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Sample records for peripheral venous thrombosis

  1. Risk factors for venous thrombosis associated with peripherally inserted central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Pan, Longfang; Zhao, Qianru; Yang, Xiangmei

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the risk factors associated with an increased risk of symptomatic peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC)-related venous thrombosis. Retrospective analyses identified 2313 patients who received PICCs from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013. All 11 patients with symptomatic PICC-related venous thrombosis (thrombosis group) and 148 who did not have thromboses (non-thrombosis group) were selected randomly. The medical information of 159 patients (age, body mass index (BMI), diagnosis, smoking history, nutritional risk score, platelet count, leucocyte count as well as levels of D-dimer, fibrinogen, and degradation products of fibrin) were collected. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine the risk factors for thrombosis. Of 2313 patients, 11 (0.47%) were found to have symptomatic PICC-related venous thrombosis by color Doppler ultrasound. Being bedridden for a long time (odds ratio [(OR]), 17.774; P=0.0017), D-dimer >5 mg/L (36.651; 0.0025) and suffering from one comorbidity (8.39; 0.0265) or more comorbidities (13.705; 0.0083) were the major risk factors for PICC-catheter related venous thrombosis by stepwise logistic regression analysis. Among 159 patients, the prevalence of PICC-associated venous thrombosis in those with ≥1 risk factor was 10.34% (12/116), in those with ≥2 risk factors was 20.41% (10/49), and in those with >3 risk factors was 26.67% (4/15). Being bedridden >72 h, having increased levels of D-dimer (>5 mg/L) and suffering from comorbidities were independent risk factors of PICC-related venous thrombosis.

  2. Risk factors for peripheral venous disease resemble those for venous thrombosis: the San Diego Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Cushman, M; Callas, PW; Denenberg, JO; Bovill, EG; Criqui, MH

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinically silent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is common and may cause chronic venous disease that resembles post-thrombotic syndrome. Objective We evaluated whether peripheral venous disease in a general population shares risk factors with DVT. Methods In an established cohort of 2,404 men and women, the San Diego Population Study, peripheral venous disease was evaluated using physical exam, symptom assessment, and venous ultrasound. We performed a case control study including 308 cases in 4 hierarchical groups by severity, and 346 controls without venous abnormalities, frequency matched to cases by 10-year age group, race and sex. Cases and controls had no prior history of venous thrombosis. Hemostatic risk factors were measured in cases and controls. Results Accounting for age, obesity and family history of leg ulcer, ORs for elevated factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, D-dimer, and for factor V Leiden were 1.4 (95% CI 0.9–2.1), 1.5 (CI 1.0–2.3), 1.7 (CI 1.1–2.8), and 1.1 (CI 0.5–2.4), respectively. These associations were larger in the two most severe case groups; ORs 2.0 (CI 1.0–3.8), 1.7 (CI 0.9–3.3), 2.7 (CI 1.2–6.1) and 2.3 (CI 0.8–7.1). Each hemostatic factor was also associated with severity of venous disease, for example elevated D-dimer was associated with a 2.2-fold increased odds of being in one higher severity group. Prothrombin 20210A was not associated with venous disease. Conclusions DVT risk factors are associated with presence and severity of peripheral venous disease. Results support a hypothesis that peripheral venous disease may sometimes be post-thrombotic syndrome due to previous unrecognized DVT. PMID:20492466

  3. Diagnosing Deep Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, D. Lynn

    1992-01-01

    Patients often present with unexplained lower limb pain and swelling. It is important to exclude deep venous thrombosis in the diagnosis because of the threat of sudden death. Simple clinical diagnosis is unacceptable, and noninvasive tests should be used initially. Serial testing detects proximal extension of isolated calf thrombi. Multiple diagnostic modalities are employed to diagnose a new deep venous thrombosis in patients with postphlebitic syndrome. PMID:21221369

  4. Venous thrombosis: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.

    1986-07-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease contributes to morbidity and mortality in certain groups of hospitalized patients, particularly those who have undergone surgery. Although principles of treatment have changed relatively little during the past 20 years, significant advances have been made in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Venography, once the only reliable diagnostic technique, has been largely replaced by noninvasive tests: impedance plethysmography, venous Doppler, /sup 125/I-radiofibrinogen-uptake test, and phleborheography. Virchow's triad of stasis, vessel injury, and hypercoagulability remains a valid explanation of the pathogenesis of thrombus formation, but laboratory and clinical data have refined our knowledge of how these factors interact to result in clinically significant disease. Knowledge of the natural history of venous thrombosis, plus heightened awareness of the long-term morbidity and expense associated with the postphlebitic syndrome, have led to increased interest in preventing DVT. Clinically and economically, venous thrombosis is best managed by prevention. 61 references.

  5. Enlargement of the diameter of the peripheral arteries in patients with idiopathic venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Poredos, P; Jezovnik, M K

    2012-12-01

    Recent findings indicate that enlargement of the diameter of the peripheral arteries represents a risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events. As the data indicate a relationship between atherosclerosis and venous thrombosis (VT), we investigated whether the diameter of the peripheral arteries is larger in patients with idiopathic VT than in healthy subjects. The study included 49 patients with idiopathic VT and 48 age-matched healthy controls. Diameters of the brachial, common carotid and common femoral arteries as well as the intima media thickness (IMT) of the carotid and femoral arteries were measured with the high frequency ultrasound method. Patients had significantly higher values for the diameter of the common carotid artery than the controls: 7.9 mm (7.4 - 8.4 mm) vs. 7.4 mm (7.0 - 7.9 mm), p < 0.001, and for the common femoral artery: 10.3 mm (9.2 - 11.1 mm) vs. 9.5 mm (8.9 - 10.4 mm), p = 0.025. Both the carotid and femoral diameters showed significant correlations with gender, age, body mass index and IMT. Linear regression analysis confirmed that the presence of VT significantly and independently influenced the diameter of the carotid and femoral artery but not the brachial artery. The results of our study showed that carotid and femoral artery diameters are enlarged in patients with idiopathic VT in comparison to healthy subjects. Since enlargement of the investigated arterial diameters is an indicator of atherosclerosis, our findings are consistent with the presumption that there is some interrelationship between VT and arterial atherosclerotic disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Samia Ben; Touati, Nahla; Baccouche, Hela; Drissi, Cyrine; Romdhane, Neila Ben; Hentati, Fayçal

    2016-01-01

    Data regarding cerebral venous thrombosis in North Africa are scarce. This study aims to identify the clinical features, risk factors, outcome, and prognosis of cerebral venous thrombosis in Tunisia. Data of 160 patients with radiologically confirmed cerebral venous thrombosis, hospitalized in Mongi Ben Hmida National Institute of Neurology (Tunis, Tunisia), were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The mean age was 37.3 years with a female predominance (83.1%). The mode of onset was subacute in most cases (56.2%). Headache was the most common symptom (71.3%), and focal neurologic symptoms were the main clinical presentation (41.8%). The most common sites of thrombosis were the superior sagittal sinus (65%) and the lateral sinus (60.6%). More than 1 sinus was involved in 114 (71.2%) patients. Parenchymal lesions observed in 85 (53.1%) patients did not correlate with cerebral venous thrombosis extent. Major risk factors were obstetric causes (pregnancy and puerperium) found in 46 (38.6% of women aged <50 years) patients, followed by anemia (28.1%) and congenital or acquired thrombophilia (16.2%). Mortality rate was of 6.6%. Good outcome at 6 months (modified Rankin Scale ≤2) was observed in 105 (87.5%)of 120 patients available for follow-up. Predictors of poor outcome were altered consciousness and elevated plasma C-reactive protein levels. Clinical and radiologic presentation of cerebral venous thrombosis in Tunisia was quite similar to other parts of the world with, however, a particularly high frequency of obstetric causes. Plasma C-reactive protein level should be considered as a prognostic factor in CVT.

  7. Epidemiology of recurrent venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, D.D.; Lijfering, W.M.; Barreto, S.M.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Rezende, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a common disease that frequently recurs. Recurrence can be prevented by anticoagulants, but this comes at the risk of bleeding. Therefore, assessment of the risk of recurrence is important to balance the risks and benefits of anticoagulant treatment. This review briefly outlines what is currently known about the epidemiology of recurrent venous thrombosis, and focuses in more detail on potential new risk factors for venous recurrence. The general implications of these findings in patient management are discussed. PMID:22183247

  8. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Milena Castellar-Leones, Sandra; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT) and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24347950

  9. CEREBRAL VENOUS THROMBOSIS AND TURNER SYNDROME: A RARE REPORTED ASSOCIATION.

    PubMed

    Guler, A; Alpaydin, S; Bademkiran, F; Sirin, H; Celebisoy, N

    2015-01-01

    Turner Syndrome is the only known viable chromosomal monosomy, characterised by the complete or partial absence of an X chromosome. It's the most common chromosomal abnormality in females. Apart from the well known dysmorphic features of the syndrome, it has been associated with a number of vascular pathologies; mainly involving the cardiovascular, renovascular, peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular system. It seems striking that thromboembolism is not considered as a feature of the syndrome. Most of the thromboembolism cases are related to the arterial vascular system; except for some rare reported portal venous thrombosis cases, peripheral venous thrombosis cases and to the best of our knowledge a single case of cerebral venous thrombosis with Dandy Walker malformation and polymicrogyria. We herein report a cerebral venous thrombosis case with Turner Syndrome. With no other found underlying etiology, we want to highlight that Turner Syndrome, itself, may have a relationship not only with the cerebral arterial vascular system pathologies but also with the cerebral venous thrombosis.

  10. Mesenteric venous thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Deep Vein Thrombosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ... to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein ...

  11. Venous thrombosis - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Deep Vein Thrombosis A.D.A.M., Inc. is ... to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein ...

  12. Venous and arterial thrombosis in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ocak, Gurbey; Vossen, Carla Y; Rotmans, Joris I; Lijfering, Willem M; Rosendaal, Frits R; Parlevliet, Karien J; Krediet, Ray T; Boeschoten, Els W; Dekker, Friedo W; Verduijn, Marion

    2011-12-01

    Whether the risk of both venous and arterial thrombosis is increased in dialysis patients as compared to the general population is unknown. In addition, it is unknown which subgroups are at highest risk. Furthermore, it is unknown whether having a history of venous thrombosis or arterial thrombosis prior to dialysis treatment increases mortality risk. A total of 455 dialysis patients were followed for objectively verified symptomatic thrombotic events between January 1997 and June 2009. The incidence rates in dialysis patients as compared to the general population was 5.6-fold (95% CI 3.1-8.9) increased for venous thrombosis, 11.9-fold (95% CI 9.3-14.9) increased for myocardial infarction, and 8.4-fold (95% CI 5.7-11.5) increased for ischaemic stroke. The combination of haemodialysis, lowest tertile of albumin, history of venous thrombosis, and malignancy was associated with subsequent venous thrombosis. Increased age, renal vascular disease, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, history of venous thrombosis, and history of arterial thrombosis were associated with subsequent arterial thrombosis. The all-cause mortality risk was 1.9-fold (95% CI 1.1-3.3) increased for patients with a history of venous thrombosis and 1.9-fold (95% CI 1.4-2.6) increased for patients with a history of arterial thrombosis. A potential limitation of this study was that in some risk categories associations with venous thrombosis did not reach statistical significance due to small numbers. In conclusion, dialysis patients have clearly elevated risks of venous thrombosis and arterial thrombosis and occurrence of venous thrombosis or arterial thrombosis prior to the start of dialysis is associated with an increased mortality risk.

  13. Venous Claudication in Iliofemoral Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Delis, Konstantinos T.; Bountouroglou, Dimitris; Mansfield, Averil O.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the long-term impact of iliofemoral thrombosis (I-FDVT) on walking capacity, venous hemodynamic status, CEAP class, venous clinical severity, and quality of life, and determined the prevalence of venous claudication. Materials and Methods: All patients with prior I-FDVT, assessed at our institution since 1990, were called for follow-up. Those with walking impairment due to arterial disease (ABI < 1.0 postexercise) or unrelated causes and those thrombectomized or thrombolyzed were excluded; 39 patients (22–83 years, median 46 years) were included. Median follow-up was 5 years (range 1–23 years). Investigation included classification in CEAP and Venous Clinical Severity Scoring (VCSS) systems, air-plethysmography (outflow fraction [OF], venous filling index [VFI], residual volume fraction [RVF]) and venous duplex, treadmill (3.5 km/h, 10%) to determine initial (ICD) and absolute (ACD) claudication distances, and quality of life assessment (SF-36). Nonaffected limbs of patients with unilateral I-FDVT (37 of 39) comprised the control group. Data are presented as median and interquartile range. Results: A total of 81% of limbs with I-FDVT had superficial and deep reflux and 19% superficial reflux; reflux in control limbs was 29.7% (P < 0.001) and 27% (P > 0.2), respectively; 43.6% (17 of 39; 95% CI, 27–60%) of patients developed venous claudication ipsilateral to I-FDVT (ICD: 130 m, range 105–268 m), compelling 15.4% (6 of 39; 95% CI, 3.5–27%) to discontinue treadmill (ACD: 241 m, range 137–298 m). Limbs with prior I-FDVT had a lower OF (37%, range 32.2–43%; P < 0.001), abnormally higher VFI (3.8 mL/s, range 2.5–5.7 mL/s; P < 0.001), and RVF (45%, range 32.5–51.5%; P = 0.006), and clinical impairment in CEAP and VCSS systems (P < 0.0001). Patients with I-FDVT had impaired physical functioning (P = 0.02) and role (P = 0.033), general health (P = 0.001), social function (P = 0.047), and mental health (P = 0.043). Conclusions: A

  14. Acute venous sinus thrombosis after chickenpox infection.

    PubMed

    Sardana, Vijay; Mittal, Lal Chand; Meena, S R; Sharma, Deepti; Khandelwal, Girish

    2014-08-01

    Chickenpox is one of the classic childhood diseases. Recently chicken pox has been reported in adults with more severe systemic and neurological complications. Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a life threatening disorder if not treated in time. We report a patient with post varicella CVT as a rare complication of primary Varicella zoster virus. Vasculitic arterial infarction is known while venous stroke has rarely been reported with Varicella-zoster virus infection. Here, we report an immunocompetent 30 yr old male who developed chickenpox after contact with his daughter two month back. He presented with acute neurological deficit, one week after onset of skin lesion. MR venography revealed non-visualisation of left transverse sinus and left sigmoid sinus suggestive of venous sinus thrombosis. Varicella infection is rarely associated with venous sinus thrombosis. Possibly hypercoagulable state produced by the infection or direct invasion of virus in venous endothelial wall with subsequent damage to endothelium leading to thrombosis could be the cause.

  15. Epidemiology of cancer-associated venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Timp, Jasmijn F; Braekkan, Sigrid K; Versteeg, Henri H; Cannegieter, Suzanne C

    2013-09-05

    Cancer-associated venous thrombosis is a common condition, although the reported incidence varies widely between studies depending on patient population, start and duration of follow-up, and the method of detecting and reporting thrombotic events. Furthermore, as cancer is a heterogeneous disease, the risk of venous thrombosis depends on cancer types and stages, treatment measures, and patient-related factors. In general, cancer patients with venous thrombosis do not fare well and have an increased mortality compared with cancer patients without. This may be explained by the more aggressive type of malignancies associated with this condition. It is hypothesized that thromboprophylaxis in cancer patients might improve prognosis and quality of life by preventing thrombotic events. However, anticoagulant treatment leads to increased bleeding, particularly in this patient group, so in case of proven benefit of thromboprophylaxis, only patients with a high risk of venous thrombosis should be considered. This review describes the literature on incidence of and risk factors for cancer-associated venous thrombosis, with the aim to provide a basis for identification of high-risk patients and for further development and refinement of prediction models. Furthermore, knowledge on risk factors for cancer-related venous thrombosis may enhance the understanding of the pathophysiology of thrombosis in these patients.

  16. [Subarachnoid hemorrhage induced by cerebral venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    El Otmani, H; Moutaouakil, F; Fadel, H; Slassi, I

    2012-12-01

    Nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage is a relatively rare disease, typically secondary to a ruptured aneurysm. We report the case of a 23-year-old patient who developed a subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by extensive cerebral venous thrombosis due to a factor V Leiden mutation. Cerebral venous thrombosis is an uncommon etiology of subarachnoid hemorrhage. This raises diagnostic difficulties and a therapeutic dilemma regarding the use of anticoagulants. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Upper extremity venous thrombosis. Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Nemmers, D W; Thorpe, P E; Knibbe, M A; Beard, D W

    1990-02-01

    Upper extremity venous thrombosis is a clinical entity with numerous etiologic factors. Only 2% of all cases of deep venous thrombosis involve the upper extremity, and the incidence of pulmonary embolism related to thrombosis in this location is approximately 12%. Primary or "effort" thrombosis of the upper limb is related to the inherent anatomical structure of the thoracic outlet and axillary region. Secondary thrombosis may have such diverse origins as trauma, infection, congestive heart failure, central venous catheters, neoplasms, septic phlebitis, intravenous drug use, and hypercoagulable states. Patients present with peripheral edema and prominent superficial veins, and neurologic symptoms (pain and paresthesias) are usually present as well. Clinical diagnosis is confirmed by venography or sonography. Treatment regimens include conservative measures, thrombolysis with fibrinolytic agents, and surgical correction of indicated thoracic outlet and axillary structures. We present an unusual case in which upper extremity venous thrombosis in a young healthy female athlete was associated with the presence of cervical ribs. The patient was successfully treated with focal thrombolysis and surgical resection of her ipsilateral cervical rib.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF VENOUS THROMBOSIS IN ANIMAL MODELS

    PubMed Central

    SP, Grover; CE, Evans; AS, Patel; B, Modarai; P, Saha; A, Smith

    2016-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis and common complications, including pulmonary embolism and post thrombotic syndrome, represent a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Experimental models of venous thrombosis have provided considerable insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate thrombus formation and subsequent resolution. Here we critically appraise the ex vivo and in vivo techniques used to assess venous thrombosis in these models. Particular attention is paid to imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging, micro computed tomography and high frequency ultrasound that facilitate longitudinal assessment of thrombus size and composition. PMID:26681755

  19. [Superficial venous thrombosis. A state of art].

    PubMed

    Sándor, Tamás

    2017-01-01

    For a long time superficial thrombophlebitis has been thought to be a rather benign condition. Recently, when duplex ultrasound technique is used for the diagnosis more and more often, the disease is proved to be more dangerous than anticipated. Thrombosis propagates to the deep veins in 6-44% and pulmonary embolism was observed on the patients in 1,5-33%. We can calculate venous thromboembolic complications on every fourth patient. Diagnosis is clinical, but duplex ultrasound examination is mandatory, for estimation of the thrombus extent, for exclusion of the deep venous thrombosis and for follow up. Both legs should be checked with ultrasound, because simultaneous deep venous thrombosis can develop on the contralateral limb. Two different forms can be distinguished: superficial venous thrombosis with, or without varicose veins. In cases of spontaneous, non varicous form, especially when the process is migrating or recurrent, a careful clinical examination is necessery for exclusion of malignant diseases and thrombophilia. The treatment options are summarised on the basis of recent international consensus statements. The American and German guidelines are similar. Compression and mobilisation are cornerstones of the therapy. For a short segment thrombosis non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs are effective. For longer segments low molecular-weight heparins are preferred. Information on the effect of the novel oral anticoagulants for the therapy is lacking but they may appear to be effective in the future for this indication. When thrombus is close to the sapheno-femoral or sapheno-popliteal junction crossectomy (high ligation), or low molecular-weight heparin in therapeutic doses are indicated. The term superficial thrombophlebitis should be discouraged, because inflammation and infection is not the primary pathology. It should be called correctly superficial venous thrombosis in order to avoid the unnecessary administration of antibiotics and the misconception

  20. Stent Placement on Fresh Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Vorwerk, Dierk; Guenther, Rolf W.; Schuermann, Karl

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To report on the efficacy of fixing fresh venous thrombus to the venous wall by stent placement. Methods: Seven patients underwent stenting to treat acute venous thrombosis. In two patients, the hemodialysis fistula was thrombosed with the thrombus extending into the brachial veins. In three patients, the hemodialysis fistula was patent but massive swelling of the ipsilateral arm was caused by proximal venous thrombosis. Two patients presented with iliac venous thrombosis within stented pelvic veins. Stent placement was preceded by other mechanical thrombectomy methods in all cases. Results: Attachment of thrombus to the venous wall was successful in all cases treated. Acute rethrombosis did not occur. Follow-up patency in dialysis patients was 7.2 {+-} 2.1 months. One patient had rethrombosis of the dialysis graft 3 months after primary treatment. Three patients developed restenosis within a mean period of 7.7 months. One shunt remained patent for 10 months with no event of reobstruction during follow-up. In both patients with iliac stent placement, the vein remained patent over a follow-up period of 8 and 12 months respectively. Conclusion: Stenting fresh venous thrombus can achieve immediate venous patency. It may be used as an alternative approach when all other percutaneous methods fail. Frequent restenosis within stented veins limits its use to very selected cases.

  1. Nonclinical aspects of venous thrombosis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Struble, Evi; Harrouk, Wafa; DeFelice, Albert; Tesfamariam, Belay

    2015-09-01

    Pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state which carries an excess risk of maternal venous thrombosis. Endothelial injury, alterations in blood flow and activation of the coagulation pathway are proposed to contribute to the hypercoagulability. The risk for thrombosis may be accentuated by certain drugs and device implants that directly or indirectly affect the coagulation pathway. To help ensure that these interventions do not result in adverse maternal or fetal outcomes during pregnancy, gravid experimental animals can be exposed to such treatments at various stages of gestation and over a dosage range that would identify hazards and inform risk assessment. Circulating soluble biomarkers can also be evaluated for enhancing the assessment of any increased risk of venous thrombosis during pregnancy. In addition to traditional in vivo animal testing, efforts are under way to incorporate reliable non-animal methods in the assessment of embryofetal toxicity and thrombogenic effects. This review summarizes hemostatic balance during pregnancy in animal species, embryofetal development, biomarkers of venous thrombosis, and alterations caused by drug-induced venous thrombosis.

  2. Case of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis with Unusual Venous Infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Kamaraju, Susheel Kumar; Pasupaleti, Bhimeswarao; Juluri, Naganarasimharaju

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is a relatively rare condition when compared with vascular accidents of arterial origin representing 0.5-1% of all strokes. Unlike arterial infarcts parenchymal changes are seldom present and when present most of the times are reversible. We present a case report of 28-year-old female with thrombosis of internal cerebral veins and straight sinus and hemorrhagic infarcts in bilateral basal ganglia and bilateral thalami .The findings of bilateral symmetrical hyper intensities in basal ganglia and thalami on MRI may be due to various causes of diverse etiology and cerebral venous thrombosis remains an important cause. Early recognition and prompt anticoagulation therapy helps to reduce the mortality to a great extent. The MRI imaging features of straight sinus thrombosis and other imaging differentials are discussed. PMID:26023623

  3. Pulmonary embolism without deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Tim; Hingorani, Anil; Ascher, Enrico; Marks, Natalie; Shiferson, Alexander; Jung, Daniel; Jimenez, Robert; Jacob, Theresa

    2012-10-01

    cancer at the time of diagnosis of PE were also considered to have active cancer. We demonstrated a statistically significant increased prevalence of malignancy in patients with PE without DVT. However, pathophysiology and clinical significance are the aspects that remain to be understood after accrual of more patients and further research. Possibilities such as de novo thrombosis of pulmonary arteries, complete dislodgement of thrombi from peripheral veins, or false-negative venous duplex need to be explored. Copyright © 2012 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Venous thrombosis: the history of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, P M

    2002-01-01

    Venous thrombosis is a frequent disease. It is surprising, therefore, that no case truly compatible with a diagnosis of venous thrombosis was apparently reported in the antiquity. There is no case that could be reasonably attributed to a venous thrombus in the writings of Hippocrates, Galenus, Celius Aurelianus, Ibn an-Nafiz, Avicenna and others. Venous thrombosis is not among the many diseases mentioned in the Bible. The term "leucophlegmasia", first used by Hippocrates and then by Celius Aurelianus, refers to cases of bilateral leg edema, most likely due to conditions such as heart failure, liver cirrhosis and renal insufficiency. Nothing compatible with a diagnosis of venous thrombosis can be found in pieces of art from ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Persia and South America. While in these sources there are sometimes representations of varicose veins and ulcers, unilateral leg edema or other pictures compatible with venous thrombosis are not featured. The first well documented case of venous thrombosis is depicted in a beautifully illustrated manuscript written in the 13th century and currently preserved in Paris at the Bibliothèque Nationale (MS Fr 2829, Folio 87). The manuscript describes the case of a young man from Normandy named Raoul who at the age of twenty developed unilateral edema in the right ankle that subsequently extended up to the thigh, with no obvious symptoms in the contralateral leg. Raoul was advised to visit the tomb of Saint Louis who was buried in the church of Saint Denis, where the patient spent several days confessing his sins and praying the saint. Afterwards he chose to collect the dust accumulating below the stone that covered the tomb and to apply it on the fistulae and ulcers of his foot. The openings stopped running and were filled with flesh. He was first obliged to use crutches but subsequently he could walk with a cane, to be eventually able to dispose of all devices, even though his foot throbbed a little. Raoul was cured as

  5. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis in Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

    PubMed Central

    Meppiel, Elodie; Crassard, Isabelle; de Latour, Régis Peffault; de Guibert, Sophie; Terriou, Louis; Chabriat, Hugues; Socié, Gérard; Bousser, Marie-Germaine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired disorder of hematopoietic stem cells characterized by hemolytic anemia, marrow failure, and a high incidence of life-threatening venous thrombosis. Cerebral venous system is the second most frequent location of thrombosis after hepatic veins. However, data about PNH-related cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) are very scarce because of the rarity of both the disorders. We report a French study about PNH patients with CVT. Patients were recruited retrospectively, from the Société Française d’Hématologie (SFH) registry of 465 patients with PNH; the Lariboisière registry of 399 patients with CVT; and a direct contact with 26 French Hematology Units. We review cases reported since 1938 in the English and French language literature. We then compared patients of our series with cases from the literature, with non-PNH-related CVT cases from Lariboisière registry, and with PNH patients without CVT from SFH registry. Fifteen patients were included between 1990 and 2012. Most patients were women (12/15) and half of them presented associated hormonal venous thrombosis risk factors. Three patients had concomitant hepatic vein thrombosis. CVT was the first manifestation of PNH in 4 patients. No major difference in CVT characteristics was found compared with non-PNH-related CVT cases, except for a younger age at diagnosis in PNH patients (P < 0.001). All patients were treated with anticoagulation therapy. One death occurred in acute stage. All surviving patients were independent 1 year after. Median survival time was 9 years. Recurrent thrombosis rate was 50% at 6 years, occurring in patients that did not have bone marrow transplantation or eculizumab therapy. Cases of death were mainly related to hepatic vein thrombosis. Prognosis of CVT was good in our series. However, these patients have a poor long-term prognosis due to PNH disease by itself. PNH treatment should be proposed as soon as possible to

  6. [Deep venous thrombosis related to cranioencephalic injury].

    PubMed

    Yáñez Baña, R M; Rossi López, R E; Romero López, J; Pareja Grande, J A; González-Elipe, J

    1989-09-01

    The clinical onset of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is very variable and the causes that may lead to its development are also quite numerous. Although characteristic CT diagnostic signs have been described, in most cases only nonspecific findings are present and angiography is required to confirm the diagnosis. The prognosis is variable. Classically, the mortality is high when the deep venous system is involved. We report a male with CVT involving Galen's vein and its major tributary vessels, who had a favorable outcome with heparin therapy and drugs for cerebral edema. We discuss the etiologic factors in this patient, the characteristic neuroradiologic findings, and their evolution during the course of therapy.

  7. Neonatal central venous catheter thrombosis: diagnosis, management and outcome.

    PubMed

    Park, Christina K; Paes, Bosco A; Nagel, Kim; Chan, Anthony K; Murthy, Prashanth

    2014-03-01

    Thrombotic occlusion of central venous catheters (CVCs) is a common problem in newborns. There is no guideline that systematically addresses the diagnosis, management, and prevention of this complication. The objective of this review is to establish evidence-based guidance for the management of CVC-related thrombosis. A comprehensive search of the scientific literature was conducted from 1948 to 2012. Twenty-six articles fulfilling four criteria - humans, neonates aged below 28 days, CVC insertion, and English language - were included for analysis. The incidence of thrombosis was 9.2% (308/3332). Singly inserted umbilical venous catheters (UVCs) and peripherally inserted central catheters accounted for over 80% of all CVCs. Frequently reported thrombotic sites were the hepatic vein, right atrium, and inferior vena cava. Symptoms included distal swelling of affected areas and thrombocytopenia. Increased length of catheter stay, infusion of blood products and malpositioned UVCs were identified as risk factors. The commonest diagnostic investigations to confirm thrombosis were echocardiography and ultrasonography. Spontaneous resolution may occur in UVC-related thrombosis, but this warrants close monitoring. Thrombolysis with urokinase alone or combined with low-molecular-weight heparin might be effective and well tolerated as treatment strategies. Prophylactic heparin increases the duration of catheter usability (P < 0.005, 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.81), decreases catheter occlusion, but may not uniformly prevent thrombosis. CVL-related thrombosis is an underreported complication because events in the majority occur silently. Currently, solid evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment are not possible. Well designed prospective studies are urgently required to establish a concrete investigational approach to CVC-related thrombosis and to institute safe therapeutic modalities.

  8. Neonatal central venous catheter thrombosis: diagnosis, management, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Park, Christina K; Paes, Bosco A; Nagel, Kim; Chan, Anthony K; Murthy, Prashanth

    2016-07-29

    Thrombotic occlusion of central venous catheters (CVCs) is a common problem in newborns. No guideline systematically addresses the diagnosis, management, and prevention of this complication. The objective of this review is to establish evidence-based guidance for the management of CVC thrombosis. A comprehensive literature search was conducted from 1948 to 2012. Twenty-six articles fulfilling four criteria - humans, neonates aged less than 28 days, CVC insertion, and English language - were included for analysis. The incidence of thrombosis was 9.2% (308/3332). Singly inserted umbilical venous catheters (UVCs) and peripherally inserted central catheters accounted for more than 80% of all CVCs. Frequently reported thrombotic sites were the hepatic vein, right atrium, and inferior vena cava. Symptoms included distal swelling of affected areas and thrombocytopenia. Increased length of catheter stay, infusion of blood products, and malpositioned UVCs were identified risk factors. The commonest diagnostic investigations confirming thrombosis were echocardiography and ultrasonography. Spontaneous resolution may occur in UVC-related thrombosis but warrants close monitoring. Thrombolysis with urokinase alone or combined with low molecular weight heparin might be effective and well tolerated. Prophylactic heparin increases the duration of catheter usability (P < 0.005, 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.81), decreases catheter occlusion, but may not uniformly prevent thrombosis. CVC-related thrombosis is an underreported complication because events in the majority occur silently. Currently, solid evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment are not possible. Well designed prospective studies are urgently required to establish a concrete investigational approach to CVC thrombosis and to institute well tolerated therapeutic modalities.

  9. Mesenteric venous thrombosis: diagnosis and noninvasive imaging.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Michelle S; Kavanagh, Peter V; Bechtold, Robert E; Chen, Michael Y; Ott, David J; Regan, John D; Weber, Therese M

    2002-01-01

    Mesenteric venous thrombosis is an uncommon but potentially lethal cause of bowel ischemia. Several imaging methods are available for diagnosis, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. Doppler ultrasonography allows direct evaluation of the mesenteric and portal veins, provides semiquantitative flow information, and allows Doppler waveform analysis of the visceral vessels; however, it is operator dependent and is often limited by overlying bowel gas. Conventional contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT) allows sensitive detection of venous thrombosis within the central large vessels of the portomesenteric circulation and any associated secondary findings; however, it is limited by respiratory misregistration, motion artifact, and substantially decreased longitudinal spatial resolution. Helical CT and CT angiography, especially when performed with multi-detector row scanners, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, particularly gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography, enable volumetric acquisitions in a single breath hold, eliminating motion artifact and suppressing respiratory misregistration. Helical CT angiography and three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography should be considered the primary diagnostic modalities for patients with a high clinical suspicion of mesenteric ischemia. Conventional angiography is reserved for equivocal cases at noninvasive imaging and is also used in conjunction with transcatheter therapeutic techniques in management of symptomatic portal and mesenteric venous thrombosis. Copyright RSNA, 2002

  10. Inflammation and peripheral venous disease. The San Diego Population Study.

    PubMed

    Cushman, M; Callas, P W; Allison, M A; Criqui, M H

    2014-09-02

    The inflammatory response to healing in venous thrombosis might cause vein damage and post-thrombotic syndrome. Inflammation may also be involved in venous insufficiency apart from deep-vein thrombosis. We studied the association of inflammation markers with venous insufficiency in a general population sample. We characterised 2,404 men and women in a general population cohort for peripheral venous disease and its severity using physical exam, symptom assessment, and venous ultrasound. Inflammation markers, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin 1-beta (IL-1-beta), IL-8, IL-10, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, monocyte chemoattractant-1 (MCP-1) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) were compared in 352 case participants with peripheral venous disease and 352 controls with no venous abnormalities frequency matched to cases by age, sex and race. Associations were also evaluated including a subset of 108 cases of severe venous disease, as previously defined. Odds ratios (95% CI), for peripheral venous disease for biomarkers in the top quartile (adjusting for age, race, sex, body mass index and history of venous thrombosis) were 1.8 (1.1-3.0), 1.6 (1.0-2.5) and 1.5 (0.9-2.3) for CRP, fibrinogen and IL-10, respectively. Associations were larger considering cases of severe venous disease, with odds ratios for these three analytes of 2.6 (1.2-5.9), 3.1 (1.3-7.3) and 2.2 (1.1-4.4), and for IL-8: 2.4 (1.1-5.2). There was no association of IL-1-beta, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, MCP-1 or VEGF with overall cases or severe venous disease. In conclusion, a subset of inflammation markers were associated with increased risk of peripheral venous disease, suggesting potential therapeutic targets for treatment.

  11. Deep Venous Thrombosis: An Interventionalist's Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, J. Stephen; Michael, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremity has traditionally been anatomically categorized into proximal DVT (thrombosis involving the popliteal vein and above) and distal DVT (isolated calf vein thrombosis). Proximal DVT involving the common femoral and/or iliac veins, referred to as iliofemoral DVT (IFDVT), represents a disease process with a worse prognosis and higher risk for poor clinical outcomes compared to proximal DVT not involving the common femoral or iliac draining veins. Methods This review discusses therapeutic options for treatment of lower extremity IFDVT, including adjuvant anticoagulation and catheter-based invasive therapies; literature supporting current acute interventional techniques; and the recommendations from the recently published American Heart Association guidelines. Results Patients with IFDVT represent an opportune subset of patients for acute interventional management with currently available techniques. This subset of patients with proximal DVT has a worse prognosis, is less well studied, and benefits more from acute intervention compared to patients with proximal DVT or distal DVT. Conclusion Invasive catheter-based therapies that remove thrombus and correct venous outflow obstructions improve outcomes and morbidity in patients with IFDVT. Future trials that address IFDVT specifically will improve our understanding and the proper management of this higher-risk subset of patients with DVT. PMID:25598728

  12. Influence of World Thrombosis Day on digital information seeking on venous thrombosis: a Google Trends study.

    PubMed

    Scheres, L J J; Lijfering, W M; Middeldorp, S; Cannegieter, S C

    2016-12-01

    Essentials In 2014, World Thrombosis Day (WTD) was initiated to increase global awareness of thrombosis. Google Trends can be used freely to monitor digital information seeking behavior. We used Google Trends data to assess the impact of WTD on internet searches on venous thrombosis. The WTD period was associated with more searches on thrombosis compared to control periods.

  13. [Open thrombectomy in acute iliofemoral venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Pokrovskiĭ, A V; Ignat'ev, I M; Gradusov, E G; Bredikhin, R A

    2017-01-01

    The study was aimed at assessing efficacy of open thrombectomy in acute iliofemoral venous thrombosis. From January 2012 to December 2016, a total of 37 patients underwent transfemoral thrombectomy for acute iliofemoral venous thrombosis. The Control Group consisted of 24 patients receiving standard anticoagulant therapy. Six patients were subjected to a hybrid operation consisting in thrombectomy supplemented with stenting of the residual compression stenosis of the left common iliac vein (CIV). The outcomes of the operations were controlled by means of duplex scanning. Clinical efficacy of the operations was evaluated with the help of the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) and CEAP classification. Patency of the iliofemoral segment at 6 months of follow up after thrombectomy was observed in 92% of patients. At the same time, in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy recanalization of the iliofemoral segment was observed in only 21% (5/24; χ2=31, p<0.01) of cases. Recanalization of the femoropopliteal segment 6 months after thrombectomy was noted to occur in 70% (23/33) of patients. The median of the composite index by the VCSS after 6 months decreased from 7 to 2 (p=0.002). The cumulative patency of the iliofemoral segment 36 months after surgery amounted to 86%. Clinical assessment of the remote results of thrombectomy according to the CEAP classification demonstrated that 90% (19/21) of patients were either free from or had weakly pronounced symptoms of post-thrombotic syndrome. Performing thrombectomy for iliofemoral thrombosis by selective indications using modern methods of restoring patency of deep veins significantly increases efficacy of treating patients presenting with this severe pathology and prevents the development of pronounced manifestations of post-thrombotic syndrome.

  14. Deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Stephens, M B

    1997-02-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the upper extremity is a relatively uncommon but important cause of morbidity, especially in young active persons. The causes of upper extremity DVT may be categorized as catheter-related, spontaneous (effort-related) and miscellaneous (e.g., trauma, intravenous drug use). Diagnosis is based on clinical history and confirmed by either duplex ultrasonography or contrast venography. Significant controversy surrounds the optimal management of upper extremity DVT. Treatment options include conservative therapy, anticoagulation, catheter-directed thrombolysis and surgical intervention to remove intravascular clot or revise the anatomy of the costoclavicular space. Early aggressive treatment of active young patients may decrease long-term morbidity.

  15. Imaging of the complications of peripherally inserted central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Amerasekera, S S H; Jones, C M; Patel, R; Cleasby, M J

    2009-08-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are widely used to provide central venous access, often in chronically ill patients with long-term intravenous access requirements. There are a number of significant complications related to both insertion and maintenance of PICC lines, including catheter malposition, migration, venous thrombosis, and line fracture. The incidence of these complications is likely to rise as the number of patients undergoing intravenous outpatient therapy increases, with a corresponding rise in radiologist input. This paper provides an overview of the relevant peripheral and central venous anatomy, including anatomical variations, and outlines the complications of PICC lines. Imaging examples demonstrate the range of radiological findings seen in these complications.

  16. Occult pulmonary embolism: a common occurrence in deep venous thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, G.S.; Cronan, J.J.; Tupper, T.B.; Messersmith, R.N.; Denny, D.F.; Lee, C.H.

    1987-02-01

    Ventilation-perfusion scans were used in a prospective study to determine the prevalence of occult pulmonary embolus in proven deep venous thrombosis. Fifty-eight patients without symptoms of pulmonary embolism, but with venographically proven deep venous thrombosis, were subjected to chest radiographs, /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated-albumin perfusion scans, and /sup 133/Xe ventilation scans. Of the 49 patients with deep venous thrombosis proximal to the calf veins, 17 (35%) had high-probability scans. Of all 58 patients, only 12 (21%) had normal scans. When the study population was compared with a group of 430 patients described in reports of pulmonary perfusion in asymptomatic persons, a significantly higher percentage of high-probability scans was found in the study population with deep venous thrombosis. Baseline ventilation-perfusion lung scanning is valuable for patients with proven above-knee deep venous thrombosis.

  17. [Association between venous thrombosis and dyslipidemia].

    PubMed

    García Raso, Aránzazu; Ene, Gabriela; Miranda, Carolina; Vidal, Rosa; Mata, Raquel; Llamas Sillero, M Pilar

    2014-07-07

    Venous and arterial thrombosis, despite being historically considered as distinct conditions, share certain risk factors. Dyslipidemia is a clinical condition with a relatively high prevalence in the population and has been associated with an increased thrombotic risk. Lipids and lipoproteins modulate the expression and/or function of thrombotic, fibrinolytic and rheological factors. We have developed a descriptive, retrospective, comparative, cross-sectional study including a group of 313 patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). We collected basic demographic data, cardiovascular risk factors and thrombotic complications. All patients were subjected to a lipid profile study with determination of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (cHDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (cLDL) and triglycerides. The multivariable analysis showed that dyslipidemia was a risk factor for VTE (odds ratio [OR] 3.87, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2.72-5.56; P<.0001). Of a total of 313 patients included in the study, 31% (n=97) had a recurrent thrombotic event and 23% (n=72) developed post-thrombotic syndrome. cHDL levels below 35 mg/dl and cLDL levels higher than 180 mg/dl represented risk factors for the development of recurrent thrombosis, OR 3.12 (95% CI 1.35-7.74; P=.008) and OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.24-4.45; P=.008), respectively, and post-thrombotic syndrome, OR 3.44 (95% CI 1.43-8.83; P=.005) and OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.24-4.45; P=.008). Our study confirmed the association between dyslipidemia and VTE and showed a risk of thrombosis nearly 4 times higher in individuals with this disease. In addition, alterations in the lipid profile were also related to a higher prevalence of thrombotic complications, recurrence and post-thrombotic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Venous and arterial thrombosis during oral contraceptive use: risks and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tanis, Bea C; Rosendaal, Frits R

    2003-02-01

    Since the introduction of oral contraceptives, their use has been associated with an increased risk of both venous and arterial thrombosis. Pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke are serious disorders with a considerable risk of mortality. Because worldwide over 100 million women use oral contraceptives, issues of drug safety are of great importance. The risk of venous thrombosis during low-dose oral contraceptive use is three- to sixfold increased compared with that of nonusers. The association is not only attributed to the estrogen component of the pill: the risk is twice as high for desogestrel and gestodene (third generation) containing oral contraceptives as for levonorgestrel (second generation) containing oral contraceptives. The risk of venous thrombosis is highest in the first year of use and in women with genetic or acquired risk factors for thrombosis. Both venous or arterial thrombosis are unrelated to duration of use or past use of combined oral contraceptives. The risk of myocardial infarction and stroke during low-dose oral contraceptive use is two- to fivefold increased relative to that of nonusers. The risk of arterial thrombosis induced by oral contraceptive use is more pronounced in smokers and women with hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. All types of thrombosis have strongly age-dependent incidences, and therefore in absolute figures the risks and effects of risk factors increase with age. The lowering of the estrogen dose in combined oral contraceptives from 50 microg to 20-30 microg in the last decade did not clearly reduce the risk of venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease. For stroke and peripheral arterial disease no difference in risk was found between second and third generation oral contraceptives. For myocardial infarction study results are conflicting, and a small benefit of third- over second-generation oral contraceptives cannot be ruled out. However, this is

  19. The risk of venous thrombosis in individuals with a history of superficial vein thrombosis and acquired venous thrombotic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Roach, Rachel E J; Lijfering, Willem M; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Helmerhorst, Frans M; Rosendaal, Frits R; Cannegieter, Suzanne C

    2013-12-19

    Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) increases the risk of venous thrombosis fourfold to sixfold. As most individuals with SVT do not develop venous thrombosis, additional risk factors may explain the risk of developing a venous thrombosis. In the Multiple Environmental and Genetic Assessment of risk factors for venous thrombosis study, we assessed the risk of venous thrombosis in individuals with previous SVT and a mild thrombotic risk factor (smoking or overweight/obesity), a strong risk factor (surgery, hospitalization, plaster cast immobilization, or malignancy), or a reproductive factor in women (oral contraception, postmenopausal hormone therapy, or pregnancy/puerperium). Individuals with previous SVT alone had a 5.5-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4-6.8) increased risk of venous thrombosis. This was 9.3 (95% CI, 7.2-12.1) combined with a mild thrombotic risk factor, 31.4 (95% CI, 14.6-67.5) with a strong risk factor, and 34.9 (95% CI, 19.1-63.8) in women with a reproductive risk factor. The highest separate risk estimates were found for SVT with surgery (42.5; 95% CI, 10.2-177.6), hospitalization (49.8; 95% CI, 11.9-209.2), or oral contraception (43.0; 95% CI, 15.5-119.3 in women). In conclusion, the risk of venous thrombosis is markedly increased in individuals with previous SVT who have an acquired thrombotic risk factor.

  20. Iliofemoral Venous Thrombosis Mainly Related to Iliofemoral Venous Obstruction by External Tumor Compression in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Tzu-Yao; Hsu, Hui-Ching; Wen, Min-Sheng; Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Hung, Yu-Hsin; Liaw, Chuang-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Background To study iliofemoral venous thrombosis related to iliofemoral venous obstruction in cancer patients. Methods In this case series study, 829 cancer patients were surveyed for iliofemoral obstruction/thrombosis within 10 years. The criteria for inclusion were: (1) presence of unilateral lower-extremity swelling; (2) computed tomography (CT) scans showing a tumor with external compression of the iliac or femoral vein, and (3) duplex ultrasound scans showing venous thrombosis or venous flow insufficiency over a femoral vein or saphenous vein. Results Sixty-three patients (8%) developed an iliofemoral venous obstruction. The presence of iliofemoral venous thrombosis was detected in 21 of these patients (33%). The rate of iliofemoral venous thrombosis was significantly higher in patients with an invasion of the inguinal region, D-dimer levels >3,000 ng/ml, gastrointestinal cancer, or invasion of the inguinal lymph nodes. However, none of our patients with iliofemoral venous thrombosis had a detection of iliofemoral venous obstruction. Improved lower-extremity swelling was reported in 84% of the patients following combination therapy involving low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and systemic therapy. Conclusion Patients with an iliofemoral venous thrombosis mainly had iliofemoral venous obstruction by external tumor compression. Combination therapy with LMWH and systemic therapy were mandatory for these patients. PMID:27990113

  1. [Deep venous thrombosis in an amputation stump].

    PubMed

    Baars, E C T; Ettema, H B; Fritschy, W M

    2007-09-15

    A 34-year-old patient underwent a knee exarticulation amputation and developed symptoms of pain, redness and swelling of the stump in combination with a feeling of tightness in the chest. These symptoms were first attributed to muscle pain and exertion but further examination revealed deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the stump and a pulmonary embolism for which he was treated with nadroparine and acenocoumarol. Shortly after treatment he could resume the use of the prosthesis. A DVT in the amputation stump is not frequently encountered, but is a serious complication that can, together with a pulmonary embolism, be life threatening. The literature mentions an incidence ranging from 0-12%. Physical examination is often not conclusive and further examination of the patient with duplex scanning is necessary, with a ventilation-perfusion scan if a pulmonary embolism is suspected. Patients with a lower extremity amputation have a higher risk of developing a DVT because of immobility and increased venous pooling in the residual limb. Symptoms of a red, swollen, warm and painful stump should trigger the physician to suspect a DVT.

  2. Risk Factors for Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Silvis, Suzanne M; Middeldorp, Saskia; Zuurbier, Susanna M; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Coutinho, Jonathan M

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare thrombotic disorder involving the cerebral veins and dural sinuses. In contrast to more common sites of venous thromboembolism (VTE), such as the legs and lungs, CVT mainly affects young adults and children, and women are affected three times more often than men. Although presenting symptoms are variable, headache is usually the first symptom, often in combination with focal neurologic deficits and epileptic seizures. The primary therapy for CVT consists of heparin followed by oral anticoagulation for at least 3 to 6 months. The mortality in the acute phase is 5 to 10% and a substantial proportion of survivors suffer from long-term disabilities. A large number of risk factors have been linked to CVT, although the scientific evidence for an association varies considerably between risk factors. Some risk factors, such as hereditary thrombophilia, correspond with risk factors for more common sites of VTE, whereas others, such as head trauma, are specific to CVT. In most patients, at least one risk factor can be identified. In this review, we provide an overview of the risk factors for CVT.

  3. Acute cytomegalovirus infection complicated by venous thrombosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Rovery, Clarisse; Granel, Brigitte; Parola, Philippe; Foucault, Cédric; Brouqui, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Background CMV-induced vasculopathy and thrombosis have been reported, but they are rare conditions usually encountered in immunocompromised patients. However more and more complications of CMV infections are recognized in immunocompetent patients. Case presentation We present a case report of a previously healthy adult with cytomegalovirus infection that was complicated by tibiopopliteal deep venous thrombosis and in whom Factor V Leiden heterozygous mutation was found. Conclusion This new case report emphasizes the involvement of cytomegalovirus in induction of vascular thrombosis in patients with predisposing risk factors for thrombosis. It is necessary to screen for CMV infection in patients with spontaneous thrombosis and an history of fever. PMID:16098229

  4. [Venous thrombosis of atypical location in patients with cancer].

    PubMed

    Campos Balea, Begoña; Sáenz de Miera Rodríguez, Andrea; Antolín Novoa, Silvia; Quindós Varela, María; Barón Duarte, Francisco; López López, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a complication that frequently occurs in patients with neoplastic diseases. Several models have therefore been developed to identify patient subgroups diagnosed with cancer who are at increased risk of developing VTE. The most common forms of thromboembolic episodes are deep vein thrombosis in the lower limbs and pulmonary thromboembolism. However, venous thrombosis is also diagnosed in atypical locations. There are few revisions of unusual cases of venous thrombosis. In most cases, VTE occurs in the upper limbs and in the presence of central venous catheters, pacemakers and defibrillators. We present the case of a patient diagnosed with breast cancer and treated with surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy who developed a thrombosis in the upper limbs (brachial and axillary).

  5. Spontaneous thrombosis of developmental venous anomaly (DVA) with venous infarct and acute cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Amit; Kanekar, Sangam; Kalapos, Paul; Vijay, Kanupriya

    2014-08-01

    Developmental venous anomaly (DVA), formally known as venous angioma, is a congenital anatomic variant of the venous drainage of the brain. Although they typically have a benign clinical course and a low symptomatic rate, thrombosis of a drainage vein may occur, leading to potentially debilitating complications. We report a unique case of spontaneous thrombosis of a posterior fossa developmental venous anomaly with cerebellar infarct in a 61-year-old man who presented with acute onset cerebellar ataxia. DVA thrombosis was well-depicted on CT and MR studies. Patient was put on anticoagulant therapy and complete recanalization was seen on follow-up imaging.

  6. Imaging Diagnosis of Splanchnic Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, S.; Mukund, Amar; Arora, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    Splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) is a broad term that includes Budd-Chiari syndrome and occlusion of veins that constitute the portal venous system. Due to the common risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of these clinically distinct disorders, concurrent involvement of two different regions is quite common. In acute and subacute SVT, the symptoms may overlap with a variety of other abdominal emergencies while in chronic SVT, the extent of portal hypertension and its attendant complications determine the clinical course. As a result, clinical diagnosis is often difficult and is frequently reliant on imaging. Tremendous improvements in vascular imaging in recent years have ensured that this once rare entity is being increasingly detected. Treatment of acute SVT requires immediate anticoagulation. Transcatheter thrombolysis or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is used in the event of clinical deterioration. In cases with peritonitis, immediate laparotomy and bowel resection may be required for irreversible bowel ischemia. In chronic SVT, the underlying cause should be identified and treated. The imaging manifestations of the clinical syndromes resulting from SVT are comprehensively discussed here along with a brief review of the relevant clinical features and therapeutic approach. PMID:26600801

  7. [Extensive mesenteric venous thrombosis treatment by regional thrombolysis].

    PubMed

    Espeel, B; Gérard, C; Mansvelt, B; Bertrand, C; Vermonden, J

    2005-03-01

    Two cases of mesenteric venous thrombosis with portal extension are reported. The first patient was treated right away by local intra-arterial thrombolysis, the second one benefited from local venous thrombolysis immediately after intestinal resection. No significant complication was observed.

  8. Volume Calculation of Venous Thrombosis Using 2D Ultrasound Images.

    PubMed

    Dhibi, M; Puentes, J; Bressollette, L; Guias, B; Solaiman, B

    2005-01-01

    Venous thrombosis screening exams use 2D ultrasound images, from which medical experts obtain a rough idea of the thrombosis aspect and infer an approximate volume. Such estimation is essential to follow up the thrombosis evolution. This paper proposes a method to calculate venous thrombosis volume from non-parallel 2D ultrasound images, taking advantage of a priori knowledge about the thrombosis shape. An interactive ellipse fitting contour segmentation extracts the 2D thrombosis contours. Then, a Delaunay triangulation is applied to the set of 2D segmented contours positioned in 3D, and the area that each contour defines, to obtain a global thrombosis 3D surface reconstruction, with a dense triangulation inside the contours. Volume is calculated from the obtained surface and contours triangulation, using a maximum unit normal component approach. Preliminary results obtained on 3 plastic phantoms and 3 in vitro venous thromboses, as well as one in vivo case are presented and discussed. An error rate of volume estimation inferior to 4,5% for the plastic phantoms, and 3,5% for the in vitro venous thromboses was obtained.

  9. Cortical venous thrombosis following exogenous androgen use for bodybuilding.

    PubMed

    Sveinsson, Olafur; Herrman, Lars

    2013-02-05

    There are only a few reports of patients developing cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after androgen therapy. We present a young man who developed cortical venous thrombosis after using androgens to increase muscle mass. He was hospitalised for parasthesia and dyspraxia in the left hand followed by a generalised tonic-clonic seizure. At admission, he was drowsy, not fully orientated, had sensory inattention, pronation drift and a positive extensor response, all on the left side. The patient had been using anabolic steroids (dainabol 20 mg/day) for the last month for bodybuilding. CT angiography showed a right cortical venous thrombosis. Anticoagulation therapy was started with intravenous heparin for 11 days and oral anticoagulation (warfarin) thereafter. A control CT angiography 4 months later showed resolution of the thrombosis. He recovered fully.

  10. Cortical venous thrombosis following exogenous androgen use for bodybuilding

    PubMed Central

    Sveinsson, Olafur; Herrman, Lars

    2013-01-01

    There are only a few reports of patients developing cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after androgen therapy. We present a young man who developed cortical venous thrombosis after using androgens to increase muscle mass. He was hospitalised for parasthesia and dyspraxia in the left hand followed by a generalised tonic–clonic seizure. At admission, he was drowsy, not fully orientated, had sensory inattention, pronation drift and a positive extensor response, all on the left side. The patient had been using anabolic steroids (dainabol 20 mg/day) for the last month for bodybuilding. CT angiography showed a right cortical venous thrombosis. Anticoagulation therapy was started with intravenous heparin for 11 days and oral anticoagulation (warfarin) thereafter. A control CT angiography 4 months later showed resolution of the thrombosis. He recovered fully. PMID:23389726

  11. New insights into the mechanisms of venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Mackman, Nigel

    2012-07-01

    Venous thrombosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries, especially in the elderly. Many risk factors have been identified for venous thrombosis that alter blood flow, activate the endothelium, and increase blood coagulation. However, the precise mechanisms that trigger clotting in large veins have not been fully elucidated. The most common site for initiation of the thrombus appears to be the valve pocket sinus, due to its tendency to become hypoxic. Activation of endothelial cells by hypoxia or possibly inflammatory stimuli would lead to surface expression of adhesion receptors that facilitate the binding of circulating leukocytes and microvesicles. Subsequent activation of the leukocytes induces expression of the potent procoagulant protein tissue factor that triggers thrombosis. Understanding the mechanisms of venous thrombosis may lead to the development of new treatments.

  12. Air pollution and venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Liang; Wang, Qing-Yun; Cheng, Zhi-Peng; Hu, Bei; Liu, Jing-Di; Hu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. However, the effect of air pollution on venous thrombotic disorders is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between air pollution and venous thrombosis. PubMed, Embase, EBM Reviews, Healthstar, Global Health, Nursing Database, and Web of Science were searched for citations on air pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matters) and venous thrombosis. Using a random-effects model, overall risk estimates were derived for each increment of 10 μg/m3 of pollutant concentration. Of the 485 in-depth reviewed studies, 8 citations, involving approximately 700,000 events, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All the main air pollutants analyzed were not associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis (OR = 1.005, 95% CI = 0.998–1.012 for PM2.5; OR = 0.995, 95% CI = 0.984–1.007 for PM10; OR = 1.006, 95% CI = 0.994–1.019 for NO2). Based on exposure period and thrombosis location, additional subgroup analyses provided results comparable with those of the overall analyses. There was no evidence of publication bias. Therefore, this meta analysis does not suggest the possible role of air pollution as risk factor for venous thrombosis in general population. PMID:27600652

  13. Fibrinogen, red blood cells, and factor XIII in venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Walton, B L; Byrnes, J R; Wolberg, A S

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Among cardiovascular causes of death, venous thrombosis (VT) is ranked third most common in the world. Venous thrombi have high red blood cell and fibrin content; however, the pathophysiologic mechanisms that contribute to venous thrombus composition and stability are still poorly understood. This article reviews biological, biochemical, and biophysical contributions of fibrinogen, factor XIII, and red blood cells to VT, and new evidence suggesting interactions between these components mediate venous thrombus composition and size.

  14. Management of deep venous thrombosis in the pregnant female.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, J C; Estrada, F P; Orr, R M

    1990-01-01

    Deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities is an uncommon but dreaded complication of pregnancy which can present diagnostic and therapeutic problems to the treating physician. From January 1, 1985, to December 31, 1988, 7867 deliveries were performed at St. Luke's Hospital. Five of these patients were pregnant women who were treated for deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities. The women were either in their second or third trimester of pregnancy. The clinical diagnosis in each case was confirmed with duplex ultrasonography. Each patient was treated with 7 to 10 days of intravenous heparin therapy and then discharged on subcutaneous heparin therapy. There were no bleeding complications related to the heparin therapy. No patient developed a pulmonary embolism. Each patient delivered a normal child. The only complication was a heparin induced rash in one patient which resolved when a different preparation of heparin was used. The management of deep venous thrombosis in pregnancy is discussed.

  15. [Venous thrombosis associated with central venous catheter use in patients with cancer].

    PubMed

    Iglesias Rey, Leticia; Fernández Pérez, Isaura; Barbagelata López, Cristina; Rivera Gallego, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The use of central venous catheters for various applications (administration of chemotherapy, blood products and others) in patients with cancer is increasingly frequent. The association between thrombosis and catheter use has been fully established but aspects such as its causes, diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment have not. We describe a case of thrombosis in a patient with cancer treated with chemotherapy who carried a central venous catheter. We also perform a review of the risk factors, the role of the prophylaxis and the treatment.

  16. Mesenteric venous thrombosis precipitated by foodborne gastrointestinal illness.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, Amy L; Bajwa, Rajinder Ps; Thatigotla, Bala

    2017-03-01

    Foodborne illnesses are common and are usually considered as part of the differential diagnosis when a patient presents with gastrointestinal symptoms including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever. The majority of foodborne illness is transient and self-limited, while life threatening complications are rare. Here, we describe a case of a patient presenting with inflammatory diarrhea after consumption of undercooked seafood. She developed mesenteric and portal venous thrombosis and small bowel infarction requiring surgical intervention and resection of gangrenous small bowel. This is a rare presentation and outcome of common food poisoning. The case report is followed by a brief discussion of common foodborne illnesses and mesenteric venous thrombosis.

  17. [Cerebral venous thrombosis imagiologic features in a pregnant woman].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Madalena; Rios, Ana Cristina; Fragata, Isabel; Baptista, José Tiago; Manaças, Rui; Reis, João

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a relatively rare but serious condition potentially reversible upon accurate diagnosis and adequate therapy. The peri-partum state and pregnancy are predisposing factors and TVC accounts for about 6% of maternal deaths. Its clinical symptoms depend on the the thrombus site and extension, and also on the existing collateral vessels network. We present the case of a 33 year-old woman, 13 weeks pregnant, that complained of headaches and whose cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed a subtotal oclusión of the superior sagittal sinus. We discuss the imaging features of dural venous thrombosis in the acute phase.

  18. A rare cause of cerebral venous thrombosis: cryptococcal meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Senadim, Songul; Alpaydin Baslo, Sezin; Tekin Güveli, Betül; Dedei Daryan, Metin; Kantaroglu, Elif; Ozturk, Oya; Atakli, Dilek

    2016-07-01

    Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) is a serious central nervous system infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, seen mostly in immunocompromised hosts and less in immunocompetent patients. The vast majority of cryptococcosis cases are seen as human immunodeficiency virus infections with advanced immunosuppression. Meningitis and meningoencephalitis are the most common clinical manifestations. Nevertheless, immunocompetent patients with CM are rarely reported. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare complication of CM. Here, we report an immunocompetent patient with CM from a non-endemic area, who presented with an acute onset and atypical symptoms associated with cerebral venous thrombosis.

  19. [Disseminated arterial occlusions revealing bilateral venous thrombosis with paradoxical embolisms].

    PubMed

    Elsendoorn, A; Desport, E; Vialle, R; Frat, J-P; Bridoux, F; Touchard, G

    2009-06-01

    Paradoxical embolism is a diagnosis of exclusion. Clinical triad associates deep venous thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism, arterial embolism, and intracardiac communication with right-to-left shunt. The intracardiac communication is generally related to a patent foramen ovale (PFO). We report a 75-year-old patient, who presented with bilateral deep venous thrombosis of the legs, complicated by massive pulmonary embolism and paradoxical embolisms through a PFO. This resulted in cerebral, mesenteric, splenic and bilateral kidney infarctions. A promptly initiated anticoagulant treatment allowed a favourable outcome.

  20. Urokinase therapy in neonates with catheter related central venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Wever, M L; Liem, K D; Geven, W B; Tanke, R B

    1995-02-01

    The results of fibrinolytic therapy with urokinase were evaluated in 26 neonates with catheter related central venous thrombosis. Complete thrombolysis could be achieved in 13 patients (50%), partial thrombolysis in 3 patients (12%). No effect was seen in 10 patients (38%). Therapy success was influenced by age, size and location of the thrombus. Coincidence of infection occurred in 16 patients (62%). Mild hemorrhagic complications were seen in 2 patients (8%), no other significant side effects were observed. Nine patients with residual thrombosis were treated with oral anticoagulants following urokinase resulting in resolution of the thrombus in 6 patients within 3 months (67%). The incidence of asymptomatic recurrent thrombosis was high (28%). Urokinase might be an effective and safe treatment for central venous thrombosis in neonates. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy during the infusion of urokinase and long-term treatment with oral anticoagulants after thrombosis are advisable. Early detection of thrombosis might enhance the success rate of fibrinolytic therapy. Therefore, we strongly recommend routine echocardiographic screening of central venous catheters.

  1. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis presenting with auditory hallucinations and illusions.

    PubMed

    Wong, Victoria S S; Adamczyk, Peter; Dahlin, Brian; Richman, David P; Wheelock, Vicki

    2011-03-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis may present with seizures or neuropsychiatric symptoms, but does not typically present with hallucinations. We present a case of venous thrombosis of the right sigmoid and transverse sinuses that presented with auditory hallucinations and illusions. We describe a 45-year-old woman with a history of myasthenia gravis, stable on oral prednisone and monthly intravenous immunoglobulin infusions, who started on a progesterone/estrogen combination contraceptive pill for menorrhagia 3 weeks before admission and presented with symptoms of headache, fever, and auditory hallucinations and illusions. The patient's cerebrospinal fluid showed lymphocytic pleocytosis. Two electroencephalograms showed significant right temporal lobe slowing. Magnetic resonance venogram of the brain showed venous sinus thrombosis of the right sigmoid and transverse sinuses. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a cortical venous infarct in the right middle temporal gyrus. The patient's auditory hallucinations and illusions resolved spontaneously weeks after presentation. This case suggests that auditory hallucinations and illusions should be added to the already broad spectrum of presenting features of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. The nondominant right middle temporal gyrus may play a role in such auditory hallucinations.

  2. Neurobrucellosis and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ibrahimagić, Omer Ć; Smajlović, Dževdet; Dostović, Zikrija; Iljazović, Amra; Kojić, Biljana; Zonić, Lejla

    2017-10-01

    To present a case of co-occurrence of neurobrucellosis and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Case report.  We presented 49-year-old Caucasian domicile female-farmer with a history of headache, weakness, and vomiting for a period of three months. Also, she had significant papilledema. We diagnosed rare co-morbidity of neurobrucellosis (confirmed after ELISA-test in serum samples and CSF analysis of pleocytosis/increase in protein/decrease in glucose level) in the setting of cerebral venous thrombosis developed in left sigmoid/left transverse sinus (confirmed after MRV of brain). Favorable outcome was achieved by applying protracted polymicrobial antibiotic therapy and heparin. It may be challenging to diagnose neurobrucellosis, especially in patients with atypical presentation and abortive clinical forms. The co-morbidity of neurobrucellosis and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is uncommon. However, it provides a possibility of brucella-colonization in cerebral venous sinuses as a potential hidden link between them. Patients with severe and persistent headache, as well as other neurological symptoms/signs should be considered for neurobrucellosis in endemic, but also in brucella non-endemic regions due to migrations. According to literature survey, this co-occurrence of neurobrucellosis and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is third one reported from Europe.

  3. Azygos vein thrombosis secondary to a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC).

    PubMed

    Sherif, Moayid M; Hall, Rebecca; Schauer, Cameron K M W

    2015-07-20

    This case illustrates a rare complication of a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). PICCs are associated with a significantly increased risk of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis; however, there are currently no case reports of isolated thrombosis of the azygos vein secondary to a PICC. With the well-documented increase in the use of PICCs for venous access we remind clinicians to consider this rare complication.

  4. Homocystinuria with Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis: Excellent Recovery with Intravenous Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Vykuntaraju K; Nanjundappa, Raghunath C; Pendharkar, Hima; Benakappa, Naveen

    2017-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia can cause cerebral venous thrombosis. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is one of the treatment options for cerebral venous thrombosis in selected cases. We present here a 7-year-old boy with homocysteinuria with stroke. MRI of brain showed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. We successfully treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. He recovered completely without any complications. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator can be considered one of the treatment options in cerebral venous thrombosis in homocystinura.

  5. Diffuse Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Secondary to Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian; Sabat, Shyamsunder; Agarwal, Amit; Thamburaj, Krishnamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal rupture accounts for the majority of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Increasingly recognized is the occurrence of nontraumatic convexity SAH unaccounted for by aneurysmal rupture. These presentations require consideration of rare but clinically significant sources of SAH. We report a patient presenting with prolonged mild headaches and acute onset of seizure like activity found to have diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage and extensive dural venous sinus thrombosis involving the superior sagittal sinus and right transverse-sigmoid sinuses. There are few reported cases of SAH secondary to dural sinus thrombosis; however most of these are convexity hemorrhage. Sinus thrombosis presenting as diffuse SAH is extremely rare, as is showcased in this report.

  6. Primary leiomyosarcoma of saphenous vein presenting as deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Fremed, Daniel I; Faries, Peter L; Schanzer, Harry R; Marin, Michael L; Ting, Windsor

    2014-12-01

    Only a small number of venous leiomyosarcomas have been previously reported. Of these tumors, those of saphenous origin comprise a minority of cases. A 59-year-old man presented with symptoms of deep vein thrombosis and was eventually diagnosed with primary leiomyosarcoma of great saphenous vein origin. The tumor was treated with primary resection and femoral vein reconstruction with autologous patch. Although extremely rare, saphenous leiomyosarcoma can present as deep vein thrombosis. Vascular tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis of atypical extremity swelling refractory to conventional deep vein thrombosis management. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. The Emerging Role of NETs in Venous Thrombosis and Immunothrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Andrew S.; Obi, Andrea T.; Diaz, Jose A.; Henke, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Venous thrombosis (VT), a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, has recently been linked to neutrophil activation and release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) via a process called NETosis. The use of various in vivo thrombosis models and genetically modified mice has more precisely defined the exact role of NETosis in the pathogenesis of VT. Translational large animal VT models and human studies have confirmed the presence of NETs in pathologic VT. Activation of neutrophils, with subsequent NETosis, has also been linked to acute infection. This innate immune response, while effective for bacterial clearance from the host by formation of an intravascular bactericidal “net,” also triggers thrombosis. Intravascular thrombosis related to such innate immune mechanisms has been coined immunothrombosis. Dysregulated immunothrombosis has been proposed as a mechanism of pathologic micro- and macrovascular thrombosis in sepsis and autoimmune disease. In this focused review, we will address the dual role of NETs in the pathogenesis of VT and immunothrombosis. PMID:27446071

  8. The Emerging Role of NETs in Venous Thrombosis and Immunothrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Andrew S; Obi, Andrea T; Diaz, Jose A; Henke, Peter K

    2016-01-01

    Venous thrombosis (VT), a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, has recently been linked to neutrophil activation and release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) via a process called NETosis. The use of various in vivo thrombosis models and genetically modified mice has more precisely defined the exact role of NETosis in the pathogenesis of VT. Translational large animal VT models and human studies have confirmed the presence of NETs in pathologic VT. Activation of neutrophils, with subsequent NETosis, has also been linked to acute infection. This innate immune response, while effective for bacterial clearance from the host by formation of an intravascular bactericidal "net," also triggers thrombosis. Intravascular thrombosis related to such innate immune mechanisms has been coined immunothrombosis. Dysregulated immunothrombosis has been proposed as a mechanism of pathologic micro- and macrovascular thrombosis in sepsis and autoimmune disease. In this focused review, we will address the dual role of NETs in the pathogenesis of VT and immunothrombosis.

  9. Hypereosinophilic syndrome presenting with multiple organ infiltration and deep venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Su-jun; Wei, Wei; Chen, Jiang-tao; Tan, Ye-hui; Yu, Cheng-bao; Litzow, Mark Robert; Liu, Qiu-ju

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) can be fatal, particularly when eosinophils infiltrate vital organs and/or if extensive thrombosis develops. However there are no standard recommendations for the use of anticoagulant therapy of HES in the setting of thrombosis. Methods: We herein present a case of a 46-year-old female who presented with marked peripheral eosinophilia with symptoms of multi-organ infiltration and extensive deep venous thrombosis (DVT). In this case, evaluation was carried out before the diagnosis was established, and timely standard-dose corticosteroids combined with a new oral anticoagulant (NOAC) therapy were carried out. Results: These measures resulted in a rapid response and long-term disease control. Conclusion: Although there are no data to support which anticoagulant is preferred in this setting, this case indicates that the new oral anticoagulants may play an important role in the treatment of thrombosis in HES. PMID:27583887

  10. Does prophylactic anticoagulation prevent PICC-related upper extremity venous thrombosis? A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James D; Alred, Steven C

    2014-01-01

    The evidence regarding the value of prophylactic anticoagulation to prevent peripherally inserted central catheter-related upper extremity venous thrombosis (PRUEVT) is inconsistent. The authors reviewed 3 years of data, identifying all cases of PRUEVT at a facility in Texas, and individually matched each for risk factors with 2 controls. Not being on any form of anticoagulant or antiplatelet agent was associated with a modestly increased risk of PRUEVT (odds ratio 1.93, P = .036, 95% confidence interval, 1.025-3.602). Each approach to thrombosis prevention showed a trend toward a protective effect, but none reached statistical significance individually.

  11. Neoplastic zebras of venous thrombosis: Diagnostic challenges in vascular medicine.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, A; Lekah, A; Kurklinsky, A K

    2015-12-01

    Venous thrombosis is a common medical problem. Imaging differentiation of neoplasms and venous clots may prove challenging. We report three cases of "mistaken identities" of venous thrombi and neoplasms on the basis of clinical findings and different imaging modalities: ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging studies are not always reliable and consideration of clinical features, including pretest probability, is necessary for correct diagnosis. A combination of imaging modalities and biopsies is needed for correct diagnosis in some cases. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Endovascular treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis: Contemporary multicenter experience

    PubMed Central

    Mokin, Maxim; Lopes, Demetrius K; Binning, Mandy J; Veznedaroglu, Erol; Liebman, Kenneth M; Arthur, Adam S; Doss, Vinodh T; Levy, Elad I

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular therapy of cerebral venous thrombosis using modern approaches to intracranial recanalization, such as stent retrievers and aspiration thrombectomy, is not well described. We performed a retrospective review of data for consecutive patients with venous sinus thrombosis who underwent endovascular treatment between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013 at participating institutions. We identified a total of 13 patients with a diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis. The most frequently utilized type of endovascular intervention was the Penumbra aspiration system (Penumbra Inc., Alameda, California, USA) (nine cases), followed by local infusion of tissue plasminogen activator (bolus and/or drip in six cases) and stent retrievers (Solitaire FR (Covidien, Irvine, California, USA) in three cases and Trevo (Stryker, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA) in one case). Overall, multimodality treatment (two or more different types of devices or approaches) was performed in 62% of cases. Follow-up data were available for 11 patients; of those, five had a favorable clinical outcome (defined as modified Rankin Scale score of 0–2) and three patients died. Various endovascular approaches are utilized in current clinical practice. A multimodal approach to endovascular therapy for the treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis resulted in partial or complete restoration of flow in all cases, yet the mortality rate of 27% indicates the need for improvement in recanalization strategies for this disorder. PMID:26055685

  13. Lower motor neuron facial palsy in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Ravi, Yadav; Nagaraja, Dindigur; Veerendrakumar, Mustare

    2013-01-01

    With advances in the neuro-imaging modalities, diverse manifestations of the cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT) are being recognized. There are very few reports of isolated cranial nerve palsies in CVT. In this case report, we describe a patient of lower motor neuron facial palsy with CVT who was successfully treated with anticoagulation, highlighting the atypical manifestation of the disease. PMID:23914113

  14. [Blood groups as a risk factor in venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Hernández Cañete, C M; Alvarez Dieguez, R; González Sánchez M de la, C; Díaz Hernández, C; Sánchez Montiel, M E

    1993-01-01

    We report 173 patients with venous thrombosis (or post-thrombotic syndrome) demonstrated by phlebography. We show up the importance of blood groups as risk factor, being very significant the A group. Female sex is associated with a high incidence of this pathology. A frequent location is the left lower limb.

  15. A rare localization of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Case report

    PubMed Central

    CARANGELO, B.; LAVALLE, L.; TIEZZI, G.; BRANCO, D.; LIPPA, L.; MILEO, E.; COSTANTINO, G.; MARIOTTINI, A.; MUSCAS, G.; MATURO, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work the Authors report their experience on the treatment of a case of cavernous venous sinus thrombosis. The diagnosis is clinical and neuroradiological, CT, MRN, cerebral angiography and orbital venography have aided in establishing the diagnosis during life. Very interesting is the therapeutic approach. PMID:26017108

  16. Clinical features of venous insufficiency and the risk of venous thrombosis in older people.

    PubMed

    Engbers, Marissa J; Karasu, Alev; Blom, Jeanet W; Cushman, Mary; Rosendaal, Frits R; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid

    2015-11-01

    Venous thrombosis is common in older age, with an incidence of 0·5-1% per year in those aged >70 years. Stasis of blood flow is an important contributor to the development of thrombosis and may be due to venous insufficiency in the legs. The risk of thrombosis associated with clinical features of venous insufficiency, i.e., varicose veins, leg ulcers and leg oedema, obtained with a standardized interview was assessed in the Age and Thrombosis Acquired and Genetic risk factors in the Elderly (AT-AGE) study. The AT-AGE study is a case-control study in individuals aged 70 years and older (401 cases with a first-time venous thrombosis and 431 control subjects). We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, sex and study centre. Varicose veins and leg ulcer were associated with a 1·6-fold (95% CI 1·2-2·3) and 3·3-fold increased risk of thrombosis (95% CI 1·6-6·7), respectively, while the risk was increased 3·0-fold (95% CI 2·1-4·5) in the presence of leg oedema. The risk of thrombosis was highest when all three risk factors occurred simultaneously (OR: 10·5; 95% CI 1·3-86·1). In conclusion, clinical features of venous insufficiency, i.e., varicose veins, leg ulcers and leg oedema, are risk factors for venous thrombosis in older people.

  17. Venous Thrombosis in Handsewn versus Coupled Venous Anastomoses in 857 Consecutive Breast Free Flaps.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Anita R; Mehrara, Babak J; Pusic, Andrea L; Cordeiro, Peter G; Matros, Evan; McCarthy, Colleen M; Disa, Joseph J

    2016-03-01

    The anastomotic coupling device has demonstrated safety and efficacy; however, the coupler has never been compared directly to handsewn venous anastomoses exclusively in breast reconstruction. We hypothesized that rates of venous thrombosis would be lower using the coupler versus handsewn anastomoses in free flap breast reconstruction. We performed a retrospective review utilizing clinic records, hospital records, and operative reports for 857 consecutive breast free flaps at a single institution from 1997 to 2012. Data were collected on reconstruction type, recipient vessels, timing, laterality, preoperative radiation, chemotherapy, venous thrombosis, and flap outcome. We compared rates of venous thrombosis between handsewn and coupled anastomoses for breast free flaps. Chi-square test was used to calculate statistical significance. A total of 857 consecutive free flaps were performed for breast reconstruction in 647 patients over 16 years. The venous anastomosis was handsewn in 303 flaps, and the anastomotic coupler was used in 554 flaps. The rate of venous thrombosis requiring anastomotic revision in the handsewn group was 0.04% (12/303), compared with 0.01% in the coupled group (8/554; p = 0.02). The anastomotic coupler was more effective in preventing venous thrombosis than handsewn anastomoses in our series. While our study demonstrates improved patency rates using the venous coupler in breast reconstruction, we were unable to definitively separate this finding from potential confounding variables due to the low rates of thrombosis in both the groups. Our data are consistent with current literature, which suggests that the coupler is a safe and effective alternative to hand sutured anastomoses. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. [Cerebral venous sinuses thrombosis in an infant with supramitral obstructive membrane associated with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return].

    PubMed

    Smilari, P; Romeo, M G; Sciacca, P; Scalzo, G; Gallo, C; Mattia, C; Manfrè, L; Distefano, G

    2005-04-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is quite rare in newborn infants, but probably its incidence is not well evaluated because clinical signs and cerebral echocardiography are not specific. We report the case of an newborn infant with massive cerebral venous thrombosis associated with heart malformation: supramitral ring and partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection in the superior vena cava.

  19. Thrombosis of the portal venous system.

    PubMed

    Sacerdoti, D; Serianni, G; Gaiani, S; Bolognesi, M; Bombonato, G; Gatta, A

    2007-03-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a rare cause of portal hypertension. Its diagnosis has been facilitated by improvements in imaging techniques, in particular Doppler sonography. The prevalence is about 1% in the general population, but much higher rates are observed in patients with hepatic cirrhosis (7%, range 0.6-17%), particularly those who also have hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (35%). The most common causes of PVT are myeloproliferative disorders, deficiencies of anticoagulant proteins, prothrombotic gene mutations, cirrhosis with portal hypertension, and HCC. Its development often requires the presence of two or more risk factors (local and/or systemic), e.g., a genetically determined thrombophilic state plus an infectious episode or abdominal surgery. It is clinically useful to distinguish between cirrhotic and noncirrhotic forms. Portal vein thrombosis is also traditionally classified as acute or chronic, but this distinction is often difficult. Color Doppler ultrasound is the first-line imaging study for diagnosis of PVT; magnetic resonance angiography and CT angiography are valid alternatives. The main complications are ischemic intestinal necrosis (in acute PVT) and esophageal varices (in chronic cases); the natural history of the latter differs depending on whether or not the thrombosis is associated with cirrhosis. The treatment of choice for PVT has never been adequately investigated. It is currently based on the use of anticoagulants associated, in some cases, with thrombolytics, but experience with the latter agents is too limited to draw any definite conclusions. In chronic thrombosis (even forms associated with cirrhosis), anticoagulant therapy is recommended and possibly, beta-blockers as well. Naturally, treatment of the underlying pathology is essential.

  20. Cerebral venous thrombosis after immune thrombocytopenic purpura and anti-D immune globulin therapy.

    PubMed

    Kayyali, Husam R; Abdelmoity, Ahmed T; Morriss, M Craig; Graf, William D

    2008-03-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis has multiple etiologies and a wide variety of clinical manifestations. This article reports on a young girl who developed cerebral venous thrombosis after intravenous anti-D immune globulin therapy for immune thrombocytopenic purpura. In this case, venous infarction was manifested by an unusual pattern of restricted diffusion limited to the corpus callosum. The cause of cerebral venous thrombosis in this patient may be related to both immune thrombocytopenia and immunoglobulin therapy.

  1. Intracerebral Hemorrhage due to Venous Thrombosis of Developmental Venous Anomaly during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Seki, Morinobu; Shibata, Mamoru; Itoh, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, developmental venous anomaly (DVA) is recognized as the most common cerebral vascular malformation. Most DVAs are diagnosed incidentally on routine brain imaging, but they are occasionally symptomatic. We report the case of a 26-year-old Japanese woman with intracerebral hemorrhage due to venous thrombosis of DVA. We examined her neurologic examinations carefully. We also observed her laboratory data, brain computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. She was 8 weeks pregnant and suffered from nausea, vomiturition, and appetite loss because of hyperemesis gravidarum. She presented with a sudden generalized seizure and was referred to our hospital. Brain CT showed a small hemorrhage and a tubular high-density structure compatible with an acutely thrombosed collecting vein in the right frontal lobe. T2*-weighted MRI also revealed a thrombosed collecting vein along with multiple medullary veins, which looked like caput medusa. She was diagnosed with an intracerebral hemorrhage and symptomatic epilepsy secondary to thrombosis of the DVA. After the acute phase of the disease, systemic anticoagulation therapy was administered to the patient to prevent the recurrence of venous thrombosis. We suspected that hyperemesis gravidarum with intravascular dehydration might have increased the risk of thrombosis in this patient. Thrombosis of the collecting vein of DVA is extremely rare. This is the first report regarding DVA thrombosis during pregnancy, to our knowledge. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Contribution of recurrent venous thrombosis and inherited thrombophilia to the pathogenesis of postthrombotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kreidy, Raghid

    2015-01-01

    Postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a common complication of deep vein thrombosis. This study aims to assess the role of recurrent venous thrombosis and inherited thrombophilia in the pathogenesis of PTS. A series of 206 patients diagnosed with lower extremity venous thrombosis were retrospectively reviewed. The PTS was observed in 30.58% of the patients. Recurrent venous thrombosis was identified in 3.4% of the patients without PTS and in 33.3% of patients with PTS (P < .001). Inherited thrombophilia alone or in association with recurrent venous thrombosis was more commonly detected when PTS was moderate to severe (P = .04 and <.001) or severe (P < .001). Recurrent venous thrombosis increases the incidence of PTS significantly. The severity of PTS raises when an underlying thrombophilia is present either alone or in association with recurrent venous thrombosis.

  3. Multiple venous thrombosis complicating central venous cannulation in a non cancer patient - a case report.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ce; Menkiti, Id; Desalu, I; Thomas, Mo

    2013-01-01

    Central venous catheterization is a common procedure for critically ill patients. Like all procedures, it has its complications, one of which is thrombosis. Reports of thrombosis are commoner among cancer patients. We present a 37 year old non cancer patient who developed thrombi in both right and left internal jugular veins, 10 and 13 days respectively after insertion of central venous catheter. This was detected by ultrasound scans of the neck while attempting re-cannulation for parenteral feeding. She also had left lower limb deep venous thrombosis, confirmed by doppler scan, which was managed with low molecular weight heparin and warfarin. The patient was subsequently treated with streptokinase. A repeat scan of the internal jugular veins 4 days after thrombolysis revealed a reduction in size of the thrombi. Symptoms of deep venous thrombosis improved and she was transferred to the wards where she made remarkable improvement. This case illustrates the potential usefulness of ultrasound guided-central line insertion in patients who have had central venous lines inserted previously in order to detect thrombi.

  4. Management of Cavoatrial Deep Venous Thrombosis: Incorporating New Strategies.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Mohamed A; De Silva, Gayan S; Ramaswamy, Raja S; Sanchez, Luis A

    2017-03-01

    Cavoatrial deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is diagnosed with increasing prevalence. It can be managed medically with anticoagulation or with directed interventions aimed to efficiently reduce the thrombus burden within the target venous segment. The type of management chosen depends greatly on the etiology and chronicity of the thrombosis, existing patient comorbidities, and the patient's tolerance to anticoagulants and thrombolytic agents. In addition to traditional percutaneous catheter-based pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, other catheter-based suction thrombectomy techniques have emerged in recent years. Each therapeutic modality requires operator expertise and a coordinated care paradigm to facilitate successful outcomes. Open surgical thrombectomy is alternatively reserved for specific patient conditions, including intolerance of anticoagulation, failed catheter-based interventions, or acute emergencies.

  5. Diffuse Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Secondary to Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brian; Sabat, Shyamsunder; Agarwal, Amit; Thamburaj, Krishnamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Aneurysmal rupture accounts for the majority of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Increasingly recognized is the occurrence of nontraumatic convexity SAH unaccounted for by aneurysmal rupture. Case Report These presentations require consideration of rare but clinically significant sources of SAH. We report a patient presenting with prolonged mild headaches and acute onset of seizure like activity found to have diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage and extensive dural venous sinus thrombosis involving the superior sagittal sinus and right transverse-sigmoid sinuses. Conclusions There are few reported cases of SAH secondary to dural sinus thrombosis; however most of these are convexity hemorrhage. Sinus thrombosis presenting as diffuse SAH is extremely rare, as is showcased in this report. PMID:26097524

  6. Effect of sepimostat mesilate on experimental venous thrombosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsuruda, A; Kanno, S; Ohtani, H; Suzuki, R; Nishioka, M; Koshiyama, Y; Kurumi, M

    2001-02-01

    Sepimostat mesilate (FUT-187: 6-amidino-2-naphthyl 4-[(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl) amino] benzoate dimethane sulfonate) is a newly synthesized serine protease inhibitor. In the present study, the oral administration of FUT-187 inhibited stasis-induced venous thrombosis in rats. We supposed that such effect of this compound was caused by its inhibitory effect on coagulation. However, the dose of FUT-187 that was effective at inhibiting thrombosis (10 and 30 mg/kg, po) had no effect on the plasma recalcification time (PRCT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) in rats. Therefore, we investigated the fibrinolytic activity of FUT-187 in rat plasma. The results revealed that rat plasma after FUT-187 administration exhibited increased amidolytic activity for a plasmin-, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA)-, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA)-, factor Xa-, factor XIa- and factor XIIa-sensitive synthetic peptide substrate. On the other hand, the inhibitory effect of FUT-187 in the thrombosis model was not affected by additional treatment with epsilon-amino-n-caproic acid (EACA), a plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis inhibitor. These results suggest that even if FUT-187 enhanced fibrinolysis, it would be independent of a plasmin-mediated fibrinolytic pathway. To characterize the fibrinolytic activity, which might reduce the thrombus weight in the thrombosis model administered FUT-187, we carried out fibrinogen zymography, and clarified that FUT-187 enhanced the formation of a 20-kDa fibrinolytic fragment. Interestingly, this fragment was not affected by t-PA. Consequently, we consider that the inhibitory effect of FUT-187 on venous thrombosis model is caused by fibrinolysis, which is attributable to the 20-kDa fragment, rather than by inhibition of thrombus formation.

  7. Local Intrasinus Thrombolysis for Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Karanam, Lakshmi sudha Prasanna; Baddam, Sridhar Reddy; Pamidimukkala, Vijaya; Vemuri, Ramatharaknath; Byrapaneni, Sravanthi; Polavarapu, Raghavasarma

    2016-01-01

    Background Cerebral venous strokes due to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) have varied presentation and clinical outcome. Despite aggressive medical treatment with optimal anticoagulation, some patients develop progressive neurologic deterioration causing significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present series is to analyze the safety and efficacy of in situ thrombolysis in patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in severe clinical grade and refractory to conventional medical management. Materials and methods Twenty-nine patients with cerebral venous thrombosis who received in situ thrombolysis during a 3-year period (April 2013 to April 2016) were included in the study. Tissue plasminogen activator (tpa) was used in all the patients. The lytic agent was infused into the sinus via the micro catheter. Data regarding demographic, clinical, and radiologic features were analyzed in all the patients. Results Recanalization of the affected sinuses was achieved in all the cases. Twenty-four patients had good outcome (mRs 0 or1) and three patients had mild deficits (mRs 2). One patient had moderate disability (mRs 3). One patient succumbed due to increased hematoma causing midline shift and transtentorial herniation. At 3 months follow–up, 26 patients were asymptomatic and two patients had minor symptoms. Conclusion Local intrasinus thrombolysis (LIST) is safe and effective method in patients with poor clinical grade and the present study highlights the benefit of thrombolysis, particularly in patients unresponsive to anticoagulation. The improved efficacy of this therapy depends on early recognition of worsening symptoms and timely intervention. PMID:27829970

  8. Common genetic risk factors for venous thrombosis in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Wang, Hua-Fang; Lu, Xuan; Jian, Xiao-Rong; Jin, Bi; Zheng, Hong; Li, Yi-Qing; Wang, Qing-Yun; Wu, Tang-Chun; Guo, Huan; Liu, Hui; Guo, Tao; Yu, Jian-Ming; Yang, Rui; Yang, Yan; Hu, Yu

    2013-02-07

    Venous thrombosis is a major medical disorder caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Little is known about the genetic background of venous thrombosis in the Chinese population. A total of 1,304 individuals diagnosed with a first venous thrombosis and 1,334 age- and sex-matched healthy participants were enrolled in this study. Resequencing of THBD (encoding thrombomodulin) in 60 individuals with venous thrombosis and 60 controls and a functional assay showed that a common variant, c.-151G>T (rs16984852), in the 5' UTR significantly reduced the gene expression and could cause a predisposition to venous thrombosis. Therefore, this variant was genotyped in a case-control study, and results indicated that heterozygotes had a 2.80-fold (95% confidence interval = 1.88-4.29) increased risk of venous thrombosis. The THBD c.-151G>T variant was further investigated in a family analysis involving 176 first-degree relatives from 38 index families. First-degree relatives with this variant had a 3.42-fold increased risk of venous thrombosis, and their probability of remaining thrombosis-free was significantly lower than that of relatives without the variant. In addition, five rare mutations that might be deleterious were also identified in thrombophilic individuals by sequencing. This study is the largest genetic investigation of venous thrombosis in the Chinese population. Further study on genetics of thrombosis should focus on resequencing of THBD and other hemostasis genes in different populations.

  9. Extensive venous thrombosis of the upper extremity in a diabetic patient with a hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state

    PubMed Central

    Park, Juri; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Hee Young; Seo, Ji A; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of extensive venous thrombosis of the upper extremity in a patient with a hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS). Thrombosis of the upper extremities is generally found in 4% of cases with deep venous thrombosis. Extensive, symptomatic venous thrombosis of the upper extremity, as seen in this patient, is rare except with catheter-related thrombosis. Recent studies have supported the safety and efficacy of catheter-directed thrombolysis in patients with no contraindication to thrombolytic therapy, and have recommended early catheter-directed thrombolysis. Therefore, our patient was treated with early catheter-directed thrombolysis followed by anticoagulation. PMID:17249507

  10. Infections and inflammatory diseases as risk factors for venous thrombosis. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tichelaar, Y I G Vladimir; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke J C; Meijer, Karina

    2012-05-01

    Inflammation and venous thrombosis are intertwined. Only in the recent 15 years clinical epidemiological studies have focussed on inflammatory or infectious diseases as risk factors for venous thrombosis. Although a few reviews and many case reports or studies on these topic has been written, a review reporting relative or absolute risks for venous thrombosis has not been published yet. We performed a systematic review using Medline, Pubmed and Embase and found 31 eligible articles. Inflammatory bowel disease, ANCA-associated vasculitis, infections in general and more specifically, human immunodeficiency virus, pneumonia and urinary tract infections are associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis.

  11. Peripheral Venous Access Ports: Outcomes Analysis in 109 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Bodner, Leonard J.; Nosher, John L.; Patel, Kaushik M.; Siegel, Randall L.; Biswal, Rajiv; Gribbin, Christopher E.; Tokarz, Robert

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To perform a retrospective outcomes analysis of central venous catheters with peripheral venous access ports, with comparison to published data.Methods: One hundred and twelve central venous catheters with peripherally placed access ports were placed under sonographic guidance in 109 patients over a 4-year period. Ports were placed for the administration of chemotherapy, hyperalimentation, long-term antibiotic therapy, gamma-globulin therapy, and frequent blood sampling. A vein in the upper arm was accessed in each case and the catheter was passed to the superior vena cava or right atrium. Povidone iodine skin preparation was used in the first 65 port insertions. A combination of Iodophor solution and povidone iodine solution was used in the last 47 port insertions. Forty patients received low-dose (1 mg) warfarin sodium beginning the day after port insertion. Three patients received higher doses of warfarin sodium for preexistent venous thrombosis. Catheter performance and complications were assessed and compared with published data.Results: Access into the basilic or brachial veins was obtained in all cases. Ports remained functional for a total of 28,936 patient days. The port functioned in 50% of patients until completion of therapy, or the patient's expiration. Ports were removed prior to completion of therapy in 18% of patients. Eleven patients (9.9% of ports placed) suffered an infectious complication (0.38 per thousand catheter-days)-in nine, at the port implantation site, in two along the catheter. In all 11 instances the port was removed. Port pocket infection in the early postoperative period occurred in three patients (4.7%) receiving a Betadine prep vs two patients (4.2%) receiving a standard O.R. prep. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.9). Venous thrombosis occurred in three patients (6.8%) receiving warfarin sodium and in two patients (3%) not receiving warfarin sodium. This difference was not statistically significant

  12. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Revealing Primary Sjögren Syndrome: Report of 2 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Mercurio, A.; Altieri, M.; Saraceni, V. M.; Paolucci, T.; Lenzi, G. L.

    2013-01-01

    Sjögren syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease of the exocrine glands, characterized by focal lymphocytic infiltration and destruction of these glands. Neurologic complications are quite common, mainly involving the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The most common central nervous system (CNS) manifestations are myelopathy and microcirculation vasculitis. However, specific diagnostic criteria for CNS SS are still lacking. We report two cases of primary SS in which the revealing symptom was cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in the absence of genetic or acquired thrombophilias. PMID:23424596

  13. Extreme clinical presentations of venous stasis: coronary sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kachalia, Amit; Sideras, Panagiotis; Javaid, Mian; Muralidharan, Sethu; Stevens-Cohen, Pilar

    2013-11-01

    Sixty six year old male with history of heart failure was admitted for dysphagia, weight loss. CT scan chest revealed diffuse oesophageal wall thickening. Upper endoscopy, oesophagogram confirmed diagnosis of achalasia. TTE revealed severely reduced biventricular systolic function with LVEF 10%; PASP 75-80 mmHg. Parasternal long views showed dilated coronary sinus with a visible, mobile 2.0 cm thrombus. Pro-thrombotic workup was negative. Coronary sinus thrombosis has been identified as a rare complication to invasive cardiac procedures causing damage to coronary sinus endothelium and in hypercoagulable states.Typically acute thrombosis presents with chest pain, dynamic ECG changes, but chronic development does not present with ischaemic signs due to formation of efficient collateral circulation. We present a case report of stable primary coronary sinus thrombus incidentally diagnosed, secondary to chronic venous stasis in coronary circulation. Currently, there are no guidelines to assist physicians in long term management of such patients and thus warrants further investigations.

  14. Cortical blindness as a rare presentation of cerebral venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bonnie; Moon, Seong-Jin; Olivero, William C; Wang, Huan

    2013-05-09

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians. Manifesting in a remarkably wide spectrum of symptoms and signs, CVT often presents in a misleading fashion-if unrecognized or misdiagnosed, it carries potentially fatal consequences. Visual loss is quite rare as the initial presentation of CVT and is typically a finding more frequent in chronic cases with associated papilledema on funduscopy Ferro, Lopes, Rosas and Fontes (Delay in Hospital Admission of Patients with Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis. Cerebrovasc Dis 2005;19: :152-6). We report a rare case of acute cortical blindness as the initial presentation of CVT in an 18-year-old female patient and review the current literature. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2013.

  15. Cortical blindness as a rare presentation of cerebral venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bonnie; Moon, Seong-Jin; Olivero, William C.; Wang, Huan

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians. Manifesting in a remarkably wide spectrum of symptoms and signs, CVT often presents in a misleading fashion—if unrecognized or misdiagnosed, it carries potentially fatal consequences. Visual loss is quite rare as the initial presentation of CVT and is typically a finding more frequent in chronic cases with associated papilledema on funduscopy Ferro, Lopes, Rosas and Fontes (Delay in Hospital Admission of Patients with Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis. Cerebrovasc Dis 2005;19:152–6). We report a rare case of acute cortical blindness as the initial presentation of CVT in an 18-year-old female patient and review the current literature. PMID:24964444

  16. Unusual Presentation of Dengue Fever-Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Vairamon, Pradhosh M; Gowtham, Thiruvengadam; Das, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Dengue infection can present as febrile illness with thrombocytopenia, dengue shock syndrome and dengue haemorrhagic fever. Neurological manifestation of dengue infection is more predominant in endemic region. Here, we report a case with unusual neurological presentation of dengue infection. A 16-year-old boy presented with fever for two week duration, headache and double vision involving left eye for two days. He had multiple erythematous rashes all over the body on 3rd day and treated conservatively. On examination he had bilateral papilloedema, left eye restricted abduction. His investigation revealed thrombocytopenia and positive dengue serology. His MRI brain with venogram showed bilateral transverse sinus thrombosis. Hence he was diagnosed as cerebral venous thrombosis due to dehydration with underlying dengue infection. He was hydrated and managed conservatively. On 3rd day his double vision started improving. His repeat MR Venogram was done after two week duration, which revealed recanalisation of bilateral transverse sinus. PMID:26266153

  17. Deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity. A review.

    PubMed

    Klitfod, L; Broholm, R; Baekgaard, N

    2013-10-01

    Upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT) occurs either spontaneously, as a consequence of strenuous upper limb activity (also known as the Paget-Schroetter syndrome) or secondary to an underlying cause. Primary and secondary UEDVT differs in long-term sequelae and mortality. This review will focus on the clinical presentation, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment strategies of UEDVT. In the period from January to October 2012 an electronic literature search was performed in the PubMed/MEDLINE database, and 27 publications were included. swelling, pain and functional impairment are typical symptoms of UEDVT, although completely asymptomatic cases have been described. However life-threatening, massive pulmonary embolism (PE) can also be a sign of UEDVT. for the primary condition anatomical abnormalities (Thoracic Outlet Syndrome, TOS) may dispose to the condition. Malignancy and therapeutic interventions are major risk factors for the secondary deep vein thrombosis in combination with the patient's characteristics, comorbidities and prior history of deep vein thrombosis. recurrent deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and Post Thrombotic Syndrome (PTS) are the major complications after UEDVT. PTS is a chronic condition leading to significant functional disability and impaired quality of life. compression ultrasonography is noninvasive and the most frequently used objective test with a high accuracy in experienced hands. Treatment modalities and strategies: the treatment modalities include anticoagulation therapy, catheter-directed thrombolysis, surgical decompression, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting and they may be combined. However, the optimal treatment and timing of treatment remains controversial. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential to prevent PTS in primary UEDVT; however, there is no consensus on which treatment is the best. Anticoagulation is still considered the treatment of choice for at least 3-6 months, until

  18. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome in the context of recent cerebral venous thrombosis: Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Bourvis, Nadège; Franc, Julie; Szatmary, Zoltan; Chabriat, Hugues; Crassard, Isabelle; Ducros, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Reversible cerebral constriction syndrome and cerebral venous thrombosis are two rare conditions. Reversible cerebral constriction syndrome affects the cerebral arteries and the pathology is still largely unknown. To date, no physiological link with cerebral venous thrombosis has been reported. We report here the case of a 24-year-old woman who presented a reversible cerebral constriction syndrome in the setting of a cerebral venous thrombosis. Cerebral venous thrombosis had developed in her left lateral venous sinus, within the stent placed one year before, in order to treat an idiopathic intracranial hypertension. The co-occurrence of cerebral venous thrombosis and reversible cerebral constriction syndrome in the same patient raises the issue of a potential link between them. We discuss the potential common trigger factors in this case: recent hormonal therapy; intracranial hypotension iatrogenically induced by lumbar puncture. © International Headache Society 2015.

  19. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with cerebral hemorrhage during early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Quanmin; Guo, Pin; Ge, Jianwei; Qiu, Yongming

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) rarely induces cerebral hemorrhage, and CVST with cerebral hemorrhage during early pregnancy is extremely rare. Upon literature review, we are able to find only one case of CVST with cerebral hemorrhage in early pregnancy. In this paper, we report another case of a 27-year-old patient who developed CVST with cerebral hemorrhage in her fifth week of pregnancy. Although the optimal treatment for this infrequent condition remains controversial, we adopted anticoagulation as the first choice of treatment and obtained favorable results. PMID:25630781

  20. Venous thrombosis in patients with giant cell arteritis: Features and outcomes in a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ly, Kim Heang; Liozon, Eric; Dalmay, François; Gondran, Guillaume; Palat, Sylvain; Bézanahary, Holy; Lapébie, François-Xavier; Cypierre, Anne; Nadalon, Sylvie; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Fauchais, Anne-Laure

    2017-05-01

    To describe the features and outcomes of patients with giant cell arteritis who developed venous thrombosis. Inception cohort study including 428 newly diagnosed patients of giant cell arteritis from 1976 to 2014. Clinical and biological data and outcomes were analysed by comparing patients with and without venous thrombosis. Twenty-six patients (6%) developed venous thrombosis, 12 of whom presented with pulmonary embolism. The mean time between the onset of giant cell arteritis symptoms and venous thrombosis occurrence was 248.8±215.0 days. No difference was observed between the two groups in clinical or laboratory data collected at diagnosis. The mean time from the start of prednisone to venous thrombosis diagnosis was 187.7±217.0 days. The average dose of prednisone at venous thrombosis onset was 21.5mg/day. The venous thrombosis group had a higher number of glucocorticoid-related adverse effects (mean, 3.1 vs 1.1; P<0.0001), a higher mortality rate (58% vs 33%, P=0.01) and a higher proportion of deaths occurring during glucocorticoid treatment (31% vs 14%, P=0.03). Death was related to venous thrombosis in four patients. The occurrence of overt venous thrombosis is more than anecdotal among patients treated for giant cell arteritis. Venous thrombosis does not rely on the active phase of giant cell arteritis, but could be associated with long-term use of glucocorticoids. Because venous thrombosis may be associated with an increased mortality risk in patients with giant cell arteritis, a high index of suspicion should be applied in appropriate settings, especially in patients experiencing multiple glucocorticoid-related adverse effects. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis associated with a combined contraceptive ring.

    PubMed

    Fugate, Jennifer E; Robinson, Maisha T; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2011-03-01

    Combined contraceptive vaginal rings are used as an alternative to oral contraceptives with a purported advantage of allowing lower hormonal doses, and thus potentially confer a lower venous thromboembolism risk. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) has not been previously described in association with use of a combined contraceptive ring. A 32-year-old white woman presented with severe headache progressively worsening over days and subsequently developed acute left sided hemiplegia and sensory loss. Brain imaging revealed acute right parietal cortical infarction and extensive CVST. Evaluation for primary thrombophilia was unrevealing. The sole hypercoagulable risk factor identified was use of a vaginal contraceptive ring. The patient was anticoagulated and demonstrated marked clinical improvement. We report the first described case of CVST associated with use of a vaginal contraceptive ring. CVST should be recognized as a potentially fatal complication related to this therapy.

  2. Identifying complications of central venous catheters: infection, thrombosis, occlusion.

    PubMed

    2009-08-01

    (1) The signs of infection of implanted port catheters are inflammation along the course of a central catheter, oozing or signs of an abscess of the pocket in which the port is implanted. Catheter-related venous thrombosis should be suspected in the event of pain, oedema, local swelling, a palpable venous cord and development of superficial collateral circulation; (2) The rapid appearance of local signs and symptoms at the time of injection suggests extravasation of the injected drug; (3) Catheter patency should be checked with normal saline, never using too much force if resistance is encountered. If there is a thrombotic occlusion, the catheter can often be unblocked with heparin, or if not, with urokinase. There is only a moderate risk of bleeding if these agents are used carefully.

  3. Central venous catheter-related thrombosis in senile male patients: New risk factors and predictors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gao; Fu, Zhi-Qing; Zhu, Ping; Li, Shi-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC)-related venous thrombosis is a common but serious clinical complication, thus prevention and treatment on this problem should be extensively investigated. In this research, we aimed to investigate the incidence rate of CVC-related venous thrombosis in senile patients and give a further discussion on the related risk factors and predictors. A total of 324 hospitalized senile male patients subjected to CVC were selected. Retrospective investigation and analysis were conducted on age, underlying diseases, clinical medications, catheterization position and side, catheter retention time, and incidence of CVC-related venous thrombosis complications. Basic laboratory test results during catheterization and thrombogenesis were also collected and analyzed. Among the 324 patients, 20 cases (6.17%) of CVC-related venous thrombosis were diagnoseds. The incidence rate of CVC-related venous thrombosis in subclavian vein catheterization was significantly lower than that in femoral vein catheterization (P<0.01) and that in internal jugular vein catheterization (P<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between femoral vein catheterization and internal jugular vein catheterization (P<0.05). Previous venous thrombosis history (P<0.01), high lactate dehydrogenase level (P<0.01), low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level (P<0.05), and low albumin level (P<0.05) were found as risk factors or predictors of CVC-related venous thrombosis in senile male patients. Subclavian vein catheterization was the most appropriate choice among senile patients to decrease the incidence of CVC-related venous thrombosis. Previous venous thrombosis history, high lactate dehydrogenase level, low HDL level, and low albumin level were important risk factors in predicting CVC-related venous thrombosis.

  4. Technetium-99m red blood cell venography in upper extremity deep venous thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, A.M.; Turbiner, E.H.

    1987-06-01

    The efficacy of Tc-99m RBC venography has been demonstrated with respect to the study of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. A case is presented where Tc-99m RBC venography was used to study the upper as well as lower extremities in a patient with upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) who was found to have pulmonary embolism.

  5. Cerebral venous thrombosis following spinal surgery in a patient with Factor V Leiden mutation.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Baran; Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Akakın, Akın; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Konya, Deniz

    2016-08-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is a devastating event leading to high mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of cerebral venous thrombosis that occurred following spinal surgery in a patient with Factor V Leiden mutation and G1691A heterozygosity. Possible prevention and treatment strategies have been discussed.

  6. Lipid levels and risk of recurrent venous thrombosis: results from the MEGA follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Morelli, V M; Lijfering, W M; Rosendaal, F R; Cannegieter, S C

    2017-04-01

    Essentials The role of lipid levels in the risk of recurrent venous thrombosis is unclear. Lipids were assessed in patients with a first venous thrombosis (n = 2106) followed for 6.9 years. Lipids were not associated with recurrence, overall or in patients with unprovoked first events. Testing lipid levels is not useful to identify patients at an increased risk of recurrence.

  7. Clinical Aspects of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: Experiences in Two Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Hyun Taek; Jun, Hyo Sub; Ahn, Jun Hyong; Kim, Ji Hee; Oh, Jae Keun; Song, Joon Ho; Cho, Byung Moon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare condition for which few clinical reviews have been conducted in Korea. Our aim was to investigate, risk factors, clinical presentations/courses, and outcomes of 22 patients treated for CVT at two centers. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted, selecting 22 patients diagnosed with and treated for CVT at two patient care centers over a 10-year period (January 1, 2004 to August 31, 2015). Patient data, pathogenetic concerns (laboratory findings), risk factors, locations, symptoms, treatments, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. Results Mean patient age at diagnosis was 54.41 ± 16.19. Patients most often presented with headache (40%), followed by seizure (27%) and altered mental status (18%). Focal motor deficits (5%), visual symptoms (5%), and dysarthria (5%) were less common. Important predisposing factors in CVT included prothrombotic conditions (35%), infections (14%), hyperthyroidism (18%), trauma (14%), and malignancy (4%). By location, 9 patients (40%) experienced thrombosis of superior sagittal sinus predominantly, with involvement of transverse sinus in 20 (90%), sigmoid sinus in 12 (40%), and the deep venous system in 5 (23%). Treatment generally consisted of anticoagulants (63%) or antiplatelet (23%) drugs, but surgical decompression was considered if warranted (14%). Medical therapy in CVT yields good functional outcomes. Conclusion Mean age of patients with CVT in our study exceeded that reported in Europe or in America and had difference in risk factors. Functional outcomes are good with use of antithrombotic medication, whether or not hemorrhagic infarction is evident. PMID:27847760

  8. Incidence of deep venous thrombosis in patients undergoing obesity surgery.

    PubMed

    Westling, Agneta; Bergqvist, David; Boström, Annika; Karacagil, Sadettin; Gustavsson, Sven

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) after surgery for morbid obesity. The series comprised 116 consecutive patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The median age and body mass index were 35 years (range 19-59 years) and 42 kg/m2 (range 32-68 kg/m2), respectively. The patients were examined with duplex ultrasonography pre- and postoperatively. No patient had any symptoms or signs of DVT postoperatively, and ultrasonography showed no signs of thrombosis in iliac, femoral, and popliteal veins in any of the patients. Two patients (1.7%) had a thrombus in the peroneal vein of one leg. Repeated ultrasonographic investigation after 1 week showed complete resolution of both. One patient with a previously unknown activated protein C resistance had an angiographically confirmed minor pulmonary embolus. The incidence of venous thromboembolism after obesity surgery seems to be low, and obesity as a risk factor for thromboembolic disease might have been overestimated in the past.

  9. Return to training and competition after deep venous calf thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, W O; Christie, D M

    1992-01-01

    A 25-yr-old female triathlete presented with 4 d of increasing left calf pain that started 1 d after an elective termination of pregnancy during the eighth week of gestation. She had been training with running, bicycling, and swimming but did not recall any injury to the calf muscle. Deep venous thrombosis of the calf and popliteal veins was diagnosed, and she was treated with intravenous heparin and oral warfarin anticoagulation. Her major concern was return to training and competition. A protocol was developed based on experience with less active patients and animal studies to allow a progressive return to training activities over 5 wk, followed by running in the sixth week. After release from the hospital, she accelerated the return-to-training protocol and progressed to running within 3 wk. She developed the post-phlebitic syndrome that resolved within 2 yr. The diagnosis and treatment of deep venous thrombosis are reviewed, with specific attention to the needs of athletic patients.

  10. Cerebral venous thrombosis at high altitude: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zavanone, C; Panebianco, M; Yger, M; Borden, A; Restivo, D; Angelini, C; Pavone, A; Grimod, G; Rosso, C; Dupont, S

    2017-04-01

    High altitude may be a factor associated with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). As our knowledge of CVT at high altitude is limited, it was decided to pool such information from the available case studies to determine whether high altitude can predispose to CVT. A systematic review of the literature was performed for cases reporting CVT at high altitude. Searches of the PubMed database (up to July 2016) were performed for publications, using 'cerebral venous thrombosis' and 'high altitude' as keywords. Cross-referencing was also done to complete the search. Ultimately, 13 articles were included in our systematic review. The population consisted of 17 patients, predominately male (14/17), with a mean age of 32 (range: 19-47) years. Altitude range was 3000-8200m. Nine patients stayed at high altitude for>2 weeks; the duration of high altitude stay was unknown for the remainder. A hypercoagulable state was found in nine patients: secondary polycythemia in five; protein C deficiency in one; protein S deficiency in one; and factor V Leiden mutations in two. No comorbidities were found in any of these patients. Long-term stays at high altitude in association with a hypercoagulable state - in particular, congenital or acquired thrombophilia - appears to predispose to CVT. The association of CVT with a single exposure to high altitude seems low, but the risk cannot as yet be specifically estimated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Systemic Venous Inflow to the Liver Allograft to Overcome Diffuse Splanchnic Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Lupascu, Cristian; Darius, Tom; Goffette, Pierre; Lerut, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse splanchnic venous thrombosis (DSVT), formerly defined as contraindication for liver transplantation (LT), is a serious challenge to the liver transplant surgeon. Portal vein arterialisation, cavoportal hemitransposition and renoportal anastomosis, and finally combined liver and small bowel transplantation are all possible alternatives to deal with this condition. Five patients with preoperatively confirmed extensive splanchnic venous thrombosis were transplanted using cavoportal hemitransposition (4x) and renoportal anastomosis (1x). Median follow-up was 58 months (range: 0,5 to 130 months). Two patients with previous radiation-induced peritoneal injury died, respectively, 18 days and 2 months after transplantation. The three other patients had excellent long-term survival, despite the fact that two of them needed a surgical reintervention for severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Extensive splanchnic venous thrombosis is no longer an absolute contraindication to liver transplantation. Although cavoportal hemitransposition and renoportal anastomosis undoubtedly are life-saving procedures allowing for ensuring adequate allograft portal flow, careful follow-up of these patients remains necessary as both methods are unable to completely eliminate the complications of (segmental) portal hypertension. PMID:26539214

  12. Acquired and Heritable Thrombophilia in Indian Patients With Pediatric Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT).

    PubMed

    Pai, Navin; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Shetty, Shrimati

    2014-09-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in children is more often associated with underlying pathological conditions than with hereditary thrombophilia. The present study is a retrospective analysis of thrombophilia in 285 pediatric patients with venous thrombosis at different sites. Four common thrombophilia markers, that is protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, and factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation, were analyzed. Thrombosis in hepatic and portal veins was more common in pediatric patients (73%) when compared to other sites (27%). Overall, hereditary thrombophilia accounted for 15.5% of the patients with venous thrombosis. The FVL mutation, which was the major causative factor in Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis cases in the adult group, was not a major contributing factor in pediatric group, that is, 1.8% of the patients. In conclusion, the risk factors for venous thrombosis vary in different age groups.

  13. Hereditary thrombophilia in cerebral venous thrombosis: a study from India.

    PubMed

    Pai, Navin; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Shetty, Shrimati

    2013-07-01

    A systematic study of thrombophilia markers in a large series of patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) from India is scarce. The present study was undertaken to know the prevalence of common hereditary thrombophilia in a large series of CVT patients from India. Six hundred and twelve (354 men, 219 women and 39 children) consecutive patients with CVT admitted to various hospitals in Mumbai between 2001 and 2010 were investigated for the common thrombophilia markers, that is, protein C (PC), protein S, antithrombin (AT), and factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation. The main presenting clinical manifestations included papilledema (62%), headache (62%), hemiparesis (48%), seizures (31%), and cranial nerve palsy (7%). All the patients were managed with heparin followed by warfarin during the succeeding 6 months. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis was the commonest site (74%) followed by cortical venous thrombosis (15%). Associated clinical pathologies were dehydration, sepsis, pregnancy and puerperium, malaria, and tuberculosis; but in the majority of patients, there was no obvious cause. Eighteen percent of the patients had any of the thrombophilia markers studied; PC deficiency was the commonest thrombophilia marker followed by deficiency of protein S, FVL mutation and AT deficiency. The men below 45 years with PC deficiency (P=0.03) and women with protein S deficiency were significantly higher (P=0.04). In conclusion, CVT is not an uncommon cause of neurological deficit as was presented in earlier reports. Pregnancy and puerperium-related CVT was much less common. Thrombophilia markers accounted for approximately one-fifth of the patients. Death due to CVT has shown remarkable reduction (13%) because of early diagnosis and appropriate anticoagulation.

  14. Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis during Everest Expedition: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, P.; Shrestha, A. M.; Bhattarai, S.; Sapkota, D.; Sharma, N.; Devkota, U. P.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare but serious disorder that is associated with a poor clinical outcome. We report a 35-year-old man who had a severe headache and diplopia while climbing Mount Everest. His MR venography showed right transverse and right sigmoid sinus thrombosis. He improved on anticoagulant and symptomatic measures. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis at high altitude is discussed. PMID:27872776

  15. Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis during Everest Expedition: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Khanal, P; Thapa, L; Shrestha, A M; Bhattarai, S; Sapkota, D; Sharma, N; Devkota, U P

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare but serious disorder that is associated with a poor clinical outcome. We report a 35-year-old man who had a severe headache and diplopia while climbing Mount Everest. His MR venography showed right transverse and right sigmoid sinus thrombosis. He improved on anticoagulant and symptomatic measures. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis at high altitude is discussed.

  16. Longitudinal Volume Quantification of Deep Medullary Veins in Patients with Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis : Venous Volume Assessment in Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Using SWI.

    PubMed

    Dempfle, A K; Harloff, A; Schuchardt, F; Bäuerle, J; Yang, S; Urbach, H; Egger, K

    2017-06-06

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) visualizes small cerebral veins with high sensitivity and could, thus, enable quantification of hemodynamics of deep medullary veins. We aimed to evaluate volume changes of deep medullary veins in patients with acute cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) over time in comparison to healthy controls. All magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments were executed at 3 T using a 32-channel head coil. Based on SWI and semiautomatic postprocessing (statistical parametric mapping [SPM8] and ANTs), the volume of deep medullary veins was quantified in 14 patients with acute CVST at baseline and the 6‑month follow-up, as well as in 13 healthy controls undergoing repeated MRI examination with an interscan interval of at least 1 month. Deep medullary venous volume change over time was significantly different between healthy controls and patient groups (p < 0.001). Patients with superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST) showed a significant decline from baseline to follow-up measurements (9.8 ± 4.9 ml versus 7.5 ± 4.2 ml; p = 0.02), whereas in patients with transverse sinus thrombosis (TST) and healthy controls no significant volume changes were observable. Venous volume quantification was feasible and reproducible both in healthy volunteers and in patients. The decrease of venous volume in patients over time represents improvement of venous drainage, reduction of congestion, and normalization of microcirculation due to treatment. Thus, quantification of venous microcirculation could be valuable for estimation of prognosis and guidance of CVST therapy in the future.

  17. Graduated compression stockings as prophylaxis for flight-related venous thrombosis: systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Lee, Feng-Ping

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports a systematic review whose objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of graduated compression stockings as prophylaxis for flight-related venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and superficial venous thrombosis, after air travel in the general population. Despite the extended history of the use of graduated compression stockings, their application to prevent flight-related thrombosis was not explored until flight-related thrombosis was perceived as a preventable illness. Even now, their effectiveness in preventing flight-related thrombosis remains unresolved. Generic terms including stocking/s, sock/s, or hosiery/hosieries were used to search a variety of electronic databases. Based on the selection criteria, decisions regarding inclusion and exclusion of primary studies were made. Using a meta-analysis software program, relative risk for the incidence of deep vein thrombosis, superficial venous thrombosis, and intention-to-treat analysis was calculated. A total of nine randomized controlled trials were included. In the treatment group, two of 1237 participants developed deep vein thrombosis in comparison with 46 of 1245 in the control group. The weighted relative risk for deep vein thrombosis was 0.08, with fixed 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.23. In the treatment group, four of 826 participants developed superficial venous thrombosis in comparison with seven of 823 in the control group. The weighted relative risk for superficial venous thrombosis was 0.67. with fixed 95% confidence interval 0.24-1.87 (non-significant difference). Using intention-to-treat analysis, the risk for participants in the treatment group was 0.53 times as great as that for those in the control group. This review demonstrates the effectiveness of medium compression pressure, below-knee graduated compression stockings in preventing flight-related deep vein thrombosis but not superficial venous thrombosis in low-medium- or high-risk participants.

  18. Factor V Leiden Is Associated with Higher Risk of Deep Venous Thrombosis of Large Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Arsov, Todor; Miladinova, Daniela; Spiroski, Mirko

    2006-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation in patients with different presentation of venous thromboembolic disease and healthy individuals in the Republic of Macedonia. Methods The retrospective case-control study involved 190 patients with venous thromboembolic disease and 200 healthy individuals, who were screened for the presence of factor V Leiden mutation, using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The prevalence of factor V Leiden was analyzed according to the localization of thrombosis, presence of risk factors, and family history of thrombosis. The odds of deep venous thrombosis were calculated with respect to the presence of factor V Leiden mutation. Results The prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation among patients with venous thromboembolic disease was 21.1%, compared with 5.5% in the healthy individuals. Factor V Leiden positive patients had the first episode of deep venous thrombosis at a younger age, and the prevalence of the mutation was the highest among patients with a positive family history of thrombosis (33.9%, P = 0.003) and in patients with deep venous thrombosis affecting a large blood vessel (37.7%, P = 0.001). The prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation was lower in patients with calf deep venous thrombosis and primary thromboembolism (13.3% and 13.1%, respectively; P>0.05). The odds ratio for iliofemoral or femoral deep venous thrombosis in factor V Leiden carriers was 10.4 (95% confidence interval, 4.7-23.1). Conclusion The prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation was high in patients with venous thromboembolic disease and healthy individuals in the Republic of Macedonia. Factor V Leiden carriers have the highest odds of developing deep venous thrombosis affecting a large venous blood vessel. PMID:16758522

  19. Antiphospholipid syndrome presenting as cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: a case series and a review.

    PubMed

    Shlebak, Abdul

    2016-04-01

    The cerebral venous sinus system is a rare site for venous thrombosis except in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. We describe three patients presenting with cerebral venous thrombosis in association with other thrombotic sites in two patients and as an only site in one patient. Antiphospholipid syndrome has varied clinical manifestations but the defining feature is the persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. In this report we will review the clinical and laboratory diagnostic criteria and the management of patients with antiphospholipid syndrome.

  20. Association of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR-677 and MTHFR-1298) Genetic Polymorphisms with Occlusive Artery Disease and Deep Venous Thrombosis in Macedonians

    PubMed Central

    Spiroski, Igor; Kedev, Sashko; Antov, Slobodan; Arsov, Todor; Krstevska, Marija; Dzhekova-Stojkova, Sloboda; Kostovska, Stojanka; Trajkov, Dejan; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Strezova, Ana; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Spiroski, Mirko

    2008-01-01

    Aim To analyze the association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms (MTHFR-677 and MTHFR-1298) with occlusive artery disease and deep venous thrombosis in Macedonians. Methods We examined 83 healthy respondents, 76 patients with occlusive artery disease, and 67 patients with deep venous thrombosis. Blood samples were collected and DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes. Identification of MTHFR mutations was done with CVD StripAssay (ViennaLab, Labordiagnostika GmbH, Vienna, Austria) and the population genetics analysis package, PyPop, was used for the analysis. Pearson P values, crude odds ratio, and Wald’s 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results The frequency of C alleles of MTHFR-677 was 0.575 in patients with deep venous thrombosis, 0.612 in patients with occlusive artery disease, and 0.645 in healthy participants. The frequency of T allele of MTHFR-677 was lower in healthy participants (0.355) than in patients with occlusive artery disease (0.388) and deep venous thrombosis (0.425). The frequency of A allele for MTHFR-1298 was 0.729 in healthy participants, 0.770 in patients with occlusive artery disease, and 0.746 in patients with deep venous thrombosis. The frequency of C allele of MTHFR-1298 was 0.271 in healthy participants, 0.230 in patients with occlusive artery disease, and 0.425 in patients with deep venous thrombosis. No association of MTHFR-677 and MTHFR-1289 polymorphisms with occlusive artery disease and deep venous thrombosis was found, except for the protective effect of MTHFR/CA:CC diplotype for occlusive artery disease. Conclusion We could not confirm a significant association of MTHFR-677 and MTHFR-1289 polymorphisms with occlusive artery disease or deep venous thrombosis in Macedonians, except for the protective effect of MTHFR/CA:CC diplotype against occlusive artery disease. PMID:18293456

  1. Dielectric coagulometry: a new approach to estimate venous thrombosis risk.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Katsumoto, Yoichi; Omori, Shinji; Yasuda, Akio; Asami, Koji; Kaibara, Makoto; Uchimura, Isao

    2010-12-01

    We present dielectric coagulometry as a new technique to estimate the risk of venous thrombosis by measuring the permittivity change associated with the blood coagulation process. The method was first tested for a simple system of animal erythrocytes suspended in fibrinogen solution, where the coagulation rate was controlled by changing the amount of thrombin added to the suspension. Second, the method was applied to a more realistic system of human whole blood, and the inherent coagulation process was monitored without artificial acceleration by a coagulation initiator. The time dependence of the permittivity at a frequency around 1 MHz showed a distinct peak at a time that corresponds to the clotting time. Our theoretical modeling revealed that the evolution of heterogeneity and the sedimentation in the system cause the peak of the permittivity.

  2. Cerebral venous thrombosis: a Moroccan retrospective study of 30 cases

    PubMed Central

    Souirti, Zouhayr; Messouak, Ouafae; Belahsen, Faouzi

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare origin of stroke, the clinical presentation and etiologies vary. The prognosis is shown to be better than arterial thrombosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and MR Venograpgy (MRV) are currently important tools for the diagnosis. We studied 30 cases of CVT diagnosed in the department of neurology at the University Hospital of Fez (Morocco). Patients diagnosed with CVT signs between January 2003 and October 2007 were included in the study. Cerebral CT-scan was performed in 27 cases (90%) while the MRI examination was done in 18 patients (67%); and most patients (90%) received anticoagulant therapy. The mean age of our patients was of 29 years (age range between 18 days and 65 years). A female predominance was observed (70%). The clinical presentation of patients was dominated by: headache in 24 cases (80%), motor and sensory disability in 15 cases (50%), seizures in 10 cases (33%), consciousness disorder in 10 cases (33%). CVT was associated to post-partum in 10 cases (33%), infectious origin in 8 cases (26%), Behçet disease in 2 cases (7%), pulmonary carcinoma in 1 case, thrombocytemia in 1 case and idiopathic in 7 cases (23%). The evolution was good in 20 cases (67%), minor squelaes were observed in 6 patients (20%), while major squelaes were observed in 2 cases. Two cases of death were registered. The CVT is a pathology of good prognosis once the diagnosis is promptly established and early heparin treatment initiated. PMID:25317229

  3. Sex difference in risk of second but not of first venous thrombosis: paradox explained.

    PubMed

    Roach, Rachel E J; Lijfering, Willem M; Rosendaal, Frits R; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; le Cessie, Saskia

    2014-01-07

    The risk of recurrent venous thrombosis is 2-fold higher in men than in women. In contrast, no such sex difference in the risk of first venous thrombosis has been reported. We hypothesized that, for a first event, a risk difference between the sexes is masked by female exposure to reproductive factors (oral contraception, pregnancy/puerperium, and postmenopausal hormone therapy). From the Multiple Environmental and Genetic Assessment of Risk Factors for Venous Thrombosis (MEGA) study, a population-based case-control study on risk factors for venous thrombosis, 2915 patients with a first venous thrombosis and their partners as control subjects were included. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for first venous thrombosis were assessed in men compared with women without reproductive risk factors by use of conditional logistic regression. Analyses were stratified in 10-year age categories to account for the variation in exposure to reproductive risk factors over different age groups and adjusted for body mass index and smoking. Overall, men had a 2.1-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.9-2.4) increased risk of first venous thrombosis compared with women without reproductive risk factors. Similar results were found when 10-year age categories were viewed separately. Adjustment for body mass index and smoking and exclusion of cancer patients did not materially affect the results. When female reproductive risk factors are taken into account, the risk of a first venous thrombosis is twice as high in men as in women. These findings are in line with previous studies on recurrent venous thrombosis and may have implications for future treatment and prevention strategies.

  4. Fibrinogen and red blood cells in venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Maria M; Walton, Bethany L; Byrnes, James R; Wolberg, Alisa S

    2014-05-01

    Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, collectively termed venous thromboembolism (VTE), affect over 1 million Americans each year. VTE is triggered by inflammation and blood stasis leading to the formation of thrombi rich in fibrin and red blood cells (RBCs). However, little is known about mechanisms regulating fibrin and RBC incorporation into venous thrombi, or how these components mediate thrombus size or resolution. Both elevated circulating fibrinogen (hyperfibrinogenemia) and abnormal fibrin(ogen) structure and function, including increased fibrin network density and resistance to fibrinolysis, have been observed in plasmas from patients with VTE. Abnormalities in RBC number and/or function have also been associated with VTE risk. RBC contributions to VTE are thought to stem from their effects on blood viscosity and margination of platelets to the vessel wall. More recent studies suggest RBCs also express phosphatidylserine, support thrombin generation, and decrease fibrinolysis. RBC interactions with fibrin(ogen) and cells, including platelets and endothelial cells, may also promote thrombus formation. The contributions of fibrin(ogen) and RBCs to the pathophysiology of VTE warrants further investigation.

  5. Diagnosis and Management of Spontaneous Lumbar Venous Retroperitoneal Hematoma in Setting of Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Case Report and Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Joseph; Chapman, Todd; Scott, Ryan; Kalinkin, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Retroperitoneal hematoma is rare and benefits from a systematic approach to prevent morbidity and mortality. Management of such bleeds is based upon patient stability, the cause (spontaneous or posttraumatic), and source (arterial or venous). Herein, the authors describe a diagnostic and management algorithm for retroperitoneal hemorrhage with an example of a rare lumbar venous bleed under the complicated clinical setting of deep venous thrombosis. PMID:27795865

  6. Factor XI antisense oligonucleotide for prevention of venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Büller, Harry R; Bethune, Claudette; Bhanot, Sanjay; Gailani, David; Monia, Brett P; Raskob, Gary E; Segers, Annelise; Verhamme, Peter; Weitz, Jeffrey I

    2015-01-15

    Experimental data indicate that reducing factor XI levels attenuates thrombosis without causing bleeding, but the role of factor XI in the prevention of postoperative venous thrombosis in humans is unknown. FXI-ASO (ISIS 416858) is a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide that specifically reduces factor XI levels. We compared the efficacy and safety of FXI-ASO with those of enoxaparin in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. In this open-label, parallel-group study, we randomly assigned 300 patients who were undergoing elective primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty to receive one of two doses of FXI-ASO (200 mg or 300 mg) or 40 mg of enoxaparin once daily. The primary efficacy outcome was the incidence of venous thromboembolism (assessed by mandatory bilateral venography or report of symptomatic events). The principal safety outcome was major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. Around the time of surgery, the mean (±SE) factor XI levels were 0.38±0.01 units per milliliter in the 200-mg FXI-ASO group, 0.20±0.01 units per milliliter in the 300-mg FXI-ASO group, and 0.93±0.02 units per milliliter in the enoxaparin group. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 36 of 134 patients (27%) who received the 200-mg dose of FXI-ASO and in 3 of 71 patients (4%) who received the 300-mg dose of FXI-ASO, as compared with 21 of 69 patients (30%) who received enoxaparin. The 200-mg regimen was noninferior, and the 300-mg regimen was superior, to enoxaparin (P<0.001). Bleeding occurred in 3%, 3%, and 8% of the patients in the three study groups, respectively. This study showed that factor XI contributes to postoperative venous thromboembolism; reducing factor XI levels in patients undergoing elective primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty was an effective method for its prevention and appeared to be safe with respect to the risk of bleeding. (Funded by Isis Pharmaceuticals; FXI-ASO TKA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01713361.).

  7. Factor XI Antisense Oligonucleotide for Prevention of Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Büller, Harry R.; Bethune, Claudette; Bhanot, Sanjay; Gailani, David; Monia, Brett P.; Raskob, Gary E.; Segers, Annelise; Verhamme, Peter; Weitz, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Experimental data indicate that reducing factor XI levels attenuates thrombosis without causing bleeding, but the role of factor XI in the prevention of postoperative venous thrombosis in humans is unknown. FXI-ASO (ISIS 416858) is a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide that specifically reduces factor XI levels. We compared the efficacy and safety of FXI-ASO with those of enoxaparin in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. METHODS In this open-label, parallel-group study, we randomly assigned 300 patients who were undergoing elective primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty to receive one of two doses of FXI-ASO (200 mg or 300 mg) or 40 mg of enoxaparin once daily. The primary efficacy outcome was the incidence of venous thromboembolism (assessed by mandatory bilateral venography or report of symptomatic events). The principal safety outcome was major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. RESULTS Around the time of surgery, the mean (±SE) factor XI levels were 0.38±0.01 units per milliliter in the 200-mg FXI-ASO group, 0.20±0.01 units per milliliter in the 300-mg FXI-ASO group, and 0.93±0.02 units per milliliter in the enoxaparin group. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 36 of 134 patients (27%) who received the 200-mg dose of FXI-ASO and in 3 of 71 patients (4%) who received the 300-mg dose of FXI-ASO, as compared with 21 of 69 patients (30%) who received enoxaparin. The 200-mg regimen was noninferior, and the 300-mg regimen was superior, to enoxaparin (P<0.001). Bleeding occurred in 3%, 3%, and 8% of the patients in the three study groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS This study showed that factor XI contributes to postoperative venous thromboembolism; reducing factor XI levels in patients undergoing elective primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty was an effective method for its prevention and appeared to be safe with respect to the risk of bleeding. (Funded by Isis Pharmaceuticals; FXI-ASO TKA ClinicalTrials.gov number

  8. [Postoperative venous thrombosis in general surgery patients and perioperative prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Horie, Hisanaga; Endo, Noriyuki; Sata, Naohiro; Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Nagai, Hideo

    2005-03-01

    In a population of general surgery patients in Western countries, there was a 19% incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and a 1.6% incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE), with 0.9% of patients experiencing fatal PE. In Japan, there was a 15.8% incidence of DVT and a 0.34% incidence of PE, with 0.08% of patients experiencing fatal PE in a population of abdominal surgery patients. The incidences of PE and fatal PE in our department were 0.11% and 0.03%, respectively. We started to use intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) for the prophylaxis of postoperative PE in 1999 and then added elastic stockings in 2002 and low-dose unfractionated heparin (LDUH) in 2003 for prophylaxis. The incidence of PE has dropped and that of fatal PE has become 0% with the use of such prophylactic measures. When the risk of venous thromboembolism of the 15 patients who experienced PE in our department were assessed using the Japanese Guidelines for Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism, 13 patients were assessed as high risk and 2 as low risk. The mean age and mean body mass index of the 15 patients were 54 yeas old and 24.8, respectively, and PE was not limited to obese or elderly patients. Such findings appear to indicate the difficulty of risk assessment for PE. Therefore we started to use IPC, elastic stockings, and LDUH for the prophylaxis of PE and DVT for all general surgery patients from April 2004. These prophylactic measures are recommended for the highest-risk patients in the Japanese Guidelines for Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism. There have so far been no serious bleeding complications with the administration of LDUH. We will continue to observe the effects of prophylaxis and the risk of bleeding.

  9. Assessment of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis using T2*-weighted gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging sequences

    PubMed Central

    Bidar, Fatemeh; Faeghi, Fariborz; Ghorbani, Askar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the advantages of gradient echo (GRE) sequences in the detection and characterization of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis compared to conventional magnetic resonance sequences. Methods: A total of 17 patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) were evaluated using different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. The MRI sequences included T1-weighted spin echo (SE) imaging, T*2-weighted turbo SE (TSE), fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), T*2-weighted conventional GRE, and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). MR venography (MRV) images were obtained as the golden standard. Results: Venous sinus thrombosis was best detectable in T*2-weighted conventional GRE sequences in all patients except in one case. Venous thrombosis was undetectable in DWI. T*2-weighted GRE sequences were superior to T*2-weighted TSE, T1-weighted SE, and FLAIR. Enhanced MRV was successful in displaying the location of thrombosis. Conclusion: T*2-weighted conventional GRE sequences are probably the best method for the assessment of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. The mentioned method is non-invasive; therefore, it can be employed in the clinical evaluation of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. PMID:27326365

  10. High risk of deep vein thrombosis associated with peripherally inserted central catheters in lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao-Feng; Wang, Yu; Liu, Pan-Pan; Bi, Xi-Wen; Sun, Peng; Lin, Tong-Yu; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are widely used in cancer patients. Although PICC is a convenient tool, its use is associated with an obvious increase in the incidence of venous thrombosis. The risk factors for deep vein thrombosis associated with the use of PICCs in cancer patients are largely unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of PICC-associated thrombosis in lymphoma compared with its incidences in other types of cancer. A total of 8028 adult cancer patients inserted with PICC between June 2007 and June 2015 were included in this study. A total of 249 of the 8028 included patients (3.1%) inserted with PICC developed upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (PICC-UEDVT). Patients with lymphoma were more likely to have PICC-UEDVT than those with other types of malignancies (7.1% vs. 2.80%; P < 0.001). Logistic analysis revealed that a lymphoma diagnosis was a risk factor for UEDVT in cancer patients inserted with PICC (OR: 3.849, 95% CI: 2.334–6.347). Patients with lymphoma may be more predisposed to developing PICC-UEDVT than those with other types of malignancies. Identifying the mechanism underlying the relationship between PICC-UEDVT and lymphoma requires further study. PMID:27078849

  11. [Surgical therapy of acute and embolizing deep venous thrombosis--indication, technical principle, results].

    PubMed

    Kniemeyer, H W; Merckle, R; Stühmeier, K; Sandmann, W

    1990-12-17

    Between 1977 and 1986, 185 patients with deep venous thrombosis (117 with acute occlusive and 68 with embolizing deep venous thrombosis) underwent venous thrombectomy with arterio-venous fistula. The early patency rate was 96%, and the perioperative mortality rate, 3.8%. Of the 157 patients in whom extremities were involved, 147 were examined 12-118 months postoperatively (mean 43 +/- 23 months) clinically, by Doppler ultrasound and by light reflexion rheography (LRR). In 49% of the patients, various kinds of swelling or oedema of the involved extremities were present. There were no hemodynamical disturbances in 53% (LRR-examination); competent venous valves were found in 44%. According to the severity of symptoms and hemodynamical findings, postthrombotic syndrome was absent in 47%, mild in 20%, moderate in 28%, and severe in 5% (7 patients, 4 with venous ulcers). Six of the 7 patients with severe postthrombotic syndrome belonged to the group operated for embolizing thrombosis, where no selection of cases was performed. The best long-term results were achieved in patients operated for acute occlusive thrombosis of the iliac and iliofemoral veins. Venous thrombectomy with av fistula can achieve sufficient early and long-term results in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis, provided strict selection of patients and a meticulous technique are practised.

  12. Venous sinus thrombosis in a child with nephrotic syndrome: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ronaldo Afonso; Torres, Bruna Ribeiro; de Castilho, Alessandra Soares Rocha; Honorato, Ronaldo

    2014-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome is associated with a hypercoagulable state and an increased risk of thromboembolic complications. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare complication of nephrotic syndrome, with few cases described in the literature, although the disease may be under-diagnosis. The true incidence of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis may be underestimated because many events are asymptomatic or are not diagnosed in time. Here, we describe the case of a male child, 2 years and 10 months old, with nephrotic syndrome presenting with headache, epileptic seizures and sensory inhibition who was diagnosed with superior sagittal and transverse sinuses thrombosis. An international literature review was performed with a defined search strategy in the PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases using the terms 'nephrotic syndrome' and 'cerebral sinovenous thrombosis'. The diagnosis of venous thrombosis should be considered in any patient with nephrotic syndrome who presents with neurological signs and symptoms, as early clinical diagnosis promotes favorable outcomes.

  13. Acute venous thrombosis of a renal transplant: early detection with color Doppler sonography.

    PubMed

    Danse, E; Malaise, J; Mourad, M; Cosyns, J P

    2009-01-01

    The observation of a recent case of an acute venous thrombosis of a renal transplant is the opportunity to review and present the role of color Doppler sonography for the early detection of such a severe and uncommon complication.

  14. Venous Thrombosis and Cancer: from Mouse Models to Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Hisada, Y.; Geddings, J. E.; Ay, C.; Mackman, N.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients have a ~4 fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared with the general population and this is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes our current knowledge of VTE and cancer from mouse models to clinical studies. Notably, risk of VTE varies depending on the type and stage of cancer. For instance, pancreatic and brain cancer patients have a higher risk of VTE than breast and prostate cancer patients. Moreover, patients with metastatic disease have a higher risk than those with localized tumors. Tumor-derived procoagulant factors and growth factors may directly and indirectly enhance VTE. For example, increased levels of circulating tumor-derived, tissue factor-positive microvesicles may trigger VTE. In a mouse model of ovarian cancer, tumor-derived IL-6 and hepatic thrombopoietin has been linked to increased platelet production and thrombosis. In addition, mouse models of mammary and lung cancer showed that tumor-derived granulocyte colony-stimulating factor causes neutrophilia and activation of neutrophils. Activated neutrophils can release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that enhance thrombosis. Cell-free DNA in the blood derived from cancer cells, NETs and treatment with cytotoxic drugs can activate the clotting cascade. These studies suggest that there are multiple mechanisms for VTE in patients with different types of cancer. Preventing and treating VTE in cancer patients is challenging; the current recommendations are to use low molecular weight heparin. Understanding the underlying mechanisms may allow the development of new therapies to safely prevent VTE in cancer patients. PMID:25988873

  15. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis as an Extrahepatic Manifestation of Acute Anicteric Hepatitis A Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zis, Panagiotis; Kontogeorgi, Elli; Karakalos, Dimitrios; Pavlopoulou, Despoina; Sevastianos, Vassilios A.

    2012-01-01

    Among the many infective causes of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), viral hepatitis has been regarded as a rare associated condition. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman presenting with CVT associated with hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, outlining probable pathogenic mechanisms. We suggest that hepatitis A serological markers should be routinely included in the investigation of cerebral venous thrombosis of unknown etiology, in nonvaccinated patients with risk factors of a recent HAV exposure. PMID:22934203

  16. Cerebral venous thrombosis in a child with nephrotic syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Bhoobun, Shalinee; Jalloh, Alhaji Alusaine; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), a rare and life threatening complication of nephrotic syndrome, has a variable and non-specific presentation, posing diagnostic challenges. We describe a case of CVT in a Sierra Leonean child with nephrotic syndrome who was successfully treated for the condition despite the resource limitations of the hospital. This case highlights the importance of considering cerebral venous thrombosis as a complication of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children presenting with neurological symptoms.

  17. Laparoscopic gastric bypass complicated by portal venous thrombosis and severe neurological complications.

    PubMed

    Pigeyre, M; Seguy, D; Arnalsteen, L; Pattou, F; Romon, M

    2008-09-01

    The laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP) is increasingly popular for the treatment of morbid obesity, although its postsurgical complications are often underestimated. We report the case of a 22-year-old morbidly obese woman who underwent a LRYGBP, which was rapidly complicated by portal venous thrombosis and severe neurological complications due to vitamin deficiencies. She presented rapid body weight loss with optic and peripheral neuropathy. Clinical chemistry results showed low transthyretin and micronutrient levels. Intravenous micronutrient infusion and cyclic nocturnal enteral tube feeding were needed to slowly improve gait and visual acuity. We then discuss (1) factors that could have contributed to the nutritional deficiencies and (2) the preventive management of these types of nutritional complications. Gastric bypass procedures can cause multivitamin deficiencies. In the case presented here, complications occurred very soon after surgery. The increasing incidence of obesity and bariatric surgery warrants better patient education concerning strict adherence to vitamin supplementation.

  18. Late deep venous thrombosis and delayed weightbearing after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Buehler, K O; D'Lima, D D; Petersilge, W J; Colwell, C W; Walker, R H

    1999-04-01

    One hundred ninety-nine patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty and used in hospital pneumatic compression stockings and aspirin as thromboembolic prophylaxis were screened for deep venous thrombosis using duplex ultrasonography on the fourth postoperative day. Of the initial 98 patients, 21 underwent noncemented arthroplasty, maintained touchdown weightbearing for 6 weeks after surgery, and then began progressive partial weightbearing. Of the subsequent 101 patients, 28 underwent noncemented arthroplasty and began progressive weightbearing immediately after surgery. All other patients underwent hybrid arthroplasty and began weightbearing to tolerance immediately after surgery. After duplex screening examination, patients with proximal deep venous thrombosis were given anticoagulation therapy, and patients with negative study results were observed clinically. The relative risk of proximal deep venous thrombosis after noncemented arthroplasty using delayed weightbearing was compared with that after noncemented arthroplasty using immediate progressive weightbearing. Of patients with noncemented arthroplasty, the prevalence of proximal deep venous thrombosis was significantly lower in those using progressive weightbearing immediately after surgery (none) than in those using delayed weightbearing rehabilitation (19%). This study showed that patients undergoing noncemented total hip arthroplasty with delayed weightbearing rehabilitation risk greater potential for deep venous thrombosis after hospital discharge. This study suggests consideration for continued thromboembolic prophylaxis or routine deep venous thrombosis surveillance, or both measures, after hospital discharge, unless more rapid progression of weightbearing is allowed.

  19. Cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by cerebral venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Oda, Shinri; Shimoda, Masami; Hoshikawa, Kaori; Osada, Takahiro; Yoshiyama, Michitsura; Matsumae, Mitsunori

    2011-01-01

    Patients with non-traumatic, non-aneurysmal, and non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) tend to have clots circumscribed along the cortical convexity, a condition referred to as acute cortical SAH. Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a potential cause of cortical SAH. The study tried to establish the diagnosis and management of cortical SAH caused by CVT. Retrospective review of 145 patients with non-traumatic SAH identified 15 patients with no ruptured aneurysm. Clinical features were investigated with a specific focus on patients with SAH caused by CVT. Eight of the 15 patients had perimesencephalic SAH, and 7 had cortical SAH. SAH caused by CVT was diagnosed in 4 of the 7 patients with cortical SAH. The cortical SAH involved the unilateral convexity or sylvian cistern and spared the basal cistern on computed tomography in all 4 patients. CVT occurred in the transverse sinus and cortical vein (1 patient), insular vein (1 patient), and cortical vein (2 patients). Identification of thrombosed veins or sinuses was established directly by T(2)*-weighted and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the acute stage and diffusion-weighted and T(1)-weighted MR imaging in the subacute stage. All patients had cortical swelling without findings of venous hemorrhagic infarction on T(2)*-weighted MR imaging. None of the 4 patients received active treatment, and all had favorable outcomes. CVT in patients with non-traumatic cortical SAH should be first excluded as a potential hemorrhagic cause by MR imaging for thrombosed veins or sinuses before initiating antifibrinolytic therapy.

  20. [Takayasu arteritis and cerebral venous thrombosis: report of a case].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Mingo, E; Riofrío Cabeza, S; Villa Albuger, T; Velasco Blanco, M J

    2014-01-01

    Palpitations, paresthesias and anxiety are very common reasons of consultation in primary care. We report the case of a 40 year-old Caucasian woman who came to the clinic due to these symptoms, and was finally diagnosed with Takayasu arteritis. Later, she had an episode of headache, as the initial manifestation of cerebral venous thrombosis. Takayasu arteritis is a systemic vasculitis affecting medium and large arteries, mainly leacausing stenosis of the aorta and its branches. It most frequently affects Asian women, being much rarer in Europe. The primary care doctor plays a key role in the initial diagnosis and monitoring of patients with rare diseases, such as Takayasu arteritis, and must be a basic support for the patient and family, providing information and advice, and contributing with his work to reduce the vulnerability of this group. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Venous thrombosis during assisted reproduction: novel risk reduction strategies.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) affects 5% of IVF cycles and incurs a 100-fold increase in risk of venous thrombosis over natural conceptions. Identification of women at risk of OHSS can be achieved using antral follicle count (AFC) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). For those women with a high AFC or AMH combining a GnRH antagonist with a conventional hCG trigger will reduce the risk of OHSS and still allow a fresh transfer to occur. Complete abolition of OHSS is however now a reality by avoiding exposure to exogenous hCG. This can be achieved by segmentation of the IVF cycle using a GnRH agonist for final oocyte maturation and then freezing all oocytes or embryos with subsequent replacement of a single embryo in the context of a frozen embryo transfer. This novel approach will ensure a VTE risk equivalent to natural conception and can be combined with conventional thromboprophylaxis strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic Stress Facilitates the Development of Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tao; Cheng, Yu-Wen; Yang, Fei; Sun, Pei-Wen; Zhu, Chen-Jie; Zhu, Li; Zhang, Guo-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The increasing pressure of modern social life intensifies the impact of stress on the development of cardiovascular diseases, which include deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Renal sympathetic denervation has been applied as one of the clinical approaches for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension. In addition, the close relationship between oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases has been well documented. The present study is designed to explore the mechanism by which the renal sympathetic nerve system and the oxidative stress affect the blood coagulation system in the development of DVT. Chronic foot shock model in rats was applied to mimic a state of physiological stress similar to humans. Our results showed that chronic foot shock procedure could promote DVT which may be through the activation of platelets aggregation. The aggravation of DVT and activation of platelets were alleviated by renal sympathetic denervation or antioxidant (Tempol) treatment. Concurrently, the denervation treatment could also reduce the levels of circulating oxidation factors in rats. These results demonstrate that both the renal sympathetic nerve system and the oxidative stress contribute to the development of DVT in response to chronic stress, which may provide novel strategy for treatment of clinic DVT patients.

  3. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis and Headache--A Case-Series.

    PubMed

    Sparaco, Marco; Feleppa, Michele; Bigal, Marcelo E

    2015-06-01

    Headache happens in the majority of patients with Cerebral Venous Thrombosis (CVT) being sometimes the sole manifestation of the disease. Herein we report a case-series of CVT, focusing on headache characteristics. Etiological, clinical, and radiological features of 25 consecutive adult patients with CVT were compiled from August 2005 to December 2013. Diagnosis of CVT was confirmed by brain magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance venography. All patients underwent extensive systematic etiological and genetic work-up at admission. A structured questionnaire about the characteristics of headache was responded by all participants. Headache was reported by 23 out of 25 (92%) of participants, being by far the most frequent symptom. It was the sole manifestation in nearly one third of the patients (8/25, 32.0%). Headache was typically severe (19/23, 82.6%) and throbbing (16/23, 69.5%), with sudden onset (13/23, 56.5%) and non-remitting (20/23, 86.9%) characteristics. The sinus most frequently involved was the transverse sinus (24/25, 96.0%), either alone or in association with other sinuses. Headache is the most frequent symptom and sometimes the sole presentation of CVT. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Ischemic Stroke and Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Daniel A; Dehkharghani, Seena

    2015-12-01

    Imaging is indispensable in the evaluation of patients presenting with central nervous system emergencies. Although computed tomography (CT) is the mainstay of initial assessment and triage, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become vital in expanding diagnostic capabilities, refining management strategies, and developing our understanding of disease processes. Ischemic stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis are 2 areas wherein MRI is actively revolutionizing patient care. Familiarity with the imaging manifestations of these 2 disease processes is crucial for any radiologist reading brain MR studies. In this review, the fundamentals of image interpretation will be addressed in-depth. Furthermore, advanced imaging techniques which are redefining the role of emergency MRI will be outlined, with a focus on the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie image interpretation. In particular, emerging data surrounding the use of MR perfusion imaging in acute stroke management portend dramatic shifts in neurointerventional management. To this end, a review of the recent stroke literature will hopefully enhance the radiologist's role in both meaningful reporting and multidisciplinary teamwork.

  5. Noncontrast computed tomographic Hounsfield unit evaluation of cerebral venous thrombosis: a quantitative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Besachio, David A; Quigley, Edward P; Shah, Lubdha M; Salzman, Karen L

    2013-08-01

    Our objective is to determine the utility of noncontrast Hounsfield unit values, Hounsfield unit values corrected for the patient's hematocrit, and venoarterial Hounsfield unit difference measurements in the identification of intracranial venous thrombosis on noncontrast head computed tomography. We retrospectively reviewed noncontrast head computed tomography exams performed in both normal patients and those with cerebral venous thrombosis, acquiring Hounsfield unit values in normal and thrombosed cerebral venous structures. Also, we acquired Hounsfield unit values in the internal carotid artery for comparison to thrombosed and nonthrombosed venous structures and compared the venous Hounsfield unit values to the patient's hematocrit. A significant difference is identified between Hounsfield unit values in thrombosed and nonthrombosed venous structures. Applying Hounsfield unit threshold values of greater than 65, a Hounsfield unit to hematocrit ratio of greater than 1.7, and venoarterial difference values greater than 15 alone and in combination, the majority of cases of venous thrombosis are identifiable on noncontrast head computed tomography. Absolute Hounsfield unit values, Hounsfield unit to hematocrit ratios, and venoarterial Hounsfield unit value differences are a useful adjunct in noncontrast head computed tomographic evaluation of cerebral venous thrombosis.

  6. The causes of lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis in the children with cranial diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Wei; Jia, Ge; Li, Na; Jia, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence of lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and to explore its possible reasons in children patients who received neurosurgery operation. Clinical data of 4958 cases children patients with lower-extremity DVT and without the thrombosis after the neurosurgery operation from 2010 January to 2014 December in department of neurosurgery of Tian Tan hospital were collected and analyzed. 18 cases children were diagnosed with lower-extremity DVT. All of them had invasive operation of lower-extremity deep venous catheterization. The mainly primary diseases of thrombosis children were craniopharyngioma. They have longer operation time compared with those without thrombosis (P<0.05). Therefore, the causes of DVT in neurosurgical children involve not only deep venous catheter-related but also neurological primary disease and operation time.

  7. The disparate management of superficial venous thrombosis in primary and secondary care.

    PubMed

    Lane, Tristan R A; Sritharan, Kaji; Herbert, J Rosalind; Franklin, Ian J; Davies, Alun H

    2015-04-01

    Superficial venous thrombosis is common and traditionally considered a benign condition requiring only symptomatic treatment. Recent evidence, however, advocates more aggressive management. Extensive guidance is available but actual practice is unknown. This study aimed to assess the management of superficial venous thrombosis by general practitioners (primary care physicians) and vascular surgeons. A 19-question validated electronic survey was created and circulated by e-mail to general practitioners and vascular surgeons in the United Kingdom. The survey evaluated presentation, investigation and treatment of superficial venous thrombosis. Three hundred sixty-nine surveys were returned from 197 vascular surgeons and 172 general practitioners. Most clinicians saw less than 20 cases a year, with 40% of clinicians not performing any investigations. Venous duplex was the investigation of choice in over 55%. Treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs was widespread, but anticoagulation and compression were seldom prescribed. Follow-up and treatment duration were disparate. The management of superficial venous thrombosis varies widely despite good levels of evidence and guidance. Investigation and treatment of superficial venous thrombosis show marked differences both between and within groups. Improvements in education are required to optimise the treatment pathway and advance patient care. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Risk of recurrent venous thrombosis related to past provoking risk situations: follow-up of a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniel D; Lijfering, Willem M; Barreto, Sandhi M; Lopes, Fabiane Dias; Pires, Giselli de Souza; Rosendaal, Frits R; Rezende, Suely M

    2013-07-01

    Strategies targeting at classifying the risk for recurrent venous thrombosis are needed. We previously hypothesized, by studying a cohort of patients, that those who had 'survived' risk situations for venous thrombosis without developing it would, after a first venous thrombosis, have a low recurrence risk. Therefore, we re-evaluated the same cohort, now with a longer follow-up. Patients, after a first confirmed venous thrombosis event, were followed for an average of 43 months after suspension of anticoagulation. Patients with indication for indefinite anticoagulation were not included. The primary endpoint was objective recurrent venous thrombosis. Recurrent venous thrombosis was recorded in 9% of 378 eligible patients. Patients with a provoked first event and positive past risk situations for venous thrombosis had an incidence rate of recurrence of 1.26 (95% CI, 0.60-2.31) per 100 patient-years. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of this subgroup compared with patients with a provoked event without other past risk situations for venous thrombosis was 0.8 (95% CI 0.2-2.9). This IRR was 2.8 (95% CI, 1.2-6.5) in patients with an unprovoked event and positive past risk situations and 7.1 (95% CI, 3.0-17.1) in patients with an unprovoked event and no past risk situations. When only idiopathic first events were evaluated the IRR was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.1-5.9) for patients without past risk situation compared with those with these history. In this study, asking a patient about past exposure to risk factors for venous thrombosis long before the occurrence of a first venous thrombosis occurred, could be used to classify patients with a first unprovoked venous thrombosis at higher risk for recurrence of venous thrombosis.

  9. Novel balloon-and-aspiration method for cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: dental-floss technique.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Okada, Hideo; Chung, Joonho; Webster Crowley, R; Lopes, Demetrius K

    2017-04-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is sometimes fatal. The standard treatment for sinus thrombosis is anticoagulation, but endovascular intervention must be considered when medical treatment fails. Mechanical thrombectomy is usually required when a large clot burden exits. Unfortunately, in sinus thrombosis attributable to a clot burden larger than that in an intracranial artery, the conventional technique used for intraarterial acute stroke intervention with a stent retriever and/or aspiration is not very effective. The authors describe here their endovascular approach to mechanical thrombectomy for sinus thrombosis using aspiration combined with angioplasty balloon support.

  10. Venous thrombosis and prothrombotic factors in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Magro, Fernando; Soares, João-Bruno; Fernandes, Dália

    2014-05-07

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may have an increased risk of venous thrombosis (VTE). PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scopus were searched to identify studies investigating the risk of VTE and the prevalence of acquired and genetic VTE risk factors and prothrombotic abnormalities in IBD. Overall, IBD patients have a two- to fourfold increased risk of VTE compared with healthy controls, with an overall incidence rate of 1%-8%. The majority of studies did not show significant differences in the risk of VTE between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Several acquired factors are responsible for the increased risk of VTE in IBD: inflammatory activity, hospitalisation, surgery, pregnancy, disease phenotype (e.g., fistulising disease, colonic involvement and extensive involvement) and drug therapy (mainly steroids). There is also convincing evidence from basic science and from clinical and epidemiological studies that IBD is associated with several prothrombotic abnormalities, including initiation of the coagulation system, downregulation of natural anticoagulant mechanisms, impairment of fibrinolysis, increased platelet count and reactivity and dysfunction of the endothelium. Classical genetic alterations are not generally found more often in IBD patients than in non-IBD patients, suggesting that genetics does not explain the greater risk of VTE in these patients. IBD VTE may have clinical specificities, namely an earlier first episode of VTE in life, high recurrence rate, decreased efficacy of some drugs in preventing further episodes and poor prognosis. Clinicians should be aware of these risks, and adequate prophylactic actions should be taken in patients who have disease activity, are hospitalised, are submitted to surgery or are undergoing treatment.

  11. Venous thrombosis and prothrombotic factors in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Magro, Fernando; Soares, João-Bruno; Fernandes, Dália

    2014-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may have an increased risk of venous thrombosis (VTE). PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scopus were searched to identify studies investigating the risk of VTE and the prevalence of acquired and genetic VTE risk factors and prothrombotic abnormalities in IBD. Overall, IBD patients have a two- to fourfold increased risk of VTE compared with healthy controls, with an overall incidence rate of 1%-8%. The majority of studies did not show significant differences in the risk of VTE between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Several acquired factors are responsible for the increased risk of VTE in IBD: inflammatory activity, hospitalisation, surgery, pregnancy, disease phenotype (e.g., fistulising disease, colonic involvement and extensive involvement) and drug therapy (mainly steroids). There is also convincing evidence from basic science and from clinical and epidemiological studies that IBD is associated with several prothrombotic abnormalities, including initiation of the coagulation system, downregulation of natural anticoagulant mechanisms, impairment of fibrinolysis, increased platelet count and reactivity and dysfunction of the endothelium. Classical genetic alterations are not generally found more often in IBD patients than in non-IBD patients, suggesting that genetics does not explain the greater risk of VTE in these patients. IBD VTE may have clinical specificities, namely an earlier first episode of VTE in life, high recurrence rate, decreased efficacy of some drugs in preventing further episodes and poor prognosis. Clinicians should be aware of these risks, and adequate prophylactic actions should be taken in patients who have disease activity, are hospitalised, are submitted to surgery or are undergoing treatment. PMID:24803797

  12. Mesenteric-portal axis thrombosis and deep venous thrombosis in a patient with inferior vena cava agenesis.

    PubMed

    Lluis Pons, Laia; Chahri Vizcarro, Nadia; Llaverias Borrell, Silvia; Miquel Abbad, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Splenoportal axis thrombosis not associated with cirrhosis or neoplasms has a prevalence lower than 5 per 10,000 people. An etiologic factor responsible for portal thrombosis is finally identified in most cases, usually systemic thrombogenic factors or predisposing local factors. However, despite a detailed study of all etiologic factors, up to 30% of cases are eventually considered as idiopathic in origin. We report the case of a 41-year-old patient who presented with abdominal pain and lower extremity edema. The patient was diagnosed with portal and mesenteric-portal confluence thrombosis, bilateral deep venous thrombosis and right lumbar vein thrombosis based on an abdominal CT scan. This was associated with a likely congenital inferior vena cava agenesis. This malformation is present in approximately 5% of patients with deep vein thrombosis even though it represents a rare cause of portal thrombosis. The fact that several thromboses developed simultaneously makes this a unique and isolated case in the current literature as no similar cases have been reported thus far.

  13. Assessment of central venous physiology of Fontan circulation using peripheral venous pressure.

    PubMed

    Masutani, Satoshi; Kurishima, Clara; Yana, Akiko; Kuwata, Seiko; Iwamoto, Yoichi; Saiki, Hirofumi; Ishido, Hirotaka; Senzaki, Hideaki

    2017-04-01

    Elevated central venous pressure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after the Fontan operation. The difference between mean circulatory filling pressure and central venous pressure, a driving force of venous return, is important in determining dynamic changes in central venous pressure in response to changes in ventricular properties or loading conditions. Thus, noninvasive central venous pressure and mean circulatory filling pressure estimation may contribute to optimal management in patients undergoing the Fontan operation. We tested the hypothesis that central venous pressure and mean circulatory filling pressure in those undergoing the Fontan operation can be simply estimated using peripheral venous pressure and arm equilibrium pressure, respectively. This study included 30 patients after the Fontan operation who underwent cardiac catheterization (median 8.6, 3.4-42 years). Peripheral venous pressure was measured at the peripheral vein in the upper extremities. Mean circulatory filling pressure was calculated by the changes of arterial pressure and central venous pressure during the Valsalva maneuver. Arm equilibrium pressure was measured as equilibrated venous pressure by rapidly inflating a blood pressure cuff to 200 mm Hg. Central venous pressure and peripheral venous pressure were highly correlated (central venous pressure = 1.6 + 0.68 × peripheral venous pressure, R = 0.86, P < .0001). Stepwise multivariable regression analysis showed that only peripheral venous pressure was a significant determinant of central venous pressure. Central venous pressure was accurately estimated using regression after volume loading by contrast injection (R = 0.82, P < .0001). In addition, arm equilibrium pressure measurements were highly reproducible and robustly reflected invasively measured mean circulatory filling pressure (mean circulatory filling pressure = 9.1 + 0.63 × arm equilibrium pressure, R = 0.88, P < .0001). Central venous

  14. [Endovascular thrombolysis for massive cerebral venous thrombosis in a teenager with nephrotic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Costa, Paula; Biscoito, Luísa; Vieira, Marisa; Marçal, Mónica; Camilo, Cristina; Neto, Lia; Abecasis, Francisco; Almeida, Margarida; Correia, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is a rare but potentially severe condition in children. We present the case of a teenager with corticodependent nephrotic syndrome diagnosed at five months of age and treated with cyclosporine A. In the context of recurrence of nephrotic syndrome he presented with headache, vomiting and severe intracranial hypertension. While the raised intracranial pressure and the status epilepticus were controlled, the brain imaging revealed venous thrombosis of all venous sinus, with absence of venous drainage. He was submitted to local thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, with recanalization of the venous sinuses. The outcome was favourable, without neurological deficits. In this case, the early radiologic intervention was crucial, enabling a full neurological recovery, in a teenager whose initial prognosis was very poor.

  15. [Umbilical and peripherally inserted venous central catheterization of the newborn].

    PubMed

    Bouissou, A; Rakza, T; Storme, L; Lafarghe, A; Fily, A; Diependaele, J-F; Dalmas, S

    2008-09-01

    Umbilical venous and peripherally inserted venous central catheters are widely used to perfuse low-weight preterm and term newborns in intensive care units. This catheter must be inserted carefully and monitored rigorously to prevent complications. This paper develops today's knowledge on the use and complications in the newborn population.

  16. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis in Pregnancy-A Poignant Allegory of an Unusual Case

    PubMed Central

    Shailesh, Gaikwad Harsha; Gupta, Sumedha; Sharma, Manjula; Mittal, Pratima

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral Venous Thrombosis (CVT), also known as cortical venous, cerebral sinus, cerebral venous sinus, or dural sinus thrombosis, is an infrequent grave condition affecting pregnant females, resulting from clot formation in one of the many outflow tracts of the brain. Although pregnancy-associated stroke or CVT is uncommon, the risk of stroke is greatly increased above the low baseline rate in young patients during late pregnancy and, even more so, during the puerperium. Haemorrhagic infarction can occur in the acute stage of CVT. The article reports a case of CVT in puerperium in woman without any risk factors for thrombosis, highlighting the difficulties encountered in differentiating this rare cause from common diagnoses such as eclampsia. Also, clinical considerations and relevant literature review on prognostic factors affecting outcome have been addressed. CVT is an uncommon serious neurologic disorder in young gravidas requiring prudent assessment of the potential differential diagnoses and prompt management. PMID:28208950

  17. Prevention and treatment of thrombosis associated with central venous catheters in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jasti, Nagamallika; Streiff, Michael B

    2014-10-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC) play an essential role in the management of cancer patients. Venous thrombosis is a common complication of CVC. The incidence of CVC-associated venous thromboembolism (CVC-VTE) is 1.7 per 1000 catheter days. Risk factors for CVC-VTE include the patient's underlying cancer, a history of previous thrombotic events and the location and type of CVC. Anticoagulant prophylaxis is not effective for CVC-VTE. Anticoagulation alone is the preferred initial treatment for CVC-VTE. CVC removal may be considered in refractory cases or when anticoagulation is contraindicated. Thrombolytic therapy is reserved for patients with limb-threatening thrombosis or thrombosis unresponsive to conventional treatment. Anticoagulation should be continued for at least 3 months or as long as the CVC is present.

  18. An unusual cause of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: prothrombin G20210A gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Porres-Aguilar, Mateo; Square, Jaime H; Storey, Raul; Rodriguez-Dunn, Simon; Mohamed-Aly, Mohamed S

    2007-09-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis represents less than 1% of all strokes, being an uncommon entity with a wide spectrum of clinical scenarios. We present a 45-year-old Hispanic female with a history of long-term oral contraceptive use who was diagnosed with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis due to a heterozygous carrier mutation in the prothrombin G20210A gene. The patient was successfully managed with intravenous heparin with favorable clinical results without adverse effects. The prevalence of inherited primary thrombophilia increases with additional risk factors such as the use of oral contraceptives that can trigger or prothrombotic events in any vascular bed. An increased prevalence in the prothrombin G20210 gene mutation has been demonstrated in the Mexican-Mestizo population. Controversy exists regarding therapy of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis; according to experts, heparin remains the cornerstone of therapy with acceptable outcomes. More clinical trials are required to evaluate long-term outcomes in this subgroup of patients.

  19. Superior Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis after Laparoscopic Exploration for Small Bowel Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kunizaki, Shozo; Shimaguchi, Mayu; Yoshinaga, Yasuo; Kanda, Yukihiro; Lefor, Alan T.; Mizokami, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Mesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare cause of intestinal ischemia which is potentially life-threatening because it can lead to intestinal infarction. Mesenteric venous thrombosis rarely develops after abdominal surgery and is usually associated with coagulation disorders. Associated symptoms are generally subtle or nonspecific, often resulting in delayed diagnosis. A 68-year-old woman underwent laparoscopic exploration for small bowel obstruction, secondary to adhesions. During the procedure, an intestinal perforation was identified and repaired. Postoperatively, the abdominal pain persisted and repeat exploration was undertaken. At repeat exploration, a perforation was identified in the small bowel with a surrounding abscess. After the second operation, the abdominal pain improved but anorexia persisted. Contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography was performed which revealed superior mesenteric venous thrombosis. Anticoagulation therapy with heparin was started immediately and the thrombus resolved over the next 6 days. Although rare, this complication must be considered in patients after abdominal surgery with unexplained abdominal symptoms. PMID:24455391

  20. [Deep venous thrombosis in pregnancy: risk factors and possibilities for prevention].

    PubMed

    Heilmann, L; Hojnacki, B; Fischer, W M

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-two cases of acute venous thrombosis in pregnancy (0.64%) were studied. Concomitant pulmonary embolism was documented in 0.23%. Prophylactic heparinization was performed in 32 gravidae. In the acute thrombosis group therapy was instituted in the 26th week, and in the prophylaxis group in the 20th week of pregnancy. Recurrent thromboses after cesarean section occurred in 4.5% of the patients with acute venous thrombosis and in 5.6% of those in the prophylaxis group. Reduced red blood cell deformability, low antithrombin III and high leukocyte count were identified as risk factors. Heparinization did not prevent increased red blood cell aggregation and plasma viscosity at birth. Rheologic factors played only a secondary role in the prophylaxis group. Prophylactic heparinization in pregnancy is currently the only means of reducing the thrombosis recurrence rate in patients with a history of thromboembolism.

  1. Non-compressibility ratio of sonography in deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Jian-Hsiung; Tseng, Chia-Ying; Chuang, Jui-Ling; Chen, Yen-Chia; Huang, Hsien-Hao; Chou, Yi-Hong; Tiu, Chui-Mei; Yen, David Hung-Tsang

    2010-11-01

    The risk of post-thrombotic syndrome and pulmonary embolism can be increased if there is failure to diagnose deep venous thrombosis (DVT) promptly. Emergency physicians (EPs) need a quick and readily available test to diagnose, treat and help them decide whether to discharge or admit DVT patients in a timely manner. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of the non-compressibility ratio of thrombosed veins in DVT patients, and give EPs an objective value to aid them in their decision-making with regard to DVT patients in the emergency department. We reviewed 34 adult patients with DVT diagnosed by sonography in an emergency department. Medical records including demographic data and sonography results were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Mean age was 72.9 ± 16.5 years. Group I comprised 14 patients (41.2%) who had DVT in the popliteal and femoral veins. Group II comprised 8 patients (23.5%) who had DVT isolated to the popliteal vein and 12 patients (35.3%) who had DVT isolated to the femoral vein. Group I had a significantly higher non-compressibility ratio than Group II (93.4 ± 6.2% vs. 80.1 ± 19.2%, p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the non-compressibility ratio between discriminating groups was 0.711 (95% confidence interval, 0.527-0.854; p < 0.05). The clinical prognostic score of Group I was significantly higher than that of Group II (6.2 ± 1.8 vs. 4.1 ± 2.6, p < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the non-compressibility ratio of the thrombosed vein and the clinical prognostic score (p = 0.001). The non-compressibility ratio of the thrombosed vein provides EPs with an objective test to evaluate the severity of DVT and to admit patients for consideration of adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnostic Performance of Routine Brain MRI Sequences for Dural Venous Sinus Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Patel, D; Machnowska, M; Symons, S; Yeung, R; Fox, A J; Aviv, R I; Jabehdar Maralani, P

    2016-06-16

    Signs suggestive of unexpected dural venous sinus thrombosis are detectable on routine MR imaging studies without MRV. We assessed performance characteristics and interrater reliability of routine MR imaging for the diagnosis of dural venous sinus thrombosis, focusing on the superior sagittal, transverse, and sigmoid sinuses. This case series included 350 patients with MRIs performed with contrast-enhanced MRV and 79 patients with routine MRIs performed within 48 hours of a CTV from 2008 to 2014 (total, n = 429). Routine MR images were separated from the contrast-enhanced MRVs and CTVs. Three neuroradiologists, blinded to clinical data, independently reviewed the MRIs for signs of dural venous sinus thrombosis, including high signal on sagittal T1, loss of flow void on axial T2, high signal on FLAIR, high signal on DWI, increased susceptibility effects on T2*-weighted gradient recalled-echo imaging, and filling defects on axial contrast-enhanced spin-echo T1WI and/or volumetric gradient-echo T1WI. Two neuroradiologists independently reviewed contrast-enhanced MRVs and CTVs to determine the consensus gold standard. Interrater reliability was calculated by using the κ coefficient. Contrast-enhanced MRV and CTV confirmed that dural venous sinus thrombosis was present in 72 of 429 cases (16.8%). The combination of routine MR sequences had an overall sensitivity of 79.2%, specificity of 89.9%, and moderate interrater reliability (κ = 0.50). The 3 readers did not have similar performance characteristics. 69.4% of positive cases had clinical suspicion of dural venous sinus thrombosis indicated on imaging requisition. Routine MR images can suggest dural venous sinus thrombosis with high specificity in high-risk patients, even in cases without clinical suspicion. © 2016 American Society of Neuroradiology.

  3. Sex differences in cerebral venous thrombosis: A systematic analysis of a shift over time.

    PubMed

    Zuurbier, Susanna M; Middeldorp, Saskia; Stam, Jan; Coutinho, Jonathan M

    2016-02-01

    In contemporary studies, cerebral venous thrombosis is three times more common in adult women than in men. To study the change in sex ratio over time in cerebral venous thrombosis. We systematically reviewed the literature. Any type of study with at least 40 patients with cerebral venous thrombosis that reported sex ratio was eligible. We ranked studies according to the year halfway the period of patient recruitment. Pediatric studies were analyzed separately. Out of 6068 publications identified by our search, 112 studies (23,638 patients), published between 1966 and 2014, were included. The proportion of women among patients with cerebral venous thrombosis significantly increased over time from a median of 54.8% in studies prior to 1981 to 69.8% after 2001 (p = 0.002). There was a significant correlation between time of the study and proportion of women (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.25, p = 0.01). Oral contraceptive use among women with cerebral venous thrombosis also increased over time (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.29, p = 0.01). In contrast, the percentage of pregnancy-related cases remained stable (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.04, p = 0.77). Among 1702 patients from pediatric studies, 39% were female and there was no correlation between sex ratio and time of the study (Pearson's correlation coefficient -0.42, p = 0.14). In adult patients with cerebral venous thrombosis, there is a shift in sex ratio over time with an increase in the proportion of women, whereas this is not observed in pediatric populations. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is an increase over time in the use of oral contraceptives by adult women. © 2016 World Stroke Organization.

  4. Use of light reflection rheography for diagnosis of axillary or subclavian venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, D; Andersen, C A; Sado, A S; Bertoglio, M C

    1991-06-01

    Noninvasive diagnosis of axillary and subclavian venous thrombosis or documentation of the post-thrombotic syndrome using modalities currently in use is not definitive. Light reflection rheography, which is a reflection of venous pressure changes in the extremity as recorded from the subdermal capillary plexus, was used to correctly diagnose axillary or subclavian venous thrombosis in 11 patients. A positive study was confirmed by phlebography in each instance. There were no instances of false-positive results. The methodology is simple, involving testing of the venous outflow from the upper extremity in response to exercise, application of venous congesting pressure, and measurement of the rate of venous outflow when the congesting pressure is released. Normal respiratory variations of an open venous system are also assessed by this noninvasive modality. The tracing obtained is easy to interpret and provides objective evidence of proximal venous occlusion. The test is not operator-dependent and the instrumentation is relatively inexpensive. We believe that light reflection rheography may be an exciting development in the noninvasive diagnosis of axillary or subclavian venous compromise and merits further trials.

  5. Dangerous Headache: A Case of Dural Venous Sinus Thrombosis with Protein S Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Hari; Deepthi, D Angeline; Singh, Deepak Ningombam; Virupakshappa, Banu; Rahul, R

    2017-01-01

    Dural Venous Sinus Thrombosis (DVST) is a sporadic cause of headache. DVST is a recherché complication of maxillary sinus infection. Maxillary sinusitis infection may spread directly to orbit via lamina papyracea and it is expedited by the presence veins of breschet. The authors present a clinical case of dural sinus thrombosis with protein S deficiency and also describe an effective management approach for DVST.

  6. Dangerous Headache: A Case of Dural Venous Sinus Thrombosis with Protein S Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Deepthi, D Angeline; Singh, Deepak Ningombam; Virupakshappa, Banu; Rahul, R

    2017-01-01

    Dural Venous Sinus Thrombosis (DVST) is a sporadic cause of headache. DVST is a recherché complication of maxillary sinus infection. Maxillary sinusitis infection may spread directly to orbit via lamina papyracea and it is expedited by the presence veins of breschet. The authors present a clinical case of dural sinus thrombosis with protein S deficiency and also describe an effective management approach for DVST. PMID:28274079

  7. Poor Prognostic Outcome in Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Associated with Dyskinesia and Elevated Platelet Volume.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shousen; Xu, Bingyang; Zhao, Qingshuang; Li, Jun; Hong, Jingfang; Wei, Liangfeng; Zhao, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Although about 80% of patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis have a good prognosis, some patients develop severe complications and a small proportion do not survive. The study included patients who had been diagnosed with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in our hospital from May 2008 to February 2014. Based on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at 3 months for outcome, the patients were divided into two groups: good prognosis (mRS score ≤ 2) and poor prognosis (mRS score > 2). Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were performed to identify significant prognostic factors for poor outcome. A total of 86 patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, 54 males and 32 females, average age 41.3 years (range, 3-83 years), were enrolled. Of these 86 patients, 64 (74.4%) had a good prognosis and 22 (25.6%) a poor prognosis. Univariate analysis revealed that dyskinesia was a significant risk factor (factor with odds ratio >1) for poor prognosis. In multivariate analysis, the risk of poor prognosis in patients with dyskinesia was 23 times higher than for those without dyskinesia (p < 0.001). Thrombosis of the sinus transervus was found to reduce the risk of poor prognosis in both univariate and multivariate analysis. Most patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis have a good prognosis but patients with dyskinesia have a poorer prognosis.

  8. Calf volume changes with venous occlusion air plethysmography in assessment of patients after deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Lattimer, Christopher R; Geroulakos, George; Kalodiki, Evi

    2014-10-01

    This is an analysis of the hemodynamic response of post-thrombotic legs to a sustained thigh compression and quick-release maneuver. This is an integral part of the investigation of venous occlusion plethysmography that has been promoted as a way of assessing the venous return. The aim was to quantify the venous volume changes in patients after deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and to determine whether refluxing legs differed from obstructed legs. The inflow and outflow air plethysmography tracings of 332 of 519 legs were examined retrospectively. These tracings from 192 patients were performed between 1989 and 1999. The median age was 51 (17-89) years; 65% of the patients were men, and 52% were left legs. The retrospective clinical class distribution (%) by the Clinical, Etiologic, Anatomic, and Pathologic (CEAP) classification was as follows: C0 = 5.4, C2 = 3.3, C3 = 68.4, C4 = 13, C5 = 3.6, C6 = 6.3. Inclusion criteria were a history of DVT and a duplex ultrasound examination documenting the site and type of deep venous disease. Ascending phlebography was performed in 28% of patients to complement duplex ultrasound in assessing the site of disease. Reflux was defined as reverse flow (>1 second) and obstruction as luminal narrowing, wall irregularity, or luminal echogenic material. Air plethysmography was performed in the supine position. After calibration with 100 mL of air, a thigh cuff was inflated to 80 mm Hg, and the resulting increase in calf volume was recorded by the sensor calf cuff with an ink trace on graphic paper. At the volume plateau, the thigh cuff was deflated suddenly to record the decrease in calf volume. Reflux alone was identified in 19.6% of limbs and obstruction alone in 42.2%. Iliofemoral involvement was identified in 56.6%. The thigh compression/release maneuver caused a significant median (interquartile range) net reduction in calf volume by 9 (5-15) mL (P < .0005, Wilcoxon). The outflow volume was significantly greater than the

  9. A Rare Case of Transverse Sinus Venous Thrombosis Simulating Postdural Puncture Headache After Cervical Epidural Injection.

    PubMed

    Guirguis, Maged; Jusino, Eduardo; Tolba, Reda; Samuel, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is a feared complication related to epidural steroid injections. We report a unique case in which all subjective and objective findings indicated the diagnosis of PDPH. However, the patient failed appropriate conservative and interventional management. Therapeutic failure prompted further investigation to establish the correct diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare, difficult to diagnose, but potentially lethal disorder with nonspecific and variable clinical presentations, including headache and focal neurological deficits. Performing magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance venogram should be considered early, especially in patients who fail to respond to standard interventions for PDPH.

  10. Simple, hybrid deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolus prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ward, W G; Olin, M D

    1999-01-01

    A 7.1% deep venous thrombosis rate followed total hip arthroplasty in 56 patients using a hybrid prophylactic regimen against deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolus. There were no bleeding complications, no symptomatic pulmonary emboli, and no unexplained deaths. The regimen consisted of an initial loading dose of warfarin, usually 10 mg, the night of surgery followed by 2.5 mg/day for 3 weeks, with dosage adjustments only in cases of over-anticoagulation. This regimen was combined with elevated sling suspension of the operative leg, bilateral pedal intermittent pneumatic compression devices, and early mobilization. This prophylactic regimen is simple, inexpensive, efficacious, and compatible with an early hospital discharge.

  11. Effectiveness of mesoglycan in patients with previous deep venous thrombosis and chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Andreozzi, G M

    2007-12-01

    Retrospective analysis of mesoglycan therapeutic activity in venous disorders. The clinical data have been selected from the outpatient database of the Chair of Angiology of the University of Catania (from 1988 to 1997) through a cross survey between the prescription commercial name of mesoglycan and the key words varicose veins, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), venous thrombosis, venous ulcer. Patients have been selected on the basis of definite data relative to principal diagnosis, clinical history, clinical and instrumental objective phlebological picture, posology and duration of treatment, follow-up visits in the first three years following the first observation. Group 1: 56 patients with first episode DVT; Group 2: 27 patients with recurrent DVT; Group 3: 182 patients with CVI (107 with primitive CVI and 75 with secondary CVI). The selected patients data have been included in new databases. DVT patients were evaluated for recurrence prevalence during the follow-up period (6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months). In Group 2 the recurrence prevalence in the normal follow-up period was evaluated and, in addition, the clinical chronology of the recurrence previous to observation was drawn, in order to find out the recurrence prevalence of the thrombotic episode preceding our observation. The two prevalence trends ( mesoglycan treatment and episode preceding our observation) have been compared with the Student t test. CVI patients (Group 3) were classified according to CEAP classification criteria. The effectiveness of treatment was assessed according to the changes in the scores of venous dysfunction of CEAP classification (disability score; pain; oedema; skin color change; cutaneous ulcer). The mean and standard deviation of the considered scores have been evaluated with the Student t test comparing each series with the immediately previous series and with the T0 series. The mean dose of mesoglycan was 50

  12. Venous sinus thrombosis after Proteus vulgaris meningitis and concomitant Clostridium abscess formation.

    PubMed

    Bodur, Hürrem; Colpan, Aylin; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Akinci, Esragul; Cevik, Mustafa Aydin; Balaban, Neriman

    2002-01-01

    A 19-y-old woman presented with Proteus vulgaris meningitis as a complication of chronic otitis media. Despite treatment with ceftazidime and amikacin no clinical improvement was observed. Cranial MRI revealed right-sided mastoiditis/otitis media and venous sinus thrombosis. After mastoidectomy, repeat cranial MRI demonstrated abscess formation in the venous sinuses. The abscess was drained. Clostridium spp. was isolated from the abscess culture.

  13. Peripheral Insertion of a Central Venous Access Device Under Fluoroscopic Guidance Using a Peripherally Accessed System (PAS) Port in the Forearm

    SciTech Connect

    Hata, Yasuhiro; Morita, Sojiro; Morita, Yoshitaka; Awatani, Toshihide; Takasaki, Motohiro; Horimi, Tadashi; Ozawa, Zen

    1998-05-15

    Purpose: We describe the technique, efficacy, and complications of fluoroscopy-guided implantation of a central venous access device using a peripherally accessed system (PAS) port via the forearm. Methods: Beginning in July 1994, 105 central venous access devices were implanted in 104 patients for the long-term infusion of antibiotics or antineoplasmic agents, blood products, or parenteral nutrition. The devices was inserted under fluoroscopic guidance with real-time venography from a peripheral route. Results: All ports were successfully implanted. There were no procedure-related complications. No thrombosis or local infection was observed; however, in six patients catheter-related phlebitis occurred. Conclusion: Fluoroscopy-guided implantation of a central venous access device using a PAS port via the forearm is safe and efficacious, and injection of contrast medium through a peripheral IV catheter before introduction of the catheter helps to avoid catheter-related phlebitis.

  14. A Possible Association of Diindolylmethane with Pulmonary Embolism and Deep Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Moualla, Maan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. 3,3′-Diindolylmethane is available as a supplement in the United States for “cancer prevention” and “augmentation of physical fitness.” A derivative of indole-3-carbinol found in plants, diindolylmethane, binds to receptors associated with the sex steroid pathways and has unclear effects on estrogen and androgen physiology. We present a patient who had been taking diindolylmethane and developed right lower extremity deep venous thrombosis and bilateral pulmonary embolism. Case Presentation. A 65-year-old man presented with swelling, erythema, and warmth of his right lower extremity for three to four weeks. He had been taking diindolylmethane one tablet daily for three to four months. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism included tobacco use, personal history of possible pulmonary embolism, body mass index, and age. Imaging studies found extensive deep venous thrombosis in his right lower extremity and bilateral pulmonary embolism with probable right middle lobe infarction. Follow-up imaging showed chronic deep venous thrombosis in his right lower extremity. Discussion. As suggested in this single case, patients who take diindolylmethane may be at greater risk for venous thromboembolism. Further reports and studies are necessary in order to elucidate this possible association. Clinicians should question patients about supplements in the setting of venous thromboembolism. PMID:28050169

  15. Impact of Ultrasound on Short Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Placement on Vein Thrombosis Risk.

    PubMed

    Holder, Max R; Stutzman, Sonja E; Olson, DaiWai M

    Approximately 90% of hospitalized patients have a short peripheral intravenous catheter (SPC) placed. Methods of inserting the catheter have evolved over time and now include the use of ultrasound (US)-guided procedures for placement. Little is known about the impact that US-guided procedures have on the vein. This study compared the rate of venous thrombosis in patients with and without US-guided catheter placement. This prospective, single-blind, observational study assessed for venous thrombosis in 153 veins from 135 patients. Veins were evaluated by a research nurse blinded to the method of placement between 48 and 72 hours after the SPC was placed. The Fisher exact test showed a significant difference between vessel compressibility and catheter insertion method (P = .0012). The proportion of noncompressible veins was significantly greater when US was used in comparison with freehand SPC insertion. The Mantel-Haenszel chi-square value of 10.34 (P = .0013) showed that US insertion technique is associated with a higher likelihood of noncompressible veins. This pilot study provides compelling evidence that the use of US to assist with catheter placement is associated with a higher rate of noncompressible veins at day 2 or 3. Further studies are needed with a larger sample to determine the generalizability of the results from this pilot study.

  16. Factors That Influence Perforator Thrombosis and Predict Healing Perforator Sclerotherapy for Venous Ulceration Without Axial Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Kiguchi, Misaki M.; Hager, Eric S.; Winger, Daniel G.; Hirsch, Stanley A.; Chaer, Rabih A.; Dillavou, Ellen D.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Refluxing perforators contribute to venous ulceration. We sought to describe patient characteristics and procedural factors that (1) impact rates of incompetent perforator vein (IPV) thrombosis with ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy (UGS) and (2) impact the healing of venous ulcers (CEAP 6) without axial reflux. METHODS Retrospective review of UGS of IPV injections from 1/2010–11/2012 identified 73 treated venous ulcers in 62 patients. Patients had no other superficial/axial reflux and were treated with standard wound care and compression. Ultrasound was used to screen for refluxing perforators near ulcer(s), and these were injected with sodium tetradecyl sulfate or polidocanol foam and assessed for thrombosis at 2 weeks. Demographic data, comorbidities, treatment details and outcomes were analyzed. Univariate and multivariable modeling was performed to determine covariates predicting IPV thrombosis and ulcer healing. RESULTS 62 patients with active ulcers for an average of 28 months with compression therapy prior to perforator treatment had an average age of 57.1 years, were 55% male, 36% had a history of DVT and 30% had deep venous reflux. 32 patients (52%) healed ulcers, while 30 patients (48%) had non-healed ulcer(s) in mean follow-up of 30.2 months. Ulcers were treated with 189 injections, with average thrombosis rate of 54%. Of 73 ulcers, 43 ulcers healed (59%), and 30 ulcers did not heal (41%). Patients that healed ulcers had an IPV thrombosis rate of 69 % vs. 38% in patients who did not heal (P<.001). Multivariate models demonstrated male gender and warfarin use negatively predicted thrombosis of IPVs (P=.03, P=.01). Multivariate model for ulcer healing found complete IPV thrombosis was a positive predictor (P=.02), while large initial ulcer area was a negative predictor (P=.08). Increased age was associated with fewer ulcer recurrences (P=.05). Hypertension and increased follow-up time predicted increased ulcer recurrences (P=.04, P=.02). Calf

  17. Pancreas Transplant Venous Thrombosis: Role of Endovascular Interventions for Graft Salvage

    SciTech Connect

    Stockland, Andrew H.; Willingham, Darrin L.; Paz-Fumagalli, Ricardo; Grewal, Hani P.; McKinney, J. Mark; Hughes, Christopher B.; Walser, Eric M.

    2009-03-15

    Venous thrombosis of pancreas transplant allografts often leads to graft loss. We evaluated the efficacy of emergent endovascular techniques to salvage thrombosed pancreatic allografts in a series of six patients. Of the 76 pancreas transplants performed between 2002 and 2006, six patients were diagnosed with venous thrombosis on MRI between 2 and 28 days posttransplant (mean, 9 days). Five patients were systemic-enteric (donor portal vein anastomosis to recipient iliac vein) and one patient was portal-enteric (donor portal vein anastomosis to recipient superior mesenteric vein). Conventional venography confirmed the diagnosis of venous thrombosis in all patients. One patient was treated with catheter-directed venous thrombolysis and balloon thrombectomy. Another patient was treated with rheolytic thrombectomy alone. The remaining four patients were treated with a combination of these mechanical and thrombolytic techniques. Completion venography revealed >50% clot reduction and resumption of venous drainage in all patients. One patient required additional intervention 16 days later for recurrent thrombosis. Two patients required metal stent placement for anastomotic stenoses or kinks. One patient required pancreatectomy 36 h after attempted salvage secondary to a major hemorrhage and graft necrosis. Two patients recovered pancreatic function initially but lost graft function at 8 and 14 months, respectively, from severe chronic rejection. Patient survival was 100%, long-term graft survival was 50%, rethrombosis rate was 16.6%, and graft loss from rejection was 33%. In conclusion, early recognition and treatment of venous thrombosis after pancreas transplantation has acceptable morbidity and no mortality using short-term endovascular pharmacomechanical therapy.

  18. Ultrasound-guided peripheral venous access for therapeutic apheresis procedures reduces need for central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Eric; Garcia, Salvador; Miguel, Robin; Segura, Francisco J; Ipe, Tina S; Leveque, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Therapeutic and donor apheresis requires adequate vascular access to achieve inlet flow rates of ∼50-100 mL/min. While central dialysis-type venous catheters can usually provide such access, their use includes several associated risks. Some of these risks can be avoided or diminished if adequate peripheral venous access can be established. Some patients have adequate peripheral veins for apheresis that cannot be readily identified visually or by palpation. We hypothesized that ultrasound-guided peripheral venous access would benefit such patients and would lead to placement of fewer central venous catheters. The technique of ultrasound-guided peripheral access for apheresis has been in use at Houston Methodist Hospital since 2012. We performed a prospective review of patients undergoing inpatient and outpatient apheresis at Houston Methodist Hospital from July 1, 2015 to September 30, 2015, to assess its benefit. During this time, we performed 831 procedures on 186 patients, including 787 therapeutic plasma exchanges, three red blood cell exchanges, 41 peripheral stem cell collections. Ultrasound-guided vascular access was used for 68 procedures (8% of all procedures), including 62 therapeutic plasma exchanges, 4 peripheral stem cell collections, and 2 red blood cell changes. Use of ultrasound-guided peripheral access prevented the placement of central venous catheters in 37 (20%) patients, demonstrating its utility in a busy transfusion service. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Cerebral arterial occlusion and intracranial venous thrombosis in a woman taking oral contraceptives.

    PubMed Central

    Montón, F.; Rebollo, M.; Quintana, F.; Berciano, J.

    1984-01-01

    Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery and thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus are reported in a 30-year-old woman taking oral contraceptives (OC). The coexistence of arterial and venous cerebral pathology as a complication of OC use has only been previously reported in one case. The pathogenesis of this rare association is briefly discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6462985

  20. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in homocystinuria: Dietary intervention in conjunction with anticoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Sufin; Annesley-Williams, Deborah; Hardiman, Orla

    2017-01-01

    The presentation of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis may be acute or chronic with a progressive clinical course. The diagnosis can be challenging, and there are several clinical syndromes associated with the disease. It is also an uncommon but recognised complication of homocystinuria. We describe a case where early anticoagulation, together with dietary intervention, was associated with a favourable clinical outcome. PMID:28835823

  1. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in homocystinuria: Dietary intervention in conjunction with anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Yap, Sufin; Annesley-Williams, Deborah; Hardiman, Orla

    2017-01-01

    The presentation of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis may be acute or chronic with a progressive clinical course. The diagnosis can be challenging, and there are several clinical syndromes associated with the disease. It is also an uncommon but recognised complication of homocystinuria. We describe a case where early anticoagulation, together with dietary intervention, was associated with a favourable clinical outcome.

  2. [Risk of deep venous thrombosis during an air flight: prevention and counselling at the counter].

    PubMed

    Zawieja, P; Orecchioni, A-M; Métais, P; Touze, J-É

    2011-09-01

    Worldwide air traffic reaches about 2.3 billion passengers per year. The increasing number of persons at thrombo-embolic risk, together with potentially severe or fatal complications of deep venous thrombosis, suggests community pharmacists can give basic preventive advice to persons identified as at risk.

  3. Cerebral venous thrombosis and secondary polycythemia in a case of nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nagaraju, Shankar Prasad; Bairy, Manohar; Attur, Ravindra Prabhu; Sambhaji, Charudutt Jayant

    2016-03-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) and polycythemia are considered as rare and life threatening complications of nephrotic syndrome. We report an unusual combination of both these complications in a case of nephrotic syndrome due to minimal change disease that was treated successfully. There was prompt and complete remission of nephrotic syndrome with steroid therapy, concurrent with complete resolution of polycythemia and CVT.

  4. [Thrombosis of the right atrium after umbilical venous catheterization. Favourable outcome after early thrombectomy].

    PubMed

    Paupe, A; Lenclen, R; Blanc, P; Chassevent, J; Hoenn, E; Molho, M; Zannier, D; Olivier-Martin, M

    1992-02-01

    A case of right atrial thrombosis after venous umbilical catheterization in a 21 day-old premature newborn is reported. The initiating factors of such an accident and its clinical signs are evocated. The authors emphasize the value of a systematic ultrasonographic supervision of newborns with central catheters for a long period of time and the value of surgical thrombectomy.

  5. Role of Color Flow Ultrasound in Detection of Deep Venous Thrombosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Shelan Hakeem; AL-Najjar, Salwa A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of lower limbs is one of the most causes for the majority of death caused by pulmonary embolism. Many medical and surgical disorders are complicated by DVT. Most venous thrombi are clinically silent. B-mode and color Doppler imaging is needed for early diagnosis of DVT to prevent complications and squeal of…

  6. Deep Venous Thrombosis in Teen With Crouzon Syndrome Post-Le Fort III Osteotomy With Rigid External Distraction.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Lauren O; Myers, Rene P; Girotto, John A

    2015-11-01

    Venous thromboembolic events are rare in pediatric patients. Risk factors associated with the development of venous thromboembolic events in pediatric patients include the use of central venous catheters, hospitalization, cancer, sepsis, trauma, surgery, and congenital prothrombotic disorders.The authors present the case of a 14-year-old man with Crouzon syndrome who required Le Fort III osteotomy with rigid external distraction for significant midface hypoplasia who presented postoperatively with an extensive deep venous thrombosis. This is the first reported case of symptomatic venous thrombosis post-Le Fort III osteotomy and rigid external distraction. Although rare, surgeons should be aware of this potential complication.

  7. The complete recanalization of PICC-related venous thrombosis in cancer patients: A series of case reports.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zuo-Ping; Liu, Xing-Jing; Zou, Bin-Xin; Wang, Li-Gen; Zhou, Tao

    2013-08-01

    In this study, cancer patients with venous thrombosis associated with the use of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) underwent complete recanalization by the administration of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS), which vary from heparin or urokinase in that they do not have the same risks associated with thrombolysis, including bleeding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study concerning the treatment of cancers with PNS to be reported in the literature. Three cancer patients aged 30-50 years old, two females and one male, were subjected to chemotherapy. On the first day of chemotherapy, a PICC was inserted into the right basilic vein with its tip in the superior vena cava. On the third day of chemotherapy, pain, swelling and skin flushing started. In the following days, particularly days 10-13, a Doppler ultrasound examination confirmed a long thrombus along the PICC line in the axillary vein and brachial veins in each patient. The patients rejected the insertion of an inferior vena cava filter, and neither heparin nor urokinase were administered due to contra-indications. An injection of PNS (200 mg) was administered every day. On days 20-28 of chemotherapy, the thrombus in the axillary and brachial veins disappeared in the three patients. It was concluded that PNS promote blood circulation, which prevents blood stasis and reduces the toxicity of cisplatin. The results suggest that PNS are a feasible and effective treatment option for many types of cancer, but have a broader clinical impact on cancer patients with PICC-related venous thrombosis. Therefore, this study is an original case report of particular interest to cancer patients with PICC-related venous thrombosis.

  8. Vasculo-Behçet's Disease that Began with Femoral Arterial Pseudoaneurysm Followed by Deep Venous Thrombosis: Report of a Case.

    PubMed

    Haruki, Tomohiro; Miyasaka, Shigeto; Maeta, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Keisuke; Taniguchi, Iwao

    2009-01-01

    Vasculo-Behçet's disease mainly affects the venous system and central or peripheral arteries. It is often difficult to diagnosis this due to the complexity of symptoms and the rarity. A 35-year-old man with refractory inguinal lymphadenitis was admitted to our hospital. He was diagnosed with left femoral arterial pseudoaneurysm by enhanced CT scan of the lower legs, and we performed an emergency operation. Seven months postoperatively, he suddenly developed deep venous thrombosis, and then, symptoms such as aphthous stomatitis and pudendal ulcer started to develop progressively, complicating his uveitis. Finally, he was diagnosed with vasculo-Behçet's disease.

  9. Endovascular Thrombolysis Using Monteplase for Non-chronic Deep Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagami, Takuji Yoshimatsu, Rika Tanaka, Osamu Miura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2010-12-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of endovascular thrombolysis using monteplase for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Between December 2005 and October 2009, at our institution nine endovascular thrombolysis treatments with monteplase were performed for symptomatic DVT in eight patients (6 women, 2 men; mean age, 56 (range, 15-80) years). In all, systemic anticoagulation administered by the peripheral intravenous route with heparin and/or thrombolysis with urokinase followed by anticoagulation with orally administered warfarin had been performed, and subsequently six endovascular treatments without monteplase were administered. However, DVT persisted, and endovascular treatments with monteplase were tried. In six (67%) of the nine procedures, DVT completely or almost completely disappeared after endovascular thrombolysis with monteplase. Mean dose of monteplase used was 2,170,000 IU. There was only one procedure-related complication. In one patient, just after thrombolysis with monteplase, bleeding at the puncture site and gingival bleeding occurred. Bleeding was stopped by manual astriction only. Endovascular thrombolysis with monteplase may be an effective treatment for DVT, even in cases resistant to traditional systemic anticoagulation and thrombolysis and endovascular procedures without monteplase.

  10. From presentation to follow-up: diagnosis and treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Bentley, J Nicole; Figueroa, Ramón E; Vender, John R

    2009-11-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is an uncommon cause of stroke but remains a challenge for physicians faced with this diagnosis largely due to the variability in presentation. Anticoagulation, typically with intravenous heparin, remains the mainstay of treatment for stable patients and is sufficient in the majority of cases. However, a significant mortality rate exists for cerebral venous thrombosis due to patients who deteriorate or do not adequately respond to initial treatments. It is in these patients that more aggressive interventions must be undertaken. The neurosurgeon is often called on, either acutely for initial evaluation of the stroke or venous hemorrhage or after the failure of initial therapy for clot evacuation, hemicraniectomy, or thrombectomy. A proper workup must include a search for an underlying, correctable cause as well as thorough follow-up with correction of identified risk factors to decrease the risk of recurrent disease.

  11. [Risk factors associated with the severity of pulmonary embolism in patients with acute deep venous thrombosis of lower extremities].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Fuxian; Zhang, Changming; Hu, Lu; Feng, Yaping; Liang, Gangzhu; Niu, Luyuan; Zhang, Huan; Cheng, Long; Qi, Haoshan

    2015-08-01

    To identify the risk factors associated with the severity of pulmonary embolism among patients with deep venous thrombosis of lower extremities. This prospective study enrolled 208 patients with acute deep venous thrombosis to screen for pulmonary embolism between July 2010 and July 2012 in Beijing Shijitan Hospital. There were 101 male and 107 female patients, with a mean age of (59 ± 16) years. Gender, age, extension, side of lower extremities of deep venous thrombosis was analyzed by χ² test. Ordinal Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors associated with severity of pulmonary embolism. There were 83 patients with iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis, 102 patients with femoropopliteal and 23 patients with calf deep venous thrombosis. Pulmonary embolism was detected in 70 patients with the incidence of 33.7%. Pulmonary embolism was significantly correlated with extension (χ² = 17.286, P = 0.004) and sides (χ² = 15.602, P = 0.008) of deep venous thrombosis, not with age (χ² = 7.099, P = 0.260), gender (χ² = 7.014, P = 0.067), thrombotic risk factors (χ² = 3.335, P = 0.345) in univariate analysis. Results of multivariate ordinal logistic regression showed that iliofemoral vein thrombosis (OR = 6.172, 95% CI: 1.590 to 23.975, P = 0.009) and bilateral venous thrombosis (OR = 7.140, 95% CI: 2.406 to 24.730, P = 0.001) are associated with more serious pulmonary embolism. Incidence of pulmonary embolism is still high in patients with deep venous thrombosis. Extensive iliofemoral and bilateral vein thrombosis may increase risk of severity of pulmonary embolism. Clinicians should pay more attention to these high-risk patients.

  12. Association study of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation with cerebral venous thrombosis in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Ghaznavi, Habib; Soheili, Zahra; Samiei, Shahram; Soltanpour, Mohammad S

    2015-12-01

    There are limited data on the role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and hyperhomocysteinemia as risk factors for cerebral venous thrombosis in Iranian population. We examined a possible association between fasting plasma homocysteine levels, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism, and cerebral venous thrombosis in 50 patients with a diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis (20-63 years old) and 75 healthy controls (18-65 years old). Genotyping of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T gene polymorphism was performed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and homocysteine levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Fasting plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in cerebral venous thrombosis patients than in controls (P = 0.015). Moreover, plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT genotype compared to 677CT and 677CC genotypes in both cerebral venous thrombosis patients (P = 0.01) and controls (P = 0.03). Neither 677CT heterozygote genotype [odds ratio (OR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-2.84, P = 0.556] nor 677TT homozygote genotype (OR 1.73, 95% CI 0.32-9.21, P = 0.833) was significantly associated with cerebral venous thrombosis. Additionally, no significant differences in the frequency of 677T allele between cerebral venous thrombosis patients and controls were identified (OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.69-2.50, P = 0.512). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that elevated plasma homocysteine levels are significant risk factors for cerebral venous thrombosis. Also, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT genotype is not linked with cerebral venous thrombosis, but is a determinant of elevated plasma homocysteine levels.

  13. Different characteristics and prognostic impact of deep-vein thrombosis / pulmonary embolism and intraabdominal venous thrombosis in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seyoun; Lee, Keun-Wook; Bang, Soo-Mee; Kim, Sujung; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Kim, Yu Jung; Kim, Jee Hyun; Park, Young Soo; Kim, Duck-Woo; Kang, Sung-Bum; Kim, Jae-Sung; Oh, Doyeun; Lee, Jong Seok

    2011-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the incidence, risk factors, and prognostic implications of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Asian patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Differences in clinical characteristics and prognostic impact between extremity venous thrombosis (or deep-vein thrombosis; DVT)/pulmonary embolism (PE) and intra-abdominal venous thrombosis (IVT) were also evaluated. For this study, consecutive CRC patients (N = 2,006) were enrolled and analyses were conducted retrospectively. VTEs were classified into two categories (DVT/PE and IVT). Significant predictors of developing VTEs were advanced stage and an increased number of co-morbidities. The two-year cumulative incidence of DVT/PE was 0.3%, 0.9% and 1.4% in stages 0~1, 2 and 3, respectively; this incidence range of DVT/PE in Asian patients with loco-regional CRC was lower than in Western patients. However, the two-year incidence (6.4%) of DVT/PE in Asian patients with distant metastases was not lower than in Western patients. Although 65.2% of patients with DVT/PE were symptomatic, only 15.7% of patients with IVT were symptomatic. During chemotherapy, DVT/PE developed more frequently than IVT. Only DVT/PE had a negative effect on survival; IVT had no prognostic significance. In conclusion, despite the low incidence of DVT/PE in Asian patients with loco-regional CRC, the protective effect of Asian ethnicity on VTE development disappears as tumour stage increases in patients with distant metastases. Considering different clinical characteristics and prognostic influences between DVT/PE and IVT, the treatment approach should be also different.

  14. Superior mesenteric venous thrombosis treated by direct aspiration thrombectomy.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Satoshi; Murashima, Naoya; Isobe, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    A 69-year-old man, with hepatits C virus-related liver cirrhosis and hemophilia B, developed massive ascites and watery diarrhea after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for esophageal varices. A multi detector row computed tomography revealed a superior mesenteric venous thrombus without bowel infarction. It was assumed that the thrombus was caused by transient congestion of the portal system after retrograde propagation of the sclerosant agent, in a condition where anticoagulation proteins, such as proteins C and S, had decreased. Because long systemic thrombolytic therapy was hazardous for the patient with hemorrhagic diathesis due to impaired coagulation, a direct thrombolysis was performed with urokinase followed by aspiration thrombectomy, with cannulation of the portal venous system using a transjugular intrahepatic approach. The patient had no complications in this procedure and subsequently diarrhea and refractory ascites were resolved. Direct thrombectomy via the transjugular intrahepatic route may be a useful therapy for mesenteric venous thrombus in the cirrhotic patient.

  15. Peripheral venous catheter fracture with embolism into the pulmonary artery

    PubMed Central

    Ammari, Chady; Campisi, Alessio; D’Andrea, Rocco

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral vein catheterization is generally considered a harmless procedure. Venous catheter rupture associated with pulmonary embolism is an unlikely but potentially serious complication. We report a case of a peripheral venous catheter (PVC) fracture with pulmonary artery embolization in the left lower lobe treated successfully by a surgical approach. The positioning of a PVC is not always a harmless procedure. Every time there are difficulties in positioning or in removal of a catheter device, it should be carefully inspected to verify integrity. The advisability of removal of these small foreign bodies is debated; percutaneous retrieval is preferred, while surgery should be discussed case by case. PMID:28149586

  16. Venous sinus thrombosis in a child with nephrotic syndrome: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ronaldo Afonso; Torres, Bruna Ribeiro; de Castilho, Alessandra Soares Rocha; Honorato, Ronaldo

    2014-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome is associated with a hypercoagulable state and an increased risk of thromboembolic complications. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare complication of nephrotic syndrome, with few cases described in the literature, although the disease may be under-diagnosis. The true incidence of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis may be underestimated because many events are asymptomatic or are not diagnosed in time. Here, we describe the case of a male child, 2 years and 10 months old, with nephrotic syndrome presenting with headache, epileptic seizures and sensory inhibition who was diagnosed with superior sagittal and transverse sinuses thrombosis. An international literature review was performed with a defined search strategy in the PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases using the terms ‘nephrotic syndrome’ and ‘cerebral sinovenous thrombosis’. The diagnosis of venous thrombosis should be considered in any patient with nephrotic syndrome who presents with neurological signs and symptoms, as early clinical diagnosis promotes favorable outcomes. PMID:25607275

  17. Diagnosis of thrombosis by catheter phlebography after prolonged central venous catheterization.

    PubMed Central

    Brismar, B; Hårdstedt, C; Jacobson, S

    1981-01-01

    Sixty central venous catheterizations in 53 patients were prospectively studied with respect to phlebographic findings after prolonged parenteral nutrition. Phlebography was performed by a special technique on completion of the intravenous therapy. Under fluoroscopic control, the central venous catheter was slowly removed, while simultaneously contrast medium was continuously injected through it. Two types of thrombosis were demonstrated--sleeve thrombosis, on 25 occasions (42%), and mural veno-occlusive thrombosis, on five occasions (8%). On removal of the catheter the sleeve thrombosis peeled off the catheter and in several cases it was noticed that parts of the sleeve thrombus or the entire sleeve became detached and were carried away with the blood flow. Although the sleeve thrombus seldom gave rise to any symptoms, this type of thrombosis is of great importance in view of the risk of pulmonary embolism, especially in connection with removal of the catheter. With use of the described phlebographic technique thrombi of this type can be visualized. Images Fig. 1A. Fig. 1B. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:7305496

  18. Hematologic variables and venous thrombosis: red cell distribution width and blood monocyte count are associated with an increased risk.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Suely Meireles; Lijfering, Willem M; Rosendaal, Frits R; Cannegieter, Suzanne C

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that leukocytes and erythrocytes play a role in coagulation. However, whether leukocytes, erythrocytes and other hematologic variables are associated with risk of venous thrombosis is not well known. To study this, we used data from 2473 patients with venous thrombosis and 2935 controls. The variables assessed were: total leukocytes, granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocytes and red cell indices (mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and red cell distribution width). We found a strong dose-response relation for higher red cell distribution width and monocyte count with risk of venous thrombosis, with odds ratios of 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.0-4.8) and 2.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-5.8), respectively, after adjustment for age, sex, C-reactive protein level, malignancy and co-morbidities. Monocyte count and red cell distribution width were associated with venous thrombosis even within reference ranges. A low monocyte count (<0.12 × 10(9)/L) was associated with a lower risk of venous thrombosis after full adjustment (odds ratios 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-0.8). In summary, high red cell distribution width and blood monocyte count, two parameters that are inexpensive and easily obtainable, were clearly associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Future studies should evaluate the underlying mechanism and the use of these variables in prediction models for first and recurrent thrombosis.

  19. Incidence and distribution of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis at indirect computed tomography venography in patients suspected of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Nchimi, Alain; Ghaye, Benoît; Noukoua, Charlemagne T; Dondelinger, Robert F

    2007-04-01

    Indirect computed tomography (CT) venography reportedly provides high accuracy for detection of venous thrombosis in patients suspected of pulmonary embolism (PE). Nevertheless, the extent of the scanning range for lower limb and abdominal veins remains to be determined. It was the objective of this study to investigate the distribution of venous thrombosis in order to identify the most appropriate extent of scanning range when using CT venography. We reviewed 1,408 combined CT pulmonary angiographies (CTPA) and indirect CT venographies of the lower limbs, performed in patients suspected of PE. Percentage of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes PE and/or venous thrombosis was calculated. Location and the upper end of clots were recorded in 37 venous segments per patient from calf to diaphragm. PE, venous thrombosis and VTE, were found respectively in 272 (19.3%), 259 (18.4%) and 329 (23.4%) patients. Addition of CT venography to CTPA increased depiction of VTE in 17.3%. The upper end of venous thrombosis was located below the knee in 48%, between knee and inguinal ligament in 36% of the patients, and above the inguinal ligament in 15%. Ninety-six patients had thrombosis in a single vein, of which none occurred above the iliac crests in a patient without PE at CTPA. In conclusion, when added to CTPA, optimal scanning of CT venography should extent from calves to the iliac crests in patients suspected of VTE.

  20. Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in a Patient with Undiagnosed Factor VII Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Hira; Rashid, Anila; Adil, Salman Naseem

    2017-09-01

    Factor VII (FVII) deficiency is one of the rare inherited bleeding disorders. Thrombosis has been occasionally described in inherited FVII deficiency. Here, we report a young female with undiagnosed FVII deficiency who presented with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). Oral contraceptive pill was found to be prothrombotic risk factor. The CVSToccurred in spite of the congenital FVII deficiency indicating that no definitive antithrombotic protection is assured by this defect. Low molecular weight heparin and anti-Xa assay were found to be safe choice of anticoagulation and monitoring, respectively, in this patient.

  1. Outcome of venous stenting following catheter directed thrombolysis for acute proximal lower limb venous thrombosis: a prospective study with venous Doppler follow-up at 1-year.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, B C; Patra, Soumya; Reddy, Babu; Nagesh, C M; Agarwal, Naveen; Manjunath, C N

    2015-10-01

    Functional outcome of venous stent placement for the management of acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (DVT) following catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT), remain undefined. The purpose of this study was to assess immediate and intermediate term outcomes among patients treated with venous stenting following CDT in patients with proximal lower limb DVT. Thirty consecutive patients aged between 20-70 years with proximal lower limb DVT formed the study group. The mean duration of CDT done with streptokinase was 4.5 ± 1.3 days. Patients with residual venous obstruction and/or large clot burden were treated further with venous angioplasty and/or stenting. Primary endpoint was to evaluate the safety, efficacy and patency of venous stenting in the management of incomplete result following CDT. After 12 months, post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) was assessed clinically using Villalta scale and deep venous patency was assessed through duplex ultrasound. We studied 8 (5 female and 3 male) patients with 9 (3 left and 6 right) limb involvement and 13 stent (4 balloon expandable and 9 self expandable) placement. All patients improved clinically immediately following venous stenting. Technical success was achieved in all patients. One patient developed pulmonary embolism during course of hospital stay. One patient had stent thrombosis and PTS and another patient died due to carcinoma breast during follow-up. Deep venous stenting is an effective mode of treatment in proximal acute lower limb DVT with high late patency rate up to 1-year.

  2. Multimodality Imaging of the Peripheral Venous System

    PubMed Central

    Gaitini, Diana

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the spectrum of image-based diagnostic tools used in the investigation of suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Summary of the experience gained by the author as well as relevant publications, regarding vein imaging modalities taken from a computerized database, was reviewed. The imaging modalities reviewed include phlebography, color Doppler duplex ultrasonography (CDDUS), computerized tomography angiography (CTA) and venography (CTV), magnetic resonance venography (MRV), and radionuclide venography (RNV). CDDUS is recommended as the modality of choice for the diagnosis of DVT. A strategy combining clinical score and D-dimer test refines the selection of patients. Phlebography is reserved for discrepant noninvasive studies. PMID:18521181

  3. Endovascular Treatment Options in the Management of Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nazir, Sarfraz Ahmed Ganeshan, Arul; Nazir, Sheraz; Uberoi, Raman

    2009-09-15

    Lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Systemic anticoagulation therapy is the mainstay of conventional treatment instituted by most physicians for the management of DVT. This has proven efficacy in the prevention of thrombus extension and reduction in the incidence of pulmonary embolism and rethrombosis. Unfortunately, especially in patients with severe and extensive iliofemoral DVT, standard treatment may not be entirely adequate. This is because a considerable proportion of these patients eventually develops postthrombotic syndrome. This is characterized by chronic extremity pain and trophic skin changes, edema, ulceration, and venous claudication. Recent interest in endovascular technologies has led to the development of an assortment of minimally invasive, catheter-based strategies to deal with venous thrombus. These comprise catheter-directed thrombolysis, percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy devices, adjuvant venous angioplasty and stenting, and inferior vena cava filters. This article reviews these technologies and discusses their current role as percutaneous treatment strategies for venous thrombotic conditions.

  4. Portal vein thrombosis relevance on liver cirrhosis: Italian Venous Thrombotic Events Registry.

    PubMed

    Violi, Francesco; Corazza, Roberto Gino; Caldwell, Stephen Hugh; Perticone, Francesco; Gatta, Angelo; Angelico, Mario; Farcomeni, Alessio; Masotti, Michela; Napoleone, Laura; Vestri, Annarita; Raparelli, Valeria; Basili, Stefania

    2016-12-01

    Portal vein thrombosis may occur in cirrhosis; nevertheless, its prevalence, and predictors are still elusive. To investigate this issue, the Italian Society of Internal Medicine undertook the "Portal vein thrombosis Relevance On Liver cirrhosis: Italian Venous thrombotic Events Registry" (PRO-LIVER). This prospective multicenter study includes consecutive cirrhotic patients undergoing Doppler ultrasound examination of the portal area to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of portal vein thrombosis over a 2-year scheduled follow-up. Seven hundred and fifty-three (68 % men; 64 ± 12 years) patients were included in the present analysis. Fifty percent of the cases were cirrhotic outpatients. Viral (44 %) etiology was predominant. Around half of the patients had a mild-severity disease according to the Child-Pugh score; hepatocellular carcinoma was present in 20 %. The prevalence of ultrasound-detected portal vein thrombosis was 17 % (n = 126); it was asymptomatic in 43 % of the cases. Notably, more than half of the portal vein thrombosis patients (n = 81) were not treated with anticoagulant therapy. Logistic step-forward multivariate analysis demonstrated that previous portal vein thrombosis (p < 0.001), Child-Pugh Class B + C (p < 0.001), hepatocellular carcinoma (p = 0.01), previous upper gastrointestinal bleeding (p = 0.030) and older age (p = 0.012) were independently associated with portal vein thrombosis. Portal vein thrombosis is a frequent complication of cirrhosis, particularly in patients with moderate-severe liver failure. The apparent undertreatment of patients with portal vein thrombosis is a matter of concern and debate, which should be addressed by planning interventional trials especially with newer oral anticoagulants. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01470547.

  5. Portal venous thrombosis developing after torsion of a wandering spleen.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ö; Kiziltan, R; Almali, N; Aras, A

    2017-03-01

    Torsion of a wandering spleen is a rare disease. The symptoms and signs of this condition are only present when the splenic pedicle torts. The etiological factors are the congenital absence of the ligaments that hold the spleen in its normal anatomic position, or the relaxation of these ligaments resulting from conditions like trauma and abdominal surgery. We aimed to present a rare case with torsion of wandering spleen that consequently developed thrombosis of portal vein and its branches, taking into consideration the relevant literature.

  6. Deep venous thrombosis: The valve cusp hypoxia thesis and its incompatibility with modern orthodoxy.

    PubMed

    Malone, P Colm; Agutter, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    The valve cusp hypoxia thesis (VCHT) of the aetiology of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was adumbrated in this journal in 1977 and fully articulated in 2008, the original hypothesis having been strongly corroborated by experiments published in 1981 and 1984. It presents a unitary account of the pathogenesis of venous thrombosis and embolism that is rooted in the pathophysiological tradition of Hunter, Virchow, Lister, Welch and Aschoff, a tradition traceable back to Harvey. In this paper we summarise the thesis in its mature form, consider its compatibility with recent advances in the DVT field, and ask why it has not yet been assimilated into the mainstream literature, which during the past half century has been dominated by a haematology-orientated 'consensus model'. We identify and discuss seven ways in which the VCHT is incompatible with these mainstream beliefs about the aetiology of venous thrombosis, drawing attention to: (1) the spurious nature of 'Virchow's triad'; (2) the crucial differences between 'venous thrombus' and 'clot'; the facts that (3) venous thrombi form in the valve pockets (VVPs), (4) DVT is not a primarily haematological condition, (5) the so-called 'thrombophilias' are not thrombogenic per se; (6) the conflict between the single unitary aetiology of DVT and the tacit assumption that the condition is 'multicausal'; (7) the inability of anticoagulants to prevent the initiation of venous thrombogenesis, though they do prevent the growth of thrombi to clinically significant size. In discussing point (7), we show that the VCHT indicates new approaches to mechanical prophylaxis against DVT. These approaches are then formulated as experimentally testable hypotheses, and we suggest methods for testing them preclinically using animal trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Venous thrombosis in subclavian, axillary, brachial veins with extension to internal jugular vein, right sigmoid sinus and simultaneous pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Tamizifar, Babak; Beigi, Arash; Rismankarzadeh, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    We present a rare case of Venous Thrombosis in Subclavian, Axillary, Brachial Veins with extension to Internal Jugular vein, right sigmoid sinus and simultaneous Pulmonary embolism during the treatment with low molecular weight heparin. PMID:23901341

  8. Primary anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome causing recurrent venous thrombosis and thrombocytopenia in a patient with Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Elebrashy, Ibrahim; Yousief, Elham; Saif, Aasem

    2014-12-01

    We report a case of Addison's disease presenting with recurrent deep venous thrombosis and thrombocytopenia and proved to have primary anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome. The case report highlights the shared autoimmune nature of both diseases.

  9. Venous function in the leg after postoperative thrombosis diagnosed with 125I-fibrinogen uptake test.

    PubMed Central

    Lindhagen, A; Bergqvist, D; Hallböök, T; Efsing, H O

    1983-01-01

    The 125I-fibrinogen uptake test (FUT) has been widely used in the past decade to detect postoperative thrombosis. FUT has been shown to correlate well with phlebography, and positive FUT is associated with a high frequency of pulmonary embolism. The long-term venous function of the leg after FUT-detected postoperative thrombosis, however, is inadequately documented. In 179 patients who had been studied after operation with FUT, a follow-up evaluation of FUT as an indicator of risk for development of deep venous insufficiency was made four to five years later. The patients replied to a questionnaire, were clinically examined, and underwent venous strain-gauge plethysmography, venous pressure measurement, and, in some cases, phlebography. No statistically significant differences were found in any of the parameters between legs that had been FUT-positive and those that were FUT-negative at the time of the operation. The frequency of deep venous insufficiency thus was equal in FUT-positive and FUT-negative legs. It was also independent of the site of FUT-detected thrombus in the leg. PMID:6824375

  10. Popliteal cysts and deep venous thrombosis: Tc-99m red blood cell venography

    SciTech Connect

    Littlejohn, G.O.; Brand, C.A.; Ada, A.; Wong, C.

    1985-04-01

    Thirty-four patients who clinically were suspected of having deep venous thrombosis (DVT) underwent Tc-99m red blood cell (RBC) venography followed by contrast venography. The sensitivity (88%) and specificity (94%) of Tc-99m RBC venography of DVT confirmed findings of previous studies. Twenty-four patients who had proved popliteal cysts and swollen calves also were examined using Tc-99m RBC venography. Large cysts showed lack of DVT features, photon deficient cold areas in the popliteal fossa, and diversion of venous flow around the photon deficient area. These features were seen in 25% of the study population (six patients), and assisted in the distinction between the two conditions.

  11. Noninvasive assessment of portomesenteric venous thrombosis: current concepts and imaging strategies.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Michelle S; Kavanagh, Peter V; Chen, Michael Y; Weber, Therese M; Bechtold, Robert E

    2002-01-01

    Rapid, noninvasive imaging strategies, especially multidetector spiral CT and CT angiography (CTA) as well as gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography (MRA), have facilitated early diagnosis of splanchnic venous thrombosis, a potentially lethal cause of intestinal ischemia. Single breath-hold volumetric acquisitions permit superior temporal and contrast resolution while eliminating motion artifact and suppressing respiratory misregistration. Increased spatial resolution is aided by thinner slice collimation. These cross-sectional imaging techniques are becoming a preferred noninvasive alternative to conventional selective mesenteric angiography with delayed imaging for venous evaluation and should be considered the primary diagnostic modalities for evaluating patients with high clinical suspicion of nonsurgical mesenteric ischemia.

  12. Risk factors for central venous catheter-related thrombosis in children: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Agarwal, Arnav; Tassone, Maria Cristina; Shahjahan, Nadia; Walton, Mark; Chan, Anthony; Mondal, Tapas

    2016-06-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) placement is associated with increased risk of thrombosis in the paediatric population, particularly in relation to the type of catheter and the manner of its insertion. Here, we investigate risk factors associated with CVC-related thrombosis in children, with particular emphasis on positioning of the catheter tip. Patients aged 0-18 who underwent at least one CVC placement from 2008 to 2013 at a single centre with a subsequent follow-up echocardiogram were included for a total of 104 patients and 147 lines. Data on clinical and catheter-related risk factors were collected from patient charts. Statistical analysis using Pearson's χ tests, independent samples t-test, and odds ratios were used to assess potential risk factors for thrombosis. Neither insertion site (subclavian vein or otherwise), left- vs. right-sided insertion, nor catheter type were significant risk factors for thrombosis. There were no thrombotic events reported at the superior vena cava (SVC)-right atrium junction and no significant differences in thrombotic risk with initial tip placement in the SVC-right atrium junction vs. the SVC, right atrium, or inferior vena cava. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was a major clinical risk factor for thrombosis. Tip movement was common and may have been an important factor in the development of CVC-related thrombi. Prospective studies can yield insight into the role of follow-up imaging in the prevention of catheter-related thrombosis in children.

  13. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis secondary to typhoid fever: a case report and brief summary of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Maria Carissa; Lopinto-Khoury, Carla

    2012-07-01

    There have been few reports of typhoid fever (or salmonellosis) presenting with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. We present such a case to highlight the importance of recognizing an etiology for cerebral sinus thrombosis and to discuss the role of salmonella in thrombogenesis. A 19-year-old man with a history of migraine presented with headache, nausea, vomiting, and fever, and was found to have a cerebral venous sinus thrombosis on magnetic resonance venography. He later developed profuse watery diarrhea and cultures grew salmonella species, consistent with typhoid fever. Treatment with antibiotics and oral anticoagulation led to resolution of his symptoms within 2 days and recanalization of the thrombosis was proven on magnetic resonance venography 6 months later. The development of profuse diarrhea after thrombosis suggests a direct thrombogenic effect of salmonella independent of dehydration. Systemic infections should be considered in all patients with thrombosis to identify treatable causes.

  14. The 'ART' of thrombosis: a review of arterial and venous thrombosis in assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wee Shian

    2009-06-01

    The use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) has increased tremendously in the past three decades. During the process of ART, supraphysiological estradiol levels with exogenous hormone administration can result. One major complication of this intervention, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), is associated with both arterial and venous thromboembolic complications. There are an increasing number of both arterial and venous thromboembolic cases reported in the literature. In total, there are 96 cases of thromboses reported in the literature; a third of these cases were reported within the past 2 years. The collective findings from these reported cases were consistent: the timing of arterial and venous events differed, arterial events usually occur concurrently with the onset of OHSS, whereas venous events occur several weeks later after the clinical resolution of OHSS; arterial thromboses are predominantly cerebrovascular accidents, whereas venous events are mostly reported in unusual sites such as the upper extremities. In spite of the frequency of reported cases, there is little in the literature to guide thromboprophylaxis. On the basis of the observations, thromboprophylaxis should be considered for patients who develop moderate-to-severe OHSS for an extended period of 1-2 months beyond the resolution of clinical OHSS, and also be considered for patients with known inherited or acquired thrombophilia, while undergoing ART. Future studies should focus on defining the frequency and risk factors associated with women who develop these complications and more closely examine the resultant effects in the coagulation cascade during hormonal manipulation in women undergoing ART.

  15. Reversible changes in diffusion- and perfusion-based imaging in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ning; Wong, Andrew K; Lipinski, Lindsay J; Mokin, Maxim; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2016-02-01

    Diffusion- and perfusion-based imaging studies are regularly used in patients with ischemic stroke. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare cause of stroke and is primarily treated by systemic anticoagulation. Endovascular intervention can be considered in cases of failed medical therapy, yet the prognostic value of diffusion- and perfusion-based imaging for CVST has not been clearly established. We present a patient with CVST whose abnormal findings on MRI and CT perfusion images were largely reversed after endovascular treatment.

  16. Presumed Pulmonary Embolism Following Power-Pulse Spray Thrombectomy of Upper Extremity Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Jason; Georgiades, Christos S.; Hong, Kelvin; Kim, Hyun S.

    2006-08-15

    To achieve more effective thrombolysis in a shorter treatment time, percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy has been increasingly used in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The power-pulse spray is a new technique to combine chemical and rheolytic effects on clots. We present a case of presumed pulmonary embolism following power-pulse spray treatment for upper extremity DVT which necessitated resuscitation and intubation. The power-pulse spray technique should be used with caution when treating DVT.

  17. Differential risks in men and women for first and recurrent venous thrombosis: the role of genes and environment.

    PubMed

    Roach, R E J; Cannegieter, S C; Lijfering, W M

    2014-10-01

    Men have a higher risk of first and recurrent venous thrombosis than do women. However, the pathophysiology underlying this phenomenon is as yet unknown. In this review article, we assessed the prevalence and strength of genetic and acquired risk factors for venous thrombosis for men and women separately, because it is likely that either a difference in effect or distribution of a risk factor explains the risk difference between the sexes. We also summarized the sex-specific results of previous studies on the risk of first and recurrent venous thrombosis. Few explanations for the sex difference were found. The major factor, explaining about 20% difference in population-attributable fraction, was body height. No difference in prevalence or strength for other venous thrombosis risk factors was observed, such as plaster cast immobilization, hospitalization, surgery, trauma, malignancy, hyperhomocysteinemia, factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, or blood group non-O. Alternative explanations for the sex difference are hypothesized in this review, including X- or Y-linked mutations or a mutation on a gene with a sex-specific effect. Future studies should focus on the sex-specific risk of venous thrombosis to unravel the pathophysiology and thereby improve sex-specific treatment and prevention strategies. Even so, male sex can be used as a tool through which individuals at increased risk of first or recurrent venous thrombosis may be identified.

  18. Fibrin d-dimer concentration, deep vein thrombosis symptom duration, and venous thrombus volume.

    PubMed

    Kurklinsky, Andrew K; Kalsi, Henna; Wysokinski, Waldemar E; Mauck, Karen F; Bhagra, Anjali; Havyer, Rachel D; Thompson, Carrie A; Hayes, Sharonne N; McBane, Robert D

    2011-04-01

    To determine the relationship between fibrin D-dimer levels, symptom duration, and thrombus volume, consecutive patients with incident deep venous thrombosis (DVT) were evaluated. In a cross-sectional study design, patient symptom onset was determined by careful patient questioning. Venous thrombosis was confirmed by compression duplex ultrasonography. Thrombus volume was estimated based on patient's femur length using a forensic anthropology method. Fibrin D-dimer was measured by latex immunoassay. 72 consecutive patients with confirmed leg DVT agreed to participate. The median symptom duration at the time of diagnosis was 10 days. The median D-dimer concentration was 1050 ng/dL. The median thrombus volume was 12.92 cm(3). D-Dimer levels correlated with estimated thrombus volume (P < .0006 CI 0.12-0.41; R(2) (adjusted) = .15) but not symptom duration, patient's age, or gender. Despite varying symptom duration prior to diagnosis, fibrin D-dimer remains a sensitive measure of venous thrombosis and correlates with thrombus volume.

  19. Cerebral venous thrombosis and myeloproliferative neoplasms: results from two large databases.

    PubMed

    Dentali, Francesco; Ageno, Walter; Rumi, Elisa; Casetti, Ilaria; Poli, Daniela; Scoditti, Umberto; Maffioli, Margherita; di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Caramazza, Domenica; Pietra, Daniela; De Stefano, Valerio; Passamonti, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) include polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Patients with MPNs are prone to develop arterial and venous thrombosis either at diagnosis or during follow-up; in particular splancnic vein is strongly associated with MPN. Conversely, presence of MPN is uncommon in patients with deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities and with pulmonary embolism. Only few studies with conflicting results have evaluated the prevalence of an underlying MPN in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), and limited evidence exists on the incidence of CVT in patients with established MPN. We assessed the frequency of MPNs in a series of 706 patients with cerebral vein thrombosis (CVT) and the frequency of CVT in a cohort of 2,143 MPNs patients. Twenty-seven CVT patients (3.8%) were diagnosed with MPN: 9 before CVT (1.3%), 4 concomitantly (0.6%), and 14 after CVT (2.0%). Nine CVT cases (0.4%) were diagnosed in the MPN cohort, with a slightly higher frequency in PV (five of 735, 0.7%) than in ET (three of 964, 0.3%) and in PMF (one of 444, 0.2%). Considering the analyses of these databases jointly, the results obtained suggest a weak association between CVT and MPNs and ultimately suggest that a thorough investigation looking for an underlying MPN may not be warranted in all the patients with CVT without overt myeloproliferative features. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cerebral venous thrombosis due to cryptogenic organising pneumopathy with antiphospholipid syndrome worsened by heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, J; Kuzmanovic, I; Vargas, M I; Momjian-Mayor, I

    2013-07-09

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) has usually been ascribed to prothrombotic conditions, oral contraceptives, pregnancy, malignancy, infection, head injury or mechanical precipitants. The case reported here illustrates two rare causes of CVT observed in the same patient: the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies associated with an asymptomatic cryptogenic organising pneumopathy (COP) which were considered the origin of the venous cerebral thrombosis and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) which was responsible for the worsening of the thrombosis observed a few days after the introduction of treatment. Moreover, we provide here additional positive experience in the treatment of both, CVT and HIT, by fondaparinux with bridging to warfarin given their successful evolution under this anticoagulant option.

  1. Mechanical Thrombectomy in Patients with Deep Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Delomez, Maxence; Beregi, Jean-Paul; Willoteaux, Serge; Bauchart, Jean-Jacques; D'Othee, Bertrand Janne; Asseman, Philippe; Perez, Nessim; Thery, Claude

    2001-01-15

    Purpose: To report our experience with mechanical thrombectomy in proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT).Methods: Eighteen patients with a mean ({+-} SD) age of 37.6 {+-} 16.1 years who presented with DVT in the iliac and femoral vein (n = 3), inferior vena cava (n = 5), or inferior vena cava and iliac vein (n = 10), were treated with the Amplatz Thrombectomy Device after insertion of a temporary caval filter.Results: Successful recanalization was achieved in 15 of 18 patients (83%). Overall, the percentage of thrombus removed was 66 {+-} 29%: 73 {+-} 30% at caval level and 55 {+-} 36% at iliofemoral level. Complementary interventions (seven patients) were balloon angioplasty (n = 2), angioplasty and stenting (n = 2), thrombo-aspiration alone (n = 1), thrombo-aspiration, balloon angioplasty, and permanent filter (n = 1), and permanent filter alone (n = 1). There was one in-hospital death. Follow-up was obtained at a mean of 29.6 months; three patients had died (two cancers, one myocardial infarction); 10 had no or minimal sequelae; one had post-phlebitic limb.Conclusion: Mechanical thrombectomy is a potential therapeutic option in patients presenting with proximal DVT.

  2. Increasing ablation distance peripheral to the saphenofemoral junction may result in a diminished rate of endothermal heat-induced thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Mikel; Kabnick, Lowell S; Rockman, Caron B; Berland, Todd L; Zhou, Di; Chasin, Cara; Jacobowitz, Glenn R; Adelman, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    The treatment of venous insufficiency using endovenous laser ablation or radiofrequency ablation may result in endothermal heat-induced thrombosis (EHIT), a form of deep venous thrombosis. This study sought to assess whether increasing the ablation distance peripheral to the deep venous junction would result in a reduction in the incidence of EHIT II. This study was a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database from April 2007 to December 2011. Consecutive patients undergoing great saphenous vein (GSV) or small saphenous vein (SSV) ablation were evaluated. Previous to February 2011, all venous ablations were performed 2 cm peripheral to the saphenofemoral or saphenopopliteal junction (group I). Subsequent to February 2011, ablations were performed greater than or equal to 2.5 cm peripheral to the respective deep system junction (group II). The primary outcome was the development of EHIT II or greater (ie, thrombus protruding into the deep venous system but comprising less than 50% of the deep vein lumen). Secondary outcomes included procedure-site complications such as thrombophlebitis and hematomas. χ(2) tests were performed for all discrete variables, and unpaired Student's t-tests were performed for all continuous variables. P < .05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 4223 procedures were performed among group I (n = 3239) and group II (n = 984). Patient demographics were similar between the two groups; however, the CEAP classification was higher by a small margin in group II, and the result was significant (group I: 2.6% ± 0.9% vs group II: 2.8% ± 1.0%; P = .006). The incidence of EHIT II was 76 in group I and 13 in group II. This represented a trend toward diminished frequency in group II as compared with group I (group I: 2.3% vs group II: 1.3%; P = .066). There were no reported cases of EHIT III or IV in this patient cohort. Patients who developed an EHIT II in group I were treated using anticoagulation 54% of the

  3. In utero magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of dural venous sinus ectasia with thrombosis in the fetus.

    PubMed

    Fanou, Evgenia Maria; Reeves, Mike J; Howe, David T; Joy, Harriet; Morris, Susan; Russell, Sarah; Griffiths, Paul D

    2013-12-01

    Dural venous sinus ectasia with thrombosis (DVSET) in the fetus is a rare condition that can be diagnosed prenatally with the use of fetal MR imaging, yet with limited indication of long-term clinical significance. To describe and evaluate the diagnostic value of fetal MR imaging in the prenatal diagnosis of dural venous sinus ectasia with thrombosis and its clinical significance. We report a series of nine fetuses with dural venous sinus ectasia with thrombosis. The mothers, located in four feto-maternal centres, were referred for fetal MR imaging due to space occupying lesions identified on second-trimester antenatal ultrasound. In all but one case the dural venous sinus ectasia with thrombosis was in the vicinity of the venous confluence (VC) with various extension in the posterior dural sinuses. Antenatal follow-up imaging was performed in seven cases and showed progression in one, stable appearances in one and regression in five cases. Three pregnancies were terminated. In the remaining six cases there was no reported neurological deficit at up to 44 months of clinical follow-up. This is among the largest series of postnatal clinical follow-up in cases of prenatal diagnosis of dural venous sinus ectasia with thrombosis in the literature. Clinical follow-up suggests a good prognosis when antenatal follow-up shows partial or complete thrombus resolution.

  4. Evidence for Extending the Duration of Chemoprophylaxis following Free Flap Harvest from the Lower Extremity: Prospective Screening for Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Rau, Aline S; Harry, Brian L; Leem, Ted H; Song, John I; Deleyiannis, Frederic W-B

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic deep venous thrombosis in patients undergoing harvest of a free flap from the lower extremity who were receiving standard chemoprophylaxis while hospitalized. A retrospective review of 65 consecutive patients undergoing surgery between 2011 and 2013 was performed to determine the incidence of symptomatic deep venous thrombosis. These patients were screened for deep venous thrombosis based on development of symptoms. Prospective evaluation of a similar consecutive population of 37 patients between 2014 and 2015 was then performed to determine the incidence of asymptomatic deep venous thrombosis. These patients underwent routine duplex ultrasonography of both legs at postoperative weeks 1 and 4. Symptomatic deep venous thrombosis occurred in 2.9 percent of all patients. In the prospective cohort, 8.1 percent of the patients were found to have an acute deep venous thrombosis by postoperative week 1. At postoperative week 4, 16.7 percent of the patients developed a new, acute deep venous thrombosis. The estimated costs of screening and treating deep venous thrombosis in the retrospective group and the prospective group were $222 and $2259, respectively. The cost of routine chemoprophylaxis without duplex screening for an additional 14 days after discharge was $125 per patient. The rate of asymptomatic deep venous thrombosis may be much higher than previously appreciated in this population of very high-risk patients, especially during the 2 weeks after discharge. Extending the duration of chemoprophylaxis to 4 weeks after surgery may be warranted. Therapeutic, IV.

  5. Incidence of pancreas graft thrombosis in portoiliac and portocaval venous anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, C; Manrique, A; Herrero, M L; Meneu, J C; Abradelo, M; Gutierrez, E; Morales, J M; Ortuño, T; Praga, M; Andrés, A; Morales, E; Moreno, E

    2005-11-01

    Pancreas graft thromboses represent more than 70% of all technical failures; multiple risk factors have been implicated. We analyzed the thrombosis rates using portoiliac versus portocaval vein anastomoses. The series includes 53 patients who underwent pancreas transplantation: 49 simultaneous pancreas-kidney and 4 pancreas after kidney. There were 27 men and 26 women, of mean age of 37.2 +/- 7.0 years. We compared two groups of recipients that were classified according to venous anastomosis: (A) portoiliac (n = 30), and (B) portocaval (n = 23). The recipients did not show significant differences in age, gender, or duration of diabetes mellitus, but body mass index was significantly higher among the portocaval group. A bladder-drained pancreas technique was more frequently performed in the portoiliac group (93% of patients) versus an enteric-drained pancreas in the portocaval group (81%; P < .001). Heparinization was performed in 12 recipients: 11 (36.6%) in the portoiliac group and 1 (4.3%) in the portocaval group (P < .01). Vascular graft thrombosis (venous in six and arterial in one) developed in seven patients (13.2%) all in the portoiliac group (23%) (P < .02). Two-year patient survival was 93% in the portoiliac group and 94% in portocaval group (P = NS). Two-year graft survival was 66.6% in the portoiliac group and 85.9% in portocaval group (P = .07). There was no graft thrombosis among patients with a portocaval vein anastomosis.

  6. Superficial Dorsal Vein Injury/Thrombosis Presenting as False Penile Fracture Requiring Dorsal Venous Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Arash; Hakky, Tariq S; Martinez, Daniel; Parker, Justin; Carrion, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Conditions mimicking penile fracture are extremely rare and have been seldom described. Aim To describe a patient with false penile fracture who presented with superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis managed with ligation. Methods A 33-year-old male presented with penile swelling and ecchymosis after intercourse. A penile ultrasound demonstrated a thrombosed superficial dorsal vein but also questionable fracture of the tunica albuginea. As the thrombus was expanding, he was emergently taken to the operating room for exploration and required only dorsal venous ligation. Results Postoperatively, patient's Sexual Health Inventory for Men score was 23, and he had no issues with erections or sexual intercourse. Conclusion Early exploration of patients with suspected penile fracture provides excellent results with maintenance of erectile function. Also, in the setting of dorsal vein thrombosis, ligation preserves the integrity of the penile tissues and avoids unnecessary complications from conservative management. Rafiei A, Hakky TS, Martinez D, Parker J, and Carrion R. Superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis presenting as false penile fracture requiring dorsal venous ligation. PMID:25548650

  7. Lack of association between potential prothrombotic genetic risk factors and arterial and venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, F C G; Rios, D R A; Ribeiro, D D; Carvalho, M G; Dusse, L M S; Fernandes, A P; Sabino, A P

    2015-08-14

    Recent studies have shown an association between thrombosis and factor VII (FVII), tissue factor (TF), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). This suggests that individuals with FVII-402 G/A, FVII-401 G/T, TF+5466 A/G, and ACE-287 insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphisms present an increased risk of venous thrombosis, heart disease, and ischemic stroke compared with controls. In this study, we investigated the frequencies of these polymorphisms and their association with arterial and venous thrombosis. For the FVII-402 G/A polymorphism, there were 57.3% heterozygote (HT) genotypes and 8.3% homozygote (HM) genotypes in the patients, and 45.2% HT genotypes and 15.4% HM genotypes in the controls. For the FVII-401 G/T polymorphism, there were 37.5% HT genotypes and 3.1% HM genotypes in the patients, and 32.7% HT genotypes and 4.8% HM genotypes in the controls. The polymorphism TF+5466 A/G was not found in any of the samples analyzed. For the ACE-287 I/D polymorphism, there were 43 (40.6%) HT genotypes and 63 (59.4%) HM genotypes in the controls and 28 (45.2%) HT genotypes and 34 (54.8%) HM genotypes in the patients. No significant difference was observed by comparing patients and controls. In this study, no association was found between the presence of the evaluated polymorphisms and the occurrence of thrombotic events.

  8. [Thrombosis and obstruction associated with central venous lines. Incidence and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Vivanco Allende, A; Rey Galán, C; Rodríguez de la Rúa, M V; Alvarez García, F; Medina Villanueva, A; Concha Torre, A; Mayordomo Colunga, J; Martínez Camblor, P

    2013-09-01

    To analyse the incidence of thrombosis and obstruction associated with central venous lines (CVL) inserted in critically ill children, and to determine their risk factors. Prospective observational study in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in a University Hospital. An analysis was made of 825 CVL placed in 546 patients. Age, gender, weight, type of catheter (lines, size, and brand), final location of the catheter, mechanical ventilation, type of sedation and analgesia used, initial failure by the doctor to perform CVL catheterization, number of attempts, CVL indication, admission diagnosis, emergency or scheduled procedure, and delayed mechanical complications (DMC). Risk factors for these complications were determined by a multiple regression analysis. A total of 52 cases of DMC, 42 cases of obstruction, and 10 of thrombosis were registered. Obstruction and thrombosis rates were 4.96 and 1.18 per 100 CVL, respectively. The only risk factor independently linked to obstruction was the duration of the CVL (OR 1.05; 95% CI; 1.00-1.10). The number of lines with thrombosis (OR 4.88; 95% CI; 1.26-18.0), as well as parenteral nutrition (OR 4.17; 95% CI; 1.06-16.31) was statistically significant according to bivariate analysis. However, no risk factors for thrombosis were found in the multivariate analysis. Obstruction and thrombosis of CVL inserted in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit are relatively common complications. CVL duration is an independent risk factor for any line obstruction. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Deep vein thrombosis after spine operation in prone position with subclavian venous catheterization: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Kyung; Han, Jin Hee; Park, Sung Wook; Kim, Keon Sik

    2014-07-01

    We experienced a case of deep vein thrombosis after spine surgery in the prone position with a central venous catheter (CVC). Posterior lumbar interbody fusion was performed on a 73-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with spinal stenosis. Accordingly, in the operation room under general anesthesia, two-lumen CVC were inserted into the left subclavian vein. The surgery was performed in the prone position with a Wilson frame. On the next day, there was a sudden occurrence of severe edema in the patient's left arm. By ultrasonography and computed tomography scanning, extensive deep vein thrombosis was observed in the left subclavian vein. The existence of a factor affecting blood flow such as the prone position may increase the risk of thrombus formation. Therefore, careful perioperative evaluation should be implemented.

  10. Arterial complications, venous thromboembolism and deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Rob Paulus Augustinus; Reijman, Max; Janssen, Daan Martijn; van Mourik, Jan Bernardus Antonius

    2016-01-01

    AIM To summarize the current knowledge on vascular complications and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. METHODS A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, CINAHL, PubMed publisher, and Google scholar medical literature databases were searched up to November 10, 2015. Any arthroscopic surgical method of primary or revision intra-articular ACL reconstruction of all graft types in humans was included. A risk of bias assessment was determined. RESULTS Fourty-seven studies were included in the review. Pseudaneurysms were the most frequently reported arterial complication after ACL reconstruction, irrespective of graft type or method of graft fixation with an incidence of 0.3%. The time to diagnosis of arterial complications after ACL reconstruction varied from days to mostly weeks but even years. After ACL reconstruction without thromboprophylaxis, the incidence of DVT was 9.7%, of which 2.1% was symptomatic. The incidence of pulmonary embolism was 0.1%. Tourniquet time > 2 h was related to venous thromboembolism. Thromboprophylaxis is indicated in patients with risk factors for venous thromboembolism. CONCLUSION After ACL reconstruction, the incidence of arterial complications, symptomatic DVT and pulmonary embolism was 0.3%, 2.1% and 0.1% respectively. Arterial complications may occur with all types of arthroscopic ACL reconstruction, methods of graft fixation as well as any type of graft. Patients considered to be at moderate or high risk of venous thromboembolism should routinely receive thromboprophylaxis after ACL reconstruction. PMID:27672574

  11. Disulfide HMGB1 derived from platelets coordinates venous thrombosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Stark, Konstantin; Philippi, Vanessa; Stockhausen, Sven; Busse, Johanna; Antonelli, Antonella; Miller, Meike; Schubert, Irene; Hoseinpour, Parandis; Chandraratne, Sue; von Brühl, Marie-Luise; Gaertner, Florian; Lorenz, Michael; Agresti, Alessandra; Coletti, Raffaele; Antoine, Daniel J; Heermann, Ralf; Jung, Kirsten; Reese, Sven; Laitinen, Iina; Schwaiger, Markus; Walch, Axel; Sperandio, Markus; Nawroth, Peter P; Reinhardt, Christoph; Jäckel, Sven; Bianchi, Marco E; Massberg, Steffen

    2016-11-17

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases, but its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. Although sterile inflammation has recently been shown to boost coagulation during DVT, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully resolved, which could potentially identify new anti-inflammatory approaches to prophylaxis and therapy of DVT. Using a mouse model of venous thrombosis induced by flow reduction in the vena cava inferior, we identified blood-derived high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a prototypical mediator of sterile inflammation, to be a master regulator of the prothrombotic cascade involving platelets and myeloid leukocytes fostering occlusive DVT formation. Transfer of platelets into Hmgb1(-/-) chimeras showed that this cell type is the major source of HMGB1, exposing reduced HMGB1 on their surface upon activation thereby enhancing the recruitment of monocytes. Activated leukocytes in turn support oxidation of HMGB1 unleashing its prothrombotic activity and promoting platelet aggregation. This potentiates the amount of HMGB1 and further nurtures the accumulation and activation of monocytes through receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and Toll-like receptor 2, leading to local delivery of monocyte-derived tissue factor and cytokines. Moreover, disulfide HMGB1 facilitates formation of prothrombotic neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) mediated by RAGE, exposing additional HMGB1 on their extracellular DNA strands. Eventually, a vicious circle of coagulation and inflammation is set in motion leading to obstructive DVT formation. Therefore, platelet-derived disulfide HMGB1 is a central mediator of the sterile inflammatory process in venous thrombosis and could be an attractive target for an anti-inflammatory approach for DVT prophylaxis.

  12. Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis via Small Saphenous Veins for Treating Acute Deep Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Xu, Xiao-dong; Gao, Peng; Yu, Ji-Xiang; Li, Yu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Meng, Ran-ran

    2016-01-01

    Background There is little data comparing catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) via small saphenous veins vs. systematic thrombolysis on complications and efficacy in acute deep venous thrombosis patients. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and safety of CDT via the small saphenous veins with systematic thrombolysis for patients with acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Material/Methods Sixty-six patients with acute DVT admitted from June 2012 to December 2013 were divided into 2 groups: 27 patients received systemic thrombolysis (ST group) and 39 patients received CDT via the small saphenous veins (CDT group). The thrombolysis efficiency, limb circumference differences, and complications such as post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) in the 2 groups were recorded. Results The angiograms demonstrated that all or part of the fresh thrombus was dissolved. There was a significant difference regarding thrombolysis efficiency between the CDT group and ST group (71.26% vs. 48.26%, P=0.001). In both groups the postoperative limb circumference changes were higher compared to the preoperative values. The differences between postoperative limb circumferences on postoperative days 7 and 14 were significantly higher in the CDT group than in the ST group (all P<0.05). The incidence of postoperative PTS in the CDT group (17.9%) was significantly lower in comparison to the ST group (51.85%) during the follow-up (P=0.007). Conclusions Catheter-directed thrombolysis via the small saphenous veins is an effective, safe, and feasible approach for treating acute deep venous thrombosis. PMID:27552357

  13. Disulfide HMGB1 derived from platelets coordinates venous thrombosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Philippi, Vanessa; Stockhausen, Sven; Busse, Johanna; Antonelli, Antonella; Miller, Meike; Schubert, Irene; Hoseinpour, Parandis; Chandraratne, Sue; von Brühl, Marie-Luise; Gaertner, Florian; Lorenz, Michael; Agresti, Alessandra; Coletti, Raffaele; Antoine, Daniel J.; Heermann, Ralf; Jung, Kirsten; Reese, Sven; Laitinen, Iina; Schwaiger, Markus; Walch, Axel; Sperandio, Markus; Nawroth, Peter P.; Reinhardt, Christoph; Jäckel, Sven; Bianchi, Marco E.; Massberg, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases, but its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. Although sterile inflammation has recently been shown to boost coagulation during DVT, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully resolved, which could potentially identify new anti-inflammatory approaches to prophylaxis and therapy of DVT. Using a mouse model of venous thrombosis induced by flow reduction in the vena cava inferior, we identified blood-derived high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a prototypical mediator of sterile inflammation, to be a master regulator of the prothrombotic cascade involving platelets and myeloid leukocytes fostering occlusive DVT formation. Transfer of platelets into Hmgb1−/− chimeras showed that this cell type is the major source of HMGB1, exposing reduced HMGB1 on their surface upon activation thereby enhancing the recruitment of monocytes. Activated leukocytes in turn support oxidation of HMGB1 unleashing its prothrombotic activity and promoting platelet aggregation. This potentiates the amount of HMGB1 and further nurtures the accumulation and activation of monocytes through receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and Toll-like receptor 2, leading to local delivery of monocyte-derived tissue factor and cytokines. Moreover, disulfide HMGB1 facilitates formation of prothrombotic neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) mediated by RAGE, exposing additional HMGB1 on their extracellular DNA strands. Eventually, a vicious circle of coagulation and inflammation is set in motion leading to obstructive DVT formation. Therefore, platelet-derived disulfide HMGB1 is a central mediator of the sterile inflammatory process in venous thrombosis and could be an attractive target for an anti-inflammatory approach for DVT prophylaxis. PMID:27574188

  14. [Thrombosis of the intracranial venous sinuses after ingestion of estroprogestative agents. 4 cases].

    PubMed

    Rousseaux, P; Bernard, M H; Scherpereel, B; Morel, M; Guyot, J F

    1977-06-04

    The authors report 4 cases of thrombosis of the superior longitudinal sinus (SLS) in women taking oestroprogestational agents. This complication is very rare, only 25 cases existing in the literature. The clinical picture consists of premonitory headaches associated with neurological signs suggesting lesions affecting both hemispheres in alternation. In the absence of treatment, sudden deterioration on about the tenth day is to be feared. This picture is similar to that of puerperal thrombosis of the SLS. The diagnosis should be confirmed by carotid arteriography, which demonstrates the presence of collateral varices and the thrombosed sinus giving a "negative" image on the AP view. Cerebral scintigraphy shows one or more areas of uptake in the form of adjacent rounded shapes, corresponding to cerebral infarctions of venous origin. As far as the responsibility of oestro-progenstational agents is concerned, the role is suggested by the analogy with puerperal thromboses and also by the absence of cases in men (with the exception of head injury, infections of the face and haematological malignancies). The prognosis is grave (19 deaths out of 29 cases), but surviving patients are completely cured. This prognosis would seem to be essentially dependent upon the possibilities of venous callateral circulation, which are variable in each individual patient. Anticoagulants and thrombolytic risk, in effective doses, to transform the venous thrombosis into a cerebral haemorrhage. Treatment consists rather of methods to reduce cerebral volume, aimed at maximal use of collateral varices and assisting the patient to overcome to acute phase of the first 2 weeks. Headache would seem to be the principal presenting symptom. In our opinion, no biological test gives a reliable indication as to those women most at risk and contraindictions are in fact of a clinical character.

  15. A Rare Occurrence of Simultaneous Venous and Arterial Thromboembolic Events – Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Thromboembolism as Initial Presentation in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kutiyal, Aditya S.; Dharmshaktu, Pramila; Kataria, Babita; Garg, Abhilasha

    2016-01-01

    The development of acute myeloid leukemia has been attributed to various factors, including hereditary, radiation, drugs, and certain occupational exposures. The association between malignancy and venous thromboembolism events is well established. Here, we present a case of a 70-year-old Indian man who had presented with arterial and venous thrombosis, and the patient was later diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In our case, the patient presented with right lower limb deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism four months prior to the diagnosis of APL. Although thromboembolic event subsequent to the diagnosis of malignancy, and especially during the chemotherapy has been widely reported, this prior presentation with simultaneous occurrence of both venous and arterial thromboembolism has rarely been reported. We take this opportunity to state the significance of a complete medical evaluation in cases of recurrent or unusual thrombotic events. PMID:26949347

  16. Warfarin-induced skin necrosis in HIV-1-infected patients with tuberculosis and venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Bhaijee, F; Wainwright, H; Meintjes, G; Wilkinson, R J; Todd, G; De Vries, E; Pepper, D J

    2010-06-01

    At the turn of the century, only 300 cases of warfarin-induced skin necrosis (WISN) had been reported. WISN is a rare but potentially fatal complication of warfarin therapy. There are no published reports of WISN occurring in patients with HIV-1 infection or tuberculosis (TB). We retrospectively reviewed cases of WISN presenting from April 2005 to July 2008 at a referral hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Six cases of WISN occurred in 973 patients receiving warfarin therapy for venous thrombosis (0.62%, 95% CI 0.25 - 1.37%). All 6 cases occurred in HIV-1-infected women (median age 30 years, range 27 - 42) with microbiologically confirmed TB and venous thrombosis. All were profoundly immunosuppressed (median CD4+ count at TB diagnosis 49 cells/microl, interquartile range 23 - 170). Of the 3 patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy, 2 had TB-IRIS (immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome). The median interval from initiation of antituberculosis treatment to venous thrombosis was 37 days (range 0 - 150). The median duration of parallel heparin and warfarin therapy was 2 days (range 1 - 6). WISN manifested 6 days (range 4 - 8) after initiation of warfarin therapy. The international normalised ratio (INR) at WISN onset was supra-therapeutic, median 6.2 (range 3.8 - 6.6). Sites of WISN included breasts, buttocks and thighs. Four of 6 WISN sites were secondarily infected with drug-resistant nosocomial bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Acinetobacter, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) 17 - 37 days after WISN onset. In 4 patients, the median interval from WISN onset to death was 43 days (range 25 - 45). One of the 2 patients who survived underwent bilateral mastectomies and extensive skin grafting at a specialist centre. This is one of the largest case series of WISN. We report a novel clinical entity: WISN in HIV-1 infected patients with TB and venous thrombosis. The

  17. A Case of Cerebral Sinus Venous Thrombosis Resulting in Mortality in Severe Preeclamptic Pregnant Woman

    PubMed Central

    Soydinc, Hatice Ender; Ozler, Ali; Evsen, Mehmet Sıddık; Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Basaranoglu, Serdar; Dusak, Abdurrahim; Cetincakmak, Mehmet Guli

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rarely encountered condition during pregnancy. A 21-year-old pregnant woman with labour pains was hospitalized in our clinic. Diagnosis of severe preeclampsia was made based on her clinical and laboratory findings. She suffered from convulsive episodes during postpartum period which lead to initiation of treatment for eclampsia. However neurological and radiological examinations were performed after emergence of additional neurological symptoms disclosed the diagnosis of CVST. In this paper, we aimed to present a case with CVST which diagnosis was confused with eclampsia and resulting in maternal mortality. PMID:23509646

  18. Thrombosis of a drainage vein in developmental venous anomaly (DVA) leading venous infarction: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kiroglu, Yilmaz; Oran, Ismail; Dalbasti, Tayfun; Karabulut, Nevzat; Calli, Cem

    2011-04-01

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are common congenital venous drainage anomalies. Although they typically have a benign clinical course and a low symptomatic rate, thrombosis of a drainage vein may occur, leading to potentially debilitating complications. We report imaging findings of posterior fossa DVA with a thrombosed drainage vein in a patient with nonhemorrhagic cerebellar infarct. We also review the relevant literature on the subject. Copyright © 2009 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  19. Different combined oral contraceptives and the risk of venous thrombosis: systematic review and network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stegeman, Bernardine H; de Bastos, Marcos; Rosendaal, Frits R; van Hylckama Vlieg, A; Helmerhorst, Frans M; Stijnen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide a comprehensive overview of the risk of venous thrombosis in women using different combined oral contraceptives. Design Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Data sources PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Academic Search Premier, and ScienceDirect up to 22 April 2013. Review methods Observational studies that assessed the effect of combined oral contraceptives on venous thrombosis in healthy women. The primary outcome of interest was a fatal or non-fatal first event of venous thrombosis with the main focus on deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Publications with at least 10 events in total were eligible. The network meta-analysis was performed using an extension of frequentist random effects models for mixed multiple treatment comparisons. Unadjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were reported. The requirement for crude numbers did not allow adjustment for potential confounding variables. Results 3110 publications were retrieved through a search strategy; 25 publications reporting on 26 studies were included. Incidence of venous thrombosis in non-users from two included cohorts was 1.9 and 3.7 per 10 000 woman years, in line with previously reported incidences of 1-6 per 10 000 woman years. Use of combined oral contraceptives increased the risk of venous thrombosis compared with non-use (relative risk 3.5, 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 4.3). The relative risk of venous thrombosis for combined oral contraceptives with 30-35 µg ethinylestradiol and gestodene, desogestrel, cyproterone acetate, or drospirenone were similar and about 50-80% higher than for combined oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel. A dose related effect of ethinylestradiol was observed for gestodene, desogestrel, and levonorgestrel, with higher doses being associated with higher thrombosis risk. Conclusion All combined oral contraceptives investigated in this analysis were

  20. Cerebral venous thrombosis as the first presentation of classical homocystinuria in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Woods, Emily; Dawson, Charlotte; Senthil, Latha; Geberhiwot, Tarekegn

    2017-01-30

    A 30-year-old woman presented with severe headache, dysarthria and right hemiparesis. She was treated for suspected viral encephalopathy and recovered over the following weeks although the headaches persisted. Two months later she was treated in-hospital for pulmonary embolism. The following year she was readmitted for increased frequency of headaches and was given a diagnosis of migraine. A subsequent MRI head scan was suggestive of longstanding venous sinus infarcts and neuroradiology review concluded that encephalitis had been the incorrect initial diagnosis. Subsequent investigations for an underlying cause of the two episodes of venous thrombosis revealed a total homocysteine level of >350 μmol/L (<15 μmol/L). An underlying diagnosis of homocystinuria secondary to cystathionine β-synthase deficiency was made although this metabolic condition is normally recognised in childhood. Treatment with pyridoxine and betaine normalised her homocysteine levels and she has had no further thrombotic event since. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Developmental venous anomaly presenting as a spontaneous intraparenchymal hematoma without thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Nitin; Zuccoli, Giulio; Murdoch, Geoffrey; Jankowitz, Brian T; Greene, Stephanie

    2016-12-01

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are cited as the most common cerebral vascular malformations. Still, intracerebral hematomas are rarely thought to be caused by DVAs. In this report, the authors present a unique case of a DVA that hemorrhaged spontaneously, rather than hemorrhaging into a venous infarction following DVA thrombosis as has been more commonly reported. A 22-year-old previously healthy male presented to the emergency department with a severe headache, confusion, and progressive hemiparesis. A computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated a spontaneous left parietal intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH), with intraventricular extension and acute hydrocephalus. CT angiography did not demonstrate an underlying vascular malformation. The patient was taken emergently to the operating room for a left parietal craniotomy for evacuation of the hematoma. Intraoperative pathology was consistent with a DVA Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) did not demonstrate a mass lesion, ischemic stroke, or underlying vascular malformation. An MRI obtained three years previously for headaches was normal. A postoperative diagnostic cerebral angiogram was normal. An MRI/MRA performed six months postoperatively demonstrated two foci of abnormal vessels on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), suggesting the presence of a venous vascular malformation. A diagnostic cerebral angiogram obtained six months postoperatively was again normal, including delayed imaging. Few reports have cited DVA as the sole cause of intracerebral hemorrhage. While very rare, these reports suggest hemorrhagic conversion of a venous infarction secondary to a thrombosed DVA as a possible etiology, and several provide imaging consistent with this diagnosis. This case study demonstrates a unique presentation of a hemorrhagic DVA in the absence of thrombosis or stroke. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Splenectomy Causes 10-Fold Increased Risk of Portal Venous System Thrombosis in Liver Cirrhosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xingshun; Han, Guohong; Ye, Chun; Zhang, Yongguo; Dai, Junna; Peng, Ying; Deng, Han; Li, Jing; Hou, Feifei; Ning, Zheng; Zhao, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xintong; Wang, Ran; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2016-07-19

    BACKGROUND Portal venous system thrombosis (PVST) is a life-threatening complication of liver cirrhosis. We conducted a retrospective study to comprehensively analyze the prevalence and risk factors of PVST in liver cirrhosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS All cirrhotic patients without malignancy admitted between June 2012 and December 2013 were eligible if they underwent contrast-enhanced CT or MRI scans. Independent predictors of PVST in liver cirrhosis were calculated in multivariate analyses. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the severity of PVST (any PVST, main portal vein [MPV] thrombosis >50%, and clinically significant PVST) and splenectomy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. RESULTS Overall, 113 cirrhotic patients were enrolled. The prevalence of PVST was 16.8% (19/113). Splenectomy (any PVST: OR=11.494, 95%CI=2.152-61.395; MPV thrombosis >50%: OR=29.987, 95%CI=3.247-276.949; clinically significant PVST: OR=40.415, 95%CI=3.895-419.295) and higher hemoglobin (any PVST: OR=0.974, 95%CI=0.953-0.996; MPV thrombosis >50%: OR=0.936, 95%CI=0.895-0.980; clinically significant PVST: OR=0.935, 95%CI=0.891-0.982) were the independent predictors of PVST. The prevalence of PVST was 13.3% (14/105) after excluding splenectomy. Higher hemoglobin was the only independent predictor of MPV thrombosis >50% (OR=0.952, 95%CI=0.909-0.997). No independent predictors of any PVST or clinically significant PVST were identified in multivariate analyses. Additionally, PVST patients who underwent splenectomy had a significantly higher proportion of clinically significant PVST but lower MELD score than those who did not undergo splenectomy. In all analyses, the in-hospital mortality was not significantly different between cirrhotic patient with and without PVST. CONCLUSIONS Splenectomy may increase by at least 10-fold the risk of PVST in liver cirrhosis independent of severity of liver dysfunction.

  3. Risk factors for arterial and venous thrombosis in WHO-defined essential thrombocythemia: an international study of 891 patients.

    PubMed

    Carobbio, Alessandra; Thiele, Juergen; Passamonti, Francesco; Rumi, Elisa; Ruggeri, Marco; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Randi, Maria Luigia; Bertozzi, Irene; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Antonioli, Elisabetta; Gisslinger, Heinz; Buxhofer-Ausch, Veronika; Finazzi, Guido; Gangat, Naseema; Tefferi, Ayalew; Barbui, Tiziano

    2011-06-02

    In an international collaborative study, a central histologic review identified 891 patients with essential thrombocythemia, strictly defined by World Health Organization criteria. After a median follow-up of 6.2 years, 109 (12%) patients experienced arterial (n = 79) or venous (n = 37) thrombosis. In multivariable analysis, predictors of arterial thrombosis included age more than 60 years (P = .03; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.7), thrombosis history (P = .003; HR = 2.1), cardiovascular risk factors including tobacco use, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus (P = .007; HR = 1.9), leukocytosis (> 11 × 10(9)/L; P = .04; HR = 1.7), and presence of JAK2V617F (P = .009; HR = 2.6). In contrast, only male gender predicted venous thrombosis. Platelet count more than 1000 × 10(9)/L was associated with a lower risk of arterial thrombosis (P = .007; HR = 0.4). These associations, except the one with leukocytosis, remained significant (or near significant) when analysis was restricted to JAK2V617F-positive cases. The current study clarifies the contribution of specific disease and host characteristics to the risk of arterial versus venous thrombosis in essential thrombocythemia.

  4. Sonographic and Clinical Features of Upper Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis in Critical Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Blaivas, Michael; Stefanidis, Konstantinos; Nanas, Serafim; Poularas, John; Wachtel, Mitchell; Cohen, Rubin; Karakitsos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Background-Aim. Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) is an increasingly recognized problem in the critically ill. We sought to identify the prevalence of and risk factors for UEDVT, and to characterize sonographically detected thrombi in the critical care setting. Patients and Methods. Three hundred and twenty patients receiving a subclavian or internal jugular central venous catheter (CVC) were included. When an UEDVT was detected, therapeutic anticoagulation was started. Additionally, a standardized ultrasound scan was performed to detect the extent of the thrombus. Images were interpreted offline by two independent readers. Results. Thirty-six (11.25%) patients had UEDVT and a complete scan was performed. One (2.7%) of these patients died, and 2 had pulmonary embolism (5.5%). Risk factors associated with UEDVT were presence of CVC [(odds ratio (OR) 2.716, P = 0.007)], malignancy (OR 1.483, P = 0.036), total parenteral nutrition (OR 1.399, P = 0.035), hypercoagulable state (OR 1.284, P = 0.045), and obesity (OR 1.191, P = 0.049). Eight thrombi were chronic, and 28 were acute. We describe a new sonographic sign which characterized acute thrombosis: a double hyperechoic line at the interface between the thrombus and the venous wall; but its clinical significance remains to be defined. Conclusion. Presence of CVC was a strong predictor for the development of UEDVT in a cohort of critical care patients; however, the rate of subsequent PE and related mortality was low. PMID:22655181

  5. Progressive Ischemic Stroke due to Thyroid Storm-Associated Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Natsumi; Hiraoka, Eiji; Hoshino, Masataka; Deshpande, Gautam A.; Sawada, Kana; Norisue, Yasuhiro; Tsukuda, Jumpei; Suzuki, Toshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 49 Final Diagnosis: Cerebral venous thrombosis Symptoms: Altered mental state • weakness in limbs Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Endocrinology and Metabolic Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare but fatal complication of hyperthyroidism that is induced by the hypercoagulable state of thyrotoxicosis. Although it is frequently difficult to diagnose CVT promptly, it is important to consider it in the differential diagnosis when a hyperthyroid patient presents with atypical neurologic symptoms. Care Report: A 49-year-old Japanese female with unremarkable medical history came in with thyroid storm and multiple progressive ischemic stroke identified at another hospital. Treatment for thyroid storm with beta-blocker, glucocorticoid, and potassium iodide-iodine was started and MR venography was performed on hospital day 3 for further evaluation of her progressive ischemic stroke. The MRI showed CVT, and anticoagulation therapy, in addition to the anti-thyroid agents, was initiated. The patient’s thyroid function was successfully stabilized by hospital day 10 and further progression of CVT was prevented. Conclusions: Physicians should consider CVT when a patient presents with atypical course of stroke or with atypical MRI findings such as high intensity area in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping. Not only is an early diagnosis and initiation of anticoagulation important, but identifying and treating the underlying disease is essential to avoid the progression of CVT. PMID:28228636

  6. Mechanical thrombectomy with Solitaire AB stents for the treatment of intracranial venous sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ji; Shui, Shaofeng; Han, XinWei; Guo, Dong; Li, Teng-Fei; Yan, Lei

    2016-12-01

    Background Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare clinicopathological entity with substantial diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. The appropriate management of CVST remains to be defined. Purpose To evaluate the efficiency and safety of mechanical thrombectomy with Solitaire AB stents for the treatment of intracranial venous sinus thrombosis. Material and Methods Twenty-three consecutive patients with CVST who were treated with mechanical thrombectomy using Solitaire AB stents between January 2013 and October 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The headache intensity was evaluated according to the visual analogue scale (VAS), and neurological function was assessed using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Follow-up data were available for all patients for 6-14 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) were performed at 3 and 6 months after neurointervention, and telephone interviews were performed monthly thereafter. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the evaluation data (VAS and NIHSS) at admission and discharge. Results Twenty-six Solitaire AB stents were used. No neurointervention-related complications were noted. The symptoms were significantly improved after neurointervention in all patients. The comparisons between the VAS and NIHSS evaluations at admission and discharge were significantly different ( P < 0.05). No recurrence was observed during the follow-up period. Conclusion Mechanical thrombectomy with Solitaire AB stents is safe and effective for the treatment of CVST and can significantly improve clinical symptoms. The occurrence of complications is low, and the prognosis is favorable.

  7. Venous thromboembolism and port-related thrombosis in metastatic colorectal cancer patients: a monocenter experience.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Elisabetta; Di Cicilia, Roberto; Di Battista, Monica; Morselli-Labate, Antonio Maria; Paragona, Marco; Corbelli, Jody; Macchini, Marina; Prandoni, Paolo; Biasco, Guido; Brandi, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) may occur during the natural history of neoplastic disease and is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in cancer patients. Major risk factors for VTE in cancer patients include surgery, immobilization, hospitalization, and the administration of granulopoietic and/or erythropoietic (stimulatory) agents. Chemotherapy is a supplementary independent risk factor for VTE and the use of central venous catheters (CVC) in clinical practice has increased the risk of thromboembolic events. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate CVC-related thrombosis and the VTE rate in 145 consecutive metastatic colorectal cancer patients. We observed only 2 cases of symptomatic CVC- related thrombotic events (1.38%) and 10 cases of thromboembolic events (6.9%) in our series. Only surgery for metastases was found to be significantly related to the development of VTE, with an incidence of 16.1% vs. 4.4 in patients who did not undergo surgery (p = 0.037). In addition, a history of VTE seems to be a supplementary risk factor for CVC-related thrombosis (p = 0.055).

  8. Coagulation factor VII R353Q polymorphism and the risk of puerperal cerebral venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kruthika-Vinod, T P; Nagaraja, Dindagur; Christopher, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Puerperal cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a relatively common form of stroke in young women in India. The blood coagulation factor VII (FVII) R353Q polymorphism increases the risk for venous thrombosis. Our aim was to investigate the association of FVII R353Q polymorphism with the risk of puerperal CVT. A total of 100 women with puerperal CVT and 102 age-matched women without postpartum complications were investigated. FVII R353Q genotypes were identified using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Our results showed that the homozygous FVII 353QQ genotype was present in 9% and 8% of patients and controls, respectively; and 42% of patients and 31.4% of controls had the heterozygous 353RQ genotype (odds ratio = 1.55, 95% confidence interval = 0.89-2.70; p = 0.243). Our findings suggest that the FVII R353Q polymorphism is not associated with increased risk for CVT occurring during the puerperal period in Indian women.

  9. D-dimer at venous thrombosis diagnosis is associated with risk of recurrence.

    PubMed

    Bjøri, E; Johnsen, H S; Hansen, J-B; Braekkan, S K

    2017-05-01

    Essentials Whether D-dimer at incident venous thromboembolism (VTE) can predict recurrence-risk is unknown. We explored this association in 454 cancer-free patients with a first lifetime VTE. A low D-dimer at first VTE diagnosis was associated with a low recurrence risk. The association was predominant in patients with deep vein thrombosis and unprovoked VTE. Click to hear Dr Cannegieter's presentation on venous thrombosis: prediction of recurrence SUMMARY: Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common disease with a high recurrence rate. D-dimer measured after cessation of anticoagulant therapy predicts recurrence, and is used to decide on treatment prolongation. However, whether D-dimer measured at first VTE diagnosis can be used to assess recurrence-risk is unknown. Aims To investigate the association between D-dimer, measured at first VTE diagnosis and risk of recurrent VTE. Methods Information on clinical risk factors and laboratory markers were collected in 454 cancer-free patients with a first VTE. Recurrent VTEs and deaths during follow-up (1994-2012) were recorded. Results During a median follow-up of 3.9 years, 84 patients experienced a recurrent VTE. The crude recurrence rate was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-2.9) per 100 person-years in the lower quartile of D-dimer (≤ 1500 ng mL(-1) ), and 4.9 (95% CI, 3.9-6.1) per 100 person-years in the upper three quartiles combined, yielding an absolute risk difference of 3.2 per 100 person-years. Patients with D-dimer ≤ 1500 ng mL(-1) had 54% lower recurrence-risk than patients with D-dimer > 1500 ng mL(-1) (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.25-0.82). The association was particularly pronounced among patients with unprovoked events and deep vein thrombosis, showing a 66% (HR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.15-0.74) and 68% (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.14-0.71) lower recurrence risk among patients with D-dimer ≤ 1500 ng mL(-1) , respectively. Conclusions A low D-dimer (≤ 1500 ng mL(-1) ) measured at first VTE diagnosis was

  10. Lower extremity deep venous thrombosis with fatal pulmonary thromboembolism caused by benign pelvic space-occupying lesions--an overview.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Hannah; Byard, Roger W

    2012-05-01

    Venous stasis predisposes to thrombosis. One hundred and sixty cases of fatal pulmonary thromboembolism were reviewed to determine how many cases had deep venous thromboses associated with venous blood flow reduction caused by external pressure from benign pelvic masses. Three cases were identified, representing 2% of cases overall (3/160): a 44-year-old woman with a large uterine leiomyoma (1048 g); a 74-year-old man with prostatomegaly and bladder distension (containing 1 L of urine); and a 70-year-old man with prostatomegaly and bladder distension (containing 3 L of urine). Although a rare cause of fatal deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism, space-occupying pelvic lesions can lead to extrinsic pressure on adjacent veins reducing blood flow and causing stasis and thrombosis. Individuals with large pelvic masses may, therefore, be at increased risk of pulmonary thromboembolism from deep venous thrombosis, particularly in the presence of concurrent risk factors such as immobility, thrombophilias, malignancy, and significant cardiopulmonary disease.

  11. Autoantibodies against the Fibrinolytic Receptor, Annexin A2, in Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Cesarman-Maus, Gabriela; Cantú-Brito, Carlos; Barinagarrementeria, Fernando; Villa, Rosario; Reyes, Elba; Sanchez-Guerrero, Jorge; Hajjar, Katherine A; Latorre, Ethel Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) may be a manifestation of underlying autoimmune disease. Antibodies against annexin A2 (anti-A2Ab) coincide with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), in which antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLA) are associated with thrombosis in any vascular bed. Annexin A2, a profibrinolytic receptor and binding site for β2-glycoprotein-I (β2-GPI), the main target for aPLA, is highly expressed on cerebral endothelium. Here we evaluate the prevalence of anti-A2Ab in CVT. Methods Forty individuals with objectively documented CVT (33 women and 7 men) and 145 healthy controls were prospectively studied for hereditary and acquired prothrombotic risk factors, classical aPLA, and anti-A2Ab. Results One or more prothrombotic risk factors were found in 85% of CVT subjects, (pregnancy/puerperium in 57.5%, classical aPLA in 22.5%, and hereditary procoagulant risk factors in 17.5%). Anti-A2Ab (titer >3SD) were significantly more prevalent in patients with CVT (12.5%) than in healthy individuals (2.1%, p<0.01, OR:5.9). Conclusions Anti-A2Ab are significantly associated with CVT, and may define a subset of individuals with immune-mediated cerebral thrombosis. PMID:21193750

  12. Role of platelets, neutrophils, and factor XII in spontaneous venous thrombosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Heestermans, Marco; Salloum-Asfar, Salam; Salvatori, Daniela; Laghmani, El Houari; Luken, Brenda M.; Zeerleder, Sacha S.; Spronk, Henri M. H.; Korporaal, Suzanne J.; Wagenaar, Gerry T. M.; Reitsma, Pieter H.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, platelets, neutrophils, and factor XII (FXII) have been implicated as important players in the pathophysiology of venous thrombosis. Their role became evident in mouse models in which surgical handling was used to provoke thrombosis. Inhibiting anticoagulation in mice by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Serpinc1 and Proc also results in a thrombotic phenotype, which is spontaneous (no additional triggers) and reproducibly results in clots in the large veins of the head and fibrin deposition in the liver. This thrombotic phenotype is fatal but can be fully rescued by thrombin inhibition. The mouse model was used in this study to investigate the role of platelets, neutrophils, and FXII. After administration of siRNAs targeting Serpinc1 and Proc, antibody-mediated depletion of platelets fully abrogated the clinical features as well as microscopic aspects in the head. This was corroborated by strongly reduced fibrin deposition in the liver. Whereas neutrophils were abundant in siRNA-triggered thrombotic lesions, antibody-mediated depletion of circulating Ly6G-positive neutrophils did not affect onset, severity, or thrombus morphology. In addition, absence of circulating neutrophils did not affect quantitative liver fibrin deposition. Remarkably, siRNA-mediated depletion of plasma FXII accelerated the onset of the clinical phenotype; mice were affected with more severe thrombotic lesions. To summarize, in this study, onset and severity of the thrombotic phenotype are dependent on the presence of platelets but not circulating neutrophils. Unexpectedly, FXII has a protective effect. This study challenges the proposed roles of neutrophils and FXII in venous thrombosis pathophysiology. PMID:26932804

  13. Venous thrombosis risk associated with plasma hypofibrinolysis is explained by elevated plasma levels of TAFI and PAI-1.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Mirjam E; Lisman, Ton; de Groot, Philip G; Meijers, Joost C M; le Cessie, Saskia; Doggen, Carine J M; Rosendaal, Frits R

    2010-07-08

    Elevated plasma clot lysis time (CLT) increases risk of venous and arterial thrombosis. It is unclear which fibrinolytic factors contribute to thrombosis risk. In 743 healthy control subjects we investigated determinants of CLT. By comparison with 770 thrombosis patients, we assessed plasma levels of fibrinolytic proteins as risk factors for a first thrombosis. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were the main determinants of CLT, followed by plasminogen, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), prothrombin, and alpha2-antiplasmin. Fibrinogen, factor VII, X, and XI contributed minimally. These proteins explained 77% of variation in CLT. Levels of the fibrinolytic factors were associated with thrombosis risk (odds ratios, highest quartile vs lowest, adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index: 1.6 for plasminogen, 1.2 for alpha2-antiplasmin, 1.6 for TAFI, 1.6 for PAI-1, and 1.8 for tissue plasminogen activator [t-PA]). Adjusting for acute-phase proteins attenuated the risk associated with elevated plasminogen levels. The risk associated with increased t-PA nearly disappeared after adjusting for acute-phase proteins and endothelial activation. TAFI and PAI-1 remained associated with thrombosis after extensive adjustment. In conclusion, CLT reflects levels of all fibrinolytic factors except t-PA. Plasminogen, TAFI, PAI-1, and t-PA are associated with venous thrombosis. However, plasminogen and t-PA levels may reflect underlying risk factors.

  14. Complications of Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheters: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jose Amo-Setién, Francisco; Herrero-Montes, Manuel; Olavarría-Beivíde, Encarnación; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Mercedes; Torres-Manrique, Blanca; Rodríguez-de la Vega, Carlos; Caso-Álvarez, Vanesa; González-Parralo, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim The use of venous catheters is a widespread practice, especially in oncological and oncohematological units. The objective of this study was to evaluate the complications associated with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in a cohort of patients. Materials and Methods In this retrospective cohort study, we included all patient carrying PICCs (n = 603) inserted at our institute between October 2010 and December 2013. The main variables collected were medical diagnosis, catheter care, location, duration of catheterization, reasons for catheter removal, complications, and nursing care. Complications were classified as infection, thrombosis, phlebitis, migration, edema, and/or ecchymosis. Results All patients were treated according to the same “nursing care” protocol. The incidence rate of complications was two cases per 1000 days of catheter duration. The most relevant complications were infection and thrombosis, both with an incidence of 0.17 cases per 1000 days of the total catheterization period. The total average duration of catheterization was 170 days [SD 6.06]. Additionally to “end of treatment” (48.42%) and “exitus”, (22.53%) the most frequent cause of removal was migration (displacement towards the exterior) of the catheter (5.80%). Conclusions PICCs are safe devices that allow the administration of long-term treatment and preserve the integrity of the venous system of the patient. Proper care of the catheter is very important to improve the quality life of patients with oncologic and hematologic conditions. Therefore, correct training of professionals and patients as well as following the latest scientific recommendations are particularly relevant. PMID:27588946

  15. A nonsense polymorphism in the protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor increases the risk for venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Corral, Javier; González-Conejero, Rocio; Soria, Jose Manuel; González-Porras, Jose Ramón; Pérez-Ceballos, Elena; Lecumberri, Ramón; Roldán, Vanessa; Souto, Juan Carlos; Miñano, Antonia; Hernández-Espinosa, David; Alberca, Ignacio; Fontcuberta, Jordi; Vicente, Vicente

    2006-01-01

    The protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor (ZPI) is a hemostatic serpin with anticoagulant activity. As for antithrombin, deficiency of ZPI could have relevant thrombotic consequences. We have studied 6 genetic modifications affecting the ZPI gene, identifying 5 haplotypes. Haplotype H5 is featured by a stop codon at position 67. The relevance of these genetic modifications and haplotypes in venous thrombosis was evaluated in a case-control study including 1018 patients and 1018 age- and sex-matched controls. Surprisingly, the H5 haplotype was found in 0.9% of controls, supporting that the Arg67Stop change is a low frequency nonsense polymorphism. The prevalence of this haplotype increased significantly in patients (3.0%), one of whom was in a homozygous state. Multivariate analysis confirms that carriers have a 3.3-fold risk of developing venous thrombosis (P = .002; 95% CI: 1.5-7.1). Moreover, we observed a significant association of this polymorphism with familial history of thrombosis (P < .001). Our study supports that the ZPI Arg67Stop nonsense polymorphism might be an independent genetic risk factor for venous thrombosis. This polymorphism has slightly lower prevalence but similar thrombotic risk than the FV Leiden or prothrombin 20210A. Although further studies are required, all available data support that the ZPI is a candidate to play a significant role in thrombosis and should be evaluated in thrombophilic studies. (Blood. 2006;108:177-183) PMID:16527896

  16. Use of a Trellis Device for Endovascular Treatment of Venous Thrombosis Involving a Duplicated Inferior Vena Cava

    SciTech Connect

    Saettele, Megan R.; Morelli, John N.; Chesis, Paul; Wible, Brandt C.

    2013-12-15

    Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are increasingly recognized with CT and venography techniques. Although many patients with IVC anomalies are asymptomatic, recent studies have suggested an association with venous thromboembolism. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with extensive venous clot involving the infrarenal segment of a duplicated left IVC who underwent pharmacomechanical thrombectomy and tissue plasminogen activator catheter-directed thrombolysis with complete deep venous thrombosis resolution. To our knowledge this is the first reported case in the English literature of the use of a Trellis thrombectomy catheter in the setting of duplicated IVC.

  17. Placement of a Retrievable Guenther Tulip Filter in the Superior Vena Cava for Upper Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nadkarni, Sanjay; Macdonald, Sumaira; Cleveland, Trevor J.; Gaines, Peter A.

    2002-12-15

    A retrievable Guenther Tulip caval filter(William Cook, Europe) was successfully placed and retrieved in the superior vena cava for upper extremity deep venous thrombosis in a 56-year-old woman. Bilateral subclavian and internal jugular venous thromboses thought secondary to placement of multiple central venous catheters were present. There have been reports of the use of permanent Greenfield filters and a single case report of a temporary filter in the superior vena cava. As far as we are aware this is the first reported placement and successful retrieval of a filter in these circumstances.

  18. Pregnancy-related venous thrombosis: comparison between spontaneous and ART conception in an Italian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Villani, Michela; Dentali, Francesco; Colaizzo, Donatella; Tiscia, Giovanni Luca; Vergura, Patrizia; Petruccelli, Tiziana; Petruzzelli, Francesco; Ageno, Walter; Margaglione, Maurizio; Grandone, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate in an Italian cohort the incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) in pregnancies after assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Setting Thrombosis and Haemostasis Unit at I.R.C.C.S. ‘Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza’, S. Giovanni Rotondo. Participants A prospective cohort of 998 women advised to undergo ART was referred by local fertility clinics from April 2002 to July 2011. Follow-up information was obtained during the check-up and/or by phone interviews. In a cohort of women who consecutively gave birth (n=3339) after spontaneous conception in our Institution, information on the diagnoses of pregnancy-related venous thromboses was obtained by linkage to a patient administrative register. Primary and secondary outcome measures We calculated the incidence of VTE and superficial venous thrombosis in successful ART cycles and compared it with that of the general population conceiving spontaneously. Results Overall, 684 ART cycles were carried out by 234 women, who achieved a clinical pregnancy; in case of more than one successful cycle, only the first pregnancy was considered. Three vein thromboses (two VTE and one superficial vein thrombosis) were recorded. An antithrombotic prophylaxis with LMWH alone or combined with low-dose aspirin was prescribed in 23/234 (9.8%) women. In the reference cohort of 3339 women, a total of 11 vein thromboses were observed: six VTE and five SVT. The two-tailed Fisher exact test showed a trend towards statistical significance (p: 0.06, OR: 3.9, 95% CI 0.87 to 15.3). After the exclusion of superficial thromboses in both the groups, we found that the incidence of VTE in our population of women who had undergone ART was 2/234 pregnancies (8.5 ‰), whereas that in our reference population was 6/3339 (1.8 ‰) (p: 0.09). Conclusions Our data show a slightly higher incidence of vein thromboses in pregnancies after ART than in those after natural conception. PMID:26443651

  19. Iliocaval Stenosis and Iliac Venous Thrombosis in Retroperitoneal Fibrosis: Percutaneous Treatment by Use of Hydrodynamic Thrombectomy and Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Vorwerk, Dierk; Guenther, Rolf W.; Wendt, Georg; Neuerburg, Joerg; Schuermann, Karl

    1996-11-15

    A case of bilateral iliac stenosis and caval stenosis due to retroperitoneal fibrosis was treated by caval stenting and iliac balloon angioplasty, but was complicated by subsequent iliac thrombosis. Venous thrombectomy was successfully achieved by hydrodynamic thrombectomy, and iliac patency was stabilized by bilateral stent insertion.

  20. Serial imaging and SWAN sequence of developmental venous anomaly thrombosis with hematoma: Diagnosis and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Monique, Boukobza; Sandra, Calvez; Marie-Cécile, Henry-Feugeas; Jean-Pierre, Laissy

    2017-09-01

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are usually asymptomatic. We report a case of DVA thrombosis with recurrent tiny frontal hematoma in a 24-year-old man. The contribution of T2-GRE and SWAN sequences are discussed. Follow-up attested complete recanalization after anticoagulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Value of serial platelet indices measurements for the prediction of pulmonary embolism in patients with deep venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Sevuk, Utkan; Bahadir, Mehmet Veysi; Altindag, Rojhat; Baysal, Erkan; Yaylak, Baris; Ay, Nurettin; Ayaz, Firat; Demirtas, Ertan

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, no validated biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity have been established for diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT). There is a need to develop simple and reliable noninvasive tests that can accurately identify patients with PE, even in small hospitals or clinics. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) for predicting occurrence of PE in patients with DVT. Methods Records of acute DVT patients were reviewed retrospectively. Group 1 consisted of 50 patients with acute DVT and group 2 consisted of 50 patients with acute DVT who developed PE during follow-up. The control group consisted of patients with uncomplicated primary varicose veins of the lower limbs. Venous peripheral blood samples for measurement of MPV, PDW, and platelet count were drawn on admission, before the treatment, and at the time of PE diagnosis. Results MPV and PDW levels at the time of PE diagnosis were higher in group 2 than group 1 (P<0.001 and P=0.026, respectively). Receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed that a 5.2% increase in admission PDW during follow-up provided 70% sensitivity and 82% specificity (area under the curve, 0.80), and a 6.6% increase in admission MPV during follow-up provided 74% sensitivity and 83% specificity (area under the curve, 0.84) for prediction of PE occurrence in patients with DVT. PDW and MPV levels at the time of PE diagnosis were found to be independent risk factors for the occurrence of PE in patients with DVT. Conclusion Serial measurements of MPV and PDW, and percent change in MPV and PDW appears to be a useful marker for predicting occurrence of acute PE in patients with a first episode of acute proximal DVT. PMID:26316769

  2. Early pregnancy cerebral venous thrombosis and status epilepticus treated with levetiracetam and lacosamide throughout pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ylikotila, Pauli; Ketola, Raimo A; Timonen, Susanna; Malm, Heli; Ruuskanen, Jori O

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon cause of stroke, accounting to less than 1% of all strokes. We describe a pregnant woman with a massive CVT in early pregnancy, complicated by status epilepticus. The mother was treated with levetiracetam, lacosamide, and enoxaparin throughout pregnancy. A male infant was born on pregnancy week 36, weighing 2.2kg. Both levetiracetam and and lacosamide were present in cord blood in levels similar to those in maternal blood. The infant was partially breast-fed and experienced poor feeding and sleepiness, starting to resolve after two first weeks. Milk samples were drawn 5 days after the delivery and a blood sample from the infant 3 days later. Lacosamide level in milk was low, resulting in an estimated relative infant dose of 1.8% of the maternal weight-adjusted daily dose in a fully breast-fed infant. This is the first case describing lacosamide use during pregnancy and lactation.

  3. Management of occlusion and thrombosis associated with long-term indwelling central venous catheters

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, Jacquelyn L.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Reiss, Ulrike; Wilimas, Judith A.; Metzger, Monika L.; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Howard, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term central venous catheters (CVC) facilitate care for patients with chronic illnesses, but catheter occlusions and catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) are common complications. This review summarizes management of CVC and CRT. Mechanical CVC occlusions require cause-specific therapy; whereas, thrombotic occlusions usually resolve with thrombolytic therapy, such as alteplase. Prophylaxis with thrombolytic flushes may decrease CVC infections and CRT, but confirmatory studies and cost-effectiveness analysis are needed. Risk factors for CRT include previous catheter infections, malposition of the catheter tip, and prothrombotic states. CRT can lead to catheter infection, pulmonary embolism, and post-thrombotic syndrome. CRT is diagnosed primarily using Doppler ultrasound or venography and treated with anticoagulation for 6 weeks to a year, depending on the extent of the thrombus, response to initial therapy, and whether thrombophilic factors persist. Prevention of CRT includes proper positioning of the CVC and prevention of infections; anticoagulation prophylaxis is not recommended at present. PMID:19595350

  4. An unusual presentation of cortical venous thrombosis and its association with typical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Andole, Sreeman Narayan

    2011-10-04

    A 41-year-old patient with schizophrenia was admitted to hospital following episodes of unexplained collapse attacks and on and off episodes of frontal headaches for 3 months. After three such episodes of loss of consciousness in 2 weeks duration and subsequent spontaneous recovery, his evaluation which included MRI scan of head revealed extensive cortical venous thrombosis. He was on zuclopenthixol (thioxanthene group) for several months for schizophrenia and was under regular psychiatric evaluation. He was treated for simple lower respiratory infection a week prior to admission. Other causes for any clotting disorders including vasculitic and thrombophilic screen were negative. There was no evidence of focal neurology on examination. Systemic examination was otherwise unremarkable. He was treated initially with unfractionated heparin and subsequently changed to warfarin with target international normalised ratio between two and three for at least 6 months and psychiatrist was advised to stop zuclopenthixol.

  5. Quantitative ultrasound venous valve movement: early diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhd Suberi, Anis Azwani; Wan Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani; Tomari, Razali; Ibrahim, Nabilah

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth analysis of computer aided system for the early diagnosis of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT). Normally, patients are diagnosed with DVT through ultrasound examination after they have a serious complication. Thus, this study proposes a new approach to reduce the risk of recurrent DVT by tracking the venous valve movement behaviour. Inspired by image processing technology, several image processing methods namely, image enhancement, segmentation and morphological have been implemented to improve the image quality for further tracking procedure. In segmentation, Otsu thresholding provides a significant result in segmenting valve structure. Subsequently, morphological dilation method is able to enhance the region shape of the valve distinctly and precisely. Lastly, image subtraction method is presented and evaluated to track the valve movement. Based on the experimental results the normal range of valve velocity lies within the range of blood flow velocity (Vb) and occasionally may result in higher values.

  6. A survey of pediatric hematology/oncology specialists regarding management of central line associated venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Witmer, Char M; Sauck, Emily; Raffini, Leslie J

    2016-12-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) account for the largest proportion of thrombotic events in pediatric patients. Questions remain regarding adequate treatment and prevention methods. We surveyed pediatric hematology/oncology specialists, using hypothetical cases to assess management strategies for acute CVC thrombosis and secondary prevention. Survey respondents varied in the use of the thrombophilia evaluation (33.3%, 41/123) and duration of treatment (6 weeks: 54.1%, 66/122). Secondary CVC prophylaxis was utilized by 36.6% (45/123) of respondents and by 24.4% (30/123) but only if there was a documented thrombophilia. This heterogeneity highlights the need for clinical studies to address these important clinical questions.

  7. Decision-theoretic refinement planning in medical decision making: management of acute deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Haddawy, P; Doan, A; Kahn, C E

    1996-01-01

    Decision-theoretic refinement planning is a new technique for finding optimal courses of action. The authors sought to determine whether this technique could identify optimal strategies for medical diagnosis and therapy. An existing model of acute deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities was encoded for analysis by the decision-theoretic refinement planning system (DRIPS). The encoding represented 6,206 possible plans. The DRIPS planner used artificial intelligence techniques to eliminate 5,150 plans (83%) from consideration without examining them explicitly. The DRIPS system identified the five strategies that minimized cost and mortality. The authors conclude that decision-theoretic planning is useful for examining large medical-decision problems.

  8. The Role of Interventional Radiology in the Management of Deep Venous Thrombosis: Advanced Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, Gerard J.

    2011-06-15

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is often managed with a health care pathway that funnels patients to anticoagulation therapy alone. This 'usual treatment' is designed to stop propagation and embolisation of venous thrombus but not remove it. Surgical thrombectomy was once the only option in severe cases in which limbs were threatened, but thrombus removal is no longer restricted to emergency cases. Interventional radiologists are now using advanced endovascular techniques to achieve thrombus removal in a minimally invasive manner in a very short treatment time, thereby quickly restoring patency, relieving acute symptoms, and potentially limiting the subsequent development of postthrombotic syndrome when followed with anticoagulation and compression regimens. This article provides an overview of the interventions available for treating DVT. One of the newer 'single-session' techniques is isolated pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, which is described here in detail with supporting cases.

  9. Peripherally Placed Totally Implantable Venous-access Port Systems of the Forearm: Clinical Experience in 763 Consecutive Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Goltz, Jan P. Scholl, Anne; Ritter, Christian O.; Wittenberg, Guenther; Hahn, Dietbert; Kickuth, Ralph

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of percutaneously placed totally implantable venous-access ports (TIVAPs) of the forearm. Between January 2006 and October 2008, peripheral TIVAPs were implanted in 763 consecutive patients by ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance. All catheters were implanted under local anesthesia and were tunneled subcutaneously. Indication, technical success, and complications were retrospectively analyzed according to Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) criteria. Presence of antibiotic prophylaxis, periprocedurally administered drugs (e.g., sedation), and laboratory results at the time of implantation were analyzed. Maintenance during the service interval was evaluated. In total, 327,499 catheter-days were analyzed. Technical success rate was 99.3%. Reasons for initial failure of implantation were either unexpected thrombosis of the subclavian vein, expanding tumor mass of the mediastinum, or failure of peripheral venous access due to fragile vessels. Mean follow-up was 430 days. There were 115 complications observed (15.1%, 0.03 per 100 catheter-days), of which 33 (4.3%) were classified as early (within 30 days from implantation) and 82 (10.7%) as late. Catheter-related venous thrombosis was found in 65 (8.5%) of 763 (0.02 per 100 catheter-days) TIVAPs. Infections were observed in 41 (5.4%) of 763 (0.01 per 100 catheter-days) devices. Other complications observed included dislocation of the catheter tip (0.8%), occlusion (0.1%), or rupture (0.1%) of the port catheter. Dislocated catheters were corrected during a second interventional procedure. In conclusion, implantation of percutaneously placed peripheral TIVAPs shows a high technical success rate and low risk of early complications when ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance are used. Late complications are observed three times as often as early complications.

  10. Emergency Department Management of Suspected Calf-Vein Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Diagnostic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, Levi; Lawrence, Matthew; Speicher, Matthew; Frumkin, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Unilateral leg swelling with suspicion of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common emergency department (ED) presentation. Proximal DVT (thrombus in the popliteal or femoral veins) can usually be diagnosed and treated at the initial ED encounter. When proximal DVT has been ruled out, isolated calf-vein deep venous thrombosis (IC-DVT) often remains a consideration. The current standard for the diagnosis of IC-DVT is whole-leg vascular duplex ultrasonography (WLUS), a test that is unavailable in many hospitals outside normal business hours. When WLUS is not available from the ED, recommendations for managing suspected IC-DVT vary. The objectives of the study is to use current evidence and recommendations to (1) propose a diagnostic algorithm for IC-DVT when definitive testing (WLUS) is unavailable; and (2) summarize the controversy surrounding IC-DVT treatment. Discussion The Figure combines D-dimer testing with serial CUS or a single deferred FLUS for the diagnosis of IC-DVT. Such an algorithm has the potential to safely direct the management of suspected IC-DVT when definitive testing is unavailable. Whether or not to treat diagnosed IC-DVT remains widely debated and awaiting further evidence. Conclusion When IC-DVT is not ruled out in the ED, the suggested algorithm, although not prospectively validated by a controlled study, offers an approach to diagnosis that is consistent with current data and recommendations. When IC-DVT is diagnosed, current references suggest that a decision between anticoagulation and continued follow-up outpatient testing can be based on shared decision-making. The risks of proximal progression and life-threatening embolization should be balanced against the generally more benign natural history of such thrombi, and an individual patient’s risk factors for both thrombus propagation and complications of anticoagulation. PMID:27429688

  11. Large Cohort Study of Central Venous Catheter Thrombosis during Intravenous Antibiotic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Guillet, Stéphanie; Zeller, Valérie; Dubée, Vincent; Ducroquet, Françoise; Desplaces, Nicole; Horellou, Marie Hélène; Marmor, Simon; Ziza, Jean Marc

    2015-10-12

    The frequency and risk factors for central venous catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) during prolonged intravenous (i.v.) antibiotic therapy have rarely been reported. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency, incidence, and risk factors for CRT among patients being treated with prolonged i.v. antibiotic therapy. The secondary objective was to describe the clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and clinical management. This cohort study was conducted between August 2004 and May 2010 in a French referral center for osteoarticular infections. All patients treated for bone and joint infections with i.v. antimicrobial therapy through a central venous catheter (CVC) for ≥2 weeks were included. Risk factors were identified using nonparametric tests and logistic regression. A case-control study investigated the role of vancomycin and catheter malposition. A total of 892 patients matched the inclusion criteria. CRT developed in 16 infections occurring in 16 patients (incidence, 0.39/1,000 catheter days). The median time to a CRT was 29 days (range, 12 to 48 days). Local clinical signs, fever, and secondary complications of CRT were present in 15, 8, and 4 patients, respectively. The median C-reactive protein level was 95 mg/liter. The treatment combined catheter removal and a median of 3 months (1.5 to 6 months) of anticoagulation therapy. The outcome was good in all patients, with no recurrence of CRT. Three risk factors were identified by multivariate analysis: male sex (odds ratio [OR], 5.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 26.6), catheter malposition (OR, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.6 to 17.9), and use of vancomycin (OR, 22.9; 95% CI, 2.8 to 188). Catheter-related thrombosis is a rare but severe complication in patients treated with prolonged antimicrobial therapy. Vancomycin use was the most important risk factor identified. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in pregnancy and puerperium: A pooled, systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kashkoush, Ahmed I; Ma, Henry; Agarwal, Nitin; Panczykowski, David; Tonetti, Daniel; Weiner, Gregory M; Ares, William; Kenmuir, Cynthia; Jadhav, Ashutosh; Jovin, Tudor; Jankowitz, Brian T; Gross, Bradley A

    2017-05-01

    Pregnancy and puerperium are risk factors for cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST); however studies describing diagnosis and management in this population are limited. The objective of this study was to amalgamate published case reports and series regarding diagnosis and management of CVST in pregnancy and puerperium. Searches of PubMed and the Cochrane library were performed using search terms "pregnancy"/"puerperium" and "sinus occlusion"/"sinus thrombosis". Studies were included in our pooled analysis if they included individual patient symptoms, management approach and follow-up condition. Multivariate regression was utilized to assess the effect of non-modifiable factors on excellent outcome (mRS 0). Sixty-six patients were included. Mean duration of symptom onset to diagnosis was 5.9days (95% CI 4.2-7.6). Clot involvement of the superior sagittal sinus was seen in 67% of cases, the transverse/sigmoid in 64% and of the deep venous system in 15% of cases. Management approaches included anticoagulation (91% of patients), IA (intra-arterial) thrombolysis alone (26%), and IA thrombectomy with IA thrombolysis (8%). Fifty-nine percent of patients were mRS 0 at follow-up; 94% were mRS 0-2. Presentation with headache alone was associated with excellent outcome on multivariate analysis (p=0.04); coma/obtundation predicted against excellent outcome (p=0.03). As compared to IA thrombolysis alone, patients undergoing IA thrombolysis with IA thrombectomy demonstrated a trend toward better outcome (p=0.10). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cerebral venous thrombosis in a Mexican multicenter registry of acute cerebrovascular disease: the RENAMEVASC study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sandoval, José L; Chiquete, Erwin; Bañuelos-Becerra, L Jacqueline; Torres-Anguiano, Carolina; González-Padilla, Christian; Arauz, Antonio; León-Jiménez, Carolina; Murillo-Bonilla, Luis M; Villarreal-Careaga, Jorge; Barinagarrementería, Fernando; Cantú-Brito, Carlos

    2012-07-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare form of cerebrovascular disease that is usually not mentioned in multicenter registries on all-type acute stroke. We aimed to describe the experience on hospitalized patients with CVT in a Mexican multicenter registry on acute cerebrovascular disease. CVT patients were selected from the RENAMEVASC registry, which was conducted between 2002 and 2004 in 25 Mexican hospitals. Risk factors, neuroimaging, and 30-day outcome as assessed by the modified Rankin scale (mRS) were analyzed. Among 2000 all-type acute stroke patients, 59 (3%; 95% CI, 2.3-3.8%) had CVT (50 women; female:male ratio, 5:1; median age, 31 years). Puerperium (42%), contraceptive use (18%), and pregnancy (12%) were the main risk factors in women. In 67% of men, CVT was registered as idiopathic, but thrombophilia assessment was suboptimal. Longitudinal superior sinus was the most frequent thrombosis location (78%). Extensive (>5 cm) venous infarction occurred in 36% of patients. Only 81% of patients received anticoagulation since the acute phase, and 3% needed decompressive craniectomy. Mechanical ventilation (13.6%), pneumonia (10.2%) and systemic thromboembolism (8.5%) were the main in-hospital complications. The 30-day case fatality rate was 3% (2 patients; 95% CI, 0.23-12.2%). In a Cox proportional hazards model, only age <40 years was associated with a mRS score of 0 to 2 (functional independence; rate ratio, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.34-8.92). The relative frequency of CVT and the associated in-hospital complications were higher than in other registries. Thrombophilia assessment and acute treatment was suboptimal. Young age is the main determinant of a good short-term outcome. Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Literature search parameters marginally improved the pooled estimate accuracy for ultrasound in detecting deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kassaï, Behrouz; Sonié, Sandrine; Shah, Nirav R; Boissel, Jean-Pierre

    2006-07-01

    Data collection remains of utmost importance to avoid publication bias in systematic reviews. Our objectives were to compare search strategies with and without methodological terms in Medline, to find out how other databases complement Medline, and how these strategies affect the pooled estimates of the accuracy. A study was eligible if it prospectively compared ultrasound to venography for the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis in the lower limbs. All relevant articles found with all databases, searched from 1966 through 2003, constitute the reference standard. Sensitivity was defined as the proportion of relevant studies found by Medline searches divided by the total number of articles in the reference standard. Of a total of 1,473 citations, 237 abstracts were included. The sensitivity of strategies without methodological terms was higher (96%) than those with (95%, 76%, and 95%). Searches of multiple databases found seven articles not found with Medline. Searches of congress proceedings (International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis) found three abstracts not published in full. The diagnostic odds ratio OR was 5.66 (95% confidence interval CI = 4.84-6.48) when multiple databases were searched and 5.57 (95% CI = 3.49-7.65) when only English-language articles in Medline were identified. Medline searches combining free text and MeSH terms were more sensitive. Single Medline search affects only marginally the pooled estimate accuracy.

  15. Acute venous thrombosis as complication and clue to diagnose a SAPHO syndrome case. A case report.

    PubMed

    Rosero, A; Ruano, R; Martin, M; Hidalgo, C; Garcia-Talavera, J

    2013-01-01

    This report concerns a male adult admitted for sternal and left arm pain, who was diagnosed and treated for acute deep venous thrombosis in the left subclavian and axillary veins. X-ray and a hybrid single photon emission tomography and computed tomography (SPECT-CT) scintigraphy scan revealed high intensity uptake in both sternoclavicular joints, which corresponded to hyperostosis, thereby suggesting a SAPHO syndrome. Upon reviewing the patient's medical history, we found dermatological pustulosis disease and an intermittent sternal chest pain untreated since 10 years ago. In the biochemical study we found erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation, hyperglobulinemia, and mild anaemia. Initial treatment included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with low response, which then changed to methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and prednisone. The patient's pain was controlled almost completely in 10 months. A control bone scan revealed a marked decrease in intensity of bone deposits according to clinical response. To our knowledge, there are only a few cases of SAPHO and thrombosis and none are followed up with a bone SPECT-CT scan.

  16. Impact of Classical Risk Factors for Arterial or Venous Thrombosis in Patients With Antiphospholipid Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Carpentieri, Daniel; Castillo-Hernandez, Maria Del Carmen; Majluf-Cruz, Karim; Espejo-Godinez, Guillermo; Carmona-Olvera, Paola; Moreno-Hernandez, Manuel; Lugo-García, Yolanda; Hernandez-Juarez, Jesús; Loarca-Piña, Luis; Isordia-Salas, Irma; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    There are classical risk factors associated with arterial thrombosis (AT) or venous thromboembolic disease (VTD). However, less is known about these risk factors and AT or VTD episodes in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Our aim was to elucidate whether APS-related thrombotic episodes are associated with the same risk factors as the non-APS population. We gathered demographics, medical history, complications, and causes of death associated with the risk factors for AT or VTD in patients with APS. We analyzed 677 thrombotic events in 386 patients. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and grade 3 obesity were associated with VTD instead of AT. There were no significant differences between the groups for almost all laboratory tests analyzed, although lupus anticoagulant was significantly higher in the VTD group. We suggest that thrombosis in APS is due to the APS itself and that the risks factors for AT or VTD do not have a main role. Our findings may have an ethnical background. Therefore, it may be difficult to elaborate predictive thrombotic clinical scores applicable to patients with different ethnical background.

  17. Management of Venous Thromboembolisms: Part I. The Consensus for Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kang-Ling; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Lee, Cheng-Han; Pai, Pei-Ying; Lin, Pao-Yen; Shyu, Kou-Gi; Chang, Wei-Tien; Chiu, Kuan-Ming; Huang, Chien-Lung; Lee, Chung-Yi; Lin, Yen-Hung; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Yin, Wei-Hsian; Yeh, Hung-I; Chiang, Chern-En; Lin, Shing-Jong; Yeh, San-Jou

    2016-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a potentially catastrophic condition because thrombosis, left untreated, can result in detrimental pulmonary embolism. Yet in the absence of thrombosis, anticoagulation increases the risk of bleeding. In the existing literature, knowledge about the epidemiology of DVT is primarily based on investigations among Caucasian populations. There has been little information available about the epidemiology of DVT in Taiwan, and it is generally believed that DVT is less common in Asian patients than in Caucasian patients. However, DVT is a multifactorial disease that represents the interaction between genetic and environmental factors, and the majority of patients with incident DVT have either inherited thrombophilia or acquired risk factors. Furthermore, DVT is often overlooked. Although symptomatic DVT commonly presents with lower extremity pain, swelling and tenderness, diagnosing DVT is a clinical challenge for physicians. Such a diagnosis of DVT requires a timely systematic assessment, including the use of the Wells score and a D-dimer test to exclude low-risk patients, and imaging modalities to confirm DVT. Compression ultrasound with high sensitivity and specificity is the front-line imaging modality in the diagnostic process for patients with suspected DVT in addition to conventional invasive contrast venography. Most patients require anticoagulation therapy, which typically consists of parenteral heparin bridged to a vitamin K antagonist, with variable duration. The development of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants has revolutionized the landscape of venous thromboembolism treatment, with 4 agents available,including rivaroxaban, dabigatran, apixaban, and edoxaban. Presently, all 4 drugs have finished their large phase III clinical trial programs and come to the clinical uses in North America and Europe. It is encouraging to note that the published data to date regarding Asian patients indicates that such new therapies are safe and

  18. [Neonatology nurses' knowledge about Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter].

    PubMed

    Belo, Marcela Patricia Macêdo; Silva, Roberta Albuquerque Mello de Castro; Nogueira, Isis Larissa Maia; Mizoguti, Daniele Pereira; Ventura, Claudiane Maria Urbano

    2012-01-01

    The Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) has been used as a safe venous access for infants at risk. The aim of this study was to describe the knowledge and practice of nurses from the five public Neonatal Intensive Care Units, of Recife-PE, Brazil, about the use of the PICC. The sample was comprised by 52 nurses; data were collected from January to February/2010. It was found that 64,8% of nurses did not have license for insertion of the PICC. Only two units routinely used the PICC. About the indication of the access, the accuracy was above 70%. In unit B only 8,3% of nurses reported adequate initial location of the catheter tip. It was concluded that is necessary greater incentives to train nurses to use the PICC.

  19. Hemodynamic Characterization of Peripheral Arterio-venous Malformations.

    PubMed

    Frey, Sabrina; Haine, A; Kammer, R; von Tengg-Kobligk, H; Obrist, D; Baumgartner, I

    2017-03-21

    Peripheral arterio-venous malformations (pAVMs) are congenital vascular anomalies that require treatment, due to their severe clinical consequences. The complexity of lesions often leads to misdiagnosis and ill-planned treatments. To improve disease management, we developed a computational model to quantify the hemodynamic effects of key angioarchitectural features of pAVMs. Hemodynamic results were used to predict the transport of contrast agent (CA), which allowed us to compare our findings to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) recordings of patients. The model is based on typical pAVM morphologies and a generic vessel network that represents realistic vascular feeding and draining components related to lesions. A lumped-parameter description of the vessel network was employed to compute blood pressure and flow rates. CA-transport was determined by coupling the model to a 1D advection-diffusion equation. Results show that the extent of hemodynamic effects of pAVMs, such as arterial steal and venous hypertension, strongly depends on the lesion type and its vascular architecture. Dimensions of shunting vessels strongly influence hemodynamic parameters. Our results underline the importance of the dynamics of CA-transport in diagnostic DSA images. In this context, we identified a set of temporal CA-transport parameters, which are indicative of the presence and specific morphology of pAVMs.

  20. The use of micro-/milli-fluidics to better understand the mechanisms behind deep venous thrombosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, Zoe; Alexiadis, Alessio; Brill, Alexander; Nash, Gerard; Vigolo, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a dangerous and painful condition in which blood clots form in deep veins (e.g., femoral vein). If these clots become unstable and detach from the thrombus they can be delivered to the lungs resulting in a life threatening complication called pulmonary embolism (PE). Mechanisms of clot development in veins remain unclear but researchers suspect that the specific flow patterns in veins, especially around the valve flaps, play a fundamental role. Here we show how it is now possible to mimic the current murine model by developing micro-/milli-fluidic experiments. We exploited a novel detection technique, ghost particle velocimetry (GPV), to analyse the velocity profiles for various geometries. These vary from regular microfluidics with a rectangular cross section with a range of geometries (mimicking the presence of side and back branches in veins, closed side branch and flexible valves) to a more accurate venous representation with a 3D cylindrical geometry obtained by 3D printing. In addition to the GPV experiments, we analysed the flow field developing in these geometries by using computational fluid dynamic simulations to develop a better understanding of the mechanisms behind DVT. ZS gratefully acknowledges financial support from the EPSRC through a studentship from the Sci-Phy-4-Health Centre for Doctoral Training (EP/L016346/1).

  1. Whole-Brain Computed Tomographic Perfusion Imaging in Acute Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Mokin, Maxim; Ciambella, Chelsey C.; Masud, Muhammad W.; Levy, Elad I.; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Siddiqui, Adnan H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (VST) can be difficult to diagnose because of its diverse clinical presentation. The utility of perfusion imaging for diagnosing VST is not well understood. Summary We retrospectively reviewed cases of acute VST in patients who underwent whole-brain (320-detector-row) computed tomographic (CT) perfusion imaging in combination with craniocervical CT venography. Perfusion maps that were analyzed included cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time, and time to peak. Among the 10 patients with acute VST included in this study, 9 had perfusion abnormalities. All perfusion abnormalities were localized in areas adjacent to the occluded sinus and did not match typical anterior or posterior circulation arterial territories. Bilateral perfusion deficits were seen in 4 cases. In 2 cases, parenchymal hemorrhage was diagnosed on noncontrast CT imaging; in those cases, focal CBV and CBF were reduced. Key Messages Whole-brain CT perfusion imaging with 320-detector-row scanners can further assist in establishing the diagnosis of VST by detecting perfusion abnormalities corresponding to venous and not arterial territories. CT perfusion could assist in the differentiation between focal reversible changes, such as those caused by vasogenic edema, and irreversible changes due to infarction. PMID:27051406

  2. Cerebral venous thrombosis and thrombophilia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lauw, Mandy N; Barco, Stefano; Coutinho, Jonathan M; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2013-11-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare manifestation of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and stroke. The aim of our systematic review was to provide an updated summary of the strength of association between CVT and thrombophilia and to explore the relevance of thrombophilia for recurrence of CVT or other VTE, or other outcome variables. MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE (via Ovid), and CENTRAL were systematically searched, including references of retrieved articles. Cohort studies of ≥ 40 patients and case-control studies comparing the prevalence of thrombophilia in patients with CVT and unrelated controls were eligible. Two reviewers independently selected studies, assessed quality, and extracted data. A meta-analysis was performed for high quality case-control studies with unselected cases and healthy controls. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated and pooled. We included 23 cohort studies and 33 case-control studies. A significant association was demonstrated between CVT and all inherited thrombophilic factors, as well as increased levels of homocysteine. Inconclusive results were found on the relevance of thrombophilia for recurrent CVT or other VTE. Although there is a strong association between CVT and thrombophilia, the clinical relevance of thrombophilia testing in patients with CVT seems limited, similarly to other forms of VTE.

  3. Non-contrast computed tomography in the diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Oblak, Janja Pretnar; Popovic, Katarina Surlan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) in the diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). Methods. Screening our neurological department database, we identified 53 patients who were admitted to neurological emergency department with clinical signs of CVST. Two independent observers assessed the NCCT scans for the presence of CVST. CT venography and/or MR venography were used as a reference standard. Interobserver agreement between the two readers was assessed using Kappa statistic. Attenuation inside the cerebral venous sinuses was measured and compared between the patient and the control group. Results CVST was confirmed in 13 patients. Sensitivity and specificity of NCCT for overall presence of CVST were 100% and 83%, respectively, with Kappa value of 0.72 (a good agreement between observers). The attenuation values between CVST patients and control group were significantly different (73.4 ± 14.12 HU vs. 58.1 ± 7.58 HU; p = 0.000). The ROC analysis showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.916 (95% CI, 0.827 – 1.00) and an optimal cutoff value of 64 HU, leading to a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 87%. Conclusions NCCT as a first-line investigation has a high value for diagnosis of CVST in the emergency setting. The additional measurement of the sinus attenuation may improve the diagnostic value of the examination. PMID:27679541

  4. Effects of walking in deep venous thrombosis: a new integrated solid and fluid mechanics model.

    PubMed

    López, Josep M; Fortuny, Gerard; Puigjaner, Dolors; Herrero, Joan; Marimon, Francesc; Garcia-Bennett, Josep

    2016-08-09

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common disease. Large thrombi in venous vessels cause bad blood circulation and pain; and when a blood clot detaches from a vein wall, it causes an embolism whose consequences range from mild to fatal. Walking is recommended to DVT patients as a therapeutical complement. In this study the mechanical effects of walking on a specific patient of DVT were simulated by means of an unprecedented integration of 3 elements: a real geometry, a biomechanical model of body tissues, and a computational fluid dynamics study. A set of computed tomography images of a patient's leg with a thrombus in the popliteal vein was employed to reconstruct a geometry model. Then a biomechanical model was used to compute the new deformed geometry of the vein as a function of the fiber stretch level of the semimembranosus muscle. Finally, a computational fluid dynamics study was performed to compute the blood flow and the wall shear stress (WSS) at the vein and thrombus walls. Calculations showed that either a lengthening or shortening of the semimembranosus muscle led to a decrease of WSS levels up to 10%. Notwithstanding, changes in blood viscosity properties or blood flow rate may easily have a greater impact in WSS.

  5. Prolonged clot lysis time increases the risk of a first but not recurrent venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Karasu, Alev; Baglin, Trevor P; Luddington, Roger; Baglin, Caroline A; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid

    2016-03-01

    The role of the fibrinolytic system in the development of venous thrombosis (VT) is unclear. We studied the risk of first and recurrent VT associated with reduced fibrinolysis, as measured by clot lysis time (CLT). We also studied the relationship between CLT and thrombin generation to determine if any relationship between CLT and VT was affected by thrombin generation. Analyses were performed in the Thrombophilia Hypercoagulability Environmental risk for Venous Thromboembolism Study, a two-centre population-based case-control study, including 579 patients and 338 controls, with patients followed from the event to determine incidence of recurrent VT. Hypofibrinolysis was associated with a 1·8-fold increased risk of a first VT [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·2-2·7]. Adjustment for sex, age, study location and Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) did not change the result. The risk of VT was 2·9-fold increased when the 90th percentiles of prolonged CLT and high ETP were combined, with the highest risk for unprovoked first events (Odds Ratio = 4·2, 95% CI 1·3-13·5). In the follow-up study the Hazard Ratio for a recurrent VT associated with hypofibrinolysis was 1·5 (95% CI 0·9-2·6). A weak dose response effect was observed in relation to prolongation of CLT and recurrent VT. Although hypofibrinolysis constitutes a risk factor for a first VT, an association with recurrence is, at best, weak.

  6. Upper extremity deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolus after ovarian hyperstimulation.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Anne Catherine Miller; McLean, Anna Warszawa; Ahari, Jalil

    2016-08-16

    A healthy female presented with upper extremity (UE) swelling of several days duration. Admission laboratories were normal except for an elevated D-dimer. An UE ultrasound with Doppler revealed a thrombus in the right subclavian vein. A subsequent chest CT angiogram further characterised the subclavian vein thrombus and also identified a pulmonary embolus. A thorough history and laboratory evaluation showed that her only risk factors were long-time contraceptive pills and a recent cycle of ovarian hyperstimulation (OH) 7 weeks prior to presentation. Anticoagulation treatment was started and the patient's remaining outpatient work-up was negative for all other hereditary causes. A complete anatomic work-up showed bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS). A review of the literature on the occurrence of upper extremity deep venous thrombosis suggests that these usually occur in the presence of a predisposing factor, including catheters, indwelling devices and active malignancies. OH has been shown to precipitate venous thromboembolism events; however, the diagnosis of bilateral TOS as a predisposing risk factor has not been described in a patient who had recently undergone recent OH and in one who was not actively pregnant. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Analysis of noncatheter-associated upper extremity deep venous thrombosis from the RIETE registry.

    PubMed

    Newton, Daniel H; Monreal Bosch, Manuel; Amendola, Michael; Wolfe, Luke; Perez Ductor, Cristina; Lecumberri, Ramón; Levy, Mark M

    2017-01-01

    We sought to determine the risk factors for subsequent bleeding and recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) events following isolated noncatheter-associated upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (non-CA-UEDVT) to better inform future treatment decisions for this group of patients. The RIETE registry (Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad TromboEmbólica [Computerized Registry of Patients with Venous Thromboembolism]) is a prospective international registry of patients with objectively confirmed symptomatic VTE. Patients with a symptomatic, isolated, proximal UEDVT from March 2001 through March 2015 were analyzed. Any patient with an indwelling catheter or pacemaker lead at the DVT site and at the time of thrombosis was considered to have a CA-UEDVT and was excluded. Patient and treatment characteristics such as age, gender, comorbidities, VTE risk factors, treatment drug, and duration were collected. Outcomes examined included recurrent DVT, subsequent pulmonary embolism (PE), and hemorrhage. Multivariate analysis was performed using stepwise logistic regression. Of the 1100 patients who met the study criteria, 580 (53%) were male. The mean age of the patients was 50 ± 20 years, and overall patient survival at 1 year was 85%. Recurrent VTE occurred in 59 patients (5.4%). Of these, 46 patients (4%) had recurrent DVT, 10 (0.9%) had a PE following UEDVT diagnosis, and 3 (0.3%) had both. PE was fatal in three patients (0.3%). Bleeding occurred in 50 patients (4.5%), major bleeding in 19 patients (1.7%), and fatal bleeding in 6 patients (0.5%). On multivariate analysis, malignant disease was associated with VTE recurrence (odds ratio [OR], 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-3.45; P < .04), whereas hemorrhage was associated with age (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05; P = .002) and malignant disease (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.34-4.76; P < .005). Hemorrhage and recurrent VTE were also significantly associated (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.16-6.76; P < .03). PE following non

  8. Active Ankle Movements Prevent Formation of Lower-Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis After Orthopedic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ye; Guan, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Rui; Li, Bin; Ning, Bo; Su, Wei; Sun, Tao; Li, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the preventive value of active ankle movements in the formation of lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT), attempting to develop a new method for rehabilitation nursing after orthopedic surgery. Material/Methods We randomly assigned 193 patients undergoing orthopedic surgery in the lower limbs into a case group (n=96) and a control group (n=97). The control group received routine nursing while the case group performed active ankle movements in addition to receiving routine nursing. Maximum venous outflow (MVO), maximum venous capacity (MVC), and blood rheology were measured and the incidence of DVT was recorded. Results On the 11th and 14th days of the experiment, the case group had significantly higher MVO and MVC than the control group (all P<0.05). The whole-blood viscosity at high shear rate and the plasma viscosity were significantly lower in the case group than in the control group on the 14th day (both P<0.05). During the experiment, a significantly higher overall DVT incidence was recorded in the control group (8 with asymptomatic DVT) compared with the case group (1 with asymptomatic DVT) (P=0.034). During follow-up, the case group presented a significantly lower DVT incidence (1 with symptomatic DVT and 4 with asymptomatic DVT) than in the control group (5 with symptomatic DVT and 10 with asymptomatic DVT) (P=0.031). Conclusions Through increasing MVO and MVC and reducing blood rheology, active ankle movements may prevent the formation of lower-extremity DVT after orthopedic surgery. PMID:27600467

  9. Case report: central venous catheterization via internal jugular vein with associated formation of perioperative venous thrombosis during surgery in the prone position.

    PubMed

    Minami, Kimito; Mimami, Kimito; Iida, Miki; Iida, Hiroki

    2012-06-01

    An unusual case of central venous catheter (CVC)-related thrombosis during supine surgery in the prone position is presented. A 76-year-old woman was scheduled for elective surgery to repair a broken lumbar instrument. A single-lumen CVC was inserted via the right internal jugular vein. Surgery was performed in the prone position, with the patient's face directed downward in the standard median position (i.e., no rotation), but with slight forward flexion at the neck. After the surgery, the external jugular vein was dilated, and a postoperative X-ray revealed an infiltrative shadow in the right thoracic cavity. Because cervical echography showed dilated cervical veins with a "moyamoya-type" echo, possibly indicating a thrombus, contrast-enhanced computed tomography was performed, revealing a venous thrombus in the right internal jugular vein. An internal jugular venous-velocity measurement suggested that her slightly flexed neck position and her prone position during surgery may have kinked the internal jugular vein, causing engorgement with venous blood. The presence of the internal jugular venous catheter may have created thrombogenic conditions. A patient's position during surgery can reduce deep venous-flow velocity, and venous blood may stagnate, contributing greatly to thrombogenicity. We should consider a patient's position during surgery as a risk factor for thrombus formation, and a careful preoperative evaluation should be made as to which route should be chosen for CVC.

  10. The Kallikrein Inhibitor from Bauhinia bauhinioides (BbKI) shows antithrombotic properties in venous and arterial thrombosis models.

    PubMed

    Brito, Marlon V; de Oliveira, Cleide; Salu, Bruno R; Andrade, Sonia A; Malloy, Paula M D; Sato, Ana C; Vicente, Cristina P; Sampaio, Misako U; Maffei, Francisco H A; Oliva, Maria Luiza V

    2014-05-01

    The Bauhinia bauhinioides Kallikrein Inhibitor (BbKI) is a Kunitz-type serine peptidase inhibitor of plant origin that has been shown to impair the viability of some tumor cells and to feature a potent inhibitory activity against human and rat plasma kallikrein (Kiapp 2.4 nmol/L and 5.2 nmol/L, respectively). This inhibitory activity is possibly responsible for an effect on hemostasis by prolonging activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Because the association between cancer and thrombosis is well established, we evaluated the possible antithrombotic activity of this protein in venous and arterial thrombosis models. Vein thrombosis was studied in the vena cava ligature model in Wistar rats, and arterial thrombosis in the photochemical induced endothelium lesion model in the carotid artery of C57 black 6 mice. BbKI at a concentration of 2.0 mg/kg reduced the venous thrombus weight by 65% in treated rats in comparison to rats in the control group. The inhibitor prolonged the time for total artery occlusion in the carotid artery model mice indicating that this potent plasma kallikrein inhibitor prevented thrombosis.

  11. Renal transplantation with venous drainage through the superior mesenteric vein in cases of thrombosis of the inferior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Aguirrezabalaga, Javier; Novas, Serafín; Veiga, Francisco; Chantada, Venancio; Rey, Ignacio; Gonzalez, Marcelino; Gomez, Manuel

    2002-08-15

    Renal transplantation usually is performed by placing the graft in the iliac fossa, anastomosing the renal vein to the iliac vein or, when this is not possible, to the vena cava. When vascular complications occur, particularly on the venous side, the position of the graft may have to be changed. This report describes orthotopic renal grafts and positioning of the organ with anastomosis to the splenic vessels. Venous drainage was established directly into the mesenteric-portal territory, with two cases to the portal vein and one to the inferior mesenteric vein. A new technique for the venous drainage of the renal graft is shown. We have used this model in two cases of infrarenal inferior vena cava thrombosis. The kidney was located in a retroperitoneal position, with venous drainage to the superior mesenteric vein through an orifice in the posterior peritoneum.

  12. Malposition of a Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter in the Graft Hepatic Vein.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Zeynep; Araz, Coşkun; Taşkın, Duygu; Moray, Gökhan; Torgay, Adnan

    2015-11-01

    Central venous catheters are used for delivering medications and parenteral nutrition, measuring hemodynamic variations, and providing long-term intravenous access. In our clinic, during liver transection using a living-liver donor, peripherally inserted central venous catheters are generally preferred because they involve a less invasive technique with a lower risk of complications. In this report, we present the case of a 36-year-old male liver donor into whom we peripherally inserted a central venous catheter from his left basilic vein. After transecting the hepatic vein, the surgeon found foreign material inside the venous lumen, which turned out to be the distal segment of the catheter.

  13. Complications of Peripheral Venous Access Devices: Prevention, Detection, and Recovery Strategies.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Most hospitalized patients have placement of a peripheral venous access device, either a short peripheral catheter or a peripherally inserted central catheter. Compared with central venous catheters that are not peripherally inserted, the other 2 types are generally perceived by health care providers as safer and less complicated to manage, and less emphasis is placed on the prevention and management of complications. Expertise of nurses in inserting, managing, and removing these devices may reduce the likelihood of complications, and increased recognition of complications associated with use of the devices is important to ensure continued improvements in the safety, quality, and efficiency of health care. Complications associated with short peripheral catheters and peripherally inserted central catheters include tourniquet retention, tubing and catheter misconnections, phlebitis, air embolism, device fragment embolization, and inadvertent discharge with a retained peripheral venous access device. Integration of prevention, detection, and recovery strategies into personal nursing practice promotes the quality and safety of health care delivery.

  14. Venous function in the leg after postoperative thrombosis diagnosed with /sup 125/I-fibrinogen uptake test

    SciTech Connect

    Lindhagen, A.; Bergqvist, D.; Hallboeoek, T.; Efsing, H.O.

    1983-02-01

    The /sup 125/I-fibrinogen uptake test (FUT) has been widely used in the past decade to detect postoperative thrombosis. FUT has been shown to correlate well with phlebography, and positive FUT is associated with a high frequency of pulmonary embolism. The long-term venous function of the leg after FUT-detected postoperative thrombosis, however, is inadequately documented. In 179 patients who had been studied after operation with FUT, a follow-up evaluation of FUT as an indicator of risk for development of deep venous insufficiency was made four to five years later. The patients replied to a questionnaire, were clinically examined, and underwent venous strain-gauge plethysmography, venous pressure measurement, and, in some cases, phlebography. No statistically significant differences were found in any of the parameters between legs that had been FUT-positive and those that were FUT-negative at the time of the operation. The frequency of deep venous insufficiency thus was equal in FUT-positive and FUT-negative legs. It was also independent of the site of FUT-detected thrombus in the leg.

  15. Effects of Analgesic Use on Inflammation and Hematology in a Murine Model of Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Hish, Gerald A; Diaz, Jose A; Hawley, Angela E; Myers, Daniel D; Lester, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Venous thrombosis (VT) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. Surgical animal models are crucial in studies investigating the pathogenesis of this disease and evaluating VT therapies. Because inflammation is critical to both the development and resolution of VT, analgesic medications have the potential to adversely affect multiple parameters of interest in VT research. The objective of this study was to determine how several common analgesics affect key variables in a murine ligation model of deep vein thrombosis. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to receive either local (bupivacaine) or systemic parenteral analgesia (buprenorphine, tramadol, or carprofen) or 0.9% NaCl (control). All mice underwent laparotomy and ligation of the inferior vena cava, and treatment was continued until euthanasia at 6 or 48 h after surgery. Analysis of harvested tissues and blood included: hematology, thrombus weight, serum and vein-wall cytokines (IL1β, IL6, IL10, TNFα), soluble P-selectin, and vein-wall leukocyte infiltration. Compared with 0.9% NaCl, all of the analgesics affected multiple parameters important to VT research. Carprofen and tramadol affected the most parameters and should not be used in murine models of VT. Although they affected fewer parameters, a single dose of bupivacaine increased thrombus weight at 6 h, and buprenorphine was associated with reduced vein wall macrophages at 48 h. Although we cannot recommend the use of any of the evaluated analgesic dosages in this mouse model of VT, buprenorphine merits additional investigation to ensure the highest level of laboratory animal care and welfare. PMID:25255071

  16. Incidence and risk factors for central venous catheter-related thrombosis in hematological patients.

    PubMed

    Joks, Monika; Czyż, Anna; Popławski, Dariusz; Komarnicki, Mieczysław

    2014-01-01

    Catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) is a serious complication in hematological patients, but the risk factors for its occurrence are not well established. The study objectives were to estimate the incidence of CRT and to identify the risk factors for developing CRT in hematological patients. In a prospective setting, 104 consecutive patients with 200 insertions of central venous catheters were enrolled into the study. The patients were screened for CRT by compression Doppler ultrasound every 10-14 days. Additionally, ultrasonography was performed in the case of clinical symptoms suggesting CRT. Over the course of 6,098 catheter days of follow-up, the incidence of CRT was 13.5 %. In 18/27 cases (66.6 %), radiological evidence of CRT was preceded by clinical symptoms. However, in 9/27 (33.3 %), CRT was clinically asymptomatic. The median times to symptomatic and asymptomatic CRT were 17 (range 1-49) and 8 (range 1-16) catheter days, respectively. In univariate analysis, the risk factors for CRT were exit-site infection (ESI) (P < 0.001), two or more prior chemotherapy lines (P = 0.015), catheter-related blood stream infection (P < 0.001), and Coagulase-negative staphylococci infection (P = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, ESI (OR 5.0; 95 % CI 1.6-6.3; P = 0.006) and two or more prior chemotherapy lines (OR 3.57; 95 % CI 1.27-10.11; P = 0.015) remained significantly associated with the risk of CRT. The results of our study provide information regarding the characteristic features of the patients who are at high risk of thrombosis, for whom Doppler ultrasound screening should be considered.

  17. Towards the genetic basis of cerebral venous thrombosis-the BEAST Consortium: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Cotlarciuc, Ioana; Marjot, Thomas; Khan, Muhammad S; Hiltunen, Sini; Haapaniemi, Elena; Metso, Tiina M; Putaala, Jukka; Zuurbier, Susanna M; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Passamonti, Serena M; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Pappalardo, Emanuela; Patel, Tasmin; Costa, Paolo; Colombi, Marina; Canhão, Patrícia; Tkach, Aleksander; Santacroce, Rosa; Margaglione, Maurizio; Favuzzi, Giovanni; Grandone, Elvira; Colaizzo, Donatella; Spengos, Kostas; Arauz, Antonio; Hodge, Amanda; Ditta, Reina; Debette, Stephanie; Zedde, Marialuisa; Pare, Guillaume; Ferro, José M; Thijs, Vincent; Pezzini, Alessandro; Majersik, Jennifer J; Martinelli, Ida; Coutinho, Jonathan M; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Sharma, Pankaj

    2016-11-22

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare cerebrovascular condition accounting for <1% of all stroke cases and mainly affects young adults. Its genetic aetiology is not clearly elucidated. To better understand the genetic basis of CVT, we have established an international biobank of CVT cases, Biorepository to Establish the Aetiology of Sinovenous Thrombosis (BEAST) which aims to recruit highly phenotyped cases initially of European descent and later from other populations. To date we have recruited 745 CVT cases from 12 research centres. As an initial step, the consortium plans to undertake a genome-wide association analysis of CVT using the Illumina Infinium HumanCoreExome BeadChip to assess the association and impact of common and low-frequency genetic variants on CVT risk by using a case-control study design. Replication will be performed to confirm putative findings. Furthermore, we aim to identify interactions of genetic variants with several environmental and comorbidity factors which will likely contribute to improve the understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying this complex disease. BEAST meets all ethical standards set by local institutional review boards for each of the participating sites. The research outcomes will be published in international peer-reviewed open-access journals with high impact and visibility. The results will be presented at national and international meetings to highlight the contributions into improving the understanding of the mechanisms underlying this uncommon but important disease. This international DNA repository will become an important resource for investigators in the field of haematological and vascular disorders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Risk of recurrent venous thrombosis in homozygous carriers and double heterozygous carriers of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A.

    PubMed

    Lijfering, Willem M; Middeldorp, Saskia; Veeger, Nic J G M; Hamulyák, Karly; Prins, Martin H; Büller, Harry R; van der Meer, Jan

    2010-04-20

    Homozygous or double heterozygous factor V Leiden and/or prothrombin G20210A is a rare inherited thrombophilic trait. Whether individuals with this genetic background have an increased risk of recurrent venous thrombosis is uncertain. A case-control design within a large cohort of families with thrombophilia was chosen to calculate the risk of recurrent venous thrombosis in individuals with homozygosity or double heterozygosity of factor V Leiden and/or prothrombin G20210A. Cases were individuals with recurrent venous thrombosis, and controls were those with only 1 venous thrombosis. The cohort consisted of 788 individuals with venous thrombosis; 357 had factor V Leiden, 137 had prothrombin G20210A, 27 had factor V Leiden and/or prothrombin G20210A homozygosity, and 49 had double heterozygosity for both mutations. We identified 325 cases with recurrent venous thrombosis and 463 controls with only 1 venous thrombosis. Compared with noncarriers, crude odds ratio for recurrence was 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 1.6) for heterozygous carriers of factor V Leiden, 0.7 (95% confidence interval, 0.4 to 1.2) for prothrombin G20210A, 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.5 to 2.6) for homozygous carriers of factor V Leiden and/or prothrombin G20210A, and 1.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.6 to 1.9) for double heterozygotes of both mutations. Adjustments for age, sex, family status, first event type, and concomitance of natural anticoagulant deficiencies did not alter the risk estimates. In this study, individuals with homozygous factor V Leiden and/or homozygous prothrombin G20210A or double heterozygous carriers of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A did not have a high risk of recurrent venous thrombosis.

  19. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis in the Superior Sagittal Sinus as a Rare Cause of a Paroxysmal Kinetic Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Murao, Kei; Arakawa, Shuji; Furuta, Yoshihiko; Shijo, Masahiro; Ago, Tetsuro; Kitazono, Takanari

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) has a broad spectrum of clinical presentation compared to arterial etiology. Seizure is one of the common symptoms and is more frequent than in other stroke types. Hence, transient neurological symptoms in CVT patients are usually due to epileptic seizures, while transient repetitive movement disorder is extremely rare except as a complication of epilepsy. We report a case of CVT in the superior sagittal sinus with a 1-year history of paroxysmal kinetic tremor without evident epilepsy. PMID:28203183

  20. A short course of low-molecular-weight heparin to prevent deep venous thrombosis after elective total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Gallay, Steve; Waddell, James P.; Cardella, Piera; Morton, Jane

    1997-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of a short course of low-molecular-weight heparin (enoxaparin) in the prevention of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after elective total hip replacement. Design A prospective cohort study. Follow-up was a minimum of 3 months. Setting An acute-care hospital with a large-volume practice of elective total joint replacement. Patients A prospective group of 150 patients who required primary total hip arthroplasty and a historic control group of 150 patients. All patients were treated with compression stockings, indomethacin and early mobilization. The treatment group received low-molecular-weight heparin, 30 mg every 12 hours for 5 days postoperatively; the control group received no specific anticoagulant therapy. Interventions Total hip replacement. Doppler venography on postoperative day 5 and 2 to 5 days later if required. Main outcome measures Presence or absence of deep venous thrombosis. Wound hemorrhage, transfusion rate, number of units of blood transfused and changes in the hemoglobin level. Results The incidence of proximal deep venous thrombosis (popliteal vein to common iliac vein) was 0% in the treatment group versus 4% in the control group. There was no difference in bleeding or number of transfusions required. There was, however, a significant (p = 0.005) drop in hemoglobin level in the treatment group. Conclusions A short course of low-molecular-weight heparin provides effective protection against proximal deep venous thrombosis without significantly increasing the risk to the patient. The treatment is compatible with early patient discharge and the pharmacologic prevention of heterotopic ossification after total joint replacement. PMID:9126125

  1. Endovascular intervention for deep venous thrombosis in patients with inferior vena cava filters.

    PubMed

    Karageorgiou, John; Fowler, Kathryn; Vedantham, Suresh; Saad, Nael

    2016-10-01

    Patients with inferior vena cava (IVC) filter-associated deep venous thrombosis (DVT) are a challenging subset of patients for endovascular intervention. Given the lack of available data pertaining to this clinical scenario, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the authors' experience with the use of endovascular treatment for DVT in patients with IVC filters. Primary aims included assessing the technical and clinical success, complications, and clinical patency in these patients. This was a retrospective single-center review of adult patients with IVC filters undergoing endovascular treatment of DVT between 1/2005 and 4/2014. Patient electronic medical records were reviewed for demographic data, anticoagulation status, symptoms, symptomatic extremities, extent of thrombosis, therapies received, technical and clinical success, and complications. Query yielded 82 patients (mean 53 years, range 18-96; 66% male), all of whom were included in our analysis. The majority of patients presented with lower extremity pain and swelling, with extensive clot burden despite the use of anticoagulant medication. Treatment elements utilized included pharmacologic lysis in 92%, mechanical thrombectomy in 77%, angioplasty in 63% and stent placement in 50% of patients. Interventions were technically successful in restoring flow in 87% of patients, and clinically successful in improving presenting symptoms in 79% of patients. By SIR criteria, 24% of patients experienced complications (categorized as 10% minor and 14% major). There were two deaths from intracranial hemorrhage. The probability of thrombosis-free survival at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months was 0.85 (CI 0.74-0.93), 0.81 (CI 0.69-0.89), 0.74 (CI 0.62-0.83), 0.70 (CI 0.57-0.8) and 0.70 (CI 0.57-0.8), respectively. Endovascular interventions are usually effective in relieving symptoms in patients with DVT and pre-existing IVC filters. However, these outcomes are achieved with significant complication rates that may exceed those

  2. Peripherally inserted central venous catheter safety in burn care: a single-center retrospective cohort review.

    PubMed

    Austin, Ryan E; Shahrokhi, Shahriar; Bolourani, Siavash; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-01-01

    The use of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line for central venous access in thermally injured patients has increased in recent years despite a lack of evidence regarding safety in this patient population. A recent survey of invasive catheter practices among 44 burn centers in the United States found that 37% of burn units use PICC lines as part of their treatment protocol. The goal of this study was to compare PICC-associated complication rates with the existing literature in both the critical care and burn settings. The methodology involved is a single institution retrospective cohort review of patients who received a PICC line during admission to a regional burn unit between 2008 and 2013. Fifty-three patients were identified with a total of seventy-three PICC lines. The primary outcome measurement for this study was indication for PICC line discontinuation. The most common reason for PICC line discontinuation was that the line was no longer indicated (45.2%). Four cases of symptomatic upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (5.5%) and three cases of central line-associated bloodstream infection (4.3%, 2.72 infections per 1000 line days) were identified. PICC lines were in situ an average of 15 days (range 1 to 49 days). We suggest that PICC line-associated complication rates are similar to those published in the critical care literature. Though these rates are higher than those published in the burn literature, they are similar to central venous catheter-associated complication rates. While PICC lines can be a useful resource in the treatment of the thermally injured patient, they are associated with significant and potentially fatal risks.

  3. Arterial and venous thrombosis in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: incidence and risk factors in a cohort of 1491 patients.

    PubMed

    Za, Tommaso; De Stefano, Valerio; Rossi, Elena; Petrucci, Maria Teresa; Andriani, Alessandro; Annino, Luciana; Cimino, Giuseppe; Caravita, Tommaso; Pisani, Francesco; Ciminello, Angela; Torelli, Fabio; Villivà, Nicoletta; Bongarzoni, Velia; Rago, Angela; Betti, Silvia; Levi, Anna; Felici, Stefano; Gentilini, Fabiana; Calabrese, Elisabetta; Leone, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) has been associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. We carried out a retrospective multicentre cohort study on 1491 patients with MGUS. In 49 patients (3.3%) MGUS was diagnosed after a thrombotic event. Follow-up details for a period of at least 12 months after diagnosis of MGUS were obtained in 1238 patients who had no recent history of thrombosis (<2 years) prior to diagnosis, for a total of 7334 years. During the follow-up, 33 of 1238 patients (2.7%) experienced thrombosis, with an incidence of 2.5 arterial events and 1.9 venous events per 1000 patient-years. Multivariate analysis showed increased risks of arterial thrombosis in patients with cardiovascular risk factors [hazard ratio (HR) 4.92, 95%confidence interval (CI) 1.42-17.04], and of venous thrombosis in patients with a serum monoclonal (M)-protein level >16 g/l at diagnosis (HR 3.08, 95%CI 1.01-9.36). No thrombosis was recorded in patients who developed multiple myeloma (n = 50) or other neoplastic diseases (n = 21). The incidence of arterial or venous thrombosis in patients with MGUS did not increase relative to that reported in the general population for similarly aged members. Finally, the risk of venous thrombosis did increase when the M-protein concentration exceeded >16 g/l.

  4. [Long-term sequelae of deep venous thrombosis of the legs. Experience with mesoglycan].

    PubMed

    Prandoni, P; Cattelan, A M; Carta, M

    1989-01-01

    Ninety consecutive patients, affected by venographically proven deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower limbs, were given full-dose heparin followed by oral anticoagulants for 12 weeks, and then selected randomly to receive, for one year, either mesoglycan (72 mg/day orally) or placebo with a double-blind protocol. All patients wore elastic graduated compression stockings, and were prospectively followed for a period ranging from 5 to 48 months. In each scheduled examination programmed every three months for one year and then twice per year, an accurate clinical evaluation was performed and a predetermined objective score was applied. Furthermore, impedance plethysmography and Doppler ultrasound tests were executed serially to assess the persistence of venous obstruction and/or the development of valve incompetence. After a mean follow-up of 3 years, 80% of the patients were totally asymptomatic, and severe post-thrombotic sequelae (ulcer and/or edema associated with skin induration) were recorded in only 6 patients (6.6%). We failed to identify any correlation between post-thrombotic sequelae and persistence of venous obstruction (as shown by impedance plethysmography) or development of valve incompetence (as shown by Doppler ultrasound test). The behaviour of patients treated with mesoglycan did not differ from that of patients treated with placebo. However, objectively documented recurrences of DVT and/or pulmonary embolism were less frequent in patients treated with mesoglycan (6.6 vs 11.1%, non-significant difference), and the only two deaths attributable to pulmonary embolism occurred among the patients treated with placebo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Internal jugular venous thrombosis due to Trousseau's syndrome as the presenting feature of metastatic prostate carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bandara, Asela Rasika; Wimalarathna, Harith; Kalupahana, Ranjith; Gunathilake, Sonali Sihindi Chapa

    2016-04-21

    Internal jugular vein thrombosis is a rare vascular event with a potentially fatal outcome. Of the known etiologies, internal malignancies, either known or occult, are well described. Even though malignancies are known to present with internal jugular vein thrombosis, it rarely occurs due to prostate carcinoma. Many cases of jugular vein and superior vena cava thrombosis secondary to malignancies are due to metastatic compression of veins. Recurrent and unusual vascular thrombosis due to hypercoagulability associated with malignancies is also known as Trousseau's syndrome. Here we report a rare case of a patient with internal jugular vein thrombosis as a presenting feature of metastatic prostate carcinoma, which is a case of Trousseau's syndrome. A 75-year-old Sri Lankan man with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and past history of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage presented with a short history of painless swelling in his left supraclavicular fossa. An examination revealed the swelling was due to a thickened left external jugular vein. A duplex ultrasound scan revealed left-sided internal jugular, external jugular, and brachiocephalic venous thrombosis. Surveillance into underlying malignancies showed an irregular, hard prostate gland suspicious of prostate carcinoma, which was proven with histology, and biochemically. A computed tomography scan found extensive vertebral, pelvic bone, intra-abdominal lymph node metastasis, and a single right-sided lower lung metastatic lesion, with no direct involvement of the jugular vein. Spontaneous thrombosis of the internal jugular vein due to Trousseau's syndrome is rare and unusual. Clinicians should promptly investigate for malignancies as it can be the first presentation of underlying occult malignancies. Although prostate carcinomas are rare to present with internal jugular vein thrombosis, this case illustrates the importance of having a high degree of suspicion in the appropriate clinical setting.

  6. Deep venous thrombosis: a new task for primary health care. A randomised economic study of outpatient and inpatient treatment.

    PubMed

    Bäckman, Karin; Carlsson, Per; Kentson, Magnus; Hansen, Sören; Engquist, Leif; Hallert, Claes

    2004-03-01

    A health economic evaluation of two alternative treatment settings, inpatient care and outpatient care, for acute deep venous thrombosis. A randomised multicentre trial in a defined population in regular clinical practice. Hospitals and related health care centres in the Jönköping county council in Sweden. Patients were randomised to either an inpatient strategy (n = 66) or an outpatient strategy (n = 65) using low-molecular-weight heparin, dalteparin, administered subcutaneously once daily and adjusted for body weight. Of 224 eligible patients, 131 entered the trial and 124 completed the economic part of the study. Direct medical and direct non-medical costs during a 3-month period. Total direct costs were higher for those in the inpatient strategy group, i.e. Swedish Crowns (SEK) 16400 per patient (Euro 1899) compared to SEK 12100 per patient (Euro 1405) in the outpatient strategy group (p < 0.001). More patients in the outpatient group received assistance when they returned home. Few patients in either group reported sick leave. There was no difference in total number of days between the two groups. Total direct costs were significantly lower for the outpatient treatment strategy for deep venous thrombosis compared to the inpatient treatment strategy. No significant difference in health impact could be detected. Deep venous thrombosis can to a greater extent than previously be treated in primary care, safely, at a lower cost, and in accordance with patient preferences.

  7. Inserting epidural patient controlled analgesia into a peripheral venous line.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    A case is reported from the Safety Reporting System in Anaesthesia and Resuscitation database. The event occurred in a patient undergoing abdominal surgery in whom an epidural catheter was inserted for analgesia. After the intervention, the patient was transferred to the recovery unit where the patient controlled analgesia (PCA) is programmed. Due to an error, the PCA was connected to a peripheral venous line, which was detected early without harm to the patient. Communication and analysis of this incident served to introduce a new drug delivery protocol through PCA pumps, including the obligation to prescribe the PCA in the electronic system, a dual computerised check immediately before connecting PCA, labelling the medication bag as well as the proximal and distal lines, standardisation of daily visits to patients, and monthly monitoring of results. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. C-reactive protein, obesity, and the risk of arterial and venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Horvei, L D; Grimnes, G; Hindberg, K; Mathiesen, E B; Njølstad, I; Wilsgaard, T; Brox, J; Braekkan, S K; Hansen, J-B

    2016-08-01

    Essentials We performed repeated measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP) and obesity in a cohort study. CRP was associated with risk of myocardial infarction and venous thromboembolism. CRP was a mediator for risk of myocardial infarction in obese men and women. CRP was a partial mediator for risk of venous thromboembolism in obese women, but not in men. Background Low-grade inflammation in obesity may be a shared pathway for the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and myocardial infarction (MI). Objectives To investigate the associations between repeated measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP) and the risks of MI and VTE, and to explore whether CRP mediated these risks in obese subjects. Methods CRP and obesity measures were collected from 15 134 subjects who participated in one or more surveys of the Tromsø study in 1994-1995, 2001-2002, or 2007-2008. Incident VTEs and MIs were registered until 1 January 2011. Time-varying Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios of MI and VTE according to categories of CRP and obesity measures. Results There were 291 VTEs and 920 MIs during follow-up. High levels of CRP (≥ 3 mg L(-1) versus < 1 mg L(-1) ) were associated with increased risks of MI (hazard ratio [HR] 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32-2.26) and VTE (HR 1.84; 95% CI 1.22-2.78) in women, but only with MI in men (HR 1.93; 95% CI 1.53-2.44). All obesity measures showed stronger associations with CRP in women than in men. In obese women (body mass index [BMI] of ≥ 30 kg m(-2) versus < 25 kg m(-2) ), adjustment for CRP attenuated the risk estimate for VTE by 22%, whereas the incidence rates of VTE increased with combined categories of higher BMI and CRP. No association was found in men. Conclusions Our findings suggest that low-grade inflammation, assessed by measurement of CRP, is associated with the risks of MI and VTE, and may be a shared pathway for MI and VTE in obesity. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  9. Diagnosis and management of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in neonates and children.

    PubMed

    Monagle, Paul

    2012-10-01

    Neonates and children represent a specific population that can suffer from deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). In considering how the diagnosis and management of DVT/PE in neonates and children differs from adults, one has to consider the fundamental differences in the general characteristics of the patient population, the specific differences in the disease entity, the differences in sensitivity or specificity of diagnostic strategies and risk/benefit profile of therapeutic options available, and then finally the practical applications of therapies, using an evidence-based approach. This review will articulate the key differences in the patient population, disease entity, diagnostic strategies, and drug therapies that must be understood to apply a rigorous evidence-based approach to diagnosis and management of DVT and PE in neonates and children. Finally, there will be a brief discussion of the latest American College of Chest Physician guidelines for antithrombotic treatment in neonates and children. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Incidence of cannula associated deep vein thrombosis after veno-venous ECMO.

    PubMed

    Menaker, Jay; Tabatabai, Ali; Rector, Raymond; Dolly, Katelyn; Kufera, Joseph; Lee, Eugenia; Kon, Zachary; Sanchez, Pablo; Pham, Si; Herr, Daniel L; Mazzeffi, Michael; Rabinowitz, Ronald P; OʼConnor, James V; Stein, Deborah M; Scalea, Thomas M

    2017-02-13

    Limited literature regarding the incidence of cannula associated deep vein thrombosis (CaDVT) following veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) exists. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of post decannulation CaDVT and identify any associated risk factors. Forty eight patients were admitted between August 2014 and January 2016 to the Lung Rescue Unit were included in the study. Protocolized anticoagulation levels (partial thromboplastin time 45-55 second) and routine post decannulation DVT screening were in place during the study period. Forty-one (85.4%) patients had CaDVT. Of those with CaDVT, 31 (76%) patients were treated with full anti-coagulation therapy. 34 (76%) patients with right internal jugular cannulation had CaDVT at cannula site. Twenty-five (61%) patients had CaDVT in the lower extremity. (18 associated right femoral vein cannulation; 7 left femoral vein cannulation) 18 (44%) patients had both upper and lower extremity CaDVT. Overall, patients with CaDVT tended to be older, have a higher body mass index (BMI) and on ECMO longer (p=NS). Mean PTT during time on ECMO between patients that did and did not have CaDVT did not differ. No clinical evidence of pulmonary embolism was seen.

  11. Comparison of duplex ultrasonography and venography in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D C; Grasty, M S; Stebbings, W S; Nockler, I B; Lewars, M D; Levison, R A; Wood, R F

    1991-05-01

    Sixty-five patients with suspected deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in 68 limbs were entered consecutively into a study to compare venography with duplex ultrasonography scanning. Both tests were performed on 64 limbs, venography being contraindicated in four. Overall, duplex scanning correctly identified 86 per cent of DVTs diagnosed on venography and correctly excluded 80 per cent with negative venograms. Nearly all errors arose in the diagnosis of calf DVT. In the femoral vein duplex scanning had a specificity of 100 per cent and a sensitivity of 95 per cent. In addition, duplex scanning provided data on the limb not undergoing venography. Of 55 limbs that underwent bilateral duplex scanning, five had thrombus in the femoropopliteal segment and a negative contralateral venogram. In addition, three Baker's cysts were diagnosed. Duplex scanning can be used in patients in whom venography is contraindicated and may also provide information about the contralateral limb. We regard femoropopliteal duplex scanning as sufficiently accurate that treatment can be initiated on the basis of the scan. Duplex scanning should replace venography as the standard method of diagnosing femoropopliteal DVT; radiographic studies should now be required only when the scan result is in doubt.

  12. Clinical characteristics and prognosis of cerebral venous thrombosis in Chinese women during pregnancy and puerperium

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhu-Wei; Gao, Wan-Li; Feng, Li-Min

    2017-01-01

    Due to the specific physiology associated with pregnancy and puerperium, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT) may manifest different characteristics. This study aimed to identify the clinical manifestations and prognosis of pregnancy-associated CVT. A total of 43 pregnancy-associated CVT patients were enrolled. We analysed the clinical presentations of the disease and performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine which variables were associated with prognosis. Our descriptive results showed the following: 1) the incidence was 202 per 100,000 deliveries, and the mortality rate was 11.63%; 2) the most frequent symptom was headache; 3) the most frequent abnormal laboratory findings were increased levels of fibrinogen and several serum lipoproteins (including triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein A1, and apolipoprotein B); and 4) the superior sagittal sinus and transverse sinus were the most frequently affected locations. Moreover, an increased modified Rankin Scale score was positively associated with infection, seizure, intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). Comparably, the occurrence of death was positively and significantly associated with infection, seizure and ICH. Consequently, timely diagnosis and treatment of pregnancy-associated CVT patients with infection, seizure, ICH or HDP are needed. Patients with infection, seizure or ICH have a greater risk of death. PMID:28262755

  13. A case of homocystinuria due to CBS gene mutations revealed by cerebral venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Sarov, Mariana; Not, Adeline; de Baulny, Hélène Ogier; Masnou, Pascal; Vahedi, Katayoun; Bousser, Marie-Germaine; Denier, Christian

    2014-01-15

    Homocystinuria caused by cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) deficiency is most often diagnosed in childhood and has a variable expressivity. The most frequent abnormalities include intellectual disability, ectopia lentis, myopia, skeletal abnormalities or thromboembolism. To report a case of homocystinuria unraveled by cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). A 17 year old female was admitted in our department of neurology for subacute headache and presented seizures in the emergency room. Cerebral imaging revealed CVT. Severe hyperhomocysteinemia was found and led to the diagnosis of homocystinuria due to composite heterozygous mutations in the CBS gene. Further investigations disclosed lens subluxation in association with myopia, mild scoliosis and osteopenia. The patient was treated by heparin followed by warfarin, vitamin therapy and dietary methionine restriction. Total homocysteine and methionine levels became normal in a few weeks and the patient had a complete recovery. In patients with CVT, plasma total homocysteine measurement as part of the etiologic work up may reveal severe hyperhomocysteinemia due to CBS or remethylation defects that require specific treatment and management including perhaps protein-restricted diet and/or vitamin therapy for life. © 2013.

  14. Design of a HIFU array for the treatment of deep venous thrombosis: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Petr; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2017-08-01

    Deep venous thrombosis of the iliofemoral veins is a common and morbid disease, with the recommended interventional treatment carrying a high risk of hemorrhaging and complications. High intensity focused ultrasound delivered with a single element transducer has been shown to successfully precipitate thrombolysis non-invasively in vitro and in vivo. However, in all previous studies damage to the veins or surrounding tissue has been observed. Using a simulation model of the human thigh, this study investigated whether a phased array device could overcome the large focal region limitations faced by single transducer treatment devices. Effects of the size, shape and frequency of the array on its focal region were considered. It was found that a λ/2 spaced array of 7680 elements operating at 500 kHz could consistently focus to a region fully contained within the femoral vein. Furthermore, it is possible to reduce the number of elements required by building arrays operating at lower frequencies. The results suggest that phased transducer arrays hold potential for developing a safe, non-invasive treatment of thrombolysis.

  15. Deep venous thrombosis in lap band surgery: a single center study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kavin G; Rajan, Derry; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Coppa, Gene

    2012-04-01

    Bariatric surgery has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for morbid obesity. The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence of pre- and post-operative deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in Lap-Band surgical patients. This study group comprised 56 consecutive patients who underwent Lap-Band surgery. Mean age and body mass index were 38 years (range: 18-64 years) and 50.9 kg/m(2) (range: 53-74 kg/m(2)), respectively. All the patients were screened with duplex ultrasonography pre- and post-operatively. There were no iliac, femoral, or popliteal vein thromboses detected at any given point of time. No patient had any clinical signs or symptoms of DVT post-operatively. There were no observable differences attributable to DVT prophylaxis. This data suggest that in the setting of chemical and mechanical prophylaxis, the incidence of DVT in patients undergoing Lap-Band surgery at an established bariatric centre is minimal.

  16. Risk factors for deep venous thrombosis of lower limbs in postoperative neurosurgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Yu, Zongxue; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Jinjun; Jiang, Guixi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To detect the risk factors for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients after neurosurgery. Methods: Three hundred and seventy-six patients treated in the department of neurosurgery of our hospital from February 2013 to November 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. The clinical data including age, gender, hospital stay, operation time, occupation type, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, smoking status, drinking status, postoperative exercises, malignant tumor, and postoperative hormone or dehydrating agent were collected. Results: In this study, 52 patients were included in the DVT group and 295 patients in the Non-DVT group. There was significant difference in age, hypertension, occupation type, malignant tumors, operation time, smoking status, and postoperative exercises between the two groups (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in gender, drinking status, coronary heart disease, diabetes, hospital stay, and postoperative hormone or dehydrating agent (p>0.05). In multivariate analysis, age, malignant tumor, hypertension were independent risk factors, while physical labour and postoperative exercises were protective factor for DVT. Conclusion: The postoperative patients with older age, malignant tumor or hypertension should be paid high attention to prevent DVT, and postoperative exercises should be selected as precautionary measures. PMID:27882003

  17. Monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets cooperate to initiate and propagate venous thrombosis in mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    von Brühl, Marie-Luise; Stark, Konstantin; Steinhart, Alexander; Chandraratne, Sue; Konrad, Ildiko; Lorenz, Michael; Khandoga, Alexander; Tirniceriu, Anca; Coletti, Raffaele; Köllnberger, Maria; Byrne, Robert A; Laitinen, Iina; Walch, Axel; Brill, Alexander; Pfeiler, Susanne; Manukyan, Davit; Braun, Siegmund; Lange, Philipp; Riegger, Julia; Ware, Jerry; Eckart, Annekathrin; Haidari, Selgai; Rudelius, Martina; Schulz, Christian; Echtler, Katrin; Brinkmann, Volker; Schwaiger, Markus; Preissner, Klaus T; Wagner, Denisa D; Mackman, Nigel; Engelmann, Bernd; Massberg, Steffen

    2012-04-09

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major cause of cardiovascular death. The sequence of events that promote DVT remains obscure, largely as a result of the lack of an appropriate rodent model. We describe a novel mouse model of DVT which reproduces a frequent trigger and resembles the time course, histological features, and clinical presentation of DVT in humans. We demonstrate by intravital two-photon and epifluorescence microscopy that blood monocytes and neutrophils crawling along and adhering to the venous endothelium provide the initiating stimulus for DVT development. Using conditional mutants and bone marrow chimeras, we show that intravascular activation of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation via tissue factor (TF) derived from myeloid leukocytes causes the extensive intraluminal fibrin formation characteristic of DVT. We demonstrate that thrombus-resident neutrophils are indispensable for subsequent DVT propagation by binding factor XII (FXII) and by supporting its activation through the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Correspondingly, neutropenia, genetic ablation of FXII, or disintegration of NETs each confers protection against DVT amplification. Platelets associate with innate immune cells via glycoprotein Ibα and contribute to DVT progression by promoting leukocyte recruitment and stimulating neutrophil-dependent coagulation. Hence, we identified a cross talk between monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets responsible for the initiation and amplification of DVT and for inducing its unique clinical features.

  18. The influence of meteorological variables on the development of deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Helen K; Simpson, A John; Murchison, John T

    2009-10-01

    The influence of weather on deep venous thrombosis (DVT) incidence remains controversial. We aimed to characterize the temporal association between DVT and meteorological variables including atmospheric pressure. Data relating to hospital admissions with DVT in Scotland were collected retrospectively for a 20 year period for which corresponding meteorological recordings were available. Weather variables were calculated as weighted daily averages to adjust for variations in population density. Seasonal variation in DVT and short-term effects of weather variables on the relative risk of developing DVT were assess using Poisson regression modelling. The models allowed for the identification of lag periods between variation in the weather and DVT presentation. A total of 37,336 cases of DVT were recorded. There was significant seasonal variation in DVT with a winter peak. Seasonal variation in wind speed and temperature were significantly associated with seasonal variation in DVT. When studying more immediate meteorological influences, low atmospheric pressure, high wind speed and high rainfall were significantly associated with an increased risk of DVT approximately 9-10 days later. The effect was most strikingly demonstrated for atmospheric pressure, every 10 millibar decrease in pressure being associated with a 2.1% increase in relative risk of DVT. Alterations in weather have a small but significant impact upon the incidence of DVT. DVT is particularly associated with reduction in atmospheric pressure giving weight to the hypothesis that reduced cabin pressure in long haul flights contributes to DVT. These findings have implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis of DVT.

  19. Cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis and thrombophilic mutations in Western Iran: association with factor V Leiden.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Zohreh; Mozafari, Hadi; Bigvand, Amir Hossein Amiri; Doulabi, Reza Mohammad; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad; Afshari, Dariush; Razazian, Nazanin; Rezaei, Mansour

    2010-08-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the prevalence of factor V Leiden G1691A, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T in cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST) patients and their possible association with CVST in Western Iran. A total of 24 CVST patients with the mean age of 37.1 +/- 11.7 years and 100 sex- and age-matched healthy individuals from Kermanshah Province of Iran with ethnic background of Kurd were studied for factor V Leiden G1691A, prothrombin G20210A and MTHFR C677T by PCR-RFLP method using Mnl I, Hind III, and Hinf I restriction enzymes, respectively. Prevalence of factor V Leiden was 16.7% in patients and 2% in control group. A significant association was found between factor V Leiden mutation and CVST with odds ratio (OR) of 9.8 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.68-57.2, P = .01). No prothrombin G20210A was found among patients. In patients, MTHFR C677T tended to be higher (58.3%) compared to control (44%), OR of 1.8 (95% CI 0.73-4.5, P = .2). Our study for the first time has determined the prevalence of inherited thrombophilia in a homogenous ethnic group of CVST patients and suggests that factor V Leiden, and not the prothrombin gene mutation is a risk factor for CVST in Western Iran.

  20. Antibiotic use as a marker of acute infection and risk of first and recurrent venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Timp, Jasmijn F; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Tichelaar, Vladimir; Braekkan, Sigrid K; Rosendaal, Frits R; le Cessie, Saskia; Lijfering, Willem M

    2017-03-01

    A role for transient infections in the aetiology of venous thrombosis (VT) has been suggested. This study aimed to determine whether individuals who receive antibiotic treatment (as a proxy for infections) have an increased risk of first and recurrent VT and whether infections should be seen as a provoking risk factor for VT. We used the self-controlled case series method to study the risk of first VT during antibiotic prescriptions. The risk of recurrent VT during antibiotic use was estimated by of time-dependent Cox-regression. A total of 2547 patients with a first VT were included and followed for a median of 5·9 years for recurrence (1999-2010), in whom 114 first events occurred during antibiotic use. We found a five-fold increased risk of first VT during antibiotic treatment: [incidence-rate-ratio 5·0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4·0-6·1]. Antibiotic use was associated with a 2·0-fold (95% CI, 1·1-4·0) increased risk of recurrent VT. Patients with an unprovoked first VT who used antibiotics shortly before this event, had a similar risk of recurrence as patients with a provoked first VT (adjusted hazard ratio 1·1; 95% CI, 0·7-1·7). Individuals who receive antibiotics have an increased risk of first and recurrent VT and infections should be considered a provoking risk factor for VT. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Hormonal Contraceptives and Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amoozegar, Farnaz; Ronksley, Paul E.; Sauve, Reg; Menon, Bijoy K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) increases the risk of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). Whether this risk varies by type, duration, and other forms of hormonal contraceptives is largely unknown. This systematic review and meta-analysis update the current state of knowledge. Methods: We performed a search to identify all published studies on the association between hormonal contraceptive use and risk of CVST in women aged 15–50 years. Results: Of 861 studies reviewed, 11 were included. The pooled odds of developing CVST in women aged 15–50 years taking OCPs was 7.59 times higher compared to women not taking OCPs (OR = 7.59, 95% CI 3.82–15.09). Data are insufficient to make conclusions about duration of use and other forms of hormonal contraceptives. Conclusion: Oral contraceptive pills use increases the risk of developing CVST in women of reproductive age. Future studies are required to determine if duration and type of hormonal contraceptives modify this risk. PMID:25699010

  2. Protein S Heerlen mutation heterozygosity is associated with venous thrombosis risk

    PubMed Central

    Suchon, P.; Germain, M.; Delluc, A.; Smadja, D.; Jouven, X.; Gyorgy, B.; Saut, N.; Ibrahim, M.; Deleuze, J. F.; Alessi, M. C.; Morange, P. E.; Trégouët, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary Protein S (PS) deficiency is a rare coagulation disorder associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis (VT). The PS Heerlen (PSH) mutation is a rare S501P mutation that was initially considered to be a neutral polymorphism. However, it has been later shown that PSH has a reduced half-life in vivo which may explain the association of PSH heterozygosity with mildly reduced levels of plasma free PS (FPS). Whether the risk of VT is increased in PSH carriers remains unknown. We analyzed the association of PSH (rs121918472 A/G) with VT in 4,173 VT patients and 5,970 healthy individuals from four independent case-control studies. Quantitative determination of FPS levels was performed in a subsample of 1257 VT patients. In the investigated populations, the AG genotype was associated with an increased VT risk of 6.57 [4.06–10.64] (p = 1.73 10−14). In VT patients in whom PS deficiency was excluded, plasma FPS levels were significantly lower in individuals with PSH when compared to those without [72 + 13 vs 91 + 21 UI/dL; p = 1.86 10−6, mean + SD for PSH carriers (n = 21) or controls (n = 1236) respectively]. We provide strong evidence that the rare PSH variant is associated with VT in unselected individuals. PMID:28374852

  3. Desmoid Fibromatosis Presenting as Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Case Report and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Lisa M.; Neuhaus, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 40 Final Diagnosis: Desmoid fibromatosis Symptoms: Discomfort Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Surgery and radiotherapy Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE), comprising deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a common, serious cardiovascular event. Predisposing factors include genetic disorders, immobility, and underlying malignancy. Soft tissue tumors are by contrast rare, but should be included in the differential etiology of DVT, especially when the patient is young and has few thrombotic risk factors. Case Report: We present a 40-year-old patient whose initial diagnosis was spontaneous DVT of the lower leg, treated conventionally. Subsequently, he developed progressive calf swelling, which was diagnosed as multifocal desmoid fibromatosis, a rare and complex soft tissue tumor. Conclusions: DVT is common but soft tissue tumors are rare. The disparity in incidence of these very distinct pathologies may contribute to late diagnosis of occult soft tissue pathology. We discuss the incidence, etiology, pathology, diagnosis, and best management of both desmoid fibromatosis and DVT, which may co-exist in a causative way. PMID:27994217

  4. Gastrin in portal and peripheral venous blood after feeding in man

    PubMed Central

    Dencker, H.; Håkanson, R.; Liedberg, G.; Norryd, C.; Oscarson, J.; Rehfeld, J. F.; Stadil, F.

    1973-01-01

    The concentrations of immunoreactive gastrin in serum from portal and peripheral venous blood were determined in 10 patients with indwelling portal catheters before and after feeding. No significant differences were found between the gastrin concentrations in portal and peripheral serum. Gel filtration studies of serum did not reveal any differences between the gastrin components of portal and peripheral venous serum. Since neither the concentrations of immunoreactive gastrin nor the four gastrin components differed between portal and peripheral serum it is suggested that the liver is without effect on gastrin metabolism. PMID:4761604

  5. Difficult peripheral venous access: clinical evaluation of a catheter inserted with the Seldinger method under ultrasound guidance.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Pascal; Cronier, Pierrick; Rousseau, Hélène; Vicaut, Eric; Choukroun, Gerald; Chergui, Karim; Chevrel, Guillaume; Maury, Eric

    2014-10-01

    A preliminary observational study was undertaken to evaluate the risk of failure of ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous catheterization of a deep arm vein for a maximum of 7 days, after peripheral intravenous (PIV) cannulation failure. This prospective study included patients referred to the intensive care unit for placement of a central line, a polyurethane cannula commercialized for arterial catheterization was used for peripheral venous cannulation. Catheter length and diameter were chosen based on preliminary ultrasound measurements of vein diameter and skin-vein distance. Catheterization was successful for all 29 patients. Mean vein diameter was 0.42 ± 0.39 cm; mean vein depth was 0.94 ± 0.52 cm. Mean catheter duration was 6 (median 7) days. Two occluded catheters were removed prematurely. No thrombophlebitis, catheter infection, or extravasation was observed. Our results suggest that catheters inserted with the Seldinger method are adapted to prolonged peripheral deep-vein infusion. Ultrasound can play a role in catheter monitoring by identifying early thrombosis formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Activation of circulated immune cells and inflammatory immune adherence are involved in the whole process of acute venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le-Min; Duan, Qiang-Lin; Yang, Fan; Yi, Xiang-Hua; Zeng, Yu; Tian, Hong-Yan; Lv, Wei; Jin, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate localization and distribution of integrin subunit β1, β2 and β3 and morphological changes of ligand-recepter binding in thrombi of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) patients and explore activation of circulated immune cells, inflammatory immune adherence and coagulation response in acute venous thrombosis. Methods: Thrombi were collected from patients with acute PE. Immunohistochemistry was done to detect the expression and distribution of integrin β1, β2 and β3 in cells within thrombi, and ligands of integrin subunit β1, β2 and β3 were also determined by immunohistochemistry within the thrombi. Results: 1) Acute venous thrombi were red thrombi composed of skeletons and filamentous mesh containing large amounts of red blood cells and white blood cells; 2) Integrin subunit β1, β2 and β3 were expressed on lymphocytes, neutrophils and platelets; 3) No expression of integrin β1 ligands: Laminin, Fibronectin, Collagen I or Collagen-II on lymphocytes; integrin β2 ligands including ICAM, factor X and iC3b are distributed on neutrophils, and ligand fibrinogen bound to neutrophils; integrin β3 was expressed on platelets which form the skeleton of thrombi and bound to fibrinogen to construct mesh structure; 4) Factor Xa was expressed on the filamentous mesh; 5) Filamentous mesh was fully filled with red blood cell dominant blood cells. Conclusion: Acute venous thrombosis is an activation process of circulated lymphocytes, neutrophils and platelets mainly, and a whole process including integrin subunit β2 and β3 binding with their ligands. Activation of immune cells, inflammatory immune adherence and coagulation response are involved in the acute venous thrombosis. PMID:24753749

  7. Anatomic and functional outcomes of pharmacomechanical and catheter-directed thrombolysis of iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Hager, Eric; Yuo, Theodore; Avgerinos, Efthymios; Naddaf, Abdullah; Jeyabalan, Geetha; Marone, Luke; Chaer, Rabih

    2014-07-01

    Pharmacomechanical thrombolysis (PMT) and catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) are commonly used for the treatment of iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The purpose of this study was to examine the short- and long-term venous patency and venous valvular function as well as clinical outcomes of patients treated for iliofemoral DVT by PMT and CDT. A retrospective review of all patients with symptomatic DVT treated between 2006 and 2011 with PMT or CDT was performed. All patients were treated by local tissue plasminogen activator delivered with PMT or CDT. Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of initial treatment modality: patients treated by PMT alone (group 1), and those who underwent PMT and CDT or CDT alone (group 2). Group comorbidities, initial presenting symptoms, and Clinical, Etiologic, Anatomic, and Pathologic (CEAP) classification scores were compared. Postprocedural duplex ultrasound was used to assess valve function and treated vein patency rates. At all visits, Villalta and CEAP scores were recorded and compared. Group demographic and procedural results were analyzed by Fisher exact test for dichotomous variables and Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test for the ordinal and continuous data. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were used to assess preserved valve function as well as primary and secondary patency rates. There were 79 patients with 102 limbs treated for extensive iliofemoral DVT (median age, 51.5 years; range, 16.6-83.8 years). There were 18 patients in group 1 and 61 patients in group 2 (PMT + CDT [n = 54] or CDT alone [n = 7]). There were no differences in demographics or comorbidities between groups aside from malignant disease, which was more common in group 1 (35.3% vs 11.5%; P = .03). A total of 102 limbs were analyzed, 24 in group 1 and 78 in group 2. Patients in group 1 had a shorter symptom duration compared with group 2 (7 days vs 16 days; P = .011). The median number of procedures in group 1

  8. Air travel-related symptomatic deep venous thrombosis in cruise ship passengers.

    PubMed

    Pietrzyk, Wojciech S

    2016-01-01

    Long air travel is a risk factor for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The aim of the study was to report the occurrence of symptomatic DVT cases in cruise ship passengers after long haul flights and to discuss applied diagnostic methods. A retrospective analysis of medical records of adult patients diagnosed with DVT in medical facility of the passenger ship was performed. On the basis of clinical examinations, B-mode ultrasound scans of the lower extremity venous systems, international normalised ratio (INR) tests, working diagnoses of DVT were established. The Wells score was used for stratification. Within 4-48 h of the diagnosis, D-dimer tests in blood, ultrasound Duplex examinations and specialists' consultations of DVT suspected patients were performed ashore. A study showed 3 (0.15%) patients suspected of DVT of a total number of 2,007 passengers who have completed a flight > 8 h in the analysed period. The medial time from the embarkation to the onset of symptoms was 68.7 h. Based on the Wells DVT score, in 2 (0.1%) patients the probability of DVT was determined to be likely. Both the ultrasound examinations and D-dimer tests were positive. Those patients were diagnosed by shore specialists as DVT. One (0.05%) patient determined as DVT unlikely according to the Wells scale, her INR indicated hypercoagulable state, but Duplex scan as well D-dimer test were negative and DVT suspicion was excluded. A clinical suspicion of DVT among passengers who joined the ship after their long haul flights could be an important diagnostic problem for ship's doctors. The Wells scale allows to stratify the risk, but to rule out suspicion of DVT, a negative result of D-dimer test must be demonstrated. A portable ultrasound device helps in onboard clinical evaluation of DVT suspected patients. Due to possible fatal complications of DVT which can lead to pulmonary embolism and cause medico-legal issues, a definitive diagnosis should only be obtained in cooperation with land

  9. Persistent neutrophilia is a marker for an increased risk of venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, Margarita; Cohen, Hillel W; Billett, Henny H

    2016-11-01

    In patients with cancer and myeloproliferative disorders, leukocytosis has been associated with an increased venous thromboembolic (VTE) risk. Our goal was to determine whether persistent neutrophilia (PN), not associated with known causes such as malignancies, infections or steroids, is independently associated with VTE. All adult patients with >3 outpatient complete blood counts (CBCs) within 3 years were included. PN was defined as having an absolute neutrophil count >95 % (>2SD) of the population (≥7.8 × 10(9)/L) on at least three CBCs, at least 2 months apart. Separate analyses for neutrophil counts ≥9 × 10(9)/L and ≥10 × 10(9)/L were also performed. Blood counts from inpatients were excluded. Primary outcome was diagnosis of VTE, as determined by ICD-9 codes. Odds ratios were adjusted for diabetes, smoking, obesity, gender, and age. Charlson score was utilized as a morbidity measure. Data on 43,538 outpatients were collected. Although there was no association of VTE with neutrophil counts ≥7.8 × 10(9)/L, patients with ≥9.0 × 10(9)/L neutrophils were twice as likely to be diagnosed with VTE compared to those with normal neutrophil counts (OR 2.0, 95 % CI 1.3, 3.1; p = 0.003). Patients with neutrophil counts ≥10.0 × 10(9)/L were at an even higher risk (OR 2.3, 95 % CI 1.2, 4.8; p = 0.019). Charlson scores significantly modified this risk when incorporated into analysis. Elevated neutrophil counts are associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis even when they are not due to cancer, infection or steroids. In patients with significant comorbidities, neutrophilia may be a marker of VTE risk.

  10. D-dimer screening for deep venous thrombosis in traumatic cervical spinal injuries.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Muneaki; Ueta, Takayoshi; Shiba, Keiichiro; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2015-11-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients is a life-threatening comorbidity. Despite its seriousness, prophylaxis and screening for DVT in SCI patients are still not sophisticated. This study aimed to define the epidemiology and incidence of DVT in acute traumatic cervical SCI in a Japanese population, determine the best timing for DVT screening, and determine the optimal D-dimer threshold level for use as an easy and minimally invasive screening tool. This is a prospective clinical study. The patient sample included acute traumatic cervical SCI patients who were admitted to our facility within 2 weeks after injury. Multivariate logistic regression was performed for outcome measure. We enrolled 268 patients (223 men and 45 women), from April 2007 to December 2012. After excluding early drop-out patients, 211 patients remained. Assessment for neurological status and blood chemistry, especially blood coagulation levels (prothrombin time, prothrombin time-international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, and serum D-dimer), was performed every week until 1 month after injury. Ultrasonography was performed for DVT detection every 2 weeks. Deep venous thromboses were detected in 22 patients (10.4% of patients studied). All DVT-positive patients demonstrated severe paralysis classified as C or greater on the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale. Multivariate logistic regression of clinical and laboratory parameters revealed that only the D-dimer level at 2 weeks after injury was an accurate predictor of DVT formation. The optimal threshold of D-dimer for prediction was determined to be 16 μg/dL. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting DVT were 77.3% and 69.2%, respectively. D-dimer levels may be used to predict the likelihood of DVT development in patients with acute cervical SCI. Furthermore, the optimal timing for screening test by D-dimer is 2 weeks after injury, and optimal threshold level for

  11. Transdermal hormone therapy and the risk of stroke and venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Speroff, L

    2010-10-01

    Recent case-control and cohort studies have indicated that the transdermal administration of postmenopausal estrogen therapy is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular complications, specifically stroke and venous thrombosis. These studies have prompted the clinical promotion of transdermal treatment as 'safer'. There are reasons, however, to be cautious regarding postmenopausal transdermal hormone therapy, especially in regard to stroke. Previous reports linking postmenopausal estrogen therapy and the risk of stroke have not yielded consistent results, finding it difficult to adjust for all confounding factors, including compliance with treatment. Age of the population studies may be a critical issue. Notably, the risk of stroke with oral estrogen was not increased in the Women's Health Initiative when women with prior cardiovascular disease or those older than 60 years were excluded. There does appear to be a dose-response relationship with stroke, similar to that observed with estrogen-progestin contraceptives, and this may be a problem when studying standard doses of transdermal treatment, in that many women receiving transdermal estrogen display lower estrogen blood levels when compared with oral treatment. Clinicians should administer low doses of estrogen to women with risk factors for stroke, and the transdermal route of administration is indicated for women at high risk for venous thrombosis and for older postmenopausal women, especially for women with stroke risk factors. In a recent study, Renoux and colleagues from McGill University in Montreal performed a nested case-control study deriving the data from a cohort of women in the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Current use of oral and transdermal hormone therapy, based on recorded prescriptions, was compared to no use in 15 710 cases and 59 958 controls. The adjusted rate ratio (RR) for stroke for current use of transdermal estrogens, with or without a progestin, was not

  12. Radiolabeled tirofiban – a potential radiopharmaceutical for detection of deep venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Darkovska-Serafimovska, Marija; Janevik-Ivanovska, Emilija; Djorgoski, Icko; Arsova-Sarafinovska, Zorica; Zdravkovska, Milka; Balkanov, Trajan; Ugresic, Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using 99mtechnetium (99mTc)-labeled tirofiban (a reversible antagonist of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa) for detection of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in rats without causing an antiplatelet effect. Methods The ability of in vitro tirofiban to inhibit adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was evaluated using optical aggregometer. Binding of 99mTc-tirofiban to platelets was evaluated. Serum levels of unlabeled (a validated high performance liquid chromatography method) and 99mTc-tirofiban after single intravenous injection were evaluated in male Wistar rats with or without induced DVT (femoral vein ligation model), and the rats were also subjected to whole body scintigraphy. Results Tirofiban in vitro inhibits ADP-induced aggregation of human platelets in a dose- and concentration-dependent manner (10 nM to 2 μM), but only if it is added before ADP and not after ADP. 99mTc labeling did not affect the ability of tirofiban to bind to either human or rat platelets, nor did it affect tirofiban pharmacokinetics in intact rats or in animals with induced DVT. When 99mTc-tirofiban was injected to rats after induction of DVT, at a molar dose lower than the one showing only a weak antiaggregatory effect in vitro, whole body scintigraphy indicated localization of 99mTc-tirofiban around the place of the induced DVT. Conclusion 99mTc labeling of tirofiban does not affect its ability to bind to glycoprotein IIb/IIIa or its in vivo pharmacokinetics in rats, either intact or with DVT. A low, nonantiaggregatory dose of 99mTc-tirofiban may be used to visualize DVT at an early stage. PMID:27713618

  13. An outpatient program to treat deep venous thrombosis with low-molecular-weight heparin.

    PubMed

    Pearson, S D; Blair, R; Halpert, A; Eddy, E; Mckean, S

    1999-01-01

    Although recent trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of low-molecular-weight (LMW) heparin, clinicians may need help incorporating this drug into routine practice. To describe the development, implementation, and early results of an outpatient LMW heparin program for acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Before-after study. Eight health centers of Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates, a multispecialty group practice in Boston. Patients with confirmed acute, lower-extremity DVT before (40 patients given a diagnosis from January to August 1996) and after (67 patients given a diagnosis from September 1996 to April 1997) implementation of the LMW heparin program. A centrally coordinated outpatient LMW heparin program. Hospital and HMO financial databases; electronic patient medical records. Costs of care for 2-week episodes and short-term clinical outcomes. The proportion of patients with DVT treated in the hospital decreased from 90% to 46% after the introduction of the LMW heparin program. The mean cost of treatment for all patients with DVT decreased from $5465 to $3719 per patient. For the subset of patients actually treated in the outpatient program, the average cost was $1402 per patient. There were no deaths, no clinically recognized pulmonary emboli, and no cases of significant bleeding among patients treated in the program, although 3 patients were subsequently hospitalized for worsening leg pain. The cost of caring for patients with DVT decreased after introduction of the outpatient LMW heparin program. Given explicit selection criteria, short-term clinical outcomes after outpatient management have been excellent. This program may serve as a model for physicians and health plans interested in establishing a program for treating acute DVT in the outpatient setting.

  14. Clinical features, risk factors, and outcome of cerebral venous thrombosis in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yadegari, Samira; Ghorbani, Askar; Miri, S. Roohollah; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Rostami, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Despite increasing the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) has remained an under-diagnosed condition. In this study, characteristics and frequency of various risk factors of CVST patients in a tertiary referral hospital were closely assessed. Methods: Patients with an unequivocal diagnosis of CVST confirmed by MRI and magnetic resonance venography during 6 years of the study were included. All data from the onset of symptoms regarding clinical signs and symptoms, hospital admission, seasonal distribution, medical and drug history, thrombophilic profile, D-dimer, neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid findings, mortality, and outcome were collected and closely analyzed. Result: A total of 53 patients with female to male ratio of 3.07 and mean age of 33.7 years were included in the study. Headache and papilledema were the most frequent clinical features (44 and 36 patients, respectively). An underlying disease (diagnosed previously or after admission) was the most common identified risk factor for CVST in both females and males (21 patients). A total of 15 women used the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) where 12 of them had simultaneously other predisposing factors. Overall, 19 patients (36%) had more than one contributing factor. D-dimer had a sensitivity of 71.4% in CVST patients. The mortality of patients in this study was 3.7% (n = 2). Focal neurologic deficit and multicranial nerve palsy were associated with poor outcome which defined as death, recurrence, and massive intracranial hemorrhage due to anticoagulation (P = 0.050 and 0.004, respectively). Conclusion: Unlike most of the CVST studies in which OCP was the main factor; in this study, an underlying disease was the most identified cause. Considering the high probability of multiple risk factors in CVST that was shown by this study, appropriate work up should be noted to uncover them. PMID:27695236

  15. Long-term prognostic analysis of early interventional therapy for lower extremity deep venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Yu, Zongxue; Wang, Jinjun; Chen, Xiao; Li, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the long-term prognostic value of early interventional therapy for lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (LDVT). In total, 85 patients diagnosed with LDVT for the first time were consecutively selected (identified course of disease was <3 months), and were divided into the control group with 43 cases and the observation group with 42 cases according to different therapeutic methods. The control group received anticoagulation therapy and thrombolysis, or integrated surgical thrombectomy, a conventional open operation, while the observation group received comprehensive treatment, combining endovascular catheter-directed thrombolysis and thrombectomy. The therapeutic effects were compared. After treatment, the differences in circumference of the thigh and shank between the affected and unaffected extremities, and vein dysfunction score of the two groups were decreased compared with before treatment. In addition, the above indexes of the observation group were significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.05). The clinical effective rate and effective extent of the observation group were higher than those of the control group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The occurrence rate of post-thrombotic syndrome in the observation group was lower than that of the control group, and there was no difference in comparison of grading. The recurrence rate and restenosis rate of the observation group were lower than in the control group, while the patency rate of the observation group was higher than that of the control group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, early catheter-directed invention of thrombolysis with thrombectomy for LDVT has good clinical effect in the short-term and long-term. PMID:28105087

  16. CT venography for deep venous thrombosis: continuous images versus reformatted discontinuous images using PIOPED II data.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Lawrence R; Stein, Paul D; Beemath, Afzal; Sostman, H Dirk; Wakefield, Thomas W; Woodard, Pamela K; Yankelevitz, David F

    2007-08-01

    This study was designed to determine whether discontinuous CT of the lower extremities for the detection of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) yields results similar to those of complete helical imaging using cases from the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis II (PIOPED II). In PIOPED II, CT venography followed CT angiography (CTA) to detect pulmonary embolus, using 7.5-mm continuous helical imaging from the iliac crest to the tibial plateau. DVT was detected in 105 of 737 patients (14.2%). We randomly chose 54 positive cases and 96 negative cases for our study. The continuous helical images were reformatted as 7.5-mm images and two of every three images were deleted. These images (7.5 mm; skip = 15 mm) were then sent--without identifying information--to the original reviewers. From 1 to 3.5 years had elapsed since the original interpretations. The results of the new interpretations were compared with the original CT venography consensus interpretations of PIOPED II. There was agreement for the presence of DVT in at least one leg (same leg) or for the absence of DVT in both legs in 133 of the 150 study patients (89%). The kappa statistic showed substantial agreement between the consensus interpretations and the test interpretations (kappa = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.64-0.86) per patient. There was good--but not perfect--agreement between continuous helical and discontinuous axial imaging for the detection of DVT. Given the vagaries of interobserver and intraobserver variation, there appears to be little difference between the two approaches. Adopting discontinuous imaging and other dose-reduction strategies can reduce pelvic radiation by more than 75%.

  17. Infections increase the risk of central venous catheter-related thrombosis in adult acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Buccisano, Francesco; Maurillo, Luca; Venditti, Daniela; Cefalo, Mariagiovanna; Sarlo, Chiara; Di Caprio, Luigi; Di Veroli, Ambra; Nasso, Daniela; Ceresoli, Eleonora; Postorino, Massimiliano; Di Piazza, Fabio; Colandrea, Giulio; Conti, Fabio; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Amadori, Sergio; Venditti, Adriano

    2013-11-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC) related thrombosis (CRT) represents a well known complication in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) receiving intensive chemotherapy but the efficacy of antithrombotic prophylaxis still remains controversial. We analyzed 71 consecutive AML patients whose CVC was inserted before each chemotherapy cycle for an overall number of 106 CVC placements. In 47/106 insertions, a prophylaxis with 100 IU/kg/day low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) was administered for 7 days after CVC insertion and additional 7 after CVC removal. This unconventional dose of LMWH, although higher than usual, appeared adequate for a short-course approach. LMWH was delivered regardless of the platelet (PLT) count once provided that it should have been maintained above 20 x 10(9)/L by transfusions. Of 106 insertions, we observed 19 (18%) episodes of CRT, 58 (54%) of sepsis and 50 (47%) infections of CVC-exit site with no difference between LMWH and no-LMWH group. Occurrence of CRT was significantly associated with CVC-exit site infections (14/19, p=0.01) and sepsis (16/19, p=0.005) with no difference between LMWH and no-LMWH group. In multivariate analysis, both CVC-exit site infections and sepsis were confirmed to be independent risk factors for CRT development. Our retrospective study, although based on a small sample size, suggests that the occurrence of CVC-exit site infections and neutropenic sepsis following chemotherapy significantly increases the risk of CRT in AML, independently from the use of LMWH prophylaxis. © 2013.

  18. Portomesenteric venous thrombosis: A rare but probably under-reported complication of laparoscopic surgery: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Yan Mei; Tokala, Ajay; Hany, Tarek; Pursnani, Kishore G.; Date, Ravindra S.

    2017-01-01

    Portomesenteric venous thrombosis (PMVT) is a rare but well-reported complication following laparoscopic surgery. We present three cases of PMVT following laparoscopic surgery. Our first case is a 71-year-old morbidly obese woman admitted for elective laparoscopic giant hiatus hernia (LGHH) repair. Post-operatively, she developed multi-organ dysfunction and computed tomography scan revealed portal venous gas and extensive small bowel infarct. The second patient is a 51-year-old man with known previous deep venous thrombosis who also had elective LGHH repair. He presented 8 weeks post-operatively with severe abdominal pain and required major bowel resection. Our third case is an 86-year-old woman who developed worsening abdominal tenderness 3 days after laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for adenocarcinoma and was diagnosed with an incidental finding of thrombus in the portal vein. She did not require further surgical intervention. The current guidelines for thromboprophylaxis follow-up in this patient group may not be adequate for the patients at risk. Hence, we propose prolonged period of thromboprophylaxis in the patients undergoing major laparoscopic surgery. PMID:28281480

  19. Competing risk of atherosclerotic risk factors for arterial and venous thrombosis in a general population: the Tromso study.

    PubMed

    Brækkan, Sigrid K; Hald, Erin M; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Rosendaal, Frits R; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2012-02-01

    To investigate and compare the impact of traditional atherosclerotic risk factors for the risk of arterial and venous thrombosis, taking into account competing risks. In 1994-1995, 26,185 subjects were screened in the Tromsø study. Information on traditional atherosclerotic risk factors was obtained by physical examination, blood samples, and questionnaires. Subjects were followed to the first incident event of myocardial infarction (MI) or venous thromboembolism (VTE), or December 31, 2005. During a median of 10.8 years of follow-up, there were 1279 cases of incident MI and 341 VTE events. Advancing age and high body mass index were both associated with MI and VTE. Hazard ratio per decade of age was 2.34 (95% CI: 2.25-2.43) for MI and 1.87 (1.74-2.01) for VTE, and 3 kg/m(2) increase in body mass index was associated with 1.16 (1.11-1.21) and 1.20 (1.12-1.29) increased risk of MI and VTE, respectively. Blood pressure, high levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, self-reported diabetes, and smoking were all associated with increased risk of MI but not associated with VTE. Our findings imply that traditional atherosclerotic risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus are not shared by arterial and venous thrombosis.

  20. Regional lymph node metastases are a strong risk factor for venous thromboembolism: results from the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study

    PubMed Central

    Dickmann, Boris; Ahlbrecht, Jonas; Ay, Cihan; Dunkler, Daniela; Thaler, Johannes; Scheithauer, Werner; Quehenberger, Peter; Zielinski, Christoph; Pabinger, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Advanced cancer is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism. However, lymph node metastases are usually not considered an established risk factor. In the framework of the prospective, observational Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study we investigated the association between local (N0), regional (N1–3), and distant (M1) cancer stages and the occurrence of venous thromboembolism. Furthermore, we were specifically interested in the relationship between stage and biomarkers that have been reported to be associated with venous thromboembolism. We followed 832 patients with solid tumors for a median of 527 days. The study end-point was symptomatic venous thromboembolism. At study inclusion, 241 patients had local, 138 regional, and 453 distant stage cancer. The cumulative probability of venous thromboembolism after 6 months in patients with local, regional and distant stage cancer was 2.1%, 6.5% and 6.0%, respectively (P=0.002). Compared to patients with local stage disease, patients with regional and distant stage disease had a significantly higher risk of venous thromboembolism in multivariable Cox-regression analysis including age, newly diagnosed cancer (versus progression of disease), surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy (regional: HR=3.7, 95% CI: 1.5–9.6; distant: HR=5.4, 95% CI: 2.3–12.9). Furthermore, patients with regional or distant stage disease had significantly higher levels of D-dimer, factor VIII, and platelets, and lower hemoglobin levels than those with local stage disease. These results demonstrate an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with regional disease. Elevated levels of predictive biomarkers in patients with regional disease underpin the results and are in line with the activation of the hemostatic system in the early phase of metastatic dissemination. PMID:23585523

  1. A Flare of Ulcerative Colitis Accompanied With Cerebral Sinus Venous Thrombosis And Bilateral Thalamic Infarctus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Begenik, Huseyin; Demirtas, Levent; Esen, Ramazan; Emre, Habib

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory and recurrent disorder that is characterized by bowel inflammation. Some patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) have acute, severe, and sometimes devastating intracranial complications that require immediate medical intervention. Cerebral sinus vein thrombosis is a rare but serious extraintestinal complication associated with ulcerative colitis. Herein we report a 30-year-old man with UC who presented with a flare of gastrointestinal symptoms with mental obtundation and apathy. Total colonoscopy revealed active colitis and cranial MRI showed extensive cerebral sinus venous thrombosis with thalamic infarcts. Because the patient was clinically unstable metilprednisolon with low molecular weight heparin were administered. Two days after treatment the patient was died despite all medical efforts. PMID:27785183

  2. Deep venous thrombosis and inferior vena cava agenesis causing double crush sciatic neuropathy in Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Kara, Murat; Ozçakar, Levent; Eken, Güneş; Ozen, Gülsen; Kiraz, Sedat

    2008-12-01

    We report here the case of a 18-year-old young man with Behçet's disease who had suffered deep venous thrombosis of the right femoral and popliteal veins. Consequently, right sciatic nerve injury, drop foot and tightness of the achilles tendon also ensued. The clinical scenario was further challenged by demonstration of the agenetic inferior vena cava and epidural vein dilatations compressing the lumbar nerve roots. To the best notice of the authors, this is the first patient encompassing all these complications in the literature concerning Behçet's disease.

  3. Microbiological testing of devices used in maintaining peripheral venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Fernanda de Paula; Andrade, Denise de; Santos, Lissandra Chaves de Sousa; Ferreira, Adriano Menis; Tieppo, Caroline; Watanabe, Evandro

    2017-05-15

    to evaluate the use of peripheral venous catheters based on microbiological analysis of devices (dressing and three-way stopcocks) and thus contribute to the prevention and infection control. this was a prospective study of microbiological analysis of 30 three-way stopcocks (external surfaces and lumens) and 30 dressing used in maintaining the peripheral venous catheters of hospitalized adult patients. all external surfaces, 40% of lumens, and 86.7% of dressing presented bacterial growth. The main species isolated in the lumen were 50% coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 14.3% Staphylococcus aureus, and 14.3% Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fifty nine percent of multidrug-resistant bacteria were isolated of the three-way stopcocks, 42% of the lumens, and 44% of the dressing with a predominance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus resistant to methicillin. Besides, 18% gram-negative bacteria with resistance to carbapenems were identified from multidrug-resistant bacteria on the external surfaces of the three-way stopcocks. it is important to emphasize the isolation of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and gram-negative bacteria resistant to methicillin and carbapenems in samples of devices, respectively, which reinforces the importance of nursing care in the maintenance of the biologically safe environment as well as prevention and infection control practices. avaliar o uso de cateteres venosos periféricos com base em análises microbiológicas de dispositivos (curativos e torneiras de três vias - T3Vs) e assim contribuir para a prevenção e controle de infecção. estudo prospectivo de análise microbiológica de 30 T3Vs (superfícies externas e lúmens) e 30 curativos utilizados na manutenção dos cateteres venosos periféricos de pacientes adultos hospitalizados. todas as superfícies externas, 40% dos lúmens e 86,7% dos curativos apresentaram crescimento bacteriano. As principais espécies isoladas no lúmen foram 50% Staphylococcus coagulase-negativa, 14

  4. Inferior vena cava filter placement during thrombolysis for acute iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Avgerinos, Efthymios D; Hager, Eric S; Jeyabalan, Geetha; Marone, Luke; Makaroun, Michel S; Chaer, Rabih A

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the need for inferior vena cava (IVC) filters and to identify anatomic and patient-specific risk factors associated with embolization in patients undergoing thrombolysis for acute iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Consecutive patients who underwent catheter-directed thrombolysis or pharmacomechanical thrombolysis (PMT) for iliofemoral DVT from May 2007 to March 2012 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Patients were categorized in two groups, depending on the status of IVC filtration during the lysis procedures: patients with an IVC filter protection (group A) and patients without an IVC filter protection (group B). The primary outcome was perioperative clinically significant pulmonary embolism (PE) or intraprocedural IVC filter clot capture. Eighty patients (mean age, 50 ± 16 years; 39 women) with symptoms averaging 12 ± 10 days were treated. A perioperative IVC filter was placed in 32 patients, and nine patients had an indwelling patent filter (group A, n = 41). Twenty patients received no filter, and 19 patients had an indwelling thrombosed filter (group B, n = 39). There were no clinically significant PE in either group. In group A, nine patients (22%) had documented embolic clot within the filter nest. The clot volume was deemed clinically significant in only two patients (5%). Factors related to embolization included female gender (odds ratio [OR], 5.833; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.038-32.797; P = .032) and preoperative clinical PE (OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.043-30.081; P = .054). A trend for increased embolization was seen with a higher average number of DVT risk factors (1.44 vs 1; P = .065) and when PMT was used as a single treatment (OR, 4.32; 95% CI, 0.851-21.929; P = .087). IVC filters during thrombolysis should be used selectively in patients with preoperative clinical PE, in women and potentially in patients with multiple risk factors for DVT, or when stand

  5. Venous Congestive Myelopathy due to Chronic Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis Treated with Endovascular Stenting: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Diego Z.; Hughes, Joshua D.; Liebo, Greta B.; Bendel, Emily C.; Bjarnason, Haraldur; Klaas, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Impaired inferior vena cava (IVC) outflow can lead to collateralization of blood to the valveless epidural venous plexus, causing epidural venous engorgement and venous congestion. Herein we describe a case of chronic IVC thrombosis presenting as venous congestive myelopathy treated with angioplasty and endovascular stenting. The pathophysiological mechanisms of cord injury are hypothesized, and IVC stenting application is evaluated. Methods Case report and review of the literature. Results IVC outflow obstruction has only rarely been associated with neurologic dysfunction, with reports of lumbosacral nerve root compression in the cases of IVC agenesis, compression, or occlusion. Although endovascular angioplasty with stenting is emerging as a leading treatment option for chronic IVC thrombosis, its use to treat neurologic complications is limited to one case report for intractable sciatica. Our case is the first description of IVC thrombosis presenting with venous congestive myelopathy, and treated successfully with IVC stenting. Conclusion Venous congestive myelopathy should be seen as a broader clinical condition, including not only typical dural arteriovenous fistulas, but also disorders of venous outflow. Therefore, identifying a rare, but potentially treatable, etiology is important to avoid permanent neurologic deficits. IVC stenting is proposed as a novel and effective treatment approach. PMID:25825633

  6. Haemodynamic response to peripheral venous congestion in patients with unexplained recurrent syncope.

    PubMed

    Bellard, Elisabeth; Fortrat, Jacques-Olivier; Dupuis, Jean-Marc; Victor, Jacques; Lefthériotis, Georges

    2003-09-01

    In patients with recurrent unexplained syncope, exaggerated peripheral venous pooling and impaired circulatory adjustment is thought to contribute to the outcome of a head-up tilt (HUT) test. The present study investigated the role of leg volume changes during venous congestion in the haemodynamic response of patients with recurrent unexplained syncope and the ability to predict the outcome of a HUT test. Changes in calf volume (strain gauge plethysmography), heart rate and arterial blood pressure were recorded in 60 patients with history of unexplained syncope (without postural tachycardia symptom) during venous congestion provoked by pneumatic thigh cuffs while supine at rest and during the initial 10 min of a 45 min 70 degrees HUT test. Twenty-seven patients [age (mean+/-S.D.), 39+/-16 years] exhibited symptoms [HUT(+)] and 33 patients (45+/-14 years) were asymptomatic [HUT(-)]. During venous congestion, mean+/-S.E.M. calf volume increased in both groups [HUT(-), 4.5+/-0.2; HUT(+), 4.8+/-0.4 ml x 100 ml(-1), not significant), but significantly less during head-upright tilt [HUT(-), 3.3+/-0.2, P <0.01; HUT(+), 2.6+/-0.3 ml x 100 ml(-1), P <0.001] without differences between the groups. During venous congestion, arterial pressure increased significantly in asymptomatic HUT(-) patients, but not in the HUT(+) patients. Calf volume changes did not correlate with a symptomatic outcome to a 70 degrees HUT. The lack of exaggerated venous pooling during venous congestion and the inability of calf volume changes to predict a positive HUT suggest that excessive venous pooling does not contribute to the outcome of HUT. Attenuated changes in arterial pressure during venous congestion while supine suggest impaired adjustment of peripheral resistance to leg venous occlusion.

  7. Case report of a central venous access device-associated thrombosis with aortic embolism in a preterm infant.

    PubMed

    Biermayr, Marlene; Brunner, Barbara; Maurer, Kathrin; Trawoeger, Rudolf; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Neubauer, Vera

    2016-09-06

    Thrombosis in neonates is commonly a central venous access device (CVAD) associated complication. Furthermore, a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is frequently seen in preterm infants. Even though a coincidence of both is not unusual, detaching of the thrombus and organisation of an aortic embolism has not been described until now. Treatment recommendations of CVAD-associated thrombosis in neonates do not consider frequently seen complications of preterm infants e.g. intraventricular haemorrhage. This is the first case of a very preterm infant with pre-existing intraventricular haemorrhage, who developed a CVAD-associated thrombosis and thromboembolic complications. The authors report on a very preterm girl with a pre-existing intraventricular haemorrhage and a CVAD-associated thrombus that, after removal of the CVAD, led to assumed pulmonary embolism and to an extended aortic embolism with consequent cerebral stroke. The girl was treated with unfractionated heparin (UFH) for about 50 days. During the further in-hospital stay the girl developed a mild bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Follow-up revealed clinical signs of cerebral palsy. Even though preterm infants are often diagnosed with a PFO which constitutes the risk for paradoxical embolism, such complications do not occur frequently due to the physiological heart pressure proportion. Nevertheless, it is important to monitor vital parameters and cerebral perfusion after removing a CVAD with confirmed associated thrombosis, because thromboembolic complications are possible. If practicable, patients with a confirmed CVAD-associated thrombosis should be anticoagulated before removing the CVAD. However, in our patient it was rational to remove the CVAD without prior anticoagulation due to the pre-existing intraventricular haemorrhage. There are various treatment recommendations for thrombosis or embolism in infants. However, there are no clear recommendations in very preterm infants with a high risk of cerebral bleeding

  8. [Risk factors for infection in total knee artrhoplasty, including previously unreported intraoperative fracture and deep venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    de Dios, M; Cordero-Ampuero, J

    2015-01-01

    To carry out a statistical analysis on the significant risk factors for deep late infection (prosthetic joint infection, PJI) in patients with a knee arthroplasty (TKA). A retrospective observational case-control study was conducted on a case series of 32 consecutive knee infections, using an analysis of all the risk factors reported in the literature. A control series of 100 randomly selected patients operated in the same Department of a University General Hospital during the same period of time, with no sign of deep infection in their knee arthroplasty during follow-up. Statistical comparisons were made using Pearson for qualitative and ANOVA for quantitative variables. The significant (p>0.05) factors found in the series were: Preoperative previous knee surgery, glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants, inflammatory arthritis. prolonged surgical time, inadequate antibiotic prophylaxis, intraoperative fractures. Postoperative secretion of the wound longer than 10 days, deep palpable haematoma, need for a new surgery, and deep venous thrombosis in lower limbs. Distant infections cutaneous, generalized sepsis, urinary tract, pneumonia, abdominal. This is the first report of intraoperative fractures and deep venous thrombosis as significantly more frequent factors in infected TKAs. Other previously described risk factors for TKA PJI are also confirmed. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Acylcarnitines are anticoagulants that inhibit factor Xa and are reduced in venous thrombosis, based on metabolomics data

    PubMed Central

    Deguchi, Hiroshi; Banerjee, Yajnavalka; Trauger, Sunia; Siuzdak, Gary; Kalisiak, Ewa; Fernández, José A.; Hoang, Linh; Tran, Minerva; Yegneswaran, Subramanian; Elias, Darlene J.

    2015-01-01

    In many patients with deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (venous thromboembolism, VTE), biomarkers or genetic risk factors have not been identified. To discover novel plasma metabolites associated with VTE risk, we employed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics, which do not target any specific metabolites. Using the Scripps Venous Thrombosis Registry population for a case-control study, we discovered that 10:1 and 16:1 acylcarnitines were low in plasmas of the VTE patient group compared with matched controls, respectively. Data from targeted metabolomics studies showed that several long-chain acylcarnitines (10:1, 12:0, 12:2, 18:1, and 18:2) were lower in the VTE group. Clotting assays were used to evaluate a causal relationship for low acylcarnitines in patients with VTE. Various acylcarnitines inhibited factor Xa-initiated clotting. Inhibition of factor Xa by acylcarnitines was greater for longer acyl chains. Mechanistic studies showed that 16:0 acylcarnitine had anticoagulant activity in the absence of factor Va or phospholipids. Surface plasmon resonance investigations revealed that 16:0 acylcarnitine was bound to factor Xa and that binding did not require the γ-carboxy glutamic acid domain. In summary, our study identified low plasma levels of acylcarnitines in patients with VTE and showed that acylcarnitines have anticoagulant activity related to an ability to bind and inhibit factor Xa. PMID:26175037

  10. Peripheral venous scintillation angiocardiography in determination of left ventricular volume in man.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R. W.; Bergeron, D. A.; Vetter, W. R.; Hyatt, K. H.; Haughton, V.; Vogel, J. M.

    1971-01-01

    Left ventricular end-diastolic volume was determined by cardiac visualization after peripheral venous injection of a gamma-emitting isotope in 10 patients with organic heart disease. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume measured by the isotope method consistently averaged 9% less than that determined by the X-ray method. The mean difference in left ventricular end-diastolic volume was 21 ml. Excellent correlation between the two methods was observed. It is pointed out that peripheral venous scintillation angiocardiography compares well with left ventriculography in the determination of left ventricular end-diastolic volume in man.

  11. Influence of decreased fibrinolytic activity and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism on the risk of venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Vuckovic, Biljana A; Djeric, Mirjana J; Tomic, Branko V; Djordjevic, Valentina J; Bajkin, Branislav V; Mitic, Gorana P

    2017-08-01

    : Objective of our study is to determine whether decreased fibrinolytic activity or plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 4G/5G polymorphism influence the risk of venous thrombosis.Our case-control study included 100 patients with venous thrombosis, and 100 random controls. When patients were compared with random controls, unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Decreased fibrinolytic activity yielded a 2.7-fold increase in risk for venous thrombosis than physiological fibrinolytic activity (OR 2.70; 95% CI 1.22-5.98), when comparing patients with random controls. Adjustment for several putative confounders did not change the estimate (OR 3.02; 95% CI 1.26-7.22). Analysis of venous thrombotic risk influenced by PAI-1 genotype, showed no influence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant in comparison with 5G/5G genotype (OR 0.57 95% CI; 0.27-1.20).Decreased fibrinolytic activity increased, whereas PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism did not influence venous thrombosis risk in this study.

  12. [Role of compression bandage with elevated level of pressure in decreasing incidence of venous thrombosis in high-risk patients].

    PubMed

    Barinov, V E; Lobastov, K V; Tsaplin, S N; Schastlivtsev, I V; Boiarintsev, V V; Laberko, L A

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed at assessing efficacy and safety of using graduated compression bandage with the level of pressure in the area of the middle ankle amounting to 20-40 mm Hg as compared to the conventional profile (10-20 mm Hg in the ankle area) in the composition of comprehensive prevention of postoperative venous thromboembolic complications (VTEC) in patients of a high-risk group. For this purpose we carried out a prospective randomized clinical study including a total of 100 surgical patients (general surgery, neurosurgery) from a group of high risk for the development of VTEC with the presence of 3 and more conditions predisposing to venous thrombosis. All patients were subdivided into two subgroups 50 patients each. Patients in both groups received anticoagulants in standard preventive doses from the first day after surgery or in the remote period. The Study group patients were treated by applying on the ankle a bandage of medium distensibility with the target pressure in the ankle area of 20-40 mm Hg measured by means of a portable manometer. The control group patients were treated by a similar bandage applied onto the ankle and femur with a pressure of 10-20 mm Hg. In all cases a special lining material was placed under the bandage. With the purpose of active screening of postoperative VTECs, prior to the beginning of the study and then each 3-5 days we performed ultrasound angioscanning and in case thrombosis was revealed we performed static perfusion scintigraphy of the lungs and/or echocardiography for verification of pulmonary embolism. The patients who died were subjected to post-mortem examination. We also assessed the frequency of correcting the bandage on the femur and crus. The incidence rate of postoperative venous thrombosis in the Study Group amounted to 16.0% (95% CI: 5.8-26.2%) and in the Control Group 36.0% (95% CI: 22.7-49.3%, p=0.039), with no significant differences in the incidence of proximal thrombosis or pulmonary embolism revealed

  13. Does prescription of medical compression prevent development of post-thrombotic syndrome after proximal deep venous thrombosis?

    PubMed

    Perrin, Michel; Eklöf, Bo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this review is to try to explain the controversy by critical analysis of previously published randomized controlled trials on the value of elastic compression stockings in the treatment of acute proximal deep vein thrombosis in prevention of post-thrombotic syndrome, which forms the scientific basis for our present management. A research was made through Medline and Embase databases to identify relevant original articles, not abstracts, with the following keywords: post-thrombotic syndrome, deep venous thrombosis, venous thromboembolism, compression stockings, prevention and compliance. We identified five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) before the SOX trial including 798 patients with acute proximal deep vein thrombosis. Brandjes (1997): at two years' follow-up, elastic compression stockings reduced post-thrombotic syndrome by 50%;Ginsberg (2001): no difference in post-thrombotic syndrome with or without elastic compression stockings after more than two years' follow-up;Partsch (2004): elastic compression stockings with routine above knee and early ambulation reduced the incidence and severity of post-thrombotic syndrome after two years' follow-up;Prandoni (2004) showed significantly less post-thrombotic syndrome after elastic compression stockings for two years with a five-year follow-up;Aschwanden (2008) showed no difference with elastic compression stockings after three years' follow-up. Prescription of elastic compression stockings for the prevention of post-thrombotic syndrome is now in doubt. Immediate compression after diagnosis of acute deep vein thrombosis to prevent swelling and reduce pain, permitting early ambulation in combination with adequate anticoagulation has proven benefit, although a secondary analysis of the SOX trial refutes this belief. Continued long-term compression treatment is questioned. Two major questions remain:Is the lack of positive outcome on the development of post-thrombotic syndrome after proximal deep vein

  14. P-selectin/ PSGL-1 Inhibitors versus enoxaparin in the resolution of venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ramacciotti, Eduardo; Myers, Daniel D.; Wrobleski, Shirley K.; Deatrick, K. Barry; Londy, Frank J; Rectenwald, John E.; Henke, Peter K.; Schaub, Robert G.; Wakefield, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    Background P-selectin antagonism has been shown to decrease thrombogenesis and inflammation in animal models of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Objective To determine the effectiveness of P-selectin inhibitors versus saline and enoxaparin in venous resolution in nonhuman primate models of venous thrombosis. Methods Studies reporting vein re-opening, inflammation expressed as Gadolinium enhancement and coagulation parameters were searched in the literature and pooled into a meta-analysis using an inverse variance with random effects. Results Five studies were identified comparing P-selectin/ PSGL-1 inhibitors versus saline or enoxaparin regarding venous thrombosis resolution. Vein re-opening was significantly higher on P-selectin/ PSGL-1 compounds, when compared to saline (Inverse Variance [IV] 95% CI; 44.37 [17.77–70.96], p=0.001, I2 =97%) and similar to enoxaparin (IV 95% CI; 5.03 [−8.88–18.95], p=0.48, I2 =41%). Inflammation, reflected as Gadolinium enhancement at magnetic resonance venography (MRV), was significantly decreased in the P-selectin treated group when compared to saline (IV 95% CI; −17.84 [−14.98 – −8.30], p<0.00001, I2 =80%). No significant differences on vein wall inflammation were observed between P-selectin/ PSGL-1 inhibitors and enoxaparin treated animals (IV95% CI; −3.59 [−10.67–3.48], p=0.32, I2 =66%). In addition, there was no differences in the coagulation parameters (aPTT, TCT, BT, D-Dimer, fibrinogen, platelets) between P-selectin/ PSGL-1 inhibitors and enoxaparin (IV 95% CI; −1.12[−2.36–0.11], p=0.07, I2 =92%), although there was a trend showing less prolongation in TCT with P-selectin /PSGL-1 inhibitors over enoxaparin (p<0.0001). Conclusion P-selectin antagonism successfully paralleled the low-molecular-weight-heparin enoxaparin, for the treatment of DVT in nonhuman primate models, by decreasing both thrombus burden and inflammation without causing any bleeding complications and increasing coagulation times. PMID

  15. Peripheral blood stem cell collection in allogeneic donors: impact of venous access.

    PubMed

    Hölig, Kristina; Blechschmidt, Matthias; Kramer, Michael; Zimmer, Kristin; Kroschinsky, Frank; Poppe-Thiede, Kirsten; Bornhäuser, Martin; Ehninger, Gerhard

    2012-12-01

    Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection is accepted as a routine procedure in related and unrelated healthy donors worldwide. Venous access can be accomplished by peripheral veins or a central venous catheter (CVC). STUDY DESING AND METHODS: We compared efficacy and tolerability of 40 PBSC collections via CVC with 6267 PBSC collections via peripheral veins in healthy allogeneic donors. Results of the leukapheresis procedures and side effects in the donors were evaluated. The median CD34+ cell counts on Day 5 and the results of the stem cell collection were not significantly different between the two groups of allogeneic donors. Pain or problems at the site of puncture or catheter insertion occurred in 58.6% of the donors with a CVC versus 37.8% of the donors with peripheral venous access (p = 0.03). The incidence and severity of paresthesia during the leukapheresis was not significantly different in both groups of donors (p = 0.09). During follow-up no major adverse events related to CVC were reported. Central femoral lines proved to be safe and tolerable in healthy allogeneic donors but peripheral venous access should be preferred, whenever possible. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  16. [Synthesis: certainties/uncertainties in the prevention of venous thrombosis in medical patients].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, J F; Kevorkian, J P; Chassany, O

    1998-01-01

    In medical patients there are numerous and variable risk factors for deep vein thrombosis. Placebo-controlled clinical trials are rare. The efficacy of standard heparin or low molecular weight heparin for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis is clearly demonstrated for patients with recent myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke with hemiplegia or severe pulmonary sepsis with lung failure. Pharmacological prophylaxis is probably also efficient in patients with a severe acute disease and a certain history of deep vein thrombosis. For all other medical and especially for bedridden elderly patients, use of low molecular weight heparin might decrease the incidence of deep vein thrombosis but might not modify the overall mortality. In these situations, placebo-controlled clinical trials are needed for best evaluation of the benefit-risk ratio.

  17. Ten years of cerebral venous thrombosis: male gender and myeloproliferative neoplasm is associated with thrombotic recurrence in unprovoked events.

    PubMed

    Lim, H Y; Ng, C; Donnan, G; Nandurkar, H; Ho, Prahlad

    2016-10-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare venous thrombotic event. We review our local experience in the management of CVT in comparison to other venous thromboembolism (VTE) with specific focus on risk factors for thrombotic recurrence. Retrospective evaluation of consecutive CVT presentations from January 2005 to June 2015, at two major tertiary hospitals in Northeast Melbourne, Australia. This population was compared to a separate audit of 1003 consecutive patients with DVT and PE. Fifty-two patients (30 female, 22 male) with a median age of 40 (18-83) years, presented with 53 episodes of CVT. Twenty-nine episodes (55 %) were associated with an underlying risk factor, with hormonal risk factors in females being most common. The median duration of anticoagulation was 6 months with 11 receiving life-long anticoagulation. Eighty-one percent had residual thrombosis on repeat imaging, which was not associated with recurrence at the same or distant site. Nine (17 %) had CVT-related haemorrhagic transformation with two resultant CVT-related deaths (RR 22.5; p = 0.04). All three VTE recurrences occured in males with unprovoked events (RR 18.2; p = 0.05) who were subsequently diagnosed with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). Compared to the non-cancer VTE population, non-cancer CVT patients were younger, had similar rate of provoked events and VTE recurrence, although with significantly higher rate of MPN diagnosis (RR 9.30 (2.29-37.76); p = 0.002) CVT is a rare thrombotic disorder. All recurrences in this audit occurred in male patients with unprovoked events and subsequent diagnosis of MPN, suggesting further evaluation for MPN may be warranted in patients with unprovoked CVT.

  18. Recipient and donor thrombophilia and the risk of portal venous thrombosis and hepatic artery thrombosis in liver recipients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vascular complications, such as HAT, are an important cause of graft loss and recipient mortality. We aimed to characterize post-transplant thrombotic events in a cohort of liver transplant recipients, and identify independent risk factors for these complications. Methods We conducted a thrombophilic study of 293 orthotopic liver transplants performed in the Digestive Surgery Department of the 12 de Octubre Hospital (Madrid, Spain) between January 2001 and December 2006. Results The most frequent post-transplant thrombotic events were HAT (9%) and PVT (1.7%). The one variable associated with post-transplant thrombotic event was a high fibrinogen level in the global cohort of liver transplantation. But toxicity as event post-OLT has been associated with post-transplant thrombotic event in the retrospective group and high fibrinogen level and low protein C levels were associated post-transplant thrombotic event in the prospective group. Liver disease relapse (HR 6.609, p < 0.001), high levels of FVIII (HR 1.008, p = 0.019)) and low levels of antithrombin (HR 0.946, p < 0.001) were associated with poor overall survival (OS). In conclusion, high fibrinogen and decreased protein C levels were associated with allograft thrombosis. Further studies are required in order to assess the clinical relevance of these parameters in prospective studies and to study the effect of anticoagulation prophylaxis in this group of risk. PMID:22123067

  19. Apixaban or Dalteparin in Reducing Blood Clots in Patients With Cancer Related Venous Thromboembolism

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-07-10

    Cerebral Vein Thrombosis; Deep Vein Thrombosis; Gonadal Thrombosis; Hepatic Thrombosis; Malignant Neoplasm; Mesenteric Thrombosis; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm; Portal Vein Thrombosis; Pulmonary Embolism; Renal Vein Thrombosis; Splenic Thrombosis; Venous Thromboembolism

  20. [Therapy and prevention of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in gynecology and obstetrics].

    PubMed

    Vucić, Niksa; Cala, Kresimir; Rancić, Iva; Pticar, Romana

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the latest developments in therapy and prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis in gynecology and obstetrics. The data presented in the paper have been extracted from the Current Contents database. In the introduction, the coagulation cascade is described, and certain coagulation abnormalities caused by deficiency or decreased activity of coagulation factors are highlighted. The most prominent signs of deep vein thrombosis in pregnant women are swelling and tenderness of the affected leg, sometimes accompanied with fever and leucocytosis. In pelvic thrombosis, swelling of the leg is often absent and such a condition may be mistaken for other abdominal emergencies. The diagnostic algorithm for deep vein thrombosis starts with the clinical Wells criteria. To confirm the diagnosis it is necessary to visualize the thrombus by one of the imaging methods. The value of D-dimer is limited by its low positive predictive value, particularly in pregnant women. Low weight molecular heparin's have lately almost replaced standard heparin in the treatment of the deep vein thrombosis in pregnant women for providing advantages of subcutaneous application, no need of laboratory control of coagulation parameters, lower risk of bleeding, and lower incidence of osteoporosis and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. We list the recommendations of the American College of Chest Physicians published in 1991, which stratify pregnant women with deep vein thrombosis according to their medical history and laboratory parameters. We have specified the proposed approach according to: history of deep vein thrombosis due to transient risk factors; previous idiopathic deep vein thrombosis without anticoagulant therapy; previous deep vein thrombosis with thrombophylia; previous idiopathic deep vein thrombosis on anticoagulant therapy; laboratory-proven thrombophilia with no history of deep vein thrombosis; and recurrent deep vein thrombosis. Pregnant women with artificial

  1. Wound healing and catheter thrombosis after implantable venous access device placement in 266 breast cancers treated with bevacizumab therapy.

    PubMed

    Kriegel, Irène; Cottu, Paul H; Fourchotte, Virginie; Sanchez, Sebastian; Fromantin, Isabelle; Kirov, Krassen; Guillaume, Alain; Pelloquin, Anne; Esteve, Marc; Salmon, Remy J

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, in a population with metastatic breast cancer treated with bevacizumab therapy, the incidence of wound dehiscence after placement of an implantable venous access device (VAD) and to study the risk of catheter thrombosis. This study enrolled all VADs placed by 14 anesthetists between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2009: 273 VADs in patients treated with bevacizumab therapy and 4196 VADs in patients not treated with bevacizumab therapy. In the bevacizumab therapy group, 13 cases of wound dehiscence occurred in 12 patients requiring removal of the VAD (4.76%). All cases of dehiscence occurred when bevacizumab therapy was initiated less than 7 days after VAD placement. Bevacizumab therapy was initiated less than 7 days after VAD placement in 150 cases (13 of 150: 8.6%). The risk of dehiscence was the same from 0 to 7 days. In parallel, the VAD wound dehiscence rate in patients not receiving bevacizumab therapy was eight of 4197 cases (0.19%) (Fisher's test significant, P<0.001). No risk factors of dehiscence were identified: anesthetists, learning curves, and irradiated patients. VAD thrombosis occurred in four patients (1.5%). In parallel, VAD thrombosis occurred in 51 of 4197 patients (1.2%) not receiving bevacizumab therapy (Fisher's test not significant; P=0.43). Bevacizumab therapy was permanently discontinued in five patients related to wound dehiscence and in one patient due to extensive skin necrosis. These data suggest the need to observe an interval of at least 7 days between VAD placement and initiation of bevacizumab therapy to avoid the risk of a wound dehiscence requiring chest wall port explant. The risk of VAD thrombosis does not require any particular primary prevention.

  2. Angioarchitectural Changes in Subacute Cerebral Venous Thrombosis. A Synchrotron-based Micro- and Nano-CT Study

    SciTech Connect

    E Stolz; M Yeniguen; M Kreisel; M Kampschulte; S Doenges; D Sedding; E Ritman; T Gerriets; A Langheinrich

    2011-12-31

    It is well known that recanalization of thrombosed cerebral sinuses occurs early but without marked influence on the long-term outcome and on final venous infarct volume on magnetic resonance imaging. To better understand the possible microvascular mechanisms behind these clinical observations, we evaluated the sequels of subacute superior sagittal sinus (SSS) thrombosis in rats using micro- and nano-CT imaging of the same specimen to provide large volume and high resolution CT image data respectively. SSS thrombosis was induced in 11 animals which were euthanized after 6 h (n = 4) or 6 weeks (n = 7). Eight sham-operated rats served as controls. After infusion of contrast into the vasculature of the brains, these were isolated and scanned using micro-, nano-, and synchrotron-based micro-CT ((8 {mu}m{sup 3}), (900 nm){sup 3}, and (1.9 {mu}m{sup 3}) voxel sizes). The cross-sectional area of the superior sagittal sinus, microvessels and cortical veins were quantified. Tissue sections were stained against VEGF antigen. Immunohistochemistry was confirmed using quantitative rtPCR. SSS thrombosis led to a congestion of the bridging veins after 6 h. After 6 weeks, a network of small vessels surrounding the occluded SSS was present with concurrent return towards the diameter of the draining bridging veins of controls. This microvascular network connected to cortical veins as demonstrated by nano- and synchrotron-based micro-CT. Also the volume fraction and number of cortical veins increased significantly. Immunohistochemistry in the region of the microsvascular network demonstrated a strong immunoreactivity against VEGF, confirmed by rtPCR. The sequel of subacute SSS thrombosis induced a network of microvessels ('venogenesis') draining the bridging veins. Also the volume fraction of cortical veins increased significantly.

  3. Efficacy of prophylactic inferior vena caval filters in prevention of pulmonary embolism in the absence of deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Mark G; Hart, Joseph P; El-Sayed, Hosam F

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing use of inferior vena caval filters (IVCFs) as prophylactic activity in the absence of a deep venous thrombosis (DVT) to prevent pulmonary embolism (PE) in high-risk patients. These devices are effective in preventing PE in the presence of lower extremity DVT, when anticoagulation is contraindicated or has failed. An electronic databases search of MEDLINE, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar for relevant articles listed between January 2000 and December 2014 was performed. The review was confined to patients without a history of previous venous thromboembolism and no evidence of changes on venous duplex imaging suggestive of previous DVT. At present, the use of prophylactic IVCF is predominantly in the trauma, orthopedic, and bariatric surgical populations. Currently, no class I studies exist to support insertion of an IVCF in a patient without an established DVT or PE. However, there is a body of class II and class III evidence that would support the use of IVCFs in certain "high-risk" patients who do not have a documented DVT or the occurrence of a PE. Widespread use of prophylactic IVCFs is not supported by evidence and should be discouraged. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G promoter polymorphism in Indian venous thrombosis patients: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Prabhudesai, Aniket; Shetty, Shrimati; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Kulkarni, Bipin

    2017-09-01

    The role of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism in venous thrombosis has been contradictory. PAI-1 4G/4G genotype is associated with elevated levels of PAI-1 resulting in a hypofibrinolytic state and a higher thrombotic risk. In this study, the distribution of genotypes and frequency of alleles of the 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene in Indian patients with different types of venous thrombosis was investigated for its role in development of thrombosis. A total of 87 portal vein thrombosis (PVT), 71 Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), 156 cerebral vein thrombosis (CVT), and 163 deep vein thrombosis (DVT) patients were studied alongside 251 healthy controls for the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism by allele-specific PCR. Frequency of 4G/4G genotype was higher in all groups in comparison with controls. 4G/4G was associated with PVT risk (OR=2.51, 95% CI=1.29-4.96, P=.0075), BCS risk (OR=5.98, 95% CI=2.68-13.42, P<.0001), and DVT risk (OR=1.75, 95% CI=0.98-3.02, P=.0225). This is the first case-control study from India establishing PAI-1 4G/4G as a strong risk factor for abdominal thrombosis (PVT and BCS). Statistically significant association was not found between 4G/4G genotype and CVT risk. PAI-1 4G/4G is a strong risk factor for venous thrombosis in Indian patients and should be included in laboratory testing panel of thrombophilia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Post-thrombotic syndrome 3 years after deep venous thrombosis in the Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in Out-Patients (TULIPA) PLUS Registry.

    PubMed

    Hach-Wunderle, Viola; Bauersachs, Rupert; Gerlach, Horst-Eberhard; Eberle, Sonja; Schellong, Sebastian; Riess, Hanno; Carnarius, Heike; Rabe, Eberhard

    2013-01-01

    Reported post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) rates may be confounded by including patients with a history of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) before the index event, varicose veins, or chronic venous insufficiency independent of PTS. We were interested in assessing PTS incidence rates of patients without these pre-existing disease conditions. A prospective registry with a 3-year follow-up after an initial DVT was assessed. Available for analysis were 135 ambulatory patients without a history of DVT (before the index DVT), signs of varicose veins, or chronic venous insufficiency affecting the ipsilateral or contralateral leg, and Villalta score. PTS was detected in 24.5% of patients, with 17.0% having mild (Villalta score, 5-9), 6.0% moderate (score, 10-14), and 1.5% severe PTS (score ≥15) after a first DVT. Of these, 52.6% had proximal and 47.4% distal DVT; 63.7% were provoked and 35.6% unprovoked (one patient missing). Patients with proximal DVT (32.4%) significantly more often developed any PTS compared with patients with distal DVT (15.6%; P = .024); however, groups were similar with regard to severity of PTS by the four-level Villalta score (P = .109). In univariate analysis, PTS was more frequent (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval) with higher age (1.06 per year; 1.02-1.09), a body mass index of 25 to 30 kg/m(2) (2.38; 0.71-7.97) and ≥30 kg/m(2) (6.08; 1.75-21.14), proximal vs distal DVT (2.59; 1.12-5.98), and calf swelling ≥3 cm larger than the asymptomatic leg (3.77; 1.66-8.55). In a multivariate analysis, age (1.05; 1.01-1.09) and calf swelling ≥3 cm larger than the asymptomatic leg (2.94; 1.20-7.20) remained predictive for PTS. Compression therapy was used by 78.5% of patients at the 1-year follow-up and by 46.7% at the 3-year follow-up. Both rates were higher in patients with PTS (93.9%) vs no PTS (66.7%). This prospective survey demonstrates a low rate of PTS in patients with a first DVT and no pre-existing DVT, varicose veins, or chronic venous

  6. Chronic venous ulceration of leg associated with peripheral arterial disease: an underappreciated entity in developing country.

    PubMed

    Nag, Falguni; De, Abhishek; Hazra, Avijit; Chatterjee, Gobinda; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Surana, Trupti V

    2014-10-01

    Chronic venous ulcer can often be associated with asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD), which usually remains undiagnosed adding significantly to the morbidity of these patients. The Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) is suggested for PAD evaluation. Many PAD studies were conducted in western countries, but there is a scarcity of data on the prevalence of PAD in clinical venous ulcer patient in developing countries. We conducted a study in a tertiary care hospital of eastern part of India to find out the prevalence of PAD in venous ulcer patients, and also to find the sensitivity of ABPI as a diagnostic tool in these patients. We evaluated clinically diagnosed patients with venous ulcer using ABPI and Colour Doppler study for the presence of PAD. Possible associations such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, hypertension and atherosclerosis were studied. All results were analysed using the software Statistica version 6. PAD was present in 23 (27·71%) patients. Older age, longer duration, smoking, high BMI and hypertension were found to be significantly associated with PAD. A very strong level of agreement was found between venous Doppler and ABPI. Assessment for the presence of PAD is important in all clinically diagnosed venous ulcer patients. ABPI being a simple, non-invasive outpatient department (OPD)-based procedure, can be routinely used in cases of venous ulcer to find out the hidden cases of PAD even in developing countries.

  7. [Cancer and deep venous thrombosis: the purpose of the CATCH clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Araújo, António

    2013-01-01

    Cancer has the potential to induce hypercoagulable states. On the other hand, venous thromboembolism may be the harbinger of an occult cancer, may represent a complication of known malignant disease or complicate hospitalization, surgery or various systemic treatments. The importance of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer is often underestimated resulting in under-diagnosis, which may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. However, many cancer patients do not receive prophylaxis and suitable treatment for venous thromboembolism. The author make some considerations on this disease by addressing the interest and the objectives of the clinical trial CATCH and use of sodium tinzaparin.

  8. Venous Thromboembolism—Incidence of Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: A Tertiary Care Experience in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Naeem Sultan; Nawaz, Ahmad; Junaid, Montasir; Kazi, Maliha; Akhtar, Shabbir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although venous thromboembolism (VTE) is seen with morbidity and mortality in various surgical specialties, scarce data are available in the head and neck surgery domain. Objective We aim to determine the incidence of VTE in patients receiving surgery for head and neck cancer. Methods Four hundred thirteen patients who underwent head and neck surgery procedures between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. All patients with head and neck surgery had received thromboprophylaxis (i.e., compression stockings and subcutaneous heparin). Patient demographics, operating time, and length of hospital stay were analyzed. The incidence of symptomatic deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) during the initial postoperative hospitalization was assessed. Results Twelve patients were identified who developed VTE. Three patients developed DVT, and nine developed PE. The incidence of DVT and PE was 0.72 and 2.17%, respectively. Interestingly, all of these patients had undergone excision of extensive head and neck cancers accompanied by a reconstructive procedure. Patients who developed PE had a longer hospital stay compared with those who only had DVT. There were overall three mortalities in the nine patients who developed PE. Conclusion Although VTE has a low incidence, it is a known complication of extensive head and neck surgeries with life-threatening outcomes. We recommend early mobilization and physiotherapy with the possible aid from appropriate mechanical and pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. PMID:26157492

  9. Predictors for the development of post-thrombotic syndrome in patients with primary lower limb deep venous thrombosis: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Nadeem A; Sophie, Ziad; Zafar, Farhan; Soares, Delvene; Naz, Iram

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Post-thrombotic syndrome is a common and debilitating sequelae of lower limb deep venous thrombosis. Very little awareness is present about the risk factors and about the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of this condition. Objective The objective of this study is to identify the predictors of post-thrombotic syndrome after lower limb deep venous thrombosis. Materials and methods A case-control study was conducted on all adult patients who were admitted with lower limb deep venous thrombosis at our institution from January 2005 to June 2012. These patients were scheduled for a research clinic visit, which included informed consent, data collection, and physical examination. Patients found to have post-thrombotic syndrome served as cases and those without post-thrombotic syndrome served as controls. Villalta scoring system was used to diagnose the post-thrombotic syndrome and then to assess the severity of the condition in both the groups. Cox regression risk factor analysis was performed to identify the predictors of post-thrombotic syndrome. Results Out of the 125 patients examined, 49 were found to have post-thrombotic syndrome. Risk factors found to be significant were body mass index of more than 35 kg/m(2) ( n = 13, p = 0.003), history of immobilization ( n = 19, p = 0.003), one or more hypercoagable disorders ( n = 32, p = 0.02), iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis ( n = 18, p = 0.001), complete obstruction on ultrasound ( n = 26, p = 0.016), unstable range of international normalized ratio ( n = 23, p = 0.041) and non-compliance for the use of compressions stockings ( n = 14, p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, one or more hypercoagable disorder, iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis, and non-compliance to the use of compression stockings were found to be independent risk factors for the development of post-thrombotic syndrome. Conclusion One or more hypercoagable disorders, iliofemoral

  10. Successful treatment of extensive cerebral venous sinus thrombosis using a combined approach with Penumbra aspiration system and Solitaire FR retrieval device

    PubMed Central

    Raychev, Radoslav; Tateshima, Satoshi; Rastogi, Sachin; Balgude, Amit; Yafeh, Banafsheh; Saver, Jeffrey L; Vespa, Paul M; Buitrago, Manuel; Duckwiler, Gary

    2013-01-01

    We present a young woman with rapidly progressive neurologic decline in the setting of malignant cerebral edema due to extensive superior sagittal sinus thrombosis and cortical venous thrombosis despite intravenous heparin administration. Complete revascularization of the occluded sinus was achieved using suction thrombectomy with the 5 max Penumbra catheter in combination with the Solitaire FR clot retrieval device. The successful endovascular treatment halted the progression of her cerebral edema, and the patient eventually had an excellent recovery after prolonged intensive medical therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case describing such a combined mechanical approach for cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. The clot retrieval properties of the Solitaire device combined with direct aspiration via the newest generation Penumbra catheters may allow more rapid, safe and efficient revascularization than all previously reported endovascular treatments for this potentially devastating condition. PMID:24022899

  11. [A mathematical analysis of strain-gauge curves in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Vega Gómez, M E; Ley Pozo, J; Aldama Figueroa, A; Alvarez Sánchez, J A; Charles-Edouard Otrante, D; Fernández Boloña, A; Gutierrez Jiménez, O

    1991-01-01

    The plethysmographic strain gauge venous outflow curves were studied by means of an exponential function. The parameters analyzed made possible the establishment of differences between patients with and without DVT.

  12. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Complicated by Hemorrhagic Infarction Secondary to Ventriculoperitoneal Shunting

    PubMed Central

    Son, Won-Soo

    2010-01-01

    While a delayed intracerebral hemorrhage at the site of a ventricular catheter has occasionally been reported in literature, a delayed hemorrhage caused by venous infarction secondary to ventriculoperitoneal shunting has not been previously reported. In the present case, a 68-year-old woman underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting through a frontal burr hole, and developed a hemorrhagic transformation of venous infarction on the second postoperative day. This massive venous infarction was caused by bipolar coagulation and occlusion of a large paramedian cortical vein in association with atresia of the rostral superior sagittal sinus. Thus, to eliminate the risk of postoperative venous infarction, technical precautions to avoid damaging surface vessels in a burr hole are required under loupe magnification in ventriculoperitoneal shunting. PMID:21113365

  13. Power-Pulse Thrombolysis and Stent Recanalization for Acute Post-Liver Transplant Iliocaval Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Baccin, Carlos E.; Haskal, Ziv J.

    2008-07-15

    Postoperative inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis is a potentially lethal complication in a liver transplant recipient. We report the case of a 57-year-old liver transplant recipient, who developed acute, postoperative, markedly symptomatic complete IVC, ilial-femoral-caval, and left renal vein thrombosis. After treatment with power-pulse tissue plasminogen activator thrombolysis, thrombectomy, and stent placement, the IVC and iliac veins were successfully recanalized. At 2.5-year imaging and laboratory follow-up, the IVC, iliac, and renal veins remained patent and graft function was preserved.

  14. Recurrent cerebral venous thrombosis associated with heterozygote methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation and sickle cell trait without homocysteinemia: an autopsy case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ali, Z; Troncoso, J C; Fowler, D R

    2014-09-01

    Elevated blood homocysteine concentration and certain genetic mutations have been associated with increased risk for developing arterial and venous thrombosis. A common mutation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, MTHFR C677T, has been associated with elevated homocysteine concentration and increased risk for developing thrombosis in homozygote carriers. Heterozygote carriers for this gene mutation, if associated with other major or minor risk factors for thrombophilia, appear to be prone to develop thrombosis. A postmortem genetic testing for common mutations resulting in thrombophilia should be performed in all individuals who die as a result of thrombosis, regardless of predisposing risk factors, to determine the true prevalence of mutations in these individuals, and to assess the true role of a certain mutation, such as heterozygote MTHFR C677T, in the pathogenesis of thrombosis. Postmortem genetic testing for common mutations associated with thrombophilia in selected cases has potentially life-saving importance to surviving family members. We report a case of recurrent cerebral venous thrombosis in a 19 year old male with history of sickle cell trait, obesity, and high normal blood homocysteine, who was heterozygote for MTHFR C677T mutation.

  15. Recurrent Hemorrhagic Venous Infarctions Caused by Thrombosis of a Pontine Developmental Venous Anomaly and Protein S Mutation.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuri; Takase, Kei-Ichiro; Matsushita, Takuya; Yoshimura, Satoshi; Yamasaki, Ryo; Murai, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Kazufumi; Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2016-11-01

    A 34-year-old man presented with an acute onset of upbeat nystagmus, slurred speech, and limb and truncal ataxias. The patient had a history of limb ataxia and gait disturbance previously treated as brainstem encephalitis with corticosteroids 3 years previously. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed pontine developmental venous anomaly (DVA) and hemorrhagic infarction within the drainage territory of the DVA. Three months later, the patient exhibited recurrent limb ataxia, double vision, and numbness of the left side of the body. The brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed recurrent hemorrhagic venous infarction within the same territory of the pontine DVA. Laboratory tests disclosed a hypercoagulable state owing to a decrease of protein S activity despite the normal antigen level. Genetic testing indicated that the patient was a homozygous carrier of protein S Tokushima. The patient's severe disability remained unchanged in spite of treatment with anticoagulation therapy using warfarin. We propose that further research on hereditary coagulopathy be carried out in patients with recurrent episodes of DVA-related infarction.

  16. Wavelet-Based Angiographic Reconstruction of Computed Tomography Perfusion Data: Diagnostic Value in Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Wolfgang G; Schuler, Felix; Sommer, Wieland H; Fabritius, Matthias P; Havla, Lukas; Meinel, Felix G; Reiser, Maximilian F; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Thierfelder, Kolja M

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to test the diagnostic value of wavelet-based angiographic reconstruction of CT perfusion data (waveletCTA) to detect cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) in patients who underwent whole-brain CT perfusion imaging (WB-CTP). Datasets were retrospectively selected from an initial cohort of 2863 consecutive patients who had undergone multiparametric CT including WB-CTP. WaveletCTA was reconstructed from WB-CTP: the angiographic signal was generated by voxel-based wavelet transform of time attenuation curves (TACs) from WB-CTP raw data. In a preliminary clinical evaluation, waveletCTA was analyzed by 2 readers with respect to presence and location of CVST. Venous CT and MR angiography (venCTA/venMRA) served as reference standard. Diagnostic confidence for CVST detection and the quality of depiction for venous sections were evaluated on 5-point Likert scales. Thrombus extent was assessed by length measurements. The mean CT attenuation and waveletCTA signal of the thrombus and of flowing blood were quantified. Sixteen patients were included: 10 patients with venCTA-/venMRA-confirmed CVST and 6 patients with arterial single-phase CT angiography (artCTA)-suspected but follow-up-excluded CVST. The reconstruction of waveletCTA was successful in all patients. Among the patients with confirmed CVST, waveletCTA correctly demonstrated presence, location, and extent of the thrombosis in 10/10 cases. In 6 patients with artCTA-suspected but follow-up-excluded CVST, waveletCTA correctly ruled out CVST in 5 patients. Reading waveletCTA in addition to artCTA significantly increased the diagnostic confidence concerning CVST compared with reading artCTA alone (4.4 vs 3.6, P = 0.044). The mean flowing blood-to-thrombus ratio was highest in waveletCTA, followed by venCTA and artCTA (146.2 vs 5.9 vs 2.6, each with P < 0.001). In waveletCTA, the venous sections were depicted better compared with artCTA (4.2 vs 2.6, P < 0.001), and equally well compared with ven

  17. Prevalence of JAK2V617F mutation in deep venous thrombosis patients and its clinical significance as a thrombophilic risk factor: Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neha; Sharma, Amit; Sazawal, Sudha; Ahuja, Ankur; Upadhyay, Ashish; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Saxena, Renu

    2015-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism is known to be a complex interaction of genetic and acquired factors leading to thrombosis. JAK2V617F mutation is believed to contribute to a thrombophilic phenotype, possibly through enhanced leukocyte-platelet interactions in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Several studies have focused on the importance of screening for JAK2V617F mutation in patients with splanchnic venous thrombosis (VT) for the detection of nonovert MPNs. The role of JAK2V617F mutation in VT outside the splanchnic region is still widely unsettled. The primary aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of JAK2V617F mutation in patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT), its clinical significance as a prothrombotic risk factor, and its possible interactions with other genetic thrombophilic risk factors. A total of 148 patients with idiopathic, symptomatic DVT were evaluated. Median age of presentation was 32 years (range 15-71 years) with a sex ratio of 1.3:1. Overall, the most common genetic prothrombotic factor was factor V Leiden mutation, found in 10.8% (16 of 148) of patients who also showed strong association with increased risk of thrombosis (odds ratio 5.94, confidence interval 1.33-26.4, P = .019). Deficiencies in protein C, protein S, and antithrombin were seen in 8 (5.4%), 10 (6.7%), and 8 (5.4%) patients, respectively. It was observed that the frequency of JAK2V617F mutation was lower in Indian patients, and it also showed weaker association with risk of thrombosis, at least in cases of venous thrombosis outside the splanchnic region.

  18. Contrast-enhanced sonothrombolysis in a porcine model of acute peripheral arterial thrombosis and prevention of anaphylactic shock.

    PubMed

    Nederhoed, Johanna H; Slikkerveer, Jeroen; Meyer, Klaas W; Wisselink, Willem; Musters, René J P; Yeung, Kak K

    2014-03-01

    Acute peripheral arterial thrombosis can be threatening to life and limb. Dissolution of the thrombus local catheter-directed intra-arterial infusion of fibrinolytic agents such as urokinase is the standard therapy for thrombosis; however, this method is time-intensive, and amputation of the affected limb is still needed in 10-30% of cases. Furthermore, thrombolytic therapy carries the risk of bleeding complications. The use of small gas-filled bubbles, or ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs), in combination with ultrasound has been investigated as an improved thrombolytic therapy in acute coronary and cerebral arterial thrombosis. The authors describe a porcine model of acute peripheral arterial occlusion to test contrast-enhanced sonothrombolysis approaches that combine ultrasound, UCAs and fibrinolytic agents and recommend a strategy for preventing severe allergic reactions to UCAs in the pigs.

  19. Papillophlebitis versus paediatric venous thrombosis. A case with 46C/T polymorphism in the F12 coagulation gene.

    PubMed

    Gargallo-Benedicto, A; Cerdà-Ibáñez, M; Olate-Pérez, Á; Clemente-Tomás, R; Almor Palacios, I; Hervás Hernandis, J M; Duch-Samper, A

    2017-06-01

    An 8 year-old boy with no known diseases, with sudden loss of visual acuity (VA) in the left eye (LE). VA 1 in right eye, and 0.1 in LE, discrete left relative afferent pupil defect (RAPD). Normal biomicroscopy. Funduscopy: congestive papilla, venous tortuosity, peripapillary haemorrhages with macular oedema in LE. The systemic study only revealed A C46Tpolymorphism in the F12 coagulation gene. He had a VA of 1 and normal funduscopy 8 months later. Papillophlebitis is an inflammatory and non-ischaemic central retinal vein occlusion, ophthalmoscopically similar to central retinal vein thrombosis. The systemic study is essential to rule out underlying diseases. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  20. Deep venous thrombosis among disaster shelter inhabitants following the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Shibata, M; Hanzawa, K; Ueda, S; Yambe, T

    2014-05-01

    A retrospective analysis of data collected during subject screening following Japan's March 2011 earthquake and tsunami was performed. We aimed to determine the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) among screened subjects and to identify risk factors associated with the development of DVT as independent variables. Calf ultrasonography was undertaken in 269 subjects living in 21 shelters in Miyagi prefecture during the one-month period immediately following the March 2011 disaster. Information regarding the health and risk factors of subjects was collected by questionnaire and assessment of physical signs. Of the 269 evacuees screened, 65 (24%) met the criteria for calf DVT. We found lower limb trauma, reduced frequency of urination and sleeping in a vehicle to be independent positive predictors of DVT. Evacuees had an increased risk of developing DVT, associated with tsunami-related lower limb injury, immobility and dehydration.

  1. Dysgenesis of the inferior vena cava associated with deep venous thrombosis and a partial Protein C deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tribe, Howard; Borgstein, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    Dysgenesis of the inferior vena cava is rare but it is being increasingly diagnosed by cross-sectional imaging techniques. Patients are usually asymptomatic with abnormalities detected incidentally. An 11 year old boy presented with a 10 day history of fever, vomiting and abdominal pain, which progressed to his back and lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging, computerised tomography and Doppler ultrasonography showed the absence of a suprarenal inferior vena cava with bilateral superficial femoral vein thrombi extending cranially to the end of the aberrant inferior vena cava. Haematological testing revealed a partial Protein C deficiency. The presenting clinical picture in this case is unique within the English literature and highlights that deep venous thrombosis associated with inferior vena cava dysgenesis may not present with typical symptoms in children. Early use of advanced imaging modalities would expedite diagnosis and subsequent treatment. PMID:24421930

  2. Artificial neural networks predict the incidence of portosplenomesenteric venous thrombosis in patients with acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Fei, Y; Hu, J; Li, W-Q; Wang, W; Zong, G-Q

    2017-03-01

    Essentials Predicting the occurrence of portosplenomesenteric vein thrombosis (PSMVT) is difficult. We studied 72 patients with acute pancreatitis. Artificial neural networks modeling was more accurate than logistic regression in predicting PSMVT. Additional predictive factors may be incorporated into artificial neural networks.

  3. Deep venous thrombosis of the neck and pulmonary embolism in patients with a central venous catheter admitted to cardiac rehabilitation after cardiac surgery: a prospective study of 815 patients.

    PubMed

    Frizzelli, Rino; Tortelli, Ornella; Di Comite, Vincenzo; Ghirardi, Redenta; Pinzi, Claudio; Scarduelli, Cleante

    2008-12-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are widely used for therapeutic purposes and to measure hemodynamic variables that cannot be recorded from a peripheral vein. However, the method can involve complications. In cardiac surgery, CVCs are electively placed in the right internal jugular vein but there is little information on deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in catheterized veins (CVC-related DVT) or on secondary pulmonary embolism (PE). The impact of CVC-related DVT and PE in cardiac surgery and measures to prevent PE were assessed. We used ultrasonography (US) to check the point of insertion of CVC in 815 patients in the intensive cardiac rehabilitation unit after heart surgery. In this series, 386 patients (48%) had CVC-related DVT; those already receiving anticoagulant, and considered at low risk, continued that therapy, while those taking an antiplatelet agent (aspirin 100 mg daily) but deemed at high risk of PE from the US findings were given an anticoagulant instead. Only patients with CVC-related DVT at low risk of PE continued taking aspirin. At 3 months, there were no cases of PE among patients receiving an anticoagulant, but six on antiplatelet had non-fatal PE. The prevalence of PE in the whole series of 815 patients was 0.7%. CVC-related DVT is a frequent complication of heart surgery. Anticoagulant therapy started early does not prevent thrombus formation but probably prevents PE, whereas antiplatelet gives no such protection. Sonographic screening of the CVC removal in intensive care unit may be useful for avoiding PE after CVC-related DVT.

  4. Statins Improve the Resolution of Established Murine Venous Thrombosis: Reductions in Thrombus Burden and Vein Wall Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Kessinger, Chase W.; Kim, Jin Won; Henke, Peter K.; Thompson, Brian; McCarthy, Jason R.; Hara, Tetsuya; Sillesen, Martin; Margey, Ronan J. P.; Libby, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Lin, Charles P.; Jaffer, Farouc A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite anticoagulation therapy, up to one-half of patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) will develop the post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). Improving the long-term outcome of DVT patients at risk for PTS will therefore require new approaches. Here we investigate the effects of statins—lipid-lowering agents with anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties—in decreasing thrombus burden and decreasing vein wall injury, mediators of PTS, in established murine stasis and non-stasis chemical-induced venous thrombosis (N = 282 mice). Treatment of mice with daily atorvastatin or rosuvastatin significantly reduced stasis venous thrombus burden by 25% without affecting lipid levels, blood coagulation parameters, or blood cell counts. Statin-driven reductions in VT burden (thrombus mass for stasis thrombi, intravital microscopy thrombus area for non-stasis thrombi) compared similarly to the therapeutic anticoagulant effects of low molecular weight heparin. Blood from statin-treated mice showed significant reductions in platelet aggregation and clot stability. Statins additionally reduced thrombus plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue factor, neutrophils, myeloperoxidase, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and macrophages, and these effects were most notable in the earlier timepoints after DVT formation. In addition, statins reduced DVT-induced vein wall scarring by 50% durably up to day 21 in stasis VT, as shown by polarized light microscopy of picrosirius red-stained vein wall collagen. The overall results demonstrate that statins improve VT resolution via profibrinolytic, anticoagulant, antiplatelet, and anti-vein wall scarring effects. Statins may therefore offer a new pharmacotherapeutic approach to improve DVT resolution and to reduce the post-thrombotic syndrome, particularly in subjects who are ineligible for anticoagulation therapy. PMID:25680183

  5. Peripheral venous distension elicits a blood pressure raising reflex in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Evan L; Brian, Michael S; Coyle, Dana E; Edwards, David G; Stocker, Sean D; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2016-06-01

    Distension of peripheral veins in humans elicits a pressor and sympathoexcitatory response that is mediated through group III/IV skeletal muscle afferents. There is some evidence that autonomic reflexes mediated by these sensory fibers are blunted with increasing age, yet to date the venous distension reflex has only been studied in young adults. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the venous distension reflex would be attenuated in middle-aged compared with young adults. Nineteen young (14 men/5 women, 25 ± 1 yr) and 13 middle-aged (9 men/4 women, 50 ± 2 yr) healthy normotensive participants underwent venous distension via saline infusion through a retrograde intravenous catheter in an antecubital vein during limb occlusion. Beat-by-beat blood pressure, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and model flow-derived cardiac output (Q), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout the trial. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased during the venous distension in both young (baseline 83 ± 2, peak 94 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05) and middle-aged adults (baseline 88 ± 2, peak 103 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05). MSNA also increased in both groups [young: baseline 886 ± 143, peak 1,961 ± 242 arbitrary units (AU)/min; middle-aged: baseline 1,164 ± 225, peak 2,515 ± 404 AU/min; both P < 0.05]. TPR (P < 0.001), but not Q (P = 0.76), increased during the trial. However, the observed increases in blood pressure, MSNA, and TPR were similar between young and middle-aged adults. Additionally, no correlation was found between age and the response to venous distension (all P > 0.05). These findings suggest that peripheral venous distension elicits a pressor and sympathetic response in middle-aged adults similar to the response observed in young adults. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Testosterone therapy, thrombophilia, and hospitalization for deep venous thrombosis-pulmonary embolus, an exploratory, hypothesis-generating study.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Friedman, Joel; Hafeez, Ahsan; Hassan, Atif; Wang, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Our hypothesis was that testosterone therapy (TT) interacts with previously undiagnosed thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis, leading to hospitalization for deep venous thrombosis (DVT)-pulmonary emboli (PE). We determined the prevalence of DVT-PE associated with TT 147 men hospitalized in the last 12 months for DVT-PE. Of the 147 men, 2 (1.4%) had TT before and at the time of their DVT-PE. Neither had risk factors for thrombosis. Neither smoked. Case #1 (intramuscular T 50mg/week) had 2 PE, 6 and 24 months after starting TT. DVT-PE in case #2 (T gel 100mg/day) occurred 24 months after starting T. Both men were found to have previously undiagnosed familial thrombophilia (protein S deficiency, homocysteinemia, high Factor VIII). In case #2, on 100mg T gel/day, serum estradiol was high, 51 pg/ml (upper normal limit 42.6 pg/ml). At least 1.4% of men hospitalized for DVT-PE were on TT and had previously undiagnosed thrombophilia, suggesting a thrombotic interaction between exogenous T and thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis. Given the increasing use of TT, our preliminary findings should facilitate design of a much-needed, multi-center, prospective study of pro-thrombotic interactions between T therapy and thrombophilia for subsequent thrombotic events including DVT-PE.

  7. Clinical Characteristics of Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Single-Centre Experience in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Wanli; Zheng, Wenjie; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Fengchun

    2015-01-01

    Clinical characteristics of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients complicated with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) between 2000 and 2013 were analyzed through this retrospective, single-centre study. Of 4747 hospitalized SLE patients, 17 (0.36%, 12 females, average age 30) had CVST. Headache (88.2%) was the most common neurological symptom followed by nausea or vomiting (47.1%), conscious disturbance (41.2%), edema of eyelids or conjunctiva (35.3%), blurred vision or diplopia (35.3%), and seizure (35.3%). Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) occurred in 13 cases (76.5%). Magnetic resonance venography (MRV) detected thrombosis in the transverse (82.4%), sigmoid (52.9%), and sagittal (35.3%) sinuses, with frequent (70.6%) multiple sinus occlusions. Compared to SLE patients without CVST, SLE patients with CVST had a higher prevalence of thrombocytopenia and positive antiphospholipid antibodies and a higher SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) score. 13 patients achieved improvement following glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants treatment, as well as anticoagulants, while 3 patients died at the hospital. CVST is relatively rare in SLE and tends to occur in active lupus patients. Intracranial hypertension is common but nonspecific clinical feature, so MRV evaluation is necessary to establish a diagnosis. Aggressive treatment for the rapid control of SLE activity combined with anticoagulants can improve the prognosis.

  8. Percutaneous central venous catheters versus peripheral cannulae for delivery of parenteral nutrition in neonates.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, Sean; McGuire, William

    2015-10-06

    Neonatal parenteral nutrition may be delivered via peripheral cannulas or central venous catheters (umbilical or percutaneous). As the result of complications associated with umbilical catheters, many neonatal units prefer to use percutaneous catheters after initial stabilisation. Although they can be difficult to place, these catheters may be more stable than peripheral cannulae and require less frequent replacement. These delivery methods may be associated with different risks of adverse events, including acquired invasive infection and extravasation injury. To determine the effects of infusion of parenteral nutrition via percutaneous central venous catheters versus peripheral cannulae on nutrient input, growth and development and complications among hospitalised neonates receiving parenteral nutrition in terms of adverse consequences such as bacteraemia or invasive fungal infection, cardiac tamponade or other extravasation injuries. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2015) and EMBASE (1980 to June 2015), as well as conference proceedings and previous reviews. Randomised controlled trials that compared delivery of intravenous fluids (primarily parenteral nutrition) via percutaneous central venous catheters versus peripheral cannulae in hospitalised neonates. We extracted data using standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Group, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. We found six trials recruiting a total of 549 infants. One trial showed that use of a percutaneous central venous catheter was associated with a smaller deficit between prescribed and actual nutrient intake during the trial period (mean difference (MD) -7.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) -11.02 to -3.2). Infants in the percutaneous central venous catheter group needed significantly fewer catheters/cannulae (MD -4.3, 95% CI -5.24, -3.43). Meta-analysis of data from all trials

  9. Is real-time elastography helpful to differentiate acute from subacute deep venous thrombosis? A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Ahmet; Barutca, Hakan; Ayaz, Ercan; Aslan, Mine; Kocaaslan, Cemal; Inan, Ibrahim; Sahin, Sinan; Yıkılmaz, Ali

    2017-09-22

    To detect and characterize changes in stiffness of thrombus in patients with acute and subacute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) by using real-time elastography (RTE). Fifty-eight patients with acute or subacute DVT were prospectively evaluated by B-mode sonography (US), color Doppler US (CDUS), and RTE. Two radiologists evaluated the thrombus echogenicity, compressibility, and recanalization of the affected vein, and thrombus stiffness in consensus. The thrombi were classified into 3 groups as soft, intermediate, and hard on RTE images. The final study group consisted of 30 patients with acute DVT, among whom 10 were women (33%), and 19 patients with subacute DVT, among whom 6 were women (32%). The presence of hypoechoic thrombus, incompressible vein, and absence of recanalization on US and CDUS were significantly associated with acute DVT (P < .001 for all variables). The differences in elasticity pattern of the thrombi between acute and subacute DVT were not significant (P = .202). Venous thrombus hardens with age; however, elastography pattern on RTE, in its present form, may not be able to differentiate acute DVT from subacute DVT. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in cancer: novel findings from the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study (CATS).

    PubMed

    Königsbrügge, Oliver; Pabinger, Ingrid; Ay, Cihan

    2014-05-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs frequently in patients with cancer and contributes to elevated morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for the occurrence of VTE events in patients with cancer have been investigated in numerous clinical studies. For now more than 10 years, the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study (CATS) has focused on the identification of parameters predictive of future VTE occurrence. CATS has contributed to new findings, which may help identify patients at high risk of developing VTE, by means of biomarkers (such as D-dimer, prothrombin fragment 1+2, soluble P-selectin, platelet count, coagulation factor VIII activity, thrombin generation potential, etc.). The association of tissue factor bearing microparticles and the mean platelet volume with the risk of VTE was also elaborately investigated in the framework of CATS. More recently CATS has researched clinical and clinicopathologic parameters which contribute to identification of patients at risk of VTE. The type of cancer is one of the most important risk factor for VTE occurrence. Also the stage of cancer and the histological grade of a tumor have been found to be associated with the occurrence of cancer-related VTE. In further investigations, venous diseases including a history of previous VTE, a history of superficial thrombophlebitis and the presence of varicose veins, have been associated with the risk of VTE in CATS.

  11. Low molecular weight heparin for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis: a suitable monitoring in elderly patients?

    PubMed

    Mahé, Isabelle; Drouet, Ludovic; Chassany, Oliver; Grenard, Anne-Sophie; Caulin, Charles; Bergmann, Jean-François

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring of anti-Xa activity (aXa) levels is not routinely required in patients receiving enoxaparine at prophylactic dosages, since aXa is supposed to stay below the manufacturer's recommended range in patients treated for venous thrombosis (0.5-1 IU/ml). In order to aXa in elderly subjects receiving prophylactic enoxaparin, 68 consecutive patients (mean age 82.5 +/- 10.7 years) hospitalized in a medical department receiving 4000 IU enoxaparin daily subcutaneously for the prevention of venous thromboembolic disease were studied. After the first injection of enoxaparin, the aXa of 57.4% patients was superior to 0.5 IU/ml while 69.4% had an aXa higher than 0.5 after 8.4 +/- 1.2 days. A negative relationship between aXa and body weight and a trend towards a positive correlation between aXa and age but not with creatinine clearance were noted. Our findings question the opportunity to monitor aXa in elderly patients receiving 4000 IU enoxaparin as antithrombotic prophylaxis.

  12. Gunther Tulip Inferior Vena Cava Filter Placement During Treatment for Deep Venous Thrombosis of the Lower Extremity

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagami, Takuji Kato, Takeharu; Iida, Shigeharu; Hirota, Tatsuya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2005-05-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Gunther tulip retrievable vena cava filter (GTF) implantation to prevent pulmonary embolism during intravenously administered thrombolytic and anticoagulation therapy and interventional radiological therapy for occlusive or nonocclusive deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremity. Methods. We evaluated placement of 55 GTFs in 42 patients with lower extremity DVT who had undergone various treatments including those utilizing techniques of interventional radiology. Results. Worsening of pulmonary embolism in patients with existing pulmonary embolism or in those without pulmonary embolism at the time of GTF insertion was avoided in all patients. All attempts at implantation of the GTF were safely accomplished. Perforation and migration experienced by one patient was the only complication. Mean period of treatment for DVT under protection from pulmonary embolism by the GTF was 12.7 {+-} 8.3 days (mean {+-} SD, range 4-37 days). We attempted retrieval of GTFs in 18 patients in whom the venous thrombus had disappeared after therapy, and retrieval in one of these 18 cases failed. GTFs were left in the vena cava in 24 patients for permanent use when the DVT was refractory to treatment. Conclusion. The ability of the GTF to protect against pulmonary embolism during treatment of DVT was demonstrated. Safety in both placement and retrieval was clarified. Because replacement with a permanent filter was not required, use of the GTF was convenient when further protection from complicated pulmonary embolism was necessary.

  13. Male-specific risk of first and recurrent venous thrombosis: a phylogenetic analysis of the Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    de Haan, H G; van Hylckama Vlieg, A; van der Gaag, K J; de Knijff, P; Rosendaal, F R

    2016-10-01

    Essentials Men have an unexplained higher risk of a first and recurrent venous thrombosis (VT) than women. We studied the role of the major European Y chromosome haplogroups in first and recurrent VT. In contrast to a study on coronary artery disease, haplogroup I was not linked to VT risk. Haplogroup E-carriers may have an increased risk of recurrent VT, but a larger study is needed. Background The risk of venous thrombosis (VT) recurrence is higher in men than in women. When reproductive risk factors are excluded, this sex difference is also apparent for a first VT. The current explanations for this difference are insufficient. Objectives To study the association between chromosome Y haplogroups and the risks of a first and recurrent VT. Methods Y chromosomes of 3742 men (1729 patients; 2013 controls) from the MEGA case-control study were tracked into haplogroups according to the phylogenetic tree. We calculated the risk of a first VT by comparing the major haplogroups with the most frequent haplogroup. For recurrence risk, 1645 patients were followed for a mean of 5 years, during which 350 developed a recurrence (21%; MEGA follow-up study). We calculated recurrence rates for the major haplogroups, and compared groups by calculating hazard ratios. Results We observed 13 haplogroups, of which R1b was the most frequent (59%). The major haplogroups were not associated with a first VT, with odds ratios ranging from 1.01 to 1.15. Haplogroup E carriers had the highest recurrence rate (53.5 per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval [CI] 33.3-86.1), whereas haplogroup R1a carriers had the lowest recurrence rate (24.3 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI 12.6-46.6). As compared with haplogroup R1b carriers, both haplogroups were not significantly associated with recurrence risk. Conclusions In contrast to a study on coronary artery disease, our results do not show a clear predisposing effect of Y haplogroups on first and recurrent VT risk in men. It is therefore unlikely

  14. The impact of initial cancer stage on the incidence of venous thromboembolism: the Scandinavian Thrombosis and Cancer (STAC) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Gade, I L; Braekkan, S K; Naess, I A; Hansen, J-B; Cannegieter, S C; Overvad, K; Jensvoll, H; Hammerstrøm, J; Blix, K; Tjønneland, A; Kristensen, S R; Severinsen, M T

    2017-08-01

    Essentials Impact of cancer stage on venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk is not well-known in all cancers. The Scandinavian Thrombosis and Cancer Cohort provides person-time data and validated VTEs. Impact of cancer stage on VTE incidence tended to vary with cancer type. Cancer stage may not per se be a risk factor for VTE in all cancer types. Background Absolute measures of the impact of cancer stage on the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with distinct cancer types have not been investigated in a large population-based cohort study. Objectives To investigate differences in the incidence rates of objectively confirmed VTE according to the development of cancer in a large population-based cohort study. Cancer type and stage at the time of diagnosis were taken into account. Patients and Methods The Scandinavian Thrombosis and Cancer Cohort includes data regarding cancer types, stages and objectively confirmed VTE diagnoses among 144 952 participants followed from 1993 to 2012. We studied stage-specific incidence rates of VTE, and calculated incidence rate differences (IRDs) for VTE according to stages in patients with 10 types of solid cancer. Results During the entire follow-up, 335 VTEs occurred, of which 293 occurred within 5 years. The IRD of VTE in patients with distant metastasis as compared with those with localized disease indicated large variation depending on cancer type. The highest IRD was observed for pancreatic cancer (IRD of 187.0 × 10(-3) person-years [p-y]; 95% confidence interval [CI] - 6.7 to 380.8), and the lowest IRD was observed for prostate cancer (IRD of 3.7 × 10(-3) p-y; 95% CI - 7 to 15.2). Regional spread as compared with localized disease also indicated large variation depending on cancer type; the highest IRD was observed for uterine cancer (IRD of 37.6 × 10(-3) p-y; 95% CI - 23.7 to 99), and the IRDs for breast and prostate cancer were close to zero. Conclusion More advanced cancer at the time of diagnosis was

  15. A case-series study of cerebral venous thrombosis in women using short course oral contraceptive

    PubMed Central

    Khomand, Payam; Hassanzadeh, Kambiz

    2016-01-01

    Background: We report a case series of cerebral vein thrombosis (CVT) in women who used oral contraceptive pill (OCP) in the Muslims Ramadan and fasting month. Methods: This study was a retrospective case series of 9 patients with diagnosis of CVT, who admitted in the neurology ward of Tohid Hospital of Sanandaj, Iran, in July-August 2014-2015. Results: Patients had no history of thrombosis before. They were treated with oral contraceptive more than 1 month to be able to fast during Ramadan. They did not have other possible risk factors for CVT. A headache was the most common in 9/9 patients (100%) followed by vomiting and vertigo. Conclusion: We found that high rate of CVT in female population during Ramadan indicates that it needs be considered as a specific risk factor and should be considered by healthcare system. PMID:27326364

  16. Plasmodium vivax cerebral malaria complicated with venous sinus thrombosis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pinzón, Miguel A; Pineda, Juan C; Rosso, Fernando; Shinchi, Masaru; Bonilla-Abadía, Fabio

    2013-05-13

    Complicated malaria is usually due to Plasmodium falciparum. Nevertheless, Plasmodium vivax is infrequently related with life-threatening complications. Few cases have been reported of severe Plasmodium vivax infection, and most of them from Southeast Asia and India. We report the first case of cerebral malaria due to Plasmodium vivax in Latin America, complicated with sagittal sinus thrombosis and confirmed by a molecular method. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Central venous sinus thrombosis in a young woman taking norethindrone acetate for dysfunctional uterine bleeding: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Rajesh; Dhuan, Joginder; Agarwal, Shalini; Gahlaut, P S

    2008-08-01

    The association between the progestin-only pill used for treatment of menstrual disorders and central venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) has rarely been reported in the literature. This report describes a case of central venous sinus thrombosis following intake of norethindrone acetate for dysfunctional uterine bleeding secondary to polycystic ovary syndrome in a young woman with undiagnosed underlying hyperhomocysteinemia. A 23-year-old woman presented with severe headache, followed by hemiparesis, seizures, and altered sensorium. She had been prescribed norethindrone acetate for the management of dysfunctional uterine bleeding secondary to polycystic ovary syndrome. Investigations revealed acquired hyperhomocysteinemia, presumably due to nutritional deficiencies, and evidence of CVST on MRI and magnetic resonance venography. Investigations showed no evidence of inherited thrombophilia. The patient was treated with low molecular weight heparin, followed by warfarin, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, and folic acid, and recovered successfully. Although venous thrombosis is usually linked to the ingestion of estrogen, rather than progestogen, this case illustrates that patients who are prescribed progestogen-only pills for gynaecological disorders may develop thrombosis, especially if they have predisposing metabolic disorders.

  18. YouTube as a potential source of information on deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Bademci, Mehmet Ş; Yazman, Serkan; Güneş, Tevfik; Ocakoglu, Gokhan; Tayfur, Kaptanderya; Gokalp, Orhan

    2017-09-01

    Background No work has been reported on the use of video websites to learn about deep vein thrombosis and the value of education using them. We examined the characteristics and scientific accuracy of videos related to deep vein thrombosis on YouTube. Methods YouTube was surveyed using no filter and the key words 'deep vein thrombosis' and 'leg vein clot' in June 2016. The videos evaluated were divided into three groups in terms of their scientific content, accuracy, and currency: useful, partly useful, and useless. Results Of the 1200 videos watched, 715 (59.58%) were excluded with the exclusion criteria. Although most of the videos uploaded (22.9%, n = 111) were created by physicians, the number of views for website-based videos was significantly higher (p = 0.002). When the uploaded videos were assessed in terms of their usefulness, videos from physicians and hospitals were statistically more useful than other videos (p < 0.001). Conclusions For videos created by medical professionals to be of higher quality, we believe they should be more up-to-date and comprehensive, and contain animations about treatment modalities and early diagnosis in particular.

  19. Subclavian central venous catheter-related thrombosis in trauma patients: incidence, risk factors and influence of polyurethane type.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Ariane; Petit, Laurent; Masson, Françoise; Cottenceau, Vincent; Bertrand-Barat, Josseline; Freyburger, Geneviève; Pinaquy, Catherine; Léger, Alain; Cochard, Jean-François; Sztark, François

    2013-05-29

    The incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) related to a central venous catheter varies considerably in ICUs depending on the population included. The aim of this study was to determine subclavian central venous catheter (SCVC)-related DVT risk factors in severely traumatized patients with regard to two kinds of polyurethane catheters. Critically ill trauma patients needing a SCVC for their usual care were prospectively included in an observational study. Depending on the month of inclusion, patients received one of the two available products in the emergency unit: either an aromatic polyurethane SCVC or an aliphatic polyurethane SCVC. Patients were screened weekly by ultrasound for SCVC-related DVT. Potential risk factors were collected, including history-related, trauma-related and SCVC-related characteristics. A total of 186 patients were included with a median Injury Severity Sore of 30 and a high rate of severe brain injuries (21% of high intracranial pressure). Incidence of SCVC-related DVT was 37% (95% confidence interval: 26 to 40) in patients or 20/1,000 catheter-days. SCVC-related DVT occurred within 8 days in 65% of cases. There was no significant difference in DVT rates between the aromatic polyurethane and aliphatic polyurethane SCVC groups (38% vs. 36%). SCVC-related DVT independent risk factors were age>30 years, intracranial hypertension, massive transfusion (>10 packed red blood cell units), SCVC tip position in the internal jugular or in the innominate vein, and ipsilateral jugular catheter. SCVC-related DVT concerned one-third of these severely traumatized patients and was mostly clinically silent. Incidence did not depend on the type of polyurethane but was related to age>30 years, intracranial hypertension or misplacement of the SCVC. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of routine screening in these patients in whom thromboprophylaxis may be hazardous.

  20. Immunoscintigraphic detection of venous thrombosis of the lower extremities by means of human antifibrin monoclonal antibodies labeled with sup 111 In

    SciTech Connect

    Lusiani, L.; Zanco, P.; Visona, A.; Breggion, G.; Pagnan, A.; Ferlin, G. )

    1989-07-01

    A new monoclonal antibody specific for the beta-chain of human fibrin (C22A) and labeled with 111In has been obtained and successfully used in rabbits and dogs for the in vivo detection of venous thrombosis. Studies in humans are currently ongoing. In order to assess the diagnostic value of 111In-antifibrin for the detection of venous thrombosis of the lower extremities, the authors investigated 25 consecutive patients. Ten patients had clinical and instrumental (contrast phlebography and duplex scanning) evidence of acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT), 3 had a long-standing DVT with relapsing episodes of swelling and pain, 5 had superficial venous thrombosis, and the remaining 7 had no signs of thrombosis at all. Twenty patients were being treated with heparin. All patients received 111In-antifibrin at the dose of 74 MBq IV and were scanned with a large field of view gamma camera coupled with a high-energy, parallel-hole collimator at 30 minutes and three, six, and twenty-four hours postinjection. Only the persistence of an abnormal uptake at twenty-four hours confirmed by two observers at visual inspection was considered as positive. A positive result was obtained in 9 of 10 DVT patients (90% sensitivity) and in all SVT patients. The single DVT patient with a negative 111In-antifibrin test had the longest interval between scintigraphy and onset of symptoms (fifty-five days). Thus, the age of thrombi represented a substantial limitation for the test. A false-positive result was obtained in a single SVT patient, in whom also a deep involvement, unconfirmed by phlebography, was suspected (91.6% specificity).

  1. Septic ankle with purulence tracking up the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath leading to deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism and compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Waryasz, Gregory R; McClure, Philip; Vopat, Bryan G

    2015-06-01

    The differential diagnosis for lower extremity swelling and ankle pain is broad and can have overlapping and related diagnoses. If there is concern for more than one diagnosis, the practitioner should perform a thorough physical examination, order the appropriate studies, and perform the correct procedures to completely diagnose and treat the patient. This article presents the case of a 19-year-old male who presented with 5 days of left ankle pain, fevers, and swelling without any known trauma to the area. Physical examination was concerning for a septic ankle joint, cellulitis, deep venous thrombosis, and compartment syndrome. Duplex venous ultrasound confirmed a deep venous thrombosis in the popliteal vein. Joint aspiration of the ankle had gross purulence with the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The patient was taken emergently to the operating room where he was found to have gross purulence in the deep posterior compartment, medial and lateral soft tissues of the ankle, and gross purulence in the ankle joint. The deep posterior compartment also had significant muscle necrosis and evidence of compartment syndrome. This case presents the possibility of a septic ankle leading to compartment syndrome and deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism due to the intra-articular nature of the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. Case report, Level IV. © 2014 The Author(s).

  2. Peripheral venous catheter, a dangerous weapon. Key points to improve its use.

    PubMed

    Capdevila-Reniu, A; Capdevila, J A

    2017-05-30

    Catheter-related bacteremia is one of the most important causes of nosocomial infection. Is associated to high rates of morbidity and mortality, including an economic burden. Peripheral venous catheter bacteremia is a leading cause of nosocomial infection in internal medicine departments. In this article, we review some important key points to improve its use and avoid infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  3. Cerebral venous thrombosis in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma during induction chemotherapy with l-asparaginase: The GRAALL experience.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Marie-Anne; Huguet, Françoise; Chevallier, Patrice; Suarez, Felipe; Thomas, Xavier; Escoffre-Barbe, Martine; Cacheux, Victoria; Pignon, Jean-Michel; Bonmati, Caroline; Sanhes, Laurence; Bories, Pierre; Daguindau, Etienne; Dorvaux, Véronique; Reman, Oumedaly; Frayfer, Jamile; Orvain, Corentin; Lhéritier, Véronique; Ifrah, Norbert; Dombret, Hervé; Hunault-Berger, Mathilde; Tanguy-Schmidt, Aline

    2015-11-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) thrombotic events are a well-known complication of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) induction therapy, especially with treatments including l-asparaginase (l-ASP). Data on risk factors and clinical evolution is still lacking in adult patients. We report on the clinical evolution of 22 CNS venous thrombosis cases occurring in 708 adults treated for ALL or lymphoblastic lymphoma (LL) with the Group for Research on Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (GRAALL)-induction protocol, which included eight L-ASP (6,000 IU/m(2) ) infusions. The prevalence of CNS thrombosis was 3.1%. CNS thrombosis occurred after a median of 18 days (range: 11-31) when patients had received a median of three l-ASP injections (range: 2-7). Patients with CNS thrombosis exhibited a median antithrombin (AT) nadir of 47.5% (range: 36-67%) at Day 17 (range: D3-D28), and 95% of them exhibited AT levels lower than 60%. There were no evident increase in hereditary thrombotic risk factors prevalence, and thrombosis occurred despite heparin prophylaxis which was performed in 90% of patients. Acquired AT deficiency was frequently detected in patients with l-ASP-based therapy, and patients with CNS thrombosis received AT prophylaxis (45%) less frequently than patients without CNS thrombosis (83%), P = 0.0002). CNS thrombosis was lethal in 5% of patients, while 20% had persistent sequelae. One patient received all planned l-ASP infusions without recurrence of CNS thrombotic whereas l-ASP injections were discontinued in 20 patients during the management of thrombosis without a significant impact on overall survival (P = 0.4).

  4. Respiratory effects of changing the volume load imposed on the peripheral venous system.

    PubMed

    Haouzi, Philippe; Bell, Harold J

    2010-05-31

    This study was designed to determine if acute distension of the hindlimb venous circulation stimulates breathing, thereby contributing to the respiratory responses to rapid changes in total blood volume. In 10 spontaneously breathing anesthetized sheep, we withdrew 15 ml kg(-1) of blood from a femoral vein over approximately 1-2 min. We then compared the respiratory effects of infusing this venous blood back into the femoral veins across two conditions: the inferior vena cava (IVC) was either unobstructed or obstructed by a balloon-tipped catheter. We found that when blood was withdrawn and blood volume decreased, an absolute increase in breathing often occurred, but more importantly that a relative hyperventilation was always observed. When this blood was re-infused into the animal, effectively increasing blood volume, the respiratory response depended upon whether or not the IVC was open or obstructed. With the IVC unobstructed, a relative hypoventilation occurred, accompanied by an increase in alveolar PCO(2). In contrast, when the venous blood was re-infused and the IVC was obstructed, ventilation increased significantly, and the response was often hypocapnic. These results indicate that increasing the volume load in the venous circulation increases breathing, and that the transduction mechanism is contained within the peripheral venous system. Further, the respiratory drive from this sensory mechanism is subject to modulation via changes in the circulatory status, most likely within the arterial side. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Optoacoustic monitoring of central and peripheral venous oxygenation during simulated hemorrhage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Andrey; Kinsky, Michael; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Irene Y.; Henkel, S. Nan; Seeton, Roger; Salter, Michael G.; Khan, Muzna N.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2014-03-01

    Circulatory shock may be fatal unless promptly recognized and treated. The most commonly used indicators of shock (hypotension and tachycardia) lack sensitivity and specificity. In the initial stages of shock, the body compensates by reducing blood flow to the peripheral (skin, muscle, etc.) circulation in order to preserve vital organ (brain, heart, liver) perfusion. Characteristically, this can be observed by a greater reduction in peripheral venous oxygenation (for instance, the axillary vein) compared to central venous oxygenation (the internal jugular vein). While invasive measurements of oxygenation are accurate, they lack practicality and are not without complications. We have developed a novel optoacoustic system that noninvasively determines oxygenation in specific veins. In order to test this application, we used lower body negative pressure (LBNP) system, which simulates hemorrhage by exerting a variable amount of suction on the lower body, thereby reducing the volume of blood available for central circulation. Restoration of normal blood flow occurs promptly upon cessation of LBNP. Using two optoacoustic probes, guided by ultrasound imaging, we simultaneously monitored oxygenation in the axillary and internal jugular veins (IJV). LBNP began at -20 mmHg, thereafter was reduced in a step-wise fashion (up to 30 min). The optoacoustically measured axillary oxygenation decreased with LBNP, whereas IJV oxygenation remained relatively constant. These results indicate that our optoacoustic system may provide safe and rapid measurement of peripheral and central venous oxygenation and diagnosis of shock with high specificity and sensitivity.

  6. Clinical application of sonoelastography in thyroid, prostate, kidney, pancreas, and deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Anvari, Arash; Barr, Richard G; Dhyani, Manish; Samir, Anthony E

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the clinical applications of current ultrasound elastography methods in non-hepatic conditions including thyroid nodules, prostate cancer, chronic kidney disease, solid renal lesions, pancreatic lesions, and deep vein thrombosis. Pathophysiology alters tissue mechanical properties via ultrastructural changes including fibrosis, increased cellularity, bleeding, and necrosis, creating a target biomarker, which can be imaged qualitatively or quantitatively with US elastography. US elastography methods can add information to conventional US methods and improve the diagnostic performance of conventional US in a range of disease processes.

  7. Diagnostic methods for deep vein thrombosis: venous Doppler examination, phleborheography, iodine-125 fibrinogen uptake, and phlebography

    SciTech Connect

    Comerota, A.J.; White, J.V.; Katz, M.L.

    1985-10-08

    Since clinical diagnosis of DVT is often inaccurate, it has become accepted that an objective means of diagnosing clot in the deep venous system becomes critically important in the management of these patients. The venous Doppler examination monitors the velocity of blood flowing through a particular vein. Doppler probes in the 5 to 10 mHz range are routinely used. Respiratory variation is a normal finding due to a diminished flow signal during inspiration, followed by a progressive increase in flow signal during expiration. Characteristics of the spontaneous flow signals are the most important part of interpreting the venous Doppler examination. In addition, the response to distal or proximal compression (augmentation) adds important information to the interpretation; however, the response during any augmentation maneuver depends on the rapidity of compression, the force of compression, the quantity of blood in the veins at the time of compression, and the distance between the Doppler probe and the compression point. Phleborheography is a six-channel volumetric plethysmographic technique that monitors volume changes in the lower extremities associated with respiration and foot and calf compression.

  8. A Prospective Study of the Clinical Profile, Outcome and Evaluation of D-dimer in Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Dharanipragada, Subrahmanyam; Basu, Debdatta; Ananthakrishnan, Ramesh; Surendiran, Deepanjali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral Venous Thrombosis (CVT) is a well known disease with diverse clinical presentation and causes. With advances in neuroimaging and changing lifestyles, the clinical profile and causes of CVT are changing. D-dimer has been studied in early diagnosis of CVT with variable results. This prospective study was carried out to assess the clinical profile of CVT and role of D-dimer in diagnosis of CVT. Aim To study various aspects of CVT and role of D-dimer. Materials and Methods The study period was September 2012 to July 2014 and included 80 imaging proven patients of CVT. We also included 39 controls for assessing D-dimer. Data was collected according to a preformed format. D-dimer was assessed by a rapid semi-quantitative latex agglutination assay. Discharged patients were followed up to six months. Results Of the total 44 were women and 36 were men (F: M=1.2:1). The mean age of the patients was 29.5±9.68 years. Most common clinical features were headache 77 (96.25%), papilloedema (67.5%) and seizures 51 (63.75%). Pregnancy was the most common cause of CVT. Superior sagittal and transverse sinuses were the most common sinuses to be affected. The sensitivity and specificity of D-dimer for diagnosing CVT was 84.62% and 80% respectively. The risk factors for poor prognosis were altered sensorium, presence of sepsis, increased sinus involvement and deep sinus thrombosis. Conclusion CVT affects both sexes equally. Puerperium still contributes to majority of the cases. Iron deficiency anaemia needs to be evaluated as a contributing factor for incidence of CVT. D-dimer is not useful in puerperal female with CVT. Positive D-dimer will strengthen the suspicion of CVT in patients with acute headache followed by a neurological deficit. PMID:27504325

  9. Improving patient safety during insertion of peripheral venous catheters: an observational intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Reise, Gesche; James, Claudia; Gittelbauer, Kirsten; Gosch, Jutta; Alpers, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Background: Peripheral venous catheters are frequently used in hospitalized patients but increase the risk of nosocomial bloodstream infection. Evidence-based guidelines describe specific steps that are known to reduce infection risk. However, the degree of guideline implementation in clinical practice is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the use of specific steps for insertion of peripheral venous catheters in clinical practice and to implement a multimodal intervention aimed at improving both compliance and the optimum order of the steps. Methods: The study was conducted at University Hospital Hamburg. An optimum procedure for inserting a peripheral venous catheter was defined based on three evidence-based guidelines (WHO, CDC, RKI) including five steps with 1A or 1B level of evidence: hand disinfection before patient contact, skin antisepsis of the puncture site, no palpation of treated puncture site, hand disinfection before aseptic procedure, and sterile dressing on the puncture site. A research nurse observed and recorded procedures for peripheral venous catheter insertion for healthcare workers in four different departments (endoscopy, central emergency admissions, pediatrics, and dermatology). A multimodal intervention with 5 elements was established (teaching session, dummy training, e-learning tool, tablet and poster, and direct feedback), followed by a second observation period. During the last observation week, participants evaluated the intervention. Results: In the control period, 207 insertions were observed, and 202 in the intervention period. Compliance improved significantly for four of five steps (e.g., from 11.6% to 57.9% for hand disinfection before patient contact; p<0.001, chi-square test). Compliance with skin antisepsis of the puncture site was high before and after intervention (99.5% before and 99.0% after). Performance of specific steps in the correct order also improved (e.g., from 7.7% to 68.6% when three of five steps

  10. Improving patient safety during insertion of peripheral venous catheters: an observational intervention study.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter; Reise, Gesche; James, Claudia; Gittelbauer, Kirsten; Gosch, Jutta; Alpers, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral venous catheters are frequently used in hospitalized patients but increase the risk of nosocomial bloodstream infection. Evidence-based guidelines describe specific steps that are known to reduce infection risk. However, the degree of guideline implementation in clinical practice is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the use of specific steps for insertion of peripheral venous catheters in clinical practice and to implement a multimodal intervention aimed at improving both compliance and the optimum order of the steps. The study was conducted at University Hospital Hamburg. An optimum procedure for inserting a peripheral venous catheter was defined based on three evidence-based guidelines (WHO, CDC, RKI) including five steps with 1A or 1B level of evidence: hand disinfection before patient contact, skin antisepsis of the puncture site, no palpation of treated puncture site, hand disinfection before aseptic procedure, and sterile dressing on the puncture site. A research nurse observed and recorded procedures for peripheral venous catheter insertion for healthcare workers in four different departments (endoscopy, central emergency admissions, pediatrics, and dermatology). A multimodal intervention with 5 elements was established (teaching session, dummy training, e-learning tool, tablet and poster, and direct feedback), followed by a second observation period. During the last observation week, participants evaluated the intervention. In the control period, 207 insertions were observed, and 202 in the intervention period. Compliance improved significantly for four of five steps (e.g., from 11.6% to 57.9% for hand disinfection before patient contact; p<0.001, chi-square test). Compliance with skin antisepsis of the puncture site was high before and after intervention (99.5% before and 99.0% after). Performance of specific steps in the correct order also improved (e.g., from 7.7% to 68.6% when three of five steps were done; p<0.001). The

  11. Thalidomide induced deep venous thrombosis in a case of steroid dependent erythema nodosum leprosum- a management conundrum.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Upinder; Chakrabarti, Sankha Shubhra; Gambhir, Indrajeet Singh; Singh, Rohit

    2017-05-18

    Thalidomide, previously banned owing to the issues of teratogenicity is being used and tested for a variety of dermatological and non dermatological conditions. The drug has been approved for the management of ENL and Multiple myeloma. The drug is commonly known to produce adverse effects like peripheral neuropathy and constipation. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is one of the serious adverse effects seen with thalidomide use, especially in malignancies and is relatively uncommon in non cancer settings like ENL. Here we report a case of DVT induced after 8 months of use of thalidomide in a young patient of 22 years age suffering from ENL. The case also highlights the problems faced in the management of refractory ENL and the treatment of DVT in the setting of multiple drug interactions and financial constraints. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Incidence and Risk Factors of Deep Venous Thrombosis in Asymptomatic Iliac Vein Compression: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min-Kai; Luo, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Fu-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) may be associated with iliac vein compression. Up to now, the majority of data has come from a retrospective study about the correlation between DVT and iliac vein compression. This prospective study was to determine the incidence of DVT in individuals with iliac vein compression and identify risk factors predictive of DVT. Methods: A total of 500 volunteers without symptoms of venous diseases of lower extremities and overt risk factors of deep venous thrombosis between October 2011 and September 2012 in Shijitan Hospital were enrolled in this cohort study. All the participants underwent contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) to evaluate iliac vein compression. Baseline demographic information and degree of iliac vein compression were collected. They were categorized into ≥50% or <50% iliac vein compression group. Ultrasound examination was performed to screen DVT at the time of CT examination and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the examination. Primary event was DVT of ipsilateral lower extremity. Correlation between DVT and iliac vein compression was estimated by multivariate Logistic regression after adjusting for age, gender, malignancy, surgery/immobilization, chemotherapy/hormonal therapy, and pregnancy. Results: In 500 volunteers, 8.8% (44) had ≥50% iliac vein compression and 91.2% (456) had <50% iliac vein compression. Ipsilateral DVT occurred in six volunteers including two in iliofemoral vein, two in popliteal vein, and two in calf vein within 1 year. Univariate analysis showed that the incidence of DVT was 6.8% in ≥50% compression group, significantly higher than that in <50% compression group (0.7%) (χ2 = 12.84, P = 0.01). Patients with malignancy had significantly higher incidence of DVT than those without malignancy (χ2 = 69.60, P < 0.01). Multivariate Logistic regression indicated that iliac vein compression and malignancy were independent risk factors of DVT. After adjustment for malignancy

  13. Platelet adhesiveness and fibrinolysis after recent cerebro-vascular accidents and their relationship with subsequent deep venous thrombosis of the legs.

    PubMed

    Warlow, C P; Rennie, J A; Ogston, D; Douglas, A S

    1976-08-31

    In fifteen patients with a cerebro-vascular accident resulting in an acute hemiplegia there was a subsequent rise in the platelet count and plasma fibrinogen level. There were no significant alterations in platelet adhesiveness, plasminogen activator, plasminogen, FR-antigen and haematocrit. Patients diagnosed as developing deep venous thrombosis with the 125I-fibrinogen technique had a significantly lower platelet adhesiveness and plasminogen level than those who were not.

  14. [General medicine management of superficial venous thrombosis of the lower limbs: A survey in Saône-et-Loire].

    PubMed

    Cartal, C; Bertoletti, L; Décousus, H; Frappe, P

    2016-02-01

    For a long time, superficial venous thrombosis (SVT) of the lower limbs was considered as benign. Due to lack of clear scientific evidence, its treatment was heterogeneous and even potentially deleterious. Since 2010, several major studies have highlighted the seriousness of SVT, and prophylactic doses of fondaparinux have proven their efficacy for this indication. While the French recommendations have not yet taken on board all this data, has practice already changed? To describe in general practice the usual management of suspected SVT. A descriptive cross-sectional study of general practitioners in Saône-et-Loire. Each doctor taking part was asked to note on a paper questionnaire the details of the last patient in whom they suspected SVT. Data collected included: clinical presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic management and follow-up of the patients. Between 01/01/2014 and 31/03/2014, 88 doctors out of 443 contacted (20%) completed the questionnaire. According to the information they provided, 36 physicians (40.9% [95% CI: 30.6-50.2]) searched for an associated pulmonary embolism. Eighty-two physicians (93.2% [95% CI: 87.9-98.4]) prescribed a venous compression ultrasound (CUS) exploration. Twelve etiological assessments were carried out (13.6% [95% CI: 6.5-20.8]) of which 6 (6.8%) appeared to be justified. 64 (72.7%) of the patients were given an anticoagulant therapy (heparin or fondaparinux), including 15 (17%) at a prophylactic dose and 49 (55.7%) at a curative dose. Forty-nine doctors (55.7% [95% CI: 45.3-66.1]) prescribed a CUS follow-up. General practitioners seem to have adapted their diagnostic practices to the data highlighting the potential seriousness of SVT. The treatment they give, however, remains very variable and potentially deleterious, in particular due to a high rate of treatments given at curative doses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. mTORC1 promotes aging-related venous thrombosis in mice via elevation of platelet volume and activation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Zhou, Xuan; Fan, Xiaorong; Xiao, Min; Yang, Dinghua; Liang, Bo; Dai, Meng; Shan, Lanlan; Lu, Jingbo; Lin, Zhiqi; Liu, Rong; Liu, Jun; Wang, Liping; Zhong, Mei; Jiang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increased incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE), resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Platelet hyperactivation is linked to aging-related VTE. However, the mechanisms through which aging enhances platelet activation and susceptibility to VTE are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is essential for aging-related platelet hyperactivation and VTE. mTORC1 was hyperactivated in platelets and megakaryocytes (MKs) from aged mice, accompanied by elevated mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet activation. Inhibition of mTORC1 with rapamycin led to a significant reduction in susceptibility to experimental deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in aged mice (P < .01). To ascertain the specific role of platelet mTORC1 activation in DVT, we generated mice with conditional ablation of the mTORC1-specific component gene Raptor in MKs and platelets (Raptor knockout). These mice developed markedly smaller and lighter thrombi, compared with wild-type littermates (P < .01) in experimental DVT. Mechanistically, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production with aging induced activation of mTORC1 in MKs and platelets, which, in turn, enhanced bone marrow MK size, MPV, and platelet activation to promote aging-related VTE. ROS scavenger administration induced a significant decrease (P < .05) in MK size, MPV, and platelet activation in aged mice. Our findings collectively demonstrate that mTORC1 contributes to enhanced venous thrombotic susceptibility in aged mice via elevation of platelet size and activation. PMID:27288518

  16. A systematic review of the utility of residual vein obstruction studies in primary and secondary venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Janakiram, Murali; Sullivan, Matthew; Shcherba, Marina; Guo, Shuang; Billett, Henny H

    2013-01-01

    Background. Residual vein obstruction (RVO), the persistence of venous thrombosis with time and often after anticoagulation, may indicate a systemic prothrombotic condition. Prior studies have shown varying efficacy in using RVO as a risk factor for future venous thromboembolic (VTE) recurrence. Methods. To assess whether positive RVO imaging predicts recurrent VTE events, we performed a meta-analysis on studies in which patients with documented VTEs, anticoagulated for a minimum of 4 weeks, had repeat sonography to assess RVO and were subsequently followed for recurrent events. Results. Thirteen studies met inclusion criteria: 3531 patient VTE events with 3474 evaluable results were analyzed. The presence of RVO was associated with recurrence in all VTE (OR 1.93; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.89) and secondary VTE (OR 2.78; 95% CI: 1.41, 5.5) but not for primary VTE (OR 1.35; 95% CI: 0.87, 2.08). When cancer patients were eliminated from the secondary VTE group, there was no longer a significant association of RVO with VTE recurrence (OR 1.73; 95% CI: 0.81, 3.67) while in the subset of cancer patients, presence of RVO was associated with an increase in VTE recurrence risk (OR 5.14; 95% CI: 1.59, 16.65, P < 0.006). Conclusions. We conclude that the presence of RVO is associated with recurrence in secondary VTE but not in primary VTE and that association may be driven by the subset with cancer.

  17. Comparison of an enhanced versus a written feedback model on the management of Medicare inpatients with venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Hayes, R; Bratzler, D; Armour, B; Moore, L; Murray, C; Stevens, B R; Radford, M; Fitzgerald, D; Elward, K; Ballard, D J

    2001-03-01

    A multistate randomized study conducted under the Health Care Financing Administration's (HCFA's) Health Care Quality Improvement Program (HCQIP) offered the opportunity to compare the effect of a written feedback intervention (WFI) with that of an enhanced feedback intervention (EFI) on improving the anticoagulant management of Medicare beneficiaries who present to the hospital with venous thromboembolic disease. Twenty-nine hospitals in five states were randomly assigned to receive written hospital-specific feedback (WFI) of feedback enhanced by the participation of a trained physician, quality improvement tools, and an Anticoagulant Management of Venous Thrombosis (AMVT) project liaison (EFI). Differences in the performance of five quality indicators between baseline and remeasurement were assessed. Quality managers were interviewed to determine perceptions of project implementation. No significant differences in the change from baseline to remeasurement were found between the two intervention groups. Significant improvement in one indicator and significant decline in two indicators were found for one or both groups. Yet 59% of all quality managers perceived the AMVT project as being successful to very successful, and more EFI quality managers perceived success than did WFI managers (71% versus 40%). In the majority of EFI hospitals, physician liaisons played an important role in project implementation. Study results indicated that the addition of a physician liaison, quality improvement tools, and a project liaison did not provide incremental value to hospital-specific feedback for improving quality of care. Future studies with larger sample sizes, lengthier follow-up periods, and interventions that include more of the elements shown to affect practice behavior change are needed to identify an optimal feedback model for use by external quality management organizations.

  18. Increased soluble P-selectin levels following deep venous thrombosis: cause or effect?

    PubMed

    Blann, A D; Noteboom, W M; Rosendaal, F R

    2000-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is associated with coagulation abnormalities, but evidence of excess platelet activity is scant. Soluble P-selectin is a marker of platelet activity, with high levels being found in patients with thrombotic disease. We measured soluble P-selectin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in plasma from 89 patients with objectively confirmed DVT and in 126 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects, and found higher levels in the patients (P = 0.011). Taking the risk of DVT with a level of soluble P-selectin < 238 ng/ml to be 1, the relative risk of DVT with a soluble P-selectin level >238 ng/ml was 2.1 (95% CI 1. 2-3.6). These high levels may be a reflection of a generalized hypercoagulable state that, with factors such as the presence of persistent thrombin generation, could be responsible for excess platelet activation.

  19. Peripheral Edema, Central Venous Pressure, and Risk of AKI in Critical Illness

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kenneth P.; Cavender, Susan; Lee, Joon; Feng, Mengling; Mark, Roger G.; Celi, Leo Anthony; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Although venous congestion has been linked to renal dysfunction in heart failure, its significance in a broader context has not been investigated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Using an inception cohort of 12,778 critically ill adult patients admitted to an urban tertiary medical center between 2001 and 2008, we examined whether the presence of peripheral edema on admission physical examination was associated with an increased risk of AKI within the first 7 days of critical illness. In addition, in those with admission central venous pressure (CVP) measurements, we examined the association of CVPs with subsequent AKI. AKI was defined using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Results Of the 18% (n=2338) of patients with peripheral edema on admission, 27% (n=631) developed AKI, compared with 16% (n=1713) of those without peripheral edema. In a model that included adjustment for comorbidities, severity of illness, and the presence of pulmonary edema, peripheral edema was associated with a 30% higher risk of AKI (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.15 to 1.46; P<0.001), whereas pulmonary edema was not significantly related to risk. Peripheral edema was also associated with a 13% higher adjusted risk of a higher AKI stage (95% CI, 1.07 to 1.20; P<0.001). Furthermore, levels of trace, 1+, 2+, and 3+ edema were associated with 34% (95% CI, 1.10 to 1.65), 17% (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.14), 47% (95% CI, 1.18 to 1.83), and 57% (95% CI, 1.07 to 2.31) higher adjusted risk of AKI, respectively, compared with edema-free patients. In the 4761 patients with admission CVP measurements, each 1 cm H2O higher CVP was associated with a 2% higher adjusted risk of AKI (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.03; P=0.02). Conclusions Venous congestion, as manifested as either peripheral edema or increased CVP, is directly associated with AKI in critically ill patients. Whether treatment of venous congestion with diuretics can modify this risk will require

  20. D-dimer for the diagnosis of upper extremity deep and superficial venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Michelangelo; Migliaccio, Ludovica; Favaretto, Elisabetta; Cini, Michela; Legnani, Cristina; Palareti, Gualtiero; Cosmi, Benilde

    2015-04-01

    D-dimer role is well established in the diagnostic work-up for lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT), however it has not been formally tested for clinically suspected upper extremity DVT and/or superficial vein thrombosis (SVT). To ascertain D-dimer diagnostic accuracy for upper extremity DVT and/or SVT. We performed a single centre management study in outpatients referred by emergency or primary care physicians for clinically suspected upper extremity DVT. All patients underwent D-dimer testing (cut-off value: ≤500 ng/mL), and a B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonography examination. In case of either technical problems or anatomical barriers, ultrasonography was repeated after 5-7 days. All patients were followed up for three months for the occurrence of symptomatic DVT and/or SVT and/or pulmonary embolism. We enrolled 239 patients (F: 63.6%; mean±SD age: 58.3±16.8). At the initial diagnostic work-up, DVT was detected in 24 (10%) patients while SVT in 35 (14.6%) patients. During follow-up, one upper extremity DVT was found. D-dimer levels were higher in patients with DVT than in those without. Sensitivity and specificity of D-dimer for DVT were 92% (95%CI: 73-99%) and 60% (95%CI: 52-67%) respectively, with a negative predictive value of 98% (95%CI: 93-100%), whereas for SVT they were 77% (95%CI: 59-89%) and 60% (95%CI: 52-67%) respectively, with a negative predictive value of 93% (95%CI: 86-97%). D-dimer has a negative predictive value ≥93% for excluding DVT in symptomatic outpatients and it can be a useful test in the diagnostic work-up of suspected upper extremity DVT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Renal cell carcinoma with venous neoplastic thrombosis: a ten years review.

    PubMed

    Pirola, Giacomo Maria; Saredi, Giovanni; Damiano, Giuseppe; Marconi, Alberto Mario

    2013-12-31

    To review the 10-year experience of our urological unit in the surgical management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with neoplastic tumor thrombosis focusing on postoperative survival. We underwent a retrospective analysis of the patients treated for this pathology during the last decade 2002-2012, stratifying them by tumor thrombus level and histological subtype. Kaplan-Meyer curves were used to assess survival. Overall, 67 patients underwent surgery for RCC with neoplastic tumoral thrombosis in the period under review. 60 were clear cell RCC, 4 were urothelial papillary tumors of the renal pelvis and 3 were rare histotypes, as a nefroblastoma, a spinocellular tumor of the renal pelvis and an unclassifiable renal carcinoma. Thrombus level was I in 40 cases, II in 17, III in 2 and IV in 8 patients. We report the main postoperative complications and our survival data, with mean follow up of 36 months. Tumor stage is the most important variable in predicting survival. Patients with N0M0 disease had 70% survival at 36 months, instead of 20% for those with primitive metastatic tumor. Our survival results fit with the main reports in literature and our surgical management was completely in keeping with international guidelines. We did not observe relevany post-operative complications, except of hemorrhagic ones that occurred in 6 patients (9% of total) and were always successfully managed. Eighteen patients (26.87% of total) underwent caval filter positioning, without evidence of complications during its positioning or removal. Life expectancy was particularly low for the cases of RCC without clear cell histotype (7 cases in our series, 10.4% of total) that always was less than one year from surgery.

  2. Increased Levels of NF-kB-Dependent Markers in Cancer-Associated Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Malaponte, Grazia; Signorelli, Salvatore S; Bevelacqua, Valentina; Polesel, Jerry; Taborelli, Martina; Guarneri, Claudio; Fenga, Concettina; Umezawa, Kazou; Libra, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Several studies highlight the role of inflammatory markers in thrombosis as well as in cancer. However, their combined role in cancer-associated deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and the molecular mechanisms, involved in its pathophysiology, needs further investigations. In the present study, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1β), matrix metalloproteases-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tissue factor (TF), fibrinogen and soluble P-selectin, were analyzed in plasma and in monocyte samples from 385 cancer patients, of whom 64 were concomitantly affected by DVT (+). All these markers were higher in cancer patients DVT+ than in those DVT-. Accordingly, significantly higher NF-kB activity was observed in cancer patients DVT+ than DVT-. Significant correlation between data obtained in plasma and monocyte samples was observed. NF-kB inhibition was associated with decreased levels of all molecules in both cancer DVT+ and DVT-. To further demonstrate the involvement of NF-kB activation by the above mentioned molecules, we treated monocyte derived from healthy donors with a pool of sera from cancer patients with and without DVT. These set of experiments further suggest the significant role played by some molecules, regulated by NF-kB, and detected in cancer patients with DVT. Our data support the notion that NF-kB may be considered as a therapeutic target for cancer patients, especially those complicated by DVT. Treatment with NF-kB inhibitors may represent a possible strategy to prevent or reduce the risk of DVT in cancer patients.

  3. Early thrombosis of the superior vena cava in a patient with a central venous catheter and carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Robert; Shah, Malay; Suydam, Erin; Gucwa, Angela; Bowden, Talmadge; Holsten, Steven B

    2008-12-01

    Superior vena cava syndrome results from obstruction of flow through the vessel either by external compression or thrombosis. External compression by intrathoracic neoplasms is the most common etiology. Thrombosis of the vessel most often occurs in the setting of indwelling catheters or pacemakers. The diagnosis is suggested by the clinical manifestations of facial and upper extremity swelling, dyspnea, and cough. It is confirmed by CT scan showing the development of collateral flow around the lesion. In this report, we present a patient who developed superior vena cava thrombosis after undergoing a short period of central venous catheterization and a Whipple procedure for adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. The endothelial damage caused by the catheter, the low-flow state induced by the large fluid shifts during the operation, and the hypercoagulable state induced by malignancy fulfill Virchow's triad for venous thrombosis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of superior vena cava syndrome after the Whipple procedure with symptoms appearing after a shorter period of catheterization than previously reported in the adult literature.

  4. The antithrombotic and haemostatic effects of LASSBio-752: a synthetic, orally active compound in an arterial and venous thrombosis model in rats.

    PubMed

    Frattani, Flávia S; Lima, Lidia M; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Zingali, Russolina B

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we further investigated the effect of the compound LASSBio-752 in thrombosis models in rats. Arterial and venous thrombosis model, ex-vivo recalcification time and aPTT and PT. In the venous thrombosis model, oral administration of LASSBio-752 [48.2 mg (100 μmol)/kg] one hour before the thrombus induction decreased thrombus weight by 37 ± 0.2%. Interestingly, the antithrombotic action of this compound [48.2 mg (100 μmol)/kg] occurred at 87.5 ± 2.1% of inhibition after 24 h of administration and showed a lasting activity. When tested on the arterial thrombosis model, after a 1-h interval, there was already an increase in time to total occlusion of 34 ± 2.4 min, but the greatest effect was observed at intervals between 6 and 15 h of administration, when no occlusion of the artery was observed. The antithrombotic effect was reduced after 24 h when the occlusion time was 23.8 ± 2.3 min, close to that of the control, 17.6 ± 2.0 min. We also observed that bleeding was not excessive in any of the intervals tested. Our results indicate that compound LASSBio-752 is a potential candidate for utilization in the treatment of thromboembolic diseases. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. Bilateral Vertebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Causing Cervical Spinal Cord Compression in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    Rhue, Kathryn E.; Taylor, Amanda R.; Cole, Robert C.; Winter, Randolph L.

    2017-01-01

    A 10-year-old male neutered mixed breed dog was evaluated for cervical hyperesthesia and tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and cervical spinal cord identified an extradural compressive lesion over the body of C2 caused by marked dilation of the vertebral venous sinuses. Following intravenous contrast administration both vertebral sinuses had heterogeneous contrast enhancement consistent with incomplete thrombi formation. An abdominal ultrasound also showed a distal aortic thrombus. A definitive cause for the thrombi formation was not identified, but the patient had several predisposing factors which may have contributed. The patient was treated with a combination of warfarin, clopidogrel, and enoxaparin as well as analgesics. Within 48 h of initiation of warfarin therapy, the tetraparesis and hyperesthesia were markedly improved. Repeat abdominal ultrasound 3 weeks after discharge showed reduction in size of aortic thrombus. Neurologic function remained normal for 6 weeks following initiation of treatment. Seventy-four days following initial diagnosis the patient rapidly declined and passed away at home. Necropsy was declined. This is the first report of vertebral venous sinus enlargement leading to spinal cord compression and tetraparesis in a dog. Additionally, warfarin in combination with clopidogrel and enoxaparin appeared to be a safe and effective treatment for the suspected thrombi reported in this case. Vertebral sinus enlargement secondary to thrombi should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with tetraparesis and cervical hyperesthesia. PMID:28229071

  6. Association of vWA and TPOX Polymorphisms with Venous Thrombosis in Mexican Mestizos

    PubMed Central

    Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Santana, Carla; Noris, Gino; Camacho-Mejorado, Rafael; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C.; Calderón-Aranda, Emma S.; Hernández-Juárez, Jesús; Magaña, Jonathan J.; Gómez, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multifactorial disorder and, worldwide, the most important cause of morbidity and mortality. Genetic factors play a critical role in its aetiology. Microsatellites are the most important source of human genetic variation having more phenotypic effect than many single nucleotide polymorphisms. Hence, we evaluate a possible relationship between VTE and the genetic variants in von Willebrand factor, human alpha fibrinogen, and human thyroid peroxidase microsatellites to identify possible diagnostic markers. Methods. Genotypes were obtained from 177 patients with VTE and 531 nonrelated individuals using validated genotyping methods. The allelic frequencies were compared; Bayesian methods were used to correct population stratification to avoid spurious associations. Results. The vWA-18, TPOX-9, and TPOX-12 alleles were significantly associated with VTE. Moreover, subjects bearing the combination vWA-18/TPOX-12 loci exhibited doubled risk for VTE (95% CI = 1.02–3.64), whereas the combination vWA-18/TPOX-9 showed an OR = 10 (95% CI = 4.93–21.49). Conclusions. The vWA and TPOX microsatellites are good candidate biomarkers in venous thromboembolism diseases and could help to elucidate their origins. Additionally, these polymorphisms could become useful markers for genetic studies of VTE in the Mexican population; however, further studies should be done owing that this data only show preliminary evidence. PMID:25250329

  7. Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter-associated Deep Vein Thrombosis: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Fallouh, Nabil; McGuirk, Helen M; Flanders, Scott A; Chopra, Vineet

    2015-07-01

    Although common, little is known about factors associated with peripherally inserted central catheter-related deep vein thrombosis (PICC-DVT). To better guide clinicians, we performed a comprehensive literature review to summarize best practices for this condition. A systematic search of the literature for studies reporting epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of PICC-DVT was conducted. Algorithms for diagnosis and management were compiled using available evidence. The incidence of PICC-DVT varied between 2% and 75% according to study population, testing modality and threshold for diagnosis. Studies evaluating the diagnostic utility of clinical symptoms suggested that these were neither sensitive nor specific for PICC-DVT; conversely, ultrasonography had excellent sensitivity and specificity and is recommended as the initial diagnostic test. Although more specific, contrast venography should be reserved for cases with high clinical probability and negative ultrasound findings. Centrally positioned, otherwise functional and clinically necessary PICCs need not be removed despite concomitant DVT. Anticoagulation with low-molecular-weight heparin or warfarin for at least 3 months represents the mainstay of treatment. The role of pharmacologic prophylaxis and screening for PICC-DVT in the absence of clinical symptoms is unclear at this time. PICC-DVT is common, costly and morbid. Available evidence provides guidance for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this condition. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Hybrid operative thrombectomy is noninferior to percutaneous techniques for the treatment of acute iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Limael E; Aboukheir-Aboukheir, Aihab; Figueroa-Vicente, Ricardo; Soler-Bernardini, Hiram; Bolanos-Avila, Guillermo; Torruella-Bartolomei, Luis J; Comerota, Anthony J; Martinez-Trabal, Jorge L

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid operative thrombectomy (HOT) is a novel technique for the treatment of acute iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (IFDVT) and is an alternative to percutaneous techniques (PTs) that use thrombolytics. In this study, we compare perioperative and intermediate outcomes of HOT vs PT as interventions for early thrombus removal. From July 2008 to May 2015, there were 71 consecutive patients who were treated with either PT (n = 31) or HOT (n = 40) for acute or subacute single-limb IFDVT. HOT consisted of surgical thrombectomy with balloon angioplasty with or without stenting by a single incision and fluoroscopically guided retrograde valve manipulation to extract the thrombus. PT included catheter-directed thrombolysis with or without pharmacomechanical thrombectomy using the Trellis-8 system (Bacchus Vascular, Santa Clara, Calif). Patients who presented with bilateral DVT (n = 4), inferior vena cava involvement (n = 8), or venous gangrene (n = 1) were excluded. Perioperative outcomes, quality measures, and thrombus resolution were compared between the two treatment groups. Clinical, Etiology, Anatomy, and Pathophysiology (CEAP) classification, Villalta score, and venous duplex ultrasound at intermediate follow-up were also analyzed. The left limb was the most common site of the IFDVT overall. Technical success (≥50% resolution) was 100% for both groups, and >80% resolution was achieved in all patients treated with HOT. There were eight major bleeding events in the PT group compared with three in the HOT group (P = .04). PT patients had a significantly longer length of stay (13 vs 10 days; P = .028) compared with HOT. At 2-year duplex ultrasound examination, there was no difference between HOT and PT in mean reflux times at the femoral-popliteal segment. At 2 years, 85% and 87% of the patients (HOT vs PT, respectively) had not developed post-thrombotic syndrome, and there was no difference between the groups for mean Villalta score (2.1 ± 1.9 vs 2.3 ± 2

  9. Low agreement for assessing the risk of postoperative deep venous thrombosis when deciding prophylaxis strategies: a study using clinical vignettes

    PubMed Central

    O'Flaherty, Martin; Lerum, Kaja; Martin, Paula; Grassi, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Background Several clinical practice guidelines (CPG) on antithrombotic prophylaxis in surgical patients help to decide about the prophylaxis strategy based on the patient risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). However, the physician risk estimates of DVT could have little inter-observer reproducibility, which could lead to different individual prophylaxis practices. Methods Physicians were asked to evaluate DVT risk in eight clinical vignettes, describing actual patients cared for in our hospital. The vignettes included all possible levels of DVT risk. Results The degree of prophylaxis strategies accuracy was 63% (95% CI 523–75%). Overall agreement was 0.32 (z = 7.61, p < 0.001) and for each level of risk kappa was 0.38 (z = 6.50, p < 0.001); 0.1 (z = 1.65, p < 0.049) and 0.5 (z = 8.45, p < 0.001) for small, moderate and high risk group respectively Conclusions Our results showed that there is poor agreement when physicians have to evaluate the risk for postoperative DVT, and in the cases of low and moderate risks of DVT there is the smallest agreement. In addition, the data also showed that the overall accuracy of DVT prophylaxis strategy was only moderate and the risk evaluation did not correlate to the selection of the strategy. The issue of inter-observers variability should be taken into account when CPG performance are analysed, especially when considering the risk-evaluation to choose the appropriate actions. PMID:12184817

  10. Gram-Negative Pneumonia Alters Large-Vein Cell-Adhesion Molecule Profile and Potentiates Experimental Stasis Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Obi, Andrea T; Andraska, Elizabeth; Kanthi, Yogendra; Luke, Catherine E; Elfline, Megan; Madathilparambil, Suresh; Siahaan, Teruna J; Jaffer, Farouc A; Wakefield, Thomas W; Raghavendran, Krishnan; Henke, Peter K

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia is a significant risk factor for the development of venous thrombosis (VT). Cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs) are linked to the pathogenesis of both pneumonia and VT. We hypothesized that remote infection would confer a prothrombogenic milieu via systemic elevation of CAMs. Lung injury was induced in wild-type (C57BL/6) mice by lung contusion or intratracheal inoculation with Klebsiella pneumoniae or saline controls. K. pneumoniae-treated mice and controls additionally underwent inferior vena cava (IVC) ligation to generate VT. Lung-contusion mice demonstrated no increase in E-selectin or P-selectin whereas mice infected with K. pneumoniae demonstrated increased circulating P-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complexes. Mice with pneumonia formed VT 3 times larger than controls, demonstrated significantly more upregulation of vein-wall and systemic CAMs, and formed erythrocyte-rich thrombi. Elevated CAM expression was identified in mice with pneumonia, but not lung contusion, indicating that the type of inflammatory stimulus and the presence of infection drive the vein-wall response. Elevation of CAMs was associated with amplified VT and may represent an alternate mechanism by which to target the prevention of VT. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Association between B-group vitamins and venous thrombosis: systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kuangguo; Zhao, Ruizhi; Geng, Zhe; Jiang, Lijun; Cao, Yang; Xu, Danmei; Liu, Yin; Huang, Liang; Zhou, Jianfeng

    2012-11-01

    A homocysteine-independent role for B-group vitamins on venous thrombosis (VT) development has been reported. However, related research findings remain inconsistent. PUBMED, EMBASE, and COCHRANE databases were searched to collect information on all eligible studies to make a meta-analysis about the relationship between B-group vitamins and VT. Literature search results did not suggest a correlation between thiamin, pantothenic acid, niacin, or riboflavin with VT. Based on their correlations in the literature, folic acid, vitamin B12, B6 were considered in the meta-analysis and systematic review. Significant standardized mean differences were obtained for plasma folic acid (-0.55; 95% CI, -0.75 to -0.36) and vitamin B12 (-0.34; 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.13). Reduced levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 may be independent risk factors of VT. Moreover, a qualitative systematic review indicated that low level of vitamin B6 was an independent risk factor of VT. Randomized clinical studies of B-group vitamins supplementation showed varying results on VT prevention. Multivitamin supplementation for VT prevention, regardless of homocysteine level, would be of interest. Further prospective clinical studies are needed to provide additional evidence on the clinical benefits of B-group vitamin supplementation for VT.

  12. [Oxidative carbonylation of vascular wall proteins in dynamics of experimental venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Fomina, N V; Fomina, M A; Kalinin, R E; Suchkov, I A

    2015-01-01

    The objects of the study were a total of 24 conventional sexually mature Wistar rats weighing 200-400 g. Thrombosis was modelled by means of ligation of the common iliac vein. Animals were withdrawn from the study on days 1, 3 and 5 after intervention. The materials for the study in each animal were homogenates of the vein portion below the site of ligation (thrombosed vein) and the portion of the symmetrical vessel (intact vein). Taken as controls were portions of the common iliac vein of intact animals matched by age, body weight, and keeping conditions. The level of spontaneous and induced in the Fenton reaction oxidative carbonylation of proteins was determined by means of carbonyl derivatives according to the R.L. Levine technique modified by E.E. Dubinina with optical registration of the formed dinitrophenylhydrazines at 356, 370, 430 and 530 nm. The reserve-and-adaptation potential was assessed by means of counting the ratio of the amount of carbonyl derivatives of proteins in spontaneous and induced oxidation. The obtained findings showed that experimental thrombosis is accompanied and followed by an increase in the content of carbonyl derivatives of proteins in the wall of thrombosed veins and, to a lesser degree, in that of intact veins. The maximal elevation of the parameters was registered during the first 24 hours of the development of pathology, demonstrating not only early but late markers of oxidative modification of proteins. Thrombosed veins on day 3 were found to have a decrease in the content of carbonylated proteins to the level of the control values, which was associated with a maximal value of the reserve-adaptation potential. However, day five was marked by a secondary increase in carbonylation accompanied by certain exhaustion of the reserve-adaptive potential. In intact veins, a decrease of the spontaneous oxidative modification level on day 3 was accompanied by a splash of induced carbonylation followed by stabilization of the parameters

  13. Efficiency of systematic thrombophilia screening in idiopathic venous thrombosis: a prospective study in internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Pottier, P; Cormier, G; Truchaud, F; Planchon, B

    2005-07-01

    In case of unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE), the screening of thrombophilia is recommended whatever the age of the patient and the type of risk factors (RF). This prospective study was conducted in patients with unprovoked VTE to detect some predictive factors to have a higher risk of thrombophilia, focusing on age, history of venous thromboembolism, and the existence of a triggering event. From July 2000 to July 2002, in an Internal Medicine Department, unrelated patients with unprovoked VTE were included. Those unprovoked thromboembolic events were defined by the absence of association between permanent and transient RF. The primary outcome measure was the positivity of the thrombophilia screening for any type of abnormality detected (deficit of protein C, S, antithrombin, presence of a lupus anticoagulant, research of V and II mutations). Seventy-four patients were included. Eight died during the follow-up. A higher risk of thrombophilia was found in patients younger than 40 (p=0.03), or with a family but not personal history of VTE (p=0.01) or with transient RF (p=0.02). The most frequent abnormality of coagulation found in patients younger than 40 was the presence of a lupus anticoagulant. As a new strategy for the screening of thrombophilia, one could propose the following attitude: only patients with transient RF or family history of VTE could undergo a complete screening; for all the remaining patients who are younger than 40, a research of a lupus anticoagulant would be only performed. This strategy should now be balanced against the currently recommended systematic attitude in further studies.

  14. Prospective study of peripheral arterial catheter infection and comparison with concurrently sited central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Koh, David Boon Chai; Gowardman, John R; Rickard, Claire M; Robertson, Iain K; Brown, Andrew

    2008-02-01

    Peripheral arterial catheters are perceived as having low infective potential compared with other catheters and may be overlooked as a cause of catheter-related bloodstream infection. We aimed to measure colonization and rates of catheter-related bloodstream infection in arterial catheters, to investigate risk factors for arterial catheter colonization, and to compare arterial catheter infection rates with those in concurrently sited and managed central venous catheters. Prospective 24-month cohort study. Eight-bed combined general intensive care and high-dependency unit of a 350-bed Australian teaching hospital. Three hundred twenty-one arterial catheters in 252 adult and pediatric patients were observed for 1,082 catheter days, and 618 central venous catheters in 410 patients were observed for 4,040 catheter days. All catheters were inserted in, or presented to, the intensive care unit. Both arterial catheters and central venous catheters were inserted by trained personnel under aseptic conditions, and management was standardized. None. The incidence per 1,000 (95% confidence interval) catheter days of colonization (> or = 15 colonies) and catheter-related bloodstream infection was 15.7 (9.5-25.9) and 0.92 (0.13-6.44) for arterial catheters and 16.8 (13.3-21.3) and 2.23 (1.12-4.44) for central venous catheters. Arterial catheter colonization was not significantly different than that in central venous catheters (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-3.36; p = .77). Arterial catheter colonization increased with dwell time and was similar to central venous catheters over time. Femoral arterial catheters were colonized more often than radial arterial catheters (hazard ratio, 5.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.85, 30.3; p = .075), and colonization was significantly higher when the catheter was inserted in the operating theater or emergency department (hazard ratio, 4.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-13.9; p = .01) compared with the intensive care unit. The

  15. [Clinical and therapeutic heterogeneity of cerebral venous thrombosis: a description of a series of 20 cases].

    PubMed

    Flores-Barragán, J M; Hernández-González, A; Gallardo-Alcañiz, M J; del Real-Francia, M A; Vaamonde-Gamo, J

    Current neuro-radiological techniques have led to a more frequent diagnosis of cerebral vein thrombosis (CVT), and revealed its greater clinical heterogeneity. To analize the characteristics of the cases with the diagnosis of CVT in our unit between 1996 and 2008. We describe 20 cases of CVT (14 women and 6 men), with ages of 22 to 75 years. Headache was the most frequent symptom, followed by intracranial hypertension, disorders of consciousness and focal deficits. Unusual presentations included transitory ischemia and progressive optical neuropathy. Subacute and chronic courses were more frequent than acute. The etiology was diverse including puerperium, contraception, hyperthyroidism, meningitis, Leiden V factor mutation, multiple myeloma, Crohn, ulcerative colitis, meningioma and epidural anesthesia. No cause was found in 8 cases. Magnetic resonance imaging was always diagnostic. Patients were anticoagulated during the acute phase. In subacute or chronic presentations, a more conservative treatment was considered on individual basis. Only 6 patients had mild sequelae. We report a great variety of etiologies and patterns of presentation of CVT. CVT should be suspected in patients with subacute headache, even in outpatients. Nonacute presentation with isolated headache or intracranial hypertension could have better prognosis, requiring a less aggressive therapy.

  16. Young's modulus reconstruction for elasticity imaging of deep venous thrombosis: animal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Xie, Hua; Kim, Kang; Rubin, Jonathan M.; O'Donnell, Matthew; Wakefield, T. W.; Myers, D.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2004-04-01

    Recently, it was suggested that ultrasound elasticity imaging can be used to age deep vein thrombosis (DVT) since blood clot hardness changes with fibrin content. The main components of ultrasound elasticity imaging are deformation of the object, speckle or internal boundary tracking and evaluation of tissue motion, measurement of strain tensor components, and reconstruction of the spatial distribution of elastic modulus using strain images. In this paper, we investigate a technique for Young's modulus reconstruction to quantify ultrasound elasticity imaging of DVT. In-vivo strain imaging experiments were performed using Sprague-Dawley rats with surgically induced clots in the inferior vena cavas (IVC). In this model, the clot matures from acute to chronic in less than 10 days. Therefore, nearly every 24 hours the strain imaging experiments were performed to reveal temporal transformation of the clot. The measured displacement and strain images were then converted into maps of elasticity using model-based elasticity reconstruction where the blood clot within an occluded vein was approximated as a layered elastic cylinder surrounded by incompressible tissue. Results of this study demonstrate that Young's modulus gradually increases with clot maturity and can be used to differentiate clots providing a desperately needed clinical tool of DVT staging.

  17. Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with portal venous tumor thrombosis: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kichang; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Sung, Kyu-Bo

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) is dismal (approximately 2-4 mo), and PVTT is reportedly found in 10%-40% of HCC patients at diagnosis. According to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) Staging System (which is the most widely adopted HCC management guideline), sorafenib is the standard of care for advanced HCC (i.e., BCLC stage C) and the presence of PVTT is included in this category. However, sorafenib treatment only marginally prolongs patient survival and, notably, its therapeutic efficacy is reduced in patients with PVTT. In this context, there have been diverse efforts to develop alternatives to current standard systemic chemotherapies or combination treatment options. To date, many studies on transarterial chemoembolization, 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, hepatic arterial chemotherapy, and transarterial radioembolization report better overall survival than sorafenib therapy alone, but their outcomes need to be verified in future prospective, randomized controlled studies in order to be incorporated into current treatment guidelines. Additionally, combination strategies have been applied to treat HCC patients with PVTT, with the hope that the possible synergistic actions among different treatment modalities would provide promising results. This narrative review describes the current status of the management options for HCC with PVTT, with a focus on overall survival. PMID:26755886

  18. Central and peripheral venous lines-associated blood stream infections in the critically ill surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Critically ill surgical patients are always at increased risk of actual or potentially life-threatening health complications. Central/peripheral venous lines form a key part of their care. We review the current evidence on incidence of central and peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections in critically ill surgical patients, and outline pathways for prevention and intervention. An extensive systematic electronic search was carried out on the relevant databases. Articles were considered suitable for inclusion if they investigated catheter colonisation and catheter-related bloodstream infection. Two independent reviewers engaged in selecting the appropriate articles in line with our protocol retrieved 8 articles published from 1999 to 2011. Outcomes on CVC colonisation and infections were investigated in six studies; four of which were prospective cohort studies, one prospective longitudinal study and one retrospective cohort study. Outcomes relating only to PICCs were reported in one prospective randomised trial. We identified only one study that compared CVC- and PICC-related complications in surgical intensive care units. Although our search protocol may not have yielded an exhaustive list we have identified a key deficiency in the literature, namely a paucity of studies investigating the incidence of CVC- and PICC-related bloodstream infection in exclusively critically ill surgical populations. In summary, the diverse definitions for the diagnosis of central and peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections along with the vastly different sample size and extremely small PICC population size has, predictably, yielded inconsistent findings. Our current understanding is still limited; the studies we have identified do point us towards some tentative understanding that the CVC/PICC performance remains inconclusive. PMID:22947496

  19. Search for occult malignancy in patients with deep venous thrombosis. Results of a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ronsdorf, Anke; Perruchoud, André P; Schoenenberger, Ronald A

    2003-11-01

    The association of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and cancer is well established. It is controversial how large the association is and how extensive the evaluation for an underlying cancer should be. 485 patients without a known cancer and a proven DVT formed the cohort of a retrospective study. Newly diagnosed (prevalent) cancers in patients with idiopathic (IDVT) and secondary (SDVT) during the index hospitalisation were compared and the contribution of the steps in an institutional tumour search program was analysed. The incidence of cancer in 204 patients with IDVT and 230 patients with SDVT during follow-up was determined. During the index hospitalisation routine evaluation revealed eleven cancers in 236 patients (4.7% [95%-CI: 2.0-7.3]) with IDVT and five cancers in 249 patients (2.0% [95%-CI: 0.3-3.7]) with SDVT. Combining patient history, clinical examination, routine laboratory tests and chest x-ray showed a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 79% for the diagnosis of cancer. Abdominal ultrasound did not significantly increase the yield. 93% of the patients were followed for up to 5 years (mean 32 months). Sixteen cancers occurred in 204 patients (7.8% [95%-CI: 4.0-11.5]) with IDVT and ten in 230 patients (4.35% [95%-CI: 1.7-7.0]) with SVDT (p<0.001). Prevalence and incidence of cancer were higher in IDVT patients compared to those with SDVT. Combining patient history, clinical examination, simple laboratory tests, and a routine chest x-ray is an appropriate strategy to detect underlying cancer in patients with IDVT. Routine abdominal ultrasound can safely be omitted.

  20. Possible association of etanercept, venous thrombosis, and induction of antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Virupannavar, Shanti; Brandau, Anthony; Guggenheim, Carla; Laird-Fick, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α ) inhibitors are commonly used for treatment of aggressive rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. Etanercept is one of the medications approved for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Though many studies have documented the safety and efficacy of these medications, evidence for adverse effects is emerging including cancer, infections, and cardiovascular disease. There have been studies showing that these medications induce autoantibody production, including antinuclear antibodies and anti-dsDNA antibodies. Limited data exists, however, regarding induction of antiphospholipid antibodies (APLs) by TNF α inhibitors, including anticardiolipin antibodies (ACLs), lupus anticoagulant (LAC), and anti- β 2-glycoprotein I (anti- β 2 GPI), or an association between antibody development and clinical manifestations. In this case series, we describe five patients who developed venous thromboembolism (VTE) and APLs while receiving etanercept therapy. All five of our patients met the criteria for diagnosis of APS after receiving etanercept. Our case series supports the association between etanercept, APLs, and VTE. We believe that testing for APLs prior to initiation of anti-TNF therapy is reasonable, given this relationship and the risks associated with VTE.

  1. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism in hematological cancers: The Scandinavian Thrombosis and Cancer (STAC) cohort.

    PubMed

    Gade, Inger Lise; Brækkan, Sigrid; Næss, Inger Anne; Hansen, John-Bjarne; Rosendaal, Frits; Cannegieter, Suzanne; Overvad, Kim; Jensvoll, Hilde; Hammerstrøm, Jens; Gran, Olga Vikhammer; Tjønneland, Anne; Kristensen, Søren Risom; Severinsen, Marianne Tang

    2017-09-05

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients, however the risk of VTE differs according to cancer type. Hematological cancers have varying phenotypes. Incidence rates (IR) of VTE in different hematological cancer types have not been investigated in a cancer-exposed subset of the general population. In a population-based cohort, we estimated incidence rates of VTE among patients with six subtypes of hematological cancer and among age and sex matched reference subjects. During a mean follow-up of 4.8years, 30 objectively confirmed first-time symptomatic VTEs occurred among 838 subjects with hematological cancer. The IR of VTE was higher in all types of cancer except for indolent lymphoma but including chronic lymphocytic leukemia compared with reference subjects both during the first year after cancer diagnosis and 1-5years after diagnosis. IR of VTE for indolent lymphoma was not higher than controls. The IRs of VTE were increased in all types of hematological cancer (including chronic lymphocytic leukemia) compared with reference subjects except indolent lymphomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bleeding complications in venous thrombosis patients on well-managed warfarin.

    PubMed

    Sandén, Per; Renlund, Henrik; Svensson, Peter J; Själander, Anders

    2016-02-01

    Anticoagulation treatment is effective in preventing both death and recurrence in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE), but at the same time confers a substantial risk of bleeding complications. The aim of this study was to examine the rate of and predictors for bleeding complications in VTE patients on warfarin with high treatment quality. In total 13,859 patients on warfarin for VTE between January 1st 2006 and December 31th 2011 were retrieved from the national quality register Auricula. The cohort was matched with the Swedish National Patient Register for complications and background characteristics, the Cause of Death Register for date and cause of death and the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register for retrieved medication. The rate of major bleeding was 2.36 per 100 treatment years, increasing with age from 1.25 to 4.33 for those under 60 or over 80 years of age, respectively. Factors found to independently increase the risk of bleeding complications were increasing age HR 1.02, cardiac failure HR 1.39, Chronic pulmonary disease HR 1.41, alcohol abuse HR 3.33, anaemia HR 1.75, hypertension HR 1.29 and a history of major bleeding HR 1.69. Warfarin as treatment for VTE is safe with a low rate of bleeding complications at least for the younger patient. In an era of NOAK, warfarin has a comparable safety profile among VTE patients and is still a valid treatment option.

  3. Predictive Factors for Developing Venous Thrombosis during Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy in Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Heidegger, Isabel; Porres, Daniel; Veek, Nica; Heidenreich, Axel; Pfister, David

    2017-01-01

    Malignancies and cisplatin-based chemotherapy are both known to correlate with a high risk of venous thrombotic events (VTT). In testicular cancer, the information regarding the incidence and reason of VTT in patients undergoing cisplatin-based chemotherapy is still discussed controversially. Moreover, no risk factors for developing a VTT during cisplatin-based chemotherapy have been elucidated so far. We retrospectively analyzed 153 patients with testicular cancer undergoing cisplatin-based chemotherapy at our institution for the development of a VTT during or after chemotherapy. Clinical and pathological parameters for identifying possible risk factors for VTT were analyzed. The Khorana risk score was used to calculate the risk of VTT. Student t test was applied for calculating the statistical significance of differences between the treatment groups. Twenty-six out of 153 patients (17%) developed a VTT during chemotherapy. When we analyzed the risk factors for developing a VTT, we found that Lugano stage ≥IIc was significantly (p = 0.0006) correlated with the risk of developing a VTT during chemotherapy. On calculating the VTT risk using the Khorana risk score model, we found that only 2 out of 26 patients (7.7%) were in the high-risk Khorana group (≥3). Patients with testicular cancer with a high tumor volume have a significant risk of developing a VTT with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The Khorana risk score is not an accurate tool for predicting VTT in testicular cancer. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Use of sodium hypochlorite for skin antisepsis before inserting a peripheral venous catheter: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Forni, Cristiana; Sabattini, Tania; D'Alessandro, Fabio; Fiorani, Ambra; Gamberini, Simonetta; Maso, Alessandra; Curci, Rosa; Zanotti, Enrichetta; Chiari, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Although it can be prevented, catheter-related bacteremia is common and dangerous. The antiseptics most widely used during insertion of peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) include povidone iodine, alcohol, and chlorhexidine. Another widely used antiseptic is a solution of 0.057 g sodium hypochlorite. This pilot study explored the contamination rate of the PVC tip inserted after skin decontamination with sodium hypochlorite. Culture analysis of the tips of the PVCs inserted into the 42 participants showed 7 (16.7%) colonized catheters. The results of this pilot study suggest taking into serious consideration the assessment of this antiseptic in randomized experimental studies.

  5. Improving Patient Safety with a Mobile Application for Patients with Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheters (PICC).

    PubMed

    Nüssli, Stephan; Schnyder, Florian; Zenhäusern, Raphael; Bosshart, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are of growing interest because they allow intravenous therapies up to several months. The appropriate management of the PICCs is crucial to minimize complications and largely depends on the right information for everyone who cares for the patient. To reach this goal we develop the mobile application "PICC App" to provide the necessary information for all involved persons in the outpatient setting. We expect to be able to report about the PICC App and the results of the usability evaluation with pilot users.

  6. Prevention of recurrent deep venous thrombosis with sulodexide: the SanVal registry.

    PubMed

    Errichi, B M; Cesarone, M R; Belcaro, G; Marinucci, R; Ricci, A; Ippolito, A; Brandolini, R; Vinciguerra, G; Dugall, M; Felicita, A; Pellegrini, L; Gizzi, G; Ruffini, M; Acerbi, G; Bavera, P; Renzo, A Di; Corsi, M; Scoccianti, M; Hosoi, M; Lania, M

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevention of recurrent deep vein thrombosis (R-DVT) with an oral antithrombotic agent (sulodexide) in moderate to high-risk subjects. A group of 405 patients was included into the multicenter registry. Both compression and an exercise program were used as well as a risk-factors control plan. After diagnosis of DVT, patients were treated with oral anticoagulants for 6 months. At the end of this period a coagulation study was made and patients started treatment with oral sulodexide capsules for a period of 24 months. The femoral, popliteal, tibial, and superficial veins were scanned with high-resolution ultrasound at inclusion;scans were repeated at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Of the 405 subjects included into the registry 178 in the control group (mean age 52.2; SD 11; M:F=90:88) and 189 in the treatment group (mean age 53.2; SD 10.3; M:F=93:96) completed the analysis period of 24 months. At 6 and 12 months the incidence of R-DVT was lower (p<0.05) in the treatment group. At 24 months the global incidence of R-DVT was 17.9% in the control group and 7.4% in the sulodexide group (p<0.05), 2.42 times lower than in controls. The 2 groups were comparable for age and sex distribution and for the localization of the thrombi at inclusion. Also the 2 groups of dropouts were comparable. In the control group there were 32 recurrent DVTs and 24 subjects lost to follow-up (total of 56) of 202 included subjects (27.7%) in comparison with 28 failures (14 recurrent DVTs and 14 lost subjects) of 203 subjects (13.8%) in the treatment group. This difference was statistically significant. In this analysis the incidence of DVT in controls was 2.07 times higher than in the treatment group subjects. In conclusion sulodexide was effective in reducing recurrent thrombotic events in high-risk subjects.

  7. [Isolated iliac deep venous thrombosis. Study of 48 cases seen in 7 years among 18,297 echo-Doppler evaluations of the lower limbs].

    PubMed

    Barrellier, M T; Lezin, B; Monsallier, J M

    2001-12-01

    Isolated iliac venous thrombosis (IIVT) is uncommon. Duplex ultrasonography of the iliac vessels is not recommended and not generally performed. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of IIVT in a hospital recruitment population and to identify characteristic features of onset which might be associated with this localization in order to better target explorations. The study included 18,297 patients referred for Duplex-ultrasonographic exploration of possible deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs between January 1st 1994 and December 31st 2000. Selection of isolated iliac thrombosis, defined as the absence of retrograde extension to the common femoral vein, was made from the digitalized data recorded daily. The following factors were tested: sex, age, absence of clinical signs in the lower limb, presence of pulmonary signs. The raw odds ratios were calculated followed by construction of a multivariate logistic regression model. The circumstances of onset were retrieved from the patient's medical files. Isolated iliac venous thrombosis was discovered in 48 patients, i.e. 0.26% (95% CI 0.19%-0.35%) in the recruitment population and 0.82% (95% CI 0.61%-1.09%) among the 5827 patients with thrombosis. The common iliac was involved predominantly (35 out of 48). The left side predominated in women compared with men (24/36 versus 4/12) (p = 0.04). Specifically female circumstances (oral contraceptives, peri-obstetrical period) always led to a left localization. For the other identified circumstances (cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, orthopedic surgery, pelvic trauma), there was no predominant side. Variables explaining the multivariate model were sex, age (less than or more than 35 years), suspected pulmonary embolism, and age interaction with suspected pulmonary embolism. For women, the risk of IIVT was twice as high as for men (OR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.02-3.81). Young age was also a risk factor for IIVT and increased with suspected pulmonary embolism

  8. Collaborative overview of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy--III: Reduction in venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism by antiplatelet prophylaxis among surgical and medical patients. Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the efficacy of antiplatelet therapy as prophylaxis against deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism in surgical and high risk medical patients. DESIGN--Overviews of all randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy that could have been available by March 1990 and in which deep venous thrombosis was assessed systematically. SETTING--53 trials (total 8400 patients) of an average of two weeks of antiplatelet therapy versus control in general or orthopaedic surgery; nine trials (600 patients) of antiplatelet therapy versus control in other types of immobility; 18 trials (1000 patients) of one antiplatelet regimen versus another. RESULTS--Overall, a few weeks of antiplatelet therapy produced a highly significant (2P < 0.00001) reduction in deep venous thrombosis. 25% of patients allocated antiplatelet therapy versus 34% of appropriately adjusted controls had deep venous thrombosis detected by systematic fibrinogen scanning or venography, representing prevention in about 90 patients per 1000 allocated antiplatelet therapy. There was an even greater proportional reduction in pulmonary embolism: such emboli were detected among 47 (1.0%) antiplatelet allocated patients versus an adjusted control total of 129 (2.7%), representing prevention among about 17 patients per 1000 treated (2P < 0.00001). In analyses confined to surgical trials, the proportional reductions were similar and separately significant for nonfatal pulmonary embolism (0.7% antiplatelet therapy v 1.8% control; 2P < 0.00001) and for deaths attributed to pulmonary embolism (0.2% v 0.9%; 2P = 0.0001). There was a slight but non-significant excess of deaths from other causes (1.0% v 0.7%), which made the difference in total mortality nonsignificant, though still favourable (1.2% v 1.5%). Information on adding antiplatelet therapy to heparin was limited but, at least for pulmonary embolism, suggested more protection from the combination than from heparin alone. The proportional reduction

  9. Clinical significance of factor V leiden and prothrombin G20210A-mutations in cerebral venous thrombosis - comparison with arterial ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Beye, Aida; Pindur, Gerhard

    2017-08-28

    Cerebrovascular diseases are considered in a different way concerning their etiology with regard to arterial and venous occlusion. The role of thrombophilia in this context remains undetermined. For this reason, a case-control study was conducted including a total of 202 patients (154 females, 48 males) aged from 18 to 76 years (mean: 39.8 years) suffering either from cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (n = 101) or from arterial ischemic stroke (n = 101). Study groups were evaluated on the basis of age- and gender-matched pairs. Gene mutations of factor V-1691 (factor V Leiden) and prothrombin-20210 being considered as the most common thrombophilia markers were analyzed in this study. Factor V Leiden-mutations were found in 16.8% of patients with cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CVT) and in 17.8% of patients with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS), which was significantly more frequent than in controls at a rate of 4.95% (ORs: 3.89 and 4.16). Prothrombin-mutations were significantly more frequent in CVT at a rate of 14.9% versus 2.97% in controls (OR: 5.70). This does not apply for AIS showing a rate of 4.95% prothrombin-mutations. Rates of factor V Leiden-mutations are not different in CVT compared with AIS. In contrast, however, prothrombin-mutations were significantly more frequent in CVT than in AIS with a rate of 14.9% versus 4.95% (OR 3.35). Furthermore, 3 cases with combined heterozygosity of factor V Leiden- and prothrombin-mutation have been identified in CVT, but not in AIS or controls. All of the above mentioned mutations were exclusively heterozygous. We conclude from these data that thrombophilia in terms of factor V Leiden genotype is a risk factor for both CVT and AIS in equal measure. In contrast, prothrombin-20210-mutations were different playing a significant role in the pathogenesis of cerebral sinus vein- thrombosis, but not in arterial ischemic stroke. Also, the combined occurrence of heterozygous prothrombin- and factor V Leiden

  10. Use of Percutaneous Aspiration Thrombectomy vs. Anticoagulation Therapy to Treat Acute Iliofemoral Venous Thrombosis: 1-year Follow-up Results of a Randomised, Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Cakir, Volkan; Gulcu, Aytac; Akay, Emrah; Capar, Ahmet E.; Gencpinar, Tugra; Kucuk, Banu; Karabay, Ozalp; Goktay, A. Yigit

    2014-08-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy (PAT) followed by standard anticoagulant therapy, with anticoagulation therapy alone, for the treatment of acute proximal lower extremity deep vein thrombosis.MethodsIn this randomised, prospective study, 42 patients with acute proximal iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis documented via Doppler ultrasound examination, were separated into an interventional treatment group (16 males, 5 females, average age 51 years) and a medical treatment group (13 males, 8 females, average age 59 years). In the interventional group, PAT with large-lumen 9-F diameter catheterisation was applied, after initiation of standard anticoagulant therapy. Balloon angioplasty (n 19) and stent implementation (n: 14) were used to treat patients with residual stenosis (>50 %) after PAT. Prophylactic IVC filters were placed in two patients. The thrombus clearance status of the venous system was evaluated by venography. In both the medical and interventional groups, venous patency rates and clinical symptom scores were evaluated at months 1, 3, and 12 after treatment.ResultsDeep venous systems became totally cleared of thrombi in 12 patients treated with PAT. The venous patency rates in month 12 were 57.1 and 4.76 % in the interventional and medical treatment groups, respectively. A statistically significant improvement was observed in clinical symptom scores of the interventional group (PAT) with or without stenting (4.23 ± 0.51 before treatment; 0.81 ± 0.92 at month 12) compared with the medical treatment group (4.00 ± 0.63 before treatment; 2.43 ± 0.67 at month 12). During follow-up, four patients in the medical treatment and one in the interventional group developed pulmonary embolisms.ConclusionsFor treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis, PAT with or without stenting is superior to anticoagulant therapy alone in terms of both ensuring venous patency and improving clinical

  11. Derivation and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Scale for Isolated Distal Deep Venous Thrombosis in Patients after Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Yun; Feng, Liang; Xiao, Mei-Juan; Chen, Si-Yan; He, Jin-Cai; Wang, Zhen

    2017-10-01

    Isolated distal deep venous thrombosis (IDDVT) is a common complication after ischemic stroke. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the clinical features and risk factors of IDDVT in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This study aimed to establish and validate a clinical prediction scale of IDDVT at an early stage of ischemic stroke development. We retrospectively studied consecutive patients with stroke admitted to our neurology department between January and December 2016. Selected clinical variables were assessed by multivariable logistic regression to determine the independent risk factors for IDDVT. A prediction scale was developed and verified by the receiver operating characteristic curve. A total of 671 patients with ischemic stroke were included in the study, with 450 patients allocated into the derivation group and 221 patients into the validation group. A substantial proportion (22.1%) of patients developed IDDVT. A 16-point prediction scale (female gender = 2, older age [≥60 years] = 3, atrial fibrillation = 2, acute infection = 2, active cancer = 5, and higher [≥2.6 mmol/L] level of low-density lipoprotein = 2) derived from a multivariable logistic regression model was highly predictive of 10-day risk of IDDVT in both the validation group (c statistic = .70, 95% confidence interval [CI], .63-0.78, P < .0001) and the derivation group (c statistic = .68, 95% CI, .63-0.74, P < .0001). This prediction scale may help to identify patients with ischemic stroke who are at a higher risk of developing IDDVT. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prior Hysterectomy and Oophorectomy and Incident Venous Thrombosis Risk among Postmenopausal Women: a Population-based, Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Laura B.; Weiss, Noel S.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Heckbert, Susan R.; McKnight, Barbara; Blondon, Marc; Woods, Nancy F.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Smith, Nicholas L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) are associated with changes in endogenous hormone levels, yet the risk of venous thrombosis (VT) associated with hysterectomy and BSO is incompletely characterized. This study evaluated the risk of incident VT among postmenopausal women associated with combined prior hysterectomy/oophorectomy status and current use of hormone therapy (HT). Methods In a case-control study, we identified incident VT cases (n=1,623) among postmenopausal Group Health Cooperative enrollees without reproductive cancer, defining their “index date” as their VT diagnosis date (1995-2010). Matched controls had not experienced a prior VT (n=4,480). Multiple logistic regression models estimated adjusted relative risks for VT associated with combinations of prior hysterectomy/oophorectomy status and HT use at the index date. Results Compared with women with an intact uterus who were not using HT, there was no suggestion of greater VT risk in women with prior hysterectomy without BSO, whether they were (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57, 1.12]) or were not using HT (aOR=1.09 [95% CI: 0.89, 1.35]). Women with prior hysterectomy and BSO who were using HT were not at a greater VT risk (OR=1.00 [95% CI: 0.78, 1.27]), but there was evidence of a 25% greater risk associated with prior hysterectomy with BSO and no current HT use (OR=1.25 [95% CI: 1.05, 1.49]). Conclusions Collectively, these and prior data do not suggest a substantial impact of hysterectomy, with or without BSO, on the risk of VT among postmenopausal women. PMID:26757272

  13. The incidence of deep venous thrombosis before arthroscopy among patients suffering from high-energy knee trauma.

    PubMed

    Rong, Zhen; Yao, Yao; Chen, Dongyang; Song, Kai; Zheng, Minghao; Jiang, Qing

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) before knee arthroscopy in patients who had sustained high-energy knee injuries. This study included 64 patients who underwent arthroscopic knee surgery as a result of injury from a traffic accident or a high fall. Venography was performed on the injured leg of each patient before arthroscopy. The patients were divided into two groups based on whether they had DVT. Correlation analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with DVT. A total of 32 (50 %) of the 64 patients had venographic evidence of DVT. Of these DVTs, seven were proximal (10.9 %). The D-dimer (DD) level was significantly higher in the DVT group, especially among the patients whose symptoms had persisted for more than 10 days. DVT is difficult to diagnose solely based on clinical symptoms, as some patients are symptomatic while others exhibit symptoms that could be attributed to trauma. The incidence of DVT before knee arthroscopy in patients with high-energy knee injuries was 50 %, and the prevalence of proximal DVT was 10.9 %. DD is a sensitive marker for DVT. No patient developed DVT with a DD level lower than 0.8 mg/L, but those with DD level higher than 1.5 mg/L had a much higher incidence of DVT developing in patients who had been injured for more than 10 days. A routine examination to exclude DVT in these patients should be performed before arthroscopy. IV.

  14. A genome-wide search for common SNP x SNP interactions on the risk of venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Venous Thrombosis (VT) is a common multifactorial disease with an estimated heritability between 35% and 60%. Known genetic polymorphisms identified so far only explain ~5% of the genetic variance of the disease. This study was aimed to investigate whether pair-wise interactions between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could exist and modulate the risk of VT. Methods A genome-wide SNP x SNP interaction analysis on VT risk was conducted in a French case–control study and the most significant findings were tested for replication in a second independent French case–control sample. The results obtained in the two studies totaling 1,953 cases and 2,338 healthy subjects were combined into a meta-analysis. Results The smallest observed p-value for interaction was p = 6.00 10-11 but it did not pass the Bonferroni significance threshold of 1.69 10-12 correcting for the number of investigated interactions that was 2.96 1010. Among the 37 suggestive pair-wise interactions with p-value less than 10-8, one was further shown to involve two SNPs, rs9804128 (IGFS21 locus) and rs4784379 (IRX3 locus) that demonstrated significant interactive effects (p = 4.83 10-5) on the variability of plasma Factor VIII levels, a quantitative biomarker of VT risk, in a sample of 1,091 VT patients. Conclusion This study, the first genome-wide SNP interaction analysis conducted so far on VT risk, suggests that common SNPs are unlikely exerting strong interactive effects on the risk of disease. PMID:23509962

  15. European Stroke Organization guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis - endorsed by the European Academy of Neurology.

    PubMed

    Ferro, J M; Bousser, M-G; Canhão, P; Coutinho, J M; Crassard, I; Dentali, F; di Minno, M; Maino, A; Martinelli, I; Masuhr, F; Aguiar de Sousa, D; Stam, J

    2017-10-01

    Current guidelines on cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) diagnosis and management were issued by the European Federation of Neurological Societies in 2010. We aimed to update the previous European Federation of Neurological Societies guidelines using a clearer and evidence-based methodology. We followed the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system, formulating relevant diagnostic and treatment questions, performing systematic reviews and writing recommendations based on the quality of available scientific evidence. We suggest using magnetic resonance or computed tomographic angiography for confirming the diagnosis of CVT and not routinely screening patients with CVT for thrombophilia or cancer. We recommend parenteral anticoagulation in acute CVT and decompressive surgery to prevent death due to brain herniation. We suggest preferentially using low-molecular-weight heparin in the acute phase and not direct oral anticoagulants. We suggest not using steroids and acetazolamide to reduce death or dependency. We suggest using antiepileptics in patients with an early seizure and supratentorial lesions to prevent further early seizures. We could not make recommendations concerning duration of anticoagulation after the acute phase, thrombolysis and/or thrombectomy, therapeutic lumbar puncture, and prevention of remote seizures with antiepileptic drugs. We suggest that, in women who have suffered a previous CVT, contraceptives containing oestrogens should be avoided. We suggest that subsequent pregnancies are safe, but use of prophylactic low-molecular-weight heparin should be considered throughout pregnancy and puerperium. Multicentre observational and experimental studies are needed to increase the level of evidence supporting recommendations on the diagnosis and management of CVT. © 2017 EAN.

  16. The Addition of Endovascular Intervention for Dural Venous Sinus Thrombosis: Single-Center Experience and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Eric M; Case, David; Nagae, Lidia M; Honce, Justin M; Reyenga, William; Seinfeld, Joshua; Poisson, Sharon; Leppert, Michelle H

    2017-10-01

    Dural venous sinus thrombosis (DVST) is a cause of infarction and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) that can lead to significant morbidity. Endovascular therapy has emerged as an adjunctive therapy in select cases but has been associated with increased hemorrhagic complications. We present our experience with a large single-center cohort of DVST cases treated with current-generation thrombectomy devices. In this retrospective cohort study, a chart review was performed to compare presentations and outcomes of patients treated with anticoagulation alone with those treated with additional interventional therapy, using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at discharge and at 90 days' follow-up. A total of 66 patients were included; 37 were treated with anticoagulation alone, and 29 underwent additional interventional therapy. Patients presenting with ICH or infarction had a significantly greater likelihood of disability at the time of discharge (odds ratio [OR] of 64.5 and 45.8, respectively; P < .0001) and at 90 days (OR of 28.4 and 22.8, respectively; P < .0001). Patients presenting with ICH or infarction were more likely to be selected for endovascular therapy (P < .05). Endovascular therapy was typically performed within 24 hours of admission; 9 patients (31%) had post-treatment hemorrhage, with 2 being (6.9%) symptomatic. There were fewer patients with slight disability (mRS score ≤1) in the endovascular group compared with the anticoagulation group at discharge (P = .05), but outcomes were not significantly different at 90 days (P = .19). Despite a higher rate of ICH or infarction at presentation in the endovascular group and an increased risk of postprocedural ICH, both treatment groups had similarly good functional outcomes at 90 days. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Incidence of Postoperative Deep Venous Thrombosis Is Higher among Cardiac and Vascular Surgery Patients as Compared with General Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faisal; Patel, Mayank; Ortenzi, Gail; Reed, Amy B

    2015-01-01

    Unlike general surgery patients, most of vascular and cardiac surgery patients receive therapeutic anticoagulation during operations. The purpose of this study was to report the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) among cardiac and vascular surgery patients, compared with general surgery. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried for all patients who underwent surgical procedures from 2005 to 2010. Patients who developed DVT within 30 days of an operation were identified. The incidence of DVT was compared among vascular, general, and cardiac surgery patients. Risk factors for developing postoperative DVT were identified and compared among these patients. Of total 2,669,772 patients underwent surgical operations in the period between 2005 and 2010. Of all the patients, 18,670 patients (0.69%) developed DVT. The incidence of DVT among different surgical specialties was cardiac surgery (2%), vascular surgery (0.99%), and general surgery (0.66%). The odds ratio for developing DVT was 1.5 for vascular surgery patients and 3 for cardiac surgery patients, when compared with general surgery patients (P < 0.001). The odds ratio for developing DVT after cardiac surgery was 2, when compared with vascular surgery (P < 0.001). The incidence of DVT is higher among vascular and cardiac surgery patients as compared with that of general surgery patients. Intraoperative anticoagulation does not prevent the occurrence of DVT in the postoperative period. These patients should receive DVT prophylaxis in the perioperative period, similar to other surgical patients according to evidence-based guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbiological testing of devices used in maintaining peripheral venous catheters 1

    PubMed Central

    Rossini, Fernanda de Paula; de Andrade, Denise; Santos, Lissandra Chaves de Sousa; Ferreira, Adriano Menis; Tieppo, Caroline; Watanabe, Evandro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the use of peripheral venous catheters based on microbiological analysis of devices (dressing and three-way stopcocks) and thus contribute to the prevention and infection control. Methods: this was a prospective study of microbiological analysis of 30 three-way stopcocks (external surfaces and lumens) and 30 dressing used in maintaining the peripheral venous catheters of hospitalized adult patients. Results: all external surfaces, 40% of lumens, and 86.7% of dressing presented bacterial growth. The main species isolated in the lumen were 50% coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 14.3% Staphylococcus aureus, and 14.3% Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fifty nine percent of multidrug-resistant bacteria were isolated of the three-way stopcocks, 42% of the lumens, and 44% of the dressing with a predominance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus resistant to methicillin. Besides, 18% gram-negative bacteria with resistance to carbapenems were identified from multidrug-resistant bacteria on the external surfaces of the three-way stopcocks. Conclusion: it is important to emphasize the isolation of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and gram-negative bacteria resistant to methicillin and carbapenems in samples of devices, respectively, which reinforces the importance of nursing care in the maintenance of the biologically safe environment as well as prevention and infection control practices. PMID:28513768

  19. A Missing Guide Wire After Placement of Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Kashif, Muhammad; Hashmi, Hafiz; Jadhav, Preeti; Khaja, Misbahuddin

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 50 Final Diagnosis: Retained guidewire removal by interventional radiology Symptoms: Swelling Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Fluoroscopic retrieval of the guidewire Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Unusual setting of medical care Background: Central venous catheterization is a common tool used in critically ill patients to monitor central venous pressure and administer fluids and medications such as vasopressors. Here we present a case of a missing guide wire after placement of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC), which was incidentally picked up by bedside ultrasound in the intensive care unit. Case Report: A 50-year-old Hispanic male was admitted to the intensive care unit for alcohol intoxication. He was managed for septic shock and required placement of a peripherally inserted central line in his left upper extremity for antibiotics and vasopressor administration. A bedside ultrasound performed by the intensivist to evaluate upper extremity swelling revealed a foreign body in the left arm. Percutaneous procedure by Interventional radiologist was required for retrieval of the guidewire. Conclusions: Guide wire related complications are rarely reported, but are significantly associated with mortality and morbidity. The use of ultrasound guidance placement of PICC lines decreases the risk of complications, provides better optimal vein selection, and enhances success. PMID:27920421

  20. Knowledge Level on Administration of Chemotherapy through Peripheral and Central Venous Catheter among Oncology Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Kapucu, Sevgisun; Özkaraman, Ayşe Özaydın; Uysal, Neşe; Bagcivan, Gulcan; Şeref, Ferhan Çetin; Elöz, Aygül

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge levels of oncology nurses about peripheral and central venous catheter during their chemotherapy administration. Methods: Data collection of this descriptive study was started on April 15, 2015–July 15, 2015. The data presented in this summary belong to 165 nurses. Data were collected with data collection form including questions related to sociodemographic qualifications and knowledge levels of nurses. Data collection forms were E-mailed to the members of Turkish Oncology Nursing Society. Data presented with numbers, percentages, and mean ± standard deviation. Results: The mean age of nurses was 33.60 ± 7.34 years and mean duration for oncology nursing experience was 2.65 ± 0.91 years. Nurses had correct information about the importance of selecting peripheral venous catheter and choosing the placement area for chemotherapy administration (63.6%), control of catheter before the administration (93.9%), influence of chemotherapeutic agent on length of catheter (40.6%), and management of extravasation (75.7%). Nurses also had correct information about the first use of port catheter (67.3%) and checking the catheter whether it is working properly or not (75.8%). Conclusions: In General, nurses’ level of knowledge related to catheter is 50% and higher. It is recommended to increase the knowledge of nurses about evidence-based information for catheter care as a step to safe chemotherapy practice. PMID:28217732