dementia, eye movement abnormalities, hypothalamic dysfunction and oculomasticatory myorhythmias. The literature on peripheral neuropathy in Whipples disease is sparse and the involvement of peripheral nerves in Whipples disease has not been documented convincingly so far. We present a case of Whipples disease presenting by axonal peripheral neuropathy without gastrointestinal involvement. The diagnosis was confirmed by a sural nerve biopsy and consequent PCR of the sample. All clinical signs disappeared progressively during the antibiotic therapy. Two years after the T. whipplei infection, the patient developed dopa-sensitive Parkinson's disease, although these two events seem to be unrelated. This case illustrates the value of peripheral nerve biopsy in cases of axonal neuropathy of unexplained origin and extends the clinical spectrum of Whipples disease to a new modality.
Persson, Anna-Karin; Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Estacion, Mark; Black, Joel A; Waxman, Stephen G
Peripheral neuropathy results from damage to peripheral nerves and is often accompanied by pain in affected limbs. Treatment represents an unmet medical need and a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying axonal injury is needed. Longer nerve fibers tend to degenerate first (length-dependence), and patients carrying pathogenic mutations throughout life usually become symptomatic in mid- or late-life (time-dependence). The activity of voltage-gated sodium channels can contribute to axonal injury and sodium channel gain-of-function mutations have been linked to peripheral neuropathy. Recent studies have implicated sodium channel activity, mitochondrial compromise, and reverse-mode Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange in time- and length-dependent axonal injury. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying axonal injury in peripheral neuropathy may provide new therapeutic strategies for this painful and debilitating condition.
Vasculitic peripheral neuropathy (VPN) occurs due to ischemic changes of peripheral nerves, resulting from a deficit of vascular blood supply due to damaged vasa nervorum leading to vasculitis. VPN usually manifests as sensorimotor or sensory disturbances accompanied by pain, presenting as a type of multiple mononeuropathy, with a scattered distribution in distal limbs. VPN may also present as a mononeuropathy, distal symmetric polyneuropathy, plexopathy, or radiculopathy. The rapidity of VPN is variable, ranging from days to months, with symptoms occasionally changing with the appearance of new lesions. Careful history taking and neurological examination provides an exact diagnosis. The most common cause of VPN is primary vasculitis predominantly affecting small vessels, including vasa nervorum, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, and polyarteritis nodosa. Similar vasculitic processes can also result from a systemic collagen disorder or secondary vasculitis. Electrophysiological studies and pathological investigation of biopsied peripheral nerves and muscles are important for diagnosis of vasculitis. Serological tests, including ANCA, are useful for diagnosis of vasculitis. Accurate neurological examinations are essential for diagnosis and evaluation of clinical course.
Han, Yaqin; Smith, Maree T.
Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a type of neuropathic pain that is a major dose-limiting side-effect of potentially curative cancer chemotherapy treatment regimens that develops in a “stocking and glove” distribution. When pain is severe, a change to less effective chemotherapy agents may be required, or patients may choose to discontinue treatment. Medications used to alleviate CIPN often lack efficacy and/or have unacceptable side-effects. Hence the unmet medical need for novel analgesics for relief of this painful condition has driven establishment of rodent models of CIPN. New insights on the pathobiology of CIPN gained using these models are discussed in this review. These include mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress that are implicated as key mechanisms in the development of CIPN. Associated structural changes in peripheral nerves include neuronopathy, axonopathy and/or myelinopathy, especially intra-epidermal nerve fiber (IENF) degeneration. In patients with CIPN, loss of heat sensitivity is a hallmark symptom due to preferential damage to myelinated primary afferent sensory nerve fibers in the presence or absence of demyelination. The pathobiology of CIPN is complex as cancer chemotherapy treatment regimens frequently involve drug combinations. Adding to this complexity, there are also subtle differences in the pathobiological consequences of commonly used cancer chemotherapy drugs, viz platinum compounds, taxanes, vincristine, bortezomib, thalidomide and ixabepilone, on peripheral nerves. PMID:24385965
Kelly, John J
In this, the third of a 3-part series on peripheral neuropathy, the syndromes of vasculitic, infectious, inherited, and idiopathic neuropathy are discussed. Vasculitis is a frequent cause of neuropathy in the setting of a connective tissue disease. The infectious neuropathies most likely to be encountered in the United States are those due to varicella-zoster virus, human immunodeficiency virus, Lyme disease, hepatitis C virus, and, most recently, West Nile virus. Inherited neuropathies are divided into 2 main types: predominant motor or predominant sensory. The former are generally classed as the Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases and the latter as the hereditary sensory neuropathies. Each category has a number of different subtypes. If the results of routine screening tests are negative, the clinician must consider special testing for unusual disorders, including evaluations for underlying autoimmune or malignant disorders, genetic tests for inherited neuropathies, and other unusual or selectively ordered tests. These tests are very expensive and should be ordered only after the common causes of neuropathy are excluded. Unless the neuropathy can be substantially alleviated or cured, symptomatic treatment (most often for pain) plays a significant role for these patients.
Menezes, Manoj P; Rahman, Shamima; Bhattacharya, Kaustuv; Clark, Damian; Christodoulou, John; Ellaway, Carolyn; Farrar, Michelle; Pitt, Matthew; Sampaio, Hugo; Ware, Tyson L; Wedatilake, Yehani; Thorburn, David R; Ryan, Monique M; Ouvrier, Robert
Peripheral nerve involvement is common in mitochondrial disease but often unrecognised due to the prominent central nervous system features. Identification of the underlying neuropathy may assist syndrome classification, targeted genetic testing and rehabilitative interventions. Clinical data and the results of nerve conduction studies were obtained retrospectively from the records of four tertiary children's hospital metabolic disease, neuromuscular or neurophysiology services. Nerve conductions studies were also performed prospectively on children attending a tertiary metabolic disease service. Results were classified and analysed according to the underlying genetic cause. Nerve conduction studies from 27 children with mitochondrial disease were included in the study (mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) - 7, POLG - 7, SURF1 - 10, PDHc deficiency - 3). Four children with mtDNA mutations had a normal study while three had mild abnormalities in the form of an axonal sensorimotor neuropathy when not acutely unwell. One child with MELAS had a severe acute axonal motor neuropathy during an acute stroke-like episode that resolved over 12months. Five children with POLG mutations and disease onset beyond infancy had a sensory ataxic neuropathy with an onset in the second decade of life, while the two infants with POLG mutations had a demyelinating neuropathy. Seven of the 10 children with SURF1 mutations had a demyelinating neuropathy. All three children with PDHc deficiency had an axonal sensorimotor neuropathy. Unlike CMT, the neuropathy associated with mitochondrial disease was not length-dependent. This is the largest study to date of peripheral neuropathy in genetically- classified childhood mitochondrial disease. Characterising the underlying neuropathy may assist with the diagnosis of the mitochondrial syndrome and should be an integral part of the assessment of children with suspected mitochondrial disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society
Tenenbein, M; deGroot, W; Rajani, K R
Two adolescent native Canadians who presented with peripheral neuropathy secondary to the abuse of volatile hydrocarbons are described. They were initially thought to have been sniffing leaded gasoline fumes, but public health investigation revealed that they had been sniffing naphtha fumes. Naphtha contains a significant amount of n-hexane, a known inducer of neuropathy. Nerve conduction studies and nerve biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of naphtha abuse. These cases emphasize the need to specifically identify the formulation of hydrocarbons being abused.
Tenenbein, M; deGroot, W; Rajani, K R
Two adolescent native Canadians who presented with peripheral neuropathy secondary to the abuse of volatile hydrocarbons are described. They were initially thought to have been sniffing leaded gasoline fumes, but public health investigation revealed that they had been sniffing naphtha fumes. Naphtha contains a significant amount of n-hexane, a known inducer of neuropathy. Nerve conduction studies and nerve biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of naphtha abuse. These cases emphasize the need to specifically identify the formulation of hydrocarbons being abused. PMID:6093978
Hussain, Gauhar; Rizvi, S Aijaz Abbas; Singhal, Sangeeta; Zubair, Mohammad; Ahmad, Jamal
To compare serum levels of TNF-α in patients of peripheral neuropathy and patients without neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. This cross sectional study was conducted in diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. They were divided in groups, Group I (n=37) with clinically detectable diabetic peripheral neuropathy of shorter duration and Group II (n=27) with clinically detectable diabetic peripheral neuropathy of longer duration. They were compared with patients without clinical neuropathy (n=22), clinical diagnosis was based on neuropathy symptom score (NSS) and neuropathy disability score (NDS) for signs. Blood samples were collected for baseline investigations and estimation of serum TNF-α. Nerve conduction velocity was measured in both upper and lower limbs. Median, Ulnar, Common Peroneal and Posterior Tibial nerves were selected for motor nerve conduction study and Median and Sural nerves were selected for sensory nerve conduction study. The comparisons were done between various clinical and biochemical parameters in clinically detectable and undetectable peripheral neuropathy groups of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study showed raised serum levels of TNF-α in peripheral neuropathy patients and significant correlation with nerve conduction velocity. High level of TNF-α in serum of T2DM patients with neuropathy shows possible contribution in development of neuropathy. Due to its independent association this cytokine might be used as biomarker for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ben-Horin, Idan; Kahan, Peretz; Ryvo, Larisa; Inbar, Moshe; Lev-Ari, Shahar; Geva, Ravit
Treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), which affects approximately 30% to 40% of patients treated with neuropathy-causing agents, is mainly symptomatic. Currently available interventions are of little benefit. This study was conducted as a retrospective analysis of the efficacy of acupuncture and reflexology in alleviating CIPN in breast cancer patients. Medical records of 30 consecutive breast cancer patients who received both chemotherapy and treatment for CIPN according to our Acupuncture and Reflexology Treatment for Neuropathy (ART-N) protocol between 2011 and 2012 were reviewed. Symptom severity was rated at baseline, during, and after treatment. The records of 30 breast cancer patients who had been concomitantly treated with chemotherapy and ART-N for CIPN were retrieved. Two records were incomplete, leaving a total of 28 patients who were enrolled into the study. Twenty patients (71%) had sensory neuropathy, 7 (25%) had motor neuropathy, and 1 (4%) had both sensory and motor neuropathy. Only 2 (10%) of the 20 patients with grades 1 to 2 neuropathy still reported symptoms at 12 months since starting the ART-N protocol. All 8 patients who presented with grades 3 to 4 neuropathy were symptom-free at the 12-month evaluation. Overall, 26 patients (93%) had complete resolution of CIPN symptoms. The results of this study demonstrated that a joint protocol of acupuncture and reflexology has a potential to improve symptoms of CIPN in breast cancer patients. The protocol should be validated on a larger cohort with a control group. It also warrants testing as a preventive intervention.
Ylitalo, Kelly R.; Herman, William H.; Harlow, Siobán D.
Peripheral neuropathy is underappreciated as a potential cause of functional limitations. In the present article, we assessed the cross-sectional association between peripheral neuropathy and physical functioning and how the longitudinal association between age and functioning differed by neuropathy status. Physical functioning was measured in 1996–2008 using timed performances on stair-climb, walking, sit-to-stand, and balance tests at the Michigan site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, a population-based cohort study of women at midlife (n = 396). Peripheral neuropathy was measured in 2008 and defined as having an abnormal monofilament test result or 4 or more symptoms. We used linear mixed models to determine whether trajectories of physical functioning differed by prevalent neuropathy status. Overall, 27.8% of the women had neuropathy. Stair-climb time differed by neuropathy status (P = 0.04), and for every 1-year increase in age, women with neuropathy had a 1.82% (95% confidence interval: 1.42, 2.21) increase compared with a 0.95% (95% confidence interval: 0.71, 1.20) increase for women without neuropathy. Sit-to-stand time differed by neuropathy status (P = 0.01), but the rate of change did not differ. No differences between neuropathy groups were observed for the walk test. For some performance-based tasks, poor functioning was maintained or exacerbated for women who had prevalent neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy may play a role in physical functioning limitations and future disability. PMID:23524038
Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Pritchard, Nicola; Sampson, Geoff P; Edwards, Katie; Vagenas, Dimitrios; Russell, Anthony W; Malik, Rayaz A; Efron, Nathan
To examine the diagnostic capability of the full retinal and inner retinal thickness measures in differentiating individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) from those without neuropathy and non-diabetic controls. Individuals with (n=44) and without (n=107) diabetic neuropathy and non-diabetic control (n=42) participants underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). Retinal thickness in the central 1mm zone (including the fovea), parafovea and perifovea was assessed in addition to ganglion cell complex (GCC) global loss volume (GCC GLV) and focal loss volume (GCC FLV), and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness. Diabetic neuropathy was defined using a modified neuropathy disability score (NDS) recorded on a 0-10 scale, wherein, NDS ≥3 indicated neuropathy and NDS indicated <3 no neuropathy. Diagnostic performance was assessed by areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs), 95 per cent confidence intervals (CI), sensitivities at fixed specificities, positive likelihood ratio (+LR), negative likelihood ratio (-LR) and the cut-off points for the best AUCs obtained. The AUC for GCC FLV was 0.732 (95% CI: 0.624-0.840, p<0.001) with a sensitivity of 53% and specificity of 80% for differentiating DPN from controls. Evaluation of the LRs showed that GCC FLV was associated with only small effects on the post-test probability of the disease. The cut-off point calculated using the Youden index was 0.48% (67% sensitivity and 73% specificity) for GCC FLV. For distinguishing those with neuropathy from those without neuropathy, the AUCs of retinal parameters ranged from 0.508 for the central zone to 0.690 for the inferior RNFL thickness. For distinguishing those with moderate or advanced neuropathy from those with mild or no neuropathy, the inferior RNFL thickness demonstrated the highest AUC of 0.820, (95% CI: 0.731-0.909, p<0.001) with a sensitivity of 69% and 80% specificity. The cut-off-point for the inferior RNFL
Grimm, Alexander; Décard, Bernhard F; Bischof, Antje; Axer, Hubertus
Ultrasound of the peripheral nerves (PNUS) can be used to visualize nerve pathologies in polyneuropathies (PNP). The aim of this study was to investigate, whether PNUS provides additional information in patients with proven systemic vasculitic neuropathies (VN). Systematic ultrasound measurements of several peripheral nerves, the vagal nerve and the 6th cervical nerve root were performed in 14 patients and 22 healthy controls. Nerve conduction studies of the corresponding nerves were undertaken. Finally, the measured results were compared to a study population of demyelinating immune-mediated and axonal neuropathies. Patients with VN displayed significant smaller amplitudes of compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) (p<0.05) and sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) compared to healthy controls, while conduction velocity did not differ between groups. The mean nerve cross-sectional areas (CSA) were increased in several peripheral nerves compared to the controls, most prominent in tibial and fibular nerve (p<0.01). PNUS revealed nerve enlargement in most of the clinically and electrophysiologically affected nerves (22 out of 31) in VN. Nerve enlargement was more often seen in vasculitic neuropathies than in other axonal neuropathies, but significantly rarer than in demyelinating neuropathies. Focal CSA enlargement in one or more nerves in electrophysiologically axonal neuropathies can be a hint for VN and thus facilitate diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brewer, Jamie R; Morrison, Gladys; Dolan, M Eileen; Fleming, Gini F
As there are increasing numbers of cancer survivors, more attention is being paid to the long term unwanted effects patients may experience as a result of their treatment and the impact these side effects can have on their quality of life. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is one of the most common long-term toxicities from chemotherapy. In this review we will briefly review the clinical presentation, evaluation and management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, with a focus on CIPN related to platinum and taxane agents. We will then discuss current clinical models of peripheral neuropathy and ongoing research to better understand CIPN and develop potential treatment options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sathya, G R; Krishnamurthy, N; Veliath, Susheela; Arulneyam, Jayanthi; Venkatachalam, J
Each skeletal muscle is usually supplied by two or more nerve roots and if one nerve root is affected and the other is spared, the clinically used F wave minimum latency can still be normal. An F wave index was constructed taking into consideration the other parameters of the F wave such as persistence, chronodispersion, latency, arm-length to determine its usefulness in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy. This study was undertaken to construct the F wave index in the upper limb for the median nerve in normal healthy adult males and in patients with peripheral neuropathy and to compare the values obtained in both groups. This hospital-based study was carried out on 40 males who were diagnosed to have peripheral neuropathy and on 40 age matched healthy males who served as the control group. The F wave recording was done using a digitalized nerve conduction/electromyography/EP machine in a quiet and dimly lit room. All recordings were done between 0900 and 1100 h at an ambient temperature of 22°C. The F wave recording was obtained from a fully relaxed muscle by stimulating the median nerve. The median value for F wave index obtained from median nerve (abductor pollicis brevis) in patients with peripheral neuropathy [right arm - 35.85, interquartile range (IQR) - 35.26; left arm - 39.49, IQR - 39.49] was significantly lower (P=0.001) as compared to the control group (right arm - 102.62, IQR - 83.76; left arm - 77.43, IQR - 58.02). Our results showed that F wave index in upper limb was significantly lower in patients with peripheral neuropathy than the healthy controls, and could be used for early detection of peripheral neuropathy.
Sathya, G. R.; Krishnamurthy, N.; Veliath, Susheela; Arulneyam, Jayanthi; Venkatachalam, J.
Background & objectives: Each skeletal muscle is usually supplied by two or more nerve roots and if one nerve root is affected and the other is spared, the clinically used F wave minimum latency can still be normal. An F wave index was constructed taking into consideration the other parameters of the F wave such as persistence, chronodispersion, latency, arm-length to determine its usefulness in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy. This study was undertaken to construct the F wave index in the upper limb for the median nerve in normal healthy adult males and in patients with peripheral neuropathy and to compare the values obtained in both groups. Methods: This hospital-based study was carried out on 40 males who were diagnosed to have peripheral neuropathy and on 40 age matched healthy males who served as the control group. The F wave recording was done using a digitalized nerve conduction/electromyography/EP machine in a quiet and dimly lit room. All recordings were done between 0900 and 1100 h at an ambient temperature of 22°C. The F wave recording was obtained from a fully relaxed muscle by stimulating the median nerve. Results: The median value for F wave index obtained from median nerve (abductor pollicis brevis) in patients with peripheral neuropathy [right arm - 35.85, interquartile range (IQR) - 35.26; left arm - 39.49, IQR - 39.49] was significantly lower (P=0.001) as compared to the control group (right arm - 102.62, IQR - 83.76; left arm - 77.43, IQR - 58.02). Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that F wave index in upper limb was significantly lower in patients with peripheral neuropathy than the healthy controls, and could be used for early detection of peripheral neuropathy. PMID:28749398
Gentile, S; Marmo, R; Costume, A; Persico, M; Bronzino, P; Contaldi, P; Stroffolini, T
The clinical conditions due to damage to the peripheral sympathetic nervous system during diabetic neuropathy mainly involve alterations to subcutaneous vasomotility , temperature body regulation and exudation, which may take form of hyper or hypoactivity. Gustatory exudation and local anhydrosis are described in detail as well as the connection with aggravating factors like long duration, poor balance and early onset of diabetes mellitus . Change in the relevant cardiovascular reflexes, commonly used in diagnosing diabetic neuropathy, are also analysed with a discussion of their physiopathological background and clinical significance. Finally the painless infarct, sudden death and abnormal response to hypoglycaemia, that are the common features of diabetic neuropathy, are also described.
Tofthagen, Cindy; Kip, Kevin E; Passmore, Denise; Loy, Ian; Berry, Donna L
Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy is a painful and debilitating adverse effect of certain chemotherapy drugs. There have not been any patient-centered, easily accessible Web-based interventions to assist with self-management of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. The aims of this study were to evaluate usability and acceptability and to estimate an effect size of a Web-based intervention for assessing and managing chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. Participants (N = 14) were instructed to complete the Creativity, Optimism, Planning, and Expert Information for Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy program and provide verbal responses to the program. Participants completed the Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Assessment Tool and Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire. Iterative changes were made to the COPE-CIPN. Participants were asked to provide feedback on the revised COPE-CIPN, repeat the Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Assessment Tool, and evaluate acceptability using the Acceptability e-Scale. The COPE-CIPN demonstrated high usability (mean, 1.98 [SD, 1.12]) and acceptability (mean, 4.40 [SD, 0.52]). Comments indicated that the interface was easy to use, and the information was helpful. While neuropathy symptoms continued to increase in this group of patients receiving neurotoxic chemotherapy, there was a decrease in mean level of interference with activities from 53.71 to 39.29 over 3 to 4 months, which indicated a moderate effect (d = 0.39) size. The COPE-CIPN may be a useful intervention to support self-management of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy.
Schuler, U; Heller, S
The perception of the media is that chemotherapy is mainly associated with nausea, vomiting and hair loss. In the longer term the development of peripheral neuropathy, i.e. chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is often more important for patients. The CIPN represents a side effect of many antineoplastic substances with severe functional impairment and its prevention and treatment is an important task. In addition to many interventions, which have been shown to be ineffective, physiotherapeutic measures and possibly the prophylactic application of cold are helpful for prevention. Randomized studies on the treatment of painful CIPN provided positive data for duloxetine and to a lesser extent for venlafaxine.
Farmer, Kevin L.; Li, Chengyuan
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes that is associated with axonal atrophy, demyelination, blunted regenerative potential, and loss of peripheral nerve fibers. The development and progression of DPN is due in large part to hyperglycemia but is also affected by insulin deficiency and dyslipidemia. Although numerous biochemical mechanisms contribute to DPN, increased oxidative/nitrosative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction seem intimately associated with nerve dysfunction and diminished regenerative capacity. Despite advances in understanding the etiology of DPN, few approved therapies exist for the pharmacological management of painful or insensate DPN. Therefore, identifying novel therapeutic strategies remains paramount. Because DPN does not develop with either temporal or biochemical uniformity, its therapeutic management may benefit from a multifaceted approach that inhibits pathogenic mechanisms, manages inflammation, and increases cytoprotective responses. Finally, exercise has long been recognized as a part of the therapeutic management of diabetes, and exercise can delay and/or prevent the development of painful DPN. This review presents an overview of existing therapies that target both causal and symptomatic features of DPN and discusses the role of up-regulating cytoprotective pathways via modulating molecular chaperones. Overall, it may be unrealistic to expect that a single pharmacologic entity will suffice to ameliorate the multiple symptoms of human DPN. Thus, combinatorial therapies that target causal mechanisms and enhance endogenous reparative capacity may enhance nerve function and improve regeneration in DPN if they converge to decrease oxidative stress, improve mitochondrial bioenergetics, and increase response to trophic factors. PMID:22885705
Wei, Yi-Chia; Huang, Chin-Chang; Liu, Chi-Hung; Kuo, Hung-Chou; Lin, Jainn-Jim
Autoantibodies to the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor are known to be the causes of autoimmune encephalitis particularly limbic encephalitis. The involvement of the peripheral nervous system is rarely reported. We analyzed the serial nerve conduction studies of a previously reported case of anti-AMPA receptor encephalitis, who was presented with conscious disturbance and quadriplegia. Initial nerve conduction studies (NCS) revealed motor axonal polyneuropathy with active denervation. We also performed systematic review of similar cases with overlapped peripheral neuropathy and glutamate receptor encephalitis through Embase, PubMed, and MEDLINE. Follow-up NCS of the patient with anti-AMPA receptor encephalitis found reverse of the acute neuropathy, which was compatible with clinical recovery of quadriplegia. The systematic review identified 10 cases with overlapping peripheral neuropathy with anti-AMPA or NMDA receptor encephalitis. Motor or sensorimotor neuropathies were more common than pure sensory neuropathies. Anti-Hu, anti-amphiphysin, or anti-gnaglioside antibodies coexisted in some cases and might be associated with the peripheral symptoms. Both anti-AMPA and anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis could overlap with acute peripheral neuropathy. It is important to consider peripheral symptoms and perform diagnostic tests.
Ushio, Soichiro; Egashira, Nobuaki; Sada, Hikaru; Kawashiri, Takehiro; Shirahama, Masafumi; Masuguchi, Ken; Oishi, Ryozo
Oxaliplatin is a key drug in the treatment of colorectal cancer, but it causes acute and chronic neuropathies in patients. Goshajinkigan (GJG) is a Kampo medicine that is used for the treatments of several neurological symptoms including pain and numbness. More recently, GJG has been reported to prevent the oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in clinical studies. No experimental study, however, has been conducted to date to determine the effect of GJG on pain behaviour in a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Moreover, the impact on the anti-tumour effect of oxaliplatin remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of GJG on the peripheral neuropathy and anti-tumour activity of oxaliplatin in rodents. Repeated administration of oxaliplatin caused cold hyperalgesia from days 3 to 37 and mechanical allodynia from days 21 to 28. Repeated administration of GJG prevented the oxaliplatin-induced cold hyperalgesia but not mechanical allodynia and axonal degeneration in rat sciatic nerve. Single administration of GJG reduced both cold hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia after the development of neuropathy. In addition, GJG did not affect the anti-tumour effect of oxaliplatin in the tumour cells or tumour cells-implanted mice. These results suggest that GJG relieves the oxaliplatin-induced cold hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia without affecting anti-tumour activity of oxaliplatin, and, therefore, may be useful for the oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy in clinical practice.
Hernández-Zamora, Edgar; Arenas-Sordo, María de la Luz
Peripheral neuropathies include a wide range of pathological disorders characterized by damage of peripheral nerves. Among them, peripheral hereditary neuropathies are a group of frequent illnesses and early evolution. They have been named hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) or peripheral hereditary neuropathies type Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT). The most frequent types are CMT1, CMT2 and CMTX. Approximately 70% of the cases correspond to subtype CMT1A, associated with tandem duplication of a 1.5 Mb DNA fragment on chromosome 17p11.2-p12 that codifies the peripheral myelin protein PMP22. So far, there five different types of CMT (1,2,3,4,X) with approximately 32 subtypes, associated with more than 30 genes. Have been reported genetic heterogeneity and expression variability of the illness makes it necessary to carry on diagnostic strategies that integrate clinical study for determining genetic clinical history, family history, complete physical exploration, muscular strength, physical deformities, reflexes and sensitivity, and molecular studies allow detection of different types of mutations and help establish a correct diagnosis and an adequate genetic counseling.
Kunhimangalam, Reeda; Ovallath, Sujith; Joseph, Paul K
The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in general population is ever increasing. The diagnosis and classification of peripheral neuropathies is often difficult as it involves careful clinical and electro-diagnostic examination by an expert neurologist. In developing countries a large percentage of the disease remains undiagnosed due to lack of adequate number of experts. In this study a novel clinical decision support system has been developed using a fuzzy expert system. The study was done to provide a solution to the demand of systems that can improve health care by accurate diagnosis in limited time, in the absence of specialists. It employs a graphical user interface and a fuzzy logic controller with rule viewer for identification of the type of peripheral neuropathy. An integrated medical records database is also developed for the storage and retrieval of the data. The system consists of 24 input fields, which includes the clinical values of the diagnostic test and the clinical symptoms. The output field is the disease diagnosis, whether it is Motor (Demyelinating/Axonopathy) neuropathy, sensory (Demyelinating/Axonopathy) neuropathy, mixed type or a normal case. The results obtained were compared with the expert's opinion and the system showed 93.27 % accuracy. The study aims at showing that Fuzzy Expert Systems may prove useful in providing diagnostic and predictive medical opinions. It enables the clinicians to arrive at a better diagnosis as it keeps the expert knowledge in an intelligent system to be used efficiently and effectively.
Rossor, Alexander M; Carr, Aisling S; Devine, Helen; Chandrashekar, Hoskote; Pelayo-Negro, Ana Lara; Pareyson, Davide; Shy, Michael E; Scherer, Steven S; Reilly, Mary M
Peripheral neuropathy is a common finding in patients with complex inherited neurological diseases and may be subclinical or a major component of the phenotype. This review aims to provide a clinical approach to the diagnosis of this complex group of patients by addressing key questions including the predominant neurological syndrome associated with the neuropathy, for example, spasticity, the type of neuropathy and the other neurological and non-neurological features of the syndrome. Priority is given to the diagnosis of treatable conditions. Using this approach, we associated neuropathy with one of three major syndromic categories: (1) ataxia, (2) spasticity and (3) global neurodevelopmental impairment. Syndromes that do not fall easily into one of these three categories can be grouped according to the predominant system involved in addition to the neuropathy, for example, cardiomyopathy and neuropathy. We also include a separate category of complex inherited relapsing neuropathy syndromes, some of which may mimic Guillain-Barré syndrome, as many will have a metabolic aetiology and be potentially treatable. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Ennis, Samantha L; Galea, Mary P; O'Neal, David N; Dodson, Michael J
Peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy is a recognised complication of diabetes mellitus however little attention has been given to its development in the hands. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensory impairment in the hands of participants with diabetes, the agreement between two measurement tools for assessing sensation and the association between hand sensibility, age, glycaemic control and end-organ damage. A total of 162 participants were recruited and divided into two cohorts based on a diagnosis of diabetes. Participants were tested for the presence of hand neuropathy using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments and the AsTex™. Medical records of participants with diabetes were accessed retrospectively to determine glycaemic control and diabetes complications. A highly statistically significant association was found between neuropathy and diabetes status (P<0.001) on monofilament testing. The prevalence of neuropathy was 64% compared to ∼10% amongst participants without diabetes. Age, male gender and diabetic retinopathy were associated with neuropathy. The AsTex™ identified participants with diminished protective sensation on monofilament testing. This study demonstrates a relationship between diabetes and upper limb neuropathy. Age, male gender and retinopathy were associated with diminished hand sensation. The AsTex™ may have a role as a screening tool for identifying clinically significant hand neuropathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Donadio, Vincenzo; Incensi, Alex; Giannoccaro, Maria Pia; Cortelli, Pietro; Di Stasi, Vitantonio; Pizza, Fabio; Jaber, Masen Abdel; Baruzzi, Agostino; Liguori, Rocco
Skin biopsy has gained widespread use for the diagnosis of somatic small-fiber neuropathy, but it also provides information on sympathetic fiber morphology. We aimed to ascertain the diagnostic accuracy of skin biopsy in disclosing sympathetic nerve abnormalities in patients with autonomic neuropathy. Peripheral nerve fiber autonomic involvement was confirmed by routine autonomic laboratory test abnormalities. Punch skin biopsies were taken from the thigh and lower leg of 28 patients with various types of autonomic neuropathy for quantitative evaluation of skin autonomic innervation. Results were compared with scores obtained from 32 age-matched healthy controls and 25 patients with somatic neuropathy. The autonomic cutoff score was calculated using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Skin biopsy disclosed a significant autonomic innervation decrease in autonomic neuropathy patients versus controls and somatic neuropathy patients. Autonomic innervation density was abnormal in 96% of patients in the lower leg and in 79% of patients in the thigh. The abnormal findings disclosed by routine autonomic tests ranged from 48% to 82%. These data indicate the high sensitivity and specificity of skin biopsy in detecting sympathetic abnormalities; this method should be useful for the diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy, together with currently available routine autonomic testing.
Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (dystrophia myotonica type 2-DM2) is an autosomal dominant multi-organ disorder. The involvement of the peripheral nervous system was found in 25%-45% of patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1, although limited data are available concerning polyneuropathy in patients with DM2, which was the aim of this study with a thorough presentation of the cases with peripheral neuropathy. Patients with genetically confirmed DM2 underwent motor nerve conduction studies of the median, ulnar, tibial and fibular nerves and sensory nerve conduction studies of the median (second finger), ulnar (fifth finger), radial (forearm) and sural nerves. Seventeen adult patients with DM2 participated in the study. Fifty-three percent (9/17) of our patients had abnormality of one or more attributes (latency, amplitude or conduction velocity) in two or more separate nerves. Four types of neuropathies were found: (i) predominantly axonal motor and sensory polyneuropathy, (ii) motor polyneuropathy, (iii) predominantly demyelinating motor and sensory polyneuropathy and (iv) mutilating polyneuropathy with ulcers. The most common forms are axonal motor and sensory polyneuropathy (29%) and motor neuropathy (18% of all examined patients). No correlations were found between the presence of neuropathy and age, CCTG repeats, blood glucose or HbA1C. Peripheral neuropathy is common in patients with DM2 and presents one of the multisystemic manifestations of DM2. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kambiz, Shoista; van Neck, Johan W.; Cosgun, Saniye G.; van Velzen, Marit H. N.; Janssen, Joop A. M. J. L.; Avazverdi, Naim; Hovius, Steven E. R.; Walbeehm, Erik T.
The skin’s rewarming rate of diabetic patients is used as a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. At present, the relationship between microvascular changes in the skin and diabetic neuropathy is unclear in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the skin rewarming rate in diabetic rats is related to microvascular changes and whether this is accompanied by changes observed in classical diagnostic methods for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Computer-assisted infrared thermography was used to assess the rewarming rate after cold exposure on the plantar skin of STZ diabetic rats’ hind paws. Peripheral neuropathy was determined by the density of intra-epidermal nerve fibers (IENFs), mechanical sensitivity, and electrophysiological recordings. Data were obtained in diabetic rats at four, six, and eight weeks after the induction of diabetes and in controls. Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, a delayed rewarming rate, decreased skin blood flow and decreased density of IENFs were observed. However, the mechanical hyposensitivity and decreased motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) developed 6 and 8 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Our study shows that the skin rewarming rate is related to microvascular changes in diabetic rats. Moreover, the skin rewarming rate is a non-invasive method that provides more information for an earlier diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy than the classical monofilament test and MNCV in STZ induced diabetic rats. PMID:25984949
Mo, Michelle; Erdelyi, Ildiko; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Benbow, Jennifer H.; Ehrlich, Barbara E.
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a debilitating side effect that occurs in many patients undergoing chemotherapy. It is often irreversible and frequently leads to early termination of treatment. In this study, we have identified two compounds, lithium and ibudilast, that when administered as a single prophylactic injection prior to paclitaxel treatment, prevent the development of CIPN in mice at the sensory-motor and cellular level. The prevention of neuropathy was not observed in paclitaxel-treated mice that were only prophylactically treated with a vehicle injection. The coadministration of lithium with paclitaxel also allows for administration of higher doses of paclitaxel (survival increases by 60%), protects against paclitaxel-induced cardiac abnormalities, and, notably, does not interfere with the antitumor effects of paclitaxel. Moreover, we have determined a mechanism by which CIPN develops and have discovered that lithium and ibudilast inhibit development of peripheral neuropathy by disrupting the interaction between paclitaxel, neuronal calcium sensor 1 (NCS-1), and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) to prevent treatment-induced decreases in intracellular calcium signaling. This study shows that lithium and ibudilast are candidate therapeutics for the prevention of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy and could enable patients to tolerate more aggressive treatment regimens.—Mo, M., Erdelyi, I., Szigeti-Buck, K., Benbow, J. H., Ehrlich, B. E. Prevention of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy by lithium pretreatment. PMID:22889832
Holisaz, Mohammad Taghi; Rayegani, Seyyed Mansoor; Hafezy, Rahmatollah; Khedmat, Hossein; Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein K
We aimed to assess the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in chemical warfare victims. We speculated that peripheral neuropathy is a late complication of exposure to chemical warfare agents. Late complications of exposure to chemical warfare agents are not well known and are poorly discussed in the existing literature. Scientific data regarding delayed complications are sparse, but this warrants recognition, especially when the clinician has to treat chemical warfare victims. The hazards of organophosphate pesticides and several toxins, although recognized to some extent, are, however, different from the hazards of chemical warfare agents which are far more serious. In this study, 100 chemical warfare patients, with varying degrees of exposure and an average age of 37.2+/-9.0 years, were examined clinically and studied electrodiagnostically from January 2002 to January 2003. Five of these patients proved to be suffering from axonal neuropathy. This rate was significantly higher than that found in the normal population. Our data indicate that chemical warfare agents may cause peripheral neuropathy in chemical warfare victims. In conclusion, organophosphorous agents used against Iranian troops during the war on Iran correlate with delayed neuropathy in these victims.
Scelsi, Roberto; Candura, Stefano M
Many peripheral neuropathies are caused by the (acute or chronic) toxic action of metals, solvents, pesticides, and other occupational and environmental contaminants. These agents often reproduce the anatomoclinical pictures of hereditary (e.g., Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease), autoimmune (Guillain-Barrè syndrome), or dysmetabolic (thiamine deficiency, diabetic neuropathy) forms. Toxic peripheral neuropathies can be classified on the basis of etiology, clinical features (sensitive, motor, sensitive-motor), or histopathology: neuronopathies (uncommon, mostly secondary to retrograde axonal degeneration; e.g., arsenic, thallium), axonopathies (acrylamide, esacarbons, CS2, organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy), myelinopathies (trichloroethylene), mixed forms (axonal and demyelinating: lead). For many substances, experimental research has led to the identification of the molecular and cellular targets of neurotoxicity. Several compounds are active by biotransformation (e.g., the esacarbons n-hexane and MnBK are neurotoxic since they are metabolized to 2,5-hexanedione), Genetic, physiological and environmental factors determine the individual metabolic set-up, and they may give origin to differences in the workers' sensitivity. Cessation of exposure is often followed by (microscopically observable) regenerative phenomena and clinical improvement. The morphology of neuropathies can be studied through peripheral nerve biopsy. Samples of sural nerve (or other nervous trunks of the limbs), adequately fixed, sectioned, and stained, allow the observation of alterations in axonal fibres (e.g., giant-axonal neuropathy, dying back neuropathy), myelin (demyelination), Schwann cells, interstitium, and blood vessels; possible inflammatory infiltrates; fibre density; regenerative phenomena (growth cone, remyelination). In occupational medicine, biopsy is indicated when the anamnestic-clinical picture, laboratory tests, and instrumental exams leave doubts about the nature, type
Epplin-Zapf, Thomas; Miller, Clayton; Larkin, Sean; Hermesmeyer, Eduardo; Macy, Jenny; Pellegrini, Marco; Luccarelli, Saverio; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Holmes, Timothy
A relationship has been reported by several research groups [1 - 4] between the density and shapes of nerve fibers in the cornea and the existence and severity of peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy is a complication of several prevalent diseases or conditions, which include diabetes, HIV, prolonged alcohol overconsumption and aging. A common clinical technique for confirming the condition is intramuscular electromyography (EMG), which is invasive, so a noninvasive technique like the one proposed here carries important potential advantages for the physician and patient. A software program that automatically detects the nerve fibers, counts them and measures their shapes is being developed and tested. Tests were carried out with a database of subjects with levels of severity of diabetic neuropathy as determined by EMG testing. Results from this testing, that include a linear regression analysis are shown.
Zhang, Yunqian; Li, Jintao; Wang, Tingjuan; Wang, Jianlin
Early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is important for the successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we recruited 500 diabetic patients from the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University in China from June 2008 to September 2013: 221 cases showed symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (symptomatic group) and 279 cases had no symptoms of peripheral impairment (asymptomatic group). One hundred healthy control subjects were also recruited. Nerve conduction studies revealed that distal motor latency was longer, sensory nerve conduction velocity was slower, and sensory nerve action potential and amplitude of compound muscle action potential were significantly lower in the median, ulnar, posterior tibial and common peroneal nerve in the diabetic groups compared with control subjects. Moreover, the alterations were more obvious in patients with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Of the 500 diabetic patients, neural conduction abnormalities were detected in 358 cases (71.6%), among which impairment of the common peroneal nerve was most prominent. Sensory nerve abnormality was more obvious than motor nerve abnormality in the diabetic groups. The amplitude of sensory nerve action potential was the most sensitive measure of peripheral neuropathy. Our results reveal that varying degrees of nerve conduction changes are present in the early, asymptomatic stage of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25221597
Zhang, Yunqian; Li, Jintao; Wang, Tingjuan; Wang, Jianlin
Early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is important for the successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we recruited 500 diabetic patients from the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University in China from June 2008 to September 2013: 221 cases showed symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (symptomatic group) and 279 cases had no symptoms of peripheral impairment (asymptomatic group). One hundred healthy control subjects were also recruited. Nerve conduction studies revealed that distal motor latency was longer, sensory nerve conduction velocity was slower, and sensory nerve action potential and amplitude of compound muscle action potential were significantly lower in the median, ulnar, posterior tibial and common peroneal nerve in the diabetic groups compared with control subjects. Moreover, the alterations were more obvious in patients with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Of the 500 diabetic patients, neural conduction abnormalities were detected in 358 cases (71.6%), among which impairment of the common peroneal nerve was most prominent. Sensory nerve abnormality was more obvious than motor nerve abnormality in the diabetic groups. The amplitude of sensory nerve action potential was the most sensitive measure of peripheral neuropathy. Our results reveal that varying degrees of nerve conduction changes are present in the early, asymptomatic stage of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.
Morgan, Megan J; Vite, Charles H; Radhakrishnan, Anant; Hess, Rebecka S
Clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in 3 spontaneously diabetic dogs with clinical peripheral neuropathy (PN) are reported. Clinical signs of a PN may develop in diabetic dogs with adequate glycemic control. In addition, laryngeal paralysis may develop in association with diabetes mellitus in dogs with clinical PN.
Jin, Jiewen; Wang, Weimin; Gu, Tianwei; Chen, Wei; Lu, Jing; Bi, Yan; Zhu, Dalong
Purpose Diabetic peripheral neuropathies are the common chronic complications of diabetes, but the diagnosis is insensitive by physical examination in busy outpatients. Here we evaluated the performance of SUDOSCAN in screening diabetic peripheral neuropathies in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods The study enrolled 180 patients for annually screening. All patients underwent neurological symptoms assessment, clinical examination, nerve conduction studies and cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests. SUDOSCAN was tested and evaluated with electrochemical skin conductance in hands and feet, asymmetry ratio in hands and feet and predicted cardiac neuropathy. Results Patients enrolled had an average age of 56.1 years, 9.8 years of diabetic duration. Patients with diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy showed significantly lower electrochemical skin conductance in feet and higher asymmetry ratio in feet compared with those without. Sensitivity and specificity of asymmetry ratio in feet for diagnosing diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy were 88.2% and 46.9% and area under ROC curve was 0.713. Patients with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy showed significantly lower electrochemical skin conductance in hands and feet, and higher asymmetry ratio in feet and predicted cardiac neuropathy compared with those without. Sensitivity and specificity of electrochemical skin conductance in feet in diagnosing cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy were 85.6% and 76.1% with an area under ROC curve of 0.859. Conclusions SUDOSCAN is a sensitive test to detect diabetic peripheral neuropathy in China and could be an effective screening tool in in busy outpatients and primary health care. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Linnemann, Christoph; Tezenas du Montcel, Sophie; Rakowicz, Maryla; Schmitz-Hübsch, Tanja; Szymanski, Sandra; Berciano, Jose; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Pedersen, Karine; Depondt, Chantal; Rola, Rafal; Klockgether, Thomas; García, Antonio; Mutlu, Gurkan; Schöls, Ludger
Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are characterized by autosomal dominantly inherited progressive ataxia but are clinically heterogeneous due to variable involvement of non-cerebellar parts of the nervous system. Non-cerebellar symptoms contribute significantly to the burden of SCAs, may guide the clinician to the underlying genetic subtype, and might be useful markers to monitor disease. Peripheral neuropathy is frequently observed in SCA, but subtype-specific features and subclinical manifestations have rarely been evaluated. We performed a multicenter nerve conduction study with 162 patients with genetically confirmed SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6. The study proved peripheral nerves to be involved in the neurodegenerative process in 82 % of SCA1, 63 % of SCA2, 55 % of SCA3, and 22 % of SCA6 patients. Most patients of all subtypes revealed affection of both sensory and motor fibers. Neuropathy was most frequently of mixed type with axonal and demyelinating characteristics in all SCA subtypes. However, nerve conduction velocities of SCA1 patients were slower compared to other genotypes. SCA6 patients revealed less axonal damage than patients with other subtypes. No influence of CAG repeat length or biometric determinants on peripheral neuropathy could be identified in SCA1, SCA3, and SCA6. In SCA2, earlier onset and more severe ataxia were associated with peripheral neuropathy. We proved peripheral neuropathy to be a frequent site of the neurodegenerative process in all common SCA subtypes. Since damage to peripheral nerves is readily assessable by electrophysiological means, nerve conduction studies should be performed in a longitudinal approach to assess these parameters as potential progression markers.
Hansen, C S; Jensen, T M; Jensen, J S; Nawroth, P; Fleming, T; Witte, D R; Lauritzen, T; Sandbaek, A; Charles, M; Fleischer, J; Vistisen, D; Jørgensen, M E
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and diabetic peripheral neuropathy are common diabetic complications and independent predictors of cardiovascular disease. The glucose metabolite methylglyoxal has been suggested to play a causal role in the pathogeneses of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and possibly diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional association between serum methylglyoxal and diabetic peripheral neuropathy and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in a subset of patients in the ADDITION-Denmark study with short-term screen-detected Type 2 diabetes (duration ~ 5.8 years). The patients were well controlled with regard to HbA(1c), lipids and blood pressure. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was assessed by measures of resting heart rate variability and cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy was assessed by vibration detection threshold (n = 319), 10 g monofilament (n = 543) and the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument questionnaire (n = 966). Painful diabetic neuropathy was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory short form (n = 882). No associations between methylglyoxal and cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests or any measures of diabetic peripheral neuropathy or painful diabetic neuropathy were observed. However, a positive association between methylglyoxal and several heart rate variability indices was observed, although these associations were not statistically significant when corrected for multiple testing. Serum methylglyoxal is not associated with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, diabetic peripheral neuropathy or painful diabetic neuropathy in this cohort of well-treated patients with short-term diabetes. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.
Antibodies directed to intracellular neural antigens have been mainly described in paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathies and mostly includes anti-Hu and anti-CV2/CRMP5 antibodies. These antibodies occur with different patterns of neuropathy. With anti-Hu antibody, the most frequent manifestation is sensory neuronopathy with frequent autonomic involvement. With anti-CV2/CRMP5 the neuropathy is more frequently sensory and motor with an axonal or mixed demyelinating and axonal electrophysiological pattern. The clinical pattern of these neuropathies is in keeping with the cellular distribution of HuD and CRMP5 in the peripheral nervous system. Although present in high titer, these antibodies are probably not directly responsible for the neuropathy. Pathological and experimental studies indicate that cytotoxic T-cells are probably the main effectors of the immune response. These disorders contrast with those in which antibodies recognize a cell surface antigen and are probably responsible for the disease. The neuronal cell death and axonal degeneration which result from T-cell mediated immunity explains why treating these disorders remains challenging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Pritchard, Nicola; Vagenas, Dimitrios; Edwards, Katie; Sampson, Geoff P; Russell, Anthony W; Malik, Rayaz A; Efron, Nathan
To investigate the relationship between diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and retinal tissue thickness. Full retinal thickness in the central retinal, parafoveal, and perifoveal zones and thickness of the ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) were assessed in 193 individuals (84 with type 1 diabetes, 67 with type 2 diabetes, and 42 healthy controls) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Among those with diabetes, 44 had neuropathy defined using a modified neuropathy disability score recorded on a 0-10 scale. Multiple regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between diabetic neuropathy and retinal tissue thickness, adjusted for the presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR), age, sex, duration of diabetes, and HbA1c levels. In individuals with diabetes, perifoveal thickness was inversely related to the severity of neuropathy (p < 0.05), when adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, and HbA1c levels. DR was associated with reduced thickness in parafovea (p < 0.01). The RNFL was thinner in individuals with greater degrees of neuropathy (p < 0.04). DPN is associated with structural compromise involving several retinal layers. This compromise may represent a threat to visual integrity and therefore warrants examination of functional correlates.
Rinaldi, Simon; Bennett, David L H
This review summarizes the major recent developments in understanding of pathogenic mechanisms in inflammatory and paraproteinaemic neuropathies. In the inflammatory neuropathies, there has been a particular focus on antibody-mediated disease affecting the nodal/paranodal regions. Disruption of electrical integrity at these sites on the axonal membrane can cause conduction block without other electrophysiological features of demyelination, which has led to calls for a revision in the classification of axonal versus demyelinating neuropathies to include the new category of 'nodo-paranodopathies'. There has likewise been an expansion in knowledge regarding the diverse disease mechanisms of the paraproteinaemic neuropathies. These also include disease mediated by antibodies binding to peripheral nerve antigens, but additionally encompass immune complex deposition, cellular infiltration, and cytokine production. An increasing range of laboratory tests for antibodies, growth factors, and cytokines are proposed as useful in the management of inflammatory and paraproteinaemic neuropathies. Furthermore, the traditional electrodiagnostic classification into axonal and demyelinating neuropathy may not always accurately reflect the underlying disease process. Understanding how these paraclinical tests aid in identifying the underlying disease has relevance to the practising clinician both in terms of diagnosis and for the selection of rational treatments.
Ferrari, Luiz F; Levine, Jon D
A major dose-limiting side effect of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) chemotherapies, such as the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), is a small-fiber painful peripheral neuropathy, mediated by its mitochondrial toxicity. Co-morbid conditions may also contribute to this dose-limiting effect of HIV/AIDS treatment. Alcohol abuse, which alone also produces painful neuropathy, is one of the most important co-morbid risk factors for peripheral neuropathy in patients with HIV/AIDS. Despite the prevalence of this problem and its serious impact on the quality of life and continued therapy in HIV/AIDS patients, the mechanisms by which alcohol abuse exacerbates highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-induced neuropathic pain has not been demonstrated. In this study, performed in rats, we investigated the cellular mechanism by which consumed alcohol impacts antiretroviral-induced neuropathic pain. NRTI 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC; 50 mg/kg) neuropathy was mitochondrial-dependent and PKCε-independent, and alcohol-induced painful neuropathy was PKCε-dependent and mitochondrial-independent. At low doses, ddC (5 mg/kg) and alcohol (6.5% ethanol diet for 1 week), which alone do not affect nociception, together produce profound mechanical hyperalgesia. This hyperalgesia is mitochondrial-dependent but PKCε-independent. These experiments, which provide the first model for studying the impact of co-morbidity in painful neuropathy, support the clinical impression that alcohol consumption enhances HIV/AIDS therapy neuropathy, and provide evidence for a role of mitochondrial mechanisms underlying this interaction.
Pourmohammadi, Nasir; Alimoradi, Houman; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Bakhtiarian, Azam; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza
As a cancer chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel (Taxol® ) causes dose-related peripheral neuropathy in human beings. The mechanisms underlying this toxicity are currently unknown, and there are no validated treatments for its prevention or control. To assess whether lithium as a pre-treatment and at subtherapeutic dose could prevent the peripheral neuropathy produced by it, rats were treated with paclitaxel (2 mg/kg i.p. every other day for a total of 16 times) and/or lithium chloride (300 mg/l) via water supply. General toxicity and body-weight were measured regularly during the experiment. To evaluate the sensory and motor neuropathy hot-plate, open-field test and nerve conduction velocity were used. In rats treated with only paclitaxel, there was behavioural, electrophysiological and histological evidence of a mixed sensorimotor neuropathy after 16 injections. Lithium robustly reduced the rate of mortality and general toxicity. Paclitaxel-induced sensorimotor neuropathy was significantly improved as indicated by changes in hotplate latency, total distance moved and a significant increase in sciatic, sural and tail sensory or motor nerve conduction velocity. The same results were observed in histopathological examinations; however, dorsal root ganglion neurons did not significantly change in the paclitaxel-treated groups. These results suggest that lithium, at subtherapeutic doses, can prevent both motor and sensory components of paclitaxel neuropathy in rats. Thus, lithium at these doses, as an inexpensive and relatively safe salt, may be useful clinically in preventing the neuropathy induced by paclitaxel treatment. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.
Yorek, Mark Anthony
Peripheral neuropathy affects about 50% of the diabetic population. The manifestations range from pain, numbness, paresthesia and ulceration in the extremities and it is the major cause of non-traumatic amputations. Currently there is no effective treatment for peripheral neuropathy. With the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes and associated complications reaching epidemic levels there is a critical need for finding a treatment to preserve nerve function. This article will review the potential for fish oil as a treatment for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A through search of the PubMed database was performed and relevant articles on the topic were included in this review. Many studies support a role for fish oil in cardiovascular health. However, less information is available regarding the effect of fish oil on diabetes complications including neuropathy. Pre-clinical studies from my laboratory using diabetic rodent models have demonstrated that fish oil can slow progression and reverse diabetic neuropathy as determined by examining multiple endpoints. Mechanistically fish oil has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. Lowering the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio has been shown to be anti-thrombotic. Moreover, metabolites of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, the main polyunsaturated fatty acids found in fish oil, commonly referred to as resolvins and neuroprotectin have been shown to be neuroprotective and can stimulate neuron outgrowth in vitro. Additional studies are required but existing data suggests that dietary enrichment with omega-3 fatty acids contained in fish oil may be beneficial treatment for diabetic neuropathy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Komatsu, Masaaki; Wheeler, Heather E.; Chung, Suyoun; Low, Siew-Kee; Wing, Claudia; Delaney, Shannon M.; Gorsic, Lidija K.; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Kroetz, Deanna L.; Zhang, Wei; Nakamura, Yusuke; Dolan, M. Eileen
Purpose Paclitaxel is used worldwide in the treatment of breast, lung, ovarian and other cancers. Sensory peripheral neuropathy is an associated adverse effect that cannot be predicted, prevented or mitigated. To better understand the contribution of germline genetic variation to paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy, we undertook an integrative approach that combines genome-wide association study (GWAS) data generated from HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and Asian patients. Methods GWAS was performed with paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity generated in 363 LCLs and with paclitaxel-induced neuropathy from 145 Asian patients. A gene-based approach was used to identify overlapping genes and compare to a European clinical cohort of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. Neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells were used for functional validation of candidate genes. Results SNPs near AIPL1 were significantly associated with paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity in Asian LCLs (P < 10−6). Decreased expression of AIPL1 resulted in decreased sensitivity of neurons to paclitaxel by inducing neurite morphological changes as measured by increased relative total outgrowth, number of processes and mean process length. Using a gene-based analysis, there were 32 genes that overlapped between Asian LCL cytotoxicity and Asian patient neuropathy (P < 0.05) including BCR. Upon BCR knockdown, there was an increase in neuronal sensitivity to paclitaxel as measured by neurite morphological characteristics. Conclusion We identified genetic variants associated with Asian paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity and functionally validated the AIPL1 and BCR in a neuronal cell model. Furthermore, the integrative pharmacogenomics approach of LCL/patient GWAS may help prioritize target genes associated with chemotherapeutic-induced peripheral neuropathy. PMID:26015512
Komatsu, Masaaki; Wheeler, Heather E; Chung, Suyoun; Low, Siew-Kee; Wing, Claudia; Delaney, Shannon M; Gorsic, Lidija K; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Kroetz, Deanna L; Zhang, Wei; Nakamura, Yusuke; Dolan, M Eileen
Paclitaxel is used worldwide in the treatment of breast, lung, ovarian, and other cancers. Sensory peripheral neuropathy is an associated adverse effect that cannot be predicted, prevented, or mitigated. To better understand the contribution of germline genetic variation to paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy, we undertook an integrative approach that combines genome-wide association study (GWAS) data generated from HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and Asian patients. GWAS was performed with paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity generated in 363 LCLs and with paclitaxel-induced neuropathy from 145 Asian patients. A gene-based approach was used to identify overlapping genes and compare with a European clinical cohort of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. Neurons derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells were used for functional validation of candidate genes. SNPs near AIPL1 were significantly associated with paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity in Asian LCLs (P < 10(-6)). Decreased expression of AIPL1 resulted in decreased sensitivity of neurons to paclitaxel by inducing neurite morphologic changes as measured by increased relative total outgrowth, number of processes and mean process length. Using a gene-based analysis, there were 32 genes that overlapped between Asian LCL cytotoxicity and Asian patient neuropathy (P < 0.05), including BCR. Upon BCR knockdown, there was an increase in neuronal sensitivity to paclitaxel as measured by neurite morphologic characteristics. We identified genetic variants associated with Asian paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity and functionally validated the AIPL1 and BCR in a neuronal cell model. Furthermore, the integrative pharmacogenomics approach of LCL/patient GWAS may help prioritize target genes associated with chemotherapeutic-induced peripheral neuropathy. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
Bailey, Anne; Wingard, Deborah; Allison, Matthew; Summers, Priscilla; Calac, Daniel
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) develops in 30% of type 2 diabetes patients, increases the risk for foot ulcers and amputation, and is a significant source of disability and medical costs. Treatment remains challenging, propelling research to focus on therapeutic methods that aim to improve blood circulation or ameliorate oxidative stress that drives development of DPN. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment for DPN symptoms and lower extremity arterial circulation in people with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-five patients seen at a Southern California Tribal Health Center who reported a threshold level of diabetic neuropathy symptoms in the lower extremities during the previous 4 weeks received acupuncture treatment once per week over a 10-week period between 2011 and 2013. The Neuropathy Total Symptom Scale (NTSS-6), Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS), and laser Doppler fluxmetry (LDF) were used for assessment at baseline and 10 weeks. A total of 19 of 25 study participants completed the study and reported a significant reduction in the NTSS symptoms of aching pain, burning pain, prickling sensation, numbness, and allodynia. Lancinating pain did not decrease significantly. LDF measures improved but not significantly. Acupuncture may effectively ameliorate selected DPN symptoms in these American Indian patients. Copyright © 2017 Medical Association of Pharmacopuncture Institute. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Botez, Stephan A; Herrmann, David N
The present review focuses on recent developments in diagnosis and treatment of sensory neuropathies. It does not seek to establish a comprehensive classification of sensory neuropathies, nor treatment guidelines per se. Diagnostic criteria and guidelines have been developed for distal symmetric polyneuropathies, small fiber sensory neuropathies and sensory neuronopathies. Novel diagnostic tools such as skin biopsies now allow diagnosis of small fiber sensory neuropathies. Genetic testing has defined new subtypes of mitochondrial neuropathies and inherited neuropathies with sensory involvement. Intravenous immunoglobulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors show promise for some dysimmune sensory neuropathies or neuronopathies. Additional options for management of neuropathic pain are emerging. Diagnostic methods for both acquired and hereditary sensory neuropathies have progressed in recent years, leading to earlier and more specific diagnoses and a better understanding of disease mechanisms. Much progress remains to be made regarding symptomatic and disease-modifying therapy for a range of sensory neuropathies, including those due to diabetes, HIV infection and from dysimmune or hereditary causes.
Höke, Ahmet; Ray, Mitali
Peripheral neuropathy is a common and dose-limiting side effect of many chemotherapeutic drugs. These include platinum compounds, taxanes, vinca alkaloids, proteasome inhibitors, and others such as thalidomide and suramin. Although many rodent models have been developed using either mice or rats, there is limited consistency in the dose or mode of delivery of the drug; the sex, age, and genetic background of the animal used in the study; and the outcome measures used in evaluation of the peripheral neuropathy. Behavioral assays are commonly used to evaluate evoked sensory responses but are unlikely to be a good representation of the spontaneous sensory paresthesias that the patients experience. Electrophysiologic tests evaluate the integrity of large myelinated populations and are useful in drugs that cause either demyelination or degeneration of large myelinated axons but are insensitive to degeneration of unmyelinated axons in early stages of neuropathy. Histopathologic tools offer an unbiased way to evaluate the degree of axonal degeneration or changes in neuronal cell body but are often time consuming and require processing of the tissue after the study is completed. Nevertheless, use of drug doses and mode of delivery that are relevant to the clinical protocols and use of outcome measures that are both sensitive and objective in evaluation of the length-dependent distal axonal degeneration seen in most chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathies may improve the translational utility of these rodent models.
Köşkderelioğlu, Aslı; Ortan, Pınar; Ari, Alpay; Gedizlioğlu, Muhteşem
To investigate the existence of peripheral and optic neuropathies in asymptomatic individuals with hepatitis C infection. Thirty consecutive patients who were followed in a hepatitis C outpatient clinic were recruited for electrophysiological evaluation together with 30 age- and gender-compatible healthy controls. All patients had a detailed neurological examination. The information regarding the disease duration and management with interferons were collected. Nerve conduction studies and visual evoked potentials (VEP) were recorded in all subjects. The results of the patient and control groups were statistically compared. Of the patients with hepatitis C infection, 16 were females and 14 males. The mean age was 57.5 years, and the average disease duration was 6.43 years. The P100 latencies in the patient group were within normal limits, while the amplitudes were meaningfully small by comparison with the controls. There were some abnormalities in the nerve conduction studies of 15 patients. Sensorial neuropathy was detected in two patients, sensorimotor polyneuropathy in four, carpal tunnel syndrome in seven, and carpal tunnel syndrome and sensorimotor polyneuropathy as comorbid states in another two patients. The nerve conduction studies and VEP parameters were entirely normal in the control group. Hepatitis C-related neurological abnormalities may occur both in the central and peripheral nervous system. Mononeuritis multiplex, sensorial axonal neuropathy, and multiple mononeuropathies are some of the presentations of the peripheral nervous system involvement. The mode of infection is considered to be via vasculitic mechanisms. In addition, optic neuropathy is a known complication of interferon treatment. Autoantibodies, cytokines, chemokines, and cryoglobulins are accused to play roles in the pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the peripheral nervous system and optic nerves in a group of patients with hepatitis C. The results were in
KÖŞKDERELİOĞLU, Aslı; ORTAN, Pınar; ARI, Alpay; GEDİZLİOĞLU, Muhteşem
Introduction To investigate the existence of peripheral and optic neuropathies in asymptomatic individuals with hepatitis C infection. Methods Thirty consecutive patients who were followed in a hepatitis C outpatient clinic were recruited for electrophysiological evaluation together with 30 age- and gender-compatible healthy controls. All patients had a detailed neurological examination. The information regarding the disease duration and management with interferons were collected. Nerve conduction studies and visual evoked potentials (VEP) were recorded in all subjects. The results of the patient and control groups were statistically compared. Results Of the patients with hepatitis C infection, 16 were females and 14 males. The mean age was 57.5 years, and the average disease duration was 6.43 years. The P100 latencies in the patient group were within normal limits, while the amplitudes were meaningfully small by comparison with the controls. There were some abnormalities in the nerve conduction studies of 15 patients. Sensorial neuropathy was detected in two patients, sensorimotor polyneuropathy in four, carpal tunnel syndrome in seven, and carpal tunnel syndrome and sensorimotor polyneuropathy as comorbid states in another two patients. The nerve conduction studies and VEP parameters were entirely normal in the control group. Conclusion Hepatitis C-related neurological abnormalities may occur both in the central and peripheral nervous system. Mononeuritis multiplex, sensorial axonal neuropathy, and multiple mononeuropathies are some of the presentations of the peripheral nervous system involvement. The mode of infection is considered to be via vasculitic mechanisms. In addition, optic neuropathy is a known complication of interferon treatment. Autoantibodies, cytokines, chemokines, and cryoglobulins are accused to play roles in the pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the peripheral nervous system and optic nerves in a group of patients
Quintyne, K I; Mainstone, P; McNamara, B; Boers, P; Wallis, F; Gupta, R K
The authors herein report the case of a 35-year-old woman undergoing adjuvant therapy for node positive breast cancer, who presented with short and rapidly progressive history of bilateral lower limb symptoms of peripheral neuropathy following therapy with paclitaxel. MRI of her neural axis revealed no leptomeningeal enhancement or focal metastatic lesions. Neurophysiological tests favoured toxic sensory axonal polyneuropathy. She remains symptomatic following discontinuation of therapy 20 months ago, and is under review with pain management.
He, Rui; Hu, Yanyun; Zeng, Hui; Zhao, Jun; Zhao, Jungong; Chai, Yimin; Lu, Fengdi; Liu, Fang; Jia, Weiping
Vitamin D deficiency was reported to be associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. But the association in Chinese population and the screening value of vitamin D deficiency for diabetic peripheral neuropathy were unknown. A total of 861 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D(25(OH)D) level < 20 ng/mL. Peripheral neuropathy was evaluated by neurological symptoms, neurological signs, neurothesiometer and electromyogram. The patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D concentration (15.59 ± 7.68 ng/mL) and higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (80%) than patients with signs of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (17.66 ± 7.50 ng/mL; 64.5%) and non-DPN patients (18.35 ± 6.60; 61.7%) (all p < 0.01). Spearman's correlation analysis showed that serum circulating 25(OH)D level was closely associated with DPN (r = 0.121) and signs of DPN (r = 0.111) (both p < 0.01). After adjusting for all potential confounders, VDD was still linked with increased risk of DPN [odds ratio 2.59 (1.48-4.53)] (p < 0.01). Logistical regression analysis further revealed that VDD was an independent risk factor for DPN (β = 0.88) (p < 0.01). Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that serum 25(OH)D < 17.22 ng/mL hinted the signs of DPN and serum 25(OH)D < 16.01 ng/mL predicted the occurrence of DPN (both p < 0.01). Vitamin D deficiency is an independent risk factor for diabetic peripheral neuropathy and may be a potential biomarker for peripheral neuropathy in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tumusiime, David Kabagema; Venter, Francois; Musenge, Eustasius; Stewart, Aimee
The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced the mortality rate of people living with HIV (PLHIV). However, complications of both HIV and ART, such as peripheral neuropathy currently affect PLHIV. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy of the lower extremity and, its association with demographic and health status, characteristics among people on ART in Rwanda. A cross sectional study was conducted among 507 women and men aged between 18 and 60 years, on ART, randomly selected from eight selected ART clinics in Rwanda. Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen was used to assess peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy prevalence was 59% overall, mean age of the participants was 39.7 (±9.2) and a slightly older age was associated with peripheral neuropathy; [42(±9.2) vs 37 (±8.8) (p < 0.001)]. 78% of participants living in urban settings compared to 40% in rural settings reported peripheral neuropathy, 69% of participants with higher levels of education (secondary level and above) reported lower extremity neuropathy.The three factors were significantly associated with peripheral neuropathy in multivariable model analysis: older age [aOR = 1.1, 95% CI (1.0, 1.2), p < 0.001], primary education level [aOR = 0.6 95% Cl (0.3, 1.0), p = 0.04] and urban setting [aOR = 0.1, 95% CI (0.06, 0.3), p < 0.001], after adjusting for other factors. None of the health status characteristics namely; the level of CD4 cell count, duration of HIV infection and duration on ART, was independently associated with peripheral neuropathy. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy among PLHIV on ART in Rwanda is high. It is unclear why urban setting has an effect on PN levels in this cross sectional study, but does suggest that unidentified social and lifestyles factors may have a role in subjective symptoms and objective signs, of PN.
Sweitzer, S M; Pahl, J L; DeLeo, J A
The development of painful peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting side effect of numerous cancer chemotherapeutic agents. The present study utilized a rodent model of vincristine-induced neuropathy to determine whether a glial modulating agent, propentofylline, could attenuate vincristine-induced mechanical allodynia. Intravenous vincristine administered on days 1 through 5 and days 8 through 11 produced mechanical allodynia using 2 and 12 g von Frey filaments. Lumbar spinal cord from animals on day 15 expressed mild bilateral microglial and astrocytic activation as compared to saline-treated animals. Daily intraperitoneal propentofylline at 10 mg/kg attenuated mechanical allodynia induced by vincristine administration. In addition, propentofylline was found to decrease spinal microglial and astrocytic activation on day 15. These data suggest that central glial cells may play an important role in the development of painful neuropathy following vincristine administration.
Van Brakel, W H
Leprosy causes a 'mononeuritis multiplex' of immunological origin that results in autonomic, sensory and motor neuropathy. When detected and treated early, primary impairments may be reversible. However, 11-51% of patients do not recover. In addition, 33-56% of newly registered patients already have clinically detectable impairments, often no longer amenable to drug treatment. Among new patients, 6-27% present with secondary impairments, such as wounds, contractures and shortening of digits. All patients with impairments should be taught methods to prevent further impairment and subsequent disability (POID). As the result of impairments, many people experience limitation of activities of daily living, which can be partially overcome with the help of assistive devices, training, and surgery. As a result of these limitations, because of visible impairments, or simply because of the diagnosis 'leprosy', many people are restricted in their participation in society. Many overcome activity limitations and participation restrictions without assistance, despite residual impairments. However, some require intervention, such as physical or occupational therapy, reconstructive surgery or temporary socioeconomic assistance. Information on these issues is not collected routinely, and the few tools that exist to measure the severity or extent of impairment have not been widely used, nor have they been used to generate cohort-based statistics. There are no agreed indicators for monitoring POID activities or rehabilitation interventions. Work in the general field of rehabilitation has resulted in the ICIDH-2, which provides a conceptual framework for rehabilitation and the entire area of 'consequences of health conditions'. Although experience to date is very limited, the conceptual framework appears appropriate to leprosy. Data on the prevalence and incidence of primary and secondary impairments have been reported from several countries, the link between impairments and activity
MELLION, MICHELLE L.; NGUYEN, VANANH; TONG, MING; GILCHRIST, JAMES; DE LA MONTE, SUZANNE
Introduction The aim of this work was to determine the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on peripheral nerves in a nutritionally balanced rat model of alcoholism. Methods Three different strains of adult male rats were pair-fed for 8 weeks with isocaloric liquid diets containing 0% or 37% ethanol. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) were performed. Peripheral nerve and muscle were examined histologically with morphometrics. Results Ethanol exposure significantly slowed velocity in tibial and fibular nerves, but not in the plantar nerve in all 3 strains. Studies of the sciatic nerve revealed decreased fiber diameters and increased regenerative sprouts in peripheral nerves. There was muscle denervation of ethanol-exposed rats in all 3 strains. Conclusions Chronic ethanol exposure caused a polyneuropathy characterized by axonal degeneration despite adequate nutrition. These results suggest that ethanol exposure has direct neurotoxic effects on peripheral nerves. This model may be useful in understanding the underlying mechanism(s) of alcohol-related peripheral neuropathy. PMID:23761140
Brunelli, Brian; Gorson, Kenneth C
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies have become increasingly popular and are used regularly by patients with chronic neurological disorders. The prevalence and characteristics of CAM use by patients with peripheral neuropathy is unknown. We performed a prospective, questionnaire-based study to determine the prevalence and patterns of use of CAM therapies in 180 consecutive outpatients with peripheral neuropathy. The use of CAM was reported by 77 patients (43%) with neuropathy. The most frequent were megavitamins (35%), magnets (30%), acupuncture (30%), herbal remedies (22%), and chiropractic manipulation (21%); 37 (48%) tried more than one form of alternative treatment. Seventeen respondents (27%) thought their neuropathy symptoms improved with these approaches. Those who used CAM were slightly younger (mean age 62 vs. 65 years, p = 0.05) and more often college educated (39% vs. 24%, p = 0.03) compared to CAM nonusers. They also more often reported burning neuropathic pain (62% vs. 44%, p = 0.01). Patients with diabetic neuropathy used CAM more frequently than others (p = 0.03). The most common reason for using CAM was inadequate pain control (32%). Almost half of patients did not consult a physician before starting CAM. We conclude that there is a high prevalence of CAM use in our patients with neuropathy, and one-quarter reported that their symptoms improved. CAM users were better educated than nonusers, but most did not discuss CAM treatments with their physician. Neuropathic pain was substantially more common in CAM users, and lack of pain control was the most common reason for CAM use.
Guest, Maya; Attia, John R; D'este, Catherine A; Boggess, May M; Brown, Anthony M; Gibson, Richard E; Tavener, Meredith A; Ross, James; Gardner, Ian; Harrex, Warren
This study aimed to examine possible persisting peripheral neuropathy in a group who undertook fuel tank repairs on F-111 aircraft, relative to two contemporaneous comparison groups. Vibration perception threshold (VPT) was tested using biothesiometry in 614 exposed personnel, compared with two unexposed groups (513 technical trades and 403 nontrades). Regression modeling was used to examine associations, adjusting for possible confounders. We observed that 26% of participants had chronic persistent increased VPT in the great toe. In contrast, statistically significant higher VPT of the great toe was observed in the comparison groups; however, the effect was small, about 1/4 the magnitude of diabetes. Age, height, and diabetes were all significant and strong predictors in most models. This study highlights chronic persisting peripheral neuropathy in a population of aircraft maintainers.
Schloss, Janet; Colosimo, Maree
The purpose of this mini review is to evaluate the literature on B vitamins and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. One hundred and five journal articles were evaluated and nine manuscripts were included. There was one in vitro, one was an animal and seven were human studies. The in vitro study was a safety study on vitamin B6 and oxaliplatin which was not directly related to CIPN. The animal study evaluated vitamin B3 on paclitaxel administration with positive results. The human studies varied using a vitamin B complex, vitamin B12 only and vitamin B6. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) continues to plague patients and the medical fraternity. Currently, there are still no conclusive protective or treatment options. B vitamins have been found to play a role in CIPN prevention, but further studies are required to ascertain possible protection and treatment options.
Mora, Erika; Smith, Ellen M Lavoie; Donohoe, Clare; Hertz, Daniel L
Vincristine is a chemotherapeutic agent that is a component of many combination regimens for a variety of malignancies, including several common pediatric tumors. Vincristine treatment is limited by a progressive sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. Vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy (VIPN) is particularly challenging to detect and monitor in pediatric patients, in whom the side effect can diminish long term quality of life. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding VIPN, focusing on its description, assessment, prediction, prevention, and treatment. Significant progress has been made in our knowledge about VIPN incidence and progression, and tools have been developed that enable clinicians to reliably measure VIPN in pediatric patients. Despite these successes, little progress has been made in identifying clinically useful predictors of VIPN or in developing effective approaches for VIPN prevention or treatment in either pediatric or adult patients. Further research is needed to predict, prevent, and treat VIPN to maximize therapeutic benefit and avoid unnecessary toxicity from vincristine treatment. PMID:27904761
Rosewell, Alexander; Clark, Geoff; Mabong, Paul; Ropa, Berry; Posanai, Enoch; Man, Nicola W. Y.; Dutta, Samir R.; Wickramasinghe, Wasa; Qi, Lixia; Ng, Jack C.; Mola, Glen; Zwi, Anthony B.; MacIntyre, C. Raina
Background In October 2004, Manam Island volcano in Papua New Guinea erupted, causing over 10 000 villagers to flee to internally displaced person (IDP) camps, including 550 from Dugulaba village. Following violence over land access in March 2010, the IDPs fled the camps, and four months later concurrent outbreaks of acute watery diarrhea and unusual neurological complaints were reported in this population. Materials and Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted to identify the risk factors for peripheral neuropathy. Rectal swabs were collected from cases of acute watery diarrhea. Hair and serum metals and metalloids were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results There were 17 deaths among the 550 village inhabitants during the outbreak period at a crude mortality rate 21-fold that of a humanitarian crisis. Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa was confirmed among the population. Access to community-level rehydration was crucial to mortality. Peripheral neuropathy was diagnosed among cases with neurological symptoms. A balanced diet was significantly protective against neuropathy. A dose-response relationship was seen between peripheral neuropathy and a decreasing number of micronutrient- rich foods in the diet. Deficiencies in copper, iron, selenium and zinc were identified among the cases of peripheral neuropathy. Conclusions Cholera likely caused the mostly preventable excess mortality. Peripheral neuropathy was not caused by cholera, but cholera may worsen existing nutritional deficiencies. The peripheral neuropathy was likely caused by complex micronutrient deficiencies linked to non-diversified diets that potentially increased the vulnerability of this population, however a new zinc-associated neuropathy could not be ruled out. Reoccurrence can be prevented by addressing the root cause of displacement and ensuring access to arable land and timely resettlement. PMID:24023752
Pacitto, Alessandra; Paglino, Alessandra; Di Genova, Lorenza; Leonardi, Alberto; Farinelli, Edoardo; Principi, Nicola; di Cara, Giuseppe; Esposito, Susanna
Background: Clinically relevant neurological manifestations in children with celiac disease (CD) are unusual, especially when they are considered as signs of the onset of the disease. In this paper, a case of Guillain-Barrè syndrome (GBS) as the first manifestation of CD in a 23-month-old child is reported. Case presentation: We describe a case of CD onset with peripheral neuropathy in a 23-month-old Bulgarian boy presenting with a sudden refusal to walk and absence of deep tendon reflexes in both lower limbs. Neurological symptoms were preceded by two months of gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting, abdominal distention, and clear signs of malnutrition and weight loss. When we evaluated the child six months after the onset of the symptoms, clinical and laboratory findings showed clear signs of peripheral neuropathy associated with malnutrition. Serum deamidated gliadin and tissue transglutaminase antibodies were therefore measured. The anti-gliadin levels were more than sixteen times higher than normal and the IgA anti-transglutaminase levels were four times higher than normal. Anti-endomysium antibodies were positive, and human leukocyte antigens (HLA) II typing confirmed a genetic predisposition to CD (DQ2 positive and DQ8 negative). Given the association between the clinical evidence of the disease and the results of the celiac screening tests, a diagnosis of CD was made without biopsy confirmation of the enteropathy. The child began a restricted gluten-free diet that led to complete recovery of the peripheral neuropathy, walking, reflexes, and overall improvement after three months on the diet. Conclusion: Our case underlines the rare but possible associations between CD and peripheral neuropathy in children as an onset symptom, even in the absence of gastrointestinal manifestations, thus suggesting that CD should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy in children. A good knowledge of the extra
Pacitto, Alessandra; Paglino, Alessandra; Di Genova, Lorenza; Leonardi, Alberto; Farinelli, Edoardo; Principi, Nicola; di Cara, Giuseppe
Background: Clinically relevant neurological manifestations in children with celiac disease (CD) are unusual, especially when they are considered as signs of the onset of the disease. In this paper, a case of Guillain-Barrè syndrome (GBS) as the first manifestation of CD in a 23-month-old child is reported. Case presentation: We describe a case of CD onset with peripheral neuropathy in a 23-month-old Bulgarian boy presenting with a sudden refusal to walk and absence of deep tendon reflexes in both lower limbs. Neurological symptoms were preceded by two months of gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting, abdominal distention, and clear signs of malnutrition and weight loss. When we evaluated the child six months after the onset of the symptoms, clinical and laboratory findings showed clear signs of peripheral neuropathy associated with malnutrition. Serum deamidated gliadin and tissue transglutaminase antibodies were therefore measured. The anti-gliadin levels were more than sixteen times higher than normal and the IgA anti-transglutaminase levels were four times higher than normal. Anti-endomysium antibodies were positive, and human leukocyte antigens (HLA) II typing confirmed a genetic predisposition to CD (DQ2 positive and DQ8 negative). Given the association between the clinical evidence of the disease and the results of the celiac screening tests, a diagnosis of CD was made without biopsy confirmation of the enteropathy. The child began a restricted gluten-free diet that led to complete recovery of the peripheral neuropathy, walking, reflexes, and overall improvement after three months on the diet. Conclusion: Our case underlines the rare but possible associations between CD and peripheral neuropathy in children as an onset symptom, even in the absence of gastrointestinal manifestations, thus suggesting that CD should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy in children. A good knowledge of the extra
Advances in supportive care have increased the likelihood that previously less common adverse effects of chemotherapy will be more evident. The incidence of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is increasing because more neurotoxic drugs have been developed and because patients are living longer and receiving multiple chemotherapy regimens. This article reviews the anatomy of the peripheral nervous system, the proposed mechanisms of CIPN, and manifestations of CIPN from vinca alkaloids, taxanes, and platinum analogs. Major topics of this article are evidence-based data regarding symptom management, a review of medical management, and a synthesis of nursing care for patients at risk for or experiencing CIPN.
Chua, K C; Kroetz, D L
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common dose-limiting toxicity experienced in 30-40% of patients undergoing treatment with various chemotherapeutics, including taxanes, vinca alkaloids, epothilones, proteasome inhibitors, and thalidomide. Importantly, CIPN significantly affects a patient's quality of life. Recent genetic association studies are enhancing our understanding of CIPN pathophysiology and serve as a foundation for identification of genetic biomarkers to predict toxicity risk and for the development of novel strategies for prevention and treatment.
Cohen, Helen S.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Peters, Brian T.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Kung, Doris H.; Mosier, Dennis R.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.
Objective Few tests of functional motor behavior are useful for rapidly screening people for lower extremity peripheral neuropathy. The goal of this study was to improve the widely used Tandem Walking test (TW). Methods We tested adult normals and ambulatory peripheral neuropathy patients (PN) with eyes open and eyes closed, while they performed TW on industrial carpeting, in sock-covered feet. Each subject wore a torso-mounted inertial motion unit to measure kinematic data. PN subjects’ data were also compared to historical data on patients with vestibular impairments (VI). Results The normal and PN groups differed significantly on TW on the number of steps completed. PN and VI data also differed significantly on both visual conditions. Kinematic data showed that PN patients were more unstable than normals. For the number of steps taken during the eyes open condition receiver operating characteristic (ROC) values were only 0.81. For the number of steps taken during the eyes closed condition, however, ROC=0.88. Although not optimal, this ROC value is better. Sensitivity and specificity at a cut-off of 2 steps were 0.81 and 0.92, respectively, and at a cut-off of 3 steps was 0.86 and 0.75, respectively. ROC values for kinematic data were all < 0.8 and, when combined with the ROC value for the number of steps, the total ROC value did not improve appreciably. Conclusions Although not ideal for screening patients who may have peripheral neuropathy, counting the number of steps during TW is a quick and useful clinical test. TW is most sensitive to peripheral neuropathy patients when they are tested with eyes closed. PMID:24096950
Levade, T; Graber, D; Flurin, V; Delisle, M B; Pieraggi, M T; Testut, M F; Carrière, J P; Salvayre, R
Human beta-mannosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder described in only seven families. We present a further case in a black African 14-year-old boy with severely deficient beta-mannosidase activity, bilateral thenar and hypothenar amyotrophy, electrophysiologically demonstrable demyelinating peripheral neuropathy, and cytoplasmic vacuolation of skin fibroblasts and lymphoid cells. The clinical and biochemical features of our patient are compared to those of previously reported patients.
Kindstrand, E; Nilsson, B Y; Hovmark, A; Pirskanen, R; Asbrink, E
Forty-seven patients with the late borrelial manifestation acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA) and with objective neurological and/or neurophysiological findings were followed up after antibiotic treatment with dermatological, serological, neurological and neurophysiological controls. Despite a good therapeutic effect on ACA lesions, specific antibody values and symptoms of irritative nerve lesions, the objective neurological and neurophysiological findings of nerve deficit remained unchanged. There was no progress of neuropathy findings during the follow-up time. Our interpretation of the results is that the remaining neuropathy signs after treatment of ACA are neurological sequelae and not manifestations of persisting Borrelia infection.
Calcutt, Nigel A; Smith, Darrell R; Frizzi, Katie; Sabbir, Mohammad Golam; Chowdhury, Subir K Roy; Mixcoatl-Zecuatl, Teresa; Saleh, Ali; Muttalib, Nabeel; Van der Ploeg, Randy; Ochoa, Joseline; Gopaul, Allison; Tessler, Lori; Wess, Jürgen; Jolivalt, Corinne G; Fernyhough, Paul
Sensory neurons have the capacity to produce, release, and respond to acetylcholine (ACh), but the functional role of cholinergic systems in adult mammalian peripheral sensory nerves has not been established. Here, we have reported that neurite outgrowth from adult sensory neurons that were maintained under subsaturating neurotrophic factor conditions operates under cholinergic constraint that is mediated by muscarinic receptor-dependent regulation of mitochondrial function via AMPK. Sensory neurons from mice lacking the muscarinic ACh type 1 receptor (M1R) exhibited enhanced neurite outgrowth, confirming the role of M1R in tonic suppression of axonal plasticity. M1R-deficient mice made diabetic with streptozotocin were protected from physiological and structural indices of sensory neuropathy. Pharmacological blockade of M1R using specific or selective antagonists, pirenzepine, VU0255035, or muscarinic toxin 7 (MT7) activated AMPK and overcame diabetes-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro and in vivo. These antimuscarinic drugs prevented or reversed indices of peripheral neuropathy, such as depletion of sensory nerve terminals, thermal hypoalgesia, and nerve conduction slowing in diverse rodent models of diabetes. Pirenzepine and MT7 also prevented peripheral neuropathy induced by the chemotherapeutic agents dichloroacetate and paclitaxel or HIV envelope protein gp120. As a variety of antimuscarinic drugs are approved for clinical use against other conditions, prompt translation of this therapeutic approach to clinical trials is feasible.
Istenes, Ildikó; Nagy, Zsolt; Demeter, Judit
Longer remissions and better overall survival rates can be achieved with the introduction of new, effective treatments and targeted therapies in the past 1-2 decades, however, the incidence of side effects is also increasing parallelly. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common and potentially debilitating side effect due to peripheral somatic or autonomic nerve dysfunction. CIPN becomes increasingly important, as it affects patients' quality of life, and it is very often a dose limiting factor with the potential for reduced treatment efficacy. The pathomechanism, diagnosis, prevention and treatment possibilities are described in this review with special attention to the different groups of drugs.
Xianbin, Wang; Mingyu, Wang; Dong, Xu; Huiying, Li; Yan, Xu; Fengchun, Zhang; Xiaofeng, Zeng
Abstract This article aims to analyze the frequency and clinical characteristics of peripheral neuropathy (PN) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A total of 4924 SLE patients admitted to the Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China, from January 1995 to September 2013 were included in this retrospective analysis. The individuals designated as control patients were selected from the pool of SLE patients without PN using the systematic sampling method of 1:2 during the same time. The prevalence of SLE-associated PN (SLE-PN) in SLE patients was 1.5% (73/4924). Seventy-nine cases of PN affected 73 patients and 6 of these patients (8.2%) presented with 2 types of PN. Among the 7 types of PN, polyneuropathy was the most frequent and was diagnosed in 47 cases (59.5%); the remaining patients suffered from mononeuropathy (13.9%), cranial neuropathy (12.7%), myasthenia gravis (10.1%), autonomic neuropathy (2.5%), or acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (1.3%). Five patients developed PN before the onset of SLE (3 out of 5 patients had myasthenia gravis). The most common PN-related symptoms were myasthenia and numbness (50.6%), followed by pain in affected regions (35.9%). PN symptoms were relieved in a majority of the patients (76.7%) after treatment. Compared with non-SLE-PN patients, patients with SLE-PN had a higher frequency of fever (65.8% vs 45.9%, P < 0.01), mucocutaneous involvement (73.9% vs 36.3%, P < 0.01), arthritis (42.5% vs 28.1%, P < 0.05), myositis (17.8% vs 5.5%, P < 0.01), and central nervous system involvement (38.4% vs 21.9%, P < 0.05) as well as being positive for the anti-Sm antibody (31.4% vs 18.8%), immunoglobulin G (IgG) elevation (53.6% vs 37.1%, P < 0.01), and reduction in complement 3 (54.8% vs 36.9%, P < 0.05). A statistically significant difference was found between the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index scores in SLE-PN patients compared with the non
Liu, L Z; Wu, J Y; Wu, Z Y; Chen, Z H; Ling, L; Sun, B; Li, Y F; Huang, X S
To identify the sensitive scales and the early change of nerve conduction for chronic oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OXLIPN), and to investigate correlation between the symptoms of acute OXLIPN and chronic OXLIPN. Between December 2014 and August 2015, 16 colorectal cancer patients confirmed by pathology, from department of Oncology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, scheduled to receive XELOX, completed the acute neurotoxic symptoms questionnaire at the end of 1 cycles and the scales of TNSc and NCI-CTC at the baseline and the end of 4 cycles. Nerve conduction studies (bilateral peroneal nerves and sural nerves) were performed in 11 patients at the baseline and the end of 4 cycles. After chemotherapy, TNSc increased 1-9 points for all cases, while NCI-CTC increased 1 point for only 9 cases, the remaining 7 cases had the same NCI-CTC score before and after chemotherapy, where TNSc increased 1-6 points. Left sural nerve a-SNAP (amplitude of sensory nerve action potential) was (15.3±5.8)μV before chemotherapy and(12.3±5.0)μV after chemotherapy. Right sural nerve a-SNAP was (17.4±8.6)μV before chemotherapy and (13.3±6.7)μV after chemotherapy. After chemotherapy, these datum were significantly reduced for left peroneal nerve distal and proximal a-CMAP (amplitude of compound muscle action potential), bilateral sural nerve a-SNAP and left sural nerve SCV (sensory conduction velocity) (P<0.05). After chemotherapy, TNSc was correlated significantly with the acute neurotoxic symptoms questionnaire (Spearman r=0.698, P=0.003). TNSc is more sensitive to the severity and changes in chronic OXLIPN than NCI-CTC. Sural nerve a-SNAP has a higher sensitivity for the early changes of nerve conduction studies in chronic OXLIPN. Patients who have more symptoms of acute OXLIPN are those who eventually develop more severe chronic OXLIPN.
Improvement of therapeutic strategies for peripheral neuropathies requires multicentric clinical trials. For chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), a randomized controlled multicentric study compared IgIV to pulses of methylprednisolone (MP) given for 6 months. The primary endpoint was treatment discontinuation due to inefficacy or intolerance; 45 patients were enrolled: more patients had interrupted MP than IVIg, usually because of inefficacy. A multicentric randomized clinical trial (PREDICT) evaluated long-term remission of CIDP after short-term corticosteroid therapy (pulses of dexamethasone or prednisolone); 39 patients were enrolled: 26% achieved cure or remission, a relapse occurred in 50% after a delay of 11 to 17 months. Differential diagnosis was identified in 58% of patients who had not responded to any therapy. For refractory CIDP, a retrospective study showed the possibility of functional improvement in 24% of cases after adjunction of an immunomodulatory agent; cyclosporine was associated with the highest rate of adverse events or side effects. In familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy, a multicentric controlled study against placebo with tafamidis, an akinetic stabilizer of transthyretin (TTR) 20mg/d, in early stage of Val30MetTTR showed efficiency in the evaluable group and led to marketing authorization by the EMA in stage 1 to slow the progression of the neuropathy. A Cochrane database system review showed that there are no randomized or quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials of treatment for POEMS syndrome, for neuropathies with anti-MAG antibodies, or multifocal motor neuropathy on which to base practice. This review underlines the usefulness of multicentric randomized trials to assess treatments in peripheral neuropathies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Biasiotta, A; Casato, M; La Cesa, S; Colantuono, S; Di Stefano, G; Leone, C; Carlesimo, M; Piroso, S; Cruccu, G; Truini, A
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cryoglobulinemia commonly causes disabling complications including peripheral neuropathy and neuropathic pain. In this prospective clinical, neurophysiological, and skin biopsy study we aimed at assessing clinical characteristics and risk factors of peripheral neuropathy and neuropathic pain in patients with HCV-related cryoglobulinemia. We enrolled 69 consecutive patients with HCV-related cryoglobulinemia. We diagnosed neuropathic pain with the DN4 (Neuropathic Pain Diagnostic) questionnaire, and rated the various neuropathic pains with the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI). All patients underwent a standard nerve conduction study to assess Aβ-fiber function, laser-evoked potentials to assess Aδ-fiber function, and skin biopsy to assess C-fiber terminals. Of the 69 patients studied, 47 had a peripheral neuropathy, and 29 had neuropathic pain. Patients with peripheral neuropathy were older than those without (P < 0.0001). While peripheral neuropathy was significantly associated with the duration of HCV infection (P < 0.01), it was unrelated to the duration of cryoglobulinemia and cryocrit (P > 0.5). The severity of peripheral neuropathy significantly correlated with the duration of HCV infection (P < 0.05). Laser-evoked potential amplitudes were significantly lower in patients with than in those without neuropathic pain (P < 0.05). Conversely, no difference was found in nerve conduction study and skin biopsy findings (P > 0.05). Our findings show that peripheral neuropathy is related to age and HCV infection, rather than to cryoglobulinemia, and neuropathic pain is associated with damage to nociceptive pathways as assessed with laser-evoked potentials; this might be useful for designing more effective clinical interventions for these common HCV related-cryoglobulinemia complications.
Nihei, Satoru; Sato, Junya; Kashiwaba, Masahiro; Itabashi, Tetsuya; Kudo, Kenzo; Takahashi, Katsuo
This study included patients who were prescribed pregabalin, vitamin B12, amitriptyline, clonazepam, or carbamazepine to improve oxaliplatin(L-OHP)- or paclitaxel(PTX)-induced peripheral neuropathy at Iwate Medical University Hospital between April 2011 and July 2012. The efficacy and safety of pregabalin was evaluated by comparing 27 patients with L-OHP-induced peripheral neuropathy and 28 with PTX-induced peripheral neuropathy prescribed pregabalin(pregabalin group) with 20 patients with L-OHP-induced peripheral neuropathy and 25 with PTX-induced peripheral neuropathy prescribed other drugs(non-pregabalin group). Response was defined as a decrease in neuropathy of at least 1 grade from baseline. The response rates were 40.7% and 10.0% for L-OHP-induced peripheral neuropathy patients and 28.6% and 12.0% for PTX-induced peripheral neuropathy patients in the pregabalin and non-pregabalin groups, respectively. The severity of peripheral neuropathy before and after the administration of pregabalin differed significantly[L-OHP, 1.33±0.48(mean±SD) vs. 1.00±0.78 and PTX, 1.46±0.69 vs. 1.21±0.88]. In 28-37% of patients, pregabalin was associated with adverse events, with drowsiness and dizziness being frequently observed. In conclusion, pregabalin was efficacious in reducing the severity of L-OHP- and PTX-induced peripheral neuropathy.
Abuaisha, B B; Costanzi, J B; Boulton, A J
Forty-six diabetic patients with chronic painful peripheral neuropathy were treated with acupuncture analgesia to determine its efficacy and long-term effectiveness. Twenty-nine (63%) patients were already on standard medical treatment for painful neuropathy. Patients initially received up to six courses of classical acupuncture analgesia over a period of 10 weeks, using traditional Chinese Medicine acupuncture points. Forty-four patients completed the study with 34 (77%) showing significant improvement in their primary and/or secondary symptoms (P < 0.01). These patients were followed up for a period of 18-52 weeks with 67% were able to stop or reduce their medications significantly. During the follow-up period only eight (24%) patients required further acupuncture treatment. Although 34 (77%) patients noted significant improvement in their symptoms, only seven (21%) noted that their symptoms cleared completely. All the patients but one finished the full course of acupuncture treatment without reported or observed side effects. There were no significant changes either in the peripheral neurological examination scores, VPT or in HbA1c during the course of treatment. These data suggest that acupuncture is a safe and effective therapy for the long-term management of painful diabetic neuropathy, although its mechanism of action remains speculative.
Hopf, H C
Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans is a dermatological condition that takes a chronically progressive course and finally leads to a widespread atrophy of the skin. Involvement of the peripheral nervous system is frequently observed, predominantly a sensory polyneuropathy. General reactions, the effect of penicillin treatment, the histological findings, and reports concerning a communicable agent transmittable from human to human as well in tissue cultures point to an infectious disease. Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans follows a peculiar geographical distribution forming clusters of high prevalence in certain regions. Transmission by ticks is suggested. Images PMID:168318
Yian, Edward H; Dillon, Mark; Sodl, Jeff; Dionysian, Emil; Navarro, Ronald; Singh, Anshuman
The incidence of post-operative compressive peripheral neuropathy (CPN) after shoulder arthroplasty is not known. We hypothesized that the likelihood following shoulder arthroplasty would be higher compared to a non-operative cohort. Retrospective study compared the incidence of symptomatic CPN after shoulder replacement to a 1:1 age- and gender-matched non-operative control group with shoulder arthritis. Six hundred six consecutive shoulder replacements from a regional shoulder arthroplasty registry were analyzed. This included 319 primary total shoulder arthroplasties (TSR), 168 hemiarthroplasties (HA), 31 humeral resurfacings (HHR), 71 reverse arthroplasties (RTSA), and 17 revision arthroplasties. Diagnosis of post-operative CPN was obtained by documented clinical examination by a physician consistent with CPN based on patient complaints, positive nerve study results, and/or nerve decompression. Age, gender, body mass index, diabetes status, thyroid abnormalities, operative side, and anesthesiology (ASA) score were examined. The surgery group had 15 cases (2.5 %) of post-operative CPN (ten carpal tunnel syndrome, five cubital tunnel syndrome). This included seven TSR, six HA, one revision TSR, and one RTSA. Diagnoses included ten osteoarthritis, four rotator cuff arthropathies, and one chondrolysis. Control group had eight cases (1.3 %) of CPN (seven carpal tunnel syndrome, one cubital tunnel syndrome). In univariate analysis, age, gender, body mass index, ASA score, operative side, thyroid status, and diabetes were not predictors of post-operative CPN. CPN incidence between surgical and control groups was not statistically significant. The 1-year incidence rate of new onset clinical post-operative CPN symptoms was 2.5 %. There was no significant difference of CPN rates between surgical and non-operative groups.
Lebo, R.V.; Li, L.Y.; Flandermeyer, R.R.
Peripheral myelin protein (PMP-22) gene aneuploidy results in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Type 1A (CMT1A) and the Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy (HNPP) in Japanese patients as well as Caucasian Americans. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), the most common genetic neuropathy, results when expression of one of at least seven genes is defective. CMT1A, about half of all CMT mutations, is usually associated with a duplication spanning the peripheral myelin protein-22 gene on distal chromosome band 17p11.2. Autosomal dominant HNPP (hereditary pressure and sensory neuropathy, HPSN) results from a deletion of the CMT1A gene region. Multicolor in situ hybridization with PMP-22 gene region probe characterized HNPP deletion reliably and detected all different size duplications reported previously. In summary, 72% of 28 Japanese CMT1 (HMSNI) patients tested had the CMT1A duplication, while none of the CMT2 (HMSNII) or CMT3 (HMSNIII) patients had a duplication. Three cases of HNPP were identified by deletion of the CMT1A gene region on chromosome 17p. HNPP and CMT1A have been reported to result simultaneously from the same unequal recombination event. The lower frequency of HNPP compared to CMT1A suggests that HNPP patients have a lower reproductive fitness than CMT1A patients. This result, along with a CMT1A duplication found in an Asian Indian family, demonstrates the broad geographic distribution and high frequency of PMP-22 gene aneuploidy.
Palmer, Shannon J; Hong, Junggi
There has been rising interest in evaluating spinal reflex activity within the clinical population, however no study has yet investigated the reliability of presynaptic inhibition (PI) on patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Because neuropathy is closely related to central nervous system modification, it is important to understand the mechanism of spinal reflex activity in the DPN population. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the reliability of PI in patients with DPN. Eight participants (58.24 ± 6.38 yrs.) diagnosed with either type I or type II diabetes and peripheral neuropathy were recruited for the study. Each subject's H-reflex was measured using an EMG to elicit and record a series of 10 paired reflex depression trials. Reliability was measured by calculating Intra Class Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) with a 95% confidence interval. The results showed excellent reliability in both intraday (0.94) and interday (0.88) reliability. Therefore, analyzing PI in the central nervous system allows for an accurate evaluation of spinal cord circuitry in a non-invasive manner.
Li, Sheyu; Chen, Xiang; Li, Qianrui; Du, Juan; Liu, Zhimin; Peng, Yongde; Xu, Mian; Li, Qifu; Lei, Minxiang; Wang, Changjiang; Zheng, Shaoxiong; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Yu, Hongling; Shi, Jinyu; Tao, Shibing; Feng, Ping; Tian, Haoming
To assess the efficacy and safety of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) on diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with methylcobalamin (MC). This was a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, double-dummy, positive-controlled, non-inferior phase II clinical trial. Diabetic patients with abnormal nerve conduction test results were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive oral ALC 500 mg t.i.d. or MC 0.5 mg t.i.d. for 24 weeks. The neuropathy symptom score, neuropathy disability score and neurophysiological parameters were measured during follow up. A total of 232 patients were randomized (ALC n = 117, MC n = 115), 88% of which completed the trial. At week 24, patients from both groups had significant reductions in both neuropathy symptom score and neuropathy disability score with no significant difference between two groups (neuropathy symptom score reduction: ALC vs MC 2.35 ± 2.23, P < 0.0001 vs 2.11 ± 2.48, P < 0.0001, intergroup P = 0.38; neuropathy disability score reduction ALC vs MC 1.66 ± 1.90, P < 0.0001 vs 1.35 ± 1.65, P < 0.0001, intergroup P = 0.23). Neurophysiological parameters were also improved in both groups. No significant difference was found between groups in the development of adverse events. ALC is as effective as MC in improving clinical symptoms and neurophysiological parameters for patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy over a 24-week period with good tolerance. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Wang, Hongli; Fan, Dongsheng; Zhang, Yingshuang
Angiogenin is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Here, we quenced the coding region of the angiogenin gene in genomic DNA from 207 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (129 diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients and 78 diabetic non-neuropathy patients) and 268 healthy controls. All subjects were from the Han population of northern China. No mutations were found. We then compared the genotype and allele frequencies of the angiogenin synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism rs11701 between the diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients and controls, and between the diabetic neuropathy and non-neuropathy patients, using a case-control design. We detected no statistically significant genetic associations. Angiogenin may not be associated with genetic susceptibility to diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the Han population of northern China.
Callaghan, Brian C; Price, Raymond S; Chen, Kevin S; Feldman, Eva L
Peripheral neuropathy is a prevalent condition that usually warrants a thorough history and examination but has limited diagnostic evaluation. However, rare localizations of peripheral neuropathy often require more extensive diagnostic testing and different treatments. To describe rare localizations of peripheral neuropathy, including the appropriate diagnostic evaluation and available treatments. References were identified from PubMed searches conducted on May 29, 2015, with an emphasis on systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials. Articles were also identified through the use of the authors' own files. Search terms included common rare neuropathy localizations and their causes, as well as epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Diffuse, nonlength-dependent neuropathies, multiple mononeuropathies, polyradiculopathies, plexopathies, and radiculoplexus neuropathies are rare peripheral neuropathy localizations that often require extensive diagnostic testing. Atypical neuropathy features, such as acute/subacute onset, asymmetry, and/or motor predominant signs, are frequently present. The most common diffuse, nonlength-dependent neuropathies are Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Effective disease-modifying therapies exist for many diffuse, nonlength-dependent neuropathies including Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, and some paraprotein-associated demyelinating neuropathies. Vasculitic neuropathy (multiple mononeuropathy) also has efficacious treatment options, but definitive evidence of a treatment effect for IgM anti-MAG neuropathy and diabetic amyotrophy (radiculoplexus neuropathy) is lacking. Recognition of rare localizations of peripheral neuropathy is essential given the implications for diagnostic testing and treatment. Electrodiagnostic studies are an important
Krukowski, Karen; Ma, Jiacheng; Golonzhka, Olga; Laumet, Geoffroy O; Gutti, Tanuja; van Duzer, John H; Mazitschek, Ralph; Jarpe, Matthew B; Heijnen, Cobi J; Kavelaars, Annemieke
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common doselimiting side-effects of cancer treatment. Currently, there is no FDA-approved treatment available. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a microtubule-associated deacetylase whose function includes regulation of á-tubulin-dependent intracellular mitochondrial transport. Here we examined the effect of HDAC6 inhibition on established cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. We used a novel HDAC6 inhibitor ACY-1083, which shows 260-fold selectivity towards HDAC6 versus other HDACs. Our results show that HDAC6 inhibition prevented cisplatin-induced mechanical allodynia, and also completely reversed already existing cisplatin-induced mechanical allodynia, spontaneous pain, and numbness. These findings were confirmed using the established HDAC6 inhibitor ACY-1215 (Ricolinostat), which is currently in clinical trials for cancer treatment. Mechanistically, treatment with the HDAC6 inhibitor increased á-tubulin acetylation in the peripheral nerve. In addition, HDAC6 inhibition restored the cisplatin-induced reduction in mitochondrial bioenergetics and mitochondrial content in the tibial nerve, indicating increased mitochondrial transport. At a later time point, dorsal root ganglion mitochondrial bioenergetics also improved. HDAC6 inhibition restored the loss of intra-epidermal nerve fiber density in cisplatin-treated mice. Our results demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of HDAC6 completely reverses all the hallmarks of established cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy by normalization of mitochondrial function in DRG and nerve, and restoration of intra-epidermal innervation. These results are especially promising because one of the HDAC6 inhibitors tested here is currently in clinical trials as an add-on cancer therapy, highlighting the potential for a fast clinical translation of our findings.
Nagashima, Satoshi; Kiba, Takayoshi; Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Mura, Takuya; Kajiume, Sayoko; Okada, Yuuko; Morii, Nao; Takahashi, Hirotoshi; Ichiba, Yasunori; Yamashiro, Hiroyasu
Here, we report about a 60-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer who was successfully treated for paclitaxelinduced peripheral neuropathy with duloxetine. She was administered trastuzumab plus paclitaxel(PTX)combination therapy that was ultimately discontinued because of grade 3 peripheral neuropathy detected on day 15, according to the CTCAE (v4.0). She was administered duloxetine on day 90 after the end of the previous therapy because of the peripheral neuropathy. Thereafter, the peripheral neuropathy decreased to grade 1, which enabled PTX administration on her request. Further trials are required to confirm the efficacy of duloxetine.
Herrmann, David N
Peripheral neuropathies are diverse and require a multidimensional approach for detection and monitoring in a clinical and research setting. This review describes non- and minimally-invasive measures of distal predominantly sensory polyneuropathy (DSP), the most common form of neuropathy. A combination of clinical and electrophysiologic assessment with nerve-conduction studies (NCSs) suffices for the detection and characterization of most DSPs. NCS are insensitive to variants of DSP that predominantly affect small diameter sensory nerve fibers (SFNs) and cutaneous nerve terminals that subserve pain and thermal sensation. Skin biopsy with assessment of epidermal nerve fiber density permits objective detection and monitoring of SFNs. Conventional clinical and NCS measures have limitations as outcomes in experimental therapeutics in DSP. For clinical trials, biopsy evaluation of epidermal innervation and emerging noninvasive imaging approaches (in vivo confocal microscopy of corneal innervation and of Meissner corpuscles in the skin) hold promise as surrogate markers that are complementary to traditional DSP measures.
Kim, Young Ae; Kim, Eun Su; Hwang, Ho Kyeong; Lee, Kyung Bok; Lee, Sol; Jung, Ji Woong; Kwon, Yu Jin; Cho, Dong Hui; Park, Sang Su; Yoon, Jin; Jang, Yong-Seog
Purpose: Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is known as a major contributor of the worsening of ischemic symptoms and the foot ulceration in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). However, there are few studies reporting the prevalence and risk factors for PN in PAOD. This study aimed to evaluate these issues for PN and to establish the importance of screening as additional treatment target for PN in PAOD. Materials and Methods: A total of 52 limbs with PAOD were enrolled from January 2011 to December 2012. PN was divided into radiculopathy, ischemic PN (IPN), and diabetic PN (DPN), based on electromyographic findings. We investigated the prevalence of overall PN and subtypes of PN and then analyzed the risk factors. Results: The prevalence of overall PN in PAOD was 43 of 52 limbs (82.7%). In terms of subtypes of PN, the prevalence rate of radiculopathy and IPN was 30.8% and 23.1%, respectively. DPN showed in 22 limbs (73.3%) among 30 diabetic limbs. There was no significant correlation between each type of PN and ischemic symptoms. Our analysis showed that coronary artery disease (CAD) was a significant risk factor (P=0.01) for IPN, however, did not identify any significant risk factors for DPN. Conclusion: This present study indicated that most patients with PAOD had PN and CAD was a risk factor for IPN. In particular, PAOD with diabetes represented a higher prevalence for DPN. Our study suggests that PN should be evaluated and considered as another treatment target in patients with PAOD. PMID:26217631
Mellion, Michelle L.; Silbermann, Elizabeth; Gilchrist, James M.; Machan, Jason T.; Leggio, Lorenzo; de la Monte, Suzanne
Background Alcohol-related peripheral neuropathy (ALN) is generally characterized as an axonal large-fiber polyneuropathy caused by thiamine deficiency. We hypothesized, based on clinical observations, that ALN is associated with a small-fiber polyneuropathy that can be diagnosed with skin biopsy in heavy alcohol drinking subjects with normal thiamine status. Methods Eighteen individuals (9 heavy alcohol drinking subjects and 9 healthy control subjects) were assessed for the potential utility of skin biopsies in detecting ALN-associated small nerve fiber degeneration. Heavy drinking was defined as greater than 4 drinks/d and 5 drinks/d in women and men, respectively, as determined by the Timeline Follow-Back and lifetime drinking history. All subjects underwent neurological examination, nerve conduction studies, and skin biopsies to quantify end nerve fiber densities (ENFD). Other causes of neuropathy were excluded and thiamine status was assessed. Results Average ENFD were significantly decreased at the calf in the alcohol group as compared with control group (p < 0.0001). Histological sections demonstrated striking attrition and architectural simplification of intraepidermal nerve fibers in the heavy alcohol drinking subjects. There were no significant intergroup differences with respect to clinical assessments of neuropathy or thiamine status. Conclusions ALN is associated with a small-fiber neuropathy that can be detected with skin biopsy in heavy alcohol drinking individuals with normal thiamine status. Skin biopsy is a useful, minimally invasive biomarker that could extend studies to understand the effect of alcohol on the peripheral nerves and to evaluate potential therapeutic agents in larger clinical trials. PMID:24961481
Chiles, Nancy S; Phillips, Caroline L; Volpato, Stefano; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Patel, Kushang V
Diabetes among older adults causes many complications, including decreased lower-extremity function and physical disability. Diabetes can cause peripheral nerve dysfunction, which might be one pathway through which diabetes leads to decreased physical function. The study aims were to determine the following: (1) whether diabetes and impaired fasting glucose are associated with objective measures of physical function in older adults, (2) which peripheral nerve function (PNF) tests are associated with diabetes, and (3) whether PNF mediates the diabetes-physical function relationship. This study included 983 participants, age 65 years and older from the InCHIANTI study. Diabetes was diagnosed by clinical guidelines. Physical performance was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), scored from 0 to 12 (higher values, better physical function) and usual walking speed (m/s). PNF was assessed via standard surface electroneurographic study of right peroneal nerve conduction velocity, vibration and touch sensitivity. Clinical cutpoints of PNF tests were used to create a neuropathy score from 0 to 5 (higher values, greater neuropathy). Multiple linear regression models were used to test associations. One hundred twenty-six (12.8%) participants had diabetes. Adjusting for age, sex, education, and other confounders, diabetic participants had decreased SPPB (β=-0.99; p<0.01), decreased walking speed (β=-0.1m/s; p<0.01), decreased nerve conduction velocity (β=-1.7m/s; p<0.01), and increased neuropathy (β=0.25; p<0.01) compared to non-diabetic participants. Adjusting for nerve conduction velocity and neuropathy score decreased the effect of diabetes on SPPB by 20%, suggesting partial mediation through decreased PNF. © 2014.
Kim, Sok Ho; Kwon, Jung Kee; Kwon, Young Bae
Pain symptoms are a common complication of diabetic peripheral neuropathy or an inflammatory condition. In the most experiments, only one or two evident pain modalities are observed at diabetic peripheral neuropathy according to experimental conditions. Following diabetic peripheral neuropathy or inflammation, spinal glial activation may be considered as an important mediator in the development of pain. For this reason, the present study was aimed to address the induction of pain modalities and spinal glial expression after streptozotocin injection as compared with that of zymosan inflammation in the rat. Evaluation of pain behavior by either thermal or mechanical stimuli was performed at 3 weeks or 5 hours after either intravenous streptozotocin or zymosan. Degrees of pain were divided into 4 groups: severe, moderate, mild, and non-pain induction. On the mechanical allodynia test, zymosan evoked predominantly a severe type of pain, whereas streptozotocin induced a weak degree of pain (severe+moderate: 57.1%). Although zymosan did not evoke cold allodynia, streptozotocin evoked stronger pain behavior, compared with zymosan (severe+moderate: 50.0%). On the other hand, the high incidence of thermal hyperalgesia (severe+moderate: 90.0%) and mechanical hyperalgesia (severe+moderate: 85.7%) by streptozotocin was observed, as similar to that of zymosan. In the spinal cord, the increase of microglia and astrocyte was evident by streptozotocin, only microglia was activated by zymosan. Therefore, it is recommended that the selection of mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia is suitable for the evaluation of streptozotocin induced diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Moreover, spinal glial activation may be considered an important factor.
Shin, Susan C.; Robinson-Papp, Jessica
Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of many of the systemic amyloidoses. Although the cause of neuropathy is not entirely clear, it is likely related to amyloid deposition within the nerve. This may lead to focal, multifocal, or diffuse neuropathies involving sensory, motor and/or autonomic fibers. The presenting symptoms depend on the distribution of nerves affected. One of the most common phenotypes is sensorimotor polyneuropathy, which is characterized by symptoms of neuropathic pain, numbness, and in advanced cases weakness. Symptoms begin in the feet and ultimately progress to the proximal legs and hands. The most common focal neuropathy is a median neuropathy at the wrist, or clinically known as carpal tunnel syndrome. Carpal tunnel symptoms may include pain and sensory disturbances in the lateral palm and fingers; hand weakness may ensue if the focal neuropathy is severe. Autonomic neuropathy may affect a variety of organ systems such as the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary systems. Symptoms may be non-specific making the diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy more difficult to identify. However, it is important to recognize and distinguish autonomic neuropathy from diseases of the end-organs themselves. This chapter reviews the inherited and acquired amyloidoses that affect the peripheral nervous system including familial amyloid polyneuropathy, and primary, secondary and senile amyloidosis. We emphasize the clinical presentation of the neurologic aspects of these diseases, physical examination findings, appropriate diagnostic evaluation, treatment and prognosis. PMID:23239211
Shin, Susan C; Robinson-Papp, Jessica
Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of many of the systemic amyloidoses. Although the cause of neuropathy is not entirely clear, it is likely related to amyloid deposition within the nerve. This may lead to focal, multifocal, or diffuse neuropathies involving sensory, motor and/or autonomic fibers. The presenting symptoms depend on the distribution of nerves affected. One of the most common phenotypes is sensorimotor polyneuropathy, which is characterized by symptoms of neuropathic pain, numbness, and in advanced cases weakness. Symptoms begin in the feet and ultimately progress to the proximal legs and hands. The most common focal neuropathy is a median neuropathy at the wrist, clinically known as carpal tunnel syndrome. Carpal tunnel symptoms may include pain and sensory disturbances in the lateral palm and fingers; hand weakness may ensue if the focal neuropathy is severe. Autonomic neuropathy may affect a variety of organ systems such as the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary systems. Symptoms may be non-specific making the diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy more difficult to identify. However, it is important to recognize and distinguish autonomic neuropathy from diseases of the end-organs themselves. This article reviews the inherited and acquired amyloidoses that affect the peripheral nervous system including familial amyloid polyneuropathy, and primary, secondary and senile amyloidosis. We emphasize the clinical presentation of the neurologic aspects of these diseases, physical examination findings, appropriate diagnostic evaluation, treatment and prognosis. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.
Toumi, S; Hammouda, M; Essid, A; Medimagh, L; Slamia, L Ben; Laouani-Kechrid, C
Metronidazole is a widely prescribed treatment for amoebic and anaerobic germ infections. Its neurologic toxicity is rare but can be serious. We report the case of a 27-year-old male patient, treated with metronidazole for a cerebral abscess. He presented with a cerebellar syndrome and peripheral neuropathy at a cumulative metronidazole dose of 60g. The MRI aspect of the cerebellar lesions in addition to their reversibility after treatment cessation led to the diagnosis of metronidazole induced neurologic toxicity. The occurrence of neurologic disorders in patients treated with metronidazole must suggest drug toxicity and lead to cessation of treatment.
Benstead, Tim J; Chalk, Colin H; Parks, Natalie E
disability scale), electrodiagnostic measures, number of participants with improved symptoms of neuropathy (global impression of change), and severe adverse events. Four trials of HCV-related cryoglobulinemia fulfiled selection criteria and the review authors included three in quantitative synthesis. All studies were at high risk of bias. No trial addressed the primary outcome of change in sensory impairment. No trial addressed secondary outcomes of change in combined sensory and motor impairment, disability, or electrodiagnostic measures. A single trial of HCV-related mixed cryoglobulinemia treated with pegylated interferon alfa (peginterferon alfa), ribavirin, and rituximab versus peginterferon alfa and ribavirin did not show a significant difference in the number of participants with improvement in neuropathy at 36 months post treatment (risk ratio (RR) 4.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27 to 59.31, n = 9). One study of interferon alfa (n = 22) and two studies of rituximab (n = 61) provided adverse event data. Severe adverse events were no more common with interferon alfa (RR 7.00, 95% CI 0.38 to 128.02) or rituximab (RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.13 to 67.06) compared to the control group. There is a lack of RCTs and quasi-RCTs addressing the effects of interventions for peripheral neuropathy associated with HCV infection. At present, there is insufficient evidence from RCTs and quasi-RCTs to make evidence-based decisions about treatment.
Kuo, Hung-Chou; Chu, Chun-Che; Jung, Shih-Ming; Huang, Chin-Chang
We report an unusual clinical course of peripheral neuropathy in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Clinically, a progressive course of focal amyotrophy had been noted since childhood, followed by bilateral vestibular and intraspinal schwannomas at the fourth decade, and then chronic asymmetric polyneuropathy after menopause. Electrophysiological studies revealed a predominantly axonal type of peripheral neuropathy. A sural nerve biopsy showed an abundant proliferation of Schwann cells and a reduction of the large myelinated fibers. A review of the literature showed that peripheral neuropathy might present with focal amyotrophy, mononeuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex, or symmetric or asymmetric polyneuropathy in patients with NF2. The etiologies of peripheral neuropathy in patients with NF2 include an abnormal proliferation of Schwann cells and tumorlet compression of the peripheral nerves. From our study, we conclude that an abundant proliferation of Schwann cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathy in patients with NF2.
Truman, Richard W; Ebenezer, Gigi J; Pena, Maria T; Sharma, Rahul; Balamayooran, Gayathriy; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Scollard, David M; McArthur, Justin C; Rambukkana, Anura
Leprosy (also known as Hansen's Disease) is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that primarily targets the peripheral nervous system; skin, muscle, and other tissues are also affected. Other than humans, nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are the only natural hosts of M. leprae, and they are the only laboratory animals that develop extensive neurological involvement with this bacterium. Infection in the armadillo closely recapitulates many of the structural, physiological, and functional aspects of leprosy seen in humans. Armadillos can be useful models of leprosy for basic scientific investigations into the pathogenesis of leprosy neuropathy and its associated myopathies, as well as for translational research studies in piloting new diagnostic methods or therapeutic interventions. Practical and ethical constraints often limit investigation into human neuropathies, but armadillos are an abundant source of leprotic neurologic fibers. Studies with these animals may provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in leprosy that also might benefit the understanding of other demyelinating neuropathies. Although there is only a limited supply of armadillo-specific reagents, the armadillo whole genomic sequence has been completed, and gene expression studies can be employed. Clinical procedures, such as electrophysiological nerve conduction testing, provide a functional assessment of armadillo nerves. A variety of standard histopathological and immunopathological procedures including Epidermal Nerve Fiber Density (ENFD) analysis, Schwann Cell Density, and analysis for other conserved cellular markers can be used effectively with armadillos and will be briefly reviewed in this text.
Truman, Richard W.; Ebenezer, Gigi J.; Pena, Maria T.; Sharma, Rahul; Balamayooran, Gayathriy; Gillingwater, Thomas H.; Scollard, David M.; McArthur, Justin C.; Rambukkana, Anura
Leprosy (also known as Hansen's Disease) is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that primarily targets the peripheral nervous system; skin, muscle, and other tissues are also affected. Other than humans, nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are the only natural hosts of M. leprae, and they are the only laboratory animals that develop extensive neurological involvement with this bacterium. Infection in the armadillo closely recapitulates many of the structural, physiological, and functional aspects of leprosy seen in humans. Armadillos can be useful models of leprosy for basic scientific investigations into the pathogenesis of leprosy neuropathy and its associated myopathies, as well as for translational research studies in piloting new diagnostic methods or therapeutic interventions. Practical and ethical constraints often limit investigation into human neuropathies, but armadillos are an abundant source of leprotic neurologic fibers. Studies with these animals may provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in leprosy that also might benefit the understanding of other demyelinating neuropathies. Although there is only a limited supply of armadillo-specific reagents, the armadillo whole genomic sequence has been completed, and gene expression studies can be employed. Clinical procedures, such as electrophysiological nerve conduction testing, provide a functional assessment of armadillo nerves. A variety of standard histopathological and immunopathological procedures including Epidermal Nerve Fiber Density (ENFD) analysis, Schwann Cell Density, and analysis for other conserved cellular markers can be used effectively with armadillos and will be briefly reviewed in this text. PMID:24615444
Kavcic, Marko; Koritnik, Blaz; Krzan, Matevz; Velikonja, Orjana; Prelog, Tomaz; Stefanovic, Milica; Debeljak, Maruša; Jazbec, Janez
Patients treated with vincristine predictably develop peripheral neuropathy. The aim of our study was to investigate the pattern of vincristine-induced neuropathy in children by nerve conduction studies and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEPs). We included data from 39 children who received vincristine for various pediatric malignancies, and we performed initial and follow-up (after a minimum of 4 doses of vincristine 1.5 mg/m) conduction studies in 27 patients and SSEPs studies in 34 patients. On follow-up the most prevalent symptoms were paresthesias (44%) and constipation (22%), and the most common neurological sign was impaired myotatic reflexes (89%). Performing nerve conduction studies we found that significant reductions were measured for distal amplitudes, distal latencies were prolonged, and conduction velocities were relatively preserved. The most pronounced differences in amplitudes and distal latencies were measured in the peroneal nerves. Changes of SSEPs studies were subtle. Vincristine-induced neuropathy presents with primary axonal involvement and is more pronounced on motor neurons. We found a trend between higher age and higher dose and the degree of neuropathy in our group of patients.
Coriat, Romain; Alexandre, Jérôme; Nicco, Carole; Quinquis, Laurent; Benoit, Evelyne; Chéreau, Christiane; Lemaréchal, Hervé; Mir, Olivier; Borderie, Didier; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Weill, Bernard; Coste, Joel; Goldwasser, François; Batteux, Frédéric
Background. The majority of patients receiving the platinum-based chemotherapy drug oxaliplatin develop peripheral neurotoxicity. Because this neurotoxicity involves ROS production, we investigated the efficacy of mangafodipir, a molecule that has antioxidant properties and is approved for use as an MRI contrast enhancer. Methods. The effects of mangafodipir were examined in mice following treatment with oxaliplatin. Neurotoxicity, axon myelination, and advanced oxidized protein products (AOPPs) were monitored. In addition, we enrolled 23 cancer patients with grade ≥2 oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy in a phase II study, with 22 patients receiving i.v. mangafodipir following oxaliplatin. Neuropathic effects were monitored for up to 8 cycles of oxaliplatin and mangafodipir. Results. Mangafodipir prevented motor and sensory dysfunction and demyelinating lesion formation. In mice, serum AOPPs decreased after 4 weeks of mangafodipir treatment. In 77% of patients treated with oxaliplatin and mangafodipir, neuropathy improved or stabilized after 4 cycles. After 8 cycles, neurotoxicity was downgraded to grade ≥2 in 6 of 7 patients. Prior to enrollment, patients received an average of 880 ± 239 mg/m2 oxaliplatin. Patients treated with mangafodipir tolerated an additional dose of 458 ± 207 mg/m2 oxaliplatin despite preexisting neuropathy. Mangafodipir responders managed a cumulative dose of 1,426 ± 204 mg/m2 oxaliplatin. Serum AOPPs were lower in responders compared with those in nonresponders. Conclusion. Our study suggests that mangafodipir can prevent and/or relieve oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy in cancer patients. Trial registration. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00727922. Funding. Université Paris Descartes, Ministère de la Recherche et de l’Enseignement Supérieur, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris. PMID:24355920
Premkumar, Louis S; Pabbidi, Reddy M
The prevalence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportions. There are two forms of diabetes: type 1 diabetes mellitus is due to auto-immune-mediated destruction of pancreatic β-cells resulting in absolute insulin deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus is due to reduced insulin secretion and or insulin resistance. Both forms of diabetes are characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, leading to the development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and microvascular pathology. DPN is characterized by enhanced or reduced thermal, chemical, and mechanical pain sensitivities. In the long-term, DPN results in peripheral nerve damage and accounts for a substantial number of non-traumatic lower-limb amputations. This review will address the mechanisms, especially the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the development and progression of DPN.
Kim, Peggy Y; Johnson, Carrie E
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common, frequently chronic condition characterized by pain and decreased function. Given the growing number of cancer survivors and an increasing recognition of opioid therapy limitations, there is a need for critical analysis of the literature in directing an informed and thoughtful approach for the management of painful CIPN. A PubMed search for 'chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy AND pain' identifies 259 publications between 1 January 2016 and 31 March 2017. Based on review of this literature, we aim to present a clinically relevant update of painful CIPN. Notably, the use of duloxetine as a first-line agent in treatment of CIPN is confirmed. Moreover, clinical trials focus on nonpharmacologic strategies for managing painful CIPN. Despite the volume of recent publications, there are limited preventive or therapeutic strategies for CIPN supported by high-level evidence. Duloxetine remains the only pharmacologic agent with demonstrated benefit; its clinical use should be routinely considered. Moving forward, nonopioid analgesic therapies will likely play an increasing role in CIPN treatment, but further research is necessary to confirm their utility. Promising therapies include vitamin B12 supplementation, physical therapy, and various forms of neuromodulation.
Mensa, Mussa; Cubitt, Jonathan James; Javed, Muhammad; Bragg, Thomas
All animal bites have the potential to cause significant infection. In the UK, dogs are the most common source of bites. Incidence of hospital attendances attributable to dog bites has risen over the last decade. Patient groups at particular risk of bites and/or complications of infection include those at extremes of age, immunosuppressed and patients with diabetes. We report the case of a patient with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, who was admitted on two separate occasions with unprovoked bites to his toes whilst asleep, by his pet dog. He ultimately required terminalisation of the affected digits. Although unusual, this mechanism of injury has been previously described in literature. However, we are unaware of cases reporting multiple separate incidences involving the same patient and animal. We present this case to highlight the perils of untrained pet ownership in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy and the importance of prompt medical and surgical treatment of injuries. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Haidar, Mansour; Timmerman, Vincent
The inherited peripheral neuropathies (IPNs) comprise a growing list of genetically heterogeneous diseases. With mutations in more than 80 genes being reported to cause IPNs, a wide spectrum of functional consequences is expected to follow this genotypic diversity. Hence, the search for a common pathomechanism among the different phenotypes has become the holy grail of functional research into IPNs. During the last decade, studies on several affected genes have shown a direct and/or indirect correlation with autophagy. Autophagy, a cellular homeostatic process, is required for the removal of cell aggregates, long-lived proteins and dead organelles from the cell in double-membraned vesicles destined for the lysosomes. As an evolutionarily highly conserved process, autophagy is essential for the survival and proper functioning of the cell. Recently, neuronal cells have been shown to be particularly vulnerable to disruption of the autophagic pathway. Furthermore, autophagy has been shown to be affected in various common neurodegenerative diseases of both the central and the peripheral nervous system including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases. In this review we provide an overview of the genes involved in hereditary neuropathies which are linked to autophagy and we propose the disruption of the autophagic flux as an emerging common pathomechanism. We also shed light on the different steps of the autophagy pathway linked to these genes. Finally, we review the concept of autophagy being a therapeutic target in IPNs, and the possibilities and challenges of this pathway-specific targeting. PMID:28553203
Haidar, Mansour; Timmerman, Vincent
The inherited peripheral neuropathies (IPNs) comprise a growing list of genetically heterogeneous diseases. With mutations in more than 80 genes being reported to cause IPNs, a wide spectrum of functional consequences is expected to follow this genotypic diversity. Hence, the search for a common pathomechanism among the different phenotypes has become the holy grail of functional research into IPNs. During the last decade, studies on several affected genes have shown a direct and/or indirect correlation with autophagy. Autophagy, a cellular homeostatic process, is required for the removal of cell aggregates, long-lived proteins and dead organelles from the cell in double-membraned vesicles destined for the lysosomes. As an evolutionarily highly conserved process, autophagy is essential for the survival and proper functioning of the cell. Recently, neuronal cells have been shown to be particularly vulnerable to disruption of the autophagic pathway. Furthermore, autophagy has been shown to be affected in various common neurodegenerative diseases of both the central and the peripheral nervous system including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. In this review we provide an overview of the genes involved in hereditary neuropathies which are linked to autophagy and we propose the disruption of the autophagic flux as an emerging common pathomechanism. We also shed light on the different steps of the autophagy pathway linked to these genes. Finally, we review the concept of autophagy being a therapeutic target in IPNs, and the possibilities and challenges of this pathway-specific targeting.
Mold, James W; Vesely, Sara K; Keyl, Barbara A; Schenk, Joan B; Roberts, Michelle
The prevalence, predictors, and consequences of peripheral neuropathy in the elderly have not been well defined. Seven hundred ninety-five noninstitutionalized patients 65 years of age and older, recruited from the practices of family physicians, completed questionnaires and underwent peripheral neurologic examinations and tests of gait and balance. Variables included sociodemographic information, medical conditions, symptoms (numbness, pain, trouble with balance or walking, and restless legs), quality of life measures, ankle reflexes, position sense, vibratory sense, fine touch sensation, Tinnetti balance examination, and a 50-foot timed walk. The prevalence of at least one bilateral sensory deficit rose from 26% for 65- to 74-year-olds to 54% for those 85 and older. The most common deficit was loss of ankle reflex followed by loss of fine touch. Only 40% of those with bilateral deficits reported having a disease known to cause peripheral neuropathy. Predictors of bilateral deficits included increasing age, income less than 15,000 dollars, a history of military service, increasing body mass index, self-reported history of diabetes mellitus, Vitamin B12 deficiency or rheumatoid arthritis, and absence of a history of hypertension. Deficits were associated with numbness, pain, restless legs, trouble walking, trouble with balance, and reduced quality of life. Peripheral sensory deficits are common in the elderly. In most cases, a medical cause is not obvious. Their consequences may not be as benign as often supposed.
Carvalho, Larissa F; Silva, Ana Maria F; Carvalho, Adriana A
Antineoplastic drugs such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin, paclitaxel and vincristin are widely used in the treatment of several solid and blood tumours. However, the severity of peripheral neuropathy caused by these agents can affect the patient's quality of life. The major symptoms of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) involve: sensory loss, paresthesia, dysesthaesia, numbness, tingling, temperature sensitivity, allodynia and hyperalgesia, in a "stocking and glove" distribution. Why many different chemotherapeutic agents result in similar neuropathy profiles is unclear. Many drug classes such as antidepressants, anticonvulsants, antispastic agents and others have been used in clinical practice, but there is no scientific evidence to prove their effectiveness. But drugs as the antioxidant have shown a protective effect against free radical damage. In order to find out a successful treatment for CIPN, animal studies (ie pharmacological and mechanical tests and histopathological immunohistochemical analyses) have been developed to try to determinate the action of the antioxidant agents. This review provides an overview of the major antioxidant agents recently investigated to treat CIPN and the animal models used for this purpose. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Yamamoto, Shota; Kawashiri, Takehiro; Higuchi, Hitomi; Tsutsumi, Kuniaki; Ushio, Soichiro; Kaname, Takanori; Shirahama, Masafumi; Egashira, Nobuaki
Bortezomib, an effective anticancer drug for multiple myeloma, often causes peripheral neuropathy which is mainly characterized by numbness and painful paresthesia. Nevertheless, there is no effective strategy to escape or treat bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy (BIPN), because we have understood few mechanism of this side effect. In this study, we evaluated behavioral and pathological characteristics of BIPN, and investigated pharmacological efficacy of various analgesic drugs and adjuvants on mechanical allodynia induced by bortezomib treatment in rats. The repeated administration of bortezomib induced mechanical and cold allodynia. There was axonal degeneration of sciatic nerve behind these neuropathic symptoms. Furthermore, the exposure to bortezomib shortened neurite length in PC12 cells. Finally, the result of evaluation of anti-allodynic potency, oral administration of tramadol (10 mg/kg), pregabalin (3 mg/kg), duloxetine (30 mg/kg) or mexiletine (100 mg/kg), but not amitriptyline or diclofenac, transiently relieved the mechanical allodynia induced by bortezomib. These results suggest that axonal degeneration of the sciatic nerve is involved in BIPN and that some analgesic drugs and adjuvants are effective in the relief of painful neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Diabetes mellitus is the commonest cause of an autonomic neuropathy in the developed world. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy causes a constellation of symptoms and signs affecting cardiovascular, urogenital, gastrointestinal, pupillomotor, thermoregulatory, and sudomotor systems. Several discrete syndromes associated with diabetes cause autonomic dysfunction. The most prevalent of these are: generalized diabetic autonomic neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy associated with the prediabetic state, treatment-induced painful and autonomic neuropathy, and transient hypoglycemia-associated autonomic neuropathy. These autonomic manifestations of diabetes are responsible for the most troublesome and disabling features of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and result in a significant proportion of the mortality and morbidity associated with the disease.
Turkiew, Elliot; Falconer, Debbie; Reed, Nicole; Höke, Ahmet
Distal axon degeneration seen in many peripheral neuropathies is likely to share common molecular mechanisms with Wallerian degeneration. Although several studies in mouse models of peripheral neuropathy showed prevention of axon degeneration in the slow Wallerian degeneration (Wlds) mouse, the role of a recently identified player in Wallerian degeneration, Sarm1, has not been explored extensively. In this study, we show that mice lacking the Sarm1 gene are resistant to distal axonal degeneration in a model of chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy caused by paclitaxel and a model of high fat diet induced putative metabolic neuropathy. This study extends the role of Sarm1 to axon degeneration seen in peripheral neuropathies and identifies it as a likely target for therapeutic development. © 2017 Peripheral Nerve Society.
Zhang, Jing-bo; Zhang, Qiao-yun; Wang, Yong; Sun, Dao-yuan
To study the nerve electromyogram results by analysing the pathological characters of 4 cases diagnosed as peripheral neuropathy caused by n-hexane and arsenic. The nerve electromyogram examination and pathology data of 4 patients, who had been diagnosed as toxic chemicals peripheral neuropathy, were studied retrospectively. Two patients in this group were exposed to n-hexane, their nerve electromyogram examinations and biopsy pathology of superficial peroneal nerve indicated the peripheral neuropathy was mainly manifests the lesion of medullary sheath. Another two patients were exposed to arsenic, their nerve electromyogram examinations showed axonal degeneration associated with demyelination, and their biopsy pathology showed the peripheral neuropathy was mainly axonal degeneration. Axonal degeneration and demyelination always coexist in peripheral neuropathy caused by chemicals.
Griffith, Kathleen A; Zhu, Shijun; Johantgen, Meg; Kessler, Michael D; Renn, Cynthia; Beutler, Andreas S; Kanwar, Rahul; Ambulos, Nicholas; Cavaletti, Guido; Bruna, Jordi; Briani, Chiara; Argyriou, Andreas A; Kalofonos, Haralabos P; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Dorsey, Susan G
Oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OIPN) is a dose limiting toxicity of oxaliplatin and affects most colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. OIPN is commonly evaluated by patient symptom report, using scales to reflect impairment. They do not discriminate between unique grouping of symptoms and signs, which impedes prompt identification of OIPN. Our study objective was to identify clusters of symptoms and signs that differentiated underlying clinical severity and segregated patients within our population into OIPN subgroups. Chemotherapy naïve CRC patients (N=148) receiving oxaliplatin were administered the Total Neuropathy Score clinical (TNSc(©)), which includes symptom report (sensory, motor, autonomic) and sensory examination (pin sense, vibration, reflexes). The TNSc(©) was administered prior to chemotherapy initiation (T0), and following cumulative doses of oxaliplatin 510-520 mg/m(2) (T1) and 1020-1040 mg/ m(2) of oxaliplain (T2). Using mean T2 TNSc(©) scores, latent class analysis (LCA) grouped patients into OIPN severity cohorts. LCA categorized patients into 4 distinct OIPN groups: low symptoms and low signs (N=54); low symptoms and intermediate signs (n=44); low symptoms and high signs (n=21); and high symptoms and high signs (n=29). No differences were noted among OIPN groups on age, sex, chemotherapy regimen, or cumulative oxaliplatin dose. We identified OIPN patient groups with distinct symptoms/signs, demonstrating variability of OIPN presentation regardless of cumulative oxaliplatin dose. Over half of the sample had positive findings on OIPN examination despite little or no symptoms. Sensory examination of all patients receiving oxaliplatin is indicated for timely identification of OIPN, which will allow earlier symptom management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Yardimci, Nilgul; Cemeroglu, Ozlem; Ozturk, Eda; Gürlü, Gülsüm; Şahin, Esra; Bozkurt, Saliha; Cengiz, Tugba; Karali, Gulderen; Cakirbay, Hasim; İlhan, Atilla
Background. While increasing evidence suggests comorbidity of peripheral neuropathy (PNP) and Parkinson's disease (PD), the pathogenesis of PNP in PD is still a debate. The aim of this article is to search the core PD symptoms such as rigidity and tremor as contributing factors to mononeuropathy development while emphasizing each individual patient's asymmetric symptom severity. Methods. We studied 62 wrists and 62 elbows of 31 patients (mean age 66.48 ± 10.67) and 64 wrists and 64 elbows of 32 age-gender matched healthy controls (mean age 62.03 ± 10.40, p = 0.145). The Hoehn and Yahr disability scale and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rated Scale were used to determine the severity of the disease. Results. According to electrodiagnostic criteria, we confirmed median neuropathy in 16.12% (bilateral in two-thirds of the patients) and ulnar neuropathy in 3.22% of the PD group. While mean age (p = 0.003), age at PD onset (p = 0.019), and H&Y scores (p = 0.016) were significant, tremor and rigidity scores were not. The comparison of the mean indices of electrophysiologic parameters indicated subclinical median and ulnar nerve demyelination both at the wrist and at the elbow in the patient groups where a longer disease duration and mild tremor and rigidity scores are prominent, remarkably. Conclusion. A disease related peripheral neurodegeneration beyond symptom severity occurs in PD.
Cemeroglu, Ozlem; Ozturk, Eda; Gürlü, Gülsüm; Şahin, Esra; Bozkurt, Saliha; Cengiz, Tugba; Karali, Gulderen; Cakirbay, Hasim; İlhan, Atilla
Background. While increasing evidence suggests comorbidity of peripheral neuropathy (PNP) and Parkinson's disease (PD), the pathogenesis of PNP in PD is still a debate. The aim of this article is to search the core PD symptoms such as rigidity and tremor as contributing factors to mononeuropathy development while emphasizing each individual patient's asymmetric symptom severity. Methods. We studied 62 wrists and 62 elbows of 31 patients (mean age 66.48 ± 10.67) and 64 wrists and 64 elbows of 32 age-gender matched healthy controls (mean age 62.03 ± 10.40, p = 0.145). The Hoehn and Yahr disability scale and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rated Scale were used to determine the severity of the disease. Results. According to electrodiagnostic criteria, we confirmed median neuropathy in 16.12% (bilateral in two-thirds of the patients) and ulnar neuropathy in 3.22% of the PD group. While mean age (p = 0.003), age at PD onset (p = 0.019), and H&Y scores (p = 0.016) were significant, tremor and rigidity scores were not. The comparison of the mean indices of electrophysiologic parameters indicated subclinical median and ulnar nerve demyelination both at the wrist and at the elbow in the patient groups where a longer disease duration and mild tremor and rigidity scores are prominent, remarkably. Conclusion. A disease related peripheral neurodegeneration beyond symptom severity occurs in PD. PMID:27843673
Boulton, A J
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is estimated to affect at least 30% of patients with diabetes mellitus. The appropriate management of this disturbance is essential if late-stage complications, such as foot ulceration and amputations, are to be avoided in these patients. The need for improvements in the clinical management of neuropathy in primary and outpatient hospital care resulted in the identification of an international consensus group to address the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathy by the practising clinician. The international consensus group included diabetologists, neurologists, primary care clinicians, diabetes specialist nurses and podiatrists. The outcome of this consensus group was endorsed by the Neurodiab Executive Committee. The International Guidelines describe the recommendations for the management of diabetes in primary care and in outpatient hospital care and include an annual review of diabetic patients. This should include a history of patient symptoms, the type of diabetes, lifestyle and social circumstances. In examination of the foot, the status of the skin (e.g. absence of sweating and presence of ulceration) immobility of joints, gait and footwear should be noted. Simple tests should be performed to assess peripheral sensation, including sensation to pinprick, light touch, vibration, pressure, and ankle reflexes should be checked. It is the objective of the guidelines document to provide clear and simple instructions for the diagnosis and management of neuropathy on an outpatient basis, in particular during annual review of the patient. Adoption of the guidelines should lead to improvements in the management of neuropathy.
Xue, Hong-xia; Fu, Wen-yi; Cui, Hua-dong; Yang, Li-li; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Li-juan
Thalidomide is an effective drug for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis but might induce peripheral neuropathy. This major adverse reaction has attracted much concern. The current study aimed to observe the incidence of thalidomide-induced peripheral neuropathy among ankylosing spondylitis patients for 1 year after treatment. In this study, 207 ankylosing spondylitis cases received thalidomide treatment, while 116 ankylosing spondylitis cases received other treatments. Results showed that the incidence of thalidomide-induced peripheral neuropathy in the thalidomide group was higher than that in the non-thalidomide group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of neuropathy between the < 6 months medication and ≥ 6 months medication groups. There were no differences in the mean age, gender, or daily dose between the two groups. The incidence of peripheral neuropathy among patients receiving 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg thalidomide per day was 4.6%, 8.5%, 17.1%, 21.7%, respectively. The incidence was significantly different between the groups receiving 25 mg and 100 mg thalidomide. In conclusion, thalidomide can induce peripheral neuropathy within 1 year after treatment of ankylosing spondylitis; however, age and gender have no obvious impact on the incidence of peripheral neuropathy. The incidence of peripheral neuropathy is associated with increasing daily doses of thalidomide. PMID:26109960
Xue, Hong-Xia; Fu, Wen-Yi; Cui, Hua-Dong; Yang, Li-Li; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Li-Juan
Thalidomide is an effective drug for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis but might induce peripheral neuropathy. This major adverse reaction has attracted much concern. The current study aimed to observe the incidence of thalidomide-induced peripheral neuropathy among ankylosing spondylitis patients for 1 year after treatment. In this study, 207 ankylosing spondylitis cases received thalidomide treatment, while 116 ankylosing spondylitis cases received other treatments. Results showed that the incidence of thalidomide-induced peripheral neuropathy in the thalidomide group was higher than that in the non-thalidomide group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of neuropathy between the < 6 months medication and ≥ 6 months medication groups. There were no differences in the mean age, gender, or daily dose between the two groups. The incidence of peripheral neuropathy among patients receiving 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg thalidomide per day was 4.6%, 8.5%, 17.1%, 21.7%, respectively. The incidence was significantly different between the groups receiving 25 mg and 100 mg thalidomide. In conclusion, thalidomide can induce peripheral neuropathy within 1 year after treatment of ankylosing spondylitis; however, age and gender have no obvious impact on the incidence of peripheral neuropathy. The incidence of peripheral neuropathy is associated with increasing daily doses of thalidomide.
Dimitrova, Alexandra; Murchison, Charles; Oken, Barry
.001) favoring acupuncture over control for neuropathic symptoms. Acupuncture is beneficial in some peripheral neuropathies, but more rigorously designed studies using sham-acupuncture control are needed to characterize its effect and optimal use better.
Bilir, Bulent; Tulubas, Feti; Bilir, Betul Ekiz; Atile, Neslihan Soysal; Kara, Sonat Pinar; Yildirim, Tulay; Gumustas, Seyit Ali; Topcu, Birol; Kaymaz, Ozlem; Aydin, Murat
[Purpose] The effects of vitamin D on the circulating levels of IL-17 and IL-13 were investigated in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 without neuropathy, and healthy controls. [Subjects and Methods] A single-blind controlled clinical study was performed, including70 type 2 diabetic patients with or without diabetic peripheral neuropathy and 33 healthy volunteer controls. The 25(OH)D levels were evaluated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography, and IL-17 and IL-13 levels were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. [Results] The 25(OH) vitamin D concentration was lower in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients than in diabetes mellitus patients without neuropathy and healthy controls. Similarly, 25(OH)D levels were lower in diabetes mellitus patients than healthy controls. IL-17 and IL-13 levels were higher in diabetes mellitus patients than in controls. Additionally, IL-13 levels were higher in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients than in diabetes mellitus patients without neuropathy. These differences were statistically significant. There was a significant positive correlation between 25(OH)D and IL-13,and a negative correlation between 25(OH)D andIL-17 in the diabetic and diabetic neuropathy groups. [Conclusion] Vitamin D is a potential modifiable risk factor for diabetic peripheral neuropathy and may regulate inflammatory mediators, e.g., IL-17 and IL-13.
Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Govindaraju, Chikanna; Sonam, Kothari; Nagappa, Madhu; Chiplunkar, Shwetha; Kumar, Rakesh; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Bharath, M M Srinivas; Arvinda, Hanumanthapura R; Sinha, Sanjib; Khan, Nahid Akthar; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Nunia, Vandana; Paramasivam, Arumugam; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Taly, Arun B
There are relatively few studies, which focus on peripheral neuropathy in large cohorts of genetically characterized patients with mitochondrial disorders. This study sought to analyze the pattern of peripheral neuropathy in a cohort of patients with mitochondrial disorders. The study subjects were derived from a cohort of 52 patients with a genetic diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders seen over a period of 8 years (2006-2013). All patients underwent nerve conduction studies and those patients with abnormalities suggestive of peripheral neuropathy were included in the study. Their phenotypic features, genotype, pattern of peripheral neuropathy and nerve conduction abnormalities were analyzed retrospectively. The study cohort included 18 patients (age range: 18 months-50 years, M:F- 1.2:1).The genotype included mitochondrial DNA point mutations (n=11), SURF1 mutations (n=4) and POLG1(n=3). Axonal neuropathy was noted in 12 patients (sensori-motor:n=4; sensory:n=4; motor:n=4) and demyelinating neuropathy in 6. Phenotype-genotype correlations revealed predominant axonal neuropathy in mtDNA point mutations and demyelinating neuropathy in SURF1. Patients with POLG related disorders had both sensory ataxic neuropathy and axonal neuropathy. A careful analysis of the family history, clinical presentation, biochemical, histochemical and structural analysis may help to bring out the mitochondrial etiology in patients with peripheral neuropathy and may facilitate targeted gene testing. Presence of demyelinating neuropathy in Leigh's syndrome may suggest underlying SURF1 mutations. Sensory ataxic neuropathy with other mitochondrial signatures should raise the possibility of POLG related disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Siepmann, T; Penzlin, A I; Illigens, B M W
Autonomic neuropathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases that involve damage of small peripheral autonomic Aδ- and C-fibers. Causes of autonomic nerve fiber damage are disorders such as diabetes mellitus and HIV-infection. Predominant symptoms of autonomic neuropathy are orthostatic hypotension, gastro-intestinal problems, urogenital dysfunction, and cardiac arrhythmia, which can severely impair the quality of life in affected patients. Furthermore, autonomic neuropathies can be induced by autoimmune diseases such as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, hereditary disorders such as the lysosomal storage disorder Fabry disease and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies, as well as certain toxins and drugs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Similarly to entrapment neuropathies of upper extremities, the ultrasound constitutes a valuable supplementation of diagnostic examinations performed in patients with suspicions of nerve entrapment syndromes of the lower limb. For many years, it was claimed that such pathologies were rare. This probably resulted from the lack of proper diagnostic tools (including high frequency ultrasound transducers) as well as the lack of sufficient knowledge in this area. In relation to the above, the symptoms of compression neuropathies were frequently interpreted as a manifestation of pathologies of the lumbar part of the spine or a other orthopedic disease (degenerative or overuse one). Consequently, many patients were treated ineffectively for many months and even, years which led to irreparable neurological changes and changes in the motor organ. Apart from a clinical examination, the diagnostics of entrapment neuropathies of lower limb is currently based on imaging tests (ultrasound, magnetic resonance) as well as functional assessments (electromyography). Magnetic resonance imaging is characterized by a relatively low resolution (as compared to ultrasound) which results in limited possibilities of morphological evaluation of the visualized pathology. Electromyography allows for the assessment of nerve function, but does not precisely determine the type and degree of change. This article presents examples of the most common entrapment neuropathies of the lower limb concerning the following nerves: sciatic, femoral, lateral femoral cutaneous, obturator, fibular and its branches, tibial and its branches as well as sural. The pathomorphological basis of the neuropathies as well as corresponding ultrasound images are presented in this paper. Attention has been drawn to echogenicity, degree of vascularization and bundle presentation of the trunk of a pathological peripheral nerve. PMID:26673938
Kowalska, Berta; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona
Similarly to entrapment neuropathies of upper extremities, the ultrasound constitutes a valuable supplementation of diagnostic examinations performed in patients with suspicions of nerve entrapment syndromes of the lower limb. For many years, it was claimed that such pathologies were rare. This probably resulted from the lack of proper diagnostic tools (including high frequency ultrasound transducers) as well as the lack of sufficient knowledge in this area. In relation to the above, the symptoms of compression neuropathies were frequently interpreted as a manifestation of pathologies of the lumbar part of the spine or a other orthopedic disease (degenerative or overuse one). Consequently, many patients were treated ineffectively for many months and even, years which led to irreparable neurological changes and changes in the motor organ. Apart from a clinical examination, the diagnostics of entrapment neuropathies of lower limb is currently based on imaging tests (ultrasound, magnetic resonance) as well as functional assessments (electromyography). Magnetic resonance imaging is characterized by a relatively low resolution (as compared to ultrasound) which results in limited possibilities of morphological evaluation of the visualized pathology. Electromyography allows for the assessment of nerve function, but does not precisely determine the type and degree of change. This article presents examples of the most common entrapment neuropathies of the lower limb concerning the following nerves: sciatic, femoral, lateral femoral cutaneous, obturator, fibular and its branches, tibial and its branches as well as sural. The pathomorphological basis of the neuropathies as well as corresponding ultrasound images are presented in this paper. Attention has been drawn to echogenicity, degree of vascularization and bundle presentation of the trunk of a pathological peripheral nerve.
Donaghy, M.; Rushworth, G.; Jacobs, J.M. )
A 58-year-old dental prosthetic technician developed generalized sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. Neurophysiologic studies showed a generalized sensorimotor neuropathy of axonal degeneration type. Examination of a sural nerve biopsy showed a moderately severe axonal neuropathy with loss of large myelinated fibers and unmyelinated axons. There was evidence of slow ongoing degeneration and considerable fiber regeneration. Electron microscopy showed increased numbers of filaments in a few fibers. These findings show resemblances to the nerve changes caused by another acrylic resin, acrylamide. They suggest that the neuropathy may have been caused by 30 years of occupational cutaneous and inhalational exposure to methyl methacrylate monomer since they excluded other recognized causes of neuropathy.
Banach, Marta; Antczak, Jakub; Rola, Rafał
Background Myotonic dystrophy (DM) type 1 and type 2 are inherited diseases characterized by myotonia and myopathy. Additional symptoms include, among others, peripheral neuropathy and sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs). There is growing evidence for a complex association between DM1 and DM2, which was described in patients with diabetes mellitus and in the general population. In this study, we investigated whether there is an association between peripheral neuropathy and SRBDs also in the population of patients with DM. Methods The study included 16 patients with DM1 (mean age, 37.9±14.1 years; 20–69 years) and eight patients with DM2 (mean age, 47.6±14.1 years; 20–65 years), who underwent a sensory and motor nerve conduction study (NCS) and diagnostic screening for SRBDs. In both groups, the NCS parameters were correlated with respiratory parameters. Results In both groups, the amplitude of the ulnar sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) correlated with the mean arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2). In addition, in the DM2 group, the median SNAP correlated with the mean SaO2. In the DM1 group, the median SNAP and the distal motor latency (DML) of the ulnar nerve correlated with the apnea–hypopnea index, while the oxygen desaturation index correlated with the DML of the tibial nerve and with conduction velocity in the sural nerve. Conclusion Our results indicate a complex association between neuropathy and SRBDs in DM1 and DM2. Axonal degeneration may contribute to nocturnal hypoxemia and vice versa. Neuropathy may contribute to muscle weakness, which in turn may cause respiratory events. PMID:28138246
Dukewich, Matthew; Danesh, Arash; Onyima, Chiemeka; Gupta, Anita
Fluoroquinolones are widely prescribed antibiotics, used for various infectious etiologies. These antibiotics carry the possibility of the serious adverse effect of peripheral neuropathy, with a true incidence not known owing to its rare existence. Recently, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required alterations to drug labels to highlight this adverse effect of fluoroquinolones. This is a case report of a single patient at an inpatient neurology service at an urban academic medical center in the United States. The patient is a 20-year-old male, with well-controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus, presenting with a short duration of bilateral lower extremity pain following a 10-day course of levofloxacin for suspected epididymitis. The patient was initially diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome and treated with a variety of pain medications, including lidocaine infusions, hydromorphone, methadone, and ketamine infusions. After review of the patient's history and limited response to medical management, the patient's condition was reclassified as an adverse effect from fluoroquinolone treatment. Pain of unknown etiology can be perplexing, both for the physician and the patient. Reporting of similar incidents attributed to medication adverse effects will increase the awareness of this type of neuropathy, avoid future cases of misdiagnosis, and enable early detection and treatment.
Yoo, Min; Sharma, Neena; Pasnoor, Mamatha; Kluding, Patricia M
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a frequent complication of diabetes and a major cause of morbidity and increased mortality. It is typically characterized by significant deficits in tactile sensitivity, vibration sense, lower-limb proprioception, and kinesthesia. Painful diabetic neuropathy (P-DPN) is a common phenotype of DPN that affects up to one-third of the general diabetic population. P-DPN has been shown to be associated with significant reductions in overall quality of life, increased levels of anxiety and depression, sleep impairment, and greater gait variability. The purpose of this review is to examine proposed mechanisms of P-DPN, summarize current treatment regimen, and assess exercise as a potential therapy for P-PDN. Although exercise has been shown to be an effective therapeutic modality for diabetes, its specific effects on DPN and especially the painful phenotype have not been sufficiently investigated in current literature. Several rodent models and clinical trials have presented promising results in this area, and warrant further investigations examining the effect of exercise on P-DPN.
Yoo, Min; Sharma, Neena; Pasnoor, Mamatha; Kluding, Patricia M
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a frequent complication of diabetes and a major cause of morbidity and increased mortality. It is typically characterized by significant deficits in tactile sensitivity, vibration sense, lower-limb proprioception, and kinesthesia. Painful diabetic neuropathy (P-DPN) is a common phenotype of DPN that affects up to one-third of the general diabetic population. P-DPN has been shown to be associated with significant reductions in overall quality of life, increased levels of anxiety and depression, sleep impairment, and greater gait variability. The purpose of this review is to examine proposed mechanisms of P-DPN, summarize current treatment regimen, and assess exercise as a potential therapy for P-PDN. Although exercise has been shown to be an effective therapeutic modality for diabetes, its specific effects on DPN and especially the painful phenotype have not been sufficiently investigated in current literature. Several rodent models and clinical trials have presented promising results in this area, and warrant further investigations examining the effect of exercise on P-DPN. PMID:25360348
Vital, Anne; Lepreux, Sebastien; Vital, Claude
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) has been reported in idiopathic and hereditary forms of parkinsonism, but the pathogenic mechanisms are unclear and likely heterogeneous. Levodopa-induced vitamin B12 deficiency has been discussed as a causal factor of PN in idiopathic Parkinson's disease, but peripheral nervous system involvement might also be a consequence of the underlying neurodegenerative process. Occurrence of PN with parkinsonism has been associated with a panel of mitochondrial cytopathies, more frequently related to a nuclear gene defect and mainly polymerase gamma (POLG1) gene. Parkin (PARK2) gene mutations are responsible for juvenile parkinsonism, and possible peripheral nervous system involvement has been reported. Rarely, an association of parkinsonism with PN may be encountered in other neurodegenerative diseases such as fragile X-associated tremor and ataxia syndrome related to premutation CGG repeat expansion in the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene, Machado-Joseph disease related to an abnormal CAG repeat expansion in ataxin-3 (ATXN3) gene, Kufor-Rakeb syndrome caused by mutations in ATP13A2 gene, or in hereditary systemic disorders such as Gaucher disease due to mutations in the β-glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene and Chediak-Higashi syndrome due to LYST gene mutations. This article reviews conditions in which PN may coexist with parkinsonism.
Paxton, Roger J.; Feldman-Kothe, Caitlin; Trabert, Megan K.; Hitchcock, Leah N.; Reiser, Raoul F.; Tracy, Brian L.
Introduction The purpose was to determine the effect of peripheral neuropathy (PN) on motor output variability for ankle muscles of older adults, and the relation between ankle motor variability and postural stability in PN patients. Methods Older adults with (O-PN) and without PN (O), and young adults (Y) underwent assessment of standing postural stability and ankle muscle force steadiness. Results O-PN displayed impaired ankle muscle force control and postural stability compared with O and Y groups. For O-PN, the amplitude of plantarflexor force fluctuations was moderately correlated with postural stability under no-vision conditions (r = 0.54, P = 0.01). Discussion The correlation of variations in ankle force with postural stability in PN suggests a contribution of ankle muscle dyscontrol to the postural instability that impacts physical function for older adults with PN. PMID:26284897
Games, Gina; Hutchison, Amber
With the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) increasing, pathologic complications such as diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) are also becoming more common. Of those diagnosed with DM, 10% to 20% of patients suffer from painful DPN. Until recently, only pregabalin and duloxetine possessed Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for this condition. However, FDA recently approved tapentadol-ER [extended release] (Nucynta ER) for painful DPN. Tapentadol-ER is an opioid analgesic commonly used for the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain that contains a unique dual mechanism acting as both a weak mu-opiod receptor agonist and norepinephine-reuptake inhibitor. It is by way of this unique dual mechanism that allows for effective analgesic effects with increased tolerability. This new FDA approval provides an additional therapeutic option to treat DPN in symptomatic patients.
Cohen, Helen S; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Kung, Doris H; Mosier, Dennis R; Bloomberg, Jacob J
Few tests of functional motor behavior are useful for rapidly screening people for lower extremity peripheral neuropathy. The goal of this study was to improve the widely used tandem walking (TW) test. We tested "normal" (control) adult and ambulatory patients with peripheral neuropathy (PN) with their eyes open and eyes closed while they performed TW on industrial carpeting in sock-covered feet. Each subject wore a torso-mounted inertial motion unit to measure kinematic data. The data of subjects with PN also were compared with historical data on patients with vestibular impairments. The normal and PN groups differed significantly on TW and on the number of steps completed. PN and vestibular impairments data also differed significantly on both visual conditions. Kinematic data showed that patients with PN were more unstable than normal patients in the group. For the number of steps taken during the eyes open condition, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) values were only 0.81 and for the number of steps taken during the eyes closed condition, ROC values were 0.88. Although not optimal, this ROC value is better. Sensitivity and specificity at a cutoff of two steps were 0.81 and 0.92, respectively, and at a cutoff of three steps were 0.86 and 0.75, respectively. ROC values for kinematic data were <0.8, and when combined with the ROC value for the number of steps, the total ROC value did not improve appreciably. Although not ideal for screening patients who may have PN, counting the number of steps during TW is a quick and useful clinical test. TW is most sensitive to patients with PN when they are tested with eyes closed.
Adams, Alyce S; Bayliss, Elizabeth A; Schmittdiel, Julie A; Altschuler, Andrea; Dyer, Wendy; Neugebauer, Romain; Jaffe, Marc; Young, Joseph D; Kim, Eileen; Grant, Richard W
Challenges to effective pharmacologic management of symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy include the limited effectiveness of available medicines, frequent side effects, and the need for ongoing symptom assessment and treatment titration for maximal effectiveness. We present here the rationale and implementation challenges of the Diabetes Telephone Study, a randomized trial designed to improve medication treatment, titration, and quality of life among patients with symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We implemented a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial to test the effectiveness of an automated interactive voice response tool designed to provide physicians with real-time patient-reported data about responses to newly prescribed diabetic peripheral neuropathy medicines. A total of 1834 primary care physicians treating patients in the diabetes registry at Kaiser Permanente Northern California were randomized into the intervention or control arm. In September 2014, we began identification and recruitment of patients assigned to physicians in the intervention group who receive three brief interactive calls every 2 months after a medication is prescribed to alleviate diabetic peripheral neuropathy symptoms. These calls provide patients with the opportunity to report on symptoms, side effects, self-titration of medication dose and overall satisfaction with treatment. We plan to compare changes in self-reported quality of life between the intervention group and patients in the control group who receive three non-interactive automated educational phone calls. Successful implementation of this clinical trial required robust stakeholder engagement to help tailor the intervention and to address pragmatic concerns such as provider time constraints. As of 27 October 2015, we had screened 2078 patients, 1447 of whom were eligible for participation. We consented and enrolled 1206 or 83% of those eligible. Among those enrolled, 53% are women and the mean age
Adams, Alyce S; Bayliss, Elizabeth; Schmittdiel, Julie A; Altschuler, Andrea; Dyer, Wendy; Neugebauer, Romain; Jaffe, Marc; Young, Joseph; Kim, Eileen; Grant, Richard W
Background Challenges to effective pharmacologic management of symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy include the limited effectiveness of available medicines, frequent side effects, and the need for ongoing symptom assessment and treatment titration for maximal effectiveness. We present here the rationale and implementation challenges of the Diabetes Telephone Study, a randomized trial designed to improve medication treatment, titration and quality of life among patients with symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Methods We implemented a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial to test the effectiveness of an automated interactive voice response tool designed to provide physicians with real-time patient-reported data about responses to newly prescribed diabetic peripheral neuropathy medicines. 1,830 primary care physicians treating patients in the diabetes registry at Kaiser Permanente Northern California were randomized into the intervention or control arm in September 2014. Patients assigned to physicians in the intervention group receive three brief interactive calls every 2 months after a medication is prescribed to alleviate diabetic peripheral neuropathy symptoms. These calls provide patients with the opportunity to report on symptoms, side effects, self-titration of medication dose and overall satisfaction with treatment. We plan to compare changes in self-reported quality of life between the intervention group and patients in the control group who receive three non-interactive automated educational phone calls. Results Successful implementation of this clinical trial required robust stakeholder engagement to help tailor the intervention and to address pragmatic concerns such as provider time constraints. As of October 27, 2015, we had screened 2,078 patients, 1,447 of whom were eligible for participation. We consented and enrolled 1,206 or 83% of those eligible. Among those enrolled, 53% are women and the mean age is 67 (sd 12). The racial
Ahmed, Marwan A; Muntingh, George; Rheeder, Paul
The association between long-term metformin use and low vitamin B12 levels has been proven. However, the prevalence estimates of metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency showed considerable variation among the studies. The potential of the deficiency to cause or worsen peripheral neuropathy in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients has been investigated with conflicting results. The aim of the study was to investigate: 1) the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in T2DM patients on metformin; 2) the association between vitamin B12 and peripheral neuropathy; 3) and the risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency in these patients. In this cross-sectional study, consecutive metformin-treated T2DM patients attending diabetes clinics of two public hospitals in South Africa were approached for participation. Participation included measuring vitamin B12 levels and assessing peripheral neuropathy using Neuropathy Total Symptom Score-6 (NTSS-6) questionnaire. The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency (defined by concentrations <150 pmol/L) was determined. Those with NTSS-6 scores >6 were considered to have peripheral neuropathy. The relationship between vitamin B12 and peripheral neuropathy was investigated when the two variables were in the binary and continuous forms. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency. Among 121 participants, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was 28.1 %. There was no difference in presence of neuropathy between those with normal and deficient vitamin levels (36.8 % vs. 32.3 %, P = 0.209). Vitamin B12 levels and NTSS-6 scores were not correlated (Spearman's rho =0.056, P = 0.54). HbA1c (mmol/mol) (OR = 0.97, 95 % CI: 0.95 to 0.99, P = 0.003) and black race (OR = 0.34, 95 % CI: 0.13 to 0.92, P = 0.033) were risk factors significantly associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Metformin daily dose (gram) showed borderline significance (OR = 1.96, 95 % CI: 0.99 to 3
Mozdzanowski, Christopher; Perdrizet, George A
Otic barotrauma (OBT) is an adverse event seen in patients receiving hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy. After encountering a case of painless tympanic perforation during HBO2 therapy of a diabetic patient with the diagnosis of neuropathic Wagner Grade III foot ulcer, we hypothesized that peripheral neuropathy of the lower extremity may be associated with an increased risk of asymptomatic OBT during HBO2 therapy. The medical records of all HBO2 patients during a one-year period of time were reviewed. Subjects were selected based on otoscopic documentation of OBT and divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of lower extremity peripheral neuropathy. Time to therapeutic compression, presence or absence of ear-related symptoms and modified Teed (mTeed) scores were compared between the two groups. A total of 38 patients with OBT, 18 neuropathic and 20 non-neuropathic, were identified. Asymptomatic OBT occurred more frequently in the neuropathic vs. non-neuropathic group (56% vs. 5%, p < 0.001). mTeed scores were significantly greater in the neuropathic vs. non-neuropathic group (mTeed 1, 30% vs. 61%; mTeed 2, 65% vs. 36%; mTeed 3, 4% vs. 3%; p = 0.032). Mean compression times were shorter in the neuropathic vs. non-neuropathic group (10. 5 +/- 1.8 vs. 14.4 +/- 3.3 minutes, p < 0.001). The presence of peripheral neuropathy of the lower extremity may be associated with a significantly greater incidence of asymptomatic otic barotrauma during HBO2 therapy.
Kim, Min-jung; Sung, Hyunkyung; Hong, Kwon-eui
Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the evidence available in the literature for the safety and efficacy of Dioscoreae Rhizoma(DR) for the treatment of peripheral neuropathy. Methods: Literature searches were performed in MEDLINE and three Korean medical databases up to April 2013. All studies evaluating the effects on peripheral neuropathy or the safety of DR monopreparations were considered. Results: Three studies - DR extract per os (po) on diabetic neuropathy in mice, DR extract injection on the peripheral sciatic nerve after crush injury in rats and DR extract injection to patients with peripheral facial paralysis proved that DR treatments were effective for the treatment of nerve injuries. Conclusions: In conclusion, we found the DR has a strong positive potential for the treatment of peripheral neuropathy, but studies addressing direct factors related to the nerve still remain insufficient. PMID:25780670
Klein, Sandra E; Chu, Jennifer; McCormick, Jeremy J; Johnson, Jeffrey E
The foot and ankle surgeon can see peripheral neuropathy in the treatment of foot and ankle conditions. The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate the demographics and presenting complaints of patients diagnosed with idiopathic peripheral neuropathy during an examination by a foot and ankle surgeon and (2) to identify the type and frequency of subsequent diagnosis of medical causes of neuropathy. This was a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with idiopathic peripheral neuropathy in our practice between January 1997 and December 2008. Ninety-five patients were identified, and demographic data, presenting complaints, and medical comorbidities were extracted from the medical record. Examination findings of decreased sensation to Semmes Weinstein 5.07 monofilament testing were documented, and electromyogram and nerve conduction study results were reviewed when available. Laboratory values were noted, as were neurologic evaluations performed to diagnose medical conditions associated with peripheral neuropathy. The most common presentation was foot pain, in 36 patients (38%). Ninety-one patients had Semmes Weinstein 5.07 monofilament testing, with loss of protective sensation reported in 75 of the 91 tested (82%). Only 30 of the 95 patients had electromyogram and nerve conduction study results available, with a test positive for peripheral neuropathy in 20 of the 30 tested. Thirty-two patients were evaluated by a neurologist. A specific cause was identified in 12 of the 32 seen by a neurologist. Of the total group of 95 patients, 31 patients (33%) were diagnosed with a condition that may be associated with peripheral neuropathy. Thirty-three percent of the patients presenting to our clinic and given a diagnosis of idiopathic peripheral neuropathy were ultimately diagnosed with a medical cause of neuropathy-most commonly, diabetes. For those patients with idiopathic neuropathy, a spectrum of disease was encountered, including pain, ulcer, infection, and Charcot
Ewertz, Marianne; Qvortrup, Camilla; Eckhoff, Lise
Chemotherapy with taxanes and platinum compounds has resulted in substantial survival benefits both in adjuvant and metastatic settings. However, as a side effect, such chemotherapy may cause peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) which may result in discontinuation of treatment, and if it persists after treatment completion, has a negative impact on quality of life (QoL). Symptoms of CIPN are sensory, like pain, numbness, and tingling, typically located in the hands and feet. For oxaliplatin, there is an acute form of CIPN, resulting in paraesthesias in the mouth and throat during or shortly after the infusion triggered by exposure to cold. Risks factors for CIPN include preexisting neuropathy, either from treatment with other neurotoxic agents, or from comorbid conditions. The incidence of CIPN is related to dose per cycle, cumulative dose, and duration of infusion. While cisplatin-induced neuropathy is irreversible, CIPN induced by taxanes may persist for several years in about 30% of patients. Evidence from the literature is suggestive that CIPN is likely to be negatively associated with QoL. No agents have been identified to be recommended for the prevention of CIPN. For treatment of CIPN, the best available data supports a moderate recommendation for treatment with duloxetine and evidence is inconclusive regarding the use of tricyclic antidepressants (such as nortriptyline), gabapentin, and a compounded topical gel containing baclofen, amitriptyline HCL, and ketamine. Research is still needed to predict which patients are at high risk of developing CIPN during treatment and in whom CIPN will persist after completion of chemotherapy.
Yeh, Tzu-min; Evans, Scott R; Gulick, Roy M; Clifford, David B
To evaluate the effect of vicriviroc (VCV) on peripheral neuropathy (PN), the most prevalent neurological complication of HIV infection in HIV-1-infected treatment- experienced population. A5211 is a randomized placebo- controlled trial evaluating VCV in treatment-experienced HIV participants failing current therapy. Participants were randomized to VCV (5, 10, or 15 mg) or placebo with optimized ritonavir-containing antiretroviral therapy and followed for 48 weeks. PN was defined as having at least mild loss of vibration bilaterally or ankle reflexes absent or hypoactive bilaterally. We estimated the association between VCV (pooled doses) with PN using a logistic generalized estimating equation. Additional outcomes included symptomatic neuropathy (SPN), painful neuropathy (PPN), and neuropathic signs and symptoms. 118 participants (92% male, 65% white, median age of 46 years, median baseline CD4 139, median HIV-1 RNA 4.58 log) were randomized (90 on VCV and 28 on placebo). VCV therapy did not result in a statistically significant difference relative to placebo in PN (OR = 1.52; P = .39; 95% CI 0.59, 3.90) after controlling for baseline PN status and baseline neurotoxic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor(s) use. Treatment with VCV over 48 weeks failed to result in statistically significant effect on PN in treatment-experienced participants with HIV infection relative to placebo, however potentially important effects cannot be ruled out.
Lidove, O; Cacoub, P; Maisonobe, T; Servan, J; Thibault, V; Piette, J; Leger, J
OBJECTIVES—To describe cases of peripheral neuropathy associated with chronic hepatitis C virus infection without mixed cryoglobulinaemia. METHODS—Four cases of peripheral neuropathy associated with chronic hepatitis C virus infection with persistent negativity of mixed cryoglobulinaemia were found. RESULTS—All patients had small increases of transaminase levels and a positive viraemia. Liver biopsy showed chronic active hepatitis in all but one case (Knodell 4-9, Metavir A0F0-A3F3). Neuromuscular biopsy showed axonal neuropathy associated with lymphoid infiltrates around small vessels in two cases. Rheumatoid factor was always negative and C4 complement level was always normal. In three patients, neuropathy improved with interferon α, interferon α + ursodesoxycholic acid, or steroids + plasma exchange. CONCLUSION—Peripheral neuropathy may be associated with hepatitis C virus infection without mixed cryoglobulinaemia. PMID:11171696
Mathew, L; Talbot, K; Love, S; Puvanarajah, S; Donaghy, M
Vasculitis of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is rare. There are no controlled treatment trials, and clinical practice is guided by experience from case series and indirectly by analogy with systemic vasculitis. We identified patients (n=212) with possible vasculitic peripheral neuropathy (VPN) from the neuropathology and neurophysiology records of two centres over 28 years. Case-notes were available for 181, from which, 106 cases of clinicopathological VPN were identified. Adequate treatment data were available in 100; follow-up data, in 93. Of 106 cases, 95 had systemic vasculitis and 11 had vasculitis confined to the PNS. Pharmacological treatment (94/100 cases) was corticosteroid-based, and included cyclophosphamide in 54; 17 received additional agents. Initial stabilization was achieved in all but six. One-year survival was 90.3%. Of the nine who died in the first years (mean age 73 years), seven had received cyclophosphamide, and all but two had severe, multisystem vasculitis. The neurological relapse rate was 10%. Only one relapse occurred after cyclophosphamide treatment. Outcome was reported as good in 72% (78% in those who relapsed). Death and relapse were infrequent in treated patients. Relapse occurred almost exclusively in patients treated with prednisolone alone. Aggressive early treatment with cyclophosphamide may prevent relapse. The current management approach to VPN appears largely effective, especially if cyclophosphamide is used.
Bakogeorgos, Marios; Georgoulias, Vassilis
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), a common adverse effect of several chemotherapeutic agents, has a significant impact on quality of life and may even compromise treatment efficacy, requiring chemotherapy dose reduction or discontinuation. CIPN is predominantly related with sensory rather than motor symptoms and the most common related cytotoxic agents are platinum compounds, taxanes and vinca alkaloids. CIPN symptoms may resolve after treatment cessation, but they can also be permanent and continue for years. Areas covered: We present an overview of CIPN pathophysiology, clinical assessment, prevention and treatment identified through a Pubmed search. Expert commentary: No substantial progress has been made in the last few years within the field of prevention and/or treatment of CIPN, in spite of remarkable efforts. Continuous research could expand our knowledge about chemotherapeutic-specific neuropathic pathways and eventually lead to the conception of innovative and targeted agents for the prevention and/or treatment of this debilitating chemotherapy adverse effect.
Wang, Qing-hua; Zhong, Zhi-xia; Chen, Jing-jing; Xie, Ke-qin; Zhao, Xiu-lan
To observe the peripheral neurotoxicity of 1-bromopropane (1-BP) by developing an animal model of peripheral neuropathy through oral administration of 1-BP. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly and equally divided into low-dose group (200 mg/kg), medium-dose group (400 mg/kg), high-dose group (800 mg/kg), and control group. The rats in the low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose groups were orally given 1-BP (dissolved in corn oil), while the rats in the control group were orally given an equal volume of corn oil. The oral administration (0.2 ml/100 g BW) was performed once per day, 5 days per week, for 16 consecutive weeks. Neurobehavioral indices including gait score, hindlimb grip strength, and hindlimb landing foot splay were recorded periodically. Hematological and biochemical parameters were also measured during and after 1-BP exposure. The gait scores were significantly higher in the high-dose group (after 8 ∼ 16 weeks of 1-BP exposure), medium-dose group (after 14 ∼ 16 weeks of 1-BP exposure), and low-dose group (after 15 ∼ 16 weeks of 1-BP exposure) than in the control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, the high-dose group showed significantly decreased hindlimb grip strength after 9, 12, and 14 weeks of 1-BP exposure (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), with the hindlimbs paralyzed after 16 weeks of 1-BP exposure. After 16 weeks of 1-BP exposure, the hindlimb grip strengths of rats in the medium-dose and low-dose groups were decreased to 72.6% and 91.2% of the control value (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the high-dose group showed significantly increased hindlimb landing foot splay after 12, 14, and 16 weeks of 1-BP exposure, and the medium-dose group showed significantly increased hindlimb landing foot splay after 14 and 16 weeks of 1-BP exposure (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The high-dose and medium-dose groups showed significantly higher serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity than the control group after 8 weeks of
Background We hypothesized that a wide range of surgical procedures may be complicated by neuropathies, not just in close proximity but also remote from procedural sites. The aim of this study was to classify post-operative neuropathies and the procedures associated with them. Methods We retrospectively identified 66 patients diagnosed with post-procedure neuropathies between January 2005 and June 2008. We reviewed their referral cards and medical records for patient demographics, information on procedures, symptoms, as well as clinical and neurophysiological findings. Results Thirty patients (45.4%) had neuropathies remote from procedural sites and 36 patients (54.5%) had neuropathies in close proximity to procedural sites. Half of the remote neuropathies (15/30) developed following relatively short procedures. In 27% of cases (8/30) remote neuropathies were bilateral. Seven patients developed neuropathies remote from operative sites following hip arthroplasties (7/30: 23.3%), making hip arthroplasty the most common procedure associated with remote neuropathies. Sciatic neuropathies due to hip arthroplasty (12/36, 33.3%) accounted for the majority of neuropathies occurring in close proximity to operative sites. Five medial cutaneous nerve of forearm neuropathies occurred following arterio-venous fistula (AVF) formation. Conclusions An array of surgical procedures may be complicated by neuropathy. Almost half of post-procedure neuropathies occur remote from the site of procedure, emphasizing the need to try to prevent not just local, but also remote neuropathies. Mechanical factors and patient positioning should be considered in the prevention of post-operative neuropathies. There is a possible association between AVF formation and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm neuropathy, which requires further study for validation. PMID:20398427
Kles, Keri A; Vinik, Aaron I
Worldwide, diabetes and its complications are major causes of morbidity, decreased quality of life, mortality and increasing health care costs. Patients with diabetes attempt to control blood pressure, lipids and blood glucose levels to decrease their risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications, such as diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Even with control of these risk factors for vascular disease, many patients still develop complications. Targeted therapies to the underlying mechanisms of diabetic neuropathy are essential to slow the progression of the disease. This review describes the signs, symptoms and diagnosis of DPN. Additionally, new therapies and the complex etiology that contributes to the development of diabetic neuropathy are described (oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, advanced glycated end products, autoimmunity, neurotrophic factors and protein kinase C beta).
Jember, Gashaw; Melsew, Yayehirad Alemu; Fisseha, Berihu; Sany, Kedir; Gelaw, Asmare Yitayeh; Janakiraman, Balamurugan
Diabetic sensory neuropathy is a common form of microvascular complication among diabetic patients. The swiftly growing population of people living with diabetes in Ethiopia and lack of elaborated scientific data on peripheral sensory neuropathy among diabetic population in Ethiopia prompted this work. This study was set out to assess the enormity and associated factors of peripheral sensory neuropathy among diabetes patients attending chronic illness clinic of Felege Hiwot Regional Referral Hospital, Bahr Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital chronic illness clinic using Michigan neuropathy screening instrument tool for diabetic peripheral sensory neuropathy on 408 diabetic patients during 2016. Data were collected using interview, patient record review, anthropometric measurements and physical examination. Both bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression was employed to identify factors associated with peripheral sensory neuropathy. Odds ratios with their 95% CI and P value less than 0.05 used to determine statistically significant associations. A total of 368 patients were included with the mean age of 49 ± 14.3 years. The overall prevalence of Peripheral Sensory Neuropathy was found to be 52.2%. The major associated factors identified by multivariate analysis were age >50 years: AOR: 3.0 CI [1.11, 7.89]; overweight and obese: AOR: 7.3 CI [3.57, 14.99]; duration of DM: AOR: 3.4 CI [1.75, 6.60]; not involved in physical exercise: AOR: 4.8 CI [1.90, 7.89]; male gender: AOR: 2.4 CI [1.18, 5.05]. Almost half of the diabetic patients who attended Felege Hiwot regional referral hospital during study period were found to present with peripheral sensory neuropathy. Socio-demographic and bio characteristics like patients age, Body Mass Index, level of physical activity and marital status were significantly associated with diabetic peripheral sensory neuropathy.
de Carvalho Barbosa, Mariana; Kosturakis, Alyssa K; Eng, Cathy; Wendelschafer-Crabb, Gwen; Kennedy, William R; Simone, Donald A; Wang, Xin S; Cleeland, Charles S; Dougherty, Patrick M
Peripheral neuropathy caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy, especially platins and taxanes, is a widespread problem among cancer survivors that is likely to continue to expand in the future. However, little work to date has focused on understanding this challenge. The goal in this study was to determine the impact of colorectal cancer and cumulative chemotherapeutic dose on sensory function to gain mechanistic insight into the subtypes of primary afferent fibers damaged by chemotherapy. Patients with colorectal cancer underwent quantitative sensory testing before and then prior to each cycle of oxaliplatin. These data were compared with those from 47 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Patients showed significant subclinical deficits in sensory function before any therapy compared with healthy volunteers, and they became more pronounced in patients who received chemotherapy. Sensory modalities that involved large Aβ myelinated fibers and unmyelinated C fibers were most affected by chemotherapy, whereas sensory modalities conveyed by thinly myelinated Aδ fibers were less sensitive to chemotherapy. Patients with baseline sensory deficits went on to develop more symptom complaints during chemotherapy than those who had no baseline deficit. Patients who were tested again 6 to 12 months after chemotherapy presented with the most numbness and pain and also the most pronounced sensory deficits. Our results illuminate a mechanistic connection between the pattern of effects on sensory function and the nerve fiber types that appear to be most vulnerable to chemotherapy-induced toxicity, with implications for how to focus future work to ameloirate risks of peripheral neuropathy.
Reeves, Brandi N; Dakhil, Shaker R; Sloan, Jeff A; Wolf, Sherry L; Burger, Kelli N; Kamal, Arif; Le-Lindqwister, Nguyet A; Soori, Gamini S; Jaslowski, Anthony J; Kelaghan, Joseph; Novotny, Paul J; Lachance, Daniel H; Loprinzi, Charles L
Paclitaxel causes an acute pain syndrome (P-APS), occurring within days after each dose and usually abating within days. Paclitaxel also causes a more classic peripheral neuropathy, which steadily increases in severity with increasing paclitaxel total doses. Little detail is available regarding the natural history of these 2 syndromes, or any relationship between them, although a recent publication does provide natural history data about weekly paclitaxel, supporting an association between the severity of P-APS and eventual peripheral neuropathy symptoms. Patients entering this study were about to receive paclitaxel and carboplatin every 3 weeks. Daily questionnaires were completed for the first week after every chemotherapy dose, and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Quality of Life Questionnaire, Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy 20-item instruments were completed weekly. The P-APS severity peaked on day 4 after the initial chemotherapy dose, with 12%, 29%, 23%, and 36% of patients having maximal pain scores of 0, 1 to 4, 5 or 6, or 7 to 10 during the first week after the first dose of therapy, respectively. Patients with P-APS scores of 0 to 4 with the first dose of chemotherapy had less eventual sensory neuropathy than did patients with P-APS scores of 5 to 10 (P = 0.001). With regard to the more peripheral neuropathy, sensory neuropathy was more problematic than was either motor or autonomic neuropathy. Numbness and tingling were more common components of the sensory neuropathy than was pain. Patients with worse P-APS severities appear to have more eventual chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. This provides support for the concept that P-APS is a form of nerve pathology. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.
Mohrmann, Caroline; Armer, Jane; Hayashi, Robert J
Children treated for cancer are exposed to a variety of chemotherapeutic agents with known toxicity to the peripheral nervous system. The side effect of peripheral neuropathy can cause changes in sensation, function, and even cause pain. Although peripheral neuropathy is recognized by pediatric oncology nurses as an important and significant side effect, measuring neuropathy can be quite complex for clinical care and research efforts. With more children surviving a cancer diagnosis today, this issue is increasingly important for childhood cancer survivors. This article has reviewed existing literature examining peripheral neuropathy in childhood cancer survivors with particular interest paid to measurement tools available and needs for future research. It is important for nurses to choose appropriate measures for clinical care and research methods in order to have an impact on patients experiencing this condition.
Luigetti, M; Sauchelli, D; Primiano, G; Cuccagna, C; Bernardo, D; Lo Monaco, M; Servidei, S
Peripheral neuropathy in mitochondrial diseases (MDs) may vary from a subclinical finding in a multisystem syndrome to a severe, even isolated, manifestation in some patients. To investigate the involvement of the peripheral nervous system in MDs extensive electrophysiological studies were performed in 109 patients with morphological, biochemical and genetic diagnosis of MD [12 A3243G progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO)/mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), 16 myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibres (MERRF), four mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE), 67 PEO with single or multiple deletions of mitochondrial DNA, 10 others]. A neuropathy was found in 49 patients (45%). The incidence was very high in MNGIE (100%), MELAS (92%) and MERRF (69%), whilst 28% of PEO patients had evidence of peripheral involvement. The most frequent abnormality was a sensory axonal neuropathy found in 32/49 patients (65%). A sensory-motor axonal neuropathy was instead detected in 16% of the patients and sensory-motor axonal demyelinating neuropathy in 16%. Finally one Leigh patient had a motor axonal neuropathy. It is interesting to note that the great majority had preserved tendon reflexes and no sensory disturbances. In conclusion, peripheral involvement in MD is frequent even if often mild or asymptomatic. The correct identification and characterization of peripheral neuropathy through electrophysiological studies represents another tile in the challenge of MD diagnosis. © 2016 EAN.
Peng, Ling; Ye, Xianghua; Zhou, Yun; Zhang, Junyan; Zhao, Qiong
Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor which has demonstrated activity against recurrent or newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) and mantle cell lymphoma. Peripheral neuropathy has been described with this agent, although the overall incidence and relative risk remain unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to calculate the incidence of peripheral neuropathy associated with the use of intravenous bortezomib in MM and lymphoma and to compare the relative risk compared with placebo. We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane databases, and meeting proceedings from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) for relevant clinical trials. Eligible studies included prospective phase 2 and 3 clinical trials with toxicity profile on peripheral neuropathy associated with intravenous bortezomib in patients with MM and lymphoma. Statistical analyses were done to calculate summary incidences, relative risks (RRs), and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), employing fixed- or random-effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Altogether, 34 clinical trials were selected for the meta-analysis, yielding a total of 6492 patients. The incidence of peripheral neuropathy (all grades) was 33.9 % (95 % CI, 29.9-38.5 %) and that of high-grade events was 8.1 % (95 % CI, 6.9-9.4 %). The relative risks of bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy compared to placebo were increased for all-grade (RR = 4.89; 95 % CI, 2.52-9.51) and high-grade (RR = 4.53; 95 % CI, 2.04-10.07) peripheral neuropathy (for randomized controlled trials only). Our analysis was also stratified by different underlying diseases, and patients with lymphoma had an increased incidence of all-grade peripheral neuropathy than those with MM when treated with intravenous bortezomib. Treatment with intravenous bortezomib is associated with an increased risk of developing peripheral neuropathy.
Yoo, Min; D’Silva, Linda; Martin, Katherine; Sharma, Neena; Pasnoor, Mamatha; LeMaster, Joseph
Objective Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes. While the beneficial effect of exercise on diabetes is well established, its effect specifically on painful DPN has not been thoroughly explored. The objective of this pilot study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise on pain in people with DPN. Methods Fourteen sedentary individuals (mean age 57±5.11 years) with painful DPN were enrolled in a 16-week, supervised aerobic exercise program. The Brief Pain Inventory-Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (BPI-DPN) was used to assess pain intensity (worst, least, average, now) and pain interference with daily life (activity, mood, walk, normal work, relationship, sleep, enjoyment of life) pre- and post -intervention. Body mass index (BMI), maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and blood pressure were also measured pre-and post-intervention as secondary outcomes of interest. Results Significant reductions in pain interference were observed with walking (4.93±3.03 pre to 3.29±2.89 post, p=0.016), normal work (5.39±3.32 pre to 3.79±3.04 post, p=0.032), relationship with others (3.96±3.53 pre to 1.29±1.27 post, p=0.006), sleep (5.11±3.04 pre to 3.5±3.03 post, p=0.02), and the overall pain interference (4.65±2.70 pre to 2.97±2.22 post, p=0.013) following the intervention; however, there was no change in pain intensity. VO2max increased significantly post-intervention (16.02±3.84ml/kg/min pre to 17.18±4.19ml/kg/min, p=0.028), while BMI, HbA1c, and blood pressure remained unchanged. Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that perceived pain interference may be reduced following an aerobic exercise intervention among people with painful DPN, without a change in pain intensity. Further validation by a RCT is needed. PMID:25800666
Background Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy is one of the most prevalent complications of diabetes mellitus. The development and progression of such complications are responsible for much of the morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Semmes–Weinstein monofilament ten gram in 3, 4, eight and ten points in the screening of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods In a descriptive correlational design, 150 patients with diabetes mellitus were selected using convenience sampling. All patients were evaluated for sensory neuropathy using ten gram Semmes-Weinstein Monofilaments and questionnaire on neuropathy symptoms. In the next phase, nerve conduction velocity was examined. The most common subjective symptoms were paresthesia of both feet, pain in feet, burning sensation in the extremities and numbness in the extremities. Results The results showed that the sensitivity of Monofilament in three and four points were 35.9 to 53.8 present and 38.5 to 51.3 percent respectively. Specificity of Monofilament the same points, were 73.9 to 84.7 and 73 to 87.4 percent respectively. Monofilament sensitivity at eight and ten points were 38.5 to 61.5 and 64.1 to 30.8 percent respectively. Also, specificity of the same points were 77.5 to 95.5 and 64 to 89.2 percent respectively. It was revealed that the difference sensitivity and specificity of Monofilament in three and four points with sensitivity and specificity in eight and ten point is not statistically significant. Conclusions This study showed that Semmes-Weinstein monofilament can easily use as a simple and inexpensive device for screening. Since increasing the number of points it was not significantly difference. Therefore, we suggest that screening for diabetic peripheral neuropathy, especially in large populations to avoid wasting time on Monofilament application, areas like three or four points eight and ten points could be used. PMID
Background A major clinical issue affecting 10-40% of cancer patients treated with oxaliplatin is severe peripheral neuropathy with symptoms including cold sensitivity and neuropathic pain. Rat models have been used to describe the pathological features of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy; however, they are inadequate for parallel studies of oxaliplatin's antineoplastic activity and neurotoxicity because most cancer models are developed in mice. Thus, we characterized the effects of chronic, bi-weekly administration of oxaliplatin in BALB/c mice. We first studied oxaliplatin's effects on the peripheral nervous system by measuring caudal and digital nerve conduction velocities (NCV) followed by ultrastructural and morphometric analyses of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and sciatic nerves. To further characterize the model, we examined nocifensive behavior and central nervous system excitability by in vivo electrophysiological recording of spinal dorsal horn (SDH) wide dynamic range neurons in oxaliplatin-treated mice Results We found significantly decreased NCV and action potential amplitude after oxaliplatin treatment along with neuronal atrophy and multinucleolated DRG neurons that have eccentric nucleoli. Oxaliplatin also induced significant mechanical allodynia and cold hyperalgesia, starting from the first week of treatment, and a significant increase in the activity of wide dynamic range neurons in the SDH. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that chronic treatment with oxaliplatin produces neurotoxic changes in BALB/c mice, confirming that this model is a suitable tool to conduct further mechanistic studies of oxaliplatin-related antineoplastic activity, peripheral neurotoxicity and pain. Further, this model can be used for the preclinical discovery of new neuroprotective and analgesic compounds. PMID:21521528
Santoro, L; Manganelli, F; Briani, C; Giannini, F; Benedetti, L; Vitelli, E; Mazzeo, A; Beghi, E
Objective To assess the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy (PN) and its correlation with cryoglobulinemia (CG) in an unselected, untreated referral hepatitis C virus (HCV) population. Patients and Methods Two hundred and thirty four patients (120 women and 114 men) with untreated HCV infection were consecutively enrolled by seven Italian centres. Clinical neuropathy was diagnosed when symptoms and signs of peripheral sensory or motor involvement were present. Median, ulnar, peroneal, and sural nerves were explored in all patients and distal symmetric polyneuropathy was diagnosed when all explored nerves or both lower limb nerves were affected. Mononeuropathy and mononeuropathy multiplex were diagnosed when one nerve or two non‐contiguous nerves with asymmetrical distribution were affected. Screening for CG was done in 191 unselected patients. Results Clinical signs of PN were observed in 25 of the 234 patients (10.6%). Electrophysiological PN was found in 36 (15.3%). CG was present in 56/191 patients (29.3%). The prevalence of CG increased significantly with age (p<0.001) and disease duration (p<0.05). PN was present in 12/56 (21%) patients with CG and 18/135 (13%) without CG (p = NS). PN increased significantly with age (p<0.001) and logistic regression analysis confirmed age as the only independent predictor of PN (OR 1.10 for each year; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.15; p<0.001). Conclusions Electrophysiological examination detected subclinical neuropathy in 11 patients (4.7%). Statistical analysis showed that CG was not a risk factor for PN whereas PN prevalence increased significantly with age. PMID:16464900
Li, Xia; Zhu, Ju; Liu, Na; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Zhecheng
Impaired glucose regulation (IGR) is the prestate of diabetes; about 1/3 of IGR patients will develop to diabetes finally. In this study, we investigated the serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in peripheral neuropathy impaired patients with impaired glucose regulation (IGR). A total of 70 IGR patients received the conventional nerve conduction test, including 30 patients with peripheral neuropathy (PN) and 40 patients without peripheral neuropathy (NPN). The other 40 healthy individuals were recruited as controls. The serum TNF-α and IL-6 in IGR patients were higher than in control group, and serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels in IGR-PN group were higher than in IGR-NPN group (27.7 ± 17.8 versus 13.1 ± 6.7 pg/mL and 18.1 ± 17.7 versus 6.4 ± 3.7 pg/mL, resp., both p < 0.05). Multifactors logistic regression analysis showed that TNF-α (OR = 0.893; p = 0.009) was an independent factor affecting whether IGR could combine with peripheral neuropathy. TNF-α and IL-6 could aggregate peripheral neuropathy in impaired glucose regulation patients; TNF-α might be independent risk factor for peripheral neuropathy in glucose regulation impaired patients.
Zhu, Ju; Liu, Na; Liu, Jie
Impaired glucose regulation (IGR) is the prestate of diabetes; about 1/3 of IGR patients will develop to diabetes finally. In this study, we investigated the serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in peripheral neuropathy impaired patients with impaired glucose regulation (IGR). A total of 70 IGR patients received the conventional nerve conduction test, including 30 patients with peripheral neuropathy (PN) and 40 patients without peripheral neuropathy (NPN). The other 40 healthy individuals were recruited as controls. The serum TNF-α and IL-6 in IGR patients were higher than in control group, and serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels in IGR-PN group were higher than in IGR-NPN group (27.7 ± 17.8 versus 13.1 ± 6.7 pg/mL and 18.1 ± 17.7 versus 6.4 ± 3.7 pg/mL, resp., both p < 0.05). Multifactors logistic regression analysis showed that TNF-α (OR = 0.893; p = 0.009) was an independent factor affecting whether IGR could combine with peripheral neuropathy. TNF-α and IL-6 could aggregate peripheral neuropathy in impaired glucose regulation patients; TNF-α might be independent risk factor for peripheral neuropathy in glucose regulation impaired patients. PMID:28251164
Remiche, G; Kadhim, H; Maris, C; Mavroudakis, N
Peripheral neuropathy implies damages to neurons belonging to the peripheral nervous system which includes cranial nerves, spinal nerves' roots, spinal ganglia, nerve trunks and their divisions, and, the autonomic nervous system. Peripheral neuropathies are frequent in the general population (prevalence: 2,4%). We present a review of the recent literature and highlight diagnostic approaches for certain types of neuropathies particularly the most frequent ones or those requiring peculiar attention in first-line medicine. We also present epidemiologic data and data related to sural nerve biopsies from our centre. The determination of the location and the topography of the affected sites, integrated into the global context of the patient, is essential to provide an etiologic diagnosis. The median nerve compression within the carpal tunnel and polyneuropathies are the most frequent forms of peripheral neuropathies. More than one hundred causes of polyneuropathies are described and they are divided into acquired, genetically determined and idiopathic. We highlight a largely adopted diagnostic strategy concerning polyneuropathies and describe the Guillain-Barre syndrome, the alcohol-related polyneuropathy and the controversies about the benefit of the B vitamin therapy and its dangers. At the Hôpital Erasme, since 2008, more than 1372 patients with peripheral neuropathy were identified. Results of sural nerve biopsies performed in seventeen of them do not largely differ from those of other centres of expertise. We conclude that the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy usually requires the expertise of a neurologist, but, first line caregivers must be able to recognize and refer patient when needed.
Mohty, Bilal; El-Cheikh, Jean; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Moreau, Philippe; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Mohty, Mohamad
In multiple myeloma, peripheral neuropathy has for a long time been considered as mainly secondary to the plasma cell dyscrasia itself. With the advent of new targeted drugs such as thalidomide and bortezomib, the iatrogenic neurotoxicity has become the leading cause of peripheral neuropathy. This review discusses the pathogenesis, incidence, risk factors, diagnosis, characteristics, and management of peripheral neuropathy related to new multiple myeloma drugs, mainly bortezomib and thalidomide. The current knowledge of the pathophysiology of the new forms of peripheral neuropathy is still limited. The mechanisms involved depend on the agents used, patient’s medical history, and duration of exposure and/or treatment doses or sequence. Diagnosis of such peripheral neuropathy is often easier than treatment. A full anamnesis and regular clinical evaluation are necessary. Electrophysiological assessments may support the diagnosis, although their contribution remains insufficient. Complex clinical features may require a specialized neurological assessment within the context of a multi-disciplinary approach. Finally, early detection of peripheral neuropathy and the use of dose adjustment algorithms as in the case of bortezomib, should help reduce the side effects while maintaining anti-tumor efficacy. PMID:20139393
Hosokawa, Toyoshi; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Naito, Yuji; Nakanishi, Masayoshi; Kokuba, Yukihito; Otsuji, Eigo; Kuroboshi, Haruo; Taniwaki, Masafumi; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Hosoi, Hajime; Nakamura, Terukazu; Miki, Tsuneharu
Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of Goshajinkigan for oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in colorectal cancer patients. Patients. Colorectal cancer patients (N = 29) who received ≥4 weeks of Goshajinkigan for oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy during chemotherapy at Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine were (Goshajinkigan group) compared to 44 patients who had not received Goshajinkigan during the same period (non-Goshajinkigan group). Main Outcome Measures. The effect of Goshajinkigan was graded as curative, effective, stabilizing, or deleterious. The relationships between the grade of peripheral neuropathy and the dose of oxaliplatin in the Goshajinkigan and non-Goshajinkigan groups were evaluated. Results. The effect of Goshajinkigan on peripheral neuropathy in the Goshajinkigan group was curative, effective, stabilizing, and deleterious in 3.4, 20.7, 69.0, and 6.9% of patients, compared to the effect in the non-Goshajinkigan group (4.5, 15.9, 45.5, and 34.1%). The ratio of deleterious effects was significantly different between these two groups (P = 0.04). A Kaplan-Meier analysis in relation to the cumulative dose of oxaliplatin showed that the incidence of grade 3 peripheral neuropathy tended to be less in the Goshajinkigan group (P = 0.05). There were no significant differences in time to treatment failure and severe adverse events between these two groups. Conclusions. Goshajinkigan prevented exacerbation of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. This trial is registered with UMIN000009956 PMID:24307899
Wong, Raimond; Sagar, Stephen
Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) occurs in 10 to 20% of cancer patients treated with neurotoxic chemotherapy. A mixture of sensory, sensorimotor and autonomic nervous system dysfunction can occur, resulting in deterioration in function and worsened quality of life. A major feature is discomfort and pain. Early termination of treatment and dose reduction of chemotherapy may be necessary. The clinical course is variable and depends on the chemotherapy agents and their cumulative dose. Although symptoms can resolve completely, in most patients CIPN is either only partially reversible or completely irreversible. Current management for CIPN is symptomatic using membrane stabilising medications and antidepressants. The use of nerve growth factors is still experimental. Dysaesthesia and pain involving the feet and hands are described in both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western biomedicine. In TCM, the pathogenesis is related to the inability to direct Qi and Blood to the extremities, and is associated with Qi, Blood, Yang and Kidney deficiencies. Acupuncture is moderately effective in treating diabetic neuropathy. However, to date, there is no report of the usefulness of acupuncture for CIPN. We report the result of a pilot prospective case series of five patients treated with an acupuncture protocol that aims to correct Qi, Blood and Yang deficiencies and directs Qi and Blood to the extremities, with the goal of improving the symptoms of CIPN. The responses were encouraging, and cannot be easily explained by the known neurophysiological mechanisms of acupuncture.
Douglas, Darlene S.; Popko, Brian
Forward genetics, the phenotype-driven approach to investigating gene identity and function, has a long history in mouse genetics. Random mutations in the mouse transcend bias about gene function and provide avenues towards unique discoveries. The study of the peripheral nervous system is no exception; from historical strains such as the trembler mouse, which led to the identification of PMP22 as a human disease gene causing multiple forms of peripheral neuropathy, to the more recent identification of the claw paw and sprawling mutations, forward genetics has long been a tool for probing the physiology, pathogenesis, and genetics of the PNS. Even as spontaneous and mutagenized mice continue to enable the identification of novel genes, provide allelic series for detailed functional studies, and generate models useful for clinical research, new methods, such as the piggyBac transposon, are being developed to further harness the power of forward genetics. PMID:18481175
Sheshah, Eman; Madanat, Amal; Al-Greesheh, Fahad; Al-Qaisi, Dalal; Al-Harbi, Mohammad; Aman, Reem; Al-Ghamdi, Abdul Aziz; Al-Madani, Khaled
Sudomotor dysfunction is manifested clinically as abnormal sweating leading to dryness of feet skin and increased risk of foot ulceration. The aim of this study was to test the performance of foot electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) to detect diabetic peripheral neuropathy and the risk of foot ulceration against traditional methods in Saudi patients with diabetes mellitus. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 296 Saudi patients with diabetes mellitus. Painful neuropathic symptoms were evaluated using the neuropathy symptom score (NSS). The risk of foot ulceration and diabetic peripheral neuropathy were determined using the neuropathy disability score (NDS). Vibration perception threshold (VPT) was assessed using neurothesiometer. Neurophysiological assessment of the right and left sural, peroneal and tibial nerves was performed in 222 participants. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy was defined according to the definition of the American Academy of Neurology. ESC was measured with Sudoscan. Feet-ESC decreased as the scores of sensory and motor function tests increased. Feet-ESC decreased as the NSS, NDS and severity of diabetic peripheral neuropathy increased. Sensitivity of feet-ESC < 50μS to detect diabetic peripheral neuropathy assessed by VPT ≥ 25 V, NDS ≥ 3, NDS ≥ 6 was 90.1, 61 and 63.8 % respectively and specificity 77, 85 and 81.9 % respectively. Sensitivity of feet-ESC < 70μS to detect diabetic peripheral neuropathy assessed by VPT ≥ 25 V, NDS ≥ 3, NDS ≥ 6 was 100, 80.6 and 80.9 % respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of feet-ESC < 70μS to detect confirmed-diabetic peripheral neuropathy were 67.5 and 58.9 % respectively. Sudoscan a simple and objective tool can be used to detect diabetic peripheral neuropathy and the risk of foot ulceration among patients with diabetes mellitus. Prospective studies to confirm our results are warranted.
Kiser, Deleslie W; Greer, Tara B; Wilmoth, Margaret C; Dmochowski, Jacek; Naumann, R Wendel
To analyze the incidence of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy in a set of patients with gynecologic cancer who were treated with known neurotoxic agents, to identify correlative factors related to patients' experience of neuropathy, and to analyze providers' assessment and treatment of neuropathy. Observational descriptive study of patient-reported neuropathy using a retrospective chart analysis. A hospital-based outpatient infusion center in the southeastern United States. A convenience sample of 171 patients with gynecologic cancer for a total of 302 chemotherapy treatments. A mixed model and compound symmetry covariance matrix was used to adjust for correlations between neuropathy treatment scores and patients who completed more than one chemotherapy cycle. Backward elimination method was used to determine the final model. Functional Assessment of Cancer Treatment/Gynecologic Oncology Group-Neuropathy Treatment scores, patients' demographic information, past medical history, and chemotherapy history. Patients who were physically shorter and heavier than the average population had the highest rating of neuropathy. Patients who were treated with nontaxane and platinum therapies had less neuropathy than patients who were treated with first-line taxanes and platinums. Neuropathy was noted by providers early in the course of treatment, and providers' grading was consistent with the patients' scoring. First-line treatments for gynecologic malignancies resulted in the highest neuropathy scores; however, patients who had received previous treatment with taxane and platinum therapies had lower neuropathy scores than patients currently receiving taxanes and platinums, suggesting that neuropathy improved after completion of first-line therapy and that second-line therapies were not necessarily correlative with worsening scores. Nurses must educate patients about symptoms of neuropathy and the need to report symptoms. Nurses must recognize patients at highest risk for
Ding, Jie; Cheung, Carol Y.; Ikram, M. Kamran; Zheng, Ying-Feng; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.; Tai, E. Shyong; Subramaniam, Tavintharan; Wong, Tien Yin
OBJECTIVE To examine the association between early retinal arteriolar abnormalities and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from 608 people (aged 40–80 years) with diabetes from the population-based Singapore Malay Eye Study were analyzed. Participants underwent binocular two-field digital retinal photography and quantitative sensory testing. DPN was defined as an abnormal response to a monofilament or neurothesiometer test. Quantitative changes of retinal vascular caliber and arteriolar bifurcation geometry were measured using a computer-based program. Qualitative retinal signs of retinopathy and retinal arteriolar wall signs were graded by standardized methods. RESULTS DPN was present in 155 people (25.5%). After adjusting for age, sex, diabetes duration, HbA1c, cardiovascular risk factors, antihypertensive medication use, and peripheral arterial disease, people with suboptimal arteriolar caliber (odds ratio 1.94 [95% CI 1.22–3.10]), larger arteriolar branching coefficient (1.58 [1.03–2.42]), diabetic retinopathy (1.82 [1.20–2.75]), and focal arteriolar narrowing (2.92 [1.48–5.76]) were more likely to have DPN. Participants with a greater number of retinal microvascular signs were more likely to have DPN than those without retinal changes (6.11 [2.11–17.71] for two or more signs and 3.47 [1.18–10.21] for one sign compared with none). CONCLUSIONS Individuals with diabetes with early retinal arteriolar abnormalities are more likely to have DPN, independent of hyperglycemia and major vascular risk factors. These data support the hypothesis that early microvascular dysfunction, evident in the retina, is an independent risk factor for DPN. PMID:22374638
Ding, Jie; Cheung, Carol Y; Ikram, M Kamran; Zheng, Ying-Feng; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Tai, E Shyong; Subramaniam, Tavintharan; Wong, Tien Yin
To examine the association between early retinal arteriolar abnormalities and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Data from 608 people (aged 40-80 years) with diabetes from the population-based Singapore Malay Eye Study were analyzed. Participants underwent binocular two-field digital retinal photography and quantitative sensory testing. DPN was defined as an abnormal response to a monofilament or neurothesiometer test. Quantitative changes of retinal vascular caliber and arteriolar bifurcation geometry were measured using a computer-based program. Qualitative retinal signs of retinopathy and retinal arteriolar wall signs were graded by standardized methods. DPN was present in 155 people (25.5%). After adjusting for age, sex, diabetes duration, HbA(1c), cardiovascular risk factors, antihypertensive medication use, and peripheral arterial disease, people with suboptimal arteriolar caliber (odds ratio 1.94 [95% CI 1.22-3.10]), larger arteriolar branching coefficient (1.58 [1.03-2.42]), diabetic retinopathy (1.82 [1.20-2.75]), and focal arteriolar narrowing (2.92 [1.48-5.76]) were more likely to have DPN. Participants with a greater number of retinal microvascular signs were more likely to have DPN than those without retinal changes (6.11 [2.11-17.71] for two or more signs and 3.47 [1.18-10.21] for one sign compared with none). Individuals with diabetes with early retinal arteriolar abnormalities are more likely to have DPN, independent of hyperglycemia and major vascular risk factors. These data support the hypothesis that early microvascular dysfunction, evident in the retina, is an independent risk factor for DPN.
Kärvestedt, Lars; Mårtensson, Eva; Grill, Valdemar; Elofsson, Stig; von Wendt, Gunvor; Hamsten, Anders; Brismar, Kerstin
OBJECTIVE—To assess associations between peripheral sensory neuropathy (PSN) and other diabetes-related complications. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD—In an area-based cohort of type 2 diabetic subjects, we investigated 156 subjects (age 61.7 ± 7.2 years and diabetes duration 7.0 ± 5.7 years) by questionnaires, clinical examinations, blood and urine sampling, and review of medical records. RESULTS—Prevalence of PSN, assessed by monofilament and neurothesiometer testing, increased with severity of retinopathy (50% frequency in moderate and 100% in severe or proliferative retinopathy; P = 0.02). Vibration perception threshold was higher in subjects with retinopathy (25.6 ± 8.9 vs. 20.5 ± 8.9 V; P = 0.007). PSN was more common in subjects with overt nephropathy, with higher vibration perception thresholds, than in subjects without overt nephropathy. Subjects with PSN but no retinopathy had twice the prevalence of peripheral vascular disease (PVD) (52%) as subjects with both PSN and retinopathy (19%; P = 0.05). In subjects with PSN alone, PVD was three times more likely (52%) than in subjects without PSN (16%; P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, PSN was independently associated with PVD (odds ratio 2.31; P = 0.007), age (1.12; P = 0.008), male sex (2.01; P = 0.02), and HDL cholesterol (0.21; P < 0.05) and tended to be independently associated with IGF-1 binding protein (1.03; P = 0.05) but not with diabetes duration or A1C. CONCLUSIONS—In a representative population of type 2 diabetes, PSN is related to microvascular and macrovascular pathology. PSN is possibly affected by the IGF axis. PMID:19033412
Avci, Ahmet; Demir, Kenan; Kaya, Zeynettin; Marakoglu, Kamile; Ceylan, Esra; Ekmekci, Ahmet Hakan; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Demir, Aysegul; Altunkeser, Bulent Behlul
We investigated the relationship between peripheral neuropathy and parameters of arterial stiffness and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study included 161 patients (80 females and 81 males), 69 of whom had peripheral neuropathy. All patients underwent 24-h blood pressure monitoring, and arterial stiffness parameters were measured. The CIMT was measured using B-mode ultrasonography and patients also underwent transthoracic echocardiographic examination. Patients with peripheral neuropathy, compared with those without it, were older (54.68±8.35 years vs. 51.04±7.89 years; p=0.005) and had T2DM for longer periods (60 vs. 36 months; p=0.004). Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values (8.55±1.85 mg/dL vs. 7.30±1.51 mg/dL; p<0.001), pulse wave velocity (PWV) (7.74±1.14 m/s vs. 7.15±1.10 m/s; p=0.001), CIMT (anterior 0.74±0.15 mm vs. 0.67±0.13 mm; p=0.01), and left ventricular mass (LVM) index (98.68±26.28 g/m2 vs. 89.71±19.70 g/m2; p=0.02) were all significantly increased in the group with peripheral neuropathy compared to the group without peripheral neuropathy. We determined that duration of diabetes, HbA1c, and LVM index were predictors of peripheral neuropathy. A significant relationship was found between diabetic neuropathy and increased PWV, a parameter of arterial stiffness, as well as CIMT, a marker of systemic atherosclerosis. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy may be a determinant of subclinical atherosclerosis in T2DM.
Avci, Ahmet; Demir, Kenan; Kaya, Zeynettin; Marakoglu, Kamile; Ceylan, Esra; Ekmekci, Ahmet Hakan; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Demir, Aysegul; Altunkeser, Bulent Behlul
Background We investigated the relationship between peripheral neuropathy and parameters of arterial stiffness and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Material/Methods The study included 161 patients (80 females and 81 males), 69 of whom had peripheral neuropathy. All patients underwent 24-h blood pressure monitoring, and arterial stiffness parameters were measured. The CIMT was measured using B-mode ultrasonography and patients also underwent transthoracic echocardiographic examination. Results Patients with peripheral neuropathy, compared with those without it, were older (54.68±8.35 years vs. 51.04±7.89 years; p=0.005) and had T2DM for longer periods (60 vs. 36 months; p=0.004). Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values (8.55±1.85 mg/dL vs. 7.30±1.51 mg/dL; p<0.001), pulse wave velocity (PWV) (7.74±1.14 m/s vs. 7.15±1.10 m/s; p=0.001), CIMT (anterior 0.74±0.15 mm vs. 0.67±0.13 mm; p=0.01), and left ventricular mass (LVM) index (98.68±26.28 g/m2 vs. 89.71±19.70 g/m2; p=0.02) were all significantly increased in the group with peripheral neuropathy compared to the group without peripheral neuropathy. We determined that duration of diabetes, HbA1c, and LVM index were predictors of peripheral neuropathy. Conclusions A significant relationship was found between diabetic neuropathy and increased PWV, a parameter of arterial stiffness, as well as CIMT, a marker of systemic atherosclerosis. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy may be a determinant of subclinical atherosclerosis in T2DM. PMID:25351260
Safka Brozkova, Dana; Deconinck, Tine; Griffin, Laurie Beth; Ferbert, Andreas; Haberlova, Jana; Mazanec, Radim; Lassuthova, Petra; Roth, Christian; Pilunthanakul, Thanita; Rautenstrauss, Bernd; Janecke, Andreas R; Zavadakova, Petra; Chrast, Roman; Rivolta, Carlo; Zuchner, Stephan; Antonellis, Anthony; Beg, Asim A; De Jonghe, Peter; Senderek, Jan; Seeman, Pavel; Baets, Jonathan
Inherited peripheral neuropathies are a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by distal muscle weakness and sensory loss. Mutations in genes encoding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases have been implicated in peripheral neuropathies, suggesting that these tRNA charging enzymes are uniquely important for the peripheral nerve. Recently, a mutation in histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HARS) was identified in a single patient with a late-onset, sensory-predominant peripheral neuropathy; however, the genetic evidence was lacking, making the significance of the finding unclear. Here, we present clinical, genetic, and functional data that implicate HARS mutations in inherited peripheral neuropathies. The associated phenotypic spectrum is broad and encompasses axonal and demyelinating motor and sensory neuropathies, including four young patients presenting with pure motor axonal neuropathy. Genome-wide linkage studies in combination with whole-exome and conventional sequencing revealed four distinct and previously unreported heterozygous HARS mutations segregating with autosomal dominant peripheral neuropathy in four unrelated families (p.Thr132Ile, p.Pro134His, p.Asp175Glu and p.Asp364Tyr). All mutations cause a loss of function in yeast complementation assays, and p.Asp364Tyr is dominantly neurotoxic in a Caenorhabditis elegans model. This study demonstrates the role of HARS mutations in peripheral neuropathy and expands the genetic and clinical spectrum of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-related human disease. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Dina, Olayinka A.; Khasar, Sachia G.; Alessandri-Haber, Nicole; Bogen, Oliver; Chen, Xiaojie; Green, Paul G.; Reichling, David B.; Messing, Robert O.; Levine, Jon D.
Neurotoxic effects of catecholamine metabolites have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Since some sensory neurons express tyrosine hydroxylase and monoamine oxidase (MAO) we investigated the potential contribution of catecholamine metabolites to neuropathic pain in a model of alcoholic neuropathy. The presence of catecholamines in sensory neurons is supported by capsaicin-stimulated epinephrine release, an effect enhanced in ethanol-fed rats. mRNA for enzymes in dorsal root ganglia involved in catecholamine uptake and metabolism, dopamine β-hydroxylase and MAO-A, were decreased by neonatal administration of capsaicin. Ethanol-induced hyperalgesia was attenuated by systemic and local peripheral administration of inhibitors of MAO-A, reduction of norepinephrine transporter (NET) in sensory neurons, and a NET inhibitor. Finally, intradermal injection of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde (DOPEGAL), a neurotoxic MAO-A catecholamine metabolite, produced robust mechanical hyperalgesia. These observations suggest that catecholamines in nociceptors are metabolized to neurotoxic products by MAO-A, which can cause neuronal dysfunction underlying neuropathic pain. PMID:18783367
Dina, Olayinka A; Khasar, Sachia G; Alessandri-Haber, Nicole; Bogen, Oliver; Chen, Xiaojie; Green, Paul G; Reichling, David B; Messing, Robert O; Levine, Jon D
The neurotoxic effects of catecholamine metabolites have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. As some sensory neurons express tyrosine hydroxylase and monoamine oxidase (MAO), we investigated the potential contribution of catecholamine metabolites to neuropathic pain in a model of alcoholic neuropathy. The presence of catecholamines in sensory neurons is supported by capsaicin-stimulated epinephrine release, an effect enhanced in ethanol-fed rats. mRNA for enzymes in dorsal root ganglia involved in catecholamine uptake and metabolism, dopamine beta-hydroxylase and MAO-A, were decreased by neonatal administration of capsaicin. Ethanol-induced hyperalgesia was attenuated by systemic and local peripheral administration of inhibitors of MAO-A, reduction of norepinephrine transporter (NET) in sensory neurons and a NET inhibitor. Finally, intradermal injection of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde (DOPEGAL), a neurotoxic MAO-A catecholamine metabolite, produced robust mechanical hyperalgesia. These observations suggest that catecholamines in nociceptors are metabolized to neurotoxic products by MAO-A, which can cause neuronal dysfunction underlying neuropathic pain.
Filipczak-Bryniarska, Iwona; Krzyzewski, Roger M; Kucharz, Jakub; Michalowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna; Kleja, Justyna; Woron, Jarosław; Strzepek, Katarzyna; Kazior, Lucyna; Wordliczek, Jerzy; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Krzemieniecki, Krzysztof
High-dose capsaicin patch is effective in treatment of neuropathic pain in HIV-associated neuropathy and diabetic neuropathy. There are no studies assessing effectiveness of high-dose capsaicin patch in treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. We sought to determine the effectiveness of treatment of pain associated with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy with high-dose capsaicin patch. Our study group consisted of 18 patients with clinically confirmed oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Baseline characteristic including underling disease, received cumulative dose of neurotoxic agent, neuropathic symptoms, prior treatment and initial pain level were recorded. Pain was evaluated with Numeric Rating Scale prior to treatment with high-dose capsaicin and after 1.8 day and after 8 and 12 weeks after introducing treatment. Patients were divided into two groups accordingly to the amount of neurotoxic agent that caused neuropathy (high sensitivity and low sensitivity group). Most frequent symptoms of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy were: pain (88.89%), paresthesis (100%), sock and gloves sensation (100%) and hypoesthesis (100%). Initial pain level was 7.45 ± 1.14. Mean cumulative dose of oxaliplatin after which patients developed symptoms was 648.07 mg/m(2). Mean pain level after 12 weeks of treatment was 0.20 ± 0.41. When examined according to high and low sensitivity to neurotoxic agent patients with low sensitivity had higher pain reduction, especially after 8 days after introducing treatment (69.55 ± 12.09 vs. 49.40 ± 20.34%; p = 0.02) and after 12 weeks (96.96 ± 5.56 vs. 83.93 ± 18.59%; p = 0.04). High-dose capsaicin patch is an effective treatment for pain associated with chemotherapy-induced neuropathy in patients treated with oxaliplatin. Patients with lower sensitivity to neurotoxic agents have better response to treatment and pain reduction.
O'Donnell, Mark E; Badger, Stephen A; Sharif, Muhammed Anees; Makar, Ragai R; Young, Ian S; Lee, Bernard; Soong, Chee V
Evidence from diabetic animal models suggests that cilostazol, a cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of claudication, is efficacious in the treatment of peripheral neuropathy, although this is unproven in humans. The main aim of this study was to assess the effects of cilostazol on neuropathic symptomatology in diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Diabetic patients with PAD were prospectively recruited to a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Baseline clinical data were recorded prior to trial commencement following medical optimization. Neurological assessment included the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Scoring system (TCNS) and vibration perception thresholds (VPT) with a neurothesiometer at baseline, 6 weeks, and 24 weeks. Twenty-six patients were recruited from December 2004 to January 2006, which included 20 males. Baseline patient allocation to treatment arms was matched for age, sex, and medical comorbidities. There was no significant difference in neurological assessment between the treatment groups using the TCNS and VPT at 6 and 24 weeks. Despite extensive animal-based evidence that cilostazol attenuates neuropathic symptomatology, our results do not support this effect in human diabetic PAD patients.
Park, Jae Sung; Kim, Sangri; Hoke, Ahmet
Peripheral neuropathy is a major, dose-limiting complication of many chemotherapeutic agents. Currently there is no effective method to prevent development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Recent studies have shown that exercise can improve regeneration of peripheral nerves but its effect in preventing peripheral neuropathy is unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of a rigorous treadmill exercise program that was started 1 week before administration of paclitaxel and continued throughout the study in a mouse model of CIPN. We showed that exercise can partially abrogate features of axonal degeneration induced by paclitaxel including reduction in epidermal nerve fiber density in the plantar hind paw and thermal hypoalgesia. Furthermore, detyrosinated tubulin that is elevated in nerves treated with paclitaxel was normal in exercised animals. This study points to a relatively simple and potentially effective therapeutic option to reduce the neurotoxic effects of chemotherapy. © 2015 Peripheral Nerve Society.
Visovsky, Constance; Meyer, Rachel R; Roller, Jeffre; Poppas, Megan
Recently, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy has received a great deal of attention. However, the interaction of diabetic neuropathy with potentially neurotoxic chemotherapy is far less understood. The incidence of type II diabetes has risen exponentially in the past two decades. In concert with the rise in type II diabetes, the number of individuals with diabetes who need chemotherapy for cancer also is expected to increase. Diabetic neuropathy and the neurotoxic effects of chemotherapy have a significant potential to cause functional disability. Diabetics may be most at risk for the effects of neurotoxic agents on peripheral nerve functioning, in addition to the other effects induced by chemotherapeutic agents. The purpose of this article is to review the evaluation, management, and clinical implications of peripheral neuropathy in patients with cancer and diabetes.
Jayakumar, Palanisamy; Shankar, Esaki Muthu; Karthikeyan, Murugesan; Ravikannan, Pandian
The mechanisms behind certain co-morbid conditions associated with chronic HIV disease still remain elusive. HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy is one among those rarely studied manifestations in HIV-1 infection. Numerous underlying factors associated with peripheral neuropathy have been described in HIV disease. Herein, we hypothesized certain heretofore undescribed potential mechanisms that lead to HIV associated neuropathy. Being a multifactoral manifestation, HIV-associated neuropathy is presumed to have an association with physiological factors namely, adrenal inadequacy/steroid resistance and lipodystrophy-induced cushion-effect loss in peripheral nerves. Therefore, management of the adrenals with steroids at the time-point of high inflammatory burden thereby preventing lipodystrophy by selecting the optimum treatment regimen could markedly alleviate the severity of HIV-associated neuropathic manifestations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kessler, Nathan J; Hong, Junggi
The unsatisfactory results associated with conventional treatments for symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) demonstrate a need for research into alternative therapies. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of whole body vibration therapy (WBV) as a treatment for pain associated with DPN. Participants (n = 8) with painful DPN received three treatment sessions per week for four weeks. Each session consisted of four bouts of 3 min of vibration (frequency 25 Hz, amplitude 5 mm). The primary outcome measures were changes in the visual analog pain scale (VAS) and changes in the neuropathic pain scale (NPS). WBV demonstrated a significant (p < 0.05) acute pain reduction in the VAS, and a significant chronic reduction in both the VAS and NPS scales. No side-effects were observed during this study. WBV appears to be an effective, non-invasive treatment for pain associated with DPN.
Nudelman, Kelly N H; McDonald, Brenna C; Wang, Yang; Smith, Dori J; West, John D; O'Neill, Darren P; Zanville, Noah R; Champion, Victoria L; Schneider, Bryan P; Saykin, Andrew J
To investigate the longitudinal relationship between chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) symptoms (sx) and brain perfusion changes in patients with breast cancer. Interaction of CIPN-sx perfusion effects with known chemotherapy-associated gray matter density decrease was also assessed to elucidate the relationship between CIPN and previously reported cancer treatment-related brain structural changes. Patients with breast cancer treated with (n = 24) or without (n = 23) chemotherapy underwent clinical examination and brain magnetic resonance imaging at the following three time points: before treatment (baseline), 1 month after treatment completion, and 1 year after the 1-month assessment. CIPN-sx were evaluated with the self-reported Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy/Gynecologic Oncology Group-Neurotoxicity four-item sensory-specific scale. Perfusion and gray matter density were assessed using voxel-based pulsed arterial spin labeling and morphometric analyses and tested for association with CIPN-sx in the patients who received chemotherapy. Patients who received chemotherapy reported significantly increased CIPN-sx from baseline to 1 month, with partial recovery by 1 year (P < .001). CIPN-sx increase from baseline to 1 month was significantly greater for patients who received chemotherapy compared with those who did not (P = .001). At 1 month, neuroimaging showed that for the group that received chemotherapy, CIPN-sx were positively associated with cerebral perfusion in the right superior frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus, regions associated with pain processing (P < .001). Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging analysis in the group receiving chemotherapy indicated that CIPN-sx and associated perfusion changes from baseline to 1 month were also positively correlated with gray matter density change (P < .005). Peripheral neuropathy symptoms after systemic chemotherapy for breast cancer are associated with changes in cerebral perfusion and gray
Nudelman, Kelly N.H.; McDonald, Brenna C.; Wang, Yang; Smith, Dori J.; West, John D.; O'Neill, Darren P.; Zanville, Noah R.; Champion, Victoria L.; Schneider, Bryan P.
Purpose To investigate the longitudinal relationship between chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) symptoms (sx) and brain perfusion changes in patients with breast cancer. Interaction of CIPN-sx perfusion effects with known chemotherapy-associated gray matter density decrease was also assessed to elucidate the relationship between CIPN and previously reported cancer treatment–related brain structural changes. Methods Patients with breast cancer treated with (n = 24) or without (n = 23) chemotherapy underwent clinical examination and brain magnetic resonance imaging at the following three time points: before treatment (baseline), 1 month after treatment completion, and 1 year after the 1-month assessment. CIPN-sx were evaluated with the self-reported Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy/Gynecologic Oncology Group–Neurotoxicity four-item sensory-specific scale. Perfusion and gray matter density were assessed using voxel-based pulsed arterial spin labeling and morphometric analyses and tested for association with CIPN-sx in the patients who received chemotherapy. Results Patients who received chemotherapy reported significantly increased CIPN-sx from baseline to 1 month, with partial recovery by 1 year (P < .001). CIPN-sx increase from baseline to 1 month was significantly greater for patients who received chemotherapy compared with those who did not (P = .001). At 1 month, neuroimaging showed that for the group that received chemotherapy, CIPN-sx were positively associated with cerebral perfusion in the right superior frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus, regions associated with pain processing (P < .001). Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging analysis in the group receiving chemotherapy indicated that CIPN-sx and associated perfusion changes from baseline to 1 month were also positively correlated with gray matter density change (P < .005). Conclusion Peripheral neuropathy symptoms after systemic chemotherapy for breast cancer are associated with
Gupta, Harsh V; Lee, Ricky W; Raina, Sunil K; Behrle, Brian L; Hinduja, Archana; Mittal, Manoj K
YouTube is an important resource for patients. No study has evaluated the information on peripheral neuropathy disseminated by YouTube videos. In this study, our aim was to perform a systematic review of information on YouTube regarding peripheral neuropathy. The Web site (www.youtube.com) was searched between September 19 and 21, 2014, for the terms "neuropathy," "peripheral neuropathy," "diabetic neuropathy," "neuropathy causes," and "neuropathy treatment." Two hundred videos met the inclusion criteria. Healthcare professionals accounted for almost half of the treatment videos (41 of 92; 44.6%), and most came from chiropractors (18 of 41; 43.9%). Alternative medicine was cited most frequently among the treatment discussions (54 of 145, 37.2%), followed by devices (38 of 145, 26.2%), and pharmacological treatments (23 of 145, 15.9%). Approximately half of the treatment options discussed in the videos were not evidence-based. Caution should be exercised when YouTube videos are used as a patient resource. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Prior, Robert; Van Helleputte, Lawrence; Benoy, Veronick; Van Den Bosch, Ludo
Peripheral neuropathies are characterized by a progressive and length-dependent loss of peripheral nerve function. This can be caused either by genetic defects, classified as 'inherited peripheral neuropathies', or they can be acquired throughout life. In that case, the disease is caused by various insults such as toxins and mechanical injuries, or it can arise secondary to medical conditions such as metabolic disorders, nutritional deficiencies, inflammation and infections. Peripheral neuropathies are not only very heterogeneous in etiology, but also in their pathology and clinical presentation. A commonality amongst all peripheral neuropathies is that no pharmacological disease-modifying therapies currently exist that can reverse or cure these diseases. Moreover, the length-dependent nature of the disease, affecting the longest nerves at the most distal sites, suggests an important role for disturbances in axonal transport, directly or indirectly linked to alterations in the cytoskeleton. In this review, we will give a systematic overview of the main arguments for the involvement of axonal transport defects in both inherited and acquired peripheral neuropathies. In addition, we will discuss the possible therapeutic strategies that can potentially counteract these disturbances, as this particular pathway might be a promising strategy to find a cure. Since counteracting axonal transport defects could limit the axonal degeneration and could be a driving force for neuronal regeneration, the benefits might be twofold. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brown, Steven J; Handsaker, Joseph C; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Bowling, Frank L; Boulton, Andrew J M; Reeves, Neil D
To investigate lower limb biomechanical strategy during stair walking in patients with diabetes and patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, a population known to exhibit lower limb muscular weakness. The peak lower limb joint moments of twenty-two patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy and thirty-nine patients with diabetes and no neuropathy were compared during ascent and descent of a staircase to thirty-two healthy controls. Fifty-nine of the ninety-four participants also performed assessment of their maximum isokinetic ankle and knee joint moment (muscle strength) to assess the level of peak joint moments during the stair task relative to their maximal joint moment-generating capabilities (operating strengths). Both patient groups ascended and descended stairs slower than controls (p<0.05). Peak joint moments in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy were lower (p<0.05) at the ankle and knee during stair ascent, and knee only during stair descent compared to controls. Ankle and knee muscle strength values were lower (p<0.05) in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared to controls, and lower at knee only in patients without neuropathy. Operating strengths were higher (p<0.05) at the ankle and knee in patients with neuropathy during stair descent compared to the controls, but not during stair ascent. Patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy walk slower to alter gait strategy during stair walking and account for lower-limb muscular weakness, but still exhibit heightened operating strengths during stair descent, which may impact upon fatigue and the ability to recover a safe stance following postural instability. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Majithia, Neil; Temkin, Sarah M.; Ruddy, Kathryn J.; Beutler, Andreas S.; Hershman, Dawn L.; Loprinzi, Charles L.
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is one of the most common and debilitating complications of cancer treatment. Due to a lack of effective management options for patients with CIPN, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a series of trials aimed at both prevention and treatment. A total of 15 such studies were approved, evaluating use of various neuro-modulatory agents which have shown benefit in other neuropathic pain states. Aside from duloxetine, none of the pharmacologic methods demonstrated therapeutic benefit for patients with CIPN. Despite these disappointing results, the series of trials revealed important lessons that have informed subsequent work. Some examples of this include the use of patient-reported symptom metrics, the elimination of traditional—yet unsubstantiated—practice approaches, and the discovery of molecular genetic predictors of neuropathy. Current inquiry is being guided by the results from these large-scale trials, and as such, stands better chance of identifying durable solutions for this treatment-limiting toxicity. PMID:26686859
Tucker, K; Hedges, T R
From late 1991 to mid-1993, cases of optic neuropathy of unknown etiology, which first appeared in unusual numbers in a western province of Cuba, spread and multiplied throughout the island. The dominant symptoms changed, becoming increasingly those of peripheral neuropathy. Incidence rates peaked in April 1993. An estimated 50,000 cases were reported. The majority were adult men and women (aged about 25-65), with comparatively few children or elderly people being affected. The cause has yet to be delineated. However, food shortages and radical changes in diet resulting from the longstanding US trade embargo and the recent loss of Eastern Europe as Cuba's trading partner have compromised nutritional status, especially B-vitamin sufficiency, and appear to be related to the neuropathic illnesses. In April 1993, the Cuban government began distributing vitamin supplements to every citizen. Causal hypotheses include tobacco-alcohol or "nutritional" amblyopia; cyanide toxicity from cassava; toxic legumes introduced as supplements to scarce flour; other toxins, for example pesticides, or a "blue mold" on tobacco; enterovirus; and a hereditary enzyme deficiency in affected persons. None of these factors appears to be present in all cases, but it is generally believed that an interaction of some toxin or toxins, in combination with nutritional deficiency, is likely to be the major cause.
Nguyen, M T; Pham, I; Chemla, D; Valensi, P; Cosson, E
To document the stroke volume to pulse pressure ratio (SV/PP, an index of total arterial compliance) and its correlates in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) aged over 50 years whose peripheral neuropathy and silent myocardial ischemic (SMI) status were known. A total of 360 patients with T2DM aged ≥ 50 years, without cardiac history or symptom, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, dilatation and hypokinesia, were retrospectively enrolled. The SV/PP was calculated from echocardiographic left ventricular measurements and brachial blood pressure at rest. Peripheral neuropathy was defined as the presence of any two or more of the following: neuropathic symptoms, decreased distal sensation, or decreased or absent ankle reflexes. SMI was defined as an abnormal stress myocardial scintigraphy and/or stress echocardiography. A low SV/PP ratio (<0.53 ml/m²/mmHg, first tertile) was associated with age, creatinine clearance, 24 h urinary albumin excretion rate, peripheral neuropathy, hypertension, serum total cholesterol and triglycerides levels (p < 0.05-0.0001). In multivariate analysis, age (OR 1.1 [1.0-1.2], p < 0.01), triglycerides (OR 1.5 [1.2-2.0], p = 0.01) and peripheral neuropathy (OR 2.2 [1.2-3.9], p = 0.009) were independently associated with a low SV/PP. The patients with peripheral neuropathy had lower SV (p < 0.01) and higher PP (p < 0.05) than those without, and only lower SV after adjustment for age and nephropathy. Similar results were obtained in the patients with and without SMI. Peripheral neuropathy was independently associated with decreased SV/PP, mainly through decreased SV, in patients with T2DM over 50 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hussain, Gauhar; Rizvi, S Aijaz Abbas; Singhal, Sangeeta; Zubair, Mohammad; Ahmad, Jamal
To correlate serum levels of TGF-β1 with motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus The study was conducted in diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients which were divided in patients with clinically detectable peripheral neuropathy of shorter duration (n=37) and longer duration (n=27). They were compared with patients without clinical neuropathy (n=22). Clinical diagnosis was based on neuropathy symptom score (NSS) and Neuropathy disability score (NDS) for signs. Blood samples were collected for baseline investigations and estimation of serum TGF-β1. Nerve conduction velocity was measured in both upper and lower limbs. Median, Ulnar, Common Peroneal and Posterior Tibial nerves were selected for motor nerve conduction study and Median and Sural nerves were selected for sensory nerve conduction study In patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus with clinically detectable and serum TGF-β1 showed positive correlation with nerve conduction velocities High level of TGF-β1 in serum of T2DM patients with neuropathy show possible contribution in development of neuropathy. Due to its independent association this cytokine might be used as biomarker for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leport, C; Chaunu, M P; Sicre, J; Brun-Vezinet, F; Hauw, J J; Vildé, J L
An unexplained peripheral neuropathy was observed in five patients with positive serology for LAV/HTLV III. Three of them presented with polyneuropathy, one with chronic meningitis and oculomotor palsies, and one with a mononeuropathy. CSF was abnormal in 5/5, with elevated protein content (0.4-4 g/l) and abnormal cell count (29-65/mm3). Intrathecal production of LAV-specific IgG was demonstrated in 3/4 cases. Electromyographic examination showed reduced nerve conduction velocity in 4/5. Neuromuscular biopsy revealed microvasculitis with mononuclear cell infiltrates in 3/4 cases; characterization of these cells showed that they were predominantly non monoclonal T8 lymphocytes. Other symptoms of "AIDS-related complex" were present in all five patients. None had other causes of peripheral neuropathy. Thus, peripheral neuropathy can be the initial manifestation of LAV/HTLV III infection. Isolation of the virus from the nerve in one published case, and arguments for intrathecal synthesis of LAV-specific IgG suggest the direct role of this agent; however, the lymphocytic infiltration seen in three of our cases favours an indirect immune mechanism, as in other organs, such as lungs and lymph nodes.
Fong, Jamie C.; Rojas, Julio C.; Bang, Jee; Legati, Andrea; Rankin, Katherine P.; Forner, Sven; Miller, Zachary A.; Karydas, Anna M.; Coppola, Giovanni; Grouse, Carrie K.; Ralph, Jeffrey; Miller, Bruce L.; Geschwind, Michael D.
Patients with pathogenic truncating mutations in the prion gene (PRNP) usually present with prolonged disease courses with severe neurofibrillary tangle and cerebral amyloidosis pathology, but more atypical phenotypes also occur, including those with dysautonomia and peripheral neuropathy. We describe the neurological, cognitive, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological features of a 31-year-old man presenting with an orbitofrontal syndrome, gastrointestinal symptoms, and peripheral neuropathy associated with PRNP Q160X nonsense mutation, with symptom onset at age 27. The mutation was also detected in his asymptomatic father and a symptomatic paternal cousin; several members of prior generations died from early onset dementia. This is the first report of a family affected with the nonsense PRNP mutation Q160X displaying clear autosomal dominant disease in multiple family members and reduced penetrance. This case strengthens the evidence suggesting an association between PRNP truncating mutations and prion systemic amyloidosis. PRNP gene testing should be considered in any patient with atypical dementia, especially with early onset and neuropathy, even in the absence of a family history. PMID:27716661
Watanabe, Yuka; Odaka, Masaaki; Hirata, Koichi
We report the case of a 28-year-old woman with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) associated with cerebellar ataxia, dilated cardiomyopathy and peripheral neuropathy. She had a mitochondrial DNA point mutation from guanine to adenine at nucleotide position 11778 and developed ataxic gait within 2 years after the onset of bilateral visual loss. A neurological examination detected horizontal nystagmus, bradylalia, and truncal and bilateral limb ataxia of the cerebellar type. She could walk, albeit unsteadily. There was no weakness in her arms and legs. Tendon jerks were diminished in both the upper arms. Bilateral knee and ankle jerks were absent, and the plantar responses were neutral. Paresthesia of the stocking type was present but no reduction of pinprick, position or vibration senses was detected in the paresthetic regions. Romberg's sign was negative. Brain MRI showed atrophic changes in both the cerebellar vermis and the hemispheres. Nerve conduction studies detected mildly decreased motor nerve conduction velocities in the median, ulnar and posterior tibial nerves. Ultrasound cardiography showed a dilated left ventricle. It was not possible to clarify the relationship between LHON and cerebellar atrophy, cardiomyopathy, and peripheral neuropathy. However, physicians, need to be aware that the patients may develop various neurological complications after the onset of optic neuropathy in LHON.
Chhibber, Aparna; Mefford, Joel; Stahl, Eli A.; Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Baldwin, R. Michael; Owzar, Kouros; Li, Megan; Winer, Eric P.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Zembutsu, Hitoshi; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; McLeod, Howard L.; Ratain, Mark J.; Shulman, Lawrence N.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Plenge, Robert M.; Witte, John S.; Kroetz, Deanna L.
Peripheral neuropathy is a common dose-limiting toxicity for patients treated with paclitaxel. For most individuals there are no known risk factors that predispose patients to the adverse event, and pathogenesis for paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy is unknown. Determining whether there is a heritable component to paclitaxel induced peripheral neuropathy would be valuable in guiding clinical decisions and may provide insight into treatment of and mechanisms for the toxicity. Using genotype and patient information from the paclitaxel arm of CALGB 40101 (Alliance), a phase III clinical trial evaluating adjuvant therapies for breast cancer in women, we estimated the variance in maximum grade and dose at first instance of sensory peripheral neuropathy. Our results suggest that paclitaxel-induced neuropathy has a heritable component, driven in part by genes involved in axon outgrowth. Disruption of axon outgrowth may be one of the mechanisms by which paclitaxel treatment results in sensory peripheral neuropathy in susceptible patients. PMID:24513692
Chhibber, A; Mefford, J; Stahl, E A; Pendergrass, S A; Baldwin, R M; Owzar, K; Li, M; Winer, E P; Hudis, C A; Zembutsu, H; Kubo, M; Nakamura, Y; McLeod, H L; Ratain, M J; Shulman, L N; Ritchie, M D; Plenge, R M; Witte, J S; Kroetz, D L
Peripheral neuropathy is a common dose-limiting toxicity for patients treated with paclitaxel. For most individuals, there are no known risk factors that predispose patients to the adverse event, and pathogenesis for paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy is unknown. Determining whether there is a heritable component to paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy would be valuable in guiding clinical decisions and may provide insight into treatment of and mechanisms for the toxicity. Using genotype and patient information from the paclitaxel arm of CALGB 40101 (Alliance), a phase III clinical trial evaluating adjuvant therapies for breast cancer in women, we estimated the variance in maximum grade and dose at first instance of sensory peripheral neuropathy. Our results suggest that paclitaxel-induced neuropathy has a heritable component, driven in part by genes involved in axon outgrowth. Disruption of axon outgrowth may be one of the mechanisms by which paclitaxel treatment results in sensory peripheral neuropathy in susceptible patients.
Kerckhove, Nicolas; Collin, Aurore; Condé, Sakahlé; Chaleteix, Carine; Pezet, Denis; Balayssac, David
Neurotoxic anticancer drugs, such as platinum-based anticancer drugs, taxanes, vinca alkaloids, and proteasome/angiogenesis inhibitors are responsible for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). The health consequences of CIPN remain worrying as it is associated with several comorbidities and affects a specific population of patients already impacted by cancer, a strong driver for declines in older adults. The purpose of this review is to present a comprehensive overview of the long-term effects of CIPN in cancer patients and survivors. Pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors are also presented. Neurotoxic mechanisms leading to CIPNs are not yet fully understood but involve neuronopathy and/or axonopathy, mainly associated with DNA damage, oxidative stress, mitochondria toxicity, and ion channel remodeling in the neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Classical symptoms of CIPNs are peripheral neuropathy with a “stocking and glove” distribution characterized by sensory loss, paresthesia, dysesthesia and numbness, sometimes associated with neuropathic pain in the most serious cases. Several risk factors can promote CIPN as a function of the anticancer drug considered, such as cumulative dose, treatment duration, history of neuropathy, combination of therapies and genetic polymorphisms. CIPNs are frequent in cancer patients with an overall incidence of approximately 38% (possibly up to 90% of patients treated with oxaliplatin). Finally, the long-term reversibility of these CIPNs remain questionable, notably in the case of platinum-based anticancer drugs and taxanes, for which CIPN may last several years after the end of anticancer chemotherapies. These long-term effects are associated with comorbidities such as depression, insomnia, falls and decreases of health-related quality of life in cancer patients and survivors. However, it is noteworthy that these long-term effects remain poorly studied, and only limited data are available such as in
Kerckhove, Nicolas; Collin, Aurore; Condé, Sakahlé; Chaleteix, Carine; Pezet, Denis; Balayssac, David
Neurotoxic anticancer drugs, such as platinum-based anticancer drugs, taxanes, vinca alkaloids, and proteasome/angiogenesis inhibitors are responsible for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). The health consequences of CIPN remain worrying as it is associated with several comorbidities and affects a specific population of patients already impacted by cancer, a strong driver for declines in older adults. The purpose of this review is to present a comprehensive overview of the long-term effects of CIPN in cancer patients and survivors. Pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors are also presented. Neurotoxic mechanisms leading to CIPNs are not yet fully understood but involve neuronopathy and/or axonopathy, mainly associated with DNA damage, oxidative stress, mitochondria toxicity, and ion channel remodeling in the neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Classical symptoms of CIPNs are peripheral neuropathy with a "stocking and glove" distribution characterized by sensory loss, paresthesia, dysesthesia and numbness, sometimes associated with neuropathic pain in the most serious cases. Several risk factors can promote CIPN as a function of the anticancer drug considered, such as cumulative dose, treatment duration, history of neuropathy, combination of therapies and genetic polymorphisms. CIPNs are frequent in cancer patients with an overall incidence of approximately 38% (possibly up to 90% of patients treated with oxaliplatin). Finally, the long-term reversibility of these CIPNs remain questionable, notably in the case of platinum-based anticancer drugs and taxanes, for which CIPN may last several years after the end of anticancer chemotherapies. These long-term effects are associated with comorbidities such as depression, insomnia, falls and decreases of health-related quality of life in cancer patients and survivors. However, it is noteworthy that these long-term effects remain poorly studied, and only limited data are available such as in the
Rajaobelina, K; Farges, B; Nov, S; Maury, E; Cephise-Velayoudom, F L; Gin, H; Helmer, C; Rigalleau, V
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in diabetes complications. We aimed to investigate whether the accumulation of AGEs measured by skin autofluorescence (sAF) was associated with signs of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and to sensitivity, pain, motor and autonomic function 4 years later in patients with type 1 diabetes. At baseline, 188 patients (age 51 years, diabetes duration 22 years) underwent skin autofluorescence measurement using the AGE Reader. Four years later, signs of diabetic peripheral neuropathy were defined as the presence of neuropathic pain and/or feet sensory loss or foot ulceration. Neurological tests were systematically performed: vibration perception threshold by neuroesthesiometry, neuropathic pain by the Douleur Neuropathique en 4 Questions score, muscle strength by dynamometry and electrochemical skin conductance. Multivariate analyses were adjusted by age, sex, height, body mass index, tobacco, HbA1c , diabetes duration, estimated glomerular filtration rate and albumin excretion rate. At the 4-year follow-up, 13.8% of patients had signs of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The baseline sAF was higher in those with signs of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (2.5 ± 0.7 vs 2.1 ± 0.5 arbitrary units (AU), p < 0.0005). In the multivariate analysis, a 1 SD higher skin autofluorescence at baseline was associated with an increased risk of signs of neuropathy (OR = 2.68, p = 0.01). All of the neurological tests were significantly altered in the highest quartile of the baseline sAF (>2.4 AU) compared with the lowest quartiles after multivariate adjustment. This non-invasive measurement of skin autofluorescence may have a value for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 1 diabetes and a potential clinical utility for detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pitceathly, Robert D. S.; Blake, Julian C.; Woodward, Catherine E.; Zapater, Pedro; Fratter, Carl; Mudanohwo, Ese E.; Plant, Gordon T.; Houlden, Henry; Sweeney, Mary G.; Hanna, Michael G.; Reilly, Mary M.
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is a common clinical feature in mitochondrial disease caused by nuclear DNA defects and single, large-scale mitochondrial DNA deletions and is less frequently associated with point mutations of mitochondrial DNA. Peripheral neuropathy is also a frequent manifestation of mitochondrial disease, although its prevalence and characteristics varies considerably among the different syndromes and genetic aetiologies. Based on clinical observations, we systematically investigated whether the presence of peripheral neuropathy could predict the underlying genetic defect in patients with progressive external ophthalmoplegia. We analysed detailed demographic, clinical and neurophysiological data from 116 patients with genetically-defined mitochondrial disease and progressive external ophthalmoplegia. Seventy-eight patients (67%) had a single mitochondrial DNA deletion, 12 (10%) had a point mutation of mitochondrial DNA and 26 (22%) had mutations in either POLG, C10orf2 or RRM2B, or had multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in muscle without an identified nuclear gene defect. Seventy-seven patients had neurophysiological studies; of these, 16 patients (21%) had a large-fibre peripheral neuropathy. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy was significantly lower in patients with a single mitochondrial DNA deletion (2%) as compared to those with a point mutation of mitochondrial DNA or with a nuclear DNA defect (44% and 52%, respectively; P < 0.001). Univariate analyses revealed significant differences in the distribution of other clinical features between genotypes, including age at disease onset, gender, family history, progressive external ophthalmoplegia at clinical presentation, hearing loss, pigmentary retinopathy and extrapyramidal features. However, binomial logistic regression analysis identified peripheral neuropathy as the only independent predictor associated with a nuclear DNA defect (P = 0.002; odds ratio 8.43, 95% confidence
Horga, Alejandro; Pitceathly, Robert D S; Blake, Julian C; Woodward, Catherine E; Zapater, Pedro; Fratter, Carl; Mudanohwo, Ese E; Plant, Gordon T; Houlden, Henry; Sweeney, Mary G; Hanna, Michael G; Reilly, Mary M
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is a common clinical feature in mitochondrial disease caused by nuclear DNA defects and single, large-scale mitochondrial DNA deletions and is less frequently associated with point mutations of mitochondrial DNA. Peripheral neuropathy is also a frequent manifestation of mitochondrial disease, although its prevalence and characteristics varies considerably among the different syndromes and genetic aetiologies. Based on clinical observations, we systematically investigated whether the presence of peripheral neuropathy could predict the underlying genetic defect in patients with progressive external ophthalmoplegia. We analysed detailed demographic, clinical and neurophysiological data from 116 patients with genetically-defined mitochondrial disease and progressive external ophthalmoplegia. Seventy-eight patients (67%) had a single mitochondrial DNA deletion, 12 (10%) had a point mutation of mitochondrial DNA and 26 (22%) had mutations in either POLG, C10orf2 or RRM2B, or had multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in muscle without an identified nuclear gene defect. Seventy-seven patients had neurophysiological studies; of these, 16 patients (21%) had a large-fibre peripheral neuropathy. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy was significantly lower in patients with a single mitochondrial DNA deletion (2%) as compared to those with a point mutation of mitochondrial DNA or with a nuclear DNA defect (44% and 52%, respectively; P<0.001). Univariate analyses revealed significant differences in the distribution of other clinical features between genotypes, including age at disease onset, gender, family history, progressive external ophthalmoplegia at clinical presentation, hearing loss, pigmentary retinopathy and extrapyramidal features. However, binomial logistic regression analysis identified peripheral neuropathy as the only independent predictor associated with a nuclear DNA defect (P=0.002; odds ratio 8.43, 95% confidence interval 2
Reeves, Brandi N.; Dakhil, Shaker R.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Wolf, Sherry L.; Burger, Kelli N.; Kamal, Arif; Le-Lindqwister, Nguyet A.; Soori, Gamini S.; Jaslowski, Anthony J.; Kelaghan, Joseph; Novotny, Paul J.; Lachance, Daniel H.; Loprinzi, Charles L.
Background Paclitaxel causes an acute pain syndrome (P-APS), occurring within days after each dose and usually abating within days. Paclitaxel also causes a more classic peripheral neuropathy, which steadily increases in severity with increasing paclitaxel total doses. Little detail is available regarding the natural history of these two syndromes, or any relationship between them, although a recent publication does provide natural history data about weekly paclitaxel, supporting an association between the severity of P-APS and eventual peripheral neuropathy symptoms. Methods Patients entering this study were about to receive paclitaxel and carboplatin every 3 weeks. Daily questionnaires were completed for the first week after every chemotherapy dose and EORTC QLQ-CIPN 20 instruments were completed weekly. Results The P-APS severity peaked on day 4 after the initial chemotherapy dose, with 12%, 29%, 23%, and 36% of patients having maximal pain scores of 0, 1–4, 5–6, or 7–10 during the first week after the first dose of therapy, respectively. Patients with P-APS scores of 0–4 with the first dose of chemotherapy had less eventual sensory neuropathy than did patients with P-APS scores of 5–10 (p=0.001). With regard to the more peripheral neuropathy, sensory neuropathy was more problematic than was either motor or autonomic neuropathy. Numbness and tingling were more common components of the sensory neuropathy, than was pain. Conclusions Patients with worse P-APS severities appear to have more eventual chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy. This provides support for the concept that the P-APS is a form of nerve pathology. PMID:22415454
Krishnan, Pramod; Mahadevan, Anita; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Chickabasaviah, Yasha T; Taly, Arun B
There are only a few studies describing the etiologic spectrum of biopsy-proven peripheral neuropathies in children. This study reviewed the clinical, electrophysiological, and pathologic profile of 239 children (≤18 years of age) who have undergone nerve biopsy in a tertiary care centre for neurologic disorders and analyzed the etiologic spectrum and utility of nerve biopsy. The clinical profile, neuropathologic findings, and other investigations were combined to infer the final diagnosis. Neuropathy was detected in 199 biopsies; axonal pathology in 43%; demyelination in 41%; mixed pattern in 8%; and nonspecific findings in 8%. The major diagnostic categories included hereditary neuropathies (48%), heredodegenerative and metabolic disorders (27%), and inflammatory neuropathies (12%). Nerve biopsy proved most helpful in diagnosis of demyelinating and inflammatory neuropathies, reiterating its usefulness in specific situations. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ogbera, Anthonia O; Adeleye, Olufunmilayo; Solagberu, Babatunde; Azenabor, Alfred
Identifying the risk factors for diabetes mellitus related foot ulceration would save more limbs from amputation. This report focuses on the determining the burden of peripheral arterial disease and neuropathy in persons with diabetes mellitus (DM). This is a descriptive study carried out in the Diabetic Clinic of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital in patients with DM who had no past/present history of foot ulceration. Biothesiometry was employed and ankle brachial pressure indices were measured to evaluate for neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) respectively. A total of 225 persons living with DM who met inclusion criteria were recruited consecutively over a 3 months period. Age range was 28-87 years with the mean [61.4 (10.8)] and median (63) years respectively. Patients symptomatic for neuropathy and PAD were 37 and 40 % respectively of the study population. An older age of >60 years and poor glycaemic control were potential predictors of neuropathy. Neuropathy and PAD occurred commonly in the seventh decade of life. Given the fairly high proportions of neuropathy and PAD in our patients with DM, we recommend that they be routinely examined in persons with DM.
Kawata, Daisuke; Wu, Zetang
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a debilitating complication associated with drug treatment of cancer. For which there are no effective strategies of prevention or treatment. In this study we examined the effect of intermittent expression of neurotophin-3 (NT-3) or interleukin 10 (IL-10) from replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV)-based regulatable vectors delivered by subcutaneous inoculation to dorsal root ganglion (DRG) on the development of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. We constructed two different tetracycline (tet)-on based regulatable HSV vectors, one expressing NT-3 and the other expressing IL-10, in which the transactivator expression in the tet-on system was under the control of HSV latency associated promoter 2 (LAP-2) and expression of the transgene was controlled by doxycycline (DOX). We examined the therapeutic effect of intermittent expression of the transgene in animals with paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy modeled by intraperitoneal injection of paclitaxel (16 mg/kg) once a week for 5 weeks. Intermittent expression of either NT-3 or IL-10 3 days before and 1 day after paclitaxel administration protected animals against paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy over the course of 5 weeks. These results suggest the potential of regulatable vectors for prevention of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.
Kawata, Daisuke; Wu, Zetang
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a debilitating complication associated with drug treatment of cancer for which there are no effective strategies of prevention or treatment. In this study, we examined the effect of intermittent expression of neurotophin-3 (NT-3) or interleukin-10 (IL-10) from replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV)-based regulatable vectors delivered by subcutaneous inoculation to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) on the development of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. We constructed two different tetracycline (tet)-on-based regulatable HSV vectors, one expressing NT-3 and the other expressing IL-10, in which the transactivator expression in the tet-on system was under the control of HSV latency-associated promoter 2 (LAP-2), and expression of the transgene was controlled by doxycycline (DOX). We examined the therapeutic effect of intermittent expression of the transgene in animals with paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy modeled by intraperitoneal injection of paclitaxel (16 mg/kg) once a week for 5 weeks. Intermittent expression of either NT-3 or IL-10 3 days before and 1 day after paclitaxel administration protected animals against paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy over the course of 5 weeks. These results suggest the potential of regulatable vectors for prevention of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.
Fardell, Joanna E; Vardy, Janette; Monds, Lauren A; Johnston, Ian N
Chemotherapy treatment is associated with cognitive dysfunction in cancer survivors after treatment completion. The duration of these impairments is unclear. Therefore this paper aims to evaluate the lasting impact of varying doses of the chemotherapy oxaliplatin (OX) on cognition and peripheral neuropathy. In Experiment 1 rats were treated once a week for 3 weeks with either physiological saline (control) or 6 mg/kg OX i.p. and were assessed for peripheral neuropathy, using von Frey filaments, and cognitive function, using novel object and location recognition, up to 2 weeks after treatment completion. For Experiment 2 rats received 3 weekly i.p. injections of either physiological saline (control), 0.6 mg/kg, 2mg/kg or 6 mg/kg OX and assessed for peripheral neuropathy and cognitive function up to 11 months after treatment completion. Systemic OX treatment induced lasting effects on cognitive function at 11 months after treatment, and peripheral neuropathy at 1 month after treatment and these were dose dependent; higher doses of OX resulted in worse cognitive outcomes and more severe peripheral neuropathy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Melli, Giorgia; Höke, Ahmet
Background Peripheral neuropathies affect many people worldwide and are caused by or associated with a wide range of conditions, both genetic and acquired. Current therapies are directed at symptomatic control because no effective regenerative treatment exists. Primary challenge is that mechanisms that lead to distal axonal degeneration, a common feature of all peripheral neuropathies, are largely unknown. Objective/Methods To address the role and specific characteristics of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) derived sensory neuron culture system as a useful model in evaluating the pathogenic mechanisms of peripheral neuropathies and examination and validation of potential therapeutic compounds. A thorough review of the recent literature was completed and select examples of the use of DRG neurons in different peripheral neuropathy models were chosen to highlight the utility of these cultures. Conclusion Many useful models of different peripheral neuropathies have been developed using DRG neuronal culture and potential therapeutic targets have been examined, but so far none of the potential therapeutic compounds have succeeded in clinical trials. In recent years, focus has changed to evaluation of axon degeneration as the primary outcome measure advocating a drug development strategy starting with phenotypic drug screening, followed by validation in primary complex co-cultures and animal models. PMID:20657751
Smith, Thomas J; Auwaerter, Paul; Knowlton, Amy; Saylor, Deanna; McArthur, Justin
Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common neurological complications of HIV infection with a 30-60% lifetime prevalence. Newer HIV drugs cause less peripheral neuropathy, but patients are now living long enough to develop concomitant diabetes-related, vascular-related, and chemotherapy-related neuropathy so it continues as a major debilitating issue. Recent national CDC guidelines have stressed the importance of non-opioid therapies, especially in this population that may have had drug abuse problems. We treated a 52-year-old man who had severe disabling classic peripheral neuropathy since 1998 with Scrambler Therapy (Calmare), an FDA-cleared peripheral non-invasive neuromodulation device. His pain rapidly improved, as did his motor and sensory function, with just four 45-min treatments, and he was able to come off opioids for the first time in years. When his pain returned six months later, only two treatments were needed to resolve it. This represents the first published use of this novel, inexpensive, and non-invasive pain modality in HIV peripheral neuropathy, and should engender further trials.
Phillips, Tudor J C; Brown, Matthew; Ramirez, Juan D; Perkins, James; Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W; Williams, Amanda C de C; Orengo, Christine; Bennett, David L H; Bodi, Istvan; Cox, Sarah; Maier, Christoph; Krumova, Elena K; Rice, Andrew S C
HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a frequent complication of HIV infection and a major source of morbidity. A cross-sectional deep profiling study examining HIV-SN was conducted in people living with HIV in a high resource setting using a battery of measures which included the following: parameters of pain and sensory symptoms (7day pain diary, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory [NPSI] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), sensory innervation (structured neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing [QST] and intraepidermal nerve fibre density [IENFD]), psychological state (Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 [PASS-20], Depression Anxiety and Positive Outlook Scale [DAPOS], and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), and quality of life (Short Form (36) Health Survey [SF-36]). The diagnostic utility of the Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (BPNS), Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), and Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS) were evaluated. Thirty-six healthy volunteers and 66 HIV infected participants were recruited. A novel triumvirate case definition for HIV-SN was used that required 2 out of 3 of the following: 2 or more abnormal QST findings, reduced IENFD, and signs of a peripheral neuropathy on a structured neurological examination. Of those with HIV, 42% fulfilled the case definition for HIV-SN (n=28), of whom 75% (n=21) reported pain. The most frequent QST abnormalities in HIV-SN were loss of function in mechanical and vibration detection. Structured clinical examination was superior to QST or IENFD in HIV-SN diagnosis. HIV-SN participants had higher plasma triglyceride, concentrations depression, anxiety and catastrophizing scores, and prevalence of insomnia than HIV participants without HIV-SN.
Phillips, Tudor J.C.; Brown, Matthew; Ramirez, Juan D.; Perkins, James; Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W.; Williams, Amanda C. de C.; Orengo, Christine; Bennett, David L.H.; Bodi, Istvan; Cox, Sarah; Maier, Christoph; Krumova, Elena K.; Rice, Andrew S.C.
HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a frequent complication of HIV infection and a major source of morbidity. A cross-sectional deep profiling study examining HIV-SN was conducted in people living with HIV in a high resource setting using a battery of measures which included the following: parameters of pain and sensory symptoms (7 day pain diary, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory [NPSI] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), sensory innervation (structured neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing [QST] and intraepidermal nerve fibre density [IENFD]), psychological state (Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 [PASS-20], Depression Anxiety and Positive Outlook Scale [DAPOS], and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), and quality of life (Short Form (36) Health Survey [SF-36]). The diagnostic utility of the Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (BPNS), Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), and Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS) were evaluated. Thirty-six healthy volunteers and 66 HIV infected participants were recruited. A novel triumvirate case definition for HIV-SN was used that required 2 out of 3 of the following: 2 or more abnormal QST findings, reduced IENFD, and signs of a peripheral neuropathy on a structured neurological examination. Of those with HIV, 42% fulfilled the case definition for HIV-SN (n = 28), of whom 75% (n = 21) reported pain. The most frequent QST abnormalities in HIV-SN were loss of function in mechanical and vibration detection. Structured clinical examination was superior to QST or IENFD in HIV-SN diagnosis. HIV-SN participants had higher plasma triglyceride, concentrations depression, anxiety and catastrophizing scores, and prevalence of insomnia than HIV participants without HIV-SN. PMID:24973717
Abd-Elsayed, Alaa; Schiavoni, Nick; Sachdeva, Harsh
Peripheral neuropathy is a common cause of pain, and it is increasing in prevalence. Peripheral neuropathic pain is very hard to treat and can be resistant to multiple pain management modalities. Our series aimed at testing the efficacy of spinal cord stimulators (SCSs) in treating resistant painful peripheral neuropathy. Case 1: A 79-year-old man presented to our clinic with long-standing history of painful peripheral diabetic neuropathy resistant to conservative management. After failure of all possible modalities, we offered the patient an SCS trial that was very successful, and we proceeded with the permanent implant that continued to help with his pain and allowed the patient to wean down his medications. Case 2: A 60-year-old man presented with chronic peripheral neuropathy secondary to HIV, patient failed all conservative and procedural management. Patient then had an SCS trial that relieved his pain significantly. Unfortunately, we did not proceed with the implant due to deterioration of the patient general health. Case 3: A 39-year-old woman presented with painful peripheral neuropathy secondary to chemotherapy for breast cancer. After failure of medication management and procedures, patient had a SCS trial that improved her pain and we then proceeded with performing the permanent implant that controlled her pain. We presented 3 cases with chronic painful peripheral neuropathy secondary to HIV, diabetes mellitus, and chemotherapy that was resistant to conservative pain management and procedures that was successfully treated with neurostimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shaikh, Asma; Bentley, Alison; Kamerman, Peter R
The terminology used to describe neuropathic pain appears to be conserved across languages, which facilitates the translation of validated neuropathic pain screening tools into other languages. However, this assumption has not been assessed in an African language. Therefore we investigated the terminology used by 54 patients whose native language was isiZulu, a major Bantu language of Africa, when describing their symptomatic HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Also, because English is a commonly spoken second-language in the region, we assessed these patients' knowledge and understanding of 21 English terms commonly used to describe neuropathic pain. English translations of the most commonly used isiZulu symptom descriptors included: "hot/burning" (50%), "cramping" (35%), "painful/sore/aching" (32%), "itching" (22%), "numb" (22%), "cold/freezing" (17%), and "stabbing/pricking/pins-and-needles" (13%). Thus, the isiZulu terminology to describe neuropathic pain was very similar to that used in non-African languages. However, knowledge and understanding of English neuropathic pain descriptors by these non-native English speakers was highly variable. For example, knowledge of English terms ranged from >98% ("hot", "cold/freezing", "cramping") to <25% ("pricking", "radiating", "throbbing"), and true understanding of English terms ranged from >90% ("hot", "burning", "cramping") to <35% ("tingling", "jumping", "shooting", "radiating"). In conclusion, we show significant similarity in the terms used to describe neuropathic pain in isiZulu compared to non-African languages, thus indicating that translation of existing neuropathic pain screening tools into this, and possibly other Bantu languages, is a viable option. However, the usefulness of English-language screening tools in this non-native English speaking population may be limited.
Anandacoomaraswamy, Dharshan; Ullal, Jagdeesh; Vinik, Aaron I
This is a case of a 70-year-old man with severe peripheral neuropathy, type 2 diabetes and progressively worsening cerebellar ataxia. He was found to have circulating antigliadin and antireticulin antibodies compatible with celiac disease in the absence of intestinal pathology. The peripheral neuropathy improved with a gluten-free diet, antioxidants and intravenous immunoglobulin, whereas the ataxia did not. This case illustrates the need to test for celiac disease in patients with idiopathic ataxia and peripheral neuropathy and the need for alternative therapies for ataxia. PMID:21197340
Anandacoomaraswamy, Dharshan; Ullal, Jagdeesh; Vinik, Aaron I
This is a case of a 70-year-old man with severe peripheral neuropathy, type 2 diabetes and progressively worsening cerebellar ataxia. He was found to have circulating antigliadin and antireticulin antibodies compatible with celiac disease in the absence of intestinal pathology. The peripheral neuropathy improved with a gluten-free diet, antioxidants and intravenous immunoglobulin, whereas the ataxia did not. This case illustrates the need to test for celiac disease in patients with idiopathic ataxia and peripheral neuropathy and the need for alternative therapies for ataxia.
Börü, Ulkü Türk; Alp, Recep; Sargin, Haluk; Koçer, Abdulkadir; Sargin, Mehmet; Lüleci, Arda; Yayla, Ali
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients attending a major Turkish diabetes center. Eight hundred and sixty-six consecutive type 2 diabetic patients were included in the study. A single observer performed biothesiometry studies on these patients. The presence of diabetic neuropathy was investigated using neurological symptom scale (NSS) and neurological disability score (NDS) performed. Neuropathy was determined with standardized neurological examinations and defined as the presence of abnormal NSS and NDS together with abnormal sensory or motor signs and symptoms as well as decreased great toe vibration perception. Overall, 60% (n = 520) of the patients were diagnosed as having neuropathy. The prevalence of neuropathy increased with age (p < 0.001) and duration of diabetes (p < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed the duration of diabetes (p < 0.001) and HbA1c levels (p < 0.001) as the risk factors for neuropathy. The overall prevalence of neuropathy in Turkish type 2 diabetic population was 60%. Age, duration of diabetes, and poor glycemic control were considered to be the risk factors for neuropathy.
Kobayashi, Yu; Tohyama, Jun; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Magara, Shinichi; Kawashima, Hideshi; Akasaka, Noriyuki; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi
Cerebral folate deficiency due to folate receptor 1 gene (FOLR1) mutations is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from a brain-specific folate transport defect. It is characterized by late infantile onset, severe psychomotor regression, epilepsy, and leukodystrophy. We describe a consanguineous girl exhibiting severe developmental regression, intractable epilepsy, polyneuropathy, and profound hypomyelination with cortical involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical disturbances in addition to profound hypomyelination and cerebellar atrophy. Nerve conduction studies revealed both axonal degeneration and demyelinating features. A diagnosis of cerebral folate deficiency was confirmed by a homozygous c.466T>G (p.W156G) mutation in FOLR1, coupled with extremely low cerebrospinal fluid levels of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. Her symptoms, neuroradiological findings, and polyneuropathy were alleviated by oral folinic acid treatment in conjunction with intravenous and intramuscular administration therapy. Our patient shows that folinic acid therapy can ameliorate the clinical symptoms, white matter disturbances, cortical insults, and peripheral neuropathy of cerebral folate deficiency caused by FOLR1 mutation. It is important to recognize these clinical symptoms and make a precise diagnosis early on, because cerebral folate deficiency is treatable.
Knoerl, Robert; Dudley, William N; Smith, Gloria; Bridges, Celia; Kanzawa-Lee, Grace; Lavoie Smith, Ellen M
Because numerous barriers hinder the assessment and management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in clinical practice, the Carevive Care Planning System, a novel Web-based platform, was developed to address these barriers. It provides patients an opportunity to report their symptoms before their clinic visit and generates customizable care plans composed of evidence-based management strategies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient and provider perspectives of feasibility, usability, acceptability, and satisfaction with the Carevive platform. We used a single-arm, pretest/posttest, prospective design and recruited 25 women with breast cancer who were receiving neurotoxic chemotherapy and six advanced practice providers from an academic hospital. At three consecutive clinical visits, patients reported their neuropathy symptoms on a tablet via the Carevive system. The Diffusion of Innovations Theory served as an overarching evaluation framework. The Carevive platform was feasible to use. However, patients had higher ratings of usability, acceptability, and satisfaction with the platform than did the providers, who disliked the amount of time required to use the platform and had difficulty logging into Carevive. If issues regarding provider dissatisfaction can be addressed, the Carevive platform may aid in the screening of neuropathy symptoms and facilitate the use of evidence-based management strategies.
Desai, Bansri; Freeman, Erin; Huang, Ellen; Hung, Anna; Knapp, Edward; Breunig, Ian M; McPherson, Mary L; Shaya, Fadia T
Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy is difficult to treat, partially because the underlying mechanism of pain is not fully understood. Various treatment guidelines recommend first-line agents, such as α2-δ ligands, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants but combination therapy of alternative agents including opiates is often warranted. Tapentadol extended-release has a novel dual mechanism of action; it is both a mu-opioid receptor agonist and a norephinephrine reuptake inhibitor. It has been in the spotlight since it was FDA-approved specifically for the treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy in 2012. Previous reviews of tapentadol have focused on chronic pain. The purpose of this review article is to assess the efficacy and safety of tapentadol extended-release in adult populations with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy and provide guidance for formulary decisions.
Otake, Akiko; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Ueda, Yutaka; Sawada, Kenjiro; Mabuchi, Seiji; Kimura, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Eiji; Isobe, Aki; Egawa-Takata, Tomomi; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Fujita, Masami; Kimura, Tadashi
The present study aimed at evaluating the usefulness and adverse effects of duloxetine treatment for paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in gynecological cancer patients. Medical records of gynecological cancer patients treated with duloxetine were retrospectively studied to evaluate the drug's efficacy for paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. RESULTS from 25 patients showed that an improved response was observed in 14 (56%). By univariate and multivariate analysis, the patient's age, tumor origin, regimen of chemotherapy, accumulated doses of paclitaxel or carboplatin, previous medication, maintenance dosage and timing of treatment with duloxetine were found not to be associated with the effectiveness of duloxetine treatment. Adverse effects with duloxetine were mild and well-tolerated. As an option, duloxetine can be effectively used for paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in patients with gynecological cancers, irrespective of patients' age, origin of the tumor, regimen of chemotherapy, or previous medication. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
Han, Li-Ping; Yu, De-Min; Xie, Yun
To investigate the effects of lisinopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, on diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DNP). Twenty-five Wistar rats underwent intravenous injection of streptozocin to establish diabetes models and 10 rats were injected with sodium citrate solution as normal controls. The diabetic rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: lisinopril group treated with gastric perfusion of lisinopril daily for 8 weeks, and diabetic control group. The diabetic controls and normal controls were treated with gastric perfusion of water. Sciatic nerve electrode penetration method was used to measure the motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV). Light and heat pain measuring apparatus was used to measure the pain threshold. Then the sciatic nerves were isolated. Electron microscopy was used to observe the ultra-structure. The contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA), and Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity were detected by chemical colorimetry. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the CD34 in the sciatic nerve. The capillary density of sciatic nerve was calculated. The MNCV and SNCV levels of the lisinopril group were both lower than those of the 2 control groups (all P < 0.01). The potency of heat pain leg retraction response of the lisinopril group was significantly shorter than that pf the diabetic control group (P < 0.05). The pathological changes of the lisinopril group were milder than those of the other groups. The SOD level and the Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity of the diabetic group were significantly lower than those of the normal control group, and the MDA of the diabetic group was significantly higher than those of the other 2 groups (all P < 0.05). And the SOD level and Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity of the lisinopril group were significantly higher than those of the diabetic control group, and the MDA level of the lisinopril group was significantly lower than that of the diabetic control
Wang, Lei; Chopp, Michael; Szalad, Alexandra; Lu, XueRong; Jia, LongFei; Lu, Mei; Zhang, Rui Lan; Zhang, Zheng Gang
We previously demonstrated that treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy with the short (4 hours) half-life phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, sildenafil, improved functional outcome in diabetic db/db mice. To further examine the effect of PDE5 inhibition on diabetic peripheral neuropathy, we investigated the effect of another potent PDE5 inhibitor, tadalafil, on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Tadalafil is pharmacokinetically distinct from sildenafil and has a longer half-life (17+hours) than sildenafil. Diabetic mice (BKS.Cg-m+/+Leprdb/J, db/db) at age 20 weeks were treated with tadalafil every 48 hours for 8 consecutive weeks. Compared with diabetic mice treated with saline, tadalafil treatment significantly improved motor and sensory conduction velocities in the sciatic nerve and peripheral thermal sensitivity. Tadalafil treatment also markedly increased local blood flow and the density of FITC-dextran perfused vessels in the sciatic nerve concomitantly with increased intraepidermal nerve fiber density. Moreover, tadalafil reversed the diabetes-induced reductions of axon diameter and myelin thickness and reversed the diabetes-induced increased g-ratio in the sciatic nerve. Furthermore, tadalafil enhanced diabetes-reduced nerve growth factor (NGF) and platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) protein levels in diabetic sciatic nerve tissue. The present study demonstrates that tadalafil increases regional blood flow in the sciatic nerve tissue, which may contribute to the improvement of peripheral nerve function and the amelioration of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PMID:27438594
Barwick, Alex L; Tessier, John W; Janse de Jonge, Xanne; Ivers, James R; Chuter, Vivienne H
This study examined whether the presence of peripheral sensory neuropathy or cardiac autonomic deficits is associated with postocclusive reactive hyperemia (reflective of microvascular function) in the diabetic foot. 99 participants with type 2 diabetes were recruited into this cross-sectional study. The presence of peripheral sensory neuropathy was determined with standard clinical tests and cardiac autonomic function was assessed with heart rate variation testing. Postocclusive reactive hyperemia was measured with laser Doppler in the hallux. Multiple hierarchical regression was performed to examine relationships between neuropathy and the peak perfusion following occlusion and the time to reach this peak. Peripheral sensory neuropathy predicted 22% of the variance in time to peak following occlusion (p<0.05), being associated with a slower time to peak but was not associated with the magnitude of the peak. Heart rate variation was not associated with the postocclusive reactive hyperemia response. This study found an association between the presence of peripheral sensory neuropathy in people with diabetes and altered microvascular reactivity in the lower limb.
Barwick, Alex L; Tessier, John W; Janse de Jonge, Xanne; Ivers, James R; Chuter, Vivienne H
Objective This study examined whether the presence of peripheral sensory neuropathy or cardiac autonomic deficits is associated with postocclusive reactive hyperemia (reflective of microvascular function) in the diabetic foot. Research design and methods 99 participants with type 2 diabetes were recruited into this cross-sectional study. The presence of peripheral sensory neuropathy was determined with standard clinical tests and cardiac autonomic function was assessed with heart rate variation testing. Postocclusive reactive hyperemia was measured with laser Doppler in the hallux. Multiple hierarchical regression was performed to examine relationships between neuropathy and the peak perfusion following occlusion and the time to reach this peak. Results Peripheral sensory neuropathy predicted 22% of the variance in time to peak following occlusion (p<0.05), being associated with a slower time to peak but was not associated with the magnitude of the peak. Heart rate variation was not associated with the postocclusive reactive hyperemia response. Conclusions This study found an association between the presence of peripheral sensory neuropathy in people with diabetes and altered microvascular reactivity in the lower limb. PMID:27486520
Xiao, W. H.; Zheng, H.; Bennett, G. J.
Anti-neoplastic agents in the platinum-complex, taxane, vinca alkaloid, and proteasome inhibitor classes induce a dose-limiting, chronic, distal, symmetrical, sensory peripheral neuropathy that is often accompanied by neuropathic pain. Clinical descriptions suggest that these conditions are very similar but clinical data are insufficient to determine the degree of similarity and to determine if they share common pathophysiological mechanisms. Animal models do not have the limitations of clinical studies and so we have characterized a rat model of chronic painful peripheral neuropathy induced by a platinum-complex agent, oxaliplatin, in order to compare it to a previously characterized model of chronic painful peripheral neuropathy induced by a taxane agent, paclitaxel. The oxaliplatin model evokes mechano-allodynia, mechano-hyperalgesia, and cold-allodynia that have a delayed onset, gradually increasing severity, a distinct delay to peak severity, and duration of about 2.5 months. There is no effect on heat sensitivity. EM analyses found no evidence for axonal degeneration in peripheral nerve and there is no up-regulation of activating transcription factor-3 in the lumbar dorsal root ganglia. There is a statistically significant loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers in the plantar hind paw skin. Oxaliplatin treatment causes a significant increase in the incidence of swollen and vacuolated mitochondria in peripheral nerve axons, but not in their Schwann cells. Nerve conduction studies found significant slowing of sensory axons, but no change in motor axons. Single fiber recordings found an abnormal incidence of A- and C-fibers with irregular, low-frequency spontaneous discharge. Prophylactic dosing with two drugs that are known to protect mitochondria, acetyl-L-carnitine and olesoxime, significantly reduced the development of pain hypersensitivity. Our results are very similar to those obtained previously with paclitaxel and support the hypothesis that these two
Habib, Ali A; Brannagan, Thomas H
Diabetes is the leading cause of peripheral neuropathy globally. Duration of diabetes, glycemic control, and preexisting cardiovascular risk factors independently correlate with the development and progression of diabetic peripheral neuropathy as well as cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. The pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy remains unclear, although insulin resistance, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, abnormal glucose metabolism, advanced glycation end products, neurotrophic factors, and protein kinase C activation all may play a role. Strict glycemic control remains the only available treatment option, although other treatments are in development. Multiple options are available for symptom management. In this article, we review factors associated with development and progression of diabetic neuropathy and discuss available treatment options.
Celikbilek, Asuman; Tanik, Nermin; Sabah, Seda; Borekci, Elif; Akyol, Lutfi; Ak, Hakan; Adam, Mehmet; Suher, Murat; Yilmaz, Neziha
Evidence suggests that peripheral nerve injury occurs during the early stages of disease with mild glycemic dysregulation. Two proteins, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and neurofilament light chain (NFL), have been examined previously as possible markers of neuronal damage in the pathophysiology of neuropathies. Herein, we aimed to determine the potential value of circulatory NSE and NFL mRNA levels in prediabetic patients and in those with peripheral neuropathy. This prospective clinical study included 45 prediabetic patients and 30 age- and sex-matched controls. All prediabetic patients were assessed with respect to diabetes-related microvascular complications, such as peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy. mRNA levels of NSE and NFL were determined in the blood by real-time polymerase chain reaction. NSE mRNA levels were similar between prediabetic and control groups (p > 0.05), whereas NFL mRNA levels were significantly higher in prediabetics than in controls (p < 0.001). NSE mRNA levels did not significantly differ between prediabetic patients with and without peripheral neuropathy (p > 0.05), while NFL mRNA levels were significantly higher in prediabetics with peripheral neuropathy than in those without (p = 0.038). According to correlation analysis, NFL mRNA levels were positively correlated with the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire score in prediabetic patients (r = 0.302, p = 0.044). This is the first study to suggest blood NFL mRNA as a surrogate marker for early prediction of prediabetic peripheral neuropathy, while NSE mRNA levels may be of no diagnostic value in prediabetic patients.
Song, Tieying; Zhao, Jianhui; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhang, Zaiwang; Jiang, Bo; Yang, Yunliang
The neurobiological mechanisms of obesity-induced peripheral neuropathy are poorly understood. We evaluated the role of Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) and NMDA receptor (NMDARs) in the spinal cord in peripheral neuropathy using an animal model of high fat diet-induced diabetes. We examined the expression of Sig-1R and NMDAR subunits GluN2A and GluN2B along with postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) in the spinal cord after 24-week HFD treatment in both wild-type and Sig-1R-/- mice. Finally, we examined the effects of repeated intrathecal administrations of selective Sig-1R antagonists BD1047 in HFD-fed wild-type mice on peripheral neuropathy. Wild-type mice developed tactile allodynia and thermal hypoalgesia after 24-week HFD treatment. HFD-induced peripheral neuropathy correlated with increased expression of GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of NMDARs, PDS-95, and Sig-1R, as well as increased Sig-1R-NMDAR interaction in the spinal cord. In contrast, Sig-1R-/- mice did not develop thermal hypoalgesia or tactile allodynia after 24-week HFD treatment, and the levels of GluN2A, GluN2B, and PSD-95 were not altered in the spinal cord of HFD-fed Sig-1R-/- mice. Finally, repeated intrathecal administrations of selective Sig-1R antagonists BD1047 in HFD-fed wild-type mice attenuated peripheral neuropathy. Our results suggest that obesity-associated peripheral neuropathy may involve Sig-1R-mediated enhancement of NMDAR expression in the spinal cord.
Bracewell, N; Game, F; Jeffcoate, W; Scammell, B E
Current National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines state that patients with diabetes should have annual examination of their feet to exclude signs of sensory impairment. The VibraTip is a new disposable device producing a vibratory stimulus, which has been developed in order to screen for peripheral sensory neuropathy in diabetes. This study was designed to evaluate the device by assessing intra-rater reliability and comparing the ability of the VibraTip to detect or exclude peripheral sensory neuropathy with other bedside methods. One hundred and forty-one patients with diabetes (Type 1 or Type 2) were examined for diabetic peripheral sensory neuropathy using a Neurothesiometer, 10-g monofilament, a 128-Hz tuning fork, a Neurotip™ and a VibraTip. The failure to perceive the Neurosthesiometer stimulus at ≥ 25 V in either foot was considered the reference method for the presence of peripheral sensory neuropathy. Receiver operating characteristic curves were produced for each device and the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios for the diagnosis of peripheral sensory neuropathy were calculated. Repeat testing with the VibraTip was performed in 18 patients and intra-rater reliability assessed using Cronbach alpha. Analysis of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the 10-g monofilament was significantly better than the 128-Hz tuning fork (P = 0.0056) and the Neurotip (P = 0.0022), but was no different from the VibraTip (P = 0.3214). The alpha coefficient for the VibraTip was calculated to be 0.882, indicating good reliability. The VibraTip is a device comparable with the 10-g monofilament and therefore could be considered a useful tool for screening for peripheral sensory neuropathy in diabetes. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.
Tu, Yiji; Lineaweaver, William Charles; Chen, Zenggan; Hu, Junda; Mullins, Fred; Zhang, Feng
Background Over the last decade, surgical decompression procedures have been commonly used in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. However, the effectiveness of them remains to be proved. Methods A comprehensive literature search of databases including PubMed-Medline, Ovid-EMBASE, and Cochrane Library was performed to collect the related literatures. The Medical Subject Headings used were "diabetic neuropathy," "surgical decompression," and "outcomes." The methodological index for nonrandomized studies was adopted for assessing the studies included in this review. Analyses were performed with Review Manager (Version 5.3, Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, the Cochrane Collaboration, 2014). Results A total of 12 literatures (including 8 prospective and 4 retrospective) encompassing 1,825 patients with DPN were included in the final analysis. Only one literature was identified as a randomized controlled trial. The remaining 11 literatures were observational studies; 7 of them were classified as upper-extremity nerve decompression group and 4 of them were classified as lower-extremity nerve decompression group. Meta-analysis shows that Boston questionnaire symptom severity and functional status of upper extremities, and distal motor latency and sensory conduction velocity of median nerve of DPN patients are significantly improved after carpal tunnel release. Besides, visual analog scale and two-point discrimination are considered clinically and statistically significant in lower extremities after operation. Conclusions The findings from our review have shown the efficacy of surgical decompression procedures in relieving the neurologic symptoms and restoring the sensory deficits in DPN patients. As there are few high-quality randomized controlled trials or well-designed prospective studies, more data are needed to elucidate the role of surgical procedures for DPN treatment in the future.
Tesfaye, Solomon; Selvarajah, Dinesh
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) affects up to 50% of patients with diabetes and is a major cause of morbidity and increased mortality. Its clinical manifestations include painful neuropathic symptoms and insensitivity, which increases the risk for burns, injuries and foot ulceration. Several recent studies have implicated poor glycaemic control, duration of diabetes, hyperlipidaemia (particularly hypertryglyceridaemia), elevated albumin excretion rates and obesity as risk factors for the development of DPN. Although there is now strong evidence for the importance of nerve microvascular disease in the pathogenesis of DPN, the risk factors for painful DPN are not known. However, emerging evidence regarding the central correlates of painful DPN is now afforded by brain imaging. The diagnosis of DPN begins with a careful history of sensory and motor symptoms. The quality and severity of neuropathic pain if present should be assessed using a suitable scale. Clinical examination should include inspection of the feet and evaluation of reflexes and sensory responses to vibration, light touch, pinprick and the 10-g monofilament. Glycaemic control and addressing cardiovascular risk is now considered important in the overall management of the neuropathic patient. Pharmacological treatment of painful DPN includes tricyclic compounds, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (e.g. duloxetine), anticonvulsants (e.g. pregabalin), opiates, membrane stabilizers, the antioxidant alpha lipoic acid and others. Over the past 7 years, new agents with perhaps less side effect profiles have immerged. Management of patients with painful neuropathy must be tailored to individual requirements and will depend on the presence of other co-morbidities. There is limited literature with regard to combination treatment.
... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Peripheral Artery Disease? Many people ... flow, so the symptoms will go away. Other Signs and Symptoms Other signs and symptoms of P. ...
Illigens, Ben M.W.; Siepmann, Timo; Roofeh, Joe; Gibbons, Christopher H.
Small fiber neuropathy is common in a number of systemic diseases and is often challenging to diagnose. Laser-Doppler Imaging (LDI) is a test of small fiber neurovascular function that can quantify the integrity of the vasomotor C-fiber mediated axon-reflex, but no standardized method of analysis exists. We developed a novel LDI analysis technique and tested it in a human model of small fiber neuropathy. Eighteen healthy subjects (age 24±3 years) underwent LDI testing to assess the axon-mediated flare area in response to 10% acetylcholine iontophoresis. LDI measurements were taken before and longitudinally after a 48-hour application of 0.1% capsaicin (to cause a transient small fiber neuropathy) on the skin of the thigh; placebo cream was placed on the contralateral thigh as a control. We compared our new LDI image analysis technique to two previously published methods. The new LDI analysis technique was the only method to show a consistent difference in axon-reflex area between capsaicin treated and placebo treated skin on all testing days (p<0.05) with maximum attenuation of the flare area immediately post-application (438 ±298 mm2 vs. 824 ±375 mm2, p<0.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that our novel flare area method for LDI analysis can detect neurovascular dysfunction in a model of small fiber neuropathy, is an improvement over existing methods, and may supplement clinical assessment of small fiber neuropathy. PMID:23850386
Illigens, Ben M W; Siepmann, Timo; Roofeh, Joseph; Gibbons, Christopher H
Small fiber neuropathy is common in a number of systemic diseases and is often challenging to diagnose. Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) is a test of small fiber neurovascular function that can quantify the integrity of the vasomotor C-fiber mediated axon-reflex, but no standardized method of analysis exists. We developed a novel LDI analysis technique and tested it in a human model of small fiber neuropathy. Eighteen healthy subjects (age 24 ± 3 years) underwent LDI testing to assess the axon-mediated flare area in response to 10% acetylcholine iontophoresis. LDI measurements were taken before and longitudinally after a 48-hour application of 0.1% capsaicin (to cause a transient small fiber neuropathy) on the skin of the thigh; placebo cream was placed on the contralateral thigh as a control. We compared our new LDI image analysis technique to two previously published methods. The new LDI analysis technique was the only method to show a consistent difference in axon-reflex area between capsaicin treated and placebo treated skin on all testing days (p<0.05) with maximum attenuation of the flare area immediately post-application (438 ± 298 mm(2) vs. 824 ± 375 mm(2), p<0.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that our novel flare area method for LDI analysis can detect neurovascular dysfunction in a model of small fiber neuropathy, is an improvement over existing methods, and may supplement clinical assessment of small fiber neuropathy.
Peng, L; Bu, Z; Ye, X; Zhou, Y; Zhao, Q
Nab-paclitaxel, a Cremophor EL-free formulation of paclitaxel, is used to treat various malignancies. Peripheral neuropathy is one of its major toxicities, although the overall incidence remains unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to calculate the incidence of peripheral neuropathy in cancer patients treated with nab-paclitaxel and to compare the relative risk (RR) with conventional taxanes. The electronic databases were searched for relevant clinical trials. Eligible studies included phase II and III prospective clinical trials of cancer patients treated with nab-paclitaxel with toxicity profile on peripheral neuropathy. Statistical analyses were done to calculate summary incidences, RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using fixed-effects or random-effects models based on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Nineteen trials were selected for the meta-analysis, yielding a total of 2878 cancer patients. The overall incidences of peripheral neuropathy (all-grade) was 51.0% (95% CI: 45.1-57.6%), and that of high-grade peripheral neuropathy was 12.4% (9.8-15.7%). The RRs of peripheral neuropathy of nab-paclitaxel compared to taxanes were not increased for all-grade and high-grade peripheral neuropathy. Nab-paclitaxel is associated with an increased risk of developing peripheral neuropathy. Future clinical studies are still needed to investigate the risk reduction and possible use of nab-paclitaxel. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kernozek, Thomas W; Greany, John F; Heizler, Cassandra
We investigated plantar loading asymmetry during gait in American Indians with and without diabetes and with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy. A convenience sample of 96 American Indians with and without diabetes was divided into three groups: 20 with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy, 16 with diabetes without peripheral neuropathy, and 60 with no history of diabetes (control group). Plantar loading was measured during barefoot walking across a pressure platform. Five trials were collected per foot during level walking at a self-selected speed using the two-step method. Asymmetry in peak pressure-time integral and peak plantar pressure were calculated from ten plantar regions and compared among groups. Significant pressure-time integral asymmetry occurred across the forefoot regions in American Indians with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy compared with the other two groups. Significant peak plantar pressure asymmetry occurred in the third metatarsal region in both groups with diabetes (with and without peripheral neuropathy) compared with the control group. Overall, American Indians with diabetes seemed to show greater asymmetry in plantar loading variables across the forefoot region compared with those in the control group. Specifically, individuals with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy had the greatest amount of forefoot pressure-time integral asymmetry. Significant peak plantar pressure asymmetry occurred in the third metatarsal region of the forefoot in those with diabetes with and without peripheral neuropathy. Loading asymmetry may play a role in the development of foot ulcers in the forefoot region of American Indians with peripheral neuropathy and diabetes.
Antoine, J.; Mosnier, J.; Absi, L.; Convers, P.; Honnorat, J.; Michel, D.
OBJECTIVE—When to suspect a paraneoplastic disorder is a puzzling problem that has not recently been studied in a large series of patients referred for peripheral neuropathy. METHODS—From 422 consecutive patients with peripheral neuropathy, 26 were analysed who concomitantly had carcinoma but no tumorous infiltration, drug toxicity, or cachexia. Their clinical, pathological, and electrophysiological data were analysed according to the presence of anti-onconeural antibodies, the latency between presentation and cancer diagnosis, and the incidence of carcinoma in the corresponding types of neuropathy of the population of 422patients. RESULTS—Seven patients (group I) had anti-onconeural antibodies (six anti-Hu, one anti-CV2) and 19 did not (groups IIA and B). In group I, subacute sensory neuropathy (SSN) was the most frequent but other neuropathies including demyelinating neuropathies were present. Patients in group II A had a short latency (mean 7.88months), and a rapidly and usually severe neuropathy which corresponded in 11/14 to an established inflammatory disorder including neuropathy with encephalomyelitis, mononeuritis multiplex, and acute or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Patients in group IIB had a long latency (mean 8.4 years) and a very chronic disorder corresponding in four of five to an axonal non-inflammatory polyneuropathy. In this population, the incidence of carcinoma occurring with a short latency was 47% in sensory neuronopathy, 1.7% in Guillain-Barré syndrome, 10% in mononeuritis multiplex and CIDP, and 4.5% in axonal polyneuropathy. CONCLUSIONS—Paraneoplastic neuropathies associated with carcinoma are heterogeneous disorders. Neuropathies occurring with a long latency with tumours probably resulted from a coincidental association. Neuropathies which occurred within a few years of the tumour evolved rapidly and corresponded mostly to inflammatory disorders. As dysimmune neuropathies are probably
Bardini, Michela; Fazio, Grazia; Chiorazzi, Alessia; Meregalli, Cristina; Oggioni, Norberto; Shanks, Kathleen; Quartu, Marina; Serra, Maria Pina; Sala, Barbara; Cavaletti, Guido; Dorsey, Susan G.
Bortezomib is the first proteasome inhibitor with significant antineoplastic activity for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma as well as other hematological and solid neoplasms. Peripheral neurological complications manifesting with paresthesias, burning sensations, dysesthesias, numbness, sensory loss, reduced proprioception and vibratory sensitivity are among the major limiting side effects associated with bortezomib therapy. Although bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy is clinically easy to diagnose and reliable models are available, its pathophysiology remains partly unclear. In this study we used well-characterized immune-competent and immune-compromised mouse models of bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy. To characterize the drug-induced pathological changes in the peripheral nervous system, we examined the involvement of spinal cord neuronal function in the development of neuropathic pain and investigated the relevance of the immune response in painful peripheral neuropathy induced by bortezomib. We found that bortezomib treatment induced morphological changes in the spinal cord, dorsal roots, dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and peripheral nerves. Neurophysiological abnormalities and specific functional alterations in Aδ and C fibers were also observed in peripheral nerve fibers. Mice developed mechanical allodynia and functional abnormalities of wide dynamic range neurons in the dorsal horn of spinal cord. Bortezomib induced increased expression of the neuronal stress marker activating transcription factor-3 in most DRG. Moreover, the immunodeficient animals treated with bortezomib developed a painful peripheral neuropathy with the same features observed in the immunocompetent mice. In conclusion, this study extends the knowledge of the sites of damage induced in the nervous system by bortezomib administration. Moreover, a selective functional vulnerability of peripheral nerve fiber subpopulations was found as well as
Jambart, S; Ammache, Z; Haddad, F; Younes, A; Hassoun, A; Abdalla, K; Selwan, C Abou; Sunna, N; Wajsbrot, D; Youseif, E
The prevalence of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) was evaluated in type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (n = 4097) attending outpatient clinics across the Middle East. Overall, 53.7% of 3989 patients with DN4 data met the criteria for painful DPN (Douleur Neuropathique-4 [DN4] scores ≥ 4). Significant predictors of painful DPN included long history (≥ 10 years) of diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 2.43), age ≥ 65 years (OR 2.13), age 50 - 64 years (OR 1.75), presence of type 1 versus type 2 diabetes (OR 1.59), body mass index > 30 kg/m(2) (OR 1.35) and female gender (OR 1.27). Living in one of the Gulf States was associated with the lowest odds of having painful DPN (OR 0.44). The odds of painful DPN were highest among patients with peripheral vascular disease (OR 4.98), diabetic retinopathy (OR 3.90) and diabetic nephropathy (OR 3.23). Because of the high prevalence and associated suffering, disability and economic burden of painful DPN, it is important that diabetic patients are periodically screened, using a simple instrument such as the DN4, and receive appropriate treatment if symptoms develop.
Shy, Michael E
Development and maintenance of PNS myelin depends on continual signaling from axons ensheathed by myelin. Recent advances have demonstrated the roles of neuregulin 1 type III, Erb2/3 and intracellular signal transduction pathways in inducing Schwann cell myelination. Alternatively, maintenance of myelinated axons depends on healthy myelinating Schwann cells. Axonal degeneration is a feature of virtually all inherited demyelinating neuropathies and in many cases is more responsible for clinical impairment than the primary demyelination. Signaling mechanisms through which demyelinating Schwann cells damage axons are not well understood. In this review several examples of potential mechanisms by which demyelinating neuropathies damage axons will be presented. Understanding the molecular basis of Schwann cell-axonal interactions will not only increase the understanding of PNS biology but also identify therapeutic targets for inherited neuropathies.
Shy, Michael E
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B (CMT1B) is caused by mutations in the major PNS myelin protein myelin protein zero (MPZ). MPZ is a member of the immunoglobulin supergene family and functions as an adhesion molecule helping to mediate compaction of PNS myelin. Mutations in MPZ appear to either disrupt myelination during development, leading to severe early onset neuropathies, or to disrupt axo-glial interactions leading to late onset neuropathies in adulthood. Identifying molecular pathways involved in early and late onset CMT1B will be crucial to understand how MPZ mutations cause CMT1B so that rational therapies for both early and late onset neuropathies can be developed.
The reliability and validity of a modified total neuropathy score-reduced and neuropathic pain severity items when used to measure chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in patients receiving taxanes and platinums.
Smith, Ellen M Lavoie; Cohen, Jeffrey A; Pett, Marjorie A; Beck, Susan L
Assessment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy signs and symptoms has been hampered because of the lack of simple, reliable, and valid measures. The study objective was to examine the internal consistency and interrater reliability as well as the structural validity of a 5-component total neuropathy score-reduced (TNSr) variant and a chemotherapy-induced neuropathy-specific Neuropathic Pain Scale. One hundred seventeen outpatients receiving taxanes or platinums were assessed by a consistent nurse practitioner using the 2 instruments. Ten subjects participated in interrater reliability testing. Mean scores and SDs for individual items were low. The strength item was deleted because of low interitem correlations and a floor effect. The reflex item was deleted because of low interitem correlations and its negative influence on Cronbach alpha. Pin sensibility was deleted because of low factor loadings. The TNSr-short form and the chemotherapy-induced neuropathy-specific Neuropathic Pain Scale formed 2 distinct factors, providing evidence of structural validity. Cronbach alpha's for the 2 instruments were .80 and .96, respectively. The TNSr interrater reliability results suggested acceptable rater concordance, but minor revisions could further improve scoring precision. Clinimetric evidence supports the use of 2 new instruments when monitoring taxane- and platinum-related neuropathy and pain. Further instrument modifications are recommended, followed by additional testing in diverse populations. With these new instruments, nurses can more easily incorporate prospective neuropathy assessment into daily clinical practice. The outcome will be improved symptom awareness by oncology clinicians and patients, leading to fewer chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy-related devastating effects on functionality and quality of life.
Goss, James R; Stolz, Donna Beer; Robinson, Andria Rasile; Zhang, Mingdi; Arbujas, Norma; Robbins, Paul D; Glorioso, Joseph C; Niedernhofer, Laura J
Peripheral neuropathy is a common aging-related degenerative disorder that interferes with daily activities and leads to increased risk of falls and injury in the elderly. The etiology of most aging-related peripheral neuropathy is unknown. Inherited defects in several genome maintenance mechanisms cause tissue-specific accelerated aging, including neurodegeneration. We tested the hypothesis that a murine model of XFE progeroid syndrome, caused by reduced expression of ERCC1-XPF DNA repair endonuclease, develops peripheral neuropathy. Nerve conduction studies revealed normal nerve function in young adult (8 week) Ercc1(-/Δ) mice, but significant abnormalities in 20 week-old animals. Morphologic and ultrastructural analysis of the sciatic nerve from mutant mice revealed significant alterations at 20 but not 8 weeks of age. We conclude that Ercc1(-/Δ) mice have accelerated spontaneous peripheral neurodegeneration that mimics aging-related disease. This provides strong evidence that DNA damage can drive peripheral neuropathy and offers a rapid and novel model to test therapies.
Taylor, Sean W; Laughlin, Ruple S; Kumar, Neeraj; Goodman, Brent; Klein, Christopher J; Dyck, Peter J; Dyck, P James B
Myelopathy is considered the most common neurological complication of copper deficiency. Concurrent peripheral neuropathy has been recognised in association with copper deficiency but has not been well characterised. To characterise the clinical, physiological and pathological features of copper-deficient peripheral neuropathy. Patients with simultaneous copper deficiency (<0.78 μg/mL) and peripheral neuropathy seen at the Mayo Clinic from 1985 to 2005 were identified. 34 patients were identified (median age 55 years, range 36-78) including 24 women and 10 men. Myelopathy was found in 21 patients. Median serum copper level was 0.11 μg/mL (range 0-0.58). The most frequent clinical and electrophysiological pattern of neuropathy was a sensory predominant length-dependent peripheral neuropathy (71%). Somatosensory evoked potentials demonstrated central slowing supporting myelopathy (96%). Quantitative sensory testing demonstrated both small and large fibre involvement (100%). Autonomic reflex screens (77%) and thermoregulatory sweat test (67%) confirmed sudomotor dysfunction. 14 cutaneous nerve biopsies revealed loss of myelinated nerve fibres (86%), increased regenerative clusters (50%), increased rates of axonal degeneration (91%) and increased numbers of empty nerve strands (73%). 71% of biopsies demonstrated epineurial perivascular inflammation. An axonal, length-dependent sensory predominant peripheral neuropathy causing sensory ataxia is characteristic of copper deficiency usually co-occurring with myelopathy. Neurophysiological testing confirms involvement of large, greater than small fibres. The pathological findings suggest axonal degeneration and repair. Inflammatory infiltrates are common but are small and of doubtful pathological significance. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Prinsloo, Sarah; Novy, Diane; Driver, Larry; Lyle, Randall; Ramondetta, Lois; Eng, Cathy; McQuade, Jennifer; Lopez, Gabriel; Cohen, Lorenzo
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a significant problem for cancer patients, and there are limited treatment options for this often debilitating condition. Neuromodulatory interventions could be a novel modality for patients trying to manage CIPN symptoms; however, they are not yet the standard of care. This study examined whether electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback (NFB) could alleviate CIPN symptoms in survivors. This was a randomized controlled trial with survivors assigned to an NFB group or a wait-list control (WLC) group. The NFB group underwent 20 sessions of NFB, in which visual and auditory rewards were given for voluntary changes in EEGs. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) worst-pain item was the primary outcome. The BPI, the Pain Quality Assessment Scale, and EEGs were collected before NFB and again after treatment. Outcomes were assessed with general linear modeling. Cancer survivors with CIPN (average duration of symptoms, 25.3 mo), who were mostly female and had a mean age of 62.5 years, were recruited between April 2011 and September 2014. One hundred percent of the participants starting the NFB program completed it (30 in the NFB group and 32 in the WLC group). The NFB group demonstrated greater improvement than the controls on the BPI worst-pain item (mean change score, -2.43 [95% confidence interval, -3.58 to -1.28] vs 0.09 [95% confidence interval, -0.72 to -0.90]; P =·.001; effect size, 0.83). NFB appears to be effective at reducing CIPN symptoms. There was evidence of neurological changes in the cortical location and in the bandwidth targeted by the intervention, and changes in EEG activity were predictive of symptom reduction. Cancer 2017;123:1989-1997. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Petropoulos, Ioannis N; Alam, Uazman; Fadavi, Hassan; Marshall, Andrew; Asghar, Omar; Dabbah, Mohammad A; Chen, Xin; Graham, James; Ponirakis, Georgios; Boulton, Andrew J M; Tavakoli, Mitra; Malik, Rayaz A
To assess the diagnostic validity of a fully automated image analysis algorithm of in vivo confocal microscopy images in quantifying corneal subbasal nerves to diagnose diabetic neuropathy. One hundred eighty-six patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1/T2DM) and 55 age-matched controls underwent assessment of neuropathy and bilateral in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (IVCCM). Corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD), branch density (CNBD), and length (CNFL) were quantified with expert, manual, and fully-automated analysis. The areas under the curve (AUC), odds ratios (OR), and optimal thresholds to rule out neuropathy were estimated for both analysis methods. Neuropathy was detected in 53% of patients with diabetes. A significant reduction in manual and automated CNBD (P < 0.001) and CNFD (P < 0.0001), and CNFL (P < 0.0001) occurred with increasing neuropathic severity. Manual and automated analysis methods were highly correlated for CNFD (r = 0.9, P < 0.0001), CNFL (r = 0.89, P < 0.0001), and CNBD (r = 0.75, P < 0.0001). Manual CNFD and automated CNFL were associated with the highest AUC, sensitivity/specificity and OR to rule out neuropathy. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is associated with significant corneal nerve loss detected with IVCCM. Fully automated corneal nerve quantification provides an objective and reproducible means to detect human diabetic neuropathy.
Petropoulos, Ioannis N.; Alam, Uazman; Fadavi, Hassan; Marshall, Andrew; Asghar, Omar; Dabbah, Mohammad A.; Chen, Xin; Graham, James; Ponirakis, Georgios; Boulton, Andrew J. M.; Tavakoli, Mitra; Malik, Rayaz A.
Purpose. To assess the diagnostic validity of a fully automated image analysis algorithm of in vivo confocal microscopy images in quantifying corneal subbasal nerves to diagnose diabetic neuropathy. Methods. One hundred eighty-six patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1/T2DM) and 55 age-matched controls underwent assessment of neuropathy and bilateral in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (IVCCM). Corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD), branch density (CNBD), and length (CNFL) were quantified with expert, manual, and fully-automated analysis. The areas under the curve (AUC), odds ratios (OR), and optimal thresholds to rule out neuropathy were estimated for both analysis methods. Results. Neuropathy was detected in 53% of patients with diabetes. A significant reduction in manual and automated CNBD (P < 0.001) and CNFD (P < 0.0001), and CNFL (P < 0.0001) occurred with increasing neuropathic severity. Manual and automated analysis methods were highly correlated for CNFD (r = 0.9, P < 0.0001), CNFL (r = 0.89, P < 0.0001), and CNBD (r = 0.75, P < 0.0001). Manual CNFD and automated CNFL were associated with the highest AUC, sensitivity/specificity and OR to rule out neuropathy. Conclusions. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is associated with significant corneal nerve loss detected with IVCCM. Fully automated corneal nerve quantification provides an objective and reproducible means to detect human diabetic neuropathy. PMID:24569580
Perbellini, L; De Grandis, D; Marchiori, L; Olivato, D; Bertolasi, L
Nine cases of local neuropathy are described in shoe-manufacture workers. Clinical and electrophysiological examination excluded diseases such as toxic polyneuropathies due to n-hexane. Specific lesions of the ulnar nerve were located near the elbow where the forced and uncomfortable posture facilitated the compression of the nerve in the cubital tunnel. The severity of the neuropathies ranged from relatively slight, with paresthesia of some of the fingers, to evident hypotrophy of the inter-osseous muscles of the hand. All the 9 cases sewed shoe uppers using sewing machines operating 25 cm above the arm support, thus obliging the operator to work with one or both elbows resting on the support, with the arms and shoe-upper held up. Five cases presented a neuropathy of the right arm, 3 of the left arm, and in one case the lesions were bilateral. The features of the work station are described and the possible promoting factors and the ergonomic pathogenesis of these neuropathies are discussed.
Stubblefield, Michael D; McNeely, Margaret L; Alfano, Catherine M; Mayer, Deborah K
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) results from damage to or dysfunction of the peripheral nerves. The development of CIPN is anticipated for the majority of breast cancer patients who receive neurotoxic chemotherapy, depending on the agent used, dose, and schedule. Sensory symptoms often predominate and include numbness, tingling, and distal extremity pain. Weakness, gait impairment, loss of functional abilities, and other deficits may develop with more severe CIPN. This article outlines a prospective surveillance model for physical rehabilitation of women with breast cancer who develop CIPN. Rehabilitative efforts for CIPN start at the time of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment planning. The prechemotherapy evaluation identifies patients with preexisting peripheral nervous system disorders that may place them at higher risk for the development of CIPN. This clinical evaluation should include a history focusing on symptoms and functional activities as well as a physical examination that objectively assesses the patient's strength, sensation, reflexes, and gait. Ongoing surveillance following the initiation of a neurotoxic agent is important to monitor for the development and progression of symptoms associated with CIPN, and to ensure its resolution over the long term. CIPN is managed best by a multidisciplinary team approach. Early identification of symptoms will ensure appropriate referral and timely symptom management. The prospective surveillance model promotes a patient-centered approach to care, from pretreatment through survivorship and palliative care. In this way, the model offers promise in addressing and minimizing both the acute and long-term morbidity associated with CIPN.
Jung, M; Rein, N; Fuchs, B
Background: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a frequent side-effect of drugs that are used in the treatment of cancer. Affected individuals can suffer from motor, sensory or autonomy nerve damage. Further medication is used for the treatment of CIPN which can cause further side-effects. Patients should be offered physical therapy treatment to relieve the symptoms. Objective: The aim of this article is to give an overview of available literature investigating physical therapy in CIPN in pediatric oncology. Methods: To determine relevant literature, a systematic review was conducted in the databases CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, ERIC, MEDPILOT, PEDro, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, PubMed and DIMDI. Besides the methodological quality of the identified literature is supposed to be reviewed. Results: There is no current literature regarding the subject of this article, so no evaluation of the quality could be carried out. Although several publications concerning adults could be identified and transfer could be established for pediatrics. Conclusion: Acupuncture appeared to be effective in the treatment of CIPN in adults. Good results appeared especially regarding pain. Sensorimotor training, balance training, electrotherapy and alternative methods like Reiki and Yoga showed good results for patients symptoms. These treatment methods give a future prospect how CIPN in children can be treated successfully - but further pediatric research is necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Schumacher, Christie; Glosner, Scott E
OBJECTIVES To assess the prevalence of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), evaluate the impact of DPN on patients' function and quality of life, and assess patient satisfaction with their current DPN treatment. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Patient-centered medical home model at an internal medicine clinic in Chicago, from November 1, 2011, through November 1, 2012. PARTICIPANTS 71 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes aged 45 to 85 years and receiving diabetes education and medication management from the clinic pharmacist. INTERVENTION Paper survey administered to patients during clinic visits. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES DPN history; DPN impact on activity level, sleep, and quality of life; and satisfaction with current DPN treatment. RESULTS Of the 71 participants, 22% (n = 15) reported a diagnosis of DPN from their providers; however, 54% (n = 37) reported burning, aching, or tenderness in their hands, arms, legs, or feet. More than 50% of patients with these symptoms had experienced them for more than 1 year. Fewer than one in five patients (14% [n = 5]) reporting symptoms indicative of painful DPN were receiving treatment. CONCLUSION DPN may be underdiagnosed and undertreated in this patient population, which represents a potential opportunity for pharmacists to help patients with diabetes meet their quality of care goals.
Vigani, A G; Macedo-de-Oliveira, A; Pavan, M H P; Pedro, M N; Gonçales Jr, F L
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is essentially hepatotropic but its manifestations can extend beyond the liver. It can be associated with autoimmune diseases, such as mixed cryoglobulinemia, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, autoimmune thyroiditis, and lymphoproliferative disorders. The mechanisms that trigger these manifestations are not completely understood. We describe a 48-year-old man with chronic HCV infection (circulating HCV RNA and moderate hepatitis as indicated by liver biopsy), cryoglobulinemia, and sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy. The diagnosis of multineuropathy was confirmed by clinical examination and electromyographic tests. A nerve biopsy revealed an inflammatory infiltrate in the perineurial space and signs of demyelination and axonal degeneration. The patient had no improvement of neurological symptoms with the use of analgesics and neuro-modulators. He was then treated with interferon-alpha (3 million units subcutaneously, 3 times per week) and ribavirin (500 mg orally, twice a day) for 48 weeks. Six months after the end of therapy, the patient had sustained viral response (negative HCV RNA) and remission of neurological symptoms, but cryoglobulins remained positive. A review of the literature on the pathogenesis and treatment of neurological manifestations associated with HCV infection is presented. This report underscores the need for a thorough evaluation of HCV-infected patients because of the possibility of extrahepatic manifestations. Antiviral treatment with interferon and ribavirin can be effective and should be considered in patients with neurological complications associated with HCV infection.
Scofield, Amanda K.; Radfar, Lida; Ice, John; Vista, Evan; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Houston, Glen; Lewis, David; Stone, Donald U.; Chodosh, James; Hefner, Kimberly; Lessard, Christopher J.; Moser, Kathy L.; Scofield, R. Hal
Background Sjögren syndrome is a common, chronic autoimmune disease that typically produces inflammation and poor function of the salivary and lacrimal glands. Other organs can be affected, including the nervous system. Sensory peripheral neuropathy is a common manifestation of the disease. Methods Eight-eight patients attending a dry eyes-dry mouth clinic were classified as primary Sjögren syndrome and underwent a neurological examination. Anti-Ro (or SSA) and anti-La (or SSB) were determined using immunodiffusion as well as Inno-Lia and BioPlex ANA screen. Serum vitamin B12 levels were determined using an enzyme-linked microtiter plate assay. Results Twenty-seven (31%) of the 88 patients had peripheral neuropathy as defined by loss of light touch, proprioception or vibratory sensation. Anti-Ro and anti-La were found by immunodiffusion in 12 patients, and 8 of these 12 had neuropathy (χ2=8.46, p=0.0036, odds ratio = 6.0 compared to those without precipitating anti-Ro and anti-La). Of the 27 patients with only anti-Ro by immunodiffusion, 13 (48.1%) of these had neuropathy (χ2 =5.587, p=0.018 compared to those without anti-Ro). There was no relationship of the other, more sensitive measures of anti-Ro and anti-La to neuropathy. In addition, we found no association of serum vitamin B12 levels to neuropathy among these patients with Sjögren syndrome. Conclusion Sensory peripheral neuropathy is common among patients with Sjögren syndrome, and is associated with the presence of anti-Ro and anti-La when determined by immunodiffusion. PMID:22955477
Tamari, I; Goodman, R M; Sarova, I; Hertz, M; Adar, R; Zvibach, T
Three unrelated Oriental Jewish families with a total of eight subjects with progressive hereditary sensory neuropathy are reported. The parents were all unaffected and because of parental consanguinity in each of the three families it is postulated that this rare neurological disorder is transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner. In one family both parents showed an abnormal response to pain stimulation with normal motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity. This response may be an expression of the carrier state for this hereditary disease. Only five other families (non-Jewish) have been reported as having this form of peripheral hereditary sensory neuropathy. These observations suggest that one type, the progressive form, of peripheral hereditary sensory neuropathy may be more common in Oriental Jews. Images PMID:6937618
Tsutsumi, Kuniaki; Kaname, Takanori; Shiraishi, Haruka; Kawashiri, Takehiro; Egashira, Nobuaki
Paclitaxel, an anticancer drug, frequently causes painful peripheral neuropathy. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of polaprezinc on paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats. Polaprezinc (3 mg/kg, p.o., once daily) inhibited the development of mechanical allodynia induced by paclitaxel (4 mg/kg, i.p., on days 1, 3, 5 and 7) and suppressed the paclitaxel-induced increase in macrophage migration in dorsal root ganglion cells. In addition, polaprezinc did not affect the anti-tumor activity of paclitaxel in cultured cell lines or tumor-bearing mice. These results suggest a clinical indication for polaprezinc in the prevention of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wong, Raimond; Major, Pierre; Sagar, Stephen
A prospective phase 2 study was conducted to evaluate the clinical utility of acupuncture-like transcutaneous nerve stimulation (ALTENS) for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Eligible cancer patients had a < 2 ECOG performance score, received neurotoxic chemotherapy, and developed CIPN symptoms for > two months. Randomization was used to eliminate bias in patient selection for ALTENS and was not to compare the effectiveness between the two treatments.ALTENS treatments were delivered using Codetron units. Bilateral acupuncture points included LI4 and LIV3, plus LI11 or ST36 were stimulated. Acupuncture treatments were administered to CV6, SP6, ST6, LI11, Bafeng, Baxie and selective Jing points bilaterally. Twelve treatments were delivered twice weekly over 6 to 8 weeks. The Modified Total Neuropathy Score (mTNS), Numbness Score, and Edmonton Symptom Assessment Score (ESAS) were assessed at baseline, treatment completion, plus at 3 and 6 months follow-up. The primary study endpoint was mTNS score at 6 months. We planned to recruit 23 patients into each group. After 30 patients were recruited, 2 were lost to follow-up at 3 months in the ALTENS group and 3 in the acupuncture group. The research team decided to recruit all remaining consecutive patients only to the ALTENS group to ensure an adequate evaluation of ALTENS, the primary object of evaluation. There were 27 patients in the ALTENS group, with an average symptom duration of 10 months after chemotherapy. Twenty four and 23 patients completed the 3 and 6 month follow-up respectively. The median mTNS scores were 7.1, 4.0, 3.6 and 3.1 at baseline, treatment completion, 3 and 6 months follow-up, respectively. One-way ANOVA analysis showed a significant improvement in mTNS scores (p<0.001) at 6 months. Numbness scores were also significantly improved at 6 months. ESAS pain scores and perception of well-being scores analyses were inconclusive. There were no significant reported side
Truini, A; Biasiotta, A; Di Stefano, G; Leone, C; La Cesa, S; Galosi, E; Piroso, S; Pepe, A; Giordano, C; Cruccu, G
The different neuropathic pain types (e.g., ongoing burning pain and allodynia) are frequent and disabling complaints in patients with peripheral neuropathies. Although the reference standard technique for diagnosing painful small-fibre neuropathies is nerve fibre density assessment by skin biopsy, the relationship between the epidermal nerve fibre (ENF) density and neuropathic pain is still unclear. In a clinical and skin biopsy study designed to investigate whether changes in ENF density are directly related to pain, we enrolled 139 consecutive patients with distal symmetric peripheral neuropathy. All patients underwent clinical examination. The Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory was used to distinguish the different neuropathic pain types. A skin biopsy was conducted, and ENFs were immunostained with the antiprotein gene product 9.5, and their linear density was quantified with bright-field microscopy. No difference was found in ENF density between patients with and without neuropathic pain, nor between patients with and without ongoing burning pain. Conversely, ENF density was higher in patients with provoked pains (including mechanical dynamic allodynia) than in those without. The variable association between ENF density and symptoms of neuropathic pain supports the idea that neuropathic pain symptoms arise through distinct underlying mechanisms. The lack of relationship between ongoing burning pain and ENF density suggests that this type of pain reflects factors other than loss of nociceptive afferents. The association between ENF density and provoked pain (including mechanical dynamic allodynia) suggests that this type of pain might be mediated by spared and sensitised nociceptive afferents. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Leinders, Mathias; Üçeyler, Nurcan; Thomann, Anna; Sommer, Claudia
Changes in the neuro-immune balance play a major role in the induction and maintenance of neuropathic pain. We recently reported pathophysiologically relevant alterations in skin and sural nerve cytokine expression in peripheral neuropathies of different etiologies. Immune processes and cytokine expression are under tight control of microRNAs (miRNAs). To identify potential master switches in the neuro-immune balance, we aimed at characterizing inflammation-regulating miRNA profiles in patients with peripheral neuropathies. In an unselected patient cohort with polyneuropathies of different etiologies seen at our neuromuscular center between 2014 and 2015, we determined the systemic and local relative expression of miR-21-5p, miR-146a, and miR-155. In white blood cells we found higher miR-21 (p<0.001) and miR-146a (p<0.001) expression and lower miR-155 (p<0.001) expression when compared to healthy controls. In sural nerve, miR-21 (p<0.02) was increased in painful compared to painless neuropathies. In painful neuropathies, skin biopsies from the lower leg had reduced miR-146a (p<0.001) and miR-155 (p<0.001) expression compared to the thigh. Thus, peripheral neuropathies are associated with aberrant miRNA expression in white blood cells, sural nerve, and skin. These miRNA patterns may help to identify factors that determine the painfulness of peripheral neuropathies and lead to druggable targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kaplan, Gulce Sari; Torcun, Ceyda Corek; Grune, Tilman; Ozer, Nesrin Kartal; Karademir, Betul
Proteasomal system plays an important role in protein turnover, which is essential for homeostasis of cells. Besides degradation of oxidized proteins, it is involved in the regulation of many different signaling pathways. These pathways include mainly cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, transcriptional activation and angiogenesis. Thus, proteasomal system is a crucial target for treatment of several diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, cystic fibrosis, atherosclerosis, autoimmune diseases, diabetes and cancer. Over the last fifteen years, proteasome inhibitors have been tested to highlight their mechanisms of action and used in the clinic to treat different types of cancer. Proteasome inhibitors are mainly used in combinational therapy along with classical chemo-radiotherapy. Several studies have proved their significant effects but serious side effects such as peripheral neuropathy, limits their use in required effective doses. Recent studies focus on peripheral neuropathy as the primary side effect of proteasome inhibitors. Therefore, it is important to delineate the underlying mechanisms of peripheral neuropathy and develop new inhibitors according to obtained data. This review will detail the role of proteasome inhibition in cancer therapy and development of peripheral neuropathy as a side effect. Additionally, new approaches to prevent treatment-limiting side effects will be discussed in order to help researchers in developing effective strategies to overcome side effects of proteasome inhibitors.
... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AO32 Disease Associated With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents... peripheral neuropathy associated with exposure to certain herbicide agents. This amendment implements a... governing retroactive awards for certain diseases associated with herbicide exposure as required by...
García, Antonio; Maestro, Iratxe
Central nervous system complications following carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are well reported in the literature but peripheral neuropathy is under-recognized. We report the clinical and electrophysiological studies of the transient peripheral neuropathy developed in a patient following acute CO intoxication. A 27-year-old woman was found unconscious with severe hypoxia and 34.5% serum level of carboxyhemoglobin. She progressed favourably after hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Neurological examination revealed bilateral pyramidal signs. The patient referred weakness and sensory abnormalities in her right foot. An electroencephalogram did not show focal abnormalities and brain magnetic resonance was normal. Needle electromyography of weak right tibialis anterior muscle showed a reduced recruitment pattern but no spontaneous activity. Electroneurographic evaluation revealed findings compatible with a motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy in nerves of both lower limbs. In few months complete clinical recovery was reached, and the electroneurography showed normality a year later Reversible peripheral neuropathy should be considered as a possible neurological complication following acute CO poisoning. The electrophysiological studies were essential for its diagnosis and follow up.
...-modifying agents, and clinical trial design. FDA intends to take this information into account in developing... peripheral neuropathy. Date and Time: The public workshop will be held on February 11, 2013, from 8:30 a.m... speaker's comments during this open public hearing may be limited by time constraints. Registration is...
... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AO32 Disease Associated With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents... connection for acute and sub-acute peripheral neuropathy associated with exposure to certain herbicide agents... associated with exposure to certain herbicide agents. DATES: Comments must be received by VA on or before...
Siddiqui, Hafeez-U R; Spruce, Michelle; Alty, Stephen R; Dudley, Sandra
A large proportion of individuals who live with type-2 diabetes suffer from plantar sensory neuropathy. Regular testing and assessment for the condition is required to avoid ulceration or other damage to patient's feet. Currently accepted practice involves a trained clinician testing a patient's feet manually with a hand-held nylon monofilament probe. The procedure is time consuming, labor intensive, requires special training, is prone to error, and repeatability is difficult. With the vast increase in type-2 diabetes, the number of plantar sensory neuropathy sufferers has already grown to such an extent as to make a traditional manual test problematic. This paper presents the first investigation of a novel approach to automatically identify the pressure points on a given patient's foot for the examination of sensory neuropathy via optical image processing incorporating plantar anthropometry. The method automatically selects suitable test points on the plantar surface that correspond to those repeatedly chosen by a trained podiatrist. The proposed system automatically identifies the specific pressure points at different locations, namely the toe (hallux), metatarsal heads and heel (Calcaneum) areas. The approach is generic and has shown 100% reliability on the available database used. The database consists of Chinese, Asian, African, and Caucasian foot images.
Seto, Yoshihiro; Okazaki, Fumiyasu; Horikawa, Keiji; Zhang, Jing; Sasaki, Hitoshi; To, Hideto
Although cis-diamminedichloro-platinum (CDDP) exhibits strong therapeutic effects in cancer chemotherapy, its adverse effects such as peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy, and vomiting are dose-limiting factors. Previous studies reported that chronotherapy decreased CDDP-induced nephropathy and vomiting. In the present study, we investigated the influence of dosing times on CDDP-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats. CDDP (4 mg/kg) was administered intravenously at 5:00 or 17:00 every 7 days for 4 weeks to male Sprague-Dawley rats, and saline was given to the control group. To assess the dosing time dependency of peripheral neuropathy, von-Frey test and hot-plate test were performed. In order to estimate hypoalgesia, the hot-plate test was performed in rats administered CDDP weekly for 4 weeks. On day 28, the withdrawal latency to thermal stimulation was significantly prolonged in the 17:00-treated group than in the control and 5:00-treated groups. When the von-Frey test was performed to assess mechanical allodynia, the withdrawal threshold was significantly lower in the 5:00 and 17:00-treated groups than in the control group on day 6 after the first CDDP dose. The 5:00-treated group maintained allodynia throughout the experiment with the repeated administration of CDDP, whereas the 17:00-treated group deteriorated from allodynia to hypoalgesia. It was revealed that the severe of CDDP-induced peripheral neuropathy was inhibited in the 5:00-treated group, whereas CDDP-treated groups exhibited mechanical allodynia. These results suggested that the selection of an optimal dosing time ameliorated CDDP-induced peripheral neuropathy.
Garg, Kanwaljeet; Aggarwal, Ankita; Srivastava, Deep Narayan; Jana, Manisha; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Kumar, Atin; Kumar, Vijay; Malhotra, Rajesh; Goyal, Vinay; Garg, Kanwaljeet
Peripheral neuropathies refer to a group of disorders in which there is damage to the nerves of the peripheral nervous system. Electrophysiological studies are the main stay for the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathies. However, direct visualization of the nerves is possible with exact localization of site of pathology with high resolution ultrasonogram and 3 Tesla MRI scanner, and newer MR sequences. We did a cross sectional study including a total of 55 patients and 64 nerves with upper limb peripheral neuropathies. All the included patients underwent high resolution focused ultrasound of the nerves and MR neurography. Nerve Conduction Velocity study was done for reference. The diagnostic confidence of TSE T2W MR sequence was seen to be highest with a sensitivity of 95.31% while it was 81.25% for ultrasonogram. Continuity of the nerve in patients with traumatic neuropathy was seen in 65.7% and 62.86% (22/35) nerves on MRI and ultrasonogram respectively. T1W and T2W MR sequences were seen to be equally effective in establishing the continuity of the nerve. Increase in the calibre/ thickening was seen in 77% of cases on MRI, and 73.8% of cases on USG. Neuroma formation was seen equally on both MR & USG in 60.66%. We consistently found low fractional anisotropy (FA) values at the site of pathology. Ultrasound is a sensitive technique to diagnose peripheral neuropathies and it should be used as a screening modality for a focused MR to be performed later. TSE T2W FS has the highest sensitivity to pick nerve pathology and is comparable to NCS. Amongst the newer sequences, DTI should be done to increase the diagnostic confidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ezendam, Nicole P M; Pijlman, Brenda; Bhugwandass, Celine; Pruijt, Johannes F M; Mols, Floortje; Vos, M Caroline; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V
This study assessed the prevalence and risk factors of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, and its impact on health-related quality of life among ovarian cancer survivors, 2-12 years after diagnosis. Women (n=348) diagnosed with ovarian cancer between 2000 and 2010, as registered by the Dutch population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry, were eligible for participation. A questionnaire, including the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-OV28 measures, containing 3 items about neuropathy, was returned by 191 women (55%). Recurrence and chemotherapy data were obtained from medical records. Of all 191 women, the 129 women who received chemotherapy more often reported having tingling hands/feet and feeling numbness in fingers/toes, specifically 51% reported "a little" to "very much" of these symptoms vs. about 27% who did not receive chemotherapy. Women reporting more neuropathy symptoms reported lower levels of functioning and overall quality of life. They also reported more symptoms of fatigue, nausea/vomiting, pain, dyspnea, insomnia, appetite loss, and financial problems. Moreover, women reporting more neuropathy symptoms had experienced the disease and treatment more often as being a burden and were more worried about their health, had more gastrointestinal and hormonal symptoms, hair loss and more other chemotherapy side effects. Linear regression analyses showed that more cycles of chemotherapy, more recurrences and a shorter period since last treatment were associated with a higher neuropathy score. Neuropathy symptoms were experienced by 51% of women with ovarian cancer who received chemotherapy even up to 12 years after the end of treatment, and this seriously affected their HRQoL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barreira, A A; Marques Júnior, W
Studies on peripheral neuropathies by investigators residing in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and published since the 1930 and 1940 decades until 1985 were revised in the present survey. Investigations in the area were greatly encouraged by the appearance of the journal Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria(São Paulo). Oswaldo Freitas Julião may be considered the author who began these studies in the State and his most important contributions were related to leprosy and to Andrade disease, although he also published papers on other types of peripheral neuropathies. Horacio Martins Canelas also made a very important contribution to the study of different neuropathies, especially those due to vitamin B12 deficiency. A series of papers on neuropathies published by neurologists residing in the State is summarized. We also present a catalogue of the major university centers where groups of neurologists preferentially devote their time to the study of neuromuscular disease in São Paulo and a selected bibliography about neuropathies by investigators from this State.
Allen, D; Riordan-Eva, P; Paterson, R W; Hadden, R D M
The syndrome of subacute simultaneous peripheral neuropathy and bilateral optic neuropathy is known to occur in tropical countries, probably due to malnutrition or toxicity, but not often seen in developed countries. We report seven patients in London who were not malnourished or alcoholic, and in whom no clear cause was found. We retrospectively reviewed the case notes and arranged some further investigations. All patients developed peripheral and bilateral optic neuropathy within 6 months. Patients were aged 30-52, and all of Jamaican birth and race but lived in the UK. Most had subacute, painful ataxic sensory axonal neuropathy or neuronopathy, some with myelopathy. Nerve conduction studies revealed minor demyelinating features in two cases. The optic neuropathy was symmetrical, subacute and monophasic, usually with marked reduction in visual acuity. CSF protein concentration was usually elevated but other laboratory investigations were normal. Patients showed only modest improvement at follow-up. These patients share a common clinical and electrophysiological phenotype, age, ethnicity and elevated CSF protein, but otherwise normal laboratory investigations. The syndrome is a cause of significant morbidity in young people. The cause remains uncertain despite thorough investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bales, Joshua G; Meals, Roy
In the orthopedic patient, the diagnosis of a compression neuropathy may be straightforward. However, various medical comorbidities can obscure this diagnosis. It is paramount for the practicing orthopedic surgeon to have an appreciation for the medical pathology of common axonal neuropathies to properly diagnose, treat, and refer a patient with altered sensation in the upper extremity. The prevalence of diabetes in the United States is 10%, and roughly 20% of diabetic patients have peripheral neuropathy. In addition to diabetes, 32% of heavy alcohol users present with polyneuropathy. With advancements in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome clinicians may see the long-term effects of the virus manifested as axonal neuropathies and extreme allodynia. In some regions of the world, Hansen's disease usurps diabetes as the most common cause of polyneuropathy. Based on patient demographics and social habits, Lyme disease, multiple sclerosis, and syphilis can all manifest as polyneuropathies. Understanding the common medical causes of neuropathy will aid the orthopedic surgeon in differentiating simple compression neuropathies from diseases mimicking or confounding them.
Knill-Jones, R. P.; Goodwill, C. J.; Dayan, A. D.; Williams, Roger
In a prospective study of 70 unselected patients with chronic liver disease, clinical signs of a peripheral neuropathy were observed in 13 patients. Abnormal nerve conduction was demonstrated in nine of these and in one further patient who had no abnormal neurological signs. The occurrence of a neuropathy (in patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis, haemochromatosis, active chronic hepatitis as well as in alcoholic cirrhosis) could not be related to liver function, although it was associated with higher IgA and IgM values. Clinical diabetes was present in six of the 14 patients with neuropathy but there was no relation in the non-diabetic patients between neuropathy and minor impairment of carbohydrate tolerance. Those with neuropathy had a significantly higher incidence of oesophageal varices and there was also a relationship to a history of previous encephalopathy. Sural nerve biopsy was carried out on 14 patients, eight of whom had clinical or electrodiagnostic evidence of neuropathy. Single nerve fibres were examined by teasing and in all nerves histological evidence was found of an indolent process which had damaged whole Schwann cells and which resulted in demyelination and remyelination. Diabetic angiopathy was not seen and axonal degeneration, which was never severe, was found in all disease groups equally. Images PMID:4337271
Vinik, A I; Casellini, C; Névoret, M-L
Here we review some seldom-discussed presentations of diabetic neuropathy, including large fiber dysfunction and peripheral autonomic dysfunction, emphasizing the impact of sympathetic/parasympathetic imbalance. Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes and contributes additional risks in the aging adult. Loss of sensory perception, loss of muscle strength, and ataxia or incoordination lead to a risk of falling that is 17-fold greater in the older diabetic compared to their young nondiabetic counterparts. A fall is accompanied by lacerations, tears, fractures, and worst of all, traumatic brain injury, from which more than 60% do not recover. Autonomic neuropathy has been hailed as the "Prophet of Doom" for good reason. It is conducive to increased risk of myocardial infarction and sudden death. An imbalance in the autonomic nervous system occurs early in the evolution of diabetes, at a stage when active intervention can abrogate the otherwise relentless progression. In addition to hypotension, many newly recognized syndromes can be attributed to cardiac autonomic neuropathy such as orthostatic tachycardia and bradycardia. Ultimately, this constellation of features of neuropathy conspire to impede activities of daily living, especially in the patient with pain, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. The resulting reduction in quality of life may worsen prognosis and should be routinely evaluated and addressed. Early neuropathy detection can only be achieved by assessment of both large and small- nerve fibers. New noninvasive sudomotor function technologies may play an increasing role in identifying early peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, allowing rapid intervention and potentially reversal of small-fiber loss. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Houlden, H; Reilly, M M; Smith, S
To investigate and correlate the frequency and types of pupil abnormalities that are associated with hereditary peripheral neuropathy in a large cohort of patients prospectively examined. A prospective study between 1998 and 2007. Patients were enrolled and examined after being seen in the neurology clinic. Data were collected on demographics, family and medical history. Patients had eye and pupillography testing carried out as well as being neurologically and genetically investigated. A consecutive series of 131 cases of inherited peripheral neuropathy were seen and categorized into five groups: familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP), Charcot Marie Tooth disease (CMT), hereditary neuropathywith liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), Refsum's disease, and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy. A number of unreported mutations were identified in these patient groups. Pupil abnormalities were common in the Refsum's group, with frequent abnormally small pupils. The inherited neuropathies commonly associated with autonomic abnormalities were frequently found to have developed bilateral Horner's syndrome, which was particularly prevalent in our FAP series. Abnormalities were rare in HNPP and CMT type 1, but CMT type 2 showed frequent and varied pupil defects. The results describe the pupil abnormalities that were frequently associated with the particular group of inherited neuropathy patients, but we could not predict the genetic defect or the neuropathy severity. This is the first study of the pupil abnormalities found in the inherited neuropathies and provides an overview of the frequency and type of defects seen in a large number of cases. This series along with the detailed tables will act as an important diagnostic aid in assessing these patients.
Yu, Shuai; Chen, Ying; Hou, Xu; Xu, Donghua; Che, Kui; Li, Changgui; Yan, Shengli; Wang, Yangang; Wang, Bin
Previous studies suggested a possible association between serum uric acid levels and peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes, but no definite evidence was available. A systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies were performed to comprehensively estimate the association. Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases were searched for eligible studies. Study-specific data were combined using random-effect or fixed-effect models of meta-analysis according to between-study heterogeneity. Twelve studies were finally included into the meta-analysis, which involved a total of 1388 type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy and 4746 patients without peripheral neuropathy. Meta-analysis showed that there were obvious increased serum uric acid levels in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 50.03 μmol/L, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 22.14-77.93, P = 0.0004). Hyperuricemia was also significantly associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes (risk ratio [RR] = 2.83, 95%CI 2.13-3.76, P < 0.00001). Meta-analysis of two studies with adjusted risk estimates showed that hyperuricemia was independently associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients (RR = 1.95, 95%CI 1.23-3.11, P = 0.005). Type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy have obvious increased serum uric acid levels, and hyperuricemia is associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy. Further prospective cohort studies are needed to validate the impact of serum uric acid levels on peripheral neuropathy risk.
Lupachyk, Sergey; Watcho, Pierre; Stavniichuk, Roman; Shevalye, Hanna; Obrosova, Irina G.
Endoplasmic reticulum stress resulting from abnormal folding of newly synthesized proteins impairs metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and gene expression, and it is a key mechanism of cell injury. Endoplasmic reticulum stress plays an important role in cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and diabetes. We evaluated the role for this phenomenon in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Endoplasmic reticulum stress manifest in upregulation of multiple components of unfolded protein response was identified in neural tissues (sciatic nerve, spinal cord) of streptozotocin diabetic rats and mice. A chemical chaperone, trimethylamine oxide, administered for 12 weeks after induction of diabetes (110 mg⋅kg−1⋅d−1, a prevention paradigm) attenuated endoplasmic reticulum stress, peripheral nerve dysfunction, intraepidermal nerve fiber loss, and sciatic nerve and spinal cord oxidative-nitrative stress in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Similar effects on diabetes-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and peripheral nerve dysfunction were observed with a structurally unrelated chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyric acid (100 mg⋅kg−1⋅d−1, intraperitoneal). CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP)−/− mice made diabetic with streptozotocin displayed less severe sciatic nerve oxidative-nitrative stress and peripheral neuropathy than the wild-type (C57Bl6/J) mice. Neither chemical chaperones nor CHOP gene deficiency reduced diabetic hyperglycemia. Our findings reveal an important role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in the development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and identify a potential new therapeutic target. PMID:23364451
Uwah, Augusta N; Ackler, Joan; Leighton, John C; Pomerantz, Sherry; Tester, William
Chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity is a significant source of morbidity for cancer patients. This study aimed to assess the relationship between preexisting diabetes and clinically significant (National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria grades 2 and 3) OXIPN; between diabetes, and the cumulative dose at onset of OXIPN; and between other preexisting medical conditions and the development of OXIPN. We reviewed medical records of all patients with stage II-IV colon cancer treated in the Albert Einstein Cancer Center, Philadelphia, with oxaliplatin from 2005 to 2009. Exclusion criteria included preexisting neuropathy, previous neurotoxic chemotherapy exposure, and incomplete medical records. The NCI Common Toxicity Criteria was used to grade sensory neuropathy. Univariate analysis was used to estimate odds ratios and confidence limits for prevalence of OXIPN in patients with and without diabetes. The mean level and cumulative doses were compared using the t test. Sixty-two patients met the study criteria; 23 oxaliplatin-treated patients were excluded. The crude incidence of any OXIPN was 65%. There was no relationship found between development of OXIPN and the presence of diabetes, smoking, hypertension, or statin use. However, the mean cumulative dose of oxaliplatin was significantly lower for patients with diabetes who developed neuropathy, compared with those without diabetes (388 vs. 610 mg/m(2); P = .021). Although the presence of diabetes did not appear to affect the severity of OXIPN, patients with diabetes developed OXIPN at a lower cumulative dose of oxaliplatin (P < .05). The results may have implications for treatment of patients with diabetes and colon cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baker, Steven K; Lipson, David M
We report the case of a 46-day-old boy with a fulminant vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy after treatment for congenital acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Flaccid paralysis developed at the end of the first phase of induction, requiring intubation and ventilation for 51 days. Treatment was initiated with levocarnitine, N-acetylcysteine, and pyridoxine and progressive reversal of the neuropathy occurred over the next 4 months. Potential differences in pathogenesis and presentation of vincristine neurotoxicity and Guillian-Barre syndrome in the neonate are discussed.
Oomatia, A; Fang, H; Petri, M; Birnbaum, J
To characterize peripheral neuropathy subtypes, ancillary studies, and immunologic profiles associated with peripheral neuropathies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this 25-year study of 2,097 SLE patients, we characterized peripheral neuropathies due to SLE and compared clinical and SLE-related features in patients with versus those without neuropathy. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathies was 5.9% (123 of 2,097 patients), and 66.7% of these patients (82 of 123) had peripheral neuropathies attributable to SLE. We noted that 17.1% of the patients with peripheral neuropathies due to SLE (14 of 82 patients) had small-fiber neuropathy, which is a painful neuropathy not included in the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) case definitions. SLE patients with small-fiber neuropathies could present with unorthodox neuropathic pain patterns not consistent with a stocking-glove distribution and had associated skin biopsy results suggestive of dorsal root ganglion neuronal cell loss. Compared to SLE patients without peripheral neuropathies, those with peripheral neuropathies had lower mean disease activity (P = 0.01) and higher disease damage (P < 0.01) and were more likely to have a history of herpes zoster virus infection (P < 0.01), osteoporotic fractures (P < 0.01), and opportunistic infections (P < 0.01). Our findings indicate that small-fiber neuropathy is a frequently occurring peripheral neuropathy. The skin biopsy findings in small-fiber neuropathy patients support the notion that distinct mechanisms target the dorsal root ganglia as well as distal axons. SLE patients with peripheral neuropathy have lower mean disease activity scores and higher disease damage. Our findings suggest that revision of the ACR NPSLE case definitions, which currently do not include small-fiber neuropathies, is warranted. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Carlos, Fernando; Espejel, Luis; Novick, Diego; López, Rubén; Flores, Daniel
Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy affects 40-50% of patients with diabetic neuropathy, leading to impaired quality of life and substantial costs. Duloxetine and pregabalin have evidence-based support, and are formally approved for controlling painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We used a 12-week decision model for examining painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy first-line therapy with daily doses of duloxetine 60mg or pregabalin 300mg, under the perspective of the Instituto Venezolano de los Seguros Sociales. We gathered model parameters from published literature and expert´s opinion, focusing on the magnitude of pain relief, the presence of adverse events, the possibility of withdrawal owing to intolerable adverse events or due to lack of efficacy, and the quality-adjusted life years expected in each strategy. We analyzed direct medical costs (which are expressed in Bolívares Fuertes, BsF) comprising drug acquisition besides additional care devoted to treatment of adverse events and poor pain relief. We conducted both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Total expected costs per 1000 patients were BsF 1 046 146 (26%) lower with duloxetine than with pregabalin. Most of these savings (91%) corresponds to the difference in the acquisitions cost of each medication. duloxetine also provided 23 more patients achieving good pain relief and a gain of about two quality-adjusted life years per 1000 treated. Model was robust to plausible changes in main parameters. Duloxetine remained the preferred option in 93.9% of the second-order Monte Carlo simulations. This study suggests duloxetine dominates (i.e., is more effective and lead to gains in quality-adjusted life years), remaining less costly than pregabalin for treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy.
CG, Shashi Kumar; Hande, H Manjunath; Vidyasagar, Sudha; Rao, Karthik; Rajagopal, K.V
Background & aims: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) accounts for most common complications of T2DM. Painful DPN is associated with functional limitation & poor quality of life. Therefore, objective of the study is to find the effect of low level laser therapy on painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) Materials & methods: The study design is pre-post observational design. After obtaining ethical clearance and informed consent, 19 T2DM subjects were screened and confirmed for peripheral neuropathy in an outpatient setting with biochemical parameter, pain scale and Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). Low Level Laser therapy was irradiated through scanning mode with dosage of 3.1J/cm2 on the plantar and dorsum of the foot and 3.4j/cm2 with contact method for 10days and all subjects were reassessed at the end of the 10 day. Descriptive statistics and paired′ test was used to analyze the pre-post finding within the group. Level of significance was set at p<0.05 Results: The result analysis showed significant reduction in Pain using VAS scale (6.47 ± 0.84 to 1.21 ± 0.78 (p<0.001), MNSI (5.52 ± 1.26 to 2.71 ± 0.97 (reduction in Vibration perception threshold (32.68 ± 6.08 to 24.84 ± 4.29 (<0.001) and a significant increase in the temperature from baseline to post intervention (30.01 ± 2.11 to 31.75 ± 1.03 (p<0. 001). Conclusion: In the present study, Low level laser therapy was found to be effective in type 2 DM with peripheral neuropathy. PMID:26557734
Fallah, Alireza; Mirzaei, Alireza; Gutknecht, Norbert; Demneh, Amir Saberi
Peripheral sensory neuropathy treatment is one of the common treatment problems and causes morbidity and mortality in people suffering from that. Although treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition, nevertheless, in some cases, there is no cure for it, and it requires palliative and symptomatic treatment. In laboratory studies, low-level laser has been effective in the nerves protection and restoration. The aim of this article is to investigate the clinical efficacy of low-level laser on improvement of the peripheral somatosensory neuropathy. Search in the articles published up to 30 October 2015 (full text and abstracts) in databases PubMed (Medline), Cochrane library, Physiotherapy Evidence Database was performed. The studies of low-level laser trials on patients with peripheral neuropathy were carried out and evaluated in terms of the exclusion criteria. There are 35 articles among which 10 articles had the intended and required criteria. 1, 3, and 6 articles study the patients with diabetes, neuropathy caused by trauma, and carpal tunnel syndrome, respectively. In six studies, laser led to a reduction in sensory impairment and improvement of the physiological function of the sensory nerves. In these articles, lasers (Diode, GaAlAs, He-Ne) had wavelength range 660-860 nm, radiation power 20-250 mW, energy density 0.45-70 J/cm(2). The intervention sessions range was 6-21 times and patient follow-up was 0-6 months. According to the results of these studies, low-level laser therapy can improve sensory function in patients with peripheral somatosensory neuropathy, although little research have not been done, laser treatment regimens are varied and do not recommend a specific treatment protocol. It seems it requires more research to sum up better, particularly in relation to diabetes.
Lauria, G; Cornblath, D R; Johansson, O; McArthur, J C; Mellgren, S I; Nolano, M; Rosenberg, N; Sommer, C
Skin biopsy has become a widely used tool to investigate small calibre sensory nerves including somatic unmyelinated intraepidermal nerve fibres (IENF), dermal myelinated nerve fibres, and autonomic nerve fibres in peripheral neuropathies and other conditions. Different techniques for tissue processing and nerve fibre evaluation have been used. In March 2004, a Task Force was set up under the auspices of the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) with the aim of developing guidelines on the use of skin biopsy in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathies. We searched the Medline database from 1989, the year of the first publication describing the innervation of human skin using immunostaining with anti-protein-gene-product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) antibodies, to 31 March 2005. All pertinent papers were rated according to the EFNS guidance. The final version of the guidelines was elaborated after consensus amongst members of the Task Force was reached. For diagnostic purposes in peripheral neuropathies, we recommend performing a 3-mm punch skin biopsy at the distal leg and quantifying the linear density of IENF in at least three 50-mum thick sections per biopsy, fixed in 2% PLP or Zamboni's solution, by bright-field immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescence with anti-PGP 9.5 antibodies (level A recommendation). Quantification of IENF density closely correlated with warm and heat-pain threshold, and appeared more sensitive than sensory nerve conduction study and sural nerve biopsy in diagnosing small-fibre sensory neuropathy. Diagnostic efficiency and predictive values of this technique were very high (level A recommendation). Confocal microscopy may be particularly useful to investigate myelinated nerve fibres, dermal receptors and dermal annex innervation. In future, the diagnostic yield of dermal myelinated nerve fibre quantification and of sweat gland innervation should be addressed. Longitudinal studies of IENF density and regeneration rate are warranted to
In this communication, I first show some points we should mind in the conventional peripheral nerve conduction studies and later present clinical usefulness of motor root stimulation for peripheral neuropathy. CONVENTIONAL NERVE CONDUCTION STUDIES (NCS): The most important point revealed by the conventional NCSs is whether neuropathy is due to axonal degeneration or demyelinating process. Precise clinical examination with this neurophysiological information leads us to a diagnosis and treatment. Poor clinical examination makes these findings useless. Long standing axonal degeneration sometimes induces secondary demyelination at the most distal part of involved nerves. On the other hand, severe segmental demyelination often provokes secondary axonal degeneration at distal parts to the site of demyelination. These secondary changes show the same abnormal neurophysiological findings as those of the primary involvement. We should be careful of this possibility when interpreting the results of NCS. NCS of sensory nerves is not good at revealing demyelinating process. Mild temporal dispersion of potentials often reduces an amplitude of SNAP or loss of responses, which usually suggests axonal degeneration, because of short duration of sensory nerve potentials. MOTOR ROOT STIMULATION IN PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY: Magnetic stimulation with a coil placed over the spine activates motor roots and evokes EMG responses from upper and lower limb muscles. The site of activation with this method was determined to be where the motor roots exit from the spinal canal (intervertebral foramina) (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 52 (9): 1025-1032, 1989) because induced currents are very dense at such a foramen made by electric resistant bones. In several kinds of peripheral neuropathy, this method has been used to detect a lesion at a proximal part of the peripheral nerves which can not be detected by the conventional NCSs. I present a few cases in whom motor root stimulation had a clinical
Ducic, Ivica; Taylor, Nathan S; Dellon, A Lee
This was an initial exploratory study to determine if decompression of the 4 medial ankle tunnels (neurolysis of the tibial, medial and lateral plantar, and calcaneal nerves) could lead to improved foot sensibility, increased proprioception and balance, and decreased falls in a population of patients with impaired lower extremity sensation. Fourteen patients with peripheral neuropathy were included in this study. Seventy-one percent of patients were females. Average age was 67 years. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively to assess their lower extremity sensibility, as well as their ability to stand still, maintaining their balance with their eyes open and then closed, which is defined as "sway." Lower extremity sensibility was measured with the Pressure-Specified Sensory Device (PSSD), which evaluates 1- and 2-point discrimination for the pulp of the big toe and medial heel. The MatScan Measurement System measured each patient's sway. Neuropathy was the result of diabetes in 72% of patients, a combination of diabetes and hypothyroidism in 7%, chemotherapy in 7%, and idiopathic in 14%. Eight patients underwent peripheral nerve decompression on 1 lower extremity, whereas 6 patients underwent bilateral lower extremity peripheral nerve decompression. Mean toe and heel sensibility improved 9% and 7%, respectively, in the unilateral group, whereas the bilateral group experienced an improvement in mean toe and heel sensibility of 42% (P = 0.02) and 32%, respectively. Preoperative and postoperative sway comparison in the unilateral group revealed a reduction in sway with eyes open and eyes closed by 5% and 31%, respectively. Comparison of preoperative and postoperative sway in the bilateral group showed a reduction with eyes open and eyes closed by 23% and 145% (P = 0.05), respectively. This initial study suggests that there may be benefit from bilateral lower extremity peripheral nerve decompression in helping improve pedal sensibility and balance
Salazar-Leal, Martha E; Flores, M S; Sepulveda-Saavedra, Julio; Romero-Diaz, Viktor J; Becerra-Verdin, Eduardo M; Tamez-Rodriguez, Victor A; Martinez, Hector R; Piñeyro-Lopez, Alfredo; Bermudez, M V
Intoxication by Karwinskia humboldtiana (buckthorn) fruit presents a neurological picture similar to that of Guillain-Barré syndrome. In this report, we describe an experimental animal model of peripheral neuropathy induced by buckthorn fruit. Four groups of Wistar rats received one oral dose of 1.5 g/kg followed by oral doses of 0.5 g/kg at days 3, 7, 10, and 14 of dried and ground buckthorn fruit in aqueous suspension. Rats were sacrificed at 24, 48, 58, and 112 days after initial dose. Treated animals developed progressive paralysis through 58 days, then completely recovered by 112 days. Sciatic nerves showed segmental demyelination and cellular infiltrates until 58 days after exposure and then remyelinating changes at 112 days. This experimental model for peripheral neuropathy is reproducible and easy to handle. Its manipulation is relatively innocuous and allows us to study reversible peripheral nerve damage. This model can be developed in other animal species and may be useful to test new therapies for peripheral neuropathy.
Nam, Soo Hyun; Hong, Young Bin; Hyun, Young Se; Nam, Da Eun; Kwak, Geon; Hwang, Sun Hee; Choi, Byung-Ok; Chung, Ki Wha
Inherited peripheral neuropathies (IPN), which are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous peripheral nerve disorders including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), exhibit progressive degeneration of muscles in the extremities and loss of sensory function. Over 70 genes have been reported as genetic causatives and the number is still growing. We prepared a targeted gene panel for IPN diagnosis based on next generation sequencing (NGS). The gene panel was designed to detect mutations in 73 genes reported to be genetic causes of IPN or related peripheral neuropathies, and to detect duplication of the chromosome 17p12 region, the major genetic cause of CMT1A. We applied the gene panel to 115 samples from 63 non-CMT1A families, and isolated 15 pathogenic or likely-pathogenic mutations in eight genes from 25 patients (17 families). Of them, eight mutations were unreported variants. Of particular interest, this study revealed several very rare mutations in the SPTLC2, DCTN1, and MARS genes. In addition, the effectiveness of the detection of CMT1A was confirmed by comparing five 17p12-nonduplicated controls and 15 CMT1A cases. In conclusion, we developed a gene panel for one step genetic diagnosis of IPN. It seems that its time- and cost-effectiveness are superior to previous tiered-genetic diagnosis algorithms, and it could be applied as a genetic diagnostic system for inherited peripheral neuropathies.
Li, Qing-rong; Wang, Zhuo; Zhou, Wei; Fan, Shou-rui; Ma, Run; Xue, Li; Yang, Lu; Li, Ya-shan; Tan, Hong-li; Shao, Qing-hua; Yang, Hong-ying
Epalrestat is a noncompetitive and reversible aldose reductase inhibitor used for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. This study assumed that epalrestat had a protective effect on diabetic peripheral nerve injury by suppressing the expression of aldose reductase in peripheral nerves of diabetes mellitus rats. The high-fat and high-carbohydrate model rats were established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Peripheral neuropathy occurred in these rats after sustaining high blood glucose for 8 weeks. At 12 weeks after streptozotocin injection, rats were intragastrically administered epalrestat 100 mg/kg daily for 6 weeks. Transmission electron microscope revealed that the injuries to myelinated nerve fibers, non-myelinated nerve fibers and Schwann cells of rat sciatic nerves had reduced compared to rats without epalrestat administuation. Western blot assay and immunohistochemical results demonstrated that after intervention with epalrestat, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase gradually increased, but aldose reductase protein expression gradually diminished. Results confirmed that epalrestat could protect against diabetic peripheral neuropathy by relieving oxidative stress and suppressing the polyol pathway. PMID:27073391
Nam, Soo Hyun; Hong, Young Bin; Hyun, Young Se; Nam, Da Eun; Kwak, Geon; Hwang, Sun Hee; Choi, Byung-Ok; Chung, Ki Wha
Inherited peripheral neuropathies (IPN), which are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous peripheral nerve disorders including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), exhibit progressive degeneration of muscles in the extremities and loss of sensory function. Over 70 genes have been reported as genetic causatives and the number is still growing. We prepared a targeted gene panel for IPN diagnosis based on next generation sequencing (NGS). The gene panel was designed to detect mutations in 73 genes reported to be genetic causes of IPN or related peripheral neuropathies, and to detect duplication of the chromosome 17p12 region, the major genetic cause of CMT1A. We applied the gene panel to 115 samples from 63 non-CMT1A families, and isolated 15 pathogenic or likely-pathogenic mutations in eight genes from 25 patients (17 families). Of them, eight mutations were unreported variants. Of particular interest, this study revealed several very rare mutations in the SPTLC2, DCTN1, and MARS genes. In addition, the effectiveness of the detection of CMT1A was confirmed by comparing five 17p12-nonduplicated controls and 15 CMT1A cases. In conclusion, we developed a gene panel for one step genetic diagnosis of IPN. It seems that its time- and cost-effectiveness are superior to previous tiered-genetic diagnosis algorithms, and it could be applied as a genetic diagnostic system for inherited peripheral neuropathies. PMID:27025386
Yoon, Hang Seob; Choi, Woo Jin; Sung, Il Hoon; Lee, Ho Seong; Chung, Hyung Jin
Background This study evaluated the effects of Beraprost sodium (Berasil) on subjective leg symptoms in patients with peripheral arterial disease caused by diabetes mellitus. Methods Ninety-four diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease were treated with Beraprost in a fixed-dose, prospective, multicenter, cohort study. Beraprost (40 µg) was administered orally 3 times daily (120 µg/day) for 12 weeks. We developed a new disease-specific symptom questionnaire, which evaluated the effect of peripheral arterial disease on leg discomfort in daily life and assessed therapeutic responses to treatment. Patients were asked for their subjective assessment of symptoms on a written questionnaire before treatment and after 12 weeks of therapy. Results There was significant improvement in all estimated subjective symptoms (burning, coldness, edema, exertional pain, stabbing, and paresthesias) in the lower extremities at 12 weeks (p < 0.001). There were 18 patients with neuropathy in whom significant improvement was noted for 6 subjective symptoms at 12 weeks (p < 0.05). Adverse events considered to be drug-related were observed in 4 patients (4.3%), all of which were mild and resolved with discontinuation of the medication. Conclusions Beraprost is effective as a treatment for improving various subjective symptoms in the lower extremities, such as burning, coldness, edema, exertional pain, stabbing, and paresthesias, in diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease. PMID:23730480
Lechleitner, Monika; Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Francesconi, Claudia; Kofler, Markus
These are the guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of diabetic neuropathy. This diabetic late complication comprises a number of mono- and polyneuropathies, plexopathies, radiculopathies and autonomic neuropathy. The position statement summarizes characteristic clinical symptoms and techniques for diagnostic assessment of diabetic neuropathy. Recommendations for the therapeutic management of diabetic neuropathy, especially for the control of pain in sensorimotor neuropathy, are provided.
Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
Cettomai, Deanna; Kwasa, Judith K.; Birbeck, Gretchen L.; Price, Richard W.; Cohen, Craig R.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; (OB/Gyn), MMed; Kendi, Caroline; Meyer, Ana-Claire L.
INTRODUCTION Peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurological complication of HIV but is widely under-diagnosed in resource-limited settings. We investigated the utility of screening tools administered by non-physician health care workers (HCW) and quantitative sensory testing (QST) administered by trained individuals for identification of moderate/severe neuropathy. METHODS We enrolled 240 HIV-infected outpatients using two-stage cluster randomized sampling. HCWs administered the several screening tools. Trained study staff performed QST. Tools were validated against a clinical diagnosis of neuropathy. RESULTS Participants were 65% women, mean age 36.4 years, median CD4 324 cells/μL. 65% were taking antiretrovirals, and 18% had moderate/severe neuropathy. The screening tests were 76% sensitive in diagnosing moderate/severe neuropathy with negative predictive values of 84–92%. QST was less sensitive but more specific. DISCUSSION Screening tests administered by HCW have excellent negative predictive values and are promising tools for scale-up in resource-limited settings. QST shows promise for research use. PMID:24037693
Goldberg, Allon; Russell, James William; Alexander, Neil Burton
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and pre-diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) affect a large segment of the population. Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a common complication of T2DM, leading to sensory and motor deficits. While T2DM-related PN often results in balance- and mobility-related dysfunction which manifests as gait instability and falls, little is known about balance capabilities in patients who have evidence of PN related to IGT (IGT-PN). We evaluated patients with IGT-PN on commonly-used clinical balance and mobility tests as well as a new test of trunk position sense and balance impairment, trunk repositioning errors (TREs). Eight participants aged 50-72 years with IGT-PN, and eight age- and gender-matched controls underwent balance, mobility and trunk repositioning accuracy tests at a university neurology clinic and mobility research laboratory. Compared to controls, IGT-PN participants had as much as twice the magnitude of TREs and stood approximately half as long on the single leg balance test. People with IGT-PN exhibit deficits in standing balance and trunk position sense. Furthermore, there was a significant association between performance on commonly-used clinical balance and mobility tests, and electrophysiological and clinical measures of neuropathy in IGT-PN participants. Because IGT-related neuropathy represents the earliest stage of diabetic neuropathy, deficits in IGT-PN participants highlight the importance of early screening in the dysglycemic process for neuropathy and associated balance deficits.
Handsaker, J C; Brown, S J; Bowling, F L; Marple-Horvat, D E; Boulton, A J M; Reeves, N D
To examine the stepping accuracy of people with diabetes and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Fourteen patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), 12 patients with diabetes but no neuropathy (D) and 10 healthy non-diabetic control participants (C). Accuracy of stepping was measured whilst the participants walked along a walkway consisting of 18 stepping targets. Preliminary data on visual gaze characteristics were also captured in a subset of participants (diabetic peripheral neuropathy group: n = 4; diabetes-alone group: n = 4; and control group: n = 4) during the same task. Patients in the diabetic peripheral neuropathy group, and patients in the diabetes-alone group were significantly less accurate at stepping on targets than were control subjects (P < 0.05). Preliminary visual gaze analysis identified that patients diabetic peripheral neuropathy were slower to look between targets, resulting in less time being spent looking at a target before foot-target contact. Impaired motor control is theorized to be a major factor underlying the changes in stepping accuracy, and potentially altered visual gaze behaviour may also play a role. Reduced stepping accuracy may indicate a decreased ability to control the placement of the lower limbs, leading to patients with neuropathy potentially being less able to avoid observed obstacles during walking. © 2015 Diabetes UK.
Loprinzi, Paul D; Hager, Kathy K; Ramulu, Pradeep Y
To determine if physical activity and/or blood glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) are associated with the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy (PN) in a representative population of diabetics. Three hundred thirty-nine diabetic participants (40-85 yrs) taking part in 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were studied. Participants were defined as having peripheral neuropathy if examination determined ≥1 insensate area in either foot. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was objectively-measured using accelerometry. After adjustments, MVPA was not significantly associated with PN (OR=1.16; 95% CI: 0.48-2.78), nor was HbA1c (OR=0.55; 95% CI: 0.28-1.04). However, there was evidence of statistical interaction (OR=0.24; 95% CI: 0.06-0.87) between MVPA and HbA1c status, showing that diabetics engaging in higher levels of MVPA and having normal HgbA1c levels were less likely to have PN than what would be expected based on the individual effects of MVPA and HbA1c alone. Although MVPA was not directly associated with PN, these findings suggest that proper physical activity, coupled with good glycemic control, is associated with less neuropathy. Future longitudinal studies are required to evaluate whether physical activity and improved glycemic control may help prevent or slow the progression of diabetic end-organ damage, particularly diabetic neuropathy.
Kallianpur, Asha R; Hulgan, Todd
Peripheral neuropathy is an important complication of antiretroviral therapy. Nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-associated mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and nutritional factors are implicated in its pathogenesis. Pharmacogenetic and genomic studies investigating NRTI neurotoxicity have only recently become possible via the linkage of HIV clinical studies to large DNA repositories. Preliminary case–control studies using these resources suggest that host mitochondrial DNA haplogroup polymorphisms in the hemochromatosis gene and proinflammatory cytokine genes may influence the risk of peripheral neuropathy during antiretroviral therapy. These putative risk factors await confirmation in other HIV-infected populations but they have strong biological plausibility. Work to identify underlying mechanisms for these associations is ongoing. Large-scale studies incorporating clearly defined and validated methods of neuropathy assessment and the use of novel laboratory models of NRTI-associated neuropathy to clarify its pathophysiology are now needed. Such investigations may facilitate the development of more effective strategies to predict, prevent and ameliorate this debilitating treatment toxicity in diverse clinical settings. PMID:19374518
Kim, Eun Sook; Lee, Sung Won; Mo, Eun Young; Moon, Sung Dae; Han, Je Ho
Several studies have suggested that bilirubin, a potent innate antioxidant, plays a protective role against cardiovascular and microvascular disease. This study investigated the association between serum concentrations of total bilirubin (TB) and the presence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in Korean diabetic patients. This cross-sectional study involved 1207 patients aged more than 30 years with type 2 diabetes. DPN was assessed according to clinical symptoms and physical examinations using Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument examination score, 10-g monofilament sensation, and current perception threshold. The subjects were stratified into gender-specific tertiles based on TB values, and the relationship between the TB values and DPN was analyzed. Compared with patients within the lowest TB tertile, those with higher TB levels consisted of patients with shorter duration of diabetes, lower HbA1c, better renal function, and less autonomic neuropathy, retinopathy, and albuminuria. Serum TB levels were inversely associated with DPN. In multivariate analysis for the development of DPN after adjusting for potential confounding factors including retinopathy, albuminuria, and autonomic neuropathy, the TB levels were inversely associated with the presence of DPN, both as a continuous variable [odds ratio (OR) per log standard deviation (SD) 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65-0.97; P = 0.022] and when categorized in tertiles (the highest vs. the lowest tertile; OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40-0.99; P = 0.046). Low serum bilirubin levels are significantly associated with DPN, independently of classic risk factors and other microvascular complications. Further investigation is necessary to determine whether serum bilirubin has a prognostic significance on DPN.
Investigate the association of peripheral autonomic neuropathy (PAN) symptoms and sympathetic skin response (SSR) in the patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) as a pilot study in Thai patients. Sixty-eight DPN patients' limbs, conducted retrospectively between June 2012 and January 2014, were included and divided into two groups, 48 abnormal SSR limbs and 20 control limbs, respectively. All clinical data, demographic characteristics, PAN symptoms, and other associated factors were compared and analyzed. A comparison between abnormal and normal SSR groups in DPN limbs showed no significant differences of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), comorbidity of hypertension and dyslipidemia, duration of PAN symptoms, associated neurological signs of impaired light touch sensation, and muscle weakness or atrophy (p-value > 0.05). The PAN symptoms, either anhidrosis or hypohidrosis, and hyporemia showed significantly correlated to abnormal SSRs (p-value = 0.003 and 0.028, respectively). Among symptoms of somatic small fiber neuropathy (SFN), burning paresthesia, and reduced thermal sensation revealed significantly correlated to abnormal SSRs (p-value = 0.032 and 0.021, respectively). Moreover, the study showed that history of fall in six months, history of foot ulcer in three months, impaired pinprick sensation, impaired proprioceptive sensation, decreased deep tendon reflex, burning paresthesia, reduced thermal sensation, either anhidrosis or hypohidrosis, and hyporemia had significantly associated with the occurrence of abnormal SSRs (p-value < 0.05). There was the association between PAN symptoms and abnormal SSRs in DPN patients' limbs. These data support the recent findings of several studies that abnormal SSR has the association with history of foot ulceration in diabetic patients. It warrants further investigation into the clinical utility of the SSR in diabetic patients.
Tierney, Edward F; Thurman, David J; Beckles, Gloria L; Cadwell, Betsy L
Peripheral neuropathy is a serious complication of diabetes and several conditions that may lead to the loss of lower extremity function and even amputations. Since the introduction of statins, their use has increased markedly. Recent reports suggest a role for statins in the development of peripheral neuropathy. The aims of the present study were to assess the association between statin use and peripheral neuropathy, and to determine whether this association varied by diabetes status. Data from the lower extremity examination supplement of the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The overall prevalence of statin use was 15% and the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy was 14.9%. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy was significantly higher among those who used statins compared with those who did not (23.5% vs 13.5%, respectively; P < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that statin use (adjusted odds ratio 1.3; 95% confidence interval 1.1-1.6; Wald P = 0.04) was significantly associated with peripheral neuropathy, controlling for diabetes status, age, gender, race, height, weight, blood lead levels, poverty, glycohemoglobin, use of vitamin B12 , alcohol abuse, hypertension, and non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Diabetes status, age, gender, height, weight, blood lead levels, poverty, and glycohemoglobin were also significantly associated with peripheral neuropathy. We found no effect modification between statin use and diabetes status, race, gender, age, vitamin B12 , blood lead levels, or alcohol abuse. In the present cross-sectional study, we found a modest association between peripheral neuropathy and statin use. Prospective studies are required to determine the causal direction. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.
Volchegorskii, I A
We read with great interest the systematic review by Çakici et al.  on treatments for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Unfortunately, on careful reading, we found a number of inaccuracies and factual errors. First, we were rather surprised that there was almost no mention of mexidol, although a conclusion about its effectiveness in treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy is in the 'What's new?' section, as well as in the final sentence of the main text under the 'Strengths and limitations' section and in the abstract. Furthermore, the results on mexidol are presented in Table 2 (page 1470) from our article, Volchegorskii et al. . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Hattori, Ayako; Sasaki, Masayuki; Sakuma, Hiroshi; Saito, Yoshiaki; Komaki, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Eiji; Sugai, Kenji
A 16-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital with mental retardation and a gradually increasing gait disturbance. He fell easily at age 6, and lost the ability to jump at age 1