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Sample records for perisurgical amitriptyline produces

  1. Amitriptyline

    MedlinePlus

    (a mee trip' ti leen)A small number of children, teenagers, and young adults (up to 24 years of age) who took antidepressants ('mood elevators') such as amitriptyline during clinical studies became suicidal (thinking about ...

  2. [Amitriptyline and imipramine poisoning].

    PubMed

    Paul, H; Ehrenthal, W; Wahlen, W

    1980-01-01

    Two cases of severe poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants (Amitriptylin, Imipramin) are reported. Both patients 3 and 11 years old children, developed a typical clinical picture with cardiovascular, neurological and atropine features. Beside a general supportive management, in one case physostigmin was used as antidote. Alternative treatments of enuresis in childhood are recommended.

  3. Acute oxidant damage promoted on cancer cells by amitriptyline in comparison with some common chemotherapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Mario David; Sánchez-Alcázar, José Antonio; Bautista-Ferrufino, María Rosa; Carmona-López, María Inés; Illanes, Matilde; Ríos, María José; Garrido-Maraver, Juan; Alcudia, Ana; Navas, Plácido; de Miguel, Manuel

    2010-11-01

    Oxidative therapy is a relatively new anticancer strategy based on the induction of high levels of oxidative stress, achieved by increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or by depleting the protective antioxidant machinery of tumor cells. We focused our investigations on the antitumoral potential of amitriptyline in three human tumor cell lines: H460 (lung cancer), HeLa (cervical cancer), and HepG2 (hepatoma); comparing the cytotoxic effect of amitriptyline with three commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs: camptothecin, doxorubicin, and methotrexate. We evaluated apoptosis, ROS production, mitochondrial mass and activity, and antioxidant defenses of tumor cells. Our results show that amitriptyline produces the highest cellular damage, inducing high levels of ROS followed by irreversible serious mitochondrial damage. Interestingly, an unexpected decrease in antioxidant machinery was observed only for amitriptyline. In conclusion, based on the capacity of generating ROS and inhibiting antioxidants in tumor cells, amitriptyline emerges as a promising new drug to be tested for anticancer therapy.

  4. Will amitriptyline prevent the "cheese" reaction of monoamine-oxidase inhibitors?

    PubMed

    Pare, C M; Kline, N; Hallstrom, C; Cooper, T B

    1982-07-24

    Administration of amitriptyline greatly diminished the pressor response to intravenous tyramine in patients receiving monoamine-oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Dothiepin and trimipramine, however, produced little change in sensitivity to tyramine. It is suggested that a combination of amitriptyline and an MAOI, started together in a modest dose that is then increased, may protect patients against the potential dangers of eating tyramine-containing foods. However, because MAOIs allow a high proportion of ingested tyramine to be absorbed into the systemic circulation, patients treated with MAOIs, even in combination with amitriptyline, should not be encouraged to eat foods containing tyramine.

  5. Specific radioimmunoassay of amitriptyline and nortriptyline.

    PubMed Central

    Brunswick, D J; Needelman, B; Mendels, J

    1979-01-01

    1 Antisera to nortriptyline were prepared by immunizing rabbits with N-succinylnortriptyline--bovine serum albumin conjugate. 2 A sensitive radioimmunoassay has been developed for the tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline and nortriptyline. 3 amitriptyline and nortriptyline are separated from each other and from interfering metabolites before assay. 4 Using [3H]-imipramine and [3H]-succinylnortriptyline as tracers the radioimmunoassay can measure amitriptyline and nortriptyline levels down to 2--3 ng/ml using 0.05 ml plasma sample. 5 Agreement between the radioimmunoassay and a gas-chromatographic assay was excellent for both amitriptyline and nortriptyline. PMID:444353

  6. Cytotoxic effects of amitriptyline in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fernández, A M; Cordero, M D; de Miguel, M; Delgado-Rufino, M D; Sánchez-Alcázar, J A; Navas, P

    2008-01-14

    Amitriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant widely used in the treatment of chronic pain. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential cytotoxic effects of amitriptyline in human fibroblasts primary culture. Human fibroblast cells were cultured from healthy subjects and incubated with 50 microM and 100 microM amitriptyline. Cell counting was performed to study dose-dependency of toxicity. Lipid peroxidation analysis and western blotting for antioxidants catalase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) were carried out in order to evaluate oxidative stress. To investigate mitochondria damage the following determinations were made: cytochrome c, citrate synthase, and mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)). Amitriptyline reduced significantly the number of cultured cells, resulting in a decrease of 45.2%, 65.0% and 94.9% when treated with 20 microM, 50 microM and 100 microM amitriptyline, respectively. This drug enhanced the production of oxidized products during lipid peroxidation, inverting the reduced/oxidized ratio to 25% reduction and 75% oxidation after 24h of amitriptyline administration. A decreased in catalase protein levels has been also observed. Moreover, amitriptyline treatment induced a significant decrease of cytochrome c, DeltaPsi(m), and citrate synthase activity; revealing mitochondrial damage. These findings suggest that amitriptyline has a strong cytotoxic effect in human fibroblasts, decreasing growth rate and mitochondrial activity, and increasing oxidative stress.

  7. Hypersensitivity syndrome caused by amitriptyline administration

    PubMed Central

    Milionis, H.; Skopelitou, A.; Elisaf, M.

    2000-01-01

    Adverse cutaneous manifestations are among the most common side effects associated with psychotropic drugs. Skin reactions due to amitriptyline (a tricyclic antidepressant agent) include rashes and hypersensitivity reactions (for example, urticaria and photosensitivity) as well as hyperpigmentation. Hypersensitivity syndrome is a specific severe idiosyncratic reaction causing skin, liver, joint, and haematological abnormalities, which usually resolve after the discontinuation of the implicated drug. A case of a 24 year old woman who experienced hypersensitivity syndrome three weeks after the initiation of amitriptyline is reported.


Keywords: tricyclic antidepressant drugs; amitriptyline; adverse cutaneous reactions; hypersensitivity syndrome PMID:10824052

  8. [Resuscitation after intoxication with amitriptylin].

    PubMed

    Fippel, A; Berkel, H; Finkemeyer, S; Knape, R; Hoitz, J

    2005-09-01

    Intoxications with tricyclic antidepressants are often life threatening situations. In consequence of interference with many organ systems specific treatment consists in transportation to hospital under cardiopulmonary monitoring by physicians. The multiple possibilities of complications require the following treatments: continuous monitoring of the cardiovascular system, gastrolavage, application of carbon through a nasogastric tube, intubation and controlled ventilation in case of coma and continuous stand by for defibrillation. Additionally patients with stable parameters should be monitored in intensive care units because often there are no precursors of cardiac or pulmonary complications. We report the case of a 49-year old women with ingestion of 2500 mg of amitriptyline who suffered from multiple cardiac arrhythmias with following cardiac arrests and who required multiple defibrillations and resuscitation.

  9. Changes in brain oxidative metabolism induced by inhibitory avoidance learning and acute administration of amitriptyline.

    PubMed

    González-Pardo, Héctor; Conejo, Nélida M; Arias, Jorge L; Monleón, Santiago; Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Parra, Andrés

    2008-05-01

    The effects of antidepressant drugs on memory have been somewhat ignored, having been considered a mere side effect of these compounds. However, the memory impairment caused by several antidepressants could be considered to form part of their therapeutic effects. Amitriptyline is currently one of the most prescribed tricyclic antidepressants, and exerts marked anticholinergic and antihistaminergic effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects of inhibitory avoidance (IA) learning and acute administration of amitriptyline on brain oxidative metabolism. Brain oxidative metabolism was measured in several limbic regions using cytochrome oxidase (CO) quantitative histochemistry. Amitriptyline produced a clear impairment in the IA task. In animals exposed only to the apparatus, amitriptyline decreased CO activity in nine brain regions, without affecting the remaining regions. In animals that underwent the IA training phase, amitriptyline reduced CO activity in only three of these nine regions. In animals treated with saline, IA acquisition increased CO activity in the medial prefrontal cortex, the prelimbic cortex, and the medial mammillary body, and diminished it in the medial septum and the nucleus basalis of Meynert with respect to animals exposed only to the IA apparatus. In animals treated with amitriptyline, IA acquisition did not modify CO activity in any of these regions, but increased it in the anteromedial nucleus of the thalamus, the diagonal band of Broca, and the dentate gyrus. The results reveal a pattern of changes in brain oxidative metabolism induced by IA training in saline-treated animals that was clearly absent in animals submitted to the same behavioural training but treated with amitriptyline. PMID:18313125

  10. Amitriptyline removal using palygorskite clay.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yo-Lin; Chang, Po-Hsiang; Gao, Zong-You; Xu, Xiao-Yuan; Chen, Yan-Hsin; Wang, Zheng-Hong; Chen, Xin-Yu; Yang, Zheng-Ying; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Li, Zhaohui; Jiang, Wei-Teh

    2016-07-01

    With the increased detections of commonly used pharmaceuticals in surface water and wastewater, extensive attentions were paid recently to the fate and transport of these pharmaceuticals in the environment. Amitriptyline (AMI) is a tricyclic antidepressant widely applied to treat patients with anxiety and depression. In this study, the removal of AMI with palygorskite clay (PFl-1) was investigated under different physico-chemical conditions and supplemented by instrumental analyses. The uptake of AMI on PFl-1 was well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm with an adsorption capacity of 0.168 mmol g(-1) at pH 6-7. The AMI uptake was fast and reached equilibrium in 15 min. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed no shift of the (110) peak position of palygorskite after AMI uptake. However, the (001) peak position of the minor component smectite (about 10%) shifted to lower angle as the amounts of AMI input increased. These results suggested surface uptake of AMI on palygorskite and interlayer uptake of AMI in smectite. As smectite is a common component of palygorskite clays, its role in assessing the properties and performances of palygorskite clays for the uptake and removal of contaminants should not be neglected. Overall, the high affinity of AMI for PFl-1 and strong retention of AMI on PFl-1 suggested that it could be a good adsorbent to remove AMI from wastewater. Palygorskite clays can also be a sink for many cationic pharmaceuticals in the environmental of the arid regions. PMID:27131449

  11. Cytoprotective Effects of Melatonin Against Amitriptyline-Induced Toxicity in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Taziki, Shohreh; Sattari, Mohammad Reza; Dastmalchi, Siavoush; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Amitriptyline, one of the commonly used tricyclic antidepressants, caused rare but severe hepatotoxicity in patients who received it continuously. Previous findings showed that the intermediate metabolites of amitriptyline produced by CYP450 are involved in hepatic injury. Melatonin is an antiaging and antioxidant hormone synthesized from pineal gland. The aim of present study was to evaluate the protective role of melatonin in an in vitro model of isolated rat hepatocytes. Methods: Markers such as cell viability, reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential, and hepatocytes glutathione content were evaluated every 60 minutes for 180 minutes. Results: Present results indicated that administration of 1mM of melatonin effectively reduced the cell death, ROS formation and lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, and reduced cellular glutathione content caused by amitriptyline. Conclusion: Our results indicated that melatonin is an effective antioxidant in preventing amitriptyline-induced hepatotoxicity. We recommend further in vivo animal and clinical trial studies on the hepatoprotective effects of melatonin in patients receiving amitriptyline. PMID:26504754

  12. Double-blind, multicenter comparison of sertraline and amitriptyline in elderly depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Cohn, C K; Shrivastava, R; Mendels, J; Cohn, J B; Fabre, L F; Claghorn, J L; Dessain, E C; Itil, T M; Lautin, A

    1990-12-01

    Two hundred forty-one elderly depressed patients entered the 8-week, double-blind phase of this parallel-group, multicenter study; 161 patients were randomized to receive sertraline (50-200 mg/day) and 80 were randomized to receive amitriptyline (50-150 mg/day). Among evaluable patients, there were no statistically significant differences between treatments in any of the primary efficacy variables: change in total Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) score (17 items), percentage change in HAM-D score, change in HAM-D Item 1, change in Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) Severity score, change in the Depression Factor of the 56-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist, and the CGI Improvement score at the last visit. Similar results were obtained using data from all patients (intention-to-treat analysis), except that amitriptyline was superior in HAM-D Total score (p = .044). The two drugs produced a similar degree of response: on the basis of the HAM-D criterion, 69.4% of sertraline patients and 62.5% of amitriptyline patients responded, and, on the basis of CGI criterion, 79.5% of sertraline and 73.4% of amitriptyline patients responded. Twenty-eight percent of the sertraline patients withdrew from the study because of a treatment-related side effect and 2.5% (4) because of a laboratory abnormality. In comparison, 35% of the amitriptyline patients withdrew because of treatment-related side effects. Sertraline was associated with a statistically lower frequency of somnolence, dry mouth, constipation, ataxia, and pain and a higher frequency of nausea, anorexia, diarrhea/loose stools, and insomnia; thus, anticholinergic effects were less common and gastrointestinal effects were more common with sertraline than with amitriptyline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2258379

  13. Tianeptine and amitriptyline. Controlled double-blind trial in depressed alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Lôo, H; Malka, R; Defrance, R; Barrucand, D; Benard, J Y; Niox-Rivière, H; Raab, A; Sarda, A; Vachonfrance, G; Kamoun, A

    1988-01-01

    129 chronic alcoholic patients, withdrawn from alcohol and presenting major depression or dysthymic disorder, were treated for 4-8 weeks under double-blind conditions either with a new antidepressant, tianeptine (37.5 mg per day), or with amitriptyline (75 mg per day). Both groups presented steady improvement of the symptoms of depression during treatment, as scored on the Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist self-evaluation; for the latter scale, the improvement was significantly greater in the tianeptine group. In addition to the improvement of mood, tianeptine also produced significant reduction of the somatic complaints of the depressed patients. Furthermore, tianeptine possesses anxiolytic activity, as shown by the change of the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale global score, similar to that produced by amitriptyline. The anxiolytic activity of tianeptine was not accompanied by any impairment of vigilance, unlike that of amitriptyline. Tianeptine produced rare, mild anticholinergic effects. The results obtained show that tianeptine is an effective anxiolytic antidepressant, with better safety than amitriptyline, suitable for use in the treatment of mood disorders following alcohol withdrawal.

  14. Amitriptyline for the treatment of fibromyalgia: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Rico-Villademoros, Fernando; Slim, Mahmoud; Calandre, Elena P

    2015-10-01

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic generalized pain accompanied by a wide range of clinical manifestations. Most clinical practice guidelines recommend multidisciplinary treatment using a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies. The tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline has been most thoroughly studied in fibromyalgia. Amitriptyline has been evaluated in placebo-controlled studies, and it has served as an active comparator to other therapeutic interventions in the treatment of fibromyalgia. In addition, several systematic reviews and meta-analyses have evaluated its efficacy and safety for the treatment of fibromyalgia. Data from individual studies as well as from systematic reviews indicate that low doses (10-75 mg/day) of amitriptyline are effective for the treatment of fibromyalgia and, despite the limited quality of the data, they do not seem to be associated with relevant tolerability or safety issues. Consistent with some clinical guidelines, we believe amitriptyline in low doses should be considered a first-line drug for the treatment of fibromyalgia.

  15. Adverse effects of gabapentin and lack of anti-allodynic efficacy of amitriptyline in the streptozotocin model of painful diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Mark D; Bourin, Clotilde; Chen, Ping; McElroy, John F; Leet, John E; Hogan, John B; Stock, David A; Machet, Frederic

    2006-02-01

    Amitriptyline and gabapentin are the primary treatments for painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN), and it is clear that they produce beneficial effects, but there are questions about these treatments that have not been adequately addressed. For example, although there is a growing consensus that the therapeutic effects of amitriptyline in pain patients are independent of its effects on mood, it is not clear that amitriptyline has specific and direct effects on pain. There is also a fairly broad consensus that gabapentin is safe and well tolerated, but the side-effect profile of gabapentin has not been adequately assessed in pain populations. The rat streptozotocin (STZ) model of PDN was used (a) to assess the effects of amitriptyline on objective, quantitative measures of tactile allodynia, a common type of pain in PDN patients, and (b) to assess the side effects of gabapentin using measures of motor/ambulatory and cognitive function. Amitriptyline did not attenuate STZ-induced mechanical allodynia, even after chronic administration of high doses. Gabapentin produced robust anti-allodynic effects but also produced deficits in tests of motor/ambulatory and cognitive functions. The present experiments suggest that the beneficial effects of amitriptyline in PDN may not be a result of anti-allodynic efficacy and that gabapentin produces robust anti-allodynic effects but may also produce significant motor and cognitive deficits even at or near the lowest effective doses. These findings challenge the consensus opinions about these primary treatments for PDN and suggest that their therapeutic and adverse effects should be explored further in pain patients.

  16. Coenzyme Q{sub 10} and alpha-tocopherol protect against amitriptyline toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Cordero, Mario D.; Moreno-Fernandez, Ana Maria; Gomez-Skarmeta, Jose Luis; Miguel, Manuel de; Garrido-Maraver, Juan; Oropesa-Avila, Manuel; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Angeles; Navas, Placido; Sanchez-Alcazar, Jose Antonio

    2009-03-15

    Since amitriptyline is a very frequently prescribed antidepressant drug, it is not surprising that amitriptyline toxicity is relatively common. Amitriptyline toxic systemic effects include cardiovascular, autonomous nervous, and central nervous systems. To understand the mechanisms of amitriptyline toxicity we studied the cytotoxic effects of amitriptyline treatment on cultured primary human fibroblasts and zebrafish embryos, and the protective role of coenzyme Q{sub 10} and alpha-tocopherol, two membrane antioxidants. We found that amitriptyline treatment induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in primary human fibroblasts. Mitochondrial dysfunction in amitriptyline treatment was characterized by reduced expression levels of mitochondrial proteins and coenzyme Q{sub 10}, decreased NADH:cytochrome c reductase activity, and a drop in mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, and as a consequence of these toxic effects, amitriptyline treatment induced a significant increase in apoptotic cell death activating mitochondrial permeability transition. Coenzyme Q{sub 10} and alpha-tocopherol supplementation attenuated ROS production, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell death, suggesting that oxidative stress affecting cell membrane components is involved in amitriptyline cytotoxicity. Furthermore, amitriptyline-dependent toxicity and antioxidant protection were also evaluated in zebrafish embryos, a well established vertebrate model to study developmental toxicity. Amitriptyline significantly increased embryonic cell death and apoptosis rate, and both antioxidants provided a significant protection against amitriptyline embryotoxicity.

  17. Severe childhood amitriptyline intoxication and plasmapheresis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Karacı, Mehmet; Özçetin, Mustafa; Dilsiz, Günter; Güçlü-Songür, Yaşar Gözde

    2013-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressant intoxication is one of the most frequently encountered and life-threatening causes of intoxication among referrals to emergency departments due to drug intoxication. There is no known antidote against any of the tricyclic antidepressants. The American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) recommends plasmapheresis to support primary treatment in this type of drug poisoning, which does not respond to certain and traditional treatments. We present a 15-year-old girl who ingested amitriptyline with suicidal intent. On admission, she was in a comatose state (Glasgow Coma Scale score: 5), with no spontaneous respiration and presence of pathological reflexes. Due to the intake history of lethal doses and the severe clinical picture, plasmapheresis was performed. She was discharged on her fifth day of hospitalization.Due to the high plasma protein binding property of amitriptyline, plasma exchange therapy should be considered in cases of severe amitriptyline intoxication as a life-saving therapeutic modality.

  18. Amitriptyline enhances the central component of physiological tremor

    PubMed Central

    Raethjen, J; Lemke, M; Lindemann, M; Wenzelburger, R; Krack, P; Deuschl, G

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Postural tremor is a regularly encountered side effect of amitriptyline which can be strong enough to cause discontinuation of therapy. The aim was to characterise amitriptyline induced tremor and to assess if the central or reflex component of physiological tremor was modulated by this drug.
METHODS—The postural hand tremor was measured in 15 patients on a clinical rating scale, by power spectral analysis of accelerometer, forearm flexor, and extensor EMG before and after the beginning of amitriptyline treatment for major depression or chronic pain syndrome. A coherence analysis between flexor and extensor muscles on the same side was performed.
RESULTS—There was a clinically visible increase in postural tremor in a third of these patients. The tremor amplitude measured by accelerometer total power increased in every patient under amitriptyline. The EMG synchronisation as reflected by significant peaks in the flexor or extensor spectrum generally occurring at higher frequencies (8-18 Hz) than the accelerometric tremor frequencies (6-11 Hz) did not change. The number of patients with a significant flexor-extensor coherence in the 7-15 Hz range increased significantly under amitriptyline, the frequency bands of significant coherence corresponded with the EMG frequencies, and both were independent of changes to the hand's resonant frequency by added inertia.
CONCLUSIONS—An enhancement of postural tremor under amitriptyline is a common phenomenon although not always clinically apparent. The increase in EMG-EMG coherence indicates an increased common central drive to the motor units as its frequency is not influenced by peripheral resonance or reflex mechanisms. This is the first account of a drug induced enhancement of the central component of physiological tremor.

 PMID:11118252

  19. Antimalarial properties of imipramine and amitriptyline

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, P.; Siegel, L.; Pinto, J.; Meshnick, S.

    1986-03-01

    This laboratory has previously demonstrated that imipramine (IM) and amitriptyline (AM), inhibit the conversion of riboflavin to its coenzymic derivatives. Several other laboratories have shown that dietary riboflavin deficiency is protective against malarial infection. In the present investigation, the authors determined whether IM and AM exert antimalarial effects similar to that of riboflavin deficiency, as they have hypothesized. In addition, they evaluated whether these drugs, like other antimalarial agents, increase the hemolytic response to ferriprotoporphyrin IX (FP). The growth of P. falciparum (FCR3) in the absence or presence of these drugs (80 ..mu..M) was measured by incubating parasitized erythrocytes for 48 h in RPMI 1640 medium. Parasitemia was determined by counting erythrocyte smears and monitoring (/sup 3/H)hypoxanthine uptake. With no drug, parasitemia was 20.3 +/- 5.3%, whereas in the presence of IM and AM, parasitemia was reduced to 7.3 +/- 0.8% and 13.6 +/- 2.8%, respectively. The uptake of (/sup 3/H)hypoxanthine was reduced to 47 +/- 3.6% and 54 +/- 2.9% of control by IM and AM, respectively. Assays of hemolysis were conducted by incubating 0.5% RBC suspension in NaCl-Tris buffer for 3 h at 37/sup 0/C with variable concentrations of drugs and/or FP (1-7 ..mu..M). Both drugs at 10 to 100 ..mu..M significantly enhanced hemolysis induced by FP. No hemolysis by these drugs was detected in the absence of FP. It is concluded that the tricyclic antidepressants, IM and AM, possess substantial antimalarial properties, thereby supporting the hypothesis that drugs which interfere with riboflavin metabolism should also provide protection against malaria.

  20. Effects of chronic doxepin and amitriptyline administration in naïve mice and in neuropathic pain mice model.

    PubMed

    Mika, J; Jurga, A M; Starnowska, J; Wasylewski, M; Rojewska, E; Makuch, W; Kwiatkowski, K; Malek, N; Przewlocka, B

    2015-05-21

    Neuropathic pain is a severe clinical problem, often appearing as a co-symptom of many diseases or manifesting as a result of damage to the nervous system. Many drugs and agents are currently used for the treatment of neuropathic pain, such as tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). The aims of this paper were to test the effects of two classic TCAs, doxepin and amitriptyline, in naïve animals and in a model of neuropathic pain and to determine the role of cytokine activation in the effects of these drugs. All experiments were carried out with Albino-Swiss mice using behavioral tests (von Frey test and the cold plate test) and biochemical analyses (qRT-PCR and Western blot). In the mice subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI), doxepin and amitriptyline attenuated the symptoms of neuropathic pain and diminished the CCI-induced increase in the levels of spinal interleukin (IL)-6 and -1β mRNA, but not the protein levels of these cytokines, measured on day 12. Unexpectedly, chronic administration of doxepin or amitriptyline for 12 days produced allodynia and hyperalgesia in naïve mice. The treatment with these drugs did not influence the spinal levels of IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA, however, the protein levels of these pronociceptive factors were increased. The administration of ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist) significantly weakened the allodynia and hyperalgesia induced by both antidepressants in naïve mice; in contrast, yohimbine (α2-adrenergic receptors antagonist) did not influence these effects. Allodynia and hyperalgesia induced in naïve animals by amitriptyline and doxepin may be associated with an increase in the levels of pronociceptive cytokines resulting from 5-HT3-induced hypersensitivity. Our results provide new and important information about the possible side effects of antidepressants. Further investigation of these mechanisms may help to guide decisions about the use of classic TCAs for therapy. PMID:25769941

  1. Amitriptyline pharmacokinetics. Single doses of Lentizol compared with ordinary amitriptyline tablets.

    PubMed

    Burch, J E; Hullin, R P

    1981-01-01

    Two separate single doses of Lentizol (W. R. Warner, Pontypool, U.K.), a sustained-release preparation of amitriptyline (AT) were taken by each of six healthy subjects. Plasma concentrations of AT and of nortriptyline (NT) were determined at intervals over a period of 48 or 72 h. Faeces were collected and their drug content measured. Results were compared with those obtained when the same subjects took ordinary AT tablets. AT was found in the faeces after the ingestion of Lentizol or of ordinary AT tablets. However, after NT tablets negligible amounts of NT appeared in the faeces. AT was sometimes absorbed slowly from Lentizol, but on other occasions it was absorbed as rapidly as from ordinary tablets. Plasma levels of AT 24 h after the dose were usually not higher after Lentizol than after an equal dose of ordinary tablets. The systemic bioavailability of Lentizol as judged by areas under the plasma concentration-time curves, both for AT and for the NT formed metabolically, was on average lower than that of the ordinary tablets. However, the amounts of AT found in the faeces were not large enough to account for the AT area reduction by simple failure of absorption. Possible explanations of the discrepancy are discussed. PMID:6791203

  2. A proposed mechanism for amitriptyline neurotoxicity based on its detergent nature

    SciTech Connect

    Kitagawa, Norihito . E-mail: kitagawa@mail.anes.saga-med.ac.jp; Oda, Mayuko; Nobutaka, I.; Satoh, Hidetoshi; Totoki, Tadahide; Morimoto, Masatoshi

    2006-11-15

    Although amitriptyline has gained attention as a potent local anesthetic, recent animal studies showed that it can cause irreversible neural impairment. We hypothesized that nerve membrane disruption caused by solubilization, a common detergent property, accounted for amitriptyline neurotoxicity. We used a two-phase approach to test our hypothesis. Firstly, we determined (1) the molecular aggregation concentration of amitriptyline (2) the concentration of amitriptyline that disrupts artificial lipid membranes and (3) the concentration of amitriptyline that causes hemolysis. Secondly, we compared these levels with neurotoxic concentrations determined from assessment in a rat model of spinal anesthesia using changes in cutaneous stimulus threshold (CST). Amitriptyline concentrations that caused molecular aggregation, model membrane disruption and hemolysis were 0.46%, 0.35% and 0.3%, respectively. Animal study showed a significant increase in CST at {>=} 0.3% of amitriptyline, indicating neurological impairment. Since amitriptyline caused model membrane disruption and hemolysis at the molecular aggregation concentration, solubilization plays a role in the destruction of artificial membranes and erythrocytes. Furthermore, these concentrations are also in good agreement with the minimum concentration causing neurological injury. Therefore, while additional studies, including histopathology, are necessary to clarify this observation, amitriptyline neurotoxicity appears to be associated with its detergent nature.

  3. [The bioequivalence of a new amitriptyline tablet formulation in comparison with a reference preparation].

    PubMed

    Metzner, J E; Buchberger, D; Dilger, C; Läuter, J; Schmidt, U

    1998-11-01

    An investigation of the bioequivalence of a new tablet formulation (amitriptylin 25 von ct) with 28.3 mg amitriptyline hydrochloride (CAS 549-18-8) was performed in a two-way cross-over study with 18 subjects. The relative bioavailability with respect to a reference preparation for AUC related to amitriptyline (CAS 50-48-6) was 99.3% and for Cmax 100.4%. A positive decision for bioequivalence derived from the usual confidence intervals for both parameters related to amitriptyline and the metabolite nortriptyline (CAS 72-69-5), respectively tmax showed no difference. The new formulation was bioequivalent to the reference.

  4. A controlled trial of amitriptyline and cianopramine in major depression.

    PubMed

    Mellsop, G W; Burgess, C D; Vijayasenan, M E

    1985-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects of amitriptyline and cianopramine were compared in a double-blind, randomized, flexible-dose trial in 40 patients with major depressive episodes. The two drugs were equally effective in reducing scores on the Hamilton Psychiatric Rating Scale for Depression and on a global scale. Both drugs were associated with significant adverse effects. Fewer adverse effects were associated with cianopramine, however, which lacks antimuscarinic activity.

  5. Amitriptyline, clomipramine, and doxepin adsorption onto sodium polystyrene sulfonate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the study Comparative in vitro studies were carried out to determine the adsorption characteristics of 3 drugs on activated charcoal (AC) and sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS). Activated charcoal (AC) has been long used as gastric decontamination agent for tricyclic antidepressants (TCA). Methods Solutions containing drugs (amitriptyline, clomipramine, or doxepin) and variable amount of AC or SPS were incubated for 30 minutes. Results At pH 1.2 the adsorbent: drug mass ratio varied from 2 : 1 to 40 : 1 for AC, and from 0.4 : 1 to 8 : 1 for SPS. UV–VIS spectrophotometer was used for the determination of free drug concentrations. The qmax of amitriptyline was 0.055 mg/mg AC and 0.574 mg/mg SPS, qmax of clomipramine was 0.053 mg/mg AC and 0.572 mg/mg SPS, and qmax of doxepin was 0.045 mg/mg AC and 0.556 mg/mg SPS. The results of adsorption experiments with SPS revealed higher values for the qmax parameters in comparison with AC. Conclusion In vitro gastric decontamination experiments for antidepressant amitriptyline, clomipramine, and doxepin showed that SPS has higher qmax values than the corresponding experiments with AC. Therefore, we suggest SPS is a better gastric decontaminating agent for the management of acute TCA intoxication. PMID:24450391

  6. Effect of psychotropic drugs on gastric ulcers induced by immobilization: Increased protective effect of amitriptyline caused by chlordiazepoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, J. E.; Huerlimann, A.

    1980-01-01

    Amitriptyline, but not chlordiazepoxide, protects rats from the occurrence of gastric erosions and ulcers following immobilization. When, however, chlordiazepoxide is given together with amitriptyline the protective effect of the latter is markedly increased.

  7. Aromatic-aromatic interaction of amitriptyline: implication of overdosed drug detoxification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Won; Flint, Jason; Morey, Timothy; Dennis, Donn; Partch, Richard; Baney, Ronald

    2005-02-01

    The objectives of this work are to explore the pi-pi complexation of amitriptyline with pi electron-deficient aromatic rings and demonstrate the feasibility of pi-pi complexation for overdosed drug detoxification. Water-soluble oligochitosan was chemically modified with dinitrobenzenesulfonyl groups to induce selective binding toward amitriptyline through pi-pi complexation. NMR studies showed that benzenesulfonyl and dinitrobenzenesulfonyl protons were upfield shifted by the addition of amitriptyline, indicating the formation of pi-pi complexes. The pi-pi complexation of amitriptyline is driven primarily by a desolvation driving force, whereas the magnitude of interaction is dictated by the complementrary electrostatic interaction. Isolated rat heart tests revealed that dinitrobenzenesulfonyl oligochitosan prevented the amitriptyline-induced cardiotoxicity and was itself not cardiotoxic. PMID:15614810

  8. Serum alkalinisation is the cornerstone of treatment for amitriptyline poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ramasubbu, Benjamin; James, David; Scurr, Andrew; Sandilands, Euan A

    2016-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman was admitted in a comatose state following ingestion of 5 g of amitriptyline. On arrival, there was intermittent seizure activity and a broad complex tachycardia on the ECG. Immediate resuscitation included 8 mg lorazepam, 2 L crystalloid fluid, 100 mL 8.4% sodium bicarbonate, 2 g of magnesium sulphate and lipid emulsion infusion. Despite this, the broad complex tachycardia persisted with haemodynamic instability. The case was discussed with the National Poisons Information Service, which advised further 8.4% sodium bicarbonate to achieve serum alkalinisation. Following this, the QRS duration reduced and haemodynamic stability was achieved. Serum alkalinisation continued in the intensive treatment unit before the patient was successfully extubated on day 5 and discharged on day 7 with no neurological sequelae. To our knowledge, this case is the largest recorded overdose of amitriptyline to have survived to discharge. The importance of serum alkalinisation in the management of tricyclic antidepressant poisoning is highlighted. PMID:27068728

  9. Amitriptyline induces mitophagy that precedes apoptosis in human HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva-Paz, Marina; Cordero, Mario D.; Pavón, Ana Delgado; Vega, Beatriz Castejón; Cotán, David; De la Mata, Mario; Oropesa-Ávila, Manuel; Alcocer-Gomez, Elizabet; de Lavera, Isabel; Garrido-Maraver, Juan; Carrascosa, José; Zaderenko, Ana Paula; Muntané, Jordi; de Miguel, Manuel; Sánchez-Alcázar, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Systemic treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been largely unsuccessful. This study investigated the antitumoral activity of Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, in hepatoma cells. Amitriptyline-induced toxicity involved early mitophagy activation that subsequently switched to apoptosis. Amitriptyline induced mitochondria dysfunction and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Amitriptyline specifically inhibited mitochondrial complex III activity that is associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed structurally abnormal mitochondria that were engulfed by double-membrane structures resembling autophagosomes. Consistent with mitophagy activation, fluorescence microscopy analysis showed mitochondrial Parkin recruitment and colocalization of mitochondria with autophagosome protein markers. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of autophagy exacerbated the deleterious effects of Amitriptyline on hepatoma cells and led to increased apoptosis. These results suggest that mitophagy acts as an initial adaptive mechanism of cell survival. However persistent mitochondrial damage induced extensive and lethal mitophagy, autophagy stress and autophagolysome permeabilization leading eventually to cell death by apoptosis. Amitriptyline also induced cell death in hepatoma cells lines with mutated p53 and non-sense p53 mutation. Our results support the hypothesis that Amitriptyline-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can be a useful therapeutic strategy for HCC treatment, especially in tumors showing p53 mutations and/or resistant to genotoxic treatments. PMID:27738496

  10. Oral treatment with amitriptyline induces coenzyme Q deficiency and oxidative stress in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fernández, Ana M; Cordero, Mario D; Garrido-Maraver, Juan; Alcocer-Gómez, Elísabet; Casas-Barquero, Nieves; Carmona-López, María I; Sánchez-Alcázar, José Antonio; de Miguel, Manuel

    2012-03-01

    Amitriptyline is a commonly prescribed tricyclic antidepressant, which has been shown to impair mitochondrial function and increase oxidative stress in a variety of in vitro assays. Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)), an essential component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and a potent antioxidant, has been proposed as a mitochondrial dysfunction marker. In order to evaluate the putative mitochondrial toxicity of amitriptyline, we have analyzed CoQ(10) and ATP levels, oxidative damage and mitochondrial mass in peripheral blood cells from control healthy volunteers and psychiatric patients with depressive episodes treated or non-treated with amitriptyline. In patients not following amitriptyline treatment, CoQ(10) and ATP levels and mitochondrial mass were reduced when compared to normal individuals while lipid peroxidation was clearly increased. All these alterations were aggravated in patients following oral amitriptyline therapy. These results suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction could be involved in the pathophysiology of depression and may be worsened by amitriptyline treatment. CoQ(10) supplementation is postulated to counteract the adverse effects of amitriptyline treatment in psychiatric patients.

  11. A placebo controlled double-blind evaluation of the pharmacodynamics of fengabine vs amitriptyline following single and multiple doses in elderly volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Fairweather, D B; Kerr, J S; Hilton, S; Hindmarch, I

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of fengabine were compared with those of amitriptyline in healthy elderly volunteers. Doses were administered double-blind and assessments were made before and after ingestion. 2. Psychomotor performance and cognitive ability were measured using tests of choice reaction time, tracking, critical flicker fusion threshold, memory scanning and word recognition. Subjective feelings were assessed using the Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire (LSEQ) and line analogue rating scales (LARS). 3. Pharmacokinetic data suggest that fengabine may induce its own metabolism following repeated dosing. 4. The findings of this study show that fengabine 200 mg and 400 mg does not produce any noticeable behavioural toxicity in elderly volunteers, in contrast to amitriptyline which had a disruptive effect throughout. PMID:8471403

  12. [Fluvoxamine, amitriptyline and transcranial electrostimulation of the brain in the treatment of chronic daily headache].

    PubMed

    Tarasova, S V; Amelin, A V; Skoromets, A A

    2008-01-01

    Efficacy of antidepressants fluvoxamine, amitriptyline and transcranial electrostimulation of the brain in the treatment of chronic daily headache has been studied. Amitriptyline had the highest effect in dosage 50 mg daily but was not well tolerated by patients that resulted in that only 50% of them finished the study. Fluvoxamine had high efficacy and good tolerability in the treatment of chronic daily headache and medication overuse headache. Small dosages of amitriptyline and fluvoxamine potentiated the analgesic effect of transcranial electrostimulation of the brain. The combination of antidepressants with transcranial electrostimulation of the brain alleviated the negative effect of the withdrawal of overused analgesics and may be recommended for out-patient use.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Amitriptyline HCl and Its Metabolites in Healthy African Grey Parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ) and Cockatoos (Cacatua Species).

    PubMed

    Visser, Marike; Ragsdale, Michelle M; Boothe, Dawn M

    2015-12-01

    Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, is used clinically to treat feather-destructive behavior in psittacine birds at a recommended dosage of 1-5 mg/kg PO q12-24h, which has been extrapolated from human medicine and based on anecdotal reports. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the individual and population pharmacokinetic parameters of amitriptyline after a single oral dose at 1.5 mg/kg, 4.5 mg/kg, and 9 mg/kg in healthy African grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus , n = 3) and cockatoos (Cacatua species, n = 3). Three birds received an initial 1.5 mg/kg oral dose, and blood samples were collected for 24 hours at fixed time intervals. Serum concentrations of amitriptyline and its metabolites were determined by polarized immunofluorescence. After determining the initial parameters and a 14-day washout period, 2 African grey parrots and 1 cockatoo received a single oral dose at 4.5 mg/kg, and 3 cockatoos and 1 African grey parrot received a single oral dose at 9 mg/kg. Concentrations reached the minimum therapeutic range reported in people (60 ng/mL) in 4 of 10 birds (4.5 and 9.0 mg/kg). Concentrations were within the toxic range in 1 African grey parrot (9 mg/kg), with regurgitation, ataxia, and dullness noted. Serum concentrations were nondetectable in 3 birds (1.5 and 4.5 mg/kg) and detectable but below the human therapeutic range in 3 birds (1.5 mg/kg and 9 mg/kg). Drug concentrations were continuing to increase at the end of the study (24 hours) in 1 bird. Elimination half-life varied from 1.6 to 91.2 hours. Population pharmacokinetics indicated significantly varied absorption, and elimination constants varied between species. Although amitriptyline appeared to be tolerated in most birds, disposition varies markedly among and within species, between the 2 genera, and within individual birds. The current recommended dosage of 1-5 mg/kg q12h in psittacine birds appears insufficient to achieve serum concentrations within the human therapeutic range

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Amitriptyline HCl and Its Metabolites in Healthy African Grey Parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ) and Cockatoos (Cacatua Species).

    PubMed

    Visser, Marike; Ragsdale, Michelle M; Boothe, Dawn M

    2015-12-01

    Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, is used clinically to treat feather-destructive behavior in psittacine birds at a recommended dosage of 1-5 mg/kg PO q12-24h, which has been extrapolated from human medicine and based on anecdotal reports. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the individual and population pharmacokinetic parameters of amitriptyline after a single oral dose at 1.5 mg/kg, 4.5 mg/kg, and 9 mg/kg in healthy African grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus , n = 3) and cockatoos (Cacatua species, n = 3). Three birds received an initial 1.5 mg/kg oral dose, and blood samples were collected for 24 hours at fixed time intervals. Serum concentrations of amitriptyline and its metabolites were determined by polarized immunofluorescence. After determining the initial parameters and a 14-day washout period, 2 African grey parrots and 1 cockatoo received a single oral dose at 4.5 mg/kg, and 3 cockatoos and 1 African grey parrot received a single oral dose at 9 mg/kg. Concentrations reached the minimum therapeutic range reported in people (60 ng/mL) in 4 of 10 birds (4.5 and 9.0 mg/kg). Concentrations were within the toxic range in 1 African grey parrot (9 mg/kg), with regurgitation, ataxia, and dullness noted. Serum concentrations were nondetectable in 3 birds (1.5 and 4.5 mg/kg) and detectable but below the human therapeutic range in 3 birds (1.5 mg/kg and 9 mg/kg). Drug concentrations were continuing to increase at the end of the study (24 hours) in 1 bird. Elimination half-life varied from 1.6 to 91.2 hours. Population pharmacokinetics indicated significantly varied absorption, and elimination constants varied between species. Although amitriptyline appeared to be tolerated in most birds, disposition varies markedly among and within species, between the 2 genera, and within individual birds. The current recommended dosage of 1-5 mg/kg q12h in psittacine birds appears insufficient to achieve serum concentrations within the human therapeutic range

  15. Amitriptyline induces coenzyme Q deficiency and oxidative damage in mouse lung and liver.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Ferrufino, María Rosa; Cordero, Mario D; Sánchez-Alcázar, José Antonio; Illanes, Matilde; Fernández-Rodríguez, Ana; Navas, Plácido; de Miguel, Manuel

    2011-07-01

    Amitriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant commonly prescribed for the treatment of several neuropathic and inflammatory illnesses. We have already reported that amitriptyline has cytotoxic effect in human cell cultures, increasing oxidative stress, and decreasing growth rate and mitochondrial activity. Coenzyme Q (CoQ), a component of the respiratory chain and a potent antioxidant, has been proposed as a mitochondrial dysfunction marker. In the present work we evaluated lipid peroxidation, a consequence of oxidative stress, and CoQ level in liver, lung, kidney, brain, heart, skeletal muscle, and serum of mice treated with amitriptyline for two weeks. Lipid peroxidation was increased in a dose-dependent manner in all tissues analyzed. CoQ levels were increased in brain, heart, skeletal muscle, and serum, and strongly decreased in liver and lung. The relation between amitriptyline, CoQ, and oxidative stress is discussed.

  16. Differential effects of caffeine on the antidepressant-like effect of amitriptyline in female rat subpopulations with low and high immobility in the forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Enríquez-Castillo, Andrea; Alamilla, Javier; Barral, Jaime; Gourbière, Sébastien; Flores-Serrano, Ana G; Góngora-Alfaro, José L; Pineda, Juan C

    2008-06-01

    The interaction of caffeine (1 mg/kg) and amitriptyline (15 mg/kg) on the immobility time (IT) during Porsolt's forced swimming test (FST) was investigated in female Wistar rats. Akaike's Information Criterion indicated that the ITs recorded from 142 rats during the first day of the FST followed a bimodal distribution. Hence, the median (125.5 s) was used to classify the animals in subpopulations with low (<125.5 s, LI-rats) or high (>125.5 s, HI-rats) immobility. The paired t-test was used to compare the change of ITs between the first and second swimming sessions. Vehicle-treated animals had a significant increase of ITs during the second day of the test, either in LI-rats (77+/-12 s vs. 196+/-8 s, P<0.0001, n=6) or HI-rats (150+/-8 s vs. 201+/-10 s, P<0.02, n=6). In LI-rats amitriptyline only prevented the increase of ITs during the second session (74+/-27 s vs. 97+/-42 s, n=12), whereas in HI-rats the antidepressant produced a significant decrease of ITs during the second session (161+/-22 s vs. 118+/-32 s, n=7, P<0.02). While caffeine alone prevented the increase of ITs in both groups, the methylxanthine abolished the effect of amitriptyline in HI-rats (165+/-23 s vs. 165+/-46 s, n=9), leaving the antidepressant action unaffected in LI-rats (87+/-23 s vs. 96+/-58 s, n=9). These results suggest that the anti-immobility effect of amitriptyline in HI-rats is mediated in part by endogenous adenosine.

  17. [Effects of amitriptyline, fluoxetine, and tianeptine on the content of monoamines and their metabolites in Wistar rat brain structures].

    PubMed

    Kudrin, V S; Mosin, V M; Klodt, P M; Narkevich, V B; Molodavkin, G M; Voronina, T A

    2010-03-01

    The effects of antidepressant drugs belonging to different pharmacological groups--amitriptyline, fluoxetine (prozac), and tianeptine (coaxyl)--on the content of monoamines and their metabolites in Wistar rat brain structures (frontal cortex, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, striatum, and hippocamp) has been studied using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline (10 mg/kg) was found to produce a moderate increase in the DOPAC/dopamine turnover index in nucleus accumbens, but did not influence the levels of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine, and its metabolites (5-HIAA, DOPAC, and HVA) in other brain structures studied (frontal cortex, hypothalamus, striatum, hippocamp). Fluoxetine (Prozac) (20 mg/kg) decreased both the 5-HIAA content and the 5-HIAA/5-HT (5-HT turnover index) in all brain structures of Wistar rats. In contrast, the effects of Prozac on the level of catecholamines and their metabolites in various brain regions was more complex. Tianeptine (Coaxyl) was demonstrated to increase both the 5-HIAA content and the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in all the structures studied (except for nucleus accumbens), in good agreement with the hypothesis concerning a two-phase mode of tianeptine action with enhanced 5-HT secretion in the synaptic gap in the first stage of pharmacological response.

  18. Determination of pharmacological interactions of uliginosin B, a natural phloroglucinol derivative, with amitriptyline, clonidine and morphine by isobolographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Stolz, Eveline D; Müller, Liz G; Antonio, Camila B; da Costa, Paola F; von Poser, Gilsane L; Noël, François; Rates, Stela M K

    2014-10-15

    Uliginosin B is a natural phloroglucinol derivative, obtained from Hypericum species native to South America. Previous studies have shown that uliginosin B presents antidepressant-like and antinociceptive effects. Although its mechanism of action is still not completely elucidated, it is known that it involves the activation of monoaminergic neurotransmission. The aim of the current study was to further investigate the antinociceptive mechanism of action of uliginosin B by combining it with different drugs used for treating pain in clinical practice. The intraperitoneal administration of uliginosin B, morphine, amitriptyline and clonidine, alone or in mixture, produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in the hot-plate assay in mice. The effect of the mixtures of drugs was studied using an adapted isobologram analysis at the effect level of 50% of the maximal effect observed. The analysis showed that the interactions between uliginosin B and morphine was synergistic, while the interactions between uliginosin B and amitriptyline or clonidine were additive. These findings point to uliginosin B as a potential adjuvant for pain pharmacotherapy, especially for opioid analgesia.

  19. A comparison in rabbit isolated hearts of the dysrhythmogenic potential of amitriptyline, maprotiline and mianserin in relation to their ability to block noradrenaline uptake.

    PubMed Central

    Harper, B; Hughes, I E

    1977-01-01

    1. In isolated hearts of rabbits, perfusion with (-)-noradrenaline (0.0059 to 5.9 micronM) resulted in chronotropic and inotropic responses and a shortening of the interval between peak atrial and peak ventricular tensions (the A-V contraction interval). No dysrhythmias developed but at higher concentrations (590 micronM) 2 out of 7 hearts developed dysrhythmias (extrasystoles). 2. Perfusion with the antidepressants amitriptyline or maprotiline (4.8 micronM) or mianserin (28.8 micronM) reduced ventricular force, did not change heart rate and only amitriptyline reduced atrial force and lengthened the A-V contraction interval. At 4.8 micronM mianserin produced only a marginal shortening of the A-V contraction interval. 3. At these concentrations no dysrhythmias developed but at higher concentrations (amitriptyline 8 micronM, maprotiline 8 micronM, mianserin 60 micronM) all the agents produced dysrhythmias involving an interference with atrio-ventricular synchronization. 4. In the presence of mianserin (4.8 micronM) perfusion with noradrenaline (0.0059 to 5.9 micronM) shortened the A-V contraction interval and did not produce dysrhythmias. In the presence of amitriptyline or maprotiline (4.8 micronM) or mianserin (28.8 micronM) the A-V contraction interval generally lengthened and most hearts developed dysrhythmias (usually involving interference with atrio-ventricular synchronization). 5. [3H]-(-)-Noradrenaline uptake in perfused rabbit hearts and in mouse isolated atria or vasa deferentia was inhibited by the antidepressants to a similar extent, amitriptyline being marginally most potent (molar potency taken as 1.0), maprotiline being less potent (1.5) and mianserin least potent (2.0)). 6. It is concluded that of these three antidepressants, mianserin is least cardiotoxic in this preparation and that the ability of these antidepressants to predispose to noradrenaline-induced dysrhythmias is not related to blockade of noradrenaline uptake. PMID:870126

  20. The signaling of amitriptyline-induced inhibitory effect on electrical field stimulation response in colon smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Zaw, Tin Sandar; Khin, Phyu Phyu; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2016-09-01

    Amitriptyline, a well-known antidepressant, exerts inhibitory effect on electrically stimulated rat colon smooth muscle contraction. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathway of amitriptyline-induced inhibitory effect. Changes in isometric force of colon muscle were recorded on polygraph, and data were analyzed by measuring the inhibitory extent induced by amitriptyline. Firstly, muscles were contracted by stimulation with electric field stimulation (EFS), and then, amitriptyline was added cumulatively to determine its influence effect on EFS. Amitriptyline significantly inhibited EFS-induced contraction dose dependently. Then, the mechanism of inhibitory effect of amitriptyline was evaluated by pretreating with various antagonists such as L-NAME, methylene blue, atropine, 5-HT receptors blockers, guanethidine, prazosin, guanabenz, isoprenaline, Y27632 (Rho-kinase inhibitor), ML9 (myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor), U73122 (PLC inhibitor), and chelerythrine (PKC inhibitor). Then, Ca(2+) channel blocker (nifedipine) and K(+)channel blockers, tetraethylammonium (TEA), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), and glybenclamide, were used to determine the involvement of ion channels. L-NAME, guanabenz, 5HT4 receptor blocker, ML9, and Y27632 enhanced the effect of amitriptyline. Meanwhile, methylene blue, atropine, guanethidine, prazosin, methylsergide, ondansetron, U73122, and chelerythrine blocked its effect. It was also shown that nifedipine enhanced but TEA and glybenclamide blocked amitriptyline-induced inhibitory effect on EFS. Our results indicated that amitriptyline may exert inhibitory effect in response to EFS by inhibiting muscarinic receptors and then PLC-mediated PKC pathway leading to opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channel.

  1. The signaling of amitriptyline-induced inhibitory effect on electrical field stimulation response in colon smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Zaw, Tin Sandar; Khin, Phyu Phyu; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2016-09-01

    Amitriptyline, a well-known antidepressant, exerts inhibitory effect on electrically stimulated rat colon smooth muscle contraction. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathway of amitriptyline-induced inhibitory effect. Changes in isometric force of colon muscle were recorded on polygraph, and data were analyzed by measuring the inhibitory extent induced by amitriptyline. Firstly, muscles were contracted by stimulation with electric field stimulation (EFS), and then, amitriptyline was added cumulatively to determine its influence effect on EFS. Amitriptyline significantly inhibited EFS-induced contraction dose dependently. Then, the mechanism of inhibitory effect of amitriptyline was evaluated by pretreating with various antagonists such as L-NAME, methylene blue, atropine, 5-HT receptors blockers, guanethidine, prazosin, guanabenz, isoprenaline, Y27632 (Rho-kinase inhibitor), ML9 (myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor), U73122 (PLC inhibitor), and chelerythrine (PKC inhibitor). Then, Ca(2+) channel blocker (nifedipine) and K(+)channel blockers, tetraethylammonium (TEA), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), and glybenclamide, were used to determine the involvement of ion channels. L-NAME, guanabenz, 5HT4 receptor blocker, ML9, and Y27632 enhanced the effect of amitriptyline. Meanwhile, methylene blue, atropine, guanethidine, prazosin, methylsergide, ondansetron, U73122, and chelerythrine blocked its effect. It was also shown that nifedipine enhanced but TEA and glybenclamide blocked amitriptyline-induced inhibitory effect on EFS. Our results indicated that amitriptyline may exert inhibitory effect in response to EFS by inhibiting muscarinic receptors and then PLC-mediated PKC pathway leading to opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channel. PMID:27234925

  2. Randomised clinical trial comparing melatonin 3 mg, amitriptyline 25 mg and placebo for migraine prevention

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Andre Leite; Martini Ferreira, Adriana; Ribeiro, Reinaldo Teixeira; Zukerman, Eliova; Cipolla-Neto, José; Peres, Mario Fernando Prieto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Melatonin has been studied in headache disorders. Amitriptyline is efficacious for migraine prevention, but its unfavourable side effect profile limits its use. Methods A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out. Men and women, aged 18–65 years, with migraine with or without aura, experiencing 2–8 attacks per month, were enrolled. After a 4-week baseline phase, 196 participants were randomised to placebo, amitriptyline 25 mg or melatonin 3 mg, and 178 took a study medication and were followed for 3 months (12 weeks). The primary outcome was the number of migraine headache days per month at baseline versus last month. Secondary end points were responder rate, migraine intensity, duration and analgesic use. Tolerability was also compared between groups. Results Mean headache frequency reduction was 2.7 migraine headache days in the melatonin group, 2.2 for amitriptyline and 1.1 for placebo. Melatonin significantly reduced headache frequency compared with placebo (p=0.009), but not to amitriptyline (p=0.19). Melatonin was superior to amitriptyline in the percentage of patients with a greater than 50% reduction in migraine frequency. Melatonin was better tolerated than amitriptyline. Weight loss was found in the melatonin group, a slight weight gain in placebo and significantly for amitriptyline users. Conclusions Melatonin 3 mg is better than placebo for migraine prevention, more tolerable than amitriptyline and as effective as amitriptyline 25 mg. PMID:27165014

  3. Topical amitriptyline and ketamine for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    A neuropathy is a disturbance of function or pathological change in nerves. In some cases, peripheral neuropathic pain may occur due to a lesion or disease of the peripheral somatosensory nervous system. Efficacy of different agents for peripheral neuropathic pain conditions is less than optimal. The administration of topical analgesics might be an option, due to the potential of reduced adverse effects and increased patient compliance. There is major interest in compounding topical analgesics for peripheral neuropathic pain, but several challenges remain for this approach. Topical analgesics have the potential to be a valuable additional approach for the management of peripheral neuropathic pain. Topical amitriptyline-ketamine combination (AK) is a promising agent for peripheral neuropathic pain conditions. Some studies have shown its efficacy in neuropathic pain conditions. However, this data was not uniformely obtained and its role remains still controversial. Efficacy may depend on many factors, including the choice of the vehicle, the concentration, the pain site, and specific diseases. More studies are necessary to support the use of AK in clinical practice. PMID:26488799

  4. Mechanism of amitriptyline adsorption on Ca-montmorillonite (SAz-2).

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Hsiang; Jiang, Wei-Teh; Li, Zhaohui; Kuo, Chung-Yih; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Chen, Wan-Ru; Lv, Guocheng

    2014-07-30

    The uptake of amitriptyline (AMI) from aqueous environment by Ca-montmorillonite (SAz-2) was studied in a batch system under different physicochemical conditions. The adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses. The AMI adsorption on SAz-2 obeyed the Langmuir isotherm with a capacity of 330mg/g (1.05mmol/g) at pH 6-7. The adsorption kinetics was fast, almost reaching equilibrium in 2h, and followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Desorption of exchangeable cations correlated with the AMI adsorption well, indicating that cation exchange was the major mechanism. X-ray diffraction patterns showing significant expansions of the d001 spacing and characteristic FTIR band shifts toward higher frequencies after AMI adsorption onto SAz-2 indicated that the adsorbed AMI molecules were intercalated into the interlayers of the mineral. Thermodynamic parameters based on partitioning coefficients suggested that the AMI adsorption was an endothermic physisorption at high adsorption levels. At low and higher AMI adsorption levels, the intercalated AMI molecules take a horizontal monolayer and bilayer conformation, respectively. The higher adsorption capacity suggested that SAz-2 could be a good candidate to remove AMI from wastewater and would be an important environmental sink for the fate and transport of AMI in soils and groundwater. PMID:24373983

  5. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: amitriptyline hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Manzo, R H; Olivera, M E; Amidon, G L; Shah, V P; Dressman, J B; Barends, D M

    2006-05-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing amitriptyline hydrochloride are reviewed. Its therapeutic uses, its pharmacokinetic properties, the possibility of excipient interactions and reported BE/bioavailability (BA) problems are also taken into consideration. Literature data indicates that amitriptyline hydrochloride is a highly permeable active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Data on the solubility according to the current Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) were not fully available and consequently amitriptyline hydrochloride could not be definitively assigned to either BCS Class I or BCS Class II. But all evidence taken together, a biowaiver can currently be recommended provided that IR tablets are formulated with excipients used in existing approved products and that the dissolution meets the criteria defined in the Guidances.

  6. [Amitriptyline in psychiatric therapeutics. Apropos of 8 years of its use in hospital practice].

    PubMed

    Scotto, J C; Dufour, H; Huber, J P; Crespin, J; Pin, M; Joseph, A; Sutter, J M

    1976-01-01

    A hundred and thirty patients have been treated with Amitriptylin in the "Clinique de Psychiatrie" in Marseille during the last eight years. The review of the hundred cases for which the information are the most detailed show that Amitriptylin remains one of the most powerful, manageable and well-tolerated anti-depressant drugs available at the present time. Its therapeutic indications are numerous, but the best ones are proceeding from depressed states with high anxious participation in subjects of less that 60 years of age.

  7. Potent block of potassium currents in rat isolated sympathetic neurones by the uncharged form of amitriptyline and related tricyclic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Wooltorton, J. R.; Mathie, A.

    1995-01-01

    1. The block of K+ currents by amitriptyline and the related tricyclic compounds cyproheptadine and dizocilpine was studied in dissociated rat sympathetic neurones by whole-cell voltage-clamp recording. 2. Cyproheptadine (30 microM) inhibited the delayed-rectifier current (Kv) by 92% and the transient current (KA) by 43%. For inhibition of Kv, cyproheptaidine had a KD of 2.2 microM. Dizocilpine (30 microM) inhibited Kv by 26% and KA by 22%. The stereoisomers of dizocilpine were equally potent at blocking Kv and KA. 3. Amitriptyline, a weak base, was significantly more effective in blocking Kv at pH 9.4 (KD = 0.46 microM) where the ratio of charged to uncharged drug was 50:50 compared with pH 7.4 (KD = 11.9 microM) where the ratio was 99:1. 4. N-methylamitriptyline (10 microM), the permanently charged analogue of amitriptyline, inhibited Kv by only 2% whereas in the same cells amitriptyline (10 microM) inhibited Kv by 36%. 5. Neither amitriptyline nor N-methylamitriptyline had a detectable effect on Kv when added to the intracellular solution. 6. It is concluded that the uncharged form of amitriptyline is approximately one hundred times more potent in blocking Kv than the charged form. However, this does not seem to be due to uncharged amitriptyline having better access to an intracellular binding site. PMID:8564248

  8. Duloxetine-induced Sleep Bruxism in Fibromyalgia Successfully Treated With Amitriptyline.

    PubMed

    Şahin Onat, S; Malas, F Ü

    2015-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman, who was suffering from widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and sleep disorder, was diagnosed as fibromyalgia. There was no apparent organic disease. Duloxetine therapy was introduced with a dose of 60 mg/day at bedtime. A few days later her husband noted severe teeth clenching and associated loud grinding noises during sleep. Then, duloxetine dosage was reduced to 30 mg/day. The bruxism continued with this dosage, thus the therapy was discontinued. The bruxism resolved after cessation. Three weeks later, duloxetine therapy was restarted at the dosage of 60 mg/day. On the third day of the therapy, bruxism started again and amitriptyline therapy at the dosage of 10 mg/day was added to duloxetine therapy. The dosage of amitriptyline was incrementally adjusted to 25 mg/ day. On the fourth day of the combined therapy, bruxism symptoms improved. Two months later, the bruxism symptoms were resolved and the complaints for fibromyalgia were under control. Although bruxism has been reported due to venlafaxine use, there is only one duloxetine-induced bruxism case in the literature which was treated with buspirone. However, we report duloxetine-induced bruxism treated successfully with amitriptyline in a patient with fibromyalgia. Tricyclic antidepressants have a suppression effect on the REM phase of the sleep cycle; this may help to cease the bruxism symptoms appearing in that phase of the sleep cycle. This is the first reported case of fibromyalgia with duloxetine-induced sleep bruxism successfully treated with amitriptyline.

  9. Acute herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: effects of acyclovir and outcome of treatment with amitriptyline.

    PubMed Central

    Bowsher, D

    1992-01-01

    This retrospective study was designed to assess the effects of acyclovir treatment of acute herpes zoster on subsequent postherpetic neuralgia, and to examine the effects of amitriptyline in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Eighty seven patients with postherpetic neuralgia of three or more months' duration were studied: 24 of them had had their herpes zoster treated with oral acyclovir. At first presentation, only 25% of the 24 patients who had had their herpes zoster treated with acyclovir selected the word group containing burning on the McGill pain questionnaire compared with 76% of the 63 patients who had not received acyclovir. A higher proportion of patients who had had acyclovir than had not selected the word group which contains the word aching (63% versus 49%). Acyclovir thus appears to change the nature of postherpetic neuralgia. Postherpetic neuralgia was treated with amitriptyline, alone or in combination with distigmine and/or sodium valproate. There was a strong correlation between pain relief and the interval between the occurrence of herpes zoster and the initiation of treatment with amitriptyline--early treatment is almost twice as likely to be successful as late. Since conventional analgesics and sympatholytic drugs are of no benefit in the treatment of established postherpetic neuralgia, the sequelae of herpes zoster must, therefore, be recognized and treated with amitriptyline as soon as possible. PMID:1419247

  10. Systemic amitriptyline administration does not prevent the increased thermal response induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Fabio; Skinner, Gabriela O; Gomes, Aline; Araújo, Paulo C; de Almeida, Olga M M S

    2009-11-01

    Sleep deprivation has been associated with hyperalgesia in humans and in animal models. The tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline is used as an analgesic drug in patients and in animal models of chronic pain, including that associated with spinal nerve injury. Pain hypersensitivity following paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and that following peripheral nerve injury seem to share common spinal mechanisms. Accordingly, we evaluated the effects of amitriptyline (acutely and chronically administered) on the increased thermal response observed in PSD rats (72 or 96 h). Rats were evaluated for thermal sensitivity using a hot plate (52 degrees C or 46 degrees C) at 1 or 24 h after the last administration of the drug. Following the hot plate test, motor behavior was analyzed in an open field arena for a period of 5 min. Paw withdrawal latency response to temperatures of 46 degrees C and 52 degrees C was significantly lower in PSD and in 24-hour post-PSD rats than in controls and it was not modified by amitriptyline (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg). Analgesic effects and reduced motor behavior were only observed in control groups. Overall, these findings indicate that a period of PSD can influence pain modulatory mechanisms, and that amitriptyline action is insufficient to reduce PSD-enhanced thermal sensitivity.

  11. Tricyclic analogs cyclobenzaprine, amitriptyline and cyproheptadine inhibit the spinal reflex transmission through 5-HT(2) receptors.

    PubMed

    Honda, Motoko; Nishida, Takashi; Ono, Hideki

    2003-01-01

    The centrally acting muscle relaxant cyclobenzaprine decreases the amplitude of monosynaptic reflex potentials by inhibiting the facilitatory descending serotonergic influences in the spinal cord. Interestingly, the structure of cyclobenzaprine is much similar to those of amitriptyline and cyproheptadine. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the relationship between 5-HT(2) receptor antagonistic and inhibitory effects of cyclobenzaprine, amitriptyline, cyproheptadine and ketanserin on the spinal reflexes. Cyclobenzaprine, amitriptyline, cyproheptadine, and ketanserin significantly inhibited facilitatory effects of 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) on flexor reflexes and mono- and polysynaptic spinal reflex potentials in spinalized rats. In intact rats, these drugs significantly reduced the mono- and polysynaptic reflex potentials. 5-HT depletion significantly prevented the depression of the spinal reflex potentials induced by these drugs. These results suggest that the inhibitory effects of cyclobenzaprine, amitriptyline, and cyproheptadine on mono- and polysynaptic reflex potentials are due to the inhibition of descending serotonergic systems through 5-HT(2) receptors in the spinal cord.

  12. A Retrospective Study of Amitriptyline in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Irfan; Thome, Andrew; Smith, Patricia Oxler; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Yeh, Hung Wen; Gaffney, Gary R.; Hellings, Jessica A.

    2013-01-01

    We performed a retrospective chart review of 50 youths with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), prescribed amitriptyline (AMI) for hyperactivity and impulsivity. Data was systematically extracted from 50 outpatient clinic charts, including AMI treatment duration, dose, trough levels and adverse events. Mean age was 9.4 years (4.6-17.9); 40 were males…

  13. A Comparison of Pharmacological (Amitriptyline HCL) and Nonpharmacological (Cognitive-Behavioral) Therapies for Chronic Tension Headaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holroyd, Kenneth A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Randomly assigned 41 recurrent tension headache sufferers to either cognitive-behavioral therapy or to amitriptyline therapy. Both therapies yielded clinically significant improvements in headache activity. In instances where differences in treatment effectiveness were observed, cognitive-behavioral therapy yielded somewhat more positive outcomes…

  14. Effect of amitriptylin on the growth-kinetics of 2 human cancer xenograft lines in nude-mice.

    PubMed

    Bassukas, I

    1994-04-01

    With respect to the controversial discussion of the effect of antidepressants on the development of cancer in the literature, elicited by a recent report on growth stimulating effects of antidepressants (Brandes et al, Cancer Res 52: 3796, 1992), the effect of daily doses of amitriptylin (80 mg/m2 body surface, intraperitoneally) on the macroscopic growth of two human tumor xenograft lines in nude mice was studied (a malignant. melanoma, FO-1 and a renal cell adenocarcinoma, RCC). The application of the Gompertzian difference equation to compare the growth patterns of treated and untreated tumors shows that amitriptylin does modify the growth characteristics of both lines (p<0.05). however, in opposite directions: The growth of the melanoma FO-1 is stimulated whereas that of the RCC is inhibited. The growth pattern analysis further indicates, that this difference mainly consists of the differential effect of amitriptylin on the growth retarding processes of the tumors: amitriptylin inhibits the initial intrinsic growth rate of both tumor lines, however, only in the case of the FO-1 does it inhibit simultaneously also the growth retarding process and, thus, it ultimately stimulates its growth. On the contrary the near exponential growth of the RCC is not affected by amitriptylin. However, it cannot be excluded that at least some of the tumor growth modifying effects of the present treatment may be attributed to the potentiation of the animal weight loss by amitriptylin in the tumor-bearing animals (p<0.05).

  15. TRANSITORY CONSECUTIVE ESOTROPIA AFTER AMITRIPTYLINE TREATMENT FOR NOCTURNAL ENURESIS -CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Cioplean, E Daniela; Camburu, L Raluca

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 9-year-old child operated for intermittent exotropia and V-pattern with a good result 2 months after bilateral Lateral Rectus Muscle Recession. The binocular vision was restored in primary position and down-gaze with excellent stereopsis at near and distance and a deviation of +4 PD in primary position. Three months later, the patient developed a consecutive esotropia of + 18 PD in primary position with diplopia in all gazes triggered by Amitriptyline treatment prescribed one month earlier for nocturnal enuresis. Diplopia was solved in time after anticholinergic medication cessation. During the recovery period, Fresnell prisms have been used in order to eliminate diplopia. Three months after diplopia onset, the binocular vision was restored showing a transitory and reversible effect of the Amitriptyline treatment. Fusion vulnerability can be a possible risk factor in developing diplopia and esotropia in patients treated with anticholinergic drugs. PMID:26978874

  16. Stress-induced changes in histaminergic system: effects of diazepam and amitriptyline.

    PubMed

    Ghi, P; Ferretti, C; Blengio, M; Portaleone, P

    1995-05-01

    The involvement of the histaminergic system in the regulation of weak stress was studied in rats. The parameters examined were the brain receptors and corticosterone (CS) plasma levels. The benzodiazepine diazepam [(2 mg/kg intraperitoneally (IP)] influenced neither foot-shock-induced changes in CS levels nor [3H]-histamine [(3H)-HA] binding site constants, whereas the tricyclic antidepressive amitriptyline (10 mg/kg IP) partially counteracted a plasma CS increase and prevented changes in [3H]-HA binding in the stressed rat brain. These observations are in agreement with the known activities of amitriptyline on monoaminergic metabolism and receptors. Moreover, these data provide further experimental evidence of the functional role of the central histaminergic system in organized stress response.

  17. Genotoxicity evaluation of the tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline and imipramine using human lymphocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Saxena, R; Ahuja, Y R

    1988-01-01

    Two tricyclic antidepressants, amitriptyline and imipramine, were evaluated for their in vitro cytogenetic effects in human lymphocyte cultures. Peripheral blood cultures from three normal healthy donors were set up for 72 hr for each of the drugs. The drugs were added at the start (72-hr exposure), 24 hr (48-hr exposure), and 48 hr (24-hr exposure) after initiation of the cultures. The concentrations evaluated at each exposure time were 50, 250, 1,000, and 10,000 ng/ml for amitriptyline and 25, 500, and 5,000 ng/ml for imipramine. The first two concentrations correspond to the plasma levels of the respective drugs after therapeutic doses. All treatments for a donor were given at the same time. Untreated cultures served as controls for the baseline frequency of the parameters assayed. The parameters assayed were chromosome aberrations, mitotic index, and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs). Amitriptyline was found to be nongenotoxic at plasma levels by all the parameters assayed. However, frequencies of chromosome aberrations and SCEs were significantly increased at concentrations 4 and 40 times the plasma level (1,000 and 10,000 ng/ml) although the actual increases was small. The mitotic index was not affected at any concentration. Through imipramine showed a significant increase in chromosome damage at the upper plasma level and at concentrations higher than that, SCE frequency was significantly increased only at concentration higher than the plasma level (5,000 ng/ml), the actual increase being small for both these parameters. The mitotic index was not affected at any concentration. These results suggest that amitriptyline may be a slightly safer drug than imipramine from a genetic point of view.

  18. Long-term effects of maternal separation on chronic stress response suppressed by amitriptyline treatment.

    PubMed

    Cotella, E M; Mestres Lascano, I; Franchioni, L; Levin, G M; Suárez, M M

    2013-07-01

    Abstract The early-life environment has many long-term effects on mammals. Maternal interaction and early stressful events may affect regulation of the HPA axis during adulthood, leading to differential glucocorticoid secretion in response to stressful situations. These adverse experiences during postnatal development may even sensitize specific neurocircuits to subsequent stressors. Later in life, the overreaction of the HPA axis to stress can constitute a risk factor for metabolic and mental diseases. As tricyclic antidepressants are known to correct glucocorticoid hypersecretion during depression, we treated maternally separated animals with amitriptyline, at a lower dose than habitually used in depression models, to prevent the response to chronic stress during adulthood. Male Wistar rats were separated from the mother for 4.5 h every day for the first 3 weeks of life. From postnatal day 50, animals were subjected to chronic variable stress during 24 d (five types of stressors at different times of day). During the stress, protocol rats were orally administered amitriptyline (5 mg/kg) daily. We observed that maternal separation caused a reduction in plasma ACTH levels (p < 0.05), but evoked hypersecretion of corticosterone (p < 0.05) when it was combined with stress in adulthood. This rise was completely prevented by antidepressant treatment with amitriptyline.

  19. Effect of Amitriptyline and Escitalopram on Functional Dyspepsia: a Multi-Center, Randomized, Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Nicholas J.; Locke, G. Richard; Saito, Yuri A.; Almazar, Ann E.; Bouras, Ernest P.; Howden, Colin W.; Lacy, Brian E.; DiBaise, John K.; Prather, Charlene M.; Abraham, Bincy P.; El-Serag, Hashem B.; Moayyedi, Paul; Herrick, Linda M.; Szarka, Lawrence A.; Camilleri, Michael; Hamilton, Frank A.; Schleck, Cathy D.; Tilkes, Katherine E.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Anti-depressants are frequently prescribed to treat functional dyspepsia (FD), a common disorder characterized by upper abdominal symptoms, including discomfort or post-prandial fullness. However, there is little evidence for the efficacy of these drugs in patients with FD. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of anti-depressant therapy effects on symptoms, gastric emptying (GE), and mealinduced satiety in patients with FD. Methods We performed a study at 8 North American sites of patients who met the Rome II criteria for FD and did not have depression or use anti-depressants. Subjects (n=292; 44±15 y old, 75% female, 70% with dysmotility-like FD, and 30% with ulcer-like FD) were randomly assigned to groups given placebo, 50 mg amitriptyline, or 10 mg escitalopram for 10 weeks. The primary endpoint was adequate relief of FD symptoms for ≥5 weeks of the last 10 weeks (out of 12). Secondary endpoints included GE time, maximum tolerated volume in a nutrient drink test, and FD-related quality of life. Results An adequate relief response was reported by 39 subjects given placebo (40%), 51 given amitriptyline (53%), and 37 given escitalopram (38%) (P=.05, following treatment, adjusted for baseline balancing factors including all subjects). Subjects with ulcer-like FD given amitriptyline were more than 3-fold more likely to report adequate relief than those given placebo (odds ratio=3.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–9.0). Neither amitriptyline nor escitalopram appeared to affect GE or meal-induced satiety after the 10 week period in any group. Subjects with delayed GE were less likely to report adequate relief than subjects with normal GE (odds ratio=0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2–0.8). Both anti-depressants improved overall quality-of-life. Conclusions Amitriptyline, but not escitalopram, appears to benefit some patients with FD— particularly those with ulcer-like (painful) FD. Patients

  20. Amitriptyline reverses hyperalgesia and improves associated mood-like disorders in a model of experimental monoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Amorim, D; David-Pereira, A; Pertovaara, A; Almeida, A; Pinto-Ribeiro, F

    2014-05-15

    Affective disorders are common comorbidities of chronic inflammatory pain that are often overlooked in primary care. As the impact of inflammatory pain upon mood-like disorders in animal models is not well known, our objective was to assess whether prolonged experimental monoarthritis (ARTH) induced the development of anxiety and depressive-like behaviours in rodents and if amitriptyline, an antidepressant commonly used in the treatment of chronic pain, could reverse both nociceptive and mood-like impairments. Experimental ARTH was induced through an injection of kaolin/carrageenan into the right knee joint with control (SHAM) animals injected with saline. Four weeks after induction, ARTH animals displayed mechanical hyperalgesia and a depressive-like phenotype as they showed a significant increase in immobility and a decrease in the latency to immobility in the forced-swimming test at the expense of the time spent climbing/swimming. ARTH animals also displayed a decreased sucrose preference, an index of anhedonia and anxiety-like behaviour as time spent exploring the open arms of the elevated-plus-maze was decreased when compared to controls. The anxiety-like phenotype was also supported by an increase in the number of fecal boli left in the open field. In ARTH animals, the administration of amitriptyline decreased mechanical hyperalgesia and increased sucrose preference and the time spent climbing, although it had a deleterious effect in the performance of control animals. Our data show that this model of ARTH can be useful for the study of chronic pain-mood disorders comorbidities and that amitriptyline is able to partly reverse the associated nociceptive and emotional impairments.

  1. Early and prolonged ECG alterations resembling a myocardial injury after severe amitriptyline poisoning.

    PubMed

    Berlot, G; Vergolini, A; Calderan, C

    2010-01-01

    Evidence of cardiovascular toxicity is present in the majority of tricyclic antidepressant overdoses. We report the case of a 63-year-old woman admitted to our department with a severe amitriptyline poisoning. The ECG at admission showed a pattern mimicking an acute anteroseptal subepicardial infarction. This pattern persisted for 11 days. Myocardial enzymes and echocardiographic findings never confirmed an ischemic event. At discharge, the ECG returned normal without cardiac or neurologic sequelae. Our experience suggest that after severe tricyclic antidepressant ingestion, ECG alterations resembling myocardial injury may occur early and last for a longer period than previously reported.

  2. Multifocal neurological impairment caused by infection-induced rise in blood lithium and amitriptyline.

    PubMed

    Pheterson, A D; Miller, L; Fox, C F; Estroff, T W; Sweeney, D R

    We present the case of a thirty-eight-year-old woman who developed a febrile illness which was associated with a rise of blood lithium and amitriptyline, and subsequently suffered permanent neurological impairment, implicating CNS dysfunction at several levels. Medical, laboratory, radiological and neuropsychological findings are described, and the attribution of the syndrome is discussed. It is crucial to emphasize that the authors are not challenging the frequently useful combination of lithium and antidepressants. Rather, we urge psychiatrists to be vigilant when such patients develop febrile illnesses.

  3. Differential effectiveness of tianeptine, clonidine and amitriptyline in blocking traumatic memory expression, anxiety and hypertension in an animal model of PTSD.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2013-07-01

    Individuals exposed to life-threatening trauma are at risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a debilitating condition that involves persistent anxiety, intrusive memories and several physiological disturbances. Current pharmacotherapies for PTSD manage only a subset of these symptoms and typically have adverse side effects which limit their overall effectiveness. We evaluated the effectiveness of three different pharmacological agents to ameliorate a broad range of PTSD-like symptoms in our established predator-based animal model of PTSD. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1-h cat exposures on two occasions that were separated by 10 days, in conjunction with chronic social instability. Beginning 24 h after the first cat exposure, rats received daily injections of amitriptyline, clonidine, tianeptine or vehicle. Three weeks after the second cat exposure, all rats underwent a battery of behavioral and physiological tests. The vehicle-treated, psychosocially stressed rats demonstrated a robust fear memory for the two cat exposures, as well as increased anxiety expressed on the elevated plus maze, an exaggerated startle response, elevated heart rate and blood pressure, reduced growth rate and increased adrenal gland weight, relative to the vehicle-treated, non-stressed (control) rats. Neither amitriptyline nor clonidine was effective at blocking the entire cluster of stress-induced sequelae, and each agent produced adverse side effects in control subjects. Only the antidepressant tianeptine completely blocked the effects of psychosocial stress on all of the physiological and behavioral measures that were examined. These findings illustrate the differential effectiveness of these three treatments to block components of PTSD-like symptoms in rats, and in particular, reveal the profile of tianeptine as the most effective of all three agents.

  4. Differential effectiveness of tianeptine, clonidine and amitriptyline in blocking traumatic memory expression, anxiety and hypertension in an animal model of PTSD.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2013-07-01

    Individuals exposed to life-threatening trauma are at risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a debilitating condition that involves persistent anxiety, intrusive memories and several physiological disturbances. Current pharmacotherapies for PTSD manage only a subset of these symptoms and typically have adverse side effects which limit their overall effectiveness. We evaluated the effectiveness of three different pharmacological agents to ameliorate a broad range of PTSD-like symptoms in our established predator-based animal model of PTSD. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1-h cat exposures on two occasions that were separated by 10 days, in conjunction with chronic social instability. Beginning 24 h after the first cat exposure, rats received daily injections of amitriptyline, clonidine, tianeptine or vehicle. Three weeks after the second cat exposure, all rats underwent a battery of behavioral and physiological tests. The vehicle-treated, psychosocially stressed rats demonstrated a robust fear memory for the two cat exposures, as well as increased anxiety expressed on the elevated plus maze, an exaggerated startle response, elevated heart rate and blood pressure, reduced growth rate and increased adrenal gland weight, relative to the vehicle-treated, non-stressed (control) rats. Neither amitriptyline nor clonidine was effective at blocking the entire cluster of stress-induced sequelae, and each agent produced adverse side effects in control subjects. Only the antidepressant tianeptine completely blocked the effects of psychosocial stress on all of the physiological and behavioral measures that were examined. These findings illustrate the differential effectiveness of these three treatments to block components of PTSD-like symptoms in rats, and in particular, reveal the profile of tianeptine as the most effective of all three agents. PMID:23318688

  5. Tricyclic Antidepressant Amitriptyline-induced Glial Cell Line-derived Neurotrophic Factor Production Involves Pertussis Toxin-sensitive Gαi/o Activation in Astroglial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Miyano, Kanako; Matsumoto, Chie; Kajitani, Naoto; Abe, Hiromi; Okada-Tsuchioka, Mami; Yokoyama, Akinobu; Uezono, Yasuhito; Morioka, Norimitsu; Nakata, Yoshihiro; Takebayashi, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Further elaborating the mechanism of antidepressants, beyond modulation of monoaminergic neurotransmission, this study sought to elucidate the mechanism of amitriptyline-induced production of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in astroglial cells. Previous studies demonstrated that an amitriptyline-evoked matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)/FGF receptor (FGFR)/FGFR substrate 2α (FRS2α)/ERK cascade is crucial for GDNF production, but how amitriptyline triggers this cascade remains unknown. MMP is activated by intracellular mediators such as G proteins, and this study sought to clarify the involvement of G protein signaling in amitriptyline-evoked GDNF production in rat C6 astroglial cells (C6 cells), primary cultured rat astrocytes, and normal human astrocytes. Amitriptyline-evoked GDNF mRNA expression and release were inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX), a Gαi/o inhibitor, but not by NF449, a Gαs inhibitor, or YM-254890, a Gαq inhibitor. The activation of the GDNF production cascade (FGFR/FRS2α/ERK) was also inhibited by PTX. Deletion of Gαο1 and Gαi3 by RNAi demonstrated that these G proteins play important roles in amitriptyline signaling. G protein activation was directly analyzed by electrical impedance-based biosensors (CellKeyTM assay), using a label-free (without use of fluorescent proteins/probes or radioisotopes) and real time approach. Amitriptyline increased impedance, indicating Gαi/o activation that was suppressed by PTX treatment. The impedance evoked by amitriptyline was not affected by inhibitors of the GDNF production cascade. Furthermore, FGF2 treatment did not elicit any effect on impedance, indicating that amitriptyline targets PTX-sensitive Gαi/o upstream of the MMP/FGFR/FRS2α/ERK cascade. These results suggest novel targeting for the development of antidepressants. PMID:25869129

  6. Tricyclic Antidepressant Amitriptyline-induced Glial Cell Line-derived Neurotrophic Factor Production Involves Pertussis Toxin-sensitive Gαi/o Activation in Astroglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Miyano, Kanako; Matsumoto, Chie; Kajitani, Naoto; Abe, Hiromi; Okada-Tsuchioka, Mami; Yokoyama, Akinobu; Uezono, Yasuhito; Morioka, Norimitsu; Nakata, Yoshihiro; Takebayashi, Minoru

    2015-05-29

    Further elaborating the mechanism of antidepressants, beyond modulation of monoaminergic neurotransmission, this study sought to elucidate the mechanism of amitriptyline-induced production of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in astroglial cells. Previous studies demonstrated that an amitriptyline-evoked matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)/FGF receptor (FGFR)/FGFR substrate 2α (FRS2α)/ERK cascade is crucial for GDNF production, but how amitriptyline triggers this cascade remains unknown. MMP is activated by intracellular mediators such as G proteins, and this study sought to clarify the involvement of G protein signaling in amitriptyline-evoked GDNF production in rat C6 astroglial cells (C6 cells), primary cultured rat astrocytes, and normal human astrocytes. Amitriptyline-evoked GDNF mRNA expression and release were inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX), a Gα(i/o) inhibitor, but not by NF449, a Gα(s) inhibitor, or YM-254890, a Gαq inhibitor. The activation of the GDNF production cascade (FGFR/FRS2α/ERK) was also inhibited by PTX. Deletion of Gα(ο1) and Gα(i3) by RNAi demonstrated that these G proteins play important roles in amitriptyline signaling. G protein activation was directly analyzed by electrical impedance-based biosensors (CellKey(TM) assay), using a label-free (without use of fluorescent proteins/probes or radioisotopes) and real time approach. Amitriptyline increased impedance, indicating Gα(i/o) activation that was suppressed by PTX treatment. The impedance evoked by amitriptyline was not affected by inhibitors of the GDNF production cascade. Furthermore, FGF2 treatment did not elicit any effect on impedance, indicating that amitriptyline targets PTX-sensitive Gα(i/o) upstream of the MMP/FGFR/FRS2α/ERK cascade. These results suggest novel targeting for the development of antidepressants.

  7. Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial of Amitriptyline for Analgesia in Painful HIV-Associated Sensory Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Dinat, Natalya; Marinda, Edmore; Moch, Shirra; Rice, Andrew S. C.; Kamerman, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study at a single center in South Africa, to ascertain whether amitriptyline is an effective analgesic for painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy of moderate to severe intensity in: i) antiretroviral drug naive individuals, and ii) antiretroviral drug users. 124 HIV-infected participants (antiretroviral drug naive = 62, antiretroviral drug users = 62) who met the study criteria for painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy were randomized to once-daily oral amitriptyline (titrated to a median: interquartile range of 50: 25-50 mg) or placebo for six weeks, followed by a three-week washout period and subsequent treatment crossover. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline in worst pain intensity of the feet (measured by participant self-report using an 11-point numerical pain rating scale) after six weeks of treatment. 122 of 124 participants completed all study visits and were included in the analysis of the primary outcome. In the antiretroviral drug-naive group (n = 61) there was no significant difference in the mean change in pain score from baseline after six weeks of treatment with placebo or amitriptyline [amitriptyline: 2.8 (SD 3.3) vs. placebo: 2.8 (3.4)]. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the change in pain score after six weeks of treatment with placebo or amitriptyline in the antiretroviral drug-user group (n = 61) [amitriptyline: 2.7 (3.3) vs. placebo: 2.1 (2.8)]. Controlling for period effects and treatment order effects did not alter the outcome of the analyses. Nor did analyzing the intention-to-treat cohort (missing data interpolated using baseline observation carried forward) alter the outcome of the analyses. In summary, amitriptyline, at the doses used here, was no more effective than an inactive placebo at reducing pain intensity in individuals with painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy of moderate to severe intensity, irrespective of whether

  8. Long-term Stability of Zonisamide, Amitriptyline, and Glycopyrrolate in Extemporaneously Prepared Liquid-dosage Forms at Two Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Nahata, Milap C

    2016-01-01

    The lack of commercially available liquid dosage forms for pediatric patients prompted this study. The objectives of our study were to determine the stability of zonisamide, amitriptyline, and glycopyrrolate in extemporaneously prepared oral suspensions in plastic prescription bottles. One group of suspensions was prepared in OraPlus:OraSweet (1:1) for each drug and stored either under refrigeration (4°C) or at room temperature (25°C). A second group of suspensions were compounded in 1% methylcellulose:simple syrup at a 1:10 proportion for zonisamide, amitriptyline, and glycopyrrolate; these suspensions were stored at either under refrigeration (4°C) or at room temperature (25°C). The drug concentrations were measured by the stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic methods. The mean concentration of zonisamide (10 mg/mL) remained above 95% of the original concentration for 91 days in each group of suspensions at both 4°C and 25°C. The mean concentration of amitriptyline (20 mg/mL) was above 95% for 91 days in the suspensions containing OraPlus/ OraSweet at both 4°C and 25°C. However, in the suspensions containing methylcellulose:simple syrup, the mean concentration of amitriptyline was about 95% for 42 days at 4°C and 28 days at 25°C. The mean concentration of glycopyrrolate (0.2 mg/mL) was above 95% in each group of suspensions during the 14-day study period. These data indicate that zonisamide, amitriptyline, and glycopyrrolate can be prepared extemporaneously as suspensions and stored in plastic prescription bottles for varying periods at 4°C and 25°C for use in pediatric patients. PMID:27323428

  9. Antidepressant efficacy of sertraline: a double-blind, placebo- and amitriptyline-controlled, multicenter comparison study in outpatients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Reimherr, F W; Chouinard, G; Cohn, C K; Cole, J O; Itil, T M; LaPierre, Y D; Masco, H L; Mendels, J

    1990-12-01

    A double-blind, placebo- and amitriptyline-controlled comparison study was performed to evaluate the antidepressant efficacy of sertraline, a specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. Patients with DSM-III-defined major depression randomly received either sertraline (N = 149), amitriptyline (N = 149), or placebo (N = 150) once daily for the 8-week study period. The mean final daily medication dose for the all-patients group was 145 mg and 104 mg for the sertraline- and amitriptyline-treatment groups, respectively. As measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Clinical Global Impressions Scale, both the sertraline and amitriptyline treatment groups showed a significantly greater improvement from baseline (p less than or equal to .001) than the placebo group. The sertraline group had a higher proportion of gastrointestinal complaints and male sexual dysfunction than either the amitriptyline or the placebo group. The amitriptyline group showed a higher proportion of anticholinergic and sedative side effects and dizziness compared with patients who received either sertraline or placebo. PMID:2258378

  10. Evaluation of milnacipran, in comparison with amitriptyline, on cold and mechanical allodynia in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Berrocoso, Esther; Mico, Juan-Antonio; Vitton, Olivier; Ladure, Philippe; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Depoortère, Ronan; Bardin, Laurent

    2011-03-25

    Milnacipran, a serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), has shown efficacy against several chronic pain conditions, including fibromyalgia. Here, we evaluated, in rats, its anti-allodynic effects following acute or sub-chronic treatment in a model of neuropathic pain (chronic constriction injury, CCI, of the sciatic nerve). Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant active pre-clinically and clinically against neuropathic pains, was added as a comparison compound. Upon acute i.p. administration, milnacipran was potently efficacious in the CCI model. It significantly reduced thermal allodynia in the cold (4°C) plate test (MED=2.5mg/kg), and attenuated mechanical allodynia in the von Frey filaments test (MED=10mg/kg). Given sub-chronically (7day, b.i.d.), milnacipran was effective at 10mg/kgi.p. in both tests. Acute amitriptyline (10mg/kgi.p.) was efficacious against mechanical, but less so against cold allodynia; under sub-chronic conditions, it was only active against mechanical allodynia. These data show that milnacipran is as efficacious as the reference compound amitriptyline in a pre-clinical model of injury-induced neuropathy, and demonstrate for the first time that it is active acutely and sub-chronically against cold allodynia. They also suggest that milnacipran has the potential to alleviate allodynia associated with nerve compression-induced neuropathic pain in the clinic (for example following discal hernia, avulsion or cancer-induced tissue damage). PMID:21277295

  11. Amitriptyline up-regulates connexin43-gap junction in rat cultured cortical astrocytes via activation of the p38 and c-Fos/AP-1 signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Morioka, N; Suekama, K; Zhang, F F; Kajitani, N; Hisaoka-Nakashima, K; Takebayashi, M; Nakata, Y

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Intercellular communication via gap junctions, comprised of connexin (Cx) proteins, allow for communication between astrocytes, which in turn is crucial for maintaining CNS homeostasis. The expression of Cx43 is decreased in post-mortem brains from patients with major depression. A potentially novel mechanism of tricyclic antidepressants is to increase the expression and functioning of gap junctions in astrocytes. Experimental Approach The effect of amitriptyline on the expression of Cx43 and gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in rat primary cultured cortical astrocytes was investigated. We also investigated the role of p38 MAPK intracellular signalling pathway in the amitriptyline-induced expression of Cx43 and GJIC. Key Results Treatment with amitriptyline for 48 h significantly up-regulated Cx43 mRNA, protein and GJIC. The up-regulation of Cx43 was not monoamine-related since noradrenaline, 5-HT and dopamine did not induce Cx43 expression and pretreatment with α- and β-adrenoceptor antagonists had no effect. Intracellular signalling involved p38 MAPK, as amitriptyline significantly increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation and Cx43 expression and GJIC were significantly blocked by the p38 inhibitor SB 202190. Furthermore, amitriptyline-induced Cx43 expression and GJIC were markedly reduced by transcription factor AP-1 inhibitors (curcumin and tanshinone IIA). The translocation of c-Fos from the cytosol and the nucleus of cortical astrocytes was increased by amitriptyline, and this response was dependent on p38 activity. Conclusion and Implication These findings indicate a novel mechanism of action of amitriptyline through cortical astrocytes, and further suggest that targeting this mechanism could lead to the development of a new class of antidepressants. PMID:24641259

  12. Formulation of amphiphilic drug amitriptyline hydrochloride by polyoxyethylene sorbitan esters in aqueous electrolytic solution.

    PubMed

    Kabir-ud-Din; Yaseen, Zahid

    2012-05-01

    In the present work, the interaction between an antidepressant drug amitriptyline hydrochloride and nonionic polyoxyethylene surfactants, with special attention to the possible contribution from the ion-dipole type of interaction, has been investigated by using multitechnique approach. Tensiometric and conductometric studies show steeper decrease on the critical micellar concentration gradient of the drug in the presence of electrolyte (NaCl) as well as nonionic surfactants. Critical assessments by applying Clint, Rubingh, Rosen, Motomura and other thermodynamic models confirm strong interactions in the mixed monolayer at the surface and in mixed micelle in the bulk of aqueous electrolytic solution. The structural difference in the drug and nonionic surfactants also plays a role in tuning the aggregational behavior of the drug-surfactant mixtures. Finally, it is shown by DLS measurements that the micellar growth of drug-surfactant aggregates is favored in terms of increase in hydrodynamic radii in the presence of electrolyte. However, the nonionic surfactants provide sufficient steric crowding causing dissociation of larger micelles into smaller ones with small radii.

  13. Metabolic acidosis in a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus complicated by methanol and amitriptyline intoxication.

    PubMed

    Celik, Umit; Celik, Tamer; Avci, Akkan; Annagur, Ali; Yilmaz, Hayri Levent; Kucukosmanoglu, Osman; Topaloglu, Ali Kemal; Daglioglu, Nebile

    2009-02-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a widely known acute metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), which can be potentially fatal. It is not difficult to diagnose when a patient with DM comes with symptoms such as coma, fruity breath, hyperglycemia, acidosis, and tachypnea. If the patient has not been diagnosed with DM before, then other sicknesses characterized by an increased anion gap should be considered. A 12-year-old boy with type 1 DM and repeated earlier admissions for DKA was admitted to the emergency department in another apparent case of DKA with coma, hyperglycemia, and profound metabolic acidosis. When his condition did not improve with initial treatment, intoxication was suspected as an alternate cause of his condition. Further laboratory tests detected methanol and amitriptyline. The patient underwent hemodialysis and recovered completely. This case illustrates that a seemingly obvious medical condition can mask serious intoxication. This report is the only publication on two different entities characterized by an increased anion gap and at the end the patient has been cured completely without any complications. PMID:19106720

  14. Amitriptyline may have a supportive role in cancer treatment by inhibiting glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-π) and alpha (GST-α).

    PubMed

    Kulaksiz-Erkmen, Gulnihal; Dalmizrak, Ozlem; Dincsoy-Tuna, Gamze; Dogan, Arın; Ogus, I Hamdi; Ozer, Nazmi

    2013-02-01

    A tricyclic anti-depressant, amitriptyline, is a highly prescribed drug for cancer patients for mood elevation but there are limited studies about the interaction of amitriptyline with glutathione S-transferases pi (GST-π) and glutathione S-transferases alpha (GST-α). GST isozymes have been implicated in chemotherapeutic drug resistance. We demonstrated that the concentration dependent inhibition of GST-π and GST-α by amitriptyline followed inverse hyperbolic inhibition curves with IC(50) values of 5.54 and 8.32 mM, respectively. When the varied substrate was GSH, amitriptyline inhibited both isozymes competitively and similar K(i) values were found for GST-π (K(i) = 1.61 ± 0.17 mM) and GST-α (K(i) = 1.45 ± 0.20 mM). On the other hand, when the varied substrate was CDNB, the inhibition types were non-competitive for GST-π (K(i) = 1.98 ± 0.31 mM) and competitive for GST-α (K(i) = 1.57 ± 0.16 mM). Amitriptyline, in addition to its antidepressant effect, might also have a minor supportive role on the effectiveness of the anticancer drugs by decreasing their elimination through inhibiting GST-π and GST-α.

  15. The efficacy of withdrawal therapy in subjects with chronic daily headache and medication overuse following prophylaxis with topiramate and amitriptyline.

    PubMed

    Valguarnera, Fabio; Tanganelli, Paolo

    2010-06-01

    Management of patients affected by chronic daily headache (CDH) with medication overuse constitutes one of the most important unresolved problems. The uncertainty regarding the classification and the prophylaxis are a remarkable part of this problem. Objectives are to: (1) to evaluate the efficacy of withdrawal therapy following prophylaxis with topiramate and amitriptyline in a population affected by CDH and medication overuse with follow-up at 1 (T1), 3 (T2) and 6 (T3) months; (2) to identify which group of the Silberstein's CDH classification (1994) may benefit from this protocol. Inclusion criteria are patients with CDH (headache for more >15 days/month for at least 3 consecutive months) and medication overuse according with IHS second edition (8.2 group); exclusion criteria are patients with secondary headache. All patients included in the study were hospitalized for 1 week. Type of overuse: combination of medications, 38%; analgesics, 29%; triptans, 29%; opioids, 2%; ergotamines, 2%. During hospitalization the following protocol was applied: desametasone 4 mg i.v./day for 1 week, diazepam 6 mg/day for 10 days and prophylaxis with amitriptylin plus topiramate. This prophylaxis was protracted for at least 6 months. The dosages assumed ranged for amitriptylin from 10 to 20 mg/day and for topiramate from 50 to 100 mg/day. In the last 4 years 105 patients with CDH (age 24-89 years; f 96; m 9) were admitted to the hospital. The protocol was applied in 52 patients (age, 29-65 years; f 49; m 3). At T1, 89% of the patients did not fall again into medication overuse; at T2, 64%; and at T3,45% of the patients remained free from overuse. According to the Silberstein' proposal at T1, 93% of the subjects was affected by transformed migraine; and 7% by tension-type headache. At T3, all the patients free from overuse were affected by transformed migraine. Our data suggest that the patients affected by CDH and medication overuse benefit from withdrawal therapy performed

  16. [The "stimulatory proteodyschylia" in the amitriptylin (Laroxyl) treated rat parotid gland. Experiments on the effect of antidepressive pharmacotherapy on the parotid glands of the rat (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Chilla, R; Hoffmann, G; Arglebe, C

    1977-06-30

    The activity of total amylase and isoamylases in the rat parotid gland is reduced by treatment with Amitriptylin (Laroxyl) for 3 and 7 days while the protein content of the glands remains constant. These changes are no longer visible after treatment for 21 days and following a period without drug application. To differentiate the disturbances of protein secretion (proteodyschylia) prominent in the clinical picture of sialadenosis, the following classification is proposed. We suggest the term "stimulatory proteodyschylia" for a decrease of acinar amylolytic activity, here caused by Amitriptylin application, as opposed to the "inhibitory proteodyschylia" characterized by an acinar amylase congestion.

  17. A comparative study of the efficacy and safety of mirtazapine versus amitriptyline in the treatment of major depression.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Anand; Chowdhary, Ashok; Jain, Mahendra

    2002-07-01

    A clinical trial was undertaken to evaluate the Anti depressant efficacy of Newer Antidepressant Mirtazapine in the treatment of major Depression in 39 patients in an O.P.D. setup. In addition to this clinical acceptability and safety profile of Mirtazapine as compared to that of Amitriptyline was also assessed. Mitazapine usually described as Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic Anti depressant (NaSSA). Patients aged 18-65 years who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for a single or recurrent major Depressive disorder (as defined by DSM IV) for a minimum of 2 weeks were enrolled at our study centre. Patient assessment were conducted at screening, baseline, end of week 1, week 2, week 3, week 4, week 5 & end of week 6 for the efficacy & safety Parameters; HRSD, CGI, Adverse event follow up, BP & Pulse. Three level statistical analysis were performed on all efficacy measures including ANOVA (An Analysis of variance). The result indicates that mirtazapine is effective in the treatment of major depression at the dosages range of 15-45 mg/day and it has efficacy equivalent to that of the standard TCA Amitriptyline, albeit, with a substantially better tolerability profile. PMID:21206581

  18. The effects of St. John's wort extract and amitriptyline on autonomic responses of blood vessels and sweat glands in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Siepmann, Martin; Kirch, Wilhelm; Krause, Stephanie; Joraschky, Peter; Mueck-Weymann, Michael

    2004-02-01

    St. John's wort extract is widely used and advertised as a "natural antidepressant" lacking autonomic side effects. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared the effects of St. John's wort extract on autonomic responses of blood vessels and sweat glands with those of amitriptyline and placebo. A randomized, double-blind, crossover study was performed in healthy male volunteers aged 22 to 31 years (25 +/- 3 years; mean +/- SD) years. Subjects orally received capsules with 255 to 285 mg St. John's wort extract (900 microg hypericin content), 25 mg amitriptyline, and placebo 3 times daily for periods of 14 days each with at least 14 days between. Vasoconstrictory response of cutaneous blood flow (VR) and skin conductance response (SR) following a single deep inspiration were employed as parameters of autonomic function. St. John's wort extract had no effect on VR and SR. In contrast, SR was diminished and the dilation phase of VR was prolonged following multiple dosing with amitriptyline (P < 0.05). Decreased electrodermal reactivity observed with amitriptyline reflects inhibition of acetylcholine at peripheral m3-cholinoreceptors, whereas prolongation of VR induced by the tricyclic drug may be due to sustained activation of central and/or peripheral sympathetic neurons.

  19. Effects of amitriptyline and intra-oral device appliance on clinical and laser-evoked potentials features in chronic tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, M; Shevel, E; Libro, G; Guido, M; Di Venere, D; Genco, S; Monetti, C; Serpino, C; Barile, G; Lamberti, P; Livrea, P

    2005-05-01

    In the present study, we examined clinical and laser-evoked potentials (LEP) features in two groups of chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) patients treated with two different approaches: intra-oral appliance of prosthesis, aiming to reduce muscular tenderness, and 10 mg daily amitriptyline. Eighteen patients suffering from CTTH (IHS, 2004) participated in the study. We performed a basal evaluation of clinical features and LEPs in all patients (T0) vs. 12 age- and sex-matched controls; successively, patients were randomly assigned to a two-month treatment by amitriptyline or intra-oral device appliance. The later LEPs, especially the P2 component, were significantly increased in amplitude in the CTTH group. Both the intra-oral prosthesis and amitriptyline significantly reduced headache frequency. Total Tenderness Score was significantly reduced in the group treated by the prosthesis. The amplitude of P2 response elicited by stimulation of pericranial zones showed a reduction after amitriptyline treatment. The results of this study may confirm that pericranial tenderness is primarily a phenomenon initiating a self-perpetuating circuit, favoured by central sensitisation at the level of the cortical nociceptive areas devoted to the attentive and emotive compounds of pain. Both the interventions at the peripheral and central levels may interrupt this reverberating circuit, improving the outcome of headache. PMID:15926017

  20. Effects of amitriptyline and intra-oral device appliance on clinical and laser-evoked potentials features in chronic tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, M; Shevel, E; Libro, G; Guido, M; Di Venere, D; Genco, S; Monetti, C; Serpino, C; Barile, G; Lamberti, P; Livrea, P

    2005-05-01

    In the present study, we examined clinical and laser-evoked potentials (LEP) features in two groups of chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) patients treated with two different approaches: intra-oral appliance of prosthesis, aiming to reduce muscular tenderness, and 10 mg daily amitriptyline. Eighteen patients suffering from CTTH (IHS, 2004) participated in the study. We performed a basal evaluation of clinical features and LEPs in all patients (T0) vs. 12 age- and sex-matched controls; successively, patients were randomly assigned to a two-month treatment by amitriptyline or intra-oral device appliance. The later LEPs, especially the P2 component, were significantly increased in amplitude in the CTTH group. Both the intra-oral prosthesis and amitriptyline significantly reduced headache frequency. Total Tenderness Score was significantly reduced in the group treated by the prosthesis. The amplitude of P2 response elicited by stimulation of pericranial zones showed a reduction after amitriptyline treatment. The results of this study may confirm that pericranial tenderness is primarily a phenomenon initiating a self-perpetuating circuit, favoured by central sensitisation at the level of the cortical nociceptive areas devoted to the attentive and emotive compounds of pain. Both the interventions at the peripheral and central levels may interrupt this reverberating circuit, improving the outcome of headache.

  1. Amitriptyline poisoning of a baby: how informative can hair analysis be?

    PubMed

    Allibe, Nathalie; Eysseric-Guerin, Hélène; Kintz, Pascal; Bartoli, Mireille; Bost-Bru, Cécile; Grenier, Florian; Scolan, Virginie; Stanke-Labesque, Françoise

    2015-04-01

    We reported a case of a 6-month-old baby girl who was hospitalized in the pediatric emergency for central nervous system disorders then coma. Toxicology analysis showed the presence of amitriptyline (AMI) and its metabolite nortriptyline (NOR) in blood and urine of the baby. Additional investigations suggested a shaken baby syndrome. Given the family context, a judge ordered hair tests for both the child and his parents to document drug exposure. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was then developed to quantify AMI and NOR in hair. After decontamination and segmentation, 20 mg of hair was incubated overnight at 55 °C in methanol (MeOH). The LC-MS/MS method used an online solid phase extraction and the analysis was performed using two transitions per compound. The LOQ and LOD for the two compounds were estimated at 0.0075 ng/mg and 0.005 ng/mg respectively. All hair segments tested for both parents were negative. For the baby two strands of hair were collected one day after the acute intoxication for the first and 5 weeks later for the second. The first strand was not decontaminated before analysis to avoid losing specimen. The high and relatively homogenous concentrations of AMI (with a range of value from 6.65 to 9.69 ng/mg) and NOR (with a range of value from 7.12 to 8.96 ng/mg) measured suggested that contamination could have occurred. The analysis of the second strand after decontamination allowed to detect AMI and NOR in all hair segments. The obtained values varied between 0.54 and 1.41 ng/mg for AMI and between 1.26 and 4.00 ng/mg for NOR. These results supported the hypothesis of a chronic exposure during several months before hair collection with regular increase. However a single overdose could not be totally excluded. The interpretation of results must take into account the pharmacological and physiological parameters of hair of the children.

  2. A novel strategy for spectrophotometric simultaneous determination of amitriptyline and nortriptyline based on derivation with a quinonoid compound in serum samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnoudian-Habibi, Amir; Massoumi, Bakhshali; Jaymand, Mehdi

    2016-11-01

    A novel and efficient strategy for the simultaneous determination of two tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) drugs [amitriptyline (AT), and its main metabolite (nortriptyline; NT)] via a combination of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE), and spectrophotometric techniques in serum is suggested. For this purpose, the imidazolium ionic liquid (Imz)-modified Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2-Imz) was employed as an adsorbent for the MSPE. Preconcentration (loading-desorption) studies were performed under optimized conditions including pH, adsorbent amount, contact time, eluent volume, and desorption time. Afterward, determination of each drug was carried out by specific strategy. Acetaldehyde (AC), and 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranil; CL) were used as chemical reagents for reaction with NT, while AT did not react with these reagents. This method is based on the condensation reaction between secondary amine group of NT and AC to afford an enamine, and subsequently reaction with CL to produce a chlorinated quinone-substituted enamine. The final product exhibited maximum absorption at 556 nm, while the AT was determined at 240 nm. The limits of detections (LODs) for NT and AT in serum sample were obtained as 0.19 and 0.90 ng mL- 1, respectively. The limits of quantifications (LOQs) were obtained to be 0.63 and 2.93 ng mL- 1 for NT and AT, respectively. A linear range was obtained to be 1 to 5 ng mL- 1. Results indicated that the suggested method is applicable for simultaneous determination of NT and AT in serum samples.

  3. Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, enhances the antidepressant activity of amitriptyline but not desipramine, in the forced swim test in mice.

    PubMed

    Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Wyska, Elżbieta; Poleszak, Ewa; Wlaź, Piotr

    2012-06-01

    The cholinergic theory of depression highlights the involvement of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the neurobiology of mood disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor which exhibits cholinomimetic properties, alone and in combination with scopolamine in the forced swim test in mice. Moreover, we assessed the ability of sildenafil to modify the antidepressant activity of two tricyclic antidepressants with distinct cholinolytic activity, amitriptyline and desipramine. Swim sessions were conducted by placing mice in glass cylinders filled with water for 6 min and the duration of behavioral immobility during the last 4 min of the test was evaluated. Locomotor activity was measured with photoresistor actimeters. To evaluate the potential pharmacokinetic interaction between amitriptyline and sildenafil, brain and serum concentrations of amitriptyline were determined by HPLC. Sildenafil (1.25-20 mg/kg) as well as scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) and its combination with sildenafil (1.25 mg/kg) did not affect the total immobility time duration. However, joint administration of scopolamine with sildenafil at doses of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg significantly reduced immobility time as compared to control group. Moreover, co-administration of scopolamine with sildenafil at the highest dose (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased immobility time as compared to scopolamine-treated group. Sildenafil (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the antidepressant activity of amitriptyline (5 mg/kg). No changes in anti-immobility action of desipramine (20 mg/kg) in combination with sildenafil (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) were observed. Sildenafil did not affect amitriptyline level in both brain and serum. In conclusion, the present study suggests that sildenafil may enhance the activity of antidepressant drugs which exhibit cholinolytic activity.

  4. Determination of citalopram, amitriptyline and clomipramine in plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rop, P P; Viala, A; Durand, A; Conquy, T

    1985-02-27

    The determination of citalopram, amitriptyline, clomipramine and their desmethyl metabolites after alkaline diethyl either extraction from plasma is achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography using two internal standards and mu Bondapak C18 as stationary phase. Elution is carried out isocratically at 0.5 or 1 ml/min with a mixture of acetonitrile-potassium dihydrogen phosphate-distilled water (45:50:5). Detection is monitored by absorption at 254 nm. The detection limit is less than 5 ng/ml for each compound. The coefficients of variation are between 1.3% and 9.4% for 8-360 ng/ml. Interference from 22 possible co-medications is discussed. The technique can be used for therapeutic monitoring of these antidepressants as well as in analytical toxicology. PMID:3860507

  5. Tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline activates fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling in glial cells: involvement in glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor production.

    PubMed

    Hisaoka, Kazue; Tsuchioka, Mami; Yano, Ryoya; Maeda, Natsuko; Kajitani, Naoto; Morioka, Norimitsu; Nakata, Yoshihiro; Takebayashi, Minoru

    2011-06-17

    Recently, both clinical and animal studies demonstrated neuronal and glial plasticity to be important for the therapeutic action of antidepressants. Antidepressants increase glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) production through monoamine-independent protein-tyrosine kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) activation in glial cells (Hisaoka, K., Takebayashi, M., Tsuchioka, M., Maeda, N., Nakata, Y., and Yamawaki, S. (2007) J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 321, 148-157; Hisaoka, K., Maeda, N., Tsuchioka, M., and Takebayashi, M. (2008) Brain Res. 1196, 53-58). This study clarifies the type of tyrosine kinase and mechanism of antidepressant-induced GDNF production in C6 glioma cells and normal human astrocytes. The amitriptyline (a tricyclic antidepressant)-induced ERK activation was specifically and completely inhibited by fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors and siRNA for FGFR1 and -2. Treatment with amitriptyline or several different classes of antidepressants, but not non-antidepressants, acutely increased the phosphorylation of FGFRs and FGFR substrate 2α (FRS2α). Amitriptyline-induced CREB phosphorylation and GDNF production were blocked by FGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Therefore, antidepressants activate the FGFR/FRS2α/ERK/CREB signaling cascade, thus resulting in GDNF production. Furthermore, we attempted to elucidate how antidepressants activate FGFR signaling. The effect of amitriptyline was inhibited by heparin, non-permeant FGF-2 neutralizing antibodies, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors. Serotonin (5-HT) also increased GDNF production through FGFR2 (Tsuchioka, M., Takebayashi, M., Hisaoka, K., Maeda, N., and Nakata, Y. (2008) J. Neurochem. 106, 244-257); however, the effect of 5-HT was not inhibited by heparin and MMP inhibitors. These results suggest that amitriptyline-induced FGFR activation might occur through an extracellular pathway

  6. A double-hit model of stress dysregulation in rats: implications for limbic corticosteroid receptors and anxious behavior under amitriptyline treatment.

    PubMed

    Cotella, Evelin M; Durando, Patricia E; Suárez, Marta M

    2014-05-01

    Adversity during early life can lead to diverging endocrine and behavioral responses to stress in adulthood. In our laboratory, we evaluated the long-term effects of early life adversity and its interaction with chronic stress during adulthood. We propose this as a model of vulnerability to dysregulation of the stress response. We hypothesized that rats subjected to both protocols would show differential expression of corticosteroid receptors measured as number of neurons immunoreactive for glucocorticoid receptors (GR) or mineralocorticoid receptors (MR), in limbic areas related to the control of anxiety-like behavior. We also evaluated the effect of amitriptyline expecting to prevent the outcomes of the model. Male Wistar rats were separated from the mother (MS) for 4.5 h every day for the first 3 weeks of life. From postnatal day 50, rats were subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS) during 24 d (five types of stressor at different times of day). During the stress protocol, the rats were administered amitriptyline (10 mg/kg i.p.) daily. MS evoked lower MR expression in the central amygdaloid nucleus and this was reversed by amitriptyline. Furthermore, CVS increased MR immunoreactivity in the hippocampal area CA2 and increased anxious behavior; both effects were prevented by the antidepressant. When MS was combined with CVS during adulthood, there was a reduction of locomotor activity, with no corrective effect of amitriptyline. The differential effects among groups could mean that MS would promote an alternative phenotype that is expressed when facing CVS (a double hit) later in life.

  7. Linezolid Is Associated with Serotonin Syndrome in a Patient Receiving Amitriptyline, and Fentanyl: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Savvari, Paraskevi; Kontogiannis, Sofoklis

    2013-01-01

    We report a unique case of an adverse interaction between the oxazolidinone antibiotic linezolid, the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline and the opioid analgesic fentanyl in a 68-year-old woman with advanced ischemic peripheral arterial disease and sepsis, under empirical antibiotic treatment. We also summarize the current relevant literature as identified via PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO as well as reference sections of selected articles. PMID:23533900

  8. Immobility time during the forced swimming test predicts sensitivity to amitriptyline, whereas traveled distance in the circular corridor indicates resistance to treatment in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Flores-Serrano, Ana G; Zaldívar-Rae, Jaime; Salgado, Humberto; Pineda, Juan C

    2015-03-25

    Among the main issues in the pharmacological treatment of depression are the wide variation in response to antidepressants among individual patients and the lack of indexes that allow prediction of which drug will be effective in a particular case. We evaluated whether differential sensitivity to amitriptyline is related to dichotomous categorization of individuals on the basis of their behavioral responses to two common paradigms used to evaluate the potential of tricyclic drugs as antidepressants. Hence, we categorized a cohort of 38 female rats on the basis of their immobility time in the conditioning phase of the forced swimming test [FST; high immobility (HI) vs. low immobility (LI) rats] and their locomotor behavior in the circular corridor test [high locomotor response (HR) vs. low locomotor response (LR) rats]. We subjected the rodents to the FST while under the influence of vehicle (n=20) or amitriptyline (15 mg/kg; n=18). We found no statistical evidence of dependence between categorizations of rats on the basis of their behavior in the FST and circular corridor test. Rats categorized as HI/LI and HR/LR significantly differed in their sensitivity/resistance to amitriptyline, as evidenced by changes (or lack thereof) in their immobility time, climbing time, and swimming time during the FST. These results confirm that different behavioral styles among rats are linked to differential sensitivity/resistance to antidepressants. However, we specifically found that categorizing rats as HI/LI better reflected sensitivity to amitriptyline, whereas categorizing them as HR/LR better revealed resistance to the drug. These differential responses should be considered in experimental approaches. PMID:25646581

  9. Immobility time during the forced swimming test predicts sensitivity to amitriptyline, whereas traveled distance in the circular corridor indicates resistance to treatment in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Flores-Serrano, Ana G; Zaldívar-Rae, Jaime; Salgado, Humberto; Pineda, Juan C

    2015-03-25

    Among the main issues in the pharmacological treatment of depression are the wide variation in response to antidepressants among individual patients and the lack of indexes that allow prediction of which drug will be effective in a particular case. We evaluated whether differential sensitivity to amitriptyline is related to dichotomous categorization of individuals on the basis of their behavioral responses to two common paradigms used to evaluate the potential of tricyclic drugs as antidepressants. Hence, we categorized a cohort of 38 female rats on the basis of their immobility time in the conditioning phase of the forced swimming test [FST; high immobility (HI) vs. low immobility (LI) rats] and their locomotor behavior in the circular corridor test [high locomotor response (HR) vs. low locomotor response (LR) rats]. We subjected the rodents to the FST while under the influence of vehicle (n=20) or amitriptyline (15 mg/kg; n=18). We found no statistical evidence of dependence between categorizations of rats on the basis of their behavior in the FST and circular corridor test. Rats categorized as HI/LI and HR/LR significantly differed in their sensitivity/resistance to amitriptyline, as evidenced by changes (or lack thereof) in their immobility time, climbing time, and swimming time during the FST. These results confirm that different behavioral styles among rats are linked to differential sensitivity/resistance to antidepressants. However, we specifically found that categorizing rats as HI/LI better reflected sensitivity to amitriptyline, whereas categorizing them as HR/LR better revealed resistance to the drug. These differential responses should be considered in experimental approaches.

  10. Amitriptyline Activates TrkA to Aid Neuronal Growth and Attenuate Anesthesia-Induced Neurodegeneration in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaochun; Chen, Feng; Zheng, Ting; Huang, Fengyi; Chen, Jianghu; Tu, Wenshao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline (AM) has been shown to exert neurotrophic activity on neurons. We thus explored whether AM may aid the neuronal development and protect anesthesia-induced neuro-injury in young spinal cord dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The DRG explants were prepared from 1-day-old rats. The effect of AM on aiding DRG neural development was examined by immunohistochemistry at dose-dependent manner. AM-induced changes in gene and protein expressions, and also phosphorylation states of tyrosine kinases receptor A (TrkA) and B (TrkB) in DRG, were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The effect of AM on attenuating lidocaine-induced DRG neurodegeneration was examined by immunohistochemistry, and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated TrkA/B down-regulation. Amitriptyline stimulated DRG neuronal development in dose-dependent manner, but exerted toxic effect at concentrations higher than 10 M. AM activated TrkA in DRG through phosphorylation, whereas it had little effect on TrkB-signaling pathway. AM reduced lidocaine-induced DRG neurodegeneration by regenerating neurites and growth cones. Moreover, the neuroprotection of AM on lidocaine-injured neurodegeneration was blocked by siRNA-mediated TrkA down-regulation, but not by TrkB down-regulation. Amitriptyline facilitated neuronal development and had protective effect on lidocaine-induced neurodegeneration, very likely through the activation of TrkA-signaling pathway in DRG. PMID:27149473

  11. The influence of microglia activation on the efficacy of amitriptyline, doxepin, milnacipran, venlafaxine and fluoxetine in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Zychowska, Magdalena; Rojewska, Ewelina; Makuch, Wioletta; Przewlocka, Barbara; Mika, Joanna

    2015-02-15

    The analgesic properties of antidepressants are often used in the treatment of neuropathy; however their influence on glial cells in maintaining neuropathic pain is unknown. Our studies examined the neuropathic pain-relieving properties after intraperitoneal injection of amitriptyline, doxepin, milnacipran, venlafaxine and fluoxetine 7 days after sciatic nerve injury (CCI) in rats and its influence on microglia/macrophages (IBA-1) and astroglia (GFAP) activation in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) using Western blot. All tested antidepressants significantly reduced CCI-induced allodynia but hyperalgesia was only antagonised by fluoxetine, doxepine and venlafaxine. The strongest analgesia was observed after fluoxetine administration. Western blot analysis showed the upregulation of the IBA-1 in the lumbar spinal cord and DRG after amitriptyline or milnacipran administration in CCI-exposed rats, whereas after fluoxetine the downregulation was observed. The administration of doxepin did not change the IBA-1 protein level in both studied structures; however venlafaxine decreased the IBA-1 only in the DRG. No changes in the GFAP level in both structures were observed after any of listed above antidepressants administration. Chronic minocycline treatment enhanced amitriptyline and milnacipran, but did not fluoxetine analgesia under neuropathic pain in rats. Our results suggest that nerve injury-induced pain is related with the activation of microglia, which is diminished by fluoxetine treatment in the neuropathic pain model. PMID:25460025

  12. Spectrophotometric determination of trazodone, amineptine and amitriptyline hydrochlorides through ion-pair formation with molybdenum and thiocyanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; Nour El-Dien, F. A.; Khalil, S. M.; Mohamed, Nehad A.

    2006-12-01

    Extraction spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of tricyclic drugs such as trazodone (TZH), amineptine (APH) and amitriptyline (ATPH) hydrochlorides in pure form and in the dosage forms coming from different Egyptian markets. The method based on the formation of ion-pairs between these drugs under investigation and inorganic complex of Mo(V)-thiocyanate followed by its extraction with methylene chloride. The optimum conditions for the ion-pairs formation are established. The method permits the determination of TZH, APH and ATPH over the concentration range of 2-28, 2-32 and 1-30 μg ml -1, respectively. The Sandell sensitivity ( S) is found to be 0.105, 0.138 and 0.118 g cm -2 for TZH, APH and ATPH, respectively. The SD is found to be 0.16-0.377, 0.12-0.259 and 0.091-0.286 and the R.S.D. are 0.14-0.55, 0.12-0.399 and 0.095-0.485 for TZH, APH and ATPH, respectively. The method is applicable for the assay of the investigated drugs in different dosage forms and the results are in good agreement with those obtained by the official method.

  13. Nefazodone in psychotic unipolar and bipolar depression: a retrospective chart analysis and open prospective study on its efficacy and safety versus combined treatment with amitriptyline and haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Grunze, Heinz; Marcuse, Alain; Schärer, Lars O; Born, Christoph; Walden, Jörg

    2002-01-01

    Although atypical antipsychotics are on the rise, traditional treatment of psychotic (or delusional) depression mostly includes the addition of classical antipsychotics to antidepressants. As there are only few data supporting this approach compared with antidepressant monotherapy, and almost no data comparing it with antidepressants of the latest generation, we conducted a retrospective chart analysis and a prospective, randomized open study on the efficacy and tolerability of nefazodone monotherapy versus combined treatment with amitriptyline and haloperidol in psychotic depression. The results suggest that the addition of classical antipsychotics should be reserved for those with very severe psychotic symptoms, but may not be needed in milder forms.

  14. Hair analysis to demonstrate administration of amitriptyline, temazepam, tramadol and dihydrocodeine to a child in a case of kidnap and false imprisonment.

    PubMed

    Chatterton, Craig; Kintz, Pascal

    2014-03-01

    Amitriptyline, temazepam, tramadol and dihydrocodeine are prescription-only-medications that are rarely prescribed to children. Each of these drugs has a sedative effect on the central nervous system; their combined use could cause an exacerbation of the sedative effects. Amitriptyline (a tricyclic antidepressant) can be prescribed to treat nocturnal enuresis; temazepam (a hypnotic) can be used as a premedicant in inpatient and day-case surgery; tramadol (a synthetic opioid analgesic) is used to treat moderate or severe pain, though it is not recommended for children under the age of 12 years and dihydrocodeine (opioid analgesic), which is available in combination with acetaminophen (Co-dydramol), is not recommended for children under the age of 4 years; in children over 4 years, a reduced dose is necessary. The North West Forensic Science Service Laboratory, Euxton, Lancashire, was asked by a British police force to analyze three separate hair samples, which had been collected from a young child following their discovery as a result of a large scale kidnap and false imprisonment investigation. After decontamination and segmentation (20 x 1-cm section), two of the three hair specimens were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry after alkaline (pH 9.5) extraction using methylene chloride/isopropanol/n-heptane (25:10:65, v/v/v). The entire length of each hair specimen tested positive for amitriptyline and nortriptyline (7-314 pg/mg amitriptyline; 7-318 pg/mg nortriptyline), temazepam (2-29 pg/mg), tramadol (60-2000 pg/mg) and dihydrocodeine (10-90 pg/mg) demonstrating that the child had ingested these drugs on more than one occasion prior to the kidnap. In this case, the child's mother and the mothers' partner were found guilty of kidnap, false imprisonment and perverting the course of justice. There are very few studies citing the concentrations of these drugs in children - especially children's hair samples. This case demonstrates

  15. Tricyclic Antidepressant Amitriptyline Indirectly Increases the Proliferation of Adult Dentate Gyrus-Derived Neural Precursors: An Involvement of Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Boku, Shuken; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Nakagawa, Shin; Kato, Akiko; Kajitani, Naoto; Inoue, Takeshi; Kusumi, Ichiro; Takebayashi, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Antidepressants increase the proliferation of neural precursors in adult dentate gyrus (DG), which is considered to be involved in the therapeutic action of antidepressants. However, the mechanism underlying it remains unclear. By using cultured adult rat DG-derived neural precursors (ADP), we have already shown that antidepressants have no direct effects on ADP. Therefore, antidepressants may increase the proliferation of neural precursors in adult DG via unknown indirect mechanism. We have also shown that amitriptyline (AMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, induces the expressions of GDNF, BDNF, FGF2 and VEGF, common neurogenic factors, in primary cultured astrocytes (PCA). These suggest that AMI-induced factors in astrocytes may increase the proliferation of neural precursors in adult DG. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of AMI-induced factors and conditioned medium (CM) from PCA treated with AMI on ADP proliferation. The effects of CM and factors on ADP proliferation were examined with BrdU immunocytochemistry. AMI had no effect on ADP proliferation, but AMI-treated CM increased it. The receptors of GDNF, BDNF and FGF2, but not VEGF, were expressed in ADP. FGF2 significantly increased ADP proliferation, but not BDNF and GDNF. In addition, both of a specific inhibitor of FGF receptors and anti-FGF2 antibody significantly counteracted the increasing effect of CM on ADP proliferation. In addition, FGF2 in brain is mainly derived from astrocytes that are key components of the neurogenic niches in adult DG. These suggest that AMI may increase ADP proliferation indirectly via PCA and that FGF2 may a potential candidate to mediate such an indirect effect of AMI on ADP proliferation via astrocytes. PMID:24260208

  16. Amitriptyline and carbamazepine utilize voltage-gated ion channel suppression to impair excitability of sensory dorsal horn neurons in thin tissue slice: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Matthias; Czorlich, Patrick; Nagaraj, Chandran; Schnöbel-Ehehalt, Rose; Li, Yingji; Kwapiszewska, Grazyna; Olschewski, Horst; Heschl, Stefan; Olschewski, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Amitriptyline, carbamazepine and gabapentin are often used for the treatment of neuropathic pain. However, their analgesic action on central sensory neurons is still not fully understood. Moreover, the expression pattern of their target ion channels is poorly elucidated in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Thus, we performed patch-clamp investigations in visualized neurons of lamina I-III of the spinal cord. The expression of the different voltage-gated ion channels, as the targets of these drugs, was detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Neurons of the lamina I-III express the TTX-sensitive voltage-gated Na(+) as well as voltage-gated K(+) subunits assembling the fast inactivating (A-type) currents and the delayed rectifier K(+) currents. Our pharmacological studies show that tonically-firing, adapting-firing and single spike neurons responded dose-dependently to amitriptyline and carbamazepine. The ion channel inhibition consecutively reduced the firing rate of tonically-firing and adapting-firing neurons. This study provides evidence for the distribution of voltage-gated Na(+) and K(+) subunits in lamina I-III of the spinal cord and for the action of drugs used for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Our work confirms that modulation of voltage-gated ion channels in the central nervous system contributes to the antinociceptive effects of these drugs. PMID:26945616

  17. Preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial carried out with a fixed combination of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and betaine versus amitriptyline in patients with mild depression

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Settembre, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), a safe, endogenous, pleiotropic methyl donor well known for its antidepressant role, has been assumed to have a possible role in increasing plasma levels of compounds known to be able to raise cardiovascular risk. Although the issue is still being debated, betaine (trimethylglycine), a specific methyl donor involved in the homocysteine circuit, may be able to reduce such a risk and/or, by determining a sparing effect on endogenous SAMe, may be able to improve the clinical efficiency of SAMe itself. Indeed, preliminary results have shown clinical improvement determined by an add-on therapy with betaine administered along with SAMe, versus SAMe alone, to patients affected by mild/moderate depression. Aim To evaluate the safety and antidepressant role played by the association of SAMe plus betaine versus amitriptyline administered in untreated individuals with a recent diagnosis of mild depression. Methods This small, open-label, randomized, observational study enrolled 64 individuals with a diagnosis of mild depression according to the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. After randomization, they were treated with either Laroxyl® (amitriptyline, 75 mg/day) or DDM Metile® (enteric-coated SAMe, 500 mg/day, plus betaine, 250 mg/day) for 12 months. Assessment of clinical scores and tolerability was performed at T=0 and after 3, 6, and 12 months. Results After 3 months, both treatments showed a small and not statistically significant improvement. After 6 and 12 months, both treated groups demonstrated a more noticeable improved response, although the group treated with SAMe plus betaine showed better results in terms of score, number of individuals in remission, and side effects. Compliance was overlapping in both treatments. Conclusion The association of SAMe plus betaine seems to be a safe and effective tool to counteract mild depression and also when used as monotherapy in subjects with a recent diagnosis. PMID:25678811

  18. Amitriptyline improves motor function via enhanced neurotrophin signaling and mitochondrial functions in the murine N171-82Q Huntington disease model.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wei-Na; Chadwick, Wayne; Wang, Rui; Daimon, Caitlin M; Cai, Huan; Amma, Jennifer; Wood, William H; Becker, Kevin G; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart

    2015-01-30

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor impairment and cognitive alterations. Hereditary HD is primarily caused by the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin (Htt) gene, which results in the production of mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) with an expanded amino-terminal polyglutamine (poly(Q)) stretch. Besides pathological mHTT aggregation, reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, impaired neurotrophin signaling, and compromised mitochondrial functions also contribute to the deleterious progressive etiology of HD. As a well tolerated Food and Drug Administration-approved antidepressant, amitriptyline (AMI) has shown efficacy in treating neurodegenerative murine models via potentiation of BDNF levels and amelioration of alterations in neurotrophin signaling pathways. In this study, we observed profound improvements in the motor coordination of AMI-treated N171-82Q HD model mice. The beneficial effects of AMI treatment were associated with its ability to reduce mHTT aggregation, potentiation of the BDNF-TrkB signaling system, and support of mitochondrial integrity and functionality. Our study not only provides preclinical evidence for the therapeutic potency of AMI in treating HD, but it also represents an important example of the usefulness of additional pharmacogenomic profiling of pre-existing drugs for novel therapeutic effects with often intractable pathological scenarios.

  19. Valproate and Amitriptyline Exert Common and Divergent Influences on Global and Gene Promoter-Specific Chromatin Modifications in Rat Primary Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Perisic, Tatjana; Zimmermann, Nicole; Kirmeier, Thomas; Asmus, Maria; Tuorto, Francesca; Uhr, Manfred; Holsboer, Florian; Rein, Theo; Zschocke, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant biochemical processes in the brain frequently go along with subtle shifts of the cellular epigenetic profile that might support the pathogenic progression of psychiatric disorders. Although recent reports have implied the ability of certain antidepressants and mood stabilizers to modulate epigenetic parameters, studies comparing the actions of these compounds under the same conditions are lacking. In this study, we screened amitriptyline (AMI), venlafaxine, citalopram, as well as valproic acid (VPA), carbamazepine, and lamotrigine for their potential actions on global and local epigenetic modifications in rat primary astrocytes. Among all drugs, VPA exposure evoked the strongest global chromatin modifications, including histone H3/H4 hyperacetylation, 2MeH3K9 hypomethylation, and DNA demethylation, as determined by western blot and luminometric methylation analysis, respectively. CpG demethylation occurred independently of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) suppression. Strikingly, AMI also induced slight cytosine demethylation, paralleled by the reduction in DNMT enzymatic activity, without affecting the global histone acetylation status. Locally, VPA-induced chromatin modifications were reflected at the glutamate transporter (GLT-1) promoter as shown by bisulfite sequencing and acetylated histone H4 chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. Distinct CpG sites in the distal part of the GLT-1 promoter were demethylated and enriched in acetylated histone H4 in response to VPA. For the first time, we could show that these changes were associated with an enhanced transcription of this astrocyte-specific gene. In contrast, AMI failed to stimulate GLT-1 transcription and to alter promoter methylation levels. In conclusion, VPA and AMI globally exerted chromatin-modulating activities using different mechanisms that divergently precipitated at an astroglial gene locus. PMID:19924110

  20. Therapeutic concentrations of valproate but not amitriptyline increase neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression in the human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Lorna A; Savage, Niall T P; O'Callaghan, Cristina; Toulouse, André; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz M

    2013-09-10

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a peptide found in the brain and autonomic nervous system, which is associated with anxiety, depression, epilepsy, learning and memory, sleep, obesity and circadian rhythms. NPY has recently gained much attention as an endogenous antiepileptic and antidepressant agent, as drugs with antiepileptic and/or mood-stabilizing properties may exert their action by increasing NPY concentrations, which in turn can reduce anxiety and depression levels, dampen seizures or increase seizure threshold. We have used human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells to investigate the effect of valproate (VPA) and amitriptyline (AMI) on NPY expression at therapeutic plasma concentrations of 0.6mM and 630nM, respectively. In addition, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) known to differentiate SH-SY5Y cells into a neuronal phenotype and to increase NPY expression through activation of protein kinase C (PKC) was applied as a positive control (16nM). Cell viability after drug treatment was tested with a 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. NPY expression was measured using immunofluorescence and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Results from immunocytochemistry have shown NPY levels to be significantly increased following a 72h but not 24h VPA treatment. A further increase in expression was observed with simultaneous VPA and TPA treatment, suggesting that the two agents may increase NPY expression through different mechanisms. The increase in NPY mRNA by VPA and TPA was confirmed with qRT-PCR after 72h. In contrast, AMI had no effect on NPY expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Together, the data point to an elevation of human NPY mRNA and peptide levels by therapeutic concentrations of VPA following chronic treatment. Thus, upregulation of NPY may have an impact in anti-cancer treatment of neuroblastomas with VPA, and antagonizing hypothalamic NPY effects may help to ameliorate VPA-induced weight gain and obesity without interfering with the

  1. Mirtazepine: heir apparent to amitriptyline?

    PubMed

    Davis, M P; Dickerson, E D; Pappagallo, M; Benedetti, C; Grauer, P A; Lycan, J

    2001-01-01

    "What's new in therapeutics?" will examine and evaluate drugs that may have a place in hospice, palliative, and long-term care. Mirtazepine will be examined and evaluated. Mirtazepine is a potential alternative anti-depressant with multiple additional benefits. It is an atypical anti-depressant, which has both noradrenergic and specific serotonergic receptor antagonism (NaSSa), and a unique pharmacological profile. Mirtazepine appears to be a "designer drug" for palliative medicine with a number of benefits, but cost may be a drawback. PMID:11406877

  2. Project Produce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfinger, Donna M.

    2005-01-01

    The grocery store produce section used to be a familiar but rather dull place. There were bananas next to the oranges next to the limes. Broccoli was next to corn and lettuce. Apples and pears, radishes and onions, eggplants and zucchinis all lay in their appropriate bins. Those days are over. Now, broccoli may be next to bok choy, potatoes beside…

  3. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  4. Vehicle gas producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donath, E. E.

    1980-05-01

    The present petroleum supply situation with the possibility of unscheduled interruptions and the definite expectation of continued price increases calls for an investigation of the use of solid fuels for the propulsion of vehicles. The paper reviews the use of solid fuel gas producers with high thermal efficiency on motor vehicles, especially trucks and buses. Some economic comparisons are presented for pre-World War II conditions. Suggestions are made for possible future development of vehicle gas producers. The types of producers are described, along with their performance, special problems, and the importance of fuel properties.

  5. Naturally produced carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco-Santos, C.; Martínez-Hernández, A. L.; Consultchi, A.; Rodríguez, R.; Castaño, V. M.

    2003-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes represent an impressive kind of materials with diverse unexpected properties, and different methods to artificially produce them have been developed. Recently, they have also been synthesized at low temperatures, demonstrating that these materials might exist in fluids or carbon rocks of the Earth's crust. A new type of natural encapsulated carbon nanotubes found in a coal-petroleum mix is presented. These findings show that all allotropic carbon forms known up to date can be produced in Nature, where pressure, catalysts particles, shear stress and parameters other than exclusively very high temperature, seem to play an important role for producing nanotubes.

  6. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-01-14

    This patent relates to a method of producing neutrons in which there is produced a heated plasma containing heavy hydrogen isotope ions wherein heated ions are injected and confined in an elongated axially symmetric magnetic field having at least one magnetic field gradient region. In accordance with the method herein, the amplitude of the field and gradients are varied at an oscillatory periodic frequency to effect confinement by providing proper ratios of rotational to axial velocity components in the motion of said particles. The energetic neutrons may then be used as in a blanket zone containing a moderator and a source fissionable material to produce heat and thermal neutron fissionable materials. (AEC)

  7. Manufacturing and producibility technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, J. D.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Activities of the manufacturing/producibility working group within the Advanced High-Pressure O2/H2 Technology Program are summarized. The objectives of the M/P working group are: to develop and evaluate process and manufacturing techniques for advanced propulsion hardware design and selected materials; and to optimize the producibility of (SSME) components and assemblies by improved performance, increased life, greater reliability, and/or reduced cost. The technologies being developed include: plasma arc, laser, and inertia welding; combustion chamber and turbine blade coatings; coating processes; high performance alloy electroforming; and process control technology.

  8. Producing CD-ROMs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyams, Peter, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue presents 11 articles that address issues relating to the production of CD-ROMs. Highlights include current uses of CD-ROM; standards; steps involved in producing CD-ROMs, including data capture, conversion, and tagging, product design, and indexing; authoring; selecting indexing and retrieval software; costs; multimedia CD-ROMs; and…

  9. Top Hispanic Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M.H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy students at the Indiana University Bloomington. For the year 2012, the listings focus on Hispanic students. Data for…

  10. Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Yohei; Paterson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) were almost nonexistent up to the 1990s, but are today encountered routinely in hospitals and other healthcare facilities in many countries including the United States. KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was the first to emerge and spread globally and is endemic in the United States, Israel, Greece, and Italy. Recently, NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae and OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae appear to be disseminating from South Asia and Northern Africa, respectively. They are almost always resistant to all β-lactams including carbapenems and many other classes. Mortality from invasive CPE infections reaches up to 40%. To obtain the maximal benefit from the limited options available, dosing of antimicrobial agents should be optimized based on pharmacokinetic data, especially for colistin and carbapenems. In addition, multiple observational studies have associated combination antimicrobial therapy with lower mortality compared with monotherapy for these infections. The outcomes appear to be especially favorable when patients are treated with a carbapenem and a second agent such as colistin, tigecycline, and gentamicin, but the best approach is yet to be defined. PMID:25643272

  11. PRODUCING HIGH CORN YIELDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL ON CORN PRODUCTION FOR HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY A STATE LEVEL GROUP OF SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CONFRONT CORN PRODUCERS AT PLANTING TIME. THE SUBJECT MATTER CONCERNS PLANTING TIME, DEPTH, ROW WIDTH,…

  12. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-03-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a 'green' product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  13. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A. M.; Facio, Dario S.; Mosquera, Maria J.

    2016-03-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  14. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-02-01

    A method for producing neutrons is described in which there is employed a confinement zone defined between longitudinally spaced localized gradient regions of an elongated magnetic field. Changed particles and neutralizing electrons, more specifically deuterons and tritons and neutralizng electrons, are injected into the confinement field from ion sources located outside the field. The rotational energy of the parrticles is increased at the gradients by imposing an oscillating transverse electrical field thereacross. The imposition of such oscillating transverse electrical fields improves the reflection capability of such gradient fielda so that the reactive particles are retained more effectively within the zone. With the attainment of appropriate densities of plasma particles and provided that such particles are at a sufficiently high temperature, neutron-producing reactions ensue and large quantities of neutrons emerge from the containment zone. (AEC)

  15. Process for producing silicon

    DOEpatents

    Olson, J.M.; Carleton, K.L.

    1982-06-10

    A process of producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  16. Method of producing imines

    DOEpatents

    Sithambaram, Shanthakumar; Son, Young-Chan; Suib, Steven L.

    2008-04-08

    A method for forming an imine comprises reacting a first reactant comprising a hydroxyl functionality, a carbonyl functionality, or both a hydroxyl functionality and a carbonyl functionality with a second reactant having an amine functionality in the presence of ordered porous manganese-based octahedral molecular sieves and an oxygen containing gas at a temperature and for a time sufficient for the imine to be produced.

  17. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  18. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  19. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  20. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  1. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  2. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, E.O.

    1958-09-16

    Improvements are presented in calutron devices and, more specifically, dealswith an improved mounting arrangement fer the ion source of the calutron. An important feature of the invention resides in a pluraiity of insulators so mounted as to be accessible from the exterior of the calutron tank and supporting at their inner ends the ion source. These insutators are arranged in mutually parallel relation and also parallel to the flux of the nmgnetic field, whereby the strain of the supporting elements is reduced to a minimum. In addition the support assembly is secured to a removable wall portion of the task to facilitate withdrawal and examination of the ion producing mechanism.

  3. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Backus, J.G.

    1958-09-01

    This patent relates to improvements in calutron devices and particularly describes a novel ion source. The unique feature of this source lies in the shaping of the ionizing electron stream to conform to the arc plasma boundary at the exit slit of the ionization chamber, thereby increasing the ion density produced at the plasma boundary. The particular structure consists of an electron source disposed at onc end of an elongated ionization chambcr and a coilimating electrode positioned to trim the electron stream to a crescent shape before entering the ionization chamber.

  4. Consuming Research, Producing Policy?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Robert G.; Stoddart, Greg L.

    2003-01-01

    The authors’ 1990 article “Producing Health, Consuming Health Care” presented a conceptual framework for synthesizing a rapidly growing body of findings on the nonmedical determinants of health. The article received a very positive response, and here the authors reflect on what lessons might be learned from that response about the style or content of effective interdisciplinary communication. Much substantive knowledge has been accumulated since 1990, and a number of different frameworks have been developed before and since. The authors situate theirs within this literature and consider how they might have modified it if they “knew then what they know now.” They ask what impact this article, and the much broader stream of research on the determinants of health, has had on public policy? PMID:12604475

  5. APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING SHADOWGRAPHS

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, R.R.

    1959-08-11

    An apparatus is presented for obtaining shadowgraphs or radiographs of an object exposed to x rays or the like. The device includes the combination of a cloud chamber having the interior illuminated and a portion thereof transparent to light rays and x'rays, a controlled source of x rays spaced therefrom, photographic recording disposed laterally of the linear path intermediate the source and the chamber portion in oblique angularity in aspect to the path. The object to be studied is disposed intermediate the x-ray source and chamber in the linear path to provide an x-ray transmission barrier therebetween. The shadowgraph is produced in the cloud chamber in response to initiation of the x- ray source and recorded photographically.

  6. Process for producing ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

    1993-07-27

    A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

  7. ION PRODUCING MECHANISMS

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W.M.

    1959-02-10

    Ion generating means and means for producing ions of material for isotopic separation are discussed. One feature of the invention resides in providing a heater means located in the source block approximately equidistant from a charge reservoir and an arc chamber, whereby the heat distribution in the block is such as to avoid overheating and to maintain the temperature of the various critical localities of the unit at their optimum values. Another feature consists of a pair of plates disposed on either side of the arc chamber exit opening to define a narrow slit for the egression of the ion beam. When the adjacent edges of the plates have become worn, the plates may be detached and reversed to use the opposite edges thereof to define the exit opening.

  8. Insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Insa S; Kania, Gabriela; Blyszczuk, Przemyslaw; Wobus, Anna M

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells offer great potential for cell replacement and tissue engineering therapies because of their almost unlimited proliferation capacity and the potential to differentiate into cellular derivatives of all three primary germ layers. This chapter describes a strategy for the in vitro differentiation of mouse ES cells into insulin-producing cells. The three-step protocol does not select for nestin-expressing cells as performed in previous differentiation systems. It includes (1) the spontaneous differentiation of ES cells via embryoid bodies and (2) the formation of progenitor cells of all three primary germ layers (multilineage progenitors) followed by (3) directed differentiation into the pancreatic lineage. The application of growth and extracellular matrix factors, including laminin, nicotinamide, and insulin, leads to the development of committed pancreatic progenitors, which subsequently differentiate into islet-like clusters that release insulin in response to glucose. During differentiation, transcript levels of pancreas-specific transcription factors (i.e., Pdx1, Pax4) and of genes specific for early and mature beta cells, including insulin, islet amyloid pancreatic peptide, somatostatin, and glucagon, are upregulated. C-peptide/insulin-positive islet-like clusters are formed, which release insulin in response to high glucose concentrations at terminal stages. The differentiated cells reveal functional properties with respect to voltage-activated Na+ and ATP-modulated K+ channels and normalize blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-treated diabetic mice. In conclusion, we demonstrate the efficient differentiation of murine ES cells into insulin-producing cells, which may help in the future to establish ES cell-based therapies in diabetes mellitus.

  9. Process for thermochemically producing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.; Richardson, Donald M.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen is produced by the reaction of water with chromium sesquioxide and strontium oxide. The hydrogen producing reaction is combined with other reactions to produce a closed chemical cycle for the thermal decomposition of water.

  10. Producing VOT contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofqvist, Anders

    2001-05-01

    The development of voice onset time (VOT) as an acoustic index for studying and classifying stop consonants also prompted a large number of studies examining laryngeal activity and interarticulator timing related to VOT. A collaboration between the Research Institute of Logopedics and Phoniatrics at the University of Tokyo and Haskins Laboratories resulted in a long line of studies using electromyographic and other techniques that provided much of the empirical foundations for what we know about laryngeal function in speech, in particular the production of voiced and voiceless consonants. This presentation will review the articulatory control of VOT differences. To make a consonant voiceless, a speaker uses a combination of glottal abduction and vocal fold tensing. The distinction between voiceless stops with long and short VOT is basically due to a difference in the timing between the glottal abduction gesture and the oral closing and opening gestures. Variations in the size of the glottal gesture also occur. More generally, variations in interarticulator timing between glottal and oral movements are used to produce the different stop categories that occur in the languages of the world. [Work supported by NIH.

  11. Method for producing capsular polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Roger G. (Inventor); Petersen, Gene R. (Inventor); Richards, Gil F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides are produced by mutant bacteria. These polysaccharides are isolated by selecting a wild type bacterial strain and a phage producing degradative enzymes that have substrate specificity for the capsular polysaccharides produced by the wild type bacteria. Phage-resistant mutants producing capsular polysaccharides are selected and the structurally altered capsular polysaccharide is isolated therefrom.

  12. Methods for producing complex films, and films produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Duty, Chad E.; Bennett, Charlee J. C.; Moon, Ji -Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Blue, Craig A.; Dai, Quanqin; Hu, Michael Z.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jellison, Jr., Gerald E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Ott, Ronald D.; Parish, Chad M.; Walker, Steven

    2015-11-24

    A method for producing a film, the method comprising melting a layer of precursor particles on a substrate until at least a portion of the melted particles are planarized and merged to produce the film. The invention is also directed to a method for producing a photovoltaic film, the method comprising depositing particles having a photovoltaic or other property onto a substrate, and affixing the particles to the substrate, wherein the particles may or may not be subsequently melted. Also described herein are films produced by these methods, methods for producing a patterned film on a substrate, and methods for producing a multilayer structure.

  13. Producing Runaway Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    How are the hypervelocity stars weve observed in our galaxy produced? A recent study suggests that these escapees could be accelerated by a massive black hole in the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud.A Black Hole SlingshotSince their discovery in 2005, weve observed dozens of candidate hypervelocity stars stars whose velocity in the rest frame of our galaxy exceeds the local escape velocity of the Milky Way. These stars present a huge puzzle: how did they attain these enormous velocities?One potential explanation is known as the Hills mechanism. In this process, a stellar binary is disrupted by a close encounter with a massive black hole (like those thought to reside at the center of every galaxy). One member of the binary is flung out of the system as a result of the close encounter, potentially reaching very large velocities.A star-forming region known as LHA 120-N 11, located within the LMC. Some binary star systems within the LMC might experience close encounters with a possible massive black hole at the LMCs center. [ESA/NASA/Hubble]Blame the LMC?Usually, discussions of the Hills mechanism assume that Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, is the object guilty of accelerating the hypervelocity stars weve observed. But what if the culprit isnt Sgr A*, but a massive black hole at the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the Milky Ways satellite galaxies?Though we dont yet have evidence of a massive black hole at the center of the LMC, the dwarf galaxy is large enough to potentially host one as large as 100,000 solar masses. Assuming that it does, two scientists at the University of Cambridge, Douglas Boubert and Wyn Evans, have now modeled how this black hole might tear apart binary star systems and fling hypervelocity stars around the Milky Way.Models for AccelerationBoubert and Evans determined that the LMCs hypothetical black hole could easily eject stars at ~100 km/s, which is the escape velocity of the

  14. Method of producing submicron size particles and product produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, R.S.; Eichman, C.C.; Welbon, W.W.

    1988-05-11

    Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in ''metallic inks.'' 4 figs.

  15. Produce handling and processing practices.

    PubMed Central

    Beuchat, L. R.; Ryu, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    In the past decade, outbreaks of human illness associated with the consumption of raw vegetables and fruits (or unpasteurized products produced from them) have increased in the United States. Changes in agronomic, harvesting, distribution, processing, and consumption patterns and practices have undoubtedly contributed to this increase. Pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, and Bacillus cereus are naturally present in some soil, and their presence on fresh produce is not rare. Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter jejuni, Vibrio cholerae, parasites, and viruses are more likely to contaminate fresh produce through vehicles such as raw or improperly composted manure, irrigation water containing untreated sewage, or contaminated wash water. Contact with mammals, reptiles, fowl, insects, and unpasteurized products of animal origin offers another avenue through which pathogens can access produce. Surfaces, including human hands, which come in contact with whole or cut produce represent potential points of contamination throughout the total system of growing, harvesting, packing, processing, shipping, and preparing produce for consumption. Treatment of produce with chlorinated water reduces populations of pathogenic and other microorganisms on fresh produce but cannot eliminate them. Reduction of risk for human illness associated with raw produce can be better achieved through controlling points of potential contamination in the field; during harvesting; during processing or distribution; or in retail markets, food-service facilities, or the home. PMID:9366597

  16. Method for producing a borohydride

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.

    2010-06-22

    A method for producing a borohydride is described that includes the steps of providing a source of borate; providing a material that chemically reduces the source of the borate to produce a borohydride; and reacting the source of the borate and the material by supplying heat at a temperature that substantially effects the production of the borohydride.

  17. Method for producing a borohydride

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.

    2008-09-02

    A method for producing a borohydride is described and which includes the steps of providing a source of borate; providing a material which chemically reduces the source of the borate to produce a borohydride; and reacting the source of borate and the material by supplying heat at a temperature which substantially effects the production of the borohydride.

  18. Method of producing molybdenum-99

    DOEpatents

    Pitcher, Eric John

    2013-05-28

    Method of producing molybdenum-99, comprising accelerating ions by means of an accelerator; directing the ions onto a metal target so as to generate neutrons having an energy of greater than 10 MeV; directing the neutrons through a converter material comprising techentium-99 to produce a mixture comprising molybdenum-99; and, chemically extracting the molybdenum-99 from the mixture.

  19. Microbial safety of fresh produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book entitled “Microbial Safety of Fresh Produce” with 23 chapters is divided into following six sections: Microbial contamination of fresh produce, Pre-harvest strategies, post-harvest interventions, Produce safety during processing and handling, Public, legal, and economic Perspectives, and Re...

  20. Producing Multiculturalism in Higher Education: Who's Producing What for Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urciuoli, Bonnie

    1999-01-01

    Explores the ways in which multiculturalism is institutionally produced in a small liberal arts college. States that administrative concerns with multiculturalism are shaped by the market in students; academic multiculturalist concerns are shaped by the market in textual production. (CMK)

  1. Methods of producing cesium-131

    SciTech Connect

    Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

    2012-09-18

    Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

  2. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOEpatents

    Dees, H. Craig

    1997-01-01

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  3. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOEpatents

    Dees, H.C.

    1997-12-30

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques. 5 figs.

  4. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  5. Jet Shockwaves Produce Gamma Rays

    NASA Video Gallery

    Theorists believe that GRB jets produce gamma rays by two processes involving shock waves. Shells of material within the jet move at different speeds and collide, generating internal shock waves th...

  6. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    DOEpatents

    Nair, Vijay; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony; Bauldreay, Joanna M.

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  7. Postharvest treatments of fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, P V; Caleb, O J; Singh, Z; Watkins, C B; Geyer, M

    2014-06-13

    Postharvest technologies have allowed horticultural industries to meet the global demands of local and large-scale production and intercontinental distribution of fresh produce that have high nutritional and sensory quality. Harvested products are metabolically active, undergoing ripening and senescence processes that must be controlled to prolong postharvest quality. Inadequate management of these processes can result in major losses in nutritional and quality attributes, outbreaks of foodborne pathogens and financial loss for all players along the supply chain, from growers to consumers. Optimal postharvest treatments for fresh produce seek to slow down physiological processes of senescence and maturation, reduce/inhibit development of physiological disorders and minimize the risk of microbial growth and contamination. In addition to basic postharvest technologies of temperature management, an array of others have been developed including various physical (heat, irradiation and edible coatings), chemical (antimicrobials, antioxidants and anti-browning) and gaseous treatments. This article examines the current status on postharvest treatments of fresh produce and emerging technologies, such as plasma and ozone, that can be used to maintain quality, reduce losses and waste of fresh produce. It also highlights further research needed to increase our understanding of the dynamic response of fresh produce to various postharvest treatments. PMID:24797137

  8. Postharvest treatments of fresh produce

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, P. V.; Caleb, O. J.; Singh, Z.; Watkins, C. B.; Geyer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Postharvest technologies have allowed horticultural industries to meet the global demands of local and large-scale production and intercontinental distribution of fresh produce that have high nutritional and sensory quality. Harvested products are metabolically active, undergoing ripening and senescence processes that must be controlled to prolong postharvest quality. Inadequate management of these processes can result in major losses in nutritional and quality attributes, outbreaks of foodborne pathogens and financial loss for all players along the supply chain, from growers to consumers. Optimal postharvest treatments for fresh produce seek to slow down physiological processes of senescence and maturation, reduce/inhibit development of physiological disorders and minimize the risk of microbial growth and contamination. In addition to basic postharvest technologies of temperature management, an array of others have been developed including various physical (heat, irradiation and edible coatings), chemical (antimicrobials, antioxidants and anti-browning) and gaseous treatments. This article examines the current status on postharvest treatments of fresh produce and emerging technologies, such as plasma and ozone, that can be used to maintain quality, reduce losses and waste of fresh produce. It also highlights further research needed to increase our understanding of the dynamic response of fresh produce to various postharvest treatments. PMID:24797137

  9. System for producing chroma signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorhaben, K. H.; Lipoma, P. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method for obtaining electronic chroma signals with a single scanning-type image device is described. A color multiplexed light signal is produced using an arrangement of dichroic filter stripes. In the particular system described, a two layer filter is used to color modulate external light which is then detected by an image pickup tube. The resulting time division multiplexed electronic signal from the pickup tube is converted by a decoder into a green color signal, and a single red-blue multiplexed signal, which is demultiplexed to produce red and blue color signals. The three primary color signals can be encoded as standard NTSC color signals.

  10. Producing and Detecting Correlated Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C. I.; Schellekens, M.; Perrin, A.; Krachmalnicoff, V.; Viana Gomes, J.; Trebbia, J.-B.; Esteve, J.; Chang, H.; Bouchoule, I.; Boiron, D.; Aspect, A.; Jeltes, T.; McNamara, J.; Hogervorst, W.; Vassen, W.

    2006-11-07

    We discuss experiments to produce and detect atom correlations in a degenerate or nearly degenerate gas of neutral atoms. First we treat the atomic analog of the celebrated Hanbury Brown Twiss experiment, in which atom correlations result simply from interference effects without any atom interactions. We have performed this experiment for both bosons and fermions. Next we show how atom interactions produce correlated atoms using the atomic analog of spontaneous four-wave mixing. Finally, we briefly mention experiments on a one dimensional gas on an atom chip in which correlation effects due to both interference and interactions have been observed.

  11. Producing miniature threads. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, L.K.; Robb, J.M.

    1981-11-01

    Miniature precision actuators, timers, and switches typically utilize miniature threads to provide convenient assembly, disassembly and adjustment. Thread rolling provides high-quality external threads with greater strength and lower cost than other thread-producing techniques. Tap breakage is a significant problem when 0.5 and 0.6 Unified National Miniature (UNM) threads must be produced in hard materials such as SAE K95100 high-permeability magnetic steel. Aluminum parts can be tapped with no difficulty in these sizes. Stainless steel 0.5 UNM screws break at loads of 21 lb (53 N). Thread failure occurs at thread heights of 62% full thread or lower.

  12. Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Allen; Youngster, Ilan; McAdam, Alexander J

    2015-06-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is among the common causes of foodborne gastroenteritis. STEC is defined by the production of specific toxins, but within this pathotype there is a diverse group of organisms. This diversity has important consequences for understanding the pathogenesis of the organism, as well as for selecting the optimum strategy for diagnostic testing in the clinical laboratory. This review includes discussions of the mechanisms of pathogenesis, the range of manifestations of infection, and the several different methods of laboratory detection of Shiga toxin-producing E coli.

  13. METHOD FOR PRODUCING DIBORON TETRACHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Frazer, J.W.; Holzmann, R.T.

    1961-08-01

    A method of producing diboron tetrachloride from boron trichloride is described. Gaseous boron trichloride is passed through a cavity resonating at a microwave frequency whereby a portion of the boron trichloride is converted into diboron tetrachloride. The diboron tetrachloride may then be separated from the boron trichloride by conventional means. (AEC)

  14. Resonating feathers produce courtship song.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, Kimberly S; Elias, Damian O; Mason, Andrew; Montealegre-Z, Fernando

    2010-03-22

    Male Club-winged Manakins, Machaeropterus deliciosus (Aves: Pipridae), produce a sustained tonal sound with specialized wing feathers. The fundamental frequency of the sound produced in nature is approximately 1500 Hz and is hypothesized to result from excitation of resonance in the feathers' hypertrophied shafts. We used laser Doppler vibrometry to determine the resonant properties of male Club-winged Manakin's wing feathers, as well as those of two unspecialized manakin species. The modified wing feathers exhibit a response peak near 1500 Hz, and unusually high Q-values (a measure of resonant tuning) for biological objects (Q up to 27). The unmodified wing feathers of the Club-winged Manakin do not exhibit strong resonant properties when measured in isolation. However, when measured still attached to the modified feathers (nine feathers held adjacent by an intact ligament), they resonate together as a unit near 1500 Hz, and the wing produces a second harmonic of similar or greater amplitude than the fundamental. The feathers of the control species also exhibit resonant peaks around 1500 Hz, but these are significantly weaker, the wing does not resonate as a unit and no harmonics are produced. These results lend critical support to the resonant stridulation hypothesis of sound production in M. deliciosus. PMID:19906670

  15. Resonating feathers produce courtship song

    PubMed Central

    Bostwick, Kimberly S.; Elias, Damian O.; Mason, Andrew; Montealegre-Z, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Male Club-winged Manakins, Machaeropterus deliciosus (Aves: Pipridae), produce a sustained tonal sound with specialized wing feathers. The fundamental frequency of the sound produced in nature is approximately 1500 Hz and is hypothesized to result from excitation of resonance in the feathers' hypertrophied shafts. We used laser Doppler vibrometry to determine the resonant properties of male Club-winged Manakin's wing feathers, as well as those of two unspecialized manakin species. The modified wing feathers exhibit a response peak near 1500 Hz, and unusually high Q-values (a measure of resonant tuning) for biological objects (Q up to 27). The unmodified wing feathers of the Club-winged Manakin do not exhibit strong resonant properties when measured in isolation. However, when measured still attached to the modified feathers (nine feathers held adjacent by an intact ligament), they resonate together as a unit near 1500 Hz, and the wing produces a second harmonic of similar or greater amplitude than the fundamental. The feathers of the control species also exhibit resonant peaks around 1500 Hz, but these are significantly weaker, the wing does not resonate as a unit and no harmonics are produced. These results lend critical support to the resonant stridulation hypothesis of sound production in M. deliciosus. PMID:19906670

  16. The Top Theological Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" publishes a list of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This year, for the first time, it has…

  17. The Top STEM Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) degree producers in the U.S. This list is broken down into seven categories: (1) Total Minority Research/Scholarship and Other Doctoral: Mathematics and Statistics; (2) Total Minority Bachelors: Biological and Biomedical Sciences; (3) Total Minority…

  18. Institutional Producers of Physics Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Marianne; Watterson, Hermine M.

    In order to identify producers of physics research and to determine their relative productivity, institutional affiliations of authors as given in nine physics journals were studied. Organizations were classified and analyzed by type and geographical location, and productivity established. Findings indicate that organizations differ in their rate…

  19. Marine bacteria which produce tetrodotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Simidu, U; Noguchi, T; Hwang, D F; Shida, Y; Hashimoto, K

    1987-01-01

    A number of type strains of marine bacteria, including members of the family Vibrionaceae, were cultured and examined for tetrodotoxin productivity by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most of the Vibrionaceae strains produced tetrodotoxin, anhydrotetrodotoxin, or both. PMID:3310884

  20. Environmental considerations of livestock producers.

    PubMed

    Morse, D

    1995-09-01

    Regulatory agencies and citizens have placed great emphasis on sustainability of natural resources. Individuals involved in animal husbandry should understand the basic components associated with air and water quality issues. An increase in regulations governing land, air, and water resources increases the need for educators, researchers, and producers to realize impacts of current and potential legislation. Regulations and enforcement should be based on sound scientific data. Research scientists should play an active role in designing and carrying out research. Sustainability of land and economics of production are better incentives to entice producers to change than are regulations. Educational opportunities exist to promote environmental stewardship and the importance of maintaining natural resources. This paper will review current air and water quality regulations and provide examples of current activities that focus on environmental stewardship. Individuals should understand the importance of cooperative work to ensure that realistic enforcement and future regulation development be economically feasible and environmentally sound.

  1. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2006-02-14

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  2. Process for producing advanced ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing

    1996-01-01

    A process for the synthesis of homogeneous advanced ceramics such as SiC+AlN, SiAlON, SiC+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 +AlN from natural clays such as kaolin, halloysite and montmorillonite by an intercalation and heat treatment method. Included are the steps of refining clays, intercalating organic compounds into the layered structure of clays, drying the intercalated mixture, firing the treated atmospheres and grinding the loosely agglomerated structure. Advanced ceramics produced by this procedure have the advantages of homogeneity, cost effectiveness, simplicity of manufacture, ease of grind and a short process time. Advanced ceramics produced by this process can be used for refractory, wear part and structure ceramics.

  3. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Harvey, B.G.

    1954-09-14

    >This patent relates to improvements in the method for producing uranium tetrafluoride by treating an aqueous solutlon of a uranyl salt at an elevated temperature with a reducing agent effective in acld solutlon in the presence of hydrofluoric acid. Uranium tetrafluoride produced this way frequentiy contains impurities in the raw material serving as the source of uranium. Uranium tetrafluoride much less contaminated with impurities than when prepared by the above method can be prepared from materials containing such impurities by first adding a small proportion of reducing agent so as to cause a small fraction, for example 1 to 5% of the uranium tetrafluoride to be precipitated, rejecting such precipitate, and then precipitating and recovering the remainder of the uranium tetrafluoride.

  4. Method for producing hydrophobic aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Poco, John F.; Coronado, Paul R.

    1999-01-01

    A method for treating a dried monolithic aerogel containing non-dispersed particles, with an organometallic surface modifying agent to produce hydrophobic aerogels. The dried, porous hydrophobic aerogels contain a protective layer of alkyl groups, such as methyl groups, on the modified surfaces of the pores of the aerogel. The alkyl groups at the aerogel surface typically contain at least one carbon-metal bond per group.

  5. Electromagnetic radiation produces frame dragging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, L.; Barreto, W.

    2012-09-01

    It is shown that for a generic electrovacuum spacetime, electromagnetic radiation produces vorticity of worldlines of observers in a Bondi-Sachs frame. Such an effect (and the ensuing gyroscope precession with respect to the lattice) which is a reminiscence of generation of vorticity by gravitational radiation, may be linked to the nonvanishing of components of the Poynting and the super-Poynting vectors on the planes othogonal to the vorticity vector. The possible observational relevance of such an effect is commented upon.

  6. Method of producing cyclohexasilane compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Elangovan, Arumugasamy; Anderson, Kenneth; Boudjouk, Philip R; Schulz, Douglas L

    2015-03-10

    A method of preparing a cyclohexasilane compound from trichlorosilane is provided. The method includes contacting trichlorosilane with a reagent composition to produce a compound containing a tetradecahalocyclohexasilane dianion, such as a tetradecachlorocyclohexasilane dianion. The reagent composition typically includes (a) tertiary polyamine ligand; and (b) a deprotonating reagent, such as a tertiary amine having a pKa of at least about 10.5. Methods of converting the tetradecahalocyclohexasilane dianion-containing compound to cyclohexasilane or a dodecaorganocyclohexasilane are also provided.

  7. Method for producing monodisperse aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Lawrence W.; Soderholm, Sidney C.

    1990-01-01

    An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

  8. PROCESS OF PRODUCING SHAPED PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anicetti, R.J.

    1959-08-11

    A process is presented for producing and casting high purity plutonium metal in one step from plutonium tetrafluoride. The process comprises heating a mixture of the plutonium tetrafluoride with calcium while the mixture is in contact with and defined as to shape by a material obtained by firing a mixture consisting of calcium oxide and from 2 to 10% by its weight of calcium fluoride at from 1260 to 1370 deg C.

  9. Method for producing metallic nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-02-10

    Method for producing metallic nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating non-oxidizing plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone to metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and to the plasma afterglow where it cools and condenses to form solid metallic nanoparticles.

  10. Method for producing metallic microparticles

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-06-29

    Method for producing metallic particles. The method converts metallic nanoparticles into larger, spherical metallic particles. An aerosol of solid metallic nanoparticles and a non-oxidizing plasma having a portion sufficiently hot to melt the nanoparticles are generated. The aerosol is directed into the plasma where the metallic nanoparticles melt, collide, join, and spheroidize. The molten spherical metallic particles are directed away from the plasma and enter the afterglow where they cool and solidify.

  11. Producing Gestures Facilitates Route Learning

    PubMed Central

    So, Wing Chee; Ching, Terence Han-Wei; Lim, Phoebe Elizabeth; Cheng, Xiaoqin; Ip, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air). Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2) without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper). Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing) recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation. PMID:25426624

  12. Producing gestures facilitates route learning.

    PubMed

    So, Wing Chee; Ching, Terence Han-Wei; Lim, Phoebe Elizabeth; Cheng, Xiaoqin; Ip, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air). Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2) without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper). Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing) recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation. PMID:25426624

  13. Melatonin analgesia is associated with improvement of the descending endogenous pain-modulating system in fibromyalgia: a phase II, randomized, double-dummy, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ). Conclusion Melatonin increased the inhibitory endogenous pain-modulating system as assessed by the reduction on NPS(0-10) during the CPM-TASK. Melatonin alone or associated with amitriptyline was better than amitriptyline alone in improving pain on the VAS, whereas its association with amitriptyline produced only marginal additional clinical effects on FIQ and PPT. Trial registration Current controlled trail is registered at clinical trials.gov upon under number NCT02041455. Registered January 16, 2014. PMID:25052847

  14. Method for producing viscous hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Poston, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    A method for recovering viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels from a subterranean formation by drilling a well bore through the formation and completing the well by cementing a casing means in the upper part of the pay zone. The well is completed as an open hole completion and a superheated thermal vapor stream comprised of steam and combustion gases is injected into the lower part of the pay zone. The combustion gases migrate to the top of the pay zone and form a gas cap which provides formation pressure to produce the viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels.

  15. Method of producing nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, Y.; Ohira, T.; Kumano, Y.; Nakao, T.

    1982-01-01

    A large capacity nickel electrode is provided in which the charging efficiency and discharge utilization coefficient are improved in comparison to nickel electrodes which are produced by the conventional method. Nickel electrodes retaining nickel active material or nickel active material and cobalt compounds on a porous nickel substrate are immersed in a cobalt sulfate aqueous solution whose pH is adjusted in the range of 3.5 to 6.0, followed by crystallization of the hydroxide or oxide by pyrolysis or immersion in alkali, thereby coating the surface of the nickel active material with cobalt crystals and simultaneously promoting alloying of the nickel-cobalt.

  16. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  17. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  18. METHOD FOR PRODUCING THORIUM TETRACHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Mason, E.A.; Cobb, C.M.

    1960-03-15

    A process for producing thorium tetrachloride from thorium concentrate comprises reacting thorium concentrates with a carbonaceous reducing agent in excess of 0.05 part by weight per part of thoriferous concentrate at a temperature in excess of 1300 deg C, cooling and comminuting the mass, chlorinating the resulting comminuting mass by suspending in a gaseous chlorinating agent in a fluidized reactor at a temperatare maintained between about l85 deg C and 770 deg C, and removing the resulting solid ThCl/sub 4/ from the reaction zone.

  19. Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Deresinski, Stan

    2014-01-01

    The continuing emergence of infections due to multidrug resistant bacteria is a serious public health problem. Klebsiella pneumoniae, which commonly acquires resistance encoded on mobile genetic elements, including ones that encode carbapenemases, is a prime example. K. pneumoniae carrying such genetic material, including both blaKPC and genes encoding metallo-β-lactamases, have spread globally. Many carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae are resistant to multiple antibiotic classes beyond β-lactams, including tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. The optimal treatment, if any, for infections due to these organisms is unclear but, paradoxically, appears to often require the inclusion of an optimally administered carbapenem. PMID:25343037

  20. Biochemical degradation treats produced water

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-20

    In Colombia, Kelt Oil Co. employs a lined, reed-based, root-zone filtering system to remove contaminants from water produced with crude oil. The roots of the reeds absorb the contaminants. The treated water is then used for agriculture. Kelt has operated te system for over 1 year near Trinidad, in the Casanare district of eastern Colombia. After 1 year, the system removed 90% of the phenol compounds. It expects 3 years will be required for the system to achieve full efficiency.

  1. Method for producing a tube

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Rohde, Steven B.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Turner, Timothy S.

    2007-01-02

    A method is described for producing tubular substrates having parallel spaced concentric rings of electrical conductors that can be used as the drift tube of an Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS). The invention comprises providing electrodes on the inside of a tube that are electrically connected to the outside of the tube through conductors that extend between adjacent plies of substrate that are combined to form the tube. Tubular substrates are formed from flexible polymeric printed wiring board materials, ceramic materials and material compositions of glass and ceramic, commonly known as Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC). The adjacent plies are sealed together around the electrode.

  2. Does salmon brain produce insulin?

    PubMed

    Plisetskaya, E M; Bondareva, V M; Duan, C; Duguay, S J

    1993-07-01

    To address the question whether fish brain can produce insulin, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbusha) brains were extracted and processed according to the procedure developed for purification of pancreatic insulin (Rusakov and Bondareva, 1979). Biological and immunological activity of the resulting material was evaluated respectively by a cartilage sulfation assay and by radioimmunoassay homologous for salmon insulin. Preparations from salmon brain stimulated the [35S]sulfate uptake into salmon branchial cartilage with a potency comparable to pure mammalian or salmon insulins but lower than that of mammalian insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I). In contrast, only trace amounts of radioimmunoreactive insulin could be detected by homologous radioimmunoassay. To determine whether insulin mRNA was present in salmon brain, primers specific for salmon proinsulin and salmon prepro-IGF-I were designed to amplify corresponding cDNA regions by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Insulin mRNA was found only in the endocrine pancreas (Brockmann body) while IGF-I mRNA was detected in the brain, liver, and the Brockmann body. Our results suggest that in fish pancreatic-type insulin is most likely produced only in the endocrine pancreas and then transported to the brain through blood/cerebrospinal fluid system. However, it does not exclude a possibility that some yet unknown insulin-like substances may be expressed in the neural system of ectotherm vertebrates.

  3. Dade recovery plant producing electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The 3000 tons/day resource recovery plant in Dade County (Florida) is described. Following a year-long contract dispute, the plant is said to be ready to: (1) accept four types of waste; (2) produce refuse-derived fuel; and (3) generate electricity for sale to Florida Power and Light at a rate of 285 million kilowatt hrs/year. Waste accepted include: (1) regular household garbage; (2) trash wastes including commercial refuse, furniture, rubber tires, appliances, tree cuttings, and other bulky items; (3) pathological wastes from hospitals and health centers; and (4) demolition materials which are routed directly to a landfill. The plant cost $165 million to construct and occupies 120 acres including 80 acres of landfill. The hydrasposal system includes four pulpers used to produce refuse-derived fuel (4300 Btu/lb). Flotation tanks and jigs are used to separate aluminium and non-ferrous metals (which are sold for recycling). The plant is described as having the potential of disposing of 60% of all the household and commercial solid wastes generated in Dade County. (MJJ)

  4. ANTIPROTONS PRODUCED IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhko, E. G.; Ksenofontov, L. T.

    2014-08-20

    We present the energy spectrum of an antiproton cosmic ray (CR) component calculated on the basis of the nonlinear kinetic model of CR production in supernova remnants (SNRs). The model includes the reacceleration of antiprotons already existing in the interstellar medium as well as the creation of antiprotons in nuclear collisions of accelerated protons with gas nuclei and their subsequent acceleration by SNR shocks. It is shown that the production of antiprotons in SNRs produces a considerable effect in their resultant energy spectrum, making it essentially flatter above 10 GeV so that the spectrum at TeV energies increases by a factor of 5. The calculated antiproton spectrum is consistent with the PAMELA data, which correspond to energies below 100 GeV. As a consistency check, we have also calculated within the same model the energy spectra of secondary nuclei and show that the measured boron-to-carbon ratio is consistent with the significant SNR contribution.

  5. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Mausner, Leonard; Garland, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  6. CVD-produced boron filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wawner, F. E.; Debolt, H. E.; Suplinskas, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for producing boron filaments with an average tensile strength of 6.89 GPa has been developed which involves longitudinal splitting of the filament and core (substrate) removal by etching. Splitting is accomplished by a pinch wheel device which continuously splits filaments in lengths of 3.0 m by applying a force to the side of the filament to create a crack which is then propagated along the axis by a gentle sliding action. To facilitate the splitting, a single 10 mil tungsten substrate is used instead of the usual 0.5 mil substrate. A solution of hot 30% hydrogen peroxide is used to remove the core without attacking the boron. An alternative technique is to alter the residual stress by heavily etching the filament. Average strengths in the 4.83-5.52 GPa range have been obtained by etching an 8 mil filament to 4 mil.

  7. HFIR-produced medical radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, S.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Alexander, C.W.

    1997-12-01

    We have experimentally determined the yields of a number of medical radioisotopes produced in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Hydraulic Tube (HT) facility. The HT facility is located in the very high flux region in the flux trap of the reactor, providing on-line access capability while the reactor is operating. The HT facility consists of nine vertically stacked capsules centered just adjacent to the core horizontal midplane. HFIR operates at a nominal power level of 85 MW. The capabilities of the HFIR-HT facilities offer increased efficiency, greater availability, and optimization of radioisotope production, and, as a result, the conservation of rare or expensive target isotopes.

  8. Method of producing metallic materials

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.

    2004-02-10

    The invention includes a method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of B, C, Si and P. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from 2-7 additional elements including at least one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a powder, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  9. Methods for producing secreted polypeptides

    DOEpatents

    Maiyuran, Suchindra; Fidantsef, Ana; Brody, Howard

    2008-07-01

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a polypeptide, comprising: (a) cultivating a fungal host cell in a medium conducive for the production of the polypeptide, wherein the fungal host cell comprises a nucleic acid construct comprising a first nucleotide sequence encoding a signal peptide operably linked to a second nucleotide sequence encoding the polypeptide, wherein the first nucleotide sequence is foreign to the second nucleotide sequence and the 3' end of the first nucleotide sequence is immediately upstream of the initiator codon of the second nucleotide sequence. The present invention also relates to the isolated signal peptide sequences and to constructs, vectors, and fungal host cells comprising the signal peptide sequences operably linked to nucleotide sequences encoding polypeptides.

  10. R-body-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pond, F R; Gibson, I; Lalucat, J; Quackenbush, R L

    1989-03-01

    Until 10 years ago, R bodies were known only as diagnostic features by which endosymbionts of paramecia were identified as kappa particles. They were thought to be limited to the cytoplasm of two species in the Paramecium aurelia species complex. Now, R bodies have been found in free-living bacteria and other Paramecium species. The organisms now known to form R bodies include the cytoplasmic kappa endosymbionts of P. biaurelia and P. tetraurelia, the macronuclear kappa endosymbionts of P. caudatum, Pseudomonas avenae (a free-living plant pathogen), Pseudomonas taeniospiralis (a hydrogen-oxidizing soil microorganism), Rhodospirillum centenum (a photosynthetic bacterium), and a soil bacterium, EPS-5028, which is probably a pseudomonad. R bodies themselves fall into five distinct groups, distinguished by size, the morphology of the R-body ribbons, and the unrolling behavior of wound R bodies. In recent years, the inherent difficulties in studying the organization and assembly of R bodies by the obligate endosymbiont kappa, have been alleviated by cloning and expressing genetic determinants for these R bodies (type 51) in Escherichia coli. Type 51 R-body synthesis requires three low-molecular-mass polypeptides. One of these is modified posttranslationally, giving rise to 12 polypeptide species, which are the major structural subunits of the R body. R bodies are encoded in kappa species by extrachromosomal elements. Type 51 R bodies, produced in Caedibacter taeniospiralis, are encoded by a plasmid, whereas bacteriophage genomes probably control R-body synthesis in other kappa species. However, there is no evidence that either bacteriophages or plasmids are present in P. avenae or P. taeniospiralis. No sequence homology was detected between type 51 R-body-encoding DNA and DNA from any R-body-producing species, except C. varicaedens 1038. The evolutionary relatedness of different types of R bodies remains unknown. PMID:2651865

  11. Screening For Alcohol-Producing Microbes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Wayne W.

    1988-01-01

    Dye reaction rapidly identifies alcohol-producing microbial colonies. Method visually detects alcohol-producing micro-organisms, and distinguishes them from other microbial colonies that do not produce alcohol. Method useful for screening mixed microbial populations in environmental samples.

  12. 7 CFR 926.7 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.7 Producer. Producer is synonymous with grower and means any person who produces cranberries for market and has...

  13. 7 CFR 926.7 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.7 Producer. Producer is synonymous with grower and means any person who produces cranberries for market and has...

  14. 7 CFR 926.7 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.7 Producer. Producer is synonymous with grower and means any person who produces cranberries for market and has...

  15. 7 CFR 926.7 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.7 Producer. Producer is synonymous with grower and means any person who produces cranberries for market and has...

  16. 7 CFR 926.7 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.7 Producer. Producer is synonymous with grower and means any person who produces cranberries for market and has...

  17. 7 CFR 1280.116 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.116 Producer. Producer means any person who owns and produces lambs in the United States for sale....

  18. 7 CFR 1230.615 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... Producer means a person who produces porcine animals in the United States for sale in commerce....

  19. 7 CFR 1230.615 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... Producer means a person who produces porcine animals in the United States for sale in commerce....

  20. 7 CFR 1230.615 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... Producer means a person who produces porcine animals in the United States for sale in commerce....

  1. Can cirrus clouds produce glories?

    PubMed

    Sassen, K; Arnott, W P; Barnett, J M; Aulenbach, S

    1998-03-20

    A vague glory display was photographed over central Utah from an airplane beginning its descent through a cirrus cloud layer with an estimated cloud top temperature of -45 and -55 degrees C. Photographic analysis reveals a single reddish-brown ring of 2.5-3.0 degrees radius around the antisolar point, although a second ring appeared visually to have been present over the brief observation period. Mie and approximate nonspherical theory scattering simulations predict a population of particles with modal diameters between 9 and 15 mum. Although it is concluded that multiple-ringed glories can be accounted for only through the backscattering of light from particles that are strictly spherical in shape, the poor glory colorization in this case could imply the presence of slightly aspherical ice particles. The location of this display over mountainous terrain suggests that it was generated by an orographic wave cloud, which we speculate produced numerous frozen cloud droplets that only gradually took on crystalline characteristics during growth.

  2. Hydrodynamic Instabilities Produced by Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romo-Cruz, Julio Cesar Ruben; Hernandez-Zapata, Sergio; Ruiz-Chavarria, Gerardo

    2012-11-01

    When a liquid layer (alcohol in the present work) is in an environment where its relative humidity is less than 100 percent evaporation appears. When RH is above a certain threshold the liquid is at rest. If RH decreases below this threshold the flow becomes unstable, and hydrodynamic cells develop. The aim of this work is to understand the formation of those cells and its main features. Firstly, we investigate how the cell size depends on the layer width. We also study how temperature depends on the vertical coordinate when the cells are present. An inverse temperature gradient is found, that is, the bottom of liquid layer is colder than the free surface. This shows that the intuitive idea that the cells are due to a direct temperature gradient, following a Marangoni-like process, does not work. We propose the hypothesis that the evaporation produce a pressure gradient that is responsible of the cell development. On the other hand, using a Schlieren technique we study the topography of the free surface when cells are present. Finally the alcohol vapor layer adjacent to the liquid surface is explored using scattering experiments, giving some insight on the plausibility of the hypothesis described previously. Authors acknowledge support by DGAPA-UNAM under project IN116312 ``Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos.''

  3. Ion produced cometary organic crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baratta, G. Antonio; Strazzulla, G.

    1992-01-01

    For several years many experimental results have been obtained on the chemical and physical changes induced by ion and electron irradiation of materials with a view to their Astrophysical relevance. Among the studied effects, one of particular interest is the formation of an organic refractory residue left over after ion irradiation and warming-up at room temperature. We call this residue IPHAC (ion produced hydrogenated amorphous carbon). Although 'in situ' infrared spectroscopy points out the formation of new molecular species during bombardment at low temperature, it is not clear if IPHAC is already formed or if its formation is triggered by temperature increase during warming-up of the irradiated target. Since Raman Spectroscopy is a technique particularly suitable for the analysis of carbonaceous materials, we have thought and build-up an experimental apparatus to obtain Raman Spectra of frozen hydrocarbons during ion irradiation. The present experimental results point out clearly to the formation of IPHAC already at low T and low energy deposition (approximately equal to a few eV/C-atom).

  4. Engineering microbes to produce biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wackett, LP

    2011-06-01

    The current biofuels landscape is chaotic. It is controlled by the rules imposed by economic forces and driven by the necessity of finding new sources of energy, particularly motor fuels. The need is bringing forth great creativity in uncovering new candidate fuel molecules that can be made via metabolic engineering. These next generation fuels include long-chain alcohols, terpenoid hydrocarbons, and diesel-length alkanes. Renewable fuels contain carbon derived from carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is derived directly by a photosynthetic fuel-producing organism(s) or via intermediary biomass polymers that were previously derived from carbon dioxide. To use the latter economically, biomass depolymerization processes must improve and this is a very active area of research. There are competitive approaches with some groups using enzyme based methods and others using chemical catalysts. With the former, feedstock and end-product toxicity loom as major problems. Advances chiefly rest on the ability to manipulate biological systems. Computational and modular construction approaches are key. For example, novel metabolic networks have been constructed to make long-chain alcohols and hydrocarbons that have superior fuel properties over ethanol. A particularly exciting approach is to implement a direct utilization of solar energy to make a usable fuel. A number of approaches use the components of current biological systems, but re-engineer them for more direct, efficient production of fuels.

  5. 7 CFR 1280.117 - Producer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.117 Producer information. Producer information means activities designed to provide producers, feeders, and first handlers with... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer information. 1280.117 Section...

  6. PRODUCING ENERGY AND RADIOACTIVE FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Segre, E.; Kennedy, J.W.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-10-13

    This patent broadly discloses the production of plutonium by the neutron bombardment of uranium to produce neptunium which decays to plutonium, and the fissionability of plutonium by neutrons, both fast and thermal, to produce energy and fission products.

  7. 7 CFR 1150.110 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.110 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the production of milk...

  8. 7 CFR 1150.110 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.110 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the production of milk...

  9. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs...

  10. 7 CFR 1430.510 - New producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New producers. 1430.510 Section 1430.510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF....510 New producers. Notwithstanding other provisions of this subpart, producers who were new...

  11. 7 CFR 1430.510 - New producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false New producers. 1430.510 Section 1430.510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF....510 New producers. Notwithstanding other provisions of this subpart, producers who were new...

  12. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs...

  13. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs...

  14. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs...

  15. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs...

  16. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  17. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  18. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  19. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  20. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  1. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  2. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  3. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  4. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  5. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  6. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  7. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  8. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  9. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  10. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  11. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  12. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  13. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  14. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  15. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  16. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  17. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  18. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  19. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  20. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  1. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  2. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  3. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  4. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  5. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  6. 7 CFR 1219.20 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.20 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the business of producing Hass avocados in the United...

  7. 7 CFR 1219.20 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.20 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the business of producing Hass avocados in the United...

  8. 7 CFR 1434.4 - Eligible producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FOR HONEY § 1434.4 Eligible producer. (a) To be eligible to receive an individual or joint loan or loan deficiency payments under this part, a person must: (1) Have produced honey in the United States... calendar year; (2) Be responsible for the risk of keeping the bees and producing honey; (3) Have...

  9. 7 CFR 1434.4 - Eligible producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOR HONEY § 1434.4 Eligible producer. (a) To be eligible to receive an individual or joint loan or loan deficiency payments under this part, a person must: (1) Have produced honey in the United States... calendar year; (2) Be responsible for the risk of keeping the bees and producing honey; (3) Have...

  10. 7 CFR 1434.4 - Eligible producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FOR HONEY § 1434.4 Eligible producer. (a) To be eligible to receive an individual or joint loan or loan deficiency payments under this part, a person must: (1) Have produced honey in the United States... calendar year; (2) Be responsible for the risk of keeping the bees and producing honey; (3) Have...

  11. 7 CFR 1434.4 - Eligible producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR HONEY § 1434.4 Eligible producer. (a) To be eligible to receive an individual or joint loan or loan deficiency payments under this part, a person must: (1) Have produced honey in the United States... calendar year; (2) Be responsible for the risk of keeping the bees and producing honey; (3) Have...

  12. 7 CFR 1219.20 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.20 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the business of producing Hass avocados in the United...

  13. 7 CFR 1218.16 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.16 Producer... is engaged in the business of producing, or causing to be produced for any market, blueberries...

  14. 7 CFR 1219.20 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.20 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the business of producing Hass avocados in the United...

  15. 7 CFR 1218.16 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.16 Producer... is engaged in the business of producing, or causing to be produced for any market, blueberries...

  16. 7 CFR 1434.4 - Eligible producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FOR HONEY § 1434.4 Eligible producer. (a) To be eligible to receive an individual or joint loan or loan deficiency payments under this part, a person must: (1) Have produced honey in the United States... calendar year; (2) Be responsible for the risk of keeping the bees and producing honey; (3) Have...

  17. 7 CFR 1219.20 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.20 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the business of producing Hass avocados in the United...

  18. 7 CFR 1280.122 - Seedstock producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.122 Seedstock producer. Seedstock producer means any lamb producer in the U.S. who engages in the production and sale of...

  19. 7 CFR 1230.21 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.21 Producer. Producer means a person who produces porcine animals in the United States for sale in commerce....

  20. 7 CFR 1230.21 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.21 Producer. Producer means a person who produces porcine animals in the United States for sale in commerce....

  1. 7 CFR 1230.21 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.21 Producer. Producer means a person who produces porcine animals in the United States for sale in commerce....

  2. Tricyclic antidepressants for children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum-Levine, B; Kumor, K; Cangir, A; Choroszy, M; Roseberry, E A

    1983-08-01

    Eight depressed children with cancer had a rapid clinical response to low doses of imipramine or amitriptyline. Because of the many variables affecting cancer patients, the mechanism by which tricyclic antidepressant treatment produced this response is unclear.

  3. Produced water discharges into marine ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Pitre, R.L.

    1984-05-01

    Formation waters which are produced in conjunction with oil or gas are discharged into offshore areas throughout the world. The produced water volume in petroleum production can vary from 20% to 150% of the oil production volume. Salinities of produced water can vary from 1,000 to 250,000 ppm. Before produced waters are discharged to the ocean, they are passed through oil-water separators to reduce the oil content to acceptable levels. Temperatures of the produced water stream are normally about 45/sup 0/ C. The small amounts of oil released in produced water discharges will either evaporate to the atmosphere or be degraded by marine organisms. Biodegradation can be enhanced with the addition of nutrients. Within the OCS of the United States, produced waters are regulated by NPDES permits issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Produced waters from a Cities Service platform located in an area of coral reefs offshore of the Philippine Islands have been discharged to the surrounding seas for several years with no environmental harm. Environmental impacts from produced water discharges into marine waters are very minimal and have never caused a problem. Therefore, there is no precedent for stricter governmental regulation of produced water discharges into marine ecosystems.

  4. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  5. Method for producing oxygen from lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This invention is related to producing oxygen from lunar or Martian materials, particularly from lunar ilmenite in situ. The process includes producing a slurry of the minerals and hot sulfuric acid, the acid and minerals reacting to form sulfates of the metal. Water is added to the slurry to dissolve the minerals into an aqueous solution, the first aqueous solution is separated from unreacted minerals from the slurry, and the aqueous solution is electrolyzed to produce the metal and oxygen.

  6. Stable, fertile, high polyhydroxyalkanoate producing plants and methods of producing them

    DOEpatents

    Bohmert-Tatarev, Karen; McAvoy, Susan; Peoples, Oliver P.; Snell, Kristi D.

    2015-08-04

    Transgenic plants that produce high levels of polyhydroxybutyrate and methods of producing them are provided. In a preferred embodiment the transgenic plants are produced using plastid transformation technologies and utilize genes which are codon optimized. Stably transformed plants able to produce greater than 10% dwt PHS in tissues are also provided.

  7. 7 CFR 1124.12 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., producer means any person who produces milk approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency for fluid consumption as Grade A milk and whose milk (or components of milk) is: (1) Received at a pool plant directly... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA...

  8. 7 CFR 1030.12 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... means any person who produces milk approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency for fluid consumption as Grade A milk and whose milk is: (1) Received at a pool plant directly from the producer or... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order...

  9. 7 CFR 1030.12 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... means any person who produces milk approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency for fluid consumption as Grade A milk and whose milk is: (1) Received at a pool plant directly from the producer or... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order...

  10. 7 CFR 1033.12 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... means any person who produces milk approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency for fluid consumption as Grade A milk and whose milk is: (1) Received at a pool plant directly from the producer or... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order...

  11. 7 CFR 1124.12 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., producer means any person who produces milk approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency for fluid consumption as Grade A milk and whose milk (or components of milk) is: (1) Received at a pool plant directly... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA...

  12. 7 CFR 1033.12 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... means any person who produces milk approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency for fluid consumption as Grade A milk and whose milk is: (1) Received at a pool plant directly from the producer or... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order...

  13. 9 CFR 114.16 - Producing subsidiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.16 Producing subsidiaries. A serial or subserial of a biological product may be... amount of each serial or subserial credited to each participating producer shall be determined at...

  14. 9 CFR 114.16 - Producing subsidiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.16 Producing subsidiaries. A serial or subserial of a biological product may be... amount of each serial or subserial credited to each participating producer shall be determined at...

  15. 7 CFR 1216.22 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.22 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the production and sale of peanuts and who owns, or shares the ownership...

  16. 7 CFR 1216.22 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.22 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the production and sale of peanuts and who owns, or shares the ownership...

  17. 7 CFR 1208.19 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1208.19 Producer. Producer means any person who grows 20,000 pounds or more of raspberries...

  18. 7 CFR 1208.19 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1208.19 Producer. Producer means any person who grows 20,000 pounds or more of raspberries...

  19. Music Teacher as Writer and Producer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randles, Clint

    2012-01-01

    In this article I attempt to redefine the role of a music teacher as being more than a director, the more traditional term ascribed to this position. I do this by using descriptions of the role of "writer" and "producer" of student lives borrowed from music education philosophy, screenwriting, and professional music producers. This vision is…

  20. 7 CFR 985.6 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer. 985.6 Section 985.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST...

  1. 7 CFR 985.6 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Producer. 985.6 Section 985.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST...

  2. 7 CFR 1260.116 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.116 Producer. Producer means any person who owns or acquires... of this subpart if (a) the person's only share in the proceeds of a sale of cattle or beef is a...

  3. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of...

  4. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  5. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  6. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  7. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of...

  8. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  9. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  10. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  11. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of...

  12. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  13. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  14. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  15. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of...

  16. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  17. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  18. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  19. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  20. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of...

  1. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  2. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  3. 7 CFR 1209.15 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209.15 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the production of mushrooms who owns or shares...

  4. 7 CFR 1209.15 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209.15 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the production of mushrooms who owns or shares...

  5. 7 CFR 1209.15 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209.15 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the production of mushrooms who owns or shares...

  6. 7 CFR 1209.15 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209.15 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the production of mushrooms who owns or shares...

  7. 7 CFR 1209.15 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209.15 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the production of mushrooms who owns or shares...

  8. 7 CFR 1210.306 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.306 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the growing of 10 acres or more of watermelons including any person who owns or shares...

  9. 7 CFR 1210.306 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.306 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the growing of 10 acres or more of watermelons including any person who owns or shares...

  10. 7 CFR 1210.306 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.306 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the growing of 10 acres or more of watermelons including any person who owns or shares...

  11. 7 CFR 1210.306 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.306 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the growing of 10 acres or more of watermelons including any person who owns or shares...

  12. 7 CFR 1210.306 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.306 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the growing of 10 acres or more of watermelons including any person who owns or shares...

  13. 7 CFR 760.1202 - Eligible producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS 2005-2007 Catfish Grant Program § 760.1202 Eligible producers. (a) To be considered an eligible catfish producer, an participant must: (1) Raise catfish in a... period; (2) Maintain the catfish for commercial use as part of a farming operation; (3) Have a risk...

  14. 7 CFR 760.1202 - Eligible producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS 2005-2007 Catfish Grant Program § 760.1202 Eligible producers. (a) To be considered an eligible catfish producer, an participant must: (1) Raise catfish in a... period; (2) Maintain the catfish for commercial use as part of a farming operation; (3) Have a risk...

  15. 7 CFR 1221.21 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.21 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the production and sale of sorghum in the United States and who...

  16. 7 CFR 1221.21 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.21 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the production and sale of sorghum in the United States and who...

  17. 7 CFR 1221.21 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.21 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the production and sale of sorghum in the United States and who...

  18. 7 CFR 1221.21 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.21 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the production and sale of sorghum in the United States and who...

  19. 7 CFR 1221.21 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.21 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the production and sale of sorghum in the United States and who...

  20. 7 CFR 1220.119 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.119 Producer. The term producer means any person engaged in the growing of soybeans in the United States who owns, or who...

  1. 7 CFR 1220.119 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.119 Producer. The term producer means any person engaged in the growing of soybeans in the United States who owns, or who...

  2. 7 CFR 1220.119 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.119 Producer. The term producer means any person engaged in the growing of soybeans in the United States who owns, or who...

  3. 7 CFR 1220.119 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.119 Producer. The term producer means any person engaged in the growing of soybeans in the United States who owns, or who...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.119 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.119 Producer. The term producer means any person engaged in the growing of soybeans in the United States who owns, or who...

  5. Method for producing microporous metal bodies

    DOEpatents

    Danko, Joseph C.

    1982-01-01

    Tungsten is vapor-deposited by hydrogen reduction of tungsten hexafluoride (WF.sub.6) to produce a tungsten body having from 40 to 100 ppm fluorine. The tungsten is then heated under vacuum to produce grain boundary porosity for a sufficient period of time to allow the pores along the grain boundaries to become interconnected.

  6. 7 CFR 985.6 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer. 985.6 Section 985.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST...

  7. 7 CFR 1218.16 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.16 Producer. Producer means any person who grows blueberries in the United States for sale in commerce, or a person...

  8. 7 CFR 1218.16 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.16 Producer. Producer means any person who grows blueberries in the United States for sale in commerce, or a person...

  9. 7 CFR 1218.16 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.16 Producer. Producer means any person who grows blueberries in the United States for sale in commerce, or a person...

  10. 7 CFR 985.6 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer. 985.6 Section 985.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST...

  11. 7 CFR 985.6 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer. 985.6 Section 985.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST...

  12. 7 CFR 1216.22 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.22 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the production and sale of peanuts and who owns, or shares the ownership...

  13. 7 CFR 1216.22 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.22 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the production and sale of peanuts and who owns, or shares the ownership...

  14. 7 CFR 1216.22 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.22 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the production and sale of peanuts and who owns, or shares the ownership...

  15. 7 CFR 1207.305 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.305 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the growing of 5 or more acres of potatoes who owns or shares the ownership and risk of loss of...

  16. 7 CFR 1207.305 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.305 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the growing of 5 or more acres of potatoes who owns or shares the ownership and risk of loss of...

  17. 7 CFR 1207.305 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.305 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the growing of 5 or more acres of potatoes who owns or shares the ownership and risk of loss of...

  18. 7 CFR 1207.305 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.305 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the growing of 5 or more acres of potatoes who owns or shares the ownership and risk of loss of...

  19. 7 CFR 1207.305 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.305 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the growing of 5 or more acres of potatoes who owns or shares the ownership and risk of loss of...

  20. Water treatment technology for produced water.

    PubMed

    Szép, Angéla; Kohlheb, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Large amounts of produced water are generated during oil and gas production. Produced water, as it is known in the oil industry, is briny fluid trapped in the rock of oil reservoirs. The objective of this study was to test produced waters from a Montana USA oilfield using a mobile station to design a plant to cost efficiently treat the produced water for agricultural irrigation. We used combined physical and chemical treatment of produced water in order to comply with reuse and discharge limits. This mobile station consists of three stages: pretreatments, membrane filtration and post treatment. Two spiral-wound membrane units were employed and the rejections of various constituents were examined. The performance of two membranes, 20 kDa weight cut-off (MWCO) ultrafiltration and a polyamide-composite reverse osmosis membrane was investigated. The mobile station effectively decreased conductivity by 98%, COD by 100% and the SAR by 2.15 mgeqv(0.5) in the produced water tested in this study. Cost analysis showed that the treatment cost of produced water is less expensive than to dispose of it by injection and this treated water may be of great value in water-poor regions. We can conclude that the mobile station provided a viable and cost-effective result to beneficial use of produced water. PMID:21076224

  1. 7 CFR 1214.17 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.17 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the production of Christmas trees in the...

  2. 7 CFR 1214.16 - Produce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.16 Produce. Produce means to engage in the cutting and selling of Christmas trees for the holiday market....

  3. 7 CFR 1214.17 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.17 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the production of Christmas trees in the...

  4. 7 CFR 1214.16 - Produce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.16 Produce. Produce means to engage in the cutting and selling of Christmas trees for the holiday market....

  5. 7 CFR 1214.16 - Produce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.16 Produce. Produce means to engage in the cutting and selling of Christmas trees for the holiday market....

  6. 7 CFR 1214.17 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.17 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the production of Christmas trees in the...

  7. 7 CFR 1206.8 - Foreign producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.8 Foreign producer. Foreign producer means any person: (1) Who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos outside of the...

  8. 7 CFR 1206.16 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.16 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos in the United States and who owns,...

  9. 7 CFR 1206.8 - Foreign producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.8 Foreign producer. Foreign producer means any person: (1) Who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos outside of the...

  10. 7 CFR 1206.16 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.16 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos in the United States and who owns,...

  11. 7 CFR 1206.8 - Foreign producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.8 Foreign producer. Foreign producer means any person: (1) Who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos outside of the...

  12. 7 CFR 1206.16 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.16 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos in the United States and who owns,...

  13. 7 CFR 1206.8 - Foreign producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.8 Foreign producer. Foreign producer means any person: (1) Who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos outside of the...

  14. 7 CFR 1206.16 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.16 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos in the United States and who owns,...

  15. 7 CFR 1206.16 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.16 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos in the United States and who owns,...

  16. 7 CFR 1206.8 - Foreign producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.8 Foreign producer. Foreign producer means any person: (1) Who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos outside of the...

  17. Stretched arc discharge in produced water.

    PubMed

    Cho, Y I; Wright, K C; Kim, H S; Cho, D J; Rabinovich, A; Fridman, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of stretching an arc discharge in produced water to increase the volume of produced water treated by plasma. Produced water is the wastewater generated by hydraulic fracturing of shale during the production phase in shale-oil or shale-gas exploration. The electric conductivity of produced water is in the range of 50-200 mS/cm, which provides both a challenge and opportunity for the application of plasmas. Stretching of an arc discharge in produced water was accomplished using a ground electrode and two high-voltage electrodes: one positioned close to the ground electrode and the other positioned farther away from the ground. The benefit of stretching the arc is that the contact between the arc and water is significantly increased, resulting in more efficient plasma treatment in both performance and energy cost. PMID:25638080

  18. Stretched arc discharge in produced water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Y. I.; Wright, K. C.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, D. J.; Rabinovich, A.; Fridman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of stretching an arc discharge in produced water to increase the volume of produced water treated by plasma. Produced water is the wastewater generated by hydraulic fracturing of shale during the production phase in shale-oil or shale-gas exploration. The electric conductivity of produced water is in the range of 50-200 mS/cm, which provides both a challenge and opportunity for the application of plasmas. Stretching of an arc discharge in produced water was accomplished using a ground electrode and two high-voltage electrodes: one positioned close to the ground electrode and the other positioned farther away from the ground. The benefit of stretching the arc is that the contact between the arc and water is significantly increased, resulting in more efficient plasma treatment in both performance and energy cost.

  19. Biocorrosion produced by Thiobacillus-like microorganisms.

    PubMed

    López, A I; Marín, I; Amils, R

    1994-01-01

    Biocorrosion can be produced by many different microorganisms through diverse mechanisms. The biocorrosion produced by acidophilic microorganisms of the genus Thiobacillus is based on the production of sulfuric acid and ferric ion from pyrites or related mineral structures, as a result of the chemolithotrophic metabolism of these microorganisms. The products of this aerobic respiration are also powerful oxidant elements, which can produce chemical oxidations of other metallic structures. The Tinto River, a very unusual extremophilic habitat (pH around 2, and high concentration of ferric ion), product of the growth of strict chemolithotrophic microorganisms, is discussed as a model case. PMID:7946115

  20. Biocorrosion produced by Thiobacillus-like microorganisms.

    PubMed

    López, A I; Marín, I; Amils, R

    1994-01-01

    Biocorrosion can be produced by many different microorganisms through diverse mechanisms. The biocorrosion produced by acidophilic microorganisms of the genus Thiobacillus is based on the production of sulfuric acid and ferric ion from pyrites or related mineral structures, as a result of the chemolithotrophic metabolism of these microorganisms. The products of this aerobic respiration are also powerful oxidant elements, which can produce chemical oxidations of other metallic structures. The Tinto River, a very unusual extremophilic habitat (pH around 2, and high concentration of ferric ion), product of the growth of strict chemolithotrophic microorganisms, is discussed as a model case.

  1. Chlorinated organic compounds produced by Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Ntushelo, Khayalethu

    2016-06-01

    Fusarium graminearum, a pathogen of wheat and maize, not only reduces grain yield and degrades quality but also produces mycotoxins in the infected grain. Focus has been on mycotoxins because of the human and animal health hazards associated with them. In addition to work done on mycotoxins, chemical profiling of F. graminearum to identify other compounds produced by this fungus remains critical. With chemical profiling of F. graminearum the entire chemistry of this fungus can be understood. The focus of this work was to identify chlorinated compounds produced by F. graminearum. Various chlorinated compounds were detected and their role in F. graminearum is yet to be understood.

  2. Method for producing uranium atomic beam source

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, Oscar H.

    1976-06-15

    A method for producing a beam of neutral uranium atoms is obtained by vaporizing uranium from a compound UM.sub.x heated to produce U vapor from an M boat or from some other suitable refractory container such as a tungsten boat, where M is a metal whose vapor pressure is negligible compared to that of uranium at the vaporization temperature. The compound, for example, may be the uranium-rhenium compound, URe.sub.2. An evaporation rate in excess of about 10 times that of conventional uranium beam sources is produced.

  3. 7 CFR 996.16 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.16 Producer... peanuts for market....

  4. Coloured Rings Produced on Transparent Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suhr, Wilfried; Schlichting, H. Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Beautiful colored interference rings can be produced by using transparent plates such as window glass. A simple model explains this effect, which was described by Newton but has almost been forgotten. (Contains 11 figures.)

  5. How To Produce and Characterize Transgenic Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savka, Michael A.; Wang, Shu-Yi; Wilson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Explains the process of establishing transgenic plants which is a very important tool in plant biology and modern agriculture. Produces transgenic plants with the ability to synthesize opines. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  6. Facility produced charge-exchange ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    These facility produced ions are created by charge-exchange collisions between neutral atoms and energetic thruster beam ions. The result of the electron transfer is an energetic neutral atom and an ion of only thermal energy. There are true charge-exchange ions produced by collisions with neutrals escaping from the ion thruster and being charge-exchange ionized before the neutral intercepts the tank wall. The facility produced charge-exchange ions will not exist in space and therefore, represent a source of error where measurements involving ion thruster plasmas and their density are involved. The quantity of facility produced ions in a test chamber with a 30 cm mercury ion thruster was determined.

  7. [Metabolomics analysis of taxadiene producing yeasts].

    PubMed

    Yan, Huifang; Ding, Mingzhu; Yuan, Yingjin

    2014-02-01

    In order to study the inherent difference among terpenes producing yeasts from the point of metabolomics, we selected taxadiene producing yeasts as the model system. The changes of cellular metabolites during fermentation log phase of artificial functional yeasts were determined using metabolomics methods. The results represented that compared to W303-1A as a blank control, the metabolites in glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle and several amino acids were influenced. And due to the changes of metabolites, the growth of cells was inhibited to a certain extent. Among the metabolites identified, citric acid content in taxadiene producing yeasts changed the most, the decreasing amplitude reached 90% or more. Therefore, citric acid can be a marker metabolite for the future study of artificial functional yeasts. The metabolomics analysis of taxadiene producing yeasts can provide more information in further studies on optimization of terpenes production in heterologous chassis.

  8. Methods and systems for producing syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, Grant L; O'Brien, James E; Stoots, Carl M; Herring, J. Stephen; McKellar, Michael G; Wood, Richard A; Carrington, Robert A; Boardman, Richard D

    2013-02-05

    Methods and systems are provided for producing syngas utilizing heat from thermochemical conversion of a carbonaceous fuel to support decomposition of at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells. Simultaneous decomposition of carbon dioxide and water or steam by one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells may be employed to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A portion of oxygen produced from at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells is fed at a controlled flow rate in a gasifier or combustor to oxidize the carbonaceous fuel to control the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratio produced.

  9. Methods of producing compounds from plant material

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Alderson, Eric V.; Orth, Rick J.; Abbas, Charles A.; Beery, Kyle E.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.; Kim, Catherine J.

    2006-01-03

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  10. Methods of producing compounds from plant materials

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H. , Franz; James A. , Alnajjar; Mikhail S. , Neuenschwander; Gary G. , Alderson; Eric V. , Orth; Rick J. , Abbas; Charles A. , Beery; Kyle E. , Rammelsberg; Anne M. , Kim; Catherine J.

    2010-01-26

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  11. Producing X-rays at the APS

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

  12. Innovative Trials Produce Promising Breast Cancer Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159762.html Innovative Trials Produce Promising Breast Cancer Drugs Adaptive study design allows researchers to match ... provide a fighting chance for women with advanced breast cancer. The drugs, neratinib and veliparib, both appear effective ...

  13. Producing tritium in a homogenous reactor

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for the joint production and separation of tritium. Tritium is produced in an aqueous homogenous reactor and heat from the nuclear reaction is used to distill tritium from the lower isotopes of hydrogen.

  14. Producing X-rays at the APS

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

  15. 7 CFR 989.11 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN... proprietary capacity in the production of grapes which are sun-dried or dehydrated by artificial means...

  16. 7 CFR 989.11 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN... proprietary capacity in the production of grapes which are sun-dried or dehydrated by artificial means...

  17. 7 CFR 989.11 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN... proprietary capacity in the production of grapes which are sun-dried or dehydrated by artificial means...

  18. 7 CFR 989.11 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN... proprietary capacity in the production of grapes which are sun-dried or dehydrated by artificial means...

  19. 7 CFR 989.11 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN... proprietary capacity in the production of grapes which are sun-dried or dehydrated by artificial means...

  20. Method of producing amorphous thin films

    DOEpatents

    Brusasco, Raymond M.

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing thin films by sintering which comprises: a. coating a substrate with a thin film of an inorganic glass forming parulate material possessing the capability of being sintered, and b. irridiating said thin film of said particulate material with a laser beam of sufficient power to cause sintering of said material below the temperature of liquidus thereof. Also disclosed is the article produced by the method claimed.

  1. New species of Aspergillus producing sterigmatocystin.

    PubMed Central

    Rabie, C J; Steyn, M; van Schalkwyk, G C

    1977-01-01

    A number of species belonging to the genus Aspergillus were evaluated for their toxicity to ducklings and the ability to produce sterigmatocystin. Three new species capable of producing sterigmatocystin were found, namely, Aspergillus aurantio-brunneus, Aspergillus quadrilineatus, and Aspergillus ustus. All three were toxic to ducklings. The production of sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus rugulosus was confirmed, and the toxicity of Aspergillus stellatus and Aspergillus multicolor is described. PMID:406838

  2. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    SciTech Connect

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  3. Gamma rays produce superior seedless citrus

    SciTech Connect

    Pyrah, D.

    1984-10-01

    Using gamma radiation, seedless forms of some varieties of oranges and grapefruit are being produced. Since it has long been known that radiation causes mutations in plants and animals, experiments were conducted to determine if seediness could be altered by exposing seeds or budwood to higher than natural doses of gamma radiation. Orange and grapefruit seeds and cuttings exposed to gamma rays in the early 1970's have produced trees that bear fruit superior to that now on the market.

  4. Wintertime Emissions from Produced Water Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J.; Lyman, S.; Mansfield, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Every year oil and gas drilling in the U.S. generates billions of barrels of produced water (water brought to the surface during oil or gas production). Efficiently disposing of produced water presents a constant financial challenge for producers. The most noticeable disposal method in eastern Utah's Uintah Basin is the use of evaporation ponds. There are 427 acres of produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin, and these were used to evaporate more than 5 million barrels of produced water in 2012, 6% of all produced water in the Basin. Ozone concentrations exceeding EPA standards have been observed in the Uintah Basin during winter inversion conditions, with daily maximum 8 hour average concentrations at some research sites exceeding 150 parts per billion. Produced water contains ozone-forming volatile organic compounds (VOC) which escape into the atmosphere as the water is evaporated, potentially contributing to air quality problems. No peer-reviewed study of VOC emissions from produced water ponds has been reported, and filling this gap is essential for the development of accurate emissions inventories for the Uintah Basin and other air sheds with oil and gas production. Methane, carbon dioxide, and VOC emissions were measured at three separate pond facilities in the Uintah Basin in February and March of 2013 using a dynamic flux chamber. Pond emissions vary with meteorological conditions, so measurements of VOC emissions were collected during winter to obtain data relevant to periods of high ozone production. Much of the pond area at evaporation facilities was frozen during the study period, but areas that actively received water from trucks remained unfrozen. These areas accounted for 99.2% of total emissions but only 9.5% of the total pond area on average. Ice and snow on frozen ponds served as a cap, prohibiting VOC from being emitted into the atmosphere. Emissions of benzene, toluene, and other aromatic VOCs averaged over 150 mg m-2 h-1 from unfrozen pond

  5. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  6. Management of small producers waste in Slovenia

    SciTech Connect

    Fabjan, Marija; Rojc, Joze

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Radioactive materials are extensively used in Slovenia in various fields and applications in medicine, industry and research. For the managing of radioactive waste raised from these establishments the Agency for radwaste management (ARAO) was authorised as the state public service of managing the radioactive waste in 1999. The public service of the radioactive waste of small producers in Slovenia is performed in line with the Governmental decree on the Mode, Subject and Terms of Performing the Public Service of Radioactive Waste Management (Official Gazette RS No. 32/99). According to the Decree the scope of the public service includes: 'collection of the waste from small producers at the producers' premises and its transportation to the storage facility for treatment, storing and disposal', 'acceptance of radioactive waste in case of emergency situation on the premises, in case of transport accidents or some other accidents', 'acceptance of radioactive waste in cases when the producer is unknown', 'management (collection, transport, pre-treatment, storing, together with QA and radiation protection measures) of radioactive waste', 'treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste for storing and disposal', and 'operating of the Central Interim Storage for LIL waste from small producers'. After taking over the performing of the public service, ARAO first started with the project for refurbishment and modernization of the Central Interim Storage Facility, including improvements of the storage utilization and rearrangement of the stored waste. (authors)

  7. Producer-level benefits of sustainability certification.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Allen; Rivera, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    Initiatives certifying that producers of goods and services adhere to defined environmental and social-welfare production standards are increasingly popular. According to proponents, these initiatives create financial incentives for producers to improve their environmental, social, and economic performance. We reviewed the evidence on whether these initiatives have such benefits. We identified peer-reviewed, ex post, producer-level studies in economic sectors in which certification is particularly prevalent (bananas, coffee, fish products, forest products, and tourism operations), classified these studies on the basis of whether their design and methods likely generated credible results, summarized findings from the studies with credible results, and considered how these findings might guide future research. We found 46 relevant studies, most of which focused on coffee and forest products and examined fair-trade and Forest Stewardship Council certification. The methods used in 11 studies likely generated credible results. Of these 11 studies, nine examined the economic effects and two the environmental effects of certification. The results of four of the 11 studies, all of which examined economic effects, showed that certification has producer-level benefits. Hence, the evidence to support the hypothesis that certification benefits the environment or producers is limited. More evidence could be generated by incorporating rigorous, independent evaluation into the design and implementation of projects promoting certification.

  8. Human recombinant lysosomal enzymes produced in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Espejo-Mojica, Ángela J; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Rodríguez, Alexander; Mosquera, Ángela; Díaz, Dennis; Beltrán, Laura; Díaz, Sergio; Pimentel, Natalia; Moreno, Jefferson; Sánchez, Jhonnathan; Sánchez, Oscar F; Córdoba, Henry; Poutou-Piñales, Raúl A; Barrera, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are caused by accumulation of partially degraded substrates within the lysosome, as a result of a function loss of a lysosomal protein. Recombinant lysosomal proteins are usually produced in mammalian cells, based on their capacity to carry out post-translational modifications similar to those observed in human native proteins. However, during the last years, a growing number of studies have shown the possibility to produce active forms of lysosomal proteins in other expression systems, such as plants and microorganisms. In this paper, we review the production and characterization of human lysosomal proteins, deficient in several LSDs, which have been produced in microorganisms. For this purpose, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, Yarrowia lipolytica, and Ogataea minuta have been used as expression systems. The recombinant lysosomal proteins expressed in these hosts have shown similar substrate specificities, and temperature and pH stability profiles to those produced in mammalian cells. In addition, pre-clinical results have shown that recombinant lysosomal enzymes produced in microorganisms can be taken-up by cells and reduce the substrate accumulated within the lysosome. Recently, metabolic engineering in yeasts has allowed the production of lysosomal enzymes with tailored N-glycosylations, while progresses in E. coli N-glycosylations offer a potential platform to improve the production of these recombinant lysosomal enzymes. In summary, microorganisms represent convenient platform for the production of recombinant lysosomal proteins for biochemical and physicochemical characterization, as well as for the development of ERT for LSD.

  9. Connexin expression in renin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Lisa; Janssen-Bienhold, Ulrike; Kurtz, Armin; Wagner, Charlotte

    2009-03-01

    Absence of connexin 40 (Cx40) leads to ectopic juxtaglomerular renin expression and abrogates recruitment of renin-expressing cells in the adult kidney but does not disturb renin expression during kidney development. To find an explanation for these observations, we aimed to analyze the expression pattern of major vascular Cxs in normal juxtaglomerular epithelioid cells, in recruited renin-expressing cells, and in fetal renin-expressing cells. We found that during kidney development, the appearance of renin-producing cells paralleled the expression of Cx40 and, to a lesser extent, Cx45 but not other Cxs. In the adult kidney, juxtaglomerular epithelioid cells expressed Cx40 and lesser amounts of Cx37 and Cx43 but not Cx45, which localized to arteriolar smooth muscle cells. Recruitment of renin-producing cells in adult kidneys in response to long-term salt deprivation of mice correlated with the reappearance of only Cx40. Cx40-null renin-producing cells did not express Cx37, Cx43, or Cx45. These findings suggest that Cx40 expression is a characteristic of renin-producing cells in the kidney, and it seems to be essential in the recruitment of renin-producing cells in the adult but not the fetal kidney. PMID:19073828

  10. APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING IONS OF VAPORIZABLE MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Wright, B.T.

    1958-01-28

    a uniform and copious supply of ions. The source comprises a hollow arc- block and means for establishing a magnetic field through the arc-block. Vaporization of the material to be ionized is produced by an electric heated filament. The arc producing structure within the arc-block consists of a cathode disposed between a pair of collimating electrodes along with an anode adjacent each collimating electrode on the side opposite the cathode. A positive potential applied to the anodes and collimating electrodes, with respect to the cathode, and the magnetic field act to accelerate the electrons from the cathode through a slit in each collimating clectrode towards the respective anode. In this manner a pair of collinear arc discharges are produced in the gas region which can be tapped for an abundant supply of ions of the material being analyzed.

  11. Producing Hydrogen by Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James; Akse, James; Wheeler, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Plasma pyrolysis of methane has been investigated for utility as a process for producing hydrogen. This process was conceived as a means of recovering hydrogen from methane produced as a byproduct of operation of a life-support system aboard a spacecraft. On Earth, this process, when fully developed, could be a means of producing hydrogen (for use as a fuel) from methane in natural gas. The most closely related prior competing process - catalytic pyrolysis of methane - has several disadvantages: a) The reactor used in the process is highly susceptible to fouling and deactivation of the catalyst by carbon deposits, necessitating frequent regeneration or replacement of the catalyst. b) The reactor is highly susceptible to plugging by deposition of carbon within fixed beds, with consequent channeling of flow, high pressure drops, and severe limitations on mass transfer, all contributing to reductions in reactor efficiency. c) Reaction rates are intrinsically low. d) The energy demand of the process is high.

  12. Cheating honeybee workers produce royal offspring

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Lyndon A; Allsopp, Michael H; Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Wossler, Theresa C; Beekman, Madeleine

    2007-01-01

    The Cape bee (Apis mellifera capensis) is unique among honeybees in that workers can lay eggs that instead of developing into males develop into females via thelytokous parthenogenesis. We show that this ability allows workers to compete directly with the queen over the production of new queens. Genetic analyses using microsatellites revealed that 23 out of 39 new queens produced by seven colonies were offspring of workers and not the resident queen. Of these, eight were laid by resident workers, but the majority were offspring of parasitic workers from other colonies. The parasites were derived from several clonal lineages that entered the colonies and successfully targeted queen cells for parasitism. Hence, these parasitic workers had the potential to become genetically reincarnated as queens. Of the daughter queens laid by the resident queen, three were produced asexually, suggesting that queens can ‘choose’ to produce daughter queens clonally and thus have the potential for genetic immortality. PMID:18048282

  13. Producers add 3 cts/gal

    SciTech Connect

    Vames, S.

    1997-03-05

    Methanol list prices will continue to rise in March with a nominated price increase of 3 cts/gal (CW, Feb. 26, p. 39). The increases will bring Methanex`s posting price to 70 cts/gal, while most other producers will be at 67 cts/gal. Several producers, including Methanex and Hoechst, expanded capacity last month, but the methanol market remains strong and there are no indications that prices will soften soon. There are hints, however, that the rate of increase of methanol prices may slow. Tightness in the market seems to be easing as producers in eastern Europe increase capacity. The psychology of tightness was stoked by reports of spot and regional shortages and resulted in buying panics and price increases in fourth-quarter 1996.

  14. Producers. US independents: exploring for clout

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-25

    Are US independent oil producers an emerging voice that will catapult the country towards a new, comprehensive energy policy. Or, are they voices in a quiet wilderness of traditional oil supply at prices posted by the majors. Certainly the independents drill 85% of all new wells and produce 41% of the country's oil. But contemporary pricing practices, accompanied by growing energy interdependencies on a global scale, are realities many independents see at a foggy distance. Will they adopt the New Think of product-price values, as the OPEC countries did many years ago. This issue also presents the following data in tabular form: (1) changes in the number of US producing wells and new wells completed by state, 1985-1987; (2) ED refining netback data for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore for late May 1988; and (3) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, May 1988 edition. 5 figures, 6 tables.

  15. Characterization of Soluble Organics in Produced Water

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.

    2002-01-16

    Soluble organics in produced water and refinery effluents represent treatment problems for the petroleum industry. Neither the chemistry involved in the production of soluble organics nor the impact of these chemicals on total effluent toxicity is well understood. The U.S. Department of Energy provides funding for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support a collaborative project with Shell, Chevron, Phillips, and Statoil entitled ''Petroleum and Environmental Research Forum project (PERF 9844: Manage Water-Soluble Organics in Produced Water''). The goal of this project, which involves characterization and evaluation of these water-soluble compounds, is aimed at reducing the future production of such contaminants. To determine the effect that various drilling conditions might have on water-soluble organics (WSO) content in produced water, a simulated brine water containing the principal inorganic components normally found in Gulf of Mexico (GOM) brine sources was prepared. The GOM simulant was then contacted with as-received crude oil from a deep well site to study the effects of water cut, produced-water pH, salinity, pressure, temperature, and crude oil sources on the type and content of the WSO in produced water. The identities of individual semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were determined in all as-received crude and actual produced water samples using standard USEPA Method (8270C) protocol. These analyses were supplemented with the more general measurements of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in the gas (C{sub 6}-C{sub 10}), diesel (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}), and oil (C{sub 20}-C{sub 28}) carbon ranges as determined by both gas chromatographic (GC) and infrared (IR) analyses. An open liquid chromatographic procedure was also used to differentiate the saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, and polar components within the extractable TPH. Inorganic constituents in the produced water were analyzed by ion-selective electrodes and inductively

  16. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    PubMed

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  17. Method of producing a high pressure gas

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-07-18

    A method of producing a high pressure gas is disclosed and which includes providing a container; supplying the container with a liquid such as water; increasing the pressure of the liquid within the container; supplying a reactant composition such as a chemical hydride to the liquid under pressure in the container and which chemically reacts with the liquid to produce a resulting high pressure gas such as hydrogen at a pressure of greater than about 100 pounds per square inch of pressure; and drawing the resulting high pressure gas from the container.

  18. Methods for producing silicon carbide fibers

    DOEpatents

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2016-03-01

    Methods of producing silicon carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a silicon-containing gas in a reaction chamber at a temperature ranging from approximately 1500.degree. C. to approximately 2000.degree. C. A partial pressure of oxygen in the reaction chamber is maintained at less than approximately 1.01.times.10.sup.2 Pascal to produce continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers. Continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers and articles formed from the continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers are also disclosed.

  19. Method and apparatus for producing viscous crudes

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.W.; Corby, R.S

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes an apparatus for producing viscous crudes from a producing wellbore, comprising: (a) an electrical submersible pump lift system; (b) a shroud having an inlet for reservoir fluids containing such viscous crudes, the shroud substantially surrounding the inlet to the electrical submersible pump; (c) a water conduit for conducting water from the surface to the shroud inlet; and (d) water inlet means connected to the water conduit and communicating with the crude inlet of the shroud for continuously injecting water into the crude inlet and mixing such water with reservoir fluids coming in through the crude inlet.

  20. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D. [Livermore, CA

    1979-01-09

    Method for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T .gtorsim. 600.degree. C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10.sup.3 .mu.m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants.

  1. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-09

    Method is disclosed for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T [approx gt] 600 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10[sup 3] [mu]m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants. 1 fig.

  2. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Zhifen; Wen, Jian Guo; Lao, Jing Y.; Li, Wenzhi

    2008-10-28

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  3. Solid fuel volatilization to produce synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Degenstein, Nick J.; Dreyer, Brandon J.; Colby, Joshua L.

    2014-07-29

    A method comprising contacting a carbon and hydrogen-containing solid fuel and a metal-based catalyst in the presence of oxygen to produce hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide gas, wherein the contacting occurs at a temperature sufficiently high to prevent char formation in an amount capable of stopping production of the hydrogen gas and the carbon monoxide gas is provided. In one embodiment, the metal-based catalyst comprises a rhodium-cerium catalyst. Embodiments further include a system for producing syngas. The systems and methods described herein provide shorter residence time and high selectivity for hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  4. Exceptional Antibodies Produced by Successive Immunizations.

    PubMed

    Gearhart, Patricia J; Castiblanco, Diana P; Russell Knode, Lisa M

    2015-12-01

    Antibodies stand between us and pathogens. Viruses mutate quickly to avoid detection, and antibodies mutate at similar rates to hunt them down. This death spiral is fueled by specialized proteins and error-prone polymerases that change DNA sequences. Here, we explore how B lymphocytes stay in the race by expressing activation-induced deaminase, which unleashes a tsunami of mutations in the immunoglobulin loci. This produces random DNA substitutions, followed by selection for the highest affinity antibodies. We may be able to manipulate the process to produce better antibodies by expanding the repertoire of specific B cells through successive vaccinations. PMID:26641938

  5. Producing liquid oxygen in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David; Warden, Nicole; Wharton, Barry

    2016-09-01

    A number of organisations have provided instructions on how to produce small quantities of liquid oxygen in the classroom using liquid nitrogen and a copper condensation coil (Lister 1995 Classic Chemistry Demonstrations (London: Royal Society of Chemistry) pp 61–2, French and Hibbert 2010 Phys. Educ. 45 221–2). The method presented below describes a process which is believed to be safer as it contains the oxygen during production and produces a controllable amount of the liquid. The method also has the advantage that it can be conducted using cheap and easily available materials.

  6. Producing liquid oxygen in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David; Warden, Nicole; Wharton, Barry

    2016-09-01

    A number of organisations have provided instructions on how to produce small quantities of liquid oxygen in the classroom using liquid nitrogen and a copper condensation coil (Lister 1995 Classic Chemistry Demonstrations (London: Royal Society of Chemistry) pp 61-2, French and Hibbert 2010 Phys. Educ. 45 221-2). The method presented below describes a process which is believed to be safer as it contains the oxygen during production and produces a controllable amount of the liquid. The method also has the advantage that it can be conducted using cheap and easily available materials.

  7. Exceptional Antibodies Produced by Successive Immunizations

    PubMed Central

    Gearhart, Patricia J.; Castiblanco, Diana P.; Russell Knode, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies stand between us and pathogens. Viruses mutate quickly to avoid detection, and antibodies mutate at similar rates to hunt them down. This death spiral is fueled by specialized proteins and error-prone polymerases that change DNA sequences. Here, we explore how B lymphocytes stay in the race by expressing activation-induced deaminase, which unleashes a tsunami of mutations in the immunoglobulin loci. This produces random DNA substitutions, followed by selection for the highest affinity antibodies. We may be able to manipulate the process to produce better antibodies by expanding the repertoire of specific B cells through successive vaccinations. PMID:26641938

  8. Malaria Parasites Produce Volatile Mosquito Attractants

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Megan; Su, Chih-Ying; Schaber, Chad; Crowley, Jan R.; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Carlson, John R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum contains a nonphotosynthetic plastid organelle that possesses plant-like metabolic pathways. Plants use the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway to produce volatile odorants, known as terpenes. In this work, we describe the volatile chemical profile of cultured malaria parasites. Among the identified compounds are several plant-like terpenes and terpene derivatives, including known mosquito attractants. We establish the molecular identity of the odorant receptors of the malaria mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae, which responds to these compounds. The malaria parasite produces volatile signals that are recognized by mosquitoes and may thereby mediate host attraction and facilitate transmission. PMID:25805727

  9. Solar proton produced neon in shergottite meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, D. H.; Rao, M. N.; Bogard, D. D.

    1994-01-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides produced by near-surface, nuclear interactions of energetic solar protons (approx. 10-100 MeV) were reported in several lunar rocks and a very small meteorites. We recently documented the existence and isotopic compositions of solar-produced (SCR) Ne in two lunar rocks. Here we present the first documented evidence for SCR Ne in a meteorite, ALH77005, which was reported to contain SCR radionuclides. Examination of literature data for other shergottites suggests that they may also contain a SCR Ne component. The existence of SCR Ne in shergottites may be related to a Martian origin.

  10. [Alpha Fetoprotein-producing Lung Adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Komori, Kazuyuki; Tabata, Toshiharu; Sato, Kimiaki; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Minowa, Muneo; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) -producing lung adenocarcinoma. A 53-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to right pneumothorax. Computed tomography showed right moderate pneumothorax, a solid tumor in the upper lobe (S3) and mediastinal lymph node swelling. The serum AFP level was as high as 223.0 ng/ml. Frozen examination revealed a low-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Based on the pathological and immunohistochemical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as AFP-producing lung adenocarcinoma.

  11. Producing Dissemination Materials. Final Draft Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degener, David, Comp.; And Others

    This manual is intended to help projects approved by the Joint Dissemination Review Panel produce materials that will support their dissemination activities. Specifically directed toward career education projects, it should be equally useful for other projects. Section 1 discusses diffusion/adoption and these topics regarding materials: purpose,…

  12. 7 CFR 1131.12 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... means any person who produces milk approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency for fluid consumption as Grade A milk and whose milk (or components of milk) is: (1) Received at a pool plant directly... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order...

  13. 7 CFR 1006.12 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... means any person who produces milk approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency for fluid consumption as Grade A milk and whose milk (or components of milk) is: (1) Received at a pool plant directly... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order...

  14. 7 CFR 1001.12 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... means any person who produces milk approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency for fluid consumption as Grade A milk and whose milk (or components of milk) is: (1) Received at a pool plant directly... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order...

  15. 7 CFR 1007.12 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... means any person who produces milk approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency for fluid consumption as Grade A milk and whose milk (or components of milk) is: (1) Received at a pool plant directly... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order...

  16. 7 CFR 1001.12 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... means any person who produces milk approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency for fluid consumption as Grade A milk and whose milk (or components of milk) is: (1) Received at a pool plant directly... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order...

  17. 7 CFR 1032.12 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... means any person who produces milk approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency for fluid consumption as Grade A milk and whose milk (or components of milk) is: (1) Received at a pool plant directly... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order...

  18. 7 CFR 1006.12 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... means any person who produces milk approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency for fluid consumption as Grade A milk and whose milk (or components of milk) is: (1) Received at a pool plant directly... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order...

  19. 7 CFR 1032.12 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... means any person who produces milk approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency for fluid consumption as Grade A milk and whose milk (or components of milk) is: (1) Received at a pool plant directly... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order...

  20. 7 CFR 1131.12 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... means any person who produces milk approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency for fluid consumption as Grade A milk and whose milk (or components of milk) is: (1) Received at a pool plant directly... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order...

  1. 7 CFR 1005.12 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... means any person who produces milk approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency for fluid consumption as Grade A milk and whose milk (or components of milk) is: (1) Received at a pool plant directly... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order...

  2. 7 CFR 1005.12 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... means any person who produces milk approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency for fluid consumption as Grade A milk and whose milk (or components of milk) is: (1) Received at a pool plant directly... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order...

  3. 7 CFR 1007.12 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... means any person who produces milk approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency for fluid consumption as Grade A milk and whose milk (or components of milk) is: (1) Received at a pool plant directly... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order...

  4. 7 CFR 1126.12 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... means any person who produces milk approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency for fluid consumption as Grade A milk and whose milk (or components of milk) is: (1) Received at a pool plant directly... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order...

  5. 7 CFR 1126.12 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... means any person who produces milk approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency for fluid consumption as Grade A milk and whose milk (or components of milk) is: (1) Received at a pool plant directly... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order...

  6. Planning and Producing Audiovisual Materials. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Jerrold E.

    A revised edition of this handbook provides illustrated, step-by-step explanations of how to plan and produce audiovisual materials. Included are sections on the fundamental skills--photography, graphics and recording sound--followed by individual sections on photographic print series, slide series, filmstrips, tape recordings, overhead…

  7. 7 CFR 1150.110 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer. 1150.110 Section 1150.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and...

  8. 7 CFR 1430.510 - New producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false New producers. 1430.510 Section 1430.510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program §...

  9. 7 CFR 1430.510 - New producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false New producers. 1430.510 Section 1430.510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program §...

  10. 7 CFR 1430.510 - New producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false New producers. 1430.510 Section 1430.510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program §...

  11. 7 CFR 1150.110 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer. 1150.110 Section 1150.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and...

  12. 7 CFR 1150.110 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer. 1150.110 Section 1150.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and...

  13. Producing and Scrounging during Problem Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickery, William L.

    2013-01-01

    When problem based learning occurs in a social context it is open to a common social behaviour, scrounging. In the animal behaviour literature, scroungers do not attempt to find resources themselves but rather exploit resources found by other group members (referred to as producers). We know from studies of animal behaviour (including humans) that…

  14. Silicon waveguides produced by wafer bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, M.; Jensen, F.; Bunk, O.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Breiby, D.W.

    2005-12-26

    X-ray waveguides are successfully produced employing standard silicon technology of UV photolithography and wafer bonding. Contrary to theoretical expectations for similar systems even 100 {mu}m broad guides of less than 80 nm height do not collapse and can be used as one dimensional waveguides to excite single guided modes at typical x-ray energies.

  15. Lobeline produces conditioned taste avoidance in rats.

    PubMed

    Harrod, S B; Dwoskin, L P; Bardo, M T

    2004-05-01

    Previous results indicate that pretreatment with lobeline attenuates methamphetamine (METH) self-administration in rats, but not by acting as a substitute reinforcer. Given these findings, it has been suggested that lobeline may serve as a useful pharmacotherapy for psychostimulant abuse. However, because lobeline produces emesis and nausea in humans, the present study examined whether lobeline has direct effects on taste avoidance behavior in rats within the same dose range shown previously to decrease METH self-administration. Two experiments utilized a Pavlovian conditioning procedure to determine if lobeline produces conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) in rats. In Experiments 1 and 2, rats consumed either novel milk or salt solutions, respectively, and within 10 min, were injected with lobeline (0.3-3.0 mg/kg) or METH (0.3-3.0 mg/kg). A single-bottle test conducted 48 h after flavor-drug pairings indicated that the dose of lobeline that reduced METH self-administration in a previous study (i.e., 3.0 mg/kg) also produced reliable CTA for milk and salt solution. These findings suggest a need to develop lobeline analogs that reduce METH self-administration, but do not produce CTA following the consumption of a novel solution.

  16. Fluorescent profiling of natural product producers.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Joel S; Fenical, William; Gulledge, Brian M; Chamberlin, A Richard; La Clair, James J

    2005-07-01

    The identification of natural product producer organisms remains a problem for both isolation and natural product classification. A concise screen is developed through fluorescent modification of a set of natural products that offer a common activity. Through real-time multicolor microscopy, the processing, storage, and effects of a natural product are rapidly screened at the level of the strain and individual organism.

  17. Intelligibility of Speech Produced during Simultaneous Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Robert L.; Schiavetti, Nicholas; MacKenzie, Douglas J.; Metz, Dale Evan

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the overall intelligibility of speech produced during simultaneous communication (SC). Four hearing, experienced sign language users were recorded under SC and speech alone (SA) conditions speaking Boothroyd's (1985) forced-choice phonetic contrast material designed for measurement of speech intelligibility. Twelve…

  18. Air stripping for treatment of produced water

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, C.S.; Lin, J.H.

    1988-05-01

    In a laboratory study, air stripping shows a promising potential for treatment of produced water to meet new government regulations on total organic carbon (TOC). Reservoir hydrocarbons dissolved in water, such as volatile paraffins and aromatics, can be removed by air stripping through interphase mass transfer. However, air stripping cannot remove many chemicals added to crude oil by the operator.

  19. Producing Liquid Oxygen in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David; Warden, Nicole; Wharton, Barry

    2016-01-01

    A number of organisations have provided instructions on how to produce small quantities of liquid oxygen in the classroom using liquid nitrogen and a copper condensation coil (Lister 1995 "Classic Chemistry Demonstrations" (London: Royal Society of Chemistry) pp 61-2, French and Hibbert 2010 "Phys. Educ." 45 221-2). The method…

  20. Climate forecasts for corn producer decision making

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is the most widely grown crop in the Americas, with annual production in the United States of approximately 332 million metric tons. Improved climate forecasts, together with climate-related decision tools for corn producers based on these improved forecasts, could substantially reduce uncertai...

  1. Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The information and analyses in Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers is intended to provide a critical review, and promote an understanding, of the possible motivations and apparent consequences of investment decisions made by some of the largest corporations in the energy industry.

  2. Produce safety and quality research at ERRC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are many reports of disease due to consumption of fruits and vegetables that were contaminated on the surface with enteric pathogens. Therefore, the safety of fresh-cut melons and other produce available in salad-bar operations and supermarkets is a concern. Physical and chemical treatments ...

  3. Superconducting lead particles produced by chemical techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Fariss, T.L.; Nixon, W.E.; Bucelot, T.J.; Deaver, B.S. Jr.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1982-09-01

    The superconductivity of extremely small lead particles has been studied as a function of size, surface condition, and connectivity using chemical techniques to produce particles of well-controlled size and shape suspended in insulating media. Approximately monodisperse suspensions of equiaxed, rod, and lath-shaped particles of lead halides and other lead compounds suspended in gelatin, polyacrylamide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, methyl cellulose, and hydroxyethyl cellulose have been produced. These particles have been reduced to pseudomorphs of lead in the liquid phase or the suspensions have been coated on substrates and dried before reduction. Reducing solutions containing aminoiminomethanesulfinic acid are effective with particles of lead halides, lead phosphate, lead sulfate, and lead tartrate. Suspensions of smaller discrete lead particles have also been produced by direct reduction of solutions of soluble lead salts containing suitable polymers, chelating, and stabilizing agents. Dispersions with mean particle dimensions between 3 nm and 5 ..mu..m, and a narrow size-frequency distribution, have been produced. The superconductivity of the particles has been characterized by measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The larger particles have a transition temperature of 7.2 K, the same as bulk lead; however, for particles of characteristic dimensions less than 20 nm, the transition temperature is lower by approx.0.1 K.

  4. 9 CFR 114.16 - Producing subsidiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Producing subsidiaries. 114.16 Section 114.16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS...

  5. Method of producing a chemical hydride

    DOEpatents

    Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Wendt, Kraig M.

    2007-11-13

    A method of producing a chemical hydride is described and which includes selecting a composition having chemical bonds and which is capable of forming a chemical hydride; providing a source of a hydrocarbon; and reacting the composition with the source of the hydrocarbon to generate a chemical hydride.

  6. Apes produce tools for future use.

    PubMed

    Bräuer, Juliane; Call, Josep

    2015-03-01

    There is now growing evidence that some animal species are able to plan for the future. For example great apes save and exchange tools for future use. Here we raise the question whether chimpanzees, orangutans, and bonobos would produce tools for future use. Subjects only had access to a baited apparatus for a limited duration and therefore should use the time preceding this access to create the appropriate tools in order to get the rewards. The apes were tested in three conditions depending on the need for pre-prepared tools. Either eight tools, one tool or no tools were needed to retrieve the reward. The apes prepared tools in advance for future use and they produced them mainly in conditions when they were really needed. The fact that apes were able to solve this new task indicates that their planning skills are flexible. However, for the condition in which eight tools were needed, apes produced less than two tools per trial in advance. However, they used their chance to produce additional tools in the tool use phase-thus often obtaining most of the reward from the apparatus. Increased pressure to prepare more tools in advance did not have an effect on their performance.

  7. Swine Producer. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a comprehensive and verified employer competency list for a swine producer program. It contains units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability skills…

  8. Dairy Producer. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for dairy producers. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  9. Apes produce tools for future use.

    PubMed

    Bräuer, Juliane; Call, Josep

    2015-03-01

    There is now growing evidence that some animal species are able to plan for the future. For example great apes save and exchange tools for future use. Here we raise the question whether chimpanzees, orangutans, and bonobos would produce tools for future use. Subjects only had access to a baited apparatus for a limited duration and therefore should use the time preceding this access to create the appropriate tools in order to get the rewards. The apes were tested in three conditions depending on the need for pre-prepared tools. Either eight tools, one tool or no tools were needed to retrieve the reward. The apes prepared tools in advance for future use and they produced them mainly in conditions when they were really needed. The fact that apes were able to solve this new task indicates that their planning skills are flexible. However, for the condition in which eight tools were needed, apes produced less than two tools per trial in advance. However, they used their chance to produce additional tools in the tool use phase-thus often obtaining most of the reward from the apparatus. Increased pressure to prepare more tools in advance did not have an effect on their performance. PMID:25236323

  10. Chemicals that produce anosmia in mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has developed repellents and insecticides for the U.S. military since 1942. A small component of this research program has been focused on the discovery of attractants that can be used to produce potent lures for haematophagous arthropods, especial...

  11. Adaptive control system for gas producing wells

    SciTech Connect

    Fedor, Pashchenko; Sergey, Gulyaev; Alexander, Pashchenko

    2015-03-10

    Optimal adaptive automatic control system for gas producing wells cluster is proposed intended for solving the problem of stabilization of the output gas pressure in the cluster at conditions of changing gas flow rate and changing parameters of the wells themselves, providing the maximum high resource of hardware elements of automation.

  12. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-10-29

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  13. Poultry Producer. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a comprehensive and verified employer competency list for a poultry producer program. It contains units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  14. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-05-26

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  15. Revenue Producing Athletes: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Leroy; And Others

    An annotated bibliography on revenue producing sports is presented, with attention to: Proposition 48, exploitation of athletes, legal proceedings, research related to athletes and academic performance, psychological characteristics of athletes, and counseling programs for athletes. Introductions to each of the six topics are included. The section…

  16. Cosmic ray produced isotopes in terrestrial systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, D.

    1998-12-01

    Continuing improvements in the sensitivity of measurement of cosmic ray produced isotopes in environmental samples have progressively broadened the scope of their applications to characterise and quantify a wide variety of processes in Earth and planetary sciences. In this article, the author concentrates on the new developments in the field of nuclear geophysics, based on isotopic changes produced by cosmic rays in the terrestrial systems. This field, which is best described as cosmic ray geophysics, has roots with the discovery of cosmogenic 14C on the Earth by Willard Libby in 1948, and grew rapidly at first, but slowed down during the '60s and '70s. In the '80s, there was a renaissance in cosmic ray produced isotope studies, thanks mainly to the developments of the accelerator mass spectrometry technique capable of measuring minute amounts of radioactivity in terrestrial samples. This technological advance has considerably enhanced the applications of cosmic ray produced isotopes and today one finds them being used to address diverse problems in Earth and planetary sciences. The author discusses the present scope of the field of cosmic ray geophysics with an emphasis on geomorphology. It is stressed that this is the decade in which this field, which has been studied passionately by geographers, geomorphologists and geochemists for more than five decades, has at its service nuclear methods to introduce numeric time controls in the range of centuries to millions of years.

  17. Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2015-12-01

    Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a boron oxide gas within a temperature range of from approximately 1400.degree. C. to approximately 2200.degree. C. Continuous boron carbide fibers, continuous fibers comprising boron carbide, and articles including at least a boron carbide coating are also disclosed.

  18. Bilateral buccolingual forces produced by extraoral traction.

    PubMed

    Baldini, G; Haack, D C; Weinstein, S

    1981-10-01

    Extraoral appliances have been typically employed to deliver force systems to move teeth in directions parallel to the sagittal plane of the face. Their potential for concurrently producing transverse (buccal or lingual) movement has still not been fully explored. This study considers theoretical and experimental aspects of the magnitude and direction of such forces and related moments.

  19. Television Reporters and Producers as Journalists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Conrad; Becker, Lee B.

    According to a new myth in the television broadcasting industry, the producer has become the representative of the show business side of news production, while the reporter has remained the protector of the more noble goals of journalism in the television newsroom. To explore the dimensions of this myth, a study examined data, available from a…

  20. Organic reactants rapidly produce plastic foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Look, G. F.

    1965-01-01

    Adding trichlorofluoromethane to polyether resin accelerates the reaction between the resin and toluene diisocyanate. This accelerated reaction instantaneously produces a plastic foam of low density and uniform porosity needed to provide buoyancy for flotation recovery of instrument packages dropped into the sea from spacecraft.

  1. The Top American Indian Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" publishes lists of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M.H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at the Indiana University Bloomington. This year, Diverse staff continue…

  2. 7 CFR 760.103 - Eligible producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; for purposes of this part, resident alien means “lawful alien” as defined in 7 CFR part 1400; (3... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS General Provisions for Supplemental Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.103 Eligible producer. (a) In general, the term “eligible producer” means,...

  3. 7 CFR 760.103 - Eligible producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; for purposes of this part, resident alien means “lawful alien” as defined in 7 CFR part 1400; (3... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS General Provisions for Supplemental Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.103 Eligible producer. (a) In general, the term “eligible producer” means,...

  4. Boron carbide whiskers produced by vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Boron carbide whiskers have an excellent combination of properties for use as a reinforcement material. They are produced by vaporizing boron carbide powder and condensing the vapors on a substrate. Certain catalysts promote the growth rate and size of the whiskers.

  5. Deweyan Reflections on Knowledge-Producing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, S. B.; Garrison, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: Our article examines some of the philosophical underpinnings of knowledge-producing schools (KPS). KPS is an Australian initiative advanced by such researchers as Chris Bigum, Colin Lankshear, and Michael Knobel. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: We examine the epistemology and the theory of new literacy that…

  6. Method of producing purified carotenoid compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggink, Laura (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method of producing a carotenoid in solid form includes culturing a strain of Chlorophyta algae cells in a minimal inorganic medium and separating the algae comprising a solid form of carotenoid. In one embodiment f the invention, the strain of Chlorophyta algae cells includes a strain f Chlamydomonas algae cells.

  7. 7 CFR 1212.19 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.19 Producer. “Producer” means...

  8. Heavy Oils Produced by Aureobasidium pullulans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From a survey of more than 50 diverse strains of Aureobasidium pullulans, 21 strains were observed to produce extracellular heavy oils. These strains represented at least 6 phylogenetic clades, although more than half fell into clades 9 and 11. Oil colors ranged from bright yellow to malachite. M...

  9. New Systems Produced by Systemic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Wendy; Clem, Jo; Caine, Renate N.; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Chapman, Carrie; Flinders, David J.; Malopinsky, Larissa V.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents new systems produced by systemic change. First is Systemic Changes in the Chugach School District by Wendy Battino and Jo Clem. Second is Systemic Changes in Public Schools through Brain-Based Learning by Renate N. Caine. Third is A Vision of an Information-Age Educational System by Charles M. Reigeluth. Fourth is Systemic…

  10. Tower Power: Producing Fuels from Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, M. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the use of power tower technologies for the production of synthetic fuels. This process overcomes the limitations of other processes by using a solar furnace to drive endothermic fuel producing reactions and the resulting fuels serve as a medium for storing solar energy. (BT)

  11. Microbial Safety of Fresh Produce - Preface

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh produce has been the source of recent outbreaks of foodborne illness which have caused sickness, hospitalizations and deaths of consumers, as well as serious adverse economic impact on growers and processors. The preface for the book entitled “Microbial Safety of Fresh Produce” discusses possi...

  12. New CFC import quotas irk producers

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, M.

    1994-03-02

    European chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) producers have slammed a decision by the European Commission to allow increased imports of CFCs, saying it contradicts efforts to cut CFC production and use in the European Union (EU). Eif Atochem (Paris) says that by allowing higher CFC imports the commission is undermining all the efforts to meet the requirements of the Copenhagen protocol on CFC emissions.

  13. How Do People Produce Ungrammatical Utterances?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Iva; Pickering, Martin J.; McLean, Janet F.; Costa, Albert; Branigan, Holly P.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate whether people might come to produce utterances that they regard as ungrammatical by examining the production of ungrammatical verb-construction combinations (e.g., "The dancer donates the soldier the apple") after exposure to both grammatical and ungrammatical sentences. We contrast two accounts of how such production might take…

  14. 7 CFR 760.1202 - Eligible producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible producers. 760.1202 Section 760.1202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS 2005-2007 Catfish Grant Program § 760.1202...

  15. 7 CFR 760.1202 - Eligible producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible producers. 760.1202 Section 760.1202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS 2005-2007 Catfish Grant Program § 760.1202...

  16. 7 CFR 760.1202 - Eligible producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible producers. 760.1202 Section 760.1202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS 2005-2007 Catfish Grant Program § 760.1202...

  17. Produce Your Own: A Community Gardening Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, JoLynn; Arnold, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Many County Extension offices offer an adult Master Gardener Program, which includes advanced gardening training, short courses, newsletters, and conferences. However, with the comprehensive training provided comes a large time commitment. The Produce Your Own program was created to introduce adults to gardening in a similar manner, but with…

  18. 7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer districts. 932.121 Section 932.121 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  19. 7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer districts. 932.121 Section 932.121 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  20. 7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Producer districts. 932.121 Section 932.121 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  1. 7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer districts. 932.121 Section 932.121 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  2. 7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer districts. 932.121 Section 932.121 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  3. CHARACTERIZING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STATE PRODUCED BY LSD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KATZ, MARTIN M.; AND OTHERS

    THE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPONENTS OF LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE (LSD) PRODUCED PSYCHOLOGICAL STATES ARE INVESTIGATED. THE SUBJECTS WERE PAID VOLUNTEERS FROM THE PATUXENT INSTITUTION, A TREATMENT CENTER FOR EMOTIONALLY UNSTABLE CRIMINAL OFFENDERS. IN ONE STUDY, GROUPS OF 23 SUBJECTS RECEIVED LSD, AN AMPHETAMINE, OR A PLACEBO. IN THE SECOND STUDY, 11…

  4. Process for producing fluid fuel from coal

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, Richard W.; Reber, Stephen A.; Schutte, August H.; Nadkarni, Ravindra M.

    1977-01-01

    Process for producing fluid fuel from coal. Moisture-free coal in particulate form is slurried with a hydrogen-donor solvent and the heated slurry is charged into a drum wherein the pressure is so regulated as to maintain a portion of the solvent in liquid form. During extraction of the hydrocarbons from the coal, additional solvent is added to agitate the drum mass and keep it up to temperature. Subsequently, the pressure is released to vaporize the solvent and at least a portion of the hydrocarbons extracted. The temperature of the mass in the drum is then raised under conditions required to crack the hydrocarbons in the drum and to produce, after subsequent stripping, a solid coke residue. The hydrocarbon products are removed and fractionated into several cuts, one of which is hydrotreated to form the required hydrogen-donor solvent while other fractions can be hydrotreated or hydrocracked to produce a synthetic crude product. The heaviest fraction can be used to produce ash-free coke especially adapted for hydrogen manufacture. The process can be made self-sufficient in hydrogen and furnishes as a by-product a solid carbonaceous material with a useful heating value.

  5. Academic Coaching Produces More Effective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Harry; Wong, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    The most effective schools have coaches. They meet with the principal on a regular basis to assess the progress of every teacher and student. In an effective school, everyone functions as a team and there is a laser focus on student achievement. This article illustrates how academic coaching produces more effective teachers and how effective…

  6. Earth's Most Important Producers: Meet the Phytoplankton!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrero, Meghan E.; Stevens, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The ocean is home to some of Earth's most important producers. Single-celled organisms in the ocean are responsible for more than half of Earth's productivity, as well as most of its oxygen. Phytoplankton are single-celled, plantlike organisms. That is, they have chloroplasts and perform photosynthesis, but are not true plants, which are typically…

  7. 7 CFR 955.9 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer. 955.9 Section 955.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA...

  8. Epoxy resins produce improved plastic scintillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. W.

    1967-01-01

    Plastic scintillator produced by the substitution of epoxy resins for the commonly used polystyrene is easy to cast, stable at room temperature, and has the desirable properties of a thermoset or cross-linked system. Such scintillators can be immersed directly in strong solvents, an advantage in many chemical and biological experiments.

  9. RANDOM PULSE GENERATOR PRODUCING FIDUCIAL MARKS

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, W.F.

    1960-02-01

    The apparatus for automatically applying a fiducial marking, having a nonrepetitive pattern, to a plurality of simultaneously made records comprises, in series, a bypass filter, a trigger circuit, and a pulse generator, with printing means connected to and controlled by the pulse generator for simultaneously making the visible fiducial marks on a plurality of simultaneously produced records.

  10. 7 CFR 905.6 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Producer. 905.6 Section 905.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES,...

  11. 7 CFR 905.6 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer. 905.6 Section 905.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES,...

  12. 7 CFR 905.6 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer. 905.6 Section 905.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES,...

  13. 7 CFR 905.6 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer. 905.6 Section 905.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES,...

  14. 7 CFR 905.6 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer. 905.6 Section 905.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES,...

  15. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    SciTech Connect

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron, and

  16. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-07-01

    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  17. Dominance of IMP-4-Producing Enterobacter cloacae among Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Townell, Nicola; Nimmo, Graeme R.; George, Narelle M.; Robson, Jennifer; Vohra, Renu; Davis, Louise; Heney, Claire; Paterson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has been increasing worldwide. blaIMP has been reported to be the predominant carbapenemase-encoding gene within Enterobacteriaceae in Australia. However, there are limited data currently available on CPE from Queensland, Australia. A total of 58 CPE isolates were isolated between July 2009 and March 2014 from Queensland hospitals. The clonality of isolates was determined by Diversilab repetitive sequence-based PCR. The isolates were investigated for the resistance mechanisms carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase, and AmpC β-lactamase and for aminoglycoside resistance and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes by PCR. The plasmid types associated with carbapenemase-encoding genes were characterized. The majority of the CPE were Enterobacter cloacae (n = 29). The majority of Queensland CPE isolates were IMP producers and comprised 11 species (n = 48). Nine NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae were identified. One NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate coproduced OXA-48. One K. pneumoniae isolate was an OXA-181 producer. The incidence of IMP producers increased significantly in 2013. blaIMP-4 was found in all IMP-producing isolates. blaTEM, qnrB, and aacA4 were common among IMP-4 producers. The HI2 (67%) and L/M (21%) replicons were associated with blaIMP-4. All HI2 plasmids were of sequence type 1 (ST1). All but one of the NDM producers possessed blaCTX-M-15. The 16S rRNA methylase genes found among NDM producers were armA, rmtB, rmtC, and rmtF. The substantial increase in the prevalence of CPE in Queensland has been associated mainly with the emergence E. cloacae strains possessing HI2 plasmids carrying blaIMP-4 over the past 2 years. The importation of NDM producers and/or OXA-48-like producers in patients also contributed to the increased emergence of CPE. PMID:25918153

  18. Method of producing .sup.67 Cu

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, Jr., Harold A.; Barnes, John W.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Thomas, Kenneth E.; Bentley, Glenn E.

    1984-01-01

    A method of producing carrier-free .sup.67 Cu by proton spallation combined with subsequent chemical separation and purification is disclosed. A target consisting essentially of pressed zinc oxide is irradiated with a high energy, high current proton beam to produce a variety of spallogenic nuclides, including .sup.67 Cu and other copper isotopes. The irradiated target is dissolved in a concentrated acid solution to which a palladium salt is added. In accordance with the preferred method, the spallogenic copper is twice coprecipitated with palladium, once with metallic zinc as the precipitating agent and once with hydrogen sulfide as the precipitating agent. The palladium/copper precipitate is then dissolved in an acid solution and the copper is separated from the palladium by liquid chromatography on an anion exchange resin.

  19. Method of producing silicon carbide articles

    DOEpatents

    Milewski, John V.

    1985-01-01

    A method of producing articles comprising reaction-bonded silicon carbide (SiC) and graphite (and/or carbon) is given. The process converts the graphite (and/or carbon) in situ to SiC, thus providing the capability of economically obtaining articles made up wholly or partially of SiC having any size and shape in which graphite (and/or carbon) can be found or made. When the produced articles are made of an inner graphite (and/or carbon) substrate to which SiC is reaction bonded, these articles distinguish SiC-coated graphite articles found in the prior art by the feature of a strong bond having a gradual (as opposed to a sharply defined) interface which extends over a distance of mils. A method for forming SiC whisker-reinforced ceramic matrices is also given. The whisker-reinforced articles comprise SiC whiskers which substantially retain their structural integrity.

  20. Laser-produced plasmas in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Gitomer, S.J. ); Jones, R.D. . Applied Theoretical Physics Div.)

    1991-12-01

    The laser has found numerous applications in medicine, beginning with uses in ophthalmology in the 1960's. Today, lasers are used in tissue cutting, blood coagulation, photodynamic cancer therapy, arterial plaque removal, dental drilling, etc. In this paper the authors examine those areas of laser medicine in which plasmas (ionized gases) are produced. In fact, the presence of a plasma is essential for the application at hand to succeed. We consider examples of the plasmas produced in ophthalmology (e.g., lens membrane destruction following cataract surgery), in urology and gastroenterology (e.g., kidney and gall stone ablation and fragmentation), and in cardiology and vascular surgery (e.g., laser ablation and removal of fibro-fatty and calcified arterial plaque). Experimental data are presented, along with some results from computer simulations of the phenomena. Comments on future directions in these areas are included.