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Sample records for permutation flow shop

  1. Discrete Bat Algorithm for Optimal Problem of Permutation Flow Shop Scheduling

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qifang; Zhou, Yongquan; Xie, Jian; Ma, Mingzhi; Li, Liangliang

    2014-01-01

    A discrete bat algorithm (DBA) is proposed for optimal permutation flow shop scheduling problem (PFSP). Firstly, the discrete bat algorithm is constructed based on the idea of basic bat algorithm, which divide whole scheduling problem into many subscheduling problems and then NEH heuristic be introduced to solve subscheduling problem. Secondly, some subsequences are operated with certain probability in the pulse emission and loudness phases. An intensive virtual population neighborhood search is integrated into the discrete bat algorithm to further improve the performance. Finally, the experimental results show the suitability and efficiency of the present discrete bat algorithm for optimal permutation flow shop scheduling problem. PMID:25243220

  2. An effective hybrid immune algorithm for solving the distributed permutation flow-shop scheduling problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ye; Wang, Ling; Wang, Shengyao; Liu, Min

    2014-09-01

    In this article, an effective hybrid immune algorithm (HIA) is presented to solve the distributed permutation flow-shop scheduling problem (DPFSP). First, a decoding method is proposed to transfer a job permutation sequence to a feasible schedule considering both factory dispatching and job sequencing. Secondly, a local search with four search operators is presented based on the characteristics of the problem. Thirdly, a special crossover operator is designed for the DPFSP, and mutation and vaccination operators are also applied within the framework of the HIA to perform an immune search. The influence of parameter setting on the HIA is investigated based on the Taguchi method of design of experiment. Extensive numerical testing results based on 420 small-sized instances and 720 large-sized instances are provided. The effectiveness of the HIA is demonstrated by comparison with some existing heuristic algorithms and the variable neighbourhood descent methods. New best known solutions are obtained by the HIA for 17 out of 420 small-sized instances and 585 out of 720 large-sized instances.

  3. A Multipopulation PSO Based Memetic Algorithm for Permutation Flow Shop Scheduling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruochen; Ma, Chenlin; Ma, Wenping; Li, Yangyang

    2013-01-01

    The permutation flow shop scheduling problem (PFSSP) is part of production scheduling, which belongs to the hardest combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper, a multipopulation particle swarm optimization (PSO) based memetic algorithm (MPSOMA) is proposed in this paper. In the proposed algorithm, the whole particle swarm population is divided into three subpopulations in which each particle evolves itself by the standard PSO and then updates each subpopulation by using different local search schemes such as variable neighborhood search (VNS) and individual improvement scheme (IIS). Then, the best particle of each subpopulation is selected to construct a probabilistic model by using estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA) and three particles are sampled from the probabilistic model to update the worst individual in each subpopulation. The best particle in the entire particle swarm is used to update the global optimal solution. The proposed MPSOMA is compared with two recently proposed algorithms, namely, PSO based memetic algorithm (PSOMA) and hybrid particle swarm optimization with estimation of distribution algorithm (PSOEDA), on 29 well-known PFFSPs taken from OR-library, and the experimental results show that it is an effective approach for the PFFSP. PMID:24453841

  4. A new Nawaz-Enscore-Ham-based heuristic for permutation flow-shop problems with bicriteria of makespan and machine idle time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weibo; Jin, Yan; Price, Mark

    2016-10-01

    A new heuristic based on the Nawaz-Enscore-Ham algorithm is proposed in this article for solving a permutation flow-shop scheduling problem. A new priority rule is proposed by accounting for the average, mean absolute deviation, skewness and kurtosis, in order to fully describe the distribution style of processing times. A new tie-breaking rule is also introduced for achieving effective job insertion with the objective of minimizing both makespan and machine idle time. Statistical tests illustrate better solution quality of the proposed algorithm compared to existing benchmark heuristics.

  5. Job-base conditions in the three-machine flow-shop makespan scheduling problem with separated sequence-independent setup times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabeshima, I.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present sufficiently optimal job-base conditions for a specified sequence in the NP-complete three-machine permutation flow-shop makespan scheduling problem with separated sequence-independent setup times, contrary to the machine-base conditions proposed in the previous papers. Those conditions give us a chance to identify an optimal sequence in O (n sub 2) operations especially in the case where no existing machine-base condition can identify an optimal sequence. As a special case, we have similar known results associated with the usual flow-shop case with setup times included.

  6. An effective PSO-based memetic algorithm for flow shop scheduling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Ling; Jin, Yi-Hui

    2007-02-01

    This paper proposes an effective particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based memetic algorithm (MA) for the permutation flow shop scheduling problem (PFSSP) with the objective to minimize the maximum completion time, which is a typical non-deterministic polynomial-time (NP) hard combinatorial optimization problem. In the proposed PSO-based MA (PSOMA), both PSO-based searching operators and some special local searching operators are designed to balance the exploration and exploitation abilities. In particular, the PSOMA applies the evolutionary searching mechanism of PSO, which is characterized by individual improvement, population cooperation, and competition to effectively perform exploration. On the other hand, the PSOMA utilizes several adaptive local searches to perform exploitation. First, to make PSO suitable for solving PFSSP, a ranked-order value rule based on random key representation is presented to convert the continuous position values of particles to job permutations. Second, to generate an initial swarm with certain quality and diversity, the famous Nawaz-Enscore-Ham (NEH) heuristic is incorporated into the initialization of population. Third, to balance the exploration and exploitation abilities, after the standard PSO-based searching operation, a new local search technique named NEH_1 insertion is probabilistically applied to some good particles selected by using a roulette wheel mechanism with a specified probability. Fourth, to enrich the searching behaviors and to avoid premature convergence, a simulated annealing (SA)-based local search with multiple different neighborhoods is designed and incorporated into the PSOMA. Meanwhile, an effective adaptive meta-Lamarckian learning strategy is employed to decide which neighborhood to be used in SA-based local search. Finally, to further enhance the exploitation ability, a pairwise-based local search is applied after the SA-based search. Simulation results based on benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness

  7. Unfair permutations

    PubMed Central

    Prodinger, Helmut; Schneider, Carsten; Wagner, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    We study unfair permutations, which are generated by letting n players draw numbers and assuming that player i draws i times from the unit interval and records her largest value. This model is natural in the context of partitions: the score of the ith player corresponds to the multiplicity of the summand i in a random partition, with the roles of minimum and maximum interchanged. We study the distribution of several parameters, namely the position of player i, the number of inversions, and the number of ascents. To perform some of the heavy computations, we use the computer algebra package Sigma. PMID:27087722

  8. Permutation Machines.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Swapnil; LaBoda, Craig; Yanez, Vanessa; Haddock-Angelli, Traci; Densmore, Douglas

    2016-08-19

    We define a new inversion-based machine called a permuton of n genetic elements, which allows the n elements to be rearranged in any of the n·(n - 1)·(n - 2)···2 = n! distinct orderings. We present two design algorithms for architecting such a machine. We define a notion of a feasible design and use the framework to discuss the feasibility of the permuton architectures. We have implemented our design algorithms in a freely usable web-accessible software for exploration of these machines. Permutation machines could be used as memory elements or state machines and explicitly illustrate a rational approach to designing biological systems.

  9. Permutation Machines.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Swapnil; LaBoda, Craig; Yanez, Vanessa; Haddock-Angelli, Traci; Densmore, Douglas

    2016-08-19

    We define a new inversion-based machine called a permuton of n genetic elements, which allows the n elements to be rearranged in any of the n·(n - 1)·(n - 2)···2 = n! distinct orderings. We present two design algorithms for architecting such a machine. We define a notion of a feasible design and use the framework to discuss the feasibility of the permuton architectures. We have implemented our design algorithms in a freely usable web-accessible software for exploration of these machines. Permutation machines could be used as memory elements or state machines and explicitly illustrate a rational approach to designing biological systems. PMID:27383067

  10. Linear models: permutation methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, B.S.; Everitt, B.S.; Howell, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    Permutation tests (see Permutation Based Inference) for the linear model have applications in behavioral studies when traditional parametric assumptions about the error term in a linear model are not tenable. Improved validity of Type I error rates can be achieved with properly constructed permutation tests. Perhaps more importantly, increased statistical power, improved robustness to effects of outliers, and detection of alternative distributional differences can be achieved by coupling permutation inference with alternative linear model estimators. For example, it is well-known that estimates of the mean in linear model are extremely sensitive to even a single outlying value of the dependent variable compared to estimates of the median [7, 19]. Traditionally, linear modeling focused on estimating changes in the center of distributions (means or medians). However, quantile regression allows distributional changes to be estimated in all or any selected part of a distribution or responses, providing a more complete statistical picture that has relevance to many biological questions [6]...

  11. Two-machine flow shop scheduling integrated with preventive maintenance planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijin; Liu, Ming

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates an integrated optimisation problem of production scheduling and preventive maintenance (PM) in a two-machine flow shop with time to failure of each machine subject to a Weibull probability distribution. The objective is to find the optimal job sequence and the optimal PM decisions before each job such that the expected makespan is minimised. To investigate the value of integrated scheduling solution, computational experiments on small-scale problems with different configurations are conducted with total enumeration method, and the results are compared with those of scheduling without maintenance but with machine degradation, and individual job scheduling combined with independent PM planning. Then, for large-scale problems, four genetic algorithm (GA) based heuristics are proposed. The numerical results with several large problem sizes and different configurations indicate the potential benefits of integrated scheduling solution and the results also show that proposed GA-based heuristics are efficient for the integrated problem.

  12. Scheduling of flow shop problems on 3 machines in fuzzy environment with double transport facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathish, Shakeela; Ganesan, K.

    2016-06-01

    Flow shop scheduling is a decision making problem in production and manufacturing field which has a significant impact on the performance of an organization. When the machines on which jobs are to be processed are placed at different places, the transportation time plays a significant role in production. Further two different transport agents where 1st takes the job from 1st machine to 2nd machine and then returns back to the first machine and the 2nd takes the job from 2nd machine to 3rd machine and then returns back to the 2nd machine are also considered. We propose a method to minimize the total make span; without converting the fuzzy processing time to classical numbers by using a new type of fuzzy arithmetic and a fuzzy ranking method. A numerical example is provided to explain the proposed method.

  13. A branch-and-bound algorithm for makespan minimization in differentiation flow shops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yen-Cheng; Fang, Kuei-Tang; Lin, Bertrand

    2013-12-01

    This article considers a differentiation flow-shop model, where the jobs are divided into various categories, each of which consists of two stages of operations. All products should be processed first on the single common machine at stage 1. At the second stage, each individual product proceeds to a dedicated machine according to its type. The problem of makespan minimization under the setting with two product types is known to be strongly NP hard. This article considers an arbitrary number of job types by developing a lower bound and two dominance rules, based upon which branch-and-bound algorithms are designed. Computational experiments are carried out to examine the performance of the proposed properties. The statistics show that the proposed properties can substantially reduce the computing efforts required for finding optimal solutions.

  14. Scheduling algorithm for flow shop with two batch-processing machines and arbitrary job sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Bayi; Yang, Shanlin; Hu, Xiaoxuan; Li, Kai

    2014-03-01

    This article considers the problem of scheduling two batch-processing machines in flow shop where the jobs have arbitrary sizes and the machines have limited capacity. The jobs are processed in batches and the total size of jobs in each batch cannot exceed the machine capacity. Once a batch is being processed, no interruption is allowed until all the jobs in it are completed. The problem of minimising makespan is NP-hard in the strong sense. First, we present a mathematical model of the problem using integer programme. We show the scale of feasible solutions of the problem and provide optimality properties. Then, we propose a polynomial time algorithm with running time in O(nlogn). The jobs are first assigned in feasible batches and then scheduled on machines. For the general case, we prove that the proposed algorithm has a performance guarantee of 4. For the special case where the processing times of each job on the two machines satisfy p 1 j = ap 2 j , the performance guarantee is ? for a > 0.

  15. Tetrachoric Correlation: A Permutation Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Michael A.; Berry, Kenneth J.; Mielke, Paul W., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    An exact permutation test is provided for the tetrachoric correlation coefficient. Comparisons with the conventional test employing Student's t distribution demonstrate the necessity of using the permutation approach for small sample sizes and/or disproportionate marginal frequency totals. (Contains 4 tables.)

  16. Visual recognition of permuted words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Sheikh Faisal; Shafait, Faisal; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2010-02-01

    In current study we examine how letter permutation affects in visual recognition of words for two orthographically dissimilar languages, Urdu and German. We present the hypothesis that recognition or reading of permuted and non-permuted words are two distinct mental level processes, and that people use different strategies in handling permuted words as compared to normal words. A comparison between reading behavior of people in these languages is also presented. We present our study in context of dual route theories of reading and it is observed that the dual-route theory is consistent with explanation of our hypothesis of distinction in underlying cognitive behavior for reading permuted and non-permuted words. We conducted three experiments in lexical decision tasks to analyze how reading is degraded or affected by letter permutation. We performed analysis of variance (ANOVA), distribution free rank test, and t-test to determine the significance differences in response time latencies for two classes of data. Results showed that the recognition accuracy for permuted words is decreased 31% in case of Urdu and 11% in case of German language. We also found a considerable difference in reading behavior for cursive and alphabetic languages and it is observed that reading of Urdu is comparatively slower than reading of German due to characteristics of cursive script.

  17. Multi-level block permutation

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Anderson M.; Webster, Matthew A.; Vidaurre, Diego; Nichols, Thomas E.; Smith, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Under weak and reasonable assumptions, mainly that data are exchangeable under the null hypothesis, permutation tests can provide exact control of false positives and allow the use of various non-standard statistics. There are, however, various common examples in which global exchangeability can be violated, including paired tests, tests that involve repeated measurements, tests in which subjects are relatives (members of pedigrees) — any dataset with known dependence among observations. In these cases, some permutations, if performed, would create data that would not possess the original dependence structure, and thus, should not be used to construct the reference (null) distribution. To allow permutation inference in such cases, we test the null hypothesis using only a subset of all otherwise possible permutations, i.e., using only the rearrangements of the data that respect exchangeability, thus retaining the original joint distribution unaltered. In a previous study, we defined exchangeability for blocks of data, as opposed to each datum individually, then allowing permutations to happen within block, or the blocks as a whole to be permuted. Here we extend that notion to allow blocks to be nested, in a hierarchical, multi-level definition. We do not explicitly model the degree of dependence between observations, only the lack of independence; the dependence is implicitly accounted for by the hierarchy and by the permutation scheme. The strategy is compatible with heteroscedasticity and variance groups, and can be used with permutations, sign flippings, or both combined. We evaluate the method for various dependence structures, apply it to real data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) as an example application, show that false positives can be avoided in such cases, and provide a software implementation of the proposed approach. PMID:26074200

  18. Permutations and time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Cánovas, Jose S; Guillamón, Antonio

    2009-12-01

    The main aim of this paper is to show how the use of permutations can be useful in the study of time series analysis. In particular, we introduce a test for checking the independence of a time series which is based on the number of admissible permutations on it. The main improvement in our tests is that we are able to give a theoretical distribution for independent time series.

  19. Stochastic flow shop scheduling of overlapping jobs on tandem machines in application to optimizing the US Army's deliberate nuclear, biological, and chemical decontamination process, (final report). Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, V.

    1991-05-01

    The U.S. Army's detailed equipment decontamination process is a stochastic flow shop which has N independent non-identical jobs (vehicles) which have overlapping processing times. This flow shop consists of up to six non-identical machines (stations). With the exception of one station, the processing times of the jobs are random variables. Based on an analysis of the processing times, the jobs for the 56 Army heavy division companies were scheduled according to the best shortest expected processing time - longest expected processing time (SEPT-LEPT) sequence. To assist in this scheduling the Gap Comparison Heuristic was developed to select the best SEPT-LEPT schedule. This schedule was then used in balancing the detailed equipment decon line in order to find the best possible site configuration subject to several constraints. The detailed troop decon line, in which all jobs are independent and identically distributed, was then balanced. Lastly, an NBC decon optimization computer program was developed using the scheduling and line balancing results. This program serves as a prototype module for the ANBACIS automated NBC decision support system.... Decontamination, Stochastic flow shop, Scheduling, Stochastic scheduling, Minimization of the makespan, SEPT-LEPT Sequences, Flow shop line balancing, ANBACIS.

  20. An effective shuffled frog-leaping algorithm for solving the hybrid flow-shop scheduling problem with identical parallel machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ye; Wang, Ling; Wang, Shengyao; Liu, Min

    2013-12-01

    In this article, an effective shuffled frog-leaping algorithm (SFLA) is proposed to solve the hybrid flow-shop scheduling problem with identical parallel machines (HFSP-IPM). First, some novel heuristic decoding rules for both job order decision and machine assignment are proposed. Then, three hybrid decoding schemes are designed to decode job order sequences to schedules. A special bi-level crossover and multiple local search operators are incorporated in the searching framework of the SFLA to enrich the memetic searching behaviour and to balance the exploration and exploitation capabilities. Meanwhile, some theoretical analysis for the local search operators is provided for guiding the local search. The parameter setting of the algorithm is also investigated based on the Taguchi method of design of experiments. Finally, numerical testing based on well-known benchmarks and comparisons with some existing algorithms are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  1. Asymptotic analysis of online algorithms and improved scheme for the flow shop scheduling problem with release dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Danyu

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses the flow shop scheduling problem to minimise the total quadratic completion time (TQCT) with release dates in offline and online environments. For this NP-hard problem, the investigation is focused on the performance of two online algorithms based on the Shortest Processing Time among Available jobs rule. Theoretical results indicate the asymptotic optimality of the algorithms as the problem scale is sufficiently large. To further enhance the quality of the original solutions, the improvement scheme is provided for these algorithms. A new lower bound with performance guarantee is provided, and computational experiments show the effectiveness of these heuristics. Moreover, several results of the single-machine TQCT problem with release dates are also obtained for the deduction of the main theorem.

  2. Novel permutation measures for image encryption algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-El-Hafiz, Salwa K.; AbdElHaleem, Sherif H.; Radwan, Ahmed G.

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes two measures for the evaluation of permutation techniques used in image encryption. First, a general mathematical framework for describing the permutation phase used in image encryption is presented. Using this framework, six different permutation techniques, based on chaotic and non-chaotic generators, are described. The two new measures are, then, introduced to evaluate the effectiveness of permutation techniques. These measures are (1) Percentage of Adjacent Pixels Count (PAPC) and (2) Distance Between Adjacent Pixels (DBAP). The proposed measures are used to evaluate and compare the six permutation techniques in different scenarios. The permutation techniques are applied on several standard images and the resulting scrambled images are analyzed. Moreover, the new measures are used to compare the permutation algorithms on different matrix sizes irrespective of the actual parameters used in each algorithm. The analysis results show that the proposed measures are good indicators of the effectiveness of the permutation technique.

  3. A discrete artificial bee colony algorithm incorporating differential evolution for the flow-shop scheduling problem with blocking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yu-Yan; Gong, Dunwei; Sun, Xiaoyan

    2015-07-01

    A flow-shop scheduling problem with blocking has important applications in a variety of industrial systems but is underrepresented in the research literature. In this study, a novel discrete artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is presented to solve the above scheduling problem with a makespan criterion by incorporating the ABC with differential evolution (DE). The proposed algorithm (DE-ABC) contains three key operators. One is related to the employed bee operator (i.e. adopting mutation and crossover operators of discrete DE to generate solutions with good quality); the second is concerned with the onlooker bee operator, which modifies the selected solutions using insert or swap operators based on the self-adaptive strategy; and the last is for the local search, that is, the insert-neighbourhood-based local search with a small probability is adopted to improve the algorithm's capability in exploitation. The performance of the proposed DE-ABC algorithm is empirically evaluated by applying it to well-known benchmark problems. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is superior to the compared algorithms in minimizing the makespan criterion.

  4. Empirical pathway analysis, without permutation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi-Hui; Barry, William T; Wright, Fred A

    2013-07-01

    Resampling-based expression pathway analysis techniques have been shown to preserve type I error rates, in contrast to simple gene-list approaches that implicitly assume the independence of genes in ranked lists. However, resampling is intensive in computation time and memory requirements. We describe accurate analytic approximations to permutations of score statistics, including novel approaches for Pearson's correlation, and summed score statistics, that have good performance for even relatively small sample sizes. Our approach preserves the essence of permutation pathway analysis, but with greatly reduced computation. Extensions for inclusion of covariates and censored data are described, and we test the performance of our procedures using simulations based on real datasets. These approaches have been implemented in the new R package safeExpress.

  5. Doctor shopping.

    PubMed

    Klienschmidt, R; Price, J; Caught, K

    1995-06-01

    Many patients attending a drug and alcohol treatment service reported doctor shopping for benzodiazepines as "all too easy". How, we asked, could this activity be recognised and countered? This paper describes this activity and the attitude of some of the doctors affected by it.

  6. Permutations and topological entropy for interval maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiurewicz, Michal

    2003-05-01

    Recently Bandt, Keller and Pompe (2002 Entropy of interval maps via permutations Nonlinearity 15 1595-602) introduced a method of computing the entropy of piecewise monotone interval maps by counting permutations exhibited by initial pieces of orbits. We show that for topological entropy this method does not work for arbitrary continuous interval maps. We also show that for piecewise monotone interval maps topological entropy can be computed by counting permutations exhibited by periodic orbits.

  7. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2008-06-24

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  8. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    SciTech Connect

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-04-16

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  9. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    SciTech Connect

    Waldo, Geoffrey S; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-02-12

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  10. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    SciTech Connect

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2011-06-14

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  11. 14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  12. Permutation parity machines for neural cryptography.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Oscar Mauricio; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz

    2010-06-01

    Recently, synchronization was proved for permutation parity machines, multilayer feed-forward neural networks proposed as a binary variant of the tree parity machines. This ability was already used in the case of tree parity machines to introduce a key-exchange protocol. In this paper, a protocol based on permutation parity machines is proposed and its performance against common attacks (simple, geometric, majority and genetic) is studied.

  13. Permutation parity machines for neural cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, Oscar Mauricio; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz

    2010-06-15

    Recently, synchronization was proved for permutation parity machines, multilayer feed-forward neural networks proposed as a binary variant of the tree parity machines. This ability was already used in the case of tree parity machines to introduce a key-exchange protocol. In this paper, a protocol based on permutation parity machines is proposed and its performance against common attacks (simple, geometric, majority and genetic) is studied.

  14. Feasibility study of respiratory questionnaire and peak flow recordings in autobody shop workers exposed to isocyanate-containing spray paint: observations and limitations.

    PubMed

    Cullen, M R; Redlich, C A; Beckett, W S; Weltmann, B; Sparer, J; Jackson, G; Ruff, T; Rubinstein, E; Holden, W

    1996-06-01

    Diisocyanates, highly reactive monomers which cross-link polyurethane, are the most widely recognized causes of occupational asthma. Many exposed workers are end-users, including autobody spray painters who form a large population at risk. Neither the factors which determine incidence rate nor strategies for control have been adequately studied in this setting. We have conducted a cross-sectional survey of 23 (about one in five) autobody shops in the New Haven area to determine the feasibility of clinical epidemiological studies in this population. Among 102 workers, there was a high rate of airway symptoms consistent with occupational asthma (19.6%). Symptoms were most prevalent among those with the greatest opportunity for exposure (dedicated spray painters) and least among office workers; part-time painters had intermediate rates. Atopy was not associated with risk while smoking seemed to correlate with symptoms. Regular use of air-supplied respirators appeared to be associated with lower risk among workers who painted part- or full-time. We were unable to validate the questionnaire responses with peak expiratory flow record data attempted on a 1/3 sample of the workers. Despite intensive training and effort, subject compliance was limited. Among those who provided adequate data (24 of 38), only two demonstrated unequivocal evidence of labile airways; two others demonstrated lesser changes consistent with an occupational effect on flow rates. There was no clear association between these findings and either questionnaire responses or exposure classification. Overall, the survey suggests that there is a high prevalence of airway symptoms among workers in autobody shops, at least in part due to work-related asthma. However, there is need for both methodological and substantive research in this setting to document rates of occupational asthma and to develop a scientific basis for its effective control. PMID:8695771

  15. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  16. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  17. 16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). Note the large segmental-arched doorway to move locomotives in and out of Machine Shop. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  18. Permutation inference for the general linear model

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Anderson M.; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Webster, Matthew A.; Smith, Stephen M.; Nichols, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Permutation methods can provide exact control of false positives and allow the use of non-standard statistics, making only weak assumptions about the data. With the availability of fast and inexpensive computing, their main limitation would be some lack of flexibility to work with arbitrary experimental designs. In this paper we report on results on approximate permutation methods that are more flexible with respect to the experimental design and nuisance variables, and conduct detailed simulations to identify the best method for settings that are typical for imaging research scenarios. We present a generic framework for permutation inference for complex general linear models (glms) when the errors are exchangeable and/or have a symmetric distribution, and show that, even in the presence of nuisance effects, these permutation inferences are powerful while providing excellent control of false positives in a wide range of common and relevant imaging research scenarios. We also demonstrate how the inference on glm parameters, originally intended for independent data, can be used in certain special but useful cases in which independence is violated. Detailed examples of common neuroimaging applications are provided, as well as a complete algorithm – the “randomise” algorithm – for permutation inference with the glm. PMID:24530839

  19. Permutation entropy: One concept, two approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amigó, J. M.; Keller, K.

    2013-06-01

    Since C. Bandt and B. Pompe introduced permutation entropy in 2002 for piecewise strictly monotonous self-maps of one-dimensional intervals, this concept has been generalized to ever more general settings by means of two similar, though not equivalent, approaches. The first one keeps the original spirit in that it uses "sharp" dynamics and the corresponding ordinal partitions. The second uses symbolic (or "coarse-grained" dynamics with respect to arbitrary finite partitions, as in the conventional approach to the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of dynamical systems. Precisely, one of the main questions along these two avenues refers to the relation between permutation entropy and Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. In this paper the authors will explain the underpinnings of both approaches and the latest theoretical results on permutation entropy. The authors also discuss some remaining open questions.

  20. Learn & Shop: Teaching Composition in Shopping Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, James R.; Strahl, Ronald

    1982-01-01

    Describes a learn and shop program conducted by Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis in various shopping malls around the city. Discusses how the atmosphere of composition courses held off campus influences students' attitudes toward writing and college-level work. (HTH)

  1. Measure permutation formulas in Feynman's operational calculi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K. S.; Kim, B. S.; Park, Y. H.

    2010-03-01

    In Jefferies-Johnson’s theory of Feynman’s operational calculi for noncommuting operators, the two operators T µ 1,µ 2 f( Ã, tilde B ) and T µ 2,µ1 f( Ã, tilde B ) are not equal. Relationships between these two operators are given, i.e., “measure permutation formulas” in Feynman’s operational calculi are developed; they correspond to the “index permutation formula” in Maslov’s discretized version of Feynman’s operational calculus.

  2. Faster permutation inference in brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Anderson M; Ridgway, Gerard R; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Nichols, Thomas E; Smith, Stephen M

    2016-11-01

    Permutation tests are increasingly being used as a reliable method for inference in neuroimaging analysis. However, they are computationally intensive. For small, non-imaging datasets, recomputing a model thousands of times is seldom a problem, but for large, complex models this can be prohibitively slow, even with the availability of inexpensive computing power. Here we exploit properties of statistics used with the general linear model (GLM) and their distributions to obtain accelerations irrespective of generic software or hardware improvements. We compare the following approaches: (i) performing a small number of permutations; (ii) estimating the p-value as a parameter of a negative binomial distribution; (iii) fitting a generalised Pareto distribution to the tail of the permutation distribution; (iv) computing p-values based on the expected moments of the permutation distribution, approximated from a gamma distribution; (v) direct fitting of a gamma distribution to the empirical permutation distribution; and (vi) permuting a reduced number of voxels, with completion of the remainder using low rank matrix theory. Using synthetic data we assessed the different methods in terms of their error rates, power, agreement with a reference result, and the risk of taking a different decision regarding the rejection of the null hypotheses (known as the resampling risk). We also conducted a re-analysis of a voxel-based morphometry study as a real-data example. All methods yielded exact error rates. Likewise, power was similar across methods. Resampling risk was higher for methods (i), (iii) and (v). For comparable resampling risks, the method in which no permutations are done (iv) was the absolute fastest. All methods produced visually similar maps for the real data, with stronger effects being detected in the family-wise error rate corrected maps by (iii) and (v), and generally similar to the results seen in the reference set. Overall, for uncorrected p-values, method (iv

  3. The organization of permutation architectures with bussed interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilian, Joe; Kipnis, Sholomo; Leiserson, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of efficiently permuting data stored in VLSI chips is explored in accordance with a predetermined set of permutations. By connecting chips with shared bus interconnections, as opposed to point-to-point interconnections, it is shown that the number of pins per chip can often be reduced. Uniform permutation architectures were also considered that realize permutations in several clock ticks, instead of one, and show that further savings in the number of pins per chip can be obtained.

  4. The organization of permutation architectures with bused interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilian, Joe; Kipnis, Shlomo; Leiserson, Charles E.

    1990-11-01

    The problem of efficiently permuting data stored in VLSI chips is explored, in accordance with a predetermined set of permutations. By connecting chips with shared bus interconnections, as opposed to point-to-point interconnections, it is shown that the number of pins per chip can often be reduced. Uniform permutation architectures are also considered that realize permutations in several clock ticks, instead of one, and it is demonstrated that further savings in the number of pins per chip can be obtained.

  5. A hybrid job-shop scheduling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellingrath, Bernd; Robbach, Peter; Bayat-Sarmadi, Fahid; Marx, Andreas

    1992-01-01

    The intention of the scheduling system developed at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Material Flow and Logistics is the support of a scheduler working in a job-shop. Due to the existing requirements for a job-shop scheduling system the usage of flexible knowledge representation and processing techniques is necessary. Within this system the attempt was made to combine the advantages of symbolic AI-techniques with those of neural networks.

  6. 6. NORTH END OF MACHINE SHOP. FORGE SHOP (HAER No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. NORTH END OF MACHINE SHOP. FORGE SHOP (HAER No. CA-326-K) ON LEFT, FORD PLANT IN DISTANCE, NE BY 60. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Machine Shop, 1311 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. Neighbourhood generation mechanism applied in simulated annealing to job shop scheduling problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Chávez, Marco Antonio

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a neighbourhood generation mechanism for the job shop scheduling problems (JSSPs). In order to obtain a feasible neighbour with the generation mechanism, it is only necessary to generate a permutation of an adjacent pair of operations in a scheduling of the JSSP. If there is no slack time between the adjacent pair of operations that is permuted, then it is proven, through theory and experimentation, that the new neighbour (schedule) generated is feasible. It is demonstrated that the neighbourhood generation mechanism is very efficient and effective in a simulated annealing.

  8. Speeding up Permutation Testing in Neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Chris; Ithapu, Vamsi K; Sun, Qinyuan; Johnson, Sterling C; Singh, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Multiple hypothesis testing is a significant problem in nearly all neuroimaging studies. In order to correct for this phenomena, we require a reliable estimate of the Family-Wise Error Rate (FWER). The well known Bonferroni correction method, while simple to implement, is quite conservative, and can substantially under-power a study because it ignores dependencies between test statistics. Permutation testing, on the other hand, is an exact, non-parametric method of estimating the FWER for a given α-threshold, but for acceptably low thresholds the computational burden can be prohibitive. In this paper, we show that permutation testing in fact amounts to populating the columns of a very large matrix P. By analyzing the spectrum of this matrix, under certain conditions, we see that P has a low-rank plus a low-variance residual decomposition which makes it suitable for highly sub-sampled - on the order of 0.5% - matrix completion methods. Based on this observation, we propose a novel permutation testing methodology which offers a large speedup, without sacrificing the fidelity of the estimated FWER. Our evaluations on four different neuroimaging datasets show that a computational speedup factor of roughly 50× can be achieved while recovering the FWER distribution up to very high accuracy. Further, we show that the estimated α-threshold is also recovered faithfully, and is stable. PMID:25309108

  9. Report Card. Learn & Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ.-Purdue Univ., Indianapolis.

    The Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis'"Learn & Shop" program, which offers regular college credit courses in convenient shopping centers, is discussed. In addition to providing information on students, books and libraries, curriculum, and classes, consideration is given to advantages for students, retailers, and the school. Also…

  10. Shopping. Teaching Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Florida Cooperative Extension Service.

    One in a series of consumer education materials for 4-H Club members and secondary students, this document focuses on shopping and purchasing. The series is based on the philosophy that teens need the training and guidance to develop the skills needed to become competent consumers. The shopping project is designed to acquaint students with some of…

  11. 20. MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING SOUTH. SHOP IS EQUIPPED WITH A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING SOUTH. SHOP IS EQUIPPED WITH A 25-TON SHAW CRANE TO HANDLE PARTS FROM RAIL CARS INTO THE SHOP. MACHINE SHOP HANDLES ALL NECESSARY REPAIR WORK ON THE DOCK MACHINERY. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  12. Practical considerations of permutation entropy. A tutorial review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedl, M.; Müller, A.; Wessel, N.

    2013-06-01

    More than ten years ago Bandt and Pompe introduced a new measure to quantify complexity in measured time series. During these ten years, this measure has been modified and extended. In this review we will give a brief introduction to permutation entropy, explore the different fields of utilization where permutation entropy has been applied and provide a guide on how to choose appropriate parameters for different applications of permutation entropy.

  13. Mercury Shopping Cart Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Mercury Shopping Cart Interface (MSCI) is a reusable component of the Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) program described in another article. MSCI is a means of encapsulating the logic and information needed to describe an orderable item consistent with Mercury Shopping Cart service protocol. Designed to be used with Web-browser software, MSCI generates Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) pages on which ordering information can be entered. MSCI comprises two types of Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) modules: template modules and shopping-cart logic modules. Template modules generate HTML pages for entering the required ordering details and enable submission of the order via a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) post. Shopping cart modules encapsulate the logic and data needed to describe an individual orderable item to the Mercury Shopping Cart service. These modules evaluate information entered by the user to determine whether it is sufficient for the Shopping Cart service to process the order. Once an order has been passed from MSCI to a deployed Mercury Shopping Cart server, there is no further interaction with the user.

  14. Weight distributions for turbo codes using random and nonrandom permutations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S.; Divsalar, D.

    1995-01-01

    This article takes a preliminary look at the weight distributions achievable for turbo codes using random, nonrandom, and semirandom permutations. Due to the recursiveness of the encoders, it is important to distinguish between self-terminating and non-self-terminating input sequences. The non-self-terminating sequences have little effect on decoder performance, because they accumulate high encoded weight until they are artificially terminated at the end of the block. From probabilistic arguments based on selecting the permutations randomly, it is concluded that the self-terminating weight-2 data sequences are the most important consideration in the design of constituent codes; higher-weight self-terminating sequences have successively decreasing importance. Also, increasing the number of codes and, correspondingly, the number of permutations makes it more and more likely that the bad input sequences will be broken up by one or more of the permuters. It is possible to design nonrandom permutations that ensure that the minimum distance due to weight-2 input sequences grows roughly as the square root of (2N), where N is the block length. However, these nonrandom permutations amplify the bad effects of higher-weight inputs, and as a result they are inferior in performance to randomly selected permutations. But there are 'semirandom' permutations that perform nearly as well as the designed nonrandom permutations with respect to weight-2 input sequences and are not as susceptible to being foiled by higher-weight inputs.

  15. 15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northeast (90mm lens). The arched cutouts in the bottom chords of the roof trusses were necessary to provide clearance for the smokestacks of steam locomotives, and also mark the location of the former inspection pit in the floor (now filled in and covered by a new concrete floor). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  16. Permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Grégoire; Maillet, Jean-Bernard; Stoltz, Gabriel

    2015-09-14

    We present a permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations, defined through a functional representation of atomic positions. This distance enables us to directly compare different atomic environments with an arbitrary number of particles, without going through a space of reduced dimensionality (i.e., fingerprints) as an intermediate step. Moreover, this distance is naturally invariant through permutations of atoms, avoiding the time consuming associated minimization required by other common criteria (like the root mean square distance). Finally, the invariance through global rotations is accounted for by a minimization procedure in the space of rotations solved by Monte Carlo simulated annealing. A formal framework is also introduced, showing that the distance we propose verifies the property of a metric on the space of atomic configurations. Two examples of applications are proposed. The first one consists in evaluating faithfulness of some fingerprints (or descriptors), i.e., their capacity to represent the structural information of a configuration. The second application concerns structural analysis, where our distance proves to be efficient in discriminating different local structures and even classifying their degree of similarity.

  17. Permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Ferré, Grégoire; Maillet, Jean-Bernard; Stoltz, Gabriel

    2015-09-14

    We present a permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations, defined through a functional representation of atomic positions. This distance enables us to directly compare different atomic environments with an arbitrary number of particles, without going through a space of reduced dimensionality (i.e., fingerprints) as an intermediate step. Moreover, this distance is naturally invariant through permutations of atoms, avoiding the time consuming associated minimization required by other common criteria (like the root mean square distance). Finally, the invariance through global rotations is accounted for by a minimization procedure in the space of rotations solved by Monte Carlo simulated annealing. A formal framework is also introduced, showing that the distance we propose verifies the property of a metric on the space of atomic configurations. Two examples of applications are proposed. The first one consists in evaluating faithfulness of some fingerprints (or descriptors), i.e., their capacity to represent the structural information of a configuration. The second application concerns structural analysis, where our distance proves to be efficient in discriminating different local structures and even classifying their degree of similarity.

  18. An Educational Shopping Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bernardis, Amo

    1970-01-01

    A comparison is made between the Portland Community College (Oregon) physical plant and a shopping center. The college planners have arranged the facilities to provide useful, practical, and effective educational opportunities for all of the students. (BB)

  19. Space Odyssey Gift Shop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Space Odyssey Gift Shop located in StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., offers every visitor the opportunity to go home with 'the right stuff' from his or her StenniSphere visit. The gift shop is located just inside the front doors to StenniSphere and offers a wide range of space-related apparel, memorabilia, toys, books, mission patches and more.

  20. A Fuzzy Permutation Method for False Discovery Rate Control.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Hui; Lin, Wan-Yu; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical researchers often encounter the large-p-small-n situations-a great number of variables are measured/recorded for only a few subjects. The authors propose a fuzzy permutation method to address the multiple testing problem for small sample size studies. The method introduces fuzziness into standard permutation analysis to produce randomized p-values, which are then converted into q-values for false discovery rate controls. Simple algebra shows that the fuzzy permutation method is at least as powerful as the standard permutation method under any alternative. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the proposed method has desirable statistical properties whether the study variables are normally or non-normally distributed. A real dataset is analyzed to illustrate its use. The proposed fuzzy permutation method is recommended for use in the large-p-small-n settings. PMID:27328860

  1. A Fuzzy Permutation Method for False Discovery Rate Control.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Hui; Lin, Wan-Yu; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2016-06-22

    Biomedical researchers often encounter the large-p-small-n situations-a great number of variables are measured/recorded for only a few subjects. The authors propose a fuzzy permutation method to address the multiple testing problem for small sample size studies. The method introduces fuzziness into standard permutation analysis to produce randomized p-values, which are then converted into q-values for false discovery rate controls. Simple algebra shows that the fuzzy permutation method is at least as powerful as the standard permutation method under any alternative. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the proposed method has desirable statistical properties whether the study variables are normally or non-normally distributed. A real dataset is analyzed to illustrate its use. The proposed fuzzy permutation method is recommended for use in the large-p-small-n settings.

  2. A Fuzzy Permutation Method for False Discovery Rate Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ya-Hui; Lin, Wan-Yu; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2016-06-01

    Biomedical researchers often encounter the large-p-small-n situations—a great number of variables are measured/recorded for only a few subjects. The authors propose a fuzzy permutation method to address the multiple testing problem for small sample size studies. The method introduces fuzziness into standard permutation analysis to produce randomized p-values, which are then converted into q-values for false discovery rate controls. Simple algebra shows that the fuzzy permutation method is at least as powerful as the standard permutation method under any alternative. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the proposed method has desirable statistical properties whether the study variables are normally or non-normally distributed. A real dataset is analyzed to illustrate its use. The proposed fuzzy permutation method is recommended for use in the large-p-small-n settings.

  3. A Fuzzy Permutation Method for False Discovery Rate Control

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ya-Hui; Lin, Wan-Yu; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical researchers often encounter the large-p-small-n situations—a great number of variables are measured/recorded for only a few subjects. The authors propose a fuzzy permutation method to address the multiple testing problem for small sample size studies. The method introduces fuzziness into standard permutation analysis to produce randomized p-values, which are then converted into q-values for false discovery rate controls. Simple algebra shows that the fuzzy permutation method is at least as powerful as the standard permutation method under any alternative. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the proposed method has desirable statistical properties whether the study variables are normally or non-normally distributed. A real dataset is analyzed to illustrate its use. The proposed fuzzy permutation method is recommended for use in the large-p-small-n settings. PMID:27328860

  4. TWO APPLICATIONS OF PERMUTATION TESTS IN BIOSTASTICS.

    PubMed

    León-Novelo, Luis; Kemppainen, Kaisa M; Ardissone, Alexandria; Davis-Richardson, Austin; Fagen, Jennie; Gano, Kelsey; Triplett, Eric W

    2013-10-01

    We show two examples of how we answer biological questions by converting them into statistical hypothesis testing problems. We consider gene abundance data, and apply permutation tests. Though these tests are simple, they allow us to test biologically relevant hypotheses. Here we present the analysis of data rising from two studies on Type 1 Diabetes. In the first study [3] are interested in comparing the gut bacterial biodiversity in children at risk and not at risk of developing diabetes. In the second study, [4] compare the gut bacterial biodiversity of children in six different sites in USA and Europe. The statistical analyses presented here are parts of the "statistical methods" in two papers mentioned above. Here we offer a detailed explanation of the "Statistical Methods" addressed to readers with a statistics background. PMID:25221355

  5. TWO APPLICATIONS OF PERMUTATION TESTS IN BIOSTASTICS.

    PubMed

    León-Novelo, Luis; Kemppainen, Kaisa M; Ardissone, Alexandria; Davis-Richardson, Austin; Fagen, Jennie; Gano, Kelsey; Triplett, Eric W

    2013-10-01

    We show two examples of how we answer biological questions by converting them into statistical hypothesis testing problems. We consider gene abundance data, and apply permutation tests. Though these tests are simple, they allow us to test biologically relevant hypotheses. Here we present the analysis of data rising from two studies on Type 1 Diabetes. In the first study [3] are interested in comparing the gut bacterial biodiversity in children at risk and not at risk of developing diabetes. In the second study, [4] compare the gut bacterial biodiversity of children in six different sites in USA and Europe. The statistical analyses presented here are parts of the "statistical methods" in two papers mentioned above. Here we offer a detailed explanation of the "Statistical Methods" addressed to readers with a statistics background.

  6. Eyes Wide Shopped: Shopping Situations Trigger Arousal in Impulsive Buyers

    PubMed Central

    Serfas, Benjamin G.; Büttner, Oliver B.; Florack, Arnd

    2014-01-01

    The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures. PMID:25489955

  7. Overall interior view of structures shop (11 shop) located on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall interior view of structures shop (11 shop) located on west side of building 57 - looking north; the south end of the structures shop was devoted to welding heavy plate foundations and ship components; the floor is fabricated of case steel and features a grillwork of 1 1/2 fabricated holes which are used as sockets for gripping position pins. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. View north of inside machine shop 36; shop floor accommodates ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of inside machine shop 36; shop floor accommodates lathes capable of machining a cylinder 60 inches in diameter and 75 feet long; other equipment includes horizontal and vertical jig borders, hydraulic tube straighteners and other equipment for precision machining of large ship components. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Interior of girder shop, from older section of shop showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of girder shop, from older section of shop showing older (1880's) construction of roof trusses. Compare with earlier views in this series. - Phoenix Iron Company, Girder Shop No. 6, North of French Creek, west of Gay Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  10. 5. Machine shop and air brake shop sections of roundhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Machine shop and air brake shop sections of roundhouse in background. Foundry (MN-99-B) in foreground. View to south. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  11. Modified permutation-entropy analysis of heartbeat dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Chunhua; Qin, Chang; Ma, Qianli D. Y.; Shen, Qinghong

    2012-02-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) contains important information about the modulation of the cardiovascular system. Various methods of nonlinear dynamics (e.g., estimating Lyapunov exponents) and complexity measures (e.g., correlation dimension or entropies) have been applied to HRV analysis. Permutation entropy, which was proposed recently, has been widely used in many fields due to its conceptual and computational simplicity. It maps a time series onto a symbolic sequence of permutation ranks. The original permutation entropy assumes the time series under study has a continuous distribution, thus equal values are rare and can be ignored by ranking them according to their order of emergence, or broken by adding small random perturbations to ensure every symbol in a sequence is different. However, when the observed time series is digitized with lower resolution leading to a greater number of equal values, or the equalities represent certain characteristic sequential patterns of the system, it may not be rational to simply ignore or break them. In the present paper, a modified permutation entropy is proposed that, by mapping the equal value onto the same symbol (rank), allows for a more accurate characterization of system states. The application of the modified permutation entropy to the analysis of HRV is investigated using clinically collected data. Results show that modified permutation entropy can greatly improve the ability to distinguish the HRV signals under different physiological and pathological conditions. It can characterize the complexity of HRV more effectively than the original permutation entropy.

  12. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  13. The Shopping Center. Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Darrell; And Others

    This teaching guide is designed to develop thinking skills of intermediate elementary school children by using the concept of a shopping center. Thinking skills defined in the guide are observing, recalling, noticing differences and similarities, ordering, grouping, concept labeling, classifying, concept testing, inferring causes and effects,…

  14. Shopping Mall 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canny, Marie C.

    1996-01-01

    An alternative high school program operates at a shopping center in Northern Virginia. Landmark Career Academy is a partnership between the Fairfax County Schools, a private organization that helps fund school-to-work programs, and Landmark Mall. So far, academy students are earning better grades than they did in their traditional high school…

  15. One-stop shopping.

    PubMed

    Snow, C

    1996-11-25

    The long-term-care industry's new mantras are "continuum of care" and "one-stop shopping." Companies are trying to please consumers who are clamoring for more senior-living options and managed-care organizations that want administratively simple contracting arrangements.

  16. The Micro-Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Barbara

    1992-01-01

    To reduce teacher isolation and encourage sharing of expertise, schools should consider brief workshops or 15-minute "micro-shops" on various topics ranging from making electrical circuit boards to setting up a salt-water aquarium. This article and accompanying sidebar discuss benefits and set-up strategies. (MLH)

  17. Optical brush: Imaging through permuted probes.

    PubMed

    Heshmat, Barmak; Lee, Ik Hyun; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    The combination of computational techniques and ultrafast imaging have enabled sensing through unconventional settings such as around corners, and through diffusive media. We exploit time of flight (ToF) measurements to enable a flexible interface for imaging through permuted set of fibers. The fibers are randomly distributed in the scene and are packed on the camera end, thus making a brush-like structure. The scene is illuminated by two off-axis optical pulses. Temporal signatures of fiber tips in the scene are used to localize each fiber. Finally, by combining the position and measured intensity of each fiber, the original input is reconstructed. Unlike conventional fiber bundles with packed set of fibers that are limited by a narrow field of view (FOV), lack of flexibility, and extended coaxial precalibration, the proposed optical brush is flexible and uses off-axis calibration method based on ToF. The enabled brush form can couple to other types of ToF imaging systems. This can impact probe-based applications such as, endoscopy, tomography, and industrial imaging and sensing. PMID:26868954

  18. Optical brush: Imaging through permuted probes

    PubMed Central

    Heshmat, Barmak; Lee, Ik Hyun; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    The combination of computational techniques and ultrafast imaging have enabled sensing through unconventional settings such as around corners, and through diffusive media. We exploit time of flight (ToF) measurements to enable a flexible interface for imaging through permuted set of fibers. The fibers are randomly distributed in the scene and are packed on the camera end, thus making a brush-like structure. The scene is illuminated by two off-axis optical pulses. Temporal signatures of fiber tips in the scene are used to localize each fiber. Finally, by combining the position and measured intensity of each fiber, the original input is reconstructed. Unlike conventional fiber bundles with packed set of fibers that are limited by a narrow field of view (FOV), lack of flexibility, and extended coaxial precalibration, the proposed optical brush is flexible and uses off-axis calibration method based on ToF. The enabled brush form can couple to other types of ToF imaging systems. This can impact probe-based applications such as, endoscopy, tomography, and industrial imaging and sensing. PMID:26868954

  19. Permutation combinatorics of worldsheet moduli space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Garner, David; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2015-06-01

    Light-cone string diagrams have been used to reproduce the orbifold Euler characteristic of moduli spaces of punctured Riemann surfaces at low genus and with few punctures. Nakamura studied the meromorphic differential introduced by Giddings and Wolpert to characterize light-cone diagrams and introduced a class of graphs related to this differential. These Nakamura graphs were used to parametrize the cells in a light-cone cell decomposition of moduli space. We develop links between Nakamura graphs and realizations of the worldsheet as branched covers. This leads to a development of the combinatorics of Nakamura graphs in terms of permutation tuples. For certain classes of cells, including those of the top dimension, there is a simple relation to Belyi maps, which allows us to use results from Hermitian and complex matrix models to give analytic formulas for the counting of cells at an arbitrarily high genus. For the most general cells, we develop a new equivalence relation on Hurwitz classes which organizes the cells and allows efficient enumeration of Nakamura graphs using the group theory software gap.

  20. A Random Variable Related to the Inversion Vector of a Partial Random Permutation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laghate, Kavita; Deshpande, M. N.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we define the inversion vector of a permutation of the integers 1, 2,..., n. We set up a particular kind of permutation, called a partial random permutation. The sum of the elements of the inversion vector of such a permutation is a random variable of interest.

  1. A Genetic Algorithm for Solving Job-shop Scheduling Problems using the Parameter-free Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Shouichi; Watanabe, Isamu; Tokoro, Ken-Ichi

    A new genetic algorithm is proposed for solving job-shop scheduling problems where the total number of search points is limited. The objective of the problem is to minimize the makespan. The solution is represented by an operation sequence, i.e., a permutation of operations. The proposed algorithm is based on the framework of the parameter-free genetic algorithm. It encodes a permutation using random keys into a chromosome. A schedule is derived from a permutation using a hybrid scheduling (HS), and the parameter of HS is also encoded in a chromosome. Experiments using benchmark problems show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the previously proposed algorithms, genetic algorithm by Shi et al. and the improved local search by Nakano et al., for large-scale problems under the constraint of limited number of search points.

  2. Extended precedence preservative crossover for job shop scheduling problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Chung Sin; Moin, Noor Hasnah; Omar, Mohd

    2013-04-01

    Job shop scheduling problems (JSSP) is one of difficult combinatorial scheduling problems. A wide range of genetic algorithms based on the two parents crossover have been applied to solve the problem but multi parents (more than two parents) crossover in solving the JSSP is still lacking. This paper proposes the extended precedence preservative crossover (EPPX) which uses multi parents for recombination in the genetic algorithms. EPPX is a variation of the precedence preservative crossover (PPX) which is one of the crossovers that perform well to find the solutions for the JSSP. EPPX is based on a vector to determine the gene selected in recombination for the next generation. Legalization of children (offspring) can be eliminated due to the JSSP representation encoded by using permutation with repetition that guarantees the feasibility of chromosomes. The simulations are performed on a set of benchmarks from the literatures and the results are compared to ensure the sustainability of multi parents recombination in solving the JSSP.

  3. Identification of chaotic and stochastic processes by permutation entropy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, J. E.; Morales, G. J.

    2013-10-01

    The dynamical nature of time signals can be determined by the simultaneous use of entropy and statistical complexity. These key measures can be implemented using the amplitude permutation probability introduced by Bandt and Pompe. Stochastic and chaotic processes are distinguished because they occupy different regions of the entropy-complexity plane. Permutation entropy analysis is used to demonstrate that temperature fluctuations observed in a basic heat transport experiment arise from chaotic dynamics. Locations of various known stochastic and chaotic processes in the entropy-complexity plane are presented and the important technique of `sub-sampling' for the amelioration of noise is discussed. The permutation entropy analysis can be applied to any time signal as no pre-processing or a priori conditions are required. This signal analysis technique has the potential to uncover new features in a wide range of fusion and basic plasma experiments. Supported by a DOE-NSF cooperative agreement, and by DOE grant SC0004663.

  4. Product Searching with Shopping Bots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    Using trial searches for three best-selling books, this study examined the search facilities offered by shopping bots, which support consumers with the product search and identification stage in e-shopping. Findings indicate that effectiveness of bots not only depends upon search facilities but also upon product coverage, and other added value…

  5. Machine Shop: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    Intended for use by all machine shop instructors in the Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools, this guide provides a sequential listing of course content and scope. A course description provides a brief overview of the content of the courses offered in the machine shop program. General course objectives are then listed. Outlines of the course…

  6. 8. VIEW EASTINTERIOR OF BLACKSMITH SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW EAST-INTERIOR OF BLACKSMITH SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD BLACKSMITH SHOP/BOILER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Blacksmith Shop-Boiler Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  7. 6. VIEW WESTINTERIOR OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW WEST-INTERIOR OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD BLACKSMITH SHOP/BOILER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Blacksmith Shop-Boiler Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  8. 9. VIEW WESTINTERIOR OF BLACKSMITH SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW WEST-INTERIOR OF BLACKSMITH SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD BLACKSMITH SHOP/BOILER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Blacksmith Shop-Boiler Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  9. 7. VIEW EASTINTERIOR OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW EAST-INTERIOR OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD BLACKSMITH SHOP/BOILER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Blacksmith Shop-Boiler Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  10. 2. VIEW SOUTHWESTNORTH ELEVATION OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST-NORTH ELEVATION OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD BLACKSMITH SHOP/BOILER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Blacksmith Shop-Boiler Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  11. 3. VIEW SOUTHNORTH ELEVATION OF BLACKSMITH SHOP SECTION OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW SOUTH-NORTH ELEVATION OF BLACKSMITH SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD BLACKSMITH SHOP/BOILER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Blacksmith Shop-Boiler Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  12. An Efficient Estimation of Distribution Algorithm for Job Shop Scheduling Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Juan; Zeng, Jian-Chao; Xue, Song-Dong; Wang, Li-Fang

    An estimation of distribution algorithm with probability model based on permutation information of neighboring operations for job shop scheduling problem was proposed. The probability model was given using frequency information of pair-wise operations neighboring. Then the structure of optimal individual was marked and the operations of optimal individual were partitioned to some independent sub-blocks. To avoid repeating search in same area and improve search speed, each sub-block was taken as a whole to be adjusted. Also, stochastic adjustment to the operations within each sub-block was introduced to enhance the local search ability. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is more robust and efficient.

  13. A Permutation Test for Correlated Errors in Adjacent Questionnaire Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildreth, Laura A.; Genschel, Ulrike; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Lesser, Virginia M.

    2013-01-01

    Response patterns are of importance to survey researchers because of the insight they provide into the thought processes respondents use to answer survey questions. In this article we propose the use of structural equation modeling to examine response patterns and develop a permutation test to quantify the likelihood of observing a specific…

  14. Introduction to Permutation and Resampling-Based Hypothesis Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Greevy, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    A resampling-based method of inference--permutation tests--is often used when distributional assumptions are questionable or unmet. Not only are these methods useful for obvious departures from parametric assumptions (e.g., normality) and small sample sizes, but they are also more robust than their parametric counterparts in the presences of…

  15. Note on permutation sum of color-ordered gluon amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yi-Jian; Feng, Bo; Fu, Chih-Hao

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we show that under BCFW-deformation the large-z behavior of permutation sum of color-ordered gluon amplitudes found by Boels and Isermann in arxiv:arxiv:1109.5888 can be simply understood from the well known Kleiss-Kuijf relation and Bern-Carrasco-Johansson relation.

  16. Permutation/randomization-based inference for environmental data.

    PubMed

    Spicer, R Christopher; Gangloff, Harry J

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative inference from environmental contaminant data is almost exclusively from within the classic Neyman/Pearson (N/P) hypothesis-testing model, by which the mean serves as the fundamental quantitative measure, but which is constrained by random sampling and the assumption of normality in the data. Permutation/randomization-based inference originally forwarded by R. A. Fisher derives probability directly from the proportion of the occurrences of interest and is not dependent upon the distribution of data or random sampling. Foundationally, the underlying logic and the interpretation of the significance of the two models vary, but inference using either model can often be successfully applied. However, data examples from airborne environmental fungi (mold), asbestos in settled dust, and 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB) in soil demonstrate potentially misleading inference using traditional N/P hypothesis testing based upon means/variance compared to permutation/randomization inference using differences in frequency of detection (Δf d). Bootstrapping and permutation testing, which are extensions of permutation/randomization, confirm calculated p values via Δf d and should be utilized to verify the appropriateness of a given data analysis by either model.

  17. An algorithm to enumerate sorting reversals for signed permutations.

    PubMed

    Siepel, Adam C

    2003-01-01

    The rearrangement distance between single-chromosome genomes can be estimated as the minimum number of inversions required to transform the gene ordering observed in one into that observed in the other. This measure, known as "inversion distance," can be computed as the reversal distance between signed permutations. During the past decade, much progress has been made both on the problem of computing reversal distance and on the related problem of finding a minimum-length sequence of reversals, which is known as "sorting by reversals." For most problem instances, however, many minimum-length sequences of reversals exist, and in the absence of auxiliary information, no one is of greater value than the others. The problem of finding all minimum-length sequences of reversals is thus a natural generalization of sorting by reversals, yet it has received little attention. This problem reduces easily to the problem of finding all "sorting reversals" of one permutation with respect to another - that is, all reversals rho such that, if rho is applied to one permutation, then the reversal distance of that permutation from the other is decreased. In this paper, an efficient algorithm is derived to solve the problem of finding all sorting reversals, and experimental results are presented indicating that, while the new algorithm does not represent a significant improvement in asymptotic terms (it takes O(n(3)) time, for permutations of size n; the problem can now be solved by brute force in Theta(n(3)) time), it performs dramatically better in practice than the best known alternative. An implementation of the algorithm is available at www.cse.ucsc.edu/~acs.

  18. Non‐parametric combination and related permutation tests for neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Matthew A.; Brooks, Jonathan C.; Tracey, Irene; Smith, Stephen M.; Nichols, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this work, we show how permutation methods can be applied to combination analyses such as those that include multiple imaging modalities, multiple data acquisitions of the same modality, or simply multiple hypotheses on the same data. Using the well‐known definition of union‐intersection tests and closed testing procedures, we use synchronized permutations to correct for such multiplicity of tests, allowing flexibility to integrate imaging data with different spatial resolutions, surface and/or volume‐based representations of the brain, including non‐imaging data. For the problem of joint inference, we propose and evaluate a modification of the recently introduced non‐parametric combination (NPC) methodology, such that instead of a two‐phase algorithm and large data storage requirements, the inference can be performed in a single phase, with reasonable computational demands. The method compares favorably to classical multivariate tests (such as MANCOVA), even when the latter is assessed using permutations. We also evaluate, in the context of permutation tests, various combining methods that have been proposed in the past decades, and identify those that provide the best control over error rate and power across a range of situations. We show that one of these, the method of Tippett, provides a link between correction for the multiplicity of tests and their combination. Finally, we discuss how the correction can solve certain problems of multiple comparisons in one‐way ANOVA designs, and how the combination is distinguished from conjunctions, even though both can be assessed using permutation tests. We also provide a common algorithm that accommodates combination and correction. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1486‐1511, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848101

  19. Non-parametric combination and related permutation tests for neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Anderson M; Webster, Matthew A; Brooks, Jonathan C; Tracey, Irene; Smith, Stephen M; Nichols, Thomas E

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we show how permutation methods can be applied to combination analyses such as those that include multiple imaging modalities, multiple data acquisitions of the same modality, or simply multiple hypotheses on the same data. Using the well-known definition of union-intersection tests and closed testing procedures, we use synchronized permutations to correct for such multiplicity of tests, allowing flexibility to integrate imaging data with different spatial resolutions, surface and/or volume-based representations of the brain, including non-imaging data. For the problem of joint inference, we propose and evaluate a modification of the recently introduced non-parametric combination (NPC) methodology, such that instead of a two-phase algorithm and large data storage requirements, the inference can be performed in a single phase, with reasonable computational demands. The method compares favorably to classical multivariate tests (such as MANCOVA), even when the latter is assessed using permutations. We also evaluate, in the context of permutation tests, various combining methods that have been proposed in the past decades, and identify those that provide the best control over error rate and power across a range of situations. We show that one of these, the method of Tippett, provides a link between correction for the multiplicity of tests and their combination. Finally, we discuss how the correction can solve certain problems of multiple comparisons in one-way ANOVA designs, and how the combination is distinguished from conjunctions, even though both can be assessed using permutation tests. We also provide a common algorithm that accommodates combination and correction. PMID:26848101

  20. MITRE's virtual model shop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingfield, Michael A.

    1995-04-01

    The exploration of visual data and the use of visual information during the design process can be greatly enhanced by working within the virtual environment where the user is closely coupled to the data by means of immersive technologies and natural user interfaces. Current technology enables us to construct a virtual environment utilizing 3D graphics projection, object generated stereo sound, tactile feedback, and voice command input. Advances in software architectures and user interfaces enable us to focus on enhancing the design process within the virtual environment. These explorations at MITRE have evolved into an application which focuses on the ability to create, manipulate, and explore photo and audio realistic 3D models of work spaces, office complexes, and entire communities in real-time. This application, the Virtual Interactive Planning System, is a component of the MITRE virtual model shop, a suite of applications which permits the user to design and manipulate computer graphics models within the virtual environment.

  1. Technical and Occupational Shops. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto. School Planning and Building Research Section.

    The layouts and specifications provided are intended as a guide to school boards, educators, and architects. Drawings and room plans illustrate specifications for girls' occupational shop, graphic arts, carpentry (millwork and building construction shop), boys' occupational shop (mechanical), boys' occupational shop (building construction),…

  2. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is {open_quote}Paint Shop waste{close_quotes} -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so.

  3. Process Waste Assessment, Mechanics Shop

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-05-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Mechanics Shop. The Mechanics Shop maintains and repairs motorized vehicles and equipment on the SNL/California site, to include motorized carts, backhoes, street sweepers, trash truck, portable emergency generators, trencher, portable crane, and man lifts. The major hazardous waste streams routinely generated by the Mechanics Shop are used oil, spent off filters, oily rags, and spent batteries. The used off and spent off filters make up a significant portion of the overall hazardous waste stream. Waste oil and spent batteries are sent off-site for recycling. The rags and spent on filters are not recycled. They are disposed of as hazardous waste. Mechanics Shop personnel continuously look for opportunities to minimize hazardous wastes.

  4. Encoding Sequential Information in Semantic Space Models: Comparing Holographic Reduced Representation and Random Permutation

    PubMed Central

    Recchia, Gabriel; Sahlgren, Magnus; Kanerva, Pentti; Jones, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    Circular convolution and random permutation have each been proposed as neurally plausible binding operators capable of encoding sequential information in semantic memory. We perform several controlled comparisons of circular convolution and random permutation as means of encoding paired associates as well as encoding sequential information. Random permutations outperformed convolution with respect to the number of paired associates that can be reliably stored in a single memory trace. Performance was equal on semantic tasks when using a small corpus, but random permutations were ultimately capable of achieving superior performance due to their higher scalability to large corpora. Finally, “noisy” permutations in which units are mapped to other units arbitrarily (no one-to-one mapping) perform nearly as well as true permutations. These findings increase the neurological plausibility of random permutations and highlight their utility in vector space models of semantics. PMID:25954306

  5. RIGGERS LOFT/PAINT SHOP/SHEET METAL SHOP, VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. THE PAINT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RIGGERS LOFT/PAINT SHOP/SHEET METAL SHOP, VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. THE PAINT SHOP WAS LOCATED IN THE CLOSEST CORNER OF THE BUILDING. THE SHEET METAL SHOP WAS LOCATED IN THE CORNER OF THE BUILDING ON THE RIGHT. THE RIGGERS LOFT WAS LOCATED IN THE PORTION OF THE BUILDING OUT OF VIEW TO THE LEFT - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Riggers Loft/Paint Shop/Sheet Metal Shop, 1322 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  6. Holographic perfect shuffle permutation element for a miniaturized switching network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobolla, H.; Schmidt, J.; Gluch, E.; Schwider, J.

    1995-06-01

    A holographic perfect shuffle element with 80 channels for a miniaturized switching network is reported. An array of vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers is used as a transmitter. The whole permutation is carried out totally in glass. The 80 channels are permuted within a rectangle with a volume of 3 mm \\times 4 mm \\times 2 mm. Four planes of stacked volume holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin form this perfect shuffle element with an angular spectrum between 7 deg and 35 deg. Changes in the wavelength of the diode lasers to Delta lambda = +/-10 nm can be compensated with this setup. The overall efficiency per channel lies between 40% and 60%. When Fresnel reflections and absorption are taken into account, a transmission per hologram between 78% and 90% is achieved.

  7. Multivariate permutation test to compare survival curves for matched data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the absence of randomization, the comparison of an experimental treatment with respect to the standard may be done based on a matched design. When there is a limited set of cases receiving the experimental treatment, matching of a proper set of controls in a non fixed proportion is convenient. Methods In order to deal with the highly stratified survival data generated by multiple matching, we extend the multivariate permutation testing approach, since standard nonparametric methods for the comparison of survival curves cannot be applied in this setting. Results We demonstrate the validity of the proposed method with simulations, and we illustrate its application to data from an observational study for the comparison of bone marrow transplantation and chemotherapy in the treatment of paediatric leukaemia. Conclusions The use of the multivariate permutation testing approach is recommended in the highly stratified context of survival matched data, especially when the proportional hazards assumption does not hold. PMID:23399031

  8. A Weak Quantum Blind Signature with Entanglement Permutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhigang; Guo, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Motivated by the permutation encryption algorithm, a weak quantum blind signature (QBS) scheme is proposed. It involves three participants, including the sender Alice, the signatory Bob and the trusted entity Charlie, in four phases, i.e., initializing phase, blinding phase, signing phase and verifying phase. In a small-scale quantum computation network, Alice blinds the message based on a quantum entanglement permutation encryption algorithm that embraces the chaotic position string. Bob signs the blinded message with private parameters shared beforehand while Charlie verifies the signature's validity and recovers the original message. Analysis shows that the proposed scheme achieves the secure blindness for the signer and traceability for the message owner with the aid of the authentic arbitrator who plays a crucial role when a dispute arises. In addition, the signature can neither be forged nor disavowed by the malicious attackers. It has a wide application to E-voting and E-payment system, etc.

  9. Successful attack on permutation-parity-machine-based neural cryptography.

    PubMed

    Seoane, Luís F; Ruttor, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    An algorithm is presented which implements a probabilistic attack on the key-exchange protocol based on permutation parity machines. Instead of imitating the synchronization of the communicating partners, the strategy consists of a Monte Carlo method to sample the space of possible weights during inner rounds and an analytic approach to convey the extracted information from one outer round to the next one. The results show that the protocol under attack fails to synchronize faster than an eavesdropper using this algorithm.

  10. Testing of Error-Correcting Sparse Permutation Channel Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shcheglov, Kirill, V.; Orlov, Sergei S.

    2008-01-01

    A computer program performs Monte Carlo direct numerical simulations for testing sparse permutation channel codes, which offer strong error-correction capabilities at high code rates and are considered especially suitable for storage of digital data in holographic and volume memories. A word in a code of this type is characterized by, among other things, a sparseness parameter (M) and a fixed number (K) of 1 or "on" bits in a channel block length of N.

  11. Retailing and Shopping on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    Internet advertising and commercial activity are increasing. This article examines challenges facing the retail industry on the Internet: location; comparison shopping; security, especially financial transactions; customer base and profile; nature of the shopping experience; and legal and marketplace controls. (PEN)

  12. 13. Interior detail, Blacksmith Shop, showing a portion of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior detail, Blacksmith Shop, showing a portion of the original overhead belt drive system that powered machine tools in the adjacent Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to west, 135mm lens. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  13. Learn and Shop: Teaching Chemistry in Shopping Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boaz, Patricia; East, James R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses (1) the rationale for teaching college courses in shopping centers; (2) advantages to stores, students, and faculty; and (3) university procedures for the courses. Describes the content of a chemistry course including adaptations to the lack of lab facilities. Student reactions to the course are considered. (JM)

  14. The Shopping Mall: A Teenager Hangout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Kathryn H.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated teenagers' use of the shopping mall as a "hangout" through interviews with 51 adolescents using the mall, and 10 hours of behavioral observations. Results indicated that many teenagers visit the shopping center regularly to watch members of the opposite sex, play video games, see friends, shop, and people-watch. (Author/NRB)

  15. Metric Conversion and the School Shop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Arthur A.

    1976-01-01

    Cost of metric conversion in school shops is examined, and the author categories all the shops in the school and gives useful information on which shops are the easiest to convert, which are most complicated, where resistance is most likely to be met, and where conversion is most urgent. The math department is seen as catalyst. (Editor/HD)

  16. Entanglement and symmetry in permutation-symmetric states

    SciTech Connect

    Markham, Damian J. H.

    2011-04-15

    We investigate the relationship between multipartite entanglement and symmetry, focusing on permutation symmetric states. We give a highly intuitive geometric interpretation to entanglement via the Majorana representation, where these states correspond to points on a unit sphere. We use this to show how various entanglement properties are determined by the symmetry properties of the states. The geometric measure of entanglement is thus phrased entirely as a geometric optimization and a condition for the equivalence of entanglement measures written in terms of point symmetries. Finally, we see that different symmetries of the states correspond to different types of entanglement with respect to interconvertibility under stochastic local operations and classical communication.

  17. Security of the Five-Round KASUMI Type Permutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Tetsu; Yagi, Tohru; Kurosawa, Kaoru

    KASUMI is a blockcipher that forms the heart of the 3GPP confidentiality and integrity algorithms. In this paper, we study the security of the five-round KASUMI type permutations, and derive a highly non-trivial security bound against adversaries with adaptive chosen plaintext and chosen ciphertext attacks. To derive our security bound, we heavily use the tools from graph theory. However the result does not show its super-pseudorandomness, this gives us a strong evidence that the design of KASUMI is sound.

  18. Fractional Brownian motion, fractional Gaussian noise, and Tsallis permutation entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, L.; Pérez, D. G.; Kowalski, A.; Martín, M. T.; Garavaglia, M.; Plastino, A.; Rosso, O. A.

    2008-10-01

    In this work, we analyze two important stochastic processes, the fractional Brownian motion and fractional Gaussian noise, within the framework of the Tsallis permutation entropy. This entropic measure, evaluated after using the Bandt & Pompe method to extract the associated probability distribution, is shown to be a powerful tool to characterize fractal stochastic processes. It allows for a better discrimination of the processes than the Shannon counterpart for appropriate ranges of values of the entropic index. Moreover, we find the optimum value of this entropic index for the stochastic processes under study.

  19. Photographs and Committees: Activities That Help Students Discover Permutations and Combinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szydlik, Jennifer Earles

    2000-01-01

    Presents problem situations that support students when discovering the multiplication principle, permutations, combinations, Pascal's triangle, and relationships among those objects in a concrete context. (ASK)

  20. Permutation entropy and detrend fluctuation analysis for the natural complexity of cardiac heart interbeat signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taherkhani, Farid; Rahmani, Maryam; Taherkhani, Fariborz; Akbarzadeh, Hamed; Abroshan, Hadi

    2013-07-01

    We compute fractal dimension and permutation entropy for healthy and people who have experienced heart failure. Our result shows that permutation entropy is a suitable approach as well as detrend fluctuation analysis (DFA). The result of DFA shows that the fractal dimensions for healthy and heart failure are different as well as the permutation entropy result. The fluctuation value for permutation entropy for an individual who has experienced heart failure is bigger than for a healthy person. There is some specific change in the interbeat signal of a person who has experienced heart failure, but there is not previous trend for a healthy person.

  1. Valid Monte Carlo permutation tests for genetic case-control studies with missing genotypes.

    PubMed

    Kinnamon, Daniel D; Martin, Eden R

    2014-05-01

    Monte Carlo permutation tests can be formally constructed by choosing a set of permutations of individual indices and a real-valued test statistic measuring the association between genotypes and affection status. In this paper, we develop a rigorous theoretical framework for verifying the validity of these tests when there are missing genotypes. We begin by specifying a nonparametric probability model for the observed genotype data in a genetic case-control study with unrelated subjects. Under this model and some minimal assumptions about the test statistic, we establish that the resulting Monte Carlo permutation test is exact level α if (1) the chosen set of permutations of individual indices is a group under composition and (2) the distribution of the observed genotype score matrix under the null hypothesis does not change if the assignment of individuals to rows is shuffled according to an arbitrary permutation in this set. We apply these conditions to show that frequently used Monte Carlo permutation tests based on the set of all permutations of individual indices are guaranteed to be exact level α only for missing data processes satisfying a rather restrictive additional assumption. However, if the missing data process depends on covariates that are all identified and recorded, we also show that Monte Carlo permutation tests based on the set of permutations within strata of individuals with identical covariate values are exact level α. Our theoretical results are verified and supplemented by simulations for a variety of missing data processes and test statistics.

  2. Machine Shop Fundamentals: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael G.; And Others

    These instructional materials were developed and designed for secondary and adult limited English proficient students enrolled in machine tool technology courses. Part 1 includes 24 lessons covering introduction, safety and shop rules, basic machine tools, basic machine operations, measurement, basic blueprint reading, layout, and bench tools.…

  3. English in the Garment Shops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verplaetse, Lorrie

    This text for limited-English-speaking workers in the garment industry consits of illustrated vocabulary words, grammar lessons, narratives or brief readings, and exercises on employment-related topics. The first section focuses on shop talk, including job-specific vocabulary, simple expressions and explanations, social language, seeking and…

  4. Machine Shop. Student Learning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm Beach County Board of Public Instruction, West Palm Beach, FL.

    This student learning guide contains eight modules for completing a course in machine shop. It is designed especially for use in Palm Beach County, Florida. Each module covers one task, and consists of a purpose, performance objective, enabling objectives, learning activities and resources, information sheets, student self-check with answer key,…

  5. Planning for Shops and Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of School Planning.

    General guidelines for educators and architects in planning for industrial education, shops, and laboratory facilities necessary to the instructional program, are provided. Characteristics of the environment discussed are as follows--(1) spatial, (2) thermal, (3) visual, (4) sonic, and (5) aesthetic. Utility services covered are electrical power,…

  6. Circular Permutation Probes for Illuminating Phosphorylation of Estrogen Receptor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Bae; Tao, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    The present protocol demonstrates a new strategy for imaging ligand-triggered protein phosphorylation using circularly permutated luciferases (cpLuc): (1) a luciferase is first fragmented into two segments for creating new N- and C-terminal ends in the hydrophilic region, (2) the original N- and C-terminal ends are circularly permutated and linked via a GS linker, whereas the new ends made by fragmentation are correspondingly linked with two proteins of interest. When the new ends of the cpLuc are linked with the ligand-binding domain of estrogen receptor (ER LBD) and Src homology two domain of Src (SH2), the estrogen can trigger phosphorylation of the ER LBD and consequent intramolecular ER LBD-SH2 binding. This interaction triggers an approximation of the adjacent fragments of split-cpLuc recovering the enzyme activity. This probe design greatly improves signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios upon tracing weak protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in mammalian cells. PMID:27424903

  7. Permutation auto-mutual information of electroencephalogram in anesthesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhenhu; Wang, Yinghua; Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Voss, Logan J.; Sleigh, Jamie W.; Li, Xiaoli

    2013-04-01

    Objective. The dynamic change of brain activity in anesthesia is an interesting topic for clinical doctors and drug designers. To explore the dynamical features of brain activity in anesthesia, a permutation auto-mutual information (PAMI) method is proposed to measure the information coupling of electroencephalogram (EEG) time series obtained in anesthesia. Approach. The PAMI is developed and applied on EEG data collected from 19 patients under sevoflurane anesthesia. The results are compared with the traditional auto-mutual information (AMI), SynchFastSlow (SFS, derived from the BIS index), permutation entropy (PE), composite PE (CPE), response entropy (RE) and state entropy (SE). Performance of all indices is assessed by pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling and prediction probability. Main results. The PK/PD modeling and prediction probability analysis show that the PAMI index correlates closely with the anesthetic effect. The coefficient of determination R2 between PAMI values and the sevoflurane effect site concentrations, and the prediction probability Pk are higher in comparison with other indices. The information coupling in EEG series can be applied to indicate the effect of the anesthetic drug sevoflurane on the brain activity as well as other indices. The PAMI of the EEG signals is suggested as a new index to track drug concentration change. Significance. The PAMI is a useful index for analyzing the EEG dynamics during general anesthesia.

  8. Using R to Simulate Permutation Distributions for Some Elementary Experimental Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eudey, T. Lynn; Kerr, Joshua D.; Trumbo, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    Null distributions of permutation tests for two-sample, paired, and block designs are simulated using the R statistical programming language. For each design and type of data, permutation tests are compared with standard normal-theory and nonparametric tests. These examples (often using real data) provide for classroom discussion use of metrics…

  9. Students' Errors in Solving the Permutation and Combination Problems Based on Problem Solving Steps of Polya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukoriyanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Chandra, Tjang Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article was written based on the results of a study evaluating students' errors in problem solving of permutation and combination in terms of problem solving steps according to Polya. Twenty-five students were asked to do four problems related to permutation and combination. The research results showed that the students still did a mistake in…

  10. Statistical Significance of the Contribution of Variables to the PCA Solution: An Alternative Permutation Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linting, Marielle; van Os, Bart Jan; Meulman, Jacqueline J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the statistical significance of the contribution of variables to the principal components in principal components analysis (PCA) is assessed nonparametrically by the use of permutation tests. We compare a new strategy to a strategy used in previous research consisting of permuting the columns (variables) of a data matrix…

  11. Circular Permutation of a Chaperonin Protein: Biophysics and Application to Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paavola, Chad; Chan, Suzanne; Li, Yi-Fen; McMillan, R. Andrew; Trent, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    We have designed five circular permutants of a chaperonin protein derived from the hyperthermophilic organism Sulfolobus shibatae. These permuted proteins were expressed in E. coli and are well-folded. Furthermore, all the permutants assemble into 18-mer double rings of the same form as the wild-type protein. We characterized the thermodynamics of folding for each permutant by both guanidine denaturation and differential scanning calorimetry. We also examined the assembly of chaperonin rings into higher order structures that may be used as nanoscale templates. The results show that circular permutation can be used to tune the thermodynamic properties of a protein template as well as facilitating the fusion of peptides, binding proteins or enzymes onto nanostructured templates.

  12. Shopping Problems among High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Desai, Rani A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although shopping behavior among adolescents is normal, for some the shopping becomes problematic. An assessment of adolescent shopping behavior along a continuum of severity and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. Methods A large sample of high school students (n=3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, shopping behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. Results The overall prevalence of problem shopping was 3.5% (95%CI: 2.93–4.07). Regular smoking, marijuana and other drug use, sadness and hopelessness, and antisocial behaviors (e.g., fighting, carrying weapons) were associated with problem shopping behavior in both boys and girls. Heavy alcohol use was significantly associated with problem shopping only in girls. Conclusion Problem shopping appears fairly common among high school students and is associated with symptoms of depression and a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that excessive shopping may often have significant associated morbidity. Additional research is needed to develop specific prevention and treatment strategies for adolescents who report problems with shopping. PMID:21497217

  13. Discriminating chaotic and stochastic dynamics through the permutation spectrum test.

    PubMed

    Kulp, C W; Zunino, L

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new heuristic symbolic tool for unveiling chaotic and stochastic dynamics: the permutation spectrum test. Several numerical examples allow us to confirm the usefulness of the introduced methodology. Indeed, we show that it is robust in situations in which other techniques fail (intermittent chaos, hyperchaotic dynamics, stochastic linear and nonlinear correlated dynamics, and deterministic non-chaotic noise-driven dynamics). We illustrate the applicability and reliability of this pragmatic method by examining real complex time series from diverse scientific fields. Taking into account that the proposed test has the advantages of being conceptually simple and computationally fast, we think that it can be of practical utility as an alternative test for determinism.

  14. Refined scale-dependent permutation entropy to analyze systems complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shuen-De; Wu, Chiu-Wen; Humeau-Heurtier, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) has become a prevailing method to quantify the complexity of systems. Unfortunately, MSE has a temporal complexity in O(N2) , which is unrealistic for long time series. Moreover, MSE relies on the sample entropy computation which is length-dependent and which leads to large variance and possible undefined entropy values for short time series. Here, we propose and introduce a new multiscale complexity measure, the refined scale-dependent permutation entropy (RSDPE). Through the processing of different kinds of synthetic data and real signals, we show that RSDPE has a behavior close to the one of MSE. Furthermore, RSDPE has a temporal complexity in O(N) . Finally, RSDPE has the advantage of being much less length-dependent than MSE. From all this, we conclude that RSDPE over-performs MSE in terms of computational cost and computational accuracy.

  15. All possible permutational symmetries of a quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the intermediate permutational symmetries of a system of qubits that lie in between the perfect symmetric and antisymmetric cases. We prove that, on average, pure states of qubits picked at random with respect to the uniform measure on the unit sphere of the Hilbert space are almost as antisymmetric as they are allowed to be. We then observe that multipartite entanglement, measured by the generalized Meyer-Wallach measure, tends to be larger in subspaces that are more antisymmetric than the complete symmetric one. Eventually, we prove that all states contained in the most antisymmetric subspace are relevant multipartite entangled states in the sense that their 1-qubit reduced states are all maximally mixed.

  16. Efficient SAT Techniques for Relative Encoding of Permutations with Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velev, Miroslav N.; Gao, Ping

    We present new techniques for relative SAT encoding of permutations with constraints, resulting in improved scalability compared to the previous approach by Prestwich, when applied to searching for Hamiltonian cycles. We observe that half of the ordering variables and two-thirds of the transitivity constraints can be eliminated. We exploit minimal enumeration of transitivity, based on 12 triangulation heuristics, and 11 heuristics for selecting the first node in the Hamiltonian cycle. We propose the use of inverse transitivity constraints. We achieve 3 orders of magnitude average speedup on satisfiable random graphs from the phase transition region, 2 orders of magnitude average speedup on unsatisfiable random graphs, and up to 4 orders of magnitude speedup on satisfiable structured graphs from the DIMACS graph coloring instances.

  17. Permutation symmetry and the origin of fermion mass hierarchy

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, K.S.; Mohapatra, R.N. )

    1990-06-04

    A realization of the flavor-democracy'' approach to quark and lepton masses is provided in the context of the standard model with a horizontal {ital S}{sub 3} permutation symmetry. In this model, {ital t} and {ital b} quarks pick up mass at the tree level, {ital c}, {ital s}-quark and {tau}-lepton masses arise at the one-loop level, {ital u}, {ital d}, and {mu} masses at the two-loop level, and the electron mass at the three-loop level, thus reproducing the observed hierarchial structure without fine tuning of the Yukawa couplings. The pattern of quark mixing angles also emerges naturally, with {ital V}{sub {ital u}{ital s}},{ital V}{sub {ital c}{ital b}}{approx}{ital O}({epsilon}), {ital V}{sub {ital u}{ital b}}{approx}{ital O}({epsilon}{sup 2}), where {epsilon} is a loop expansion parameter.

  18. Discriminating chaotic and stochastic dynamics through the permutation spectrum test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, C. W.; Zunino, L.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new heuristic symbolic tool for unveiling chaotic and stochastic dynamics: the permutation spectrum test. Several numerical examples allow us to confirm the usefulness of the introduced methodology. Indeed, we show that it is robust in situations in which other techniques fail (intermittent chaos, hyperchaotic dynamics, stochastic linear and nonlinear correlated dynamics, and deterministic non-chaotic noise-driven dynamics). We illustrate the applicability and reliability of this pragmatic method by examining real complex time series from diverse scientific fields. Taking into account that the proposed test has the advantages of being conceptually simple and computationally fast, we think that it can be of practical utility as an alternative test for determinism.

  19. Geological applications of multi-response permutation procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlowski, L.A.; Grundy, W.D.; Mielke, P.W.; Schumm, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    The multi-purpose permutation procedures (MRPP) test statistic is designed to analyze multivariate data at the ordinal or higher levels. It is based on the weighted averages of symmetric distance functions over all paired objects within a priori disjoint groups of objects from a finite population of objects where each object's response is a point in an r-dimensional space. Thus, the arguments of each r-dimensional point correspond to the r measured responses of each object in the finite population of objects. The null hypothesis underlying MRPP is that the observed sample of objects within groups of a specified size structure is randomly obtained from the pooled collection of objects comprising the finite population. The procedure is used to test the presumed geomorphic differences among three reaches of the Lower Mississippi River. A combination of the proposed reaches is favored and several variable-based reach configurations are proposed. ?? 1993 International Association for Mathernatical Geology.

  20. Permutation Entropy Applied to Movement Behaviors of Drosophila Melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuedan; Chon, Tae-Soo; Baek, Hunki; Do, Younghae; Choi, Jin Hee; Chung, Yun Doo

    Movement of different strains in Drosophila melanogaster was continuously observed by using computer interfacing techniques and was analyzed by permutation entropy (PE) after exposure to toxic chemicals, toluene (0.1 mg/m3) and formaldehyde (0.01 mg/m3). The PE values based on one-dimensional time series position (vertical) data were variable according to internal constraint (i.e. strains) and accordingly increased in response to external constraint (i.e. chemicals) by reflecting diversity in movement patterns from both normal and intoxicated states. Cross-correlation function revealed temporal associations between the PE values and between the component movement patterns in different chemicals and strains through the period of intoxication. The entropy based on the order of position data could be a useful means for complexity measure in behavioral changes and for monitoring the impact of stressors in environment.

  1. 18. Interior detail, drill press and grinder, Machine Shop, Roundhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Interior detail, drill press and grinder, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to east (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  2. 19. Interior detail, grinder and drill press, Machine Shop, Roundhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Interior detail, grinder and drill press, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  3. 5. VIEW EASTOPENING IN WEST ELEVATION OF BLACKSMITH SHOP SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW EAST-OPENING IN WEST ELEVATION OF BLACKSMITH SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD BLACKSMITH SHOP/BOILER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Blacksmith Shop-Boiler Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  4. Passion and dependency in online shopping activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Chien; Yang, Hui-Wen

    2007-04-01

    This study examines the influence of harmonious passion (HP) and obsessive passion (OP) to online shopping dependency. The results show that both HP and OP might lead to online shopping dependency and online shoppers with OP are more dependent on online shopping activities. In addition, this study also found out that HP and OP could be denoted as a sequence of different intensities of passion, where HP might be a necessity of OP. PMID:17474850

  5. 4. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST AT MACHINE SHOP IN KEYSER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST AT MACHINE SHOP IN KEYSER. OLD TRAIN SHED TO RIGHT OF MACHINE SHOP. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Keyser Machine Shop, State Route 46 Northwest of Spring Street, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  6. Detail of heating coil for Machine Shop (Bldg. 163) ventilation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of heating coil for Machine Shop (Bldg. 163) ventilation system Note portion of fan visible behind coil - Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe Railroad, Albuquerque Shops, Machine Shop, 908 Second Street, Southwest, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  7. 2. GENERAL VIEW OF SHOPPING CENTER AS SEEN FROM OPPOSITE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW OF SHOPPING CENTER AS SEEN FROM OPPOSITE SIDE OF CONNECTICUT AVENUE - Park & Shop Shopping Center, 3507-3523 Connecticut Avenue Northwest between Ordway & Porter, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, LYE TANKS FOR CLEANING METAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, LYE TANKS FOR CLEANING METAL PRIOR TO PLATING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ATTIC. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Car Machine Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  9. CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, LYE TANKS FOR CLEANING METAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, LYE TANKS FOR CLEANING METAL PRIOR TO PLATING, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ATTIC. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Car Machine Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, PAINT SPRAY ROOM EXTERIOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, PAINT SPRAY ROOM EXTERIOR AND ATTIC FLOOR SUPPORT COLUMNS AND BEAMS, LOOKING WEST. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Car Machine Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  11. CAR MACHINE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, DETAIL OF WOOD COLUMN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAR MACHINE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, DETAIL OF WOOD COLUMN AND INVERTED KING-POST TRUSS TO PROVIDE INCREASED SPAN BETWEEN COLUMNS, LOOKING SOUTH. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Car Machine Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  12. 10. VIEW OF BOILER SHOP FROM TOP OF BOX CAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF BOILER SHOP FROM TOP OF BOX CAR WITH CIRCULAR CAR SHOP IN BACKGROUND LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  13. 5. RAILROAD TRRACKS LEADING TO PAINT & REPAIR SHOP; PASSENGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. RAILROAD TRRACKS LEADING TO PAINT & REPAIR SHOP; PASSENGER CAR SHOP TO THE LEFT - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  14. 9. LOOKING NORTH ON SPRUCE STREET, SHOWING MILLWRIGHT SHOP, FITTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOOKING NORTH ON SPRUCE STREET, SHOWING MILLWRIGHT SHOP, FITTING SHOP, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING AND ERECTING SHOP - UNION WORKS IN BACKGROUND. - Rogers Locomotive & Machine Works, Spruce & Market Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  15. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING WOOD EAVE AND STUCCO RAKEBOARD ON GABLE END, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  16. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATING PRESS IN EAST END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATING PRESS IN EAST END OF MAIN WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  17. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREWFEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREW-FEED COAL HOPPER ON RIGHT SIDE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  18. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  19. Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehousefield ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehouse-field Equipment Repair Shop Building's wall to the right, looking from the south - Kekaha Sugar Company, Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  20. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  1. View of south elevation of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south elevation of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with the Warehouse Fabrication Shop and Stack in the background, looking from the southwest - Kekaha Sugar Company, Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  2. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING WOOD EAVE AND STUCCO RAKEBOARD ON GABLE END. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  3. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREWFEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREW-FEED COAL HOPPER ON RIGHT SIDE, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  4. ERECTING SHOP INTERIOR, WITH UNRESTORED SP 1771, 260 STEAM LOCOMOTVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ERECTING SHOP INTERIOR, WITH UNRESTORED SP 1771, 2-6-0 STEAM LOCOMOTVE IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Erecting Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  5. 10. Interior view, east shop, ground floor, looking northwest, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view, east shop, ground floor, looking northwest, showing hardware storage rooms in tin shop area at right. - Larrabee & Hingston Company, Main Shop Building, 19 Howley Street, Peabody, Essex County, MA

  6. CAR SHOP TRANSFER TABLE, IN STORAGE AT WEST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAR SHOP TRANSFER TABLE, IN STORAGE AT WEST SIDE OF SHOPS, WEST END JOURNAL BEARING AND WHEELSET DETAIL, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Pitless Transfer Table, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  7. ERECTING SHOP, EAST SIDE, LOOKING SOUTH. LEFT FOREGROUND BREAK IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ERECTING SHOP, EAST SIDE, LOOKING SOUTH. LEFT FOREGROUND BREAK IN WALL IS FOR PASSAGE OF STEAM-POWERED BELTING FROM POWERHOUSE. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Erecting Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  8. PAINT SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATED COLUMN AT JUNCTION OF WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PAINT SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATED COLUMN AT JUNCTION OF WEST BAY (ORIGINAL) AND CENTER BAYS (SECOND ADDITION), LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Paint Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  9. PAINT SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHEAST CORNER OFFICE INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PAINT SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHEAST CORNER OFFICE INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. PROJECTING WALLS WITH INFILLED ARCHES WERE PART OF ONE PAINTING BOOTH IN ORIGINAL STRUCTURE. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Paint Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. Easy transition path sampling methods: flexible-length aimless shooting and permutation shooting.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Ryan Gotchy; Shea, Joan-Emma; Peters, Baron

    2015-06-01

    We present new algorithms for conducting transition path sampling (TPS). Permutation shooting rigorously preserves the total energy and momentum of the initial trajectory and is simple to implement even for rigid water molecules. Versions of aimless shooting and permutation shooting that use flexible-length trajectories have simple acceptance criteria and are more computationally efficient than fixed-length versions. Flexible-length permutation shooting and inertial likelihood maximization are used to identify the reaction coordinate for vacancy migration in a two-dimensional trigonal crystal of Lennard-Jones particles. The optimized reaction coordinate eliminates nearly all recrossing of the transition state dividing surface.

  11. A family of permutations for concurrent factorization of block tridiagonal matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utku, Senol; Melosh, Robert J.; Salama, Moktar

    1989-01-01

    The inherent strong seriality of closely coupled systems is circumvented by defining a family of permutations for reordering equation sets whose matrix of coefficients is Hermitian block tridiagonal. The authors show how these permutations can be used to achieve relatively high concurrency in the Cholesky factorization of banded systems at the expense of introducing limited extra computations due to fill-in terms in the factors. Directed graphs are developed for the concurrent factorization of the transformed matrix of coefficients by the Cholesky algorithm. Expressions for speedup and efficiency are derived in terms of parameters of the permutation, set of equations, and machine architecture.

  12. Predecessor and permutation existence problems for sequential dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Hunt, H. B.; Marathe, M. V.; Rosenkrantz, D. J.; Stearns, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    A class of finite discrete dynamical systems, called Sequential Dynamical Systems (SDSs), was introduced in BMR99, BR991 as a formal model for analyzing simulation systems. An SDS S is a triple (G, F,n ),w here (i) G(V,E ) is an undirected graph with n nodes with each node having a state, (ii) F = (fi, fi, . . ., fn), with fi denoting a function associated with node ui E V and (iii) A is a permutation of (or total order on) the nodes in V, A configuration of an SDS is an n-vector ( b l, bz, . . ., bn), where bi is the value of the state of node vi. A single SDS transition from one configuration to another is obtained by updating the states of the nodes by evaluating the function associated with each of them in the order given by n. Here, we address the complexity of two basic problems and their generalizations for SDSs. Given an SDS S and a configuration C, the PREDECESSOR EXISTENCE (or PRE) problem is to determine whether there is a configuration C' such that S has a transition from C' to C. (If C has no predecessor, C is known as a garden of Eden configuration.) Our results provide separations between efficiently solvable and computationally intractable instances of the PRE problem. For example, we show that the PRE problem can be solved efficiently for SDSs with Boolean state values when the node functions are symmetric and the underlying graph is of bounded treewidth. In contrast, we show that allowing just one non-symmetric node function renders the problem NP-complete even when the underlying graph is a tree (which has a treewidth of 1). We also show that the PRE problem is efficiently solvable for SDSs whose state values are from a field and whose node functions are linear. Some of the polynomial algorithms also extend to the case where we want to find an ancestor configuration that precedes a given configuration by a logarithmic number of steps. Our results extend some of the earlier results by Sutner [Su95] and Green [@87] on the complexity of the

  13. Predecessor and permutation existence problems for sequential dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Hunt, H. B.; Marathe, M. V.; Ravi, S. S.; Rosenkrantz, D. J.; Stearns, R. E.

    2001-01-01

    Motivated by the aim to build computer simulations for large scale systems [BMR99, BR99], we study a class of finite discrete dynamical systems called Sequential Dynamical Systems (SDSs). An SDS S is a triple (G, F, {pi}), where (i) G(V, E) is an undirected graph with n nodes with each node having a 1-bit state, (ii) F = {l_brace}f{sub 1}, f{sub 2}, ..., f{sub n}{r_brace}, with f{sub i} denoting a symmetric Boolean function associated with node v{sub i} and (iii) {pi} is a permutation of (or total order on) the nodes in V. A configuration of an SDS is a bit vector (b{sub 1}, b{sub 2}, ..., b{sub n}), where b{sub i} is the value of the state of node v{sub i}. A single SDS transition from one configuration to another is obtained by updating the states of the nodes by evaluating the function associated with each of them in the order given by {pi}. Here, we address the complexity of two problems for SDSs. Given an SDS S and a configuration C, the PREDECESSOR EXISTENCE (or PRE) problem is to determine whether there is a configuration C{prime} such that S goes from C{prime} to C in one step. We show that the PRE problem NP-complete for several simple classes of SDSs (e.g. SDSs for which the set of node functions is {l_brace}AND, OR{r_brace}, SDSs whose underlying graphs are planar). We also identify several classes of SDSs for which the PRE problem can be solved efficiently (e.g. SDSs where each node function is from {l_brace}OR, NOR{r_brace} or {l_brace}AND, NAND{r_brace} or {l_brace}XOR, XNOR{r_brace}). We also show that the PRE problem is solvable in polynomial time when the function at each node is linear or when the underlying graph G is of bounded treewidth. Many of the easiness results extend to the case where we want to find an ancestor configuration that precedes a given configuration by a polynomial number of steps. Given the underlying graph G(V, E), and two configurations C and C{prime} of an SDS S, the PERMUTATION EXISTENCE (or PME) problem is to determine

  14. Permutation entropy based speckle analysis in metal cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Usha; Krishna, Bindu M.; Namboothiri, V. N. N.; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2008-08-01

    Machine tool chatter is an unfavorable phenomenon during metal cutting, which results in heavy vibration of cutting tool. With increase in depth of cut the cutting regime changes from chatter- free cutting to one with chatter. In this paper, we propose the use of permutation entropy (PE), a conceptually simple and computationally fast measure to detect the onset of chatter from the time series generated using laser speckle pattern recorded using Charge Couple Device (CCD) camera. Laser speckle is an interference pattern produced by light reflected or scattered from different parts of the illuminated surface. It is the superposition of many wave fronts with random phases, scattered from different parts of the rough surface. If a speckle pattern is produced by coherent light incident on a rough surface, then surely the speckle pattern, or at least the statistics of the speckle pattern, must depend upon the detailed surface properties. Therefore we propose PE as an ideal measure, which can efficiently distinguish regular and complex nature of any signal, to extract information about the roughness of the reflecting surface. In the present study two work pieces, one taper cut and one step cut are machined to form cylindrical pieces, by continuously varying the depth of cut. As the depth of cut increases the surface finish is expected to deteriorate, mainly due to the onset of chatter vibrations. To analyze the surface texture characteristics, the speckle pattern is obtained by illuminating this curved surface using a collimated laser beam (5mW Diode Laser at 676nm wavelength.). The laser beam is made to incident obliquely to the curved surface of the work piece, and the speckle pattern is recorded using a CCD camera. The beam is scanned along the axis of the work-piece and the speckle pattern is recorded at different regions at constant intervals. A time series is generated from the speckle data and analyzed using PE. Permutation entropy is a complexity measure suitable

  15. Multiscale permutation entropy analysis of EEG recordings during sevoflurane anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Li, Duan; Li, Xiaoli; Liang, Zhenhu; Voss, Logan J; Sleigh, Jamie W

    2010-08-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring of the effect of anesthetic drugs on the central nervous system has long been used in anesthesia research. Several methods based on nonlinear dynamics, such as permutation entropy (PE), have been proposed to analyze EEG series during anesthesia. However, these measures are still single-scale based and may not completely describe the dynamical characteristics of complex EEG series. In this paper, a novel measure combining multiscale PE information, called CMSPE (composite multi-scale permutation entropy), was proposed for quantifying the anesthetic drug effect on EEG recordings during sevoflurane anesthesia. Three sets of simulated EEG series during awake, light and deep anesthesia were used to select the parameters for the multiscale PE analysis: embedding dimension m, lag tau and scales to be integrated into the CMSPE index. Then, the CMSPE index and raw single-scale PE index were applied to EEG recordings from 18 patients who received sevoflurane anesthesia. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) modeling was used to relate the measured EEG indices and the anesthetic drug concentration. Prediction probability (P(k)) statistics and correlation analysis with the response entropy (RE) index, derived from the spectral entropy (M-entropy module; GE Healthcare, Helsinki, Finland), were investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of the new proposed measure. It was found that raw single-scale PE was blind to subtle transitions between light and deep anesthesia, while the CMSPE index tracked these changes accurately. Around the time of loss of consciousness, CMSPE responded significantly more rapidly than the raw PE, with the absolute slopes of linearly fitted response versus time plots of 0.12 (0.09-0.15) and 0.10 (0.06-0.13), respectively. The prediction probability P(k) of 0.86 (0.85-0.88) and 0.85 (0.80-0.86) for CMSPE and raw PE indicated that the CMSPE index correlated well with the underlying anesthetic effect. The correlation

  16. Aircraft assembly shop plant no. 2, view looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aircraft assembly shop plant no. 2, view looking east - northeast. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Aircraft Assembly Shop Plant, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Roadhouse and shops from the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roadhouse and shops from the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy railroad mainline, facing northeast - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  18. Roadhouse and shops, from Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad mainline, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roadhouse and shops, from Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad mainline, facing southeast. - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  19. Your Shopping Dollar. [Revised.] Money Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Tarrant, Sharon M., Ed.

    This booklet on shopping, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook tells how to plan spending, develop shopping skills, and handle consumer problems effectively. Section 1 on consumers and the economy overviews…

  20. Basic Shop Fundamentals for the Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younce, J. R.; And Others

    These self-study materials are a basic course for Marines working as mechanics. The course contains three study units. The first unit explains mechanics' hand tools and their proper care and usage. The second unit introduces the duties of the personnel at a basic level, describes the areas of a typical shop, and deals with shop operations and…

  1. Teacher Liability in School-Shop Accidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegin, Denis J.

    The intent of the book is to stimulate interest in the problem of shop-teacher liability and to identify certain needs which have not been adequately met by existing laws and statutes. Chapter 1, The Significance of Teacher Liability, discusses basic legal considerations, the environment of the school shop, and the possibility of liability.…

  2. How to Shop for Health Insurance

    MedlinePlus

    ... Know About Zika & Pregnancy How to Shop for Health Insurance KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Shop for Health Insurance Print A A A Text Size What's in ... seguro médico? In America today, we all need health insurance. You do. Your kids do. It's not a " ...

  3. Product Characteristics and Internet Shopping Intentions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vijayasarathy, Leo R.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of electronic commerce and online marketing focuses on an empirical study that investigated differences between Internet shopping intentions for products categorized by cost and tangibility. Highlights include hypotheses; respondent characteristics; results that showed that intentions to shop using the Internet differ by tangibility of…

  4. Machine Shop. Instructor Key. Supplementary Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walden, Charles; Cole, Phyllis

    These supplementary units are designed to help students with special needs learn and apply machine shop skills. Nine competencies that are difficult for special needs students to grasp or that would help them get a future job in the field were chosen from the regular machine shop curriculum. Specific objectives for these competencies are listed at…

  5. Machine Shop. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Arthur; Lambert, George

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 13 terminal objectives for a high school basic machine shop course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (2 hours daily) designed to enable students to become familiar with the operation of machine shop equipment, to become familiar…

  6. Shop Tools. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This shop tools manual is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on servicing of automotive and off-the-road equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. Sections describe the use of the following tools: screwdrivers, hammers,…

  7. The General Shop. Bulletin, 1929, No. 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proffitt, Maris M.

    1929-01-01

    The general shop is a form of instructional organization for offering work in a variety of shop activities. It is an outgrowth of the general recognition of the need for provision in the school curriculum of exploratory and developmental types of experiences for children of approximately the junior high school age. It also meets an outstanding…

  8. 30 CFR 57.4761 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of fire, and air leakage at each opening to the shop. (2) Each control door shall be— (i) Constructed so that, once closed, it will not reopen as a result of a differential in air pressure; (ii..., routing of the mine shop air directly to an exhaust system, reversal of mechanical ventilation, or use...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4761 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of fire, and air leakage at each opening to the shop. (2) Each control door shall be— (i) Constructed so that, once closed, it will not reopen as a result of a differential in air pressure; (ii..., routing of the mine shop air directly to an exhaust system, reversal of mechanical ventilation, or use...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4761 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of fire, and air leakage at each opening to the shop. (2) Each control door shall be— (i) Constructed so that, once closed, it will not reopen as a result of a differential in air pressure; (ii..., routing of the mine shop air directly to an exhaust system, reversal of mechanical ventilation, or use...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4761 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of fire, and air leakage at each opening to the shop. (2) Each control door shall be— (i) Constructed so that, once closed, it will not reopen as a result of a differential in air pressure; (ii..., routing of the mine shop air directly to an exhaust system, reversal of mechanical ventilation, or use...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4761 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of fire, and air leakage at each opening to the shop. (2) Each control door shall be— (i) Constructed so that, once closed, it will not reopen as a result of a differential in air pressure; (ii..., routing of the mine shop air directly to an exhaust system, reversal of mechanical ventilation, or use...

  13. Machine Shop Projects. Instructor Guide. General Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrook, Raymond E.

    Developed in Georgia, this manual contains 101 projects for use in machine shop courses, arranged according to a suggested machine shop curriculum. Each project, included in a student workbook, contains complete drawings and instructions for implementation. Tasks are listed under the broad headings of measuring, layout, bench work, saws, drilling,…

  14. Efficiency and credit ratings: a permutation-information-theory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez Bariviera, Aurelio; Zunino, Luciano; Belén Guercio, M.; Martinez, Lisana B.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.

    2013-08-01

    The role of credit rating agencies has been under severe scrutiny after the subprime crisis. In this paper we explore the relationship between credit ratings and informational efficiency of a sample of thirty nine corporate bonds of US oil and energy companies from April 2008 to November 2012. For this purpose we use a powerful statistical tool, relatively new in the financial literature: the complexity-entropy causality plane. This representation space allows us to graphically classify the different bonds according to their degree of informational efficiency. We find that this classification agrees with the credit ratings assigned by Moody’s. In particular, we detect the formation of two clusters, which correspond to the global categories of investment and speculative grades. Regarding the latter cluster, two subgroups reflect distinct levels of efficiency. Additionally, we also find an intriguing absence of correlation between informational efficiency and firm characteristics. This allows us to conclude that the proposed permutation-information-theory approach provides an alternative practical way to justify bond classification.

  15. Inaccuracy, Uncertainty and the Space-Time Permutation Scan Statistic

    PubMed Central

    Malizia, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The space-time permutation scan statistic (STPSS) is designed to identify hot (and cool) spots of space-time interaction within patterns of spatio-temporal events. While the method has been adopted widely in practice, there has been little consideration of the effect inaccurate and/or incomplete input data may have on its results. Given the pervasiveness of inaccuracy, uncertainty and incompleteness within spatio-temporal datasets and the popularity of the method, this issue warrants further investigation. Here, a series of simulation experiments using both synthetic and real-world data are carried out to better understand how deficiencies in the spatial and temporal accuracy as well as the completeness of the input data may affect results of the STPSS. The findings, while specific to the parameters employed here, reveal a surprising robustness of the method's results in the face of these deficiencies. As expected, the experiments illustrate that greater degradation of input data quality leads to greater variability in the results. Additionally, they show that weaker signals of space-time interaction are those most affected by the introduced deficiencies. However, in stark contrast to previous investigations into the impact of these input data problems on global tests of space-time interaction, this local metric is revealed to be only minimally affected by the degree of inaccuracy and incompleteness introduced in these experiments. PMID:23408930

  16. Permutation-symmetry related selection rules in spinor quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurovsky, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Selection rules constraining possible transitions between states of quantum systems can be derived from the system symmetry. Invariance over permutations of indistinguishable particles, contained in each physical system, is one of the basic symmetries. Consider a many-body system with separable spin and spatial degrees of freedom of particles with arbitrary spins s. Eigenfunctions of such systems can be expressed as a sum of products of spin and spatial functions, which form irreducible representations (irreps) of the symmetric group. The quantum numbers are the Young diagrams λ = [λ1 , ... ,λ2 s + 1 ] . The selection rules for a general k-body interactions allow transitions between the states λ and λ' only if ∑m=12s+1 |λm -λm'| <= 2 k . For s = 1 / 2 , the Young diagrams are unambiguously related to the total spin, and if k = 1 , we get the conventional selection rule for dipole transitions. However, if s > 1 / 2 , the rules cannot be expressed in terms of spins. The selection rules provide a way of control over the formation of many-body entangled states, belonging to multidimensional, non-Abelian irreps of the symmetric group. The effects can be observed with spinor atoms in an optical lattice in the Mott-insulator regime.

  17. Inaccuracy, uncertainty and the space-time permutation scan statistic.

    PubMed

    Malizia, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The space-time permutation scan statistic (STPSS) is designed to identify hot (and cool) spots of space-time interaction within patterns of spatio-temporal events. While the method has been adopted widely in practice, there has been little consideration of the effect inaccurate and/or incomplete input data may have on its results. Given the pervasiveness of inaccuracy, uncertainty and incompleteness within spatio-temporal datasets and the popularity of the method, this issue warrants further investigation. Here, a series of simulation experiments using both synthetic and real-world data are carried out to better understand how deficiencies in the spatial and temporal accuracy as well as the completeness of the input data may affect results of the STPSS. The findings, while specific to the parameters employed here, reveal a surprising robustness of the method's results in the face of these deficiencies. As expected, the experiments illustrate that greater degradation of input data quality leads to greater variability in the results. Additionally, they show that weaker signals of space-time interaction are those most affected by the introduced deficiencies. However, in stark contrast to previous investigations into the impact of these input data problems on global tests of space-time interaction, this local metric is revealed to be only minimally affected by the degree of inaccuracy and incompleteness introduced in these experiments.

  18. Permutation Entropy Analysis of Geomagnetic Indices Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Michelis, Paola; Consolini, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    The Earth's magnetospheric dynamics displays a very complex nature in response to solar wind changes as widely documented in the scientific literature. This complex dynamics manifests in various physical processes occurring in different regions of the Earth's magnetosphere as clearly revealed by previous analyses on geomagnetic indices (AE-indices, Dst, Sym-H, ....., etc.). One of the most interesting features of the geomagnetic indices as proxies of the Earth's magnetospheric dynamics is the multifractional nature of the time series of such indices. This aspect has been interpreted as the occurrence of intermittence and dynamical phase transition in the Earth's magnetosphere. Here, we investigate the Markovian nature of different geomagnetic indices (AE-indices, Sym-H, Asy-H) and their fluctuations by means of Permutation Entropy Analysis. The results clearly show the non-Markovian and different nature of the distinct sets of geomagnetic indices, pointing towards diverse underlying physical processes. A discussion in connection with the nature of the physical processes responsible of each set of indices and their multifractional character is attempted.

  19. A permutation approach for selecting the penalty parameter in penalized model selection.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Jeremy A; Valdar, William; Nobel, Andrew B

    2015-12-01

    We describe a simple, computationally efficient, permutation-based procedure for selecting the penalty parameter in LASSO-penalized regression. The procedure, permutation selection, is intended for applications where variable selection is the primary focus, and can be applied in a variety of structural settings, including that of generalized linear models. We briefly discuss connections between permutation selection and existing theory for the LASSO. In addition, we present a simulation study and an analysis of real biomedical data sets in which permutation selection is compared with selection based on the following: cross-validation (CV), the Bayesian information criterion (BIC), scaled sparse linear regression, and a selection method based on recently developed testing procedures for the LASSO.

  20. C-normal and C-permutable subgroups in finite groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sharo, Doaa Mustafa; Sulaiman, Hajar

    2014-12-01

    All groups considered here are finite. The c-normality and c-permutability of subgroups in finite groups were recently discovered and a number of related results have been published. Here, we present new classes of groups which we call SCN-groups and SCP-groups. We call a group an SCN-group (resp. SCP-group) if all its subnormal subgroups are c-normal (resp. c-permutable).

  1. Particle Filter with State Permutations for Solving Image Jigsaw Puzzles

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xingwei; Adluru, Nagesh; Latecki, Longin Jan

    2016-01-01

    We deal with an image jigsaw puzzle problem, which is defined as reconstructing an image from a set of square and non-overlapping image patches. It is known that a general instance of this problem is NP-complete, and it is also challenging for humans, since in the considered setting the original image is not given. Recently a graphical model has been proposed to solve this and related problems. The target label probability function is then maximized using loopy belief propagation. We also formulate the problem as maximizing a label probability function and use exactly the same pairwise potentials. Our main contribution is a novel inference approach in the sampling framework of Particle Filter (PF). Usually in the PF framework it is assumed that the observations arrive sequentially, e.g., the observations are naturally ordered by their time stamps in the tracking scenario. Based on this assumption, the posterior density over the corresponding hidden states is estimated. In the jigsaw puzzle problem all observations (puzzle pieces) are given at once without any particular order. Therefore, we relax the assumption of having ordered observations and extend the PF framework to estimate the posterior density by exploring different orders of observations and selecting the most informative permutations of observations. This significantly broadens the scope of applications of the PF inference. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed inference framework significantly outperforms the loopy belief propagation in solving the image jigsaw puzzle problem. In particular, the extended PF inference triples the accuracy of the label assignment compared to that using loopy belief propagation.

  2. Dermatoses among floral shop workers.

    PubMed

    Thiboutot, D M; Hamory, B H; Marks, J G

    1990-01-01

    Concern about the increasing incidence of hand dermatitis in floral shop workers in the United States and its possible association to the plant Alstroemeria, a flower that has become popular since its introduction in 1981, prompted investigation of the prevalence and cause of hand dermatitis in a sample of floral workers. Fifty-seven floral workers were surveyed, and 15 (26%) reported hand dermatitis within the previous 12 months. Sixteen floral workers (eight with dermatitis) volunteered to be patch tested to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard and Perfume Trays, a series of eight pesticides and 20 plant allergens. Of four of seven floral designers and arrangers who reported hand dermatitis, three reacted positively to patch tests to tuliposide A, the allergen in Alstroemeria. Patch test readings for all other plant extracts were negative. A positive reading for a test to one pesticide, difolatan (Captafol), was noted, the relevance of which is unknown.

  3. Looking west at Machine Shop (Bldg. 163) south bay interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking west at Machine Shop (Bldg. 163) south bay interior. Note the Shaw 15-ton bridge crane. This portion of the building housed machine tools and locomotive component repair functions that supported the erecting shop operations - Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe Railroad, Albuquerque Shops, Machine Shop, 908 Second Street, Southwest, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  4. VIEW NORTH EXTREME LEFTBUILDING 32; MACHINE SHOP (1890) SECOND LEFTBUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH- EXTREME LEFT-BUILDING 32; MACHINE SHOP (1890) SECOND LEFT-BUILDING 31; RIGGER SHOP (1890) CENTER- BUILDING 28; BLACKSMITH SHOP (1885) CENTER RIGHT-BUILDING 27; PATTERN SHOP (C.1853) RIGHT-BUILDING 40; WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  5. CAR MACHINE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, DETAIL OF STEEL COLUMN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAR MACHINE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, DETAIL OF STEEL COLUMN AND BEAM ALTERATION, LOOKING SOUTH. MODIFICATION WAS DONE TO ACCOMMODATE MACHINERY DURING THE BUILDING'S USE AS A WHEEL SHOP. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Car Machine Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  6. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF SHOPS COMPLEX LOOKING EAST SHOWING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF SHOPS COMPLEX LOOKING EAST SHOWING WEST AND EAST ROUNDHOUSES, FROG AND SWITCH SHOP, AND MACHINE SHOP. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Martinsburg Repair Shops, West Side of Tuscarora Creek Opposite East End of Race Street, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  7. Detail of north end of the Electrical Shop (foreground) and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north end of the Electrical Shop (foreground) and Sheet Metal Shop, note the metal-frame windows in the Electrical Shop, view facing east - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Boiler House, Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

  8. 9. Detail, sign at east comer of Roundhouse Machine Shop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail, sign at east comer of Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northwest (210mm lens). Sign reads, 'Open Valve To Supply Water To City.' The railroad could supply water to all of Carlin. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  9. 6. Northeast end, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Northeast end, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to southwest (135mm lens). The tall freestanding smokestack from the Boiler Room originally stood adjacent to this end of the building. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  10. 10. Interior, Boiler Room, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior, Boiler Room, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northwest (90mm lens). The silver stacks suspended from the ceiling in the background mark the former location of the boilers, and served as steam vents. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  11. Uncovering networks from genome-wide association studies via circular genomic permutation.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Claudia P; Navarro, Pau; Huffman, Jennifer E; Wright, Alan F; Hayward, Caroline; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F; Rudan, Igor; Hastie, Nicholas D; Vitart, Veronique; Haley, Chris S

    2012-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) aim to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with trait variation. However, due to the large number of tests, standard analysis techniques impose highly stringent significance thresholds, leaving potentially associated SNPs undetected, and much of the trait genetic variation unexplained. Pathway- and network-based methodologies applied to GWAS aim to detect associations missed by standard single-marker approaches. The complex and non-random architecture of the genome makes it a challenge to derive an appropriate testing framework for such methodologies. We developed a rapid and simple permutation approach that uses GWAS SNP association results to establish the significance of pathway associations while accounting for the linkage disequilibrium structure of SNPs and the clustering of functionally related elements in the genome. All SNPs used in the GWAS are placed in a "circular genome" according to their location. Then the complete set of SNP association P values are permuted by rotation with respect to the genomic locations of the SNPs. Once these "simulated" P values are assigned, the joint gene P values are calculated using Fisher's combination test, and the association of pathways is tested using the hypergeometric test. The circular genomic permutation approach was applied to a human genome-wide association dataset. The data consists of 719 individuals from the ORCADES study genotyped for ~300,000 SNPs and measured for 51 traits ranging from physical to biochemical measurements. KEGG pathways (n = 225) were used as the sets of pathways to be tested. Our results demonstrate that the circular genomic permutations provide robust association P values. The non-permuted hypergeometric analysis generates ~1400 pathway-trait combination results with an association P value more significant than P ≤ 0.05, whereas applying circular genomic permutation reduces the number of significant results to a more credible

  12. 3. Oblique view of southwest end, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oblique view of southwest end, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north showing the curvature of the end wall that was the common wall with the Roundhouse, and the large metal-clad doors through which steam locomotives were moved into the Machine Shop (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  13. 6. North wall and east end of air brake shop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. North wall and east end of air brake shop section of roundhouse at center. East end of boiler shop section of roundhouse to the right of air brake shop. East end of blacksmith shop section of roundhouse at far right. View to southeast. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  14. Profiling the Shopping Behavior of Elderly Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, J. Barry; Bearden, William O.

    1978-01-01

    Data were collected by personal interview on shopping roles, information processing, food stamp and coupon use, store brand purchases, mispricing and product unavailability experiences, and with familiarity with fair trade practices. Implications and directions for further research are suggested. (Author)

  15. Systematic permutation testing in GWAS pathway analyses: identification of genetic networks in dilated cardiomyopathy and ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome wide association studies (GWAS) are applied to identify genetic loci, which are associated with complex traits and human diseases. Analogous to the evolution of gene expression analyses, pathway analyses have emerged as important tools to uncover functional networks of genome-wide association data. Usually, pathway analyses combine statistical methods with a priori available biological knowledge. To determine significance thresholds for associated pathways, correction for multiple testing and over-representation permutation testing is applied. Results We systematically investigated the impact of three different permutation test approaches for over-representation analysis to detect false positive pathway candidates and evaluate them on genome-wide association data of Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC). Our results provide evidence that the gold standard - permuting the case–control status – effectively improves specificity of GWAS pathway analysis. Although permutation of SNPs does not maintain linkage disequilibrium (LD), these permutations represent an alternative for GWAS data when case–control permutations are not possible. Gene permutations, however, did not add significantly to the specificity. Finally, we provide estimates on the required number of permutations for the investigated approaches. Conclusions To discover potential false positive functional pathway candidates and to support the results from standard statistical tests such as the Hypergeometric test, permutation tests of case control data should be carried out. The most reasonable alternative was case–control permutation, if this is not possible, SNP permutations may be carried out. Our study also demonstrates that significance values converge rapidly with an increasing number of permutations. By applying the described statistical framework we were able to discover axon guidance, focal adhesion and calcium signaling as important DCM-related pathways

  16. Food Shopping Behaviors and Exposure to Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Israel, Barbara A.; Mentz, Graciela; Miranda, Patricia Y.; Opperman, Alisha; Odoms-Young, Angela M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined food shopping behaviors, particularly distance to grocery shop, and exposure to discrimination. Design Cross-sectional observational study utilizing data from a community survey, neighborhood food environment observations, and the decennial census. Setting Three communities in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Subjects Probability sample of 919 African-American, Latino, and White adults in 146 census blocks and 69 census block groups. Results On average, respondents shopped for groceries 3·1 miles from home, with 30·9% shopping within one mile and 22·3% more than five miles from home. Longer distance to shop was associated with being younger, African-American (compared to Latino), a woman, higher socioeconomic status, lower satisfaction with the neighborhood food environment, and living in a neighborhood with higher poverty, without a large grocery store, and farther from the nearest supermarket. African-Americans and those with the lowest incomes were particularly likely to report unfair treatment at food outlets. Each mile increase in distance to shop was associated with a 7% increase in the odds of unfair treatment; this relationship did not differ by race/ethnicity. Conclusions This study suggests that unfair treatment in retail interactions warrants investigation as a pathway by which restricted neighborhood food environments and food shopping behaviors may adversely affect health and contribute to health disparities. Efforts to promote “healthy” and equitable food environments should emphasize local availability and affordability of a range of healthy food products, as well as fair treatment while shopping regardless of race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status. PMID:23534814

  17. Healthful grocery shopping. Perceptions and barriers.

    PubMed

    Hollywood, Lynsey E; Cuskelly, Geraldine J; O'Brien, Michelle; McConnon, Aine; Barnett, Julie; Raats, Monique M; Dean, Moira

    2013-11-01

    While there is evidence of the factors influencing the healthfulness of consumers' food choice, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthfulness of their shopping. This study aimed to explore consumers' perceptions of, and identify barriers to, conducting a healthful shop. Using a qualitative approach, consisting of an accompanied shop and post-shop telephone interview, 50 grocery shoppers were recruited. Results showed that consumers used three criteria to identify a healthful shop: (1) inclusion of healthful foods; (2) avoidance or restriction of particular foods; and (3) achieving a balance between healthful and unhealthful foods. Those who take a balanced approach employ a more holistic approach to their diet while those who avoid or include specific foods may be setting criteria to purchase only certain types of food. The effectiveness of any of these strategies in improving healthfulness is still unclear and requires further investigation. Two barriers to healthful shopping were: (i) lack of self-efficacy in choosing, preparing and cooking healthful foods and (ii) conflicting needs when satisfying self and others. This highlights the need for interventions targeted at building key food skills and for manufacturers to make healthful choices more appealing. PMID:23831013

  18. A Versatile Platform for Nanotechnology Based on Circular Permutation of a Chaperonin Protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paavola, Chad; McMillan, Andrew; Trent, Jonathan; Chan, Suzanne; Mazzarella, Kellen; Li, Yi-Fen

    2004-01-01

    A number of protein complexes have been developed as nanoscale templates. These templates can be functionalized using the peptide sequences that bind inorganic materials. However, it is difficult to integrate peptides into a specific position within a protein template. Integrating intact proteins with desirable binding or catalytic activities is an even greater challenge. We present a general method for modifying protein templates using circular permutation so that additional peptide sequence can be added in a wide variety of specific locations. Circular permutation is a reordering of the polypeptide chain such that the original termini are joined and new termini are created elsewhere in the protein. New sequence can be joined to the protein termini without perturbing the protein structure and with minimal limitation on the size and conformation of the added sequence. We have used this approach to modify a chaperonin protein template, placing termini at five different locations distributed across the surface of the protein complex. These permutants are competent to form the double-ring structures typical of chaperonin proteins. The permuted double-rings also form the same assemblies as the unmodified protein. We fused a fluorescent protein to two representative permutants and demonstrated that it assumes its active structure and does not interfere with assembly of chaperonin double-rings.

  19. MATC Machine Shop '84: Specific Skill Needs Assessment for Machine Shops in the Milwaukee Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Keith J.

    Building on previous research on the future skill needs of workers in southeastern Wisconsin, a study was conducted at Milwaukee Area Technical College (MATC) to gather information on the machine tool industry in the Milwaukee area. Interviews were conducted by MATC Machine Shop and Tool and Die faculty with representatives from 135 machine shops,…

  20. Multiple comparisons permutation test for image based data mining in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Comparing incidental dose distributions (i.e. images) of patients with different outcomes is a straightforward way to explore dose-response hypotheses in radiotherapy. In this paper, we introduced a permutation test that compares images, such as dose distributions from radiotherapy, while tackling the multiple comparisons problem. A test statistic Tmax was proposed that summarizes the differences between the images into a single value and a permutation procedure was employed to compute the adjusted p-value. We demonstrated the method in two retrospective studies: a prostate study that relates 3D dose distributions to failure, and an esophagus study that relates 2D surface dose distributions of the esophagus to acute esophagus toxicity. As a result, we were able to identify suspicious regions that are significantly associated with failure (prostate study) or toxicity (esophagus study). Permutation testing allows direct comparison of images from different patient categories and is a useful tool for data mining in radiotherapy. PMID:24365155

  1. Security enhanced optical encryption system by random phase key and permutation key.

    PubMed

    He, Mingzhao; Tan, Qiaofeng; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2009-12-01

    Conventional double random phase encoding (DRPE) encrypts plaintext to white noise-like ciphertext which may attract attention of eavesdroppers, and recent research reported that DRPE is vulnerable to various attacks. Here we propose a security enhanced optical encryption system that can hide the existence of secret information by watermarking. The plaintext is encrypted using iterative fractional Fourier transform with random phase key, and ciphertext is randomly permuted with permutation key before watermarking. Cryptanalysis shows that linearity of the security system has been broken and the permutation key prevent the attacker from accessing the ciphertext in various attacks. A series of simulations have shown the effectiveness of this system and the security strength is enhanced for invisibility, nonlinearity and resistance against attacks. PMID:20052170

  2. Six-qubit permutation-based decoherence-free orthogonal basis

    SciTech Connect

    Cabello, Adan

    2007-02-15

    There is a natural orthogonal basis of the 6-qubit decoherence-free (DF) space robust against collective noise. Interestingly, most of the basis states can be obtained from one another just permuting qubits. This property (a) is useful for encoding qubits in DF subspaces, (b) allows the implementation of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol in DF subspaces just permuting qubits, which completes the method for quantum key distribution using DF states proposed by Boileau et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017901 (2004)], and (c) points out that there is only one 6-qubit DF state which is essentially new (not obtained by permutations) and therefore constitutes an interesting experimental challenge.

  3. Permutation invariant polynomial neural network approach to fitting potential energy surfaces. III. Molecule-surface interactions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua

    2014-07-21

    The permutation invariant polynomial-neural network (PIP-NN) method for constructing highly accurate potential energy surfaces (PESs) for gas phase molecules is extended to molecule-surface interaction PESs. The symmetry adaptation in the NN fitting of a PES is achieved by employing as the input symmetry functions that fulfill both the translational symmetry of the surface and permutation symmetry of the molecule. These symmetry functions are low-order PIPs of the primitive symmetry functions containing the surface periodic symmetry. It is stressed that permutationally invariant cross terms are needed to avoid oversymmetrization. The accuracy and efficiency are demonstrated in fitting both a model PES for the H2 + Cu(111) system and density functional theory points for the H2 + Ag(111) system.

  4. Permutation invariant polynomial neural network approach to fitting potential energy surfaces. II. Four-atom systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua

    2013-11-28

    A rigorous, general, and simple method to fit global and permutation invariant potential energy surfaces (PESs) using neural networks (NNs) is discussed. This so-called permutation invariant polynomial neural network (PIP-NN) method imposes permutation symmetry by using in its input a set of symmetry functions based on PIPs. For systems with more than three atoms, it is shown that the number of symmetry functions in the input vector needs to be larger than the number of internal coordinates in order to include both the primary and secondary invariant polynomials. This PIP-NN method is successfully demonstrated in three atom-triatomic reactive systems, resulting in full-dimensional global PESs with average errors on the order of meV. These PESs are used in full-dimensional quantum dynamical calculations.

  5. Multiple comparisons permutation test for image based data mining in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; Witte, Marnix; Heemsbergen, Wilma; van Herk, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    : Comparing incidental dose distributions (i.e. images) of patients with different outcomes is a straightforward way to explore dose-response hypotheses in radiotherapy. In this paper, we introduced a permutation test that compares images, such as dose distributions from radiotherapy, while tackling the multiple comparisons problem. A test statistic Tmax was proposed that summarizes the differences between the images into a single value and a permutation procedure was employed to compute the adjusted p-value. We demonstrated the method in two retrospective studies: a prostate study that relates 3D dose distributions to failure, and an esophagus study that relates 2D surface dose distributions of the esophagus to acute esophagus toxicity. As a result, we were able to identify suspicious regions that are significantly associated with failure (prostate study) or toxicity (esophagus study). Permutation testing allows direct comparison of images from different patient categories and is a useful tool for data mining in radiotherapy. PMID:24365155

  6. A Permutation Method to Assess Heterogeneity in External Validation for Risk Prediction Models

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling-Yi; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The value of a developed prediction model depends on its performance outside the development sample. The key is therefore to externally validate the model on a different but related independent data. In this study, we propose a permutation method to assess heterogeneity in external validation for risk prediction models. The permutation p value measures the extent of homology between development and validation datasets. If p < 0.05, the model may not be directly transported to the external validation population without further revision or updating. Monte-Carlo simulations are conducted to evaluate the statistical properties of the proposed method, and two microarray breast cancer datasets are analyzed for demonstration. The permutation method is easy to implement and is recommended for routine use in external validation for risk prediction models. PMID:25606854

  7. Permutation invariant polynomial neural network approach to fitting potential energy surfaces. II. Four-atom systems

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua

    2013-11-28

    A rigorous, general, and simple method to fit global and permutation invariant potential energy surfaces (PESs) using neural networks (NNs) is discussed. This so-called permutation invariant polynomial neural network (PIP-NN) method imposes permutation symmetry by using in its input a set of symmetry functions based on PIPs. For systems with more than three atoms, it is shown that the number of symmetry functions in the input vector needs to be larger than the number of internal coordinates in order to include both the primary and secondary invariant polynomials. This PIP-NN method is successfully demonstrated in three atom-triatomic reactive systems, resulting in full-dimensional global PESs with average errors on the order of meV. These PESs are used in full-dimensional quantum dynamical calculations.

  8. Estimation of false discovery rate using sequential permutation p-values.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Tim; Du, Chuanlong; Nettleton, Dan

    2013-03-01

    We consider the problem of testing each of m null hypotheses with a sequential permutation procedure in which the number of draws from the permutation distribution of each test statistic is a random variable. Each sequential permutation p-value has a null distribution that is nonuniform on a discrete support. We show how to use a collection of such p-values to estimate the number of true null hypotheses m0 among the m null hypotheses tested and how to estimate the false discovery rate (FDR) associated with p-value significance thresholds. We use real data analyses and simulation studies to evaluate and illustrate the performance of our proposed approach relative to standard, more computationally intensive strategies. We find that our sequential approach produces similar results with far less computational expense in a variety of scenarios.

  9. On Canonical Quantization of the Gauged WZW Model with Permutation Branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkissian, Gor

    In this paper we perform canonical quantization of the product of the gauged WZW models on a strip with boundary conditions specified by permutation branes. We show that the phase space of the N-fold product of the gauged WZW model G/H on a strip with boundary conditions given by permutation branes is symplectomorphic to the phase space of the double Chern-Simons theory on a sphere with N holes times the time-line with G and H gauge fields both coupled to two Wilson lines. For the special case of the topological coset G/G we arrive at the conclusion that the phase space of the N-fold product of the topological coset G/G on a strip with boundary conditions given by permutation branes is symplectomorphic to the phase space of Chern-Simons theory on a Riemann surface of the genus N-1 times the time-line with four Wilson lines.

  10. Security enhanced optical encryption system by random phase key and permutation key.

    PubMed

    He, Mingzhao; Tan, Qiaofeng; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2009-12-01

    Conventional double random phase encoding (DRPE) encrypts plaintext to white noise-like ciphertext which may attract attention of eavesdroppers, and recent research reported that DRPE is vulnerable to various attacks. Here we propose a security enhanced optical encryption system that can hide the existence of secret information by watermarking. The plaintext is encrypted using iterative fractional Fourier transform with random phase key, and ciphertext is randomly permuted with permutation key before watermarking. Cryptanalysis shows that linearity of the security system has been broken and the permutation key prevent the attacker from accessing the ciphertext in various attacks. A series of simulations have shown the effectiveness of this system and the security strength is enhanced for invisibility, nonlinearity and resistance against attacks.

  11. Permutation invariant polynomial neural network approach to fitting potential energy surfaces. III. Molecule-surface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua

    2014-07-01

    The permutation invariant polynomial-neural network (PIP-NN) method for constructing highly accurate potential energy surfaces (PESs) for gas phase molecules is extended to molecule-surface interaction PESs. The symmetry adaptation in the NN fitting of a PES is achieved by employing as the input symmetry functions that fulfill both the translational symmetry of the surface and permutation symmetry of the molecule. These symmetry functions are low-order PIPs of the primitive symmetry functions containing the surface periodic symmetry. It is stressed that permutationally invariant cross terms are needed to avoid oversymmetrization. The accuracy and efficiency are demonstrated in fitting both a model PES for the H2 + Cu(111) system and density functional theory points for the H2 + Ag(111) system.

  12. Permutational distribution of the log-rank statistic under random censorship with applications to carcinogenicity assays.

    PubMed

    Heimann, G; Neuhaus, G

    1998-03-01

    In the random censorship model, the log-rank test is often used for comparing a control group with different dose groups. If the number of tumors is small, so-called exact methods are often applied for computing critical values from a permutational distribution. Two of these exact methods are discussed and shown to be incorrect. The correct permutational distribution is derived and studied with respect to its behavior under unequal censoring in the light of recent results proving that the permutational version and the unconditional version of the log-rank test are asymptotically equivalent even under unequal censoring. The log-rank test is studied by simulations of a realistic scenario from a bioassay with small numbers of tumors.

  13. Communication Between RNA Folding Domains Revealed by Folding of Circularly Permuted Ribozymes

    SciTech Connect

    Lease,R.; Adilakshmi, T.; Heilman-Miller, S.; Woodson, S.

    2007-01-01

    To study the role of sequence and topology in RNA folding, we determined the kinetic folding pathways of two circularly permuted variants of the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme, using time-resolved hydroxyl radical footprinting. Circular permutation changes the distance between interacting residues in the primary sequence, without changing the native structure of the RNA. In the natural ribozyme, tertiary interactions in the P4-P6 domain form in 1 s, while interactions in the P3-P9 form in 1-3 min at 42 C. Permutation of the 5' end to G111 in the P4 helix allowed the stable P4-P6 domain to fold in 200 ms at 30 C, five times faster than in the wild-type RNA, while the other domains folded five times more slowly (5-8 min). By contrast, circular permutation of the 5' end to G303 in J8/7 decreased the folding rate of the P4-P6 domain. In this permuted RNA, regions joining P2, P3 and P4 were protected in 500 ms, while the P3-P9 domain was 60-80% folded within 30 s. RNase T1 digestion and FMN photocleavage showed that circular permutation of the RNA sequence alters the initial ensemble of secondary structures, thereby changing the tertiary folding pathways. Our results show that the natural 5'-to-3' order of the structural domains in group I ribozymes optimizes structural communication between tertiary domains and promotes self-assembly of the catalytic center.

  14. Structural and Thermodynamic Analysis of a Conformationally Strained Circular Permutant of Barnase

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, S.; Mitrea, D; Mitrousis, G; Cingolani, G; Loh, S

    2009-01-01

    Circular permutation of a protein covalently links its original termini and creates new ends at another location. To maintain the stability of the permuted structure, the termini are typically bridged by a peptide long enough to span the original distance between them. Here, we take the opposite approach and employ a very short linker to introduce conformational strain into a protein by forcing its termini together. We join the N- and C-termini of the small ribonuclease barnase (normally 27.2 A distant) with a single Cys residue and introduce new termini at a surface loop, to create pBn. Compared to a similar variant permuted with an 18-residue linker, permutation with a single amino acid dramatically destabilizes barnase. Surprisingly, pBn is folded at 10 C and possesses near wild-type ribonuclease activity. The 2.25 A X-ray crystal structure of pBn reveals how the barnase fold is able to adapt to permutation, partially defuse conformational strain, and preserve enzymatic function. We demonstrate that strain in pBn can be relieved by cleaving the linker with a chemical reagent. Catalytic activity of both uncleaved (strained) pBn and cleaved (relaxed) pBn is proportional to their thermodynamic stabilities, i.e., the fraction of folded molecules. The stability and activity of cleaved pBn are dependent on protein concentration. At concentrations above 2 ?M, cleaving pBn is predicted to increase the fraction of folded molecules and thus enhance ribonuclease activity at 37 C. This study suggests that introducing conformational strain by permutation, and releasing strain by cleavage, is a potential mechanism for engineering an artificial zymogen.

  15. Tandem duplication, circular permutation, molecular adaptation: how Solanaceae resist pests via inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lesheng; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2008-01-01

    Background The Potato type II (Pot II) family of proteinase inhibitors plays critical roles in the defense system of plants from Solanaceae family against pests. To better understand the evolution of this family, we investigated the correlation between sequence and structural repeats within this family and the evolution and molecular adaptation of Pot II genes through computational analysis, using the putative ancestral domain sequence as the basic repeat unit. Results Our analysis discovered the following interesting findings in Pot II family. (1) We classified the structural domains in Pot II family into three types (original repeat domain, circularly permuted domain, the two-chain domain) according to the existence of two linkers between the two domain components, which clearly show the circular permutation relationship between the original repeat domain and circularly permuted domain. (2) The permuted domains appear more stable than original repeat domain, from available structural information. Therefore, we proposed a multiple-repeat sequence is likely to adopt the permuted domain from contiguous sequence segments, with the N- and C-termini forming a single non-contiguous structural domain, linking the bracelet of tandem repeats. (3) The analysis of nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution rates ratio in Pot II domain revealed heterogeneous selective pressures among amino acid sites: the reactive site is under positive Darwinian selection (providing different specificity to target varieties of proteinases) while the cysteine scaffold is under purifying selection (essential for maintaining the fold). (4) For multi-repeat Pot II genes from Nicotiana genus, the proteolytic processing site is under positive Darwinian selection (which may improve the cleavage efficiency). Conclusion This paper provides comprehensive analysis and characterization of Pot II family, and enlightens our understanding on the strategies (Gene and domain duplication, structural circular

  16. Storage and computationally efficient permutations of factorized covariance and square-root information arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muellerschoen, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    A unified method to permute vector stored Upper triangular Diagonal factorized covariance and vector stored upper triangular Square Root Information arrays is presented. The method involves cyclic permutation of the rows and columns of the arrays and retriangularization with fast (slow) Givens rotations (reflections). Minimal computation is performed, and a one dimensional scratch array is required. To make the method efficient for large arrays on a virtual memory machine, computations are arranged so as to avoid expensive paging faults. This method is potentially important for processing large volumes of radio metric data in the Deep Space Network.

  17. ERECTING/MACHINE SHOP, CRANE ACCESS GANGWAY BETWEEN ERECTING (L) AND MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ERECTING/MACHINE SHOP, CRANE ACCESS GANGWAY BETWEEN ERECTING (L) AND MACHINE (R) SHOPS, LOOKING NORTH. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Erecting Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  18. Permutation and parametric tests for effect sizes in voxel-based morphometry of gray matter volume in brain structural MRI.

    PubMed

    Dickie, David A; Mikhael, Shadia; Job, Dominic E; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Laidlaw, David H; Bastin, Mark E

    2015-12-01

    Permutation testing has been widely implemented in voxel-based morphometry (VBM) tools. However, this type of non-parametric inference has yet to be thoroughly compared with traditional parametric inference in VBM studies of brain structure. Here we compare both types of inference and investigate what influence the number of permutations in permutation testing has on results in an exemplar study of how gray matter proportion changes with age in a group of working age adults. High resolution T1-weighted volume scans were acquired from 80 healthy adults aged 25-64years. Using a validated VBM procedure and voxel-based permutation testing for Pearson product-moment coefficient, the effect sizes of changes in gray matter proportion with age were assessed using traditional parametric and permutation testing inference with 100, 500, 1000, 5000, 10000 and 20000 permutations. The statistical significance was set at P<0.05 and false discovery rate (FDR) was used to correct for multiple comparisons. Clusters of voxels with statistically significant (PFDR<0.05) declines in gray matter proportion with age identified with permutation testing inference (N≈6000) were approximately twice the size of those identified with parametric inference (N=3221voxels). Permutation testing with 10000 (N=6251voxels) and 20000 (N=6233voxels) permutations produced clusters that were generally consistent with each other. However, with 1000 permutations there were approximately 20% more statistically significant voxels (N=7117voxels) than with ≥10000 permutations. Permutation testing inference may provide a more sensitive method than traditional parametric inference for identifying age-related differences in gray matter proportion. Based on the results reported here, at least 10000 permutations should be used in future univariate VBM studies investigating age related changes in gray matter to avoid potential false findings. Additional studies using permutation testing in large imaging databanks

  19. 17. BIRD'S EYE VIEW OF FABRICATING SHOP FROM THE HOMESTEAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. BIRD'S EYE VIEW OF FABRICATING SHOP FROM THE HOMESTEAD HIGH LEVEL BRIDGE. Jet Lowe, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  20. West end view, "Boat Shop" open doorway, Facility 7 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West end view, "Boat Shop" - open doorway, Facility 7 connected on the left, view facing east-southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat Shop, Seventh Street near Avenue E, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. 1. EXTERIOR OF CIVIL ENGINEERING MAINTENANCE SHOP, BUILDING 103, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF CIVIL ENGINEERING MAINTENANCE SHOP, BUILDING 103, LOOKING NORTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Civil Engineering Maintenance Shop, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  2. First roundhouse and shops. Photograph taken between 1874 and 1878, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    First roundhouse and shops. Photograph taken between 1874 and 1878, at the same time as IL-8-78. Looking north - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  3. 26. MOORSE DRILL CABINET AND FORK ART FABRICATED AT SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. MOORSE DRILL CABINET AND FORK ART FABRICATED AT SHOP (L TO R)- LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  4. 11. VIEW OF CIRCULAR CAR SHOP OVER TOPS OF BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF CIRCULAR CAR SHOP OVER TOPS OF BOX CARS LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  5. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN FOREGROUND - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  6. 14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP (NOW A TRANSPORTATION MUSEUM) - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  7. View looking southeast to the Erecting Shop on the corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking southeast to the Erecting Shop on the corner of Spruce Street and Market Street (similar to HAER No. NJ-3-A-2) - Rogers Locomotive & Machine Works, Erecting Shop, Spruce & Market Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  8. 21. General view inside boiler shop section of roundhouse. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. General view inside boiler shop section of roundhouse. View to west. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  9. 9. General view inside machine shop section of roundhouse. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. General view inside machine shop section of roundhouse. View to north. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  10. 22. General view inside air brake shop section of roundhouse. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. General view inside air brake shop section of roundhouse. View to west. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  11. 20. General view inside blacksmith shop section of roundhouse. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. General view inside blacksmith shop section of roundhouse. View to northwest. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  12. 10. Detail of crane over main floor inside machine shop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail of crane over main floor inside machine shop section of roundhouse. View to southwest. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  13. Interior view of the Sheet Metal Shop showing the roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of the Sheet Metal Shop showing the roof trusses and corrugated metal roof covering, view facing northwest - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Boiler House, Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

  14. INTERIOR VIEW OF MACHINE, METAL AND ELECTRIC SHOPS FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF MACHINE, METAL AND ELECTRIC SHOPS FROM THE ELECTRIC SHOP. RAILROAD TRACKS IN FLOOR. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  15. 11. Interior view, second floor, tin shop area looking southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view, second floor, tin shop area looking southwest, showing laminated plank arched roof trusses. - Larrabee & Hingston Company, Main Shop Building, 19 Howley Street, Peabody, Essex County, MA

  16. HANGAR SECTION WITH SHOPS ON RIGHT AND LEFT, FROM ENTERPRISE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HANGAR SECTION WITH SHOPS ON RIGHT AND LEFT, FROM ENTERPRISE ROAD, VIEW FACING EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Assembly & Repair Shop, Between Enterprise Avenue & Wright, Midway, & Langley Streets, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  17. SHOPS AND HANGAR SECTIONS OF BUILDING, VIEW FROM ENTERPRISE STREET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SHOPS AND HANGAR SECTIONS OF BUILDING, VIEW FROM ENTERPRISE STREET, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Assembly & Repair Shop, Between Enterprise Avenue & Wright, Midway, & Langley Streets, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  18. ELEVATION LOOKING WEST OF PRINCIPLE FACADE OF SIGN SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELEVATION LOOKING WEST OF PRINCIPLE FACADE OF SIGN SHOP - New York State Soldiers & Sailors Home, Sign Shop, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 76 Veterans Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

  19. View of machine shops (buildings 17 & 19), east along ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of machine shops (buildings 17 & 19), east along Porter Avenue with quality assurance office (building 121) in foreground. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Machine Shops, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. INTERIOR OF EASTERN ROOM OF PAINT SHOP PORTION OF BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF EASTERN ROOM OF PAINT SHOP PORTION OF BUILDING, FACING SOUTHWEST - Vancouver Barracks, Paint Shop and Central Heating Plant, East Fifth Street southeast of McLoughlin Road, Vancouver, Clark County, WA

  1. 9. Interior view looking E on second floor Paint Shop. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view looking E on second floor Paint Shop. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Paint & Coach Barn, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  2. INTERIOR OF CENTRAL ROOM OF PAINT SHOP PORTION OF BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF CENTRAL ROOM OF PAINT SHOP PORTION OF BUILDING, FACING SOUTHEAST - Vancouver Barracks, Paint Shop and Central Heating Plant, East Fifth Street southeast of McLoughlin Road, Vancouver, Clark County, WA

  3. 72. Left to right: Machine Shop, Hose House behind crane, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. Left to right: Machine Shop, Hose House behind crane, tug in Cradle #3, Storge and Joiner Shop, Marine Railway Headhouse and Offices, Cradle #2. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  4. 10. Boiler Works, Machine Shop and Pattern Storage, to right; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Boiler Works, Machine Shop and Pattern Storage, to right; Hose House and Paint Storage, to left; Headhouses, left center; Pipe, Paint, and Electrical Shop center. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  5. Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof truss, newer pratt truss, and longitudinal, truss for overhead traveling crane - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  6. View of Boiler from west, Steam Engine for shop line ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Boiler from west, Steam Engine for shop line shaft in foreground - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Machine Shop, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  7. 33. GENERAL VIEW OF SHOPS COMPLEX LOOKING EAST, PAYMASTER'S OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. GENERAL VIEW OF SHOPS COMPLEX LOOKING EAST, PAYMASTER'S OFFICE IN FOREGROUND, LEFT; PUMPHOUSE, CENTER; SHOPS BUILDING TO RIGHT; SHEDS, FAR RIGHT - Soudan Iron Mine, Tower-Soudan State Park, Tower, St. Louis County, MN

  8. 1. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southwest facade, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southwest facade, view to northeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  9. 2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, view to southeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  10. 4. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southeast elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southeast elevation, view to northwest (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  11. North side and west end. Machine shop section of roundhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side and west end. Machine shop section of roundhouse (MN-99-A) in background. View to southeast - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Foundry, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  12. 1. SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BLACKSMITH SHOP REMAINS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BLACKSMITH SHOP REMAINS, TENANT HOUSE IN BACKGROUND - Mount Etna Iron Works, Blacksmith Shop, East of U.S. Route 22 on T.R. 463, Williamsburg, Blair County, PA

  13. 1. VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF 1865 MACHINE SHOP WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF 1865 MACHINE SHOP WITH LATE-NINETEENTH-CENTURY WROUGHT-IRON EXTERIOR STAIRCASE. NOTE SECOND FLOOR CONNECTION TO REAR OF ORIGINAL MILL BUILDING. - Graniteville Mill, Machine Shop, Marshall Street, Graniteville, Aiken County, SC

  14. A linear-time algorithm for computing inversion distance between signed permutations with an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Bader, D A; Moret, B M; Yan, M

    2001-01-01

    Hannenhalli and Pevzner gave the first polynomial-time algorithm for computing the inversion distance between two signed permutations, as part of the larger task of determining the shortest sequence of inversions needed to transform one permutation into the other. Their algorithm (restricted to distance calculation) proceeds in two stages: in the first stage, the overlap graph induced by the permutation is decomposed into connected components; then, in the second stage, certain graph structures (hurdles and others) are identified. Berman and Hannenhalli avoided the explicit computation of the overlap graph and gave an O(nalpha(n)) algorithm, based on a Union-Find structure, to find its connected components, where alpha is the inverse Ackerman function. Since for all practical purposes alpha(n) is a constant no larger than four, this algorithm has been the fastest practical algorithm to date. In this paper, we present a new linear-time algorithm for computing the connected components, which is more efficient than that of Berman and Hannenhalli in both theory and practice. Our algorithm uses only a stack and is very easy to implement. We give the results of computational experiments over a large range of permutation pairs produced through simulated evolution; our experiments show a speed-up by a factor of 2 to 5 in the computation of the connected components and by a factor of 1.3 to 2 in the overall distance computation.

  15. The coupling analysis between stock market indices based on permutation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wenbin; Shang, Pengjian; Xia, Jianan; Yeh, Chien-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Many information-theoretic methods have been proposed for analyzing the coupling dependence between time series. And it is significant to quantify the correlation relationship between financial sequences since the financial market is a complex evolved dynamic system. Recently, we developed a new permutation-based entropy, called cross-permutation entropy (CPE), to detect the coupling structures between two synchronous time series. In this paper, we extend the CPE method to weighted cross-permutation entropy (WCPE), to address some of CPE's limitations, mainly its inability to differentiate between distinct patterns of a certain motif and the sensitivity of patterns close to the noise floor. It shows more stable and reliable results than CPE does when applied it to spiky data and AR(1) processes. Besides, we adapt the CPE method to infer the complexity of short-length time series by freely changing the time delay, and test it with Gaussian random series and random walks. The modified method shows the advantages in reducing deviations of entropy estimation compared with the conventional one. Finally, the weighted cross-permutation entropy of eight important stock indices from the world financial markets is investigated, and some useful and interesting empirical results are obtained.

  16. Suppressing Permutations or Rigid Planar Rotations: A Remedy against Nonoptimal Varimax Rotations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jos M. F. ten

    1995-01-01

    In Varimax rotation, permutations and reflections can give rise to the phenomenon that certain pairs of columns are consistently skipped in the iterative process, causing Varimax to terminate at a nonstationary point. This skipping phenomenon is demonstrated, and how to prevent it is described. (SLD)

  17. 8. VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP. BY 1966, THE MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP. BY 1966, THE MACHINE SHOP HANDLED PRIMARILY STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS, WHICH WERE SENT TO THE MACHINE SHOP TO BE FORMED INTO THEIR FINAL SHAPES. (7/24/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. 1. THREEQUARTER VIEW OF MECHANICAL SHOP, SHOWING EAST AND NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. THREE-QUARTER VIEW OF MECHANICAL SHOP, SHOWING EAST AND NORTH SIDES; LOOKING SOUTHWEST; POWER PLANT IN BACKGROUND AT RIGHT; SAWTOOTH MONITORS ON BEEF KILL (BUILDING 149) VISIBLE ABOVE SHOP BUILDING AT CENTER OF PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Mechanical Shop, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  19. Shopping Centers: Their Development and Impact on a Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berezowski, P. E.; And Others

    Presenting extensive background material on the development of shopping centers, this paper includes elementary and junior high school outdoor education activities centering upon shopping center studies. Background material includes analysis of the following: shopping center types (architecture, regional location, etc); land use (guidelines for…

  20. Teaching Spanish on Weekends and in Shopping Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Clayton; East, James R.

    1982-01-01

    Describes two programs for adult learners, Weekend College and Learn and Shop. Weekend College offered credit courses on Saturdays and Sundays; Learn and Shop used employee training rooms at five major shopping centers. Statistics on both programs are given as well as a description of the Spanish Department offerings and reactions. (AMH)

  1. Internet Shopping Behavior of College of Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiyici, Mubin

    2012-01-01

    Internet is an important facilitator for human and humans use this medium almost every phase. As a shopping medium, internet attract human so attract researcher. Younger people can adapt newer technologies so they can adapt internet as shopping tool. In this research it is tried to define college of education students' online shopping behavior and…

  2. View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located in southeast corner of the structural shop building (building 57). The computer controlled tube bender can be programmed to bend boiler tubing to nearly any required configuration - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 7. South wall of blacksmith shop section of roundhouse at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. South wall of blacksmith shop section of roundhouse at left. West wall and south end wall of machine shop section of roundhouse at right. View to northeast. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  4. Machine Shop (Bldg. 163) north bay, east end interior looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Machine Shop (Bldg. 163) north bay, east end interior looking northeast. Note the 250-ton Shaw bridge crane on the upper rails and two smaller P&H bridge cranes on the lower rails. Three cranes shared the lower rails - Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe Railroad, Albuquerque Shops, Machine Shop, 908 Second Street, Southwest, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  5. 3. OVERALL VIEW OF UTILITY AREA, TO NORTH (CARPENTER SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OVERALL VIEW OF UTILITY AREA, TO NORTH (CARPENTER SHOP IS FIRST BUILDING ON LEFT; EQUIPMENT SHOP IS BEHIND TRUCKS TO LEFT; MACHINE SHOP IS AT CENTER BACK; WAREHOUSE IS THIRD BUILDING FROM FRONT ON THE RIGHT; FIREHOUSE IS SECOND BUILDING FROM FRONT ON THE RIGHT) - Oak Creek Historic Complex, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  6. 6. Partial view of rear elevations of shops building and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Partial view of rear elevations of shops building and Hangar 1301 with rear elevation of corridor (behind power plant) connecting the hangar and shops building. Side elevations of shops and hangar as well as upper rear story of power plant and stack are visible, looking south southwest - Dover Air Force Base, Hangar No. 1301, Dover, Kent County, DE

  7. 61. August 1974. PAINT SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST. THE WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. August 1974. PAINT SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST. THE WINDOW IS IN THE CENTER OF A SLIDING DOOR THAT OPENS ONTO THE PORCH AT THE EAST END OF THE ORIGINAL 1883 SHOP. THE DOOR WAS USED FOR HAULING THE WAGONS UP TO THE PAINT SHOP. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  8. 14. BLACKSMITH SHOP IN THE CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BLACKSMITH SHOP IN THE CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. TO THE LEFT IS MACHINE SHOP No. 1, AND TO THE RIGHT IS THE CHIPPING YARD. THE RUINS IN THE FOREGROUND IS THE FORMER ELECTRIC DEPARTMENT. Jet Lowe, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  9. Standardized Curriculum for Machine Tool Operation/Machine Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: machine tool operation/machine shop I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation; (2) shop safety; (3) shop math; (4) measuring tools and instruments; (5) hand and bench tools; (6) blueprint reading; (7)…

  10. VIEW OF TURNTABLE, WITH CAR MACHINE SHOP AND PLANING MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TURNTABLE, WITH CAR MACHINE SHOP AND PLANING MILL IN THE BACKGROUND AND ERECTING/MACHINE SHOP AT RIGHT, LOOKING EAST. ATSF 5021 2-10-4 STEAM LOCOMOTIVE IS ON TURNTABLE. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  11. Circularly permuted tRNA genes: their expression and implications for their physiological relevance and development

    PubMed Central

    Soma, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    A number of genome analyses and searches using programs that focus on the RNA-specific bulge-helix-bulge (BHB) motif have uncovered a wide variety of disrupted tRNA genes. The results of these analyses have shown that genetic information encoding functional RNAs is described in the genome cryptically and is retrieved using various strategies. One such strategy is represented by circularly permuted tRNA genes, in which the sequences encoding the 5′-half and 3′-half of the specific tRNA are separated and inverted on the genome. Biochemical analyses have defined a processing pathway in which the termini of tRNA precursors (pre-tRNAs) are ligated to form a characteristic circular RNA intermediate, which is then cleaved at the acceptor-stem to generate the typical cloverleaf structure with functional termini. The sequences adjacent to the processing site located between the 3′-half and the 5′-half of pre-tRNAs potentially form a BHB motif, which is the dominant recognition site for the tRNA-intron splicing endonuclease, suggesting that circularization of pre-tRNAs depends on the splicing machinery. Some permuted tRNAs contain a BHB-mediated intron in their 5′- or 3′-half, meaning that removal of an intron, as well as swapping of the 5′- and 3′-halves, are required during maturation of their pre-tRNAs. To date, 34 permuted tRNA genes have been identified from six species of unicellular algae and one archaeon. Although their physiological significance and mechanism of development remain unclear, the splicing system of BHB motifs seems to have played a key role in the formation of permuted tRNA genes. In this review, current knowledge of circularly permuted tRNA genes is presented and some unanswered questions regarding these species are discussed. PMID:24744771

  12. Shopping. An Adult Competency Education Learning Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia

    This instructional unit on shopping is one of six Adult Competency Education Learning Modules designed for use in a program of competency-based instruction for students with reading levels of 4.0-7.5. It is self-contained and designed for immediate classroom use. Each module is a complete instructional package, including Adult Performance Level…

  13. Industrial Arts Curriculum Guide for General Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubachek, Carl H.; And Others

    This curriculum guide for general shop courses is part of a series of curriculum guides for use in the industrial arts curriculum in Connecticut. The guide provides information on the scope and sequence of the industrial arts curriculum, specific guidelines for industrial arts, program goals and objectives, and guidelines concerning special…

  14. Planning Log for an Educational Shopping Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bernardis, Amo

    1975-01-01

    A chronology of the events leading up to the beginning of campus construction for the new Rock Creek Center of Portland Community College. All planning events from June 1968 to January 1976 are listed. The Center is designed as an educational shopping center that maximizes the college-community interface. (DC)

  15. Model Machine Shop for Drafting Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carl R.

    The development and implementation of a two-year interdisciplinary course integrating a machine shop and drafting curriculum are described in the report. The purpose of the course is to provide a learning process in industrial drafting featuring identifiable orientation in skills that will enable the student to develop competencies that are…

  16. Shop Steward Resistance in the Recession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Bruce

    1985-01-01

    This article draws on work carried out in a British brewery, refutes the claim that the recession has made trade unions irrelevant to managerial concerns, and argues that cohesive, factor-based shop steward organization can resist a management onslaught. (Author/CT)

  17. Secret Shopping as User Experience Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Crystal M.

    2015-01-01

    Secret shopping is a form of unobtrusive evaluation that can be accomplished with minimal effort, but still produce rich results. With as few as 11 shoppers, the author was able to identify trends in user satisfaction with services provided across two entry-level desks at Illinois Wesleyan University's The Ames Library. The focus of this secret…

  18. Noise Levels In Missouri Vocational Agriculture Shops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Curtis R.; Stewart, Bob R.

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide data about noise levels as a potential health hazard for students and instructors involved in vocational agriculture shop operations in Missouri. The grinder and radial arm saw were determined to be potential noise problems if operated continuously for 15 minutes or longer. (LRA)

  19. Cluster: Metals. Course: Machine Shop. Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford - Lee County Schools, NC.

    The set of 13 units is designed for use with an instructor in actual machine shop practice and is also keyed to audio visual and textual materials. Each unit contains a series of task packages which: specify prerequisites within the series (minimum is Unit 1); provide a narrative rationale for learning; list both general and specific objectives in…

  20. Designing a Shopping System for Senior Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    It is all about serving the customer. That is how capitalism plays out. It finds a market need and then creates a product or service to address that need. The Baby Boomer generation, all 76 million, will be retiring soon. Eventually, some may find it very hard to move about and do their routine food shopping. In this article, the author's…

  1. Utah Integrated Shop Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Austin G.

    To evaluate the Utah State Board of Education's Integrated Shop Program (ISP) for small rural high schools, 7 ISP schools in their 2nd year (1970-71) of the ISP were compared on 3 measures to 2 selected control schools (small rural high schools that offered vocational agricultural mechanics and industrial arts but did not offer formal courses in…

  2. The Anatomy of the Body Shop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Describes the Body Shop,'' a free-standing, 2-level physical education structure used by both boys and girls at Mundelein (Illinois) High School. The building is designed to displace a typical facility for limited activities; geared to the lifetime sports concept; and structured as a research orientation, tutoring, and practice center for an …

  3. Where Students Shop for Nutrition Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching PreK-8, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Describes a school tour launched by a supermarket to familiarize children with basic facts about nutrition and healthful eating. Discusses visits to a perishable foods department, a shopping activity, a recipe preparation activity, and Food Pyramid activity. Suggests making enquiries about such tours with local supermarket chains and bringing it…

  4. Metrics, Lumber, and the Shop Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craemer, Peter J.

    1978-01-01

    As producers of lumber are preparing to convert their output to the metric system, wood shop and building construction teachers must become familiar with the metric measurement language and methods. Manufacturers prefer the "soft conversion" process of changing English to metric units rather than hard conversion, or redimensioning of lumber. Some…

  5. Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Veggies and Fruits Print Share 10 TIPS NUTRITION EDUCATION SERIES Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits 10 tips for affordable vegetables and fruits It is possible to fit vegetables and fruits into any budget. Making nutritious choices does not have to hurt ...

  6. The Great Irish Head Shop Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryall, Graham; Butler, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This research describes and analyses recent policy developments in Ireland in relation to the practice of selling psychoactive substances which, while not themselves illegal, mimic the effects of commonly used illegal drugs. These so-called "legal highs" had been sold in Ireland through an increasing number of "head shops" which in late-2009 and…

  7. Performance Support on the Shop Floor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasvi, Jyrki J. J.; Vartiainen, Matti

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of performance support on the shop floor highlights four support systems for assembly lines that incorporate personal computer workstations in local area networks and use multimedia documents. Considers new customer-focused production paradigms; organizational learning; knowledge development; and electronic performance support systems…

  8. Online versus conventional shopping: consumers' risk perception and regulatory focus.

    PubMed

    van Noort, Guda; Kerkhof, Peter; Fennis, Bob M

    2007-10-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a prevention focus. The findings in Study 1 demonstrate these effects by using self-report measures for risk perception and prevention focus. In Study 2, we replicated these findings and demonstrated that the effect of an online shopping environment carries over to behavior in a domain unrelated to shopping.

  9. Online versus conventional shopping: consumers' risk perception and regulatory focus.

    PubMed

    van Noort, Guda; Kerkhof, Peter; Fennis, Bob M

    2007-10-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a prevention focus. The findings in Study 1 demonstrate these effects by using self-report measures for risk perception and prevention focus. In Study 2, we replicated these findings and demonstrated that the effect of an online shopping environment carries over to behavior in a domain unrelated to shopping. PMID:17927547

  10. A Comparison of Multiscale Permutation Entropy Measures in On-Line Depth of Anesthesia Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoli; Li, Duan; Li, Yongwang; Ursino, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Objective Multiscale permutation entropy (MSPE) is becoming an interesting tool to explore neurophysiological mechanisms in recent years. In this study, six MSPE measures were proposed for on-line depth of anesthesia (DoA) monitoring to quantify the anesthetic effect on the real-time EEG recordings. The performance of these measures in describing the transient characters of simulated neural populations and clinical anesthesia EEG were evaluated and compared. Methods Six MSPE algorithms—derived from Shannon permutation entropy (SPE), Renyi permutation entropy (RPE) and Tsallis permutation entropy (TPE) combined with the decomposition procedures of coarse-graining (CG) method and moving average (MA) analysis—were studied. A thalamo-cortical neural mass model (TCNMM) was used to generate noise-free EEG under anesthesia to quantitatively assess the robustness of each MSPE measure against noise. Then, the clinical anesthesia EEG recordings from 20 patients were analyzed with these measures. To validate their effectiveness, the ability of six measures were compared in terms of tracking the dynamical changes in EEG data and the performance in state discrimination. The Pearson correlation coefficient (R) was used to assess the relationship among MSPE measures. Results CG-based MSPEs failed in on-line DoA monitoring at multiscale analysis. In on-line EEG analysis, the MA-based MSPE measures at 5 decomposed scales could track the transient changes of EEG recordings and statistically distinguish the awake state, unconsciousness and recovery of consciousness (RoC) state significantly. Compared to single-scale SPE and RPE, MSPEs had better anti-noise ability and MA-RPE at scale 5 performed best in this aspect. MA-TPE outperformed other measures with faster tracking speed of the loss of unconsciousness. Conclusions MA-based multiscale permutation entropies have the potential for on-line anesthesia EEG analysis with its simple computation and sensitivity to drug effect

  11. A permutation information theory tour through different interest rate maturities: the Libor case.

    PubMed

    Bariviera, Aurelio Fernández; Guercio, María Belén; Martinez, Lisana B; Rosso, Osvaldo A

    2015-12-13

    This paper analyses Libor interest rates for seven different maturities and referred to operations in British pounds, euros, Swiss francs and Japanese yen, during the period 2001-2015. The analysis is performed by means of two quantifiers derived from information theory: the permutation Shannon entropy and the permutation Fisher information measure. An anomalous behaviour in the Libor is detected in all currencies except euros during the years 2006-2012. The stochastic switch is more severe in one, two and three months maturities. Given the special mechanism of Libor setting, we conjecture that the behaviour could have been produced by the manipulation that was uncovered by financial authorities. We argue that our methodology is pertinent as a market overseeing instrument.

  12. Reduced Density Matrix and Entanglement Entropy of Permutationally Invariant Quantum Many-Body Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popkov, Vladislav; Salerno, Mario

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the properties of the reduced density matrix of quantum many body systems with permutational symmetry and present basic quantification of the entanglement in terms of the von Neumann (VNE), Renyi and Tsallis entropies. In particular, we show, on the specific example of the spin 1/2 Heisenberg model, how the RDM acquires a block diagonal form with respect to the quantum number k fixing the polarization in the subsystem conservation of Sz and with respect to the irreducible representations of the Sn group. Analytical expression for the RDM elements and for the RDM spectrum are derived for states of arbitrary permutational symmetry and for arbitrary polarizations. The temperature dependence and scaling of the VNE across a finite temperature phase transition is discussed and the RDM moments and the Rényi and Tsallis entropies calculated both for symmetric ground states of the Heisenberg chain and for maximally mixed states.

  13. Reduced Density Matrix and Entanglement Entropy of Permutationally Invariant Quantum Many-Body Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popkov, Vladislav; Salerno, Mario

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we discuss the properties of the reduced density matrix of quantum many body systems with permutational symmetry and present basic quantification of the entanglement in terms of the von Neumann (VNE), Renyi and Tsallis entropies. In particular, we show, on the specific example of the spin 1/2 Heisenberg model, how the RDM acquires a block diagonal form with respect to the quantum number k fixing the polarization in the subsystem conservation of Sz and with respect to the irreducible representations of the Sn group. Analytical expression for the RDM elements and for the RDM spectrum are derived for states of arbitrary permutational symmetry and for arbitrary polarizations. The temperature dependence and scaling of the VNE across a finite temperature phase transition is discussed and the RDM moments and the Rényi and Tsallis entropies calculated both for symmetric ground states of the Heisenberg chain and for maximally mixed states.

  14. Storage and computationally efficient permutations of factorized covariance and square-root information matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muellerschoen, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    A unified method to permute vector-stored upper-triangular diagonal factorized covariance (UD) and vector stored upper-triangular square-root information filter (SRIF) arrays is presented. The method involves cyclical permutation of the rows and columns of the arrays and retriangularization with appropriate square-root-free fast Givens rotations or elementary slow Givens reflections. A minimal amount of computation is performed and only one scratch vector of size N is required, where N is the column dimension of the arrays. To make the method efficient for large SRIF arrays on a virtual memory machine, three additional scratch vectors each of size N are used to avoid expensive paging faults. The method discussed is compared with the methods and routines of Bierman's Estimation Subroutine Library (ESL).

  15. Permutation-network-based optoelectronic path-history units for Viterbi decoders.

    PubMed

    Lin, M B

    2000-09-10

    A concept, believed to be new, is introduced that enables the design and implementation of the path-history (PH) unit of Viterbi decoders with permutation networks. The rationale behind this concept is that the trace-back operation in the PH unit is nothing but propagation of a signal traveling from the rightmost end to the leftmost end in the trellis diagram controlled appropriately by the decision bits. On the basis of this observation, an optoelectronic PH unit, which consists of directional coupler switches and registers, is proposed. This unit can be treated as a direct implementation of the trellis diagram of the underlying convolutional code and carries out the trace-back operation by propagating a photonic signal rather than an electronic signal through a given permutation network controlled by the decision bits. Hence the speed is inherently faster than the equivalent electronic version. Here both unfolded and folded versions of optoelectronic PH units are proposed.

  16. A note on the estimation of the Pareto efficient set for multiobjective matrix permutation problems.

    PubMed

    Brusco, Michael J; Steinley, Douglas

    2012-02-01

    There are a number of important problems in quantitative psychology that require the identification of a permutation of the n rows and columns of an n × n proximity matrix. These problems encompass applications such as unidimensional scaling, paired-comparison ranking, and anti-Robinson forms. The importance of simultaneously incorporating multiple objective criteria in matrix permutation applications is well recognized in the literature; however, to date, there has been a reliance on weighted-sum approaches that transform the multiobjective problem into a single-objective optimization problem. Although exact solutions to these single-objective problems produce supported Pareto efficient solutions to the multiobjective problem, many interesting unsupported Pareto efficient solutions may be missed. We illustrate the limitation of the weighted-sum approach with an example from the psychological literature and devise an effective heuristic algorithm for estimating both the supported and unsupported solutions of the Pareto efficient set.

  17. GENERAL: Fine-grained permutation entropy as a measure of natural complexity for time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Yue

    2009-07-01

    In a recent paper [2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 174102], Bandt and Pompe propose permutation entropy (PE) as a natural complexity measure for arbitrary time series which may be stationary or nonstationary, deterministic or stochastic. Their method is based on a comparison of neighbouring values. This paper further develops PE, and proposes the concept of fine-grained PE (FGPE) defined by the order pattern and magnitude of the difference between neighbouring values. This measure excludes the case where vectors with a distinct appearance are mistakenly mapped onto the same permutation type, and consequently FGPE becomes more sensitive to the dynamical change of time series than does PE, according to our simulation and experimental results.

  18. Characterization of chaotic maps using the permutation Bandt-Pompe probability distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, Osvaldo A.; Olivares, Felipe; Zunino, Luciano; De Micco, Luciana; Aquino, André L. L.; Plastino, Angelo; Larrondo, Hilda A.

    2013-04-01

    By appealing to a long list of different nonlinear maps we review the characterization of time series arising from chaotic maps. The main tool for this characterization is the permutation Bandt-Pompe probability distribution function. We focus attention on both local and global characteristics of the components of this probability distribution function. We show that forbidden ordinal patterns (local quantifiers) exhibit an exponential growth for pattern-length range 3 ≤ D ≤ 8, in the case of finite time series data. Indeed, there is a minimum Dmin-value such that forbidden patterns cannot appear for D < Dmin. The system's localization in an entropy-complexity plane (global quantifier) displays typical specific features associated with its dynamics' nature. We conclude that a more "robust" distinction between deterministic and stochastic dynamics is achieved via the present time series' treatment based on the global characteristics of the permutation Bandt-Pompe probability distribution function.

  19. A better alternative to stratified permuted block design for subject randomization in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenle

    2014-12-30

    Stratified permuted block randomization has been the dominant covariate-adaptive randomization procedure in clinical trials for several decades. Its high probability of deterministic assignment and low capacity of covariate balancing have been well recognized. The popularity of this sub-optimal method is largely due to its simplicity in implementation and the lack of better alternatives. Proposed in this paper is a two-stage covariate-adaptive randomization procedure that uses the block urn design or the big stick design in stage one to restrict the treatment imbalance within each covariate stratum, and uses the biased-coin minimization method in stage two to control imbalances in the distribution of additional covariates that are not included in the stratification algorithm. Analytical and simulation results show that the new randomization procedure significantly reduces the probability of deterministic assignments, and improve the covariate balancing capacity when compared to the traditional stratified permuted block randomization. PMID:25043719

  20. Design-based random permutation models with auxiliary information(¶)

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjun; Stanek, Edward J; Singer, Julio M

    2012-01-01

    We extend the random permutation model to obtain the best linear unbiased estimator of a finite population mean accounting for auxiliary variables under simple random sampling without replacement (SRS) or stratified SRS. The proposed method provides a systematic design-based justification for well-known results involving common estimators derived under minimal assumptions that do not require specification of a functional relationship between the response and the auxiliary variables. PMID:23645951

  1. Multi-dimensional permutation-modulation format for coherent optical communications.

    PubMed

    Ishimura, Shota; Kikuchi, Kazuro

    2015-06-15

    We introduce the multi-dimensional permutation-modulation format in coherent optical communication systems and analyze its performance, focusing on the power efficiency and the spectral efficiency. In the case of four-dimensional (4D) modulation, the polarization-switched quadrature phase-shift keying (PS-QPSK) modulation format and the polarization quadrature-amplitude modulation (POL-QAM) format can be classified into the permutation modulation format. Other than these well-known modulation formats, we find novel modulation formats trading-off between the power efficiency and the spectral efficiency. With the increase in the dimension, the spectral efficiency can more closely approach the channel capacity predicted from the Shannon's theory. We verify these theoretical characteristics through computer simulations of the symbol-error rate (SER) and bit-error rate (BER) performances. For example, the newly-found eight-dimensional (8D) permutation-modulation format can improve the spectral efficiency up to 2.75 bit/s/Hz/pol/channel, while the power penalty against QPSK is about 1 dB at BER=10(-3).

  2. Revisiting the European sovereign bonds with a permutation-information-theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Bariviera, Aurelio; Zunino, Luciano; Guercio, María Belén; Martinez, Lisana B.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we study the evolution of the informational efficiency in its weak form for seventeen European sovereign bonds time series. We aim to assess the impact of two specific economic situations in the hypothetical random behavior of these time series: the establishment of a common currency and a wide and deep financial crisis. In order to evaluate the informational efficiency we use permutation quantifiers derived from information theory. Specifically, time series are ranked according to two metrics that measure the intrinsic structure of their correlations: permutation entropy and permutation statistical complexity. These measures provide the rectangular coordinates of the complexity-entropy causality plane; the planar location of the time series in this representation space reveals the degree of informational efficiency. According to our results, the currency union contributed to homogenize the stochastic characteristics of the time series and produced synchronization in the random behavior of them. Additionally, the 2008 financial crisis uncovered differences within the apparently homogeneous European sovereign markets and revealed country-specific characteristics that were partially hidden during the monetary union heyday.

  3. Permutation entropy and statistical complexity analysis of turbulence in laboratory plasmas and the solar wind.

    PubMed

    Weck, P J; Schaffner, D A; Brown, M R; Wicks, R T

    2015-02-01

    The Bandt-Pompe permutation entropy and the Jensen-Shannon statistical complexity are used to analyze fluctuating time series of three different turbulent plasmas: the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the plasma wind tunnel of the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX), drift-wave turbulence of ion saturation current fluctuations in the edge of the Large Plasma Device (LAPD), and fully developed turbulent magnetic fluctuations of the solar wind taken from the Wind spacecraft. The entropy and complexity values are presented as coordinates on the CH plane for comparison among the different plasma environments and other fluctuation models. The solar wind is found to have the highest permutation entropy and lowest statistical complexity of the three data sets analyzed. Both laboratory data sets have larger values of statistical complexity, suggesting that these systems have fewer degrees of freedom in their fluctuations, with SSX magnetic fluctuations having slightly less complexity than the LAPD edge I(sat). The CH plane coordinates are compared to the shape and distribution of a spectral decomposition of the wave forms. These results suggest that fully developed turbulence (solar wind) occupies the lower-right region of the CH plane, and that other plasma systems considered to be turbulent have less permutation entropy and more statistical complexity. This paper presents use of this statistical analysis tool on solar wind plasma, as well as on an MHD turbulent experimental plasma. PMID:25768612

  4. Permutation entropy and statistical complexity analysis of turbulence in laboratory plasmas and the solar wind.

    PubMed

    Weck, P J; Schaffner, D A; Brown, M R; Wicks, R T

    2015-02-01

    The Bandt-Pompe permutation entropy and the Jensen-Shannon statistical complexity are used to analyze fluctuating time series of three different turbulent plasmas: the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the plasma wind tunnel of the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX), drift-wave turbulence of ion saturation current fluctuations in the edge of the Large Plasma Device (LAPD), and fully developed turbulent magnetic fluctuations of the solar wind taken from the Wind spacecraft. The entropy and complexity values are presented as coordinates on the CH plane for comparison among the different plasma environments and other fluctuation models. The solar wind is found to have the highest permutation entropy and lowest statistical complexity of the three data sets analyzed. Both laboratory data sets have larger values of statistical complexity, suggesting that these systems have fewer degrees of freedom in their fluctuations, with SSX magnetic fluctuations having slightly less complexity than the LAPD edge I(sat). The CH plane coordinates are compared to the shape and distribution of a spectral decomposition of the wave forms. These results suggest that fully developed turbulence (solar wind) occupies the lower-right region of the CH plane, and that other plasma systems considered to be turbulent have less permutation entropy and more statistical complexity. This paper presents use of this statistical analysis tool on solar wind plasma, as well as on an MHD turbulent experimental plasma.

  5. Permutation entropy and statistical complexity analysis of turbulence in laboratory plasmas and the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weck, P. J.; Schaffner, D. A.; Brown, M. R.; Wicks, R. T.

    2015-02-01

    The Bandt-Pompe permutation entropy and the Jensen-Shannon statistical complexity are used to analyze fluctuating time series of three different turbulent plasmas: the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the plasma wind tunnel of the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX), drift-wave turbulence of ion saturation current fluctuations in the edge of the Large Plasma Device (LAPD), and fully developed turbulent magnetic fluctuations of the solar wind taken from the Wind spacecraft. The entropy and complexity values are presented as coordinates on the CH plane for comparison among the different plasma environments and other fluctuation models. The solar wind is found to have the highest permutation entropy and lowest statistical complexity of the three data sets analyzed. Both laboratory data sets have larger values of statistical complexity, suggesting that these systems have fewer degrees of freedom in their fluctuations, with SSX magnetic fluctuations having slightly less complexity than the LAPD edge Isat. The CH plane coordinates are compared to the shape and distribution of a spectral decomposition of the wave forms. These results suggest that fully developed turbulence (solar wind) occupies the lower-right region of the CH plane, and that other plasma systems considered to be turbulent have less permutation entropy and more statistical complexity. This paper presents use of this statistical analysis tool on solar wind plasma, as well as on an MHD turbulent experimental plasma.

  6. Integrated online job-shop scheduling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xing; Chen, Kuan H.; Luh, Peter B.; Chiueh, T. D.; Chang, ShihChang; Thakur, Lakshman S.

    1999-11-01

    The rapid development of information technology and e- commerce requires fast response form scheduling systems. Based on the Lagrangian relaxation approach for job shop scheduling, this paper present an integrated system that will generate schedules quickly. The Lagrangian relaxation approach is an iterative optimization process, where dynamic programming is solved in each iteration. Since dynamic programming is computational expensive especially for large problems, this paper develops the simplified dynamic programming, which will cut the computation time of each iteration by one order. Furthermore, a digital circuit to be embedded in PC is designed to implement the iterative optimization algorithm, leading to another order of speed improvement. The resulting integrated scheduling system consists of the hardware for optimization and the related software. It is estimated that two orders of magnitude gain in speed can be obtained, which will make on-line scheduling for practical job shops possible.

  7. RFID Data Cleaning for Shop Floor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziekow, Holger; Ivantysynova, Lenka; Günter, Oliver

    In several case studies we found that shop-floor applications in manufacturing pose special challenges to cleaning RFID data. The underlying problem in many scenarios is the uncertainty about the exact location of observed RFID tags. Simple filter s provided in common middleware solutions do not cope well with these challenges. Therefore we have developed an approach based on maximum-likelihood estimation to infer a tag's location within the reader range. This enables improved RFID data cleaning in a number of application scenarios. We stress the benefits of our approach along exemplary application scenarios that we found in manufacturing. In simulations and experiments with real world data we show that our approach outperforms existing solutions. Our approach can extend RFID middleware or reader firmware, to improve the use of RFID in a range of shop-floor applications.

  8. Physical Connectivity Mapping by Circular Permutation of Human Telomerase RNA Reveals New Regions Critical for Activity and Processivity.

    PubMed

    Mefford, Melissa A; Zappulla, David C

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase is a specialized ribonucleoprotein complex that extends the 3' ends of chromosomes to counteract telomere shortening. However, increased telomerase activity is associated with ∼90% of human cancers. The telomerase enzyme minimally requires an RNA (hTR) and a specialized reverse transcriptase protein (TERT) for activity in vitro. Understanding the structure-function relationships within hTR has important implications for human disease. For the first time, we have tested the physical-connectivity requirements in the 451-nucleotide hTR RNA using circular permutations, which reposition the 5' and 3' ends. Our extensive in vitro analysis identified three classes of hTR circular permutants with altered function. First, circularly permuting 3' of the template causes specific defects in repeat-addition processivity, revealing that the template recognition element found in ciliates is conserved in human telomerase RNA. Second, seven circular permutations residing within the catalytically important core and CR4/5 domains completely abolish telomerase activity, unveiling mechanistically critical portions of these domains. Third, several circular permutations between the core and CR4/5 significantly increase telomerase activity. Our extensive circular permutation results provide insights into the architecture and coordination of human telomerase RNA and highlight where the RNA could be targeted for the development of antiaging and anticancer therapeutics. PMID:26503788

  9. Aesthetic quality inference for online fashion shopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Allebach, Jan

    2014-03-01

    On-line fashion communities in which participants post photos of personal fashion items for viewing and possible purchase by others are becoming increasingly popular. Generally, these photos are taken by individuals who have no training in photography with low-cost mobile phone cameras. It is desired that photos of the products have high aesthetic quality to improve the users' online shopping experience. In this work, we design features for aesthetic quality inference in the context of online fashion shopping. Psychophysical experiments are conducted to construct a database of the photos' aesthetic evaluation, specifically for photos from an online fashion shopping website. We then extract both generic low-level features and high-level image attributes to represent the aesthetic quality. Using a support vector machine framework, we train a predictor of the aesthetic quality rating based on the feature vector. Experimental results validate the efficacy of our approach. Metadata such as the product type are also used to further improve the result.

  10. Forecasting of indirect consumables for a Job Shop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeel, M.; Khan, S.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    A job shop has an arrangement where similar machines (Direct consumables) are grouped together and use indirect consumables to produce a product. The indirect consumables include hack saw blades, emery paper, painting brush etc. The job shop is serving various orders at a particular time for the optimal operation of job shop. Forecasting is required to predict the demand of direct and indirect consumables in a job shop. Forecasting is also needed to manage lead time, optimize inventory cost and stock outs. The objective of this research is to obtain the forecast for indirect consumables. The paper shows how job shop can manage their indirect consumables more accurately by establishing a new technique of forecasting. This results in profitable use of job shop by multiple users.

  11. 13. Detail of doubledoor opening between machine shop section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail of double-door opening between machine shop section of roundhouse and engine house section of roundhouse. Engine house visible through rectangular opening. At one time the opening extended to the intrados of the arch above the doorway, allowing railroad engines to fit inside the machine shop. View to east. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  12. Social image of students who shop and don't shop online.

    PubMed

    Lammers, H Bruce; Curren, Mary T; Cours, Deborah; Lammers, Marilyn L

    2003-06-01

    A descriptive survey of a stratified random sample of 326 undergraduates from a large, diverse university in Los Angeles was conducted to assess whether resistance to online shopping might be, in part, related to negative social perceptions of those who shop online. Indirect questioning showed that students perceived online student shoppers as more lazy and less likely to fear for the safety and security of others but also as more trustworthy, attractive, successful, and smart. Differences in social perceptions were not related to these students' own online spending. PMID:12841449

  13. View of book shop on elevator reboarding level Washington ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of book shop on elevator reboarding level - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Combination Smokestack, Water Tank & Privies, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  15. Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Brick Storage Vaults under Jones Street, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  16. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Doug Buford, with the Aft Engine shop, works at removing a heat shield on Columbia, in the Orbiter Processing Facility. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  17. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Doug Buford, with the Aft Engine shop, works at removing a heat shield on Columbia, in the Orbiter Processing Facility. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  18. Permutation tests for analyzing cospeciation in multiple phylogenies: applications in tri-trophic ecology.

    PubMed

    Mramba, Lazarus K; Barber, Stuart; Hommola, Kerstin; Dyer, Lee A; Wilson, Joseph S; Forister, Matthew L; Gilks, Walter R

    2013-12-01

    There is a need for a reliable statistical test which is appropriate for assessing cospeciation of more than two phylogenies. We have developed an algorithm using a permutation method that can be used to test for and infer tri-trophic evolutionary relationships of organisms given both their phylogenies and pairwise interactions. An overall statistic has been developed based on the dominant eigenvalue of a covariance matrix, and compared to values of the statistic computed when tree labels are permuted. The resulting overall p-value is used to test for the presence or absence of cospeciation in a tri-trophic system. If cospeciation is detected, we propose new test statistics based on partial correlations to uncover more details about the relationships between multiple phylogenies. One of the strengths of our method is that it allows more parasites than hosts or more hosts than parasites, with multiple associations and more than one parasite attached to a host (or one parasite attached to multiple hosts). The new method does not require any parametric assumptions of the distribution of the data, and unlike the old methods, which utilize several pairwise steps, the overall statistic used is obtained in one step. We have applied our method to two published datasets where we obtained detailed information about the strength of associations among species with calculated partial p-values and one overall p-value from the dominant eigenvalue test statistic. Our permutation method produces reliable results with a clear procedure and statistics applied in an intuitive manner. Our algorithm is useful in testing evidence for three-way cospeciation in multiple phylogenies with tri-trophic associations and determining which phylogenies are involved in cospeciation. PMID:24114867

  19. Using circular permutation analysis to redefine the R17 coat protein binding site.

    PubMed

    Gott, J M; Pan, T; LeCuyer, K A; Uhlenbeck, O C

    1993-12-14

    The bacteriophage R17 coat protein binding site consists of an RNA hairpin with a single purine nucleotide bulge in the helical stem. Circular permutation analysis (CPA) was used to examine binding effects caused by a single break in the phosphodiester backbone. This method revealed that breakage of all but one phosphodiester bond within a well-defined binding site substantially reduced the binding affinity. This is probably due to destabilization of the hairpin structure upon breaking the ribose phosphates at these positions. One circularly permuted isomer with the 5' and 3' ends at the bulged nucleotide bound with wild-type affinity. However, extending the 5' end of this CP isomer greatly reduces binding, making it unlikely that this circularly permuted binding site will be active when embedded in a larger RNA. CPA also locates the 5' and 3' boundaries of protein binding sites on the RNA. The 5' boundary of the R17 coat protein site as defined by CPA was two nucleotides shorter (nucleotides -15 to +2) than the previously determined site (-17 to +2). The smaller binding site was verified by terminal truncation experiments. A minimal-binding fragment (-14 to +2) was synthesized and was found to bind tightly to the coat protein. The site size determined by 3-ethyl-1-nitrosourea-modification interference was larger at the 5' end (-16 to +1), probably due, however, to steric effects of ethylation of phosphate oxygens. Thus, the apparent site size of a protein binding site is dependent upon the method used. PMID:7504949

  20. A New Look for the Shopping Mall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    STRUCTO-FAB, a product of Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation, is a lightweight but extremely durable tent-like material made of Fiberglas coated with Teflon. It transmits daylight with a reduced need for artificial lighting. It is an outgrowth of a material formulated by NASA in 1967 as a new space suit fabric. Owens-Corning and DuPont provided the original material, which was the basis for Structo-Fab, a permanent architectural fabric used for shopping malls, sports stadiums, etc.

  1. Verification Tools Secure Online Shopping, Banking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Just like rover or rocket technology sent into space, the software that controls these technologies must be extensively tested to ensure reliability and effectiveness. Ames Research Center invented the open-source Java Pathfinder (JPF) toolset for the deep testing of Java-based programs. Fujitsu Labs of America Inc., based in Sunnyvale, California, improved the capabilities of the JPF Symbolic Pathfinder tool, establishing the tool as a means of thoroughly testing the functionality and security of Web-based Java applications such as those used for Internet shopping and banking.

  2. Permutationally invariant polynomial basis for molecular energy surface fitting via monomial symmetrization.

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Z.; Bowman, J. M.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Emory Univ.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a procedure to develop a fitting basis for molecular potential energy surfaces (PESs) that is invariant with respect to permutation of like atoms. The method is based on a straightforward symmetrization of a primitive monomial basis and illustrated for several classes of molecules. A numerically efficient method to evaluate the resulting expression for the PES is also described. The fitting basis is used to obtain a new PES for H{sub 3}O{sup +} based on roughly 62000 ab initio energies.

  3. Permutation Min-Entropy and Statistical Complexity Analysis of Electricity Spot Price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qingju; Li, Dan

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigate the subtle temporal dynamics of California 1999-2000 spot price series based on permutation min-entropy (PME) and complexity-entropy causality plane. The dynamical transitions of price series are captured and the temporal correlations of price series are also discriminated by the recently introduced PME. Moreover, utilizing the CECP, we provide a refined classification of the monthly price dynamics and obtain an insight into the stochastic nature of price series. The results uncover that the spot price signal presents diverse temporal correlations and exhibits a higher stochastic behavior during the periods of crisis.

  4. Permutation entropy analysis of temperature fluctuations from a basic electron heat transport experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, J. E.; Morales, G. J.

    2013-08-01

    The permutation entropy concept of Bandt and Pompe (2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 174102) is used to analyze the fluctuations in ion saturation current that spontaneously arise in a basic experimental study (Pace et al 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 122304) of electron heat transport in a magnetized plasma. From the behavior of the Shannon entropy and the Jensen-Shannon complexity it is found that the underlying dynamics are chaotic rather than stochastic. A partitioning and scrambling technique is used to demonstrate that the exponential character of the associated power spectrum arises from individual Lorentzian pulses observed in the time series.

  5. Impact of Energetically Accessible Proton Permutations in the Spectroscopy and Dynamics of H{_5^+}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhou; McCoy, Anne B.

    2016-06-01

    H{_5^+} has been proposed to be the intermediate of the astrochemically interesting proton transfer reaction H_3^+ + H_2 → H_2 + H_3^+. The scrambling of five protons in this floppy, ``structureless'' ion introduces complications to its high-resolution rovibrational spectroscopy and the proton transfer dynamics between H{_3^+} and H_2. Quantum chemical studies are performed to predict and interpret the spectroscopic and dynamical properties of H{_5^+}, with special consideration paid to the group theoretical aspects. If the full permutation of protons were allowed in H{_5^+}, just like in CH{_5^+}, the system should have been characterized by the G240 complete permutation-inversion group. However, our diffusion Monte Carlo calculations indicate that such a full permutation is not allowed for most of the molecular configurations sampled by the reaction path of the proton transfer process in question, and the energetically accessible permutations are functions of the distance between the H{_3^+} and H_2 fragments. In the present study, we investigate two extreme geometries of H{_5^+}, the [H_2-H-H_2]^+ shared-proton intermediate and the H_3^+\\cdots H_2 long-range complex, using two subgroups of G240, G16 and G24, respectively. In these two limiting circumstances, we derive the symmetry-adapted basis functions for the energy levels that describe the nuclear spins and the rovibrational motions of H{_5^+}. Based on the results of these derivations, we discuss the spectroscopic properties of H{_5^+}, including the coupling between different rovibrational degrees of freedom in the effective nuclear motion Hamiltonian, the electric-dipole selection rules for rovibrational spectroscopy, and correlations of energy levels between [H_2-H-H_2]^+ and H_3^+\\cdots H_2. Our study can be considered as the first step towards the implementation of future quantitative theoretical investigations for comparison with spectroscopic and dynamical experiments. X.-G. Wang and T

  6. On the representation matrices of the spin permutation group. [for atomic and molecular electronic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S.

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of the representation matrices of the spin permutation group (symmetric group), a detailed knowledge of these matrices being required in the study of the electronic structure of atoms and molecules. The method is characterized by the use of two different coupling schemes. Unlike the Yamanouchi spin algebraic scheme, the method is not recursive. The matrices for the fundamental transpositions can be written down directly in one of the two bases. The method results in a computationally significant reduction in the number of matrix elements that have to be stored when compared with, say, the standard Young tableaux group theoretical approach.

  7. The permutation entropy rate equals the metric entropy rate for ergodic information sources and ergodic dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amigó, José M.; Kennel, Matthew B.; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2005-10-01

    Permutation entropy quantifies the diversity of possible orderings of the values a random or deterministic system can take, as Shannon entropy quantifies the diversity of values. We show that the metric and permutation entropy rates-measures of new disorder per new observed value-are equal for ergodic finite-alphabet information sources (discrete-time stationary stochastic processes). With this result, we then prove that the same holds for deterministic dynamical systems defined by ergodic maps on n-dimensional intervals. This result generalizes a previous one for piecewise monotone interval maps on the real line [C. Bandt, G. Keller, B. Pompe, Entropy of interval maps via permutations, Nonlinearity 15 (2002) 1595-1602.] at the expense of requiring ergodicity and using a definition of permutation entropy rate differing modestly in the order of two limits. The case of non-ergodic finite-alphabet sources is also studied and an inequality developed. Finally, the equality of permutation and metric entropy rates is extended to ergodic non-discrete information sources when entropy is replaced by differential entropy in the usual way.

  8. Learn and Shop: An Innovation in College Credit Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, James R.; McKelvey, Paul T.

    1981-01-01

    In 1979, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis launched the nation's first Learn and Shop College Credit Program in which college-credit courses are offered in training rooms of major department stores in suburban shopping centers. This program is described and student attitudes are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  9. MACHINE SHOP AT SHIPYARD NO. 3, VIEW TO WESTSOUTHWEST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MACHINE SHOP AT SHIPYARD NO. 3, VIEW TO WEST-SOUTHWEST OF THE EAST ELEVATION. LOOKING ACROSS THE RICHMOND INNER HARBOR FROM NEAR THE FORD ASSEMBLY BUILDING - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Machine Shop, 1311 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  10. MACHINE SHOP, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTHNORTHEAST OF THE WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MACHINE SHOP, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHEAST OF THE WEST SIDE AND SOUTH END. WEST (REAR) SIDE OF GENERAL WAREHOUSE IS IN RIGHT FOREGROUND - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Machine Shop, 1311 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  11. 6. VIEW OF LATHE OF EAST END OF MACHINE SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF LATHE OF EAST END OF MACHINE SHOP No. 2 ADDITION. THE 78 1/2' X 100 LATHE BORES OUT CENTERS, OR TREPANNS, OF FORGING. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Machine Shop No. 2, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  12. View north of west gallery of inside machine shop 36; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of west gallery of inside machine shop 36; the gallery housed turret, engine and toolroom lathes, small milling machines and drill presses used for machining small parts. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. WEST END OF SOUTH FACADE OF MACHINE SHOP No. 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST END OF SOUTH FACADE OF MACHINE SHOP No. 1. BRICK SECTION ON THE LEFT IS THE FORMER OFFICE OF THE ARMOR PLATE DIVISION BUILT IN 1899 - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Machine Shop No. 1, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 1. EAST END OF MACHINE SHOP No. 2. THE TALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST END OF MACHINE SHOP No. 2. THE TALL STRUCTURE IS THE VERTICAL FURNACE BUILDING, AND THE TWO-STORY BRICK BUILDING WAS THE HEAT TREATING AND FORGING OFFICE. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Machine Shop No. 2, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  15. 7. VIEW OF LATHES ON WEST END OF MACHINE SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF LATHES ON WEST END OF MACHINE SHOP No. 2 ADDITION. LATHE ON LEFT IS 120' (CHUCK) X 72'. LATHE ON RIGHT IS 124' (CHUCK) X 21'. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Machine Shop No. 2, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 100. COBBLER SHOP AFT LOOKING FORWARD VISIBLE ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. COBBLER SHOP - AFT LOOKING FORWARD - VISIBLE ARE THE FINISHING MACHINE, DAVIS STITCHING MACHINE, SINGER SEWING MACHINE FROM TAILOR SHOP, STORAGE SHELVES, WORK BENCH AND SHOE TREE STAND. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  17. RUNNER BOXES IN CASTING SHOP MAINTENANCE AREA. THE SECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RUNNER BOXES IN CASTING SHOP MAINTENANCE AREA. THE SECTION OF THE PLANT SHOWN IN THE BACKGROUND FORMERLY HOUSED SMALL BRASS AND COPPER FURNACES THAT POURED APPROXIMATLEY 3500 LBS. ROUND BILLETS USED IN THE TUBE SHOP. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  18. 10. INTERIOR OF THE VERTICAL FURNACE BUILDING OF MACHINE SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF THE VERTICAL FURNACE BUILDING OF MACHINE SHOP No. 2. STRUCTURE IN THE FOREGROUND IS THE UPENDER. THE QUENCH TOWER AND FURNACES ARE IN THE BACKGROUND. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Machine Shop No. 2, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  19. Teaching Geology on Weekends and at Shopping Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirsky, Arthur; East, James R.

    1981-01-01

    The success of an outreach education program held by Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis is described. The college offers regular credit courses on Saturday and Sunday for people who could not take regularly scheduled courses. A Learn and Shop program held at shopping centers is also described. (JT)

  20. 5. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE CARPENTER SHOP (CENTER LEFT), AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE CARPENTER SHOP (CENTER LEFT), AND PATTERN STORAGE BUILDING (CENTER RIGHT). PARTIAL VIEW OF THE 21 MILL INSPECTION BUILDING IN THE FOREGROUND TO THE RIGHT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  1. Metalworking Lathe; Machine Shop Work--Intermediate: 9555.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline has been prepared as a guide to assist the instructor to plan systematically and to present meaningful lessons to provide the training needed by the machine shop student. This is the third course of instruction in a series of machine shop work courses. The six blocks of instruction contained in this outline are designed to…

  2. 45. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BELT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BELT CHASE FOR TWO BELTS FROM THE BASEMENT, THE W. E. & J. BARNES CO. DRILL PRESS, AND THE DRILL PRESS USED FOR REAMING. THE BELT PASSING THROUGH THE WALL POWERS THE SANDER IN THE WOOD SHOP. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  3. Heavy machine shop on the first floor of building no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Heavy machine shop on the first floor of building no. 5. Many of the machines shown here are shown in photographs of the late 1880's - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Machine Shop & Library, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  4. 113. VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP FROM WEST. AREA IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP FROM WEST. AREA IN FOREGROUND WAS ONCE ENCLOSED AS PART OF THE SHOP. THE TRAM LINE AND SNOWSHED RAN TO THE RIGHT (SOUTH) TO EAGLE MINE PORTAL. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  5. Putting it All Together: Has One-Stop Shopping Arrived?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the current state of "one-stop shopping" for telecom services. Discusses regulatory obstacles; administrative problems with single billing; and resistance of telecom providers to change. Concludes that the leading one-stop shopping providers will be individual carriers who offer cost savings. (AEF)

  6. Looking north toward Locomotive Shop (2 tracks on left), Car ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking north toward Locomotive Shop (2 tracks on left), Car Shop on right, and flat car in foreground. Note locomotive and car tires leaning on stock shed at left - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  7. 45 CFR 155.705 - Functions of a SHOP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS... Functions: Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP) § 155.705 Functions of a SHOP. (a) Exchange... documented assessment of the full landscape of the small group market in his or her State, that...

  8. View south of hydraulic hammer in boilermakers shop (probably the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south of hydraulic hammer in boilermakers shop (probably the oldest piece of equipment in the yard, originally powered by steam) nameplate: United Engineers and FDRY. Co. Pittsburgh, Pa, USA Davy Brothers LTD. Patents - Aug 1, 1905, Feb, 1901, Sept 8, 1908 - 10000 lbs. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Urban Studies Workshop. Shopping Centre Study. Rockfort, Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenhazel, Bessel J.

    The urban environment itself can be a laboratory for learning, and the learning activities in this workbook utilize the shopping center as a study site. General objectives of this unit of study are (1) to investigate how shopping centers serve the community; (2) to integrate a number of curriculum skills and concepts; and (3) to investigate the…

  10. 24. Historic View, Building 104 Structural Shop Extension. View east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Historic View, Building 104 Structural Shop Extension. View east, north side, 1939. Photocopy of photo. U.S.Navy/NPS Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Shipfitters' Shop, Southeast side of First Avenue between Ninth & Thirteenth Streets, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. DISTANT VIEW, AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP ON LEFT AND UTILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANT VIEW, AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP ON LEFT AND UTILITY BUILDING "B" ON RIGHT. HOSE WINDING SHED ADJACENT TO SHED-ROOFED ADDITION ON THE UTILITY BUILDING, BLM SEED SHED AND TACK SHED VISIBLE IN FAR DISTANCE. VIEW TO EAST/ - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  12. DISTANCE VIEW, AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP ON LEFT AND UTILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANCE VIEW, AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP ON LEFT AND UTILITY BUILDING "B" ON RIGHT. HOSE WINDING SHED ADJACENT TO SHED-ROOFED ADDITION ON THE UTILITY BUILDING, BLM SEED SHED AND TACK SHED VISIBLE IN FAR DISTANCE. VIEW TO EAST, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  13. 12. Detail of engine pit in machine shop section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail of engine pit in machine shop section of roundhouse. Engine house section of roundhouse visible in background through rectangular openings. View to southeast. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  14. 6. Detail, plat of Carlin Shops, 1884. Copied from Central ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, plat of Carlin Shops, 1884. Copied from Central Pacific Railroad bound book of station plats entitled 'Station Plans, CPRR, Mill City to Ogden,' in collection of Nevada Historical Society, Reno; credit Nevada Historical Society. Engine Stores Building is shown as building k. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  15. Overview of Boiler House and Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of Boiler House and Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops Building (center - with single large chimney), note the monitor on the original section of the Boiler House Building, view facing north - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Boiler House, Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

  16. 45 CFR 155.715 - Eligibility determination process for SHOP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Affordable Care Act. (d) Eligibility adjustment period. (1) When the information submitted on the SHOP single... HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT Exchange Functions: Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP) § 155.715...

  17. 45 CFR 155.715 - Eligibility determination process for SHOP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Affordable Care Act. (d) Eligibility adjustment period. (1) When the information submitted on the SHOP single... HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT Exchange Functions: Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP) § 155.715...

  18. 45. ANOTHER VIEW OF THE LOW CEILING SHOP AREA, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. ANOTHER VIEW OF THE LOW CEILING SHOP AREA, LOOKING WEST ALONG THE SOUTH WALL. THE DOOR AT THE FAR LEFT APPEARS IN VIEW NO. CA-295-A-15. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Inspection & Repair Shops, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  19. 48 CFR 1952.227-77 - Rights in shop drawings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Rights in shop drawings. 1952.227-77 Section 1952.227-77 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS... Rights in shop drawings. As prescribed in 1927.405(h), insert the following clause: Rights in...

  20. Experimental Development and Evaluation of a Shop Safety Attitude Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettis, Mervin Dale

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a shop safety attitude scale that could be administered at the beginning of a shop course to help identify students who may be accident repeaters. A semantic differential scale was adapted from one originated by Osgood and his associates (1964) and administered to a sample of 125 university…

  1. 50. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH AT FIRST FLOOR MACHINE SHOP: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH AT FIRST FLOOR MACHINE SHOP: Interior view towards south of the machine shop located on the first floor of the powerhouse and car barn. Compare this view with CA-12-74, taken seventeen years earlier. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in the center is a charging machine the operator of which manipulates steel ingots in the furnace, as well as in the adjacent forging hammers - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Tool Steel-Electric Furnace Shop, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  3. View southwest of machine shops, building 18 section visible in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest of machine shops, building 18 section visible in foreground; building 16 section on left. This structure consists of two formerly separate buildings. Jet Lowe, Haer staff photographer, summer 1995. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Machine Shops, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. INTERIOR VIEW OF WESTERN ROOM OF PAINT SHOP PORTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF WESTERN ROOM OF PAINT SHOP PORTION OF BUILDING, FACING NORTHWEST, TOWARDS NON-FUNCTIONAL FOLDING BAY DOOR - Vancouver Barracks, Paint Shop and Central Heating Plant, East Fifth Street southeast of McLoughlin Road, Vancouver, Clark County, WA

  5. 44. Cross section of the Blacksmith Shop from Construction Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Cross section of the Blacksmith Shop from Construction Drawing 2042-F-15, entitled Machine and Blacksmith Shop; Plan, Elevations, and Sections. (Original drawing, in the possession of Wyre Dick and Company, Livingston, New Jersey.) - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  6. View northwest of building 19 area used for pattern shop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest of building 19 area used for pattern shop storage (foreground), building 17 section of structure on left. This structure consists of two formerly separate buildings. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Machine Shops, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 7. VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP IN BUILDING 881. WORKERS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP IN BUILDING 881. WORKERS IN THE MACHINE SHOP FORMED ENRICHED URANIUM COMPONENTS INTO THEIR FINAL SHAPES. (12/12/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  8. Basic Irish for Shopping = BunGhaeilge don Siopa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linguistics Inst. of Ireland, Dublin.

    Basic Irish phrases and vocabulary useful for shopping are presented in dialogue form in an illustrated phrasebook. The book offers simple sentences and alternative terms for personal greetings, comments on the weather, grocery shopping, paying for goods, writing a check or using a credit card, and partings. Additional lists of vocabulary for…

  9. 12. LOWER LEVEL OF EAST BUILDING (PAINT SHOP) LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOWER LEVEL OF EAST BUILDING (PAINT SHOP) LOOKING SOUTH TO RIVER NOTE; GROWN SHIP KNEES AT POSTS TO SUPPORT BEAMS. LOLLY COLUMNS ADDED TO SUPPORT SAGGING BEAM. LATRINE AND STAIRS TO STREET LEVEL CAN BE SEEN AT RIGHT. - Lowell's Boat Shop, 459 Main Street, Amesbury, Essex County, MA

  10. BENDING SHOP & OVEN. United Engineering Co., Alameda, California. Plan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BENDING SHOP & OVEN. United Engineering Co., Alameda, California. Plan, two elevations, sections, and details. Alben Froberg, Architect, Oakland, California. Sheet no. 1 of 1. Various scales. December 15, 1941. pencil on tracing paper - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Bending Shop & Oven, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  11. Machine Shop. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    This drafting criterion-referenced test item bank is keyed to the machine shop competency profile developed by industry and education professionals in Missouri. The 16 references used for drafting the test items are listed. Test items are arranged under these categories: orientation to machine shop; performing mathematical calculations; performing…

  12. Machine Shop. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course. Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Arthur; Lambert, George

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a high school intermediate machine shop course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (3 hours daily) designed to enable students to become familiar with the operation of machine shop equipment, to…

  13. How Traumatic Violence Permanently Changes Shopping Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sigirci, Ozge; Rockmore, Marc; Wansink, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic experiences - such as combat, living in a conflict country or war-torn nation, or experiencing a violent crime or natural disaster - change social relationships and may also influence a life-time of consumer relationships with brands and shopping. Our focus on this previously overlooked area is centered on an analysis of the long-term shopping habits of 355 combat veterans. We show that those who experienced heavy trauma (e.g., heavy combat) exhibited similar disconnection from brands as others have experienced in social relationships. They became more transactional in that they were more open to switching brands, to trying new products, and buying the least expensive alternative (p < 0.01). In contrast, those who had experienced a light trauma were more influenced by ads and more open to buying brands even when they cost more (p < 0.00). Trauma, such as combat, may change one's decision horizon. Functionality and price become more important, which is consistent with the idea that they are more focused on the present moment than on building on the past or saving for the future.

  14. How Traumatic Violence Permanently Changes Shopping Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sigirci, Ozge; Rockmore, Marc; Wansink, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic experiences – such as combat, living in a conflict country or war-torn nation, or experiencing a violent crime or natural disaster – change social relationships and may also influence a life-time of consumer relationships with brands and shopping. Our focus on this previously overlooked area is centered on an analysis of the long-term shopping habits of 355 combat veterans. We show that those who experienced heavy trauma (e.g., heavy combat) exhibited similar disconnection from brands as others have experienced in social relationships. They became more transactional in that they were more open to switching brands, to trying new products, and buying the least expensive alternative (p < 0.01). In contrast, those who had experienced a light trauma were more influenced by ads and more open to buying brands even when they cost more (p < 0.00). Trauma, such as combat, may change one’s decision horizon. Functionality and price become more important, which is consistent with the idea that they are more focused on the present moment than on building on the past or saving for the future. PMID:27656152

  15. How Traumatic Violence Permanently Changes Shopping Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sigirci, Ozge; Rockmore, Marc; Wansink, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic experiences - such as combat, living in a conflict country or war-torn nation, or experiencing a violent crime or natural disaster - change social relationships and may also influence a life-time of consumer relationships with brands and shopping. Our focus on this previously overlooked area is centered on an analysis of the long-term shopping habits of 355 combat veterans. We show that those who experienced heavy trauma (e.g., heavy combat) exhibited similar disconnection from brands as others have experienced in social relationships. They became more transactional in that they were more open to switching brands, to trying new products, and buying the least expensive alternative (p < 0.01). In contrast, those who had experienced a light trauma were more influenced by ads and more open to buying brands even when they cost more (p < 0.00). Trauma, such as combat, may change one's decision horizon. Functionality and price become more important, which is consistent with the idea that they are more focused on the present moment than on building on the past or saving for the future. PMID:27656152

  16. How Traumatic Violence Permanently Changes Shopping Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sigirci, Ozge; Rockmore, Marc; Wansink, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic experiences – such as combat, living in a conflict country or war-torn nation, or experiencing a violent crime or natural disaster – change social relationships and may also influence a life-time of consumer relationships with brands and shopping. Our focus on this previously overlooked area is centered on an analysis of the long-term shopping habits of 355 combat veterans. We show that those who experienced heavy trauma (e.g., heavy combat) exhibited similar disconnection from brands as others have experienced in social relationships. They became more transactional in that they were more open to switching brands, to trying new products, and buying the least expensive alternative (p < 0.01). In contrast, those who had experienced a light trauma were more influenced by ads and more open to buying brands even when they cost more (p < 0.00). Trauma, such as combat, may change one’s decision horizon. Functionality and price become more important, which is consistent with the idea that they are more focused on the present moment than on building on the past or saving for the future.

  17. Amber Plug-In for Protein Shop

    2004-05-10

    The Amber Plug-in for ProteinShop has two main components: an AmberEngine library to compute the protein energy models, and a module to solve the energy minimization problem using an optimization algorithm in the OPTI-+ library. Together, these components allow the visualization of the protein folding process in ProteinShop. AmberEngine is a object-oriented library to compute molecular energies based on the Amber model. The main class is called ProteinEnergy. Its main interface methods are (1) "init"more » to initialize internal variables needed to compute the energy. (2) "eval" to evaluate the total energy given a vector of coordinates. Additional methods allow the user to evaluate the individual components of the energy model (bond, angle, dihedral, non-bonded-1-4, and non-bonded energies) and to obtain the energy of each individual atom. The Amber Engine library source code includes examples and test routines that illustrate the use of the library in stand alone programs. The energy minimization module uses the AmberEngine library and the nonlinear optimization library OPT++. OPT++ is open source software available under the GNU Lesser General Public License. The minimization module currently makes use of the LBFGS optimization algorithm in OPT++ to perform the energy minimization. Future releases may give the user a choice of other algorithms available in OPT++.« less

  18. Effects of Website Interactivity on Online Retail Shopping Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Hafizul

    Motivations to engage in retail online shopping can include both utilitarian and hedonic shopping dimensions. To cater to these consumers, online retailers can create a cognitively and esthetically rich shopping environment, through sophisticated levels of interactive web utilities and features, offering not only utilitarian benefits and attributes but also providing hedonic benefits of enjoyment. Since the effect of interactive websites has proven to stimulate online consumer’s perceptions, this study presumes that websites with multimedia rich interactive utilities and features can influence online consumers’ shopping motivations and entice them to modify or even transform their original shopping predispositions by providing them with attractive and enhanced interactive features and controls, thus generating a positive attitude towards products and services offered by the retailer. This study seeks to explore the effects of Web interactivity on online consumer behavior through an attitudinal model of technology acceptance.

  19. The Customer Rules and Other e-Shopping Myths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Rachel; Richardson, Helen

    This chapter discusses self-service and the Internet in the context of two studies, based in the UK, and undertaken during 1998-2005. They are united by a common framework of critically analysing discourses of e-shopping in the ‘ digital age ’. Firstly, myths surrounding e-shopping are deconstructed with a view to analysing the ‘sovereign consumer’ and the e-shopping experience. The second study considers home e-shopping in the UK. In an atmosphere where we are urged to engage with ICTs (information communication technologies) in all spheres of our lives, the domestication of ICTs necessitates consideration of the gendered family in gendered households. In conclusion, we argue those self-service aspects of e-shopping are not signs of empowerment and self-determination. The notion of the sovereign consumer exercising power and control globally is an enduring myth.

  20. Permutation Symmetry in Spinor Quantum Gases: Selection Rules, Conservation Laws, and Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurovsky, Vladimir A.

    2014-11-01

    Many-body systems of identical arbitrary-spin particles, with separable spin and spatial degrees of freedom, are considered. Their eigenstates can be classified by Young diagrams, corresponding to nontrivial permutation symmetries (beyond the conventional paradigm of symmetric-antisymmetric states). The present work obtains the following. (a) Selection rules for additional nonseparable (dependent on spins and coordinates) k -body interactions: the Young diagrams, associated with the initial and final states of a transition, can differ by relocation of no more than k boxes between their rows. (b) Correlation rules in which eigenstate-averaged local correlations of k particles vanish if k exceeds the number of columns (for bosons) or rows (for fermions) in the associated Young diagram. It also elucidates the physical meaning of the quantities conserved due to permutation symmetry—in 1929, Dirac identified those with characters of the symmetric group—relating them to experimentally observable correlations of several particles. The results provide a way to control the formation of entangled states belonging to multidimensional non-Abelian representations of the symmetric group. These states can find applications in quantum computation and metrology.

  1. Permutation relations of generalized Yangian Invariants, unitarity cuts, and scattering amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Peizhi; Chen, Gang; Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E.

    2014-09-01

    We find a permutation relation among the generalized Yangian Invariants — two Yangian Invariants with adjacent external lines exchanged are related by a simple kinematic factor — which is shown to be equivalent to U(1) decoupling and Bern-Carrasco-Johansson (BCJ) relation at the level of maximal helicity violating (MHV) amplitudes. We propose using unitarity cuts to study nonplanar amplitudes and to systematically reconstruct the integrands of nonplanar MHV amplitudes, up to a rational function which vanishes under all possible unitarity cuts. This is made possible with the newly found permutation relations by converting nonplanar on-shell diagrams into planar ones. As explicit examples the construction of one-loop double-trace MHV amplitudes of 4- and 5-point interactions are presented using on-shell diagrams. The kinematic factors and the resultant planar diagrams are carefully dealt with using the unitarity cut conditions. The first next-to-MHV amplitudes are addressed using generalized unitarity cuts. Their leading singularities can be identified as residues of the Grassmanian integrals. These examples also serve to demonstrate the power of the newly found relation of the generalized Yangian Invariants.

  2. Linear algebra of the permutation invariant Crow-Kimura model of prebiotic evolution.

    PubMed

    Bratus, Alexander S; Novozhilov, Artem S; Semenov, Yuri S

    2014-10-01

    A particular case of the famous quasispecies model - the Crow-Kimura model with a permutation invariant fitness landscape - is investigated. Using the fact that the mutation matrix in the case of a permutation invariant fitness landscape has a special tridiagonal form, a change of the basis is suggested such that in the new coordinates a number of analytical results can be obtained. In particular, using the eigenvectors of the mutation matrix as the new basis, we show that the quasispecies distribution approaches a binomial one and give simple estimates for the speed of convergence. Another consequence of the suggested approach is a parametric solution to the system of equations determining the quasispecies. Using this parametric solution we show that our approach leads to exact asymptotic results in some cases, which are not covered by the existing methods. In particular, we are able to present not only the limit behavior of the leading eigenvalue (mean population fitness), but also the exact formulas for the limit quasispecies eigenvector for special cases. For instance, this eigenvector has a geometric distribution in the case of the classical single peaked fitness landscape. On the biological side, we propose a mathematical definition, based on the closeness of the quasispecies to the binomial distribution, which can be used as an operational definition of the notorious error threshold. Using this definition, we suggest two approximate formulas to estimate the critical mutation rate after which the quasispecies delocalization occurs. PMID:25149562

  3. Linear algebra of the permutation invariant Crow-Kimura model of prebiotic evolution.

    PubMed

    Bratus, Alexander S; Novozhilov, Artem S; Semenov, Yuri S

    2014-10-01

    A particular case of the famous quasispecies model - the Crow-Kimura model with a permutation invariant fitness landscape - is investigated. Using the fact that the mutation matrix in the case of a permutation invariant fitness landscape has a special tridiagonal form, a change of the basis is suggested such that in the new coordinates a number of analytical results can be obtained. In particular, using the eigenvectors of the mutation matrix as the new basis, we show that the quasispecies distribution approaches a binomial one and give simple estimates for the speed of convergence. Another consequence of the suggested approach is a parametric solution to the system of equations determining the quasispecies. Using this parametric solution we show that our approach leads to exact asymptotic results in some cases, which are not covered by the existing methods. In particular, we are able to present not only the limit behavior of the leading eigenvalue (mean population fitness), but also the exact formulas for the limit quasispecies eigenvector for special cases. For instance, this eigenvector has a geometric distribution in the case of the classical single peaked fitness landscape. On the biological side, we propose a mathematical definition, based on the closeness of the quasispecies to the binomial distribution, which can be used as an operational definition of the notorious error threshold. Using this definition, we suggest two approximate formulas to estimate the critical mutation rate after which the quasispecies delocalization occurs.

  4. Complexity extraction of electroencephalograms in Alzheimer's disease with weighted-permutation entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Bin; Liang, Li; Li, Shunan; Wang, Ruofan; Yu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Wei, Xile

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, weighted-permutation entropy (WPE) is applied to investigating the complexity abnormalities of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by analyzing 16-channel electroencephalograph (EEG) signals from 14 severe AD patients and 14 age-matched normal subjects. The WPE values are estimated in the delta, the theta, the alpha, and the beta sub-bands for each channel with an overlapped sliding window. WPE is modified from the permutation entropy (PE), which has been recently suggested as a measurement to extract the complexity of the EEG signals. The advantage of WPE over PE is verified by both the model simulated and the experimental EEG signals. Although the results show that both the average PE and WPE of AD patients are decreased in contrast with the normal group in these four sub-bands, especially in the theta band, WPE can exhibit a better performance in distinguishing the AD patients from the normal controls by the more significant differences in the four sub-bands, which may be attributed to the brain dysfunction. Thus, it suggests that WPE may become a probable useful tool to detect brain dysfunction in AD and it seems to be promising to disclose the abnormalities of brain activity for other neural disease.

  5. Permutation symmetry in spinor quantum gases: selection rules, conservation laws, and correlations.

    PubMed

    Yurovsky, Vladimir A

    2014-11-14

    Many-body systems of identical arbitrary-spin particles, with separable spin and spatial degrees of freedom, are considered. Their eigenstates can be classified by Young diagrams, corresponding to nontrivial permutation symmetries (beyond the conventional paradigm of symmetric-antisymmetric states). The present work obtains the following. (a) Selection rules for additional nonseparable (dependent on spins and coordinates) k-body interactions: the Young diagrams, associated with the initial and final states of a transition, can differ by relocation of no more than k boxes between their rows. (b) Correlation rules in which eigenstate-averaged local correlations of k particles vanish if k exceeds the number of columns (for bosons) or rows (for fermions) in the associated Young diagram. It also elucidates the physical meaning of the quantities conserved due to permutation symmetry-in 1929, Dirac identified those with characters of the symmetric group-relating them to experimentally observable correlations of several particles. The results provide a way to control the formation of entangled states belonging to multidimensional non-Abelian representations of the symmetric group. These states can find applications in quantum computation and metrology.

  6. OPAAS: a web server for optimal, permuted, and other alternative alignments of protein structures.

    PubMed

    Shih, Edward S C; Gan, Ruei-chi R; Hwang, Ming-Jing

    2006-07-01

    The large number of experimentally determined protein 3D structures is a rich resource for studying protein function and evolution, and protein structure comparison (PSC) is a key method for such studies. When comparing two protein structures, almost all currently available PSC servers report a single and sequential (i.e. topological) alignment, whereas the existence of good alternative alignments, including those involving permutations (i.e. non-sequential or non-topological alignments), is well known. We have recently developed a novel PSC method that can detect alternative alignments of statistical significance (alignment similarity P-value <10(-5)), including structural permutations at all levels of complexity. OPAAS, the server of this PSC method freely accessible at our website (http://opaas.ibms.sinica.edu.tw), provides an easy-to-read hierarchical layout of output to display detailed information on all of the significant alternative alignments detected. Because these alternative alignments can offer a more complete picture on the structural, evolutionary and functional relationship between two proteins, OPAAS can be used in structural bioinformatics research to gain additional insight that is not readily provided by existing PSC servers.

  7. Pattern identification and characterization reveal permutations of organs as a key genetically controlled property of post-meristematic phyllotaxis.

    PubMed

    Guédon, Yann; Refahi, Yassin; Besnard, Fabrice; Farcot, Etienne; Godin, Christophe; Vernoux, Teva

    2013-12-01

    In vascular plants, the arrangement of organs around the stem generates geometric patterns called phyllotaxis. In the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, as in the majority of species, single organs are initiated successively at a divergence angle from the previous organ close to the canonical angle of 137.5°, producing a Fibonacci spiral. Given that little is known about the robustness of these geometric arrangements, we undertook to characterize phyllotaxis by measuring divergence angles between organs along the stems of wild-type and specific mutant plants with obvious defects in phyllotaxis. Sequences of measured divergence angles exhibit segments of non-canonical angles in both genotypes, albeit to a far greater extent in the mutant. We thus designed a pipeline of methods for analyzing these perturbations. The latent structure models used in this pipeline combine a non-observable model representing perturbation patterns (either a variable-order Markov chain or a combinatorial model) with von Mises distributions representing divergence angle uncertainty. We show that the segments of non-canonical angles in both wild-type and mutant plants can be explained by permutations in the order of insertion along the stem of two or three consecutive organs. The number of successive organs between two permutations reveals specific patterns that depend on the nature of the preceding permutation (2- or 3-permutation). We also highlight significant individual deviations from 137.5° in the level of baseline segments and a marked relationship between permutation of organs and defects in the elongation of the internodes between these organs. These results demonstrate that permutations are an intrinsic property of spiral phyllotaxis and that their occurrence is genetically regulated.

  8. Pattern identification and characterization reveal permutations of organs as a key genetically controlled property of post-meristematic phyllotaxis.

    PubMed

    Guédon, Yann; Refahi, Yassin; Besnard, Fabrice; Farcot, Etienne; Godin, Christophe; Vernoux, Teva

    2013-12-01

    In vascular plants, the arrangement of organs around the stem generates geometric patterns called phyllotaxis. In the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, as in the majority of species, single organs are initiated successively at a divergence angle from the previous organ close to the canonical angle of 137.5°, producing a Fibonacci spiral. Given that little is known about the robustness of these geometric arrangements, we undertook to characterize phyllotaxis by measuring divergence angles between organs along the stems of wild-type and specific mutant plants with obvious defects in phyllotaxis. Sequences of measured divergence angles exhibit segments of non-canonical angles in both genotypes, albeit to a far greater extent in the mutant. We thus designed a pipeline of methods for analyzing these perturbations. The latent structure models used in this pipeline combine a non-observable model representing perturbation patterns (either a variable-order Markov chain or a combinatorial model) with von Mises distributions representing divergence angle uncertainty. We show that the segments of non-canonical angles in both wild-type and mutant plants can be explained by permutations in the order of insertion along the stem of two or three consecutive organs. The number of successive organs between two permutations reveals specific patterns that depend on the nature of the preceding permutation (2- or 3-permutation). We also highlight significant individual deviations from 137.5° in the level of baseline segments and a marked relationship between permutation of organs and defects in the elongation of the internodes between these organs. These results demonstrate that permutations are an intrinsic property of spiral phyllotaxis and that their occurrence is genetically regulated. PMID:23948553

  9. Scheduling job shop - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abas, M.; Abbas, A.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    The scheduling in job shop is important for efficient utilization of machines in the manufacturing industry. There are number of algorithms available for scheduling of jobs which depend on machines tools, indirect consumables and jobs which are to be processed. In this paper a case study is presented for scheduling of jobs when parts are treated on available machines. Through time and motion study setup time and operation time are measured as total processing time for variety of products having different manufacturing processes. Based on due dates different level of priority are assigned to the jobs and the jobs are scheduled on the basis of priority. In view of the measured processing time, the times for processing of some new jobs are estimated and for efficient utilization of the machines available an algorithm is proposed and validated.

  10. Ultrasonic interface level analyzer shop test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    STAEHR, T.W.

    1999-05-24

    The Royce Instrument Corporation Model 2511 Interface Level Analyzer (URSILLA) system uses an ultrasonic ranging technique (SONAR) to measure sludge depths in holding tanks. Three URSILLA instrument assemblies provided by the W-151 project are planned to be used during mixer pump testing to provide data for determining sludge mobilization effectiveness of the mixer pumps and sludge settling rates. The purpose of this test is to provide a documented means of verifying that the functional components of the three URSILLA instruments operate properly. Successful completion of this Shop Test Procedure (STP) is a prerequisite for installation in the AZ-101 tank. The objective of the test is to verify the operation of the URSILLA instruments and to verify data collection using a stand alone software program.

  11. Down with Walls, Up with Malls: Taking Classes to the Shopping Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerden, Noel H.

    1980-01-01

    Learn and Shop, a concept of offering university credit courses by university faculty in shopping centers which was developed by Indiana University-Purdue University in Indianapolis, is described. The Learn and Shop curriculum permits individuals to earn a two-year associate degree in liberal arts entirely at shopping centers. (MLW)

  12. One-stop shopping: the rest of the story.

    PubMed

    Miller, R

    1996-01-01

    The premise of home care one-stop shopping is that one company with an array of services will be more efficient, and therefore, cost-effective, for a managed care organization than several different companies providing services. As home care companies race to become one-stop shops, there are advantages and disadvantages to entering alliances, developing in-house expertise, or acquiring other companies. This article takes a realistic look at one-stop shopping and argues that it may not always be the best way to serve managed care organizations and their patients and should not be the only long-term solution for the home care industry.

  13. Interior of building 16 section, view north of machine shop, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of building 16 section, view north of machine shop, showing shrink-fitting a bearing sleeve onto a section of the propeller shaft for the aircraft carrier John F. Kennedy. The lathe on the extreme left of the photograph was used to machine bearing sleeves to final dimensions. This work, in August 1994, was the final major machine shop job done for the U.S. Navy. Photograph by Robert Stewart, August 1994. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Machine Shops, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Improved Potential Energy Surface of Ozone Constructed Using the Fitting by Permutationally Invariant Polynomial Function

    DOE PAGES

    Ayouz, Mehdi; Babikov, Dmitri

    2012-01-01

    New global potential energy surface for the ground electronic state of ozone is constructed at the complete basis set level of the multireference configuration interaction theory. A method of fitting the data points by analytical permutationally invariant polynomial function is adopted. A small set of 500 points is preoptimized using the old surface of ozone. In this procedure the positions of points in the configuration space are chosen such that the RMS deviation of the fit is minimized. New ab initio calculations are carried out at these points and are used to build new surface. Additional points are addedmore » to the vicinity of the minimum energy path in order to improve accuracy of the fit, particularly in the region where the surface of ozone exhibits a shallow van der Waals well. New surface can be used to study formation of ozone at thermal energies and its spectroscopy near the dissociation threshold.« less

  15. Permutation group S{sub N} and large N{sub c} excited baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Pirjol, Dan; Schat, Carlos

    2008-08-01

    We study the excited baryon states for an arbitrary number of colors N{sub c} from the perspective of the permutation group S{sub N} of N objects. Classifying the transformation properties of states and quark-quark interaction operators under S{sub N} allows a general analysis of the spin-flavor structure of the mass operator of these states, in terms of a few unknown constants parametrizing the unknown spatial structure. We explain how to perform the matching calculation of a general two-body quark-quark interaction onto the operators of the 1/N{sub c} expansion. The inclusion of core and excited quark operators is shown to be necessary. Considering the case of the negative parity L=1 states transforming in the MS of S{sub N}, we discuss the matching of the one-gluon and the Goldstone-boson exchange interactions.

  16. Optimization of a parallel permutation testing function for the SPRINT R package.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Savvas; Sloan, Terence M; Mewissen, Muriel; Forster, Thorsten; Piotrowski, Michal; Dobrzelecki, Bartosz; Ghazal, Peter; Trew, Arthur; Hill, Jon

    2011-12-10

    The statistical language R and its Bioconductor package are favoured by many biostatisticians for processing microarray data. The amount of data produced by some analyses has reached the limits of many common bioinformatics computing infrastructures. High Performance Computing systems offer a solution to this issue. The Simple Parallel R Interface (SPRINT) is a package that provides biostatisticians with easy access to High Performance Computing systems and allows the addition of parallelized functions to R. Previous work has established that the SPRINT implementation of an R permutation testing function has close to optimal scaling on up to 512 processors on a supercomputer. Access to supercomputers, however, is not always possible, and so the work presented here compares the performance of the SPRINT implementation on a supercomputer with benchmarks on a range of platforms including cloud resources and a common desktop machine with multiprocessing capabilities. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23335858

  17. Epileptogenic focus detection in intracranial EEG based on delay permutation entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guohun; Li, Yan; Wen, Peng Paul; Wang, Shuaifang; Xi, Min

    2013-10-01

    Epileptogenic localization is a critical factor for successful epilepsy surgery. Determining the epileptogenic hippocampus with single channel intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) recording is beneficial to decrease the risk of infection compared with that based on multi-channel iEEGs. Delay permutation entropy (DPE) methodology is presented in this study to measure iEEG with different delay lag based on focal epileptogenic zone. A total of 1600 20-s epileptic iEEG are evaluated and are used as features to classify epileptogenic and non-epileptogenic zone. Experimental results show that the DPE index of epileptogenic iEEG is significant lower than that of non-epileptogenic hemisphere when delay lag ranges from 5 to 30 (p=0.01). In addition, the accuracy of identifying epileptogenic region with the DPE index is increased when the delay lag between 5 and 25, compared to the performance of the PE index.

  18. Accurate DOSY measure for out-of-equilibrium systems using permutated DOSY (p-DOSY).

    PubMed

    Oikonomou, Maria; Asencio-Hernández, Julia; Velders, Aldrik H; Delsuc, Marc-André

    2015-09-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a excellent tool for monitoring in-situ chemical reactions. In particular, DOSY measurement is well suited to characterize transient species by the determination of their sizes. However, here we bring to light a difficulty in the DOSY experiments performed in out-of-equilibrium systems. On such a system, the evolution of the concentration of species interferes with the measurement process, and creates a bias on the diffusion coefficient determination that may lead to erroneous interpretations. We show that a random permutation of the series of gradient strengths used during the DOSY experiment allows to average out this bias. This approach, that we name p-DOSY does not require changes in the pulse sequences nor in the processing software, and restores completely the full accuracy of the measure. This technique is demonstrated on the monitoring of the anomerization reaction of α- to β-glucose.

  19. Multivariate permutation entropy and its application for complexity analysis of chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shaobo; Sun, Kehui; Wang, Huihai

    2016-11-01

    To measure the complexity of multivariate systems, the multivariate permutation entropy (MvPE) algorithm is proposed. It is employed to measure complexity of multivariate system in the phase space. As an application, MvPE is applied to analyze the complexity of chaotic systems, including hyperchaotic Hénon map, fractional-order simplified Lorenz system and financial chaotic system. Results show that MvPE algorithm is effective for analyzing the complexity of the multivariate systems. It also shows that fractional-order system does not become more complex with derivative order varying. Compared with PE, MvPE has better robustness for noise and sampling interval, and the results are not affected by different normalization methods.

  20. Permutation methods for the structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) of familial trait values.

    PubMed

    Karlin, S; Williams, P T

    1984-07-01

    A collection of functions that contrast familial trait values between and across generations is proposed for studying transmission effects and other collateral influences in nuclear families. Two classes of structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) statistics are derived from ratios of these functions. SEDA-functionals are the empirical cumulative distributions of the ratio of the two contrasts computed within each family. SEDA-indices are formed by first averaging the numerator and denominator contrasts separately over the population and then forming their ratio. The significance of SEDA results are determined by a spectrum of permutation techniques that selectively shuffle the trait values across families. The process systematically alters certain family structure relationships while keeping other familial relationships intact. The methodology is applied to five data examples of plasma total cholesterol concentrations, reported height values, dermatoglyphic pattern intensity index scores, measurements of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity, and psychometric cognitive test results.

  1. An image encryption scheme using nonlinear inter-pixel computing and swapping based permutation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun-xin; Zhu, Zhi-liang; Fu, Chong; Zhang, Li-bo; Zhang, Yushu

    2015-06-01

    Recently, intrinsic image features in bit-level (e.g., higher bit-planes carry more information than lower bit-planes) have been widely accepted for building bit-level image cryptosystems. Higher bit-planes are generally handled with enhanced encryption, whereas light attention is paid to lower ones. However, the existing achievements on bit-level image features are solely based on the analyses of standard test images, and they do not hold for some special images, such as medical images. When ciphering these images, such cryptosystems may leak the important information of lower bit-planes, and other inadaptability also exists. In this paper, we firstly give out the inapplicability of the existing bit-level achievements, and then a novel chaos-based image encryption scheme using nonlinear inter-pixel computing and swapping based permutation approach is presented. Simulations and extensive security analyses demonstrate the high level of security for practical secret applications.

  2. Network Analysis of Circular Permutations in Multidomain Proteins Reveals Functional Linkages for Uncharacterized Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Adjeroh, Donald; Jiang, Yue; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Lin, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have implicated different multidomain proteins in cancer. However, there has been little or no detailed study on the role of circular multidomain proteins in the general problem of cancer or on specific cancer types. This work represents an initial attempt at investigating the potential for predicting linkages between known cancer-associated proteins with uncharacterized or hypothetical multidomain proteins, based primarily on circular permutation (CP) relationships. First, we propose an efficient algorithm for rapid identification of both exact and approximate CPs in multidomain proteins. Using the circular relations identified, we construct networks between multidomain proteins, based on which we perform functional annotation of multidomain proteins. We then extend the method to construct subnetworks for selected cancer subtypes, and performed prediction of potential link-ages between uncharacterized multidomain proteins and the selected cancer types. We include practical results showing the performance of the proposed methods. PMID:25741177

  3. Physical interpretations of permutation entropy scaling analyses of turbulent space and laboratory fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, Ariel; Parks, Holden; Schaffner, David; Brown, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Statistical properties of various turbulent laboratory and natural (magneto)fluids are investigated using both complexity measures of ordinal pattern distribution and temporal increments. The systems analyzed are solar wind | B | time series from the Cluster satellites, streamwise velocity time series from the Johns Hopkins University Corsin Wind Tunnel, and | Ḃ | time series from the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX) MHD wind tunnel. Plasma in the SSX wind tunnel has parameters B ~ . 2 T, n >=1021 m-3, and Ti >= 20 eV. By comparing the permutation entropy and Jensen-Shannon complexity with the behavior of the structure functions derived from the intermittency analysis, the connections between the complexity measures and dissipation mechanisms can be determined. The Corsin Wind Tunnel velocity data is used to compare the statistical signatures of dissipation in conventional hydrofluids with that seen in magnetofluids. Work supported by DOE OFES and NSF CMSO.

  4. New gridded daily climatology of Finland: Permutation-based uncertainty estimates and temporal trends in climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, Juha; Pirinen, Pentti; Jylhä, Kirsti

    2016-04-01

    Long-term time series of key climate variables with a relevant spatiotemporal resolution are essential for environmental science. Moreover, such spatially continuous data, based on weather observations, are commonly used in, e.g., downscaling and bias correcting of climate model simulations. Here we conducted a comprehensive spatial interpolation scheme where seven climate variables (daily mean, maximum, and minimum surface air temperatures, daily precipitation sum, relative humidity, sea level air pressure, and snow depth) were interpolated over Finland at the spatial resolution of 10 × 10 km2. More precisely, (1) we produced daily gridded time series (FMI_ClimGrid) of the variables covering the period of 1961-2010, with a special focus on evaluation and permutation-based uncertainty estimates, and (2) we investigated temporal trends in the climate variables based on the gridded data. National climate station observations were supplemented by records from the surrounding countries, and kriging interpolation was applied to account for topography and water bodies. For daily precipitation sum and snow depth, a two-stage interpolation with a binary classifier was deployed for an accurate delineation of areas with no precipitation or snow. A robust cross-validation indicated a good agreement between the observed and interpolated values especially for the temperature variables and air pressure, although the effect of seasons was evident. Permutation-based analysis suggested increased uncertainty toward northern areas, thus identifying regions with suboptimal station density. Finally, several variables had a statistically significant trend indicating a clear but locally varying signal of climate change during the last five decades.

  5. Characterizing the existing and potential structural space of proteins by large-scale multiple loop permutations.

    PubMed

    Dai, Liang; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2011-05-01

    Worldwide structural genomics projects are increasing structure coverage of sequence space but have not significantly expanded the protein structure space itself (i.e., number of unique structural folds) since 2007. Discovering new structural folds experimentally by directed evolution and random recombination of secondary-structure blocks is also proved rarely successful. Meanwhile, previous computational efforts for large-scale mapping of protein structure space are limited to simple model proteins and led to an inconclusive answer on the completeness of the existing observed protein structure space. Here, we build novel protein structures by extending naturally occurring circular (single-loop) permutation to multiple loop permutations (MLPs). These structures are clustered by structural similarity measure called TM-score. The computational technique allows us to produce different structural clusters on the same naturally occurring, packed, stable core but with alternatively connected secondary-structure segments. A large-scale MLP of 2936 domains from structural classification of protein domains reproduces those existing structural clusters (63%) mostly as hubs for many nonredundant sequences and illustrates newly discovered novel clusters as islands adopted by a few sequences only. Results further show that there exist a significant number of novel potentially stable clusters for medium-size or large-size single-domain proteins, in particular, >100 amino acid residues, that are either not yet adopted by nature or adopted only by a few sequences. This study suggests that MLP provides a simple yet highly effective tool for engineering and design of novel protein structures (including naturally knotted proteins). The implication of recovering new-fold targets from critical assessment of structure prediction techniques (CASP) by MLP on template-based structure prediction is also discussed. Our MLP structures are available for download at the publication page of the

  6. 40. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1973. SHOP, YPOLE, MR. WEST'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1973. SHOP, Y-POLE, MR. WEST'S HOUSE AND POLE SWELL - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  7. 61. VIEW OF WAREHOUSE, MACHINE SHOP, AND HOISTING PLANT, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. VIEW OF WAREHOUSE, MACHINE SHOP, AND HOISTING PLANT, WITH FOREBAY ON RIGHT IN FOREGROUND, Prints No. 158 and 159, August 1903 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  8. 35. AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD, SHOWING SHAFT ALLEY. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. NEW MACHINE SHOP (CENTER). PHOTOCOPY OF c. 1910 VIEW LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NEW MACHINE SHOP (CENTER). PHOTOCOPY OF c. 1910 VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST From the collection of the Manchester Historic Association, Manchester, N. H. - Amoskeag Millyard, Canal Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  10. VIEW OF STACK WITH AUTOMOBILE AND TRACTOR REPAIR SHOP TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF STACK WITH AUTOMOBILE AND TRACTOR REPAIR SHOP TO THE FAR RIGHT. WAREHOUSE WITH ITS RIDGELINE ROTARY VENTS TO RIGHT OF STACK. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  11. NORTH WALL OF ELECTRIC SHOP, SUGAR BIN IS RIGHTOFCENTER, OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH WALL OF ELECTRIC SHOP, SUGAR BIN IS RIGHT-OF-CENTER, OFFICE AND LABORATORY AT FAR RIGHT. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  12. VIEW OF WEST END OF METAL AND ELECTRIC SHOPS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WEST END OF METAL AND ELECTRIC SHOPS AND GABLE END OF POWER HOUSE, WITH STACK TO FAR RIGHT. VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  13. 7. BUILDING 40. MUSEUM, LIBRARY, PRINTING SHOP, FOUNDRY, VACUUM HEATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. BUILDING 40. MUSEUM, LIBRARY, PRINTING SHOP, FOUNDRY, VACUUM HEATING SYSTEM. July 31, 1916. - Frankford Arsenal, Building No. 40, South of Tacony Street between Bridge Street & tracks of former Pennsylvania Railroad, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 10. TRUSS DETAILS, BRIDGE OVER SCOTT SWAMP (Shop Drawing, Berlin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. TRUSS DETAILS, BRIDGE OVER SCOTT SWAMP (Shop Drawing, Berlin Construction Company) Sheet 1 of 2, July 5, 1927 - Bridge No. 475, Spanning Pequabuck River on U.S. Route 6, Farmington, Hartford County, CT

  15. 11. FLOOR SYSTEM DETAILS, BRIDGE OVER SCOTT SWAMP (Shop Drawing, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. FLOOR SYSTEM DETAILS, BRIDGE OVER SCOTT SWAMP (Shop Drawing, Berlin Construction Company) Sheet 2 of 2, July 9, 1927 - Bridge No. 475, Spanning Pequabuck River on U.S. Route 6, Farmington, Hartford County, CT

  16. Consumer Roulette: The Shopping Patterns of Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Randall D.; Ewing, Sheryl

    1981-01-01

    To develop information regarding the commercial product purchasing behavior of mildly mentally retarded adults, 11 participants were included in a mock shopping exercise. The results indicated several serious deficiencies in the purchasing strategies of the participants. (Author/SB)

  17. 43. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF MOULD CONDITIONING BUILDING AND BOP SHOP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF MOULD CONDITIONING BUILDING AND BOP SHOP, WITH OPEN HEARTH No. 2 BUILDING ON LEFT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 32. SOUTHEASTERN VIEW OF GAS CLEANING PLANT, WITH BOP SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. SOUTHEASTERN VIEW OF GAS CLEANING PLANT, WITH BOP SHOP IN BACKGROUND AND OPEN HEARTH STEELMAKING OFFICE BUILDING TO THE RIGHT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  19. Andy Chambers Homestead, Chicken Coop, Saddle Shop, and Granary, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Andy Chambers Homestead, Chicken Coop, Saddle Shop, and Granary, looking northeast - Andy Chambers Homestead, 0.4 mile south of Antelope Flats Road on the east side of Mormon Row Road, Kelly, Teton County, WY

  20. OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S PATTERN REPAIR SHOP, SHOWING A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S PATTERN REPAIR SHOP, SHOWING A SPANISH-MADE FORADIA BORING MACHINE IN THE FOREGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  1. Teaching E-Commerce by Shopping Only Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Catherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the experiences of Bruce D. Weinberg, an assistant professor of marketing at Boston University (Massachusetts), who is doing all his shopping via the Internet to demonstrate to students what works and what fails when selling in cyberspace. (DB)

  2. 34. ROUGH GAS MAIN RUNNING SOUTHEAST FROM THE BOP SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. ROUGH GAS MAIN RUNNING SOUTHEAST FROM THE BOP SHOP TO THE DUAL VENTURI GAS WASHERS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  3. 73. INTERIOR VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP LOOKING EAST, NOTE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. INTERIOR VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP LOOKING EAST, NOTE THE MAIN DRIVE SHAFT ON THE CEILING AND DRIVE BELTS TO THE MACHINERY. MAY 8, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  4. 2. POST ENGINEER'S SHOPS AND YARD BUILDINGS FROM PRESIDIO ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. POST ENGINEER'S SHOPS AND YARD BUILDINGS FROM PRESIDIO ENTRANCE GATE AT MASON STREET, LOOKING 270 DEGREES WEST - Presidio of San Francisco, Post Engineer's Headquarters Office, Crissy Field North cantonment, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. 3. EASTERN EDGE OF POST ENGINEER'S SHOPS AND YARD, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EASTERN EDGE OF POST ENGINEER'S SHOPS AND YARD, LOOKING 312 DEGREES NORTH WEST, EUCALYPTUS TREES DENOTE EDGE OF PRESIDIO. - Presidio of San Francisco, Post Engineer's Headquarters Office, Crissy Field North cantonment, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. 1. OVERVIEW OF POST ENGINEER'S SHOPS AND YARD BUILDINGS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW OF POST ENGINEER'S SHOPS AND YARD BUILDINGS, LOOKING 40 DEGREES NORTH EAST - Presidio of San Francisco, Post Engineer's Headquarters Office, Crissy Field North cantonment, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 203. ATTIC, AREA OVER WOOD SHOP AND STORAGE AREA LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    203. ATTIC, AREA OVER WOOD SHOP AND STORAGE AREA LOOKING NORTH. ELEVATOR SHAFT IS AGAINST FAR WALL. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  8. 28. View of construction shops looking west and downstream. Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. View of construction shops looking west and downstream. Photographer unknown, October 29, 1926. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 10. INTERIOR, 'CENTRAL NORTH WING' PORTION OF SHOP AREA, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR, 'CENTRAL NORTH WING' PORTION OF SHOP AREA, FROM STAIRCASE ON NORTH SIDE OF 'WING', LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Lumber Storage & Box Factory, East of Fifth Street, between H & I Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  10. 33. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 232 (MINE SHOP) IN ASSEMBLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 232 (MINE SHOP) IN ASSEMBLY AREA WITH INDEPENDENT BLAST WALL AT LEFT. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  11. 39. DOOR DETAIL OF BUILDING 235 (PAINT AND REPAIR SHOP) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DOOR DETAIL OF BUILDING 235 (PAINT AND REPAIR SHOP) IN ASSEMBLY AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  12. Looking Northeast at Southwest End of Maintenance Shop with Milling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Northeast at Southwest End of Maintenance Shop with Milling Machines, Hoist, Electrical Boxes in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  13. Apparel shopping behavior of elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, U

    1989-06-01

    70 interested elderly (65 yr. and over) men and women participated in an investigation of older consumers' apparel-shopping behavior and satisfactions and dissatisfactions with available clothing and facilities. Analysis showed that the participants considered shopping ease, wide variety, and label/brand as some of the important factors while shopping for clothes. The respondents were satisfied with good selection, closeness of the mall, and reasonable sales. However, their dissatisfactions ranged from service to fit and size, youthful styles, and abundance of imported clothing. In-store displays, mail order catalogs, and window shopping were the most commonly used sources of apparel information. Several implications of the findings were discussed and suggestions for further research were made. PMID:2762083

  14. 7. Detail of the Grant Locomotive Works Erecting Shop looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail of the Grant Locomotive Works Erecting Shop looking southwest showing ruined wall and entrance of a single story addition. - Grant Locomotive Works, Market & Spruce Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  15. 14. INTERIOR OF CARPENTER SHOP, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE THE SLIDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF CARPENTER SHOP, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE THE SLIDING FIRE DOOR IN THE FAR CORNER. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, Warehouse, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2 AND CARPENTRY SHOP, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2 AND CARPENTRY SHOP, LOOKING WEST - Chambers Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  17. 118. BENCH SHOP, NORTHWEST CORNER SHOWING ENTRANCE TO ROOM FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. BENCH SHOP, NORTHWEST CORNER SHOWING ENTRANCE TO ROOM FROM OUTSIDE. OFFICE SAFE AT CENTER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  18. 178. PAINT SHOP, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD CENTER OF ROOM. OPENING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    178. PAINT SHOP, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD CENTER OF ROOM. OPENING IN BACKGROUND IS SLIDING WALL. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  19. 125. BENCH SHOP, LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT CENTER OF ROOM SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. BENCH SHOP, LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT CENTER OF ROOM SHOWING TOOL SHARPENER ON RIGHT AND ELECTRIC TABLE SAW AT CENTER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  20. 12. Wagon Repair and Paint Shop (second floor in Woodworking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Wagon Repair and Paint Shop (second floor in Woodworking Mill): view looking east showing paint storage on left and old living quarters on right - Ben Thresher's Mill, State Aid No. 1, Barnet, Caledonia County, VT

  1. 64. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 72.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  2. 66. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 72.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  3. 67. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 72.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  4. 63. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 72.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  5. 65. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 72.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  6. 68. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 72.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  7. 69. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 72.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  8. 62. New Haven Station Yards & Shops. New Haven, New ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. New Haven Station Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 72.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  9. 10. LOOKING SOUTH IN BOP SHOP AT FUME HOOD AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. LOOKING SOUTH IN BOP SHOP AT FUME HOOD AND SPARE OXYGEN LANCES ON THE SERVICE FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  10. 9. LOOKING NORTH IN BOP SHOP ON SERVICE FLOOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOOKING NORTH IN BOP SHOP ON SERVICE FLOOR OF FURNACE AISLE AT FUME HOOD SHOWING COLLAR AND ENTRANCE FOR OXYGEN LANCES. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 18. Blacksmith Shop (first floor): view looking north; trip hammer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Blacksmith Shop (first floor): view looking north; trip hammer and coal bin in background, shears and swage block in foreground - Ben Thresher's Mill, State Aid No. 1, Barnet, Caledonia County, VT

  12. Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

    Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.

  13. 6. EXTERIOR NORTHEAST CORNER VIEW, FACING SOUTHWEST. CLEAR SHOP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EXTERIOR NORTHEAST CORNER VIEW, FACING SOUTHWEST. CLEAR SHOP OF CANOPY 723 AS WELL NORTH FACADES OF ADDITIONS TO BUILDING 10. - NASA Industrial Plant, Maintenance Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. View of Feature 15, location of the maintenance shops, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 15, location of the maintenance shops, looking northeast - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  15. View of Feature 15, location of the maintenance shops, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 15, location of the maintenance shops, looking southeast - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  16. 43. 253255 AUBURN AVENUE (Jim's Place; Unisex Beauty Shop) NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. 253-255 AUBURN AVENUE (Jim's Place; Unisex Beauty Shop) NORTH ELEVATION 44. --- PIEDMONT AVENUE (Pucker House) EAST ELEVATION - 126-255 Auburn Avenue (Commercial Buildings), Auburn Avenue, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  17. 1. VIEW LOOKING NORTH IN SHOP AREA. BUILDING 15 ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING NORTH IN SHOP AREA. BUILDING 15 ON RIGHT, BUILDING 22 ON LEFT, AND BUILDING 1 IN DISTANCE. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  18. 18. MAINTENANCE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, ENGINE AND AIRPLANE OVERHAUL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. MAINTENANCE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, ENGINE AND AIRPLANE OVERHAUL AREAS; LOOKING EAST - Northwest Airways Hangar & Administration Building, 590 Bayfield Street, St. Paul Downtown Airport (Holman), Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  19. 17. MAINTENANCE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, ENGINE AND AIRPLANE OVERHAUL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. MAINTENANCE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, ENGINE AND AIRPLANE OVERHAUL AREAS; LOOKING WEST. - Northwest Airways Hangar & Administration Building, 590 Bayfield Street, St. Paul Downtown Airport (Holman), Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  20. 145. WOOD SHOP, LOOKING NORTHEAST AT GRUBER BUILT BAND SAW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    145. WOOD SHOP, LOOKING NORTHEAST AT GRUBER BUILT BAND SAW AND POT BELLIED STOVE (NOT IN ORIGINAL LOCATION). - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  1. 89. BAKE SHOP AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING KNEADING TABLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. BAKE SHOP - AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING KNEADING TABLE, OVENS, DOUGH MIXER, BREAD RACKS AND RISING CABINETS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  2. 9. NORTH SIDE, FROM A BOAT. THE TWO BENDING SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. NORTH SIDE, FROM A BOAT. THE TWO BENDING SHOP AND OVEN BUILDINGS ARE VISIBLE AT THE RIGHT. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Engineering Building, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  3. Photocopy of drawing, May 22, 1919. Machine shop alterations, east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing, May 22, 1919. Machine shop alterations, east wing, first and second floor plans and section. Watertown arsenal engineering division. Drawing number 9222. - Watertown Arsenal, Building No. 313, Talcott Avenue, Watertown, Middlesex County, MA

  4. 42. VIEW TO SOUTH AT FIRST FLOOR MACHINE SHOP: Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VIEW TO SOUTH AT FIRST FLOOR MACHINE SHOP: Photocopy of December 1964 photograph showing the machine shop on the first floor of the powerhouse. View towards the south along the east wall of the building. Note the abundance of belt-driven machine tools, several of which are still in use. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. FME Carpentry Shop Keeps Facility in Good Repair | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Peggy Pearl, Contributing Writer Did you know that what most people call the Carpentry Shop at Facilities Maintenance and Engineering (FME) is actually made up of the three crafts, woodcrafting, painting, and locksmithing?  On any given day, throughout the Frederick National Laboratory campus, you may find shop staff utilizing an assortment of tools and a wide range of skills on projects ranging from simple maintenance to complete renovations.

  6. ShopGirls Shine in Eco-Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowell, Shante

    2011-01-01

    The ShopGirls of Granite Falls (WA) High School are the first-ever all-female team to successfully design, build, and race a prototype diesel car in the Shell Eco-marathon. The team took first place in the diesel fuel-efficiency category with a vehicle that achieved 470 miles per gallon! The idea for the ShopGirls came when Vervia Gabriel, career…

  7. Assessing product image quality for online shopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Anjan; Chung, Sung H.; Chittar, Naren; Islam, Atiq

    2012-01-01

    Assessing product-image quality is important in the context of online shopping. A high quality image that conveys more information about a product can boost the buyer's confidence and can get more attention. However, the notion of image quality for product-images is not the same as that in other domains. The perception of quality of product-images depends not only on various photographic quality features but also on various high level features such as clarity of the foreground or goodness of the background etc. In this paper, we define a notion of product-image quality based on various such features. We conduct a crowd-sourced experiment to collect user judgments on thousands of eBay's images. We formulate a multi-class classification problem for modeling image quality by classifying images into good, fair and poor quality based on the guided perceptual notions from the judges. We also conduct experiments with regression using average crowd-sourced human judgments as target. We compute a pseudo-regression score with expected average of predicted classes and also compute a score from the regression technique. We design many experiments with various sampling and voting schemes with crowd-sourced data and construct various experimental image quality models. Most of our models have reasonable accuracies (greater or equal to 70%) on test data set. We observe that our computed image quality score has a high (0.66) rank correlation with average votes from the crowd sourced human judgments.

  8. [Twisting and turning; the development of the Dutch science shops].

    PubMed

    Lursen, M; Mulder, H; Lieshout, M

    2000-01-01

    The concept of science shops (Wetenschapswinkels) originates from the Netherlands. Science shops were based on the idea that universities had to play a more prominent role in the solution of social problems - an outcome of the discussion, initiated by students, on the democratisation of universities in the early 1970s. Starting as voluntary student organisations supported by individual staff members from the universities, they were devoted to give oppressed minority groups and the financially weak access to scientific research. Slowly, acknowledgement came. Science shops began to receive financial support from university boards. Support also came from the Dutch government. By now science shops have professionalized and most of them are well embedded in their universities. Many developments within society and the universities influenced the work and structure of the science shops. Positive developments were professionalization, growth, becoming embedded, and the introduction of new research themes. There were also negative developments, such as budget cuts and the fact that 'service to society' ceased to be a government objective for the universities. These led to recurring struggles for survival, which were not always won. Interest in the science shop concept has grown in other countries over the last years. In the 1980s, the system spread within Western Europe. Similar activities, based on the Dutch model, have started in North America and Eastern Europe in the 1990s. The activities on the international level led to an E.U. financial project to prepare an international network of science shops, which commenced in 1999. With information exchange and international cooperation as its major goals, the network will create new opportunties for the future. PMID:11640527

  9. Improving the yeast two-hybrid system with permutated fusions proteins: the Varicella Zoster Virus interactome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens have been among the most powerful methods to detect and analyze protein-protein interactions. However, they suffer from a significant degree of false negatives, i.e. true interactions that are not detected, and to a certain degree from false positives, i.e. interactions that appear to take place only in the context of the Y2H assay. While the fraction of false positives remains difficult to estimate, the fraction of false negatives in typical Y2H screens is on the order of 70-90%. Here we present novel Y2H vectors that significantly decrease the number of false negatives and help to mitigate the false positive problem. Results We have constructed two new vectors (pGBKCg and pGADCg) that allow us to make both C-terminal fusion proteins of DNA-binding and activation domains. Both vectors can be combined with existing vectors for N-terminal fusions and thus allow four different bait-prey combinations: NN, CC, NC, and CN. We have tested all ~4,900 pairwise combinations of the 70 Varicella-Zoster-Virus (VZV) proteins for interactions, using all possible combinations. About ~20,000 individual Y2H tests resulted in 182 NN, 89 NC, 149 CN, and 144 CC interactions. Overlap between screens ranged from 17% (NC-CN) to 43% (CN-CC). Performing four screens (i.e. permutations) instead of one resulted in about twice as many interactions and thus much fewer false negatives. In addition, interactions that are found in multiple combinations confirm each other and thus provide a quality score. This study is the first systematic analysis of such N- and C-terminal Y2H vectors. Conclusions Permutations of C- and N-terminal Y2H vectors dramatically increase the coverage of interactome studies and thus significantly reduce the number of false negatives. We suggest that future interaction screens should use such vector combinations on a routine basis, not the least because they provide a built-in quality score for Y2H interactions that can provide a

  10. Mystery shopping in health service evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Moriarty, Helen; McLeod, Deborah; Dowell, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Over the last 5 years, primary care telephone triage systems have been introduced in the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, and most recently in New Zealand. Evaluation of the clinical safety of such systems poses a challenge for health planners and researchers. AIM: To evaluate the use of simulated patients in the assessment of aspects of clinical safety in a pilot New Zealand primary care telephone triage service. DESIGN OF STUDY: 'Mystery shopping', an evaluation strategy commonly used in market research, was adapted by using simulated patients for telephone triage service evaluation. SETTING: New Zealand. METHODS: Four scripted clinical scenarios were developed by academic general practitioners, validated in student teaching situations, and then used by simulated patients to make 101 telephone calls. The scenarios were designed to necessitate a referral to a medical practitioner for further investigation. The documentation kept by the callers was compared with the call records from the telephone triage company, and both were analysed for capture and handling of the clinical safety features of each scenario. In cases where the endpoint was not a medical assessment, possible reasons for this were explored. RESULTS: Records were retrieved for 85 telephone calls. Considerable triage variability was discovered. There were discrepancies between expected and actual triage outcomes with 51% of analysed calls resulting in a self-care recommendation. A number of reasons were identified both for the triage variability and the unpredicted outcomes. Audiotaping of consultations would have enhanced the credibility of the evaluation but it would have carried ethical constraints. CONCLUSION: Simulated patients can be used to evaluate the limitations of health services and to identify areas that could be addressed to improve patient safety. Evaluation of patient satisfaction with services is not sufficient alone to evaluate safety. PMID:14960218

  11. Towards an understanding of Internet-based problem shopping behaviour: The concept of online shopping addiction and its proposed predictors

    PubMed Central

    ROSE, SUSAN; DHANDAYUDHAM, ARUN

    2014-01-01

    Background: Compulsive and addictive forms of consumption and buying behaviour have been researched in both business and medical literature. Shopping enabled via the Internet now introduces new features to the shopping experience that translate to positive benefits for the shopper. Evidence now suggests that this new shopping experience may lead to problematic online shopping behaviour. This paper provides a theoretical review of the literature relevant to online shopping addiction (OSA). Based on this selective review, a conceptual model of OSA is presented. Method: The selective review of the literature draws on searches within databases relevant to both clinical and consumer behaviour literature including EBSCO, ABI Pro-Quest, Web of Science – Social Citations Index, Medline, PsycINFO and Pubmed. The article reviews current thinking on problematic, and specifically addictive, behaviour in relation to online shopping. Results: The review of the literature enables the extension of existing knowledge into the Internet-context. A conceptual model of OSA is developed with theoretical support provided for the inclusion of 7 predictor variables: low self-esteem, low self-regulation; negative emotional state; enjoyment; female gender; social anonymity and cognitive overload. The construct of OSA is defined and six component criteria of OSA are proposed based on established technological addiction criteria. Conclusions: Current Internet-based shopping experiences may trigger problematic behaviours which can be classified on a spectrum which at the extreme end incorporates OSA. The development of a conceptual model provides a basis for the future measurement and testing of proposed predictor variables and the outcome variable OSA. PMID:25215218

  12. Widespread occurrence of organelle genome-encoded 5S rRNAs including permuted molecules

    PubMed Central

    Valach, Matus; Burger, Gertraud; Gray, Michael W.; Lang, B. Franz

    2014-01-01

    5S Ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) is a universal component of ribosomes, and the corresponding gene is easily identified in archaeal, bacterial and nuclear genome sequences. However, organelle gene homologs (rrn5) appear to be absent from most mitochondrial and several chloroplast genomes. Here, we re-examine the distribution of organelle rrn5 by building mitochondrion- and plastid-specific covariance models (CMs) with which we screened organelle genome sequences. We not only recover all organelle rrn5 genes annotated in GenBank records, but also identify more than 50 previously unrecognized homologs in mitochondrial genomes of various stramenopiles, red algae, cryptomonads, malawimonads and apusozoans, and surprisingly, in the apicoplast (highly derived plastid) genomes of the coccidian pathogens Toxoplasma gondii and Eimeria tenella. Comparative modeling of RNA secondary structure reveals that mitochondrial 5S rRNAs from brown algae adopt a permuted triskelion shape that has not been seen elsewhere. Expression of the newly predicted rrn5 genes is confirmed experimentally in 10 instances, based on our own and published RNA-Seq data. This study establishes that particularly mitochondrial 5S rRNA has a much broader taxonomic distribution and a much larger structural variability than previously thought. The newly developed CMs will be made available via the Rfam database and the MFannot organelle genome annotator. PMID:25429974

  13. Tunneling and Speedup in Quantum Optimization for Permutation-Symmetric Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukrishnan, Siddharth; Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2016-07-01

    Tunneling is often claimed to be the key mechanism underlying possible speedups in quantum optimization via quantum annealing (QA), especially for problems featuring a cost function with tall and thin barriers. We present and analyze several counterexamples from the class of perturbed Hamming weight optimization problems with qubit permutation symmetry. We first show that, for these problems, the adiabatic dynamics that make tunneling possible should be understood not in terms of the cost function but rather the semiclassical potential arising from the spin-coherent path-integral formalism. We then provide an example where the shape of the barrier in the final cost function is short and wide, which might suggest no quantum advantage for QA, yet where tunneling renders QA superior to simulated annealing in the adiabatic regime. However, the adiabatic dynamics turn out not be optimal. Instead, an evolution involving a sequence of diabatic transitions through many avoided-level crossings, involving no tunneling, is optimal and outperforms adiabatic QA. We show that this phenomenon of speedup by diabatic transitions is not unique to this example, and we provide an example where it provides an exponential speedup over adiabatic QA. In yet another twist, we show that a classical algorithm, spin-vector dynamics, is at least as efficient as diabatic QA. Finally, in a different example with a convex cost function, the diabatic transitions result in a speedup relative to both adiabatic QA with tunneling and classical spin-vector dynamics.

  14. A Scalable Permutation Approach Reveals Replication and Preservation Patterns of Network Modules in Large Datasets.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Scott C; Watts, Stephen; Fearnley, Liam G; Holt, Kathryn E; Abraham, Gad; Inouye, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Network modules-topologically distinct groups of edges and nodes-that are preserved across datasets can reveal common features of organisms, tissues, cell types, and molecules. Many statistics to identify such modules have been developed, but testing their significance requires heuristics. Here, we demonstrate that current methods for assessing module preservation are systematically biased and produce skewed p values. We introduce NetRep, a rapid and computationally efficient method that uses a permutation approach to score module preservation without assuming data are normally distributed. NetRep produces unbiased p values and can distinguish between true and false positives during multiple hypothesis testing. We use NetRep to quantify preservation of gene coexpression modules across murine brain, liver, adipose, and muscle tissues. Complex patterns of multi-tissue preservation were revealed, including a liver-derived housekeeping module that displayed adipose- and muscle-specific association with body weight. Finally, we demonstrate the broader applicability of NetRep by quantifying preservation of bacterial networks in gut microbiota between men and women. PMID:27467248

  15. Permutation entropy of finite-length white-noise time series.

    PubMed

    Little, Douglas J; Kane, Deb M

    2016-08-01

    Permutation entropy (PE) is commonly used to discriminate complex structure from white noise in a time series. While the PE of white noise is well understood in the long time-series limit, analysis in the general case is currently lacking. Here the expectation value and variance of white-noise PE are derived as functions of the number of ordinal pattern trials, N, and the embedding dimension, D. It is demonstrated that the probability distribution of the white-noise PE converges to a χ^{2} distribution with D!-1 degrees of freedom as N becomes large. It is further demonstrated that the PE variance for an arbitrary time series can be estimated as the variance of a related metric, the Kullback-Leibler entropy (KLE), allowing the qualitative N≫D! condition to be recast as a quantitative estimate of the N required to achieve a desired PE calculation precision. Application of this theory to statistical inference is demonstrated in the case of an experimentally obtained noise series, where the probability of obtaining the observed PE value was calculated assuming a white-noise time series. Standard statistical inference can be used to draw conclusions whether the white-noise null hypothesis can be accepted or rejected. This methodology can be applied to other null hypotheses, such as discriminating whether two time series are generated from different complex system states.

  16. Widespread occurrence of organelle genome-encoded 5S rRNAs including permuted molecules.

    PubMed

    Valach, Matus; Burger, Gertraud; Gray, Michael W; Lang, B Franz

    2014-12-16

    5S Ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) is a universal component of ribosomes, and the corresponding gene is easily identified in archaeal, bacterial and nuclear genome sequences. However, organelle gene homologs (rrn5) appear to be absent from most mitochondrial and several chloroplast genomes. Here, we re-examine the distribution of organelle rrn5 by building mitochondrion- and plastid-specific covariance models (CMs) with which we screened organelle genome sequences. We not only recover all organelle rrn5 genes annotated in GenBank records, but also identify more than 50 previously unrecognized homologs in mitochondrial genomes of various stramenopiles, red algae, cryptomonads, malawimonads and apusozoans, and surprisingly, in the apicoplast (highly derived plastid) genomes of the coccidian pathogens Toxoplasma gondii and Eimeria tenella. Comparative modeling of RNA secondary structure reveals that mitochondrial 5S rRNAs from brown algae adopt a permuted triskelion shape that has not been seen elsewhere. Expression of the newly predicted rrn5 genes is confirmed experimentally in 10 instances, based on our own and published RNA-Seq data. This study establishes that particularly mitochondrial 5S rRNA has a much broader taxonomic distribution and a much larger structural variability than previously thought. The newly developed CMs will be made available via the Rfam database and the MFannot organelle genome annotator.

  17. BAliBASE (Benchmark Alignment dataBASE): enhancements for repeats, transmembrane sequences and circular permutations.

    PubMed

    Bahr, A; Thompson, J D; Thierry, J C; Poch, O

    2001-01-01

    BAliBASE is specifically designed to serve as an evaluation resource to address all the problems encountered when aligning complete sequences. The database contains high quality, manually constructed multiple sequence alignments together with detailed annotations. The alignments are all based on three-dimensional structural superpositions, with the exception of the transmembrane sequences. The first release provided sets of reference alignments dealing with the problems of high variability, unequal repartition and large N/C-terminal extensions and internal insertions. Here we describe version 2.0 of the database, which incorporates three new reference sets of alignments containing structural repeats, trans-membrane sequences and circular permutations to evaluate the accuracy of detection/prediction and alignment of these complex sequences. BAliBASE can be viewed at the web site http://www-igbmc.u-strasbg. fr/BioInfo/BAliBASE2/index.html or can be downloaded from ftp://ftp-igbmc.u-strasbg.fr/pub/BAliBASE2 /.

  18. Permutation entropy of finite-length white-noise time series.

    PubMed

    Little, Douglas J; Kane, Deb M

    2016-08-01

    Permutation entropy (PE) is commonly used to discriminate complex structure from white noise in a time series. While the PE of white noise is well understood in the long time-series limit, analysis in the general case is currently lacking. Here the expectation value and variance of white-noise PE are derived as functions of the number of ordinal pattern trials, N, and the embedding dimension, D. It is demonstrated that the probability distribution of the white-noise PE converges to a χ^{2} distribution with D!-1 degrees of freedom as N becomes large. It is further demonstrated that the PE variance for an arbitrary time series can be estimated as the variance of a related metric, the Kullback-Leibler entropy (KLE), allowing the qualitative N≫D! condition to be recast as a quantitative estimate of the N required to achieve a desired PE calculation precision. Application of this theory to statistical inference is demonstrated in the case of an experimentally obtained noise series, where the probability of obtaining the observed PE value was calculated assuming a white-noise time series. Standard statistical inference can be used to draw conclusions whether the white-noise null hypothesis can be accepted or rejected. This methodology can be applied to other null hypotheses, such as discriminating whether two time series are generated from different complex system states. PMID:27627257

  19. Weighted permutation entropy based on different symbolic approaches for financial time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yi; Shang, Pengjian

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce weighted permutation entropy (WPE) and three different symbolic approaches to investigate the complexities of stock time series containing amplitude-coded information and explore the influence of using different symbolic approaches on obtained WPE results. We employ WPE based on symbolic approaches to the US and Chinese stock markets and make a comparison between the results of US and Chinese stock markets. Three symbolic approaches are able to help the complexity containing in the stock time series by WPE method drop whatever the embedding dimension is. The similarity between these stock markets can be detected by the WPE based on Binary Δ-coding-method, while the difference between them can be revealed by the WPE based on σ-method, Max-min-method. The combinations of the symbolic approaches: σ-method and Max-min-method, and WPE method are capable of reflecting the multiscale structure of complexity by different time delay and analyze the differences between complexities of stock time series in more detail and more accurately. Furthermore, the correlations between stock markets in the same region and the similarities hidden in the S&P500 and DJI, ShangZheng and ShenCheng are uncovered by the comparison of the WPE based on Binary Δ-coding-method of six stock markets.

  20. A Scalable Permutation Approach Reveals Replication and Preservation Patterns of Network Modules in Large Datasets.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Scott C; Watts, Stephen; Fearnley, Liam G; Holt, Kathryn E; Abraham, Gad; Inouye, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Network modules-topologically distinct groups of edges and nodes-that are preserved across datasets can reveal common features of organisms, tissues, cell types, and molecules. Many statistics to identify such modules have been developed, but testing their significance requires heuristics. Here, we demonstrate that current methods for assessing module preservation are systematically biased and produce skewed p values. We introduce NetRep, a rapid and computationally efficient method that uses a permutation approach to score module preservation without assuming data are normally distributed. NetRep produces unbiased p values and can distinguish between true and false positives during multiple hypothesis testing. We use NetRep to quantify preservation of gene coexpression modules across murine brain, liver, adipose, and muscle tissues. Complex patterns of multi-tissue preservation were revealed, including a liver-derived housekeeping module that displayed adipose- and muscle-specific association with body weight. Finally, we demonstrate the broader applicability of NetRep by quantifying preservation of bacterial networks in gut microbiota between men and women.