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Sample records for permanent hair removal

  1. Removing Hair Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  2. Optical hair removal.

    PubMed

    Ort, R J; Anderson, R R

    1999-06-01

    Traditional methods of hair removal have proven unsatisfactory for many individuals with excessive or unwanted hair. In the last few years, several lasers and xenon flashlamps have been developed that promise to fulfill the need for a practical, safe, and long-lasting method of hair removal. Aggressive marketing of these has contributed to their popularity among patients and physicians. However, significant controversy and confusion surrounds this field. This article provides a detailed explanation of the scientific underpinnings for optical hair removal and explores the advantages and disadvantages of the various devices currently available (Nd:YAG, ruby, alexandrite, diode lasers, and xenon flashlamp). Treatment and safety guidelines are provided to assist the practitioner in the use of these devices. Although the field of optical hair removal is still in its infancy, initial reports of long-term efficacy are encouraging.

  3. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Men)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Removing Pubic Hair Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 March 2017. + ... Twitter email Print Some guys trim their pubic hair, others prefer to shave or wax, and most ...

  4. Beam shaping for cosmetic hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Tuttle, Tracie

    2007-09-01

    Beam shaping has the potential to provide comfort to people who require or seek laser based cosmetic skin procedures. Of immediate interest is the procedure of aesthetic hair removal. Hair removal is performed using a variety of wavelengths from 480 to 1200 nm by means of filtered Xenon flash lamps (pulsed light) or 810 nm diode lasers. These wavelengths are considered the most efficient means available for hair removal applications, but current systems use simple reflector designs and plane filter windows to direct the light to the surface being exposed. Laser hair removal is achieved when these wavelengths at sufficient energy levels are applied to the epidermis. The laser energy is absorbed by the melanin (pigment) in the hair and hair follicle which in turn is transformed into heat. This heat creates the coagulation process, which causes the removal of the hair and prevents growth of new hair [1]. This paper outlines a technique of beam shaping that can be applied to a non-contact based hair removal system. Several features of the beam shaping technique including beam uniformity and heat dispersion across its operational treatment area will be analyzed. A beam shaper design and its fundamental testing will be discussed in detail.

  5. Hair and bare skin discrimination for laser-assisted hair removal systems.

    PubMed

    Cayir, Sercan; Yetik, Imam Samil

    2017-07-01

    Laser-assisted hair removal devices aim to remove body hair permanently. In most cases, these devices irradiate the whole area of the skin with a homogenous power density. Thus, a significant portion of the skin, where hair is not present, is burnt unnecessarily causing health risks. Therefore, methods that can distinguish hair regions automatically would be very helpful avoiding these unnecessary applications of laser. This study proposes a new system of algorithms to detect hair regions with the help of a digital camera. Unlike previous limited number of studies, our methods are very fast allowing for real-time application. Proposed methods are based on certain features derived from histograms of hair and skin regions. We compare our algorithm with competing methods in terms of localization performance and computation time and show that a much faster real-time accurate localization of hair regions is possible with the proposed method. Our results show that the algorithm we have developed is extremely fast (around 45 milliseconds) allowing for real-time application with high accuracy hair localization ( 96.48 %).

  6. Alternative Method for Creating Fine Hairs with Hair Removal Laser in Hair Transplantation for Hairline Correction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Jin Yong; Choe, Yun Seon; Han, Wonseok; An, Jee Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Foremost fine hairs in the frontal hairline region are critical in hair transplantation for hairline correction (HTHC) in women. However, there are few studies on a nonsurgical revisionary method for improving an unnatural foremost hairline with thick donor hairs resulting from a previous HTHC. Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of using a hair removal laser (HRL) system to create fine hairs in Asian women with thick donor hairs. Methods Through a retrospective chart review, the HRL parameters, hair diameter (measured with a micrometer before and after the procedures), subjective results after the procedures, adverse effects, and the number of procedures were investigated. The reduction rate of the hair diameter was calculated. Results Twenty-four women who received long-pulse Neodymium-Doped:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet therapy after HTHC were included. The parameters were as follows: delivered laser energy, 35~36 J/cm2; pulse duration, 6 ms; and spot size, 10 mm. The mean number of laser sessions was 2.6. The mean hair diameter significantly decreased from 80.0±11.5 µm to 58.4±13.2 µm (p=0.00). The mean rate of hair diameter reduction was -25.7% (range, -44.6% to 5.7%). The number of laser sessions and the hair diameter after the procedures showed a negative correlation (r=-0.410, p=0.046). Most of the patients (87.5%) reported subjective improvement of their hairlines. Most complications were transient and mild. Conclusion HRL can be an alternative method for creating fine hairs and revising foremost hairline in Asian women with thick donor hairs. PMID:25673927

  7. Laser hair removal for genital gender affirming surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, William R.; Garrett, Giorgia L.; Arron, Sarah T.

    2016-01-01

    Genital gender affirming surgery (GAS) involves reconstruction of the genitals to match a patient’s identified sex. The use of hair-bearing flaps in this procedure may result in postoperative intra-vaginal and intra-urethral hair growth and associated complications, including lower satisfaction with genital GAS. Despite the significant increase in genital GAS within the past 50 years, there is limited data regarding hair removal practices in preparation for genital GAS and notable variation in hair removal techniques among dermatologists and other practitioners. We present a literature review, recommendations from our experience, and a practical laser hair removal (LHR) approach to hair removal prior to genital GAS. PMID:27298787

  8. Multicenter clinical trial on a permanent hair dye containing paratoluenediamine.

    PubMed

    Foti, Caterina; Balato, Nicola; Cristaudo, Antonio; Patruno, Cataldo; Pigatto, Paolo; Ambrifi, Marina; Bufano, Tamara; Damiani, Giovanni; De Rocco, Mariagrazia; Diani, Marco; Napolitano, Maddalena; Romita, Paolo

    2018-08-01

    Adverse reactions to hair dyes are frequent and usually caused by sensitization to paraphenylenediamine (PPD). The aim of the study was to evaluate the tolerability of a PPD-free permanent hair dye (Shine On, BioNike, Milan, Italy) containing paratoluenediamine (PTD) in a group of subjects sensitized to PPD. The trial, which carried out at four dermatology centers, included subjects sensitized to PPD that turned out negative to patch testing to PTD. The subjects underwent to an open test consisting in the application of two hair dye colors of the product under examination. Finally, subjects who were negative upon the open test were offered to undergo the usage test with the dye, with dermatological evaluations carried out 48 and 96 hours after product application. Sixty subjects were enrolled. They underwent the open test with two shades of dyes: "color 1 - black," the dye color with the highest concentration of color intermediates, and "color 7.3 - golden blonde," the dye color with the highest number of chemically different color intermediates. No reactions occurred with "color 7.3 - golden blonde," while 3 cases (3 out of 60) showed erythema and edema reactions to color 1. The hair dye usage test was negative for all the 21 subjects that were enrolled. The hair dye evaluated in this study (Shine On, BioNike) can be a valid alternative for subjects sensitized to PPD.

  9. Long-term hair removal using a 3-millisecond alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Laughlin , S A; Dudley, D K

    2000-04-01

    Laser epilation is now used widely as a clinical alternative to electrolysis for the removal of unwanted hair. All of the laser systems presently being used produce a reliable temporary hair loss by inducing telogen. Most of the published studies use follow-up periods of 6 months or less after the last treatment and cannot address the issue of permanency. Since many patients desire permanent hair loss, there is a need for specific information on the exact benefits and limitations of each particular system. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of hair loss attained by a single treatment with a 3-msec alexandrite laser. A designated period for follow-up was used to address the issue of long-term benefits. A single treatment was carried out on 25 study sites with a 3-msec alexandrite laser at 755 nm using fluences of 30 to 50 joules/cm(2). Hair counts were obtained manually by two independent observers marking terminal hairs under magnification. The counts were repeated using photographic images and the average of the four readings taken. The degree of hair loss was calculated at a time after treatment equal to one complete growth cycle for the particular anatomic site. A second measurement was obtained at a time equal to one growth cycle plus 6 months to determine whether any hair loss had remained stable. The average hair loss at the first follow-up time was 43%, with 60% of sites showing a hair loss of >30%. The hair loss remained stable and the reduction in hair density at both designated times was statistically significant (p <.05). A normal-mode alexandrite laser achieves a long-term alopecia and may result in a permanent loss of terminal hair after one treatment at fluences of 30 to 50 joules/cm(2).

  10. Hair today, gone tomorrow: a comparison of body hair removal practices in gay and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Martins, Yolanda; Tiggemann, Marika; Churchett, Libby

    2008-09-01

    Although hairlessness is rapidly becoming a component of the ideal male body, little research has examined men's concerns about their body hair or their hair removal practices. Samples of gay and heterosexual men completed questionnaires that assessed whether they had ever removed their back, buttock or pubic hair, the frequency with which they did so, the methods used and their self-reported reasons for removing this hair, as well as their level of appearance investment. Results indicated that many gay and heterosexual men remove their back, buttock and pubic hair regularly and that their primary reason for doing so is to maintain or improve their appearance. The frequency of hair removal was also associated with the motivational salience component of appearance investment. The findings offer further support to the premise that gay and heterosexual men exhibit similar body image concerns.

  11. Comparison of the effect of diode laser versus intense pulsed light in axillary hair removal.

    PubMed

    Ormiga, Patricia; Ishida, Cleide Eiko; Boechat, Alvaro; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia

    2014-10-01

    Devices such as diode laser and intense pulsed light (IPL) are in constant development aiming at permanent hair removal, but there are few comparative studies between these technologies. The objective was to comparatively assess axillary hair removal performed by diode laser and IPL and to obtain parameters of referred pain and evolution response for each method. A comparative prospective, double-blind, and randomized study of axillary hair removal performed by the diode laser and IPL was conducted in 21 females. Six sessions were held with application of the diode laser in one axilla and the IPL in the other, with intervals of 30 days and follow-up of 6 months after the last session. Clinical photographs and digital dermoscopy for hair counts in predefined and fixed fields of the treated areas were performed before, 2 weeks after the sixth session, and 6 months after the end of treatment. A questionnaire to assess the pain was applied. The number of hair shafts was significantly reduced with the diode laser and IPL. The diode laser was more effective, although more painful than the IPL. No serious, adverse, or permanent effects were observed with both technologies. Both diode laser and the IPL are effective, safe, and able to produce lasting results in axillary hair removal.

  12. Recent trends in the formulation of permanent waving products for hair.

    PubMed

    Puri, A K

    1979-02-01

    Synopsis Current trends in the formulation of permanent waving products for hair are discussed in light of recently reported findings on the reactivity of disulphide bond in the hair keratin and theories on the mechanism of permanent waving. Effectiveness of protein and other additives is discussed in detail.

  13. A Hairy Situation: Laser Hair Removal after Oral Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Shields, Bridget E; Moye, Molly S; Bayon, Rodrigo; Sperry, Steven M; Wanat, Karolyn A

    2018-03-01

    To present a case series of 4 patients who underwent postoperative hair removal using the long-pulsed Alexandrite or Nd:YAG laser following intraoral cutaneous flap reconstruction. Patients underwent epilation in dermatology clinic with long-pulsed Alexandrite or Nd:YAG lasers, spaced 8 weeks apart, until hair removal was achieved. All patients achieved improvement in hair removal regardless of initial flap donor site with significant improvement in quality of life and minimal side effects. The long-pulsed Alexandrite and Nd:YAG represent safe and effective treatment options to improve patient quality of life following intraoral flap repair following excision of malignancy.

  14. A feature-preserving hair removal algorithm for dermoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Qaisar; Garcia, Irene Fondón; Emre Celebi, M; Ahmad, Waqar

    2013-02-01

    Accurate segmentation and repair of hair-occluded information from dermoscopy images are challenging tasks for computer-aided detection (CAD) of melanoma. Currently, many hair-restoration algorithms have been developed, but most of these fail to identify hairs accurately and their removal technique is slow and disturbs the lesion's pattern. In this article, a novel hair-restoration algorithm is presented, which has a capability to preserve the skin lesion features such as color and texture and able to segment both dark and light hairs. Our algorithm is based on three major steps: the rough hairs are segmented using a matched filtering with first derivative of gaussian (MF-FDOG) with thresholding that generate strong responses for both dark and light hairs, refinement of hairs by morphological edge-based techniques, which are repaired through a fast marching inpainting method. Diagnostic accuracy (DA) and texture-quality measure (TQM) metrics are utilized based on dermatologist-drawn manual hair masks that were used as a ground truth to evaluate the performance of the system. The hair-restoration algorithm is tested on 100 dermoscopy images. The comparisons have been done among (i) linear interpolation, inpainting by (ii) non-linear partial differential equation (PDE), and (iii) exemplar-based repairing techniques. Among different hair detection and removal techniques, our proposed algorithm obtained the highest value of DA: 93.3% and TQM: 90%. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is highly accurate, robust and able to restore hair pixels without damaging the lesion texture. This method is fully automatic and can be easily integrated into a CAD system. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Chronic neuropathic facial pain after intense pulsed light hair removal. Clinical features and pharmacological management.

    PubMed

    Gay-Escoda, Cosme; Párraga-Manzol, Gabriela; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Moreno-Arias, Gerardo

    2015-10-01

    Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) photodepilation is usually performed as a hair removal method. The treatment is recommended to be indicated by a physician, depending on each patient and on its characteristics. However, the use of laser devices by medical laypersons is frequent and it can suppose a risk of damage for the patients. Most side effects associated to IPL photodepilation are transient, minimal and disappear without sequelae. However, permanent side effects can occur. Some of the complications are laser related but many of them are caused by an operator error or mismanagement. In this work, we report a clinical case of a patient that developed a chronic neuropathic facial pain following IPL hair removal for unwanted hair in the upper lip. The specific diagnosis was painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy, reference 13.1.2.3 according to the International Headache Society (IHS). Neuropathic facial pain, photodepilation, intense pulse light.

  16. Chronic neuropathic facial pain after intense pulsed light hair removal. Clinical features and pharmacological management

    PubMed Central

    Párraga-Manzol, Gabriela; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Moreno-Arias, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) photodepilation is usually performed as a hair removal method. The treatment is recommended to be indicated by a physician, depending on each patient and on its characteristics. However, the use of laser devices by medical laypersons is frequent and it can suppose a risk of damage for the patients. Most side effects associated to IPL photodepilation are transient, minimal and disappear without sequelae. However, permanent side effects can occur. Some of the complications are laser related but many of them are caused by an operator error or mismanagement. In this work, we report a clinical case of a patient that developed a chronic neuropathic facial pain following IPL hair removal for unwanted hair in the upper lip. The specific diagnosis was painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy, reference 13.1.2.3 according to the International Headache Society (IHS). Key words:Neuropathic facial pain, photodepilation, intense pulse light. PMID:26535105

  17. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3-90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers.

  18. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J.; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3–90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers. PMID:26557428

  19. "I think gorilla-like back effusions of hair are rather a turn-off": 'Excessive hair' and male body hair (removal) discourse.

    PubMed

    Terry, Gareth; Braun, Virginia

    2016-06-01

    Men's hair removal practices are becoming mainstream, seen as a consequence of changing masculine norms and men's relationships to their bodies. This is often presented as a straightforward 'shift' from men's ideal bodies as naturally hairy, to increased hairlessness, and the consequence on men's body concerns as inevitable. This paper analyses qualitative survey data from Aotearoa/New Zealand using critical thematic analysis, and describes three themes. Two themes capture contradictory ideas: that men's body hair is natural, and that men's body hair is unpleasant. A third theme introduces the concept of 'excess' hair, which allowed sense-making of this contradiction, mandating men's grooming of 'excessive' hair. However its vagueness as a concept may provoke anxiety for men resulting in hair removal. This paper adds to a body of research demonstrating a cultural transition: the ways changing masculinities, increased commodification of male bodies, and shifting gender roles impact on men's hair removal practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety and efficacy of low fluence, high repetition rate versus high fluence, low repetition rate 810-nm diode laser for axillary hair removal in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhai; Liu, Chengyi; Chen, Zhou; Cai, Lin; Zhou, Cheng; Xu, Qianxi; Li, Houmin; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2016-11-01

    High-fluence diode lasers with contact cooling have emerged as the gold standard to remove unwanted hair. Lowering the energy should result in less pain and could theoretically affect the efficacy of the therapy. To compare the safety and efficacy of a low fluence high repetition rate 810-nm diode laser to those of a high fluence, low repetition rate diode laser for permanent axillary hair removal in Chinese women. Ninety-two Chinese women received four axillae laser hair removal treatments at 4-week intervals using the low fluence, high repetition rate 810-nm diode laser in super hair removal (SHR) mode on one side and the high fluence, low repetition rate diode laser in hair removal (HR) mode on the other side. Hair counts were done at each follow-up visit and 6-month follow-up after the final laser treatment using a "Hi Quality Hair Analysis Program System"; the immediate pain score after each treatment session was recorded by a visual analog scale. The overall median reduction of hair was 90.2% with the 810-nm diode laser in SHR mode and 87% with the same laser in HR mode at 6-month follow-up. The median pain scores in SHR mode and in HR mode were 2.75 and 6.75, respectively. Low fluence, high repetition rate diode laser can efficiently remove unwanted hair but also significantly improve tolerability and reduce adverse events during the course of treatment.

  1. Body Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  2. Hair cortisol predicts object permanence performance in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Novak, Matthew F S X; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2009-12-01

    Although high circulating levels of glucocorticoids are associated with impaired cognitive performance in adults, less is known about this relationship in infancy. Furthermore, because studies have relied on acute cortisol measures in blood plasma or saliva, interpretation of the results may be difficult as acute measures may in part reflect emotional responses to testing procedures. In this study we examined whether hair cortisol, an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, predicted performance of nursery-reared (NR) infant rhesus monkeys (n = 32) on Piagetian object permanence tasks. Testing of NR infants began at 19.8 +/- 2.2 (mean +/- SE) days of age and continued for the next several months. Hair cortisol concentrations from the 32 NR monkeys were compared to those of 20 mother-peer-reared (MPR) infants. Hair was shaved at Day 14, allowed to regrow, and obtained again at month 6, thus representing integrated cortisol over a 5.5-month period of time. NR and MPR infants did not differ in month 6 hair cortisol values (t((50)) = 0.02, p = 0.98). Linear regression revealed that hair cortisol predicted object permanence performance in the NR infants. Infants with higher hair cortisol reached criterion at later ages on the well (p < 0.01), screen (p < 0.05), and A-not-B (p < 0.05) tasks and required more test sessions to complete the well (p < 0.01) and screen tasks (p < 0.05). These data are the first to implicate hair cortisol as a reliable predictor of early cognitive performance in infant macaque monkeys.

  3. Hair Cortisol Predicts Object Permanence Performance in Infant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Novak, Matthew F.S.X.; Novak, Melinda A.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Although high circulating levels of glucocorticoids are associated with impaired cognitive performance in adults, less is known about this relationship in infancy. Furthermore, because studies have relied on acute cortisol measures in blood plasma or saliva, interpretation of the results may be difficult as acute measures may in part reflect emotional responses to testing procedures. In this study we examined whether hair cortisol, an integrated measure of HPA axis functioning, predicted performance of nursery-reared (NR) infant rhesus monkeys (N=32) on Piagetian object permanence tasks. Testing of NR infants began at 19.8±2.2 (mean±SE) days of age and continued for the next several months. Hair cortisol concentrations from the 32 NR monkeys were compared to those of 20 mother-peer-reared (MPR) infants. Hair was shaved at day 14, allowed to re-grow, and obtained again at month 6, thus representing integrated cortisol over a 5.5-month period of time. NR and MPR infants did not differ in month 6 hair cortisol values (t(50)=0.02, p=0.98). Linear regression revealed that hair cortisol predicted object permanence performance in the NR infants. Infants with higher hair cortisol reached criterion at later ages on the well (p<0.01), screen (p<0.05), and A-not-B (p<0.05) tasks and required more test sessions to complete the well (p<0.01) and screen tasks (p<0.05). These data are the first to implicate hair cortisol as a reliable predictor of early cognitive performance in infant macaque monkeys. PMID:19771550

  4. Pubic hair preferences, reasons for removal, and associated genital symptoms: comparisons between men and women.

    PubMed

    Butler, Scott M; Smith, Nicole K; Collazo, Erika; Caltabiano, Lucia; Herbenick, Debby

    2015-01-01

    Pubic hair grooming and removal are common behaviors among men and women. However, little is known about the reasons for grooming, preferred pubic hairstyle of sexual partners, and symptoms associated with regular grooming. This study aims to assess pubic hair removal/grooming practices, pubic hairstyle preferences, and genital outcomes associated with pubic hair removal among men and women in a college sample. Data were gathered from 1,110 participants (671 women and 439 men) at a large public Midwestern university and a small Southern public university. Items assessed demographics, pubic hair grooming and removal practices in the past 4 weeks, reasons for pubic hair status, preference for pubic hairstyle of sexual partners, and symptoms associated with removal and grooming. Most (95%) participants had removed their pubic hair on at least one occasion in the past 4 weeks with shaving being the most commonly reported hair removal technique by women (82%) and men (49%). Women were significantly more likely to report their typical status as hair-free (50% vs. 19%; χ(2) = 165.528, P < 0.001) and men were significantly more likely to prefer a hair-free sexual partner (60% vs. 24%; χ(2) = 211.712, P < 0.001). Genital itching was experienced on at least one occasion by 80.3% of pubic hair groomers and was the most commonly reported side effect. Genital grooming and pubic hair removal are common practices among both men and women of college-age. Women are likely to report stronger associations with feelings of cleanliness, comfort, sex appeal, social norms of their peer group, and affordability as reasons for their chosen pubic hair style. Women also report more experiences with genital side effects of pubic hair removal, an expected result as women are removing pubic hair more frequently and more completely than their male counterparts. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Latest innovations for tattoo and permanent makeup removal.

    PubMed

    Mao, Johnny C; DeJoseph, Louis M

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this article is to reveal the latest techniques and advances in laser removal of both amateur and professional tattoos, as well as cosmetic tattoos and permanent makeup. Each pose different challenges to the removing physician, but the goal is always the same: removal without sequelae. The authors' technique is detailed, and discussion of basic principles of light reflection, ink properties, effects of laser energy and heat, and outcomes and complications of tattoo removal are presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Audit cycle of documentation in laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S N; Lanigan, S W

    2005-09-01

    Lasercare clinics are one of the largest providers of skin laser treatment in the United Kingdom, in both private sector and National Health Service. Laser hair removal is performed by trained nurses following written protocols. Choice of laser and fluence is tailored to Fitzpatrick skin type. We audited and re-audited documentation of six criteria in patients receiving laser hair removal (signed consent, Fitzpatrick skin type, use of appropriate laser, appropriate fluence, patient satisfaction and objective assessment) across 13 clinics at different points in time. Data were obtained on 772 treatments. Overall findings revealed excellent documentation of consent, use of appropriate laser and fluence (median 100%), good documentation of skin type (median 90%) and poor documentation of patient satisfaction and objective assessment (median 67% and 53%, respectively). Comparison between baseline and repeat audit at 6-8 months (nine clinics) showed significant improvement across clinics in these latter two criteria [patient satisfaction: odds ratio (OR) 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-0.78, P=0.01; objective assessment: OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.50, P=0.0003 (Mantel-Haenszel weighted odds ratios)]. We conclude that quality of documentation was generally and consistently high in multiple clinics and that re-auditing led to significant improvement in poor scores. This simple measure could easily be implemented more widely across many disciplines.

  7. Gaseous and Particulate Content of Laser Hair Removal Plume.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Gary S; Farinelli, William; Christiani, David C; Herrick, Robert F; Lee, Norman C Y; Avram, Mathew M

    2016-12-01

    Potentially harmful chemicals are released when tissues are vaporized. Laser hair removal (LHR) causes heating and often vaporization of hairs, producing both a signature malodorous plume and visible particulates. To characterize the chemical composition and quantify the ultrafine particle content of the plume generated during LHR. In the laser center of a large academic hospital, discarded terminal hairs from the trunk and extremities were collected from 2 adult volunteers. The hair samples were sealed in glass gas chromatography chambers and treated with a laser. The laser plume was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). During LHR treatment, two 6-L negative pressure canisters were used to capture 30 seconds of laser plume, and a portable condensation particle counter was used to measure ultrafine particulates (<1 µm). Ultrafine particle concentrations were measured within the treatment room, within the waiting room, and outside the building. The chemical content of the laser plume was analyzed with GC-MS and screened for aerosolized toxins using Environmental Protection Agency-certified methods. The ambient concentration of ultrafine particles during LHR was measured by condensation particle counters. Analysis with GC-MS identified 377 chemical compounds. Sixty-two of these compounds, of which 13 are known or suspected carcinogens and more than 20 are known environmental toxins, exhibited strong absorption peaks. During LHR, the portable condensation particle counters documented an 8-fold increase compared with the ambient room baseline level of ultrafine particle concentrations (ambient room baseline, 15 300 particles per cubic centimeter [ppc]; LHR with smoke evacuator, 129 376 ppc), even when a smoke evacuator was in close proximity (5.0 cm) to the procedure site. When the smoke evacuator was turned off for 30 seconds, there was a more than 26-fold increase in particulate count compared with ambient baseline levels (ambient baseline

  8. Hypertrichosis in Becker's nevus: effective low-fluence laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Lapidoth, M; Adatto, M; Cohen, S; Ben-Amitai, D; Halachmi, S

    2014-01-01

    Becker's nevus is cosmetically bothersome both due to the hyperpigmentation and due to the hypertrichosis which can accompany it, particularly in males. Laser hair removal can be considered, but the pigmented background of the Becker's nevus makes the treatment more challenging. Fifteen patients with Becker's nevus underwent eight sessions of hair removal with low-fluence high-repetition-rate diode lasers (808-810 nm). All participants experienced significant hair reduction at 6 and 12 months. No adverse events were reported. The study supports the use of low fluence with high-repetition-rate diode laser hair removal as a safe and effective method for the management of hypertrichosis in Becker's nevus.

  9. Laser-assisted hair removal for facial hirsutism in women: A review of evidence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Man

    2018-06-01

    Poly cystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has been described as the common diagnosis for hirsutism in women. Facial hirsutism is by far the most distressing symptom of hyperandrogenism in women with PCOS. A statistically significant improvement in psychological well-being has been reported in patients with PCOS allocated for laser-assisted hair removal. The theory of selective photothermolysis has revolutionized laser hair removal in that it is effective and safe, when operated by sufficiently trained and experienced professionals. Long-pulsed ruby (694 nm), long-pulsed alexandrite (755 nm), diode (800-980 nm), and long-pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) are commercially available laser devices for hair removal most widely studied. This article will introduce the fundamentals and mechanism of action of lasers in hair removal, in a contemporary literature review looking at medium to long term efficacy and safety profiles of various laser hair removal modalities most widely commercially available to date.

  10. Clinical Evaluation of Hair Removal Using an 810 nm Diode Laser With a Novel Scanning Device.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Erin; Goldberg, David J

    2016-11-01

    Diode lasers are often considered as the gold standard preference for hair removal due to the deep penetration and ef- fective targeting of the hair follicle. A wide variety of diode lasers are available, which can differ in terms of their parameters (such as fluence, pulse duration, repetition rate, scanner, and cooling). The objective of the study was to evaluate the safety and ef cacy of hair removal with an 810 nm novel scanning diode laser, up to six months after last treatment. A scanning 810 nm diode laser was used for axillary hair removal of 14 female patients who received 3 treatments, 4-6 weeks apart. Follow-up on hair count was conducted 3 and 6 months after last treatment and compared to baseline hair count. No unexpected or signi cant adverse events were recorded. An average hair count reduction of 72.8% after 3 months and 67.6% 6 months after the last treatment is demonstrated. The examined 810 nm diode laser was proven to be safe and effective for hair removal. Results were sustained for 6 months after last treatment. Longer follow-up data are followed for further substantiation of the clinical effect. Scanning technology can provide for potentially faster and safer treatments. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1330-1333..

  11. Intelligent Image Analysis for Image-Guided Laser Hair Removal and Skin Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Brian; Lu, Thomas; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    We present the development of advanced automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms for the hair follicles identification in digital skin images to accurately direct the laser beam to remove the hair. The ATR system first performs a wavelet filtering to enhance the contrast of the hair features in the image. The system then extracts the unique features of the targets and sends the features to an Adaboost based classifier for training and recognition operations. The ATR system automatically classifies the hair, moles, or other skin lesion and provides the accurate coordinates of the intended hair follicle locations. The coordinates can be used to guide a scanning laser to focus energy only on the hair follicles. The intended benefit would be to protect the skin from unwanted laser exposure and to provide more effective skin therapy.

  12. [Complications after laser hair removal: the standpoint of a dermatological legal expert regarding liability].

    PubMed

    Bayle, P; Saval, F; Rougé, D; Telmon, N

    2015-03-01

    Laser hair removal is widely used, including outside medical settings. Potential complications, notably burns, may engage the operator's liability. In this case, investigations by medical experts are frequently requested. We describe 6 expert examinations carried out by the same legal dermatology expert between 2012 and 2014. They concerned burns of varying severity caused by laser hair removal procedures carried out by a doctor, a physiotherapist and 4 beauticians. Laser hair removal is carried out in many beauty centres, although in France it is restricted by law to medical use. This practice is thus currently the subject of legal and economic controversy. The analysis of 6 medical expert investigations of accidents involving laser hair removal illustrates the various types of fault in which the operator's liability may be engaged and it also serves to redefine the legal framework of this act within the realm of aesthetic medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Topical liposomal Rose Bengal for photodynamic white hair removal: randomized, controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Samy, Nevien; Fadel, Maha

    2014-04-01

    Blond and white hair removal by laser is a complicated task with weak satisfactory results due to the deficiency in laser-absorbing chromophore. To investigate if repetitive sessions of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using external application of liposomal Rose bengal (RB) photosensitizer followed by intense pulsed light (IPL) exposure enables removal of gray and white hair. Rose bengal loaded in liposomes (LRB) was constructed, prepared in hydrogel, and was studied for some pharmaceutical properties. Penetration and selective hair follicle damage in mice skin were studied. Topical gel containing LRB was used for treating fifteen adult females who were complaining of facial white terminal hair. Unwanted facial hair was treated for three sessions at intervals of 4-6 weeks using intense pulsed light (IPL). At each session, the treatment area was pre-treated with topical LRB gel, while a control group of another 15 patients applied placebo gel before IPL treatment. Evaluations included hair regrowth, which was measured 4 weeks after each treatment session and at 6 months follow-up by counting the number of terminal hair compared with baseline pretreatment values. Treatment outcomes and complications if any were also reported. Average hair regrowth in the LRB group was 56% after 3 treatment cycles. After six-months follow up, average terminal hair count compared with baseline pretreatment showed 40% reduction and no recorded side effects. A significant difference (P<0.05) was seen compared with the control group; the clinical results were promising. Photodynamic hair removal using rose bengal-encapsulated liposomal gel in combination with IPL treatment showed significant efficacy in the treatment of white hair compared with a control group.

  14. Risky business: is pubic hair removal by women associated with body image and sexual health?

    PubMed

    Grossman, Stephanie L; Annunziato, Rachel A

    2018-04-30

    Background: Body hair removal is a behaviour that has become normative among women in Westernised cultures, and is presented by the media as the feminine ideal, despite being painful and a potential cause of infection. Of concern, removal may be part of a more global pattern of appearance dissatisfaction and risky sexual behaviour. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships among pubic hair removal, body image and sexual health indicators. Methods: Women (n=264; Mage=33.82, s.d.=11.13, range=18-66) completed self-report questionnaires assessing these constructs, including an assessment of body hair removal practices. Results: Greater appearance concerns (as measured by thin-ideal internalisation, appearance investment and self-objectification) and sexual health indicators (i.e. less condom use self-efficacy when a partner disapproves of condom use) all predicted greater importance of reasons for pubic hair removal (R2=0.315, F(8184)=9.97, P<0.001), controlling for age groups. Additionally, women who removed a greater amount of hair reported more thin-ideal internalisation and appearance investment than those who removed less hair. Conclusions: Women who express stronger reasoning for pubic hair removal, and remove a larger amount of it, may endorse problematic beliefs and behaviours particularly related to appearance concerns. It is important for practitioners to consider this practice as distinct from grooming and to be aware of its association with a broader array of risky beliefs and behaviours that can compromise women's well-being.

  15. Hair removal-related injuries in the United States, 1991-2014.

    PubMed

    Swain, Thomas A; Tully, Albert Scott; Redford, Travis; McGwin, Gerald

    2016-12-01

    Hair removal practices have changed in frequency and location on the body. Previous research on hair removal injuries has focused on a specific body region, age, or gender. This study sought to take a broader perspective of hair removal-associated injuries in the United States which sought treatment at emergency departments. Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) from 1991 to 2014 were used to identify hair removal-related injuries. Incidence rates were determined for the overall population and stratified by gender and age category using US Census Bureau population estimates. From 1991 to 2014, there were an estimated 292 053 hair removal-associated injuries in the United States. The overall incidence rate was highest in 2013 (9/100 000). Those aged 65+ had the highest incidence from 1991 to 2010 with those aged 19-34 having the highest rate starting in 2011. When stratified by body region injured, males had highest injury rates to the face and females had highest rates to the lower limbs. Starting in 2010, those aged 19-34 had higher incidence particularly for pubic and trunk regions. The incidence of hair removal-associated injuries seen by emergency departments increased nearly ninefold between 1991 and 2013. Due to the increased incidence among 19- to 34-year-olds, caution should be taken particularly for this age group when undergoing depilatory practices. Overall, individuals should practice safe and acceptable usage of hair removal products to reduce the risk of injury. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Hair removal for Fitzpatrick skin types V and VI using light and heat energy technology.

    PubMed

    Sadick, Neil S; Krespi, Yoseph

    2006-09-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of a light and heat energy (LHE)-based system (SkinStaion system; Radiancy Inc, Orangeburg, NY, USA) for hair removal in subjects with skin types V and VI. Thirty-one subjects with Fitzpatrick skin types V and VI were consented for treatment with the system. Twenty-six subjects completed the 12-week follow-up. Safety was evaluated at each visit and efficacy was evaluated at both follow-up visits. An average hair clearance of 41.7% from 57 treatment sites was reported at the 6-week follow-up visit and a 35.5% average hair clearance was reported at the 12-week follow-up. Edema was only reported in 2 cases (7.7%) of the study population. Eleven cases of erythema were reported following treatment. Treatment with the modified LHE system was safe and effective for hair removal in patients with skin types V and VI.

  17. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common chemicals in hair dyes include hydrogen peroxide, ammonia, and alcohols. Hair curling or permanent wave chemicals include ammonium thioglycolate and ammonia. Hair bleaching chemicals include hydrogen peroxide. Hair straighteners ( ...

  18. Effect of needle size and type, reuse of needles, insertion speed, and removal of hair on contamination of joints with tissue debris and hair after arthrocentesis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Stephen B; Moore, George E; Elrashidy, Mohammed; Mohamed, Ahmed; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-08-01

    To assess joint contamination with tissue and hair after arthrocentesis of equine fetlock joints. Experimental. Limb specimens from 8 equine cadavers. Soft tissues including the joint capsule were harvested from the dorsal aspect of the fetlock joints and mounted on a wooden frame. Needles inserted through the joint tissue preparation were flushed into tissue culture plates that were examined for tissue and hair debris. Variables evaluated were gauge and type of needle (16, 18, 20, and 22 G sharp disposable needles and 20 G disposable spinal needles with stylet), number of times each needle was used (1, 2, 3, 4), length of hair (unclipped, clipped, shaved with razor), and needle insertion speed (fast, slow). Descriptive and statistical evaluations were performed. Tissue contamination was identified in 1145 of 1260 wells and hair contamination was identified in 384 of 1260 wells. Twenty gauge needles inserted through unclipped hair resulted in the least amount of hair contamination. Compared with 20 G needles with fast insertion 1 time through unclipped hair the odds ratios for contamination with hair were significantly greater for 16 G sharp disposable needles, 20 G spinal needles, clipped hair, shaved hair, and reuse of the needles. Spinal needles inserted through unclipped hair transferred many long hairs into the joint space. Reuse of needles for arthrocentesis should be avoided. Removal of hair is not indicated for arthrocentesis with sharp injection needles but is recommended when using spinal needles with stylets. Joint contamination with hair and tissue debris will be decreased by specific needle insertion techniques. Decreased contamination of joints may reduce the frequency of joint infections after arthrocentesis.

  19. A comparison of temperature profile depending on skin types for laser hair removal therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Gwi-Won; Youn, Jong-In

    2014-11-01

    Although numerous lasers with different wavelengths are available for laser hair removal, their use in individuals with dark-pigmented skin remains a challenge. The present study aims to develop a numerical heat diffusion model considering skin types over various wavelengths. This numerical mode uses Pennes approximation to represent heat from metabolism, blood perfusion and an external heating source. The heat diffusion model is experimentally validated by using agar-based skin tissue phantoms. Diode lasers with four different wavelengths were used with two antithetical skin models. The pulse width and beam spot size were set to 200 ms and 1 cm(2), respectively. Temperature distribution along the hair structure and skin tissue was examined to determine both thermal confinement and heat transfer to the hair follicle. Experimental results are well matched with the numerical results. The results show that for the light skin model, thermal confinement is well achieved over various wavelengths, and treatment efficacy is expected to be better at a shorter wavelength. Otherwise, for the dark skin model, thermal confinement is poorly achieved as the wavelength decreases (<808 nm) and the temperature gap between the hair tip and the hair root is significantly large compared with the light skin model, which may lead to adverse effects. We believe that the developed numerical model will help to establish optimal laser parameters for different individuals during laser hair removal.

  20. 760nm: a new laser diode wavelength for hair removal modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wölz, Martin; Zorn, Martin; Pietrzak, Agnieszka; Kindsvater, Alex; Meusel, Jens; Hülsewede, Ralf; Sebastian, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    A new high-power semiconductor laser diode module, emitting at 760 nm is introduced. This wavelength permits optimum treatment results for fair skin individuals, as demonstrated by the use of Alexandrite lasers in dermatology. Hair removal applications benefit from the industry-standard diode laser design utilizing highly efficient, portable and light-weight construction. We show the performance of a tap-water-cooled encapsulated laser diode stack with a window for use in dermatological hand-pieces. The stack design takes into account the pulse lengths required for selectivity in heating the hair follicle vs. the skin. Super-long pulse durations place the hair removal laser between industry-standard CW and QCW applications. The new 760 nm laser diode bars are 30% fill factor devices with 1.5 mm long resonator cavities. At CW operation, these units provide 40 W of optical power at 43 A with wall-plug-efficiency greater than 50%. The maximum output power before COMD is 90 W. Lifetime measurements starting at 40 W show an optical power loss of 20% after about 3000 h. The hair removal modules are available in 1x3, 1x8 and 2x8 bar configurations.

  1. Perioperative hair removal: A review of best practice and a practice improvement opportunity.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Maureen; Barnden, Marsha; Johnson, Helen Boehm; Fauerbach, Loretta Litz; Graham, Denise; Edmiston, Charles E

    2018-06-01

    The current practice of perioperative hair removal reflects research-driven changes designed to minimize the risk of surgical wound infection. An aspect of the practice which has received less scrutiny is the clean-up of the clipped hair. This process is critical. The loose fibers represent a potential infection risk because of the micro-organisms they can carry, but their clean-up can pose a logistical problem because of the time required to remove them. Research has demonstrated that the most commonly employed means of clean-up, the use of adhesive tape or sticky mitts, can be both ineffective and time-consuming in addition to posing an infection risk from cross-contamination. Recently published research evaluating surgical clippers fitted with a vacuum-assisted hair collection device highlights the potential for significant practice improvement in the perioperative hair removal clean-up process. These improvements include not only further mitigation of potential infection risk but also substantial OR time and cost savings.

  2. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  3. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in recently fled asylum seekers in comparison to permanently settled immigrants and non-immigrants.

    PubMed

    Mewes, R; Reich, H; Skoluda, N; Seele, F; Nater, U M

    2017-03-07

    Recently fled asylum seekers generally live in stressful conditions. Their residency status is mostly insecure and, similar to other immigrants, they experience stress due to acculturation. Moreover, they often suffer from traumatization and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). All of these factors can result in chronic maladaptive biological stress responses in terms of hyper- or hypocortisolism and, ultimately, illness. We believe the current study is the first to compare hair cortisol concentration (HCC) of recently fled asylum seekers with PTSD to those without PTSD, and to compare HCC of asylum seekers to HCC of permanently settled immigrants and non-immigrant individuals. HCC of the previous 2 months was compared between 24 asylum seekers without PTSD, 32 asylum seekers with PTSD, 24 permanently settled healthy Turkish immigrants and 28 non-immigrant healthy Germans as the reference group. Statistical comparisons were controlled for age, sex and body mass index. No significant difference in HCC was found between asylum seekers with and without PTSD. However, the asylum seekers showed a 42% higher HCC than the reference group. In contrast, the permanently settled immigrants exhibited a 23% lower HCC than the reference group. We found relative hypercortisolism in recently fled asylum seekers, but no difference between persons with and without PTSD. These findings add to the very few studies investigating HCC in groups with recent traumatization and unsafe living conditions. Contrary to the findings in asylum seekers, permanently settled immigrants showed relative hypocortisolism. Both hyper- and hypocortisolism may set the stage for the development of stress-related illnesses.

  4. Honey bee hairs and pollenkitt are essential for pollen capture and removal.

    PubMed

    Amador, Guillermo J; Matherne, Marguerite; Waller, D'Andre; Mathews, Megha; Gorb, Stanislav N; Hu, David L

    2017-03-23

    While insect grooming has been observed and documented for over one hundred years, we present the first quantitative analysis of this highly dynamic process. Pollinating insects, like honey bees, purposely cover themselves with millions of pollen particles that, if left ungroomed, would make sensing and controlled flight difficult. How do they get clean? We show that the hairs on insect eyes are tuned to the pollen they collect; namely, the hairs are spaced so that they suspend pollen above the body for easy removal by the forelegs. In turn, hair spacing on the foreleg dictates the leg's ability to store the pollen removed during each swipe. In tests with wax-covered honey bees, we show that hairy forelegs are necessary for pollen removal. Moreover, the viscous fluid found on the surface of pollen grains, or pollenkitt, greatly enhances adhesion. We find that bees accumulate twice as much pollen if pollenkitt is present. This study may help further understand pollination, as well as inform designs for mechanically-sensitive functional surfaces with micro- and nano-structures that are easier to keep clean.

  5. Effect of a novel low-energy pulsed-light device for home-use hair removal.

    PubMed

    Alster, Tina S; Tanzi, Elizabeth L

    2009-03-01

    Removal of unwanted hair is the most popular skin treatment worldwide. Over the past decade, various lasers and light sources for epilation have been advocated for use in an office setting, although most people continue to treat unwanted hair with a variety of temporary physical methods (e.g., waxing, shaving) in a home setting, presumably due to cost and convenience factors. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a low-energy pulsed-light device intended for home-use hair removal. Twenty women (skin phototypes I-IV) with dark terminal hair in nonfacial sites (axilla, forearms, inguinal region, legs) self-administered three treatments at 2-week intervals using a handheld intense-pulsed-light device. Matched untreated skin sites were also studied. Hair counts and clinical photographs were obtained pretreatment and at 1, 3, and 6 months after the third treatment. Side effects and patient satisfaction scores were recorded. All patients showed a positive clinical response to treatment, with reduction of unwanted hair. No reduction of hair was noted in untreated matched areas. Hair counts were reduced 37.8% to 53.6% 6 months after the three treatments. Skin region influenced clinical response, with lower legs exhibiting greater hair reduction than arms and inguinal and axillary areas. Mild erythema was experienced in 25% of patients, but no other side effects or complications were encountered. Patient satisfaction scores were high, with all patients stating that they would purchase the device for future home use. CONCLUSIONS Low-energy pulsed light can be applied safely and effectively for at-home hair removal in a variety of nonfacial locations and skin phototypes I-IV.

  6. Hair Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... razors are completely disposable, some have a disposable blade, and some are electric. Guys often shave their ... slowly, pulling looser areas of skin taut before running the razor over them. Change razors often to ...

  7. Standard guidelines of care: laser and IPL hair reduction.

    PubMed

    Buddhadev, Rajesh M

    2008-01-01

    Laser-assisted hair removal, Laser hair removal, Laser and light-assisted hair removal, Laser and light-assisted, long-term hair reduction, IPL photodepilation, LHE photodepilation; all these are acceptable synonyms. Laser (Ruby, Nd Yag, Alexandrite, Diode), intense pulse light, light and heat energy system are the different light-/Laser-based systems used for hair removal; each have its advantages and disadvantages. The word "LONG-TERM HAIR REDUCTION" should be used rather than permanent hair removal. Patient counseling is essential about the need for multiple sessions. PHYSICIANS' QUALIFICATIONS: Laser hair removal may be practiced by any dermatologist, who has received adequate background training during postgraduation or later at a centre that provides education and training in Lasers or in focused workshops providing such training. The dermatologist should have adequate knowledge of the machines, the parameters and aftercare. The physician may allow the actual procedure to be performed under his/her direct supervision by a trained nurse assistant/junior doctor. However, the final responsibility for the procedure would lie with the physician. The procedure may be performed in the physician's minor procedure room. Investigations to rule out any underlying cause for hair growth are important; concurrent drug therapy may be needed. Laser parameters vary with area, type of hair, and the machine used. Full knowledge about the machine and cooling system is important. Future maintenance treatments may be needed.

  8. The efficacy of laser-assisted hair removal in the treatment of acne keloidalis nuchae; a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Esmat, Samia M; Abdel Hay, Rania M; Abu Zeid, Ola M; Hosni, Hala N

    2012-01-01

    Laser-assisted hair removal causes miniaturization of hair shafts which are the principal contributors to inflammation in acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN). To assess the efficacy of hair reduction by long pulsed Nd-YAG laser as a therapeutic modality for AKN. This interventional pilot trial included 16 patients with AKN who received 5 sessions of long pulsed Nd-YAG laser. Lesions were objectively and subjectively assessed at the third and fifth laser sessions, and 1 year after. Global response to treatment was rated using a quartile grading scale regarding the percentage improvement in the count of papules and the size of the plaques. Biopsies were taken before and 2 weeks after the fifth session to evaluate the pathological changes associated with improvement of the treated lesions. All patients showed a significant improvement. The percentage of improvement in the early caseswas significantly higher when compared to late cases.Two weeks after the fifth session, all biopsies showed a significant decrease in the inflammatory infiltrate except one case. Sclerosis was markedly decreased. Complete absence of hair follicles and adenexawas observed, apart from in 2 cases. Laser hair depilation can significantly improve this disfiguring chronic disorder. Starting treatment as early as possible achieves the best results and can stop the disease process if followed by maintenance sessions.

  9. A study on the development of a robot-assisted automatic laser hair removal system.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyoung-Woo; Park, Sungwoo; Noh, Seungwoo; Lee, Dong-Hun; Yoon, Chiyul; Koh, Wooseok; Kim, Youdan; Chung, Jin Ho; Kim, Hee Chan; Kim, Sungwan

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Background and Objective: The robot-assisted automatic laser hair removal (LHR) system is developed to automatically detect any arbitrary shape of the desired LHR treatment area and to provide uniform laser irradiation to the designated skin area. For uniform delivery of laser energy, a unit of a commercial LHR device, a laser distance sensor, and a high-resolution webcam are attached at the six axis industrial robot's end-effector, which can be easily controlled using a graphical user interface (GUI). During the treatment, the system provides real-time treatment progress as well as the total number of "pick and place" automatically. During the test, it was demonstrated that the arbitrary shapes were detected, and that the laser was delivered uniformly. The localization error test and the area-per-spot test produced satisfactory outcome averages of 1.04 mm error and 38.22 mm(2)/spot, respectively. RESULTS showed that the system successfully demonstrated accuracy and effectiveness. The proposed system is expected to become a promising device in LHR treatment.

  10. A Study on the Development of a Robot-Assisted Automatic Laser Hair Removal System

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyoung-woo; Park, Sungwoo; Noh, Seungwoo; Lee, Dong-Hun; Yoon, Chiyul; Koh, Wooseok; Kim, Youdan; Chung, Jin Ho; Kim, Hee Chan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background and Objective: The robot-assisted automatic laser hair removal (LHR) system is developed to automatically detect any arbitrary shape of the desired LHR treatment area and to provide uniform laser irradiation to the designated skin area. Methods: For uniform delivery of laser energy, a unit of a commercial LHR device, a laser distance sensor, and a high-resolution webcam are attached at the six axis industrial robot's end-effector, which can be easily controlled using a graphical user interface (GUI). During the treatment, the system provides real-time treatment progress as well as the total number of “pick and place” automatically. Results: During the test, it was demonstrated that the arbitrary shapes were detected, and that the laser was delivered uniformly. The localization error test and the area-per-spot test produced satisfactory outcome averages of 1.04 mm error and 38.22 mm2/spot, respectively. Conclusions: Results showed that the system successfully demonstrated accuracy and effectiveness. The proposed system is expected to become a promising device in LHR treatment. PMID:25343281

  11. Hair cosmetics.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, M N

    1987-07-01

    Porosity, elasticity, and texture influence the hair's ability to be changed. The types of color--temporary, gradual, natural, semipermanent, and permanent--depend upon the size of the "coloring" molecule to determine whether they penetrate the cortex (permanent) or precipitate on the cuticle. Different types of hair--thick or coarse, fine or thin--have varying affinity for different products and coloring/waving methods. Damaged hair is treated differently from hair with healthy, less porous shafts. Because so many people have color-treated hair today, dermatologists should be aware of all the latest changes and improvements, in order to assist patients with damaged or congenitally deformed hair. Acid-based permanents are becoming the most commonly used. Daily care with shampooing and conditioning has attained its most sophisticated level with the use of anionic and cationic surfactants in all hair-care products. It is also important for the dermatologist to be aware of what help is available for his or her patients. Cosmetic companies are eager to help any patient with severe problems with texture, dullness, over-fine or congenitally defective hair. The physician should send the patient with a severe problem directly to the nearest company headquarters or major city office to have a hair analysis, and receive suggestions from the experts of that company. For patients with moderate to mild problems, the dermatologist should be able to recommend three or four good salons in the local area with which he or she is familiar. Our main goal as physicians is to take care of the entire patient and to enable him or her to have a good self-image.

  12. Complete regression of a melanocytic nevus under intense pulsed light therapy for axillary hair removal in a cosmetic center.

    PubMed

    Martín, José M; Monteagudo, Carlos; Bella, Rebeca; Reig, Irela; Jordá, Esperanza

    2012-01-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy using noncoherent broad-spectrum light has been reported to be effective for hair removal, and also for treating superficial pigmented lesions like ephelides and solar lentigines. We report complete regression of a pigmented melanocytic nevus, histologically confirmed, after hair removal treatment with IPL. The use of lasers and IPL is a common procedure used by dermatologists and even other professions for the treatment of cosmetically troubling skin conditions. The main advantage of such treatment is a reduction of surgical scars, thus producing a favorable cosmetic outcome, but a major limitation is that histopathologic diagnosis is not usually obtained prior to treatment. Such devices should be carefully used in patients with potentially dangerous melanocytic lesions. We also review the recent literature regarding inadequate treatment of melanocytic lesions with lasers. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Supporting cells remove and replace sensory receptor hair cells in a balance organ of adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Bucks, Stephanie A; Cox, Brandon C; Vlosich, Brittany A; Manning, James P; Nguyen, Tot B; Stone, Jennifer S

    2017-01-01

    Vestibular hair cells in the inner ear encode head movements and mediate the sense of balance. These cells undergo cell death and replacement (turnover) throughout life in non-mammalian vertebrates. However, there is no definitive evidence that this process occurs in mammals. We used fate-mapping and other methods to demonstrate that utricular type II vestibular hair cells undergo turnover in adult mice under normal conditions. We found that supporting cells phagocytose both type I and II hair cells. Plp1-CreERT2-expressing supporting cells replace type II hair cells. Type I hair cells are not restored by Plp1-CreERT2-expressing supporting cells or by Atoh1-CreERTM-expressing type II hair cells. Destruction of hair cells causes supporting cells to generate 6 times as many type II hair cells compared to normal conditions. These findings expand our understanding of sensorineural plasticity in adult vestibular organs and further elucidate the roles that supporting cells serve during homeostasis and after injury. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18128.001 PMID:28263708

  14. Long-term clinical evaluation of a 800-nm long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum-assisted suction for hair removal.

    PubMed

    Ibrahimi, Omar A; Kilmer, Suzanne L

    2012-06-01

    The long-pulsed diode (800-810-nm) laser is one of the most commonly used and effective lasers for hair removal. Limitations of currently available devices include a small treatment spot size, treatment-associated pain, and the need for skin cooling. To evaluate the long-term hair reduction capabilities of a long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum assisted suction. Thirty-five subjects were enrolled in a prospective, self-controlled, single-center study of axillary hair removal. The study consisted of three treatments using a long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum-assisted suction at 4- to 6-week intervals with follow-up visits 6 and 15 months after the last treatment. Hair clearance was quantified using macro hair-count photographs taken at baseline and at 6- and 15-month follow-up visits. Changes in hair thickness and color, levels of treatment-associated pain, and adverse events were additional study endpoints. There was statistically significant hair clearance at the 6 (54%) and 15-month (42%) follow-up visits. Remaining hairs were thinner and lighter at the 15-month follow-up visit, and the majority of subjects reported feeling up to mild to moderate pain during treatment without the use of pretreatment anesthesia or skin cooling. A long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum-assisted suction is safe and effective for long-term hair removal. This is the largest prospective study to evaluate long-term hair removal and the first to quantify decreases in hair thickness and darkness with treatment. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Airborne particulate concentration during laser hair removal: A comparison between cold sapphire with aqueous gel and cryogen skin cooling.

    PubMed

    Ross, Edward V; Chuang, Gary S; Ortiz, Arisa E; Davenport, Scott A

    2018-04-01

    High concentrations of sub-micron nanoparticles have been shown to be released during laser hair removal (LHR) procedures. These emissions pose a potential biohazard to healthcare workers that have prolonged exposure to LHR plume. We sought to demonstrate that cold sapphire skin cooling done in contact mode might suppress plume dispersion during LHR. A total of 11 patients were recruited for laser hair removal. They were treated on the legs and axilla with a 755 or 1064 nm millisecond-domain laser equipped with either (i) cryogen spray (CSC); (ii) refrigerated air (RA); or (iii) contact cooling with sapphire (CC). Concentration of ultrafine nanoparticles <1 μm were measured just before and during LHR with the three respective cooling methods. For contact cooling (CC), counts remained at baseline levels, below 3,500 parts per cubic centimeter (ppc) for all treatments. In contrast, the CSC system produced large levels of plume, peaking at times to over 400,000 ppc. The CA cooled system produced intermediate levels of plume, about 35,000 ppc (or about 10× baseline). Cold Sapphire Skin cooling with gel suppresses plume during laser hair removal, potentially eliminating the need for smoke evacuators, custom ventilation systems, and respirators during LHR. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:280-283, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Trial of human laser epilation technology for permanent wool removal in Merino sheep.

    PubMed

    Colditz, I G; Cox, T; Small, A H

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether human laser epilation technology can permanently prevent wool growth in sheep. An observational study. Two commercial human epilation lasers (Sharplan alexandrite 755 nm laser, and Lumenis LightSheer 800 nm diode laser) were tested at energies between 10 and 100 J/cm2 and pulse widths from 2 to 400 ms. Wool was clipped from flank, breech, pizzle and around the eyes of superfine Merino sheep with Oster clippers. After initial laser removal of residual wool to reveal bare skin, individual skin sites were treated with up to 15 cycles of laser irradiation. Behavioural responses during treatment, skin temperature immediately after treatment and skin and wool responses for 3 months after treatment were monitored. A clear transudate was evident on the skin surface within minutes. A dry superficial scab developed by 24 h and remained adherent for at least 6 weeks. When scabs were shed, there was evidence of scarring at sites receiving multiple treatment cycles and normal wool growth in unscarred skin. There was no evidence of laser energy level or pulse width affecting the response of skin and wool to treatment and no evidence of permanent inhibition of wool growth by laser treatment. Laser treatment was well tolerated by the sheep. Treatment of woolled skin with laser parameters that induce epilation by selective photothermolysis in humans failed to induce permanent inhibition of wool growth in sheep. Absence of melanin in wool may have contributed to the result. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. Pubic hair removal and sexual behavior: findings from a prospective daily diary study of sexually active women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Herbenick, Debby; Hensel, Devon; Smith, Nicole K; Schick, Vanessa; Reece, Michael; Sanders, Stephanie A; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-03-01

    Pubic hair removal is prevalent among women in the United States. However, most studies related to pubic hair removal are based on cross-sectional surveys and retrospective recall. The purpose of this research was to, in a prospective event-level daily diary study, assess demographic, affective, relational, situational, and behavioral factors related to women's pubic hair removal. Data collection occurred as part of a 5-week prospective, Internet-based daily diary study. Age; Affective predictors (positive mood, negative mood, feeling interested in sex, feeling in love); Relational predictors (partner support, partner negativity, partner type, partner gender); Situational predictors (any vaginal symptoms, use of any vaginal hygiene products; having applied any creams to the genitals); Behavioral variables (penile-vaginal sex, penile-anal sex, had finger inserted into vagina, had clitoris stimulated with fingers, inserted toy into vagina, used vibrator on clitoris, inserted finger into anus, inserted toy into anus, duration of penetration, intensity of penetration). A total of 2,453 women ages 18 to 68 (mean age 32.69) completed the study, contributing 49,287 total diaries (mean per person 24.5; standard deviation 10.3, median 30); 15.2% of all days (N = 7,362) involved pubic hair waxing or shaving, with the vast majority of hair removal days involving shaving (N = 7,302; 99%). Pubic hair removal was significantly associated with younger age, a greater interest in sex, vaginal fingering, finger-clitoral stimulation, having a casual sex partner, using vaginal hygiene products, and applying cream to the genitals. Hair removal was marginally associated with longer duration of vaginal penetration. These findings provide greater insight into the factors associated with women's pubic hair removal and their sexual experiences on a day-to-day level. Clinical and educational implications are discussed. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Comparison of adverse events of laser and light-assisted hair removal systems in skin types IV-VI.

    PubMed

    Breadon, Jonith Y; Barnes, Chad A

    2007-01-01

    Photoepilation, utilizing lasers and noncoherent light sources, is designed to irradiate as much of the follicular unit as possible, with melanin as the target chromophore. Wavelength absorption should generate energy sufficient to heat and destroy the hair follicle, while preserving the surrounding tissue. When performing photoepilation on African-American skin (Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI) a greater risk of potential epidermal adverse events, such as dyspigmentation, blistering, crusting, edema, and subsequent scarring, is possible. To reduce epidermal melanin absorption of energy longer wavelengths are considered safer for use on Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI. This article reviews and compares the reported incidences of adverse events in African-American skin, utilizing lasers and noncoherent light sources for assisted hair removal.

  19. Long-term efficacy of linear-scanning 808 nm diode laser for hair removal compared to a scanned alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Grunewald, Sonja; Bodendorf, Marc Oliver; Zygouris, Alexander; Simon, Jan Christoph; Paasch, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Alexandrite and diode lasers are commonly used for hair removal. To date, the available spot sizes and repetition rates are defining factors in terms of penetration depth, treatment speed, and efficacy. Still, larger treatment areas and faster systems are desirable. To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and subject satisfaction of a continuously linear-scanning 808 nm diode laser with an alexandrite 755 nm laser for axillary hair removal. A total of 31 adults with skin types I-IV received 6 treatments at 4-week intervals with a 755 nm alexandrite laser (right axilla) and a continuously linear-scanning 808 nm diode laser (left axilla). Axillary hair density was assessed using a computerized hair detection system. There was a significant reduction in axillary hair after the 6th treatment (P < 0.05) on both sides (left, 808 nm: hair clearance of 72.16%; right, 755 nm: hair clearance of 71.30%). The difference in reduction between the two lasers was not significant, but both were persistant at 18 months follow-up (left: hair clearance of 73.71%; right: hair clearance of 71.90%). Erythema and perifollicular edema were more common after alexandrite laser treatment, but all side effects were transient. While 62.50% of patients reported more pain in response to treatment with the new diode laser, all patients rated treatment with either laser tolerable. Treatment with either the alexandrite or the linear-scanning diode laser results in significant, comparable, persistent (at least 18 months) axillary hair reduction among individuals with skin types I-IV. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Static and dynamic modes of 810 nm diode laser hair removal compared: A clinical and histological study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Laser hair removal has recently become a major indication. Diode lasers have become commercially available offering two modes of application: a stamping or static mode, and a dynamic mode whereby the handpiece is continuously moved across the target tissue. The present study was designed to compare the efficacy of these two approaches clinically and histologically. Subjects and Methods Twenty-five subjects participated in the study, 12 males and 13 females, ages ranging from 20 to 57 yr (Mean age 41.6 yr). A baseline hair count was performed on both the target areas. The ms-pulsed diode laser delivered 810 nm via a handpiece with a cooled tip, offering both static and dynamic modes which were used on the subjects' left and right crura, respectively. Pain during treatment was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) and gross inspection was performed immediately after treatment for any abnormality in the treated skin. Hair counts were performed on both crura at 1 and 3 months after the treatment, and compared with the baseline counts. Biopsies were performed in the dynamic mode treated skin at baseline and at 1 month after the treatment, and assessed with light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results All subjects completed the study. Compared with baseline, hair counts were significantly lower at 1 and 3 months post-treatment with no significant difference between the static and dynamic laser depilation modes, nor in the severity of the pain experienced during the procedure. Histologically, degenerative changes in the hair follicles were noted immediately after laser treatment. At one month, cystic formation was seen in the hair follicles showing a strong tendency towards apoptotic cell death. Conclusions With the diode laser system and at the parameters used in the present study, high depilation efficacy was seen with no significant difference between the static and dynamic modes. Interestingly

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Hair Removal with a Long-Pulsed Diode Laser Depending on the Spot Size: A Randomized, Evaluators-Blinded, Left-Right Study.

    PubMed

    Jo, Seong Jin; Kim, Jin Yong; Ban, Juhee; Lee, Youngjoo; Kwon, Ohsang; Koh, Wooseok

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy of the long-pulsed diode laser (LPDL) in hair removal is determined with various physical parameters. Recently, LPDLs with a larger spot size are commercially available; however, the independent effect of spot size on hair removal has not been studied. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of the LPDL in hair removal depending on the spot size. A randomized, evaluators-blind, intrapatient comparison (left vs. right) trial was designed. Ten healthy Korean women received three hair removal treatment sessions on both armpits with the 805-nm LPDL and followed for 3 months. A 10×10 mm handpiece (D1) or a 10×30 mm handpiece (D3) was randomly assigned to the right or left axilla. The fluence, pulse duration, and epidermal cooling temperature were identical for both armpits. Hair clearance was quantified with high-resolution photos taken at each visit. Postprocedural pain was quantified on a visual analogue scale. Adverse events were evaluated by physical examination and the patients' self-report. The mean hair clearance at 3 months after three treatment sessions was 38.7% and 50.1% on the armpits treated with D1 and D3, respectively (p=0.028). Procedural pain was significantly greater in the side treated with D3 (p=0.009). Serious adverse events were not observed. Given that the pulse duration, fluence, and epidermal cooling were identical, the 805-nm LPDL at the three times larger spot size showed an efficacy improvement of 29.5% in axillary hair removal without serious adverse events.

  2. Comparison of hair removal efficacy and side effect of neodymium:Yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser and intense pulsed light systems (18-month follow-up).

    PubMed

    Szima, Georgina Zita; Janka, Eszter Anna; Kovács, Anikó; Bortély, Blanka; Bodnár, Edina; Sawhney, Irina; Szabó, Éva; Remenyik, Éva

    2017-06-01

    Photothermal destruction of hair shaft melanin with intense pulsed light (IPL) and neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser has become an effective treatment of hair removal. Our aim was to compare efficacy, satisfactory levels, safety, and side effects of Nd:YAG and IPL in hair reduction. This was a prospective randomized intrapatient, right-left, assessor-blinded comparison of Nd:YAG vs IPL. There were 38 volunteers recruited. Seven sessions were performed. Hair count, efficacy, and side effects were compared before and after each treatment and 6 months after the last treatment. In respect of 12 volunteers, we have examined the reduction in hair after 18 months. Initially, there was no significant difference between the numbers of hair follicles. There was significant hair reduction after each treatment on the Nd:YAG-treated side. The hair reduction became significant after the third treatment with IPL. Comparison of the efficacy of the two devices on each visits showed no significant difference. There was statistically lower pain score on the IPL-treated side and statistically higher erythema, burning sensation, and edema on the Nd:YAG-treated side. Statistically lower side effect score was observed on the IPL-treated side. Eight months after the last treatment, there was significant hair reduction both on the Nd:YAG and on the IPL-treated side, and there was no difference between the efficacy. The patient satisfaction scores were higher with the IPL. Unwanted hair can be reduced by both systems safely and effectively; however, IPL has less side effects and higher satisfaction scores. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparison of Alexandrite and Diode Lasers for Hair Removal in Dark and Medium Skin: Which is Better?

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Farhad Hamad; Jaafar, Mohamad Suhimi; Ismail, Asaad Hamid; Mutter, Kussay Nugamesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To improve laser hair removal (LHR) for dark skin, the fluence rate reaching the hair follicle in LHR is important. This paper presents the results of a comparative study examining the function of wavelength on dark skin types using 755 nm alexandrite and 810 nm diode lasers. Methods: The structure of the skin was created using a realistic skin model by the Advanced Systems Analysis Program. Result: In this study, the alexandrite laser (755 nm) and diode laser (810 nm) beam–skin tissue interactions were simulated. The simulation results for both lasers differed. The transmission ratio of the diode laser to the dark skin dermis was approximately 4% more than that of the alexandrite laser for the same skin type. For the diode laser at skin depth z = 0.67 mm, the average transmission ratios of both samples were 36% and 27.5%, but those for the alexandrite laser at the same skin depth were 32% and 25%. Conclusion: Both lasers were suitable in LHR for dark skin types, but the diode laser was better than the alexandrite laser because the former could penetrate deeper into the dermis layer. PMID:25653820

  4. Comparison of Alexandrite and Diode Lasers for Hair Removal in Dark and Medium Skin: Which is Better?

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Farhad Hamad; Jaafar, Mohamad Suhimi; Ismail, Asaad Hamid; Mutter, Kussay Nugamesh

    2014-01-01

    To improve laser hair removal (LHR) for dark skin, the fluence rate reaching the hair follicle in LHR is important. This paper presents the results of a comparative study examining the function of wavelength on dark skin types using 755 nm alexandrite and 810 nm diode lasers. The structure of the skin was created using a realistic skin model by the Advanced Systems Analysis Program. In this study, the alexandrite laser (755 nm) and diode laser (810 nm) beam-skin tissue interactions were simulated. The simulation results for both lasers differed. The transmission ratio of the diode laser to the dark skin dermis was approximately 4% more than that of the alexandrite laser for the same skin type. For the diode laser at skin depth z = 0.67 mm, the average transmission ratios of both samples were 36% and 27.5%, but those for the alexandrite laser at the same skin depth were 32% and 25%. Both lasers were suitable in LHR for dark skin types, but the diode laser was better than the alexandrite laser because the former could penetrate deeper into the dermis layer.

  5. [Habits and traditions of female college students related to intimate clothing, genital adornments, genital hair removal and sexual practices].

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Paulo César; Polo, Renata Colbachini; do Amaral, Rose Luce Gomes; Reis, Virgínia Vieitez; Beghini, Joziani; Bardin, Marcela Grigol

    2013-09-01

    To describe the practices and care with the genital area of female college students. A descriptive analytical study evaluated the habits and traditions of 364 students from the University of Campinas (Unicamp) regarding the use of underwear, body piercings, tattoos, hair removal and sexual practices. A questionnaire with 42 questions assessed the most current practices among female college students. All questions were self answered and the questionnaires, without any identification, were placed in sealed ballot boxes to ensure the confidentiality of information. The responses were tabulated in Microsoft® Excel 2007 to obtain univariate analysis. The mean age of the college students in the study was 21 years (SD ± 2.7), and 84% were white. The volunteers who participated in this study were from the biological science area (50%), the exact science area (29%) or the humanity area (21%). It was observed that 61.8% of the respondents wear cotton panties, but at the same time 75.4% wear tight jeans, and only 18.4% wore no panties when sleeping. Only one participant reported having had genital piercing and none of them reported tattooing. Most female college students do genital waxing, and approximately 1/3 of them do so completely. After hair removal, 2/3 apply an anti-inflammatory and/or moisturizer to the region. Only 62% use condoms and 17.6% use a lubricant during intercourse. Half of them receive oral sex, 17.9% practice anal sex and 26.6% of them report feeling pain during sexual intercourse. Vaginal discharge after intercourse was reported in 25.6% of the cases. Young female college students from Brazilian public universities have many inadequate care habits related to their genital area. They do not use genital piercing and tattoos, but report having pain during sexual intercourse and vaginal discharge after sex in a large number of cases.

  6. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  7. Hair transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... this procedure: Scarring Unnatural-looking tufts of new hair growth It is possible that the transplanted hair will ... Most hair transplants result in excellent hair growth within several ... may be needed to create best results. The replaced hairs are ...

  8. Novel 755-nm diode laser vs. conventional 755-nm scanned alexandrite laser: Side-by-side comparison pilot study for thorax and axillary hair removal.

    PubMed

    Paasch, Uwe; Wagner, Justinus A; Paasch, Hartmut W

    2015-01-01

    Alexandrite (755 nm) and diode lasers (800-810 nm) are commonly used for hair removal. The alexandrite laser technology is somewhat cumbersome whereas new diode lasers are more robust. Recently, alexandrite-like 755 nm wavelength diodes became available. To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and subject satisfaction of a 755 nm diode laser operated in conventional (HR) and non-conventional in-motion (SHR) modes with a conventional scanned alexandrite 755 nm laser for chest and axillary hair removal. A prospective, single-center, proof of principle study was designed to evaluate the safety, efficacy and handling of a 755 nm diode laser system in comparison to a standard alexandrite 755 nm scanning hair removal laser. The new 755 nm diode is suitable to be used in SHR and HR mode and has been tested for its safety, efficacy and handling in a volunteer with success. Overall, both systems showed a high efficacy in hair reduction (88.8% 755 nm diode laser vs. 77.7% 755 nm alexandrite laser). Also, during the study period, no severe adverse effects were reported. The new 755 nm diode laser is as effective and safe as the traditional 755 nm alexandrite laser. Additionally, treatment with the 755 nm diode laser with HR and SHR modes was found to be less painful.

  9. Hypertrichotic Becker's nevi treated with combination 1,550 nm non-ablative fractional photothermolysis and laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Balaraman, Brundha; Friedman, Paul M

    2016-04-01

    The removal of Becker's nevi poses a significant challenge due to limited available therapeutic options and increased risk of adverse effects, including scarring and dyspigmentation. Herein, we present the use of the non-ablative fractional photothermolysis in combination with laser hair removal for the treatment of hypertrichotic Becker's nevi. Retrospective analysis of three patients with Becker's nevi revealed that two patients with hypertrichotic Becker's nevi had greater than 75% clearance with combination therapy, and one patient with atrichotic Becker's nevus had a similar result with monotherapy non-ablative fractional photothermolysis. This report demonstrates the utility and safety of combination non-ablative fractional resurfacing and laser hair removal for the treatment of hypertrichotic Becker's nevi, and monotherapy non-ablative fractional photothermolysis for atrichotic Becker's nevi. Further comparative studies are necessary to determine optimal laser parameters, treatment schedules, and response duration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [DENTAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION IN PAST HISTORY DURING PERIOD OF REMOVABLE AND PERMANENT DENTITION].

    PubMed

    Garmash, O V; Ryabokon, E N

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of the dental status in patients with IUGR in past history in period of removable and permanent dentition was conducted. 39 patients with intrauterine growth retardation in past history were examined. The clinical, statistical methods were held. Concluded that the child, who was born with IUGR, later in future life, has a great risk of dental diseases. The most considerable violations were found in patients with "symmetrical" form of intrauterine growth retardation. It is proposed to use clinical markers as possible predictors of periodontal diseases.

  11. Clinical assessment of a new 755 nm diode laser for hair removal: Efficacy, safety and practicality in 56 patients.

    PubMed

    Royo, Josefina; Moreno-Moraga, Javier; Trelles, Mario A

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the first diode laser with a wavelength of 755 nm for in-motion hair removal came on the market. The objective of this study was to check its efficacy, safety, and practicality under different options for its use. A prospective study in a heterogeneous group of 56 patients who had hair removed from various areas of their bodies using three different treatment methods. Four sessions were scheduled in all cases, with a gap of 3 months between each session. Efficacy was assessed by counting of hairs per cm 2 and the adverse effects in each session were recorded in detail in the patients' clinical histories. The three tested options achieved a significant reduction in the number of hairs (P < 0.0001). The average clearances achieved using the conventional method (HR), the in-motion method (SHR) and the stacking method were 75.5%, 70.1%, and 41.9%, respectively. The degree of satisfaction of the participants on a scale of 0-10 was 7.7, 8.1 and 6.8, respectively. Erythema and perifollicular edema, which are characteristic responses in laser hair removal, were observed. The incidence of burns was 1.33%. The 755-nm diode laser performed efficiently and safely in all the tested areas, using high total accumulated energy per surface unit. Based on our prior experience with other equipment, the results are promising. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:355-360, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A Prospective Study of Axillary Hair Reduction in Patients Treated With Microwave Technology.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Jeremy A; Neckman, Julia P; Zelickson, Brian; Vasily, David B; Geronemus, Roy G

    2017-04-01

    Removing unwanted body hair is a growing trend in society today, and there are many laser-based devices for hair reduction. There are some limitations to those methods, including the lack of efficacy for lighter color hair. The objective was to quantify hair reduction in the axillae after treatment with a noninvasive microwave energy device. A prospective, multicenter study was performed at 3 private dermatology clinics. Fifty-six adult subjects seeking axillary hair reduction were enrolled and treated with the device in 1 or 2 treatment sessions 3 months apart at various energy levels, and followed for 12 months. The primary analysis was monitoring reduction of hair counts from baseline to follow-up visits. A subject assessment of overall satisfaction, odor ratings, and sweat reduction ratings was provided at follow-up visits. Fifty-six subjects received treatment, with an average total underarm hair reduction of approximately 70% for both light and dark hair. Percentage of patients with hair reduction of 30% or more was significantly higher than 50% at all follow-up visits. Half of treated subjects reported expected mild transient post-treatment effects such as localized edema, discomfort, and bruising. Other reported events were mild. This clinical study provides evidence for safe and permanent axillary hair reduction, showing stable average reduction that lasted through the year of follow-up. Most notably, the study has shown the treatment's efficacy for reduction of light-colored axillary hair.

  13. Your Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Hair KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Hair What's in this ... eyes from sweat dripping down from your forehead. Hair Comes From Where? Whether hair is growing out ...

  14. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Teens / Hair Loss What's in ... after the problem that causes it is corrected. Hair Basics Hair is made of a kind of ...

  15. Hair Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Skin Experts Skin Treatments Hair Transplants Share » HAIR TRANSPLANTS Before (left) and after (right) - front of ... transplant. Photo courtesy of N. Sadick What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ...

  16. Temporary storage or permanent removal? The division of nitrogen between biotic assimilation and denitrification in stormwater biofiltration systems.

    PubMed

    Payne, Emily G I; Fletcher, Tim D; Russell, Douglas G; Grace, Michael R; Cavagnaro, Timothy R; Evrard, Victor; Deletic, Ana; Hatt, Belinda E; Cook, Perran L M

    2014-01-01

    The long-term efficacy of stormwater treatment systems requires continuous pollutant removal without substantial re-release. Hence, the division of incoming pollutants between temporary and permanent removal pathways is fundamental. This is pertinent to nitrogen, a critical water body pollutant, which on a broad level may be assimilated by plants or microbes and temporarily stored, or transformed by bacteria to gaseous forms and permanently lost via denitrification. Biofiltration systems have demonstrated effective removal of nitrogen from urban stormwater runoff, but to date studies have been limited to a 'black-box' approach. The lack of understanding on internal nitrogen processes constrains future design and threatens the reliability of long-term system performance. While nitrogen processes have been thoroughly studied in other environments, including wastewater treatment wetlands, biofiltration systems differ fundamentally in design and the composition and hydrology of stormwater inflows, with intermittent inundation and prolonged dry periods. Two mesocosm experiments were conducted to investigate biofilter nitrogen processes using the stable isotope tracer 15NO3(-) (nitrate) over the course of one inflow event. The immediate partitioning of 15NO3(-) between biotic assimilation and denitrification were investigated for a range of different inflow concentrations and plant species. Assimilation was the primary fate for NO3(-) under typical stormwater concentrations (∼1-2 mg N/L), contributing an average 89-99% of 15NO3(-) processing in biofilter columns containing the most effective plant species, while only 0-3% was denitrified and 0-8% remained in the pore water. Denitrification played a greater role for columns containing less effective species, processing up to 8% of 15NO3(-), and increased further with nitrate loading. This study uniquely applied isotope tracing to biofiltration systems and revealed the dominance of assimilation in stormwater biofilters

  17. The biology, structure, and function of eyebrow hair.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jennifer V

    2014-01-01

    Eyebrow hair serves many important biologic and aesthetic functions. This article reviews the structure and function of the hair follicle, as well as hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. Eyebrow hair follicles share the same basic structure as hair follicles elsewhere on the body, but are distinguished by their shorter anagen (growing) phase. Knowledge of the hair follicle structure and cycle is important for understanding the pathophysiology of alopecia, as diseases affecting the stem cell portion of the hair follicle in the bulge region may cause permanent hair loss. Furthermore, therapeutic agents that target distinct phases and hormones involved in the hair cycle may be useful for promoting hair growth.

  18. Neuromuscular plasticity in the locust after permanent removal of an excitatory motoneuron of the extensor tibiae muscle.

    PubMed

    Büschges, A; Djokaj, S; Bässler, D; Bässler, U; Rathmayer, W

    2000-01-01

    The capacity of the larval insect nervous system to compensate for the permanent loss of one of the two excitatory motoneurons innervating a leg muscle was investigated in the locust (Locusta migratoria). In the fourth instar, the fast extensor tibiae (FETi) motoneuron in the mesothoracic ganglion was permanently removed by photoinactivation with a helium-cadmium laser. Subsequently, the animals were allowed to develop into adulthood. When experimental animals were tested as adults after final ecdysis, fast-contracting fibers in the most proximal region of the corresponding extensor muscle, which are normally predominantly innervated by FETi only, uniformly responded to activity of the slow extensor tibiae (SETi) neuron. In adult operated animals, single pulses to SETi elicited large junctional responses in the fibers which resulted in twitch contractions of these fibers similar to the responses to FETi activity in control animals. The total number of muscle fibers, their properties as histochemically determined contractional types (fast and slow), and their distribution were not affected by photoinactivation of FETi. Possible mechanisms enabling the larval neuromuscular system to compensate for the loss of FETi through functionally similar innervation by a different motoneuron, i.e. SETi, are discussed. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Kinship care for the safety, permanency, and well-being of children removed from the home for maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Winokur, Marc; Holtan, Amy; Batchelder, Keri E

    2014-01-31

    Every year a large number of children around the world are removed from their homes because they are maltreated. Child welfare agencies are responsible for placing these children in out-of-home settings that will facilitate their safety, permanency, and well-being.However, children in out-of-home placements typically display more educational, behavioural, and psychological problems than do their peers, although it is unclear whether this results from the placement itself, the maltreatment that precipitated it, or inadequacies in the child welfare system. To evaluate the effect of kinship care placement compared to foster care placement on the safety, permanency, and well-being of children removed from the home for maltreatment. We searched the following databases for this updated review on 14 March 2011: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials(CENTRAL),MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, Social Science Citation Index, ERIC, Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Social Science and Humanities, ASSIA, and Dissertation Express. We handsearched relevant social work journals and reference lists of published literature reviews, and contacted authors. Controlled experimental and quasi-experimental studies, in which children removed from the home for maltreatment and subsequently placed in kinship foster care were compared with children placed in non-kinship foster care for child welfare outcomes in the domains of well-being, permanency, or safety. Two review authors independently read the titles and abstracts identified in the searches, and selected appropriate studies. Two review authors assessed the eligibility of each study for the evidence base and then evaluated the methodological quality of the included studies.Lastly, we extracted outcome data and entered them into Review Manager 5 software (RevMan) for meta-analysis with the results presented in written and graphical forms. One-hundred-and-two quasi-experimental studies,with 666

  20. Vascular Canals in Permanent Hyaline Cartilage: Development, Corrosion of Nonmineralized Cartilage Matrix, and Removal of Matrix Degradation Products.

    PubMed

    Gabner, Simone; Häusler, Gabriele; Böck, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Core areas in voluminous pieces of permanent cartilage are metabolically supplied via vascular canals (VCs). We studied cartilage corrosion and removal of matrix degradation products during the development of VCs in nose and rib cartilage of piglets. Conventional staining methods were used for glycosaminoglycans, immunohistochemistry was performed to demonstrate collagens types I and II, laminin, Ki-67, von Willebrand factor, VEGF, macrophage marker MAC387, S-100 protein, MMPs -2,-9,-13,-14, and their inhibitors TIMP1 and TIMP2. VCs derived from connective tissue buds that bulged into cartilage matrix ("perichondrial papillae", PPs). Matrix was corroded at the tips of PPs or resulting VCs. Connective tissue stromata in PPs and VCs comprised an axial afferent blood vessel, peripherally located wide capillaries, fibroblasts, newly synthesized matrix, and residues of corroded cartilage matrix (collagen type II, acidic proteoglycans). Multinucleated chondroclasts were absent, and monocytes/macrophages were not seen outside the blood vessels. Vanishing acidity characterized areas of extracellular matrix degradation ("preresorptive layers"), from where the dismantled matrix components diffused out. Leached-out material stained in an identical manner to intact cartilage matrix. It was detected in the stroma and inside capillaries and associated downstream veins. We conclude that the delicate VCs are excavated by endothelial sprouts and fibroblasts, whilst chondroclasts are specialized to remove high volumes of mineralized cartilage. VCs leading into permanent cartilage can be formed by corrosion or inclusion, but most VCs comprise segments that have developed in either of these ways. Anat Rec, 300:1067-1082, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser vs. intense pulsed light for hair removal in dark skin: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ismail, S A

    2012-02-01

    Although several lasers meet the wavelength criteria for selective follicular destruction, the treatment of darker skin phototypes is particularly challenging because absorption of laser energy by the targeted hairs is compromised by an increased concentration of epidermal melanin. To compare satisfaction level, safety and effectiveness of a long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser and intense pulsed light (IPL) in axillary hair reduction in subjects with dark skin. The study design was a within-patient, right-left, assessor-blinded, comparison of long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser and IPL. Fifty women (skin phototypes IV-VI) volunteered for removal of axillary hair. Five sessions at 4- to 6-week intervals were performed. Hair counts at both sides were compared at baseline and 6months after the last session. Final overall evaluations were performed by subjects and clinician at the end of the study. Satisfaction was scored for both devices. Thirty-nine women completed the study. At 6months, the decrease in hair counts on the laser side (79·4%, P<0·001 vs. pretreatment) was significantly (P<0·01) greater than that on the IPL side (54·4%, P<0·01 vs. pretreatment). Only temporary adverse effects were reported at both sides. Higher pain scores and more inflammation were reported with Nd:YAG laser; however, it was preferred by 29 volunteers (74%). Volunteers reported higher satisfaction score with Nd:YAG laser (P<0·01). Dark skin can be treated by both systems safely and effectively; however, long-pulsed (1064 nm) Nd:YAG laser is more effective as reported by both subjects and clinician. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Temporary Storage or Permanent Removal? The Division of Nitrogen between Biotic Assimilation and Denitrification in Stormwater Biofiltration Systems

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Emily G. I.; Fletcher, Tim D.; Russell, Douglas G.; Grace, Michael R.; Cavagnaro, Timothy R.; Evrard, Victor; Deletic, Ana; Hatt, Belinda E.; Cook, Perran L. M.

    2014-01-01

    The long-term efficacy of stormwater treatment systems requires continuous pollutant removal without substantial re-release. Hence, the division of incoming pollutants between temporary and permanent removal pathways is fundamental. This is pertinent to nitrogen, a critical water body pollutant, which on a broad level may be assimilated by plants or microbes and temporarily stored, or transformed by bacteria to gaseous forms and permanently lost via denitrification. Biofiltration systems have demonstrated effective removal of nitrogen from urban stormwater runoff, but to date studies have been limited to a ‘black-box’ approach. The lack of understanding on internal nitrogen processes constrains future design and threatens the reliability of long-term system performance. While nitrogen processes have been thoroughly studied in other environments, including wastewater treatment wetlands, biofiltration systems differ fundamentally in design and the composition and hydrology of stormwater inflows, with intermittent inundation and prolonged dry periods. Two mesocosm experiments were conducted to investigate biofilter nitrogen processes using the stable isotope tracer 15NO3 − (nitrate) over the course of one inflow event. The immediate partitioning of 15NO3 − between biotic assimilation and denitrification were investigated for a range of different inflow concentrations and plant species. Assimilation was the primary fate for NO3 − under typical stormwater concentrations (∼1–2 mg N/L), contributing an average 89–99% of 15NO3 − processing in biofilter columns containing the most effective plant species, while only 0–3% was denitrified and 0–8% remained in the pore water. Denitrification played a greater role for columns containing less effective species, processing up to 8% of 15NO3 −, and increased further with nitrate loading. This study uniquely applied isotope tracing to biofiltration systems and revealed the dominance of assimilation in

  3. Hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Kyosuke; Toyoshima, Koh-ei; Ishibashi, Naoko; Tobe, Hirofumi; Iwadate, Ayako; Kanayama, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Toki, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Shotaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sato, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Organ regenerative therapy aims to reproduce fully functional organs to replace organs that have been lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, or aging. For the fully functional regeneration of ectodermal organs, a concept has been proposed in which a bioengineered organ is developed by reproducing the embryonic processes of organogenesis. Here, we show that a bioengineered hair follicle germ, which was reconstituted with embryonic skin-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cells and ectopically transplanted, was able to develop histologically correct hair follicles. The bioengineered hair follicles properly connected to the host skin epithelium by intracutaneous transplantation and reproduced the stem cell niche and hair cycles. The bioengineered hair follicles also autonomously connected with nerves and the arrector pili muscle at the permanent region and exhibited piloerection ability. Our findings indicate that the bioengineered hair follicles could restore physiological hair functions and could be applicable to surgical treatments for alopecia. PMID:22645640

  4. Correlates of body depilation: an exploratory study into the health implications of body hair reduction and removal among college-aged men.

    PubMed

    Boroughs, Michael S; Thompson, J Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that body hair may be of increasing importance in men's overall body image. Body depilation is a relatively new area of clinical and research inquiry among men with much of the documented evidence of the phenomenon split between mass media accounts and descriptive scientific investigations. This study was undertaken to further our understanding of this behavior by examining the relationship between depilation and other dimensions of body image in a nonclinical sample. A total of 364 men completed measures assessing self-reported hair growth, body depilation, drive for muscularity, gender role conflict, body dysmorphia, and social comparison. The correlates of body depilation included a drive for muscularity, gender role conflict, and physical appearance social comparison. Significant differences were identified among men who depilate, compared with those who do not, on measures of social comparison and a drive for muscularity. These findings lend support for the idea that body hair, and its reduction or removal, is a key aspect of men's body image that translates into some challenges in assessment and prevention among health care practitioners.

  5. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    Hair loss Overview Hair loss can affect just your scalp or your entire body. It can be the result of heredity, hormonal changes, medical conditions or medications. Anyone can experience hair loss, but it's more common in men. Baldness ...

  6. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is applied to the scalp to stimulate hair growth. Other medicines, such as hormones, may be prescribed to decrease hair loss and promote hair growth. Drugs such as finasteride and dutasteride can be ...

  7. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  8. Validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection of nicotine biomarkers in hair and an evaluation of wash procedures for removal of environmental nicotine.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eleanor I; Murray, Gordon J; Rollins, Douglas E; Tiffany, Stephen T; Wilkins, Diana G

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to develop and validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for the quantification of nicotine, eight nicotine metabolites, and two minor tobacco alkaloids in fortified analyte-free hair and subsequently apply this method to hair samples collected from active smokers. An additional aim of the study was to include an evaluation of different wash procedures for the effective removal of environmentally deposited nicotine from tobacco smoke. An apparatus was designed for the purpose of exposing analyte-free hair to environmental tobacco smoke in order to deposit nicotine onto the hair surface. A shampoo/water wash procedure was identified as the most effective means of removing nicotine. This wash procedure was utilized for a comparison of washed and unwashed heavy smoker hair samples. Analytes and corresponding deuterated internal standards were extracted using a cation-exchange solid-phase cartridge. LC-MS-MS was carried out using an Acquity™ UPLC(®) system (Waters) and a Quattro Premier XE™ triple quadrupole MS (Waters) operated in electrospray positive ionization mode, with multiple reaction monitoring data acquisition. The developed method was applied to hair samples collected from heavy smokers (n = 3) and low-level smokers (n = 3) collected through IRB-approved protocols. Nicotine, cotinine, and nornicotine were quantified in both the washed and unwashed hair samples collected from three heavy smokers, whereas 3-hydroxycotinine was quantified in only one unwashed sample and nicotine-1'-oxide in the washed and unwashed hair samples from two heavy smokers. In contrast, nicotine-1'-oxide was quantified in one of the three low-level smoker samples; nicotine was quantified in the other two low-level smoker samples. No other analytes were detected in the hair of the three low-level smokers.

  9. Long-term survival and vitality outcomes of permanent teeth following deep caries treatment with step-wise and partial-caries-removal: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hoefler, Vaughan; Nagaoka, Hiroko; Miller, Craig S

    2016-11-01

    A systematic review was performed to compare the long-term survival of deep dentine caries-affected permanent teeth treated with partial-caries-removal (PCR) versus similar teeth treated with stepwise-caries-removal techniques (SWT). Clinical studies investigating long-term PCR and SWT outcomes in unrestored permanent teeth with deep dentine caries were evaluated. Failures were defined as loss of pulp vitality or restorative failures following treatment. PubMed, Web of Science, Dentistry and Oral Sciences Source, and Central databases were systematically searched. From 136 potentially relevant articles, 9 publications utilizing data from 5 studies (2 RCTs, and 3 observational case-series) reporting outcomes for 426 permanent teeth over two to ten years were analyzed. Regarding restorative failures, >88% success at two years for both techniques was reported. For loss of pulp vitality, observational studies reported >96% vitality at two years for each technique, while one RCT reported significantly higher vitality (p<0.05) at three years for PCR (96%) compared to SWT (83%). Risk of bias was high in all studies. Successful vitality and restorative outcomes for both PCR and SWT have been demonstrated at two years and beyond in permanent teeth with deep dentine caries. Partial-caries-removal may result in fewer pulpal complications over a three year period than SWT, although claims of a therapeutic advantage are based on very few, limited-quality studies. Partial-caries-removal and SWT are deep caries management techniques that reduce pulp exposure risk. Permanent teeth with deep dentine caries treated with either technique have a high likelihood for survival beyond two years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of a long-pulsed ruby laser system in the removal of unwanted hair.

    PubMed

    Polderman, M C; Pavel, S; le Cessie, S; Grevelink, J M; van Leeuwen, R L

    2000-03-01

    Unwanted hair growth is a common, usually physiologic phenomenon. In this study the efficacy and tolerability of a long-pulsed ruby laser system was compared with needle electrolysis and hot wax on three parts of the body. Thirty volunteers were treated three times on the forearm (n = 10), on the face (n = 10), or in the pubic area (n = 10) with 25 J/cm2 laser, 40 J/cm2 laser, needle electrolysis, and hot wax therapy. The 25 J/cm2 and 40 J/cm2 laser treated sites showed a statistically significant decrease (38% and 49%, respectively) in the number of hairs at the first visit after the last treatment compared to the pretreatment hair counts. No significant decrease was observed in the needle electrolysis and hot wax treated sites. Laser therapy yielded better results on the forearm than on the face or pubic area and was scored as the least painful. The long-pulsed ruby laser is a promising, well-tolerated method of epilation.

  11. Hair transplantation.

    PubMed

    Avram, Marc R

    2012-12-01

    Hair transplantation is a purely dermatologic surgical procedure that dermatologists should be able to perform in appropriate candidates with hair loss. Hair transplantation techniques performed in the 1960s through the 1990s utilized large grafts that created an unfortunate public image of unnatural-appearing transplanted hair. Over the last 15 years, hair transplantation has been performed using follicular units to create consistently natural-looking transplanted hair in both men and women. This article provides an overview of candidate selection and state-of-the-art techniques for performing hair transplantation.

  12. Containing Hair During Cutting In Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed device collects loose hair during barbering and shaving in zero gravity to prevent hair clippings from contaminating cabin of spacecraft. Folds for storage, opens into clear, bubblelike plastic dome surrounding user's head, tray fits around user's throat, and fanlike ring surrounds back of neck. Device fits snugly but comfortably around neck, preventing hair from escaping to outside. Flow of air into hose connected to suction pump removes hair from bubble as cut. Filter at end of hose collects hair.

  13. Ingrown Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed to determine whether a single- or multiple-blade razor is best for preventing ingrown hair. See ... in the direction of hair growth. Rinse the blade after each stroke. Rinse your skin and apply ...

  14. Hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Jackson, E A

    2000-06-01

    Disorders of the hair are commonplace in the primary care practice. Among these disorders are male pattern baldness, Telogen effluvium, alopecia areata, Trichotillomania, and fungal infections involving the hair shaft. A review of the normal anatomy and life cycle of hair also is presented.

  15. Hair cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-10

    ISS033-E-018986 (10 Nov. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Evgeny Tarelkin, Expedition 33 flight engineer, trims the hair of Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy, flight engineer, in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Tarelkin used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair. NASA astronaut Kevin Ford, flight engineer, is visible in the background.

  16. Hair cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-10

    ISS033-E-018991 (10 Nov. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy, Expedition 33 flight engineer, trims the hair of Russian cosmonaut Evgeny Tarelkin, flight engineer, in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Novitskiy used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  17. Frequency of second mesiobuccal canal in permanent maxillary first molars using the operating microscope and selective dentin removal: A clinical study.

    PubMed

    Das, Suroopa; Warhadpande, Manjusha M; Redij, Saurabh A; Jibhkate, N G; Sabir, Husain

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the combination of operating microscope and selective dentin removal increased the frequency of second mesiobuccal (MB2) canal detection in permanent maxillary first molar teeth. One hundred fifty permanent maxillary first molars indicated for root canal treatment were randomly selected from patients belonging to the age group of 18-45 years irrespective of gender. After access cavity preparation and location of main canals, the MB2 canal orifice was sought in all teeth with an endodontic explorer under direct vision (Stage I), then under magnification with the aid of operating microscope (Stage II) and finally with the combined use of operating microscope and selective dentin removal (Stage III). MB2 canals were detected in 36%, 54% and 72% of the teeth in Stages I-III, respectively. This study demonstrated that dental operating microscope when used along with adjunctive aids such as selective dentin removal/troughing and good clinical knowledge will increase the ability of dental clinician to locate MB2 canals.

  18. Laser and Light Treatments for Hair Reduction in Fitzpatrick Skin Types IV-VI: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Fayne, Rachel A; Perper, Marina; Eber, Ariel E; Aldahan, Adam S; Nouri, Keyvan

    2018-04-01

    Unwanted facial and body hair presents as a common finding in many patients, such as females with hirsutism. With advances in laser and light technology, a clinically significant reduction in hair can be achieved in patients with light skin. However, in patients with darker skin, Fitzpatrick skin types (FST) IV-VI, the higher melanin content of the skin interferes with the proposed mechanism of laser-induced selective photothermolysis, which is to target the melanin in the hair follicle to cause permanent destruction of hair bulge stem cells. Many prospective and retrospective studies have been conducted with laser and light hair-removal devices, but most exclude patients with darkly pigmented skin, considering them a high-risk group for unwanted side effects, including pigmentation changes, blisters, and crust formation. We reviewed the published literature to obtain studies that focused on hair reduction for darker skin types. The existing literature for this patient population identifies longer wavelengths as a key element of the treatment protocol and indicates neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG), diode, alexandrite, and ruby lasers as well as certain intense pulsed light sources for safe hair reduction with minimal side effects in patients with FST IV-VI, so long as energy settings and wavelengths are appropriate. Based on the findings in this review, safe and effective hair reduction for patients with FST IV-VI is achievable under proper treatment protocols and energy settings.

  19. Model of the material removal function and an experimental study on a magnetorheological finishing process using a small ball-end permanent-magnet polishing head.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingjun; Liu, Henan; Cheng, Jian; Yu, Bo; Fang, Zhen

    2017-07-01

    In order to achieve the deterministic finishing of optical components with concave surfaces of a curvature radius less than 10 mm, a novel magnetorheological finishing (MRF) process using a small ball-end permanent-magnet polishing head with a diameter of 4 mm is introduced. The characteristics of material removal in the proposed MRF process are studied. The model of the material removal function for the proposed MRF process is established based on the three-dimensional hydrodynamics analysis and Preston's equation. The shear stress on the workpiece surface is calculated by means of resolving the presented mathematical model using a numerical solution method. The analysis result reveals that the material removal in the proposed MRF process shows a positive dependence on shear stress. Experimental research is conducted to investigate the effect of processing parameters on the material removal rate and improve the surface accuracy of a typical rotational symmetrical optical component. The experimental results show that the surface accuracy of the finished component of K9 glass material has been improved to 0.14 μm (PV) from the initial 0.8 μm (PV), and the finished surface roughness Ra is 0.0024 μm. It indicates that the proposed MRF process can be used to achieve the deterministic removal of surface material and perform the nanofinishing of small curvature radius concave surfaces.

  20. Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  1. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air due to the climate Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive parathyroid ( hypoparathyroidism ) Underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ) Other hormone abnormalities

  2. Pubic hair and sexuality: a review.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Sara; Sweeney, Clare; Fraser, Michael; Oades, Gren

    2009-08-01

    Hair is a distinguishing feature of mammals, though the persistence of visible head, axillary, and pubic hair remains anthropologically unclear. Humans throughout the ages have modified their head and body hair, but aesthetic removal of pubic hair has become the "the ultimate barometer of how fashionable you really are" in the 21st century. The aim of the article is to examine the trends in pubic hair removal and its impact on health and sexuality. A literature search was performed, with a further search performed using an Internet-based search engine. For discussion, the results have been classified into the topics of "Development and anthropology","Cultural and artistic significance", "Medical implications", "Psychological and sexual significance and popular culture", "Impact of body hair loss on sexuality" and "Style and terminology." Pubic hair removal has been common since the ancient times. Pubic hair was rarely depicted in artistic representations of the nude until the late 19th century. It is postulated that the current trend of pubic hair removal may be related to the increased accessibility of Internet-based pornography. Anecdotally, pubic hair removal may carry benefits regarding increased sexual sensation and satisfaction though there is no quantative research in this field. There is a recognized morbidity to pubic hair removal, and also a lack of standardization of terms for styles adopted. We propose a definitive grading system for male and female body hair based on the widely used Tumor Node Metastasis staging system. Pubic hair removal appears to be an important aspect of expressing one's sexuality and participation in sexual activity. This practice has an interesting psychosexual basis which, to date, has not yet been fully explored in sexual medicine.

  3. Ingrowing Hair

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Di-Qing; Liang, Yu-Hua; Li, Xi-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Kun; Wang, Fang; Sarkar, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cutaneous pili migrans and creeping eruption caused by parasitic diseases may present as a moving linear lesion in skin. The former, caused by a hair shaft or fragment embedded in the superficial skin or middle dermis, is a rare condition characterized by creeping eruption with a black line observed at the advancing end. In exceptionally rare instance, the hair grows inside the skin and burrows in the uppermost dermis, such a condition has been called “ingrown hair.” We report a 30-year-old Chinese man, who was accustomed to pull or extrude the beard hairs, with 1-year history of slowly extending black linear eruption on his right chin. Cutaneous examination revealed a 4-cm long black linear lesion beneath the skin associated with edematous erythema around and folliculitis on both ends of the lesion. After treatment with topical mupirocin ointment, the erythema and folliculitis improved and 2 hairs of the beard with hair follicles were pulled out from the skin. Two weeks later, another similar black line about 1 cm in length in the skin presented on the prior lesional area, which was pulled out by a shallow incision of the skin and was also demonstrated as a beard hair with hair follicle. The patient was diagnosed as “ingrowing hair” with multiple recurrences. The lesions recovered after the beard hairs were pulled out. No recurrence occurred in a year of follow-up. We suggest that “ingrowing hair” is better than “ingrown hair” to describe such a condition. Pulling out the involved hair and correcting the bad practice are its optimal management strategies. PMID:27175694

  4. 8 CFR 1216.4 - Joint petition to remove conditional basis of lawful permanent resident status for alien spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... expense to the government. Once the petition has been properly filed, the alien may travel outside the... proceedings to remove the alien from the United States. In such proceedings the burden shall be on the alien... review of the decision to terminate his or her status in such proceedings, but the burden shall be on the...

  5. 6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal.

  6. 6-Gingerol Inhibits Hair Shaft Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles and Modulates Hair Growth in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

  7. Keratins and lipids in ethnic hair.

    PubMed

    Cruz, C F; Fernandes, M M; Gomes, A C; Coderch, L; Martí, M; Méndez, S; Gales, L; Azoia, N G; Shimanovich, U; Cavaco-Paulo, A

    2013-06-01

    Human hair has an important and undeniable relevance in society due to its important role in visual appearance and social communication. Hair is mainly composed of structural proteins, mainly keratin and keratin associated proteins and lipids. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of the content and distribution of the lipids among ethnic hair, African, Asian and Caucasian hair. More interestingly, we also report the study of the interaction between those two main components of hair, specifically, the influence of the hair internal lipids in the structure of the hair keratin. This was achieved by the use of a complete set of analytical tools, such as thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detector, X-ray analysis, molecular dynamics simulation and confocal microscopy. The experimental results indicated different amounts of lipids on ethnic hair compositions and higher percentage of hair internal lipids in African hair. In this type of hair, the axial diffraction of keratin was not observed in X-ray analysis, but after hair lipids removal, the keratin returned to its typical packing arrangement. In molecular dynamic simulation, lipids were shown to intercalate dimers of keratin, changing its structure. From those results, we assume that keratin structure may be influenced by higher concentration of lipids in African hair. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. Attitudes toward Women's Body Hair: Relationship with Disgust Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiggemann, Marika; Lewis, Christine

    2004-01-01

    We aimed to further investigate the "hairlessness" norm that is the common practice of body hair removal among women. A sample of 198 undergraduate students (91 men, 107 women) completed questionnaires asking about attitudes toward women's body hair and the reasons women remove this hair, as well as a measure of disgust sensitivity. It was found…

  9. Integral lipids of mammalian hair.

    PubMed

    Wertz, P W; Downing, D T

    1989-01-01

    1. It has been demonstrated that hair contains lipids which cannot be removed by extensive extraction with chloroform-methanol mixtures. These integral lipids can be extracted only after the hair has been subjected to alkaline hydrolysis. 2. Integral hair lipids include cholesterol sulfate (0.7-2.9 mg/g hair), ceramides (0.6-1.4 mg/g), cholesterol (0.3-1.4 mg/g), fatty alcohols (trace-0.2 mg/g) and fatty acids (2.3-4.0 mg/g). 3. One of the major integral hair lipids, representing 38.4-47.6% of the total fatty acids, is the anteisobranched 18-methyleicosanoic acid. 4. The species examined included human (Homo sapiens), pig (Sus scrofa), dog (Canis familiaris), sheep (Ovis ammon aries) and cow (Bos taurus).

  10. Improved radiocarbon analyses of modern human hair to determine the year-of-death by cross-flow nanofiltered amino acids: common contaminants, implications for isotopic analysis, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Santos, Guaciara M; De La Torre, Hector A Martinez; Boudin, Mathieu; Bonafini, Marco; Saverwyns, Steven

    2015-10-15

    In forensic investigation, radiocarbon ((14)C) measurements of human tissues (i.e., nails and hair) can help determine the year-of-death. However, the frequent use of cosmetics can bias hair (14)C results as well as stable isotope values. Evidence shows that hair exogenous impurities percolate beyond the cuticle layer, and therefore conventional pretreatments are ineffective in removing them. We conducted isotopic analysis ((14)C, δ(13)C, δ(15)N and C/N) of conventionally treated and cross-flow nanofiltered amino acid (CFNAA)-treated samples (scalp- and body-hair) from a single female subject using fingernails as a reference. The subject studied frequently applies a permanent dark-brown dye kit to her scalp-hair and uses other care products for daily cleansing. We also performed pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) analyses of CFNAA-treated scalp-hair to identify contaminant remnants that could possibly interfere with isotopic analyses. The conventionally treated scalp- and body-hair showed (14)C offsets of ~21‰ and ~9‰, respectively. These offsets confirm the contamination by petrochemicals in modern human hair. A single CFNAA extraction reduced those offsets by ~34%. No significant improvement was observed when sequential extractions were performed, as it appears that the procedure introduced some foreign contaminants. A chromatogram of the CFNAA scalp-hair pyrolysis products showed the presence of petroleum and plant/animal compound residues, which can bias isotopic analyses. We have demonstrated that CFNAA extractions can partially remove cosmetic contaminants embedded in human hair. We conclude that fingernails are still the best source of keratin protein for year-of-death determinations and isotopic analysis, with body-hair and/or scalp-hair coupled with CFNAA extraction a close second. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig's type) B) The "Christmas tree pattern" where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

  12. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  13. Hair--Curvy or Straight; Cosmetology 1: 9205.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Permanent curling and straightening require a thorough understanding of hair. Through diligent study and practice the student prepares for a profitable part of a beauty career. The course requires 135 hours of classroom-laboratory instruction. Those entering must have mastered the skills of shaping and conditioning hair. On completion of the…

  14. Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania) No. 96; Reviewed July 2013 It ... for children and adolescents to play with their hair. However, frequent or obsessive hair pulling can lead ...

  15. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... pillow. This is the result of the normal hair growth cycle. Hairs will grow for a few years, ... the name for the resting stage of the hair growth cycle. A telogen effluvium is when some stress ...

  16. Regeneration of hair cells in the mammalian vestibular system.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenyan; You, Dan; Chen, Yan; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-06-01

    Hair cells regenerate throughout the lifetime of non-mammalian vertebrates, allowing these animals to recover from hearing and balance deficits. Such regeneration does not occur efficiently in humans and other mammals. Thus, balance deficits become permanent and is a common sensory disorder all over the world. Since Forge and Warchol discovered the limited spontaneous regeneration of vestibular hair cells after gentamicininduced damage in mature mammals, significant efforts have been exerted to trace the origin of the limited vestibular regeneration in mammals after hair cell loss. Moreover, recently many strategies have been developed to promote the hair cell regeneration and subsequent functional recovery of the vestibular system, including manipulating the Wnt, Notch and Atoh1. This article provides an overview of the recent advances in hair cell regeneration in mammalian vestibular epithelia. Furthermore, this review highlights the current limitations of hair cell regeneration and provides the possible solutions to regenerate functional hair cells and to partially restore vestibular function.

  17. Hair pull test: Evidence-based update and revision of guidelines.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Katherine A; Shelley, Amanda J; Colantonio, Sophia; Beecker, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    The hair pull test lacks validation and has unclear pretest guidelines. We sought to quantify normal hair pull test values and elucidate the effect of pretest hair washing and brushing. The impact of hair texture and lifestyle was also examined. Participants (n = 181) completed a questionnaire recording demographics, medications, and hair health/history. A single hair pull test (scalp vertex) was performed. The mean number of hairs removed per pull was 0.44 (SD 0.75). There was no significant difference in the mean number of hairs removed regardless of when participants washed (P = .20) or brushed (P = .25) their hair. Hair pull test values were similar between Caucasian-, Asian-, and Afro-textured hair. There was no significant difference in hair pull values between participants taking medications affecting hair loss and participants not taking these medications (P = .33). Tight hairstyles did not influence hair pull test values. Participant hair washing and brushing could not be controlled during the study, but this information was documented and analyzed. Normal values for the hair pull test should be reduced to 2 hairs or fewer (97.2% of participants). The current 5-day restriction on pretest hair washing can be reduced and brushing be made permissible. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Creeping hair: an isolated hair burrowing in the uppermost dermis resembling larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Rie; Higashi, Kushio; Ohta, Miyuki; Sugimoto, Yasushi; Ikoma, Yukiko; Horiguchi, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    A 55-year-old Japanese male presented with a slowly moving linear erythema that looked like an eruption of creeping disease, or cutaneous larva migrans. The eruption extended linearly along Langer's line of the lateral side of the abdomen to the lower back, leaving wave-like erythema. In the top third of the erythematous eruption, close examination demonstrated a black thin line, which was revealed to be a hair shaft by a shallow incision of the skin. After removal of the hair, the eruption diminished immediately, leaving a slight pigmentation. An ingrown pubic hair seemed to have migrated with the lower end forward along Langer's line, because of the arrangement of hair cuticle and the force of body motion. Linearly moving erythematous eruptions that look like that of larva migrans should be differentiated from creeping hair by close examination detecting burrowing hair.

  19. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Kids / Hair Loss What's in ... is alopecia (say: al-uh-PEE-shuh). The Hair-y Story The hair on your head is ...

  20. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Female Pattern Hair Loss Share | The most common type of hair loss seen in women is androgenetic alopecia, also ... men, it does not have to be complete hair loss. This is seen as hair thinning predominantly ...

  1. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Tosti, A; Piraccini, B M; Sisti, A; Duque-Estrada, B

    2009-10-01

    Hair loss in women is a very common clinical complaint, and is usually associated with severe emotional distress. In this article, the authors review the most common clinical causes of hair loss in women, and emphasize the role of hormonal changes in the regulation of hair loss and hair growth.

  2. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  3. Functional recovery in the avian ear after hair cell regeneration.

    PubMed

    Smolders, J W

    1999-01-01

    Trauma to the inner ear in birds, due to acoustic overstimulation or ototoxic aminoglycosides, can lead to hair cell loss which is followed by regeneration of new hair cells. These processes are paralleled by hearing loss followed by significant functional recovery. After acoustic trauma, functional recovery is rapid and nearly complete. The early and major part of functional recovery after sound trauma occurs before regenerated hair cells become functional. Even very intense sound trauma causes loss of only a proportion of the hair cell population, mainly so-called short hair cells residing on the abneural mobile part of the avian basilar membrane. Uncoupling of the tectorial membrane from the hair cells during sound overexposure may serve as a protection mechanism. The rapid functional recovery after sound trauma appears not to be associated with regeneration of the lost hair cells, but with repair processes involving the surviving hair cells. Small residual functional deficits after recovery are most likely associated with the missing upper fibrous layer of the tectorial membrane which fails to regenerate after sound trauma. After aminoglycoside trauma, functional recovery is slower and parallels the structural regeneration more closely. Aminoglycosides cause damage to both types of hair cells, starting at the basal (high frequency) part of the basilar papilla. However, functional hearing loss and recovery also occur at lower frequencies, associated with areas of the papilla where hair cells survive. Functional recovery in these low frequency areas is complete, whereas functional recovery in high frequency areas with complete hair cell loss is incomplete, despite regeneration of the hair cells. Permanent residual functional deficits remain. This indicates that in low frequency regions functional recovery after aminoglycosides involves repair of nonlethal injury to hair cells and/or hair cell-neural synapses. In the high frequency regions functional recovery

  4. Wooly hair nevus*

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Karen de Almeida Pinto; Fernandes, Karina de Almeida Pinto; Vargas, Thiago Jeunon de Sousa; Melo, Daniel Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Woolly hair nevus is a rare condition characterized by a structural anomaly of the hair, restricted to certain areas of the scalp. The hair becomes coiled and slightly hypopigmented. The term woolly hair refers to changes that affect all the scalp and has a hereditary character. We present a case of woolly hair nevus, that developed at the age of 2 years, associated with dental diastema and verrucous epidermal nevus. PMID:29267480

  5. Wooly hair nevus.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Karen de Almeida Pinto; Fernandes, Karina de Almeida Pinto; Vargas, Thiago Jeunon de Sousa; Melo, Daniel Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Woolly hair nevus is a rare condition characterized by a structural anomaly of the hair, restricted to certain areas of the scalp. The hair becomes coiled and slightly hypopigmented. The term woolly hair refers to changes that affect all the scalp and has a hereditary character. We present a case of woolly hair nevus, that developed at the age of 2 years, associated with dental diastema and verrucous epidermal nevus.

  6. [Hair and their environment].

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2015-02-01

    Hair is influenced by the effects of the daily environment. Some toxic xenobiotics slow down or block the cell renewal of the hair matrix, thus inhibiting hair growth. The ultraviolet light obviously influences the physical structure and physiology of the hair follicle. Tobacco is similarly responsible for negative influences on the evolution of various alopecias. Several cosmetic procedures for maintaining and making hair more attractive are not always harmless, and they occasionally represent a possible origin for alopecia.

  7. Megasessions for Robotic Hair Restoration.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Joa O Carlos; Pereira Filho, Joa O Carlos; Cabrera Pereira, Joa O Pedro

    2016-11-01

    A robotic system can select and remove individual hair follicles from the donor area with great precision and without fatigue. This report describes the use of the robotic system in a megasession for hair restoration. Patients were instructed to cut their hair to 1.0 to 1.2 mm before surgery. The robot selected and removed 600 to 800 grafts per hour so the follicular units (FU)s could be transplanted manually to recipient sites. The robot arm consists of a sharp inner punch and a blunt outer punch which together separate FUs from the sur- rounding tissue. Stereoscopic cameras controlled by image processing software allow the system to identify the angle and direction of hair growth. The physician and one assistant control the harvesting with a hand-held remote control and computer monitor while the patient is positioned in an adjustable chair. When the robot has harvested all the FUs they are removed by technicians with small forceps. Hairline design, creation of recipient sites, and graft placement are performed manually by the physician. Clinical photographs before and after surgery show that patients experience excellent outcomes with the robotic megasession. Phy- sician fatigue during graft extraction is reduced because the robot performs the repetitive movements without fatigue. Variability of graft extraction is minimized because the robot's optical system can be programmed to choose the best FUs. The transection rate is reduced because the robot's graft extraction system uses two needles, a sharp one to piece the skin and a blunt needle to dissect the root without trauma. A robotic megasession for hair restoration is minimally invasive, does not result in linear scars in the donor area, and is associated with minimal fatigue and discomfort for both patient and physician. Healing is rapid and patients experience a high level of satisfaction with the results. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1407-1412..

  8. Sensory hair cell development and regeneration: similarities and differences

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Patrick J.; Huarcaya Najarro, Elvis; Sayyid, Zahra N.; Cheng, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory hair cells are mechanoreceptors of the auditory and vestibular systems and are crucial for hearing and balance. In adult mammals, auditory hair cells are unable to regenerate, and damage to these cells results in permanent hearing loss. By contrast, hair cells in the chick cochlea and the zebrafish lateral line are able to regenerate, prompting studies into the signaling pathways, morphogen gradients and transcription factors that regulate hair cell development and regeneration in various species. Here, we review these findings and discuss how various signaling pathways and factors function to modulate sensory hair cell development and regeneration. By comparing and contrasting development and regeneration, we also highlight the utility and limitations of using defined developmental cues to drive mammalian hair cell regeneration. PMID:25922522

  9. Penile hair tourniquet resulting in hypospadias failure

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Lisieux E.; Bragança, Jailma J.; Rocha, Julia M.; Dekermacher, Samuel; Anderson, Kleber M.

    2014-01-01

    Penile hair tourniquet (PHT) is a painless form of penile ischemia, typically seen in toddlers with long-haired mothers, caused by entanglement of hair on the balano-prepucial sulcus, normally associated with circumcision. Its association with hypospadias has been reported only once. A school-aged boy admitted for surgery to treat hypospadias failure was incidentally detected to have PHT and severe hourglass deformity of the penis. Urethral anastomosis and glanuloplasty were done after removal of the constricting ring, without complications. Normal erections were reported during follow up. Treatment may involve urethral reconstruction and penile reimplantation in extreme cases. PMID:25097325

  10. Cheyletiellosis in long-haired cats.

    PubMed

    Ottenschot, T R; Gil, D

    1978-10-15

    Among 41 catteries, the majority of which were investigated because of problems of chronic pruritus, 27 proved to be infected by Cheyletiella mites. The skin lesions consisted of small erythematous papules with crusts and some loose hairs. After removal of the loose hairs Cheyletiella mites could be collected with adhesive tape for microscopic examination. Human involvement (papular urticaria) was observed in 20% of the cases. Bathing with Lindane was an effective mode of treatment.

  11. 21 CFR 886.4445 - Permanent magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permanent magnet. 886.4445 Section 886.4445 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4445 Permanent magnet. (a) Identification. A permanent magnet is a nonelectric device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and remove metallic...

  12. Hair product artifact in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chenji, Sneha; Wilman, Alan H; Mah, Dennell; Seres, Peter; Genge, Angela; Kalra, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    The presence of metallic compounds in facial cosmetics and permanent tattoos may affect the quality of magnetic resonance imaging. We report a case study describing a signal artifact due to the use of a leave-on powdered hair dye. On reviewing the ingredients of the product, it was found to contain several metallic compounds. In lieu of this observation, we suggest that MRI centers include the use of metal- or mineral-based facial cosmetics or hair products in their screening protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Taking Care of Your Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educators Search English Español Taking Care of Your Hair KidsHealth / For Teens / Taking Care of Your Hair ... role in how healthy it looks. Caring for Hair How you take care of your hair depends ...

  14. Minimizing hair dispersal: Is this an opportunity for improvement in health care-acquired infection prevention?

    PubMed

    Mantyh, Christopher R; Xi, Hugo; Pearson, Lena; Perl, Trish M

    2017-03-01

    We performed a study to understand common practices in surgical site hair removal and barriers to guideline compliance in surgical site hair removal. We found most health care providers in the United States do not remove hair outside of the operating room. Our findings reveal minimizing hair dispersal in the operating room, including improved and innovative ways for collecting clipped loose hair, is a significant area for improvement in surgical quality and health care-acquired infection prevention. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hair straightener poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  16. Hair spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  17. Neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet long impulse laser for the elimination of superfluous hair: experiences and considerations from 3 years of activity.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, G A; Perrotta, A; Rossano, F; D'Andrea, F

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the results obtained with a modern apparatus for laser hair removal (neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet [Nd:YAG] laser at long impulses with a wave-length of 1,064 nm; Q-switched laser) over a follow-up period of 3 years. A large heterogeneous group of 480 patients was taken into consideration. These patients were treated according to a standard protocol with monthly checkups and a personalized protocol at deferred appointments. The results, discovered by means of the most objective procedure possible, were retrieved and put into a graph showing two different curves for the repopulation of hair. In their clinical travels, the authors observed an average variable regrowth of 40% to 65%, allowing them to affirm that laser hair removal using Nd:YAG at long impulses is decisively efficient in obtaining long-term results. The use of a protocol (denominated "prolonged monthly checkup") with laser sessions at ever-decreasing periods permits, among other things, more outstanding and advantageous results for the patient. Thanks to more efficiently synchronized phases of the biologic hair cycle, this shortens and moves the telegenic phases closer and also renders the anagenic phases (those in which the selective photoermolysis on the pilipheric follicle proves to be efficient) more efficient. Personalization of the treatment relative to the monthly health checkup sessions is of fundamental importance to the scope of obtaining the best results in terms of cost-benefit rate, provided submassimal fluxes are (i.e., those well-tolerated by the patient) used. All this allows hair removal that is not definitive, but which becomes progressively permanent (i.e., characterized by ever-growing periods of lack of hair sustained by sporadic maintenance laser sessions based on the individual's necessity).

  18. Body hair counts during hair length reduction procedures: a comparative study between Computer Assisted Image Analysis after Manual Processing (CAIAMP) and Trichoscan(™).

    PubMed

    Van Neste, D J J

    2015-08-01

    To compare two measurement methods for body hair. Calibration of computer assisted image analysis after manual processing (CAIAMP) showed variation <4% for thickness and <2.3% for densities. Images from 6 body sites with 'good natural contrast between hair and skin' were taken before hair dye, after hair dye or after hair length reduction without hair extraction or destruction. Data in the same targets were compared with Trichoscan(™) quoted for 'unambiguous evaluation of the hair growth after shaving'. CAIAMP detected a total of 337 hair and showed no statistically significant differences with the three procedures confirming 'good natural contrast between hair and skin' and that reduction methods did not affect hair counts. While CAIAMP found a mean number of 19 thick hair (≥30 μm) before dye, 18 after dye and 20 after hair reduction, Trichoscan(™) found in the same sites respectively 44, 73 and 61. Trichoscan(™) generated counts differed statistically significantly from CAIAMP-data. Automated analyses were considered un-specifically influenced by hair medulla and natural or artificial skin background. Quality control including all steps of human intervention and measurement technology are mandatory for body hair measurements during experimental or clinical trials on body hair grooming, shaving or removal. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... susceptible women, but is most commonly seen after menopause. In female pattern hair loss some excess loss of hair is noted, but ... all. Spironolactone pills help many women, especially whose hair loss starts before menopause but takes many months. Hormone replacement pills, such ...

  20. Strontium-90 in hair.

    PubMed

    HOPKINS, B J; TUTTLE, L W; PORIES, W J; STRAIN, W H

    1963-03-15

    The hair of rats injected with strontium-90 retains a significant amount of the radionuclide. Although the strontium-90 content of hair is variable in these rats and appears to be subject to a variety of influences, determination of the radionuclide content of hair may offer a nondestructive method of estimating strontium-90 in bone.

  1. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 antagonizes hair cell regeneration in the avian auditory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Rebecca M; Keller, Jesse J; Wan, Liangcai; Stone, Jennifer S

    2018-07-01

    Permanent hearing loss is often a result of damage to cochlear hair cells, which mammals are unable to regenerate. Non-mammalian vertebrates such as birds replace damaged hair cells and restore hearing function, but mechanisms controlling regeneration are not understood. The secreted protein bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) regulates inner ear morphogenesis and hair cell development. To investigate mechanisms controlling hair cell regeneration in birds, we examined expression and function of BMP4 in the auditory epithelia (basilar papillae) of chickens of either sex after hair cell destruction by ototoxic antibiotics. In mature basilar papillae, BMP4 mRNA is highly expressed in hair cells, but not in hair cell progenitors (supporting cells). Supporting cells transcribe genes encoding receptors for BMP4 (BMPR1A, BMPR1B, and BMPR2) and effectors of BMP4 signaling (ID transcription factors). Following hair cell destruction, BMP4 transcripts are lost from the sensory epithelium. Using organotypic cultures, we demonstrate that treatments with BMP4 during hair cell destruction prevent supporting cells from upregulating expression of the pro-hair cell transcription factor ATOH1, entering the cell cycle, and fully transdifferentiating into hair cells, but they do not induce cell death. By contrast, noggin, a BMP4 inhibitor, increases numbers of regenerated hair cells. These findings demonstrate that BMP4 antagonizes hair cell regeneration in the chicken basilar papilla, at least in part by preventing accumulation of ATOH1 in hair cell precursors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An overview of unwanted female hair.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, U

    2011-12-01

    Unwanted facial hair (UFH) is an important but often overlooked issue, with over 40% of women experiencing some degree of UFH. In the female population a wide spectrum of unwanted hair concerns is represented - from biologically normal but undesirable to excessive unwanted hair with an underlying pathology. While women may seek to manage unwanted hair across their bodies, UFH is a particular concern, due to its negative impact on perceived femininity. There may not always be a direct correlation between degree of severity diagnosed objectively by the physician and level of concern and impact upon the patient. This review discusses the spectrum of facial hair experience and outlines the clinical approach to unwanted hair management including UFH. It highlights the importance of a treatment regimen which should respond to the causation factors and needs of the individual. This will lead to a holistic treatment approach including evaluation of the implementation of emotional coping strategies and on-going support, lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions (to address underlying pathologies) and the use of cosmetic hair removal methods as either a stand-alone or adjunct treatment as appropriate to the individual. © 2011 The Author. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Towards a body hair atlas of women of caucasian ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, D; Hoff, A; Scheede, S; Fischer, F; Tilsner, J; Lüttke, J; Neumann, Y; Hagens, R

    2016-08-01

    A preliminary study was conducted in 17 female volunteers (mean age 29.8 years) to gain deeper insights into the characteristics of terminal Caucasian female body hair of different body parts. The focus on Caucasian women was driven by the high number of different scalp hair phenotypes in this ethnicity and intended to identify relevant differences between body areas to improve body hair removal approaches. Multiple growth parameters and structural parameters were assessed for hair on the upper arm, forearm, upper leg, lower leg, axilla and intimate area and compared to scalp data. In particular, macroscopic and much less microscopic or hair surface properties differ strikingly in the investigated body areas. Hair density on the body is much lower than on scalp with the highest hair density in the axilla and intimate area. Multihair follicular units are described for scalp but were also found to a smaller proportion in the axilla and the intimate area. Substantial percentages of hair triplets are only found on the scalp and intimate area. Hair diameter is highest in the intimate area, followed by axillary and lower leg hair and correlates with a faster hair growth rate. The angle of emerging hair is smallest in the intimate area, axilla and on the lower leg. Hair shafts on the lower leg and in the axilla have most overlapping cuticle layers, but independent of body region, no significant differences in the mean thickness of cuticle layers were detectable. In addition, no differences were found in the mean distance between cuticle layer edges along the hair shaft and the hair surface roughness. Hair on the scalp, forearm, upper arm and upper leg had an almost round shape, whereas hair of the lower leg, intimate area and axilla had more elliptical shape. Hairs on the arm showed the highest luminance values and no visible medulla. The darkest hairs were in the axilla and intimate area containing the highest level of visible medulla in hair shafts. To our knowledge

  4. From Hair in India to Hair India.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance.

  5. From Hair in India to Hair India

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance. PMID:28761257

  6. Sensory hair cell death and regeneration in fishes

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Jerry D.; Rajadinakaran, Gopinath; Smith, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory hair cells are specialized mechanotransductive receptors required for hearing and vestibular function. Loss of hair cells in humans and other mammals is permanent and causes reduced hearing and balance. In the early 1980’s, it was shown that hair cells continue to be added to the inner ear sensory epithelia in cartilaginous and bony fishes. Soon thereafter, hair cell regeneration was documented in the chick cochlea following acoustic trauma. Since then, research using chick and other avian models has led to great insights into hair cell death and regeneration. However, with the rise of the zebrafish as a model organism for studying disease and developmental processes, there has been an increased interest in studying sensory hair cell death and regeneration in its lateral line and inner ears. Advances derived from studies in zebrafish and other fish species include understanding the effect of ototoxins on hair cells and finding otoprotectants to mitigate ototoxin damage, the role of cellular proliferation vs. direct transdifferentiation during hair cell regeneration, and elucidating cellular pathways involved in the regeneration process. This review will summarize research on hair cell death and regeneration using fish models, indicate the potential strengths and weaknesses of these models, and discuss several emerging areas of future studies. PMID:25954154

  7. Hair Transplantation Controversies.

    PubMed

    Avram, Marc R; Finney, Robert; Rogers, Nicole

    2017-11-01

    Hair transplant surgery creates consistently natural appearing transplanted hair for men. It is increasingly popular procedure to restore natural growing hair for men with hair loss. To review some current controversies in hair transplant surgery. Review of the English PubMed literature and specialty literature in hair transplant surgery. Some of the controversies in hair transplant surgery include appropriate donor harvesting technique including elliptical donor harvesting versus follicular unit extraction whether manual versus robotic, the role of platelet-rich plasma and low-level light surgery in hair transplant surgery. Hair transplant surgery creates consistently natural appearing hair. As with all techniques, there are controversies regarding the optimal method for performing the procedure. Some of the current controversies in hair transplant surgery include optimal donor harvesting techniques, elliptical donor harvesting versus follicular unit extraction, the role of low-level light therapy and the platelet-rich plasma therapy in the procedure. Future studies will further clarify their role in the procedure.

  8. [Hormones and hair growth].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  9. Permanent Whisker Removal Reduces the Density of c-Fos+ Cells and the Expression of Calbindin Protein, Disrupts Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Affects Spatial-Memory-Related Tasks.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar; López-Virgen, Verónica; Ibarra-Castaneda, Nereida

    2018-01-01

    Facial vibrissae, commonly known as whiskers, are the main sensitive tactile system in rodents. Whisker stimulation triggers neuronal activity that promotes neural plasticity in the barrel cortex (BC) and helps create spatial maps in the adult hippocampus. Moreover, activity-dependent inputs and calcium homeostasis modulate adult neurogenesis. Therefore, the neuronal activity of the BC possibly regulates hippocampal functions and neurogenesis. To assess whether tactile information from facial whiskers may modulate hippocampal functions and neurogenesis, we permanently eliminated whiskers in CD1 male mice and analyzed the effects in cellular composition, molecular expression and memory processing in the adult hippocampus. Our data indicated that the permanent deprivation of whiskers reduced in 4-fold the density of c-Fos+ cells (a calcium-dependent immediate early gene) in cornu ammonis subfields (CA1, CA2 and CA3) and 4.5-fold the dentate gyrus (DG). A significant reduction in the expression of calcium-binding proteincalbindin-D 28k was also observed in granule cells of the DG. Notably, these changes coincided with an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in the proliferation of neural precursor cells in the DG, which ultimately reduced the number of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)+NeuN+ mature neurons generated after whisker elimination. These abnormalities in the hippocampus were associated with a significant impairment of spatial memory and navigation skills. This is the first evidence indicating that tactile inputs from vibrissal follicles strongly modify the expression of c-Fos and calbindin in the DG, disrupt different aspects of hippocampal neurogenesis, and support the notion that spatial memory and navigation skills strongly require tactile information in the hippocampus.

  10. Cortisol analysis of hair of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Morimura, Naruki; Mori, Yusuke; Hayashi, Misato; Suzuki, Juri

    2013-12-01

    In addition to behavioral evaluations, stress assessments are also important for measuring animal welfare. Assessments of long-term stress are particularly important given that prolonged stress can affect physical health and reproduction. The use of hair cortisol as a marker of long-term stress has been increasing, but there has not yet been any report on the use of such methods with chimpanzees. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish and validate a methodology for analyzing hair cortisol in captive chimpanzees. In the first experiment, hair was removed from the arms of nine chimpanzees living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS) and the regrown hair was sampled 3 months later. Fecal samples were collected periodically during the hair-growth period. The results showed that hair cortisol level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Although the correlation between hair and fecal cortisol levels was not significant, the individual with the highest hair cortisol concentration also had the highest fecal cortisol concentration. These results suggest that hair cortisol may reflect long-term stress in chimpanzees. In the second experiment, we investigated the physiological factors affecting hair cortisol concentrations. We cut hair from the arms, sides, and backs of 25 chimpanzees living at the KS and the Primate Research Institute. The results revealed that cortisol varied based on source body part and hair whiteness. Therefore, we recommend that hair should always be collected from the same body part and that white hair should be avoided as much as possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification and analysis of damaged or porous hair.

    PubMed

    Hill, Virginia; Loni, Elvan; Cairns, Thomas; Sommer, Jonathan; Schaffer, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Cosmetic hair treatments have been referred to as 'the pitfall' of hair analysis. However, most cosmetic treatments, when applied to the hair as instructed by the product vendors, do not interfere with analysis, provided such treatments can be identified by the laboratory and the samples analyzed and reported appropriately for the condition of the hair. This paper provides methods for identifying damaged or porous hair samples using digestion rates of hair in dithiothreitol with and without proteinase K, as well as a protein measurement method applied to dithiothreitol-digested samples. Extremely damaged samples may be unsuitable for analysis. Aggressive and extended aqueous washing of hair samples is a proven method for removing or identifying externally derived drug contamination of hair. In addition to this wash procedure, we have developed an alternative wash procedure using 90% ethanol for washing damaged or porous hair. The procedure, like the aqueous wash procedure, requires analysis of the last of five washes to evaluate the effectiveness of the washing procedure. This evaluation, termed the Wash Criterion, is derived from studies of the kinetics of washing of hair samples that have been experimentally contaminated and of hair from drug users. To study decontamination methods, in vitro contaminated drug-negative hair samples were washed by both the aqueous buffer method and a 90% ethanol method. Analysis of cocaine and methamphetamine was by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Porous hair samples from drug users, when washed in 90% ethanol, pass the wash criterion although they may fail the aqueous wash criterion. Those samples that fail both the ethanolic and aqueous wash criterion are not reported as positive for ingestion. Similar ratios of the metabolite amphetamine relative to methamphetamine in the last wash and the hair is an additional criterion for assessing contamination vs. ingestion of methamphetamine. Copyright © 2014

  12. Investigation of Notch Signaling during Spontaneous Regeneration of Cochlear Hair Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0475 TITLE: Investigation of Notch Signaling during Spontaneous Regeneration of Cochlear Hair Cells PRINCIPAL...Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Investigation of Notch Signaling during Spontaneous Regeneration of Cochlear Hair Cells 5b...inherent to military settings. These noise exposures damage and kill sensory hair cells (HCs) found in the cochlea of the inner ear, resulting in permanent

  13. Ethnic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Scott F; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The management of hair and scalp conditions is difficult in any patient, especially given the emotional and psychological implications of hair loss. This undertaking becomes even more challenging in the ethnic patient. Differences in hair care practices, hair shaft morphology, and follicular architecture add complexity to the task. It is imperative that the physician be knowledgeable about these practices and the phenotypic differences seen in ethnic hair in order to appropriately diagnose and treat these patients. In this chapter, we will discuss cultural practices and morphologic differences and explain how these relate to the specific disorders seen in ethnic populations. We will also review the most prominent of the ethnic hair conditions including acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, pseudofolliculitis barbae, dissecting cellulitis, and acne keloidalis nuchae. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Dimitrios; Lazaridou, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss, or female pattern androgenetic alopecia, is a nonscarring alopecia with a multi-factorial etiology that mostly affects postmenopausal women and is characterized by a reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp. The clinical picture is characterized by a diffuse rarefaction of scalp hair over the mid-frontal scalp and a more-or-less intact frontal hairline without any signs of inflammation or scarring. Although the disease poses only a cosmetic concern, it is chronic and may have a significant negative psychological impact on the affected person. The aim of treating female pattern hair loss is to reduce hair loss and, to a certain extent, succeed in promoting hair regrowth. Various treatment methods are available, but it remains unclear which are the most effective. Early initiation of treatment and the combination of various modalities seem to be more efficacious than monotherapy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The hair follicle enigma.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Bruno A

    2017-06-01

    The hair follicle is a mini-organ endowed with a unique structure and cyclic behaviour. Despite the intense research efforts which have been devoted at deciphering the hair follicle biology over the past 70 years, one must admit that hair follicle remains an enigma. In this brief review, various aspects of hair follicle biology will be addressed, and more importantly, unsolved questions and new possible research tracks will be highlighted, including hair follicle glycobiology and exosome-mediated cell-cell interactions. Even though bricks of knowledge are solidly being acquired, an integrative picture remains to emerge. One can predict that computer science, algorithms and bioinformatics will assist in fostering our understanding hair biology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A Hairy Affair: Ophthalmia nodosa Due to Caterpillar Hairs.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Pratik Y; Usgaonkar, Ugam; Kamat, Pradnya

    2018-01-01

    To study different clinical presentations, course, and final outcomes of ophthalmia nodosa, a rare disease caused by hairs of the caterpillar. A total of 29 eyes of 17 patients with the disease presenting to our institute in 2013 were included. Patients presented with foreign body sensation (94%), photophobia (88%), lacrimation (82%), redness (94%), and eyelid edema (82%). Hairs were found in the conjunctiva (89.6%), cornea (65.5%), and even anterior chamber (3.4%). There was a conjunctival nodule in two eyes (6.8%). Resolution of symptoms occurred in 3-21 days. Treatment included topical steroids, cycloplegia, and removal of hairs with forceps. More than one sitting was required in 17 eyes (62.9%) due to reactional inflammation, precluding visualization of all the hairs. Ophthalmia nodosa is a relatively rare condition with subtle findings, which can be missed, causing considerable discomfort to the patient if the hairs are not removed.

  17. Coleman cuts Nespoli's hair in the JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-15

    ISS026-E-017741 (15 Jan. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman assists European Space Agency astronaut Paolo Nespoli with a haircut in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station. The two Expedition 26 flight engineers used a vacuum cleaner (partially out of frame) to remove free-floating hair particles from the air.

  18. Coleman cuts Nespoli's hair in the JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-15

    ISS026-E-017736 (15 Jan. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman assists European Space Agency astronaut Paolo Nespoli with a haircut in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station. The two Expedition 26 flight engineers used a vacuum cleaner (partially out of frame) to remove free-floating hair particles from the air.

  19. Coleman cuts Kondratyev's hair in the JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-15

    ISS026-E-017689 (15 Jan. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman assists cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev of Russia's Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) with a haircut in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station. The two Expedition 26 flight engineers used a vacuum cleaner (partially out of frame) to remove free-floating hair particles from the air.

  20. Nespoli cuts Kondratyev's hair in the JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-15

    ISS026-E-017715 (15 Jan. 2011) --- European Space Agency astronaut Paolo Nespoli assists cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev of Russia's Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) with a haircut in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station. The two Expedition 26 flight engineers used a vacuum cleaner to remove free-floating hair particles from the air.

  1. Coleman cuts Kondratyev's hair in the JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-15

    ISS026-E-017718 (15 Jan. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman assists cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev of Russia's Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) with a haircut in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station. Kondratyev and Coleman used a vacuum cleaner to remove free-floating hair particles from the air.

  2. Coleman cuts Kondratyev's hair in the JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-15

    ISS026-E-017725 (15 Jan. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman assists cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev of Russia's Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) with a haircut in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station. The two Expedition 26 flight engineers used a vacuum cleaner to remove free-floating hair particles from the air.

  3. Hair transplantation update.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary hair transplant surgery offers results that are natural and undetectable. It is an excellent treatment option for male and female pattern hair loss. Patients are encouraged to also use medical therapy to help protect their surgical results and prevent ongoing thinning of the surrounding hairs. The two major techniques of donor elliptical harvesting and follicular unit extraction are discussed here. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  4. Hair cell regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Edge, Albert SB; Chen, Zheng-Yi

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian inner ear largely lacks the capacity to regenerate hair cells, the sensory cells required for hearing and balance. Recent studies in both lower vertebrates and mammals have uncovered genes and pathways important in hair cell development and have suggested ways that the sensory epithelia could be manipulated to achieve hair cell regeneration. These approaches include the use of inner ear stem cells, transdifferentiation of nonsensory cells, and induction of a proliferative response in the cells that can become hair cells. PMID:18929656

  5. MRI of human hair.

    PubMed

    Mattle, Eveline; Weiger, Markus; Schmidig, Daniel; Boesiger, Peter; Fey, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Hair care for humans is a major world industry with specialised tools, chemicals and techniques. Studying the effect of hair care products has become a considerable field of research, and besides mechanical and optical testing numerous advanced analytical techniques have been employed in this area. In the present work, another means of studying the properties of hair is added by demonstrating the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the human hair. Established dedicated nuclear magnetic resonance microscopy hardware (solenoidal radiofrequency microcoils and planar field gradients) and methods (constant time imaging) were adapted to the specific needs of hair MRI. Images were produced at a spatial resolution high enough to resolve the inner structure of the hair, showing contrast between cortex and medulla. Quantitative evaluation of a scan series with different echo times provided a T*(2) value of 2.6 ms for the cortex and a water content of about 90% for hairs saturated with water. The demonstration of the feasibility of hair MRI potentially adds a new tool to the large variety of analytical methods used nowadays in the development of hair care products.

  6. Hair cell ribbon synapses

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Andreas; Lysakowski, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Hearing and balance rely on the faithful synaptic coding of mechanical input by the auditory and vestibular hair cells of the inner ear. Mechanical deflection of their stereocilia causes the opening of mechanosensitive channels, resulting in hair cell depolarization, which controls the release of glutamate at ribbon-type synapses. Hair cells have a compact shape with strong polarity. Mechanoelectrical transduction and active membrane turnover associated with stereociliar renewal dominate the apical compartment. Transmitter release occurs at several active zones along the basolateral membrane. The astonishing capability of the hair cell ribbon synapse for temporally precise and reliable sensory coding has been the subject of intense investigation over the past few years. This research has been facilitated by the excellent experimental accessibility of the hair cell. For the same reason, the hair cell serves as an important model for studying presynaptic Ca2+ signaling and stimulus-secretion coupling. In addition to common principles, hair cell synapses differ in their anatomical and functional properties among species, among the auditory and vestibular organs, and among hair cell positions within the organ. Here, we briefly review synaptic morphology and connectivity and then focus on stimulus-secretion coupling at hair cell synapses. PMID:16944206

  7. Extraction and analysis of cortisol from human and monkey hair.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

    2014-01-24

    The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings.

  8. Coping with cancer - hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer treatment - alopecia; Chemotherapy - hair loss; Radiation - hair loss ... Many chemotherapy drugs attack fast-growing cells. This is because cancer cells divide rapidly. Since the cells in hair ...

  9. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Cancer.gov

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  10. Prospective Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of a 1060-nm Large Spot Size, Vacuum-Assisted Hair Removal Diode Laser System in Asian/Pacific Fitzpatrick's Skin Types IV-V Patients.

    PubMed

    Tahiliani, Sushil T; Tahiliani, Harsh S

    2016-11-01

    Laser-based photoepilation of dark skin types demands a delicate combination of appropriate light wavelengths and spot size to achieve optimal epidermal-to-follicular energy absorption ratios. This prospective study assessed the axillary, arm, thigh, and back hair clearing ef cacy of the LightSheer In nity 1060 nm diode laser in 10 Fitzpatrick skin type IV-V patients. Each area was treated up to ve times, at 4-6-week intervals, after which immediate skin responses and adverse events were recorded. Hair count, color and coarseness were assessed before each treatment session, as well as 1, 3, and 6 months following the last session. Both patients and the treating physician rated the degree of improvement with time, and patients also ranked their satisfaction with the treatment outcome. Percent hair reduction from baseline gradually increased with treatment and peaked at 74.6%, 68.4%, and 65.7% for axillary, arm and thigh regions, respectively, 6 months following the last treatment session. Baseline hair growth patterns precluded effective selection of a representative area for hair counting. Patients satisfaction was consistently higher for axillary hair clearance rates, followed by thigh and arm responses. Throughout the follow-up period, the investigator rated 50-67% of the treated axillae as presenting "good" or "very good" hair clearance, and provided similar ratings for 67% of the treated thigh regions at both the 1 and 6 month follow-up sessions. Immediate responses to treatment were mild to moderate and short-lived and no incidents of brosis or scarring were reported. Taken together, the LightSheer In nity 1060 HS Handpiece provided for an ideal ef cacy-safety balance in treating dark-skinned patients, providing for long-term hair clearance with minimal downtime. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1427-1434.

  11. Healthy hair: what is it?

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rodney D

    2007-12-01

    Shiny hair with a smooth texture and clean-cut ends or tapered tips is generally perceived to be healthy. Hair texture and shine relate to hair surface properties, whereas the integrity of hair ends relates to the hair cortex. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown, red, gray white, and its natural variations are important to our identity. Manipulation of the normal structure of the hair shaft is epidemic and dictated by culture, fashion, and above all, celebrity. Although cosmetic procedures are intrinsically safe, there is potential for damage to the hair. Loss of lustre, frizz, split ends, and other hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair or among people with hair that is intrinsically weak. This may be due to individual or racial variation or less commonly an inherited structural abnormality in hair fiber formation. Hair health is also affected by common afflictions of the scalp as well as age-related phenomena such as graying and androgenetic alopecia. Hair products that improve the structural integrity of hair fibers and increase tensile strength are available, as are products that increase hair volume, reduce frizz, improve hair manageability, and stimulate new hair growth.

  12. Treatment of unwanted hair in auricular reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gault, David

    2009-08-01

    In many microtia patients, the hairline is lower than ideal. Despite this, it is essential to position the reconstructed ear in the correct place. Here is a series of tips and tricks to deal with unwanted hair on the skin that covers an autogenous tissue reconstruction. Replacement of the skin with a fascial flap and skin graft remains the mainstay of treatment for a very-low-hairline case. Surgical removal of hair on the helical rim during the release procedure is also described. Laser depilation, surgical electrolysis, and even shaving techniques are also discussed. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.

  13. Chapter 6: Hair collection

    Treesearch

    Katherine C. Kendall; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2008-01-01

    The identification of species from hair samples is probably as old as humanity, but did not receive much scientific attention until efficient and relatively inexpensive methods for amplifying DNA became available. Prior to this time, keys were used to identify species through the microscopic analysis of hair shaft morphology (Moore et al. 1974; also see Raphael 1994...

  14. Hair Loss Myths.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, Gabriella; McMichael, Amy

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hair loss is a common complaint seen in dermatology clinics. From frustration and attempts at self-help, patients with hair loss may present to the dermatologist with false beliefs, or myths, about the causes of their condition and what treatments are effective.

    METHODS: We identified 12 common myths about hair loss, categorized as myths about minoxidil treatment, vitamin and mineral supplements, natural topical treatments, and hair care practices. We performed a PubMed search to find evidence to support or refute each myth.

    RESULTS: We found that there is little evidence to support many of these common hair loss myths. In some cases, randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of particular therapies and point to the effectiveness of certain hair loss treatments.

    DISCUSSION: In many cases, there have not been sufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of different therapies and hair care practices on hair loss. It is best to guide patients toward treatments with a long track record of efficacy and away from those where little is known scientifically.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):690-694.

    .

  15. Hair and Physiological Baldness

    PubMed Central

    Mercantini, Edward S.

    1965-01-01

    Human hair is one of the structures of the body about which little is generally known. Disease affecting the hair is often minimized or ignored by physicians because of lack of knowledge of this rudimentary organ. However, the patient's attitude toward hair loss is very different from the doctor's and he feels great concern about such loss. The development, growth and morphology of human hair are briefly presented. Experimental work which will increase our knowledge of hair growth and loss is reviewed. The various forms of physiological alopecia from birth onward are discussed, with special emphasis on the least-known type of physiological baldness, “male-pattern baldness” in the adult female. PMID:14312445

  16. Protease activity, localization and inhibition in the human hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Bhogal, R K; Mouser, P E; Higgins, C A; Turner, G A

    2014-02-01

    In humans, the process of hair shedding, referred to as exogen, is believed to occur independently of the other hair cycle phases. Although the actual mechanisms involved in hair shedding are not fully known, it has been hypothesized that the processes leading to the final step of hair shedding may be driven by proteases and/or protease inhibitor activity. In this study, we investigated the presence of proteases and protease activity in naturally shed human hairs and assessed enzyme inhibition activity of test materials. We measured enzyme activity using a fluorescence-based assay and protein localization by indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also developed an ex vivo skin model for measuring the force required to pull hair fibres from skin. Our data demonstrate the presence of protease activity in the tissue material surrounding club roots. We also demonstrated the localization of specific serine protease protein expression in human hair follicle by IHC. These data provide evidence demonstrating the presence of proteases around the hair club roots, which may play a role during exogen. We further tested the hypothesis that a novel protease inhibitor system (combination of Trichogen) and climbazole) could inhibit protease activity in hair fibre club root extracts collected from a range of ethnic groups (U.K., Brazil, China, first-generation Mexicans in the U.S.A., Thailand and Turkey) in both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this combination is capable of increasing the force required to remove hair in an ex vivo skin model system. These studies indicate the presence of proteolytic activity in the tissue surrounding the human hair club root and show that it is possible to inhibit this activity with a combination of Trichogen and climbazole. This technology may have potential to reduce excessive hair shedding. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Numerical simulation of the hair formation -modeling of hair cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajihara, Narumichi; Nagayama, Katsuya

    2018-01-01

    In the recent years, the fields of study of anti-aging, health and beauty, cosmetics, and hair diseases have attracted significant attention. In particular, human hair is considered to be an important aspect with regard to an attractive appearance. To this end, many workers have sought to understand the formation mechanism of the hair root. However, observing growth in the hair root is difficult, and a detailed mechanism of the process has not yet been elucidated. Hair repeats growth, retraction, and pause cycles (hair cycle) in a repetitive process. In the growth phase, hair is formed through processes of cell proliferation and differentiation (keratinization). During the retraction phase, hair growth stops, and during the resting period, hair fall occurs and new hair grows. This hair cycle is believed to affect the elongation rate, thickness, strength, and shape of hair. Therefore, in this study, we introduce a particle model as a new method to elucidate the unknown process of hair formation, and to model the hair formation process accompanying the proliferation and differentiation of the hair root cells in all three dimensions. In addition, to the growth period, the retraction and the resting periods are introduced to realize the hair cycle using this model.

  18. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  19. Hair segmentation using adaptive threshold from edge and branch length measures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ian; Du, Xian; Anthony, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Non-invasive imaging techniques allow the monitoring of skin structure and diagnosis of skin diseases in clinical applications. However, hair in skin images hampers the imaging and classification of the skin structure of interest. Although many hair segmentation methods have been proposed for digital hair removal, a major challenge in hair segmentation remains in detecting hairs that are thin, overlapping, of similar contrast or color to underlying skin, or overlaid on highly-textured skin structure. To solve the problem, we present an automatic hair segmentation method that uses edge density (ED) and mean branch length (MBL) to measure hair. First, hair is detected by the integration of top-hat transform and modified second-order Gaussian filter. Second, we employ a robust adaptive threshold of ED and MBL to generate a hair mask. Third, the hair mask is refined by k-NN classification of hair and skin pixels. The proposed algorithm was tested using two datasets of healthy skin images and lesion images respectively. These datasets were taken from different imaging platforms in various illumination levels and varying skin colors. We compared the hair detection and segmentation results from our algorithm and six other hair segmentation methods of state of the art. Our method exhibits high value of sensitivity: 75% and specificity: 95%, which indicates significantly higher accuracy and better balance between true positive and false positive detection than the other methods. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Sensory hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line.

    PubMed

    Lush, Mark E; Piotrowski, Tatjana

    2014-10-01

    Damage or destruction of sensory hair cells in the inner ear leads to hearing or balance deficits that can be debilitating, especially in older adults. Unfortunately, the damage is permanent, as regeneration of the inner ear sensory epithelia does not occur in mammals. Zebrafish and other non-mammalian vertebrates have the remarkable ability to regenerate sensory hair cells and understanding the molecular and cellular basis for this regenerative ability will hopefully aid us in designing therapies to induce regeneration in mammals. Zebrafish not only possess hair cells in the ear but also in the sensory lateral line system. Hair cells in both organs are functionally analogous to hair cells in the inner ear of mammals. The lateral line is a mechanosensory system found in most aquatic vertebrates that detects water motion and aids in predator avoidance, prey capture, schooling, and mating. Although hair cell regeneration occurs in both the ear and lateral line, most research to date has focused on the lateral line due to its relatively simple structure and accessibility. Here we review the recent discoveries made during the characterization of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. SENSORY HAIR CELL REGENERATION IN THE ZEBRAFISH LATERAL LINE

    PubMed Central

    Lush, Mark E.; Piotrowski, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Damage or destruction of sensory hair cells in the inner ear leads to hearing or balance deficits that can be debilitating, especially in older adults. Unfortunately, the damage is permanent, as regeneration of the inner ear sensory epithelia does not occur in mammals. Zebrafish and other non-mammalian vertebrates have the remarkable ability to regenerate sensory hair cells and understanding the molecular and cellular basis for this regenerative ability will hopefully aid us in designing therapies to induce regeneration in mammals. Zebrafish not only possess hair cells in the ear but also in the sensory lateral line system. Hair cells in both organs are functionally analogous to hair cells in the inner ear of mammals. The lateral line is a mechanosensory system found in most aquatic vertebrates that detects water motion and aids in predator avoidance, prey capture, schooling and mating. Although hair cell regeneration occurs in both the ear and lateral line, most research to date has focused on the lateral line due to its relatively simple structure and accessibility. Here we review the recent discoveries made during the characterization of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. PMID:25045019

  2. Guided genetic screen to identify genes essential in the regeneration of hair cells and other tissues.

    PubMed

    Pei, Wuhong; Xu, Lisha; Huang, Sunny C; Pettie, Kade; Idol, Jennifer; Rissone, Alberto; Jimenez, Erin; Sinclair, Jason W; Slevin, Claire; Varshney, Gaurav K; Jones, MaryPat; Carrington, Blake; Bishop, Kevin; Huang, Haigen; Sood, Raman; Lin, Shuo; Burgess, Shawn M

    2018-01-01

    Regenerative medicine holds great promise for both degenerative diseases and traumatic tissue injury which represent significant challenges to the health care system. Hearing loss, which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide, is caused primarily by a permanent loss of the mechanosensory receptors of the inner ear known as hair cells. This failure to regenerate hair cells after loss is limited to mammals, while all other non-mammalian vertebrates tested were able to completely regenerate these mechanosensory receptors after injury. To understand the mechanism of hair cell regeneration and its association with regeneration of other tissues, we performed a guided mutagenesis screen using zebrafish lateral line hair cells as a screening platform to identify genes that are essential for hair cell regeneration, and further investigated how genes essential for hair cell regeneration were involved in the regeneration of other tissues. We created genetic mutations either by retroviral insertion or CRISPR/Cas9 approaches, and developed a high-throughput screening pipeline for analyzing hair cell development and regeneration. We screened 254 gene mutations and identified 7 genes specifically affecting hair cell regeneration. These hair cell regeneration genes fell into distinct and somewhat surprising functional categories. By examining the regeneration of caudal fin and liver, we found these hair cell regeneration genes often also affected other types of tissue regeneration. Therefore, our results demonstrate guided screening is an effective approach to discover regeneration candidates, and hair cell regeneration is associated with other tissue regeneration.

  3. Hair camouflage: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Saed, Stephanie; Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2016-12-01

    Hair is venerated, cherished, and desired in societies throughout the world. Both women and men express their individual identities through their hairstyles. Healthy hair contributes to successful social assimilation, employment, and overall quality of life. Therefore, hair loss can have detrimental effects on almost every aspect of a person's life. In this review, we discuss the myriad of options that aid in concealing and camouflaging hair loss to facilitate a healthier-appearing scalp. Camouflage options for patients who suffer from hair loss include full or partial wigs, hair extensions, concealing powders and sprays, surgical tattoos, and hair transplants. We describe these modalities in detail and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  4. Hair camouflage: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Saed, Stephanie; Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2017-03-01

    Hair is venerated, cherished, and desired in societies throughout the world. Both women and men express their individual identities through their hairstyles. Healthy hair contributes to successful social assimilation, employment, and overall quality of life. Therefore, hair loss can have detrimental effects on almost every aspect of a person's life. In this review, we discuss the myriad of options that aid in concealing and camouflaging hair loss to facilitate a healthier-appearing scalp. Camouflage options for patients who suffer from hair loss include full or partial wigs, hair extensions, concealing powders and sprays, surgical tattoos, and hair transplants. We describe these modalities in detail and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  5. Microtubules in root hairs.

    PubMed

    Traas, J A; Braat, P; Emons, A M; Meekes, H; Derksen, J

    1985-06-01

    The microtubules of root hairs of Raphanus sativus, Lepidium sativum, Equisetum hyemale, Limnobium stoloniferum, Ceratopteris thalictroides, Allium sativum and Urtica dioica were investigated using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Arrays of cortical microtubules were observed in all hairs. The microtubules in the hairs show net axial orientations, but in Allium and Urtica helical microtubule patterns are also present. Numerical parameters of microtubules in Raphanus, Equisetum and Limnobium were determined from dry-cleave preparations. The results are discussed with respect to cell wall deposition and cell morphogenesis.

  6. Complications in hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2013-11-01

    Hair restoration requires a high level of specialized skill on the part of both the surgeon and the assistant team. Recipient-site problems can manifest from either surgeon or assistant error. The surgeon can create an unnatural hairline due to lack of knowledge of natural hair-loss patterns or badly executed recipient sites. He must also be cognizant of how hairs naturally are angled on the scalp to re-create a pattern that appears natural when making recipient sites. Assistants can also greatly contribute to the success or failure of surgery in their task of graft dissection and graft placement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Scrotal hair in infants].

    PubMed

    Sentchordi Montane, L; Quintanar Rioja, A; Ayala Bernardo de Quirós, L; Martínez Granero, M A; Bonet Serra, B

    2008-02-01

    The presence of pubic hair is exceptional in healthy infants of both sexes. In most of the cases described in the literature, the process was self-limited and no etiology was found. Nevertheless, in some patients, this finding has been associated with other manifestations of hyperandrogenism related to potentially serious diseases such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia or virilizing tumors. In the present article, we describe seven infants followed-up in the Pediatric Endocrine Clinic because of scrotal hair. In all patients, the process was self-limited and resolved spontaneously and no hormonal or developmental alterations were observed. Key words: Scrotal hair, infants, virilization.

  8. The interpretation of hair analysis for drugs and drug metabolites.

    PubMed

    Cuypers, Eva; Flanagan, Robert J

    2018-02-01

    Head hair analysis for drugs and drug metabolites has been used widely with the aim of detecting exposure in the weeks or months prior to sample collection. However, inappropriate interpretation of results has likely led to serious miscarriages of justice, especially in child custody cases. The aim of this review is to assess critically what can, and perhaps more importantly, what cannot be claimed as regards the interpretation of hair test results in a given set of circumstances in order to inform future testing. We searched the PubMed database for papers published 2010-2016 using the terms "hair" and "drug" and "decontamination", the terms "hair" and "drug" and "contamination", the terms "hair" and "drug-facilitated crime", the terms "hair" and "ethyl glucuronide", and the terms "hair", "drug testing" and "analysis". Study of the reference lists of the 46 relevant papers identified 25 further relevant citations, giving a total of 71 citations. Hair samples: Drugs, drug metabolites and/or decomposition products may arise not only from deliberate drug administration, but also via deposition from a contaminated atmosphere if drug(s) have been smoked or otherwise vaporized in a confined area, transfer from contaminated surfaces via food/fingers, etc., and transfer from sweat and other secretions after a single large exposure, which could include anesthesia. Excretion in sweat of endogenous analytes such as γ-hydroxybutyric acid is a potential confounder if its use is to be investigated. Cosmetic procedures such as bleaching or heat treatment of hair may remove analytes prior to sample collection. Hair color and texture, the area of the head the sample is taken from, the growth rate of individual hairs, and how the sample has been stored, may also affect the interpretation of results. Toxicological analysis: Immunoassay results alone do not provide reliable evidence on which to base judicial decisions. Gas or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection

  9. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... with certain abnormalities of the nails and the teeth. Later in childhood, hair loss may be due ...

  10. Penile strangulation by hair.

    PubMed

    Acimi, Smail

    2014-07-01

    To know the causes and results of treatment of complications from a penile strangulation by hair in seven boys. From April 2000 to December 2012, seven boys presenting serious penile complications by hair strangulation have been operated in two centers. All seven boys had transection of the urethra at the coronal level. And none of our patients were at the stage of necrosis or amputation of the glans. The age of the patients at surgery ranged from 34 to 134 months (mean 96 months). Four children presented urethrocutaneous fistulas (57% of cases), and the innervation and vascularization of the glans remained poor after repair in three patients. The penile strangulation by hair was due to a simple accident. However, several predisposing factors were discovered in our patients: lack of cleanliness; a moist environment with nocturnal enuresis; the presence of pubic hair in young children reported in the four children, and a coronal sulcus not covered by the foreskin in circumcised children.

  11. Hair cuttime on ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-22

    Caption: ISS043E044174 (03/22/2015) --- Its haircut time onboard the International Space Station as Expedition 43 Commander and NASA astronaut Terry Virts handles the scissors while ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti holds the vacuum to immediately pull the fine hair strands into the safe container so they don't float away into the station. Hair trims are a regular occurrence during an astronaut's six month tour.

  12. Hair as a Biomarker of Environmental Manganese Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Rachel R.; Jursa, Tom P.; Benedetti, Chiara; Lucchini, Roberto G.; Smith, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    The absence of well-validated biomarkers of manganese (Mn) exposure in children remains a major obstacle for studies of Mn toxicity. We developed a hair cleaning methodology to establish the utility of hair as an exposure biomarker for Mn and other metals (Pb, Cr, Cu), using ICP-MS, scanning electron microscopy, and laser ablation ICP-MS to evaluate cleaning efficacy. Exogenous metal contamination on hair that was untreated or intentionally contaminated with dust or Mn-contaminated water was effectively removed using a cleaning method of 0.5% Triton X-100 sonication plus 1N nitric acid sonication. This cleaning method was then used on hair samples from children (n=121) in an ongoing study of environmental Mn exposure and related health effects. Mean hair Mn levels were 0.121 μg/g (median = 0.073 μg/g, range = 0.011 – 0.736 μg/g), which are ~4 to 70-fold lower than levels reported in other pediatric Mn studies. Hair Mn levels were also significantly higher in children living in the vicinity of active, but not historic, ferroalloy plant emissions compared to controls (P<0.001). These data show that exogenous metal contamination on hair can be effectively cleaned of exogenous metal contamination, and they substantiate the use of hair Mn levels as a biomarker of environmental Mn exposure in children. PMID:23259818

  13. A 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the ability of a marine complex supplement to promote hair growth in men with thinning hair.

    PubMed

    Ablon, Glynis

    2016-12-01

    Male pattern baldness, or androgenetic alopecia, affects approximately 50% of the adult population and can cause poor self-image, low self-esteem and have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. An oral nutraceutical supplement based on a marine complex formulation has previously been reported to significantly increase the number of terminal hairs in women with thinning hair. The objective of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to confirm the beneficial effects of a similar marine complex supplement in adult male subjects with thinning hair (Viviscal ® Man; Lifes2good, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Healthy adult male subjects with thinning hair associated with clinically diagnosed male pattern hair loss were enrolled and randomized to receive study drug or placebo twice daily. At Day 90, subjects indicated a significant improvement in three of six quality of life measures as well as a significant overall improvement in quality of life. After 180 days, significant increases were observed for total hair count, total hair density, and terminal hair density (for each, P = 0.001). The investigator assessments revealed significant improvements in terminal and vellus hair count and terminal hair density. Hair pull test results were significantly lower (fewer hairs removed) for study drug vs. placebo at Days 90 (P < 0.05) and 180 (P < 0.01). There were no reports of treatment-emergent adverse events. The results of this study showed for the first time that a dietary supplement containing a marine complex and other ingredients can decrease hair shedding and promote hair growth in men with thinning hair. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Sheila K; Larsen, Sofus C; Olsen, Nanna J; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Heitmann, Berit L

    2017-03-01

    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing status or weekly hair washing frequency among women. This cross-sectional study was based on data from 266 mothers participating in the Healthy Start intervention study. HCC was measured in the proximal end of the hair (1-2cm closest to the scalp) while hair dyeing status, frequency of hair washing and covariates were reported by the women. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess the associations between HCC and hair dyeing or weekly frequency of hair washing. No statistically significant difference (p=0.91) in HCC was found between women who dyed hair (adjusted mean: 137pg/mg [95% CI: 122,153]) and women with natural hair color (adjusted mean: 139pg/mg [95% CI: 123,155]). Frequency of hair washing was not associated with HCC (β: -3.7 [95% CI: -9.0, 1.5; P=0.20]). This study of 266 Danish women provides no evidence in support of an association between HCC and hair dyeing status or hair washing frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Advances and challenges in hair restoration of curly Afrocentric hair.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E; Callender, Valerie D

    2014-04-01

    Although the biochemical composition of hair is similar among racial and ethnic groups, the hair structure between them varies, and individuals with curly hair pose specific challenges and special considerations when a surgical option for alopecia is considered. Hair restoration in this population should therefore be approached with knowledge on the clinical characteristics of curly hair, hair grooming techniques that may influence the management, unique indications for the procedure, surgical instrumentation used, and the complications that may arise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hair decontamination procedure prior to multi-class pesticide analysis.

    PubMed

    Duca, Radu-Corneliu; Hardy, Emilie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2014-06-01

    Although increasing interest is being observed in hair analysis for the biomonitoring of human exposure to pesticides, some limitations still have to be addressed for optimum use of this matrix in that specific context. One main possible issue concerns the need to differentiate chemicals biologically incorporated into hair from those externally deposited on hair surface from contaminated air or dust. The present study focuses on the development of a washing procedure for the decontamination of hair before analysis of pesticides from different chemical classes. For this purpose, three different procedures of artificial contamination (with silica, cellulose, and aqueous solution) were used to simulate pesticides deposition on hair surface. Several washing solvents (four organic: acetone, dichloromethane, methanol, acetonitrile; and four aqueous: water, phosphate buffer, shampoo, sodium dodecylsulfate) were evaluated for their capacity to remove artificially deposited pesticides from hair surface. The most effective washing solvents were sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol for aqueous and organic solvents, respectively. Moreover, after a first washing with sodium dodecylsulfate or methanol, the majority of externally deposited pesticides was removed and a steady-state was reached since significantly lower amounts were removed by additional second and third washings. Finally, the effectiveness of a decontamination procedure comprising washing with sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol was successively demonstrated. In parallel, it was determined that the final procedure did not affect the chemicals biologically incorporated, as hair strands naturally containing pesticides were used. Such a procedure appears to remove in one-shot the fraction of chemicals located on hair surface and does not require repeated washing steps. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Fullerene nanomaterials potentiate hair growth.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiguo; Lenk, Robert; Dellinger, Anthony; MacFarland, Darren; Kumar, Krishan; Wilson, Stephen R; Kepley, Christopher L

    2009-06-01

    Hair loss is a common symptom resulting from a wide range of disease processes and can lead to stress in affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of fullerene nanomaterials on hair growth. We used shaved mice as well as SKH-1 "bald" mice to determine if fullerene-based compounds could affect hair growth and hair follicle numbers. In shaved mice, fullerenes increase the rate of hair growth as compared with mice receiving vehicle only. In SKH-1 hairless mice fullerene derivatives given topically or subdermally markedly increased hair growth. This was paralleled by a significant increase in the number of hair follicles in fullerene-treated mice as compared with those mice treated with vehicle only. The fullerenes also increased hair growth in human skin sections maintained in culture. These studies have wide-ranging implications for those conditions leading to hair loss, including alopecia, chemotherapy, and reactions to various chemicals.

  18. Association of hair dye use with circulating levels of sex hormones in premenopausal Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Chisato; Wada, Keiko; Tsuji, Michiko; Hayashi, Makoto; Takeda, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Keigo

    2015-10-01

    Substances identified as animal carcinogens are no longer used as ingredients of hair dyes. However, hair dyes are diverse groups of chemicals, and certain compounds may affect endogenous sex hormone levels. We examined the association between hair dye use and sex hormone levels among premenopausal women. Study subjects were 431 premenopausal Japanese women who had regular menstrual cycles less than 40 days long. Information on the use of hair dyes or hair bleach, the type of hair coloring used, the duration of use and the frequency of application was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Fasting plasma samples were obtained to measure estradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, sex hormone-binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. After controlling for covariates, the mean plasma total testosterone level was about 14% higher in women who had used hair dyes for 10 or more years than that among women who had never used them (P for trend = 0.02). A similar association was observed when the type of hair dye was restricted to permanent hair dyes. A higher frequency of applying non-permanent hair dyes was marginally significantly associated with higher total and free estradiol levels. Data suggest that long-term use of hair dyes may be associated with an increase in circulating testosterone levels. As this is, to our knowledge, the first study examining the association between hair dye use and sex hormone levels, replication of the results is required. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation of demipermanent and semipermanent hair dyes gels from ethanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan L. using carbomer as gelling agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indrawati, T.; Syahrin, A.; Irpan

    2017-07-01

    Caesalpinia sappan L. (Cs L) contains of essential oils, saponin, brazilin, brazilein, alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins that have a function as cationic natural dyes. The aim of this research was to prepare the ethanol extract of Cs L wood and to prepare demi-permanent and semi-permanent of hair dye gels by using Carbomer of 2 % and 1.5 % as gelling agent and Cs L extract as cationic dyes. The Extract of Cs L was macerated by using ethanol of 96 % as the solvent, and then thickened. Three formula of demi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 3 %, 6% and 9 %. Three formula of semi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 2.50 %, 7.00 % and 10.50 %. Those hair dyes gels were prepared by swelling and mixing methods. All products of hair dyes gels were evaluated with organoleptic test, homogeneity test, pH test, consistency test, rheological properties test and dyeing effect test. The demi-permanent hair dye gels products had brown to brown dark black colors, pH of 5.05-5.43, homogeny, specific Cs L odor, and had pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristic. The semi-permanent hair dye gels products had red color pH of 6.5-6.25, homogeny, Cs L odor, and have pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristics. The optimum formula of demi-permanent was formula gel that contained of 6 % extract of Cs L and the optimum formula of permanent hair dyes gel was formula that contained of 10.50 % extract of Cs L.

  20. The Lore of the Hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunes, Nicolas; Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo

    2016-03-01

    Stars can be hairy beasts, especially in theories that go beyond Einstein's. In the latter, a scalar field can be sourced and anchored to a neutron star, and if the later is in a binary system, the scalar field will emit dipole radiation. This radiation removes energy from the binary, forcing the orbit to adiabatically decay much more rapidly than due to the emission of gravitational waves as predicted in General Relativity. The detailed radio observation of binary pulsars has constrained the orbital decay of compact binaries stringently, so much so that theories that predict neutron stars with scalar hair are believed to be essentially ruled out. In this talk I will explain why this ``lore'' is actually incorrect, providing a counter-example in which scalar hair is sourced by neutron stars, yet dipole radiation is absent. I will then describe what binary systems need to be observed to constrain such theories with future astrophysical observations. I acknowledge support from NSF CAREER Grant PHY-1250636.

  1. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... much of this hormone, you may have unwanted hair growth. In most cases, the exact cause is ...

  2. Aging changes in hair and nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004005.htm Aging changes in hair and nails To use the sharing ... you age, your hair and nails begin to change. HAIR CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS Hair color change . ...

  3. The biology of hair diversity.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  4. [Tufted hair folliculitis].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M; Pericin, M; Hafner, J; Burg, G

    1997-04-01

    A case of tufted hair folliculutis presenting as circumscribed, tender and inflamed areas in the occiput with residual tufted follicles in a 28-year old man is reported. Tufted hair folliculitis is a characteristic localized scarring bacterial folliculitis of the scalp due to Staphylococcus aureus. Histopathological studies reveal perifollicular inflammation around the upper portions of the follicles sparing the hair root level. Within areas of inflammation, several follicles converge toward a common follicular duct with a widely dilated opening. Currently, tufted hair folliculitis is considered a variant of folliculitis decalvans of Quinquaud. Staphylococcal infection is believed to be an initial causative factor, and underlying differences in follicular anatomy or host response may be important in determining which reaction pattern occurs in an affected individual. The development of atrophy with loss of adnexal structures (in folliculitis decalvans) or of hair tufts (in tufting folliculitis) may depend upon the depth and destructive potential of the inflammatory process. The therapeutic approach is problematic; prolonged treatment with oral antibiotics may stabilize the disease, but good and at times more definitive results (as in the presented case) have been reported after radical surgical excision of the involved areas.

  5. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: hair dying in hair dye allergic patients?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ashley; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    This article describes how to identify allergic contact dermatitis resulting from hair dye, and outlines interventions and prevention principles for those who wish to continue dyeing their hair despite being allergic. Hair dye chemicals thought to be the most frequent sensitizers are discussed with instructions for health care providers on how to counsel patients about techniques to minimize exposure to allergenic substances. This framework should allow many patients to continue dyeing their hair without experiencing adverse side effects.

  6. Hair Cortisol Concentrations Are Associated with Hair Growth Rate.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lianbin; Sunesara, Imran; Rehm, Kristina E; Marshall, Gailen D

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in hair cortisol concentrations as a valuable biomarker for the assessment of metabolic diseases and chronic psychological stress. Fifty-three volunteers were recruited, and hair segments proximal to the scalp were collected from each individual. A cost-effective ball mill was used for the preparation of hair samples, and ELISA was performed to analyze cortisol concentrations. Results indicate that the frequency of hair washing affects the hair cortisol concentration. The group that washed their hair every day had significantly lower cortisol concentrations than the group that washed it less often. However, no significant differences were detected between cosmetic-treated and nontreated hair samples. The study also shows that hair cortisol concentrations in the first 3 cm of hair segments proximal to the scalp corresponded to average hair growth rate based on 1 cm/month. Thus, hair cortisol concentrations of segments 3 cm proximal to the scalp may represent cumulative stress exposure over the previous 3 months. These findings will allow more widespread research to validate the utility of hair cortisol as a potential biomarker to assess chronic stress. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Ethyl glucuronide: unusual distribution between head hair and pubic hair.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Pascal; Villain, Marion; Vallet, Emilie; Etter, Mathieu; Salquebre, Guillaume; Cirimele, Vincent

    2008-03-21

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor metabolite of ethanol that can be detected in hair. In some specific situations, head hair can be missing, and therefore, alternative anatomical locations of hair are of interest. In this study, paired hair specimens (head hair and pubic hair) from eight social drinkers were analyzed for EtG. Each sample was decontaminated by two dichloromethane bathes (5 ml) for 2 min. After cutting into small pieces, about 50 mg of hair was incubated in 2 ml water in the presence of 10 ng of EtG-d5, used as internal standard and submitted to ultra-sonication for 2 h. The aqueous phase was extracted by SPE using Oasis MAX columns. The hair extract was separated on an ACQUITY BEH HILIC column using a gradient of acetonitrile and formate buffer. Detection was based on two daughter ions: transitions m/z 221-85 and 75 and m/z 226-75 for EtG and the IS, respectively. This laboratory is using a positive cut-off at 50 pg/mg. All eight head hair specimens were negative for EtG at a limit of quantitation fixed at 10 pg/mg. Surprisingly, EtG was identified at high concentrations in pubic hair, in the range 12-1370 pg/mg. It appears, therefore, that it is not possible to document the drinking status of a subject by simply switching from head hair to pubic hair.

  8. Testing human hair for drugs of abuse. IV. Environmental cocaine contamination and washing effects.

    PubMed

    Wang, W L; Cone, E J

    1995-01-05

    Active cocaine use results in sequestration of parent drug in hair. In addition, hair has unique physicochemical properties that permit absorption of cocaine from the environment. When hair is tested for evidence of cocaine, it is important to consider whether the positive test resulted from active drug use or environmental contamination. In a series of laboratory experiments, it was found that exposure of 'cut' hair to cocaine vapor ('crack' smoke) and to aqueous solutions of cocaine hydrochloride resulted in significant contamination of hair samples. Similar results were obtained with two subjects who were exposed to cocaine vapor in an unventilated room. The amount of contamination adsorbed by hair depended upon both time and extent of exposure. Washing the hair samples with methanol removed > 70% of the cocaine contaminant after cocaine vapor exposure, but was less effective (< 50%) following contamination with aqueous cocaine. Shampoo treatment cycles (overnight soaking) progressively removed increasing amounts of cocaine from the contaminated hair, but residual cocaine remained after 10 cycles. Studies were also performed to determine the usefulness of benzoylecgonine as a marker of active cocaine administration. Small amounts of benzoylecgonine (ca. 1 ng/mg) were formed in hair as a result of environmental contamination with cocaine. Also, it was found that benzoylecgonine could be adsorbed from illicit cocaine contaminated with benzoylecgonine. It was concluded that positive hair test results should be interpreted cautiously due to the possibility of environmental contamination from cocaine and related constituents.

  9. Fumonisin mycotoxins in human hair.

    PubMed

    Sewram, Vikash; Mshicileli, Ndumiso; Shephard, Gordon S; Marasas, Walter F O

    2003-01-01

    This study shows for the first time the accumulation of fumonisin mycotoxins in human hair of population clusters exposed to contaminated maize, and thus the feasibility of human hair analysis for the assessment of past fumonisin exposure. Composite hair samples were obtained from the Bizana, Butterworth and Centane districts within the Transkei region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Following methanol extraction and strong anion exchange clean up, the fumonisins FB(1), FB(2) and FB(3) were detected using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). Hair from Centane and Butterworth showed mean levels of FB(1) of 26.7 and 23.5 microg kg(-1) hair, respectively. FB(2) was only detected in hair from Centane and in one sampling point in Butterworth, with mean levels of 6.5 and 5.7 microg kg(-1) hair, respectively. Hair samples from Bizana, on the other hand, were found to contain higher levels of FB(1) (mean 33.0 microg kg(-1) hair) and FB(2) (mean 11.1 microg kg(-1) hair). No samples contained more than trace levels of FB(3). Recoveries from spiked hair samples using this method ranged from 81% to 101%, demonstrating the applicability of hair analysis in assessing human exposure to fumonisin mycotoxins.

  10. Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder)

    MedlinePlus

    Trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder) Overview Trichotillomania (trik-o-til-o-MAY-nee-uh), also called hair-pulling disorder, is a mental disorder that involves recurrent, irresistible urges to pull out hair from your scalp, eyebrows or other areas of ...

  11. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Why Does Hair Turn Gray? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Does Hair Turn Gray? Print en español ¿Por qué se ... ever watched someone try to cover up gray hair by dyeing it? Or maybe you wonder why ...

  12. The Growth of Human Hair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Helen J.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests a simple technique for collecting and observing human hair roots to compare structure, function, and variation. Students extract their own hair samples and view them using a 40-power microscope objective. Differences between active/inactive phases of hair growth are readily observed. (The activity can be adapted for younger students.) (DH)

  13. Hair Follicle Miniaturization in a Woolly Hair Nevus: A Novel "Root" Perspective for a Mosaic Hair Disorder.

    PubMed

    Veraitch, Ophelia; Perez, Alfonso; Hoque, Shamali R; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Fleck, Roland A; Fenton, David A; Stefanato, Catherine M

    2016-03-01

    Woolly hair nevus is a mosaic disorder characterized by unruly, tightly curled hair in a circumscribed area of the scalp. This condition may be associated with epidermal nevi. We describe an 11-year-old boy who initially presented with multiple patches of woolly hair and with epidermal nevi on his left cheek and back. He had no nail, teeth, eye, or cardiac abnormalities. Analysis of plucked hairs from patches of woolly hair showed twisting of the hair shaft and an abnormal hair cuticle. Histopathology of a woolly hair patch showed diffuse hair follicle miniaturization with increased vellus hairs.

  14. Exogenous contamination of uranium in human scalp hair.

    PubMed

    Muikku, Maarit; Heikkinen, Tarja

    2012-06-01

    The use of human scalp hair as a bioindicator of occupational or environmental exposure has been the subject of some debate over the years. One problem is how to distinguish internal contamination from external contamination. In this study, possibility that elevated levels of natural uranium in human hair are partly due to the exogenously bound uranium from uranium-rich household water was tested. Hair samples from six adult volunteers were cut and then exposed externally to uranium by using washing water with highly elevated levels of natural uranium. After that, and before making the analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), the samples were washed using two commonly used washing procedures in order to remove external contamination. No quantitative information was gained in the tests, but it was shown that the use of uranium-rich water when washing hair affects the uranium concentration in hair. Although the samples were cleaned according to widely used washing procedures before the analysis, the uranium concentrations in hair were about three orders of magnitude higher after the tests. The possibility of external contamination should be kept in mind, especially when considering hair as an excretion pathway for estimating internal dose.

  15. Comparison of methanol and isopropanol as wash solvents for determination of hair cortisol concentration in grizzly bears and polar bears.

    PubMed

    Kroshko, Thomas; Kapronczai, Luciene; Cattet, Marc R L; Macbeth, Bryan J; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Obbard, Martyn E; Janz, David M

    2017-01-01

    Methodological differences among laboratories are recognized as significant sources of variation in quantification of hair cortisol concentration (HCC). An important step in processing hair, particularly when collected from wildlife, is the choice of solvent used to remove or "wash" external hair shaft cortisol prior to quantification of HCC. The present study systematically compared methanol and isopropanol as wash solvents for their efficiency at removing external cortisol without extracting internal hair shaft cortisol in samples collected from free-ranging grizzly bears and polar bears. Cortisol concentrations in solvents and hair were determined in each of one to eight washes of hair with each solvent independently. •There were no significant decreases in internal hair shaft cortisol among all eight washes for either solvent, although methanol removed detectable hair surface cortisol after one wash in grizzly bear hair whereas hair surface cortisol was detected in all eight isopropanol washes.•There were no significant differences in polar bear HCC washed one to eight times with either solvent, but grizzly bear HCC was significantly greater in hair washed with isopropanol compared to methanol.•There were significant differences in HCC quantified using different commercial ELISA kits commonly used for HCC determinations.

  16. Hair tonic poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care provider tells you to. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the hair tonic, give them water or milk right away, ...

  17. Hair bleach poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care provider tells you to. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the hair bleach, give them water or milk right away, ...

  18. Davis combs her hair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-08-28

    STS085-327-011 (7 - 19 August 1997) --- Astronaut N. Jan Davis spends a moment of her off-duty time aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery brushing her hair. Davis, payload commander, never strayed far from the payload operations checklist, seen attached to nearby mid-deck wall.

  19. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The use of personal hair dye and its implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-01-01

    Hair dye products now represent one of the most rapidly growing beauty and personal care industries as both men and women commonly change hair color to enhance youth and beauty and to follow fashion trends. Irrespective of economic and education status, people dye their hair to emphasize the importance given to appearance. Despite adverse reactions, many people continue dyeing mainly for cosmetic purposes. This paper provides a comprehensive review on various aspects of hair dying products, especially with respect to the hair-coloring process, classification, chemical ingredients, possible human health impacts, and regulations. Permanent hair dye, which is the most commonly used product type, is formed by an oxidative process involving arylamines to bring about concerns with long-term exposure. Hence, significant efforts have been put to understand the possible side effects of such exposure including cancer risk. However, hair dyes and their ingredients are mainly identified to have moderate to low acute toxicity such as the cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Although some hair dye components are reported to be carcinogenic in animals, such evidence is not consistent enough in the case of human studies. Consequently, further research is desirable to critically address the significance of this issue, especially with respect to the safety of hair dye ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Noise alters hair-bundle mechanics at the cochlear apex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strimbu, C. Elliott; Fridberger, Anders

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to loud sounds can lead to both permanent and short term changes in auditory sensitivity. Permanent hearing loss is often associated with gross changes in cochlear morphology including the loss of hair cells and auditory nerve fibers while the mechanisms of short term threshold shifts are much less well understood and may vary at different locations across the cochlea. Previous reports suggest that exposure to loud sounds leads to a decrease in the cochlear microphonic potential and in the stiffness of the organ of Corti. Because the cochlear microphonic reflects changes in the membrane potential of the hair cells, this suggests that hair-bundle motion should be reversibly altered following exposure to loud sounds. Using an in vitro preparation of the guinea pig temporal bone we investigate changes in the micro-mechanical response near the cochlear apex following a brief (up to 10 - 20 minutes) exposure to loud (˜ 120 dB) tones near the best frequency at this location. We use time-resolved confocal imaging to record the motion of outer hair cell bundles before and after acoustic overstimulation. We have also recorded larger-scale structural views of the organ of Corti before and after exposure to the loud sound. Conventional electrophysiological techniques are used measure the cochlear microphonic potential. As has been previously reported, following acoustic overexposure the cochlear microphonic declines in value and typically recovers on the order of 30 - 60 minutes. Hair-bundle trajectories are affected following the loud sound and typically recover on a somewhat faster time scale than the microphonic potential, although the results vary considerably across preparations. Preliminary results also suggest reversible changes in the hair cell's resting potential following the loud sound.

  2. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today’s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

  3. Hair Follicle Bulb as a Biodosimeter for Low-Level VX Vapor Exposure: Initial Studies Validating the Presence of Potential Protein Biomarkers of Exposure in the Sprague-Dawley Rat Whisker Follicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    lead to false positive segmental hair analysis results.13 Due to the increased risk of false positives associated with segmental hair analysis ...to 200 mg of hair (to allow confirmation testing). 7 The segments are typically washed to remove external contaminants and the chemicals in the hair ...further confirmation. The method overcomes the false positives associated with traditional segmental hair analysis such. By measuring the

  4. Reprogramming of single-cell derived mesenchymal stem cells into hair cell-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhaoyu; Perez, Philip; Sun, Zhenyu; Liu, Jan-Jan; Shin, June Ho; Hyrc, Krzysztof L.; Samways, Damien; Egan, Terry; Holley, Matthew C.; Bao, Jianxin

    2012-01-01

    Hypothesis Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be converted into hair cell-like cells by transdetermination. Background Given the fundamental role sensory hair cells play in sound detection and the irreversibility of their loss in mammals, much research has focused on developing methods to generate new hair cells as a means of treating permanent hearing loss. Although MSCs can differentiate into multiple cell lineages, no efficient means of reprogramming them into sensory hair cells exists. Earlier work has shown that the transcription factor Atoh1 is necessary for early development of hair cells, but it is not clear whether Atoh1 can be used to convert MSCs into hair cells. Methods Clonal MSC cell lines were established and reprogrammed into hair cell-like cells by a combination of protein transfer, adenoviral based gene transfer and co-culture with neurons. During transdetermination, inner ear molecular markers were analyzed by RT-PCR, and cell structures were examined by immunocytochemistry. Results Atoh1 overexpression in MSCs failed to convert MSCs into hair cell-like cells, suggesting that the ability of Atoh1 to induce hair cell differentiation is context dependent. Because Atoh1 overexpression successfully transforms VOT-E36 cells into hair cell-like cells, we modified the cell context of MSCs by performing a total protein transfer from VOT-E36 cells prior to overexpressing Atoh1. The modified MSCs were transformed into hair cell-like cells and attracted contacts from spiral ganglion neurons in a co-culture model. Conclusion We established a new procedure, consisting of VOT-E36 protein transfer, Atoh1 overexpression, and co-culture with spiral ganglion neurons, which can transform MSCs into hair cell-like cells. PMID:23111404

  5. Hair Styling Appliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  6. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or...

  7. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or...

  8. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or...

  9. Normal and aging hair biology and structure 'aging and hair'.

    PubMed

    Goodier, Molly; Hordinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Much like an individual's hairstyle, hair fibers along the scalp see a number of changes over the course of one's lifetime. As the decades pass, the shine and volume synonymous with youthful hair may give way to thin, dull, and brittle hair commonly associated with aging. These changes are a result of a compilation of genetic and environmental elements influencing the cells of the hair follicle, specifically the hair follicle stem cells and melanocytes. Telomere shortening, decrease in cell numbers, and particular transcription factors have all been implicated in this process. In turn, these molecular alterations lead to structural modifications of the hair fiber, decrease in melanin production, and lengthening of the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Despite this inevitable progression with aging, there exists an array of treatments such as light therapy, minoxidil, and finasteride which have been designed to mitigate the effects of aging, particularly balding and thinning hair. Although each works through a different mechanism, all aim to maintain or potentially restore the youthful quality of hair. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Oscillating Permanent Magnets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelis, M. M.; Haines, C. M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes several ways to partially levitate permanent magnets. Computes field line geometries and oscillation frequencies. Provides several diagrams illustrating the mechanism of the oscillation. (YP)

  11. Dark Matter Hairs Around Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-23

    This illustration shows Earth surrounded by filaments of dark matter called "hairs," which are proposed in a study in the Astrophysical Journal by Gary Prézeau of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. A hair is created when a stream of dark matter particles goes through the planet. According to simulations, the hair is densest at a point called the "root." When particles of a dark matter stream pass through the core of Earth, they form a hair whose root has a particle density about a billion times greater than average. The hairs in this illustration are not to scale. Simulations show that the roots of such hairs can be 600,000 miles (1 million kilometers) from Earth, while Earth's radius is only about 4,000 miles (6,400 kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20176

  12. Cortisol levels in hair of East Greenland polar bears

    PubMed Central

    Bechshøft, TØ; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, EW; Novak, MA; Henchey, E; Meyer, JS

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate the ability to assess long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), a pilot study was conducted in which cortisol concentrations was analyzed in hair from 7 female (3–19 years) and 10 male (6-19 years) East Greenland polar bears sampled 1994–2006. Hair was chosen as matrix as it is non-invasive, seasonally harmonized, and has been validated as an index of long-term changes in cortisol levels. Samples were categorized according to contamination: Eight were clean (2 females, 6 males), 5 had been contaminated with bear blood (2 F, 3 M), and 4 with bear fat (3 F, 1 M). There was no significant difference in cortisol concentration between the three categories after external contamination was removed. However, contaminated hair samples should be cleaned before cortisol determination. Average hair cortisol concentration was 8.90 pg/mg (range: 5.5 to 16.4 pg/mg). There was no significant correlation between cortisol concentration and age (p = 0.81) or sampling year (p = 0.11). However, females had higher mean cortisol concentration than males (females mean: 11.0 pg/mg, males: 7.3 pg/mg; p = 0.01). The study showed that polar bear hair contains measurable amounts of cortisol and that cortisol in hair may be used in studies of long-term stress in polar bears. PMID:21144554

  13. Relationship between nutritional habits and hair calcium levels in young women.

    PubMed

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

    2011-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were assayed by ELISA. The women were divided into four groups according to their total vitamin D and calcium intakes and hair calcium levels. At adequate calcium intake and comparable serum bone biomarker levels, supplemental vitamin D increased the hair calcium levels. On the other hand, at lower than estimated adequate requirement of vitamin D intake the hair calcium levels were comparable in women with low calcium intakes but consuming high amounts of meat products or those whose diets were rich in dairy products, possibly due to homeostatic mechanisms. Elevated hair calcium was seen in 25% of subjects and could not be related to nutritional or life-style factors. The results show that the hair calcium levels were weakly related to the quality of diet, with some synergistic interactions between nutrients, especially vitamin D and magnesium.

  14. Hair corticosterone measurement in mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Rebecca L; Browne, Caroline A; Lucki, Irwin

    2017-09-01

    In diabetes, glucocorticoid secretion increases secondary to hyperglycemia and is associated with an extensive list of disease complications. Levels of cortisol in humans, or corticosterone in rodents, are usually measured as transitory biomarkers of stress in blood or saliva. Glucocorticoid concentrations accumulate in human or animal hair over weeks and could more accurately measure the cumulative stress burden of diseases like chronic diabetes. In this study, corticosterone levels were measured in hair in verified rodent models of diabetes mellitus. To induce type 1 diabetes, C57BL/6J mice were injected with streptozotocin and blood and hair samples were collected 28days following induction. Leptin receptor deficient (db/db) mice were used as a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes and blood and hair samples were collected at 8weeks of age, after the development of hyperglycemia and obesity. Corticosterone levels from serum, new growth hair and total growth hair were analyzed using an enzyme immunoassay. Corticosterone levels in new growth hair and serum were significantly elevated in both models of diabetes compared to controls. In contrast, corticosterone levels in old hair growth did not differ significantly between diabetic and non-diabetic animals. Thus, hair removal and sampling of new hair growth was a more sensitive procedure for detecting changes in hair corticosterone levels induced by periods of hyperglycemia lasting for 4weeks in mice. These results validate the use of hair to measure long-term changes in corticosterone induced by diabetes in rodent models. Further studies are now needed to validate the utility of hair cortisol as a tool for measuring the stress burden of individuals with diabetes and for following the effects of long-term medical treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diazepam and its metabolites in the mothers' and newborns' hair as a biomarker of prenatal exposure.

    PubMed

    Senczuk-Przybylowska, M; Florek, E; Piekoszewski, W; Merritt, T A; Lechowicz, E; Mazela, J; Kulza, M; Breborowicz, G H; Krzyscin, M; Markwitz, W; Miechowicz, I

    2013-08-01

    Pregnant women are exposed to benzodiazepines for therapeutic purposes during gestation. The goal of this study was to evaluate prenatal exposure to benzodiazepines. Time of exposure during course of pregnancy is a significant aspect of fetal exposure to drugs. Benzodiazepine concentration assay in hair of mothers and newborns exposed prenatally to these drugs was performed in the studies. Development, validation and evaluation of benzodiazepine determination method in mothers and their newborns enables assessment of health risks for the child and implementation of adequate therapeutic procedures. We used A LC-ESI-MS/MS method that allowed determination of diazepam (the main benzodiazepine used by pregnant women was diazepam) and its metabolites (nordazepam, oxazepam) in hair of mothers and newborns. LOQ 10 pg/mg of hair was used in the study. concentration of nordazepam was higher than parent drug (diazepam) and higher in newborns' hair when compared to mothers'. The mean concentrations of diazepam in mothers' hair were 31.6±36.0 and 34.1±42.4 pg/mg in the second and third trimester of pregnancy respectively. The mean concentration of diazepam in newborns' hair was higher and reached levels of 53.3±36.5 pg/mg. The mean concentration of nordazepam in the mothers' hair corresponding to the second and third trimester was 52.9±48.1 and 89.9±122.8 pg/mg, respectively. Nordazepam in the newborns' hair was detected at the mean level of 108.1±144.2 pg/mg. It was concluded that diazepam and nordazepam are permanently incorporated into the hair structure. Presence of diazepam and its metabolites in newborn's hair confirms that these benzodiazepines permeate placental barrier. Segmental analysis of mothers' hair enabled the assessment of drug administration time. Diazepam and its metabolites determined in hair of newborns may serve as biomarkers of prenatal exposure to these drugs. The performed LC-MS/MS analysis was accurate enough to determine even low concentrations

  16. [Body hair and advertising in French magazines].

    PubMed

    Héas, S; Bodin, D; Robène, L; Misery, L

    2007-10-01

    Sociological analysis of advertising reveals the currently operative body codes within a society, and more fundamentally, depicts the (ideal) relationships between men and women, between generations, and so on. To demonstrate that sports advertising based largely on trichological stereotypes. The idealised portrayal of human relations in advertisements (N=700) taken from French magazines was analysed by means of systematic coding and use of analytical software. This approach allowed characterisation of each advertisement in relation to the entire sample, with identification of significant elements (dominant colour, stature of models, setting, etc.), and determination of frequency of appearance and occurrence as well as testing of dependency relations. There were significant differences in the portrayal of men and women in advertisements. In the 700 advertisements in the series we examined, male subjects very often had short hair (231 cases, 33%) or shaved heads (33 cases, 4.7%) while women were shown with long hair, either free (80 cases) or tied (73 cases). Women with short hair were rarely portrayed (4.3%), as were men with long hair (42 cases, 6%). Above all, with the exception of eyebrows and eyelashes, no other body hair was seen in male and female athletic figures in 238 advertisements, being visible in only 60 cases (8.6%). Facial stubble, and more particularly beards and moustaches, was fairly infrequent, despite the omnipresence of male models. The majority of advertising situations involving sporting figures show clear stereotyping. Body hair is a pertinent pointer to understanding of contemporary sports models. A clear overall male/female distinction was present throughout. Men were presented in these adverts as active figures, leaders, etc. while women tended to be passive, spectators, and in some cases, admiring onlookers. A degree of confusion between genders was noticeable as a result of the shaving and depilation trends currently in vogue in the

  17. Genetics Home Reference: uncombable hair syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Uncombable hair syndrome Uncombable hair syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Uncombable hair syndrome is a condition that is characterized by ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: cartilage-hair hypoplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Cartilage-hair hypoplasia Cartilage-hair hypoplasia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is a disorder of bone growth characterized ...

  19. The proteomic profile of hair damage.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, R; Flagler, M J; Jones, L; Rufaut, N; Davis, M G

    2012-06-01

    Monilethrix is a congenital hair shaft disorder with associated fragility. Many of the changes seen in monilethrix hair on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are also seen in hair weathering and cosmetic damage to hair. We used monilethrix as a model to investigate the relationship between hair protein structure and hair strength and resistance to cosmetic insult. We applied proteomic techniques to identify novel peptide damage markers for chemical oxidative damage to hair. The findings suggest that specific sites in the protein structure of hair are targeted during oxidative damage from bleaching, a unique insight into how chemical damage compromises the structural integrity of the hair shaft at the molecular level. Applying proteomics to the study of congenital and acquired hair shaft disorders can deliver new insights into hair damage and novel strategies to strengthen hair. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Differential Expression of Unconventional Myosins in Apoptotic and Regenerating Chick Hair Cells Confirms Two Regeneration Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    DUNCAN, LUKE J.; MANGIARDI, DOMINIC A.; MATSUI, JONATHAN I.; ANDERSON, JULIA K.; McLAUGHLIN-WILLIAMSON, KATE; COTANCHE, DOUGLAS A.

    2008-01-01

    Hair cells of the inner ear are damaged by intense noise, aging, and aminoglycoside antibiotics. Gentamicin causes oxidative damage to hair cells, inducing apoptosis. In mammals, hair cell loss results in a permanent deficit in hearing and balance. In contrast, avians can regenerate lost hair cells to restore auditory and vestibular function. This study examined the changes of myosin VI and myosin VIIa, two unconventional myosins that are critical for normal hair cell formation and function, during hair cell death and regeneration. During the late stages of apoptosis, damaged hair cells are ejected from the sensory epithelium. There was a 4–5-fold increase in the labeling intensity of both myosins and a redistribution of myosin VI into the stereocilia bundle, concurrent with ejection. Two separate mechanisms were observed during hair cell regeneration. Proliferating supporting cells began DNA synthesis 60 hours after gentamicin treatment and peaked at 72 hours postgentamicin treatment. Some of these mitotically produced cells began to differentiate into hair cells at 108 hours after gentamicin (36 hours after bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) administration), as demonstrated by the colabeling of myosin VI and BrdU. Myosin VIIa was not expressed in the new hair cells until 120 hours after gentamicin. Moreover, a population of supporting cells expressed myosin VI at 78 hours after gentamicin treatment and myosin VIIa at 90 hours. These cells did not label for BrdU and differentiated far too early to be of mitotic origin, suggesting they arose by direct transdifferentiation of supporting cells into hair cells. PMID:17048225

  1. Permanent tensions in organization.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Noora

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between permanent tensions and organizational change. This study used paradox theory and a case study. The case organization is a public university hospital in Finland involving several stakeholders. The analysis suggests that the relationship between permanent tensions and organizational change is a paradox that is part of organizational reality. As an organization learns to live with its permanent tensions, the renewal paradox settles into equilibrium. When tensions are provoked, the paradox is disturbed until it finds a new balance. This flexible nature of the paradox is the force that keeps the different stakeholders simultaneously empowered to maintain their unique missions and cohesive in order to benefit from the larger synergy. This research suggests that identification and evaluation of each permanent tension within an organization is important when executing organizational change. The fact that certain tensions are permanent and cannot be solved may have an influence on how planned change initiatives are executed. The results show that permanent tensions may be harnessed for the benefit of an organizational change. This research demonstrates originality by offering an alternative view of tensions, a view which emphasizes not only their permanent and plural nature but their importance for enabling the organization to change at its own, non-disruptive pace. The research also proposes a new concept, the "renewal paradox", to enhance understanding of the relationship between permanent tensions and organizational change.

  2. Permanent magnet assembly

    DOEpatents

    Chell, Jeremy; Zimm, Carl B.

    2006-12-12

    A permanent magnet assembly is disclosed that is adapted to provide a magnetic field across an arc-shaped gap. Such a permanent magnet assembly can be used, for example, to provide a time-varying magnetic field to an annular region for use in a magnetic refrigerator.

  3. Understanding breakage in curly hair.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Bragado, G A; Balooch, G; Dixon-Parks, F; Porter, C; Bryant, H

    2015-07-01

    In 2005, the L'Oréal Institute for hair and skin research carried out a multiethnic study to investigate hair breakage in women residing in the U.S.A. In this study it was reported that a large percentage (96%) of the African-American respondents experience breakage. A combination of structural differences and grooming-induced stresses seem to contribute to the higher breakage incidence in the African-American group as the chemical composition of African-American hair is not significantly different from other ethnic groups. Some authors have proposed that the repeated elongation, torsion and flexion actions may affect the components of the hair fibre. However, considering the different properties of cuticle and cortex, one would expect a different wearing mechanism of each, leading to the ultimate failure of hair. Knowing in detail how each part of the structure fails can potentially lead to better ways to protect the hair from physical insults. To investigate crack propagation and fracture mechanisms in African-American hair. Virgin hair of excellent quality was collected, with informed consent, from a female African-American volunteer. A series of controlled mechanical stresses was applied to 10-mm hair sections using a high-resolution mechanical stage (20 mN) up to the fracture of the fibre. The surface was monitored using scanning electron microscopy imaging during the stress application. X-ray tomographic microscopy images were acquired and quantified to detect changes in energy absorption as a function of applied stress that could be linked to increase in crack density. Analysis of the mechanical response of hair combined with the two imaging techniques led us to propose the following mechanism of hair breakage: cuticle sliding; failure of the cuticle-cortex interface; nucleation of intercellular cracks and growth of cracks at the cuticle-cortex junction; and propagation of intercellular cracks towards the surface of the hair and final breakage when these

  4. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2009-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a

  5. Robotic hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Internal structure changes in bleached black human hair resulting from chemical treatments: A Raman spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzuhara, Akio

    2014-11-01

    In order to investigate in detail the influence of chemical treatments (reduction, hydrolyzed eggwhite protein (HEWP) treatment, and oxidation) on damaged hair keratin fibers, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of excessively bleached (damaged) black human hair resulting from a permanent waving process was directly analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. It was found that L-cysteine (CYS) largely reacted with the gauche-gauche-gauche (GGG) conformation of disulfide (-SS-) groups (while CYS did not react with the trans-gauche-trans (TGT) conformation). In particular, not only the GGG content, but also the cysteic acid content existing throughout the cortex region of the excessively bleached human hair remarkably decreased by performing the oxidation process after reduction. On the other hand, the GGG content of the excessively bleached black human hair increased, while the TGT content decreased by performing the oxidation process after reduction and then HEWP treatment processes. From these experiments, the authors concluded that some of the keratin associated protein (KAP), which has a rich -SS- content and cysteic acid content was eluted from the cortex region along with the disconnection of -SS- groups, thereby leading to the remarkable reduction in the reconnection of -SS- groups of the excessively bleached black human hair after the permanent waving process (the reduction and oxidation processes). Also, the authors concluded that the HEWP treatment process in the permanent waving process caused the reconstruction of the KAP, thereby contributing to the acceleration of the reconnection of -SS- groups during the oxidation process.

  7. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  8. Hair dosimetry following neutron irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Gaillard-Lecanu, E; Briot, F; Distinguin, S; Boisson, P; Exmelin, L; Racine, Y; Berard, P; Flüry-Herard, A; Miele, A; Fottorino, R

    2007-05-01

    Use of hair as a biological dosimeter of neutron exposure was proposed a few years ago. To date, the (32)S(n,p)(32)P reaction in hair with a threshold of 2.5 MeV is the best choice to determine the fast neutron dose using body activation. This information is essential with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the organism. This is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction from the surface to the deeper tissues. This evaluation is essential to the adapted management of irradiated victims by specialized medical staff. Comparison exercises between clinical biochemistry laboratories from French sites (the CEA and COGEMA) and from the IRSN were carried out to validate the measurement of (32)P activity in hair and to improve the techniques used to perform this examination. Hair was placed on a phantom and was irradiated at different doses in the SILENE reactor (Valduc, France). Different parameters were tested: variation of hair type, minimum weight of hair sample, hair wash before measurement, delivery period of results, and different irradiation configurations. The results obtained in these comparison exercises by the different laboratories showed an excellent correlation. This allowed the assessment of a dose-activity relationship and confirmed the feasibility and the interest of (32)P measurement in hair following fast neutron irradiation.

  9. "Dissection" of a Hair Dryer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

  10. The influence of hair lipids in ethnic hair properties.

    PubMed

    Martí, M; Barba, C; Manich, A M; Rubio, L; Alonso, C; Coderch, L

    2016-02-01

    Biochemical studies have mainly focused on the composition of hair. African hair exhibited lower moisturization and less radial swelling when flushing with water compared with Asian or Caucasian hair, and they assumed a possible lipid differentiation among human populations. This study consists in the lipid characterization of different ethnic hairs (Caucasian, Asian and African hairs) and the influence of these lipids in different hair properties such as humidity and mechanical properties. Evaluation of water sorption and desorption of the different ethnic hairs and with and without lipids is also studied mainly to determine permeation changes of the keratin fibres. Extractions of exogenous and endogenous lipids with different organic solvents were performed; lipid analysis and its quantification using thin-layer chromatography coupled to an automated flame ionization detector (TLC/FID) were performed. Absorption and desorption curves were obtained in a thermogravimetric balance equipped with a controlled humidity chamber, the Q5000SA Sorption Analyzer (TA Instruments, New Castle, IL, U.S.A.). Also, mechanical properties (breaking stress and breaking elongation) were analysed using a computer programmable dynamometer (Instron 5500R). Lipid extraction showed the highest amount of total lipids for the African hair which may come from external sebaceous lipids compared with Asian or Caucasian hair. Caucasian fibres were found to be the most hydrated fibre, and a decrease in moisture was found in the extracted fibres, again, which is more important for the Caucasian hair. A superior lineal mass was found for the Asian fibres which supported their higher strength. The results obtained from the analysis of the mechanical properties of delipidized fibres indicate a surprising increase in the strength of African and Caucasian fibres. Perhaps this increase in strength could be related to the humidity decrease in lipid-extracted hair fibres. Results of water uptake and

  11. Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to “Untangle” Hair Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Adya, Keshavmurthy A; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

    2011-01-01

    Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair. PMID:21769242

  12. Dark Matter Hairs Around Jupiter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-23

    This illustration shows Jupiter surrounded by filaments of dark matter called "hairs," which are proposed in a study in the Astrophysical Journal by Gary Prézeau of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. A hair is created when a stream of dark matter particles goes through the planet. According to simulations, the hair is densest at a point called the "root." When particles of a dark matter stream pass through the core of Jupiter, they form a hair whose root has a particle density about a trillion times greater than average. The size of Jupiter relative to the distance between Jupiter and the hair roots is to scale. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20178

  13. Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A and valproic acid on hair cell regeneration in zebrafish lateral line neuromasts

    PubMed Central

    He, Yingzi; Cai, Chengfu; Tang, Dongmei; Sun, Shan; Li, Huawei

    2014-01-01

    In humans, auditory hair cells are not replaced when injured. Thus, cochlear hair cell loss causes progressive and permanent hearing loss. Conversely, non-mammalian vertebrates are capable of regenerating lost sensory hair cells. The zebrafish lateral line has numerous qualities that make it well-suited for studying hair cell development and regeneration. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been shown to have an important role in regenerative processes in vertebrates, but its function in hair cell regeneration in vivo is not fully understood. Here, we have examined the role of HDAC activity in hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. We eliminated lateral line hair cells of 5-day post-fertilization larvae using neomycin and then treated the larvae with HDAC inhibitors. To assess hair cell regeneration, we used 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in zebrafish larvae to label mitotic cells after hair cell loss. We found that pharmacological inhibition of HDACs using trichostatin A (TSA) or valproic acid (VPA) increased histone acetylation in the regenerated neuromasts following neomycin-induced damage. We also showed that treatment with TSA or VPA decreased the number of supporting cells and regenerated hair cells in response to hair cell damage. Additionally, BrdU immunostaining and western blot analysis showed that TSA or VPA treatment caused a significant decrease in the percentage of S-phase cells and induced p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression, both of which are likely to explain the decrease in the amount of newly regenerated hair cells in treated embryos. Finally, we showed that HDAC inhibitors induced no observable cell death in neuromasts as measured by cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HDAC activity has an important role in the regeneration of hair cells in the lateral line. PMID:25431550

  14. Genuine cosmic hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastor, David; Ray, Sourya; Traschen, Jennie

    2017-02-01

    We show that asymptotically future de Sitter (AFdS) spacetimes carry ‘genuine’ cosmic hair; information that is analogous to the mass and angular momentum of asymptotically flat spacetimes and that characterizes how an AFdS spacetime approaches its asymptotic form. We define new ‘cosmological tension’ charges associated with future asymptotic spatial translation symmetries, which are analytic continuations of the ADM mass and tensions of asymptotically planar AdS spacetimes, and which measure the leading anisotropic corrections to the isotropic, exponential de Sitter expansion rate. A cosmological Smarr relation, holding for AFdS spacetimes having exact spatial translation symmetry, is derived. This formula relates cosmological tension, which is evaluated at future infinity, to properties of the cosmology at early times, together with a ‘cosmological volume’ contribution that is analogous to the thermodynamic volume of AdS black holes. Smarr relations for different spatial directions imply that the difference in expansion rates between two directions at late times is related in a simple way to their difference at early times. Hence information about the very early universe can be inferred from cosmic hair, which is potentially observable in a late time de Sitter phase. Cosmological tension charges and related quantities are evaluated for Kasner-de Sitter spacetimes, which serve as our primary examples.

  15. Ecklonia cava promotes hair growth.

    PubMed

    Bak, S S; Ahn, B N; Kim, J A; Shin, S H; Kim, J C; Kim, M K; Sung, Y K; Kim, S K

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have reported the protective effects on skin elasticity of the edible marine seaweed Ecklonia cava, which acts through regulation of both antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses. We evaluated the effect of E. cava and one of its components, dioxinodehydroeckol, on hair-shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and on hair growth in mice. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was used to check cell viability of human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and outer root sheath (ORS) cells after treatment with E. cava and its metabolite, dioxinodehydroeckol. Hair-shaft growth was measured using the in vitro hair-follicle organ-culture system, in the presence or absence of E. cava and dioxinodehydroeckol. Anagen induction activity was examined by topical application of E. cava to the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 expression was measured by reverse transcriptase PCR and ELISA. The proliferation activity was found to be highest for the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of E. cava (EAFE) in DPCs and in ORS cells. Treatment with EAFE resulted in elongation of the hair shaft in cultured human hair follicles, and promoted transition of the hair cycle from the telogen to the anagen phase in the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. In addition, EAFE induced an increase in IGF-1 expression in DPCs. Dioxinodehydroeckol, a component of E. cava, induced elongation of the hair shaft, an increase in proliferation of DPCs and ORS cells, and an increase in expression of IGF-1 in DPCs. These results suggest that E. cava containing dioxinodehydroeckol promotes hair growth through stimulation of DPCs and ORS cells. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Harvesting electricity from human hair.

    PubMed

    Tulachan, Brindan; Singh, Sushil K; Philip, Deepu; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of human hair is a debatable issue among hair experts and scientists. There are unsubstantiated claims that hair conducts electricity. However, hair experts provided ample evidence that hair is an insulator. Although wet hair exhibited drastic reduction in resistivity; scientists regarded hair as a proton semiconductor at the best. Here, we demonstrate that hair filaments generate electricity on absorbing water vapor between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. This electricity can operate low power electronic systems. Essentially, we are exposing the hydrated hair polymer to a high temperature (50 degrees-80 degrees C). It has long been speculated that when certain biopolymers are simultaneously hydrated and exposed to high temperature, they exhibit significant proton hopping at a specific temperature regime. This happens due to rapid movement of water molecules on the polymer surface. This lead us to speculate that the observed flow of current is partly ionic and partly due to "proton hopping" in the hydrated nano spaces of hair filament. Such proton hopping is exceptionally high when the hydrated hair polymer is exposed to a temperature between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetry data further corroborated the results and indicated that indeed at this temperature range, there is an enormous movement of water molecules on the hair polymer surface. This enormously rapid movement of water molecules lead to the "making and breaking" of innumerable hydrogen bonds and thus resulting in hopping of the protons. What is challenging is "how to tap these hopping protons to obtain useful electricity?" We achieved this by placing a bundle of hair between two different electrodes having different electro negativities, and exposing it to water vapor (water + heat). The two different electrodes offered directionality to the hopping protons and the existing ions and thus resulting in the generation of useful current. Further, by

  17. 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate - a coupler causing contact allergy from use in hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jakob T; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis resulting from the use of permanent hair dyes is common. Approximately 100 hair dye chemicals are permitted in Europe. Hair dye ingredients may change over time, and hence new hair dye allergens should be looked for continuously. To review positive patch test reactions to the coupler 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. Patch test results from the Allergen Bank database for eczema patients patch tested with 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014 were reviewed. A total of 902 dermatitis patients (154 from the dermatology department and 748 from 65 practices) were patch tested with amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. Thirteen (1.4%) patients had a positive patch test reaction. Our results do not indicate irritant reactions. 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate is a new but rare contact allergen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Severe facial swelling in a pregnant woman after using hair dye.

    PubMed

    van Genderen, Michel E; Carels, Ginette; Lonnee, Edward R; Dees, Adriaan

    2014-03-31

    A 33-year-old Caucasian pregnant woman (26 weeks' gestation) presented to the emergency department. She had a 2-day history of severe itching of the scalp and steadily worsening swelling of the face over the previous 12 h, which had extended to the neck. She had no difficulty breathing. The itching and swelling had developed 3 days after she had used hair dye. The patient had no history of allergic responses to hair dye or black henna tattoos. A diagnosis of type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction was made. Permanent hair dyes are the most frequently used professional hair dyes and are most commonly based on paraphenylenediamine (PPD) or related chemicals. PPD is known to be one of the most potent allergens which cause allergic contact dermatitis. After treatment with intravenous antihistamines and steroids, the facial swelling reduced and the patient had completely recovered by the following day.

  19. Hair as the nidus for bladder calculi formation complicating suprapubic cystostomy catheterization: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ke, Hung-Lung; Lin, Hung-Yu; Jang, Mei-Yu; Wu, Wen-Jeng

    2006-05-01

    Neurogenic bladder is a familiar sequel to spinal cord injury, and bladder calculi is a common complication of neurogenic bladder. We report a case of a 25-year-old man with spinal cord injury resulting in neurogenic bladder. Permanent cystostomy was performed, and, for 4 years, the patient received periodic replacement of a cystostomy catheter. Bladder calculi were found on follow-up radiography. Cystoscopic lithotripsy was done, and it was noted that a hair was the nidus of a calculus. The hair could have been introduced into the bladder accidentally during the cystostomy catheter replacement. We suggest routine pubic hair care, even shaving, for patients suffering from neurogenic bladder with cystostomy. In addition, patients and caregivers should take care not to introduce pubic hair into the bladder while changing cystostomy catheters.

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Hair Follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishioka, Noriaki; Terada, Masahiro; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Higashibata, Akira; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    Hair root cells actively divide in a hair follicle, and they sensitively reflect physical conditions. By analyzing the human hair, we can know stress levels on the human body and metabolic conditions caused by microgravity environment and cosmic radiation. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. During long-term flights, the physiological effects on astronauts include muscle atrophy and bone calcium loss. Furthermore, radiation and psychological effects are important issue to consider. Therefore, an understanding of the effects of the space environment is important for developing countermeasures against the effects experienced by astronauts. In this experiment, we identify functionally important target proteins that integrate transcriptome, mineral metabolism and proteome profiles from human hair. To compare the protein expression data with the gene expression data from hair roots, we developed the protein processing method. We extracted the protein from five strands of hair using ISOGEN reagents. Then, these extracted proteins were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. These collected profiles will give us useful physiological information to examine the effect of space flight.

  1. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) exacerbates cisplatin-induced sensory hair cell death in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Uribe, Phillip M; Mueller, Melissa A; Gleichman, Julia S; Kramer, Matthew D; Wang, Qi; Sibrian-Vazquez, Martha; Strongin, Robert M; Steyger, Peter S; Cotanche, Douglas A; Matsui, Jonathan I

    2013-01-01

    Inner ear sensory hair cells die following exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics or chemotherapeutics like cisplatin, leading to permanent auditory and/or balance deficits in humans. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are used to study drug-induced sensory hair cell death since their hair cells are similar in structure and function to those found in humans. We developed a cisplatin dose-response curve using a transgenic line of zebrafish that expresses membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein under the control of the Brn3c promoter/enhancer. Recently, several small molecule screens have been conducted using zebrafish to identify potential pharmacological agents that could be used to protect sensory hair cells in the presence of ototoxic drugs. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is typically used as a solvent for many pharmacological agents in sensory hair cell cytotoxicity assays. Serendipitously, we found that DMSO potentiated the effects of cisplatin and killed more sensory hair cells than treatment with cisplatin alone. Yet, DMSO alone did not kill hair cells. We did not observe the synergistic effects of DMSO with the ototoxic aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin. Cisplatin treatment with other commonly used organic solvents (i.e. ethanol, methanol, and polyethylene glycol 400) also did not result in increased cell death compared to cisplatin treatment alone. Thus, caution should be exercised when interpreting data generated from small molecule screens since many compounds are dissolved in DMSO.

  2. Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) Exacerbates Cisplatin-induced Sensory Hair Cell Death in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Gleichman, Julia S.; Kramer, Matthew D.; Wang, Qi; Sibrian-Vazquez, Martha; Strongin, Robert M.; Steyger, Peter S.; Cotanche, Douglas A.; Matsui, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Inner ear sensory hair cells die following exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics or chemotherapeutics like cisplatin, leading to permanent auditory and/or balance deficits in humans. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are used to study drug-induced sensory hair cell death since their hair cells are similar in structure and function to those found in humans. We developed a cisplatin dose-response curve using a transgenic line of zebrafish that expresses membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein under the control of the Brn3c promoter/enhancer. Recently, several small molecule screens have been conducted using zebrafish to identify potential pharmacological agents that could be used to protect sensory hair cells in the presence of ototoxic drugs. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is typically used as a solvent for many pharmacological agents in sensory hair cell cytotoxicity assays. Serendipitously, we found that DMSO potentiated the effects of cisplatin and killed more sensory hair cells than treatment with cisplatin alone. Yet, DMSO alone did not kill hair cells. We did not observe the synergistic effects of DMSO with the ototoxic aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin. Cisplatin treatment with other commonly used organic solvents (i.e. ethanol, methanol, and polyethylene glycol 400) also did not result in increased cell death compared to cisplatin treatment alone. Thus, caution should be exercised when interpreting data generated from small molecule screens since many compounds are dissolved in DMSO. PMID:23383324

  3. Caspase inhibitors promote vestibular hair cell survival and function after aminoglycoside treatment in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsui, Jonathan I.; Haque, Asim; Huss, David; Messana, Elizabeth P.; Alosi, Julie A.; Roberson, David W.; Cotanche, Douglas A.; Dickman, J. David; Warchol, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    The sensory hair cells of the inner ear undergo apoptosis after acoustic trauma or aminoglycoside antibiotic treatment, causing permanent auditory and vestibular deficits in humans. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for caspase activation in hair cell death and ototoxic injury that can be reduced by concurrent treatment with caspase inhibitors in vitro. In this study, we examined the protective effects of caspase inhibition on hair cell death in vivo after systemic injections of aminoglycosides. In one series of experiments, chickens were implanted with osmotic pumps that administrated the pan-caspase inhibitor z-Val-Ala-Asp(Ome)-fluoromethylketone (zVAD) into inner ear fluids. One day after the surgery, the animals received a 5 d course of treatment with streptomycin, a vestibulotoxic aminoglycoside. Direct infusion of zVAD into the vestibule significantly increased hair cell survival after streptomycin treatment. A second series of experiments determined whether rescued hair cells could function as sensory receptors. Animals treated with streptomycin displayed vestibular system impairment as measured by a greatly reduced vestibulo-ocular response (VOR). In contrast, animals that received concurrent systemic administration of zVAD with streptomycin had both significantly greater hair cell survival and significantly increased VOR responses, as compared with animals treated with streptomycin alone. These findings suggest that inhibiting the activation of caspases promotes the survival of hair cells and protects against vestibular function deficits after aminoglycoside treatment.

  4. [Hair growth effect of minoxidil].

    PubMed

    Otomo, Susumu

    2002-03-01

    The length and size of hair are depend on the anagen term in its hair cycle. It has been reported that the some cell growth factors, such as VEGF, FGF-5S, IGF-1 and KGF, induce the proliferation of cells in the matrix, dermal papilla and dermal papillary vascular system and increase the amount of extra cellular matrix in dermal papilla and then maintain follicles in the anagen phase. On the other hand, negative factors, like FGF-5, thrombospondin, or still unknown ones, terminate the anagen phase. If the negative factors become dominant against cell proliferation factors according to fulfilling some time set by the biological clock for hair follicles, TGF beta induced in the matrix tissues evokes apoptosis of matrix cells and shifts the follicles from anagen to catagen. Androgenetic alopecia is caused by miniaturizing of hair follicles located in the frontal or crown part of scalp and are hereditarily more sensitive to androgen. In their hair cycles, the androgen shortens the anagen phase of follicles and shifts them to the catagen phase earlier than usual. The mode of action of hair growth effect of minoxidil is not completely elucidated, but the most plausible explanation proposed here is that minoxidil works as a sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) activator and prolongs the anagen phase of hair follicles in the following manner: minoxidil (1) induces cell growth factors such as VEGF, HGF, IGF-1 and potentiates HGF and IGF-1 actions by the activation of uncoupled SUR on the plasma membrane of dermal papilla cells, (2) inhibits of TGF beta induced apoptosis of hair matrix cells by opening the Kir 6.0 channel pore coupled with SUR on the mitochondrial inner membrane, and (3) dilates hair follicle arteries and increases blood flow in dermal papilla by opening the Kir 6.0 channel pore coupled with SUR on the plasma membrane of vascular smooth muscle cells.

  5. Stimulation of hair cells with ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimzadeh, Julien B.; Fabella, Brian A.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Hair bundles are specialized organelles that transduce mechanical inputs into electrical outputs. To activate hair cells, physiologists have resorted to mechanical methods of hair-bundle stimulation. Here we describe a new method of hair-bundle stimulation, irradiation with ultraviolet light. A hair bundle illuminated by ultraviolet light rapidly moves towards its tall edge, a motion typically associated with excitatory stimulation. The motion disappears upon tip-link rupture and is associated with the opening of mechanotransduction channels. Hair bundles can be induced to move sinusoidally with oscillatory modulation of the stimulation power. We discuss the implications of ultraviolet stimulation as a novel hair-bundle stimulus.

  6. The structure of people's hair.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2014-01-01

    Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of α-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization

  7. Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing

    PubMed Central

    Draelos, Zoe D

    2010-01-01

    Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish? PMID:21188020

  8. Development of a smart, anti-water polyurethane polymer hair coating for style setting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Liu, Y J; Hu, J; Ji, F L; Lv, J; Chen, S J; Zhu, Y

    2016-06-01

    be recovered 94% at 75°C, once its shape is changed by an external force. The treated hair can withstand warm water rinsing for at least five cycles, and it can keep 65% of its original setting style after water rinsing. The polyurethane polymer could be totally removed by shampooing the hair and hot towel covering for 5-10 min. This research provides an effective way for the development of new intelligent shaping agents. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  9. Protein Analysis with Human Hair

    ScienceCinema

    Hart, Brad; Anex, Deon; Parker, Glendon

    2018-01-16

    In an important breakthrough for the forensic science community, researchers have developed the first-ever biological identification method that exploits the information encoded in proteins of human hair.

  10. Protein Analysis with Human Hair

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Brad; Anex, Deon; Parker, Glendon

    In an important breakthrough for the forensic science community, researchers have developed the first-ever biological identification method that exploits the information encoded in proteins of human hair.

  11. Quantitative Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Soybean Root Hairs Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Tran H.; Brechenmacher, Laurent; Aldrich, Joshua T.

    2012-11-11

    Root hairs are single hair-forming cells on roots that function to increase root surface area, enhancing water and nutrient uptake. In leguminous plants, root hairs also play a critical role as the site of infection by symbiotic nitrogen fixing rhizobia, leading to the formation of a novel organ, the nodule. The initial steps in the rhizobia-root hair infection process are known to involve specific receptor kinases and subsequent kinase cascades. Here, we characterize the phosphoproteome of the root hairs and the corresponding stripped roots (i.e., roots from which root hairs were removed) during rhizobial colonization and infection to gain insightmore » into the molecular mechanism of root hair cell biology. We chose soybean (Glycine max L.), one of the most important crop plants in the legume family, for this study because of its larger root size, which permits isolation of sufficient root hair material for phosphoproteomic analysis. Phosphopeptides derived from root hairs and stripped roots, mock inoculated or inoculated with the soybean-specific rhizobium Bradyrhizobium japonicum, were labeled with the isobaric tag 8-plex ITRAQ, enriched using Ni-NTA magnetic beads and subjected to nRPLC-MS/MS analysis using HCD and decision tree guided CID/ETD strategy. A total of 1,625 unique phosphopeptides, spanning 1,659 non-redundant phosphorylation sites, were detected from 1,126 soybean phosphoproteins. Among them, 273 phosphopeptides corresponding to 240 phosphoproteins were found to be significantly regulated (>1.5 fold abundance change) in response to inoculation with B. japonicum. The data reveal unique features of the soybean root hair phosphoproteome, including root hair and stripped root-specific phosphorylation suggesting a complex network of kinase-substrate and phosphatase-substrate interactions in response to rhizobial inoculation.« less

  12. Highest permanent human habitation.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to determine the altitude of the highest permanent human habitation in the hope that this will throw some light on what determines the highest altitude that a community can tolerate indefinitely. A number of places where people have lived at very high altitudes for long periods of time are reviewed. Individuals have lived for as long as 2 yr at an altitude of 5950 m, and there was a miner's camp at 5300 m for several years. The highest permanently inhabited town in the world at the present time appears to be La Rinconada, a mining village of over 7000 people in southern Peru at an altitude of up to 5100 m, which has been in existence for over 40 yr. The altitude of the highest permanent human habitation is determined partly by economic factors, rather than solely by human tolerance to hypoxia.

  13. Wild boar hair (Sus scrofa) as a non-invasive indicator of mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Sobańska, Marta A

    2005-03-01

    This paper investigates the usefulness of wild boar (Sus scrofa) hair as a non-invasive indicator of mercury pollution. Samples were collected in two hunting seasons (1998/1999 and 1999/2000) by hunters from four differently polluted regions of Poland. Mercury content was determined by AAS methods. Different washing procedures were compared. De-ionised water was found to be suitable for the removal of exogenous mercury sources in hair analysis. Metal distribution along hair was analysed. It was found that problems arising from differences in distribution of metal along a single hair strand as well as differences in the hair colour can be eliminated through the careful homogenisation of the samples before analysis. The influences of physiological, ecological and environmental factors that might significantly affect the obtained results (age, gender, season, location of habitat and diet of the sampled animals) were estimated and taken into account. The present study revealed that female hair contained a higher amount of mercury than male hair. Moreover the highest mercury content was found in young individuals between 1 and 2 years of age. A positive correlation of the present results with environmental data taken from the State Offices showed an influence of environmental pollution on the mercury level in wild boar hair.

  14. Does the hair influence heat extraction from the head during head cooling under heat stress?

    PubMed Central

    SHIN, Sora; PARK, Joonhee; LEE, Joo-Young

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of head hair on thermoregulatory responses when cooling the head under heat stress. Eight young males participated in six experimental conditions: normal hair (100–130 mm length) and cropped hair (5 mm length) with three water inlet temperatures of 10, 15, and 20°C. The head and neck of subjects were cooled by a liquid perfused hood while immersing legs at 42°C water for 60 min in a sitting position at the air temperature of 28°C with 30% RH. The results showed that heat removal from the normal hair condition was not significantly different from the cropped hair condition. Rectal and mean skin temperatures, and sweat rate showed no significant differences between the normal and cropped hair conditions. Heat extraction from the head was significantly greater in 10°C than in 15 or 20°C cooling (p<0.05) for both normal and cropped hair, whereas subjects preferred the 15°C more than the 10 or 20°C cooling regimen. These results indicate that the selection of effective cooling temperature is more crucial than the length of workers’ hair during head cooling under heat stress, and such selection should be under the consideration of subjective perceptions with physiological responses. PMID:26165361

  15. Contactless decontamination of hair samples: cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Restolho, José; Barroso, Mário; Saramago, Benilde; Dias, Mário; Afonso, Carlos A M

    2017-02-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have already been shown to provide efficient extraction media for several systems, and to capture volatile compounds, namely opiates. In this work, a novel, contactless, artefact-free extraction procedure for the removal of Δ 9 -tetrahrydrocannabinol (THC) from the surface of human hair is presented. To prepare in vitro cannabinoids-contaminated hair, samples were flushed with hashish smoke for 7 h. The decontamination experiments were carried at 100 °C for 24 h, according to the procedure previously described. Fifty-three ILs were screened and presented decontamination efficiencies ranging from 0 to 96 %. Although the majority of the ILs presented efficiencies above 90%, the 1-ethanol-3-methyl tetrafluoroborate (96%) was chosen for further process optimization. The Design of Experiments results demonstrated that all studied variables were significant for the process and the obtained optimum conditions were: 100 °C, 13 h and 175 mg of IL. In the work of Perrotin-Brunel et al. (J. Mol. Struct. 2011, 987, 67), it is demonstrated that, at 100 °C, full conversion of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into THC is obtained after 60 min. Since our decontamination takes place over 13 h at 100 °C, full conversion of THCA into THC is expected. Additionally, our method was compared with the method proposed by Cairns et al. (Forensic Sci. Int. 2004, 145, 97), through the analysis of 15 in vitro contaminated hair samples. The results demonstrated that with our method a mean extraction efficiency of 11 % higher was obtained. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The hair follicle bulge: a niche for adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pasolli, Hilda Amalia

    2011-08-01

    Adult stem cells (SCs) are essential for tissue homeostasis and wound repair. They have the ability to both self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types. They often reside in specialized microenvironments or niches that preserve their proliferative and tissue regenerative capacity. The murine hair follicle (HF) has a specialized and permanent compartment--the bulge, which safely lodges SCs and provides the necessary molecular cues to regulate their function. The HF undergoes cyclic periods of destruction, regeneration, and rest, making it an excellent system to study SC biology.

  17. Object permanence in lemurs.

    PubMed

    Deppe, Anja M; Wright, Patricia C; Szelistowski, William A

    2009-03-01

    Object permanence, the ability to mentally represent objects that have disappeared from view, should be advantageous to animals in their interaction with the natural world. The objective of this study was to examine whether lemurs possess object permanence. Thirteen adult subjects representing four species of diurnal lemur (Eulemur fulvus rufus, Eulemur mongoz, Lemur catta and Hapalemur griseus) were presented with seven standard Piagetian visible and invisible object displacement tests, plus one single visible test where the subject had to wait predetermined times before allowed to search, and two invisible tests where each hiding place was made visually unique. In all visible tests lemurs were able to find an object that had been in clear view before being hidden. However, when lemurs were not allowed to search for up to 25-s, performance declined with increasing time-delay. Subjects did not outperform chance on any invisible displacements regardless of whether hiding places were visually uniform or unique, therefore the upper limit of object permanence observed was Stage 5b. Lemur species in this study eat stationary foods and are not subject to stalking predators, thus Stage 5 object permanence is probably sufficient to solve most problems encountered in the wild.

  18. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and…

  19. Cortisol levels in hair of East Greenland polar bears.

    PubMed

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, E W; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S

    2011-01-15

    To demonstrate the ability to assess long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), a pilot study was conducted in which cortisol concentrations was analyzed in hair from 7 female (3-19 years) and 10 male (6-19 years) East Greenland polar bears sampled in 1994-2006. The hair was chosen as matrix as it is non-invasive, seasonally harmonized, and has been validated as an index of long-term changes in cortisol levels. The samples were categorized according to contamination: eight were clean (2 females, 6 males), 5 had been contaminated with bear blood (2 F, 3 M), and 4 with bear fat (3 F, 1 M). There was no significant difference in cortisol concentration between the three categories after external contamination was removed. However, contaminated hair samples should be cleaned before cortisol determination. Average hair cortisol concentration was 8.90 pg/mg (range: 5.5 to 16.4 pg/mg). There was no significant correlation between cortisol concentration and age (p=0.81) or sampling year (p=0.11). However, females had higher mean cortisol concentration than males (females mean: 11.0 pg/mg, males: 7.3 pg/mg; p=0.01). The study showed that polar bear hair contains measurable amounts of cortisol and that cortisol in hair may be used in studies of long-term stress in polar bears. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Highly efficient and compatible shampoo for use after hair transplant.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Dorothea; Schoelermann, Andrea M; Filbry, Alexander; Hamann, Tina; Moser, Claudia; Rippke, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Sensitive or hyperreactive skin is a common condition defined by prickling, burning, pain, and pruritus. Although this skin problem was initially described on the face, the scalp is often affected. A sensitive scalp can react with irritation to harsh surfactants or other additives which are often present in shampoos. For this reason, we developed a new rinse-off hypertolerant shampoo specifically designed for the hypersensitive and problematic scalp. The shampoo formulation is based on an extremely mild surfactant system and contains bisabolol, an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient of chamomile. The shampoo is free of additives such as perfumes, silicones, colorants, parabens, paraffins, and betaine. Since skin can remain in a hyperreactive state after wounding, the status after hair transplantation was chosen as a model system to test the shampoo. Scalp condition and compatibility of each volunteer were analyzed by a plastic surgeon directly after hair transplant and after stitch removal. The plastic surgeons also rated whether they would recommend the further use of the test shampoo. Additionally, volunteers completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Following hair transplantation, regular use of the shampoo resulted in a significant reduction in the extent of scabbing and erythema. This was confirmed by dermatological scalp examinations performed by the plastic surgeon as well as in volunteers' self-assessments. The plastic surgeon highly recommended the further use of the test shampoo after hair transplant to all study participants. Application of the test shampoo demonstrated excellent skin compatibility and product efficacy after hair transplant. The test shampoo significantly reduced the extent of scabs and erythema. Therefore, the shampoo is ideally suited for use after hair transplantation and for the treatment of sensitive scalp. The excellent skin compatibility is because of the mild surfactant system, the calming ingredient bisabolol, and

  1. Hair Manganese as an Exposure Biomarker among Welders

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Boris; Simpson, Christopher D.; Baker, Marissa G.; Stover, Bert; Sheppard, Lianne; Seixas, Noah S.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying exposure and dose to manganese (Mn) containing airborne particles in welding fume presents many challenges. Common biological markers such as Mn in blood or Mn in urine have not proven to be practical biomarkers even in studies where positive associations were observed. However, hair Mn (MnH) as a biomarker has the advantage over blood and urine that it is less influenced by short-term variability of Mn exposure levels because of its slow growth rate. The objective of this study was to determine whether hair can be used as a biomarker for welders exposed to manganese. Hair samples (1cm) were collected from 47 welding school students and individual air Mn (MnA) exposures were measured for each subject. MnA levels for all days were estimated with a linear mixed model using welding type as a predictor. A 30-day time-weighted average MnA (MnA30d) exposure level was calculated for each hair sample. The association between MnH and MnA30d levels was then assessed. A linear relationship was observed between log-transformed MnA30d and log-transformed MnH. Doubling MnA30d exposure levels yields a 20% (95% confidence interval: 11–29%) increase in MnH. The association was similar for hair washed following two different wash procedures designed to remove external contamination. Hair shows promise as a biomarker for inhaled Mn exposure given the presence of a significant linear association between MnH and MnA30d levels. PMID:26409267

  2. Hair Manganese as an Exposure Biomarker among Welders.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Boris; Simpson, Christopher D; Baker, Marissa G; Stover, Bert; Sheppard, Lianne; Seixas, Noah S

    2016-03-01

    Quantifying exposure and dose to manganese (Mn) containing airborne particles in welding fume presents many challenges. Common biological markers such as Mn in blood or Mn in urine have not proven to be practical biomarkers even in studies where positive associations were observed. However, hair Mn (MnH) as a biomarker has the advantage over blood and urine that it is less influenced by short-term variability of Mn exposure levels because of its slow growth rate. The objective of this study was to determine whether hair can be used as a biomarker for welders exposed to manganese. Hair samples (1cm) were collected from 47 welding school students and individual air Mn (MnA) exposures were measured for each subject. MnA levels for all days were estimated with a linear mixed model using welding type as a predictor. A 30-day time-weighted average MnA (MnA30d) exposure level was calculated for each hair sample. The association between MnH and MnA30d levels was then assessed. A linear relationship was observed between log-transformed MnA30d and log-transformed MnH. Doubling MnA30d exposure levels yields a 20% (95% confidence interval: 11-29%) increase in MnH. The association was similar for hair washed following two different wash procedures designed to remove external contamination. Hair shows promise as a biomarker for inhaled Mn exposure given the presence of a significant linear association between MnH and MnA30d levels. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  3. Highly efficient and compatible shampoo for use after hair transplant

    PubMed Central

    Schweiger, Dorothea; Schoelermann, Andrea M; Filbry, Alexander; Hamann, Tina; Moser, Claudia; Rippke, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background Sensitive or hyperreactive skin is a common condition defined by prickling, burning, pain, and pruritus. Although this skin problem was initially described on the face, the scalp is often affected. A sensitive scalp can react with irritation to harsh surfactants or other additives which are often present in shampoos. For this reason, we developed a new rinse-off hypertolerant shampoo specifically designed for the hypersensitive and problematic scalp. Methods The shampoo formulation is based on an extremely mild surfactant system and contains bisabolol, an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient of chamomile. The shampoo is free of additives such as perfumes, silicones, colorants, parabens, paraffins, and betaine. Since skin can remain in a hyperreactive state after wounding, the status after hair transplantation was chosen as a model system to test the shampoo. Scalp condition and compatibility of each volunteer were analyzed by a plastic surgeon directly after hair transplant and after stitch removal. The plastic surgeons also rated whether they would recommend the further use of the test shampoo. Additionally, volunteers completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results Following hair transplantation, regular use of the shampoo resulted in a significant reduction in the extent of scabbing and erythema. This was confirmed by dermatological scalp examinations performed by the plastic surgeon as well as in volunteers’ self-assessments. The plastic surgeon highly recommended the further use of the test shampoo after hair transplant to all study participants. Conclusion Application of the test shampoo demonstrated excellent skin compatibility and product efficacy after hair transplant. The test shampoo significantly reduced the extent of scabs and erythema. Therefore, the shampoo is ideally suited for use after hair transplantation and for the treatment of sensitive scalp. The excellent skin compatibility is because of the mild surfactant system

  4. Nutrition and hair: deficiencies and supplements.

    PubMed

    Finner, Andreas M

    2013-01-01

    Hair follicle cells have a high turnover. A caloric deprivation or deficiency of several components, such as proteins, minerals, essential fatty acids, and vitamins, caused by inborn errors or reduced uptake, can lead to structural abnormalities, pigmentation changes, or hair loss, although exact data are often lacking. The diagnosis is established through a careful history, clinical examination of hair loss activity, and hair quality and confirmed through targeted laboratory tests. Examples of genetic hair disorders caused by reduced nutritional components are zinc deficiency in acrodermatitis enteropathica and copper deficiency in Menkes kinky hair syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Trichoscopic Findings of Hair Loss in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin; Kim, Joo-Ik; Kim, Han-Uk; Yun, Seok-Kweon

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichoscopic findings of hair loss have been well described for the differential diagnosis of alopecia; however, critical findings were not thoroughly investigated or compared among all ethnic groups, including Asians. Objective We aimed to find any characteristic trichoscopic findings in Korean alopecia patients and to verify whether those findings are closely related to previously reported observations. Methods Three hundred and twenty-seven patients with hair loss of various causes and 160 normal scalps were analyzed. Trichoscopic examination was performed with a polarized-light handheld dermoscope. Results A total of 35 patterns of trichoscopic features were represented, and certain features were significantly common or observed exclusively in a particular type of alopecia as follows: yellow dots, exclamation mark hairs, and proximal tapering hairs (alopecia areata), trichoptilosis and pointed hairs (trichotillomania), corkscrew hairs, septate hyphae hairs, and comma hairs (tinea capitis), diffuse white area, fibrotic white dots, and tufting hairs (primary cicatricial alopecia), hair diameter diversity and peripilar sign (androgenetic alopecia), and short nonvellus hairs (telogen effluvium). Conclusion The characteristic trichoscopic features for the differential diagnosis of alopecia in Koreans, shown as follicular, perifollicular, and hair shaft patterns, are similar to those of Caucasians; however, the frequencies of the pigment patterns are different between Koreans and Caucasians because of the contrast effect of the skin and hair color. Therefore, racial difference should be considered in the trichoscopic evaluation for differential diagnosis. PMID:26512168

  6. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  7. Hair loss in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Chen, WenChieh; Yang, Chao-Chun; Todorova, Antonia; Al Khuzaei, Safaa; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Worret, Wolf-Ingo; Ring, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Hair loss in elderly women has been becoming a major topic in the daily practice of dermatology. Aging of hair follicles seems to affect hair growth and pigmentation, the molecular mechanisms of which remain to be elucidated. Further senile changes in physiology and immunity may influence the onset and course of hair diseases. Some preexisting diseases such as androgenetic alopecia usually worsen after menopause, while others, like discoid lupus erythematosus, may attenuate. Hormone surveying, especially with regard to internal androgen-producing tumors, is indicated in postmenopausal women with androgenetic alopecia of sudden exacerbation or with unusual manifestation or other virilizing signs. The prevalence of alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis appears to be much lower in postmenopausal ages as compared to earlier onset. Acute or chronic telogen effluvium is not uncommonly superimposed on androgenetic alopecia. Trichotillomania shows a marked female predominance in the senile age group with a higher rate of psychopathology. Worldwide, tinea capitis has been increasingly observed in postmenopausal women. Frontal fibrosing alopecia, giant cell arteritis and erosive pustular dermatosis involve mainly elder women leading to scarring alopecia. Alopecia induced by tumor metastasis to the scalp must be considered in women with underlying neoplasms, especially breast cancer. Overall, hair loss in postmenopausal women is often multifactorial and warrants a close inspection.

  8. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    PubMed

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  9. Personal hair dyes use and risk of glioma: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chuan; Qi, Zhen-Yu; Hui, Guo-Zhen; Wang, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Use of hair dyes for glioma risk has been investigated in numerous epidemiological studies, but the evidence is inconsistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to estimate the association between hair dyes use and glioma risk. Methods: We searched PubMed and EMBASE databases without any limitations, covering all papers published by the end of March 8, 2013. Cohort and case-control studies reporting relative risk estimates (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) (or data to calculate them) on this issue were included. Random effects models were used to calculate the pooled RRs and corresponding 95% CIs. Results: Four case-control and two cohort studies were included in this meta-analysis. The summary RRs and 95 % CIs for ever users of any hair dyes were 1.132 (0.887-1.446) for all studies, 1.291 (0.938-1.777) for case-control studies, and 0.903 (0.774-1.054) for cohort studies. In the subgroup analysis by geographic regions and sex, the similar results were detected. No significant associations were also observed among the studies which reported data involving permanent hair dye use and duration of any hair dye use. Conclusion: In summary, the results of our study demonstrated that hair dyes use is not associated with risk of glioma. PMID:24179568

  10. The Question of Decalage Between Object Permanence and Person Permanence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Jackson, Elaine

    1978-01-01

    Presents a study of decalage between object permanence and person permanence. Decalage was influenced by environmental as well as stimulus factors with infants tested between 6- and 81/4-months/of-age. (BD)

  11. Hair Dyes Resorcinol and Lawsone Reduce Production of Melanin in Melanoma Cells by Tyrosinase Activity Inhibition and Decreasing Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Kuan-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future. PMID:25584612

  12. [Experimental study on Dendrobium candidum polysaccharides on promotion of hair growth].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Qi, Hui; Li, Jin-Biao; Yi, Yan-Qun; Chen, Dan; Hu, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Mei-Ling; Sun, Xing-Li; Wei, Xiao-Yong

    2014-01-01

    To observe the effect and mechanism of Dendrobium candidum polysaccharides (DCP) in promoting hair growth, in order to lay a foundation for the development and utilization of D. candidum. The water-extraction and alcohol-precipitation method was adopted to extract DCP, and the phenol-sulphuric acid method was used to determine its content. Thirty C57BL6J mice were collected to establish the hair loss model with hair removal cream. They were randomly divided into the control group, the positive control group and the DCP group, and given 0.2 mL of ultra-pure water, minoxidil tincture and DCP (5.0 g x L(-1)) 21 days. The mice hair growth scoring standard was adopted to evaluate the hair growth of C57BL/6J mice at 7, 14 d. The hairs in unit hair-losing areas of treated C57BL/6J mice at 21 d were weighed to evaluate the effect of DCP on the promotion of hair growth. MTT assay and RT-PCR method were used to evaluate the effect of DCP on the proliferatin of HaCaT cells and the mRNA expression of VEGF in HaCaT cells. The extraction percent of DCP was 29.87%, and its content was 79.65%. The average scores for the hair growth and weight of C57BL/6J mice of DCP group were much higher than the control group. The survival rate and mRNA expression of VEGF of HaCaT cells were much higher than the control group. DCP has the effect in promoting hair growth. Its mechanism may be related to the up-regulation of the mRNA expression of VEGF.

  13. Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; /Kyoto U.

    A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four partsmore » and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments.« less

  14. Permanent magnet motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, E.

    1984-09-01

    The work deals with the design and analysis study for the conceptual design of an economical high efficiency ac motor based on permanent magnets. The design and trade off studies have covered the material considerations, the design tradeoff options as well as transient and steady state performance considerations, and other options. The baseline comparison is the high efficiency induction motor. The permanent magnet (PM) motor must fit into the same frame size and surpass the induction motor on a life cost basis that includes 2.5 years of operation at a 50% duty cycle. It is shown that a motor based upon ferrite magnets does meet the objectives of the program in ratings of up to 25 hp. A 7.5 motor design is carried through the conceptual design stage.

  15. Root hairs increase root exudation and rhizosphere extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holz, Maire; Zarebandanadkouki, Mohsen; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Carmintati, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase their access to limited soil resources. An example of such strategies is the production of root hairs. Root hairs extend the root surface and therefore increase the access to nutrients. Additionally, carbon release from root hairs might facilitate nutrient uptake by spreading of carbon in the rhizosphere and enhancing microbial activity. The aim of this study was to test: i) how root hairs change the allocation of carbon in the soil-plant system; ii) whether root hairs exude carbon into the soil and iii) how differences in C release between plants with and without root hairs affect rhizosphere extension. We grew barley plants with and without root hairs (wild type: WT, bald root barley: brb) in rhizoboxes filled with a sandy soil. Root elongation was monitored over time. After 4 weeks of growth, plants were labelled with 14CO2. A filter paper was placed on the soil surface before labelling and was removed after 36 h. 14C imaging of the soil surface and of the filter paper was used to quantify the allocation of 14C into the roots and the exudation of 14C, respectively. Plants were sampled destructively one day after labeling to quantify 14C in the plant-soil system. 14CO2 release from soil over time (17 d) was quantified by trapping CO2 in NaOH with an additional subset of plants. WT and brb plants had a similar aboveground biomass and allocated similar amounts of 14C into shoots (170 KBq for WT; 152 KBq for brb) and roots one day after labelling. Biomass of root, rhizosphere soil as well as root elongation were lower for brb compared to the wild type. WT plants transported more C from the shoots to the roots (22.8% for WT; 13.8% for brb) and from the root into the rhizosphere (8.8% for WT 3.5% for brb). Yet lower amounts of 14CO2 were released from soil over time for WT. Radial and longitudinal rhizosphere extension was increased for WT compared to brb (4.7 vs. 2.6 mm; 5.6 vs. 3.1 cm). The total exudation which was

  16. Permanent magnet design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leupold, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Design techniques developed for the exploitation of high energy magnetically rigid materials such as Sm-Co and Nd-Fe-B have resulted in a revolution in kind rather than in degree in the design of a variety of electron guidance structures for ballistic and aerospace applications. Salient examples are listed. Several prototype models were developed. These structures are discussed in some detail: permanent magnet solenoids, transverse field sources, periodic structures, and very high field structures.

  17. Skin and hair changes during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000611.htm Skin and hair changes during pregnancy To use the sharing features ... women are left with freckles. Your Nails and Hair You may notice changes in the texture and ...

  18. Solubility of structurally complicated materials: 3. Hair.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Ari L

    2009-04-27

    Hair is composed of proteins, lipids, water, and small amounts of trace elements. All proteins in animal and human bodies are built from permutations of amino acid molecules in a polypeptide string. The polypeptide chains of protein keratin are organized into filaments in hair cells. Hair is one of the most difficult proteins to digest or solubilize. Among the most common dissolving procedures for hair are acidic, alkaline, and enzymatic hydrolysis. For the analysis of hair, the solid samples are transferred by solubilization via digestion into a liquid phase. Small molecular solvents and molecules with hydrophobic groups appear to have higher affinity for hair. A good solvent attacks the disulfide bonds between cystine molecules and hydrates the hair shaft. Consequently, the hair becomes a jelly-like mass.

  19. Solubility of Structurally Complicated Materials: 3. Hair

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Ari L.

    2009-01-01

    Hair is composed of proteins, lipids, water, and small amounts of trace elements. All proteins in animal and human bodies are built from permutations of amino acid molecules in a polypeptide string. The polypeptide chains of protein keratin are organized into filaments in hair cells. Hair is one of the most difficult proteins to digest or solubilize. Among the most common dissolving procedures for hair are acidic, alkaline, and enzymatic hydrolysis. For the analysis of hair, the solid samples are transferred by solubilization via digestion into a liquid phase. Small molecular solvents and molecules with hydrophobic groups appear to have higher affinity for hair. A good solvent attacks the disulfide bonds between cystine molecules and hydrates the hair shaft. Consequently, the hair becomes a jelly-like mass. PMID:19412554

  20. Hair stylist wins handsome reward, but will his estate collect?

    PubMed

    1999-04-16

    A hair salon in Washington, D.C., has been ordered to pay $445,190 in damages to a former stylist who was fired because he had an AIDS-related skin tumor. The stylist, [name removed], died in 1996, and his estate continued the litigation. Although the salon, Natural Motion by Sandra, Inc., and a partner in the corporation were found to have discriminated against [name removed], the salon is no longer in business. It is questionable if the estate will ever collect. The District of Columbia Human Rights Act prohibits firing workers for discriminatory reasons based on personal appearance or physical disability.

  1. ``Dissection'' of a Hair Dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-12-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can discover how engineers solve problems such as how to vary between low and high heat and fan speed by simply moving the position of a single switch. Principles of alternating versus direct current, series and parallel circuits, electrical safety, voltage dividing, ac rectification, power, and measurement of resistance and continuity all come in to play.

  2. Epigenetic regulation of Atoh1 guides hair cell development in the mammalian cochlea.

    PubMed

    Stojanova, Zlatka P; Kwan, Tao; Segil, Neil

    2015-10-15

    In the developing cochlea, sensory hair cell differentiation depends on the regulated expression of the bHLH transcription factor Atoh1. In mammals, if hair cells die they do not regenerate, leading to permanent deafness. By contrast, in non-mammalian vertebrates robust regeneration occurs through upregulation of Atoh1 in the surviving supporting cells that surround hair cells, leading to functional recovery. Investigation of crucial transcriptional events in the developing organ of Corti, including those involving Atoh1, has been hampered by limited accessibility to purified populations of the small number of cells present in the inner ear. We used µChIP and qPCR assays of FACS-purified cells to track changes in the epigenetic status of the Atoh1 locus during sensory epithelia development in the mouse. Dynamic changes in the histone modifications H3K4me3/H3K27me3, H3K9ac and H3K9me3 reveal a progression from poised, to active, to repressive marks, correlating with the onset of Atoh1 expression and its subsequent silencing during the perinatal (P1 to P6) period. Inhibition of acetylation blocked the increase in Atoh1 mRNA in nascent hair cells, as well as ongoing hair cell differentiation during embryonic organ of Corti development ex vivo. These results reveal an epigenetic mechanism of Atoh1 regulation underlying hair cell differentiation and subsequent maturation. Interestingly, the H3K4me3/H3K27me3 bivalent chromatin structure observed in progenitors persists at the Atoh1 locus in perinatal supporting cells, suggesting an explanation for the latent capacity of these cells to transdifferentiate into hair cells, and highlighting their potential as therapeutic targets in hair cell regeneration. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Stress and Hair Loss: Are They Related?

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Can stress cause hair loss? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Yes, stress and hair loss ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/expert-answers/stress-and-hair-loss/faq-20057820 . ...

  4. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then I got used ... uncovered.” Questions other people have asked: Why does hair fall out? Chemotherapy can harm the cells that ...

  5. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate...

  6. Diseases that turn African hair silky.

    PubMed

    Ajose, Frances O A

    2012-11-01

    African hair in its natural state poses tenacious grooming challenges; consequently a large portion of the African cosmetic industry is focused on means to relax the tight curls of African hair to make the hair more manageable. In malnourished and hypoproteinemic states, African hair straightens in an uncomplimentary manner. Recently, we observed that in certain diseases African hair changes to a desirable silky wavy texture. To identify the diseases that turn African hair silky and their parameters we examined 5612 dermatology patients at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. We then studied the clinical and basic laboratory parameters of those patients whose diseases were accompanied by the silky hair change. Silky hair change similar to the hair of the African neonatal child was observed in five diseases, namely AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, pulmonary tuberculosis with cachexia, and Behçet's disease. Our study identified retrogression of African hair to the neonatal structure in five diseases. Anemia of chronic illness, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mild hypocalcemia were significant laboratory parameters. This is an important observation, which should excite and advance research into the nature and structure of African hair. The causes of structural hair changes should include these five diseases. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. Tani trims his hair in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-10

    S122-E-007645 (10 Feb. 2008) --- Astronaut Daniel Tani, Expedition 16 flight engineer, trims his hair in the Harmony node of the International Space Station while Space Shuttle Atlantis is docked with the station. Tani used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  8. Tani trims his hair in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-10

    S122-E-007643 (10 Feb. 2008) --- Astronaut Daniel Tani, Expedition 16 flight engineer, trims his hair in the Harmony node of the International Space Station while Space Shuttle Atlantis is docked with the station. Tani used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  9. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The...

  10. Membrane Electromechanics at Hair-Cell Synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownell, W. E.; Farrell, B.; Raphael, R. M.

    2003-02-01

    Both outer hair cell electromotility and neurotransmission at the inner hair cell synapse are rapid mechanical events that are synchronized to the hair-cell receptor potential. We analyze whether the forces and potentials resulting from membrane flexoelectricity could affect synaptic vesicle fusion. The results suggest that the coupling of membrane curvature with membrane potential is of sufficient magnitude to influence neurotransmitter release.

  11. Combover/CG10732, a Novel PCP Effector for Drosophila Wing Hair Formation

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Jeremy K.; Dollar, Gretchen; Lu, Qiuheng; Barnett, Austen; Pechuan Jorge, Joaquin; Schlosser, Andreas; Pfleger, Cathie; Adler, Paul; Jenny, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The polarization of cells is essential for the proper functioning of most organs. Planar Cell Polarity (PCP), the polarization within the plane of an epithelium, is perpendicular to apical-basal polarity and established by the non-canonical Wnt/Fz-PCP signaling pathway. Within each tissue, downstream PCP effectors link the signal to tissue specific readouts such as stereocilia orientation in the inner ear and hair follicle orientation in vertebrates or the polarization of ommatidia and wing hairs in Drosophila melanogaster. Specific PCP effectors in the wing such as Multiple wing hairs (Mwh) and Rho Kinase (Rok) are required to position the hair at the correct position and to prevent ectopic actin hairs. In a genome-wide screen in vitro, we identified Combover (Cmb)/CG10732 as a novel Rho kinase substrate. Overexpression of Cmb causes the formation of a multiple hair cell phenotype (MHC), similar to loss of rok and mwh. This MHC phenotype is dominantly enhanced by removal of rok or of other members of the PCP effector gene family. Furthermore, we show that Cmb physically interacts with Mwh, and cmb null mutants suppress the MHC phenotype of mwh alleles. Our data indicate that Cmb is a novel PCP effector that promotes to wing hair formation, a function that is antagonized by Mwh. PMID:25207969

  12. Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-quan; Jin, Xinghai

    2011-01-01

    Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a total of 30 times. Air flow was set on the hair dryer. The tresses were divided into the following five test groups: (a) no treatment, (b) drying without using a hair dryer (room temperature, 20℃), (c) drying with a hair dryer for 60 seconds at a distance of 15 cm (47℃), (d) drying with a hair dryer for 30 seconds at a distance of 10 cm (61℃), (e) drying with a hair dryer for 15 seconds at a distance of 5 cm (95℃). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM were performed. Water content was analyzed by a halogen moisture analyzer and hair color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Results Hair surfaces tended to become more damaged as the temperature increased. No cortex damage was ever noted, suggesting that the surface of hair might play a role as a barrier to prevent cortex damage. Cell membrane complex was damaged only in the naturally dried group without hair dryer. Moisture content decreased in all treated groups compared to the untreated control group. However, the differences in moisture content among the groups were not statistically significant. Drying under the ambient and 95℃ conditions appeared to change hair color, especially into lightness, after just 10 treatments. Conclusion Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally. PMID:22148012

  13. Diversity of Pubertal Development in Cartilage-Hair Hypoplasia; Two Illustrative Cases.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Elina; Vakkilainen, Svetlana; Mäkitie, Outi

    2018-08-01

    Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is a rare chondrodysplasia, including disproportionate short stature, hypoplastic hair, immunodeficiency, and increased risk of malignancies. Absent pubertal growth spurt and absent pubic hair complicate monitoring of pubertal development in these patients. Two CHH patients with delayed puberty and excessive growth failure are described. One of the girls had hypogonadotropic hypogonadism whereas the other had hyponormogonadotropic hypogonadism with no spontaneous pubertal development and slow response to estrogen therapy, both requiring permanent replacement therapy. Careful follow-up of pubertal development in individuals with CHH and other growth-restricting bone diseases is needed. In delayed pubertal development timely hormone therapy is essential to ensure maximal growth and well developed secondary sex characteristics. Copyright © 2018 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The current status of microscopical hair comparisons.

    PubMed

    Rowe, W F

    2001-12-08

    Although the microscopical comparison of human hairs has been accepted in courts of law for over a century, recent advances in DNA technology have called this type of forensic examination into question. In a number of cases, post-conviction DNA testing has exonerated defendants who were convicted in part on the results of microscopical hair comparisons. A federal judge has held a Daubert hearing on the microscopical comparison of human hairs and has concluded that this type of examination does not meet the criteria for admission of scientific evidence in federal courts. A review of the available scientific literature on microscopical hair comparisons (including studies conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation) leads to three conclusions: (1) microscopical comparisons of human hairs can yield scientifically defensible conclusions that can contribute to criminal investigations and criminal prosecutions, (2) the reliability of microscopical hair comparisons is strongly affected by the training of the forensic hair examiner, (3) forensic hair examiners cannot offer estimates of the probability of a match of a questioned hair with a hair from a randomly selected person. In order for microscopical hair examinations to survive challenges under the U.S. Supreme Court's Daubert decision, hair microscopists must be better trained and undergo frequent proficiency testing. More research on the error rates of microscopical hair comparisons should be undertaken, and guidelines for the permissible interpretations of such comparisons should be established. Until these issues have been addressed and satisfactorily resolved, microscopical hair comparisons should be regarded by law enforcement agencies and courts of law as merely presumptive in nature, and all microscopical hair comparisons should be confirmed by nuclear DNA profiling or mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

  15. Pregnancy and the hair growth cycle: anagen induction against hair growth disruption using Nourkrin® with Marilex® , a proteoglycan replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Thom, Erling

    2017-09-01

    Postpartum effluvium is a well-known clinical fact. However, following some minor research activities in the 1960s, very little has happened on the research front of the subject. It was hypothesized that postpartum hair loss might be a manifestation of a change in the hair growth cycle occurring normally during pregnancy. Recently, new research has been published trying to explain the mechanism of action behind this frequently occurring hair growth disruption, and to develop a functional treatment schedule and regime. Under normal circumstances, postpartum effluvium will disappear by itself as a function of time, and therefore adequate information to the patient is important in order to reduce the anxiety that it will not be a permanent problem. However, in some subjects it can manifest itself for longer stages and even become permanent. At the present time, treatments aim at correcting underlying hormonal imbalances and at improving overall cosmetic appearance. Several treatments in the form of thyroid supplementation, topical progesterone and estradiol lotions, and even oral contraceptive have been studied. All the available studies have significant limitations in their scientific basis, such as small sample size, absence of control group, or highly subjective measurement of treatment response. It is evident from the available studies that no specific treatment has been investigated thoroughly enough to justify recommendation in clinical treatment or to be termed "effective." Without the ability to provide a pathogenic diagnosis or causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment by trial and error will adequately be able to control hair effluvium. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific; therefore, future research must aim at developing new and targeted methods with a point of departure in observing concomitant biological mechanisms. Based on the research in the 1960s, current knowledge about the hair follicle and the regulation of

  16. The nail and hair in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Daniel, C Ralph; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Tosti, Antonella

    2004-02-01

    Drugs, chemicals, and biological substances accumulate and are stored in hair and nails where they can be detected and measured. Advantages of analyzing hair and nail samples also include their easy and non-invasive collection, the small sample size required for analysis, and their easy storage at room temperature. We report 3 examples of heavy metal poisoning diagnosed because of the hair or nail symptoms. Drugs and toxins that can be detected in hair and nails are reviewed and the application of hair/nail analysis in general and in forensic medicine is discussed.

  17. Reflectance spectroscopy for evaluating hair follicle cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhu, Dan

    2014-02-01

    Hair follicle, as a mini-organ with perpetually cycling of telogen, anagen and catagen, provides a valuable experimental model for studying hair and organ regeneration. The transition of hair follicle from telogen to anagen is a significant sign for successful regeneration. So far discrimination of the hair follicle stage is mostly based on canonical histological examination and empirical speculation based on skin color. Hardly a method has been proposed to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage. In this work, a commercial optical fiber spectrometer was applied to monitor diffuse reflectance of mouse skin with hair follicle cycling, and then the change of reflectance was obtained. Histological examination was used to verify the hair follicle stage. In comparison with the histological examination, the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high for mouse with telogen hair follicles; it decreased once hair follicles transited to anagen stage; then it increased reversely at catagen stage. This study provided a new method to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for the basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

  18. Managing hair loss in midlife women.

    PubMed

    Mirmirani, Paradi

    2013-02-01

    Hair is considered one of the most defining aspects of human appearance. Hair loss, or alopecia in women is often met with significant emotional distress and anxiety. In midlife, women may encounter various hormonal and age-related physiologic changes that can lead to alterations in hair texture and growth. The most significant hormonal alteration is the onset of menopause in which there is a cessation of ovarian estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen is known to have deleterious effects on the skin and cutaneous appendages. As our understanding of the molecular and hormonal controls on the hair follicle has grown, there has been increased interest in the various modulators of hair growth, including the potential role of estrogen. Further study of hair changes in midlife women provides an important opportunity for identification of the complex regulation of hair growth as well as identification of treatment targets that may specifically benefit women. In this review, management of hair loss in midlife women is discussed with a focus on three most commonly encountered clinical conditions: female pattern hair loss, hair shaft alterations due to hair care, and telogen effluvium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women

    PubMed Central

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E.

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods. PMID:24455742

  20. Alterations in hair follicle dynamics in women.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods.

  1. Sterol intermediates of cholesterol biosynthesis inhibit hair growth and trigger an innate immune response in cicatricial alopecia.

    PubMed

    Panicker, Sreejith P; Ganguly, Taneeta; Consolo, Mary; Price, Vera; Mirmirani, Paradi; Honda, Kord; Karnik, Pratima

    2012-01-01

    Primary cicatricial alopecia (PCA) is a group of inflammatory hair disorders that cause scarring and permanent hair loss. Previous studies have implicated PPARγ, a transcription factor that integrates lipogenic and inflammatory signals, in the pathogenesis of PCA. However, it is unknown what triggers the inflammatory response in these disorders, whether the inflammation is a primary or secondary event in disease pathogenesis, and whether the inflammatory reaction reflects an autoimmune process. In this paper, we show that the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is impaired in the skin and hair follicles of PCA patients. Treatment of hair follicle cells with BM15766, a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor, or 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), a sterol precursor, stimulates the expression of pro-inflammatory chemokine genes. Painting of mouse skin with 7-DHC or BM15766 inhibits hair growth, causes follicular plugging and induces the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the interfollicular dermis. Our results demonstrate that cholesterologenic changes within hair follicle cells trigger an innate immune response that is associated with the induction of toll-like receptor (TLR) and interferon (IFN) gene expression, and the recruitment of macrophages that surround the hair follicles and initiate their destruction. These findings reveal a previously unsuspected role for cholesterol precursors in PCA pathogenesis and identify a novel link between sterols and inflammation that may prove transformative in the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.

  2. A boy with oral hair: case report.

    PubMed

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Etesam, Farideh; Rohani, Bita

    2007-09-01

    In personal communication we have never seen or heard of hair being detected in the oral cavity. Even Julia Pastrana, the famous "Bearded Lady" of the 1800's, had no record of oral hair, although her entire body was covered with hair. Extensive records of her oral condition, including plaster models of her teeth have been preserved in the Odontological Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in London city. She suffered from excessive gingival hyperplasia, but apparently no hair existed within the mouth. Some rodents have oral hair as a normal occurrence, but the condition is apparently limited in the animal kingdom. A case of hair occurring naturally in the mouth has been reported only twice previously. A third case of this rare anomaly is reported here. In this case, multiple hairs were found at the gingival sulcus in the labial, buccal, lingual and palatal tooth surfaces in an 11-year-old boy.

  3. Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulators

    SciTech Connect

    Chavanne, J.; Lebec, G.; Penel, C.

    For an in-vacuum undulator operated at small gaps the permanent magnet material needs to be highly resistant to possible electron beam exposure. At room temperature, one generally uses Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} or high coercivity NdFeB magnets at the expense of a limited field performance. In a cryogenic permanent magnet undulator (CPMU), at a temperature of around 150 K, any NdFeB grade reveals a coercivity large enough to be radiation resistant. In particular, very high remanence NdFeB material can be used to build undulators with enhanced field and X-ray brilliance at high photon energy provided that the pre-baking of the undulatormore » above 100 deg. C can be eliminated. The ESRF has developed a full scale 2 m long CPMU with a period of 18 mm. This prototype has been in operation on the ID6 test beamline since January 2008. A significant effort was put into the characterization of NdFeB material at low temperature, the development of dedicated magnetic measurement systems and cooling methods. The measured heat budget with beam is found to be larger than expected without compromising the smooth operation of the device. Leading on from this first experience, new CPMUs are currently being considered for the upgrade of the ESRF.« less

  4. New permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, K.-H.; Krabbes, G.; Fink, J.; Gruß, S.; Kirchner, A.; Fuchs, G.; Schultz, L.

    2001-05-01

    Permanent magnets play an important role and are widely spread in daily-life applications. Due to their very low costs, large availability of the row materials and their high chemical stability, hard ferrites are still dominant in the permanent magnet market although their relatively poor magnetic properties are a distinct disadvantage. Today's high-performance magnets are mostly made from Nd 2Fe 14B. The aim of research is to combine the large spontaneous magnetization of 3d metals with strong anisotropy fields known from rare-earth transition-metal compounds and, at the same time, to maintain a high value of the Curie temperature. However, the number of iron-rich rare-earth intermetallics is very limited and, consequently, not much success can be noted in this field for the last 10 years. One alternative concept is to use magnetic fields trapped in type II superconductors where much higher fields can be achieved compared to conventional rare-earth magnets. Very recently, we obtained a trapped field as high as 14.4 T in a melt-textured YBCO bulk sample of a few centimeters in diameter. This is the highest value ever achieved in a bulk superconductor. The trapped field of a superconductor is not governed by the Laplace equation and, therefore, levitation works without any additional (active) stabilization. The disadvantage of these magnets is their low working temperature (of liquid nitrogen and below).

  5. Identification of hair shaft progenitors that create a niche for hair pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chung-Ping; Booker, Reid C.; Morrison, Sean J.; Le, Lu Q.

    2017-01-01

    Hair differentiates from follicle stem cells through progenitor cells in the matrix. In contrast to stem cells in the bulge, the identities of the progenitors and the mechanisms by which they regulate hair shaft components are poorly understood. Hair is also pigmented by melanocytes in the follicle. However, the niche that regulates follicular melanocytes is not well characterized. Here, we report the identification of hair shaft progenitors in the matrix that are differentiated from follicular epithelial cells expressing transcription factor KROX20. Depletion of Krox20 lineage cells results in arrest of hair growth, confirming the critical role of KROX20+ cells as antecedents of structural cells found in hair. Expression of stem cell factor (SCF) by these cells is necessary for the maintenance of differentiated melanocytes and for hair pigmentation. Our findings reveal the identities of hair matrix progenitors that regulate hair growth and pigmentation, partly by creating an SCF-dependent niche for follicular melanocytes. PMID:28465357

  6. Effects of gamma rays on the regeneration of murine hair follicles in the natural hair cycle.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Kimihiko

    2017-09-01

    This review evaluates the effects of γ-rays on the regeneration of murine hair follicles in the natural hair cycle. A series of studies were performed to investigate this issue, in which the whole bodies of C57BL/10JHir mice in the 1st telogen phase of the hair cycle were irradiated with γ-rays. The dermis of the irradiated skin showed a decrease in hair follicle density and induction of curved hair follicles along with the presence of white hairs and hypopigmented hair bulbs in the 2nd and 3rd anagen phases. An increased frequency of hypopigmented hair bulbs was still observed in the later hair cycle at postnatal day 200. There was no significant difference in the number of stem cells in the hair bulge region between control and irradiated skin. These results show that the effects of γ-rays on the pigmentation of murine hair follicles are persistently carried over to later hair cycles, although those on the number and structure of hair follicles appear to be hidden by the effects of aging. Our findings may be important for understanding the mechanisms of the actions of stem cells on hair regeneration in connection with age-related phenotypes.

  7. Hair follicle stem cell proliferation, Akt and Wnt signaling activation in TPA-induced hair regeneration.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weiming; Lei, Mingxing; Zhou, Ling; Bai, Xiufeng; Lai, Xiangdong; Yu, Yu; Yang, Tian; Lian, Xiaohua

    2017-06-01

    Regeneration of hair follicles relies on activation of hair follicle stem cells during telogen to anagen transition process in hair cycle. This process is rigorously controlled by intrinsic and environmental factors. 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a tumor promoter, accelerates reentry of hair follicles into anagen phase. However, it is unclear that how TPA promotes the hair regeneration. In the present study, we topically applied TPA onto the dorsal skin of 2-month-old C57BL/6 female mice to examine the activity of hair follicle stem cells and alteration of signaling pathways during hair regeneration. We found that refractory telogen hair follicles entered anagen prematurely after TPA treatment, with the enhanced proliferation of CD34-positive hair follicle stem cells. Meanwhile, we observed Akt signaling was activated in epidermis, hair infundibulum, bulge and hair bulb, and Wnt signaling was also activated after hair follicle stem cells proliferation. Importantly, after overexpression of DKK1, a specific Wnt signaling inhibitor, the accelerated reentry of hair follicles into anagen induced by TPA was abolished. Our data indicated that TPA-induced hair follicle regeneration is associated with activation of Akt and Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  8. A Study on Scalp Hair Health and Hair Care Practices among Malaysian Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Nayak, B Satheesha; Ann, Chua Yuet; Azhar, Azeldeen Bin; Ling, Emily Chan Su; Yen, Wong Hui; Aithal, P Ashwini

    2017-01-01

    Scalp care is essential because it determines the health and condition of the hair and prevents the diseases of scalp and hair. The objectives of our study were to correlate race and hair types, to determine the awareness of hair care among Malaysian medical students, and to distinguish the factors that affect the health of hair and scalp. It was a cross-sectional study wherein validated questionnaires were given to 240 medical undergraduate students who belonged to three ethnic races of Malaysia, i.e., Chinese, Malay, and Malaysian Indians after their informed consent. The results were then analyzed using percentage statistics. Chinese students had comparatively healthier scalp without dandruff. Most Chinese and Indians had silky type of hair while Malay had dry, rough hair. Chinese and Indians colored their hair and used various styling methods; while among the Malays, this percentage was very less. Regarding hair care practices, males used only shampoo and females used shampoo and conditioner for hair wash. Students also faced dietary and examination-related stress. Results indicate that there exist morphological differences in hair among the studied population. Since most students color their hair and employ various hairstyling methods, they should be educated regarding best hair care practices to improve their scalp hair condition and health.

  9. An LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of 15 antipsychotics and two metabolites in hair and its application to rat hair.

    PubMed

    Sim, Juhyun; Kim, Eunmi; Yang, Wonkyung; Woo, Sanghee; In, Sangwhan

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the inappropriate use of antipsychotics by young Korean men has become a social problem. As military service exemptions are given for mental illness, some men pose as mental health patients to avoid military service. In order to verify the authenticity of mental illnesses, we developed simultaneous analytical methods for the detection of 15 antipsychotics and 2 of their metabolites in hair using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The target drugs were modafinil, atomoxetine, aripiprazole, benztropine, buspirone, duloxetine, gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, topiramate, escitalopram, paliperidone, ziprasidone, lamotrigine, clonazepam, levetiracetam, and metabolites of oxcarbazepine and clonazepam. To remove possible contaminants on the hair surface, hair samples were washed twice with methanol and distilled water, and then were extracted with methanol overnight at 38°C. Desipramine-d 3 was used as an internal standard. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed on an Agilent 1290 Infinity UHPLC coupled to an AB Sciex Qtrap ® 5500 MS/MS. The total chromatographic run time was 14min. The following validation parameters were evaluated: selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision, accuracy, matrix effect, and recovery. The LOD and LOQ values for all analytes, except modafinil, ranged from 0.2 to 10pg/mg hair and from 0.2 to 20pg/mg hair, respectively. Good linearity was achieved for most of the analytes in the range of 20-200pg/mg hair. The method showed acceptable precision and accuracy, which were less than 15%, as well as satisfactory matrix effects and recoveries. Furthermore, this method was also applied to the analysis of rat hair samples. The study in rats showed that the concentrations of atomoxetine and aripiprazole in pigmented hair were significantly higher than those in non-pigmented hair. However, no significant difference was observed in the concentration of topiramate between

  10. Quantitative assessment of growing hair counts, thickness and colour during and after treatments with a low-fluence, home-device laser: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Thaysen-Petersen, D; Barbet-Pfeilsticker, M; Beerwerth, F; Nash, J F; Philipsen, P A; Staubach, P; Haedersdal, M

    2015-01-01

    At-home laser and intense pulsed-light hair removal continues to grow in popularity and availability. A relatively limited body of evidence is available on the course of hair growth during and after low-fluence laser usage. To assess growing hair counts, thickness and colour quantitatively during and after cessation of low-fluence laser treatment. Thirty-six women with skin phototypes I-IV and light to dark-brown axillary hairs were included. Entire axillary regions were randomized to zero or eight self-administered weekly treatments with an 810-nm home-use laser at 5·0-6·4 J cm(-2). Standardized clinical photographs were taken before each treatment and up to 3 months after the final treatment for computer-aided quantification of growing hair counts, thickness and colour. Thirty-two women completed the study protocol. During sustained treatment, there was a reduction in growing hair that reached a plateau of up to 59%, while remaining hairs became up to 38% thinner and 5% lighter (P < 0·001). The majority of subjects (77%) reported 'moderately' to 'much less hair' in treated than untreated axilla, and assessed remaining hairs as thinner and lighter (≥ 60%). After treatment cessation, hair growth gradually returned to baseline levels, and 3 months after the final treatment the count and thickness of actively growing hair exceeded pretreatment values by 29% and 7%, respectively (P ≤ 0·04). Sustained usage of low-fluence laser induced a stable reduction of growing hair counts, thickness and colour. The reduction was reversible and hairs regrew beyond baseline values after cessation of usage. Computer-aided image analysis was qualified for quantification of hair counts, thickness and colour after laser epilation. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Physiological Maturation of Regenerating Hair Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    The bullfrog saccule, a sensor of gravity and substrate-borne vibration, is a model system for hair cell transduction. Saccular hair cells also increase in number throughout adult life and rapidly recover after hair cell damage, making this organ an ideal system for studying hair cell development, repair, and regeneration. We have used of hair cell and supporting cell immunocytochemical markers to identify damaged hair cells and hair cell precursors in organotypic cultures of the bullfrog saccule. We then used an innovative combination of confocal, electron, and time-lapse microscopy to study the fate of damaged hair cells and the origin of new hair cells after gentamicin ototoxicity in normal and mitotically blocked saccular cultures. These studies have shown that gentamicin ototoxicity produces both lethal and sublethal hair cell damage. They have also shown that hair cell recovery in this organ takes place by both the repair of sublethally damaged hair cells and by the replacement of lost hair cells by mitotic regeneration. In parallel studies, we have used biophysical and molecular biological techniques to study the differentiation and innervation of developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. More specifically, we have used RT-PCR to obtain the bullfrog homologues of L-type voltage- gated calcium (L-VGCC) and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channel genes. We have then obtained probes for these genes and, using in situ hybridization, begun to examine their expression in the bullfrog saccule and amphibian papilla. We have also used fluorescent-labeled channel toxins and channel toxin derivatives to determine the time of appearance of L-type voltage-gated calcium (L-VGCC) and Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels and to study dynamic changes in the number, distribution, and co-localization of these proteins in developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. Using time-lapse microscopy, we are also studying the dynamic relationship

  12. Non-invasive biomonitoring for PFRs and PBDEs: new insights in analysis of human hair externally exposed to selected flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Kucharska, Agnieszka; Covaci, Adrian; Vanermen, Guido; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the hypothesis whether externally adsorbed and internally deposited flame retardants (FRs) in hair could be distinguished. To this extent, hair samples collected from one volunteer were exposed under controlled conditions to phosphate FR (PFR) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) standards to mimic external contamination. Afterwards, suitable washing procedures to selectively remove contaminants from the hair surface were investigated. The samples were measured by GC-(ECNI)-MS for PBDEs and LC-(ESI+)-MS/MS for PFRs. All investigated compounds were transferred onto the hair surface. One of the most important finding was that dust particles are not mandatory to transfer compounds on the hair surface and to be able to measure high levels of compounds in human hair. To assess different protocols to selectively remove external contamination, the exposed hair samples were washed in different media before analysis: water, methanol, hexane:dichloromethane (1:1, v/v), acetone and shampoo. Results indicated that there is no washing medium able to entirely and exclusively remove external contamination. Among investigated media, methanol removed a meaningful part of the external contamination (42-105%), but the removal efficiencies differed among compounds. We therefore concluded that hair should not be washed prior to analysis and in case of visible contamination (e.g. with cosmetic products), water would be the recommended agent. Organic solvents should not be used for the washing step. Although it is impossible to distinguish external from internal exposure, hair samples may be used as valuable biomarker of human exposure, providing a measure of integral exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which has used externally exposed hair samples to PBDEs and PFRs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hair restoration surgery: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Hair loss is a common problem affecting both men and women. The most frequent etiology is androgenetic alopecia, but other causes of hair loss such as trauma, various dermatologic diseases, and systemic diseases can cause alopecia. The loss of hair can have profound effects on one’s self esteem and emotional well-being, as one’s appearance plays a role in the work place and interpersonal relationships. It is therefore not surprising that means to remedy hair loss are widely sought. Hair transplant surgery has become increasingly popular, and the results that we are able to create today are quite remarkable, providing a natural appearance when the procedure is performed well. In spite of this, hair transplant surgery is not perfect. It is not perfect because the hair transplant surgeon is still faced with challenges that prevent the achievement of optimal results. Some of these challenges include a limit to donor hair availability, hair survival, and ways to conceal any evidence of a surgical procedure having taken place. This article examines some of the most important challenges facing hair restoration surgery today and possible solutions to these challenges. PMID:26203266

  14. Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Quan Q; Sinclair, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful. PMID:18044135

  15. Nonlinear flow response of soft hair beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, José; Comtet, Jean; de Langre, Emmanuel; Hosoi, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    We are `hairy' on the inside: beds of passive fibres anchored to a surface and immersed in fluids are prevalent in many biological systems, including intestines, tongues, and blood vessels. These hairs are soft enough to deform in response to stresses from fluid flows. Yet fluid stresses are in turn affected by hair deformation, leading to a coupled elastoviscous problem that is poorly understood. Here we investigate a biomimetic model system of elastomer hair beds subject to shear-driven Stokes flows. We characterize this system with a theoretical model that accounts for the large-deformation flow response of hair beds. Hair bending results in a drag-reducing nonlinearity because the hair tip lowers towards the base, widening the gap through which fluid flows. When hairs are cantilevered at an angle subnormal to the surface, flow against the grain bends hairs away from the base, narrowing the gap. The flow response of angled hair beds is axially asymmetric and amounts to a rectification nonlinearity. We identify an elastoviscous parameter that controls nonlinear behaviour. Our study raises the hypothesis that biological hairy surfaces function to reduce fluid drag. Furthermore, angled hairs may be incorporated in the design of integrated microfluidic components, such as diodes and pumps.

  16. Nonlinear flow response of soft hair beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, José

    2017-11-01

    We are hairy inside: beds of passive fibers anchored to a surface and immersed in fluids are prevalent in many biological systems, including intestines, tongues, and blood vessels. Such hairs are soft enough to deform in response to stresses from fluid flows. Fluid stresses are in turn affected by hair deformation, leading to a coupled elastoviscous problem which is poorly understood. Here we investigate a biomimetic model system of elastomer hair beds subject to shear- driven Stokes flows. We characterize this system with a theoretical model which accounts for the large-deformation flow response of hair beds. Hair bending results in a drag-reducing nonlinearity because the hair tip lowers toward the base, widening the gap through which fluid flows. When hairs are cantilevered at an angle subnormal to the surface, flow against the grain bends hairs away from the base, narrowing the gap. The flow response of angled hair beds is axially asymmetric and amounts to a rectification nonlinearity. We identify an elastoviscous parameter which controls nonlinear behavior. Our study raises the hypothesis that biological hairy surfaces function to reduce fluid drag. Furthermore, angled hairs may be incorporated in the design of integrated microfluidic components, such as diodes and pumps. J.A. acknowledges support the U. S. Army Research Office under Grant Number W911NF-14-1-0396.

  17. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths' Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

    2011-01-01

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna. PMID:21747920

  18. Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.

    PubMed

    Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

    2011-01-01

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  19. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs

    SciTech Connect

    M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls

    2011-12-31

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending onmore » location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.« less

  20. [Permanent constrictions of the jaws (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Dupuis, A; Michaud, J

    1981-01-01

    Permanent constrictions of the jaws are of various types depending on the site of the lesion: temporomaxillary ankylosis, extra-articular constrictions of bone, skin, muscle, or mucosal origin, and those arising from tumors. The commonest cause is injury, those due to infection being currently less frequently observed, which cannot be said for those of tumoral origin. The consequences are difficulty in taking foud and poor buccodental hygiene, while temporomaxillary ankylosis in children provokes mandibular growth disturbances. Surgical treatment is aimed at removing the constriction. Total resection of the ankylosed block is essential to avoid recurrences, while reeducation of buccal opening must be started early and continued for long periods in all cases.

  1. Modulating hair follicle size with Wnt10b-DKK1 pair during hair regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Mingxing; Guo, Haiying; Qiu, Weiming; Lai, Xiangdong; Yang, Tian; Widelitz, Randall B.; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Lian, Xiaohua; Yang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicles have characteristic sizes corresponding to their cycle specific stage. However, how the anagen hair follicle specifies its size remains elusive. Here, we show that in response to prolonged ectopic Wnt10b-mediated β-catenin activation, regenerating anagen hair follicles grow larger in size. In particular, the hair bulb, dermal papilla and hair shaft become enlarged. While the formation of different hair types (Guard, Awl, Auchene, and Zigzag) is unaffected. Interestingly, we found the effect of exogenous WNT10b was mainly on Zigzag and less on the other kinds of hairs. We observed dramatically enhanced proliferation within the matrix, DP and hair shaft of the enlarged AdWnt10b-treated hair follicles compared with those of normal hair follicles at P98. Furthermore, expression of CD34, a specific hair stem cell marker, was increased in its number to the bulge region after AdWnt10b treatment. Ectopic expression of CD34 throughout the ORS region was also observed. Many CD34 positive hair stem cells were actively proliferating in AdWnt10b-induced hair follicles. Importantly, subsequent co-treatment with the Wnt inhibitor, DKK1, reduced hair follicle enlargement, decreased proliferation and maintained proper hair stem cell localization. Moreover, injection of DKK1 during early anagen significantly reduced the width of prospective hairs. Together, these findings strongly suggest that a balance of Wnt10b/DKK1 governs reciprocal signaling between cutaneous epithelium and mesenchyme to regulate proper hair follicle size. PMID:24750467

  2. Hair bundles of cochlear outer hair cells are shaped to minimize their fluid-dynamic resistance.

    PubMed

    Ciganović, Nikola; Wolde-Kidan, Amanuel; Reichenbach, Tobias

    2017-06-15

    The mammalian sense of hearing relies on two types of sensory cells: inner hair cells transmit the auditory stimulus to the brain, while outer hair cells mechanically modulate the stimulus through active feedback. Stimulation of a hair cell is mediated by displacements of its mechanosensitive hair bundle which protrudes from the apical surface of the cell into a narrow fluid-filled space between reticular lamina and tectorial membrane. While hair bundles of inner hair cells are of linear shape, those of outer hair cells exhibit a distinctive V-shape. The biophysical rationale behind this morphology, however, remains unknown. Here we use analytical and computational methods to study the fluid flow across rows of differently shaped hair bundles. We find that rows of V-shaped hair bundles have a considerably reduced resistance to crossflow, and that the biologically observed shapes of hair bundles of outer hair cells are near-optimal in this regard. This observation accords with the function of outer hair cells and lends support to the recent hypothesis that inner hair cells are stimulated by a net flow, in addition to the well-established shear flow that arises from shearing between the reticular lamina and the tectorial membrane.

  3. Comparison of hair shaft damage after chemical treatment in Asian, White European, and African hair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Pi, Long-Quan; Lee, Sung Yul; Hong, Hannah; Lee, Won-Soo

    2014-09-01

    Diverse causes of extrinsic damage to the hair shaft have been documented and can be roughly divided into physical and chemical causes. Chemical causes of hair damage include bleaching, hair dyeing, and perming. The goal of this study was to investigate differences in patterns of serial damage in Asian, White European (WE), and African hair after chemical stress imposed by straightening and coloring treatments. Hairs were divided into control and treatment groups (straightening, coloring, and a combination of straightening and coloring). At 24 hours after the final treatment, patterns of hair damage were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM. Grades of hair cuticle and cortex damage were evaluated by three dermatologists. In the TEM examination, the cuticle of Asian hair proved to be resistant to damage caused by straightening treatments, whereas the WE hair cuticle and cortex were relatively susceptible to stress imposed by coloring treatments. In the combination treatment of straightening and coloring, African hair emerged as the most resistant to stress. In the lipid TEM examination, no notable differences in cell membrane complex damage were observed among the three groups of hairs. The present study suggests that WE hair is relatively susceptible and African hair is more resistant to chemical stresses, such as those imposed by straightening and coloring. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. New Treatments for Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Vañó-Galván, S; Camacho, F

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of hair loss is an important part of clinical dermatology given the prevalence of the problem and great impact on patients' quality of life. Many new treatments have been introduced in recent years. This review summarizes the main ones in 4 groups: a) For androgenetic alopecia, we discuss new excipients for oral minoxidil, dutasteride, and finasteride as well as new forms of topical application; prostaglandin agonists and antagonists; low-level laser therapy; and regenerative medicine with Wnt signaling activators and stem cell therapy. b) For alopecia areata, Janus kinase inhibitors are reviewed. c) For frontal fibrosing alopecia, we discuss the use of antiandrogens and, for some patients, pioglitazone. d) Finally, we mention new robotic devices for hair transplant procedures and techniques for optimal follicular unit extraction. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnetic actuation of hair cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, David; Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Cheon, Jinwoo; Bozovic, Dolores

    2011-11-01

    The bullfrog sacculus contains mechanically sensitive hair cells whose stereociliary bundles oscillate spontaneously when decoupled from the overlying membrane. Steady-state offsets on the resting position of a hair bundle can suppress or modulate this native motility. To probe the dynamics of spontaneous oscillation in the proximity of the critical point, we describe here a method for mechanical actuation that avoids loading the bundles or contributing to the viscous drag. Magnetite beads were attached to the tips of the stereocilia, and a magnetic probe was used to impose deflections. This technique allowed us to observe the transition from multi-mode to single-mode state in freely oscillating bundles, as well as the crossover from the oscillatory to the quiescent state.

  6. Nanometre-scale investigations by atomic force microscopy into the effect of different treatments on the surface structure of hair.

    PubMed

    Durkan, C; Wang, N

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effect of different washing regimes on the surface of human hair at the nanometre scale - comparable to the size of typical deposits left behind by commercial products. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and related techniques. It can be directly seen that washing hair using commercial hair care products removes deposits that naturally form on the shaft, revealing the underlying structure of the hair, whereas in many cases leaving new deposits behind. The spatial distribution of these deposits is explored and quantified. The spatial distribution of the surface charge of pristine hair is mapped, and the electrical screening effect of deposits is directly observed. We also show that the roughness of the treated hair depends directly on the type of product used, with a marked difference between shampoo and conditioner. Some products leave isolated deposits behind, whereas others leave layers of material behind which wet the hair surface. Atomic force microscopy and the related techniques we have employed in a forensic approach is able to distinguish between different hair care products on the basis of the deposits they leave behind. This opens up the capability of further analysis tools to complement already existing techniques. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  7. SEDIMENT REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    When properly conducted, sediment removal is an effective lake management technique. This chapter describes: (1) purposes of sediment removal, (2) environmental concerns, (3) appropriate depth of sediment removal, (4) sediment removal techniques, (5) suitable lake conditions, (6)...

  8. Expedition 33 Crew Hair Cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-21

    Expedition 33 Flight Engineer Kevin Ford gets his hair cut at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Sunday, October 21, 2012, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for October 23 and will send Expedition 33/34 Flight Engineer Kevin Ford of NASA, Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of ROSCOSMOS on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 33 Crew Hair Cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-21

    Expedition 33 Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin gets his hair cut at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Sunday, October 21, 2012, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for October 23 and will send Expedition 33/34 Flight Engineer Kevin Ford of NASA, Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of ROSCOSMOS on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 33 Crew Hair Cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-21

    Expedition 33 Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy gets his hair cut at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Sunday, October 21, 2012, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for October 23 and will send Expedition 33/34 Flight Engineer Kevin Ford of NASA, Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of ROSCOSMOS on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. [Detection of metal ions in hair after metal-metal hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Vaquero, D; Rodríguez de la Flor, M; Fernandez-Carreira, J M; Sariego-Muñiz, C

    2014-01-01

    There is an increase in the levels of metals in the serum and urine after the implantation of some models of metal-metal hip prosthesis. It has recently been demonstrated that there is an association between these levels and the levels found in hair. The aim of this study is to determine the presence of metals in hair, and to find out whether these change over time or with the removal of the implant. The levels of chromium, cobalt and molybdenum were determined in the hair of 45 patients at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years after a hip surface replacement. The mean age was 57.5 years, and two were female. Further surgery was required to remove the replacement and implant a new model with metal-polyethylene friction in 11 patients, 5 of them due to metallosis and a periarticular cyst. The mean levels of metals in hair were chromium 163.27 ppm, cobalt 61.98 ppm, and molybdenum 31.36 ppm, much higher than the levels found in the general population. A decrease in the levels of chromium (43.8%), molybdenum (51.1%), and cobalt (91.1%) was observed at one year in the patients who had further surgery to remove the prosthesis. High concentrations of metals in the hair are observed in hip replacements with metal-metal friction, which decrease when that implant is removed. The determination of metal ions in hair could be a good marker of the metal poisoning that occurs in these arthroplasty models. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. To grow or not to grow: Hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. PMID:24361867

  13. To grow or not to grow: hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Hair casts due to a deodorant spray.

    PubMed

    Ena, Pasquale; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Chiarolini, Fausto

    2005-11-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with itching and greyish-white sleeve-like structures in her hair. After ruling out other possible causes for the symptoms, such as nits and dandruff, it was determined that the patient was affected by hair casts. These are small cylindrical structures resembling louse eggs that encircle individual scalp hairs and are easily movable along the hair shafts. It was concluded that she had induced the condition through misuse of a deodorant body spray. Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron dispersive X-ray analysis (X-ray microanalysis) of the hair casts showed the chemical nature of the structures. Some elements present in the composition of the ingredients of the deodorant spray, such as aluminium, chlorine, silicon, magnesium and carbon, were also present in this uncommon type of hair casts.

  15. Regulation and functional diversification of root hairs.

    PubMed

    Cui, Songkui; Suzaki, Takuya; Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Yoshida, Satoko

    2017-10-13

    Root hairs result from the polar outgrowth of root epidermis cells in vascular plants. Root hair development processes are regulated by intrinsic genetic programs, which are flexibly modulated by environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability. Basic programs for root hair development were present in early land plants. Subsequently, some plants developed the ability to utilize root hairs for specific functions, in particular, for interactions with other organisms, such as legume-rhizobia and host plants-parasites interactions. In this review, we summarize the molecular regulation of root hair development and the modulation of root hairs under limited nutrient supply and during interactions with other organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Simčič, J.; Telek, A.; Bíró, T.

    2007-07-01

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  17. Dissecting the bulge in hair regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Mayumi; Myung, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    The adult hair follicle houses stem cells that govern the cyclical growth and differentiation of multiple cell types that collectively produce a pigmented hair. Recent studies have revealed that hair follicle stem cells are heterogeneous and dynamic throughout the hair cycle. Moreover, interactions between heterologous stem cells, including both epithelial and melanocyte stem cells, within the hair follicle are just now being explored. This review will describe how recent findings have expanded our understanding of the development, organization, and regeneration of hair follicle stem cells. At a basic level, this review is intended to help construct a reference point to integrate the surge of studies on the molecular mechanisms that regulate these cells. PMID:22293183

  18. Inhibition of Repulsive Guidance Molecule, RGMa, Increases Afferent Synapse Formation with Auditory Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brugeaud, Aurore; Tong, Mingjie; Luo, Li; Edge, Albert S.B.

    2017-01-01

    The peripheral fibers that extend from auditory neurons to hair cells are sensitive to damage, and replacement of the fibers and their afferent synapse with hair cells would be of therapeutic interest. Here, we show that RGMa, a repulsive guidance molecule previously shown to play a role in the development of the chick visual system, is expressed in the developing, newborn, and mature mouse inner ear. The effect of RGMa on synaptogenesis between afferent neurons and hair cells, from which afferent connections had been removed, was assessed. Contact of neural processes with hair cells and elaboration of postsynaptic densities at sites of the ribbon synapse were increased by treatment with a blocking antibody to RGMa, and pruning of auditory fibers to achieve the mature branching pattern of afferent neurons was accelerated. Inhibition by RGMa could thus explain why auditory neurons have a low capacity to regenerate peripheral processes: postnatal spiral ganglion neurons retain the capacity to send out processes that respond to signals for synapse formation, but expression of RGMa postnatally appears to be detrimental to regeneration of afferent hair cell innervation and antagonizes synaptogenesis. Increased synaptogenesis after inhibition of RGMa suggests that manipulation of guidance or inhibitory factors may provide a route to increase formation of new synapses at deafferented hair cells. PMID:24123853

  19. Prevalence and Motivation: Pubic Hair Grooming Among Men in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Thomas W.; Awad, Mohannad A.; Osterberg, E. Charles; Rowen, Tami S.; Shindel, Alan W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2016-01-01

    Pubic hair grooming is a growing phenomenon and is associated with body image and sexual activity. A nationally representative survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged 18 to 65 years residing in the United States was conducted. Differences in demographic and sexual characteristics between groomers and nongroomers were explored. Four thousand one hundred and ninety-eight men completed the survey. Of these men, 2,120 (50.5%) reported regular pubic hair grooming. The prevalence of grooming decreases with age, odds ratio = 0.95 (95% confidence interval [0.94, 0.96]), p < .001. Adjusting for sexual frequency and sexual orientation, grooming is associated with performing and receiving oral sex. The majority of men report grooming in preparation for sexual activity with a peak prevalence of 73% among men aged 25 to 34 years, followed by hygiene (61%) and routine care (44%). The majority of men who remove their pubic hair groom the hair above the penis (87%), followed by the scrotum (66%) and the penile shaft (57%). Overall, pubic hair grooming is common among men aged 18 to 65 years in the United States. Younger ages are associated with greater rates of pubic hair grooming. Many men groom for sex, in particular oral sex, as well as for routine care and hygiene. PMID:27480727

  20. Prevalence and Motivation: Pubic Hair Grooming Among Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Thomas W; Awad, Mohannad A; Osterberg, E Charles; Rowen, Tami S; Shindel, Alan W; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2017-05-01

    Pubic hair grooming is a growing phenomenon and is associated with body image and sexual activity. A nationally representative survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged 18 to 65 years residing in the United States was conducted. Differences in demographic and sexual characteristics between groomers and nongroomers were explored. Four thousand one hundred and ninety-eight men completed the survey. Of these men, 2,120 (50.5%) reported regular pubic hair grooming. The prevalence of grooming decreases with age, odds ratio = 0.95 (95% confidence interval [0.94, 0.96]), p < .001. Adjusting for sexual frequency and sexual orientation, grooming is associated with performing and receiving oral sex. The majority of men report grooming in preparation for sexual activity with a peak prevalence of 73% among men aged 25 to 34 years, followed by hygiene (61%) and routine care (44%). The majority of men who remove their pubic hair groom the hair above the penis (87%), followed by the scrotum (66%) and the penile shaft (57%). Overall, pubic hair grooming is common among men aged 18 to 65 years in the United States. Younger ages are associated with greater rates of pubic hair grooming. Many men groom for sex, in particular oral sex, as well as for routine care and hygiene.

  1. Cryopreservation of Hair-Follicle Associated Pluripotent (HAP) Stem Cells Maintains Differentiation and Hair-Growth Potential.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M; Kajiura, Satoshi; Cao, Wenluo; Liu, Fang; Amoh, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles contain nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells which originate above the bulge area of the follicle, below the sebaceous gland. We have termed these cells hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. We have established efficient cryopreservation methods of the hair follicle that maintain the pluripotency of HAP stem cells as well as hair growth. We cryopreserved the whole hair follicle by slow-rate cooling in TC-Protector medium or in DMSO-containing medium and storage in liquid nitrogen or at -80 °C. After thawing and culture of the cryopreserved whisker follicles, growing HAP stem cells formed hair spheres. The hair spheres contained cells that differentiated to neurons, glial cells, and other cell types. The hair spheres derived from slow-cooling cryopreserved hair follicles were as pluripotent as hair spheres from fresh hair follicles. We have also previously demonstrated that cryopreserved mouse whisker hair follicles maintain their hair-growth potential. DMSO better cryopreserved mouse whisker follicles compared to glycerol. DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles also maintained the HAP stem cells, evidenced by P75 ntr expression. Subcutaneous transplantation of DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles in nude mice resulted in extensive hair fiber growth over 8 weeks, indicating the functional recovery of hair-shaft growth of cryopreserved hair follicles. HAP stem cells can be used for nerve and spinal-cord repair. This biobanking of hair follicles can allow each patient the potential for their own stem cell use for regenerative medicine or hair transplantation.

  2. Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, M.; van Baar, J. J.; Wiegerink, R. J.; Lammerink, T. S. J.; de Boer, J. H.; Krijnen, G. J. M.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the modelling, design, fabrication and characterization of flow sensors based on the wind-receptor hairs of crickets. Cricket sensory hairs are highly sensitive to drag-forces exerted on the hair shaft. Artificial sensory hairs have been realized in SU-8 on suspended SixNy membranes. The movement of the membranes is detected capacitively. Capacitance versus voltage, frequency dependence and directional sensitivity measurements have been successfully carried out on fabricated sensor arrays, showing the viability of the concept.

  3. Expression and localization of VEGFR-2 in hair follicles during induced hair growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian-Jie; Jing, Jing; Lu, Zhong-Fa; Zheng, Min

    2018-06-16

    Recently, VEGFR-2 has been detected not only in vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells but also in some non-vascular endothelial cells, particularly human hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands. In addition, VEGFR-2 has been confirmed to play direct roles in hair follicle keratinocyte regulation beyond simply angiogenesis. To elucidate whether VEGFR-2 activation plays a role in hair follicle cycling regulation, immunofluorescence of VEGFR-2 expression was performed during hair cycling of the dorsum of the mouse induced by hair plucking. We observed that staining for VEGFR-2 in hair follicles during anagen II and IV was much stronger than during anagen VI, catagen and telogen. During anagen II, intense staining for VEGFR-2 was observed on the keratinocyte strands of the hair follicle. Subsequently, we detected intense staining for VEGFR-2 in the ORS, IRS and hair bulb during anagen IV. Moderate staining for VEGFR-2 was detected in the ORS and hair bulb, but staining was most intense in IRS during anagen VI. During catagen, staining for VEGFR-2 in the IRS remained intense, while staining in the ORS and hair bulb was significantly weakened and was negative in the dermal papilla. During telogen, we detected VEGFR-2 in germ cells, cap, and club hair adjoining the epidermis. In conclusion, VEGFR-2 was expressed on the hair follicles of the dorsum of the mouse and varied in expression on the mouse hair follicles during hair cycling, suggesting that VEGFR-2 may exert roles in hair cycle regulation in hair follicles on the dorsum of mice.

  4. Human hair pigmentation--biological aspects.

    PubMed

    Tobin, D J

    2008-08-01

    Skin and hair colour contribute significantly to our overall visual appearance and to social/sexual communication. Despite their shared origins in the embryologic neural crest, the hair follicle and epidermal pigmentary units occupy distinct, although open, cutaneous compartments. They can be distinguished principally on the basis of the former's stringent coupling to the hair growth cycle compared with the latter's continuous melanogenesis. The biosynthesis of melanin and its subsequent transfer from melanocyte to hair bulb keratinocytes depend on the availability of melanin precursors and on a raft of signal transduction pathways that are both highly complex and commonly redundant. These signalling pathways can be both dependent and independent of receptors, act through auto-, para- or intracrine mechanisms and can be modified by hormonal signals. Despite many shared features, follicular melanocytes appear to be more sensitive than epidermal melanocytes to ageing influences. This can be seen most dramatically in hair greying/canities and this is likely to reflect significant differences in the epidermal and follicular microenvironments. The hair follicle pigmentary unit may also serve as an important environmental sensor, whereby hair pigment contributes to the rapid excretion of heavy metals, chemicals and toxins from the body by their selective binding to melanin; rendering the hair fibre a useful barometer of exposures. The recent availability of advanced cell culture methodologies for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture should provide the research tools necessary to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. In the longer term, it may be feasible to develop hair colour modifiers of a biological nature to accompany those based on chemicals.

  5. [When hair starts to fall out].

    PubMed

    de Lorenzi, Caroline; Quenan, Sandrine

    2018-03-28

    Hair loss causes physical and psychological distress and represents a common motive of consultation both in general practice and dermatology. Causes of hair loss are highly diverse and can lead to a challenging diagnosis, which can delay its management. Knowledge of the main causes and their different mechanisms are thus necessary in order to optimize both the diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the main causes of hair loss in order to improve its diagnosis and management.

  6. [The Object Permanence Fallacy.] Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Ben S.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that Greenberg's challenge to the centrality of object permanence in developmental thinking reveals that developmentalists' theories about childhood speak about their own self-images. Notes that developmentalists have been guilty of not only the object permanence fallacy but also the genetic fallacy, or the mistaken belief that describing…

  7. Permanent-Magnet Meissner Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1994-01-01

    Permanent-magnet meissner bearing features inherently stable, self-centering conical configuration. Bearing made stiffer or less stiff by selection of magnets, springs, and spring adjustments. Cylindrical permanent magnets with axial magnetization stacked coaxially on rotor with alternating polarity. Typically, rare-earth magnets used. Magnets machined and fitted together to form conical outer surface.

  8. Return of Function after Hair Cell Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ryals, Brenda M.; Dent, Micheal L.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate goal of hair cell regeneration is to restore functional hearing. Because birds begin perceiving and producing song early in life, they provide a propitious model for studying not only whether regeneration of lost hair cells can return auditory sensitivity but also whether this regenerated periphery can restore complex auditory perception and production. They are the only animal where hair cell regeneration occurs naturally after hair cell loss and where the ability to correctly perceive and produce complex acoustic signals is critical to procreation and survival. The purpose of this review article is to survey the most recent literature on behavioral measures of auditory functional return in adult birds after hair cell regeneration. The first portion of the review summarizes the effect of ototoxic drug induced hair cell loss and regeneration on hearing loss and recovery for pure tones. The second portion reviews studies of complex, species-specific vocalization discrimination and recognition after hair cell regeneration. Finally, we discuss the relevance of temporary hearing loss and recovery through hair cell regeneration on complex call and song production. Hearing sensitivity is restored, except for the highest frequencies, after hair cell regeneration in birds, but there are enduring changes to complex auditory perception. These changes do not appear to provide any obstacle to future auditory or vocal learning. PMID:23202051

  9. Robotic hair harvesting system: a new proposal.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiang; Nakazawa, Toji; Yasuda, Ryuya; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Sakuma, Ichiro; Liao, Hongen

    2011-01-01

    Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE) has become a popular hair transplanting method for solving male-pattern baldness problem. Manually harvesting hairs one by one, however, is a tedious and time-consuming job to doctors. We design an accurate hair harvesting robot with a novel and efficient end-effector which consists of one digital microscope and a punch device. The microscope is first employed to automatically localize target hairs and then guides the punch device for harvesting after shifting. The end-effector shows average bias and precision of 0.014 mm by virtue of a rotary guidance design for the motorized shifting mechanism.

  10. Cross-reactions among hair dye allergens.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David A; English, John

    2009-01-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is an important hair dye allergen, but there remains a reasonable suspicion that other hair dye chemicals may also be responsible for a proportion of the clinical burden of hair dye allergy. To assess to what extent presently assessed additional patch test agents contribute to the diagnosis of non-PPD hair dye allergy. A retrospective analysis was conducted of patch test results with hair dye allergens, focusing on the extent to which patients who were positive for allergic reactions to other hair dye allergens also had a concomitant positive reaction to PPD. For the hair dye allergens other than p-toluenediamine (PTD), reactions in the absence of a concomitant positive reaction to PPD were very rare. Positive reactors to PTD were also positive for reactions to PPD in 5 of every 6 cases. Pyrogallol positives often occurred in the absence of a PPD positive, but were never judged to be of clinical relevance. Hair dye chemicals other than PPD may be of importance, but the presently tested materials, with the possible exception of PTD, are normally positive only when a PPD-positive reaction is also present, suggesting that their use in patch testing in hair dye allergy is likely to be of limited value.

  11. 8 CFR 1235.11 - Admission of conditional permanent residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Admission of conditional permanent residents. (a) General—(1) Conditional residence based on family... anniversary of the marriage upon which the immigrant visa is based occurred after the issuance of the visa and... proceedings. However, in a case where conditional residence was based on a marriage, removal proceedings may...

  12. 8 CFR 1235.11 - Admission of conditional permanent residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Admission of conditional permanent residents. (a) General—(1) Conditional residence based on family... anniversary of the marriage upon which the immigrant visa is based occurred after the issuance of the visa and... proceedings. However, in a case where conditional residence was based on a marriage, removal proceedings may...

  13. 8 CFR 1235.11 - Admission of conditional permanent residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Admission of conditional permanent residents. (a) General—(1) Conditional residence based on family... anniversary of the marriage upon which the immigrant visa is based occurred after the issuance of the visa and... proceedings. However, in a case where conditional residence was based on a marriage, removal proceedings may...

  14. 8 CFR 1235.11 - Admission of conditional permanent residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Admission of conditional permanent residents. (a) General—(1) Conditional residence based on family... anniversary of the marriage upon which the immigrant visa is based occurred after the issuance of the visa and... proceedings. However, in a case where conditional residence was based on a marriage, removal proceedings may...

  15. Organ-level quorum sensing directs regeneration in hair stem cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Lei; Plikus, Maksim V.; Jiang, Ting Xin; Murray, Philip J.; Ramos, Raul; Guerrero-Juarez, Christian F.; Hughes, Michael W; Lee, Oscar K.; Shi, Songtao; Widelitz, Randall B.; Lander, Arthur D.; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Coordinated organ behavior is crucial for an effective response to environmental stimuli. By studying regeneration of hair follicles in response to patterned hair removal, we demonstrate that organ-level quorum sensing allows coordinated responses to skin injury. Removing hair at different densities leads to a regeneration of up to 5 times more neighboring, unplucked resting hairs, indicating activation of a collective decision-making process. Through data modeling, the range of the quorum signal was estimated to be on the order of 1 mm, greater than expected for a diffusible molecular cue. Molecular and genetic analysis uncovered a two-step mechanism, where release of CCL2 from injured hairs leads to recruitment of TNF-α secreting macrophages, which accumulate and signal to both plucked and unplucked follicles. By coupling immune response with regeneration, this mechanism allows skin to respond predictively to distress, disregarding mild injury, while meeting stronger injury with full-scale cooperative activation of stem cells. PMID:25860610

  16. Dyeing regions of oxidative hair dyes in human hair investigated by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Toru; Yamada, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Toshihiko; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2013-06-01

    To develop more effective oxidative hair coloring products, it is important to understand the localization of colored chromophores, which are formed from oxidative dyes, in the fine structure of hair. However, the dyeing regions of oxidative hair dyes in the fine structure of hair have not been extensively examined. In this study, we investigated the distribution and localization of colored chromophores formed by an oxidative hair coloring product in the fine structure of human hair by using a stable isotope-labeled oxidative dye with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). First, formation of the colored chromophore from a deuterium-labeled oxidative dye was examined by visible spectra similarly to a study of its formation using nonlabeled oxidative dye. Furthermore, the formation of binuclear indo dye containing deuterium in its chemical structure was confirmed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) analysis. As a result of the NanoSIMS image on a cross-sectional dyed hair, although deuterium ions were detected in whole hair cross-section, quite a few of them were detected at particulate regions. These particulate regions of the dyed black hair in which deuterium ions were intensely detected were identified as melanin granules, by comparing the dyeing behaviors of black and white hair. NanoSIMS analysis revealed that melanin granules of black human hair are important dyeing regions in oxidative hair coloring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional anatomy of the hair follicle: The Secondary Hair Germ.

    PubMed

    Panteleyev, Andrey A

    2018-07-01

    The secondary hair germ (SHG)-a transitory structure in the lower portion of the mouse telogen hair follicle (HF)-is directly involved in anagen induction and eventual HF regrowth. Some crucial aspects of SHG functioning and ontogenetic relations with other HF parts, however, remain undefined. According to recent evidence (in contrast to previous bulge-centric views), the SHG is the primary target of anagen-inducing signalling and a source of both the outer root sheath (ORS) and ascending HF layers during the initial (morphogenetic) anagen subphase. The SHG is comprised of two functionally distinct cell populations. Its lower portion (originating from lower HF cells that survived catagen) forms all ascending HF layers, while the upper SHG (formed by bulge-derived cells) builds up the ORS. The predetermination of SHG cells to a specific morphogenetic fate contradicts their attribution to the "stem cell" category and supports SHG designation as a "germinative" or a "founder" cell population. The mechanisms of this predetermination driving transition of the SHG from "refractory" to the "competent" state during the telogen remain unknown. Functionally, the SHG serves as a barrier, protecting the quiescent bulge stem cell niche from the extensive follicular papilla/SHG signalling milieu. The formation of the SHG is a prerequisite for efficient "precommitment" of these cells and provides for easier sensing and a faster response to anagen-inducing signals. In general, the formation of the SHG is an evolutionary adaptation, which allowed the ancestors of modern Muridae to acquire a specific, highly synchronized pattern of hair cycling. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Sensory Hairs in the Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus (Cetacea, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Drake, Summer E; Crish, Samuel D; George, John C; Stimmelmayr, Raphaella; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-07-01

    We studied the histology and morphometrics of the hairs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). These whales are hairless except for two patches of more than 300 hairs on the rostral tip of the lower lip and chin, the rostral tip of the upper lip, and a bilateral row of approximately ten hairs caudal to the blowhole. Histological data indicate that hairs in all three of these areas are vibrissae: they show an outermost connective tissue capsule, a circumferential blood sinus system surrounding the hair shaft, and dense innervation to the follicle. Morphometric data were collected on hair diameters, epidermal recess diameters, hair follicle length, and external hair lengths. The main difference between the hairs in the different regions is that blowhole hairs have larger diameters than the hairs in the chin and rostrum regions. We speculate that the hair shaft thickness patterns in bowheads reflect functional specializations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. 21 CFR 880.5960 - Lice removal kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 880.5960 Lice removal kit. (a) Identification. The lice removal kit is a comb or comb-like device intended to remove and/or kill lice and nits from head and body hair. It may or may not be battery operated... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lice removal kit. 880.5960 Section 880.5960 Food...

  20. 21 CFR 880.5960 - Lice removal kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 880.5960 Lice removal kit. (a) Identification. The lice removal kit is a comb or comb-like device intended to remove and/or kill lice and nits from head and body hair. It may or may not be battery operated... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lice removal kit. 880.5960 Section 880.5960 Food...

  1. 21 CFR 880.5960 - Lice removal kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 880.5960 Lice removal kit. (a) Identification. The lice removal kit is a comb or comb-like device intended to remove and/or kill lice and nits from head and body hair. It may or may not be battery operated... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lice removal kit. 880.5960 Section 880.5960 Food...

  2. 21 CFR 880.5960 - Lice removal kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 880.5960 Lice removal kit. (a) Identification. The lice removal kit is a comb or comb-like device intended to remove and/or kill lice and nits from head and body hair. It may or may not be battery operated... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lice removal kit. 880.5960 Section 880.5960 Food...

  3. 21 CFR 880.5960 - Lice removal kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 880.5960 Lice removal kit. (a) Identification. The lice removal kit is a comb or comb-like device intended to remove and/or kill lice and nits from head and body hair. It may or may not be battery operated... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lice removal kit. 880.5960 Section 880.5960 Food...

  4. The acquisition of mechano-electrical transducer current adaptation in auditory hair cells requires myosin VI.

    PubMed

    Marcotti, Walter; Corns, Laura F; Goodyear, Richard J; Rzadzinska, Agnieszka K; Avraham, Karen B; Steel, Karen P; Richardson, Guy P; Kros, Corné J

    2016-07-01

    The transduction of sound into electrical signals occurs at the hair bundles atop sensory hair cells in the cochlea, by means of mechanosensitive ion channels, the mechano-electrical transducer (MET) channels. The MET currents decline during steady stimuli; this is termed adaptation and ensures they always work within the most sensitive part of their operating range, responding best to rapidly changing (sound) stimuli. In this study we used a mouse model (Snell's waltzer) for hereditary deafness in humans that has a mutation in the gene encoding an unconventional myosin, myosin VI, which is present in the hair bundles. We found that in the absence of myosin VI the MET current fails to acquire its characteristic adaptation as the hair bundles develop. We propose that myosin VI supports the acquisition of adaptation by removing key molecules from the hair bundle that serve a temporary, developmental role. Mutations in Myo6, the gene encoding the (F-actin) minus end-directed unconventional myosin, myosin VI, cause hereditary deafness in mice (Snell's waltzer) and humans. In the sensory hair cells of the cochlea, myosin VI is expressed in the cell bodies and along the stereocilia that project from the cells' apical surface. It is required for maintaining the structural integrity of the mechanosensitive hair bundles formed by the stereocilia. In this study we investigate whether myosin VI contributes to mechano-electrical transduction. We report that Ca(2+) -dependent adaptation of the mechano-electrical transducer (MET) current, which serves to keep the transduction apparatus operating within its most sensitive range, is absent in outer and inner hair cells from homozygous Snell's waltzer mutant mice, which fail to express myosin VI. The operating range of the MET channels is also abnormal in the mutants, resulting in the absence of a resting MET current. We found that cadherin 23, a component of the hair bundle's transient lateral links, fails to be downregulated

  5. Evaluation Indicators of Aesthetic Effects on Hair Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yong; Liu, Bing-Cheng; Fan, Zhe-Xiang; Hu, Zhi-Qi

    2016-02-01

    Hair transplantation involves the transplantation of hair, beard, eyebrows, eyelashes, and pubic hair. Based on our experience, the aesthetic result of hair transplantation mainly relies on 4 indicators, including selection of the donor site, direction and angle of grafted hairs, density, and survival rate of implanted hair follicles. We believe that good results can be achieved as long as attention is paid to the above 4 points.

  6. The color(s) of human hair--forensic hair analysis with SpectraCube.

    PubMed

    Birngruber, Christoph; Ramsthaler, Frank; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2009-03-10

    Human hair is among the most common kind of evidence secured at crime scenes. Although DNA analysis through STR-typing is possible in principle, it is not very promising for telogenic hair or single hairs. For the mixed traces frequently found in practice, composed of different hair from an unknown number of individuals, mtDNA sequencing of each individual hair seems to be the only possible, even if technically elaborate, solution. If it were possible to pool all hair belonging to an individual prior to DNA analysis, then this effort could not only be reduced, but the number of hair for an STR-approach could also be increased. Although it is possible to examine hair microscopically, this method must be considered unsuitable for pooling, since the results depend strongly on examiner experience, and the hair cannot always be correctly attributed to an individual. The goal of this study was to develop an objective non-DNA-contaminative pooling method for hair. To this end, the efficacy of spectral imaging as a method of obtaining information--beyond that obtained from a purely microscopic and morphological approach--for the identification of individuals was investigated. Three hairs each from 25 test persons (female: 18; male: 7) were examined with a SpectraCube-System and a light microscope. Six spectra were calculated for each hair, and the hairs from each individual were not only compared to each other, but also to those of the other individuals. From a forensic vantage, the examination showed, in particular, that individuals, whose hair could not be distinguished on the basis of morphology, could also not be accurately distinguished with the SpectraCube. The intra-individual differences were, in part, greater than the inter-individual differences. Altogether, the study shows that a person's hair color, as perceived, is composed of many naturally different, individual colors.

  7. Hair cortisol reflects socio-economic factors and hair zinc in preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Vaghri, Ziba; Guhn, Martin; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E.; Yu, Wayne; Hertzman, Clyde

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study examined the relationship between children’s hair cortisol and socioeconomic status of the family, as measured by parental education and income. Low family socioeconomic status has traditionally been considered a long-term environmental stressor. Measurement of hair cortisol provides an integrated index of cumulative stress exposure across an extended period of time. The present study is the first to examine the relationship between hair cortisol and parental education as well as parental income in a representative sample of preschoolers. Data on hair cortisol, family income, and parental education were collected for a representative sample of 339 children (Mean age = 4.6 years; SD = .5 years) from across 23 neighbourhoods of the city of Vancouver, Canada. As maternal education was shown previously to be associated with hair zinc level, hair zinc measurements were included as well in order to explore potential relationships between hair zinc and hair cortisol. The relationship between hair cortisol and parental education was examined using hierarchical regression, with hair zinc, gender, age, and single parenthood included as covariates. Maternal and paternal education both were correlated significantly with hair cortisol (r = −0.18; p = .001). The relationship remained statistically significant even after controlling for all demographic covariates as well as for hair zinc and after taking the neighbourhood-level clustering of the data into account. Parental income, on the other hand, was not related significantly to children’s hair cortisol. This study provides evidence that lower maternal and paternal education are associated with higher hair cortisol levels. As hair cortisol provides an integrated index of cortisol exposure over an extended time period, these findings suggest a possibly stable influence of SES on the function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Cumulative exposure to cortisol during early childhood may

  8. Hair curvature: a natural dialectic and review.

    PubMed

    Nissimov, Joseph N; Das Chaudhuri, Asit Baran

    2014-08-01

    Although hair forms (straight, curly, wavy, etc.) are present in apparently infinite variations, each fibre can be reduced to a finite sequence of tandem segments of just three types: straight, bent/curly, or twisted. Hair forms can thus be regarded as resulting from genetic pathways that induce, reverse or modulate these basic curvature modes. However, physical interconversions between twists and curls demonstrate that strict one-to-one correspondences between them and their genetic causes do not exist. Current hair-curvature theories do not distinguish between bending and twisting mechanisms. We here introduce a multiple papillary centres (MPC) model which is particularly suitable to explain twisting. The model combines previously known features of hair cross-sectional morphology with partially/completely separated dermal papillae within single follicles, and requires such papillae to induce differential growth rates of hair cortical material in their immediate neighbourhoods. The MPC model can further help to explain other, poorly understood, aspects of hair growth and morphology. Separate bending and twisting mechanisms would be preferentially affected at the major or minor ellipsoidal sides of fibres, respectively, and together they exhaust the possibilities for influencing hair-form phenotypes. As such they suggest dialectic for hair-curvature development. We define a natural-dialectic (ND) which could take advantage of speculative aspects of dialectic, but would verify its input data and results by experimental methods. We use this as a top-down approach to first define routes by which hair bending or twisting may be brought about and then review evidence in support of such routes. In particular we consider the wingless (Wnt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways as paradigm pathways for molecular hair bending and twisting mechanisms, respectively. In addition to the Wnt canonical pathway, the Wnt/Ca(2+) and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways

  9. The use of human hair as biodosimeter.

    PubMed

    Tepe Çam, S; Polat, M; Seyhan, N

    2014-12-01

    The potential use of human hair samples as biologic dosimeter was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The hair samples were obtained from female volunteers and classified according to the color, age and whether they are natural or dyed. Natural black, brown, red, blonde and dyed black hair samples were irradiated at low doses (5-50Gy) and high doses (75-750Gy) by gamma source giving the dose rate of 0.25Gy/s in The Sarayköy Establishment of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority. While the peak heights and g-values (2.0021-2.0023) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent, the peak-to-peak line widths were varied according to natural or dyed hair (ΔHpp: 0.522-0.744mT). In all samples, the linear dose-response curves at low doses saturated after ~300Gy. In black hair samples taken from different individuals, differences in the structure of the spectrum and signal intensities were not observed. The EPR signal intensities of samples stored at room temperature for 22 days fell to their half-values in 44h in black hair, 41h in blonde and brown hairs, 35h in dyed black hair and in 17h in red hair. The activation energies of samples annealed at high temperatures for different periods of time were correlated well with those obtained in the literature. In conclusion, hair samples can be used as a biological dosimeter considering the limitations showed in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hair growth induction by substance P.

    PubMed

    Paus, R; Heinzelmann, T; Schultz, K D; Furkert, J; Fechner, K; Czarnetzki, B M

    1994-07-01

    In vitro, some neuropeptides, including the tachykinin, substance P (SP), act as growth factors. The cyclic growth of the richly innervated hair follicle offers a model for probing such functions in a complex, developmentally regulated tissue interaction system under physiologic conditions. Dissecting the role of neuropeptides in this system may also reveal as yet obscure neural mechanisms of hair growth control. The neuropeptide-releasing neurotoxin, capsaicin was injected intradermally, or SP slow-release formulations were implanted subcutaneously in the back skin of C57BL/6 mice with all follicles in the resting stage of the hair cycle (telogen) in order to see whether this induced hair growth (anagen). In addition, the endogenous SP skin concentration and the activity of the main SP-degrading enzyme, neutral endopeptidase, were determined during the induced murine hair cycle by high performance liquid chromatography-controlled radioimmuno-assay (SP) or by fluorometry (neutral endopeptidase). Both capsaicin and SP induced significant hair growth (anagen) in the back skin of telogen mice. This was associated with substantial mast cell degranulation. The endogenous SP skin concentration showed significant, hair cycle-dependent fluctuations during the induced murine hair cycle, which were largely independent of the activity of neutral endopeptidase. SP may play a role in the neural control of hair growth. Whereas this pilot study does not address the underlying mechanisms of action, it demonstrates that SP has potential as a hair growth-stimulatory agent in vivo, and serves as a basis for exploring the role of tachykinins in epithelial-mesenchymal-neuroectodermal interaction systems like the hair follicle.

  11. Percutaneous Retrieval of Permanent Inferior Vena Cava Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Tamrazi, Anobel, E-mail: atamraz1@jhmi.edu; Wadhwa, Vibhor, E-mail: vwadhwa1@jhmi.edu; Holly, Brian, E-mail: bholly3@jhmi.edu

    PurposeTo evaluate the feasibility, risks, and techniques of percutaneous removal of permanent TrapEase and Simon Nitinol IVC filters.Materials and MethodsBetween August 2011 and August 2015, 12 patients (5 women, 7 men; age range, 26–75 years) underwent an attempt at percutaneous removal of permanent TrapEase (10) and Simon Nitinol (2) IVC filters due to a history of IVC filter complications or need for lifelong anticoagulation due to the filter. Medical records were reviewed for filter dwell time, presence of iliocaval deep venous thrombosis, procedural technique, and complications.ResultsFilter dwell times ranged from 7 days to 15 years (mean 5.1 years). Successful removal of permanent IVC filtersmore » was possible in 11 of 12 patients (91.6 %). In 1 patient, a chronically thrombosed IVC filter could not be removed despite laser sheath assistance, but was successfully recanalized with the PowerWire RF guidewire. In the failed retrieval attempt, a stent was placed through the chronically thrombosed IVC filter with restoration of in-line flow. One major complication of large venous groin hematoma was encountered.ConclusionsIn carefully selected patients, percutaneous removal of permanent IVC filters can be performed safely despite prolonged filter dwell times. Extraction of chronically embedded permanent IVC filters may be facilitated by jugular and femoral approaches, often with laser sheath assistance. Chronic filter thrombosis and caval scarring may increase the risk of retrieval failure.« less

  12. A moat around castle walls. The role of axillary and facial hair in lymph node protection from mutagenic factors.

    PubMed

    Komarova, Svetlana V

    2006-01-01

    Axillary hair is a highly conserved phenotypical feature in humans, and as such deserves at least consideration of its functional significance. Protection from environmental factors is one of the main functions attributed to hair in furred vertebrates, but is believed to be inapplicable to humans. I considered the hypothesis that the phenotypic preservation of axillary hair is due to its unrecognized role in the organism protection. Two immediate questions arise--what exactly is being protected and what it is protected from. A large group of axillary lymph nodes represents a major difference between underarms and the adjacent areas of the trunk. The consideration of potential factors from which hair can offer protection identifies sunlight as the most likely candidate. Intense sweat production underarms may represent an independent defense mechanism, specifically protecting lymph nodes from overheating. Moreover, the pattern of facial hair growth in males strikingly overlaps with the distribution of superficial lymph nodes, suggesting potential role for facial hair in protection of lymph nodes, and possibly thymus and thyroid. The idea of lymph node protection from environmental mutagenic factors, such as UV radiation and heat, appears particularly important in light of wide association of lymph nodes with cancers. The position of contemporary fashion towards body hair is aggressively negative, including the social pressure for removal of axillary and bikini line hair for women, facial hair for men in many professional occupations, and even body hair for men. If this hypothesis is proven to be true, the implications will be significant for immunology (by providing new insights in lymph node physiology), health sciences (depilation is painful and therefore easily modifiable habit if proven to increase disease risk), as well as art, social fashion and economy.

  13. An ultrastructural study on corkscrew hairs and cigarette-ash-shaped hairs observed by dermoscopy of tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mao; Ran, Yuping; Dai, Yaling; Lei, Song; Zhang, Chaoliang; Zhuang, Kaiwen; Hu, Wenying

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to explain the formation mechanisms of corkscrew hairs and cigarette-ash-shaped hairs observed by dermoscopy of tinea capitis. In the present work, the ultrastructure of the involved hairs collected from a girl with tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton violaceum was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). SEM observation of the corkscrew hair revealed bent hair shaft and asymmetrically disrupted cuticle layer. TEM findings demonstrated the hair shaft became weak. The corkscrew hairs closely covered by scales on the scalp were observed under dermoscopy. We speculate that the formation of corkscrew hairs is a result of a combination of internal damage due to hair degradation by T. violaceum and external resistance due to scales covering the hair. SEM observation of the cigarette-ash-shaped hair revealed irregularly disrupted and incompact end, which might represent the stump of the broken corkscrew hair after treatment. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. 40 CFR 280.71 - Permanent closure and changes-in-service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure § 280.71 Permanent closure and changes... sludges. All tanks taken out of service permanently must also be either removed from the ground or filled with an inert solid material. (c) Continued use of an UST system to store a non-regulated substance is...

  15. 40 CFR 280.71 - Permanent closure and changes-in-service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure § 280.71 Permanent closure and changes... sludges. All tanks taken out of service permanently must also be either removed from the ground or filled with an inert solid material. (c) Continued use of an UST system to store a non-regulated substance is...

  16. 40 CFR 280.71 - Permanent closure and changes-in-service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure § 280.71 Permanent closure and changes... sludges. All tanks taken out of service permanently must also be either removed from the ground or filled with an inert solid material. (c) Continued use of an UST system to store a non-regulated substance is...

  17. 40 CFR 280.71 - Permanent closure and changes-in-service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure § 280.71 Permanent closure and changes... sludges. All tanks taken out of service permanently must also be either removed from the ground or filled with an inert solid material. (c) Continued use of an UST system to store a non-regulated substance is...

  18. Cockrell washs hair and face

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-12-16

    STS080-312-004 (19 Nov.-7 Dec. 1996) --- Astronaut Kenneth D. Cockrell, STS-80 mission commander, washes his hair on the middeck of the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Columbia. Displaying a sense of humor, the commander asked astronaut Story Musgrave, who is bald, to address this visual during a briefing with Johnson Space Center (JSC) employees on Jan. 14, 1997. Equal to the task, Musgrave cracked a number of bald jokes and remarked that it was much easier to polish a head in zero gravity than to wash one.

  19. Skin lesion removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... benign; Cryosurgery - skin, benign; BCC - removal; Basal cell cancer - removal; Actinic keratosis - removal; Wart - removal; Squamous cell - removal; Mole - removal; Nevus - removal; Nevi - removal; Scissor ...

  20. Does D matter? The role of vitamin D in hair disorders and hair follicle cycling.

    PubMed

    Amor, Karrie T; Rashid, Rashid M; Mirmirani, Paradi

    2010-02-15

    The role of vitamin D in the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes is well known within the field of dermatology. We sought to evaluate the role that vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor play in the hair cycle and assess how this can be clinically applied to the treatment of hair disorders. A MEDLINE search (1955-July 2009) was preformed to find relevant articles pertaining to vitamin D, the vitamin D receptor, and hair loss. The vitamin D receptor, independent of vitamin D, plays an important role in hair cycling, specifically anagen initiation. The role of vitamin D in hair follicle cycling is not as well understood. The review is broad and there are limited human studies available to date. Additional studies to evaluate the role of vitamin D in the hair cycle should be done. Treatments that up regulate the vitamin D receptor may be successful in treating hair disorders and are a potential area of further study.

  1. Topology optimized permanent magnet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørk, R.; Bahl, C. R. H.; Insinga, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    Topology optimization of permanent magnet systems consisting of permanent magnets, high permeability iron and air is presented. An implementation of topology optimization for magnetostatics is discussed and three examples are considered. The Halbach cylinder is topology optimized with iron and an increase of 15% in magnetic efficiency is shown. A topology optimized structure to concentrate a homogeneous field is shown to increase the magnitude of the field by 111%. Finally, a permanent magnet with alternating high and low field regions is topology optimized and a Λcool figure of merit of 0.472 is reached, which is an increase of 100% compared to a previous optimized design.

  2. Periodic permanent magnet focused klystron

    DOEpatents

    Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Ives, R Lawrence

    2015-04-21

    A periodic permanent magnet (PPM) klystron has beam transport structures and RF cavity structures, each of which has permanent magnets placed substantially equidistant from a beam tunnel formed about the central axis, and which are also outside the extent of a cooling chamber. The RF cavity sections also have permanent magnets which are placed substantially equidistant from the beam tunnel, but which include an RF cavity coupling to the beam tunnel for enhancement of RF carried by an electron beam in the beam tunnel.

  3. Mouse models for human hair loss disorders

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Rebecca M

    2003-01-01

    The outer surface of the hand, limb and body is covered by the epidermis, which is elaborated into a number of specialized appendages, evolved not only to protect and reinforce the skin but also for social signalling. The most prominent of these appendages is the hair follicle. Hair follicles are remarkable because of their prolific growth characteristics and their complexity of differentiation. After initial embryonic morphogenesis, the hair follicle undergoes repeated cycles of regression and regeneration throughout the lifetime of the organism. Studies of mouse mutants with hair loss phenotypes have suggested that the mechanisms controlling the hair cycle probably involve many of the major signalling molecules used elsewhere in development, although the complete pathway of hair follicle growth control is not yet understood. Mouse studies have also led to the discovery of genes underlying several human disorders. Future studies of mouse hair-loss mutants are likely to benefit the understanding of human hair loss as well as increasing our knowledge of mechanisms controlling morphogenesis and tumorigenesis. PMID:12587927

  4. Hair transplantation in burn scar alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Farjo, Bessam; Farjo, Nilofer; Williams, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Treating patients with burn alopecia or hair loss can often be a challenge to both the surgeon and the patient. As with other reconstructive procedures that are required in the post-burn phase, this is usually a multiple stage process often requiring surgery over several years. This is because graft take is not as reliable as in healthy non-scarred skin and may need repeating to achieve adequate density. Also, different areas of hair loss may need to be addressed in separate procedures. There are several limiting factors that will determine whether or not a patient is a candidate for hair restoration which includes but is not limited to the amount of hair loss and the availability of suitable donor hair. Here we discuss how the current surgical technique of hair transplant surgery by follicular unit extraction (FUE) or strip follicular unit transplant (FUT) has become the treatment of choice for alopecic areas that require a more refined aesthetic result. Eyebrow, eyelash, beard and scalp hair loss can all have a negative impact on a burn survivor’s self-esteem and even if surgery is not a possibility, there are non-surgical options available for hair restoration and these are also discussed. PMID:29799573

  5. The biology and genetics of curly hair.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Gillian E; Ginger, Rebecca S; Green, Martin R

    2017-06-01

    Hair fibres show wide diversity across and within all human populations, suggesting that hair fibre form and colour have been subject to much adaptive pressure over thousands of years. All human hair fibres typically have the same basic structure. However, the three-dimensional shape of the entire fibre varies considerably depending on ethnicity and geography, with examples from very straight hair with no rotational turn about the long axis, to the tightly sprung coils of African races. The creation of the highly complex biomaterials in hair follicle and how these confer mechanical functions on the fibre so formed is a topic that remains relatively unexplained thus far. We review the current understanding on how hair fibres are formed into a nonlinear coiled form and which genetic and biological factors are thought to be responsible for hair shape. We report on a new GWAS comparing low and high curl individuals in South Africa, revealing strong links to polymorphic variation in trichohyalin, a copper transporter protein CUTC and the inner root sheath component keratin 74. This builds onto the growing knowledge base describing the control of curly hair formation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Adenoid removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... away soft tissue is used. Some surgeons use electricity to heat the tissue, remove it, and stop ... adenoid glands Patient Instructions Tonsil and adenoid removal - discharge Tonsil removal - what to ask your doctor Images ...

  7. [Adverse effects of hair care in users].

    PubMed

    Tennstedt, D; Herman, A; Lachapelle, J-M

    2018-06-26

    The panoply of products used by hair care professionals to wash, dye, shape and beautify hair is not entirely free from adverse events. Such effects consist mainly of irritation dermatitis and allergic contact eczema affecting the scalp, as well as the back and front of the neck, the forehead and periorbital areas, and the cheeks. The most frequently cited allergens include paraphenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes, glycerol monothioglycolate (GMTG) in acid perm lotions, and ammonium persulphate in hair lighteners (the latter substance being responsible primarily for contact urticaria). However, care should also be paid to other allergens such as cocamidopropyl betaine among surfactants, as well as certain components in hair formulations such as preservatives and fragrances (as well as minoxidil, frequently used by patients). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Hair as an alternative matrix in bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Joana; Faria, Juliana; Carvalho, Félix; Pedro, Madalena; Queirós, Odília; Moreira, Roxana; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Alternative matrices are steadily gaining recognition as biological samples for toxicological analyses. Hair presents many advantages over traditional matrices, such as urine and blood, since it provides retrospective information regarding drug exposure, can distinguish between chronic and acute or recent drug use by segmental analysis, is easy to obtain, and has considerable stability for long periods of time. For this reason, it has been employed in a wide variety of contexts, namely to evaluate workplace drug exposure, drug-facilitated sexual assault, pre-natal drug exposure, anti-doping control, pharmacological monitoring and alcohol abuse. In this article, issues concerning hair structure, collection, storage and analysis are reviewed. The mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair are briefly discussed. Analytical techniques for simultaneous drug quantification in hair are addressed. Finally, representative examples of drug quantification using hair are summarized, emphasizing its potentialities and limitations as an alternative biological matrix for toxicological analyses.

  9. Hair follicle nevus - A dermoscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Okada, Junna; Moroi, Yoichi; Tsujita, Jun; Takahara, Masakazu; Urabe, Kazunori; Kiryu, Hiromaro; Furue, Masutaka

    2008-01-01

    We report the case of a 26-year-old man who presented with small soft nodules with tiny hairs that had been present on his nose since childhood. The nodules were initially diagnosed as melanocytic nevi. However, dermoscopy showed many uniform hair follicles and an interfollicular 'pseudo-pigment network' in the nodules. Histologically, many well-differentiated hair follicles and sebaceous glands were seen in the dermis. Serial sectioning revealed neither central cysts nor a central canal. We therefore diagnosed this case as hair follicle nevus. Dermoscopy is now widely used as a non-invasive, in vivo technique for the diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions. Hair follicle nevus is a very rare disease and this is the first report to demonstrate the manifestation of this clinical entity by dermoscopy.

  10. The stat3/socs3a pathway is a key regulator of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. [corrected].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jin; Wang, Dongmei; Renaud, Gabriel; Wolfsberg, Tyra G; Wilson, Alexander F; Burgess, Shawn M

    2012-08-01

    All nonmammalian vertebrates studied can regenerate inner ear mechanosensory receptors (i.e., hair cells) (Corwin and Cotanche, 1988; Lombarte et al., 1993; Baird et al., 1996), but mammals possess only a very limited capacity for regeneration after birth (Roberson and Rubel, 1994). As a result, mammals experience permanent deficiencies in hearing and balance once their inner ear hair cells are lost. The mechanisms of hair cell regeneration are poorly understood. Because the inner ear sensory epithelium is highly conserved in all vertebrates (Fritzsch et al., 2007), we chose to study hair cell regeneration mechanism in adult zebrafish, hoping the results would be transferrable to inducing hair cell regeneration in mammals. We defined the comprehensive network of genes involved in hair cell regeneration in the inner ear of adult zebrafish with the powerful transcriptional profiling technique digital gene expression, which leverages the power of next-generation sequencing ('t Hoen et al., 2008). We also identified a key pathway, stat3/socs3, and demonstrated its role in promoting hair cell regeneration through stem cell activation, cell division, and differentiation. In addition, transient pharmacological inhibition of stat3 signaling accelerated hair cell regeneration without overproducing cells. Taking other published datasets into account (Sano et al., 1999; Schebesta et al., 2006; Dierssen et al., 2008; Riehle et al., 2008; Zhu et al., 2008; Qin et al., 2009), we propose that the stat3/socs3 pathway is a key response in all tissue regeneration and thus an important therapeutic target for a broad application in tissue repair and injury healing.

  11. Evidence for biological shaping of hair ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D.; Preuss, G.; Mätzler, C.

    2015-07-01

    An unusual ice type, called hair ice, grows on the surface of dead wood of broad-leaf trees at temperatures slightly below 0 °C. We describe this phenomenon and present physical, chemical, and biological investigations to gain insight in the properties and processes related to hair ice. Tests revealed that the biological activity of a winter-active fungus is required in the wood for enabling the growth of hair ice. We confirmed the fungus hypothesis originally suggested by Wegener (1918) by reproducing hair ice on wood samples. Treatment by heat and fungicide suppresses the formation of hair ice. Fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycota are identified on hair-ice-carrying wood. One species, Exidiopsis effusa (Ee), was present on all investigated samples. Both hair-ice-producing wood samples and those with killed fungus show essentially the same temperature variation, indicating that the heat produced by fungal metabolism is very small, that the freezing rate is not influenced by the fungus activity, and that ice segregation is the common mechanism of ice growth on the wood surface. The fungus plays the role of shaping the ice hairs and preventing them from recrystallisation. Melted hair ice indicates the presence of organic matter. Chemical analyses show a complex mixture of several thousand CHO(N,S) compounds similar to fulvic acids in dissolved organic matter (DOM). The evaluation reveals decomposed lignin as being the main constituent. Further work is needed to clarify its role in hair-ice growth and to identify the recrystallisation inhibitor.

  12. Evidence for biological shaping of hair ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D.; Preuss, G.; Mätzler, C.

    2015-04-01

    An unusual ice type, called hair ice, grows on the surface of dead wood of broad-leaf trees at temperatures slightly below 0 °C. We describe this phenomenon and present physical, chemical, and biological investigations to gain insight in the properties and processes related to hair ice. Tests revealed that the biological activity of a winter-active fungus is required in the wood for enabling the growth of hair ice. We confirmed the fungus hypothesis originally suggested by Wegener (1918) by reproducing hair ice on wood samples. Treatment by heat and fungicide, respectively, suppresses the formation of hair ice. Fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycota are identified on hair-ice carrying wood. One species, Exidiopsis effusa (Ee), has been present on all investigated samples. Both hair-ice producing wood samples and those with killed fungus show essentially the same temperature variation, indicating that the heat produced by fungal metabolism is very small, that the freezing rate is not influenced by the fungus activity and that ice segregation is the common mechanism of ice growth at the wood surface. The fungus plays the role of shaping the ice hairs and to prevent them from recrystallisation. Melted hair ice indicates the presence of organic matter. Chemical analyses show a complex mixture of several thousand CHO(N,S)-compounds similar to fulvic acids in dissolved organic matter (DOM). The evaluation reveals decomposed lignin as the main constituent. Further work is needed to clarify its role in hair-ice growth and to identify the recrystallisation inhibitor.

  13. What Is the Use of Elephant Hair?

    PubMed Central

    Myhrvold, Conor L.; Stone, Howard A.; Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2012-01-01

    The idea that low surface densities of hairs could be a heat loss mechanism is understood in engineering and has been postulated in some thermal studies of animals. However, its biological implications, both for thermoregulation as well as for the evolution of epidermal structures, have not yet been noted. Since early epidermal structures are poorly preserved in the fossil record, we study modern elephants to infer not only the heat transfer effect of present-day sparse hair, but also its potential evolutionary origins. Here we use a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, and a range of hair densities determined from photographs, to test whether sparse hairs increase convective heat loss from elephant skin, thus serving an intentional evolutionary purpose. Our conclusion is that elephants are covered with hair that significantly enhances their thermoregulation ability by over 5% under all scenarios considered, and by up to 23% at low wind speeds where their thermoregulation needs are greatest. The broader biological significance of this finding suggests that maintaining a low-density hair cover can be evolutionary purposeful and beneficial, which is consistent with the fact that elephants have the greatest need for heat loss of any modern terrestrial animal because of their high body-volume to skin-surface ratio. Elephant hair is the first documented example in nature where increasing heat transfer due to a low hair density covering may be a desirable effect, and therefore raises the possibility of such a covering for similarly sized animals in the past. This elephant example dispels the widely-held assumption that in modern endotherms body hair functions exclusively as an insulator and could therefore be a first step to resolving the prior paradox of why hair was able to evolve in a world much warmer than our own. PMID:23071700

  14. Microbial decolorization and detoxification of emerging environmental pollutant: Cosmetic hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Swati; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Singh, Mukesh

    2017-09-15

    Since the usage of hair dyes has increased in recent time, the removal of residual dye from environment is also an emerging issue. Hair dye contains mixture of chemicals including genotoxic chemical, p-phenylenediamine (p-PD or PPD). The present study reports bioremediation of hair dye using bacteria isolated from saloon effluent. Sugarcane bagasse powder (SBP) was used as a source of nutrient and surface for bacterial growth. The 16S rDNA sequencing confirmed the isolate as Enterobacter cloacae which was designated as DDB I. The decolourization of dye was studied using UV-vis spectrophotometer. The detoxification study was conducted on microbes isolated from fresh ponds using well diffusion assay. The 1mg/ml of dye was effectively decolourised within 18h of DDB I treatment in the minimal medium containing 30mg/ml of SBP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Final report on the safety assessment of amino nitrophenols as used in hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina L; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2009-01-01

    2-Amino-3-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, 4-amino-3-nitrophenol, 4-amino-2-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol sulfate, 3-nitro-p-hydroxyethylaminophenol, and 4-hydroxypropylamino-3-nitrophenol are substituted aromatic compounds used as semipermanent (nonoxidative) hair colorants and as toners in permanent (oxidative) hair dye products. All ingredients in this group except 2-amino-4-nitrophenol sulfate, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, and 4-amino-2-nitrophenol have reported uses in cosmetics at use concentrations from 2% to 9%. The available toxicity studies for these amino nitrophenol hair dyes did not suggest safety concerns except for the potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of 4-amino-2-nitrophenol. 2-Amino-3-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol sulfate, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, 4-amino-3-nitrophenol, 3-nitro-p-hydroxyethylaminophenol, and 4-hydroxypropylamino-3-nitrophenol are safe as hair dye ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment, but the data are insufficient to make a safety determination for 4-amino-2-nitrophenol.

  16. Beyond generalized hair cells: Molecular cues for hair cell types

    PubMed Central

    Jahan, Israt; Pan, Ning; Kersigo, Jennifer; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are crucial for inner ear neurosensory development. The proneural TF Atoh1 regulates the differentiation of hair cells (HCs) whereas Neurog1 and Neurod1 regulate specification and differentiation of neurons, respectively, but also affect HC development. Expression of Delta and Jagged ligands in nascent HCs and Notch receptors in supporting cells induce supporting cell differentiation through the regulation of neurogenic bHLH TFs (such as Hes1, Hes5) and suppression of limited Atoh1 expression. In sensorineural hearing loss, HCs are lost followed by supporting cells and progressive degeneration of neurons, at least in rodents. Regaining complete hearing may require reconstituting the organ of Corti (OC) from scratch, including the two types of HCs, inner (IHC) and outer (OHC) hair cells with the precise sorting of two types of afferent (type I and II) and efferent (lateral, LOC and medial, MOC olivo-cochlear) innervation. We review effects of bHLH TF dosage and their cross-regulation to differentiate HC types in the OC. We categorize findings of specific gene expressions in HCs: 1. as markers without meaning for the regeneration task, 2. as stabilizers who are needed to maintain or complete differentiation, and 3. as decision making genes, expressed and acting early enough to be useful in this process. Only one TF has been characterized that fits the last aspect: Atoh1. We propose that temporal and intensity variations of Atoh1 are naturally modulated to differentiate specific types of HCs. Importantly, the molecular means to modify the Atoh1 expression are at least partially understood and can be readily implemented in the attempts to regenerate specific types of HCs. PMID:23201032

  17. A historical to present-day account of efforts to answer the question, “What puts the brakes on mammalian hair cell regeneration?”

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Joseph C.; Corwin, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Hearing and balance deficits often affect humans and other mammals permanently, because their ears stop producing hair cells within a few days after birth. But production occurs throughout life in the ears of sharks, bony fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds allowing them to replace lost hair cells and quickly recover after temporarily experiencing the kinds of sensory deficits that are irreversible for mammals. Since the mid 1970's, researchers have been asking what puts the brakes on hair cell regeneration in mammals? Here we evaluate the headway that has been made and assess current evidence for various alternative mechanistic hypotheses that have been proposed to account for the limits to hair cell regeneration in mammals. PMID:23333259

  18. A historical to present-day account of efforts to answer the question: "what puts the brakes on mammalian hair cell regeneration?".

    PubMed

    Burns, Joseph C; Corwin, Jeffrey T

    2013-03-01

    Hearing and balance deficits often affect humans and other mammals permanently, because their ears stop producing hair cells within a few days after birth. But production occurs throughout life in the ears of sharks, bony fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds allowing them to replace lost hair cells and quickly recover after temporarily experiencing the kinds of sensory deficits that are irreversible for mammals. Since the mid 1970s, researchers have been asking what puts the brakes on hair cell regeneration in mammals. Here we evaluate the headway that has been made and assess current evidence for alternative mechanistic hypotheses that have been proposed to account for the limits to hair cell regeneration in mammals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of colouring effect of herbal hair formulations on graying hair

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijender; Ali, Mohammed; Upadhyay, Sukirti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To screen the hair colouring properties of hair colorants/ herbal hair colouring formulations. Materials and Methods: The dried aqueous herbal extracts of Gudhal leaves (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), Jatamansi rhizome (Nardostachys jatamansi), Kuth roots (Saussurea lappa), Kattha (Acacia catechu), Amla dried fruit (Embelica officinalis), were prepared. Coffee powder (Coffea arabica) and Henna powder (Lowsonia inermis) were taken in the form of powder (# 40). Fourteen herbal hair colorants were prepared from these dried aqueous herbal extracts and powders. Activities of hair colorants were observed on sheep wool fibers. On the basis of the above observation six hair colorants were selected. These six formulations were taken for trials on human beings. Observation: The formulation coded HD-3 gave maximum colouring effect on sheep wool fibers as well as on human beings and percentage of acceptance among the volunteers were in the following order: HD- 3 > HD- 4 > HD-1 > HD-13 > HD-14 > HD-11. Results and Discussion: The remarkable results were obtained from five herbal hair colorants, viz., HD-1, HD- 3, HD- 4, HD-13 and HD-14 on sheep wool fibers and human beings. Formulation HD-3, having gudhal, jatamansi, kuth, kattha, amla, coffee and henna, was the maximum accepted formulation and suggested that these herbs in combination acts synergistically in hair colouring action. It also concluded that jatamansi, present in different hair colorants, was responsible to provide maximum blackening on hair PMID:26130937

  20. Hair cycle in dogs with different hair types in a tropical region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Favarato, Evandro S; Conceição, Lissandro Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Hair cycle activity has been extensively studied in humans, sheep and laboratory animals, but there is a lack of information in dogs. Besides varying according to species, breed, sex and general health, hair growth is mainly affected by climatic variations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the follicle activity in three breeds of dogs with different hair types, in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais (latitude 20 degrees 45'S), Brazil. Twenty-one male dogs of boxer, labrador and schnauzer breeds were trichographically analysed monthly over 12 consecutive months. Hair percentage of telogen and anagen hairs at the different stages of the hair cycle in boxers and labradors was not significantly different, but both differed from the schnauzers. A significant correlation between hair follicle cycle and environmental temperature and photoperiod was noted in the boxers and labradors. In these breeds, a larger number of telogen hairs were observed during the hottest months of the year, and an increase in anagen hairs during the coldest months. The mean percentage of telogen hairs was 93, 90 and 55.3% for boxer, labrador and schnauzer, respectively.

  1. Protective effect of hexane and ethanol extract of piper longum L. On gentamicin-induced hair cell loss in neonatal cultures.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Choi, June; Song, Jae-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Gentamicin (GM) is a commonly used aminoglycoside antibiotic that generates free oxygen radicals within the inner ear, which can cause vestibulo-cochlear toxicity and permanent damage to the sensory hair cells and neurons. Piper longum L. (PL) is a well-known spice and traditional medicine in Asia and Pacific islands, which has been reported to exhibit a wide spectrum of activity, including antioxidant activity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of hexane:ethanol (2:8) PL extract (subfraction of PL [SPL] extract) on GM-induced hair cell loss in basal, middle and apical regions in a neonatal cochlea cultures. The protective effects of SPL extract were measured by phalloidin staining of cultures from postnatal day 2-3 mice with GM-induced hair cell loss. The anti-apoptosis activity of SPL extract was measured using double labeling by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and myosin-7a staining. The radical-scavenging activity of SPL extract was assessed using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. SPL extract at a concentration of 1 µg/mL significantly inhibited GM-induced hair cell loss at basal and middle region of cochlea, while 5 µg/mL was effective against apical region hair cell loss. The protective effect of SPL extract was concentration dependent and hair cells retained their stereocilia in explants treated with SPL extract prior to treatment with 0.3 mM GM. SPL extract decreased GM-induced apoptosis of hair cells as assessed by TUNEL staining. The outer hair and inner hair counts were not decreased in SPL extract treated groups in compare to GM treated explants. Additionally, SPL extract showed concentration dependent radical scavenging activity in a DPPH assay. An anti-apoptosis effect and potent radical scavenger activity of SPL extract protects from GM-induced hair cell loss at basal, middle and apical regions in neonatal cochlea cultures.

  2. Gender differences in scalp hair growth rates are maintained but reduced in pattern hair loss compared to controls.

    PubMed

    Van Neste, D J J; Rushton, D H

    2016-08-01

    Hair loss is related to follicular density, programmed regrowth and hair productivity. The dissatisfaction with hair growth in patients experiencing hair loss might be due to slower linear hair growth rate (LHGR). LHGR and hair diameter was evaluated in Caucasian controls and patients with patterned hair loss employing the validated non-invasive, contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram with exogen collection. We evaluated 59,765 anagen hairs (controls 24,609, patients 35,156) and found thinner hairs grew slower than thicker hairs. LHGR in normal women was generally higher than in normal men. LHGR correlates with hair diameter (P < 0.006) and global thinning is associated with slower growth rates. Compared with hair of equal thickness in controls, subjects affected with patterned hair loss showed reduced hair growth rates, an observation found in both male and female patients. Males with pattern hair loss showed further reduction in growth rates as clinical severity worsened. However, sample size limitations prevented statistical evaluation of LHGR in severely affected females. Caucasian ethnicity. In pattern hair loss, LHGR significantly contributes to the apparent decrease in hair volume in affected areas. In early onset, LHRG might have a prognostic value in females but not in males. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Zebrafish hair cell mechanics and physiology through the lens of noise-induced hair cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Allison B.; Xu, Jie; Uribe, Phillip M.

    2018-05-01

    Hair cells are exquisitely sensitive to auditory stimuli, but also to damage from a variety of sources including noise trauma and ototoxic drugs. Mammals cannot regenerate cochlear hair cells, while non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit robust regenerative capacity. Our research group uses the lateral line system of larval zebrafish to explore the mechanisms underlying hair cell damage, identify protective therapies, and determine molecular drivers of innate regeneration. The lateral line system contains externally located sensory organs called neuromasts, each composed of ˜8-20 hair cells. Lateral line hair cells are homologous to vertebrate inner ear hair cells and share similar susceptibility to ototoxic damage. In the last decade, the lateral line has emerged as a powerful model system for understanding hair cell death mechanisms and for identifying novel protective compounds. Here we demonstrate that the lateral line is a tractable model for noise-induced hair cell death. We have developed a novel noise damage system capable of inducing over 50% loss of lateral line hair cells, with hair cell death occurring in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell death is greatest 72 hours post-exposure. However, early signs of hair cell damage, including changes in membrane integrity and reduced mechanotransduction, are apparent within hours of noise exposure. These features, early signs of damage followed by delayed hair cell death, are consistent with mammalian data, suggesting that noise acts similarly on zebrafish and mammalian hair cells. In our future work we will use our new model system to investigate noise damage events in real time, and to develop protective therapies for future translational research.

  4. Incorporation of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hair following controlled oral methamphetamine administration

    PubMed Central

    Polettini, Aldo; Cone, Edward J.; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although hair testing is well established for the assessment of past drug exposure, uncertainties persist about mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair and interpretation of results. The aim of this study was to administer methamphetamine (MAMP) under controlled conditions as a model drug to investigate drug incorporation into human hair. Material and Methods Seven volunteers with a history of stimulant use received 4×10 mg (low) doses of sustained release S-(+)-MAMP HCl within one week, with weekly head hair samples collected by shaving. 3 weeks later, 4 of them received 4×20 mg (high) doses. After extensive isopropanol/phosphate buffer washing of the hair, MAMP and its metabolite amphetamine (AMP) concentrations were determined in all weekly hair samples by LC-MS-MS in selected reaction monitoring mode with the undeca- and deca-deuterated drugs, respectively, as internal standards (LLOQ, 0.005 ng/mg). Results MAMP Tmax occurred from 1 to 2 weeks after both doses, with Cmax ranging from 0.6–3.5 ng/mg after the low and 1.2–5.3 ng/mg after the high MAMP doses. AMP Cmax in hair was 0.1–0.3 ng/mg and 0.2–0.5 ng/mg, respectively, for low and high doses. Highly dose–related concentrations within subjects, but large variability between subjects were observed. MAMP concentrations were above the 0.2 ng/mg cutoff for at least two weeks following administration of both low and high doses. The overall AMP/MAMP ratio ranged from 0.07 to 0.37 with a mean value of 0.15±0.07, and a median of 0.13. The percentage of MAMP and AMP removed with the washing procedure decreased with time after administration. A strong correlation was found between area under the curve of MAMP (r2=0.90, p=0.00) and AMP (r2=0.94, p=0.00) concentrations calculated for the 3-week period following administration and the total melanin concentration in hair. Significant correlations were observed also between Cmax and melanin. Conclusions This study demonstrated that despite large

  5. Functional Utrastructure of Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae) Digestive Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Płachno, Bartosz Jan; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Świątek, Piotr

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Digestive structures of carnivorous plants produce external digestive enzymes, and play the main role in absorption. In Lentibulariaceae, the ultrastructure of digestive hairs has been examined in some detail in Pinguicula and Utricularia, but the sessile digestive hairs of Genlisea have received very little attention so far. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by expanding their morphological, anatomical and histochemical characterization. Methods Several imaging techniques were used, including light, confocal and electron microscopy, to reveal the structure and function of the secretory hairs of Genlisea traps. This report demonstrates the application of cryo-SEM for fast imaging of whole, physically fixed plant secretory structures. Key Results and Conclusion The concentration of digestive hairs along vascular bundles in subgenus Genlisea is a primitive feature, indicating its basal position within the genus. Digestive hairs of Genlisea consist of three compartments with different ultrastructure and function. In subgenus Tayloria the terminal hair cells are transfer cells, but not in species of subgenus Genlisea. A digestive pool of viscous fluid occurs in Genlisea traps. In spite of their similar architecture, the digestive-absorptive hairs of Lentibulariaceae feature differences in morphology and ultrastructure. PMID:17550910

  6. Finasteride treatment of female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Iorizzo, Matilde; Vincenzi, Colombina; Voudouris, Stylianos; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Tosti, Antonella

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of oral finasteride therapy associated with an oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol in premenopausal women with female pattern hair loss. Outpatient consultation for hair disorders at the Department of Dermatology, University of Bologna. Thirty-seven women with female pattern hair loss were treated with oral finasteride, 2.5 mg/d, while taking an oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. Treatment efficacy was evaluated using global photography and the hair density score from videodermoscopy. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess patient evaluation of treatment effectiveness. At 12-month follow-up, 23 of the 37 patients were rated as improved using global photography (12 were slightly improved, 8 were moderately improved, and 3 were greatly improved). No improvement was recorded in 13 patients. One patient experienced worsening of the condition. There was a statistically significant (P = .002) increase in the hair density score in 12 patients. No adverse reactions to the drug were reported. Sixty-two percent of the patients demonstrated some improvement of their hair loss with the use of finasteride, 2.5 mg/d, while taking the oral contraceptive. It is unclear whether the success was due to a higher dosage of finasteride (2.5 mg instead of 1 mg) or to its association with the oral contraceptive containing drospirenone, which has an antiandrogenic effect. Further studies are necessary to understand which patterns of female pattern hair loss respond better to this treatment.

  7. Nodules on the hair: a rare case of mixed piedra.

    PubMed

    Khatu, Swapna S; Poojary, Shital Amin; Nagpur, Niranjan G

    2013-10-01

    Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair shaft characterized by nodules along the hair shaft. Black piedra affects the scalp hair more frequently than white piedra. Occurrence of both types of piedra simultaneously in a patient is extremely rare. We describe here a rare case of mixed piedra of scalp hair.

  8. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or conceal... modacrylic, polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants, in which a person's hair and its surrounding tissue are...

  9. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or conceal... modacrylic, polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants, in which a person's hair and its surrounding tissue are...

  10. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or conceal... modacrylic, polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants, in which a person's hair and its surrounding tissue are...

  11. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or conceal... modacrylic, polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants, in which a person's hair and its surrounding tissue are...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited. ...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited. ...

  14. 7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201.70... Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions. (1) Personal hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications, including shampoos and conditioners. (2) Hair care...

  15. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited. ...

  16. 7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201.70... Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions. (1) Personal hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications, including shampoos and conditioners. (2) Hair care...

  17. 7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201.70... Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions. (1) Personal hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications, including shampoos and conditioners. (2) Hair care...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited. ...

  19. Dissimilar effect of perming and bleaching treatments on cuticles: advanced hair damage model based on elution and oxidation of S100A3 protein.

    PubMed

    Kizawa, Kenji; Inoue, Takafumi; Yamaguchi, Masahito; Kleinert, Peter; Troxler, Heinz; Heizmann, Claus W; Iwamoto, Yoshimichi

    2005-01-01

    Hair treatment chemicals induce sudden and severe hair damage. In this study, we examined cuticles from untreated, permed, and bleached hair that were mechanically discriminated by shaking in water. Both perming and bleaching treatments are prone to easily delaminate cuticles. Confocal microscopy revealed that the cuticles of permed hair were delaminated with larger pieces than untreated ones. On the other hand, the cuticles of bleached hair tend to fragment into small peptides. At the minimum concentration of thioglycolate required to elute S100A3 protein from the endocuticle into the reductive permanent waving lotion, enlarged delaminated cuticle fragments were observed. Although S100A3 is retained in bleached hair, S100A3 is irreversibly oxidized upon bleaching treatment. It is likely that the oxidative cleavage of disulfide bonds between cuticle-constituting proteins, including S100A3, results in the fragile property of cuticles. Here we present a more comprehensive model of hair damage based on a diverse mechanism of cuticle delamination.

  20. Prolonged exposure to arsenic in UK private water supplies: toenail, hair and drinking water concentrations.

    PubMed

    Middleton, D R S; Watts, M J; Hamilton, E M; Fletcher, T; Leonardi, G S; Close, R M; Exley, K S; Crabbe, H; Polya, D A

    2016-05-18

    Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) in drinking water is an established cause of cancer and other adverse health effects. Arsenic concentrations >10 μg L(-1) were previously measured in 5% of private water supplies (PWS) in Cornwall, UK. The present study investigated prolongued exposure to As by measuring biomarkers in hair and toenail samples from 212 volunteers and repeated measurements of As in drinking water from 127 households served by PWS. Strong positive Pearson correlations (rp = 0.95) indicated stability of water As concentrations over the time period investigated (up to 31 months). Drinking water As concentrations were positively correlated with toenail (rp = 0.53) and hair (rp = 0.38) As concentrations - indicative of prolonged exposure. Analysis of washing procedure solutions provided strong evidence of the effective removal of exogenous As from toenail samples. Significantly higher As concentrations were measured in hair samples from males and smokers and As concentrations in toenails were negatively associated with age. A positive association between seafood consumption and toenail As and a negative association between home-grown vegetable consumption and hair As was observed for volunteers exposed to <1 As μg L(-1) in drinking water. These findings have important implications regarding the interpretation of toenail and hair biomarkers. Substantial variation in biomarker As concentrations remained unaccounted for, with soil and dust exposure as possible explanations.

  1. Pubic Hair Shaving Is Correlated to Vulvar Dysplasia and Inflammation: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Objective The risk factors for vulvar dysplasia and infections are not fully known. In this study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between pubic hair shaving and the occurrence of vulvar inflammation, dysplasia, and cancer. Methods This study was performed between January 2013 and December 2016 in which a standardized questionnaire concerning genital hair shaving was administered to vulvar dysplasia and cancer patients and healthy participants. The presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and the occurrence of genital inflammation were documented. Results We recruited 49 patients with vulvar dysplasia or cancer and 234 healthy women as a control group. Smoking, HPV infection, genital inflammation, and complete pubic hair removal were significantly more common in the vulvar dysplasia/cancer group. Pubic hair shaving per se presented a clear association with vulvar dysplasia/cancer. Shaving the labia majora in particular showed also an association. Conclusion Our findings suggest that partial or complete pubic hair shaving using a razor is correlated with and could be a potential risk factor for the development of genital inflammation, vulvar dysplasia, and malignancies. These results need to be confirmed in larger studies. HPV status and genital inflammation should be documented by medical personnel. PMID:29104417

  2. Thymosin Beta-4 Induces Mouse Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Fang; Zhang, Zhipeng; Nuo, Mingtu; Guo, Xudong; Liu, Dongjun

    2015-01-01

    Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is known to induce hair growth and hair follicle (HF) development; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. We generated mice that overexpressed Tβ4 in the epidermis, as well as Tβ4 global knockout mice, to study the role of Tβ4 in HF development and explore the mechanism of Tβ4 on hair growth. To study Tβ4 function, we depilated control and experimental mice and made tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). To explore the effect of Tβ4 on hair growth and HF development, the mRNA and protein levels of Tβ4 and VEGF were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting in control and experimental mice. Protein expression levels and the phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT were also examined by western blotting. The results of depilation indicated that hair re-growth was faster in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, but slower in knockout mice. Histological examination revealed that Tβ4-overexpressing mice had a higher number of hair shafts and HFs clustered together to form groups, while the HFs of control mice and knockout mice were separate. Hair shafts in knockout mice were significantly reduced in number compared with control mice. Increased Tβ4 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, which also had increased VEGF expression. On the other hand, knockout mice had reduced levels of VEGF expression. Mechanistically, Tβ4-overexpressing mice showed increased protein expression levels and phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT, whereas knockout mice had decreased levels of both expression and phosphorylation of these proteins. Tβ4 appears to regulate P38/ERK/AKT signaling via its effect on VEGF expression, with a resultant effect on the speed of hair growth, the pattern of HFs and the number of hair shafts. PMID:26083021

  3. Thymosin Beta-4 Induces Mouse Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoyu; Liang, Hao; Hou, Fang; Zhang, Zhipeng; Nuo, Mingtu; Guo, Xudong; Liu, Dongjun

    2015-01-01

    Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is known to induce hair growth and hair follicle (HF) development; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. We generated mice that overexpressed Tβ4 in the epidermis, as well as Tβ4 global knockout mice, to study the role of Tβ4 in HF development and explore the mechanism of Tβ4 on hair growth. To study Tβ4 function, we depilated control and experimental mice and made tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). To explore the effect of Tβ4 on hair growth and HF development, the mRNA and protein levels of Tβ4 and VEGF were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting in control and experimental mice. Protein expression levels and the phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT were also examined by western blotting. The results of depilation indicated that hair re-growth was faster in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, but slower in knockout mice. Histological examination revealed that Tβ4-overexpressing mice had a higher number of hair shafts and HFs clustered together to form groups, while the HFs of control mice and knockout mice were separate. Hair shafts in knockout mice were significantly reduced in number compared with control mice. Increased Tβ4 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, which also had increased VEGF expression. On the other hand, knockout mice had reduced levels of VEGF expression. Mechanistically, Tβ4-overexpressing mice showed increased protein expression levels and phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT, whereas knockout mice had decreased levels of both expression and phosphorylation of these proteins. Tβ4 appears to regulate P38/ERK/AKT signaling via its effect on VEGF expression, with a resultant effect on the speed of hair growth, the pattern of HFs and the number of hair shafts.

  4. Auditory hair cell innervational patterns in lizards.

    PubMed

    Miller, M R; Beck, J

    1988-05-22

    The pattern of afferent and efferent innervation of two to four unidirectional (UHC) and two to nine bidirectional (BHC) hair cells of five different types of lizard auditory papillae was determined by reconstruction of serial TEM sections. The species studies were Crotaphytus wislizeni (iguanid), Podarcis (Lacerta) sicula and P. muralis (lacertids), Ameiva ameiva (teiid), Coleonyx variegatus (gekkonid), and Mabuya multifasciata (scincid). The main object was to determine in which species and in which hair cell types the nerve fibers were innervating only one (exclusive innervation), or two or more hair cells (nonexclusive innervation); how many nerve fibers were supplying each hair cell; how many synapses were made by the innervating fibers; and the total number of synapses on each hair cell. In the species studies, efferent innervation was limited to the UHC, and except for the iguanid, C. wislizeni, it was nonexclusive, each fiber supplying two or more hair cells. Afferent innervation varied both with the species and the hair cell types. In Crotaphytus, both the UHC and the BHC were exclusively innervated. In Podarcis and Ameiva, the UHC were innervated exclusively by some fibers but nonexclusively by others (mixed pattern). In Coleonyx, the UHC were exclusively innervated but the BHC were nonexclusively innervated. In Mabuya, both the UHC and BHC were nonexclusively innervated. The number of afferent nerve fibers and the number of afferent synapses were always larger in the UHC than in the BHC. In Ameiva, Podarcis, and Mabuya, groups of bidirectionally oriented hair cells occur in regions of cytologically distinct UHC, and in Ameiva, unidirectionally oriented hair cells occur in cytologically distinct BHC regions.

  5. Aging of the Hair Follicle Pigmentation System

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2009-01-01

    Skin and hair phenotypes are powerful cues in human communication. They impart much information, not least about our racial, ethnic, health, gender and age status. In the case of the latter parameter, we experience significant change in pigmentation in our journey from birth to puberty and through to young adulthood, middle age and beyond. The hair follicle pigmentary unit is perhaps one of our most visible, accessible and potent aging sensors, with marked dilution of pigment intensity occurring long before even subtle changes are seen in the epidermis. This dichotomy is of interest as both skin compartments contain melanocyte subpopulations of similar embryologic (i.e., neural crest) origin. Research groups are actively pursuing the study of the differential aging of melanocytes in the hair bulb versus the epidermis and in particular are examining whether this is in part linked to the stringent coupling of follicular melanocytes to the hair growth cycle. Whether some follicular melanocyte subpopulations are affected, like epidermal melanocytes, by UV irradiation is not yet clear. A particular target of research into hair graying or canities is the nature of the melanocyte stem compartment and whether this is depleted due to reactive oxygen species-associated damage, coupled with an impaired antioxidant status, and a failure of melanocyte stem cell renewal. Over the last few years, we and others have developed advanced in vitro models and assay systems for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture which may provide research tools to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. Long term, it may be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some of these aging-associated changes in the hair follicle that impinge particularly on the melanocyte populations. PMID:20927229

  6. Does the recipient site influence the hair growth characteristics in hair transplantation?

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sungjoo; Kim, Jung Chul; Ryu, Hyo Sub; Cha, Young Chang; Lee, Seok Jong; Na, Gun Yoen; Kim, Do Won

    2002-09-01

    Recently hair transplantation has been widely applied not only to correct androgenetic alopecia, but also to correct hair loss on other parts of the body such as the eyebrows and pubic area. It is believed that the transplanted hairs will maintain their integrity and characteristics after transplantation to new nonscalp sites. To evaluate whether the transplanted hairs maintain their hair growth characteristics after transplantation to a new anatomic site other than the scalp. Three study designs were used. Study I: Hair transplantation from the author's occipital scalp to his lower leg was performed and clinical evaluations were made at both 6 months and at 3 years after the transplantation. Study II: After finding changes in hair growth characteristics, transplanted hairs were harvested from the leg and retransplanted to the left side of the nape of the neck (group A). As a control study, occipital hairs were transplanted to the opposite side (group B). Observations were made at 6 months after the operation. Study III: An observational study was done in 12 patients with androgenetic alopecia about 1 year after transplantation of occipital hair to frontal scalp. At each step, survival rates were documented and the rate of growth and the diameter of the shafts were measured for both recipient and donor sites. Study I: Surviving hairs on the lower leg showed a lower growth rate (8.2 +/- 0.9 mm/month), but the same diameter (0.086 +/- 0.018 mm) compared with occipital hairs (16.0 +/- 1.1 mm/month, 0.088 +/- 0.016 mm). The survival rate 3 years after transplantation was 60.2%. Study II: There was no significant difference in the growth rate, shaft diameter, and survival rate between retransplanted hairs (group A) and controls (group B). Groups A and B showed a lower growth rate, but the same diameter, compared with occipital hairs. Study III: There was no significant difference in the growth rate and shaft diameter between the transplanted hairs on the frontal scalp

  7. Brazilian keratin hair treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Weathersby, Courtney; McMichael, Amy

    2013-06-01

    Brazilian keratin treatments are widely available products that are used by women all over the world to straighten hair. Marketers of these products claim that the keratin treatments render naturally curly hair more manageable and frizz-free while enhancing color and shine, giving the hair a healthier appearance. Although widely used, there have been virtually no reports of adverse side effects. Unfortunately, many of the products that are applied by salon professionals contain formaldehyde or its derivatives and are being marketed as safe. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Polar lipid composition of mammalian hair.

    PubMed

    Wix, M A; Wertz, P W; Downing, D T

    1987-01-01

    The types and amounts of polar lipids from the hair of monkey (Macacca fascicularis), dog (Canis familiaris), pig (Sus scrofa) and porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) have been determined by quantitative thin-layer chromatography. The polar lipid content of the hair samples ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 wt%. Lipid compositions included ceramides (57-63% of the polar lipid by weight), glycosphingolipids (7-9%) and cholesteryl sulfate (22-29%). Several minor components (4-7%) remain unidentified. The results suggest that cholesteryl sulfate may be an important determinant of the cohesiveness of hair.

  9. Hair Cell Heterogeneity in the Goldfish Saccule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saidel, William M.; Lanford, Pamela J.; Yan, Hong Y.; Popper, Arthur N.

    1995-01-01

    A set of cytological studies performed in the utricle and saccule of Astronotus ocellatus (Teleostei, Percomorphi, Cichlidae) identified two basic types of hair cells and others with some intermediate characteristics. This paper reports on applying the same techniques to the saccule of Carassius auratus (Teleostei, Otophysi, Cyprinidae) and demonstrates similar types of hair cells to those found in Astronotus. Since Carassius and Astronous are species of extreme taxonomic distance within the Euteteostei, two classes of mechanoreceptive hair cells are likely to represent the primitive condition for sensory receptors in the euteleost inner ear and perhaps in all bony fish ears.

  10. Nanotribological effects of hair care products and environment on human hair using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre, Carmen; Bhushan, Bharat

    2005-07-01

    Tribological properties are useful in the study of human hair and other biological materials. Major sources of investigation for conditioner treated hair includes localization of conditioner, mechanisms related to changes in surface roughness, friction, and adhesion on the nanoscale due to conditioner agents, and how the products change the microstructure of the cuticle. The paper presents nanotribological studies investigating surface roughness, friction, and adhesion using atomic force/friction force microscopy (AFM/FFM). Test samples include virgin and chemically damaged hair, both with and without commercial conditioner treatment, as well as chemically damaged hair with experimental conditioner treatments. Friction force mapping provides insight into the localized change in friction caused by the application of hair care materials. Adhesive force maps to study adhesion on the cuticle surface provide information about localization and distribution of conditioner as well. A discussion is presented on these properties of hair as a function of relative humidity, temperature, durability, and conditioning treatments.

  11. Familial Uncombable Hair Syndrome: Ultrastructural Hair Study and Response to Biotin.

    PubMed

    Boccaletti, V; Zendri, E; Giordano, G; Gnetti, L; De Panfilis, G

    2007-01-01

    We report a family affected to the fourth generation by uncombable hair syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by unruly, dry, blond hair with a tangled appearance. The family pedigree strongly supports the hypothesis of autosomal dominant inheritance; some members of the family had, apart from uncombable hair, minor signs of atopy and ectodermal dysplasia, such as abnormalities of the nails. The diagnosis was confirmed by means of extensive scanning electron microscopy. A trial with oral biotin 5 mg/day was started on two young patients with excellent results as regards the hair appearance, although scanning electron microscopy did not show structural changes in the hair. After a 2-year-period of follow-up, hair normality was maintained without biotin, while nail fragility still required biotin supplementation for control.

  12. Hair and Salivary Testosterone, Hair Cortisol, and Externalizing Behaviors in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grotzinger, Andrew D; Mann, Frank D; Patterson, Megan W; Tackett, Jennifer L; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2018-05-01

    Although testosterone is associated with aggression in the popular imagination, previous research on the links between testosterone and human aggression has been inconsistent. This inconsistency might be because testosterone's effects on aggression depend on other moderators. In a large adolescent sample ( N = 984, of whom 460 provided hair samples), we examined associations between aggression and salivary testosterone, hair testosterone, and hair cortisol. Callous-unemotional traits, parental monitoring, and peer environment were examined as potential moderators of hormone-behavior associations. Salivary testosterone was not associated with aggression. Hair testosterone significantly predicted increased aggression, particularly at low levels of hair cortisol (i.e., Testosterone × Cortisol interaction). This study is the first to examine the relationship between hair hormones and externalizing behaviors and adds to the growing literature that indicates that androgenic effects on human behavior are contingent on aspects of the broader endocrine environment-in particular, levels of cortisol.

  13. Comparative Transduction Mechanisms of Vestibular Otolith Hair Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Hair cells in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs regenerate following aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Hair cells in these organs are differentially sensitive to gentamicin, with saccular hair cells and hair cells in the utricular striola being damaged at lower gentamicin concentrations than hair cells in the utricular extrastriola. Regenerating hair cells in these organs have short hair bundles and can be classified into a number of phenotypes using the same morphological criteria used to identify their mature counterparts. Our studies suggest that some supporting cells can convert, or transdifferentiate,into hair cells without an intervening cell division. By stimulating these processes in humans, clinicians may be able to alleviate human deafness and peripheral vestibular disorders by regenerating and replacing lost hair cells. In vivo and in vitro studies were done on cell proliferation and hair cell regeneration.

  14. Body to Scalp: Evolving Trends in Body Hair Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Kuldeep; Savant, Sandeep S.

    2017-01-01

    Follicular unit extraction (FUE) is becoming an increasingly popular method for hair restoration. As FUE leaves behind no linear scars, it is more suitable to harvest from various body areas including beard, chest, and extremities in hirsute individuals. Body hair characteristics such as thickness, length, and hair cycle may not completely match to that of the scalp hair. The techniques of harvesting body hairs are more time consuming, requiring higher degree of skill than regular scalp FUE. Body hair transplantation can be successfully used either alone or in combination with scalp hair in advanced grades of baldness, for improving the cosmetic appearance of hairlines and in scarring alopecia when there is paucity of donor scalp hair. Harvesting of body hairs opens up a new viable donor source for hair restoration surgeons, especially in cases of advanced Norwood grades five and above of androgenetic alopecia. PMID:28584752

  15. Comparative transduction mechanisms of hair cells in the bullfrog uticulus. 2: Sensitivity and response dynamics to hair bundle displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    The present study was motivated by an interest in seeing whether hair cell types in the bullfrog utriculus might differ in their voltage responses to hair bundle displacement. Particular interest was in assessing the contributions of two factors to the responses of utricular hair cells. First, interest in examining the effect of hair bundle morphology on the sensitivity of hair cells to natural stimulation was motivated by the observation that vestibular hair cells, unlike many auditory hair cells, are not free-standing but rather linked to an accessory cupular or otolithic membrane via the tip of their kinocilium. Interest also laid in examining the contribution, if any, of adaptation to the response properties of utricular hair cells. Hair cells in auditory and vibratory inner ear endorgans adapt to maintained displacements of their hair bundles, sharply limiting their low frequency sensitivity. This adaptation is mediated by a shift in the displacement-response curve (DRC) of the hair cell along the displacement axis. Observations suggest that the adaptation process occurs within the hair bundle and precedes mechanoelectric transduction. Recent observations of time-dependent changes in hair bundle stiffness are consistent with this conclusion. Adaptation would be expected to be most useful in inner ear endorgans in which hair cells are subject to large static displacements that could potentially saturate their instantaneous response and compromise their sensitivity to high frequency stimulation. The adaptation process also permits hair cells to maintain their sensory hair bundle in the most sensitive portion of their DRC. In vestibular otolith organs in which static sensitivity is desirable, any adaptation process in the hair cells may be undesirable. The rate and extent of the decline of the voltage responses was measured of utricular hair cells to step and sinusoidal hair bundle displacements. Then for similar resting potentials and response amplitudes, the

  16. Special-Purpose High-Torque Permanent-Magnet Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III

    1995-01-01

    Permanent-magnet brushless motors that must provide high commanded torques and satisfy unusual heat-removal requirement are developed. Intended for use as thrust-vector-control actuators in large rocket engines. Techniques and concepts used to design improved motors for special terrestrial applications. Conceptual motor design calls for use of rotor containing latest high-energy-product rare-earth permanent magnets so that motor produces required torque while drawing smallest possible currents from power supply. Torque generated by electromagnetic interaction between stator and permanent magnets in rotor when associated electronic circuits applied appropriately temporally and spatially phased currents to stator windings. Phase relationships needed to produce commanded torque computed in response to torque command and to electronically sensed angular position of rotor relative to stator.

  17. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1993-08-31

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density.

  18. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1995-11-28

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density. 14 figs.

  19. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R. William; Dennis, Kevin W.; Lograsso, Barbara K.; Anderson, Iver E.

    1995-11-28

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density.

  20. A Review of Surgical Methods (Excluding Hair Transplantation) and Their Role in Hair Loss Management Today

    PubMed Central

    Sattur, Sandeep S

    2011-01-01

    There is more than one way to manage hair loss surgically. Apart from hair transplantation, there are other techniques which have been used by many to treat baldness. This article attempts to review the surgical methodology and philosophy that have acted as guiding lights in the approach to surgical treatment of baldness over the years and reviews the current role of other techniques in the armamentarium of hair restoration surgeons today. PMID:21976899

  1. African American Women, Hair Care, and Health Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Mahan, Meredith Grace

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. Design: An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry Ford Hospital Department of Dermatology Multicultural Dermatology Center. Setting: The Hair Care Assessment Survey was distributed at church-related functions at predominantly African American metropolitan Detroit churches. Participants: Two hundred African American women from metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, aged 21 to 83. Measurements: The Hair Care Assessment Survey collected data relating to hair loss and hair care, psychosocial experiences relating to hair loss, and hair care as it relates to exercise and body weight management. Data was collected on doctor-patient hair-related medical visits and experiences with commercially available ethnic hair care products. Results: More than 50 percent reported excessive hair loss. Twenty-eight percent had visited a physician to discuss hair issues, but only 32 percent felt their physician understood African American hair. Forty-five percent reported avoiding exercise because of hair concerns, and 22 percent felt that their hair impeded maintaining healthy body weight. Conclusion: Hair loss affects a compelling number of African American women, and a significant number express dissatisfaction in hair-related physician encounters. Additionally, hair styling problems present a serious impediment to physical activity and weight management among this already high-risk population. PMID:25276273

  2. African american women, hair care, and health barriers.

    PubMed

    Gathers, Raechele Cochran; Mahan, Meredith Grace

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry Ford Hospital Department of Dermatology Multicultural Dermatology Center. The Hair Care Assessment Survey was distributed at church-related functions at predominantly African American metropolitan Detroit churches. Two hundred African American women from metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, aged 21 to 83. The Hair Care Assessment Survey collected data relating to hair loss and hair care, psychosocial experiences relating to hair loss, and hair care as it relates to exercise and body weight management. Data was collected on doctor-patient hair-related medical visits and experiences with commercially available ethnic hair care products. More than 50 percent reported excessive hair loss. Twenty-eight percent had visited a physician to discuss hair issues, but only 32 percent felt their physician understood African American hair. Forty-five percent reported avoiding exercise because of hair concerns, and 22 percent felt that their hair impeded maintaining healthy body weight. Hair loss affects a compelling number of African American women, and a significant number express dissatisfaction in hair-related physician encounters. Additionally, hair styling problems present a serious impediment to physical activity and weight management among this already high-risk population.

  3. Protease activity, localization and inhibition in the human hair follicle

    PubMed Central

    Bhogal, R K; Mouser, P E; Higgins, C A; Turner, G A

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Objective In humans, the process of hair shedding, referred to as exogen, is believed to occur independently of the other hair cycle phases. Although the actual mechanisms involved in hair shedding are not fully known, it has been hypothesized that the processes leading to the final step of hair shedding may be driven by proteases and/or protease inhibitor activity. In this study, we investigated the presence of proteases and protease activity in naturally shed human hairs and assessed enzyme inhibition activity of test materials. Methods We measured enzyme activity using a fluorescence-based assay and protein localization by indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also developed an ex vivo skin model for measuring the force required to pull hair fibres from skin. Results Our data demonstrate the presence of protease activity in the tissue material surrounding club roots. We also demonstrated the localization of specific serine protease protein expression in human hair follicle by IHC. These data provide evidence demonstrating the presence of proteases around the hair club roots, which may play a role during exogen. We further tested the hypothesis that a novel protease inhibitor system (combination of Trichogen® and climbazole) could inhibit protease activity in hair fibre club root extracts collected from a range of ethnic groups (UK, Brazil, China, first-generation Mexicans in the USA, Thailand and Turkey) in both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this combination is capable of increasing the force required to remove hair in an ex vivo skin model system. Conclusion These studies indicate the presence of proteolytic activity in the tissue surrounding the human hair club root and show that it is possible to inhibit this activity with a combination of Trichogen® and climbazole. This technology may have potential to reduce excessive hair shedding. Résumé Objectif Chez l'homme, le processus de perte de cheveux, désigné comme exog

  4. The influence of hair bleach on the ultrastructure of human hair with special reference to hair damage.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takehito

    2011-05-01

    The influence of human hair bleaching agents with different bleaching strength on the ultrastructure of human hair was studied using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer equipped with TEM (EDS-TEM). Two kinds of bleaching agents were used: a lightener agent with a weak bleaching effect and a powder-bleach with a stronger bleaching effect. From the comparison of the bleaching properties obtained by the electronic staining of black and white hair samples, it was suggested that the permeability of hair was increased by bleaching, and there was an increase of the stainability of hair subjected to electronic staining. The bleaching action provoked the decomposition of melanin granules and the flow out of granular contents into the intermacrofibrillar matrix. Some metal elements were detected in the melanin granular matrix by EDS-TEM. As a result, the diffusion of metal elements into the intermacrofibrillar matrix promoted further damage to the hair by catalytic action with the hydrogen peroxide in the bleaching agents outside the melanin granules. Further study will lead us to the edge of the development of a new bleaching agent, which reacts only with melanin granules and causes the minimum of damage to outside the melanin granules.

  5. Facial hair restoration: hair transplantation to eyebrows, beard, sideburns, and eyelashes.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Jeffrey

    2013-08-01

    Refinements in hair transplantation techniques allow the experienced surgeon to create natural-appearing facial hair transplants. Restoring eyebrows, beards/goatees, and sideburns have all become popular procedures, and the results can be outstanding. This article provides a comprehensive review of hair grafting techniques to achieve the best results in restoring various hair-bearing areas of the face, including the eyebrows, beard/goatee, and sideburns, and repairing the alopecic scarring from prior facial plastic surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Activating Hair Follicle Stem Cells via R-spondin2 to Stimulate Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew A; Li, Jingtao; Liu, Bo; Hunter, Daniel; Pyles, Malcolm; Gillette, Martin; Dhamdhere, Girija R; Abo, Arie; Oro, Anthony; Helms, Jill A

    2016-08-01

    Wnt signaling is required for the development of the hair follicle, and for inciting the growth (anagen) phase of the hair cycle. Most strategies to enhance Wnt signaling for hair growth create a state of constitutive Wnt activation, which leads to neoplastic transformation of the epithelial hair matrix. Using Axin2(LacZ/+) and Axin2(Cre/+)R26R(mTmG/+) reporter mice and RNA analyses, we show that Wnt signaling is elevated during anagen, is reduced at the onset of catagen, and can be reamplified in the skin and surrounding hair follicles via intradermal injection of recombinant R-spondin2 protein. Using Lgr5(LacZ/+) reporter mice, we demonstrate that this amplified Wnt environment leads to activation of leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-positive stem cells in the hair follicle. The onset of catagen is repressed by R-spondin2 injection, and the anagen phase persists. As a consequence, hair shafts grow longer. We conclude that R-spondin2 treatment activates hair follicle stem cells and therefore may have therapeutic potential to promote hair growth. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of hair shaft progenitors that create a niche for hair pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chung-Ping; Booker, Reid C; Morrison, Sean J; Le, Lu Q

    2017-04-15

    Hair differentiates from follicle stem cells through progenitor cells in the matrix. In contrast to stem cells in the bulge, the identities of the progenitors and the mechanisms by which they regulate hair shaft components are poorly understood. Hair is also pigmented by melanocytes in the follicle. However, the niche that regulates follicular melanocytes is not well characterized. Here, we report the identification of hair shaft progenitors in the matrix that are differentiated from follicular epithelial cells expressing transcription factor KROX20. Depletion of Krox20 lineage cells results in arrest of hair growth, confirming the critical role of KROX20 + cells as antecedents of structural cells found in hair. Expression of stem cell factor (SCF) by these cells is necessary for the maintenance of differentiated melanocytes and for hair pigmentation. Our findings reveal the identities of hair matrix progenitors that regulate hair growth and pigmentation, partly by creating an SCF-dependent niche for follicular melanocytes. © 2017 Liao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. Splitting hairs: differentiating between entomological activity, taphonomy, and sharp force trauma on hair.

    PubMed

    Mazzarelli, Debora; Vanin, Stefano; Gibelli, Daniele; Maistrello, Lara; Porta, Davide; Rizzi, Agostino; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of hair can provide useful information for the correct evaluation of forensic cases, but studies of trauma on hair are extremely rare. Hair may present lesions caused by traumatic events or by animals: in fact, signs of sharp force weapons on hair may provide important information for the reconstruction of the manner of death, and, for example, may suggest fetishist practice. This study stemmed from a judicial case where it was fundamental to distinguish between sharp force lesions and insect activity on hair. In order to highlight differences between sharp force lesions and insect feeding activity, different experiments were performed with high power microscopy: hair samples were subjected to several lesions by blunt and sharp force trauma; then samples were used as pabulum for two taxa of insects: the common clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella Lepidoptera, Tineidae) and the carpet beetle (Anthrenus sp., Coleoptera, Dermestidae). Hairs were examined from a macroscopic and microscopic point of view by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM): the morphological characteristics of the lesions obtained from the different experimental samples were compared. Results show that sharp force trauma produces lesions with regular edges, whereas insects leave concave lesions caused by their "gnawing" activity. These two types of lesions are easily distinguishable from breaking and tearing using SEM. This study demonstrates that insect activity leaves very specific indications on hair and sheds some light on different hair lesions that may be found in forensic cases.

  9. Additive manufacturing of permanent magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Paranthaman, M. P.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Johnson, F.; ...

    2016-10-28

    Here, permanent magnets enable energy conversion. Motors and generators are used to convert both electrical to mechanical energy and mechanical to electrical energy, respectively. They are precharged (magnetized) prior to being used in an application and must remain magnetized during operation. In addition, they should generate sufficient magnetic flux for a given application. Nevertheless permanent magnets can be demagnetized (discharged of their magnetization) by other magnetic materials in their service vicinity, temperature changes (thermal demagnetization), microstructural degradations and the magnet’s internal demagnetizing field. Therefore a permanent magnet can be qualified based on the properties that measure its ability to withstandmore » demagnetization and to supply sufficient magnetic flux required for a given application. Some of those properties are further discussed below. Additive manufacturing followed by exchange spring magnets will be discussed afterwards.« less

  10. Lodestone: Nature's own permanent magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P.

    1976-01-01

    Magnetic hysteresis and microstructural details are presented which explain why the class of magnetic iron ores defined as proto-lodestones, can behave as permanent magnets, i.e. lodestones. Certain of these proto-lodestones which are not permanent magnets can be made into permanent magnets by charging in a field greater than 1000 oersted. This fact, other experimental observations, and field evidence from antiquity and the middle ages, which seems to indicate that lodestones are found as localized patches within massive ore bodies, suggests that lightning might be responsible for the charging of lodestones. The large remanent magnetization, high values of coercive force, and good time stability for the remanent magnetization are all characteristics of proto-lodestone iron ores which behave magnetically as fine scale ( 10 micrometer) intergrowths when subjected to magnetic hysteresis analysis. The magnetic results are easily understood by analysis of the complex proto lodestone microstructural patterns observable at the micrometer scale and less.

  11. Hair cortisol and cortisone are decreased by natural sunlight.

    PubMed

    Wester, Vincent L; van der Wulp, Nils R P; Koper, Jan W; de Rijke, Yolanda B; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2016-10-01

    Hair glucocorticoids (cortisol and cortisone) are increasingly used as measures of long-term integrated exposure to glucocorticoid hormones. Glucocorticoids gradually disappear from the hair shaft, which may result from exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in natural sunlight. We aimed to study the influence of sun exposure on hair glucocorticoids. Scalp hair samples were obtained from nine volunteers (median age 33 [range 21-81], 7 females), and part of each hair sample was exposed to three experimental conditions: repeated exposure to natural sunlight for 40h (natural UV), exposure to a high amount of artificial UV radiation, and storage in the dark (control). Hair cortisol (HairF) and cortisone (HairE) were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. When compared to control, HairF was decreased in 9 out of 9 hair samples after natural sunlight exposure (median decrease -3.1pg/mg or -54%, P<0.001) and artificial UV radiation (-4.7pg/mg or -75%, P=0.003). HairE decreased in 8 out of 9 samples, both after natural sunlight (-7.6pg/mg or -32%, P=0.012) and artificial UV (-10.7pg/mg or -52%, P=0.026). Exposure to natural sunlight decreases the glucocorticoid content of scalp hair, apparently through UV radiation, and is therefore an important confounder that should be considered in studies involving the measurement of hair glucocorticoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Unravelling hair follicle-adipocyte communication.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Barbara; Horsley, Valerie

    2012-11-01

    Here, we explore the established and potential roles for intradermal adipose tissue in communication with hair follicle biology. The hair follicle delves deep into the rich dermal macroenvironment as it grows to maturity where it is surrounded by large lipid-filled adipocytes. Intradermal adipocytes regenerate with faster kinetics than other adipose tissue depots and in parallel with the hair cycle, suggesting an interplay exists between hair follicle cells and adipocytes. While adipocytes have well-established roles in metabolism and energy storage, until recently, they were overlooked as niche cells that provide important growth signals to neighbouring skin cells. We discuss recent data supporting adipocytes as niche cells for the skin and skin pathologies that may be related to alterations in skin adipose tissue defects. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Signal detection by active, noisy hair bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Maoiléidigh, Dáibhid; Salvi, Joshua D.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Vertebrate ears employ hair bundles to transduce mechanical movements into electrical signals, but their performance is limited by noise. Hair bundles are substantially more sensitive to periodic stimulation when they are mechanically active, however, than when they are passive. We developed a model of active hair-bundle mechanics that predicts the conditions under which a bundle is most sensitive to periodic stimulation. The model relies only on the existence of mechanotransduction channels and an active adaptation mechanism that recloses the channels. For a frequency-detuned stimulus, a noisy hair bundle's phase-locked response and degree of entrainment as well as its detection bandwidth are maximized when the bundle exhibits low-amplitude spontaneous oscillations. The phase-locked response and entrainment of a bundle are predicted to peak as functions of the noise level. We confirmed several of these predictions experimentally by periodically forcing hair bundles held near the onset of self-oscillation. A hair bundle's active process amplifies the stimulus preferentially over the noise, allowing the bundle to detect periodic forces less than 1 pN in amplitude. Moreover, the addition of noise can improve a bundle's ability to detect the stimulus. Although, mechanical activity has not yet been observed in mammalian hair bundles, a related model predicts that active but quiescent bundles can oscillate spontaneously when they are loaded by a sufficiently massive object such as the tectorial membrane. Overall, this work indicates that auditory systems rely on active elements, composed of hair cells and their mechanical environment, that operate on the brink of self-oscillation.

  14. Is Polar Bear Hair Fiber Optic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, Daniel W.

    1998-05-01

    New direct measurement of high optical attenuation rates in polar bear hairs 2 8 dB mm in the visible and reanalysis of the data of Tributsch et al . Sol. Energy Mater. 21, 219 (1990) seem to rule out the UV waveguiding proposed by Grojean et al . Appl. Opt. 19, 339 (1980) . The case against fiber-optic polar bear hairs is summarized, and four conditions are given that any variation of the model of Grojean et al . would have to satisfy.

  15. Kidney removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... the surgical cut is located. Recovery after a laparoscopic procedure is most often quicker, with less pain. Outlook (Prognosis) The outcome is most often good when a single kidney is removed. If both kidneys are removed, ...

  16. Morphological degradation of human hair cuticle due to simulated sunlight irradiation and washing.

    PubMed

    Richena, M; Rezende, C A

    2016-08-01

    Morphological changes in hair surface are undesirable, since they cause shine loss, roughness increase and split ends. These effects occur more frequently in the cuticle, which is the outermost layer of the hair strand, and thus the most exposed to the environmental damages. Sunlight irradiation contributes significantly to these morphological alterations, which motivates the investigation of this effect on hair degradation. In this work, the influence of irradiation and hand-washing steps on the morphology of pigmented and non-pigmented hair cuticle was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To simulate daily conditions, where hair is hand-washed and light exposed, samples of dark brown and gray hair underwent three different conditions: 1) irradiation with a mercury lamp for up to 600h; 2) irradiation with the mercury lamp combined with washes with a sodium lauryl sulphate solution; and 3) only washing. A new preparation procedure was applied for TEM samples to minimize natural variations among different hair strands: a single hair strand was cut into two neighbouring halves and only one of them underwent irradiation and washing. The non-exposed half was used as a control, so that the real effects caused by the controlled irradiation and washing procedures could be highlighted in samples that had very similar morphologies initially. More than 25images/sample were analysed using FESEM (total of 300 images) and ca. 150images/sample were obtained with TEM (total of 900 images). The results presented herein show that the endocuticle and the cell membrane complex (CMC) are the cuticle structures more degraded by irradiation. Photodegradation alone results in fracturing, cavities (Ø≈20-200nm) and cuticle cell lifting, while the washing steps were able to remove cuticle cells (≈1-2 cells removed after 60 washes). Finally, the combined action of irradiation and washing caused the most severe

  17. Efficacy of antioxidants in human hair.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Estibalitz; Martínez-Teipel, Blanca; Armengol, Ricard; Barba, Clara; Coderch, Luisa

    2012-12-05

    Hair is exposed every day to a range of harmful effects such as sunlight, pollution, cosmetic treatments, grooming practices and cleansing. The UV components of sunlight damage human hair, causing fibre degradation. UV-B attacks the melanin pigments and the protein fractions (keratin) of hair and UV-A produces free radical/reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the interaction of endogenous photosensitizers. Hair was dyed and the efficacy of two antioxidant formulations was demonstrated after UV exposure by evaluating, surface morphology, protein and amino acid degradation, lipidic peroxidation, colour and shine changes and strength/relaxation properties. UV treatment resulted in an increase in protein and lipid degradation, changes in colour and shine and in adverse consequences for the mechanical properties. Natural antioxidants obtained from artichoke and rice applied to pretreated hair improved mechanical properties and preserved colour and shine of fibres, coating them and protecting them against UV. Furthermore, the lipidic peroxidation of the protein degradation caused by UV was reduced for some treated fibres, suggesting an improvement in fibre integrity. This was more marked in the case of the fibres treated using the artichoke extract, whereas the rice extract was better preserving shine and colour of hair fibres. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. LSD in pubic hair in a fatality.

    PubMed

    Gaulier, Jean-michel; Maublanc, Julie; Lamballais, Florence; Bargel, Sophie; Lachâtre, Gérard

    2012-05-10

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogen, active at very low dosage and its determination in body fluids in a forensic context may present some difficulties, even more so in hair. A dedicated liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS/MS) assay in hair was used to document the case of a 24-year-old man found dead after a party. Briefly, after a decontamination step, a 50mg sample of the victim's pubic hair was cut into small pieces (<1mm length), and incubated overnight in 3mL of phosphate buffer pH 5 at room temperature. After a liquid-liquid extraction (dichloromethane/ether), the extract was analyzed using a LC-ES-MS/MS method exhibiting a limit of quantification of 0.5pg/mg for LSD. A LSD concentration of 0.66pg/mg of pubic hair was observed. However, this result remains difficult to interpret owing to the concomitant LSD presence in the victim's post mortem blood and urine, the lack of previously reported LSD concentrations in hair, and the absence of data about LSD incorporation and stability in pubic hair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pubic hair of infancy: endocrinopathy or enigma?

    PubMed

    Nebesio, Todd D; Eugster, Erica A

    2006-03-01

    Pubic hair of infancy is a rare condition that has not been well-characterized. A retrospective chart review of infants <12 months of age who presented to our pediatric endocrine clinics with isolated pubic hair over the last 5 years was performed. Eleven patients were identified (6 male and 5 female). The average age at diagnosis was 8.3 +/- 2.0 months. The majority of patients (73%) had pubic hair in an atypical location. Growth pattern, laboratory evaluation, and bone-age radiographs were unremarkable for all the infants. Of the infants that returned for follow-up, pubic hair resolved by the age of 11.0 +/- 1.5 months. From our experience and review of the literature, we suggest that isolated pubic hair of infancy is a benign entity. However, long-term follow-up needs to be done to determine if pubic hair of infancy is an atypical variant of premature adrenarche, which may place these patients at risk for later adult disease.

  20. Red ginseng extract promotes the hair growth in cultured human hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans.

  1. Red Ginseng Extract Promotes the Hair Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans. PMID:25396716

  2. The hair follicle mites (Demodex spp.). Could they be vectors of pathogenic microorganisms?

    PubMed

    Wolf, R; Ophir, J; Avigad, J; Lengy, J; Krakowski, A

    1988-01-01

    The hair follicle mites Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis are the most common permanent ectoparasites of Man. Ordinarily they are harmless to their human host and appear to be of no medical significance. We present, however, an unusual finding regarding this mite, namely, that in a potassium hydroxide mount of a skin scraping from a mycotic plaque we found numerous Demodex mites containing inside them spores of Microsporum canis. This could mean that the putatively inoffensive Demodex has the potential to ingest various microorganisms that are found in its niche and transport them to other areas of the skin or possibly to other individuals.

  3. Use of nape and peri-auricular hair by follicular unit extraction to create soft hairlines and temples: my experience with 128 patients.

    PubMed

    Umar, Sanusi

    2015-11-01

    Hairlines and temples can look unnatural due to coarseness of the safe donor area of transplanted scalp hair. Although the thinner caliber of nape and peri-auricular (NPA) hair would be ideal to create softer hairlines, they have not been used mainly because of concerns that they are nonpermanent. We assessed the outcome of NPA hair transplanted to hairlines and temples in selected patients. During November 2006 to November 2011, follicular unit extraction (FUE) transplantation using NPA hair was conducted in 128 patients following a shave test involving the visual evaluation of hair density and caliber of shaved head donor areas. The test was used to determine permanent versus nonpermanent donor areas. A questionnaire was sent to patients to assess satisfaction with their restored hairlines, with a follow-up questionnaire sent to those who initially responded. Three-quarters of patients are good candidates for use of NPA hair to the hairlines and temples based on the shave test. Of 128 patients transplanted, 71% responded and reported a mean overall satisfaction of 8.3 (scale, 1-10). Patients saw full hair coverage at the recipient area at a mean of 9.6 months after surgery. Nineteen patients reported lost grafts. Thirty-three patients responded to a second survey and reported a mean overall satisfaction of 8.5 at an average of 4.6 years after surgery; only 5 (15%) new instances of graft loss were reported. Soft, natural-looking hairlines can be created in select patients using NPA hair as a donor source by FUE hair transplantation. 4 Therapeutic. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Microfilm Permanence and Archival Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avedon, Don M.

    1972-01-01

    The facts about microfilm permanence and archival quality are presented in simple terms. The major factors, including the film base material, the film emulsion, processing, and storage conditions are reviewed. The designations on the edge of the film are explained and a list of refernces provided. (14 references) (Author)

  5. Permanent global amnesia: case report.

    PubMed

    Bertolucci, Paulo H F; Siviero, Marilena O; Bueno, Orlando F A; Okamoto, Ivan H; Camargo, Candida H P; Santos, Ruth F

    2004-04-01

    To present a case of permanent global amnesia related to hippocampal damage. Permanent global amnesia is a very rare condition of unknown etiology; lesions restricted to the hippocampus are uncommon, which hinders investigations of this pattern of memory loss. This case is unusually well documented, as the patient underwent extensive neuropsychological evaluations. A cheerful right-handed, 83-year-old retired electrician was first evaluated in 1990 for progressive difficulty in learning new information and in recalling events over the preceding 3-4 years. Tests over the next 5 years showed that the impairment was confined to episodic declarative memory. New verbal information could be stored only in episodic memory in a restricted manner, limited by short-term memory capacity. A relatively mild retrograde amnesia was detected. Semantic and implicit memory was spared, as were other functions evaluated. The patient's language and executive function were strikingly efficient. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed bilateral atrophy of the hippocampi and amygdalae, ruling out conditions such as tumour growth. A diagnosis of permanent global amnesia was made. In the ensuing years, the retrograde amnesia worsened, but no new deficits were identified. This case, the first with a detailed cognitive examination, is evidence of a relatively pure hippocampal pattern for memory loss in permanent global amnesia.

  6. Magnetic Fields: Visible and Permanent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkeljohn, Dorothy R.; Earl, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    Children will be able to see the concept of a magnetic field translated into a visible reality using the simple method outlined. Standard shelf paper, magnets, iron filings, and paint in a spray can are used to prepare a permanent and well-detailed picture of the magnetic field. (Author/JN)

  7. Frictionless Bearing Uses Permanent Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The purpose of this innovation was to develop a frictionless bearing for high speed, light load applications. The device involves the incorporation of permanent magnets in the bearing design. The repulsion of like magnetic poles provides concentric support of the inner member so that no metallic contact occurs between the bearing surfaces.

  8. Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

    1972-01-01

    Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

  9. Guidelines on Hair Restoration for East Asian Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Joon; Jung, Jae Heon; Lee, Young-Ran; Kim, Jung Chul; Hwang, Sungjoo Tommy

    2016-07-01

    In East Asian countries, hair transplantation is a quite common procedure for treating pattern hair loss, cosmetically correcting the hairline, and correcting eyebrow and pubic hair defects. Although there are general guidelines concerning hair transplantation, certain factors need to be addressed to make the guidelines more specific and suitable to East Asian requirements. To provide guidelines for hairline design, donor harvesting, graft preparation and placement, and medical treatment that are appropriate for hair transplantation in East Asian patients. Recommendations are based on the experience of the authors, surgeons who perform hair transplantation, and a comprehensive review of the available literature on hair transplantation in East Asians. Data on hair thickness and graft density, hairline design, and graft creation and placement techniques have been collaboratively evaluated and used to establish overall guidelines. The use of the proposed guidelines by surgeons will hopefully enhance outcomes and bring greater consistency to hair transplantation procedures for East Asian patients.

  10. Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling

    PubMed Central

    Sennett, Rachel; Rendl, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic hair follicle induction and formation are regulated by mesenchymal-epithelial interactions between specialized dermal cells and epidermal stem cells that switch to a hair fate. Similarly, during postnatal hair growth, communication between mesenchymal dermal papilla cells and surrounding epithelial matrix cells coordinates hair shaft production. Adult hair follicle regeneration in the hair cycle again is thought to be controlled by activating signals originating from the mesenchymal compartment and acting on hair follicle stem cells. Although many signaling pathways are implicated in hair follicle formation and growth, the precise nature, timing, and intersection of these inductive and regulatory signals remains elusive. The goal of this review is to summarize our current understanding and to discuss recent new insights into mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. PMID:22960356

  11. The effect of a herbal paste and oil extract on the lipid content of canine hair fibres.

    PubMed

    Momota, Yutaka; Shimada, Kenichiro; Kadoya, Chihiro; Gin, Azusa; Kobayashi, Jun; Nakamura, Yuka; Matsubara, Takako; Sako, Toshinori

    2017-08-01

    Application of herbal paste and oil to a dog's coat and body before rinsing (often combining with shampooing) is a cosmetic therapy available in Japan. It is highly appreciated by users, who claim that the treatment makes the coat shinier, improves volume and eliminates tangles. However, there has been no scientific evaluation of such treatments. Improvement of hair condition is derived from oils such as sebum and conditioning oils because chemicals are not used. Therefore, we examined nonpolar lipids (the primary lipids in dog hair) and the botanical oils used in this therapy. Hair samples were obtained from six beagle dogs. Groups were based on different combinations of the following processes: rinsing, shampooing, herbal therapy and herbal therapy with oil extract. Analysis of lipids was performed by high performance thin layer chromatography. The processes of shampooing and herbal therapy were associated with an equivalent reduction in cholesterol ester and triglyceride (TG). However, hair treated by herbal therapy combined with oil extract had an almost three-fold higher TG content, even after shampooing. This study demonstrated that the herbal therapy was able to coat hair samples with TG that was not removed with rinsing. Further investigation is required to evaluate the possible benefits of the application of botanical products containing lipids, such as TG, on hair coat quality in dogs. © 2017 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  12. A GC-MS method for the detection and quantitation of ten major drugs of abuse in human hair samples.

    PubMed

    Orfanidis, A; Mastrogianni, O; Koukou, A; Psarros, G; Gika, H; Theodoridis, G; Raikos, N

    2017-03-15

    A sensitive analytical method has been developed in order to identify and quantify major drugs of abuse (DOA), namely morphine, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, cocaine, ecgonine methyl ester, benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methylenedioxyamphetamine in human hair. Samples of hair were extracted with methanol under ultrasonication at 50°C after a three step rinsing process to remove external contamination and dirt hair. Derivatization with BSTFA was selected in order to increase detection sensitivity of GC/MS analysis. Optimization of derivatization parameters was based on experiments for the selection of derivatization time, temperature and volume of derivatising agent. Validation of the method included evaluation of linearity which ranged from 2 to 350ng/mg of hair mean concentration for all DOA, evaluation of sensitivity, accuracy, precision and repeatability. Limits of detection ranged from 0.05 to 0.46ng/mg of hair. The developed method was applied for the analysis of hair samples obtained from three human subjects and were found positive in cocaine, and opiates. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Optical coherence tomography using images of hair structure and dyes penetrating into the hair.

    PubMed

    Tsugita, Tetsuya; Iwai, Toshiaki

    2014-11-01

    Hair dyes are commonly evaluated by the appearance of the hair after dyeing. However, this approach cannot simultaneously assess how deep the dye has penetrated into hair. For simultaneous assessment of the appearance and the interior of hair, we developed a visible-range red, green, and blue (RGB) (three primary colors)-optical coherence tomography (OCT) using an RGB LED light source. We then evaluated a phantom model based on the assumption that the sample's absorbability in the vertical direction affects the tomographic imaging. Consistent with theory, our device showed higher resolution than conventional OCT with far-red light. In the experiment on the phantom model, we confirmed that the tomographic imaging is affected by absorbability unique to the sample. Furthermore, we verified that permeability can be estimated from this tomographic image. We also identified for the first time the relationship between penetration of the dye into hair and characteristics of wavelength by tomographic imaging of dyed hair. We successfully simultaneously assessed the appearance of dyed hair and inward penetration of the dye without preparing hair sections. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Hair transplantation in patients with inadequate head donor supply using nonhead hair: report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Umar, Sanusi

    2011-10-01

    Follicular unit extraction is becoming an increasingly popular technique for hair transplantation, as it obviates the linear scarring associated with strip harvesting, and can provide highly presentable results. Using this technique, a few reports have described the small scale use of nonhead hair for head hair transplantation in men with inadequate head hair donor supply. In this report, 3 patients who were severely bald had hair transplanted from the chest, abdomen, legs, shoulders, or beard, as well as the head to achieve full coverage and excellent hairlines. Of the 3 cases, 2 had undergone previously unsuccessful hair transplant surgeries. Approximately 80% to 85% of the transplanted grafts survived. Although hair length and quality, surgery time, and the requirement for improved surgical skills remain challenges when using this technique, the sufficiently good outcomes from these selected candidates suggest that this technique may offer the possibility of restoring even severely bald states to normality in patients who would otherwise not be candidates for traditional hair transplantation surgery.

  15. Dermal Papilla Cells Improve the Wound Healing Process and Generate Hair Bud-Like Structures in Grafted Skin Substitutes Using Hair Follicle Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leirós, Gustavo José; Kusinsky, Ana Gabriela; Drago, Hugo; Bossi, Silvia; Sturla, Flavio; Castellanos, María Lía; Stella, Inés Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-engineered skin represents a useful strategy for the treatment of deep skin injuries and might contribute to the understanding of skin regeneration. The use of dermal papilla cells (DPCs) as a dermal component in a permanent composite skin with human hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) was evaluated by studying the tissue-engineered skin architecture, stem cell persistence, hair regeneration, and graft-take in nude mice. A porcine acellular dermal matrix was seeded with HFSCs alone and with HFSCs plus human DPCs or dermal fibroblasts (DFs). In vitro, the presence of DPCs induced a more regular and multilayered stratified epidermis with more basal p63-positive cells and invaginations. The DPC-containing constructs more accurately mimicked the skin architecture by properly stratifying the differentiating HFSCs and developing a well-ordered epithelia that contributed to more closely recapitulate an artificial human skin. This acellular dermal matrix previously repopulated in vitro with HFSCs and DFs or DPCs as the dermal component was grafted in nude mice. The presence of DPCs in the composite substitute not only favored early neovascularization, good assimilation and remodeling after grafting but also contributed to the neovascular network maturation, which might reduce the inflammation process, resulting in a better healing process, with less scarring and wound contraction. Interestingly, only DPC-containing constructs showed embryonic hair bud-like structures with cells of human origin, presence of precursor epithelial cells, and expression of a hair differentiation marker. Although preliminary, these findings have demonstrated the importance of the presence of DPCs for proper skin repair. PMID:25161315

  16. Hair analysis for the detection of drug use-is there potential for evasion?

    PubMed

    Marrinan, Shanna; Roman-Urrestarazu, Andres; Naughton, Declan; Levari, Emerlinda; Collins, John; Chilcott, Robert; Bersani, Giuseppe; Corazza, Ornella

    2017-05-01

    Hair analysis for illicit substances is widely used to detect chronic drug consumption or abstention from drugs. Testees are increasingly seeking ways to avoid detection by using a variety of untested adulterant products (e.g., shampoos, cleansers) widely sold online. This study aims to investigate adulteration of hair samples and to assess effectiveness of such methods. The literature on hair test evasion was searched for on PubMed or MEDLINE, Psycinfo, and Google Scholar. Given the sparse nature of peer-reviewed data on this subject, results were integrated with a qualitative assessment of online sources, including user-orientated information or commercial websites, drug fora and "chat rooms". Over four million web sources were identified in a Google search by using "beat hair drug test" and the first 86 were monitored on regular basis and considered for further analysis. Attempts to influence hair test results are widespread. Various "shampoos," and "cleansers" among other products, were found for sale, which claim to remove analytes. Often advertised with aggressive marketing strategies, which include discounts, testimonials, and unsupported claims of efficacy. However, these products may pose serious health hazards and are also potentially toxic. In addition, many anecdotal reports suggest that Novel Psychoactive Substances are also consumed as an evasion technique, as these are not easily detectable via standard drug test. Recent changes on Novel Psychoactive Substances legislations such as New Psychoactive Bill in the UK might further challenge the testing process. Further research is needed by way of chemical analysis and trial of the adulterant products sold online and their effects as well as the development of more sophisticated hair testing techniques. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the literature of the past 30 years there are only some publications concerned with hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women. Therefore, the relevance of hyperprolactinemia was evaluated in 40 women with diffuse alopecia. Hair loss was assessed by clinical appearance and the pluck trichogram. 82.5% of the female patients had diffuse hair loss and 17.5% had androgenetic alopecia. The highest prolactin values measured were 1390 ng/ml and 255 ng/ml. Six patients had values between 150–80.4 ng/ml and 10 between 79.1–51.7 ng/ml. All others had prolactin values below 50 ng/ml. Fifteen untreated patients with elevated prolactin levels could be followed up. Without any prolactin-inhibiting drugs, reductions and normalizations beside moderate fluctuations could be detected. Thyroid-specific diagnostics showed in 95% of the patients a normal thyroid function. 2.5% had a slight hyperthyreoidism and 2.5% had a slight hypothyreoidism. No female patient had clinical signs of androgenization and the determined androgens testosterone, androstendione and dihydroepiandrostendione were in the normal range. According to these results, moderate elevated prolactin levels in association with diffuse or androgenetic hair loss can be neglected as causative for the hair loss, because there is no evidence that they have an influence to the pattern, the extent or the duration of the hair loss. These results are supported by investigations of other authors who described only in high doses of prolactin an inhibiting effect on human hair follicles in vitro. Nevertheless, moderate constantly elevated prolactin levels should induce further diagnostics to exclude a prolactin-producing tumor of the pituitary gland. PMID:22870355

  18. Selective deletion of cochlear hair cells causes rapid age-dependent changes in spiral ganglion and cochlear nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Tong, Ling; Strong, Melissa K; Kaur, Tejbeer; Juiz, Jose M; Oesterle, Elizabeth C; Hume, Clifford; Warchol, Mark E; Palmiter, Richard D; Rubel, Edwin W

    2015-05-20

    During nervous system development, critical periods are usually defined as early periods during which manipulations dramatically change neuronal structure or function, whereas the same manipulations in mature animals have little or no effect on the same property. Neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus (CN) are dependent on excitatory afferent input for survival during a critical period of development. Cochlear removal in young mammals and birds results in rapid death of target neurons in the CN. Cochlear removal in older animals results in little or no neuron death. However, the extent to which hair-cell-specific afferent activity prevents neuronal death in the neonatal brain is unknown. We further explore this phenomenon using a new mouse model that allows temporal control of cochlear hair cell deletion. Hair cells express the human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor behind the Pou4f3 promoter. Injections of DT resulted in nearly complete loss of organ of Corti hair cells within 1 week of injection regardless of the age of injection. Injection of DT did not influence surrounding supporting cells directly in the sensory epithelium or spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Loss of hair cells in neonates resulted in rapid and profound neuronal loss in the ventral CN, but not when hair cells were eliminated at a more mature age. In addition, normal survival of SGNs was dependent on hair cell integrity early in development and less so in mature animals. This defines a previously undocumented critical period for SGN survival. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357878-14$15.00/0.

  19. Coloring, bleaching, and perming: influence on EtG content in hair.

    PubMed

    Kerekes, Isabelle; Yegles, Michel

    2013-08-01

    Hair analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has become, beside fatty acid ethyl ester, a valuable marker for the detection of moderate and chronic excessive alcohol consumption. So far, only few studies exist about the influence of cosmetic treatment on EtG content in hair. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of coloring, bleaching, and perming on the concentration of this alcohol marker in hair. Studies were also performed to evaluate the chemical stability of EtG in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and ammonium thioglycolate. Six air samples were treated in vitro by the different commercial cosmetics following the suppliers' instructions. After washing, pulverization, incubation in ultrasonic bath, and solid phase extraction, EtG was determined by GC/MS-NICI after solid phase extraction and heptafluorobutyric anhydride derivatization. The results showed that samples (n = 10) treated with the coloring product did not show any important change in the EtG results. In the bleaching study (n = 23), a mean decrease of 73.5% was observed. After incubation of a solution of EtG with hydrogen peroxide (15%), a decrease of 45% was shown supporting the hypothesis of a chemical degradation of EtG and a leaching out effect from the hair matrix. In the perm treatment study (n = 23), a mean decrease of 95.7% of EtG was found. Incubation of a solution of EtG with ammonium thioglycolate (5%) showed a total decrease of EtG supporting the hypothesis of a chemical degradation. Coloring treatment did not importantly influence EtG content in hair. However, an important decrease of EtG in hair could be found after bleaching and permanent wave treatment. This decrease seems to be because of a chemical degradation of EtG, after bleaching, and a leaching out effect from the matrix. After perming, it seems to be more of a chemical degradation of EtG. These data have to be considered for the correct interpretation of EtG amounts in hair.

  20. Tufted hair folliculitis: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Broshtilova, V; Bardarov, E; Kazandjieva, J; Marina, S

    2011-01-01

    Tufted hair folliculitis is a rare folliculitis of the scalp that resolves with patches of scarring alopecia within multiple hair tufts emerging from dilated follicular orifices. Tufting of hair is caused by clustering of adjacent follicular units due to a fibrosing process and to retention of telogen hairs within a dilated follicular orifice. Various pathogenetic mechanisms have been proposed including nevoid abnormalities, recurrent infections of the follicles, and retention of telogen hair in the tufts. We present a patient with tufted hair folliculitis who was effectively treated with antibacterial medications, verifying the infectious nature of the disease.