Science.gov

Sample records for permitting energy solutions

  1. Wind Energy: Offshore Permitting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Technological advancements and tax incentives have driven a global expansion in the development of renewable energy resources. Wind energy , in...particular, is now often cited as the fastest growing commercial energy source in the world. Currently, all U.S. wind energy facilities are based on land...authority to permit and regulate offshore wind energy development within the zones of the oceans under its jurisdiction. The federal government and coastal

  2. IT Solution to Improve the Permitting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, Mary

    2013-02-14

    Over the past decade Houston has taken significant strides to implement and promote sustainability. Currently the City of Houston’s Green Building Resource Center stands testament to the determination of city officials to make Houston truly green. Houston was named a Solar America City by the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 and is part of the Texas Solar Collaboration as part of the DOE Rooftop Challenge Grant. In that time, Houston has made significant progress in addressing the challenges associated with installing solar in the City. One of the challenges related to soft costs of solar are the time and associated costs related to the permitting process. From 2000 to 2010, the Houston area has witnessed unprecedented growth, with the population increasing by nearly 700,000. The City of Houston is working to address the needs of this growing population, including building the new One-Stop Code and Permitting building. The Houston Permitting Center opened in June 2011. It combines the majority of the City of Houston's permitting and licensing into one place with a mission to help customers achieve their goals while complying with the City’s regulations. The stated mission “requires a continuous pursuit of improving the customer experience. Providing excellent service, streamlining business processes, implementing innovative technologies, and proactively engaging customers are all cornerstones of this philosophy.”

  3. Energy Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobieski, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Education facilities managers are faced with a daunting set of challenges: They must find new ways to reduce energy consumption and carry out greener energy policies. HVAC typically accounts for more than 30% of a building's electricity costs, so there is a clear incentive to eliminate unnecessary heating and cooling of unoccupied rooms. With more…

  4. 77 FR 13593 - AMENICO Green Solutions, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AMENICO Green Solutions, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... Green Solutions, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the..., Manager, AMENICO Green Solutions, LLC, 5 Main Street, Pittsfield, NH 03263; phone: (603) 228- 3611....

  5. Renewable Energy Permitting Barriers in Hawaii: Experience from the Field

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, S.; Donnelly, C.; Atkins, D.; Fields, R.; Black, C.

    2013-03-01

    This white paper presents a summary of the solicited input from permitting agencies and renewable energy developers on the permitting process in Hawaii to provide stakeholders in Hawaii, particularly those involved in permitting, with information on current permitting barriers that renewable energy developers are experiencing.

  6. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  7. Permitting of Wind Energy Facilities: A Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Siting Work Group

    2002-08-01

    This handbook has been written for individuals and groups involved in evaluating wind projects: decision-makers and agency staff at all levels of government, wind developers, interested parties and the public. Its purpose is to help stakeholders make permitting wind facility decisions in a manner which assures necessary environmental protection and responds to public needs.

  8. Devon Energy Production Company – Riverton Dome NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0000671, Devon Energy Production Company, L.P. – Riverton Dome is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County, Wyoming to the Little Wind River via unnamed draw.

  9. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  10. Alternative Energy Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, David E.; Berman, Marc J.; Breinlinger, Helmut; Gilly, Ladina; Graves, Sam; Kovatch, Patricia; Kulesza, Pete; Martinez, Dave; Minyard, Tommy; Prucnal, Dave; Seager, Mark; Vadgama, Ash

    2011-03-19

    How can HPC centers reduce cost and environmental impact by making creative use of local natural resources? Energy efficiency inside the data center is only part of the story. In keeping with the principle of reduce, reuse, recycle, we should be able to take advantage of local resources to increase efficiency either at new or existing locations. Are there creative ways to reduce PUE below 1? Is a more meaningful way needed to express and measure the environmental effects of operating HPC centers? We will explore approaches such as sustainable energy sources, use of ambient external air or water temperatures, and reuse of "waste" heat.

  11. 75 FR 65312 - Vortex Hydro Energy, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Vortex Hydro Energy, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application... Hydro Energy, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal... grant the permit holder priority to file a license application during the permit term. A...

  12. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  13. Solar Energy - Solution or Pipedream?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polk, Joyce

    This series of lessons and class activities is designed for presentation in a sequence of nine class days. The collection is intended to provide the student in advanced science classes with awareness of the possibilities and limitations of solar energy as a potential solution to the energy crisis. Included are discussion of the following: (1)…

  14. 75 FR 11153 - Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application.... On November 6, 2009, Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC (Hydro Energy Technologies) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study...

  15. 78 FR 44557 - Turnagain Arm Tidal Energy Corporation; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turnagain Arm Tidal Energy Corporation; Notice of Preliminary Permit... February 1, 2013, the Turnagain Arm Tidal Energy Corporation, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of...

  16. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  17. Draft Permit & Supporting Documentation for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of draft permit & supporting documentation for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  18. Final Permit Documents for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of finla permit documents for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  19. Draft Permit & Supporting Documentation for the Northeast Gateway Energy Bridge Deepwater Port, Federal Waters of Massachusetts Bay (Modification to Existing Permit LNG Regasification Vessel/DWP Project)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of draft permit & supporting documentation for the Northeast Gateway Energy Bridge Deepwater Port, Federal Waters of Massachusetts Bay (Modification to Existing Permit LNG Regasification Vessel/DWP Project).

  20. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  1. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation)

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    This is a Vietnamese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  2. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Portuguese Translation)

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    This is a Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  3. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation)

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    This is a Mandarin translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  4. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  5. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  6. 77 FR 70433 - Resolute Marine Energy, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Resolute Marine Energy, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On July 25, 2012, Resolute Marine Energy, Inc....

  7. 78 FR 27962 - Archon Energy 1, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Archon Energy 1, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On February 11, 2013, the Archon Energy 1, Inc., filed...

  8. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: XTO Energy, Inc. - Wild Horse Bench Compressor Station

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the response to public comments, the final synthetic minor NSR permit, and the administrative record for the XTO Energy, Inc. Wild Horse Bench Compressor Station, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, UT.

  9. Relativistic solutions to directed energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Neeraj; Lubin, Philip M.; Zhang, Qicheng

    2016-09-01

    This paper analyses the nature and feasibility of using directed energy to propel probes through space at relativistic speeds. Possible mission scenarios are considered by varying the spacecraft mass, thickness of the sail and power of the directed energy array. We calculate that gram-scaled probes are capable of achieving relativistic speeds and reaching Alpha Centauri well within a human lifetime. A major drawback is the diffraction of the beam which reduces the incident power on the sail resulting in a terminal velocity for the probes. Various notions of efficiency are discussed and we conclude that directed energy propulsion provides a viable direction for future space exploration.

  10. Electrofuels: Versatile Transportation Energy Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: ARPA-E’s Electrofuels Project is using microorganisms to create liquid transportation fuels in a new and different way that could be up to 10 times more energy efficient than current biofuel production methods. ARPA-E is the only U.S. government agency currently funding research on Electrofuels.

  11. Black Plane Solutions and Localized Gravitational Energy

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We explore the issue of gravitational energy localization for static plane-symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations in 3+1 dimensions with asymptotic anti-de Sitter behavior. We apply three different energy-momentum complexes, the Einstein, Landau-Lifshitz, and Møller prescriptions, to the metric representing this category of solutions and determine the energy distribution for each. We find that the three prescriptions offer identical energy distributions, suggesting their utility for this type of model. PMID:27347499

  12. 75 FR 7469 - Natural Currents Energy Services, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ..., LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Icy Passage Tidal Energy Project, located in Icy Passage, in the... generating capacity of 300 kW; (3) one or more clusters of Tidal In-Stream Energy Conversion Devices...

  13. Phosphorescence and Energy Transfer in Rigid Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enciso, E.; Cabello, A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an experiment which illustrates the general aspects of intermolecular energy transfer between triplet states in rigid solutions of organic compounds solved in an ethanol-ether mixture. Measurements of quenching and energy transfer processes are made using the chemicals of benzophenone and naphthalene. (CS)

  14. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Wave Energy Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2014-06-01

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects. Costs have been developed at the pilot scale and for commercial arrays for a surge wave energy converter

  15. 77 FR 8252 - The International Consortium of Energy Managers; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... loop and would not be located on any existing water body. The sole purpose of a preliminary permit, if... containing two pump/turbine units with a total installed capacity of 450 megawatts; (5) a 132-kilovolt, 3.5...,500 megawatt hours (MWh) of energy daily, and use about 5,600 MWh daily to pump water from the...

  16. 75 FR 30388 - Natural Currents Energy Services, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... operate in-stream tidal turbines to power the office buildings and marinas within the site. Natural... preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Highlands New Jersey Tidal Energy Project, which would be located on the Shrewsbury River,...

  17. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: XTO Energy, Inc. - RBU 11-18F Compressor Station

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the response to public comments, the final synthetic minor NSR permit, and the administrative record for the XTO Energy, Inc. RBU 11-18F Compressor Station, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, UT.

  18. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2013-09-01

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects, as well as expert opinion of marine environmental research professionals. Cost estimates have been developed at the pilot and commercial scale. The reference model described in this document is an oscillating water column device deployed in Northern California at approximately 50 meters water depth.

  19. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    This is the Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  20. Offshore Wind Energy Permitting: A Survey of U.S. Project Developers

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cleve, Frances B.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2010-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has adopted a goal to generate 20% of the nation’s electricity from wind power by 2030. Achieving this “20% Wind Scenario” in 2030 requires acceleration of the current rate of wind project development. Offshore wind resources contribute substantially to the nation’s wind resource, yet to date no offshore wind turbines have been installed in the U.S. Progress developing offshore wind projects has been slowed by technological challenges, uncertainties about impacts to the marine environment, siting and permitting challenges, and viewshed concerns. To address challenges associated with siting and permitting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) surveyed offshore wind project developers about siting and project development processes, their experience with the environmental permitting process, and the role of coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) in development of the offshore wind industry. Based on the responses to survey questions, we identify several priority recommendations to support offshore wind development. Recommendations also include considerations for developing supporting industries in the U.S. and how to use Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) to appropriately consider ocean energy among existing ocean uses. In this report, we summarize findings, discuss the implications, and suggest actions to improve the permitting and siting process.

  1. Relationship of Solar Energy Installation Permits to Renewable Portfolio Standards and Insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Kirt Gordon

    Legislated renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) may not be the key to ensure forecast energy demands are met. States without a legislated RPS and with efficient permitting procedures were found to have approved and issued 28.57% more permits on average than those with a legislated RPS. Assessment models to make informed decisions about the need and effect of legislated RPSs do not exist. Decision makers and policy creators need to use empirical data and a viable model to resolve the debate over a nationally legislated RPS. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine if relationships between the independent variables of RPS and insolation levels and the dependent variable of the percentage of permits approved would prove to be a viable model. The research population was 68 cities in the United States, of which 55 were used in this study. The return on investment economic decision model provided the theoretical framework for this study and the model generated. The output of multiple regression analysis indicated a weak to medium positive relationship among the variables. None of these relationships were statistically significant at the 0.05 level. A model using site specific data might yield significant results and be useful for determining which solar energy projects to pursue and where to implement them without Federal or State mandated RPSs. A viable model would bring about efficiency gains in the permitting process and effectiveness gains in promoting installations of solar energy-based systems. Research leading to the development of a viable model would benefit society by encouraging the development of sustainable energy sources and helping to meet forecast energy demands.

  2. Affordable Energy-Efficient New Housing Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Subrato; Widder, Sarah H.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen; Abbott, , K.; Fonorow, Ken; Eklund, Ken; Lubliner, Michael; Salzberg, Emily; Peeks, B.; Hewes, T.; Kosar, D.

    2012-05-31

    Since 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America has sponsored research at PNNL to investigate cost-effective, energy-saving home-building technologies and to demonstrate how high-performance homes can deliver lower utility bills, increased comfort, and improved indoor air quality, while maintaining accessibility for low-income homeowners. PNNL and its contractors have been investigating 1) cost-effective whole-house solutions for Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI) and specific HFH affiliates in hot-humid and marine climates; 2) cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in new, stick-built and manufactured homes; and 3) energy-efficient domestic hot-water systems.

  3. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    This is the Chinese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  4. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This is the Vietnamese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  5. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy: Challenges and Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Milligan, M.; Lew, D.

    2013-09-01

    In the U.S., a number of utilities are adopting higher penetrations of renewables, driven in part by state policies. While power systems have been designed to handle the variable nature of loads, the additional supply-side variability and uncertainty can pose new challenges for utilities and system operators. However, a variety of operational and technical solutions exist to help integrate higher penetrations of wind and solar generation. This paper explores renewable energy integration challenges and mitigation strategies that have been implemented in the U.S. and internationally, including forecasting, demand response, flexible generation, larger balancing areas or balancing area cooperation, and operational practices such as fast scheduling and dispatch.

  6. 78 FR 27962 - Archon Energy 1, Inc. Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Archon Energy 1, Inc. Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On February 11, 2013, the Archon Energy 1, Inc., filed...

  7. Graphene for energy solutions and its industrialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Di; Kivioja, Jani

    2013-10-01

    Graphene attracts intensive interest globally across academia and industry since the award of the Nobel Prize in Physics 2010. Within the last half decade, there has been an explosion in the number of scientific publications, patents and industry projects involved in this topic. On the other hand, energy is one of the biggest challenges of this century and related to the global sustainable economy. There are many reviews on graphene and its applications in various devices, however, few of the review articles connect the intrinsic properties of graphene with its energy. The IUPAC definition of graphene refers to a single carbon layer of graphite structure and its related superlative properties. A lot of scientific results on graphene published to date are actually dealing with multi-layer graphenes or reduced graphenes from insulating graphene oxides (GO) which contain defects and contaminants from the reactions and do not possess some of the intrinsic physical properties of pristine graphene. In this review, the focus is on the most recent advances in the study of pure graphene properties and novel energy solutions based on these properties. It also includes graphene metrology and analysis of both intellectual property and the value chain for the existing and forthcoming graphene industry that may cause a new `industry revolution' with the strong and determined support of governments and industries across the European Union, U. S., Asia and many other countries in the world.

  8. Graphene for energy solutions and its industrialization.

    PubMed

    Wei, Di; Kivioja, Jani

    2013-11-07

    Graphene attracts intensive interest globally across academia and industry since the award of the Nobel Prize in Physics 2010. Within the last half decade, there has been an explosion in the number of scientific publications, patents and industry projects involved in this topic. On the other hand, energy is one of the biggest challenges of this century and related to the global sustainable economy. There are many reviews on graphene and its applications in various devices, however, few of the review articles connect the intrinsic properties of graphene with its energy. The IUPAC definition of graphene refers to a single carbon layer of graphite structure and its related superlative properties. A lot of scientific results on graphene published to date are actually dealing with multi-layer graphenes or reduced graphenes from insulating graphene oxides (GO) which contain defects and contaminants from the reactions and do not possess some of the intrinsic physical properties of pristine graphene. In this review, the focus is on the most recent advances in the study of pure graphene properties and novel energy solutions based on these properties. It also includes graphene metrology and analysis of both intellectual property and the value chain for the existing and forthcoming graphene industry that may cause a new 'industry revolution' with the strong and determined support of governments and industries across the European Union, U. S., Asia and many other countries in the world.

  9. Application Documents for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of application documents for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  10. Comments for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of comments for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  11. 75 FR 21289 - Oregon Wave Energy Partners I, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Oregon Wave Energy Partners I, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2010. On March 2, 2010, Oregon Wave Energy Partners I, LLC filed an application for a subsequent... the Coos Bay OPT Wave Park Project. The requested project boundary comprises approximately 7.36...

  12. 2001 Petition Requesting the Administrator Object to Title V Permit For Los Medanos Energy Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database.

  13. El Dorado Energy, LLC; Order Denying Petition for Objection to Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database.

  14. Mixed waste landfill cell construction at energy solutions LLC: a regulator's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Lukes, G.C.; Willoughby, O.H.

    2007-07-01

    A small percentage of the property that EnergySolutions' (formerly Envirocare) operates at Clive, Utah is permitted by the State of Utah as a treatment, storage and disposal facility for mixed waste. Mixed Waste is defined as a hazardous waste (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 261.3) that also has a radioactive component. Typically, the waste EnergySolutions receives at its mixed waste facility is contaminated with heavy metals and organic compounds while also contaminated with radioactivity. For EnergySolutions, the largest generator of mixed waste is the United States Department of Energy. However, EnergySolutions also accepts a wide variety of mixed waste from other generators. For many wastes, EnergySolutions goes through the process of characterization and acceptance (if appropriate) of the waste, treating the waste (if necessary), confirmation that the waste meets Land Disposal Restriction, and disposal of the waste in its mixed waste landfill cell (MWLC). EnergySolutions originally received its State-issued Part B (RCRA) permit in 1990. The Permit allows a mixed waste landfill cell footprint that covers roughly 10 hectares and includes 20 individual 'sumps'. EnergySolutions chose to build small segments of the landfill cell as waste receipts dictated. Nearly 16 years later, EnergySolutions has just completed its Phase V construction project. 18 of the 20 sumps in the original design have been constructed. The last two sumps are anticipated to be its Phase VI construction project. Further expansion of its mixed waste disposal landfill capacity beyond the current design would require a permit modification request and approval by the Executive Secretary of the Utah Solid and Hazardous Waste Control Board. Construction of the landfill cell is governed by the Construction Quality Assurance/Quality Control manual of its State-issued Permit. The construction of each sump is made up of (from the bottom up): a foundation; three feet of engineered clay

  15. 75 FR 76962 - Application To Export Electric Energy; MAG Energy Solutions, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application To Export Electric Energy; MAG Energy Solutions, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: MAG Energy Solutions, Inc. (MAG...

  16. 78 FR 35658 - Spectra Energy Corp., Application for a New or Amended Presidential Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ....-Canada border near Wild ] Horse, Montana, to Caster, Wyoming and includes five pump stations. The Express.... Spectra affirms that operation and maintenance of the permitted facilities will remain substantially the... Presidential Permits for the construction, connection, operation, or maintenance at the borders of the...

  17. Coordinating Permit Offices and the Development of Utility-Scale Geothermal Energy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, A.; Young, K.; Witherbee, K.

    2013-10-01

    Permitting is a major component of the geothermal development process. Better coordination across government agencies could reduce uncertainty of the process and the actual time of permitting. This presentation highlights various forms of coordinating permit offices at the state and federal level in the western United States, discusses inefficiencies and mitigation techniques for permitting natural resource projects, analyzes whether various approaches are easily adaptable to utility-scale geothermal development, and addresses advantages and challenges for coordinating permit offices. Key successful strategies identified include: 1. Flexibility in implementing the approach (i.e. less statutory requirements for the approach); 2. Less dependence on a final environmental review for information sharing and permit coordination; 3. State and federal partnerships developed through memorandum of understanding to define roles and share data and/or developer information. A few of the most helpful techniques include: 1. A central point of contact for the developer to ask questions surrounding the project; 2. Pre-application meetings to assist the developer in identifying all of the permits, regulatory approvals, and associated information or data required; 3. A permit schedule or timeline to set expectations for the developer and agencies; 4. Consolidating the public notice, comment, and hearing period into fewer hearings held concurrently.

  18. A linear scaling study of solvent-solute interaction energy of drug molecules in aqua solution.

    PubMed

    Bondesson, Laban; Rudberg, Elias; Luo, Yi; Sałek, Paweł

    2007-08-30

    Solvent-solute interaction energies for three well-known drug molecules in water solution are computed at the Hartree-Fock and B3LYP density functional theory levels using a linear scaling technique, which allows one to explicitly include in the model water molecules up to 14 A away from the solute molecule. The dependence of calculated interaction energies on the amount of included solvent has been examined. It is found that it is necessary to account for water molecules within an 8 A radius around the drug molecule to reach the saturated solvent interaction level. Effects of electron correlation and basis set on solvent-solute interaction energies are discussed.

  19. 40 CFR Table E-2 to Subpart E of... - Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests E Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR MONITORING REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS Procedures...

  20. Financing renewable energy: Obstacles and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.H.

    1994-06-01

    The majority of renewable energy technology projects now being developed use long term project financing to raise capital. The financial community scrutinizes renewables more closely than some conventionally fueled electric generation facilities because it perceives renewables as risky and expensive. Renewables pay for this perceived risk through higher interest charges and other more restrictive loan covenants. Risks that are not eliminated in the power sales agreement or through some other means generally result in higher project costs during financing. In part, this situation is a product of the private placement market and project finance process in which renewable energy facilities must function. The project finance process attracts banks and institutional lenders as well as equity investors (often pension funds) who do not want to place their capital at great risk. Energy project finance exists on the basis of a secure revenue stream and a thorough understanding of electric generation technology. Renewables, like all energy projects, operating in uncertain regulatory environments are often difficult to finance. In the uncertain regulatory environment in which renewables now operate, investors and lenders are nervous about challenges to existing contracts between independent power producers and utilities. Challenges to existing contracts could foretell challenges to contracts in the future. Investors and lenders now look to state regulatory environments as an indicator of project risk. Renewable energy technology evolves quickly. Yet, often the information about technological evolution is not available to those who invest in the energy projects. Or, those who have invested in new renewable energy technology in the past have lost money and are nervous about doing so in the future - even though technology may have improved. Inadequate or unfavorable information is a barrier to the development of renewables.

  1. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; Geerlofs, Simon H.

    2011-05-09

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects. Costs have been developed at the pilot scale, and for commercial arrays. This work is carried out under the U.S. Department of Energy reference model project, with the costs for engineering, deployment strategies, mooring and anchoring configurations, and maintenance operations, being developed by a consortium of Department of Energy national laboratories and universities. The goal of the reference model is to assist the MHK industry to become a cost-competitive contributor of renewable energy, by identifying those aspects of MHK projects that contribute significantly to the cost of energy, and directing research funding towards lowering those costs.

  2. Energy Decisions: Is Solar Power the Solution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2011-01-01

    People around the world are concerned about affordable energy. It is needed to power the global economy. Petroleum-based transportation and coal-fired power plants are economic prime movers fueling the global economy, but coal and gasoline are also the leading sources of air pollution. Both of these sources produce greenhouse gases and toxins.…

  3. Applicability of Title V Permitting Requirements to Gasoline Bulk Terminals Owned by Williams Energy Ventures, Inc.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  4. EPA Review of Proposed Title V Operating Permit for TriGen-Colorado Energy Corporation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. Permits and regulations applicable to United States ocean thermal energy conversion projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    This guide, covering permits and regulations applicable to U.S. OTEC projects, is another step in NOAA's process of providing the tools needed for OTEC project sponsors to design, develop, and implement commercial OTEC operations in the most efficient and cost-effective way. Its purpose is to provide OTEC project sponsors with an overview of potentially required licenses, permits, and authorizations, at both the Federal and State level, to give guidance on information about the proposed project needed to determine what permits are required, and to list, in a single reference, the agencies potentially involved in project review.

  6. Streamline, Organizational, Legislative and Administrative Response to Permitting, PV Market Share, and Solar Energy Costs (Broward Go SOLAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, Jeffery D.

    2013-08-28

    Broward County and its partners (the Go SOLAR Team), operating under a Department of Energy Rooftop Solar Challenge Agreement, designed, developed and implemented an online permitting system for rooftop solar PV systems. This is a single web based system with a single permit fee that will issue a permit, with a set of design plans preapproved by partner building officials, within one hour. The system is currently available at gosolar.broward.org for use within any of the partner Authorities Having [permitting] Jurisdiction (AHJ). Additionally, the Go SOLAR Team researched, developed and to the extent feasible, implemented three best management practices to make a fertile environment for the new online permit system. These included Net Metering and Interconnection Standards, Solar-Friendly Financing, and Planning and Zoning Ordinances. Finally, the team implemented a substantial outreach effort to advocate for the development of solar in Broward County, with an emphasis on Solar Rights, concluding with a Go SOLAR Fest day and a half conference with over 1,200 attendees and 50 exhibitors. The Go SOLAR project was completed on time, under DOE’s budgeted amount, and all project objectives were met or exceeded.

  7. Modeling the Energy of Stringy Black Hole Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radinschi, Irina; Ciobanu, Brindusa

    2008-05-01

    The localization of energy has attracted attention as one of the most intricate issues and is the subject of many studies since the outset of general relativity. In this paper we compute the energy distribution of a dual dilatonic solution in low-energy string theory using the Landau-Lifshitz, Weinberg and Mo/ller prescriptions. We also point out the connections between the expressions for energy computed in these prescriptions, study some particular cases, and model the energetic properties of this solution using the Maple and Mathematica programs.

  8. Modeling the energy of stringy black hole solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Radinschi, Irina; Ciobanu, Brindusa

    2008-05-29

    The localization of energy has attracted attention as one of the most intricate issues and is the subject of many studies since the outset of general relativity. In this paper we compute the energy distribution of a dual dilatonic solution in low-energy string theory using the Landau-Lifshitz, Weinberg and Moeller prescriptions. We also point out the connections between the expressions for energy computed in these prescriptions, study some particular cases, and model the energetic properties of this solution using the Maple and Mathematica programs.

  9. Providing Solutions To Energy and Environmental Problems

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Jointly Sponsored Research Program emphasizes technology commercialization and continues to be highly successful and supported strongly and enthusiastically by WRI's industrial clientele. All of the available Department of Energy (USDOE) funding for each of the first seven years has been committed to projects. All available FY 97 funding was obligated in June 1997. The demand for funds continues to outstrip available monies and an additional $3 million per year in USDOE funding could easily be accommodated. As summarized in Table 1, since the program's inception in 1990, $19,140,754 in USDOE funds have been obligated and committed against an industrial match of $25,446,281.

  10. Porous polymers: enabling solutions for energy applications.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Arne; Kuhn, Pierre; Weber, Jens; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; Antonietti, Markus

    2009-02-18

    A new generation of porous polymers was made for various energy-related applications, e.g., as fuel cell membranes, as electrode materials for batteries, for gas storage, partly from renewable resources. This review intends to catch this emerging field by reporting on a variety of different approaches to make high performing polymers porous. This includes template techniques, polymers with inherent microporosity, polymer frameworks by ionothermal polymerization, and the polymerization of carbon from appropriate precursors and by hydrothermal polymerization. In this process, we try to not only identify the current status of the field, but also point to open question and tasks to identify the potentially relevant progress.

  11. Quantitative ionization energies and work functions of aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Giorgia; Goel, Alok; Kleibert, Armin; Cvetko, Dean; Brown, Matthew A

    2016-10-26

    Despite the ubiquitous nature of aqueous solutions across the chemical, biological and environmental sciences our experimental understanding of their electronic structure is rudimentary-qualitative at best. One of the most basic and seemingly straightforward properties of aqueous solutions-ionization energies-are (qualitatively) tabulated at the water-air interface for a mere handful of solutes, and the manner in which these results are obtained assume the aqueous solutions behave like a gas in the photoelectron experiment (where the vacuum levels of the aqueous solution and of the photoelectron analyzer are equilibrated). Here we report the experimental measure of a sizeable offset (ca. 0.6 eV) between the vacuum levels of an aqueous solution (0.05 M NaCl) and that of our photoelectron analyzer, indicating a breakdown of the gas-like vacuum level alignment assumption for the aqueous solution. By quantifying the vacuum level offset as a function of solution chemical composition our measurements enable, for the first time, quantitative determination of ionization energies in liquid solutions. These results reveal that the ionization energy of liquid water is not independent of the chemical composition of the solution as is usually inferred in the literature, a finding that has important ramifications as measured ionization energies are frequently used to validate theoretical models that posses the ability to provide microscopic insight not directly available by experiment. Finally, we derive the work function, or the electrochemical potential of the aqueous solution and show that it too varies with the chemical composition of the solution.

  12. Wind Energy Industry Eagle Detection and Deterrents: Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Karin; DeGeorge, Elise

    2016-04-13

    The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA) prohibits the 'take' of these birds. The act defines take as to 'pursue, shoot, shoot at, poison, wound, kill, capture, trap, collect, destroy, molest or disturb.' The 2009 Eagle Permit Rule (74 FR 46836) authorizes the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to issue nonpurposeful (i.e., incidental) take permits, and the USFWS 2013 Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance provides a voluntary framework for issuing programmatic take permits to wind facilities that incorporate scientifically supportable advanced conservation practices (ACPs). Under these rules, the Service can issue permits that authorize individual instances of take of bald and golden eagles when the take is associated with, but not the purpose of, an otherwise lawful activity, and cannot practicably be avoided. To date, the USFWS has not approved any ACPs, citing the lack of evidence for 'scientifically supportable measures.' The Eagle Detection and Deterrents Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop was convened at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in December 2015 with a goal to comprehensively assess the current state of technologies to detect and deter eagles from wind energy sites and the key gaps concerning reducing eagle fatalities and facilitating permitting under the BGEPA. During the workshop, presentations and discussions focused primarily on existing knowledge (and limitations) about the biology of eagles as well as technologies and emerging or novel ideas, including innovative applications of tools developed for use in other sectors, such as the U.S. Department of Defense and aviation. The main activity of the workshop was the breakout sessions, which focused on the current state of detection and deterrent technologies and novel concepts/applications for detecting and minimizing eagle collisions with wind turbines. Following the breakout sessions, participants were asked about their individual impressions of the relative priority of each of

  13. Rotating black hole solutions with quintessential energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toshmatov, Bobir; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Ahmedov, Bobomurat

    2017-02-01

    Quintessential dark energy with density ρ and pressure p is governed by an equation of state of the form p=ωqρ with the quintessential parameter ω_qin (-1;-1/3). We derive the geometry of quintessential rotating black holes, generalizing thus the Kerr spacetimes. Then we study the quintessential rotating black hole spacetimes with the special value of ωq = -2/3 when the resulting formulae are simple and easily tractable. We show that such special spacetimes can exist for the dimensionless quintessential parameter c < 1/6 and determine the critical rotational parameter a0 separating the black hole and naked singularity spacetime in dependence on the quintessential parameter c . For the spacetimes with ωq = -2/3 we give all the black hole characteristics and demonstrate local thermodynamical stability. We present the integrated geodesic equations in separated form and study in details the circular geodetical orbits. We give radii and parameters of the photon circular orbits, marginally bound and marginally stable orbits. We stress that the outer boundary on the existence of circular geodesics, given by the so-called static radius where the gravitational attraction of the black hole is balanced by the cosmic repulsion, does not depend on the dimensionless spin of the rotating black hole, similarly to the case of the Kerr-de Sitter spacetimes with vacuum dark energy. We also give restrictions on the dimensionless parameters c and a of the spacetimes allowing for existence of stable circular geodesics. Finally, using numerical methods we generalize the discussion of the circular geodesics to the black holes with arbitrary quintessential parameter ωq.

  14. Petition to Object to the Xcel Energy, Hayden Station, Hayden Colorado, Title V Operating Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  15. Petition Requesting the Administrator Object to Title V Permit for Duke Energy Progress's Richmond County Turbines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  16. Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC's Cliffside Steam Station Title V Operating Permit in Rutherford County, NC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. June 30, 2003 Petition Requesting the Administrator Object to Operating Permit for El Dorado Energy, LLC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  18. Petition to Object to Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, Title V Operating Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  19. Petition to Object to Consumer Energy's BC Cobb Power Plant, Muskegon, Michigan, Title V Operating Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  20. Petition for the Administrator to Object to Operating Permit for Aurora Energy, LLC's Chena Power Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  1. Solution synthesis of metal oxides for electrochemical energy storage applications.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xinhui; Zhang, Yongqi; Chao, Dongliang; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yijun; Li, Lu; Ge, Xiang; Bacho, Ignacio Mínguez; Tu, Jiangping; Fan, Hong Jin

    2014-05-21

    This article provides an overview of solution-based methods for the controllable synthesis of metal oxides and their applications for electrochemical energy storage. Typical solution synthesis strategies are summarized and the detailed chemical reactions are elaborated for several common nanostructured transition metal oxides and their composites. The merits and demerits of these synthesis methods and some important considerations are discussed in association with their electrochemical performance. We also propose the basic guideline for designing advanced nanostructure electrode materials, and the future research trend in the development of high power and energy density electrochemical energy storage devices.

  2. Future World Energy Constraints and the Direction for Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Lightfoot, H.D.

    2004-09-12

    This paper was originally written in response to the concern that rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere caused by burning of fossil fuels will ultimately contribute to global warming. Now we are beginning to see evidence of coming problems in the supply of fuels for transportation. This paper describes the benefits of adequate energy supply and the problems of future energy supply. Partial solutions are suggested for immediate application as well as longer term solutions to address both of these concerns. To evaluate the situation and solutions we must understand: (1) how much primary energy is currently used world-wide and might be needed in 2100, (2) how important energy is to the welfare of people, (3) the forms of energy sources and end uses and (4) where new sources may come from. The major portion of world primary energy demand is provided by fossil fuels. This portion dropped from 93% in 1970 to 85% in 1995, mainly because of the increased use of nuclear energy. How ever, since the mid-1990s fossil fuels have maintained their 85% share of world energy supply. The importance of the relationship between per capita energy consumption and per capita income for the world is discussed. The limits of conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energies are examined. The contribution of renewable energies is compared to 41 different views of world energy demand in 2100. Without new technology for large scale storage of intermittent electricity from wind and solar the contribution of renewable energies is not likely to grow significantly beyond the current level of 7-8%. The paper offers conclusions and partial solutions that we can work on immediately. Examination of the forms of energy supplied by the sun, which is powered by nuclear fusion, and the way in which nuclear fission currently supplies energy to the world sets the research framework for longer term solutions. This framework points towards two possible longer term complementary res earch projects which

  3. 77 FR 20019 - FirstEnergy Solutions Corp., Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstEnergy Solutions Corp., Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC v. PJM... Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206 and 206(h), FirstEnergy Solutions Corp. (FirstEnergy Solutions)...

  4. On finite energy monopole solutions in Weinberg-Salam model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, D. G.; Zhang, P. M.; Zou, L. P.

    2015-09-01

    We study the problem of existence of finite energy monopole solutions in the Weinberg-Salam model starting with the most general ansatz for static axially-symmetric electroweak magnetic fields. The ansatz includes an explicit construction of field configurations with various topologies described by the monopole and Hopf charges. We introduce a unique SU(2) gauge invariant definition for the electromagnetic field. It has been proved that the magnetic charge of any finite energy monopole solution must be screened at far distance. This implies nonexistence of finite energy monopole solutions with a nonzero total magnetic charge. In the case of a special axially-symmetric Dashen-Hasslacher-Neveu ansatz, we revise the structure of the sphaleron solution and show that sphaleron represents a nontrivial system of monopole and antimonopole with their centers located in one point. This is different from the known interpretation of the sphaleron as a monopole-antimonopole pair like Nambu’s “dumb-bell.” In general, the axially-symmetric magnetic field may admit a helical structure. We conjecture that such a solution exists and estimate an upper bound for its energy, Ebound = 4.65TeV.

  5. Deficient Permit Notification Notice For Lake County Waste to Energy Facility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  6. Applicability of Title V Permitting Requirements to Gasoline Bulk Terminals Owned by Williams Energy Ventures, Inc.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  7. 78 FR 15737 - Incidental Take Permit Amendment and Supplemental Environmental Assessment for Wind Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... for Wind Energy Development, Guayanilla, Puerto Rico AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... documents for wind energy development by San Francisco Wind Farm LLC (formerly WindMar R.E.) (Permittee... previously authorized wind energy development activities in Guayanilla, Puerto Rico, so that this...

  8. Renewable energy technologies adoption in Kazakhstan: potentials, barriers and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatayev, Marat; Marazza, Diego; Contin, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The growth in environmental pollution alongside an increasing demand for electricity in Kazakhstan calls for a higher level of renewable energy penetration into national power systems. Kazakhstan has great potential for renewable energies from wind, solar, hydro and biomass resources that can be exploited for electricity production. In 2013, the Kazakhstani Ministry of Energy initiated a new power development plan, which aims to bring the share of renewable energy to 3% by 2020 rising to 30% by 2030 and 50% by 2050. The current contribution of renewable energy resources in the national electricity mix, however, is less than 1%. As a developing country, Kazakhstan has faced a number of barriers to increase renewable energy use, which have to be analysed and translated into a comprehensive renewable energy policy framework. This study presents an overview of the current conditions of renewable energy development in Kazakhstan. Secondly, it identifies and describes the main barriers that prevent diffusion of renewable energy technologies in Kazakhstan. Finally, the paper provides solutions to overcome specific barriers in order to successfully develop a renewable energy technology sector in Kazakhstan.

  9. Public Hearing & Comment Period Document(s) for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of public hearing & comment period document(s) for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  10. Public Hearing and Comment Period Documents for the Northeast Gateway Energy Bridge Deepwater, Federal Waters of Massachusetts Bay (Modification to Existing Permit LNG Regasification Vessel/DWP Project)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of public hearing & comment period document(s) for the Northeast Gateway Energy Bridge Deepwater Port, Federal Waters of Massachusetts Bay (Modification to Existing Permit LNG Regasification Vessel/DWP Project).

  11. Permit Fees

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site will provide basic information on clean air permitting under the title V operating permits program, provide access to state and regional permitting programs, and maintain access to proposed and final regulatory requirements.

  12. 77 FR 39693 - Natural Currents Energy Services, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ..., Natural Currents Energy Services, LLC filed an application, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Fisher's Island Tidal Energy Project, which would be... Sea Dragon tidal turbines at a rated capacity of 100 kilowatts, (2) an estimated 12.6 kilometers...

  13. 75 FR 7467 - Natural Currents Energy Services, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Gastineau Channel Tidal Energy... total generating capacity of 300 kW; (3) one or more clusters of Tidal In-Stream Energy Conversion Devices (TISEC devices) to transmit the electricity from the turbines to the underwater transmission...

  14. Services du Centre de Solutions Pour Les Energies Propres (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    This is the French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  15. 77 FR 790 - FirstEnergy Solutions Corp., Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstEnergy Solutions Corp., Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC v. PJM...) Rules of Practice and Procedures, 18 CFR 385.206, FirstEnergy Solutions Corp., Allegheny Energy...

  16. Deep Energy Retrofit Guidance for the Building America Solutions Center

    SciTech Connect

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE Building America program has established a research agenda targeting market-relevant strategies to achieve 40% reductions in existing home energy use by 2030. Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs) are part of the strategy to meet and exceed this goal. DERs are projects that create new, valuable assets from existing residences, by bringing homes into alignment with the expectations of the 21st century. Ideally, high energy using, dated homes that are failing to provide adequate modern services to their owners and occupants (e.g., comfortable temperatures, acceptable humidity, clean, healthy), are transformed through comprehensive upgrades to the building envelope, services and miscellaneous loads into next generation high performance homes. These guidance documents provide information to aid in the broader market adoption of DERs. They are intended for inclusion in the online resource the Building America Solutions Center (BASC). This document is an assemblage of multiple entries in the BASC, each of which addresses a specific aspect of Deep Energy Retrofit best practices for projects targeting at least 50% energy reductions. The contents are based upon a review of actual DERs in the U.S., as well as a mixture of engineering judgment, published guidance from DOE research in technologies and DERs, simulations of cost-optimal DERs, Energy Star and Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) product criteria, and energy codes.

  17. 76 FR 76154 - Natural Currents Energy Services, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Cape May Tidal Energy Project, which...) Installation of 10 to 30 NC Sea Dragon or Red Hawk tidal turbines at a rated capacity of 100 kilowatts, (2)...

  18. 76 FR 67726 - Natural Currents Energy Services, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Dorchester--Maurice Tidal Energy... consist of: (1) Installation of 1 to 10 NC Sea Dragon or Red Hawk tidal turbines at a rated capacity...

  19. 76 FR 67726 - Natural Currents Energy Services, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the BW2 Tidal Energy Project, which would...) Installation of 2 NC Sea Dragon or Red Hawk tidal turbines at a rated capacity of 150 kilowatts, (2)...

  20. 76 FR 70720 - Natural Currents Energy Services, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Avalon Tidal Energy Project, which... consist of: (1) Installation of 10 to 30 NC Sea Dragon or Red Hawk tidal turbines at a rated capacity...

  1. 76 FR 76155 - Natural Currents Energy Services, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Maurice River Tidal Energy Project... consist of: (1) Installation of 1 to 10 NC Sea Dragon or Red Hawk tidal turbines at a rated capacity...

  2. 77 FR 17474 - Natural Currents Energy Services, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Orient Point Tidal Energy Project... would consist of: (1) Installation of 45 NC Sea Dragon tidal turbines at a rated capacity of...

  3. 77 FR 60429 - Natural Currents Energy Services, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Fisher's Island Tidal Energy Project... consist of: (1) Installation of 50 NC Sea Dragon tidal turbines at a rated capacity of 100 kilowatts,...

  4. 75 FR 30388 - Natural Currents Energy Services, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... the Hoffmans Marina Tidal Energy Project, which would be located on the Manasquan River, in Monmouth... conjunction with Hoffmans Marina, to install and operate in-stream tidal turbines to power the office...

  5. 76 FR 71004 - Natural Currents Energy Services, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... consist of: (1) Installation of 10 to 30 NC Sea Dragon or Red Hawk tidal turbines at a rated capacity of... the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Margate Tidal Energy Project, which... characters, without prior registration, using the ] eComment system at...

  6. 75 FR 53962 - Natural Currents Energy Services, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... the Killisnoo Tidal Energy Project (Killisnoo Project), located in Kootznahoo Inlet northeast of...-kilowatt (kW) Red Hawk in-stream turbine modules for a total generating capacity of 250 kW; (3) an... existing above-ground local distribution system; and (4) appurtenant facilities. The project would have...

  7. Interfacial Free Energy of Cu-Co Solid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhevnenko, S. N.

    2013-06-01

    The surface energies of Cu-Co solid solutions in hydrogen atmosphere were measured. The measurements were performed on pure copper and copper alloys containing 0.45, 0.7, 1.4, 2.25, 2.50, and 2.8 at. pct Co and 4.1 at. pct Co for the temperature range 1245 K to 1349 K (972 °C to 1076 °C). The experiments were conducted using the zero creep method for 18 mcm foils. The modified method allowed " in situ" determining of the surface energy. It was shown that the surface energy increases as the concentration increases up to 1.4 at. pct Co and then decreases. Such extreme behavior was obtained by the direct method for the first time in a solid metallic system.

  8. 78 FR 12750 - FirstEnergy Solutions Corp., Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstEnergy Solutions Corp., Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC v. PJM... sections 206 and 306 of the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 824(e) and 825(e), FirstEnergy Solutions Corp....

  9. Ultramar Refining, Subsidiary of Valero Energy Corporation, Wilmington, California; Petition to Object to Title V Operating Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database.

  10. Oglethorpe Power Company, Wansley Energy Facility; Amended Order Denying Petition for Objection to Permit in Response to Remand

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database.

  11. Ultramar Refining, Subsidiary of Valero Energy Corporation, Wilmington, California; Dec. 12, 2008, Petition to Object to Title V Operating Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database.

  12. Energy estimate and fundamental solution for degenerate hyperbolic Cauchy problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascanelli, Alessia; Cicognani, Massimo

    The aim of this paper is to give an uniform approach to different kinds of degenerate hyperbolic Cauchy problems. We prove that a weakly hyperbolic equation, satisfying an intermediate condition between effective hyperbolicity and the C∞ Levi condition, and a strictly hyperbolic equation with non-regular coefficients with respect to the time variable can be reduced to first-order systems of the same type. For such a kind of systems, we prove an energy estimate in Sobolev spaces (with a loss of derivatives) which gives the well-posedness of the Cauchy problem in C∞. In the strictly hyperbolic case, we also construct the fundamental solution and we describe the propagation of the space singularities of the solution which is influenced by the non-regularity of the coefficients with respect to the time variable.

  13. Federal Environmental Permitting Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The handbook consists of eight chapters addressing permitting and licensing requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (CERCLA/SARA), the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the Clean Air Act (CAA), the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Federal Insectide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Each chapter consists of: (1) an introduction to the statute and permitting requirements; (2) a diagram illustrating the relationship between permitting requirements under the statute being discussed and permitting requirements from other environmental statutes which may have to be addressed when applying for a particular permit (e.g., when applying for a RCRA permit, permits and permit applications under the CWA, CAA, SDWA, etc. would have to be listed in the RCRA permit application); and, (3) a compilation of the permitting requirements for the regulatory program resulting from the statute. In addition, the Handbook contains a permitting keyword index and a listing of hotline telephone numbers for each of the statutes.

  14. Solid-solution nanocrystallite formation by high-energy milling.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hanjung; Jung, Suna; Cho, Sung-Wook; Kil, Dae-Sup; Roh, Ki-Min; Lim, Jae-Won

    2013-09-01

    Solid-solution nanocrystalline powders were prepared by the high-energy milling of Ti alloys with graphite. The B1 structure (NaCl-like structure) phases, (Ti, Cr)C and (Ti, Al)C, were formed during the milling process of Ti-Cr + graphite and Ti-Al + graphite, and the synthetic procedures were investigated in terms of the phase evolution from XRD data. The (Ti, Al)C phase was obtained after milling for 20 hr at BPR = 40:1 (under a more severe condition), while the (Ti, Cr)C phase formed after milling for 20 hr at BPR = 20:1 (a relatively soft condition). The difference in the tendency to create a solid solution with Ti in the B1 structure caused a difference in the synthetic behavior of (Ti, Al)C and (Ti, Cr)C. In other words, (Ti, Cr)C is formed earlier than (Ti, Al)C during milling because the atomic size of Cr (0.166 nm) is similar to that of Ti (0.176 nm), which leads to the straightforward formation of the solid-solution (Ti, Cr)C as compared to when (Ti, Al)C is used. As a result, the crystallite size of the (Ti, Al)C phase (2-3 nm) synthesized at a later stage becomes smaller than that of the (Ti, Cr)C phase (5 10 nm) formed at an earlier stage during milling.

  15. Technology Solutions Case Study: Southern Energy Homes, First DOE Zero Energy Ready Manufactured Home

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    The country’s first Zero Energy Ready manufactured home that is certified by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is up and running in Russellville, Alabama. The manufactured home was built by a partnership between Southern Energy Homes and the Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), which is a DOE Building America team. The effort was part of a three-home study including a standard-code manufactured home and an ENERGY STAR® manufactured home. Cooling-season results showed that the building used half the space-conditioning energy of a manufactured home built to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD’s) Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards. These standards are known collectively as the HUD Code, which is the building standard for all U.S. manufactured housing.

  16. Vehicle to grid: electric vehicles as an energy storage solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nicholas; Wells, Nicole; Kiamilev, Fouad E.; Kempton, Willett M.

    2013-05-01

    With increased focus on intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and photovoltaics, there comes a rising need for large-scale energy storage. The vehicle to grid (V2G) project seeks to meet this need using electric vehicles, whose high power capacity and existing power electronics make them a promising energy storage solution. This paper will describe a charging system designed by the V2G team that facilitates selective charging and backfeeding by electric vehicles. The system consists of a custom circuit board attached to an embedded linux computer that is installed both in the EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment) and in the power electronics unit of the vehicle. The boards establish an in-band communication link between the EVSE and the vehicle, giving the vehicle internet connectivity and the ability to make intelligent decisions about when to charge and discharge. This is done while maintaining compliance with existing charging protocols (SAEJ1772, IEC62196) and compatibility with standard "nonintelligent" cars and chargers. Through this system, the vehicles in a test fleet have been able to successfully serve as portable temporary grid storage, which has implications for regulating the electrical grid, providing emergency power, or supplying power to forward military bases.

  17. Papapetrou Energy-Momentum Complex for a Stringy Black Hole Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Radinschi, I.; Ciobanu, B.

    2007-09-10

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the energy distribution of a stringy black hole solution with the Papapetrou energy-momentum complex. The space-time under consideration describes the dual solution known as the magnetic black hole solution. The energy distribution depends on the mass M and charge Q of the magnetic black hole.

  18. Wireless Sensor Network for Advanced Energy Management Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Peter J. Theisen; Bin Lu, Charles J. Luebke

    2009-09-23

    Eaton has developed an advanced energy management solution that has been deployed to several Industries of the Future (IoF) sites. This demonstrated energy savings and reduced unscheduled downtime through an improved means for performing predictive diagnostics and energy efficiency estimation. Eaton has developed a suite of online, continuous, and inferential algorithms that utilize motor current signature analysis (MCSA) and motor power signature analysis (MPSA) techniques to detect and predict the health condition and energy usage condition of motors and their connect loads. Eaton has also developed a hardware and software platform that provided a means to develop and test these advanced algorithms in the field. Results from lab validation and field trials have demonstrated that the developed advanced algorithms are able to detect motor and load inefficiency and performance degradation. Eaton investigated the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) within various industrial facilities to understand concerns about topology and environmental conditions that have precluded broad adoption by the industry to date. A Wireless Link Assessment System (WLAS), was used to validate wireless performance under a variety of conditions. Results demonstrated that wireless networks can provide adequate performance in most facilities when properly specified and deployed. Customers from various IoF expressed interest in applying wireless more broadly for selected applications, but continue to prefer utilizing existing, wired field bus networks for most sensor based applications that will tie into their existing Computerized Motor Maintenance Systems (CMMS). As a result, wireless technology was de-emphasized within the project, and a greater focus placed on energy efficiency/predictive diagnostics. Commercially available wireless networks were only utilized in field test sites to facilitate collection of motor wellness information, and no wireless sensor network products were

  19. Spinning gas clouds: III. Solutions of minimal energy with precession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffet, B.

    2003-05-01

    We consider the model of rotating and expanding gas cloud originally proposed by Ovsiannikov (1956 Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 111 47) and Dyson (1968 J. Math. Mech. 18 91). Under the restricting assumptions of an adiabatic index gamma = 5/3 and of vorticity-free motion, this has been shown (Gaffet 2001 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 34 2097) to be a Liouville integrable Hamiltonian system. In the present work, we consider the precessing solutions where the cloud does not retain a fixed rotation axis. Choosing for definiteness a particular set of constants of motion (which corresponds to a minimum of the energy), we show that a separation of variables occurs, and that the equations of motion are reducible to the form of a Riccati equation, whose integration merely involves an elliptic integral.

  20. An Analytical Impact Assessment Framework for Wildlife to Inform the Siting and Permitting of Wind Energy Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Jesse D.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States overall electrical generation capacity is expected to increase by 10-25 gigawatts (GW) per year to meet increases in demand. Wind energy is a key component of state and federal renewable energy standards, and central to the Department of Energy’s 20% by 2030 wind production goals. Increased wind energy development may present increased resource conflict with avian wildlife, and environmental permitting has been identified as a potential obstacle to expansion in the sector. ICF developed an analytical framework to help applicants and agencies examine potential impacts in support of facility siting and permitting. A key objective of our work was to develop a framework that is scalable from the local to the national level, and one that is generalizable across the different scales at which biological communities operate – from local influences to meta-populations. The intent was to allow natural resource managers to estimate the cumulative impacts of turbine strikes and habitat changes on long-term population performance in the context of a species demography, genetic potential, and life history. We developed three types of models based on our literature review and participation in the scientific review processes. First, the conceptual model was developed as a general description of the analytical framework. Second, we developed the analytical framework based on the relationships between concepts, and the functions presented in the scientific literature. Third, we constructed an application of the model by parameterizing the framework using data from and relevant to the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA), and an existing golden eagle population model. We developed managed source code, database create statements, and written documentation to allow for the reproduction of each phase of the analysis. ICF identified a potential template adaptive management system in the form of the US Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) Adaptive Harvest

  1. Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, Anna; Hampson, Anne; Hedman, Bruce; Garland, Patti; Bautista, Paul

    2008-12-01

    This report describes in detail the four key areas where CHP has proven its effectiveness and holds promise for the future—as an: environmental solution, significantly reducing CO2 emissions through greater energy efficiency; competitive business solution, increasing efficiency, reducing business costs, and creating green-collar jobs; local energy solution, deployable throughout the United States; and infrastructure modernization solution, relieving grid congestion and improving energy security.

  2. Cellular automata coupled with steady-state nutrient solution permit simulation of large-scale growth of tumours.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sachin Man Bajimaya; Joldes, Grand Roman; Wittek, Adam; Miller, Karol

    2013-04-01

    We model complete growth of an avascular tumour by employing cellular automata for the growth of cells and steady-state equation to solve for nutrient concentrations. Our modelling and computer simulation results show that, in the case of a brain tumour, oxygen distribution in the tumour volume may be sufficiently described by a time-independent steady-state equation without losing the characteristics of a time-dependent diffusion equation. This makes the solution of oxygen concentration in the tumour volume computationally more efficient, thus enabling simulation of tumour growth on a large scale. We solve this steady-state equation using a central difference method. We take into account the composition of cells and intercellular adhesion in addition to processes involved in cell cycle--proliferation, quiescence, apoptosis, and necrosis--in the tumour model. More importantly, we consider cell mutation that gives rise to different phenotypes and therefore a tumour with heterogeneous population of cells. A new phenotype is probabilistically chosen and has the ability to survive at lower levels of nutrient concentration and reproduce faster. We show that heterogeneity of cells that compose a tumour leads to its irregular growth and that avascular growth is not supported for tumours of diameter above 18 mm. We compare results from our growth simulation with existing experimental data on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and tumour spheroid cultures and show that our results are in good agreement with the experimental findings.

  3. EnergySolution's Clive Disposal Facility Operational Research Model - 13475

    SciTech Connect

    Nissley, Paul; Berry, Joanne

    2013-07-01

    EnergySolutions owns and operates a licensed, commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility located in Clive, Utah. The Clive site receives low-level radioactive waste from various locations within the United States via bulk truck, containerised truck, enclosed truck, bulk rail-cars, rail boxcars, and rail inter-modals. Waste packages are unloaded, characterized, processed, and disposed of at the Clive site. Examples of low-level radioactive waste arriving at Clive include, but are not limited to, contaminated soil/debris, spent nuclear power plant components, and medical waste. Generators of low-level radioactive waste typically include nuclear power plants, hospitals, national laboratories, and various United States government operated waste sites. Over the past few years, poor economic conditions have significantly reduced the number of shipments to Clive. With less revenue coming in from processing shipments, Clive needed to keep its expenses down if it was going to maintain past levels of profitability. The Operational Research group of EnergySolutions were asked to develop a simulation model to help identify any improvement opportunities that would increase overall operating efficiency and reduce costs at the Clive Facility. The Clive operations research model simulates the receipt, movement, and processing requirements of shipments arriving at the facility. The model includes shipment schedules, processing times of various waste types, labor requirements, shift schedules, and site equipment availability. The Clive operations research model has been developed using the WITNESS{sup TM} process simulation software, which is developed by the Lanner Group. The major goals of this project were to: - identify processing bottlenecks that could reduce the turnaround time from shipment arrival to disposal; - evaluate the use (or idle time) of labor and equipment; - project future operational requirements under different forecasted scenarios. By identifying

  4. Crystalline free energies of micelles of diblock copolymer solutions.

    PubMed

    D'Adamo, Giuseppe; Pierleoni, Carlo

    2010-11-28

    We report a characterization of the relative stability and structural behavior of various micellar crystals of an athermal model of AB-diblock copolymers in solution. We adopt a previously developed coarse-graining representation of the chains which maps each copolymer on a soft dumbbell. Thanks to this strong reduction of degrees of freedom, we are able to investigate large aggregated systems and for a specific length ratio of the blocks f = M(A)∕(M(A) + M(B)) = 0.6, to locate the order-disorder transition of the system of micelles. Above the transition, mechanical and thermal properties are found to depend on the number of particles per lattice site in the simulation box, and the application of a recent methodology for multiple occupancy crystals [B. M. Mladek et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 235702 (2007)] is necessary to correctly define the equilibrium state. Within this scheme we have performed free energy calculations at two reduced density ρ∕ρ∗ = 4, 5 and for several cubic structures such as fcc, bcc, and A15. At both densities, the bcc symmetry is found to correspond to the minimum of the unconstrained free energy, that is to the stable symmetry among the few considered, while the A15 structure is almost degenerate, indicating that the present system prefers to crystallize in less packed structures. At ρ∕ρ∗ = 4 close to melting, the Lindemann ratio is fairly high (∼0.29) and the concentration of vacancies is roughly 6%. At ρ∕ρ∗ = 5 the mechanical stability of the stable bcc structure increases and the concentration of vacancies accordingly decreases. The ratio of the corona layer thickness to the core radius is found to be in good agreement with experimental data for poly(styrene-b-isoprene)(22-12) in isoprene selective solvent which is also reported to crystallize in the bcc structure.

  5. Conical intersections of free energy surfaces in solution: Effect of electron correlation on a protonated Schiff base in methanol solution

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Toshifumi; Nakano, Katsuhiro; Kato, Shigeki

    2010-08-14

    The minimum energy conical intersection (MECI) optimization method with taking account of the dynamic electron correlation effect [T. Mori and S. Kato, Chem. Phys. Lett. 476, 97 (2009)] is extended to locate the MECI of nonequilibrium free energy surfaces in solution. A multistate electronic perturbation theory is introduced into the nonequilibrium free energy formula, which is defined as a function of solute and solvation coordinates. The analytical free energy gradient and interstate coupling vectors are derived, and are applied to locate MECIs in solution. The present method is applied to study the cis-trans photoisomerization reaction of a protonated Schiff base molecule (PSB3) in methanol (MeOH) solution. It is found that the effect of dynamic electron correlation largely lowers the energy of S{sub 1} state. We also show that the solvation effect strongly stabilizes the MECI obtained by twisting the terminal C=N bond to become accessible in MeOH solution, whereas the conical intersection is found to be unstable in gas phase. The present study indicates that both electron correlation and solvation effects are important in the photoisomerization reaction of PSB3. The effect of counterion is also examined, and seems to be rather small in solution. The structures of free energy surfaces around MECIs are also discussed.

  6. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: REMOVAL OF PHENOL FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS USING HIGH ENERGY ELECTRON BEAM IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Irradiation of aqueous solutions with high-energy electrons results in the formation of the aqueous electron, hydrogen radical, H-, and the hydroxyl radical, OH-. These reactive transient species initiate chemical reactions capable of destroying organic compounds in aqueous solut...

  7. Energy efficient link layer security solution for wireless LANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Suat

    2006-04-01

    For the last couple of years people have become too reliant on Wireless LAN (WLAN) for information exchange. As wireless technology has no inherent physical protection, WLANs introduce new serious security threats to the personal information of individuals and organizations. Unfortunately, much of the growth has not been accompanied with an appropriate level of security for most corporate networks. The broadcast nature of wireless networks promote casual eavesdropping of data traffic with possible security threats including unauthorized use of networks, and denial of service attacks etc. Therefore, as in any environment where data is transmitted over untreated media, in order to protect the data, certain safeguards must be in place and effectively managed. To this end, this paper introduces a wireless link layer security protocol for WLANs that provides the users of IEEE 802.11 WLAN a security level close to the security level of wired networks. The proposed security protocol consists of three components: WLAN clients (STAs), WLAN Access Points (APs), and Authentication and Accounting Server (AAS). Before an STA can access the network, the user who uses the STA must be authenticated to the AP. AP must be authenticated to the STA as well, so that there is no rogue AP in the network. Finally, the communication between STAs and APs, as well as between APs and AAS are protected and defended from any kind of interception, modification and fabrication. We performed extensive simulations to evaluate the security and energy consumption performance of the proposed security protocol. The cryptographic primitives are selected based on their security and power consumption to make proposed protocol scalable and a manageable solution for low power wireless clients, such as PDAs.

  8. Energy Distribution of the Bianchi Type i Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radinschi, Irina

    We calculate the energy of an anisotropic model of universe based on the Bianchi type I metric in the Mo ller prescription. The total energy due to the matter and gravitational field is zero. This result supports the importance of the energy-momentum complexes in the localization of energy.

  9. Clean Energy Solutions Center and SE4All: Partnering to Support Country Actions

    SciTech Connect

    2016-05-01

    Since 2012, the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) and Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) have partnered to deliver information, knowledge and expert assistance to policymakers and practitioners in countries actively working to achieve SE4All objectives. Through SE4All efforts, national governments are implementing integrated country actions to strategically transform their energy markets. This fact sheet details the Solutions Center and SE4All partnership and available areas of technical assistance.

  10. 2004 Petition for the Administrator to Object to Permit fro Los Medanos Energy Center LLC, in Pittsburg, CA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. Los Mednos Energy Center, Order Deying In Part and Granting In Part Petition For Objection To Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  12. Petition to Object to the Cherokee Coal Fired Power Plant, Xcel Energy, Adams County, Colorado, Title V Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  13. Peitition to Object to the Valmont Coal Fired Power Plant, Xcel Energy, Boulder County, Colorado, Title V Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  14. Order Granting and Denying in Part the Petition for Objection to the Xcel Energy, Hayden Station Operating Permit, Hayden Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  15. Order Responding to Petitions for the Administrator to Object to the Department of Energy's Hanford Site Operating Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  16. Order Denying the Petition to Object to the Xcel Energy Valmont Power Station, Boulder County, Colorado Title V Operating Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. Order Responding to February 4, 2002 Petition for the Administrator to Object to Wansley Combined Cycle Energy Facility's Operating Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  18. Order Responding to Petition to Object to Xcel Energy Pawnee Coal Fired Power Station, Brush, Colorado Title V Operating Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  19. Order Granting in Part and Denying in Part Petition for Objection to Permit for WE Energies Oak Creek Power Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  20. Camden County Energy Recovery Associates, Oder Granting In Part and Denying In Part Petition for Object to Title V Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  1. Petition Requesting the Administrator Ojbect to the Title V Permit for the Ontario County Landfill Gas-to-Energy Facility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  2. Petition to Object to Xcel Energy Pawnee Coal Fired Power Station, Brush, Colorado Title V Operating Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  3. Petition to Object to the Proposed Title V Permit for FirstEnergy Generation's Bruce Mansfield Power Station

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  4. Water and energy as inseparable twins for sustainable solutions.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Jan; Hofman-Caris, Roberta; Nederlof, Maarten; Frijns, Jos; van Loosdrecht, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Although the water cycle is only a minor contributor to the energy demand in society, it is a matter of good housekeeping to minimize the energy need within a sustainable water cycle. Wastewater treatment should not only be applied to purify the water, but also recover the energy present in this water, as well as to recover essential elements like nitrogen and phosphorus. From an energy analysis of the Dutch water cycle it is concluded that creating an energy neutral water cycle by using the heat content or by making use of the organic load of wastewater is within hands.

  5. 40 CFR 72.81 - Permit modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compliance deadline extension; and (5) Changes in a thermal energy plan that result in any addition or... replacement of thermal energy. (c)(1) Permit modifications shall follow the permit issuance requirements...

  6. 40 CFR 72.81 - Permit modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compliance deadline extension; and (5) Changes in a thermal energy plan that result in any addition or... replacement of thermal energy. (c)(1) Permit modifications shall follow the permit issuance requirements...

  7. 40 CFR 72.81 - Permit modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compliance deadline extension; and (5) Changes in a thermal energy plan that result in any addition or... replacement of thermal energy. (c)(1) Permit modifications shall follow the permit issuance requirements...

  8. Plasmon-assisted radiolytic energy conversion in aqueous solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Baek Hyun; Kwon, Jae W.

    2014-01-01

    The field of conventional energy conversion using radioisotopes has almost exclusively focused on solid-state materials. Herein, we demonstrate that liquids can be an excellent media for effective energy conversion from radioisotopes. We also show that free radicals in liquid, which are continuously generated by beta radiation, can be utilized for electrical energy generation. Under beta radiation, surface plasmon obtained by the metallic nanoporous structures on TiO2 enhanced the radiolytic conversion via the efficient energy transfer between plasmons and free radicals. This work introduces a new route for the development of next-generation power sources. PMID:24918356

  9. Least energy sign-changing solutions for a class of nonlocal Kirchhoff-type problems.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bitao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the existence of least energy sign-changing solutions for a class of Kirchhoff-type problem [Formula: see text]where [Formula: see text] is a bounded domain in [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], with a smooth boundary [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. By using variational approach and some subtle analytical skills, the existence of the least energy sign-changing solutions of [Formula: see text] is obtained successfully. Moreover, we prove that the energy of any sign-changing solutions is larger than twice that of the ground state solutions of [Formula: see text].

  10. Towards Novel Energy Solutions - an Electronic/Atomistic Simulation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Rui

    This thesis focuses on computer modeling and multi-scale simulations of new materials that can potentially be used in novel energy applications, i.e., the dye molecules in dye-sensitizedsolar- cells and polymers for the capacitive energy storage. The aim is to understand physical properties of existing materials and then to find ways to improve them. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  11. Energy conservation in rental housing: landlords' perceptions of problems and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, A.; Raab, J.; Astrein, B.; Bernstein, S.; Piernot, C.; Strahs, S.

    1982-03-01

    Rental housing owners have had little incentive to invest in energy conservation measures for their buildings. As the cost of energy continues to rise, market incentives increase. This research explores the decision processes and criteria of a purposive sample of landlords in four cities: Boston, Chicago, Denver, and San Francisco. The report outlines landlords' reasons for investing or not investing in energy conservation measures, the barriers they perceive to energy conservation, and their perceived solutions to energy problems in rental housing.

  12. Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

    2012-06-01

    Biomass is part of the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is produced after combustion of biomass. Over a relatively short timescale, carbon dioxide is renewed from atmosphere during next generation of new growth of green vegetation. Contribution of renewable energy including hydropower, solar, biomass and biofuel in total primary energy consumption in world is about 19%. Traditional biomass alone contributes about 13% of total primary energy consumption in the world. The number of traditional biomass energy users expected to rise from 2.5 billion in 2004 to 2.6 billion in 2015 and to 2.7 billion in 2030 for cooking in developing countries. Residential biomass demand in developing countries is projected to rise from 771 Mtoe in 2004 to 818 Mtoe in 2030. The main sources of biomass are wood residues, bagasse, rice husk, agro-residues, animal manure, municipal and industrial waste etc. Dedicated energy crops such as short-rotation coppice, grasses, sugar crops, starch crops and oil crops are gaining importance and market share as source of biomass energy. Global trade in biomass feedstocks and processed bioenergy carriers are growing rapidly. There are some drawbacks of biomass energy utilization compared to fossil fuels viz: heterogeneous and uneven composition, lower calorific value and quality deterioration due to uncontrolled biodegradation. Loose biomass also is not viable for transportation. Pelletization, briquetting, liquefaction and gasification of biomass energy are some options to solve these problems. Wood fuel production is very much steady and little bit increase in trend, however, the forest land is decreasing, means the deforestation is progressive. There is a big challenge for sustainability of biomass resource and environment. Biomass energy can be used to reduce greenhouse emissions. Woody biomass such as briquette and pellet from un-organized biomass waste and residues could be used for alternative to wood fuel, as a result, forest will be saved and

  13. Activation energy and entropy for viscosity of wormlike micelle solutions.

    PubMed

    Chandler, H D

    2013-11-01

    The viscosities of two surfactant solutions which form wormlike micelles (WLMs) were studied over a range of temperatures and strain rates. WLM solutions appear to differ from many other shear thinning systems in that, as the shear rate increases, stress-shear rate curves tend to converge with temperature rather than diverge and this can sometimes lead to higher temperature curves crossing those at lower. Behaviour was analysed in terms of activation kinetics. It is suggested that two mechanisms are involved: Newtonian flow, following an Arrhenius law superimposed on a non-Newtonian flow described by a stress assisted kinetic law, this being a more general form of the Arrhenius law. Anomalous flow is introduced into the kinetic equation via a stress dependent activation entropy term.

  14. Stalk model of membrane fusion: solution of energy crisis.

    PubMed Central

    Kozlovsky, Yonathan; Kozlov, Michael M

    2002-01-01

    Membrane fusion proceeds via formation of intermediate nonbilayer structures. The stalk model of fusion intermediate is commonly recognized to account for the major phenomenology of the fusion process. However, in its current form, the stalk model poses a challenge. On one hand, it is able to describe qualitatively the modulation of the fusion reaction by the lipid composition of the membranes. On the other, it predicts very large values of the stalk energy, so that the related energy barrier for fusion cannot be overcome by membranes within a biologically reasonable span of time. We suggest a new structure for the fusion stalk, which resolves the energy crisis of the model. Our approach is based on a combined deformation of the stalk membrane including bending of the membrane surface and tilt of the hydrocarbon chains of lipid molecules. We demonstrate that the energy of the fusion stalk is a few times smaller than those predicted previously and the stalks are feasible in real systems. We account quantitatively for the experimental results on dependence of the fusion reaction on the lipid composition of different membrane monolayers. We analyze the dependence of the stalk energy on the distance between the fusing membranes and provide the experimentally testable predictions for the structural features of the stalk intermediates. PMID:11806930

  15. 75 FR 30057 - Proposed Issuance of an Incidental Take Permit to Energy Northwest for Construction and Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... information concerning wind energy and wildlife response; and (9) Pertinent information concerning wind energy... with incidental take coverage for forest management activities and some non-timber activities. Wind energy is not a covered activity of the WDNR HCP. Consequently, Radar Ridge LLC is developing a...

  16. Deep Energy Retrofit Guidance for the Building America Solutions Center

    SciTech Connect

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE Building America program has established a research agenda targeting market-relevant strategies to achieve 40% reductions in existing home energy use by 2030. Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs) are part of the strategy to meet and exceed this goal. DERs are projects that create new, valuable assets from existing residences, by bringing homes into alignment with the expectations of the 21st century. Ideally, high energy using, dated homes that are failing to provide adequate modern services to their owners and occupants (e.g., comfortable temperatures, acceptable humidity, clean, healthy), are transformed through comprehensive upgrades to the building envelope, services and miscellaneous loads into next generation high performance homes. These guidance documents provide information to aid in the broader market adoption of DERs.

  17. Ermod: fast and versatile computation software for solvation free energy with approximate theory of solutions.

    PubMed

    Sakuraba, Shun; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2014-08-05

    ERmod is a software package to efficiently and approximately compute the solvation free energy using the method of energy representation. Molecular simulation is to be conducted at two condensed-phase systems of the solution of interest and the reference solvent with test-particle insertion of the solute. The subprogram ermod in ERmod then provides a set of energy distribution functions from the simulation trajectories, and another subprogram slvfe determines the solvation free energy from the distribution functions through an approximate functional. This article describes the design and implementation of ERmod, and illustrates its performance in solvent water for two organic solutes and two protein solutes. Actually, the free-energy computation with ERmod is not restricted to the solvation in homogeneous medium such as fluid and polymer and can treat the binding into weakly ordered system with nano-inhomogeneity such as micelle and lipid membrane. ERmod is available on web at http://sourceforge.net/projects/ermod.

  18. The Energy Crisis in the Public Schools; Alternative Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossbach, Wilmar; Shaffer, William

    One hundred and eighty school personnel held a workshop with representatives of the petroleum, natural gas, and electrical power industries. The objectives of the workshop were (1) to provide participants with a common body of knowledge and a common understanding of the energy crisis and its implications for the public schools, (2) to delineate…

  19. Wormhole solutions in f(R) gravity satisfying energy conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.

    2016-10-01

    Without reference to exotic sources construction of viable wormholes in Einstein’s general relativity remained ever a myth. With the advent of modified theories, however, specifically the f(R) theory, new hopes arose for the possibility of such objects. From this token, we construct traversable wormholes in f(R) theory supported by a fluid source which respects at least the weak energy conditions. We provide an example (Example 1) of asymptotically flat wormhole in f(R) gravity without ghosts.

  20. Microgrid Enabled Distributed Energy Solutions (MEDES) - Fort Bliss Military Reservation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    timed, and tested thoroughly to ensure no conflicts of authority. Although not a major issue, separate data loggers were used to collect baseline...from the data loggers approximately quarterly. The complete pool of data was sufficient to assess the performance objectives. 5.4.2 Technology...RESULTS The baseline characterization data was collected by energy meters and associated data loggers , described in more detail in the Microgrid

  1. TechSolutions 11: An Introduction to Power and Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    AMMTIAC and WSTIAC, respectively), which are operated by Alion Science and Technology. He has authored numerous technical papers, reports , and...comprehensive, but it does provide a solid background for many of the technical areas of power and energy presented in the other articles in this...publication. http://wstiac.alionscience.com/quarterly http://wstiac.alionscience.com/quarterly Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188

  2. Advanced Communication and Control Solutions of Distributed Energy Resources (DER)

    SciTech Connect

    Asgeirsson, Haukur; Seguin, Richard; Sherding, Cameron; de Bruet, Andre, G.; Broadwater, Robert; Dilek, Murat

    2007-01-10

    This report covers work performed in Phase II of a two phase project whose objective was to demonstrate the aggregation of multiple Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and to offer them into the energy market. The Phase I work (DE-FC36-03CH11161) created an integrated, but distributed, system and procedures to monitor and control multiple DERs from numerous manufacturers connected to the electric distribution system. Procedures were created which protect the distribution network and personnel that may be working on the network. Using the web as the communication medium for control and monitoring of the DERs, the integration of information and security was accomplished through the use of industry standard protocols such as secure SSL,VPN and ICCP. The primary objective of Phase II was to develop the procedures for marketing the power of the Phase I aggregated DERs in the energy market, increase the number of DER units, and implement the marketing procedures (interface with ISOs) for the DER generated power. The team partnered with the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO), the local ISO, to address the energy market and demonstrate the economic dispatch of DERs in response to market signals. The selection of standards-based communication technologies offers the ability of the system to be deployed and integrated with other utilities’ resources. With the use of a data historian technology to facilitate the aggregation, the developed algorithms and procedures can be verified, audited, and modified. The team has demonstrated monitoring and control of multiple DERs as outlined in phase I report including procedures to perform these operations in a secure and safe manner. In Phase II, additional DER units were added. We also expanded on our phase I work to enhance communication security and to develop the market model of having DERs, both customer and utility owned, participate in the energy market. We are proposing a two-part DER energy market model--a utility

  3. GD Friend, Inc. d/b/a Everlast Home Energy Solutions Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    GD Friend, Inc. d/b/a Everlast Home Energy Solutions (the Company) is located in Anaheim, California. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Anaheim and La Verne, California.

  4. Characterizing multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation via internal symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Caballar, Roland Cristopher F.; Ocampo, Leonard R.; Galapon, Eric A.

    2010-06-15

    Internal symmetries can be used to classify multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation (TE-CCR). The dynamical behavior of solutions to the TE-CCR possessing particular internal symmetries involving time reversal differ significantly from solutions to the TE-CCR without those particular symmetries, implying a connection between the internal symmetries of a quantum system, its internal unitary dynamics, and the TE-CCR.

  5. Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry - December 2010

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-12-01

    AMO's research and development partnerships with industry have resulted in more than 220 technologies and other solutions that can be purchased today. This document includes a description of each solution, its benefits, and vendor contact information. The document also identifies emerging technologies and other resources to help industry save energy.

  6. Energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence determination of thorium in phosphoric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirashi, N. N.; Dhara, Sangita; Kumar, S. Sanjay; Chaudhury, Satyajeet; Misra, N. L.; Aggarwal, S. K.

    2010-07-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence studies on determination of thorium (in the range of 7 to 137 mg/mL) in phosphoric acid solutions obtained by dissolution of thoria in autoclave were made. Fixed amounts of Y internal standard solutions, after dilution with equal amount of phosphoric acid, were added to the calibration as well as sample solutions. Solution aliquots of approximately 2-5 µL were deposited on thick absorbent sheets to absorb the solutions and the sheets were presented for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence measurements. A calibration plot was made between intensity ratios (Th Lα/Y Kα) against respective amounts of thorium in the calibration solutions. Thorium amounts in phosphoric acid samples were determined using their energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectra and the above calibration plot. The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence results, thus obtained, were compared with the corresponding gamma ray spectrometry results and were found to be within average deviation of 2.6% from the respective gamma ray spectrometry values. The average precision obtained in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence determinations was found to be 4% (1 σ). The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method has an advantage over gamma ray spectrometry for thorium determination as the amount of sample required and measurement time is far less compared to that required in gamma ray spectrometry.

  7. Keynote address: Reinventing fire: Physics + markets = energy solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Lovins, Amory B.

    2015-03-30

    Rocky Mountain Institute's multi-year, 61-author, peer-reviewed Reinventing Fire synthesis showed how the U.S. can realistically run a 2.6× bigger U.S. economy in 2050 with no oil, coal, or nuclear energy, one-third less natural gas, tripled efficiency, and 74% renewable supplies (80% for electricity). This transition, at historically reasonable rates, could be led by business for profit, applying normal rates of return, with some innovative subnational and administrative policies but no Acts of Congress. Excluding carbon emissions and all other externalities, the net present value would be $5 trillion more favorable than business-as-usual, averaging a 14% Internal Rate of Return.

  8. Keynote address: Reinventing fire: Physics + markets = energy solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovins, Amory B.

    2015-03-01

    Rocky Mountain Institute's multi-year, 61-author, peer-reviewed Reinventing Fire synthesis showed how the U.S. can realistically run a 2.6× bigger U.S. economy in 2050 with no oil, coal, or nuclear energy, one-third less natural gas, tripled efficiency, and 74% renewable supplies (80% for electricity). This transition, at historically reasonable rates, could be led by business for profit, applying normal rates of return, with some innovative subnational and administrative policies but no Acts of Congress. Excluding carbon emissions and all other externalities, the net present value would be 5 trillion more favorable than business-as-usual, averaging a 14% Internal Rate of Return.

  9. Mixed addenda polyoxometalate "solutions" for stationary energy storage.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Harry D; Anderson, Travis M

    2013-11-28

    A series of redox flow batteries utilizing mixed addenda (vanadium and tungsten), phosphorus-based polyoxometalates (A-α-PV3W9O40(6-), B-α-PV3W9O40(6-), and P2V3W15O62(9-)) were prepared and tested. Cyclic voltammetry and bulk electrolysis experiments on the Keggin compounds (A-α-PV3W9O40(6-) and B-α-PV3W9O40(6-)) established that the vanadium centers of these compounds could be used as the positive electrode (PV(IV)3W(VI)9O40(9-)/PV(V)3W(VI)9O40(6-)), and the tungsten centers could be used as the negative electrode (PV(IV)3W(VI)9O40(9-)/PV(IV)3W(V)3W(VI)6O40(12-)) since these electrochemical processes are separated by about 1 V. The results showed that A-α-PV3W9O40(6-) (where A indicates adjacent, corner-sharing vanadium atoms) had coulombic efficiencies (charge in divided by charge out) above 80%, while the coulombic efficiency of B-α-PV3W9O40(6-) (where B indicates adjacent edge-sharing vanadium atoms) fluctuated between 50% and 70% during cycling. The electrochemical yield, a measurement of the actual charge or discharge observed in comparison with the theoretical charge, was between 40% and 50% for A-α-PV3W9O40(6-), and (31)P NMR showed small amounts of PV2W10O40(5-) and PVW11O40(4-) formed with cycling. The electrochemical yield for B-α-PV3W9O40(6-) decreased from 90% to around 60% due to precipitation of the compound on the electrode, but there were no decomposition products detected in the solution by (31)P NMR, and infrared data on the electrode suggested that the cluster remained intact. Testing of P2V3W15O62(9-) (Wells-Dawson structure) suggested higher charge density clusters were not as suitable as the Keggin structures for a redox flow battery due to the poor stability and inaccessibility of the highly reduced materials.

  10. Hazardous Waste Permitting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To provide RCRA hazardous waste permitting regulatory information and resources permitted facilities, hazardous waste generators, and permit writers. To provide the public with information on how they can be involved in the permitting process.

  11. Reaction Pathway and Free Energy Barrier for Urea Elimination in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Min; Chen, Xi; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2015-01-01

    To accurately predict the free energy barrier for urea elimination in aqueous solution, we examined the reaction coordinates for the direct and water-assisted elimination pathways, and evaluated the corresponding free energy barriers by using the surface and volume polarization for electrostatics (SVPE) model-based first-principles electronic-structure calculations. Based on the computational results, the water-assisted elimination pathway is dominant for urea elimination in aqueous solution, and the corresponding free energy barrier is 25.3 kcal/mol. The free energy barrier of 25.3 kcal/mol predicted for the dominant reaction pathway of urea elimination in aqueous solution is in good agreement with available experimental kinetic data. PMID:25821238

  12. Analytical solution and optimal design for galloping-based piezoelectric energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, T.; Yan, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The performance of the galloping-based piezoelectric energy harvester is usually investigated numerically. Instead of performing case studies by numerical simulations, analytical solutions of the nonlinear distributed parameter model are derived to capture the intrinsic effects of the physical parameters on the performance of such energy harvesters. The analytical solutions are confirmed with the numerical solutions. Optimal performance of such energy harvesters is therefore revealed theoretically. The electric damping due to the electromechanical coupling is defined. The design at the optimal electrical damping with smaller onset speed to galloping, higher harvested power, and acceptable tip displacement is superior than the design at the maximal electrical damping, as long as the optimal electrical damping can be achieved. Otherwise, the design at the maximal electrical damping should be then adopted. As the wind speed and aerodynamic empirical coefficients increase, the tip displacement and harvested power increase. This study provides a theoretical design and optimization procedure for galloping-based piezoelectric energy harvesters.

  13. Technology Solutions for New Homes Case Study: Multifamily Zero Energy Ready Home Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-01

    AvalonBay Communities, which is a large multifamily developer, was developing a three-building complex in Elmsford, New York. The buildings were planned to be certified to the ENERGY STAR® Homes Version 3 program. This plan led to AvalonBay partnering with the Advanced Residential Integrated Solutions (ARIES) collaborative, which is a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team. ARIES worked with AvalonBay to redesign the project to comply with Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) criteria.

  14. The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.

  15. 77 FR 28594 - Southern Energy Solution Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Energy Solution Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Southern Energy Solution Group, LLC's application for...

  16. 77 FR 64980 - Noble Americas Energy Solutions LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Noble Americas Energy Solutions LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Noble Americas Energy Solutions LLC's application for...

  17. Implicit Solution of Non-Equilibrium Radiation Diffusion Including Reactive Heating Source in Material Energy Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Shumaker, D E; Woodward, C S

    2005-05-03

    In this paper, the authors investigate performance of a fully implicit formulation and solution method of a diffusion-reaction system modeling radiation diffusion with material energy transfer and a fusion fuel source. In certain parameter regimes this system can lead to a rapid conversion of potential energy into material energy. Accuracy in time integration is essential for a good solution since a major fraction of the fuel can be depleted in a very short time. Such systems arise in a number of application areas including evolution of a star and inertial confinement fusion. Previous work has addressed implicit solution of radiation diffusion problems. Recently Shadid and coauthors have looked at implicit and semi-implicit solution of reaction-diffusion systems. In general they have found that fully implicit is the most accurate method for difficult coupled nonlinear equations. In previous work, they have demonstrated that a method of lines approach coupled with a BDF time integrator and a Newton-Krylov nonlinear solver could efficiently and accurately solve a large-scale, implicit radiation diffusion problem. In this paper, they extend that work to include an additional heating term in the material energy equation and an equation to model the evolution of the reactive fuel density. This system now consists of three coupled equations for radiation energy, material energy, and fuel density. The radiation energy equation includes diffusion and energy exchange with material energy. The material energy equation includes reaction heating and exchange with radiation energy, and the fuel density equation includes its depletion due to the fuel consumption.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of energy density in pressure retarded osmosis: The impact of solution volumes and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Reimund, Kevin K.; McCutcheon, Jeffrey R.; Wilson, Aaron D.

    2015-08-01

    A general method was developed for estimating the volumetric energy efficiency of pressure retarded osmosis via pressure-volume analysis of a membrane process. The resulting model requires only the osmotic pressure, π, and mass fraction, w, of water in the concentrated and dilute feed solutions to estimate the maximum achievable specific energy density, uu, as a function of operating pressure. The model is independent of any membrane or module properties. This method utilizes equilibrium analysis to specify the volumetric mixing fraction of concentrated and dilute solution as a function of operating pressure, and provides results for the total volumetric energy density of similar order to more complex models for the mixing of seawater and riverwater. Within the framework of this analysis, the total volumetric energy density is maximized, for an idealized case, when the operating pressure is π/(1+√w⁻¹), which is lower than the maximum power density operating pressure, Δπ/2, derived elsewhere, and is a function of the solute osmotic pressure at a given mass fraction. It was also found that a minimum 1.45 kmol of ideal solute is required to produce 1 kWh of energy while a system operating at “maximum power density operating pressure” requires at least 2.9 kmol. Utilizing this methodology, it is possible to examine the effects of volumetric solution cost, operation of a module at various pressure, and operation of a constant pressure module with various feed.

  19. Solution-Processed Two-Dimensional Metal Dichalcogenide-Based Nanomaterials for Energy Storage and Conversion.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiehong; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Hua

    2016-08-01

    The development of renewable energy storage and conversion devices is one of the most promising ways to address the current energy crisis, along with the global environmental concern. The exploration of suitable active materials is the key factor for the construction of highly efficient, highly stable, low-cost and environmentally friendly energy storage and conversion devices. The ability to prepare two-dimensional (2D) metal dichalcogenide (MDC) nanosheets and their functional composites in high yield and large scale via various solution-based methods in recent years has inspired great research interests in their utilization for renewable energy storage and conversion applications. Here, we will summarize the recent advances of solution-processed 2D MDCs and their hybrid nanomaterials for energy storage and conversion applications, including rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, electrocatalytic hydrogen generation and solar cells. Moreover, based on the current progress, we will also give some personal insights on the existing challenges and future research directions in this promising field.

  20. Proton and hydride transfers in solution: hybrid QMmm/MM free energy perturbation study

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, L. Lawrence |; Bash, P.A.; Kerell, A.D., Jr

    1996-03-01

    A hybrid quantum and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) free energy perturbation (FEP) method is implemented in the context of molecular dynamics (MD). The semiempirical quantum mechanical (QM) Hamiltonian (Austin Model 1) represents solute molecules, and the molecular mechanical (MM) CHARMM force field describes the water solvent. The QM/MM FEP method is used to calculate the free energy changes in aqueous solution for (1) a proton transfer from methanol to imidazole and (2) a hydride transfer from methoxide to nicotinamide. The QM/MM interaction energies between the solute and solvent arc calibrated to emulate the solute-solvent interaction energies determined at the Hartee-Fock 6-31G(d) level of ab initio theory. The free energy changes for the proton and hydride transfers are calculated to be 15.1 and {minus}6.3 kcal/mol, respectively, which compare favorably with the corresponding experimental values of 12.9 and {minus}7.4 kcal/mol. An estimate of the reliability of the calculations is obtained through the computation of the forward (15.1 and {minus}6.3 kcal/mol) and backward ({minus}14.1 and 9.1 kcal/mol)free energy changes. The reasonable correspondence between these two independent calculations suggests that adequate phase space sampling is obtained along the reaction pathways chosen to transform the proton and hydride systems between their respective reactant and product states.

  1. Regulatory review of closure, post-closure and perpetual care funds at the energy solutions, LLC mixed waste facility

    SciTech Connect

    Willoughby III, O.H.; Lukes, G.C.

    2007-07-01

    EnergySolutions, LLC operates its Mixed Waste Facility at Clive, Utah under the provisions of its State-issued Part B Permit. The facility accepts waste that contains both hazardous and radioactive contaminants. Utah is an EPA Agreement State and therefore the Utah Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW) is authorized to regulate the hazardous waste operations at the facility. The radioactive portion of the waste is regulated by the Utah Division of Radiation Control. 40 CFR 264.142 outlines the facility requirements for Closure Costs. The owner or operator must have a detailed written estimate of the cost of closing the facility in accordance with the rules. For many years the State of Utah had relied on the facility's estimate of closure costs as the amount that needed to be funded. This amount is reviewed annually and adjusted for inflation and for changes at the facility. In 2004 the agency and the facility requested bids from independent contractors to provide their estimate for closure costs. Three engineering firms bid on the project. The facility funded the project and both the agency and the facility chose one of the firms to provide an independent estimate. The engineering firms met with both parties and toured the facility. They were also provided with the current closure cost line items. Each firm provided an estimated cost for closure of the facility at the point in the facility's active life that would make the closure most expensive. Included with the direct costs were indirect line items such as overhead, profit, mobilization, hazardous working conditions and regulatory oversight. The agency and the facility reviewed the independent estimates and negotiated a final Closure and Post-Closure Cost Estimate for the Mixed Waste Facility. There are several mechanisms allowed under the rules to fund the Closure and Post- Closure Care Funds. EnergySolutions has chosen to fund their costs through the use of an insurance policy. Changing mechanisms from

  2. Existence and uniqueness of solutions from the LEAP equilibrium energy-economy model

    SciTech Connect

    Oblow, E.M.

    1982-10-01

    A study was made of the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the long-range, energy-economy model LEAP. The code is a large scale, long-range (50 year) equilibrium model of energy supply and demand in the US economy used for government and industrial forecasting. The study focused on the two features which distinguish LEAP from other equilibrium models - the treatment of product allocation and basic conversion of materials into an energy end product. Both allocation and conversion processes are modeled in a behavioral fashion which differs from classical economic paradigms. The results of the study indicate that while LEAP contains desirable behavioral features, these same features can give rise to non-uniqueness in the solution of allocation and conversion process equations. Conditions under which existence and uniqueness of solutions might not occur are developed in detail and their impact in practical applications are discussed.

  3. Exact solutions in a scalar-tensor model of dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Granda, L.N.; Loaiza, E. E-mail: edwin.loaiza@correounivalle.edu.co

    2012-09-01

    We consider a model of scalar field with non minimal kinetic and Gauss Bonnet couplings as a source of dark energy. Based on asymptotic limits of the generalized Friedmann equation, we impose restrictions on the kinetic an Gauss-Bonnet couplings. This restrictions considerable simplify the equations, allowing for exact solutions unifying early time matter dominance with transitions to late time quintessence and phantom phases. The stability of the solutions in absence of matter has been studied.

  4. Solutions and reductions for radiative energy transport in laser-heated plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Broadbridge, P.; Ivanova, N. M.

    2015-01-15

    A full symmetry classification is given for models of energy transport in radiant plasma when the mass density is spatially variable and the diffusivity is nonlinear. A systematic search for conservation laws also leads to some potential symmetries and to an integrable nonlinear model. Classical point symmetries, potential symmetries, and nonclassical symmetries are used to effect variable reductions and exact solutions. The simplest time-dependent solution is shown to be stable and relevant to a closed system.

  5. Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, Ms. Anna; Hampson, Anne; Hedman, Mr. Bruce; Garland, Patricia W; Bautista, Paul

    2008-12-01

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) solutions represent a proven and effective near-term energy option to help the United States enhance energy efficiency, ensure environmental quality, promote economic growth, and foster a robust energy infrastructure. Using CHP today, the United States already avoids more than 1.9 Quadrillion British thermal units (Quads) of fuel consumption and 248 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions annually compared to traditional separate production of electricity and thermal energy. This CO{sub 2} reduction is the equivalent of removing more than 45 million cars from the road. In addition, CHP is one of the few options in the portfolio of energy alternatives that combines environmental effectiveness with economic viability and improved competitiveness. This report describes in detail the four key areas where CHP has proven its effectiveness and holds promise for the future as an: (1) Environmental Solution: Significantly reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through greater energy efficiency; (2) Competitive Business Solution: Increasing efficiency, reducing business costs, and creating green-collar jobs; (3) Local Energy Solution: Deployable throughout the US; and (4) Infrastructure Modernization Solution: Relieving grid congestion and improving energy security. CHP should be one of the first technologies deployed for near-term carbon reductions. The cost-effectiveness and near-term viability of widespread CHP deployment place the technology at the forefront of practical alternative energy solutions such as wind, solar, clean coal, biofuels, and nuclear power. Clear synergies exist between CHP and most other technologies that dominate the energy and environmental policy dialogue in the country today. As the Nation transforms how it produces, transports, and uses the many forms of energy, it must seize the clear opportunity afforded by CHP in terms of climate change, economic competitiveness, energy security, and infrastructure

  6. Energy efficiency of iron–boron–silicon metallic glasses in sulfuric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, K.; Jiang, W.; Rahman, B. M. A.; Grattan, K. T. V.

    2017-03-01

    A criterion of the energy efficiency of iron–boron–silicon metallic glasses in sulfuric acid solutions is proposed for the first time. The criterion has been derived based on calculating the limit of the ratio value of the conductivity of a metallic glass in aqueous solution to the conductivity of the metallic glass in air. In other words, the conductivity ratio of a metallic glass in aqueous solution to the conductivity of the metallic glass in air  = 1, was applied to determine the energy efficiency of the metallic glass in the aqueous solution when the conductivity of a metallic glass in air became equal (decreased) to the steady conductivity of the metallic glass in aqueous solution as a function of time of the exposure of the metallic glass to the aqueous solution. This criterion was not only used to determine the energy efficiency of different metallic glasses, but also, the criterion was used to determine the energy efficiency of metallic glasses exposed to a wide range of sulfuric acid concentrations. These conductivity values were determined by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In addition, the criterion can be applied under diverse test conditions with a predetermined period of the operational life of the metallic glasses as functional materials. Furthermore, variations of the energy efficiency of the metallic glasses as a function of the acid concentration and time were produced by fitting the experimental data to a numerical model using a nonlinear regression method. The profiles of the metallic glasses exhibit a less conservative behavior of the energy efficiency than the proposed analytical criterion.

  7. An analytic solution to the Förster energy transfer problem in two dimensions.

    PubMed Central

    Wolber, P K; Hudson, B S

    1979-01-01

    An analytic solution of the Förster energy transfer problem in two dimensions is presented for the case in which the orientation factor is independent of the donor-acceptor distance, and both the donors and acceptors are randomly distributed in a plane. A general solution based on the method of Förster is possible since all distances are measured in units of R0. The analytic solution is extended to the cases of donors embedded in structures that exclude acceptors, and donors that bind acceptors. The validity of the analytic solutions is demonstrated by comparison with numerical simulation calculations. Numerical approximations to the exact solutions are given for ease of computation. Specific applications to the case of fluorescence quenching of a membrane-bound donor by membrane-bound acceptors are presented. PMID:262548

  8. Data of cost-optimality and technical solutions for high energy performance buildings in warm climate

    PubMed Central

    Zacà, Ilaria; D’Agostino, Delia; Maria Congedo, Paolo; Baglivo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The data reported in this article refers to input and output information related to the research articles entitled Assessment of cost-optimality and technical solutions in high performance multi-residential buildings in the Mediterranean area by Zacà et al. (Assessment of cost-optimality and technical solutions in high performance multi-residential buildings in the Mediterranean area, in press.) and related to the research article Cost-optimal analysis and technical comparison between standard and high efficient mono residential buildings in a warm climate by Baglivo et al. (Energy, 2015, 10.1016/j.energy.2015.02.062, in press). PMID:26217793

  9. Calculating solution redox free energies with ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical minimum free energy path method

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Xiancheng; Hu Hao; Hu Xiangqian; Yang Weitao

    2009-04-28

    A quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical minimum free energy path (QM/MM-MFEP) method was developed to calculate the redox free energies of large systems in solution with greatly enhanced efficiency for conformation sampling. The QM/MM-MFEP method describes the thermodynamics of a system on the potential of mean force surface of the solute degrees of freedom. The molecular dynamics (MD) sampling is only carried out with the QM subsystem fixed. It thus avoids 'on-the-fly' QM calculations and thus overcomes the high computational cost in the direct QM/MM MD sampling. In the applications to two metal complexes in aqueous solution, the new QM/MM-MFEP method yielded redox free energies in good agreement with those calculated from the direct QM/MM MD method. Two larger biologically important redox molecules, lumichrome and riboflavin, were further investigated to demonstrate the efficiency of the method. The enhanced efficiency and uncompromised accuracy are especially significant for biochemical systems. The QM/MM-MFEP method thus provides an efficient approach to free energy simulation of complex electron transfer reactions.

  10. Influence of chemical disorder on energy dissipation and defect evolution in concentrated solid solution alloys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanwen; Stocks, G Malcolm; Jin, Ke; Lu, Chenyang; Bei, Hongbin; Sales, Brian C; Wang, Lumin; Béland, Laurent K; Stoller, Roger E; Samolyuk, German D; Caro, Magdalena; Caro, Alfredo; Weber, William J

    2015-10-28

    A grand challenge in materials research is to understand complex electronic correlation and non-equilibrium atomic interactions, and how such intrinsic properties and dynamic processes affect energy transfer and defect evolution in irradiated materials. Here we report that chemical disorder, with an increasing number of principal elements and/or altered concentrations of specific elements, in single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys can lead to substantial reduction in electron mean free path and orders of magnitude decrease in electrical and thermal conductivity. The subsequently slow energy dissipation affects defect dynamics at the early stages, and consequentially may result in less deleterious defects. Suppressed damage accumulation with increasing chemical disorder from pure nickel to binary and to more complex quaternary solid solutions is observed. Understanding and controlling energy dissipation and defect dynamics by altering alloy complexity may pave the way for new design principles of radiation-tolerant structural alloys for energy applications.

  11. Influence of chemical disorder on energy dissipation and defect evolution in concentrated solid solution alloys

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanwen; Stocks, G. Malcolm; Jin, Ke; Lu, Chenyang; Bei, Hongbin; Sales, Brian C.; Wang, Lumin; Béland, Laurent K.; Stoller, Roger E.; Samolyuk, German D.; Caro, Magdalena; Caro, Alfredo; Weber, William J.

    2015-01-01

    A grand challenge in materials research is to understand complex electronic correlation and non-equilibrium atomic interactions, and how such intrinsic properties and dynamic processes affect energy transfer and defect evolution in irradiated materials. Here we report that chemical disorder, with an increasing number of principal elements and/or altered concentrations of specific elements, in single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys can lead to substantial reduction in electron mean free path and orders of magnitude decrease in electrical and thermal conductivity. The subsequently slow energy dissipation affects defect dynamics at the early stages, and consequentially may result in less deleterious defects. Suppressed damage accumulation with increasing chemical disorder from pure nickel to binary and to more complex quaternary solid solutions is observed. Understanding and controlling energy dissipation and defect dynamics by altering alloy complexity may pave the way for new design principles of radiation-tolerant structural alloys for energy applications. PMID:26507943

  12. Benchmark solutions for the galactic heavy-ion transport equations with energy and spatial coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapol, Barry D.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Lamkin, Stanley L.; Wilson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Nontrivial benchmark solutions are developed for the galactic heavy ion transport equations in the straightahead approximation with energy and spatial coupling. Analytical representations of the ion fluxes are obtained for a variety of sources with the assumption that the nuclear interaction parameters are energy independent. The method utilizes an analytical LaPlace transform inversion to yield a closed form representation that is computationally efficient. The flux profiles are then used to predict ion dose profiles, which are important for shield design studies.

  13. Regulatory and Permitting Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Myer

    2005-12-01

    As part of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., reviewed current state and federal regulations related to carbon dioxide capture and storage within geologic formations and enhanced carbon uptake in terrestrial ecosystems. We have evaluated and summarized the current and possible future permitting requirements for the six states that comprise the West Coast Regional Partnership. Four options exist for CO{sub 2} injection into appropriate geologic formations, including storage in: (1) oil and gas reservoirs, (2) saline formations, (3) unmineable coal beds, and (4) salt caverns. Terrestrial CO{sub 2} sequestration involves improved carbon conservation management (e.g. reduction of deforestation), carbon substitution (e.g., substitution for fossil fuel-based products, energy conservation through urban forestry, biomass for energy generation), and improved carbon storage management (e.g., expanding the storage of carbon in forest ecosystems). The primary terrestrial options for the West Coast Region include: (1) reforestation of under-producing lands (including streamside forest restoration), (2) improved forest management, (3) forest protection and conservation, and (4) fuel treatments for the reduction of risk of uncharacteristically severe fires (potentially with associated biomass energy generation). The permits and/or contracts required for any land-use changes/disturbances and biomass energy generation that may occur as part of WESTCARB's activities have been summarized for each state.

  14. 78 FR 31986 - In the Matter of Energy Solutions Inc.; Order Approving Indirect Transfer of Import and Export...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    .... IW017, IW029, XW010, XW018, XW020, XCOM1211, XSOU8825] In the Matter of Energy Solutions Inc.; Order Approving Indirect Transfer of Import and Export Licenses I EnergySolutions Services, Inc. (ES Services... Energy Capital Partners II, LLC (ECP II). ES, Inc. represents that the indirect transfer will not...

  15. Heart of the Solution - Energy Frontiers (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)

    ScienceCinema

    Green, Peter F. (Director, Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion, University of Michigan); CSTEC Staff

    2016-07-12

    'Heart of the Solution - Energy Frontiers' was submitted by the Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion (CSTEC) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. This video was both the People's Choice Award winner and selected as one of five winners by a distinguished panel of judges for its 'exemplary explanation of the role of an Energy Frontier Research Center'. The Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion is directed by Peter F. Green at the University of Michigan. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges. The mission of the Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion is 'to study complex material structures on the nanoscale to identify key features for their potential use as materials to convert solar energy and heat to electricity.' Research topics are: solar photovoltaic, photonic, optics, solar thermal, thermoelectric, phonons, thermal conductivity, solar electrodes, defects, ultrafast physics, interfacial characterization, matter by design, novel materials synthesis, charge transport, and self-assembly.

  16. Title V Operating Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site will provide basic information on clean air permitting under the title V operating permits program, provide access to state and regional permitting programs, and maintain access to proposed and final regulatory requirements.

  17. A method for analyzing the vibrational energy flow in biomolecules in solution.

    PubMed

    Soler, Miguel Angel; Bastida, Adolfo; Farag, Marwa H; Zúñiga, José; Requena, Alberto

    2011-11-28

    A method is proposed to analyze the intra- and intermolecular vibrational energy flow occurring in biomolecules in solution during relaxation processes. It is based on the assumption that the total energy exchanged between the vibrational modes is minimal and the global process is essentially statistical. This statistical minimum flow method is shown to provide very useful information about the amount and the rate at which energy is transferred between the individual vibrations of the molecule. To demonstrate the performance of the method, an application is made to the relaxation of the amide I mode of N-methylacetamide-d in aqueous D(2)O solution which yields a detailed quantitative description of the process.

  18. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 1.0: Networked Monitoring and Control of Small Interconnected Wind Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    edu, Janet. twomey@wichita.

    2010-04-30

    This report presents accomplishments, results, and future work for one task of five in the Wichita State University Sustainable Energy Solutions Project: To develop a scale model laboratory distribution system for research into questions that arise from networked control and monitoring of low-wind energy systems connected to the AC distribution system. The lab models developed under this task are located in the Electric Power Quality Lab in the Engineering Research Building on the Wichita State University campus. The lab system consists of four parts: 1. A doubly-fed induction generator 2. A wind turbine emulator 3. A solar photovoltaic emulator, with battery energy storage 4. Distribution transformers, lines, and other components, and wireless and wired communications and control These lab elements will be interconnected and will function together to form a complete testbed for distributed resource monitoring and control strategies and smart grid applications testing. Development of the lab system will continue beyond this project.

  19. Forward and pressure retarded osmosis: potential solutions for global challenges in energy and water supply.

    PubMed

    Klaysom, Chalida; Cath, Tazhi Y; Depuydt, Tom; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2013-08-21

    Osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMP) have gained renewed interest in recent years and they might become a potential solution for the world's most challenging problems of water and energy scarcity. Though the concept of utilizing osmotic pressure difference between high and low salinity streams across semipermeable membranes has been explored for several decades, lack of optimal membranes and draw solutions hindered competition between forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) with existing water purification and power generation technologies, respectively. Driven by growing global water scarcity and by energy cost and negative environmental impacts, novel membranes and draw solutions are being developed for ODMPs, mass and heat transfer in osmotic process are becoming better understood, and new applications of ODMPs are emerging. Therefore, OMDPs might become promising green technologies to provide clean water and clean energy from abundantly available renewable resources. This review focuses primarily on new insights into osmotic membrane transport mechanisms and on novel membranes and draw solutions that are currently being developed. Furthermore, the effects of operating conditions on the overall performance of osmotic membranes will be highlighted and future perspectives will be presented.

  20. Theory for solvent, momentum, and energy transfer between a surfactant solution and a vapor atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Fried, Eliot; Shen, Amy Q; Gurtin, Morton E

    2006-06-01

    We develop a complete set of equations governing the evolution of a sharp interface separating a volatile-solvent/nonvolatile-surfactant solution from a vapor atmosphere. In addition to a sorption isotherm equation and the conventional balances for mass, linear momentum, and energy, these equations include an alternative to the Hertz-Knudsen-Langmuir equation familiar from conventional theories of evaporation and condensation. This additional equation arises from a consideration of configurational forces within a thermodynamical framework. While the notion of configurational forces is well developed and understood for the description of materials that, like crystalline solids, possess natural reference configurations, very little has been done regarding their role in materials, such as viscous fluids, that do not possess preferred reference states. We therefore provide comprehensive developments of configurational forces, the balance of configurational momentum, and configurational thermodynamics. Our treatment does not require a choice of reference configuration. The general evolution equations arising from our theory account for the thermodynamic structure of the solution and the interface and for sources of dissipation related to the transport of surfactant, momentum, and heat in the solution and within the interface along with the transport of solute, momentum, kinetic energy, and heat across the interface. Moreover, the equations account for the Soret and Dufour effects in the solution and on the interface and for observed discontinuities of the temperature and chemical potential across the interface. Due to the complexity of these equations, we provide approximate equations which we compare to equations preexistent in the literature.

  1. Non-minimal coupling of torsion-matter satisfying null energy condition for wormhole solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawad, Abdul; Rani, Shamaila

    2016-12-01

    We explore wormhole solutions in a non-minimal torsion-matter coupled gravity by taking an explicit non-minimal coupling between the matter Lagrangian density and an arbitrary function of the torsion scalar. This coupling describes the transfer of energy and momentum between matter and torsion scalar terms. The violation of the null energy condition occurred through an effective energy-momentum tensor incorporating the torsion-matter non-minimal coupling, while normal matter is responsible for supporting the respective wormhole geometries. We consider the energy density in the form of non-monotonically decreasing function along with two types of models. The first model is analogous to the curvature-matter coupling scenario, that is, the torsion scalar with T-matter coupling, while the second one involves a quadratic torsion term. In both cases, we obtain wormhole solutions satisfying the null energy condition. Also, we find that the increasing value of the coupling constant minimizes or vanishes on the violation of the null energy condition through matter.

  2. The effect of high-energy radiation on aqueous solution of Acid Red 1 textile dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Földváry, Cs. M.; Wojnárovits, L.

    2007-08-01

    The effect of high-energy radiation on Acid Red 1 (AR1) azo-dye solution was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy and chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements. Doses in the order of 10 kGy cause complete decolouration of the 10 -3-10 -4 mol dm -3 solutions; however, for complete mineralization doses higher by 1-2 order of magnitude are needed. Hydrated electrons and H rad atom are more effective in fading reaction, while the rad OH radicals have higher efficiency in mineralization. The HO 2•/O 2•- radical-radical anion pair is rather inefficient in fading reaction.

  3. 'Part of the solution': Developing sustainable energy through co-operatives and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguid, Fiona C. B.

    and understanding of WindShare's role in sustainable energy. WindShare Co-operative provided the structure whereby members felt a part of the solution in terms of sustainable energy development. Policies and practices at all levels of government should encourage the advancement of green energy co-operatives to support Canada's efforts at public involvement in combating climate change and pollution.

  4. Comparison of excitation energy transfer in cyanobacterial photosystem I in solution and immobilized on conducting glass.

    PubMed

    Szewczyk, Sebastian; Giera, Wojciech; D'Haene, Sandrine; van Grondelle, Rienk; Gibasiewicz, Krzysztof

    2017-05-01

    Excitation energy transfer in monomeric and trimeric forms of photosystem I (PSI) from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 in solution or immobilized on FTO conducting glass was compared using time-resolved fluorescence. Deposition of PSI on glass preserves bi-exponential excitation decay of ~4-7 and ~21-25 ps lifetimes characteristic of PSI in solution. The faster phase was assigned in part to photochemical quenching (charge separation) of excited bulk chlorophylls and in part to energy transfer from bulk to low-energy (red) chlorophylls. The slower phase was assigned to photochemical quenching of the excitation equilibrated over bulk and red chlorophylls. The main differences between dissolved and immobilized PSI (iPSI) are: (1) the average excitation decay in iPSI is about 11 ps, which is faster by a few ps than for PSI in solution due to significantly faster excitation quenching of bulk chlorophylls by charge separation (~10 ps instead of ~15 ps) accompanied by slightly weaker coupling of bulk and red chlorophylls; (2) the number of red chlorophylls in monomeric PSI increases twice-from 3 in solution to 6 after immobilization-as a result of interaction with neighboring monomers and conducting glass; despite the increased number of red chlorophylls, the excitation decay accelerates in iPSI; (3) the number of red chlorophylls in trimeric PSI is 4 (per monomer) and remains unchanged after immobilization; (4) in all the samples under study, the free energy gap between mean red (emission at ~710 nm) and mean bulk (emission at ~686 nm) emitting states of chlorophylls was estimated at a similar level of 17-27 meV. All these observations indicate that despite slight modifications, dried PSI complexes adsorbed on the FTO surface remain fully functional in terms of excitation energy transfer and primary charge separation that is particularly important in the view of photovoltaic applications of this photosystem.

  5. Determination of Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solution using chemical engineering tools.

    PubMed

    Toure, Oumar; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    2016-08-01

    Standard Gibbs energies of formation are of primary importance in the field of biothermodynamics. In the absence of any directly measured values, thermodynamic calculations are required to determine the missing data. For several biochemical species, this study shows that the knowledge of the standard Gibbs energy of formation of the pure compounds (in the gaseous, solid or liquid states) enables to determine the corresponding standard Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solutions. To do so, using chemical engineering tools (thermodynamic tables and a model enabling to predict activity coefficients, solvation Gibbs energies and pKa data), it becomes possible to determine the partial chemical potential of neutral and charged components in real metabolic conditions, even in concentrated mixtures.

  6. Energy solutions, neo-liberalism, and social diversity in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Teelucksingh, Cheryl; Poland, Blake

    2011-01-01

    In response to the dominance of green capitalist discourses in Canada's environmental movement, in this paper, we argue that strategies to improve energy policy must also provide mechanisms to address social conflicts and social disparities. Environmental justice is proposed as an alternative to mainstream environmentalism, one that seeks to address systemic social and spatial exclusion encountered by many racialized immigrants in Toronto as a result of neo-liberal and green capitalist municipal policy and that seeks to position marginalized communities as valued contributors to energy solutions. We examine Toronto-based municipal state initiatives aimed at reducing energy use while concurrently stimulating growth (specifically, green economy/green jobs and 'smart growth'). By treating these as instruments of green capitalism, we illustrate the utility of environmental justice applied to energy-related problems and as a means to analyze stakeholders' positions in the context of neo-liberalism and green capitalism, and as opening possibilities for resistance.

  7. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 3.0:Life-Cycle Database for Wind Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Twomey, Janet M.

    2010-03-01

    The benefits of wind energy had previously been captured in the literature at an overview level with relatively low transparency or ability to understand the basis for that information. This has limited improvement and decision-making to larger questions such as wind versus other electrical sources (such as coal-fired plants). This research project has established a substantially different approach which is to add modular, high granularity life cycle inventory (lci) information that can be used by a wide range of decision-makers, seeking environmental improvement. Results from this project have expanded the understanding and evaluation of the underlying factors that can improve both manufacturing processes and specifically wind generators. The use of life cycle inventory techniques has provided a uniform framework to understand and compare the full range of environmental improvement in manufacturing, hence the concept of green manufacturing. In this project, the focus is on 1. the manufacturing steps that transform materials and chemicals into functioning products 2. the supply chain and end-of-life influences of materials and chemicals used in industry Results have been applied to wind generators, but also impact the larger U.S. product manufacturing base. For chemicals and materials, this project has provided a standard format for each lci that contains an overview and description, a process flow diagram, detailed mass balances, detailed energy of unit processes, and an executive summary. This is suitable for integration into other life cycle databases (such as that at NREL), so that broad use can be achieved. The use of representative processes allows unrestricted use of project results. With the framework refined in this project, information gathering was initiated for chemicals and materials in wind generation. Since manufacturing is one of the most significant parts of the environmental domain for wind generation improvement, this project research has

  8. Energy efficient wireless sensor networks by using a fuzzy-based solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirrito, Salvatore; Nicolosi, Giuseppina

    2016-12-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks are characterized by a distributed architecture realized by a set of autonomous electronic devices able to sense data from the surrounding environment and to communicate among them. These devices are battery powered since they may be used even to monitor hazardous events in inaccessible areas. As a consequence, it is preferable to assure the adoption of energy management solutions in order to extend the WSN lifetime, as far as possible. Moreover, it is crucial to guarantee that the nodes receive the transmitted data correctly. It is clear that trading off power optimization and quality of service has become one the most important concerns when dealing with modern systems based on WSNs. This paper introduces a solution based on a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) focusing on the minimization of energy consumption of wireless sensor nodes. This is made possible because the sleeping time of these nodes is dynamically regulated by a FLC.

  9. Influence of chemical disorder on energy dissipation and defect evolution in concentrated solid solution alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Stocks, George Malcolm; Jin, Ke; Lu, Chenyang; Bei, Hongbin; Sales, Brian C.; Wang, Lumin; Béland, Laurent K.; Stoller, Roger E.; Samolyuk, German D.; Caro, Magdalena; Caro, Alfredo; Weber, William J.

    2015-10-28

    A long-standing objective in materials research is to understand how energy is dissipated in both the electronic and atomic subsystems in irradiated materials, and how related non-equilibrium processes may affect defect dynamics and microstructure evolution. Here we show that alloy complexity in concentrated solid solution alloys having both an increasing number of principal elements and altered concentrations of specific elements can lead to substantial reduction in the electron mean free path and thermal conductivity, which has a significant impact on energy dissipation and consequentially on defect evolution during ion irradiation. Enhanced radiation resistance with increasing complexity from pure nickel to binary and to more complex quaternary solid solutions is observed under ion irradiation up to an average damage level of 1 displacement per atom. Understanding how materials properties can be tailored by alloy complexity and their influence on defect dynamics may pave the way for new principles for the design of radiation tolerant structural alloys.

  10. Finite element solution for energy conservation using a highly stable explicit integration algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. J.; Manhardt, P. D.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical derivation of a finite element solution algorithm for the transient energy conservation equation in multidimensional, stationary multi-media continua with irregular solution domain closure is considered. The complete finite element matrix forms for arbitrarily irregular discretizations are established, using natural coordinate function representations. The algorithm is embodied into a user-oriented computer program (COMOC) which obtains transient temperature distributions at the node points of the finite element discretization using a highly stable explicit integration procedure with automatic error control features. The finite element algorithm is shown to posses convergence with discretization for a transient sample problem. The condensed form for the specific heat element matrix is shown to be preferable to the consistent form. Computed results for diverse problems illustrate the versatility of COMOC, and easily prepared output subroutines are shown to allow quick engineering assessment of solution behavior.

  11. CFEST Coupled Flow, Energy & Solute Transport Version CFEST005 Theory Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Chen, Yousu; Gupta, Sumant K.

    2005-11-01

    This document presents the mathematical theory implemented in the CFEST (Coupled Flow, Energy, and Solute Transport) simulator. The simulator is a three-dimensional finite element model that can be used for evaluating flow and solute mass transport. Although the theory for thermal transport is presented in this guide, it has not yet been fully implemented in the simulator. The flow module is capable of simulating both confined and unconfined aquifer systems, as well as constant and variable density fluid flows. For unconfined aquifers, the model uses a moving boundary for the water table, deforming the numerical mesh so that the uppermost nodes are always at the water table. For solute transport, changes in concentration of a single dissolved chemical constituent are computed for advective and hydrodynamic transport, linear sorption represented by a retardation factor, and radioactive decay. Once fully implemented, transport of thermal energy in the groundwater and solid matrix of the aquifer can also be used to model aquifer thermal regimes. Mesh construction employs “collapsible”, hexahedral finite elements in a three-dimensional coordinate system. CFEST uses the Galerkin finite element method to convert the partial differential equations to algebraic form. To solve the coupled equations for momentum, solute and heat transport, either Picard or Newton-Raphson iterative schemes are used to treat nonlinearities. An upstream weighted residual finite-element method is used to solve the advective-dispersive transport and energy transfer equations, which circumvents problems of numerical oscillation problems. Matrix solutions of the flow and transport problems are performed using efficient iterative solvers available in ITPACK and PETSc, solvers that are available in the public domain. These solvers are based on the preconditioned conjugate gradient and ORTHOMIN methods for symmetric and a nonsymmetric matrices, respectively.

  12. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  13. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region; Clean Energy Solutions Center (CESC)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-11

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  14. Asymptotic behavior of the least-energy solutions of a semilinear elliptic equation with the Hardy-Sobolev critical exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, Masato

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the existence, the non-existence and the asymptotic behavior of the least-energy solutions of a semilinear elliptic equation with the Hardy-Sobolev critical exponent. In the boundary singularity case, it is known that the mean curvature of the boundary at origin plays a crucial role on the existence of the least-energy solutions. In this paper, we study the relation between the asymptotic behavior of the solutions and the mean curvature at origin.

  15. Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) results from subprompt critical experiments with uranyl fluoride fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cappiello, C.C.; Butterfield, K.B.; Sanchez, R.G.

    1997-10-01

    The Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) was originally constructed during 1980 and was designed to be a clean free-field geometry, right-circular, cylindrically symmetric critical assembly employing U(5%)O{sub 2}F{sub 2} solution as fuel. A second version of SHEBA, employing the same fuel but equipped with a fuel pump and shielding pit, was commissioned in 1993. This report includes data and operating experience for the 1993 SHEBA only. Solution-fueled benchmark work focused on the development of experimental measurements of the characterization of SHEBA; a summary of the results are given. A description of the system and the experimental results are given in some detail in the report. Experiments were designed to: (1) study the behavior of nuclear excursions in a low-enrichment solution, (2) evaluate accidental criticality alarm detectors for fuel-processing facilities, (3) provide radiation spectra and dose measurements to benchmark radiation transport calculations on a low-enrichment solution system similar to centrifuge enrichment plants, and (4) provide radiation fields to calibrate personnel dosimetry. 15 refs., 37 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Self-similar cosmological solutions with dark energy. II. Black holes, naked singularities, and wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Hideki; Harada, Tomohiro; Carr, B. J.

    2008-01-15

    We use a combination of numerical and analytical methods, exploiting the equations derived in a preceding paper, to classify all spherically symmetric self-similar solutions which are asymptotically Friedmann at large distances and contain a perfect fluid with equation of state p=({gamma}-1){mu} with 0<{gamma}<2/3. The expansion of the Friedmann universe is accelerated in this case. We find a one-parameter family of self-similar solutions representing a black hole embedded in a Friedmann background. This suggests that, in contrast to the positive pressure case, black holes in a universe with dark energy can grow as fast as the Hubble horizon if they are not too large. There are also self-similar solutions which contain a central naked singularity with negative mass and solutions which represent a Friedmann universe connected to either another Friedmann universe or some other cosmological model. The latter are interpreted as self-similar cosmological white hole or wormhole solutions. The throats of these wormholes are defined as two-dimensional spheres with minimal area on a spacelike hypersurface and they are all nontraversable because of the absence of a past null infinity.

  17. High energy supercapattery with an ionic liquid solution of LiClO4.

    PubMed

    Yu, Linpo; Chen, George Z

    2016-08-15

    A supercapattery combining an ideally polarized capacitor-like electrode and a battery-like electrode is demonstrated theoretically and practically using an ionic liquid electrolyte containing 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tri(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (BMPyrrFAP), gamma-butyrolactone (γ-GBL) and LiClO4. The electrochemical deposition and dissolution of lithium metal on a platinum and glass carbon electrode were investigated in this ionic liquid solution. The CVs showed that the fresh electrochemically deposited lithium metal was stable in the electrolyte, which encouraged the investigation of this ionic liquid solution in a supercapattery with a lithium battery negative electrode. The active material counted specific energy of the supercapattery based on a lithium negative electrode and an activated carbon (Act-C) positive electrode could reach 230 W h kg(-1) under a galvanostatic charge-discharge current density of 1 mA cm(-2). The positive electrode material (Act-C) was also investigated by CV, AC impedance, SEM and BET. The non-uniform particle size and micropores dominated porous structure of the Act-C enabled its electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) behavior in the ionic liquid solution. The measured specific capacitance of the Act-C in this ionic liquid solution is higher than the same Act-C in aqueous solution, which indicates the Act-C can also perform well in the ionic liquid electrolyte.

  18. Structure optimization via free energy gradient method: Application to glycine zwitterion in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama-Yoshida, Naoto; Kataoka, Ken; Nagaoka, Masataka; Yamabe, Tokio

    2000-09-01

    The free energy gradient method was applied to the multidimensional geometry optimization of glycine zwitterion (ZW) in aqueous solution in order not only to demonstrate its applicability, but also to examine its efficiency. The method utilizes force on the free energy surface that can be directly calculated by the molecular dynamics method and the free energy perturbation theory. Then, the most stable ZW structure in aqueous solution was obtained within the tolerance assumed, and it was found that the free energy (FE) and enthalpy changes of stabilization from the initial geometry optimized in the gas phase are -0.9 and -3.5 kcal/mol, respectively, and the amino and carboxyl groups are spatially separated by each other due to their solvating with water molecules. Comparing the contributions of enthalpy and entropy to FE, the former is attributed to the main origin of FE stabilization during the optimization procedure, and it was found that solvation entropy prevents water molecules from solvating the ZW more strongly.

  19. A Bulk-Water-Dependent Desolvation Energy Model for Analyzing the Effects of Secondary Solutes on Biological Equilibria†

    PubMed Central

    Eggers, Daryl K.

    2011-01-01

    A new phenomenological model for interpreting solute effects on biological equilibria is presented. The model attributes changes in equilibria to differences in the desolvation energy of the reacting species which, in turn, reflect changes in the free energy of the bulk water on addition of secondary solutes. The desolvation approach differs notably from other solute models by treating the free energy of bulk water as a variable and by not ascribing the observed shifts in reaction equilibria to accumulation or depletion of solutes next to the surfaces of the reacting species. On the contrary, the partitioning of solutes is viewed as a manifestation of the different subpopulations of water that arise in response to the surface boundary conditions. A thermodynamic framework consistent with the proposed model is used to derive a relationship for a specific reaction, an aqueous solubility equilibrium, in two or more solutions. The resulting equation reconciles some potential issues with the transfer free energy model of Tanford. Application of the desolvation energy model to the analysis of a two-state protein folding equilibrium is discussed and contrasted to the application of two other solute models developed by Timasheff and by Parsegian. Future tabulation of solvation energies and bulk water energies may allow biophysical chemists to confirm the mechanism by which secondary solutes influence binding and conformational equilibria and may provide a common ground for experimentalists and theoreticians to compare and evaluate their results. PMID:21284393

  20. 78 FR 12417 - List of Special Permit Applications Delayed 180 Days

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... 05-31-2013 Fernando, CA. ] RENEWAL SPECIAL PERMITS APPLICATIONS 14455-R EnergySolutions, LLC Oak Ridge, 3 03-31-2013 TN. 15228-R FedEx Express Memphis, TN....... 3 03-31-2013 BILLING CODE 4910-60-M...

  1. Challenges and solutions of remote sensing at offshore wind energy developments.

    PubMed

    Kelly, T A; West, T E; Davenport, J K

    2009-11-01

    Radar is becoming an important tool used to gather data on bird and bat activity at proposed and existing land-based wind energy sites. Radar will likely play an even more important role at the increasing development of wind energy offshore, given both the lack of knowledge about bird and bat activity offshore and the increased difficulty in obtaining offshore information. Most radar studies to date have used off-the-shelf or modified marine radars. However, there are several issues that continue to hinder the potential usefulness of radar at wind energy sites, with offshore sites providing a particular suite of challenges. We identify these challenges along with current or developing solutions.

  2. The National Solar Permitting Database

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, Renic

    2014-08-31

    "The soft costs of solar—costs not associated with hardware—remain stubbornly high. Among the biggest soft costs are those associated with inefficiencies in local permitting and inspection. A study by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory estimates that these costs add an average of $0.22/W per residential installation. This project helps reduce non-hardware/balance of system (BOS) costs by creating and maintaining a free and available site of permitting requirements and solar system verification software that installers can use to reduce time, capital, and resource investments in tracking permitting requirements. Software tools to identify best permitting practices can enable government stakeholders to optimize their permitting process and remove superfluous costs and requirements. Like ""a Wikipedia for solar permitting"", users can add, edit, delete, and update information for a given jurisdiction. We incentivize this crowdsourcing approach by recognizing users for their contributions in the form of SEO benefits to their company or organization by linking back to users' websites."

  3. 10 CFR 51.75 - Draft environmental impact statement-construction permit, early site permit, or combined licesne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... evaluation of alternative energy sources, unless these matters are addressed in the early site permit... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-construction permit, early site permit, or combined licesne. 51.75 Section 51.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...

  4. 10 CFR 51.75 - Draft environmental impact statement-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... evaluation of alternative energy sources, unless these matters are addressed in the early site permit... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license. 51.75 Section 51.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...

  5. Energy Level Alignment at Metal/Solution-Processed Organic Semiconductor Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Atxabal, Ainhoa; Braun, Slawomir; Arnold, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangnan; Parui, Subir; Liu, Xianjie; Gozalvez, Cristian; Llopis, Roger; Mateo-Alonso, Aurelio; Casanova, Felix; Ortmann, Frank; Fahlman, Mats; Hueso, Luis E

    2017-03-15

    Energy barriers between the metal Fermi energy and the molecular levels of organic semiconductor devoted to charge transport play a fundamental role in the performance of organic electronic devices. Typically, techniques such as electron photoemission spectroscopy, Kelvin probe measurements, and in-device hot-electron spectroscopy have been applied to study these interfacial energy barriers. However, so far there has not been any direct method available for the determination of energy barriers at metal interfaces with n-type polymeric semiconductors. This study measures and compares metal/solution-processed electron-transporting polymer interface energy barriers by in-device hot-electron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. It not only demonstrates in-device hot-electron spectroscopy as a direct and reliable technique for these studies but also brings it closer to technological applications by working ex situ under ambient conditions. Moreover, this study determines that the contamination layer coming from air exposure does not play any significant role on the energy barrier alignment for charge transport. The theoretical model developed for this work confirms all the experimental observations.

  6. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 5.1: Expand the Number of Faculty Working in Wind Energy: Wind Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Twomey, Janet M.

    2010-03-01

    Energy storage to reduce peak-load demands on utilities is emerging as an important way to address the intermittency of renewable energy resources. Wind energy produced in the middle of the night may be wasted unless it can be stored, and conversely, solar energy production could be used after the sun goes down if we had an efficient way to store it. It is uses an electrochemical process to convert hydrogen gas into electricity. The role of fuel cells in energy storage is a very important criteria and it is compared with regular batteries for the advantages of fuel cells over the latter. For this reason fuel cells can be employed. PEM fuel cells can be effectively used for this reason. But the performance and durability of PEM fuel cells are significantly affected by the various components used in a PEM cell. Several parameters affect the performance and durability of fuel cells. They are water management, degradation of components, cell contamination, reactant starvation and thermal management. Water management is the parameter which plays a major role in the performance of a fuel cell. Based on the reviews, improvement of condensation on the cathode side of a fuel cell is expected to improve the performance of the fuel cell by reducing cathode flooding. Microchannels and minichannels can enhance condensation on the cathode side of a fuel cell. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the condensation of steam in mini and microchannels with hydraulic diameter of 2mm, 2.66mm, 200µm and 266µm respectively. The simulation was run at various mass flux values ranging from 0.5 kg/m2s and 4 kg/m2s. The length of the mini and microchannels were in the range of 20 mm to 100 mm. CFD software’s GAMBIT and FLUENT were used for simulating the condensation process through the mini and microchannels. Steam flowed through the channels, whose walls were cooled by natural convection of air at room temperature. The

  7. Calculation of relative energies of permethylated oligosilane conformers in vapor and in alkane solution.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Heather A; Ottosson, Henrik; Michl, Josef

    2006-12-21

    The geometries of 35 conformers of Me(SiMe2)nMe (n = 4, 1; n = 5, 2; n = 6, 3; n = 7, 4) were optimized at the MP2/VTDZ level, and CCSD(T) single-point calculations were done at three MP2/VTDZ conformer geometries of 1. The relative ground-state energies of the conformers of 1-4 in the gas phase were obtained from the MP2/VTDZ electronic energy, zero-point vibrational energy, and thermal corrections at 0, 77, and 298 K. Relative energies in an alkane solvent at 77 and 298 K were obtained by the addition of solvation energies, obtained from the SM5.42R model. The calculated energies of 26 of the conformers (n = 4-6) have been least-squares fitted to a set of 15 additive increments associated with each Si-Si bond conformation and each pair of adjacent bond conformations, with mean deviations of 0.06-0.20 kcal/mol. An even better fit for the energies of 24 conformers (mean deviations, 0.01-0.09 kcal/mol) has been obtained with a larger set of 19 increments, which also contained contributions from selected combinations of conformations of three adjacent bonds. The utility of the additive increments for the prediction of relative conformer energies in the gas phase and in solution has been tested on the remaining nine conformers (n = 6, 7). With the improved increment set, the average deviation from the SM5.42R//MP2 results for solvated conformers at 298 K was 0.18 kcal/mol, and the maximum error was 0.98 kcal/mol.

  8. Identifying low variance pathways for free energy calculations of molecular transformations in solution phase.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tri T; Shirts, Michael R

    2011-07-21

    Improving the efficiency of free energy calculations is important for many biological and materials design applications, such as protein-ligand binding affinities in drug design, partitioning between immiscible liquids, and determining molecular association in soft materials. We show that for any pair potential, moderately accurate estimation of the radial distribution function for a solute molecule is sufficient to accurately estimate the statistical variance of a sampling along a free energy pathway. This allows inexpensive analytical identification of low statistical error free energy pathways. We employ a variety of methods to estimate the radial distribution function (RDF) and find that the computationally cheap two-body "dilute gas" limit performs as well or better than 3D-RISM theory and other approximations for identifying low variance free energy pathways. With a RDF estimate in hand, we can search for pairwise interaction potentials that produce low variance. We give an example of a search minimizing statistical variance of solvation free energy over the entire parameter space of a generalized "soft core" potential. The free energy pathway arising from this optimization procedure has lower curvature in the variance and reduces the total variance by at least 50% compared to the traditional soft core solvation pathway. We also demonstrate that this optimized pathway allows free energies to be estimated with fewer intermediate states due to its low curvature. This free energy variance optimization technique is generalizable to solvation in any homogeneous fluid and for any type of pairwise potential and can be performed in minutes to hours, depending on the method used to estimate g(r).

  9. Dynamics of liquid state chemical reactions: Vibrational energy relaxation of molecular iodine in liquid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, C. L., III; Balk, M. W.; Adelman, S. A.

    1983-07-01

    The dynamics of vibrational energy relaxation of highly excited molecular iodine in three monatomic solvents is studied via stochastic classical trajectory simulations based on the molecular timescale generalized Langevin equation (MTGLE) of motion for liquid state chemical reactions [S. A. Adelman, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3145 (1980)]. Also presented for comparison purposes are parallel studies based on a matrix Langevin equation of motion characterized by friction coefficients which depend on the instantaneous I2 internuclear separation R. The qualitative features of the energy relaxation may be interpreted as effects arising from modifications of the solute dynamics due to molecular timescale correlations between its motion and that of its solvation shells. Such dynamical solvent effects are realistically described by the MTGLE equation of motion but not by the Langevin equation. Thus, for example, the marked slowdown of the rate of I2 energy relaxtion in simple solvents when the I2 vibrational quantum number drops below a solvent-dependent critical value, earlier predicted by Nesbitt and Hynes, is predicted by MTGLE dynamics but not by Langevin dynamics. Finally, practical algorithms for numerically constructing the MTGLE and Langevin equations for specific solute-solvent systems are presented.

  10. Technology Solutions Case Study: Stand-Off Furring in Deep Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using "L" clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and "picture framing" the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing.

  11. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Energy Savings in All-Electric Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    2014-03-01

    This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy-saving measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, and evaluates those solutions to improve efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing homes. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7.

  12. Benchmark solutions for the galactic ion transport equations: Energy and spatially dependent problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapol, Barry D.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1989-01-01

    Nontrivial benchmark solutions are developed for the galactic ion transport (GIT) equations in the straight-ahead approximation. These equations are used to predict potential radiation hazards in the upper atmosphere and in space. Two levels of difficulty are considered: (1) energy independent, and (2) spatially independent. The analysis emphasizes analytical methods never before applied to the GIT equations. Most of the representations derived have been numerically implemented and compared to more approximate calculations. Accurate ion fluxes are obtained (3 to 5 digits) for nontrivial sources. For monoenergetic beams, both accurate doses and fluxes are found. The benchmarks presented are useful in assessing the accuracy of transport algorithms designed to accommodate more complex radiation protection problems. In addition, these solutions can provide fast and accurate assessments of relatively simple shield configurations.

  13. Energy-efficient recovery of butanol from model solutions and fermentation broth by adsorption.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, N; Hughes, S; Maddox, I S; Cotta, M A

    2005-07-01

    This article discusses the separation of butanol from aqueous solutions and/or fermentation broth by adsorption. Butanol fermentation is also known as acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) or solvent fermentation. Adsorbents such as silicalite, resins (XAD-2, XAD-4, XAD-7, XAD-8, XAD-16), bone charcoal, activated charcoal, bonopore, and polyvinylpyridine have been studied. Use of silicalite appears to be the more attractive as it can be used to concentrate butanol from dilute solutions (5 to 790-810 g L(-1)) and results in complete desorption of butanol (or ABE). In addition, silicalite can be regenerated by heat treatment. The energy requirement for butanol recovery by adsorption-desorption processes has been calculated to be 1,948 kcal kg(-1) butanol as compared to 5,789 kcal kg(-1) butanol by steam stripping distillation. Other techniques such as gas stripping and pervaporation require 5,220 and 3,295 kcal kg(-1) butanol, respectively.

  14. Sound energy decay in coupled spaces using a parametric analytical solution of a diffusion equation.

    PubMed

    Luizard, Paul; Polack, Jean-Dominique; Katz, Brian F G

    2014-05-01

    Sound field behavior in performance spaces is a complex phenomenon. Issues regarding coupled spaces present additional concerns due to sound energy exchanges. Coupled volume concert halls have been of increasing interest in recent decades because this architectural principle offers the possibility to modify the hall's acoustical environment in a passive way by modifying the coupling area. Under specific conditions, the use of coupled reverberation chambers can provide non-exponential sound energy decay in the main room, resulting in both high clarity and long reverberation which are antagonistic parameters in a single volume room. Previous studies have proposed various sound energy decay models based on statistical acoustics and diffusion theory. Statistical acoustics assumes a perfectly uniform sound field within a given room whereas measurements show an attenuation of energy with increasing source-receiver distance. While previously proposed models based on diffusion theory use numerical solvers, the present study proposes a heuristic model of sound energy behavior based on an analytical solution of the commonly used diffusion equation and physically justified approximations. This model is validated by means of comparisons to scale model measurements and numerical geometrical acoustics simulations, both applied to the same simple concert hall geometry.

  15. Federal Environmental Permitting Handbook. Environmental Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The handbook consists of eight chapters addressing permitting and licensing requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (CERCLA/SARA), the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the Clean Air Act (CAA), the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Federal Insectide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Each chapter consists of: (1) an introduction to the statute and permitting requirements; (2) a diagram illustrating the relationship between permitting requirements under the statute being discussed and permitting requirements from other environmental statutes which may have to be addressed when applying for a particular permit (e.g., when applying for a RCRA permit, permits and permit applications under the CWA, CAA, SDWA, etc. would have to be listed in the RCRA permit application); and, (3) a compilation of the permitting requirements for the regulatory program resulting from the statute. In addition, the Handbook contains a permitting keyword index and a listing of hotline telephone numbers for each of the statutes.

  16. Copper Oxide Thin Films through Solution Based Methods for Electrical Energy Conversion and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Changqiong

    Copper oxides (Cu2O and CuO), composed of non-toxic and earth abundant elements, are promising materials for electrical energy generation and storage devices. Solution based techniques for creating thin films of these materials, such as electrodeposition, are important to understand and develop because of their potential for realizing substantial energy savings compared to traditional fabrication methods. Cuprous oxide (Cu2O), with its direct band gap, is a p-type semiconductor that is well suited for creating solution-processed photovoltaic devices (solar cells); several key advancements made toward this application are the primary focus of this thesis. Electrodeposition of single-phase, crystalline Cu2O thin films is demonstrated using previously unexplored, acidic lactate/Cu2+ solutions, which has provided additional understanding of the impacts of growth solution chemistry on film formation. The influence of pH on the resulting Cu2O thin film properties is revealed by using the same ligand (sodium lactate) at various solution pH values. Cu2O films grown from acidic lactate solutions can exhibit a distinctive flowerlike, dendritic morphology, in contrast to the faceted, dense films obtained using alkaline lactate solutions. Relative speciation distributions of the various metal complex ions present under different growth conditions are calculated using reported equilibrium association constants and experimentally supported by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. Dependence of thin film morphology on the lactate/Cu2+ molar ratio and applied potential is described. Cu2O/eutectic gallium-indium Schottky junction devices are formed and devices are tested under monochromatic green LED illumination. Further surface examination of the Cu2O films using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals the fact that films grown from acidic lactate solution with a small lactate/Cu2+ molar ratio, which exhibit improved photovoltaic performance compared to films grown from

  17. Solution combustion synthesis of oxide semiconductors for solar energy conversion and environmental remediation.

    PubMed

    Rajeshwar, Krishnan; de Tacconi, Norma R

    2009-07-01

    In this tutorial review, we summarize recent research on the solution combustion synthesis of oxide semiconductors for applications related to photovoltaic solar energy conversion, photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation, and heterogeneous photocatalytic remediation of environmental pollutants. First, the advantages of combustion synthesis relative to other strategies for preparing oxide semiconductors are discussed followed by a summary of process variants in combustion synthesis. The possibility of in situ chemical modification of the oxide during its formation in the combustion environment is addressed. Morphological and crystal structure aspects of the combustion-synthesized products are discussed followed by a summary of trends in their photocatalytic activity relative to benchmark samples prepared by other methods.

  18. Kings Plaza Total Energy Plant, Order Granting in part and Denying in part Petitions for Objection to Permits in Response to Remand

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  19. Order Responding to Request that the Administrator Object to the Issuance of an Operating Permit for Kings Plaza Total Energy Plant in Brooklyn, NY

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  20. Dealloying of Cu-Based Metallic Glasses in Acidic Solutions: Products and Energy Storage Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifeng; Liu, Jiangyun; Qin, Chunling; Yu, Hui; Xia, Xingchuan; Wang, Chaoyang; Zhang, Yanshan; Hu, Qingfeng; Zhao, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Dealloying, a famous ancient etching technique, was used to produce nanoporous metals decades ago. With the development of dealloying techniques and theories, various interesting dealloying products including nanoporous metals/alloys, metal oxides and composites, which exhibit excellent catalytic, optical and sensing performance, have been developed in recent years. As a result, the research on dealloying products is of great importance for developing new materials with superior physical and chemical properties. In this paper, typical dealloying products from Cu-based metallic glasses after dealloying in hydrofluoric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions are summarized. Several potential application fields of these dealloying products are discussed. A promising application of nanoporous Cu (NPC) and NPC-contained composites related to the energy storage field is introduced. It is expected that more promising dealloying products could be developed for practical energy storage applications. PMID:28347030

  1. Integrated PEV Charging Solutions and Reduced Energy for Occupant Comfort (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    Brochure on Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility, featuring the Vehicle Modification Facility, Vehicle Test Pad and ReCharge Integrated Demonstration System. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) offer the opportunity to shift transportation energy demands from petroleum to electricity, but broad adoption will require integration with other systems. While automotive experts work to reduce the cost of PEVs, fossil fueled cars and trucks continue to burn hundreds of billions of gallons of petroleum each year - not only to get from point A to point B, but also to keep passengers comfortable with air conditioning and heat. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), three installations form a research laboratory known as the Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility (VTIF). At the VTIF, engineers are developing strategies to address two separate but equally crucial areas of research: meeting the demands of electric vehicle-grid integration and minimizing fuel consumption related to vehicle climate control. Part of NREL's Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems (CTTS), the VTIF is dedicated to renewable and energy efficient solutions. This facility showcases technology and systems designed to increase the viability of sustainably powered vehicles. NREL researchers instrument every class of on-road vehicle, conduct hardware and software validation for electric vehicle (EV) components and accessories, and develop analysis tools and technology for the Department of Energy, other government agencies and industry partners. Research conducted at the VTIF examines the interaction of building energy systems, utility grids, renewable energy sources and PEVs, integrating energy management solutions, and maximizing potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction, while smoothing the transition and reducing costs for EV owners. NREL's collaboration with automakers, charging station manufacturers, utilities and fleet operators to assess technologies using VTIF resources is

  2. Energy Solutions, Neo-Liberalism, and Social Diversity in Toronto, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Teelucksingh, Cheryl; Poland, Blake

    2011-01-01

    In response to the dominance of green capitalist discourses in Canada’s environmental movement, in this paper, we argue that strategies to improve energy policy must also provide mechanisms to address social conflicts and social disparities. Environmental justice is proposed as an alternative to mainstream environmentalism, one that seeks to address systemic social and spatial exclusion encountered by many racialized immigrants in Toronto as a result of neo-liberal and green capitalist municipal policy and that seeks to position marginalized communities as valued contributors to energy solutions. We examine Toronto-based municipal state initiatives aimed at reducing energy use while concurrently stimulating growth (specifically, green economy/green jobs and ‘smart growth’). By treating these as instruments of green capitalism, we illustrate the utility of environmental justice applied to energy-related problems and as a means to analyze stakeholders’ positions in the context of neo-liberalism and green capitalism, and as opening possibilities for resistance. PMID:21318023

  3. Electron transport and energy degradation in the ionosphere: Evaluation of the numerical solution, comparison with laboratory experiments and auroral observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lummerzheim, D.; Lilensten, J.

    1994-01-01

    Auroral electron transport calculations are a critical part of auroral models. We evaluate a numerical solution to the transport and energy degradation problem. The numerical solution is verified by reproducing simplified problems to which analytic solutions exist, internal self-consistency tests, comparison with laboratory experiments of electron beams penetrating a collision chamber, and by comparison with auroral observations, particularly the emission ratio of the N2 second positive to N2(+) first negative emissions. Our numerical solutions agree with range measurements in collision chambers. The calculated N(2)2P to N2(+)1N emission ratio is independent of the spectral characteristics of the incident electrons, and agrees with the value observed in aurora. Using different sets of energy loss cross sections and different functions to describe the energy distribution of secondary electrons that emerge from ionization collisions, we discuss the uncertainties of the solutions to the electron transport equation resulting from the uncertainties of these input parameters.

  4. 10 CFR 52.26 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of permit. 52.26 Section 52.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.26 Duration of permit. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an early...

  5. 10 CFR 52.28 - Transfer of early site permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfer of early site permit. 52.28 Section 52.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.28 Transfer of early site permit. An application to transfer an early...

  6. 10 CFR 52.24 - Issuance of early site permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Issuance of early site permit. 52.24 Section 52.24 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.24 Issuance of early site permit. (a) After conducting a hearing under §...

  7. 10 CFR 52.25 - Extent of activities permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extent of activities permitted. 52.25 Section 52.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.25 Extent of activities permitted. If the activities authorized by §...

  8. 10 CFR 52.24 - Issuance of early site permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Issuance of early site permit. 52.24 Section 52.24 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.24 Issuance of early site permit. (a) After conducting a hearing under §...

  9. 10 CFR 52.28 - Transfer of early site permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfer of early site permit. 52.28 Section 52.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.28 Transfer of early site permit. An application to transfer an early...

  10. 10 CFR 52.24 - Issuance of early site permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Issuance of early site permit. 52.24 Section 52.24 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.24 Issuance of early site permit. (a) After conducting a hearing under §...

  11. 10 CFR 52.25 - Extent of activities permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extent of activities permitted. 52.25 Section 52.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.25 Extent of activities permitted. If the activities authorized by §...

  12. 10 CFR 52.26 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of permit. 52.26 Section 52.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.26 Duration of permit. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an early...

  13. 10 CFR 52.28 - Transfer of early site permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfer of early site permit. 52.28 Section 52.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.28 Transfer of early site permit. An application to transfer an early...

  14. 10 CFR 52.26 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of permit. 52.26 Section 52.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.26 Duration of permit. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an early...

  15. 10 CFR 52.25 - Extent of activities permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extent of activities permitted. 52.25 Section 52.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.25 Extent of activities permitted. If the activities authorized by §...

  16. 10 CFR 52.24 - Issuance of early site permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of early site permit. 52.24 Section 52.24 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.24 Issuance of early site permit. (a) After conducting a hearing under §...

  17. 10 CFR 52.25 - Extent of activities permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extent of activities permitted. 52.25 Section 52.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.25 Extent of activities permitted. If the activities authorized by §...

  18. 10 CFR 52.28 - Transfer of early site permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer of early site permit. 52.28 Section 52.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.28 Transfer of early site permit. An application to transfer an early...

  19. 10 CFR 52.26 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of permit. 52.26 Section 52.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site... the permit. (c) An applicant for a construction permit or combined license may, at its own...

  20. Influence of chemical disorder on energy dissipation and defect evolution in concentrated solid solution alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yanwen; Stocks, George Malcolm; Jin, Ke; ...

    2015-10-28

    A long-standing objective in materials research is to understand how energy is dissipated in both the electronic and atomic subsystems in irradiated materials, and how related non-equilibrium processes may affect defect dynamics and microstructure evolution. Here we show that alloy complexity in concentrated solid solution alloys having both an increasing number of principal elements and altered concentrations of specific elements can lead to substantial reduction in the electron mean free path and thermal conductivity, which has a significant impact on energy dissipation and consequentially on defect evolution during ion irradiation. Enhanced radiation resistance with increasing complexity from pure nickel tomore » binary and to more complex quaternary solid solutions is observed under ion irradiation up to an average damage level of 1 displacement per atom. Understanding how materials properties can be tailored by alloy complexity and their influence on defect dynamics may pave the way for new principles for the design of radiation tolerant structural alloys.« less

  1. Building America FY 2016 Annual Report: Building America Is Driving Real Solutions in the Race to Zero Energy Homes -- Appendix

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, Sara; Rothgeb, Stacey; Polly, Ben; Earle, Lieko; Merrigan, Tim

    2017-01-01

    This document is a set of appendices presenting technical discussion and references as a companion to the 'Building America FY 2016 Annual Report: Building America Is Driving Real Solutions in the Race to Zero Energy Homes' publication.

  2. Air turbine - an interesting solution for straw energy conversion into electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bălănescu, D. T.; Homutescu, V. M.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    Straw is a non-hazardous by-product of crop plants processing. Currently, it represent one of the most important biomass resource. The huge quantities of straw annually produced generate big problems in what concerns their disposal. The traditional field burning is no longer accepted, so another disposal solutions must be found and recycling is the most attractive. The paper refers to such a solution consisting in the conversion of the straw energy potential into electricity in a power plant based on an air turbine. This power system it is in fact an external combustion engine, derived from a gas turbine engine and operating with air as working fluid instead of combustion gases. In order to make possible the use of straw as fuel, the conventional combustion chamber is substituted by a hot air generator. Schematic of this power system and the results of its energetic analysis are presented in the paper. There are analysed the main performance indicators, namely thermal efficiency, output power, fuel consumption and specific fuel consumption. The results of the study indicate the analysed power system as an interesting solution for straw recycling.

  3. Solution structure and excitation energy transfer in phycobiliproteins of Acaryochloris marina investigated by small angle scattering.

    PubMed

    Golub, M; Combet, S; Wieland, D C F; Soloviov, D; Kuklin, A; Lokstein, H; Schmitt, F-J; Olliges, R; Hecht, M; Eckert, H-J; Pieper, J

    2017-04-01

    The structure of phycobiliproteins of the cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina was investigated in buffer solution at physiological temperatures, i.e. under the same conditions applied in spectroscopic experiments, using small angle neutron scattering. The scattering data of intact phycobiliproteins in buffer solution containing phosphate can be well described using a cylindrical shape with a length of about 225Å and a diameter of approximately 100Å. This finding is qualitatively consistent with earlier electron microscopy studies reporting a rod-like shape of the phycobiliproteins with a length of about 250 (M. Chen et al., FEBS Letters 583, 2009, 2535) or 300Å (J. Marquart et al., FEBS Letters 410, 1997, 428). In contrast, phycobiliproteins dissolved in buffer lacking phosphate revealed a splitting of the rods into cylindrical subunits with a height of 28Å only, but also a pronounced sample aggregation. Complementary small angle neutron and X-ray scattering experiments on phycocyanin suggest that the cylindrical subunits may represent either trimeric phycocyanin or trimeric allophycocyanin. Our findings are in agreement with the assumption that a phycobiliprotein rod with a total height of about 225Å can accommodate seven trimeric phycocyanin subunits and one trimeric allophycocyanin subunit, each of which having a height of about 28Å. The structural information obtained by small angle neutron and X-ray scattering can be used to interpret variations in the low-energy region of the 4.5K absorption spectra of phycobiliproteins dissolved in buffer solutions containing and lacking phosphate, respectively.

  4. CFEST Coupled Flow, Energy & Solute Transport Version CFEST005 User’s Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Chen, Yousu; Gilca, Alex; Cole, Charles R.; Gupta, Sumant K.

    2006-07-20

    The CFEST (Coupled Flow, Energy, and Solute Transport) simulator described in this User’s Guide is a three-dimensional finite-element model used to evaluate groundwater flow and solute mass transport. Confined and unconfined aquifer systems, as well as constant and variable density fluid flows can be represented with CFEST. For unconfined aquifers, the model uses a moving boundary for the water table, deforming the numerical mesh so that the uppermost nodes are always at the water table. For solute transport, changes in concentra¬tion of a single dissolved chemical constituent are computed for advective and hydrodynamic transport, linear sorption represented by a retardation factor, and radioactive decay. Although several thermal parameters described in this User’s Guide are required inputs, thermal transport has not yet been fully implemented in the simulator. Once fully implemented, transport of thermal energy in the groundwater and solid matrix of the aquifer can also be used to model aquifer thermal regimes. The CFEST simulator is written in the FORTRAN 77 language, following American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards. Execution of the CFEST simulator is controlled through three required text input files. These input file use a structured format of associated groups of input data. Example input data lines are presented for each file type, as well as a description of the structured FORTRAN data format. Detailed descriptions of all input requirements, output options, and program structure and execution are provided in this User’s Guide. Required inputs for auxillary CFEST utilities that aide in post-processing data are also described. Global variables are defined for those with access to the source code. Although CFEST is a proprietary code (CFEST, Inc., Irvine, CA), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory retains permission to maintain its own source, and to distribute executables to Hanford subcontractors.

  5. 77 FR 58424 - Drucker, Inc., DynaMotive Energy Systems Corp., and Gate to Wire Solutions, Inc., Order of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Drucker, Inc., DynaMotive Energy Systems Corp., and Gate to Wire Solutions, Inc., Order of... current and accurate information concerning the securities of Gate to Wire Solutions, Inc. because it...

  6. Free Energy and Equilibrium: The Basis of Change in G Degrees = -RT In K for Reactions in Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Gordon M.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the derivation of a thermodynamic relation. The relation is derived, for reactants in solution, from a treatment of the free energy of the reducing system as a function of the degree of advancement of the solution. Includes microcomputer figures/diagrams produced by programs developed to simulate this study. (JN)

  7. 77 FR 5009 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Duke...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... object to a Clean Air Act (Act) Title V operating permit for Duke Energy Indiana--Edwardsport Generating... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Duke Energy Indiana--Edwardsport Generating Station AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)....

  8. DIFFUSED SOLUTE-SOLVENT INTERFACE WITH POISSON-BOLTZMANN ELECTROSTATICS: FREE-ENERGY VARIATION AND SHARP-INTERFACE LIMIT.

    PubMed

    Li, B O; Liu, Yuan

    A phase-field free-energy functional for the solvation of charged molecules (e.g., proteins) in aqueous solvent (i.e., water or salted water) is constructed. The functional consists of the solute volumetric and solute-solvent interfacial energies, the solute-solvent van der Waals interaction energy, and the continuum electrostatic free energy described by the Poisson-Boltzmann theory. All these are expressed in terms of phase fields that, for low free-energy conformations, are close to one value in the solute phase and another in the solvent phase. A key property of the model is that the phase-field interpolation of dielectric coefficient has the vanishing derivative at both solute and solvent phases. The first variation of such an effective free-energy functional is derived. Matched asymptotic analysis is carried out for the resulting relaxation dynamics of the diffused solute-solvent interface. It is shown that the sharp-interface limit is exactly the variational implicit-solvent model that has successfully captured capillary evaporation in hydrophobic confinement and corresponding multiple equilibrium states of underlying biomolecular systems as found in experiment and molecular dynamics simulations. Our phase-field approach and analysis can be used to possibly couple the description of interfacial fluctuations for efficient numerical computations of biomolecular interactions.

  9. DIFFUSED SOLUTE-SOLVENT INTERFACE WITH POISSON–BOLTZMANN ELECTROSTATICS: FREE-ENERGY VARIATION AND SHARP-INTERFACE LIMIT

    PubMed Central

    LI, BO; LIU, YUAN

    2015-01-01

    A phase-field free-energy functional for the solvation of charged molecules (e.g., proteins) in aqueous solvent (i.e., water or salted water) is constructed. The functional consists of the solute volumetric and solute-solvent interfacial energies, the solute-solvent van der Waals interaction energy, and the continuum electrostatic free energy described by the Poisson–Boltzmann theory. All these are expressed in terms of phase fields that, for low free-energy conformations, are close to one value in the solute phase and another in the solvent phase. A key property of the model is that the phase-field interpolation of dielectric coefficient has the vanishing derivative at both solute and solvent phases. The first variation of such an effective free-energy functional is derived. Matched asymptotic analysis is carried out for the resulting relaxation dynamics of the diffused solute-solvent interface. It is shown that the sharp-interface limit is exactly the variational implicit-solvent model that has successfully captured capillary evaporation in hydrophobic confinement and corresponding multiple equilibrium states of underlying biomolecular systems as found in experiment and molecular dynamics simulations. Our phase-field approach and analysis can be used to possibly couple the description of interfacial fluctuations for efficient numerical computations of biomolecular interactions. PMID:26877556

  10. Solution combustion synthesis of metal oxide nanomaterials for energy storage and conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fa-Tang; Ran, Jingrun; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2015-10-01

    The design and synthesis of metal oxide nanomaterials is one of the key steps for achieving highly efficient energy conversion and storage on an industrial scale. Solution combustion synthesis (SCS) is a time- and energy-saving method as compared with other routes, especially for the preparation of complex oxides which can be easily adapted for scale-up applications. This review summarizes the synthesis of various metal oxide nanomaterials and their applications for energy conversion and storage, including lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen and methane production, fuel cells and solar cells. In particular, some novel concepts such as reverse support combustion, self-combustion of ionic liquids, and creation of oxygen vacancies are presented. SCS has some unique advantages such as its capability for in situ doping of oxides and construction of heterojunctions. The well-developed porosity and large specific surface area caused by gas evolution during the combustion process endow the resulting materials with exceptional properties. The relationship between the structural properties of the metal oxides studied and their performance is discussed. Finally, the conclusions and perspectives are briefly presented.

  11. Solution combustion synthesis of metal oxide nanomaterials for energy storage and conversion.

    PubMed

    Li, Fa-tang; Ran, Jingrun; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2015-11-14

    The design and synthesis of metal oxide nanomaterials is one of the key steps for achieving highly efficient energy conversion and storage on an industrial scale. Solution combustion synthesis (SCS) is a time- and energy-saving method as compared with other routes, especially for the preparation of complex oxides which can be easily adapted for scale-up applications. This review summarizes the synthesis of various metal oxide nanomaterials and their applications for energy conversion and storage, including lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen and methane production, fuel cells and solar cells. In particular, some novel concepts such as reverse support combustion, self-combustion of ionic liquids, and creation of oxygen vacancies are presented. SCS has some unique advantages such as its capability for in situ doping of oxides and construction of heterojunctions. The well-developed porosity and large specific surface area caused by gas evolution during the combustion process endow the resulting materials with exceptional properties. The relationship between the structural properties of the metal oxides studied and their performance is discussed. Finally, the conclusions and perspectives are briefly presented.

  12. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    PubMed

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-08-06

    Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance of a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway efficiencies. Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by 15-40% compared with incineration), albeit at the potential expense of additional toxic emissions to soil. Society's need for the outputs from waste, i.e., energy products (electricity vs transport fuels) and resources (e.g., phosphorus), and the available waste composition were found decisive for the selection of future technologies. On the basis of the results, it is recommended that a narrow focus on GW aspects should be avoided as most waste technologies may allow comparable performance. Rather, other environmental aspects such as resource recovery and toxic emissions should receive attention in the future.

  13. Proposed modifications to the RCRA post-closure permit for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This report presents proposed modifications to several conditions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit (PCP) for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (BCHR). These permit conditions define the requirements for RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the S-3 Ponds, the Oil Landfarm, and the Bear Creek Burial Grounds (units A, C-West, and Walk-in Pits). Modification of these PCP conditions is requested to: (1) clarify the planned integration of RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring with the monitoring program to be established in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Watershed, (2) revise several of the current technical requirements for groundwater monitoring based on implementation of the RCRA post-closure corrective action monitoring program during 1996, and (3) update applicable technical procedures with revised versions recently issued by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). With these modifications, the Y-12 Plant will continue to meet the full intent of all regulatory obligations for post-closure care of these facilities. Section 2.0 provides the technical justification for each proposed permit modification. The proposed changes to permit language are provided in Section 3.0 (S-3 Ponds), Section 4.0 (Oil Landfarm), and Section 5.0 (Bear Creek Burial Grounds). Sections 6.0 and 7.0 reference updated and revised procedures for groundwater sampling, and monitoring well plugging and abandonment, respectively. Appendix A includes all proposed revisions to the PCP Attachments.

  14. Field-SEA: a model for computing the solvation free energies of nonpolar, polar, and charged solutes in water.

    PubMed

    Li, Libo; Fennell, Christopher J; Dill, Ken A

    2014-06-19

    Previous work describes a computational solvation model called semi-explicit assembly (SEA). The SEA water model computes the free energies of solvation of nonpolar and polar solutes in water with good efficiency and accuracy. However, SEA gives systematic errors in the solvation free energies of ions and charged solutes. Here, we describe field-SEA, an improved treatment that gives accurate solvation free energies of charged solutes, including monatomic and polyatomic ions and model dipeptides, as well as nonpolar and polar molecules. Field-SEA is computationally inexpensive for a given solute because explicit-solvent model simulations are relegated to a precomputation step and because it represents solvating waters in terms of a solute's free-energy field. In essence, field-SEA approximates the physics of explicit-model simulations within a computationally efficient framework. A key finding is that an atom's solvation shell inherits characteristics of a neighboring atom, especially strongly charged neighbors. Field-SEA may be useful where there is a need for solvation free-energy computations that are faster than explicit-solvent simulations and more accurate than traditional implicit-solvent simulations for a wide range of solutes.

  15. First-Principles Calculation of Solution Energy of Alkaline-Earth Metal Elements to BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriwake, Hiroki; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Tanaka, Isao

    2007-10-01

    Quantitative analysis of the solution energy of alkaline-earth metal elements to perovskite-type BaTiO3 was carried out by a first-principles calculation combined with thermodynamics theory. The solution energies of neutral solute and a compensated solute with an oxygen vacancy were systematically calculated. They were obtained for two cation sites and four thermodynamical conditions with different chemical potentials of constituent atoms. Both Ca and Sr preferably occupy the Ba site of BaTiO3. On the other hand, Mg occupies the Ti site. This corresponds well to the widely accepted experimental findings regarding site preference. Moreover, under the condition of coexising BaO, CaO and BaTiO3, energy difference between the Ba-site solution and O-vacancy compensated Ti-site solution of Ca ions has been found to be smaller than that of Sr. Under this condition, the O-vacancy compensated Ti-site solution of Ca should be favorable compared with that of Sr. The same number of oxygen vacancies as Ca ions occupying Ti sites can be introduced. This also explains well experimental feature of the Ca-doped BaTiO3-based nonreducible multilayer ceramics capacitor (MLCC) materials regarding solution site of the Ca ion and abundance of O-vacancy.

  16. CCS Project Permit Acquisition Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Si-Yong; Zaluski, Wade; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-06-30

    Geologic carbon storage projects require a vast range of permits prior to deployment. These include land-access permits, drilling permits, seismic survey permits, underground injection control permits, and any number of local and state permits, depending on the location of the project. For the “Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region” (RMCCS) project in particular, critical permits included site access permits, seismic survey permits, and drilling permits for the characterization well. Permits for these and other activities were acquired either prior to or during the project.

  17. Estimation of annual energy production using dynamic wake meandering in combination with ambient CFD solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, S.; Machefaux, E.; Hristov, Y. V.; Albano, M.; Threadgill, R.

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, combination of the standalone dynamic wake meandering (DWM) model with Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) CFD solutions for ambient ABL flows is introduced, and its predictive performance for annual energy production (AEP) is evaluated against Vestas’ SCADA data for six operating wind farms over semi-complex terrains under neutral conditions. The performances of conventional linear and quadratic wake superposition techniques are also compared, together with the in-house implemention of successive hierarchical merging approaches. As compared to our standard procedure based on the Jensen model in WindPRO, the overall results are promising, leading to a significant improvement in AEP accuracy for four of the six sites. While the conventional linear superposition shows the best performance for the improved four sites, the hierarchical square superposition shows the least deteriorated result for the other two sites.

  18. Steady-state solutions of a diffusive energy-balance climate model and their stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghil, M.

    1975-01-01

    A diffusive energy-balance climate model, governed by a nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation, was studied. Three positive steady-state solutions of this equation are found; they correspond to three possible climates of our planet: an interglacial (nearly identical to the present climate), a glacial, and a completely ice-covered earth. Models similar to the main one are considered, and the number of their steady states was determined. All the models have albedo continuously varying with latitude and temperature, and entirely diffusive horizontal heat transfer. The stability under small perturbations of the main model's climates was investigated. A stability criterion is derived, and its application shows that the present climate and the deep freeze are stable, whereas the model's glacial is unstable. The dependence was examined of the number of steady states and of their stability on the average solar radiation.

  19. A quasichemical approach for protein-cluster free energies in dilute solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Teresa M.; Roberts, Christopher J.

    2007-10-01

    Reversible formation of protein oligomers or small clusters is a key step in processes such as protein polymerization, fibril formation, and protein phase separation from dilute solution. A straightforward, statistical mechanical approach to accurately calculate cluster free energies in solution is presented using a cell-based, quasichemical (QC) approximation for the partition function of proteins in an implicit solvent. The inputs to the model are the protein potential of mean force (PMF) and the corresponding subcell degeneracies up to relatively low particle densities. The approach is tested using simple two and three dimensional lattice models in which proteins interact with either isotropic or anisotropic nearest-neighbor attractions. Comparison with direct Monte Carlo simulation shows that cluster probabilities and free energies of oligomer formation (ΔGi0) are quantitatively predicted by the QC approach for protein volume fractions ˜10-2 (weight/volume concentration ˜10gl-1) and below. For small clusters, ΔGi0 depends weakly on the strength of short-ranged attractive interactions for most experimentally relevant values of the normalized osmotic second virial coefficient (b2*). For larger clusters (i ≫2), there is a small but non-negligible b2* dependence. The results suggest that nonspecific, hydrophobic attractions may not significantly stabilize prenuclei in processes such as non-native aggregation. Biased Monte Carlo methods are shown to accurately provide subcell degeneracies that are intractable to obtain analytically or by direct enumeration, and so offer a means to generalize the approach to mixtures and proteins with more complex PMFs.

  20. Expanding gas clouds of ellipsoidal shape - the solutions of minimal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffet, B.

    1999-07-01

    Ovsiannikov [Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 111 (1965)] and Dyson [J. Math. Mech. 18 (1968) 91] have proposed a model of an ellipsoidal gas cloud adiabatically expanding into a vacuum, and have shown that the equations of fluid motion are thereby reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations, of order 18 in the most general case. Gaffet [J. Fluid Mech. 325 (1996) 113] has shown that their integration reduces to quadratures (if the gas is monatomic and there is no rotating motion of the ellipsoid’s principal axes), as a result of the existence of two integrals of the motion, m and I2. In the present work we establish the minimum value m0( I2) of m, compatible with the existence of physically meaningful solutions. We succeed in performing the separation of variables, and obtain the unexpected result that, when the energy integral m takes its minimum value m0( I2), the general solution of the equations of motion is described by elliptic functions.

  1. Determination of actinide speciation in solution using high-energy X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Soderholm, L; Skanthakumar, S; Neuefeind, J

    2005-09-01

    High-energy X-ray scattering (HEXS) has been used to understand the coordination environment of the uranyl ion in a perchlorate solution. Assuming the two coordinating oxo ligands bound to U(VI) are represented in a peak in the pair distribution function (PDF) at 1.766(1) A, integration of the peak intensity is used to quantify the charge located on the oxygens. The dioxo ligands are essentially neutral, as predicted by numerous published calculations, with a charge of -16.4(8) electrons. The peak in the PDF at 2.420(1) A is consistent with equatorial ligating waters. The intensity of this peak is inconsistent with an integral coordination number and is used to propose a solution equilibrium of five and four waters coordinating to the uranyl(VI) ion favoring the five-coordinate species. This equilibrium is then used to experimentally determine that five-coordinate uranyl is 1.19+/-0.42 kcal/mol more stable than its four-coordinate counterpart under the conditions of the experiment. Further peaks in the Fourier transform of the scattering data at 4.50, 7, and 8.7 A are attributed to uranium-solvent correlations.

  2. Molecular dispersion energy parameters for alkali and halide ions in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, S.; Deublein, S.; Hasse, H.; Vrabec, J.

    2014-01-28

    Thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions containing alkali and halide ions are determined by molecular simulation. The following ions are studied: Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, F{sup −}, Cl{sup −}, Br{sup −}, and I{sup −}. The employed ion force fields consist of one Lennard-Jones (LJ) site and one concentric point charge with a magnitude of ±1 e. The SPC/E model is used for water. The LJ size parameter of the ion models is taken from Deublein et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 136, 084501 (2012)], while the LJ energy parameter is determined in the present study based on experimental self-diffusion coefficient data of the alkali cations and the halide anions in aqueous solutions as well as the position of the first maximum of the radial distribution function of water around the ions. On the basis of these force field parameters, the electric conductivity, the hydration dynamics of water molecules around the ions, and the enthalpy of hydration is predicted. Considering a wide range of salinity, this study is conducted at temperatures of 293.15 and 298.15 K and a pressure of 1 bar.

  3. Building America FY 2016 Annual Report: Building America Is Driving Real Solutions in the Race to Zero Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, Sara; Rothgeb, Stacey; Polly, Ben; Earle, Lleko; Merrigan, Tim

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America Program enables the transformation of the U.S. housing industry to achieve energy savings through energy-efficient, high-performance homes with improved durability, comfort, and health for occupants. Building America bridges the gap between the development of emerging technologies and the adoption of codes and standards by engaging industry partners in applied research, development, and demonstration of high-performance solutions.

  4. Setting the global thermostat with an exhaustible tradeable permit system

    SciTech Connect

    Kosobud, R.G.; Quinn, K.G. |; South, D.W.; Daly, T.A.

    1993-05-01

    The global warming policy debate has centered largely on near-term objectives such as freezing 1990 CO{sub 2} emissions without regard to long-run implications. A policy of freezing CO{sub 2} emissions is shown to slow but not halt global warming, while requiring expensive near-term adjustments. If the long-run temperature change outcome of the freeze policy is set as the goal of a more graduated control policy, one which allows the market to determine annual emissions, a more cost-effective solution is obtained that reduces the negative adjustment effects on the energy and other affected industries. The most cost-effective emissions time path of a graduated control policy could be achieved by an evaporative marketable CO{sub 2} emissions permit system. This paper provides a preliminary examination of an evaporative permit system used to achieve long-run stabilization of greenhouse-induced temperature change.

  5. Annual Hanford Site environmental permitting status report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, S.A.

    1996-10-01

    This Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report (Status Report) was prepared in response to requirements prescribed in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.2A, `Environmental Compliance Issue Coordination`. This Order, canceled in April 1996, required that information on existing and anticipated environmental permitting for DOE facilities be submitted (or updated) annually by October 1 of each calendar year. Although the Order was canceled, the need for this Status Report still remains. For example, the Washington State Department of Ecology`s (Ecology) Dangerous Waste Permit Application Requirements (Publication Number 95-402, June 1996), Checklist Section J, calls for current information on existing and anticipated environmental permitting. As specified in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, General Information Portion (DOE/RL-91-28), this Status Report serves as the vehicle for meeting this requirement for the Hanford Facility. This Status Report includes information on all existing and anticipated environmental permitting. Environmental permitting required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976, the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of 1984, and non-RCRA permitting (solid waste handling, Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Clean Water Act Amendments of 1987, Washington State waste discharge, and onsite sewage system) are addressed. Information on RCRA and non-RCRA permitting is included and is current as of July 31, 1996.

  6. The effect of sugar solution type, sugar concentration and viscosity on the imbibition and energy intake rate of bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Erika; Dey, Tania; Kevan, Peter G

    2013-09-01

    Nectar is an essential resource for bumblebees and many other flower-visiting insects. The main constituents of nectar are sugars, which vary in both composition and concentration between plant species. We assessed the influence of sugar concentration, sugar solution viscosity and sugar solution composition on the imbibition and energy intake rate of bumblebees, Bombus impatiens Cresson (Hymenoptera: Apidae). To do this, we measured their rate of solution intake for 49 different sugar solution treatments, which varied in both sugar composition and concentration. In general, the imbibition rates of bumblebees were found to increase with increasing sugar concentration, probably due to their preference for high sugar concentrations, up to a concentration of 27% (w/w), at which point solutions reached a threshold viscosity of approximately 1.5-1.6 mPa.s. Above this threshold, the increasing viscosity of the solutions physically inhibited the imbibition rates of bees, and imbibition rate began to decrease as the concentration increased. Nevertheless, bumblebee energy intake rate increased with increasing concentration up to about 42-56%. Although we found that sugar solution composition had an impact on both imbibition and energy intake rate, its effect was not as straightforward as that of sugar concentration and viscosity.

  7. Evaluation of Proposed Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2008-12-01

    This study reviews and ranks major proposed solutions to global warming, air pollution mortality, and energy security while considering other impacts of the proposed solutions, such as on water supply, land use, wildlife, resource availability, thermal pollution, water chemical pollution, nuclear proliferation, and undernutrition. Nine electric power sources and two liquid fuel options are considered. The electricity sources include solar-photovoltaics (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP), wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, wave, tidal, nuclear, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. The liquid fuel options include corn-E85 and cellulosic E85. To place the electric and liquid fuel sources on an equal footing, we examine their comparative abilities to address the problems mentioned by powering new-technology vehicles, including battery-electric vehicles (BEVs), hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs), and flex-fuel vehicles run on E85. Twelve combinations of energy source-vehicle type are considered. Upon ranking and weighting each combination with respect to each of 11 impact categories, four clear divisions of ranking, or tiers, emerge. Tier 1 (highest-ranked) includes wind-BEVs and wind-HFCVs. Tier 2 includes CSP-BEVs, geothermal-BEVs, PV-BEVs, tidal-BEVs, and wave-BEVs. Tier 3 includes hydro-BEVs, nuclear-BEVs, and CCS-BEVs. Tier 4 includes corn- and cellulosic-E85. Wind-BEVs ranked first in six out of 11 categories, including the two most important, mortality and climate damage reduction. Although HFCVs are less efficient than BEVs, wind- HFCVs ranked second among all combinations. Tier 2 options provide significant benefits and are recommended. Tier 3 options are less desirable. However, hydroelectricity, which was ranked ahead of coal- CCS and nuclear with respect to climate and health, is an excellent load balancer, thus strongly recommended. The Tier-4 combinations (cellulosic- and corn-E85) were ranked lowest overall and with respect to

  8. Activity coefficients and free energies of nonionic mixed surfactant solutions from vapor-pressure and freezing-point osmometry.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Jennifer A; Ray, Gargi Basu; Leaist, Derek G

    2011-05-19

    The thermodynamic properties of mixed surfactant solutions are widely investigated, prompted by numerous practical applications of these systems and by interest in molecular association and self-organization. General techniques for measuring thermodynamic activities, such as isopiestic equilibration, are well-established for multicomponent solutions. Surprisingly, these techniques have not yet been applied to mixed surfactant solutions, despite the importance of the free energy for micelle stability. In this study, equations are developed for the osmotic coefficients of solutions of nonionic surfactant A + nonionic surfactant B. A mass-action model is used, with virial equations for the activity coefficients of the micelles and free surfactant monomer species. The equations are fitted to osmotic coefficients of aqueous decylsulfobetaine + dodecylsulfobetaine solutions measured by vapor-pressure and freezing-point osmometry. Equilibrium constants for mixed-micelle formation are calculated from the free monomer concentrations at the critical micelle concentrations. The derived activity coefficients of the micelles and free monomers indicate large departures from ideal solution behavior, even for dilute solutions of the surfactants. Stoichiometric activity coefficients of the total surfactant components are evaluated by Gibbs-Duhem integration of the osmotic coefficients. Relatively simple colligative property measurements hold considerable promise for free energy studies of multicomponent surfactant solutions.

  9. Opportunity Evaluation and Implementation: Providing Strategic Energy Solutions through Thoughtful Planning and Practical Know-How to Produce Groundbreaking Results (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) only national laboratory focused on renewable energy and energy efficiency. For more than 35 years, our energy research, development, analysis, commercialization, and deployment work with public and private sector partners around the world has catalyzed the expansion of global clean energy solutions.

  10. Importance of the inherent and the relative surface energies in generating patterned layer in a solution process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do-Kyung; Kwon, Hyeok Bin; Park, Hongsik; Choe, Eunji; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Park, Jaehoon; Song, Seong-Ho

    2016-03-01

    We report the importance of the inherent and the relative surface energies in generating a patterned organic semiconductor layer through a solution process. The inherent and the relative surface energies of the substrate can be effectively controlled using polydimethylsiloxane in combination with an UV/ozone treatment. The controlled inherent surface energy in each region, as well as the high-order difference of relative surface energy, plays a significant role in generating the patterned layer. In addition, the patterned metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structure shows a lower lateral current than the non-patterned MSM structure because the current path is limited.

  11. Multi-dimensional finite element code for the analysis of coupled fluid energy, and solute transport (CFEST)

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.K.; Kincaid, C.T.; Meyer, P.R.; Newbill, C.A.; Cole, C.R.

    1982-08-01

    The Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program is being conducted for the Department of Energy by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A major thrust of this program has been the study of natural aquifers as hosts for thermal energy storage and retrieval. Numerical simulation of the nonisothermal response of the host media is fundamental to the evaluation of proposed experimental designs and field test results. This report represents the primary documentation for the coupled fluid, energy and solute transport (CFEST) code. Sections of this document are devoted to the conservation equations and their numerical analogues, the input data requirements, and the verification studies completed to date.

  12. Solvation Free Energies and Transfer Free Energies for Amino Acids from Hydrophobic Solution to Water Solution from a Very Simple Residue Model

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Wei; Rahi, Sahand J.; Helms, Volkhard

    2004-05-06

    Solvation free energies of neutral amino acids in water and in chloroform were computed from extensive molecular dynamics simulations using multiconfiguration thermodynamic integration. The values computed for the AMBER force field are in very good agreement with available experimental data (rms differences of 5.1 kJ mol⁻¹ for the solvation free energies and 6.4 kJ mol⁻¹ for the transfer free energies of amino acids between water and chloroform) and with existing calculations. We derived an additive residue-scale solvation model formulated as the sum of a nonpolar term that is proportional to the molecular surface area and an electrostatic term (Kirkwood-Onsager model) for the hydration free energy of a dipole in a solvated cavity. This model can surprisingly well describe the solvation free energies in water and chloroform as well as the transfer free energies of amino acids between the two solvents when suitably adapted cavity radii are used. Root-mean-square differences of the predicted values with respect to the values calculated from thermodynamic integration are 1.8, 5.9, and 7.7 kJ mol⁻¹, respectively.

  13. The partly folded back solution structure arrangement of the 30 SCR domains in human complement receptor type 1 (CR1) permits access to its C3b and C4b ligands.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Patricia B; Huang, Chen Y; Ihyembe, Demvihin; Hammond, Russell A; Marsh, Henry C; Perkins, Stephen J

    2008-01-04

    Human complement receptor type 1 (CR1, CD35) is a type I membrane-bound glycoprotein that belongs to the regulators of complement activity (RCA) family. The extra-cellular component of CR1 is comprised of 30 short complement regulator (SCR) domains, whereas complement receptor type 2 (CR2) has 15 SCR domains and factor H (FH) has 20 SCR domains. The domain arrangement of a soluble form of CR1 (sCR1) was studied by X-ray scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation. The radius of gyration R(G) of sCR1 of 13.4(+/-1.1) nm is not much greater than those for CR2 and FH, and its R(G)/R(0) anisotropy ratio is 3.76, compared to ratios of 3.67 for FH and 4.1 for CR2. Unlike CR2, but similar to FH, two cross-sectional R(G) ranges were identified that gave R(XS) values of 4.7(+/-0.2) nm and 1.2(+/-0.7) nm, respectively, showing that the SCR domains adopt a range of conformations including folded-back ones. The distance distribution function P(r) showed that the most commonly occurring distance in sCR1 is at 11.5 nm. Its maximum length of 55 nm is less than double those for CR2 or FH, even though sCR1 has twice the number of SCR domains compared to CR2 Sedimentation equilibrium experiments gave a mean molecular weight of 235 kDa for sCR1. This is consistent with the value of 245 kDa calculated from its composition including 14 N-linked oligosaccharide sites, and confirmed that sCR1 is a monomer in solution. Sedimentation velocity experiments gave a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8 S. From this, the frictional ratio (f/f(0)) of sCR1 was calculated to be 2.29, which is greater than those of 1.96 for CR2 and 1.77 for FH. The constrained scattering modelling of the sCR1 solution structure starting from homologous SCR domain structures generated 5000 trial conformationally randomised models, 43 of which gave good scattering fits to show that sCR1 has a partly folded-back structure. We conclude that the inter-SCR linkers show structural features in common with those in FH, but

  14. Optimizing minimum free-energy crossing points in solution: Linear-response free energy/spin-flip density functional theory approach

    SciTech Connect

    Minezawa, Noriyuki

    2014-10-28

    Examining photochemical processes in solution requires understanding the solvent effects on the potential energy profiles near conical intersections (CIs). For that purpose, the CI point in solution is determined as the crossing between nonequilibrium free energy surfaces. In this work, the nonequilibrium free energy is described using the combined method of linear-response free energy and collinear spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory. The proposed approach reveals the solvent effects on the CI geometries of stilbene in an acetonitrile solution and those of thymine in water. Polar acetonitrile decreases the energy difference between the twisted minimum and twisted-pyramidalized CI of stilbene. For thymine in water, the hydrogen bond formation stabilizes significantly the CI puckered at the carbonyl carbon atom. The result is consistent with the recent simulation showing that the reaction path via this geometry is open in water. Therefore, the present method is a promising way of identifying the free-energy crossing points that play an essential role in photochemistry of solvated molecules.

  15. Optimizing minimum free-energy crossing points in solution: linear-response free energy/spin-flip density functional theory approach.

    PubMed

    Minezawa, Noriyuki

    2014-10-28

    Examining photochemical processes in solution requires understanding the solvent effects on the potential energy profiles near conical intersections (CIs). For that purpose, the CI point in solution is determined as the crossing between nonequilibrium free energy surfaces. In this work, the nonequilibrium free energy is described using the combined method of linear-response free energy and collinear spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory. The proposed approach reveals the solvent effects on the CI geometries of stilbene in an acetonitrile solution and those of thymine in water. Polar acetonitrile decreases the energy difference between the twisted minimum and twisted-pyramidalized CI of stilbene. For thymine in water, the hydrogen bond formation stabilizes significantly the CI puckered at the carbonyl carbon atom. The result is consistent with the recent simulation showing that the reaction path via this geometry is open in water. Therefore, the present method is a promising way of identifying the free-energy crossing points that play an essential role in photochemistry of solvated molecules.

  16. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 4.2: UV Degradation Prevention on Fiber-Reinforced Composite Blades

    SciTech Connect

    Janet M. Twomey, PhD

    2010-04-30

    EXECUTIVE SUMARRY Use of wind energy has expanded very quickly because of the energy prices, environmental concerns and improved efficiency of wind generators. Rather than using metal and alloy based wind turbine blades, larger size fiber (glass and carbon) reinforced composite blades have been recently utilized to increase the efficiency of the wind energy in both high and low wind potential areas. In the current composite manufacturing, pre-preg and vacuum-assisted/heat sensitive resin transfer molding and resin infusion methods are employed. However, these lighter, stiffer and stronger composite blades experience ultraviolet (UV) light degradation where polymers (epoxies and hardeners) used for the blades manufacturing absorb solar UV lights, and cause photolytic, thermo-oxidative and photo-oxidative reactions resulting in breaking of carbon-hydrogen bonds, polymer degradation and internal and external stresses. One of the main reasons is the weak protective coatings/paints on the composite blades. This process accelerates the aging and fatigue cracks, and reduces the overall mechanical properties of the blades. Thus, the lack of technology on coatings for blade manufacturing is forcing many government agencies and private companies (local and national windmill companies) to find a better solution for the composite wind blades. Kansas has a great wind potential for the future energy demand, so efficient wind generators can be an option for continuous energy production. The research goal of the present project was to develop nanocomposite coatings using various inclusions against UV degradation and corrosion, and advance the fundamental understanding of degradation (i.e., physical, chemical and physiochemical property changes) on those coatings. In pursuit of the research goal, the research objective of the present program was to investigate the effects of UV light and duration on various nanocomposites made mainly of carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoflakes

  17. Energy Management Needs; A Project to Develop Solutions for Higher Education's Energy Problems in the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coldren, Sharon L.; Mitchell, Cecilia

    Current patterns of energy management within higher education institutions and energy-related information and services that are needed by senior administrators and others to develop and improve energy management and planning on campus were studied. The findings and recommendations will be used to help develop a new research and action program for…

  18. A Solution to the Cosmic Conundrum including Cosmological Constant and Dark Energy Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.

    2009-12-01

    A comprehensive solution to the cosmic conundrum is presented that also resolves key paradoxes of quantum mechanics and relativity. A simple mathematical model, the Gravity Nullification model (GNM), is proposed that integrates the missing physics of the spontaneous relativistic conversion of mass to energy into the existing physics theories, specifically a simplified general theory of relativity. Mechanistic mathematical expressions are derived for a relativistic universe expansion, which predict both the observed linear Hubble expansion in the nearby universe and the accelerating expansion exhibited by the supernova observations. The integrated model addresses the key questions haunting physics and Big Bang cosmology. It also provides a fresh perspective on the misconceived birth and evolution of the universe, especially the creation and dissolution of matter. The proposed model eliminates singularities from existing models and the need for the incredible and unverifiable assumptions including the superluminous inflation scenario, multiple universes, multiple dimensions, Anthropic principle, and quantum gravity. GNM predicts the observed features of the universe without any explicit consideration of time as a governing parameter.

  19. Bondad Landfill NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number CO-R050005, Transit Waste, LLC is authorized to discharge from the Bondad Landfill facility in La Plata County, Colorado, to an unnamed tributary of the Animas River.

  20. NPDES Permit Status Reports

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These reports show the backlog status nationwide, based on EPA databases and input from EPA regions and states. The reports show a snapshot in time, keep in mind that the status of facilities and the universe of permits change.

  1. The Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (clean) Pathway: Integrating Science and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledley, T. S.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S.; Manduca, C. A.; Fox, S.; Niepold, F.; Gold, A. U.

    2010-12-01

    Changes in the climate system are underway, largely due to human impacts, and it is essential that citizens understand what these changes are, what is causing them, and the potential implications in order for them to make responsible decisions for themselves, their communities and society. The Climate Literacy Network (CLN) comprised of a broad spectrum of ~200 stakeholders, has virtual meetings weekly (since January 2008) to provide a forum to share information and leverage efforts to address the complex issues involved in making climate and energy literacy real in formal and informal educational contexts as well as for all citizens. The discussions of the CLN have led to 1) coordinated efforts to support the implementation of the Climate Literacy Essential Principles of Climate Science (CLEP, http://www.climatescience.gov/Library/Literacy/), 2) the establishment of the CLEAN Pathway collection (http://cleanet.org) of reviewed resources that directly support the CLEP, and 3) the development of a model for CLEAN-Regional Networks that facilitate increasing climate and energy literacy at the local level. In this presentation we will describe the ongoing activities of the CLN and provide an overview of the new and recently launched CLEAN Pathway collection. The CLEAN Pathway is a project to steward an on-line collection of digital teaching materials that directly address the CLEP as well as a set of energy awareness principles. All teaching materials are aligned with the NAAEE Guidelines for Excellence in Environmental Education, the AAAS Project 2061 Benchmarks for Science Literacy, and the National Science Education Standards. With a goal of vetting ~500 educational materials at the 6-16 grade levels, we have just completed our first round of identifying, reviewing and annotating ~100 excellent teaching activities. We will demonstrate the current capabilities of the CLEAN Pathway portal, describe plans for additional functionality, and provide a vision for others

  2. Free-Energy Landscape of the Amino-Terminal Fragment of Huntingtin in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Binette, Vincent; Côté, Sébastien; Mousseau, Normand

    2016-01-01

    The first exon of Huntingtin—a protein with multiple biological functions whose misfolding is related to Huntington’s disease—modulates its localization, aggregation, and function within the cell. It is composed of a 17-amino-acid amphipathic segment (Htt17), an amyloidogenic segment of consecutive glutamines (QN), and a proline-rich segment. Htt17 is of fundamental importance: it serves as a membrane anchor to control the localization of huntingtin, it modulates huntingtin’s function through posttranslational modifications, and it controls the self-assembly of the amyloidogenic QN segment into oligomers and fibrils. Experimentally, the conformational ensemble of the Htt17 monomer, as well as the impact of the polyglutamine and proline-rich segments, remains, however, mostly uncharacterized at the atomic level due to its intrinsic flexibility. Here, we unveil the free-energy landscape of Htt17, Htt17Q17, and Htt17Q17P11 using Hamiltonian replica exchange combined with well-tempered metadynamics. We characterize the free-energy landscape of these three fragments in terms of a few selected collective variables. Extensive simulations reveal that the free energy of Htt17 is dominated by a broad ensemble of configurations that agree with solution NMR chemical shifts. Addition of Q17 at its carboxy-terminus reduces the extent of the main basin to more extended configurations of Htt17 with lower helix propensity. Also, the aliphatic carbons of Q17 partially sequester the nonpolar amino acids of Htt17. For its part, addition of Q17P11 shifts the overall landscape to a more extended and helical Htt17 stabilized by interactions with Q17 and P11, which almost exclusively form a PPII-helix, as well as by intramolecular H-bonds and salt bridges. Our characterization of Huntingtin’s amino-terminus provides insights into the structural origin of its ability to oligomerize and interact with phospholipid bilayers, processes closely linked to the biological functions of

  3. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  4. 10 CFR 51.50 - Environmental report-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license stage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... costs of the proposed action or an evaluation of alternative energy sources. (3) For other than light... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental report-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license stage. 51.50 Section 51.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...

  5. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  6. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  7. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  8. 10 CFR 51.50 - Environmental report-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license stage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... costs of the proposed action or an evaluation of alternative energy sources. (3) For other than light... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental report-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license stage. 51.50 Section 51.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...

  9. 10 CFR 51.50 - Environmental report-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license stage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... costs of the proposed action or an evaluation of alternative energy sources. (3) For other than light... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental report-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license stage. 51.50 Section 51.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...

  10. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  11. 10 CFR 51.50 - Environmental report-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license stage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... costs of the proposed action or an evaluation of alternative energy sources. (3) For other than light... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental report-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license stage. 51.50 Section 51.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...

  12. 10 CFR 51.50 - Environmental report-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license stage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... costs of the proposed action or an evaluation of alternative energy sources. (3) For other than light... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental report-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license stage. 51.50 Section 51.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...

  13. The solution of the optimization problem of small energy complexes using linear programming methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanin, O. A.; Director, L. B.

    2016-11-01

    Linear programming methods were used for solving the optimization problem of schemes and operation modes of distributed generation energy complexes. Applicability conditions of simplex method, applied to energy complexes, including installations of renewable energy (solar, wind), diesel-generators and energy storage, considered. The analysis of decomposition algorithms for various schemes of energy complexes was made. The results of optimization calculations for energy complexes, operated autonomously and as a part of distribution grid, are presented.

  14. Louisiana Title V General Permits

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, B.E.; Neal, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires federal operating permits for all major sources of air pollution. In 1992, Title 40, Part 70 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 70) codified the law s requirements. These federal regulations, entitled Operating Permit Program, define the minimum requirements for state administered operating permit programs. The intent of Title V is to put into one document all requirements of an operating permit. General Permits for oil and gas facilities may be preferred if the facility can comply with all permit requirements. If greater flexibility than allowed by the General Permit is required, then the facility should apply for an individual Title V permit. General Permits are designed to streamline the permitting process, shorten the time it takes to obtain approval for initial and modified permits. The advantages of the General Permit include reduced paperwork and greater consistency because the permits are standardized. There should be less uncertainty because permit requirements will be known at the time of application. Approval times for Initial and modified General Permits should be reduced. Lengthy public notice procedures (and possible hearings) will be required for only the initial approval of the General Permit and not for each applicant to the permit. A disadvantage of General Permits is reduced flexibility since the facility must comply with the requirements of a standardized permit.

  15. 75 FR 62852 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Chevron Energy Solutions Lucerne Valley...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Chevron Energy Solutions Lucerne Valley Solar Project, California and the Approved Plan Amendment to the California Desert...)/Approved Plan Amendment (PA) to the California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA) Plan for the Chevron...

  16. The 4-Day School Week: A Partial Solution to Today's Energy Crisis and Declining State Funding to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldhausen, Thomas

    As a partial solution to the energy crisis and to solve the problem of drastically rising operating costs coupled with less state support, in 1980-81 the Liberty School District (Spangle, Washington) implemented a 4-day school week comparable to the program used by Cimarron School District #3 in New Mexico. A survey conducted in 1975 by the…

  17. Calculation of adsorption free energy for solute-surface interactions using biased replica-exchange molecular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Stuart, Steven J.; Latour, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of a biomolecule, such as a peptide or protein, to a functionalized surface is of fundamental importance for a broad range of applications in biotechnology. The adsorption free energy for these types of interactions can be determined from a molecular dynamics simulation using the partitioning between adsorbed and nonadsorbed states, provided that sufficient sampling of both states is obtained. However, if interactions between the solute and the surface are strong, the solute will tend to be trapped near the surface during the simulation, thus preventing the adsorption free energy from being calculated by this method. This situation occurs even when using an advanced sampling algorithm such as replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD). In this paper, the authors demonstrate the fundamental basis of this problem using a model system consisting of one sodium ion (Na+) as the solute positioned over a surface functionalized with one negatively charged group (COO−) in explicit water. With this simple system, the authors show that sufficient sampling in the coordinate normal to the surface cannot be obtained by conventional REMD alone. The authors then present a method to overcome this problem through the use of an adaptive windowed-umbrella sampling technique to develop a biased-energy function that is combined with REMD. This approach provides an effective method for the calculation of adsorption free energy for solute-surface interactions. PMID:19768127

  18. Hanford Facility RCRA permit handbook

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Purpose of this Hanford Facility (HF) RCRA Permit Handbook is to provide, in one document, information to be used for clarification of permit conditions and guidance for implementing the HF RCRA Permit.

  19. Ergodicity, configurational entropy and free energy in pigment solutions and plant photosystems: influence of excited state lifetime.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Robert C; Zucchelli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We examine ergodicity and configurational entropy for a dilute pigment solution and for a suspension of plant photosystem particles in which both ground and excited state pigments are present. It is concluded that the pigment solution, due to the extreme brevity of the excited state lifetime, is non-ergodic and the configurational entropy approaches zero. Conversely, due to the rapid energy transfer among pigments, each photosystem is ergodic and the configurational entropy is positive. This decreases the free energy of the single photosystem pigment array by a small amount. On the other hand, the suspension of photosystems is non-ergodic and the configurational entropy approaches zero. The overall configurational entropy which, in principle, includes contributions from both the single excited photosystems and the suspension which contains excited photosystems, also approaches zero. Thus the configurational entropy upon photon absorption by either a pigment solution or a suspension of photosystem particles is approximately zero.

  20. Analysis of Residential System Strategies Targeting Least-Cost Solutions Leading to Net Zero Energy Homes: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.

    2006-04-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy's Building America residential systems research project uses an analysis-based system research approach to identify research priorities, identify technology gaps and opportunities, establish a consistent basis to track research progress, and identify system solutions that are most likely to succeed as the initial targets for residential system research projects. This report describes the analysis approach used by the program to determine the most cost-effective pathways to achieve whole-house energy-savings goals. This report also provides an overview of design/technology strategies leading to net zero energy buildings as the basis for analysis of future residential system performance.

  1. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Group Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit for 30% Energy Savings, Washington, D.C.

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes – such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study’s results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  2. A Markov model for planning and permitting offshore wind energy: A case study of radio-tracked terns in the Gulf of Maine, USA.

    PubMed

    Cranmer, Alexana; Smetzer, Jennifer R; Welch, Linda; Baker, Erin

    2017-05-15

    Quantifying and managing the potential adverse wildlife impacts of offshore wind energy is critical for developing offshore wind energy in a sustainable and timely manner, but poses a significant challenge, particularly for small marine birds that are difficult to monitor. We developed a discrete-time Markov model of seabird movement around a colony site parameterized by automated radio telemetry data from common terns (Sterna hirundo) and Arctic terns (S. paradisaea), and derived impact functions that estimate the probability of collision fatality as a function of the distance and bearing of wind turbines from a colony. Our purpose was to develop and demonstrate a new, flexible tool that can be used for specific management and wind-energy planning applications when adequate data are available, rather than inform wind-energy development at this site. We demonstrate how the tool can be used 1) in marine spatial planning exercises to quantitatively identify setback distances under development scenarios given a risk threshold, 2) to examine the ecological and technical trade-offs of development alternatives to facilitate negotiation between objectives, and 3) in the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process to estimate collision fatality under alternative scenarios. We discuss model limitations and data needs, and highlight opportunities for future model extension and development. We present a highly flexible tool for wind energy planning that can be easily extended to other central place foragers and data sources, and can be updated and improved as new monitoring data arises.

  3. Tests of an adaptive QM/MM calculation on free energy profiles of chemical reactions in solution.

    PubMed

    Várnai, Csilla; Bernstein, Noam; Mones, Letif; Csányi, Gábor

    2013-10-10

    We present reaction free energy calculations using the adaptive buffered force mixing quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (bf-QM/MM) method. The bf-QM/MM method combines nonadaptive electrostatic embedding QM/MM calculations with extended and reduced QM regions to calculate accurate forces on all atoms, which can be used in free energy calculation methods that require only the forces and not the energy. We calculate the free energy profiles of two reactions in aqueous solution: the nucleophilic substitution reaction of methyl chloride with a chloride anion and the deprotonation reaction of the tyrosine side chain. We validate the bf-QM/MM method against a full QM simulation, and show that it correctly reproduces both geometrical properties and free energy profiles of the QM model, while the electrostatic embedding QM/MM method using a static QM region comprising only the solute is unable to do so. The bf-QM/MM method is not explicitly dependent on the details of the QM and MM methods, so long as it is possible to compute QM forces in a small region and MM forces in the rest of the system, as in a conventional QM/MM calculation. It is simple, with only a few parameters needed to control the QM calculation sizes, and allows (but does not require) a varying and adapting QM region which is necessary for simulating solutions.

  4. Predicting solute partitioning in lipid bilayers: Free energies and partition coefficients from molecular dynamics simulations and COSMOmic

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobtorweihen, S. Ingram, T.; Gerlach, T.; Smirnova, I.; Zuniga, A. Chaides; Keil, F. J.

    2014-07-28

    Quantitative predictions of biomembrane/water partition coefficients are important, as they are a key property in pharmaceutical applications and toxicological studies. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to calculate free energy profiles for different solutes in lipid bilayers. How to calculate partition coefficients from these profiles is discussed in detail and different definitions of partition coefficients are compared. Importantly, it is shown that the calculated coefficients are in quantitative agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, we compare free energy profiles from MD simulations to profiles obtained by the recent method COSMOmic, which is an extension of the conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation to micelles and biomembranes. The free energy profiles from these molecular methods are in good agreement. Additionally, solute orientations calculated with MD and COSMOmic are compared and again a good agreement is found. Four different solutes are investigated in detail: 4-ethylphenol, propanol, 5-phenylvaleric acid, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, whereby the latter belongs to the class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The convergence of the free energy profiles from biased MD simulations is discussed and the results are shown to be comparable to equilibrium MD simulations. For 5-phenylvaleric acid the influence of the carboxyl group dihedral angle on free energy profiles is analyzed with MD simulations.

  5. Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) results from subprompt critical experiments with uranyl fluoride fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cappiello, C.C.; Butterfield, K.B.; Sanchez, R.G.; Bounds, J.A.; Kimpland, R.H.; Damjanovich, R.P.; Jaegers, P.J.

    1997-08-01

    Experiments were performed to measure a variety of parameters for SHEBA: behavior of the facility during transient and steady-state operation; characteristics of the SHEBA fuel; delayed-critical solution height vs solution temperature; initial reactor period and reactivity vs solution height; calibration of power level vs reactor power instrumentation readings; flux profile in SHEBA; radiation levels and neutron spectra outside the assembly for code verification and criticality alarm and dosimetry purposes; and effect on reactivity of voids in the fuel.

  6. Photoelectron spectroscopy of aqueous solutions: streaming potentials of NaX (X = Cl, Br, and I) solutions and electron binding energies of liquid water and X-.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, Naoya; Karashima, Shutaro; Tang, Ying; Horio, Takuya; Abulimiti, Bumaliya; Suzuki, Yoshi-Ichi; Ogi, Yoshihiro; Oura, Masaki; Suzuki, Toshinori

    2014-05-07

    The streaming potentials of liquid beams of aqueous NaCl, NaBr, and NaI solutions are measured using soft X-ray, He(I), and laser multiphoton ionization photoelectron spectroscopy. Gaseous molecules are ionized in the vicinity of liquid beams and the photoelectron energy shifts are measured as a function of the distance between the ionization point and the liquid beam. The streaming potentials change their polarity with concentration of electrolytes, from which the singular points of concentration eliminating the streaming potentials are determined. The streaming currents measured in air also vanish at these concentrations. The electron binding energies of liquid water and I(-), Br(-), and Cl(-) anions are revisited and determined more accurately than in previous studies.

  7. 50 CFR 622.50 - Permits, permit moratorium, and endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.50 Permits, permit moratorium, and endorsements. (a) Gulf shrimp permit. For a person aboard a vessel to fish for shrimp in the Gulf EEZ or possess shrimp in or from the Gulf EEZ, a commercial vessel permit for Gulf shrimp must have been...

  8. 50 CFR 622.50 - Permits, permit moratorium, and endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.50 Permits, permit moratorium, and endorsements. (a) Gulf shrimp permit. For a person aboard a vessel to fish for shrimp in the Gulf EEZ or possess shrimp in or from the Gulf EEZ, a commercial vessel permit for Gulf shrimp must have been...

  9. Approaches to Streamline Air Permitting for Combined Heat and Power: Permits by Rule and General Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This factsheet provides information about permit by rule (PBR) and general permit (GP) processes, including the factors that contributed to their development and lessons learned from their implementation.

  10. 78 FR 22873 - Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... 19, 2013, Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant...

  11. 78 FR 22872 - Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... 19, 2013, Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant...

  12. 75 FR 8320 - Coastal Hydropower LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Coastal Hydropower LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On November 5, 2009, Coastal Hydropower LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit,...

  13. The alkaline solution to the emergence of life: energy, entropy and early evolution.

    PubMed

    Russell, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    The Earth agglomerates and heats. Convection cells within the planetary interior expedite the cooling process. Volcanoes evolve steam, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and pyrophosphate. An acidulous Hadean ocean condenses from the carbon dioxide atmosphere. Dusts and stratospheric sulfurous smogs absorb a proportion of the Sun's rays. The cooled ocean leaks into the stressed crust and also convects. High temperature acid springs, coupled to magmatic plumes and spreading centers, emit iron, manganese, zinc, cobalt and nickel ions to the ocean. Away from the spreading centers cooler alkaline spring waters emanate from the ocean floor. These bear hydrogen, formate, ammonia, hydrosulfide and minor methane thiol. The thermal potential begins to be dissipated but the chemical potential is dammed. The exhaling alkaline solutions are frustrated in their further attempt to mix thoroughly with their oceanic source by the spontaneous precipitation of biomorphic barriers of colloidal iron compounds and other minerals. It is here we surmise that organic molecules are synthesized, filtered, concentrated and adsorbed, while acetate and methane--separate products of the precursor to the reductive acetyl-coenzyme-A pathway-are exhaled as waste. Reactions in mineral compartments produce acetate, amino acids, and the components of nucleosides. Short peptides, condensed from the simple amino acids, sequester 'ready-made' iron sulfide clusters to form protoferredoxins, and also bind phosphates. Nucleotides are assembled from amino acids, simple phosphates carbon dioxide and ribose phosphate upon nanocrystalline mineral surfaces. The side chains of particular amino acids register to fitting nucleotide triplet clefts. Keyed in, the amino acids are polymerized, through acid-base catalysis, to alpha chains. Peptides, the tenuous outer-most filaments of the nanocrysts, continually peel away from bound RNA. The polymers are concentrated at cooler regions of the mineral compartments through

  14. Self-similar cosmological solutions with dark energy. I. Formulation and asymptotic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tomohiro; Maeda, Hideki; Carr, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the asymptotic analysis of ordinary differential equations, we classify all spherically symmetric self-similar solutions to the Einstein equations which are asymptotically Friedmann at large distances and contain a perfect fluid with equation of state p=(γ-1)μ with 0<γ<2/3. This corresponds to a “dark energy” fluid and the Friedmann solution is accelerated in this case due to antigravity. This extends the previous analysis of spherically symmetric self-similar solutions for fluids with positive pressure (γ>1). However, in the latter case there is an additional parameter associated with the weak discontinuity at the sonic point and the solutions are only asymptotically “quasi-Friedmann,” in the sense that they exhibit an angle deficit at large distances. In the 0<γ<2/3 case, there is no sonic point and there exists a one-parameter family of solutions which are genuinely asymptotically Friedmann at large distances. We find eight classes of asymptotic behavior: Friedmann or quasi-Friedmann or quasistatic or constant-velocity at large distances, quasi-Friedmann or positive-mass singular or negative-mass singular at small distances, and quasi-Kantowski-Sachs at intermediate distances. The self-similar asymptotically quasistatic and quasi-Kantowski-Sachs solutions are analytically extendible and of great cosmological interest. We also investigate their conformal diagrams. The results of the present analysis are utilized in an accompanying paper to obtain and physically interpret numerical solutions.

  15. Tennessee Proposed Title V Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following permits have been submitted to EPA Region 4 as Proposed Title V permits. While EPA has the right to a 45-day review period for all Proposed Title V permits, EPA Region 4 targets only a subset of these permits for comprehensive review.

  16. Mississippi Proposed Title V Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following permits have been submitted to EPA Region 4 as Proposed Title V permits. While EPA has the right to a 45-day review period for all Proposed Title V permits, EPA Region 4 targets only a subset of these permits for comprehensive review.

  17. Georgia Proposed Title V Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following permits have been submitted to EPA Region 4 as Proposed Title V permits. While EPA has the right to a 45-day review period for all Proposed Title V permits, EPA Region 4 targets only a subset of these permits for comprehensive review.

  18. Florida Proposed Title V Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following permits have been submitted to EPA Region 4 as Proposed Title V permits. While EPA has the right to a 45-day review period for all Proposed Title V permits, EPA Region 4 targets only a subset of these permits for comprehensive review.

  19. Kentucky Proposed Title V Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following permits have been submitted to EPA Region 4 as Proposed Title V permits. While EPA has the right to a 45-day review period for all Proposed Title V permits, EPA Region 4 targets only a subset of these permits for comprehensive review.

  20. Energy demand analysis via small scale hydroponic systems in suburban areas - An integrated energy-food nexus solution.

    PubMed

    Xydis, George A; Liaros, Stelios; Botsis, Konstantinos

    2017-03-28

    The study is a qualitative approach and looks into new ways for the effective energy management of a wind farm (WF) operation in a suburban or near-urban environment in order the generated electricity to be utilised for hydroponic farming purposes as well. Since soilless hydroponic indoor systems gain more and more attention one basic goal, among others, is to take advantage of this not typical electricity demand and by managing it, offering to the grid a less fluctuating electricity generation signal. In this paper, a hybrid business model is presented where the Distributed Energy Resources (DER) producer is participating in the electricity markets under competitive processes (spot market, real-time markets etc.) and at the same time acts as a retailer offering - based on the demand - to the hydroponic units for their mass deployment in an area, putting forward an integrated energy-food nexus approach.

  1. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  2. Permit application modifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  3. Providing solutions to energy and environmental programs. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The goals of WRI`s jointly sponsored research program are to: (1) increase the production of US and western energy resources--low-sulfur coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) enhance the competitiveness of US and western energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) reduce the nation`s dependence upon foreign energy supplies and strengthen the US and regional economies; and (4) minimize the impact of energy production and utilization on the environment. A summary of appropriations, obligations and expenditures is given, then a summary of objectives and accomplishments for the 21 tasks being supported is presented.

  4. Computation of the free energy due to electron density fluctuation of a solute in solution: A QM/MM method with perturbation approach combined with a theory of solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuoka, Daiki; Takahashi, Hideaki Morita, Akihiro

    2014-04-07

    We developed a perturbation approach to compute solvation free energy Δμ within the framework of QM (quantum mechanical)/MM (molecular mechanical) method combined with a theory of energy representation (QM/MM-ER). The energy shift η of the whole system due to the electronic polarization of the solute is evaluated using the second-order perturbation theory (PT2), where the electric field formed by surrounding solvent molecules is treated as the perturbation to the electronic Hamiltonian of the isolated solute. The point of our approach is that the energy shift η, thus obtained, is to be adopted for a novel energy coordinate of the distribution functions which serve as fundamental variables in the free energy functional developed in our previous work. The most time-consuming part in the QM/MM-ER simulation can be, thus, avoided without serious loss of accuracy. For our benchmark set of molecules, it is demonstrated that the PT2 approach coupled with QM/MM-ER gives hydration free energies in excellent agreements with those given by the conventional method utilizing the Kohn-Sham SCF procedure except for a few molecules in the benchmark set. A variant of the approach is also proposed to deal with such difficulties associated with the problematic systems. The present approach is also advantageous to parallel implementations. We examined the parallel efficiency of our PT2 code on multi-core processors and found that the speedup increases almost linearly with respect to the number of cores. Thus, it was demonstrated that QM/MM-ER coupled with PT2 deserves practical applications to systems of interest.

  5. Relative Gibbs energies in solution through continuum models: effect of the loss of translational degrees of freedom in bimolecular reactions on Gibbs energy barriers.

    PubMed

    Ardura, Diego; López, Ramón; Sordo, Tomás L

    2005-12-15

    We present here a cell model for evaluating Gibbs energy barriers corresponding to bimolecular reactions (or processes of larger molecularity) in which a loss of translational degrees of freedom takes place along the reaction coordinate. With this model, we have studied the Walden inversion processes: Xa- + H3CXb --> XaCH3 + Xb- (X = F, Cl, Br, and I). In these processes, our model yields an increase of about 2.3-3.4 kcal/mol in Gibbs energy in solution corresponding to the loss of the translational degrees of freedom when passing from separate reactants to the TS in good agreement with experimental data. The corresponding value in the gas phase is about 6.7-7.1 kcal/mol. When the difference between these two figures is used to correct the results obtained by the standard UAHF implementation of the continuum model, the theoretical results are brought significantly closer to the experimental ones. This seems to indicate that for these reactions the parametrization used does not adequately introduce the increase in Gibbs energy corresponding to the constriction of the translational motion of the species along the reaction coordinate when passing from the gas phase to solution. Therefore, we believe that continuum models could perform much better if we released the parametrization process from the task of taking into account the constriction in translation motion in solution, which could be more adequately evaluated using the cell model proposed here, thus allowing it to focus on better reproducing all the remaining solvation effects.

  6. A few molecules of zeaxanthin per reaction centre of photosystem II permit effective thermal dissipation of light energy in photosystem II of a poikilohydric moss.

    PubMed

    Bukhov, N G; Kopecky, J; Pfündel, E E; Klughammer, C; Heber, U

    2001-04-01

    The relationship between thermal dissipation of light energy (as indicated by the quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence), zeaxanthin availability and protonation reactions was investigated in the moss Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus (Hedw.) Warnst. In the absence of zeaxanthin and actinic illumination, acidification by 20% CO2 in air was incapable of quenching basal, so-called F0 fluorescence either in the moss or in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. However, 1-s light pulses given either every 40, 60 or 200 s increased thermal dissipation as indicated by F0 and Fm quenching in the presence of 20% CO2 in air in the moss, but not in spinach while reaction centres of photosystem II (PSII) were photochemically open. In the moss, a few short light pulses, which were separated by prolonged dark times, were sufficient to raise zeaxanthin levels in the presence of 20% CO2 in air. Simultaneously, quantum efficiency of charge separation in PSII was decreased. Increasing the CO2 concentration beyond 20% further decreased quantum efficiency even in the absence of short light pulses. Under conditions optimal for fluorescence quenching, one molecule of zeaxanthin per reaction centre of PSII was sufficient to decrease quantum efficiency of charge separation in PSII by 50%. Thus, in combination with a protonation reaction, one molecule of zeaxanthin was as efficient at capturing excitation energy as a photochemically open reaction centre. The data are discussed in relation to the interaction between zeaxanthin and thylakoid protonation, which enables effective thermal dissipation of light energy in the antennae of PSII in the moss but not in higher plants when actinic illumination is absent.

  7. Exact Stationary and Non-stationary Solutions to Inelastic Maxwell Model with Infinite Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, Oleg

    2016-11-01

    The one-dimensional inelastic Boltzmann equation with a constant collision rate (the Maxwell model) is considered. It is shown that for special values of restitution parameter there exists a stationary solution with the characteristic function in the form e^{-P(log (z))z}, where P is a periodic function. The corresponding distribution function belongs to a one special class of stochastic processes termed as a generalized stable in the probability theory. The Fourier transform of the non-stationary equation has the solution bigl (1+P(log (z))zbigr )e^{-Q(log (z))z}. It is proved that this solution is a characteristic function if periodic functions P, Q satisfy some not very restrictive conditions. The stationary and non-stationary solutions correspond to a gas with infinite temperature.

  8. Insulin in UW solution exacerbates hepatic ischemia / reperfusion injury by energy depletion through the IRS-2 / SREBP-1c pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian Liang; Man, Kwan; Ng, Kevin T; Lee, Terence K; Lo, Chung Mau; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2004-09-01

    Ischemia / reperfusion (I / R) injury is related to tissue graft energy status. Insulin, which is currently used in the University of Wisconsin (UW) preservation solution with insulin (UWI), is an anabolic hormone and was shown to exacerbate the hepatic I / R injury in our previous study. In this study, the energy status and regulation of metabolism genes by insulin were investigated in liver grafts preserved by UW solution. Insulin could significantly decrease adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level after 3 hours of preservation, as well as total adenine nucleotides (TANs) and energy charge (EC) levels. Energy regeneration deteriorated in the grafts preserved by insulin in terms of ATP and EC levels at 24 hours after transplantation. The insulin signal was transduced through the insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) pathway and the activity of IRS-2 was decreased gradually at the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) level during cold preservation. Downstream targeting genes such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), glucokinase (GKC), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) genes, as well as phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) were activated and they showed the similar expression profiles during cold preservation. Lipoprotein metabolism was accelerated by insulin through upregulation of the activity of apolipoprotein C-III (Apo C-III) during cold preservation. The insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 pathway was inhibited during cold preservation. In conclusion, insulin in UW solution exacerbates hepatic I / R injury by energy depletion as the graft maintains its anabolic activity. The key enzyme activities of the energy-consuming process of glycogen and fatty acid synthesis as well as lipoprotein metabolism were accelerated by insulin through the IRS-2 / SREBP-1c pathway.

  9. Distribution of energy of solutions of the wave equation on singular spaces of constant curvature and on a homogeneous tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkova, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    In the paper, the Cauchy problem for the wave equation on singular spaces of constant curvature and on an infinite homogeneous tree is studied. Two singular spaces are considered: the first one consists of a three-dimensional Euclidean space to which a ray is glued, and the other is formed by two three-dimensional Euclidean spaces joined by a segment. The solution of the Cauchy problem for the wave equation on these objects is described and the behavior of the energy of a wave as time tends to infinity is studied. The Cauchy problem for the wave equation on an infinite homogeneous tree is also considered, where the matching conditions for the Laplace operator at the vertices are chosen in the form generalizing the Kirchhoff conditions. The spectrum of such an operator is found, and the solution of the Cauchy problem for the wave equation is described. The behavior of wave energy as time tends to infinity is also studied.

  10. Three-energy gamma-ray absorptiometer (TEGA) for nondestructive assay of plutonium and uranium in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Aparo, M.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental approach for the nondestructive characterization of plutonium and uranium solutions is presented. The technique relies on the transmission of photons of three different properly chosen energies, and allows an independent and simultaneous determination of plutonium and uranium by the different absorption of the two elements in the range of K-edge energies. The performances achievable have been evaluated through measurement of a set of solutions using the hardware of the compact K-edge densitometer. The plutonium and uranium concentrations ranged from 50 to 150 g/l. In this concentration range, the relative precision is below 3.0% for uranium assay and below 6% for plutonium assay. Further improvements of the performances of the technique are discussed. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington, which resulted in annual energy cost savings of 22%, improved comfort and air quality for residents, and increased durability of the units. This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary Building America research questions: 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capital improvement funding.

  12. Exact, zero-energy, square-integrable solutions of a model related to the Maxwell's fish-eye problem

    SciTech Connect

    Makowski, Adam J.

    2009-12-15

    A model, which admits normalizable wave functions of the Schroedinger equation at the energy of E = 0, is exactly solved and the solutions are compared to the corresponding classical trajectories. The wave functions are proved to be square-integrable for discrete (quantized) values of the coupling constant of the used potential. We also show that our model is a specific version of the well-known Maxwell's fish-eye. This is performed with the help of a suitably chosen conformal mapping.

  13. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Deep Energy Retrofit of 1910 House, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-12-01

    This case study lists project information, cost and energy efficiency performance data, energy efficiency measures and lessons learned for a 100-year-old home in Portland, Oregon, audited by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for a deep energy retrofit. New HVAC and extensive insulation upgrades including rigid XPS and new siding over the old lead painted siding, and EPS on the basement walls and in cathedral ceiling helped bring HERS down to 68.

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: Zero Energy Ready Home and the Challenge of Hot Water on Demand

    SciTech Connect

    2016-02-12

    Production builders in the Stapleton community of Denver, Colorado, now build 2,300-ft2 or larger homes that earn the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ENERGY STAR® through the Certified Homes Program, Version 3. These builders are repositioning to build comparably sized homes to the standards of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) program. Most ZERH criteria align closely with ENERGY STAR and are familiar to these builders.

  15. Analytic solutions in the dyon black hole with a cosmic string: Scalar fields, Hawking radiation and energy flux

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, H.S.; Bezerra, V.B.; Silva, G.V.

    2015-11-15

    Charged massive scalar fields are considered in the gravitational and electromagnetic field produced by a dyonic black hole with a cosmic string along its axis of symmetry. Exact solutions of both angular and radial parts of the covariant Klein–Gordon equation in this background are obtained, and are given in terms of the confluent Heun functions. The role of the presence of the cosmic string in these solutions is showed up. From the radial solution, we obtain the exact wave solutions near the exterior horizon of the black hole, and discuss the Hawking radiation spectrum and the energy flux. -- Highlights: •A cosmic string is introduced along the axis of symmetry of the dyonic black hole. •The covariant Klein–Gordon equation for a charged massive scalar field in this background is analyzed. •Both angular and radial parts are transformed to a confluent Heun equation. •The resulting Hawking radiation spectrum and the energy flux are obtained.

  16. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Community-Scale Energy Modeling - Southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    Community-scale energy modeling and testing are useful for determining energy conservation measures that will effectively reduce energy use. To that end, IBACOS analyzed pre-retrofit daily utility data to sort homes by energy consumption, allowing for better targeting of homes for physical audits. Following ASHRAE Guideline 14 normalization procedures, electricity consumption of 1,166 all-electric, production-built homes was modeled. The homes were in two communities: one built in the 1970s and the other in the mid-2000s.

  17. It’s cool to be part of the energy solution

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2012-08-04

    I think many of us grasp that our nation is facing a huge energy challenge, but I had yet to hear it articulated in such a compelling way as in some recently published testimony before the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. The messenger was Norman Augustine, retired chairman and CEO of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. He testified in his capacity as a member of the American Energy Innovation Council, an independent and informal group of seven of industry’s elite who have come together to lend a voice to the national discussion about a problem that affects us all; as he put it, the provision of energy.

  18. 21 CFR 358.720 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... solution, on a weight to volume basis, in combination with menthol, 1.5 percent, in a shampoo formulation... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 358... Permitted combinations of active ingredients. (a) Combination of active ingredients for the control...

  19. Generalized linear solvation energy model applied to solute partition coefficients in ionic liquid-supercritical carbon dioxide systems.

    PubMed

    Planeta, Josef; Karásek, Pavel; Hohnová, Barbora; Sťavíková, Lenka; Roth, Michal

    2012-08-10

    Biphasic solvent systems composed of an ionic liquid (IL) and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) have become frequented in synthesis, extractions and electrochemistry. In the design of related applications, information on interphase partitioning of the target organics is essential, and the infinite-dilution partition coefficients of the organic solutes in IL-scCO(2) systems can conveniently be obtained by supercritical fluid chromatography. The data base of experimental partition coefficients obtained previously in this laboratory has been employed to test a generalized predictive model for the solute partition coefficients. The model is an amended version of that described before by Hiraga et al. (J. Supercrit. Fluids, in press). Because of difficulty of the problem to be modeled, the model involves several different concepts - linear solvation energy relationships, density-dependent solvent power of scCO(2), regular solution theory, and the Flory-Huggins theory of athermal solutions. The model shows a moderate success in correlating the infinite-dilution solute partition coefficients (K-factors) in individual IL-scCO(2) systems at varying temperature and pressure. However, larger K-factor data sets involving multiple IL-scCO(2) systems appear to be beyond reach of the model, especially when the ILs involved pertain to different cation classes.

  20. Proposed modifications to the RCRA post-closure permit for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This report presents proposed modifications to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit (PCP) for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (permit number TNHW-088, EPA ID No. TN3 89 009 0001). The modifications are proposed to: (1) revise the current text for two of the Permit Conditions included in Permit Section II - General Facility Conditions, and (2) update the PCP with revised versions of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) technical field procedures included in several of the Permit Attachments. The updated field procedures and editorial revisions are Class 1 permit modifications, as specified in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) {section}270.42; Appendix I - Classification of Permit Modifications. These modifications are summarized below.

  1. Thermodynamics of CaMgSi2O6-KAlSi2O6 clinopyroxene solid solution: Quantum mechanical and static lattice energy calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinograd, V. L.; Safonov, O. G.; Wilson, D. J.; Gale, J. D.; Perchuk, L. L.; Winkler, B.

    2007-12-01

    K-enriched clinopyroxenes are often found in mineral assemblages formed at high and ultrahigh pressures, such as inclusions in diamonds, eclogitic and peridotitic xenoliths in kimberlites and lamproites. Thermodynamic properties of the solid solution between diopside and potassium jadeite cannot be studied experimentally due to impossibility to synthesize crystals with more than 25% of KAlSi2O6. Here we show that the missing thermodynamic information can be obtained with the aid of computer simulations. A set of empirical interatomic potentials has been used for calculation of static lattice energies of 800 different structures in a 2x2x4 supercell of C2/c pyroxene with compositions intermediate between diopside (Di) and K-jadeite (KJd), as well as with different ordering states of the exchangeable K/Ca and Mg/Al cations. Excess static energies of these structures were cluster expanded in a basis set of 37 pair-interaction parameters. These parameters were used to constrain Monte Carlo simulations of temperature-dependent properties in the range of 273-2023 K and to calculate a T-X phase diagram for the solid solution. The simulations predicted the formation of stable intermediate compounds at 1/3, 5/12, 1/2, 7/12 and 2/3 of the KJd mole fraction. The compound at 1/2 with a space group P2/b is analogous to omphacite in the diopside - jadeite system. However, the cation distribution in this phase is inverted: K and Ca in K-omphacite occupy positions which would be Ca-rich and Na-rich, respectively, in Na-omphacite. The standard enthalpies and volumes of KJd and K-omphacite were estimated from first principles calculations, while the standard entropies, thermal expansion coefficients and bulk moduli were predicted on the basis of the force field lattice dynamics. The activity-composition relations in the disordered C2/c phase were approximated with respect to Di and KJd end-members with a Redlich-Kister polynomial. Using these results and thermodynamic data available

  2. Analytical solutions for benchmarking cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport models: one-dimensional soil thaw with conduction and advection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurylyk, Barret L.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous cold regions water flow and energy transport models have emerged in recent years. Dissimilarities often exist in their mathematical formulations and/or numerical solution techniques, but few analytical solutions exist for benchmarking flow and energy transport models that include pore water phase change. This paper presents a detailed derivation of the Lunardini solution, an approximate analytical solution for predicting soil thawing subject to conduction, advection, and phase change. Fifteen thawing scenarios are examined by considering differences in porosity, surface temperature, Darcy velocity, and initial temperature. The accuracy of the Lunardini solution is shown to be proportional to the Stefan number. The analytical solution results obtained for soil thawing scenarios with water flow and advection are compared to those obtained from the finite element model SUTRA. Three problems, two involving the Lunardini solution and one involving the classic Neumann solution, are recommended as standard benchmarks for future model development and testing.

  3. Predictions of hydration free energies from continuum solvent with solute polarizable models: the SAMPL2 blind challenge.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Alexandre; Truchon, Jean-François

    2010-04-01

    This paper reports the results of our attempt to predict hydration free energies on the SAMPL2 blind challenge dataset. We mostly examine the effects of the solute electrostatic component on the accuracy of the predictions. The usefulness of electronic polarization in predicting hydration free energies is assessed by comparing the Electronic Polarization from Internal Continuum model and the self consistent reaction field IEF-PCM to standard non-polarizable charge models such as RESP and AM1-BCC. We also determine an optimal restraint weight for Dielectric-RESP atomic charges fitting. Statistical analysis of the results could not distinguish the methods from one another. The smallest average unsigned error obtained is 1.9 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol (95% confidence level). A class of outliers led us to investigate the importance of the solute-solvent instantaneous induction energy, a missing term in PB continuum models. We estimated values between -1.5 and -6 kcal/mol for a series of halo-benzenes which can explain why some predicted hydration energies of non-polar molecules significantly disagreed with experiment.

  4. Case Study Analysis of U.S. Policy Solutions to Enable China New Energy Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.; Tian, T.; Liu, C.; Miller, M.

    2015-05-28

    This report summarizes various policies for encouraging investment and installation of renewable energy across the country. In particular, we attempt to explain the benefits of, and considerations behind, each policy type and provide examples of implementation across the United States While recognized as important, this report does not address policies or examples of successful energy efficiency or alternative-fuel vehicle strategies. In addition, we summarize the renewable energy policy strategies undertaken by three areas of the United States: New Jersey, Hawaii, and San Francisco.

  5. 75 FR 47583 - Application to Rescind Presidential Permit; Joint Application for Presidential Permit; British...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: British Columbia Transmission... voluntarily transfer the BCTC facilities authorized by Presidential Permit No. PP-22, as amended, to BC...

  6. Free energy surfaces for the interaction of D-glucose with planar aromatic groups in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wohlert, Jakob; Schnupf, Udo; Brady, John W

    2010-10-21

    Multidimensional potentials of mean force for the interactions in aqueous solution of both anomers of D-glucopyranose with two planar aromatic molecules, indole and para-methyl-phenol, have been calculated using molecular dynamics simulations with umbrella sampling and were subsequently used to estimate binding free energies. Indole and para-methyl-phenol serve as models for the side chains of the amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, respectively. In all cases, a weak affinity between the glucose molecules and the flat aromatic surfaces was found. The global minimum for these interactions was found to be for the case when the pseudoplanar face of β-D-glucopyranose is stacked against the planar surfaces of the aromatic residues. The calculated binding free energies are in good agreement with both experiment and previous simulations. The multidimensional free energy maps suggest a mechanism that could lend kinetic stability to the complexes formed by sugars bound to sugar-binding proteins.

  7. Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Philadelphia Housing Authority Energy-Efficiency Turnover Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    2016-02-24

    The Philadelphia Housing Authority worked with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America Program to integrate energy-efficiency measures into the refurbishment process that each unit normally goes through between occupancies.

  8. Thermal Comfort Project: A Cool Solution to the Nation's Energy Security Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-05-01

    This fact sheet describes how the CTTS thermal comfort project will increase energy security by reducing fuel consumed by auxiliary loads such as air conditioning. It also describes physiological and psychological computer models and thermal comfort manikin.

  9. Deriving exact energy solutions to the symmetrized q-difference Harper equation.

    PubMed

    Papp, E; Micu, C

    2002-04-01

    This paper deals with the application of the q calculus to second order q-difference equations, like the q symmetrized form of the Harper equation. One obtains three-term recurrence relations, for which a symmetrized version is written down. This opens the way to establish explicit energy results that are dependent on the commensurability parameter. The continuous realization of such energy results exhibits interesting patterns characterized by hierarchical structures.

  10. Efficient Solutions for New Homes Case Study: BrightBuilt Home, Modular Zero Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-11

    When done well, modular home production can provide lower costs and excellent quality control (QC)—compared to conventional home building methods— while still allowing a great deal of customization. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) is a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team that worked with three Maine companies to compare standard codecompliant modular homes with a modular zero energy home. Those companies were BrightBuilt Home (BBH), Black Bros. Builders, and Keiser Homes.

  11. A Framework for Understanding and Generating Integrated Solutions for Residential Peak Energy Demand

    PubMed Central

    Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley; Ledwich, Gerard; Bell, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Morris, Peter; Lewis, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Supplying peak energy demand in a cost effective, reliable manner is a critical focus for utilities internationally. Successfully addressing peak energy concerns requires understanding of all the factors that affect electricity demand especially at peak times. This paper is based on past attempts of proposing models designed to aid our understanding of the influences on residential peak energy demand in a systematic and comprehensive way. Our model has been developed through a group model building process as a systems framework of the problem situation to model the complexity within and between systems and indicate how changes in one element might flow on to others. It is comprised of themes (social, technical and change management options) networked together in a way that captures their influence and association with each other and also their influence, association and impact on appliance usage and residential peak energy demand. The real value of the model is in creating awareness, understanding and insight into the complexity of residential peak energy demand and in working with this complexity to identify and integrate the social, technical and change management option themes and their impact on appliance usage and residential energy demand at peak times. PMID:25807384

  12. Vibrational spectroscopic determination of local solvent electric field, solute-solvent electrostatic interaction energy, and their fluctuation amplitudes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hochan; Lee, Gayeon; Jeon, Jonggu; Cho, Minhaeng

    2012-01-12

    IR probes have been extensively used to monitor local electrostatic and solvation dynamics. Particularly, their vibrational frequencies are highly sensitive to local solvent electric field around an IR probe. Here, we show that the experimentally measured vibrational frequency shifts can be inversely used to determine local electric potential distribution and solute-solvent electrostatic interaction energy. In addition, the upper limits of their fluctuation amplitudes are estimated by using the vibrational bandwidths. Applying this method to fully deuterated N-methylacetamide (NMA) in D(2)O and examining the solvatochromic effects on the amide I' and II' mode frequencies, we found that the solvent electric potential difference between O(═C) and D(-N) atoms of the peptide bond is about 5.4 V, and thus, the approximate solvent electric field produced by surrounding water molecules on the NMA is 172 MV/cm on average if the molecular geometry is taken into account. The solute-solvent electrostatic interaction energy is estimated to be -137 kJ/mol, by considering electric dipole-electric field interaction. Furthermore, their root-mean-square fluctuation amplitudes are as large as 1.6 V, 52 MV/cm, and 41 kJ/mol, respectively. We found that the water electric potential on a peptide bond is spatially nonhomogeneous and that the fluctuation in the electrostatic peptide-water interaction energy is about 10 times larger than the thermal energy at room temperature. This indicates that the peptide-solvent interactions are indeed important for the activation of chemical reactions in aqueous solution.

  13. Forging the Solution to the Energy Challenge: The Role of Materials Science and Materials Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, Jeffrey

    2010-04-01

    The energy challenge is central to the most important strategic problems facing the United States and the world. It is increasingly clear that even large-scale deployments of the best technologies available today cannot meet the rising energy demands of a growing world population. Achieving a secure and sustainable energy future will require full utilization of, and substantial improvements in, a comprehensive portfolio of energy systems and technologies. This goal is complicated by several factors. First, energy strategies are inextricably linked to national security and health issues. Second, in developing and deploying energy technologies, it is vital to consider not only environmental issues, such as global climate change, but also economic considerations, which strongly influence both public and political views on energy policy. Third, a significant and sustained effort in basic and applied research and development (R&D) will be required to deliver the innovations needed to ensure a desirable energy future. Innovations in materials science and engineering are especially needed to overcome the limits of essentially all energy technologies. A wealth of historical evidence demonstrates that such innovations are also the key to economic prosperity. From the development of the earliest cities around flint-trading centers, to the Industrial Revolution, to today’s silicon-based global economy, the advantage goes to those who lead in exploiting materials. I view our challenge by considering the rate of innovation and the transition of discovery to the marketplace as the relationship among R&D investment, a skilled and talented workforce, business innovations, and the activities of competitors. Most disturbing in analyzing this relationship is the need for trained workers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). To develop the STEM workforce needed for innovation, we need sustainable, positive change in STEM education at all levels from preschool

  14. Forging the Solution to the Energy Challenge: The Role of Materials Science and Materials Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, Jeffrey

    2010-05-01

    The energy challenge is central to the most important strategic problems facing the United States and the world. It is increasingly clear that even large-scale deployments of the best technologies available today cannot meet the rising energy demands of a growing world population. Achieving a secure and sustainable energy future will require full utilization of, and substantial improvements in, a comprehensive portfolio of energy systems and technologies. This goal is complicated by several factors. First, energy strategies are inextricably linked to national security and health issues. Second, in developing and deploying energy technologies, it is vital to consider not only environmental issues, such as global climate change, but also economic considerations, which strongly influence both public and political views on energy policy. Third, a significant and sustained effort in basic and applied research and development (R&D) will be required to deliver the innovations needed to ensure a desirable energy future. Innovations in materials science and engineering are especially needed to overcome the limits of essentially all energy technologies. A wealth of historical evidence demonstrates that such innovations are also the key to economic prosperity. From the development of the earliest cities around flint-trading centers, to the Industrial Revolution, to today’s silicon-based global economy, the advantage goes to those who lead in exploiting materials. I view our challenge by considering the rate of innovation and the transition of discovery to the marketplace as the relationship among R&D investment, a skilled and talented workforce, business innovations, and the activities of competitors. Most disturbing in analyzing this relationship is the need for trained workers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). To develop the STEM workforce needed for innovation, we need sustainable, positive change in STEM education at all levels from preschool

  15. City-scale analysis of water-related energy identifies more cost-effective solutions.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ka Leung; Kenway, Steven J; Lant, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Energy and greenhouse gas management in urban water systems typically focus on optimising within the direct system boundary of water utilities that covers the centralised water supply and wastewater treatment systems, despite a greater energy influence by the water end use. This work develops a cost curve of water-related energy management options from a city perspective for a hypothetical Australian city. It is compared with that from the water utility perspective. The curves are based on 18 water-related energy management options that have been implemented or evaluated in Australia. In the studied scenario, the cost-effective energy saving potential from a city perspective (292 GWh/year) is far more significant than that from a utility perspective (65 GWh/year). In some cases, for similar capital cost, if regional water planners invested in end use options instead of utility options, a greater energy saving potential at a greater cost-effectiveness could be achieved in urban water systems. For example, upgrading a wastewater treatment plant for biogas recovery at a capital cost of $27.2 million would save 31 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $63/MWh, while solar hot water system rebates at a cost of $28.6 million would save 67 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $111/MWh. Options related to hot water use such as water-efficient shower heads, water-efficient clothes washers and solar hot water system rebates are among the most cost-effective city-scale opportunities. This study demonstrates the use of cost curves to compare both utility and end use options in a consistent framework. It also illustrates that focusing solely on managing the energy use within the utility would miss substantial non-utility water-related energy saving opportunities. There is a need to broaden the conventional scope of cost curve analysis to include water-related energy and greenhouse gas at the water end use, and to value their management from a city perspective. This

  16. Thermodynamic properties of micellization of Sulfobetaine-type Zwitterionic Gemini Surfactants in aqueous solutions--a free energy perturbation study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoyu; Gu, Daming; Liu, Haiyan; Ding, Wei; Luan, Huoxin; Lou, Yanmin

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the validity and accuracy of the free energy perturbation (FEP) model used in a previous article for ionic liquid-type Gemini imidazolium surfactants (ILGISs) is further evaluated by using it to model the Enthalpy-entropy compensation of Sulfobetaine-type Zwitterionic Gemini Surfactants (SZGSs), with different carbon atoms of the hydrophobic group or the spacer chain length, in aqueous solutions. In the FEP model, the Gibbs free energy contributions to the driving force for micelle formation are computed using hydration data obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. According to the pseudo-phase separation model, the thermodynamic properties of micellization in aqueous solutions for SZGS were discussed. The results show that the micellization of SZGS in aqueous solutions is a spontaneous and entropy-driven process. It is linearly Enthalpy-entropy compensated and different from the micelle formation of ILGIS but similar to anionic surfactants. The compensation temperature was found to be (302±3)K which was lower than ILGIS. As the temperature rises, the micellization is easy initially but then becomes difficult with the unusual changes of enthalpy values from positive to negative. The contribution of entropy change to the micellization tends to decrease but the contribution of enthalpy change tends to increase. In particular, as the number carbon atoms in the alkyl chains and spacer chains are increased, the thermodynamic favorability and stability of the micelles both increase.

  17. Lean in Air Permitting Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Lean in Air Permitting Guide is designed to help air program managers at public agencies better understand the potential value and results that can be achieved by applying Lean improvement methods to air permitting processes.

  18. General Permits for Ocean Dumping

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    General permits are issued by EPA for the ocean dumping of certain materials that will have a minimal adverse environmental impact and are generally disposed of in small quantities. Information includes examples and ocean disposal sites for general permits

  19. Solute Model or Cellular Energy Model: Practical and Theoretical Aspects of Thirst During Exercise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-16

    greatest rate of water loss, by far, is represented in a healthy individual by eccrine sweating which most physiologists would agree can be sustained...designed to equate water requirements with the various losses (respiratory, urinary, skin and sweat ). Let us look briefly at these as a partial inventory of...manifestation of the body’s osmotic control. Hypertonicity, ADH Release and Thirst Although the solute composition of the extracellular compartment is

  20. Making Homes Part of the Climate Solution: Policy Options To Promote Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann; Chandler, Jess; Lapsa, Melissa Voss; Ally, Moonis

    2009-06-01

    In the area of energy efficiency, advanced technologies combined with best practices appear to afford not only large, but also cost-effective options to conserve energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (McKinsey & Company, 2007). In practice, however, the realization of this potential has often proven difficult. Progress appears to require large numbers of individuals to act knowledgeably, and each individual must often act with enabling assistance from others. Even when consumer education is effective and social norms are supportive, the actions of individuals and businesses can be impeded by a broad range of barriers, many of which are non-technical in nature. Title XVI of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 included a mandate to examine barriers to progress and make recommendations in this regard. A detailed report on barriers as well as the National strategy for overcoming barriers met this requirement (Brown et al, 2008; CCCSTI, 2009). Following up on this mandate, the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) chose to focus next on the development of policy options to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings, with supporting analysis of pros and cons, informed in part by behavioral research. While this work is sponsored by CCTP, it has been undertaken in coordination with DOE's Building Technologies Program and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability.

  1. Conditional PSD Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  2. Phased Permits for PSD

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  3. Permit Shields and NSR

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  4. Solution nonideality related to solute molecular characteristics of amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Keener, C R; Fullerton, G D; Cameron, I L; Xiong, J

    1995-01-01

    By measuring the freezing-point depression for dilute, aqueous solutions of all water-soluble amino acids, we test the hypothesis that nonideality in aqueous solutions is due to solute-induced water structuring near hydrophobic surfaces and solute-induced water destructuring in the dipolar electric fields generated by the solute. Nonideality is expressed with a single solute/solvent interaction parameter I, calculated from experimental measure of delta T. A related parameter, I(n), gives a method of directly relating solute characteristics to solute-induced water structuring or destructuring. I(n)-values correlate directly with hydrophobic surface area and inversely with dipolar strength. By comparing the nonideality of amino acids with progressively larger hydrophobic side chains, structuring is shown to increase with hydrophobic surface area at a rate of one perturbed water molecule per 8.8 square angstroms, implying monolayer coverage. Destructuring is attributed to dielectric realignment as described by the Debye-Hückel theory, but with a constant separation of charges in the amino-carboxyl dipole. By using dimers and trimers of glycine and alanine, this destructuring is shown to increase with increasing dipole strength using increased separation of fixed dipolar charges. The capacity to predict nonideal solution behavior on the basis of amino acid characteristics will permit prediction of free energy of transfer to water, which may help predict the energetics of folding and unfolding of proteins based on the characteristics of constituent amino acids. Images FIGURE 6 PMID:7711253

  5. Free energy surface for Brønsted acid-catalyzed glucose ring-opening in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xianghong

    2013-10-03

    Car-Parrinello-based molecular dynamics coupled with metadynamics simulations were used to determine the mechanism and associated free energy surface for opening the ring structure of cyclic glucopyranose in acidic aqueous solutions. The ring-opening process is initiated by the protonation of the ring oxygen atom and the breakage of the C1-O5 bond. The barrier for this process is about 25 kcal/mol, in good agreement with experimental measurements. Moreover, the glucose cyclic conformation is found to be more stable than the open chain form. The barrier for proton-catalyzed ring-opening in aqueous solution appears to be largely solvent induced due to the high affinity of water molecules for protons.

  6. Creating an Energy Intelligent Campus: Data Integration Challenges and Solutions at a Large Research Campus

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, Dylan; Frank, Stephen; Slovensky, Michelle; Sheppy, Michael; Petersen, Anya

    2016-08-26

    Rich, well-organized building performance and energy consumption data enable a host of analytic capabilities for building owners and operators, from basic energy benchmarking to detailed fault detection and system optimization. Unfortunately, data integration for building control systems is challenging and costly in any setting. Large portfolios of buildings--campuses, cities, and corporate portfolios--experience these integration challenges most acutely. These large portfolios often have a wide array of control systems, including multiple vendors and nonstandard communication protocols. They typically have complex information technology (IT) networks and cybersecurity requirements and may integrate distributed energy resources into their infrastructure. Although the challenges are significant, the integration of control system data has the potential to provide proportionally greater value for these organizations through portfolio-scale analytics, comprehensive demand management, and asset performance visibility. As a large research campus, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) experiences significant data integration challenges. To meet them, NREL has developed an architecture for effective data collection, integration, and analysis, providing a comprehensive view of data integration based on functional layers. The architecture is being evaluated on the NREL campus through deployment of three pilot implementations.

  7. Energy optimization in chiller plants: A novel formulation and solution using a hybrid optimization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravelli, Aparna; Rao, Singiresu S.

    2013-10-01

    The central chilled water plant is one of the major power-consuming units of a building. Even small reductions in power consumption could achieve significant energy conservation. Hence, optimization of a chiller plant is necessary for energy savings without compromising the comfort level of the end user. The present work deals with identifying the system parameters and developing a novel formulation for a chiller plant and its optimization using a hybrid optimization technique. The optimization model formulation is based on finding an optimal mix of equipment and operating parameters in the chiller plant for minimum electrical power consumption. It takes into account the performance characteristics of the chillers, cooling towers and pumps, and optimizes the energy consumed based on the required loads and the ambient atmospheric conditions. Sequential quadratic programming combined with the modified branch and bound method was used to develop the hybrid optimization algorithm. A case study is presented for a typical chiller plant. The results indicate that the present optimization method could be a potential method of making energy savings.

  8. A Comprehensive Study on Technologies of Tyre Monitoring Systems and Possible Energy Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kubba, Ali E.; Jiang, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview on the state of the art of Tyre Pressure Monitoring System related technologies. This includes examining the latest pressure sensing methods and comparing different types of pressure transducers, particularly their power consumption and measuring range. Having the aim of this research to investigate possible means to obtain a tyre condition monitoring system (TCMS) powered by energy harvesting, various approaches of energy harvesting techniques were evaluated to determine which approach is the most applicable for generating energy within the pneumatic tyre domain and under rolling tyre dynamic conditions. This article starts with an historical review of pneumatic tyre development and demonstrates the reasons and explains the need for using a tyre condition monitoring system. Following this, different tyre pressure measurement approaches are compared in order to determine what type of pressure sensor is best to consider in the research proposal plan. Then possible energy harvesting means inside land vehicle pneumatic tyres are reviewed. Following this, state of the art battery-less tyre pressure monitoring systems developed by individual researchers or by world leading tyre manufacturers are presented. Finally conclusions are drawn based on the reviewed documents cited in this article and a research proposal plan is presented. PMID:24922457

  9. LANDFILL GAS ENERGY UTILIZATION EXPERIENCE: DISCUSSION OF TECHNICAL AND NON-TECHNICAL ISSUES, SOLUTIONS, AND TRENDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses technical and non-technical considerations associated with the development and operation of landfill gas to energy projects. Much of the report is based on interviews and site visits with the major developers and operators of the more than 110 projects in the...

  10. A comprehensive study on technologies of tyre monitoring systems and possible energy solutions.

    PubMed

    Kubba, Ali E; Jiang, Kyle

    2014-06-11

    This article presents an overview on the state of the art of Tyre Pressure Monitoring System related technologies. This includes examining the latest pressure sensing methods and comparing different types of pressure transducers, particularly their power consumption and measuring range. Having the aim of this research to investigate possible means to obtain a tyre condition monitoring system (TCMS) powered by energy harvesting, various approaches of energy harvesting techniques were evaluated to determine which approach is the most applicable for generating energy within the pneumatic tyre domain and under rolling tyre dynamic conditions. This article starts with an historical review of pneumatic tyre development and demonstrates the reasons and explains the need for using a tyre condition monitoring system. Following this, different tyre pressure measurement approaches are compared in order to determine what type of pressure sensor is best to consider in the research proposal plan. Then possible energy harvesting means inside land vehicle pneumatic tyres are reviewed. Following this, state of the art battery-less tyre pressure monitoring systems developed by individual researchers or by world leading tyre manufacturers are presented. Finally conclusions are drawn based on the reviewed documents cited in this article and a research proposal plan is presented.

  11. Resolving the 180-degree ambiguity in vector magnetic field measurements: The 'minimum' energy solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    I present a robust algorithm that resolves the 180-deg ambiguity in measurements of the solar vector magnetic field. The technique simultaneously minimizes both the divergence of the magnetic field and the electric current density using a simulated annealing algorithm. This results in the field orientation with approximately minimum free energy. The technique is well-founded physically and is simple to implement.

  12. RADIATION CHEMISTRY OF HIGH ENERGY CARBON, NEON AND ARGON IONS: INTEGRAL YIELDS FROM FERROUS SULFATE SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Christman, E.A.; Appleby, A.; Jayko, M.

    1980-07-01

    Chemical yields of Fe{sup 3+} have been measured from FeSO{sub 4} solutions irradiated in the presence and absence of oxygen with carbon, neon, and argon ions from the Berkeley Bevalac facility. G(Fe{sup 3+}) decreases with increasing beam penetration and with increasing atomic number of the incident ion. The results are compared with current theoretical expectations of the behavior of these particles in an aqueous absorber. The chemical yields are consistently higher than theoretically predicted, by amounts varying from <6.2% (carbon ions) to <13.2% (argon ions). The additional yields are possibly attributable to fragmentation of the primary particle beams.

  13. The existence of energy solutions to 2-dimensional non-Lipschitz stochastic Navier-Stokes equations in unbounded domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Takeshi

    In this paper we consider the existence and uniqueness of weak energy solutions to a stochastic 2-dimensional non-Lipschitz Navier-Stokes equation perturbed by the cylindrical Wiener process W(t) in a bounded or unbounded domain D with the smooth boundary ∂ D or D=R: dX(t)=[-νAX(t)+B(X(t))] dt+f(t,X(t)) dt+g(t,X(t)) dW(t), where A is the Stokes operator and f, g satisfy the non-Lipschitz condition.

  14. Implicit solution of large-scale radiation - material energy transfer problems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P. N.; Chang, B.; Graziani, F.; Woodward, C. S.

    1999-01-06

    Modeling of radiation-diffusion processes has traditionally been accomplished through simulations based on decoupling and linearizing the basic physics equations. By applying these techniques, physicists have simplified their model enough that problems of moderate sizes could be solved. However, new applications demand the simulation of larger problems for which the inaccuracies and nonscalability of current algorithms prevent solution. Recent work in iterative methods has provided computational scientists with new tools for solving these problems. In this paper, we present an algorithm for the implicit solution of the multi- group diffusion approximation coupled to an electron temperature equation. This algorithm uses a stiff ODE solver coupled with Newton's method for solving the implicit equations arising at each time step. The Jacobian systems are solved by applying GMRES preconditioned with a semicoarsening multigrid algorithm. By combining the nonlinear Newton iteration with a multigrid preconditioner, we take advantage of the fast, robust nonlinear convergence of Newton's method and the scalability of the linear multigrid method. Numerical results show that the method is accurate and scalable.

  15. Molecular transport through surfactant-covered oil-water interfaces: role of physical properties of solutes and surfactants in creating energy barriers for transport.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yong Nam; Gupta, Ashish; Chauhan, Anuj; Kopelevich, Dmitry I

    2011-03-15

    Mechanisms of molecular transport across oil-water interfaces covered by nonionic surfactants are investigated using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. Resistance of the surfactant monolayer to the solute transport is shown to be controlled by dense regions in the monolayer. The dense regions are formed on both sides of the dividing surface and the barrier to the solute transport is created by those of them experiencing unfavorable interactions with the solute. Resistance to the transport of a hydrophobic (hydrophilic) solute increases with the excess density of the head (tail) group region of the monolayer, which in turn increases with the length of the surfactant head (tail) group. Barriers for solute transport through surfactant monolayers are also influenced by the solute size. However, the extent of this influence is determined by the monolayer thickness and the solute structure and composition. For example, it is shown that resistance offered by thin monolayers to transport of linear oligomers is relatively insensitive to the solute length. The barrier sensitivity to the length of these solutes increases with the monolayer thickness. In addition to the static barriers, the solute transport is shown to be affected by dynamic barriers due to a nonadiabatic coupling of the monolayer surface with the solute position and configuration. This coupling leads to deviations of the system dynamics from the minimum energy path. The deviations are most significant in the neighborhood of the static energy barrier, which effectively leads to an increase of the barrier for the solute transport.

  16. Time- and energy-efficient solution combustion synthesis of binary metal tungstate nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Abegayl; Janáky, Csaba; Samu, Gergely F; Huda, Muhammad N; Sarker, Pranab; Liu, J Ping; van Nguyen, Vuong; Wang, Evelyn H; Schug, Kevin A; Rajeshwar, Krishnan

    2015-05-22

    In the search for stable and efficient photocatalysts beyond TiO2 , the tungsten-based oxide semiconductors silver tungstate (Ag2 WO4 ), copper tungstate (CuWO4 ), and zinc tungstate (ZnWO4 ) were prepared using solution combustion synthesis (SCS). The tungsten precursor's influence on the product was of particular relevance to this study, and the most significant effects are highlighted. Each sample's photocatalytic activity towards methyl orange degradation was studied and benchmarked against their respective commercial oxide sample obtained by solid-state ceramic synthesis. Based on the results herein, we conclude that SCS is a time- and energy-efficient method to synthesize crystalline binary tungstate nanomaterials even without additional excessive heat treatment. As many of these photocatalysts possess excellent photocatalytic activity, the discussed synthetic strategy may open sustainable materials chemistry avenues to solar energy conversion and environmental remediation.

  17. 18 CFR 4.84 - Surrender of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surrender of permit. 4.84 Section 4.84 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... may voluntarily surrender its permit. Unless the Commission issues an order to the contrary,...

  18. 18 CFR 4.84 - Surrender of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surrender of permit. 4.84 Section 4.84 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... may voluntarily surrender its permit. Unless the Commission issues an order to the contrary,...

  19. 30 CFR 580.28 - May I relinquish my permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I relinquish my permit? 580.28 Section 580.28 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE.... (b) After you relinquish your permit, you are still responsible for proper abandonment of any...

  20. 30 CFR 580.28 - May I relinquish my permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I relinquish my permit? 580.28 Section 580.28 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE.... (b) After you relinquish your permit, you are still responsible for proper abandonment of any...

  1. 30 CFR 580.28 - May I relinquish my permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I relinquish my permit? 580.28 Section 580.28 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE.... (b) After you relinquish your permit, you are still responsible for proper abandonment of any...

  2. Jobs and Energy Permitting Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Gardner, Cory [R-CO-4

    2011-05-26

    06/27/2011 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 86. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Proton transfer in phenol-amine complexes: phenol electronic effects on free energy profile in solution.

    PubMed

    Aono, Shinji; Kato, Shigeki

    2010-12-01

    Free energy profiles for the proton transfer reactions in hydrogen-bonded complex of phenol with trimethylamine in methyl chloride solvent are studied with the reference interaction site model self-consistent field method. The reactions in both the electronic ground and excited states are considered. The second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation (MP) theory or the second-order multireference MP theory is used to evaluate the effect of the dynamical electron correlation on the free energy profiles. The free energy surface in the ground state shows a discrepancy with the experimental results for the related hydrogen-bonded complexes. To resolve this discrepancy, the effects of chloro-substitutions in phenol are examined, and its importance in stabilizing the ionic form is discussed. The temperature effect is also studied. In contrast to the ground state, the ππ* excited state of phenol-trimethylamine complex exhibits the proton transfer reaction with a low barrier. The reaction is almost thermoneutral. This is attributed to the reduction of proton affinity of phenol by the ππ* electronic excitation. We further examine the possibility of the electron-proton-coupled transfer in the ππ* state through the surface crossing with the charge transfer type πσ* state.

  4. Innovative Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage Solution for Baseload Power Phase 1 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Songgang

    2013-05-15

    The primary purpose of this project is to develop and validate an innovative, scalable phase change salt thermal energy storage (TES) system that can interface with Infinia’s family of free-piston Stirling engines (FPSE). This TES technology is also appropriate for Rankine and Brayton power converters. Solar TES systems based on latent heat of fusion rather than molten salt temperature differences, have many advantages that include up to an order of magnitude higher energy storage density, much higher temperature operation, and elimination of pumped loops for most of Infinia’s design options. DOE has funded four different concepts for solar phase change TES, including one other Infinia awarded project using heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the salt. The unique innovation in this project is an integrated TES/pool boiler heat transfer system that is the simplest approach identified to date and arguably has the best potential for minimizing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The Phase 1 objectives are to design, build and test a 1-hour TES proof-of-concept lab demonstrator integrated with an Infinia 3 kW Stirling engine, and to conduct a preliminary design of a 12-hour TES on-sun prototype.

  5. A decision science approach for integrating social science in climate and energy solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Krishnamurti, Tamar; Davis, Alex; Schwartz, Daniel; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2016-06-01

    The social and behavioural sciences are critical for informing climate- and energy-related policies. We describe a decision science approach to applying those sciences. It has three stages: formal analysis of decisions, characterizing how well-informed actors should view them; descriptive research, examining how people actually behave in such circumstances; and interventions, informed by formal analysis and descriptive research, designed to create attractive options and help decision-makers choose among them. Each stage requires collaboration with technical experts (for example, climate scientists, geologists, power systems engineers and regulatory analysts), as well as continuing engagement with decision-makers. We illustrate the approach with examples from our own research in three domains related to mitigating climate change or adapting to its effects: preparing for sea-level rise, adopting smart grid technologies in homes, and investing in energy efficiency for office buildings. The decision science approach can facilitate creating climate- and energy-related policies that are behaviourally informed, realistic and respectful of the people whom they seek to aid.

  6. FC vehicle hybridisation: an affordable solution for an energy-efficient FC powered drive train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pede, G.; Iacobazzi, A.; Passerini, S.; Bobbio, A.; Botto, G.

    Fuel cells (FCs) have potential as clean and efficient energy sources for automotive applications without sacrifice in performance or driving range. However, the complete FC system must operate as efficiently as possible over the range of driving conditions that may be encountered while maintaining a low cost. To achieve this target, a storage unit can be introduced in the FC system to reduce the size of the fuel cell that is the most expensive component. This "hybrid" concept would not only reduce the drive train total cost but it also allow the recover of the braking energy and the operation at the voltage-current point of maximum efficiency for the FC system. Pro-and-cons of the "full-power" versus the "hybrid" configuration are shown in this work. The "Hybridisation rate" or "Hybridisation degree", a parameter expressed by the relationship between two installed powers, the generation power and the traction power, is also introduced and it is demonstrated that for each category of hybrid vehicles there is an optimal value of hybridisation degree. The storage systems considered are based on high power batteries or ultra capacitors (UCs) or a combination of them. A preliminary design of a sport utility vehicle (SUV) using a combined storage system and a FC energy source (called Triple Hybrid), is proposed. Finally, the experience of the Italian industry in this field is also reviewed.

  7. The Kra Isthmus Canal: A New Strategic Solution for China's Energy Consumption Scenario?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Cheng Yong; Lee, Jason Wai Chow

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a conceptual study that examines the viability of the construction of the Kra Isthmus within the context of the five dimensions of megaproject success of Sovacool and Cooper (The governance of energy megaprojects: politics, hubris, and energy security, 2013)—social (governance), technological (systems), democratic (politics), externalities (economics, ecology), and risks assessments (accountability), and its possible impact on China's strategic energy supply chain. One of the objectives of this study is also to discuss the current impacts, perceived benefits, and risks of China's dependence on its multinational and transnational pipelines. China could see the construction of Kra Canal as an alternative option for its strategic sourcing activities especially crude oil and gas at much lower costs. The megaproject would become a passageway that connects the Indian Ocean, Andaman Sea, and the Gulf of Siam at the choke point of Isthmus region in Thailand. However, this megaproject could also trigger the internal conflicts of Thailand, and affect the ASEAN countries' political and economic relationships.

  8. The Kra Isthmus Canal: A New Strategic Solution for China's Energy Consumption Scenario?

    PubMed

    Lau, Cheng Yong; Lee, Jason Wai Chow

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a conceptual study that examines the viability of the construction of the Kra Isthmus within the context of the five dimensions of megaproject success of Sovacool and Cooper (The governance of energy megaprojects: politics, hubris, and energy security, 2013)-social (governance), technological (systems), democratic (politics), externalities (economics, ecology), and risks assessments (accountability), and its possible impact on China's strategic energy supply chain. One of the objectives of this study is also to discuss the current impacts, perceived benefits, and risks of China's dependence on its multinational and transnational pipelines. China could see the construction of Kra Canal as an alternative option for its strategic sourcing activities especially crude oil and gas at much lower costs. The megaproject would become a passageway that connects the Indian Ocean, Andaman Sea, and the Gulf of Siam at the choke point of Isthmus region in Thailand. However, this megaproject could also trigger the internal conflicts of Thailand, and affect the ASEAN countries' political and economic relationships.

  9. Simple and exact approach to the electronic polarization effect on the solvation free energy: formulation for quantum-mechanical/molecular-mechanical system and its applications to aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hideaki; Omi, Atsushi; Morita, Akihiro; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2012-06-07

    We present a simple and exact numerical approach to compute the free energy contribution δμ in solvation due to the electron density polarization and fluctuation of a quantum-mechanical solute in the quantum-mechanical/molecular-mechanical (QM/MM) simulation combined with the theory of the energy representation (QM/MM-ER). Since the electron density fluctuation is responsible for the many-body QM-MM interactions, the standard version of the energy representation method cannot be applied directly. Instead of decomposing the QM-MM polarization energy into the pairwise additive and non-additive contributions, we take sum of the polarization energies in the QM-MM interaction and adopt it as a new energy coordinate for the method of energy representation. Then, it is demonstrated that the free energy δμ can be exactly formulated in terms of the energy distribution functions for the solution and reference systems with respect to this energy coordinate. The benchmark tests were performed to examine the numerical efficiency of the method with respect to the changes in the individual properties of the solvent and the solute. Explicitly, we computed the solvation free energy of a QM water molecule in ambient and supercritical water, and also the free-energy change associated with the isomerization reaction of glycine from neutral to zwitterionic structure in aqueous solution. In all the systems examined, it was demonstrated that the computed free energy δμ agrees with the experimental value, irrespective of the choice of the reference electron density of the QM solute. The present method was also applied to a prototype reaction of adenosine 5'-triphosphate hydrolysis where the effect of the electron density fluctuation is substantial due to the excess charge. It was demonstrated that the experimental free energy of the reaction has been accurately reproduced with the present approach.

  10. 3-center-4-electron bonding in [(silox)2Mo=NtBu]2(mu-Hg) controls reactivity while frontier orbitals permit a dimolybdenum pi-bond energy estimate.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Devon C; Wolczanski, Peter T; Barakat, Khaldoon A; Buda, Corneliu; Cundari, Thomas R

    2005-06-15

    Na/Hg reduction of (silox)2Cl2Mo=NtBu (3) afforded C2h [(silox)2Mo=NtBu]2(mu-Hg) (12-Hg), which consists of two distorted trigonal monoprisms with Hg at the each apex (d(MoHg) = 2.6810(5) A). Calculations reveal 3c4e bonding in the linear MoHgMo linkage that renders 12-Hg susceptible to nucleophilic cleavage. Exposure to PMe3 and pyridine rapidly (<5 min) affords (silox)2(tBuN)MoLn (L = PMe3, n = 1 (1-PMe3); py, n = 2 (1-py2)), while poorer nucleophiles (L = C2H4, 2-butyne) yield adducts (e.g., 1-C2H4 and 1-C2Me2) after prolonged heating. The HOMO and LUMO of 12-Hg are "stretched" pi and pi* orbitals from which four states arise: 1Ag (GS), 3Bu, 1Bu, and 1Ag. DeltaE = E(1Bu) - E(3Bu) = 2K, where K is the exchange energy. Magnetic studies indicate E(3Bu) - E(1Ag) approximately 550 cm-1 (calcd 1744 cm-1), and a UV-vis absorption at 10 000 cm-1 is assigned to 1Ag --> 1Bu, permitting K to be evaluated as 4725 cm-1. With the pi --> pi* transition in Schrock's [Mo(NAr)(CH2tBu)(OC6F5)]2 (4) assigned at 528 nm, this estimation places its pi-bond energy as {E(pi2 --> pi1pi*1 in 4) - E(1Ag --> 1Bu in 12-Hg)} + E(1Ag --> 3Bu in 12-Hg) = 27 kcal/mol.

  11. Does the history of food energy units suggest a solution to "Calorie confusion"?

    PubMed

    Hargrove, James L

    2007-12-17

    The Calorie (kcal) of present U.S. food labels is similar to the original French definition of 1825. The original published source (now available on the internet) defined the Calorie as the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water from 0 to 1 degrees C. The Calorie originated in studies concerning fuel efficiency for the steam engine and had entered dictionaries by 1840. It was the only energy unit in English dictionaries available to W.O. Atwater in 1887 for his popular articles on food and tables of food composition. Therefore, the Calorie became the preferred unit of potential energy in nutrition science and dietetics, but was displaced when the joule, g-calorie and kcal were introduced. This article will explain the context in which Nicolas Clément-Desormes defined the original Calorie and the depth of his collaboration with Sadi Carnot. It will review the history of other energy units and show how the original Calorie was usurped during the period of international standardization. As a result, no form of the Calorie is recognized as an SI unit. It is untenable to continue to use the same word for different thermal units (g-calorie and kg-calorie) and to use different words for the same unit (Calorie and kcal). The only valid use of the Calorie is in common speech and public nutrition education. To avoid ongoing confusion, scientists should complete the transition to the joule and cease using kcal in any context.

  12. Terbium (III) chelate complexes as fluorescence energy transfer donor in the determination of formaldehyde in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongqi; Zhou, Cailing; Wang, Lun; Chen, Jingguo; Ling, Bo; Fu, Jie

    2011-01-01

    The sensitized fluorescence intensity of the terbium (III) ion can be notably enhanced in the presence of sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP). Based on this, water-soluble Tb-SHMP chelate complexes were synthesized in aqueous solutions, and characterized by spectrofluorometry. 6-Mercapto-5-triazole[4,3-b]-S-tetrazine was generated by the quantitative reaction of HCHO with 4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole under alkaline conditions at room temperature. The spectral overlap between the emission of Tb-SHMP chelate complexes and absorption of 6-mercapto-5-triazole[4,3-b]-S-tetrazine meets the prerequisite for fluorescence energy transfer. Based on this, a novel efficient fluorescence energy transfer system between Tb-SHMP chelate complexes as donor and 6-mercapto-5-triazole[4,3-b]-S-tetrazine as acceptor was developed for the determination of HCHO in aqueous solutions. Under the optimal experimental conditions, this method is capable of detecting HCHO concentrations from 2.06×10(-5) to 6.18×10(-3) mg mL(-1) and the limit of detection was 7.11×10(-6) mg mL(-1). Compared with other general methods for the determination of HCHO, the proposed method improved the sensitivity and selectivity. Moreover, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of HCHO in water samples.

  13. Hybrid density functional-molecular mechanics calculations for core-electron binding energies of glycine in water solution.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Johannes; Arul Murugan, N; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Vahtras, Olav; Li, Cui; Monti, Susanna; Carravetta, Vincenzo; Agren, Hans

    2013-01-07

    We report hybrid density functional theory-molecular mechanics (DFT/MM) calculations performed for glycine in water solution at different pH values. In this paper, we discuss several aspects of the quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations where the dynamics and spectral binding energy shifts are computed sequentially, and where the latter are evaluated over a set of configurations generated by molecular or Car-Parrinello dynamics simulations. In the used model, core ionization takes place in glycine as a quantum mechanical (QM) system modeled with DFT, and the solution is described with expedient force fields in a large molecular mechanical (MM) volume of water molecules. The contribution to the core electronic binding energy from all interactions within and between the two (DFT and MM) parts is accounted for, except charge transfer and dispersion. While the obtained results were found to be in qualitative agreement with experiment, their precision must be qualified with respect to the problem of counter ions, charge transfer and optimal division of QM and MM parts of the system. Results are compared to those of a recent study [Ottoson et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2011, 133, 3120].

  14. An IMS-Based Middleware Solution for Energy-Efficient and Cost-Effective Mobile Multimedia Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellavista, Paolo; Corradi, Antonio; Foschini, Luca

    Mobile multimedia services have recently become of extreme industrial relevance due to the advances in both wireless client devices and multimedia communications. That has motivated important standardization efforts, such as the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) to support session control, mobility, and interoperability in all-IP next generation networks. Notwithstanding the central role of IMS in novel mobile multimedia, the potential of IMS-based service composition for the development of new classes of ready-to-use, energy-efficient, and cost-effective services is still widely unexplored. The paper proposes an original solution for the dynamic and standard-compliant redirection of incoming voice calls towards WiFi-equipped smart phones. The primary design guideline is to reduce energy consumption and service costs for the final user by automatically switching from the 3G to the WiFi infrastructure whenever possible. The proposal is fully compliant with the IMS standard and exploits the recently released IMS presence service to update device location and current communication opportunities. The reported experimental results point out that our solution, in a simple way and with full compliance with state-of-the-art industrially-accepted standards, can significantly increase battery lifetime without negative effects on call initiation delay.

  15. Short-range order effect on resonance energy transfer in rigid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodunov, E. N.; Berberan-Santos, M. N.

    2004-05-01

    Resonance energy transfer by the Förster-Dexter mechanism in a rigid homogeneous medium is modeled using a hard-sphere fluid (HSF) radial distribution function. This distribution is more realistic than the commonly used uniform distribution with excluded volume (UDEV) function. For the dipole-dipole mechanism, both models yield essentially the same donor luminescence decay, except for small critical radii. For the exchange mechanism, however, the two models differ significantly. The HSF model displays a stronger "two-exponential" behavior. Also, to fit a given experimental decay, the UDEV model requires both a larger effective Bohr radius and a larger rate constant at collisional distance than the HSF model.

  16. The influence of reverse energy transport on emission anisotropy in two-component viscous solutions.

    PubMed

    Bojarski, P; Kawski, A

    1992-06-01

    The effect of nonradiative reverse energy transport (NRET) in two donor-acceptor systems was studied experimentally. It was found that the NRET occurring in system I; rhodamine 6G (donor) and rhodamine B (acceptor), considerably lowers the emission anisotropy at medium and high concentrations. These results qualitatively confirm the predictions of the approximate theoretical approach of L. Kulak and C. Bojarski (see the preceding paper). In system II; rhodamine 6G (donor) and Nile Blue (acceptor), for which the NRET process does not occur, a good agreement with no-back-transport theory was obtained.

  17. Environmental Solutions FY05: PNNL Contributions to U.S. Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, Mark D.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2006-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's mission is to protect the Columbia River, a vital regional asset, and the public in cities and towns near the Site. To make decisions and comply with a complex system of regulations, DOE needs reliable, accurate data about the Site. Where are the contaminants now? At what concentrations? What impact do the contaminants have on people that work on the Site and live nearby? To answer these questions and others, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists collect and analyze thousands of soil, groundwater, surface water, plant, and animal samples. The results are then communicated to DOE through reports and conceptual models.

  18. Calendar Year 2007 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Annual Monitoring Report for the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - RCRA Post-Closure Permit Nos. TNHW-113, TNHW-116, and TNHW-128

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental

    2008-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 2007 at the following hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units located at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; this S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm, Bear Creek Burial Grounds/Walk-In Pits (BCBG/WIP), Eastern S-3 Site Plume, Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP), Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Baste (CRSDB), few Hollow Quarry (KHQ), and East Chestnut Ridge Waste Pile (ECRWP). Hit monitoring data were obtained in accordance with the applicable Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) hazardous waste post-closure permit (PCP). The Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) - Division of Solid Waste Management issued the PCPs to define the requirements for RCRA post-closure inspection, maintenance, and groundwater monitoring at the specified TSD units located within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (PCP no. TNHW-116), Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (PCP no. TNHW-113), and Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (PCP no. TNHW-128). Each PCP requires the Submittal of an annual RCRA groundwater monitoring report containing the groundwater sampling information and analytical results obtained at each applicable TSD unit during the preceding CY, along with an evaluation of groundwater low rates and directions and the analytical results for specified RCRA groundwater target compounds; this report is the RCRA annual groundwater monitoring report for CY 2007. The RCRA post-closure groundwater monitoring requirements specified in the above-referenced PCP for the Chestnut Ridge Regime replace those defined in the previous PCP (permit no. TNHW-088), which expired on September 18, 2005, but remained effective until the TDEC issued the new PCP in September 2006. The new PCP defines site-specific groundwater sampling and analysis requirements for the

  19. Building America Case Study: Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes; Whole-House Solutions for New Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-01

    ?This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). The scope of this project involved building four HPMH prototypes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). The HPMH home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.
    home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  20. A Practical Solution to Used Nuclear Fuel Treatment to Enable Sustained Nuclear Energy and Recovery of Vital Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Emory D; DelCul, Guillermo D; Rushton, James E; Williams, Kent Alan

    2010-01-01

    A systems analysis, based on previous in-depth studies, was made to develop an advanced used fuel recycling approach in which over 90% of the fuel components and cladding material are recovered and reused. This can minimize the waste requiring disposition to a geologic repository while enabling sustained nuclear energy and recovery of vital materials. The analysis assumed that: (1) continuing delays will occur in locating a site and licensing a geologic repository in the United States; (2) continued storage of used fuel at reactor sites or central storage locations is not a permanent solution; and (3) public perception is that the unresolved used fuel disposal problem is a deterrent to the continuation and expansion of the use of nuclear energy. The practical solution recommended is to move forward with a parallel approach to (1) deployment of industrialized recycling of used fuels which is a multi-decade process, and (2) focused R&D to recover the re-usable components and minimize residual waste. This approach would use concepts for proliferation resistant recycle facilities, processing oldest fuels first, and incorporating more-complete recycling of used fuel components. In addition to uranium and transuranic actinide recycle, the R&D would be focused on recovery and re-use of valuable components such as noble metals, lighter lanthanide elements, xenon gas, and zirconium from cladding. While the eventual need for a geologic repository will remain, the methods recommended can delay the need, minimize the capacity required, and significantly reduce the hazard of the wastes disposed. With no decision, the path forward for nuclear waste (used fuels) disposal remains uncertain, with many diverse technologies being considered. However, a decision to take advantage of proliferation resistant facility design, processing aged fuels, and incorporation of the concepts of nearcomplete recycling will provide the focus and path forward to a practical solution to the problem of

  1. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Nexus EnergyHomes, Frederick, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-01

    With this new home—which achieved the highest rating possible under the National Green Building Standard—Nexus EnergyHomes demonstrated that green and affordable can go hand in hand. The mixed-humid climate builder, along with the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Home Innovation, embraced the challenge to create a new duplex home in downtown Frederick, Maryland, that successfully combines affordability with state-of-the-art efficiency and indoor environmental quality. To limit costs, the builder designed a simple rectangular shape and kept interesting architectural features such as porches outside the building’s structure. This strategy avoided the common pitfall of creating potential air leakage where architectural features are connected to the structure before the building is sealed against air infiltration. To speed construction and limit costs, the company chose factory-assembled components such as structural insulated panel walls and floor and roof trusses. Factory-built elements were key in achieving continuous insulation around the entire structure. Open-cell spray foam at the rim joist and attic roofline completed the insulation package, and kept the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system in conditioned space.

  2. Business Solutions Case Study: Marketing Zero Energy Homes: LifeStyle Homes, Melbourne, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    Building America research has shown that high-performance homes can potentially give builders an edge in the marketplace and can boost sales. But it doesn't happen automatically. It requires a tailored, easy to understand marketing campaign and sometimes a little flair. This case study highlights LifeStyle Homes’ successful marketing approach for their SunSmart home package, which has helped to boost sales for the company. SunSmart marketing includes a modified logo, weekly blog, social media, traditional advertising, website, and sales staff training. Marketing focuses on quality, durability, healthy indoor air, and energy efficiency with an emphasis on the surety of third-party verification and the scientific approach to developing the SunSmart package. With the introduction of SunSmart, LifeStyle began an early recovery, nearly doubling sales in 2010; SunSmart sales now exceed 300 homes, including more than 20 zero energy homes. Completed homes in 2014 far outpaced the national (19%) and southern census region (27%) recovery rates for the same period. As technology improves and evolves, this builder will continue to collaborate with Building America.

  3. Gasification: An alternative solution for energy recovery and utilization of vegetable market waste.

    PubMed

    Narnaware, Sunil L; Srivastava, Nsl; Vahora, Samir

    2017-03-01

    Vegetables waste is generally utilized through a bioconversion process or disposed of at municipal landfills, dumping sites or dumped on open land, emitting a foul odor and causing health hazards. The presents study deals with an alternative way to utilize solid vegetable waste through a thermochemical route such as briquetting and gasification for its energy recovery and subsequent power generation. Briquettes of 50 mm diameter were produced from four different types of vegetable waste. The bulk density of briquettes produced was increased 10 to 15 times higher than the density of the dried vegetable waste in loose form. The lower heating value (LHV) of the briquettes ranged from 10.26 MJ kg(-1) to 16.60 MJ kg(-1) depending on the type of vegetable waste. The gasification of the briquettes was carried out in an open core downdraft gasifier, which resulted in syngas with a calorific value of 4.71 MJ Nm(-3) at the gasification temperature between 889°C and 1011°C. A spark ignition, internal combustion engine was run on syngas and could generate a maximum load up to 10 kWe. The cold gas efficiency and the hot gas efficiency of the gasifier were measured at 74.11% and 79.87%, respectively. Energy recovery from the organic vegetable waste was possible through a thermochemical conversion route such as briquetting and subsequent gasification and recovery of the fuel for small-scale power generation.

  4. 78 FR 50405 - Amended Application for Presidential Permit; Northern Pass Transmission LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Application for Presidential Permit; Northern Pass Transmission LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Amended Application. SUMMARY: Northern Pass Transmission LLC (Northern Pass) has submitted an amended application for a Presidential permit to construct,...

  5. Evoqua RCRA Permit Application and Draft Permit Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to the proposed RCRA permit for the Evoqua Water Technologies LLC carbon regeneration facility located on the Colorado River Indian Tribes (CRIT) reservation near Parker, Arizona.

  6. Uranyl-glycine-water complexes in solution: comprehensive computational modeling of coordination geometries, stabilization energies, and luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Su, Jing; Zhang, Kai; Schwarz, W H Eugen; Li, Jun

    2011-03-21

    Comprehensive computational modeling of coordination structures, thermodynamic stabilities, and luminescence spectra of uranyl-glycine-water complexes [UO(2)(Gly)(n)aq(m)](2+) (Gly = glycine, aq = H(2)O, n = 0-2, m = 0-5) in aqueous solution has been carried out using relativistic density functional approaches. The solvent is approximated by a dielectric continuum model and additional explicit water molecules. Detailed pictures are obtained by synergic combination of experimental and theoretical data. The optimal equatorial coordination numbers of uranyl are determined to be five. The energies of several complex conformations are competitively close to each other. In non-basic solution the most probable complex forms are those with two water ligands replaced by the bidentate carboxyl groups of zwitterionic glycine. The N,O-chelation in non-basic solution is neither entropically nor enthalpically favored. The symmetric and antisymmetric stretch vibrations of the nearly linear O-U-O unit determine the luminescence features. The shapes of the vibrationally resolved experimental solution spectra are reproduced theoretically with an empirically fitted overall line-width parameter. The calculated luminescence origins correspond to thermally populated, near-degenerate groups of the lowest electronically excited states of (3)Δ(g) and (3)Φ(g) character, originating from (U-O)σ(u) → (U-5f)δ(u),ϕ(u) configurations of the linear [OUO](2+) unit. The intensity distributions of the vibrational progressions are consistent with U-O bond-length changes around 5 1/2 pm. The unusually high intensity of the short wavelength foot is explained by near-degeneracy of vibrationally and electronically excited states, and by intensity enhancement through the asymmetric O-U-O stretch mode. The combination of contemporary computational chemistry and experimental techniques leads to a detailed understanding of structures, thermodynamics, and luminescence of actinide compounds, including

  7. Magnetism and structure of Fe Cu binary solid solutions obtained by high-energy ball milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorria, P.; Martínez-Blanco, D.; Blanco, J. A.; Pérez, M. J.; González, M. A.; Campo, J.

    2006-10-01

    Martensitic phase transformation is found in various metals, alloys, ceramics and even biological systems. This paper reports on the Fe segregated anomalous α- γ martensitic transformation observed in Fe xCu 100-x binary solid solutions ( x=25 and 50) after subsequent heating-cooling processes. A characteristic observable feature of a martensitic transformation is the microstructure it produces, thermal hysteresis, evolution and metastability. We have analysed the microstructure using neutron thermo-diffraction experiments up to 1100 K. The structural changes of the Fe segregated phase, from bcc to fcc crystal structures, have been followed in detail. The most relevant feature is that the onset of martensite transformation is observed, on heating, more than 100 K below the expected temperature for pure bcc-Fe (1183 K), while the reverse transformation occurs below 900 K on cooling. This anomalous behaviour for the α- γ transformation depends on sample composition, being more important for low Fe contents. Besides that, magnetisation vs. temperature measurements show a clear correlation with structure changes, thus exhibiting thermal hysteresis on heating-cooling cycles. Moreover, a magnetisation enhancement above 550 K is observed on heating, this fact can be attributed to thermal-induced ferromagnetism on isolated γ-Fe precipitates via strong magneto-volume coupling.

  8. Software-Defined Solutions for Managing Energy Use in Small to Medium Sized Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Peffer, Therese; Blumstein, Carl; Culler, David; Modera, Mark; Meier, Alan

    2015-09-10

    The Project uses state-of-the-art computer science to extend the benefits of Building Automation Systems (BAS) typically found in large buildings (>100,000 square foot) to medium-sized commercial buildings (<50,000 sq ft). The BAS developed in this project, termed OpenBAS, uses an open-source and open software architecture platform, user interface, and plug-and-play control devices to facilitate adoption of energy efficiency strategies in the commercial building sector throughout the United States. At the heart of this “turn key” BAS is the platform with three types of controllers—thermostat, lighting controller, and general controller—that are easily “discovered” by the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. The user interface showcases the platform and provides the control system set-up, system status display and means of automatically mapping the control points in the system.

  9. Electrostatics in ionic solution : work and energy, charge regulation, and in homogeneous surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, N. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis concerns the electrostatic properties of charged objects that are immersed into an ionic solvent, for example water with dissolved salt. Typically, the ions inside such a solvent form layers of countercharge close to the charged objects, causing `screening' of the charges. By employing Density Functional Theory (DFT) one is able integrate out the degrees of freedom of the ions and find relations that describe the effective electrostatic properties of the charged objects. One finds that for a large parameter regime the electrostatic potential everywhere in the solvent should satisfy the well established Poisson-Boltzmann equation. We study the electrostatic capacity of porous electrodes in salt water, and derive a method to reversibly extract electric energy from salinity gradients that occur for example at an estuary where sea- and river water meet. However, in the main part of this thesis we consider charged colloidal particles, and study the effect of internal porosity as well as heterogeneities in the surface-charge density (patchy particles) on colloid-colloid interactions. In a far-field analysis we derive equations that describe these interactions for particles with nonvanishing multipole moments, for example `Janus' colloids with a strong dipole component. If such particles locally have a high surface charge density, then the nonlinear dependence of the counterion density on the local charge density leads to a generalisation of charge renormalisation from purely monopolar to dipolar, quadrupolar, etc., including `mode couplings'. In a more detailed approach, which turns out to be important for colloidal particles at smaller distances from each other, we consider the chemical processes that lead to surface charge, and specify a parameter regime in which charging can be described by a single `chargeability' parameter. As we show in this thesis, the phase diagrams we obtain within this regime have many similarities with a `constant surface potential

  10. Avoiding Title V permitting pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Laswell, D.L.

    1993-04-01

    Title V of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments requires states to implement new air operating permit programs. States have a great deal of flexibility in developing their permit programs. Industry should work now to ensure that state programs contain the favorable aspects of the federal regulations and do not contain more stringent requirements that are not required under the Clean Air Act. This article outlines areas of the permit program that have the potential to handicap industry`s ability to expand.

  11. Transportation of Large Wind Components: A Permitting and Regulatory Review

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Aaron; Cook, Jeff

    2016-09-01

    This report summarizes permitting and regulatory issues associated with transporting wind turbine blades, towers, and nacelles as well as large transformers (wind components). These wind components are commonly categorized as oversized and overweight (OSOW) and require specific permit approvals from state and local jurisdictions. The report was developed based on a Quadrennial Energy Review (QER) recommendation on logistical requirements for the transportation of 'oversized or high-consequence energy materials, equipment, and components.'

  12. Is shale gas drilling an energy solution or public health crisis?

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Margaret A; Limonik, Elena

    2013-01-01

    High-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing, a controversial new mining technique used to drill for shale gas, is being implemented worldwide. Chemicals used in the process are known neurotoxins, carcinogens, and endocrine disruptors. People who live near shale gas drilling sites report symptoms that they attribute to contaminated air and water. When they seek help from clinicians, a diagnosis is often elusive because the chemicals to which the patients have been exposed are a closely guarded trade secret. Many nurses have voiced grave concern about shale gas drilling safety. Full disclosure of the chemicals used in the process is necessary in order for nurses and other health professionals to effectively care for patients. The economic exuberance surrounding natural gas has resulted in insufficient scrutiny into the health implications. Nursing research aimed at determining what effect unconventional drilling has on human health could help fill that gap. Public health nurses using the precautionary principle should advocate for a more concerted transition from fossil fuels to sustainable energy. Any initiation or further expansion of unconventional gas drilling must be preceded by a comprehensive Health Impact Assessment (HIA).

  13. Correlation between surface free energy of quartz and its wettability by aqueous solutions of nonionic, anionic and cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Zdziennicka, Anna; Szymczyk, Katarzyna; Jańczuk, Bronisław

    2009-12-15

    The measurements of the advancing contact angle for water, glycerol, diiodomethane and aqueous solutions of Triton X-100 (TX-100), Triton X-165 (TX-165), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDDS), sodium hexadecyl sulfonate (SHDS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and cetylpyridinium bromide (CPyB) on quartz surface were carried out. On the basis of the contact angles values obtained for water, glycerol and diiodomethane the values of the Lifshitz-van der Waals component and electron-acceptor and electron-donor parameters of the acid-base component of the surface free energy of quartz were determined. The determined components and parameters of the quartz surface free energy were used for interpretation of the influence of nonionic, anionic and cationic surfactants on the wettability of the quartz. From obtained results it was appeared that the wettability of quartz by nonionic and anionic surfactants practically does not depend on the surfactants concentration in the range corresponding to their unsaturated monolayer at water-air interface and that there is linear dependence between adhesional and surface tension of aqueous solution of these surfactants. This dependence for TX-100, TX-165, SDDS and SHDS can be expressed by lines which slopes are positive. This slope and components of quartz surface free energy indicate that the interaction between the water molecules and quartz surface might be stronger than those between the quartz and surfactants molecules. So, the surface excess of surfactants concentration at the quartz-water interface is probably negative, and the possibility of surfactants to adsorb at the quartz/water film-water interface is higher than at the quartz-water interface. This conclusion is confirmed by the values of the adhesion work of "pure" surfactants, aqueous solutions of surfactants and water to quartz surface. In the case of the cationic surfactants the relationship between adhesional and surface tension is more complicated than that for

  14. Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal Setschenow Salting Constants in Sulfate, Nitrate, and Chloride Solutions: Measurements and Gibbs Energies.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Eleanor M; Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Ziemann, Paul J; Volkamer, Rainer

    2015-10-06

    Knowledge about Setschenow salting constants, KS, the exponential dependence of Henry's Law coefficients on salt concentration, is of particular importance to predict secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from soluble species in atmospheric waters with high salt concentrations, such as aerosols. We have measured KS of glyoxal and methylglyoxal for the atmospherically relevant salts (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, NaNO3, and NaCl and find that glyoxal consistently "salts-in" (KS of -0.16, -0.06, -0.065, -0.1 molality(-1), respectively) while methylglyoxal "salts-out" (KS of +0.16, +0.075, +0.02, +0.06 molality(-1)). We show that KS values for different salts are additive and present an equation for use in atmospheric models. Additionally, we have performed a series of quantum chemical calculations to determine the interactions between glyoxal/methylglyoxal monohydrate with Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), Na(+), and NH4(+) and find Gibbs free energies of water displacement of -10.9, -22.0, -22.9, 2.09, and 1.2 kJ/mol for glyoxal monohydrate and -3.1, -10.3, -7.91, 6.11, and 1.6 kJ/mol for methylglyoxal monohydrate with uncertainties of 8 kJ/mol. The quantum chemical calculations support that SO4(2-), NO3(-), and Cl(-) modify partitioning, while cations do not. Other factors such as ion charge or partitioning volume effects likely need to be considered to fully explain salting effects.

  15. Proposed modifications to the RCRA post-closure permit for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This report presents proposed modifications to several conditions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR) (permit number TNHW-088, EPA ID No. TN3 89 009 0001). These permit conditions define the requirements for RCRA post-closure detection groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) and Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ), and RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSPs). Modification of these PCP conditions is requested to: (1) clarify the planned integration of RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the CRSPs with the monitoring program to be established in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) record of decision (ROD), (2) revise several of the current technical requirements for groundwater monitoring based on implementation of the RCRA monitoring programs during 1996, (3) replace several of the technical procedures included in the PCP with updated versions recently issued by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), and (4) correct inaccurate regulatory citations and references to permit conditions and permit attachments. With these modifications, the Y- 12 Plant will continue to meet the full intent of all regulatory obligations for post-closure care of these facilities. Section 2 provides the technical justification for each proposed permit modification. Section 3.0 contains proposed changes to Section II of the PCP. Modifications to site-specific permit conditions are presented in Section 4.0 (CRSDB), Section 5.0 (CRSPs), and Section 6.0 (KHQ). Sections 7.0 and 8.0 reference updated and revised procedures for groundwater sampling, and monitoring well plugging and abandonment, respectively. Appendix A includes all proposed revisions to the permit attachments.

  16. General multicomponent Yajima-Oikawa system: Painlevé analysis, soliton solutions, and energy-sharing collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanna, T.; Sakkaravarthi, K.; Tamilselvan, K.

    2013-12-01

    We consider the multicomponent Yajima-Oikawa (YO) system and show that the two-component YO system can be derived in a physical setting of a three-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (3-CNLS) type system by the asymptotic reduction method. The derivation is further generalized to the multicomponent case. This set of equations describes the dynamics of nonlinear resonant interaction between a one-dimensional long wave and multiple short waves. The Painlevé analysis of the general multicomponent YO system shows that the underlying set of evolution equations is integrable for arbitrary nonlinearity coefficients which will result in three different sets of equations corresponding to positive, negative, and mixed nonlinearity coefficients. We obtain the general bright N-soliton solution of the multicomponent YO system in the Gram determinant form by using Hirota's bilinearization method and explicitly analyze the one- and two-soliton solutions of the multicomponent YO system for the above mentioned three choices of nonlinearity coefficients. We also point out that the 3-CNLS system admits special asymptotic solitons of bright, dark, anti-dark, and gray types, when the long-wave-short-wave resonance takes place. The short-wave component solitons undergo two types of energy-sharing collisions. Specifically, in the two-component YO system, we demonstrate that two types of energy-sharing collisions—(i) energy switching with opposite nature for a particular soliton in two components and (ii) similar kind of energy switching for a given soliton in both components—result for two different choices of nonlinearity coefficients. The solitons appearing in the long-wave component always exhibit elastic collision whereas those of short-wave components exhibit standard elastic collisions only for a specific choice of parameters. We have also investigated the collision dynamics of asymptotic solitons in the original 3-CNLS system. For completeness, we explore the three

  17. 40 CFR 71.6 - Permit content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permit content. 71.6 Section 71.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL OPERATING PERMIT PROGRAMS Operating Permits § 71.6 Permit content. (a) Standard permit requirements. Each permit issued under this part shall...

  18. 40 CFR 71.25 - Permit content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permit content. 71.25 Section 71.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL OPERATING PERMIT PROGRAMS Permits for Early Reductions Sources § 71.25 Permit content. (a) Standard permit requirements. Each permit issued...

  19. 40 CFR 71.6 - Permit content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permit content. 71.6 Section 71.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL OPERATING PERMIT PROGRAMS Operating Permits § 71.6 Permit content. (a) Standard permit requirements. Each permit issued under this part shall...

  20. 40 CFR 71.6 - Permit content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permit content. 71.6 Section 71.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL OPERATING PERMIT PROGRAMS Operating Permits § 71.6 Permit content. (a) Standard permit requirements. Each permit issued under this part shall...

  1. 40 CFR 71.25 - Permit content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permit content. 71.25 Section 71.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL OPERATING PERMIT PROGRAMS Permits for Early Reductions Sources § 71.25 Permit content. (a) Standard permit requirements. Each permit issued...

  2. 40 CFR 71.25 - Permit content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permit content. 71.25 Section 71.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL OPERATING PERMIT PROGRAMS Permits for Early Reductions Sources § 71.25 Permit content. (a) Standard permit requirements. Each permit issued...

  3. 40 CFR 71.6 - Permit content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permit content. 71.6 Section 71.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL OPERATING PERMIT PROGRAMS Operating Permits § 71.6 Permit content. (a) Standard permit requirements. Each permit issued under this part shall...

  4. 40 CFR 71.25 - Permit content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permit content. 71.25 Section 71.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL OPERATING PERMIT PROGRAMS Permits for Early Reductions Sources § 71.25 Permit content. (a) Standard permit requirements. Each permit issued...

  5. Standard Gibbs free energies of reactions of ozone with free radicals in aqueous solution: quantum-chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Naumov, Sergej; von Sonntag, Clemens

    2011-11-01

    Free radicals are common intermediates in the chemistry of ozone in aqueous solution. Their reactions with ozone have been probed by calculating the standard Gibbs free energies of such reactions using density functional theory (Jaguar 7.6 program). O(2) reacts fast and irreversibly only with simple carbon-centered radicals. In contrast, ozone also reacts irreversibly with conjugated carbon-centered radicals such as bisallylic (hydroxycylohexadienyl) radicals, with conjugated carbon/oxygen-centered radicals such as phenoxyl radicals, and even with nitrogen- oxygen-, sulfur-, and halogen-centered radicals. In these reactions, further ozone-reactive radicals are generated. Chain reactions may destroy ozone without giving rise to products other than O(2). This may be of importance when ozonation is used in pollution control, and reactions of free radicals with ozone have to be taken into account in modeling such processes.

  6. Relaxation of interphase stresses on the later stages of the heterogeneous decomposition of solid solutions. I. Functional of the energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustyugov, Yu. M.; Kondrat'ev, V. V.

    2008-05-01

    For describing the isomorphic heterogeneous decomposition of binary supersaturated solid solutions at the stage of coalescence under conditions of dislocation-matrix diffusion with a relaxation of stresses caused by phase separation, we consider a system representing a precipitation-phase particle in a surrounding matrix + dislocations intersecting the interphase surface and supplying an alloying component to it. In the approximations based on the continuity of the distribution of misfit dislocations on the interphase surface and of the average concentration field, we obtained an expression for the total energy of the system in the form of a functional which depends on the fraction of the relaxed regions of the interphase surface, the number of supplying (feeding) dislocations, and their mutual arrangement. The need for the use of a model functional appears within the framework of the variational problem for determining the equilibrium parameters of the system.

  7. Application of Energy Function as a Measure of Error in the Numerical Solution for Online Transient Stability Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarojkumar, K.; Krishna, S.

    2016-08-01

    Online dynamic security assessment (DSA) is a computationally intensive task. In order to reduce the amount of computation, screening of contingencies is performed. Screening involves analyzing the contingencies with the system described by a simpler model so that computation requirement is reduced. Screening identifies those contingencies which are sure to not cause instability and hence can be eliminated from further scrutiny. The numerical method and the step size used for screening should be chosen with a compromise between speed and accuracy. This paper proposes use of energy function as a measure of error in the numerical solution used for screening contingencies. The proposed measure of error can be used to determine the most accurate numerical method satisfying the time constraint of online DSA. Case studies on 17 generator system are reported.

  8. Energy expenditure during level human walking: seeking a simple and accurate predictive solution.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Lindsay W; Weyand, Peter G

    2016-03-01

    Accurate prediction of the metabolic energy that walking requires can inform numerous health, bodily status, and fitness outcomes. We adopted a two-step approach to identifying a concise, generalized equation for predicting level human walking metabolism. Using literature-aggregated values we compared 1) the predictive accuracy of three literature equations: American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), Pandolf et al., and Height-Weight-Speed (HWS); and 2) the goodness-of-fit possible from one- vs. two-component descriptions of walking metabolism. Literature metabolic rate values (n = 127; speed range = 0.4 to 1.9 m/s) were aggregated from 25 subject populations (n = 5-42) whose means spanned a 1.8-fold range of heights and a 4.2-fold range of weights. Population-specific resting metabolic rates (V̇o2 rest) were determined using standardized equations. Our first finding was that the ACSM and Pandolf et al. equations underpredicted nearly all 127 literature-aggregated values. Consequently, their standard errors of estimate (SEE) were nearly four times greater than those of the HWS equation (4.51 and 4.39 vs. 1.13 ml O2·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively). For our second comparison, empirical best-fit relationships for walking metabolism were derived from the data set in one- and two-component forms for three V̇o2-speed model types: linear (∝V(1.0)), exponential (∝V(2.0)), and exponential/height (∝V(2.0)/Ht). We found that the proportion of variance (R(2)) accounted for, when averaged across the three model types, was substantially lower for one- vs. two-component versions (0.63 ± 0.1 vs. 0.90 ± 0.03) and the predictive errors were nearly twice as great (SEE = 2.22 vs. 1.21 ml O2·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Our final analysis identified the following concise, generalized equation for predicting level human walking metabolism: V̇o2 total = V̇o2 rest + 3.85 + 5.97·V(2)/Ht (where V is measured in m/s, Ht in meters, and V̇o2 in ml O2·kg(-1)·min(-1)).

  9. Efficient Computational Research Protocol to Survey Free Energy Surface for Solution Chemical Reaction in the QM/MM Framework: The FEG-ER Methodology and Its Application to Isomerization Reaction of Glycine in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Norio; Kitamura, Yukichi; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2016-03-03

    In solution chemical reaction, we often need to consider a multidimensional free energy (FE) surface (FES) which is analogous to a Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface. To survey the FES, an efficient computational research protocol is proposed within the QM/MM framework; (i) we first obtain some stable states (or transition states) involved by optimizing their structures on the FES, in a stepwise fashion, finally using the free energy gradient (FEG) method, and then (ii) we directly obtain the FE differences among any arbitrary states on the FES, efficiently by employing the QM/MM method with energy representation (ER), i.e., the QM/MM-ER method. To validate the calculation accuracy and efficiency, we applied the above FEG-ER methodology to a typical isomerization reaction of glycine in aqueous solution, and reproduced quite satisfactorily the experimental value of the reaction FE. Further, it was found that the structural relaxation of the solute in the QM/MM force field is not negligible to estimate correctly the FES. We believe that the present research protocol should become prevailing as one computational strategy and will play promising and important roles in solution chemistry toward solution reaction ergodography.

  10. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 5.1:Expand the Number of Faculty Working in Wind Energy: Wind Energy Supply Chain and Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    Twomey, Janet M.

    2010-04-30

    Wind as a source of energy has gained a significant amount of attention because it is free and green. Construction of a wind farm involves considerable investment, which includes the cost of turbines, nacelles, and towers as well as logistical costs such as transportation of oversized parts and installation costs such as crane-rental costs. The terrain effects at the project site exert considerable influence on the turbine assembly rate and the project duration, which increases the overall installation cost. For higher capacity wind turbines (>3MW), the rental cost of the cranes is significant. In this study, the impact of interest rate, sales price of electricity, terrain effects and availability of cranes on the duration of installation and payback period for the project is analyzed. Optimization of the logistic activities involved during the construction phase of a wind farm contributes to the reduction of the project duration and also increases electricity generation during the construction phase.

  11. Energy spectrum of surface electrons over a 3He - 4He solution with a spatially non-uniform distribution of the light isotope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezsmolnyy, Ya. Yu.; Sokolova, E. S.; Sokolov, S. S.; Studart, Nelson

    2017-02-01

    The energy gap between the ground and first excited energy levels of surface electrons deposited over a dilute 3He - 4He solution is evaluated. Two spatial distributions of 3He atoms near the free surface solution are considered. One consists of a thin though macroscopic 3He film and in the other the 3He concentration varies continuously from the surface inside the liquid. The energy gap is calculated as a function of the parameters of the 3He spatial distribution for these distributions. It is shown that the energy gap dependence on the distribution parameters allows using measurements of intersubband transitions of the surface electrons to determine the 3He concentration distribution and, in principle, the nature of the spatial distribution of the light isotope near the surface of the solution.

  12. Effects of meteorological models on the solution of the surface energy balance and soil temperature variations in bare soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Hirotaka; Šimůnek, Jiri

    2009-07-01

    SummaryA complete evaluation of the soil thermal regime can be obtained by evaluating the movement of liquid water, water vapor, and thermal energy in the subsurface. Such an evaluation requires the simultaneous solution of the system of equations for the surface water and energy balance, and subsurface heat transport and water flow. When only daily climatic data is available, one needs not only to estimate diurnal cycles of climatic data, but to calculate the continuous values of various components in the energy balance equation, using different parameterization methods. The objective of this study is to quantify the impact of the choice of different estimation and parameterization methods, referred together to as meteorological models in this paper, on soil temperature predictions in bare soils. A variety of widely accepted meteorological models were tested on the dataset collected at a proposed low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in the Chihuahua Desert in West Texas. As the soil surface was kept bare during the study, no vegetation effects were evaluated. A coupled liquid water, water vapor, and heat transport model, implemented in the HYDRUS-1D program, was used to simulate diurnal and seasonal soil temperature changes in the engineered cover installed at the site. The modified version of HYDRUS provides a flexible means for using various types of information and different models to evaluate surface mass and energy balance. Different meteorological models were compared in terms of their prediction errors for soil temperatures at seven observation depths. The results obtained indicate that although many available meteorological models can be used to solve the energy balance equation at the soil-atmosphere interface in coupled water, vapor, and heat transport models, their impact on overall simulation results varies. For example, using daily average climatic data led to greater prediction errors, while relatively simple meteorological models may

  13. ULTRACOATINGS: Enabling Energy and Power Solutions in High Contact Stress Environments through Next-Generation Nanocoatings

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.; Qu, J.; Higdon, C. III

    2011-09-30

    This industry-driven project was the result of a successful response by Eaton Corporation to a DOE/ITP Program, Grand Challenge, industry call. It consisted of a one-year effort in which ORNL participated in the area of friction and wear testing. In addition to Eaton Corporation and ORNL (CRADA), the project team included: Ames Laboratory, who developed the underlying concept for titanium- zirconium-boron (TZB) based nanocomposite coatings; Borg-Warner Morse TEC, an automotive engine timing chain manufacturer in Ithaca, New York, with its own proprietary hard coating; and Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc., a dry-solids pump manufacturer in San Fernando Valley, California. This report focuses only on the portion of work that was conducted by ORNL, in a CRADA with Eaton Corporation. A comprehensive final report for the entire effort, which ended in September 2010, has been prepared for DOE by the team. The term 'ultracoatings' derives from the ambitious technical target for the new generation of nanocoatings. As applications, Eaton was specifically considering a fuel pump and a gear application in which the product of the contact pressure and slip velocity during operation of mating surfaces, commonly called the 'PV value', was equal to or greater than 70,000 MPa-m/s. This ambitious target challenges the developers of coatings to produce material capable of strong bonding to the substrate, as well as high wear resistance and the ability to maintain sliding friction at low, energy-saving levels. The partners in this effort were responsible for the selection and preparation of such candidate ultracoatings, and ORNL used established tribology testing capabilities to help screen these candidates for performance. This final report summarizes ORNL's portion of the nanocomposite coatings development effort and presents both generated data and the analyses that were used in the course of this effort. Initial contact stress and speed calculations showed that laboratory tests

  14. Polycrystalline lead iodide films produced by solution evaporation and tested in the mammography X-ray energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condeles, J. F.; Mulato, M.

    2016-02-01

    Lead iodide polycrystalline films have been deposited on corning glass substrates using solution evaporation in oven. Films 6 μm-thick were obtained with full coverage of the substrates as verified by scanning electron microscopy. Some pin-holes were observable. X-ray diffraction revealed a crystalline structure corresponding to the 4 H-PbI2 polytype formation. Polarized Raman scattering experiments indicated a lamellar structure. Anisotropy was also investigated using depolarization ratio calculations. The optical and electrical properties of the samples were investigated using photoluminescence and dark conductivity as a function of temperature, respectively. Activation energies of 0.10 up to 0.89 eV were related to two main electrical transport mechanisms. Films were also exposed to X-ray irradiation in the mammography X-ray energy range. The detector produced was also exposed to X-ray from 5 mR up to 1450 mR. A linear response was observed as a function of dose with a slope of 0.52 nA/mm2 per mR.

  15. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer from pyrene to perylene labels for nucleic acid hybridization assays under homogeneous solution conditions

    PubMed Central

    Masuko, Masayuki; Ohuchi, Shohkichi; Sode, Koji; Ohtani, Hiroyuki; Shimadzu, Akira

    2000-01-01

    We characterized the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from pyrene (donor) to perylene (acceptor) for nucleic acid assays under homogeneous solution conditions. We used the hybridization between a target 32mer and its complementary two sequential 16mer deoxyribonucleotides whose neighboring terminals were each respectively labeled with a pyrene and a perylene residue. A transfer efficiency of ~100% was attained upon the hybridization when observing perylene fluorescence at 459 nm with 347-nm excitation of a pyrene absorption peak. The Förster distance between two dye residues was 22.3 Å (the orientation factor of 2/3). We could change the distance between the residues by inserting various numbers of nucleotides into the center of the target, thus creating a gap between the dye residues on a hybrid. Assuming that the number of inserted nucleotides is proportional to the distance between the dye residues, the energy transfer efficiency versus number of inserted nucleotides strictly obeyed the Förster theory. The mean inter-nucleotide distance of the single-stranded portion was estimated to be 2.1 Å. Comparison between the fluorescent properties of a pyrene–perylene pair with those of a widely used fluorescein–rhodamine pair showed that the pyrene–perylene FRET is suitable for hybridization assays. PMID:10734211

  16. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The Hanford Site is operated by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office. The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a storage unit located on the Hanford Site. The unit consists of two earth-covered railroad tunnels that are used for storage of process equipment (some containing dangerous waste) removed from the PUREX Plant. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railroad cars and remotely transferred into the tunnels for long-term storage. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as a co-operator of the PUREX Storage Tunnels, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The PUREX Storage Tunnels Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Revision O) consists of both a Part A and Part B permit application and is based on information available as of August 31, 1990. An explanation of the Part A revision submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. In this Part A revision, the PUREX Storage Tunnels have been redesignated as a miscellaneous unit. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology.

  17. Merrimack Station Draft NPDES Permit | NPDES Permits in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-02-16

    EPA and the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) have issued a new Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for the Merrimack Station power plant in Bow, New Hampshire.

  18. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Tommy Williams Homes Initial Performance of Two Zero Energy Homes, Gainesville, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-11-01

    Tommy Williams Homes worked with PNNL, Florida HERO, Energy Smart Home Plans, and Florida Solar Energy Center to design and test two zero energy homes. Energy use was 30% lower in one home and 60% lower in the other.

  19. Operating Permits Program Review Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  20. Operating Permit Program Approval Issues

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  1. Energy Solution in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smil, Vaclaw

    1977-01-01

    For more than a decade, the Chinese have been using biogas digesters to produce fuel for homes in rural areas. This article discusses the design, operation, and benefits of these digesters. This means of waste treatment helps improve sanitation, produce fertilizer, and save fossil fuels. (MA)

  2. Hanford Site air operating permit application

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which amended the Federal Clean Air Act of 1977, required that the US Environmental Protection Agency develop a national Air Operating Permit Program, which in turn would require each state to develop an Air Operating Permit Program to identify all sources of ``regulated`` pollutants. Regulated pollutants include ``criteria`` pollutants (oxides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, total suspended particulates, carbon monoxide, particulate matter greater than 10 micron, lead) plus 189 other ``Hazardous`` Air Pollutants. The Hanford Site, owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, is located in southcentral Washington State and covers 560 square miles of semi-arid shrub and grasslands located just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. This land, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas historically used for the production of nuclear materials, waste storage, and waste disposal. About 6 percent of the land area has been disturbed and is actively used. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application consists of more than 1,100 sources and in excess of 300 emission points. Before January 1995, the maintenance and operations contractor and the environmental restoration contractor for the US Department of Energy completed an air emission inventory on the Hanford Site. The inventory has been entered into a database so that the sources and emission points can be tracked and updated information readily can be retrieved. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application contains information current as of April 19, 1995.

  3. Soap Creek Associates NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT-0023183, Soap Creek Associates, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in West, Bighorn County, Montana, to Soap Creek.

  4. Keller Transport, Inc. NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT-0030805, Keller Transport, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its groundwater remediation treatment facility in Lake County, Montana, to Flathead Lake.

  5. Air Emissions Monitoring for Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Operating permits document how air pollution sources will demonstrate compliance with emission limits and also how air pollution sources will monitor, either periodically or continuously, their compliance with emission limits and all other requirements.

  6. Chemtrade Refinery Services NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0034207, Chemtrade Refinery Services, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County,Wyoming, to an unnamed drainage way that flows into the Little Wind River near St. Stephens, Wyo.

  7. Wulf Cattle Depot NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit SD-0034606, the Wulf Cattle Depot is authorized to discharge and must operate their facility in accordance with effluent limitations, monitoring requirements, and other provisions set forth herein.

  8. Shoshone Utility Organization NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0044580, the Shoshone Utility Organization is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County, Wyoming to an unnamed irrigation drainage ditch tributary to the South Fork of the Little Wind R.

  9. Dakota Magic Casino NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit ND-0030813, the Dakota Nation Gaming Enterprise is authorized to discharge from the wastewater treatment facility in Richland County, North Dakota, to a roadside ditch flowing to an unnamed tributary to the Bois de Sioux.

  10. City of Wagner NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit SD-0020184, the City of Wagner, South Dakota is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Charles Mix County, South Dakota, to an unnamed tributary of Choteau Creek.

  11. Rocky Mountain Arsenal NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0035009, the U.S. Department of Interior's Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal recycled water pipeline to Lower Derby Lake in Adams County, Colo.

  12. 9 CFR 104.2 - Permit authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... permits for importing biological products. They shall be: (1) U.S. Veterinary Biological Product Permit for Research and Evaluation; (2) U.S. Veterinary Biological Product Permit for Distribution and Sale; or (3) U.S. Veterinary Biological Product Permit for Transit Shipment Only. (b) A permit shall not...

  13. 40 CFR 172.5 - The permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The permit. 172.5 Section 172.5... PERMITS Federal Issuance of Experimental Use Permits § 172.5 The permit. (a) Issuance. The Experimental Use Permit shall be issued when the Administrator determines that the conditions of section 5 of...

  14. 40 CFR 72.85 - Permit reopenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATION Permit Revisions § 72.85 Permit reopenings. (a) The permitting authority shall reopen an Acid Rain permit for cause whenever: (1) Any additional requirement under the Acid Rain Program becomes applicable... revoked to assure compliance with Acid Rain Program requirements. (b) In reopening an Acid Rain permit...

  15. 40 CFR 72.85 - Permit reopenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATION Permit Revisions § 72.85 Permit reopenings. (a) The permitting authority shall reopen an Acid Rain permit for cause whenever: (1) Any additional requirement under the Acid Rain Program becomes applicable... revoked to assure compliance with Acid Rain Program requirements. (b) In reopening an Acid Rain permit...

  16. 40 CFR 72.85 - Permit reopenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATION Permit Revisions § 72.85 Permit reopenings. (a) The permitting authority shall reopen an Acid Rain permit for cause whenever: (1) Any additional requirement under the Acid Rain Program becomes applicable... revoked to assure compliance with Acid Rain Program requirements. (b) In reopening an Acid Rain permit...

  17. 40 CFR 72.85 - Permit reopenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATION Permit Revisions § 72.85 Permit reopenings. (a) The permitting authority shall reopen an Acid Rain permit for cause whenever: (1) Any additional requirement under the Acid Rain Program becomes applicable... revoked to assure compliance with Acid Rain Program requirements. (b) In reopening an Acid Rain permit...

  18. 40 CFR 72.85 - Permit reopenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATION Permit Revisions § 72.85 Permit reopenings. (a) The permitting authority shall reopen an Acid Rain permit for cause whenever: (1) Any additional requirement under the Acid Rain Program becomes applicable... revoked to assure compliance with Acid Rain Program requirements. (b) In reopening an Acid Rain permit...

  19. 40 CFR 70.6 - Permit content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permit content. 70.6 Section 70.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE OPERATING PERMIT PROGRAMS § 70.6 Permit content. (a) Standard permit requirements. Each permit issued under this part shall include the...

  20. 40 CFR 70.6 - Permit content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permit content. 70.6 Section 70.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE OPERATING PERMIT PROGRAMS § 70.6 Permit content. (a) Standard permit requirements. Each permit issued under this part shall include the...

  1. 40 CFR 70.6 - Permit content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permit content. 70.6 Section 70.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE OPERATING PERMIT PROGRAMS § 70.6 Permit content. (a) Standard permit requirements. Each permit issued under this part shall include the...

  2. 40 CFR 70.6 - Permit content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permit content. 70.6 Section 70.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE OPERATING PERMIT PROGRAMS § 70.6 Permit content. (a) Standard permit requirements. Each permit issued under this part shall include the...

  3. 50 CFR 680.4 - Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... annually or at other times as needed under this part. (3) Transfer. Crab QS and PQS permits issued under § 680.40 and Crab IFQ and IPQ permits issued under this section are transferable, as provided under § 680.41. Crab IFQ hired master permits, Federal crab vessel permits, and RCR permits issued under...

  4. 50 CFR 13.28 - Permit revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit revocation. 13.28 Section 13.28... GENERAL PERMIT PROCEDURES Permit Administration § 13.28 Permit revocation. (a) Criteria for revocation. A... revocation. (1) When the issuing officer believes there are valid grounds for revoking a permit,...

  5. 50 CFR 665.242 - Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in Crustacean Permit Areas 1 or 2 must have a permit issued for that vessel. (4) Harvest of Hawaii crustacean MUS within the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument is subject to the... limited access permit is valid for fishing only in Crustacean Permit Area 1. (2) Only one permit will...

  6. 50 CFR 665.242 - Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in Crustacean Permit Areas 1 or 2 must have a permit issued for that vessel. (4) Harvest of Hawaii crustacean MUS within the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument is subject to the... limited access permit is valid for fishing only in Crustacean Permit Area 1. (2) Only one permit will...

  7. 50 CFR 665.242 - Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in Crustacean Permit Areas 1 or 2 must have a permit issued for that vessel. (4) Harvest of Hawaii crustacean MUS within the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument is subject to the... limited access permit is valid for fishing only in Crustacean Permit Area 1. (2) Only one permit will...

  8. 50 CFR 665.242 - Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in Crustacean Permit Areas 1 or 2 must have a permit issued for that vessel. (4) Harvest of Hawaii crustacean MUS within the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument is subject to the... limited access permit is valid for fishing only in Crustacean Permit Area 1. (2) Only one permit will...

  9. 50 CFR 665.242 - Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in Crustacean Permit Areas 1 or 2 must have a permit issued for that vessel. (4) Harvest of Hawaii crustacean MUS within the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument is subject to the... limited access permit is valid for fishing only in Crustacean Permit Area 1. (2) Only one permit will...

  10. 40 CFR 172.5 - The permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The permit. 172.5 Section 172.5... PERMITS Federal Issuance of Experimental Use Permits § 172.5 The permit. (a) Issuance. The Experimental Use Permit shall be issued when the Administrator determines that the conditions of section 5 of...

  11. 40 CFR 172.5 - The permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The permit. 172.5 Section 172.5... PERMITS Federal Issuance of Experimental Use Permits § 172.5 The permit. (a) Issuance. The Experimental Use Permit shall be issued when the Administrator determines that the conditions of section 5 of...

  12. 40 CFR 172.5 - The permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The permit. 172.5 Section 172.5... PERMITS Federal Issuance of Experimental Use Permits § 172.5 The permit. (a) Issuance. The Experimental Use Permit shall be issued when the Administrator determines that the conditions of section 5 of...

  13. Effect of soaking in water and rumen digeta solutions on metabolizable energy content and chemical composition of barley seeds for use in poultry diet.

    PubMed

    Tabatabee, S N; Sadeghi, G H; Tabeidian, S A

    2007-03-15

    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of soaking in water and different rumen digesta solutions on nutritional value of dry barley seeds. Treatments were included distilled water as control and rumen digesta that diluted with distilled water to obtain 20, 40 and 60% digesta solutions. Solutions have added to 10 kg of barley seed samples to achieve final 30% moisture content. After 21 days the chemical composition and energy content of barley seed were determined. Gross energy of barley seeds did not affected by different experimental treatments. Use of 20% rumen digesta solution resulted to a significant (p<0.01) increase in AME and AMEn content of barley seeds. Barley seed that treated with 40% of rumen digesta solution had highest TME and TMEn content and its different from seeds that treated with 60 and 100% rumen digesta solutions was significant (p<0.05). The chemical composition such as dry matter, crud protein, crude fat, crud fiber, ash and NFE were found to be similar and there was no significant difference. However, soaking in rumen digesta solutions increased crud protein, ether extract, crude fiber and ash content of barley seeds numerically.

  14. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 4.2: UV Degradation Prevention on Fiber-Reinforced Composite Blades. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Twomey, Janet M.

    2010-03-01

    Use of wind energy has expanded very quickly because of the energy prices, environmental concerns and improved efficiency of wind generators. Rather than using metal and alloy based wind turbine blades, larger size fiber (glass and carbon) reinforced composite blades have been recently utilized to increase the efficiency of the wind energy in both high and low wind potential areas. In the current composite manufacturing, pre-preg and vacuum-assisted/heat sensitive resin transfer molding and resin infusion methods are employed. However, these lighter, stiffer and stronger composite blades experience ultraviolet (UV) light degradation where polymers (epoxies and hardeners) used for the blades manufacturing absorb solar UV lights, and cause photolytic, thermo-oxidative and photo-oxidative reactions resulting in breaking of carbon-hydrogen bonds, polymer degradation and internal and external stresses. One of the main reasons is the weak protective coatings/paints on the composite blades. This process accelerates the aging and fatigue cracks, and reduces the overall mechanical properties of the blades. Thus, the lack of technology on coatings for blade manufacturing is forcing many government agencies and private companies (local and national windmill companies) to find a better solution for the composite wind blades. Kansas has a great wind potential for the future energy demand, so efficient wind generators can be an option for continuous energy production. The research goal of the present project was to develop nanocomposite coatings using various inclusions against UV degradation and corrosion, and advance the fundamental understanding of degradation (i.e., physical, chemical and physiochemical property changes) on those coatings. In pursuit of the research goal, the research objective of the present program was to investigate the effects of UV light and duration on various nanocomposites made mainly of carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoflakes, contribute the

  15. Evaluation of protein-protein docking model structures using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations combined with the solution theory in the energy representation.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Kazuhiro; Guo, Hao; Sakuraba, Shun; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Kitao, Akio

    2012-12-07

    We propose a method to evaluate binding free energy differences among distinct protein-protein complex model structures through all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water using the solution theory in the energy representation. Complex model structures are generated from a pair of monomeric structures using the rigid-body docking program ZDOCK. After structure refinement by side chain optimization and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water, complex models are evaluated based on the sum of their conformational and solvation free energies, the latter calculated from the energy distribution functions obtained from relatively short molecular dynamics simulations of the complex in water and of pure water based on the solution theory in the energy representation. We examined protein-protein complex model structures of two protein-protein complex systems, bovine trypsin/CMTI-1 squash inhibitor (PDB ID: 1PPE) and RNase SA/barstar (PDB ID: 1AY7), for which both complex and monomer structures were determined experimentally. For each system, we calculated the energies for the crystal complex structure and twelve generated model structures including the model most similar to the crystal structure and very different from it. In both systems, the sum of the conformational and solvation free energies tended to be lower for the structure similar to the crystal. We concluded that our energy calculation method is useful for selecting low energy complex models similar to the crystal structure from among a set of generated models.

  16. EOS for critical slurry and solution systems

    SciTech Connect

    DiPeso, G; Peterson, P

    1998-10-27

    In a fire involving fissile material, the mixture of the fissile material ash with fire fighting water may lead to a criticality excursion if there are nearby sumps that permit a critical geometry. The severity of the resulting energy release and pressure pulse is dependent on the rate at which the mixing occurs. To calculate these excursions, a non-equilibrium equation of state for the water ash mixture or slurry is needed that accounts for the thermal non-equilibrium that occurs due to finite heat transfer rates. We are developing the slurry EOS as well as a lumped neutronic and hydrodynamic model to serve as a testing ground for the non-equilibrium EOS before its incorporation into more sophisticated neutronic-hydrodynamics codes. Though the model lacks spatial dependence, it provides estimates of energy release and pressure pulses for various mixture assembly rates. We are also developing a non-equilibrium EOS for critical solution systems in which the fissile material is dissolved in water, which accounts for chemical non-equilibrium due to finite mass transfer rates. In contrast to previously published solution EOS, our solution EOS specifically accounts for mass diffusion of dissolved radiolytic gas to bubble nucleation sites. This EOS was developed to check our overall modeling against published solution excursion experiments and to compare solution excursions with slurry excursions initiated under the same conditions. Preliminary results indicate a good match between solution EOS calculations and experiments involving premixed 60-80 g U/l solutions for both low rate and high rate reactivity insertions. Comparison between slurry and solution calculations for the same composition show comparable energy release and pressure peaks for both low and high rate reactivity insertions with the slurry releasing less energy but generating more pressure than the solution for the amount of energy released. Calculations more appropriate to actual fire fighting scenarios

  17. Coordination and hydrolysis of plutonium ions in aqueous solution using Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics free energy simulations.

    PubMed

    Odoh, Samuel O; Bylaska, Eric J; de Jong, Wibe A

    2013-11-27

    Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations have been used to examine the hydration structures, coordination energetics, and the first hydrolysis constants of Pu(3+), Pu(4+), PuO2(+), and PuO2(2+) ions in aqueous solution at 300 K. The coordination numbers and structural properties of the first shell of these ions are in good agreement with available experimental estimates. The hexavalent PuO2(2+) species is coordinated to five aquo ligands while the pentavalent PuO2(+) complex is coordinated to four aquo ligands. The Pu(3+) and Pu(4+) ions are both coordinated to eight water molecules. The first hydrolysis constants obtained for Pu(3+) and PuO2(2+) are 6.65 and 5.70, respectively, all within 0.3 pH unit of the experimental values (6.90 and 5.50, respectively). The hydrolysis constant of Pu(4+), 0.17, disagrees with the value of -0.60 in the most recent update of the Nuclear Energy Agency Thermochemical Database (NEA-TDB) but supports recent experimental findings. The hydrolysis constant of PuO2(+), 9.51, supports the experimental results of Bennett et al. [Radiochim. Acta 1992, 56, 15]. A correlation between the pKa of the first hydrolysis reaction and the effective charge of the plutonium center was found.

  18. Turnkey Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning and Lighting Retrofit Solution Combining Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Doebber, Ian; Deru, Michael; Trenbath, Kim

    2016-04-12

    NREL worked with the Bonneville Power Administration's Technology Innovation Office to demonstrate a turnkey, retrofit technology that combines demand response (DR) and energy efficiency (EE) benefits for HVAC and lighting in retail buildings. As a secondary benefit, we also controlled various plug loads and electric hot water heaters (EHWH). The technology demonstrated was Transformative Wave's eIQ Building Management System (BMS) automatically responding to DR signals. The BMS controlled the HVAC rooftop units (RTU) using the CATALYST retrofit solution also developed by Transformative Wave. The non-HVAC loads were controlled using both hardwired and ZigBee wireless communication. The wireless controllers, manufactured by Autani, were used when the building's electrical layout was too disorganized to leverage less expensive hardwired control. The six demonstration locations are within the Seattle metro area. Based on the assets curtailed by the BMS at each location, we projected the DR resource. We were targeting a 1.7 W/ft2 shed for the summer Day-Ahead events and a 0.7 W/ft2 shed for the winter events. While summarized in Table ES-1, only one summer DR event was conducted at Casino #2.

  19. A priori calculations of the free energy of formation from solution of polymorphic self-assembled monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Panduwinata, Dwi; Visser, Johan; Chin, Yiing; Tang, Chunguang; Goerigk, Lars; Ford, Michael J.; Sintic, Maxine; Sum, Tze-Jing; Coenen, Michiel J. J.; Hendriksen, Bas L. M.; Elemans, Johannes A. A. W.; Hush, Noel S.; Crossley, Maxwell J.

    2015-01-01

    Modern quantum chemical electronic structure methods typically applied to localized chemical bonding are developed to predict atomic structures and free energies for meso-tetraalkylporphyrin self-assembled monolayer (SAM) polymorph formation from organic solution on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite surfaces. Large polymorph-dependent dispersion-induced substrate−molecule interactions (e.g., −100 kcal mol−1 to −150 kcal mol−1 for tetratrisdecylporphyrin) are found to drive SAM formation, opposed nearly completely by large polymorph-dependent dispersion-induced solvent interactions (70–110 kcal mol−1) and entropy effects (25–40 kcal mol−1 at 298 K) favoring dissolution. Dielectric continuum models of the solvent are used, facilitating consideration of many possible SAM polymorphs, along with quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical and dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations. These predict and interpret newly measured and existing high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy images of SAM structure, rationalizing polymorph formation conditions. A wide range of molecular condensed matter properties at room temperature now appear suitable for prediction and analysis using electronic structure calculations. PMID:26512115

  20. Coordination and Hydrolysis of Plutonium Ions in Aqueous Solution using Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Free Energy Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Odoh, Samuel O.; Bylaska, Eric J.; De Jong, Wibe A.

    2013-11-27

    Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations have been used to examine the hydration structures, coordination energetics and the first hydrolysis constants of Pu3+, Pu4+, PuO2+ and PuO22+ ions in aqueous solution at 300 K. The coordination numbers and structural properties of the first shell of these ions are in good agreement with available experimental estimates. The hexavalent PuO22+ species is coordinated to 5 aquo ligands while the pentavalent PuO2+ complex is coordinated to 4 aquo ligands. The Pu3+ and Pu4+ ions are both coordinated to 8 water molecules. The first hydrolysis constants obtained for Pu3+ and PuO22+ are 6.65 and 5.70 respectively, all within 0.3 pH units of the experimental values (6.90 and 5.50 respectively). The hydrolysis constant of Pu4+, 0.17, disagrees with the value of -0.60 in the most recent update of the Nuclear Energy Agency Thermochemical Database (NEA-TDB) but supports recent experimental findings. The hydrolysis constant of PuO2+, 9.51, supports the experimental results of Bennett et al. (Radiochim. Act. 1992, 56, 15). A correlation between the pKa of the first hydrolysis reaction and the effective charge of the plutonium center was found.