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Sample records for perna perna bivalvia

  1. Influence of salinity on the physiological conditions in mussels, Perna perna and Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae).

    PubMed

    Segnini de Bravo, Mary Isabel

    2003-06-01

    Perna genus was introduced to Venezuela, but nowadays, Perna perna and Perna viridis coexist and are commercially exploited from their natural beds. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of salinity on the physiological conditions of these species by studying RNA/DNA and Protein/DNA ratios. The organisms were collected from natural beds at La Esmeralda, Sucre State, Venezuela, and acclimatized for 15 days under laboratory conditions at 25 degrees C, 36 per thousand salinity, pH between 7 and 8 and more than 90% of oxygen saturation. Later, they were divided in two groups: for one group, the salinity concentration was increased (36 to 45 per thousand), and for the other, the salinity was decreased (36 to 15 per thousand). The rate of change was 1 per thousand every day. Ten organisms per group of both species were taken at each of 15, 20, 25, 30, 36, 40 y 45 per thousand salinity concentrations. Protein (colorimetric method) and nucleic acids (RNA and DNA by fluorometric method) concentrations were measured in the digestive gland, gills and adductor muscle tissues. Results indicate that P. perna can physiologically compensate the increase in salinity, but not when the salinity decreased, when proteins are the most needed macromolecules. The Protein/DNA index is directly related to salinity changes in both cases. P. viridis shows physiological compensation to salinity increases and decreases. The RNA/DNA index value in both cases supports this. Digestive gland and muscle tissues are the regulating tissues in both species. These results show that P. viridis has a higher degree of adaptability to salinity changes and, therefore, a greater potential for aquaculture than P. perna.

  2. Hypoxia effects on oxidative stress and immunocompetence biomarkers in the mussel Perna perna (Mytilidae, Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Lílian; Mello, Danielle Ferraz; Trevisan, Rafael; Garcia, Danielly; da Silva Acosta, Daiane; Dafre, Alcir Luiz; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of hypoxia on oxidative stress response and immune function in mussels Perna perna exposed to air for 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. In air-exposed mussels, the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were lower in gill tissues (24-48 h) and digestive gland (12 h), while the glutathione peroxidase and GR activities were increased in the digestive gland (48 h). In both tissues, aerial exposure promoted a rapid (6 h) and persistent (up to 48 h) increase of glutathione levels. Decreased hemocyte count and viability, as well as increased phagocytic activity and cellular adhesion capacity were detected after prolonged aerial exposure (>12 h). In summary, induction of thiol pools, altered antioxidant enzyme activities, and activation of immune responses were detected in hypoxia exposed brown mussels, indicating hypoxia induced tissue-specific responses in both antioxidant and immune systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of zinc and benzene on respiration and excretion of mussel larvae (Perna perna) (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca; Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Jorge, R A D L V C; Lemos, D; Moreira, G S

    2007-02-01

    The presence of pollutants in the ocean may affect different physiological parameters of animals. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion were evaluated in D-shaped larvae of mussels (Perna perna) exposed to zinc sulphate (ZnSO(4)) and benzene (C(6)H(6)). When compared to the control group, both pollutants presented a significant reduction in oxygen consumption. A reduction in the ammonia excretion was also observed, both for ZnSO(4) and C(6)H(6) and also in the oxygen consumption. The results indicate that anaerobic metabolism may occur at the beginning of P. perna mussels development, as observed in veliger larvae. The O:N ratio under experimental conditions showed low values indicating that catabolism in veliger larvae was predominantly proteic.

  4. Pollution monitoring in Southeast Asia using biomarkers in the mytilid mussel Perna viridis (Mytilidae: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Nicholson, S; Lam, P K S

    2005-01-01

    Mytilid mussels have been extensively used in marine pollution monitoring programmes in temperate regions of the world although widespread subtropical representatives such as Perna viridis have only comparatively recently been utilised to monitor the sublethal effects of pollution in Southeast Asia. P. viridis is considered a subtropical equivalent of the temperate Mytilus sp. and has considerable potential for pollution monitoring throughout its geographical range. This paper reviews the current status of biomarkers in P. viridis and provides some recommendations on biological-effects monitoring to facilitate the assessment of coastal pollution in Southeast Asia.

  5. [Metallothioneins in Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae): seasonal variation and its relation to reproductive biology].

    PubMed

    Lemus, Mairin; Rojas, Nilis; Rojas-Astudillo, Luisa; Chung, Kyung

    2013-06-01

    Metallothionein is a cytosolic protein found in a variety of tissues and have been involved in the regulation of essential trace metals such as copper and zinc, and in the detoxification of essential and nonessential metals. With the aim to study their seasonal variation and their possible role in reproductive behavior, we evaluated metallothioneins (Mts) in Perna viridis, taken from Rio Caribe and Chacopata localities in the North coast of Sucre state, Venezuela. A total of 325 samples were obtained from February to December 2003. We determined the following biometric indices in bivalves: Condition Index (CI), meat yield (RC) and dry weight-length relationship (PSL). Besides, Mts in whole tissue were separated by molecular exclusion chromatography, Sephadex G-50 and quantified by saturation with cadmium. Our results showed that the biometric indices (RC and PSL) had seasonal variations between localities and maturity stages, with the exception of IC. No significant differences were found between sexes. Mts showed seasonal variations between localities, with the highest concentrations between February and March, and minimum ones between September and December, coinciding with the respectively high and low productivity periods in the area. The mussels from Rio Caribe had higher Mts concentration than those from Chacopata. Furthermore, immature mussels showed the highest Mts concentration while the lowest was found in spawned specimens. We found a significant negative relationship between Mts and CI. Our results demonstrated that MTs in Perna viridis are influenced by the condition index and reproductive status, as well as physico-chemical factors in the marine environment.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian green mussel Perna viridis (Bivalvia, Mytilidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoling; Wu, Xiangyun; Yu, Ziniu

    2012-10-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the Asian green mussel Perna viridis (16,627 bp), an economically important bivalve, was newly sequenced and annotated. P. viridis is the shortest and has a comparatively highest overall A+T content (68%) among six available genomes of marine mussels to date. The atp8 gene's length (49 a.a.) of the green mussel is unexpectedly greatly shorter than that of other marine mussels (87 a.a.). Comparison of the gene order demonstrated that the six marine mussels share no identical gene blocks although they belong to the same family, which indicates that this group should be a good model to study mtDNA evolution and mitochondria inheritance.

  7. Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate and zinc sulfate as reference substances for toxicity tests with the mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Jorge, R A D L V C; Moreira, G S

    2005-06-01

    Effects of anthropogenic pollution have been observed at different trophic levels in the oceans, and toxicity tests constitute one way of monitoring these alterations. The present assay proposes the use of two reference substances, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and zinc sulfate, for Perna perna larvae. This common mussel on the Brazilian coast is used as a bioindicator and is of economic interest. The chronic static embryo-larval test of short duration (48 h) was employed to determine the NOEC, LOEC, and IC50 for SDS and zinc sulfate, as well as the coefficient of variation. Salinity, pH and un-ionized ammonia (NH3) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations were measured to monitor water quality. The results demonstrated that the main alterations in veliger larvae are the development of only one shell, protruded mantle, malformed shell, formation of only part of a valve, clipped edges, uneven sizes and presence of a concave or convex hinge. NOEC values were lower than 0.25 mg L(-1) for zinc sulfate and 0.68 mg L(-1) for SDS. The coefficient of variation was 17.63% and 2.50% for zinc sulfate and SDS, respectively.

  8. A molecular phylogeny of the marine mussel genus Perna (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) based on nuclear (ITS1&2) and mitochondrial (COI) DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Wood, Ann R; Apte, Smita; MacAvoy, Elizabeth S; Gardner, Jonathan P A

    2007-08-01

    A molecular phylogeny is presented for marine mussels of the genus Perna, based on nuclear (ITS1,ITS2) and mitochondrial (COI) DNA sequence data. The three generally recognised species (Perna viridis, Perna perna and Perna canaliculus) and one putative species (Perna picta) were each sampled from several locations within their known geographic distributions. A range of phylogenetic analyses was used to investigate the current taxonomic assignments, evolutionary relationships and the biogeographical history of the genus. The different analyses produced similar, well supported topologies and verified the monophyly of the genus with respect to five mytilid outgroup species. P. perna (Atlantic), P. viridis (Indo-West Pacific), and P. canaliculus (New Zealand) each formed distinct clades, confirming their specific status. Putative P. picta from North Africa clustered within the P. perna clade and is not regarded as a separate species. P. perna and P. canaliculus were the most closely related of the three species. Possible biogeographic explanations for the present species distributions are evaluated.

  9. Response of fouling brown mussel, Perna perna (L.), to chlorine.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, S; Venugopalan, V P; van der Velde, G; Jenner, H A

    2003-04-01

    Perna perna (L.), the edible brown mussel, is very widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions and is commonly found in rocky shores. Apart from being a candidate for commercial cultivation, P. perna is also a common pest organism in cooling water systems of coastal power stations. Therefore, a lethal and sublethal response of this mussel to commonly used antifouling biocides is of considerable interest to the industry. Mortality pattern (LT(50) and LT(100)) and physiological activities (oxygen consumption, filtration rate, foot activity index, and byssus thread production) of different size groups (9-34 mm shell lengths) of P. perna were studied in the laboratory under different residual chlorine concentrations (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 mg/L for sublethal responses and 1, 2, 3, and 5 mg/L for mortality). Results showed that exposure time for 100% mortality of mussels significantly decreased with increasing residual chlorine concentration. For example, mussels of 9 mm size group exposed to 1 mg/L chlorine residual took 384 h (16 days) to reach 100% mortality, whereas those exposed to 5 mg/L chlorine took 84 h (4 days). The effect of mussel size on mortality was significant between 1 mg/L and 5 mg/L residual chlorine, with larger mussels showing greater resistance than smaller ones. For example, at 2 mg/L residual chlorine, 9 mm and 34 mm size group mussels took 228 h (10 days) and 304 h (13 days), respectively, to achieve 100% mortality. All size groups of P. perna showed progressive reduction in physiological activities, when chlorine residuals were gradually increased from 0 to 1 mg/L. Reduction in physiological activities was strongly correlated with the residual level. A comparison of present data with data available for other common fouling organisms suggests that P. perna is relatively less tolerant to chlorine than Perna viridis (L.) and Brachidontes striatulus (Hanley), which also cause fouling problems in tropical coastal waters.

  10. Feeding rhythms of the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) during spring and neap tidal cycles.

    PubMed

    Wong, W H.; Cheung, S G.

    2001-02-20

    Food availability and feeding responses of the green mussel Perna viridis were investigated for two complete tidal cycles during both spring and neap tides. Temporal changes in total particulate matter (TPM), particulate inorganic matter (PIM) and particulate organic matter (POM), were smaller during neap than spring tides. Seston characteristics at different times of a tidal cycle were compared for both spring and neap tides. Only during spring tides were TPM and PIM significantly higher at high tides while POM remained relatively constant (P>0.05). The clearance rate of the mussels underwent temporal variations with tides, and was a negative power function of TPM and a positive linear function of f (organic content), during both spring and neap tides. f was the key factor influencing filtration rate, organic ingestion rate, absorption rate and absorption efficiency. All feeding rates increased linearly with increases in organic content. Pseudofaeces were produced only during spring but not neap tides. Feeding rates and absorption efficiency were highest at low and lowest at high tides (P<0.01). There was no significant temporal change in the wet weight and protein content of the crystalline style with the tidal regime. For the digestive gland, alpha-amylase activity was higher at spring than at neap tides, and higher during high tides in a tidal cycle. The digestive gland cellulase activity did not change significantly with the tides. For the crystalline style, both the activity of cellulase and alpha-amylase were not significantly different (P>0.05) between spring and neap tides. Tidal rhythms in feeding and digestion in this species were likely controlled by temporal variations in food availability in the seawater. By adjusting feeding rates and enzymatic activities, absorption in Perna viridis remained constant, irrespective of the changes in food availability.

  11. [Food effect on the physiological condition of the mussel Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae), using the RNA/DNA ratio].

    PubMed

    Bracho, M A; Segnini de Bravo, M I; Viñoles, I; Chung, K S

    2000-12-01

    The green mussel, Perna viridis, became widespread in the northern coast of Sucre State since its arrival to Venezuela in 1993. RNA/DNA and Protein/DNA ratios were used to study the effect of starvation on its instantaneous growth. The mussels were collected in La Esmeralda and Chacopata, acclimatized in the laboratory for four weeks and maintained for another six weeks in two groups: one fed ad libitum and another without food (this later group was later fed for two additional weeks). Protein (colorimetric method), and nucleic acid concentrations (RNA and DNA, fluorometric method with ethidium bromide) were measured in adductor muscle, digestive gland and gills. The instantaneous growth was assessed using RNA/DNA and Protein/DNA rations. These indexes were always higher in the fed organisms. Animals from Chacopata were in better physiological condition that those from La Esmeralda during the abstinence time (six weeks). Muscle was the best tissue to determine instantaneous growth. The RNA/DNA ratio is a reliable index to determine the physiological condition and instantaneous growth of this species.

  12. [Effects of acclimation temperature on the growth of Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae), using the RNA/DNA ratio].

    PubMed

    Viñoles, I del V; Segini de Bravo, M I; Bracho, M A; Chung, K S

    2000-12-01

    Temperature affects growth rate in aquatic organisms. This can be evaluated in short term using biochemical indexes (RNA/DNA and Protein/DNA). The effect of acclimatization temperature on the instantaneous growth and physiological condition of Perna viridis was studied in organisms collected in La Esmeralda, Sucre State (Venezuela) and taken to the laboratory, where groups of 100 organisms (size 3.0 - 3.5 cm, anteroposterior measurement) were acclimatized at 15, 20, 26 or 28 degrees C during four weeks. Later they were kept in a 60 liters aquarium for another six weeks under the same conditions. Each week, ten organisms per group were extracted to measure concentrations of RNA, DNA (by a fluorometric method with ethidium bromide) and proteins (by a colorimetric method), in tissues (digestive gland, adductor muscle and gills). Protein concentration was greater and highly significant at 15 degrees C for all studied tissues. The opposite was obtained with the RNA/DNA and Protein/DNA ratios: the greatest increase was observed at the highest temperature (28 degrees C) for all tissues. At the lowest temperature there was a tendency to reduce both indexes with time. Greater instantaneous growth can be expected at higher temperatures and 28 degrees C was optimal for growth in these specimens.

  13. Biokinetics of cesium in Perna viridis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, P.K.N.; Lam, P.K.S.; Ng, B.K.P.; Li, A.M.Y.

    2000-02-01

    The biokinetics of Cs in four compartments in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, namely, gill, viscera, adductor muscle, and foot, were studied. First-order linear differential equations were set up for these four compartments, and their solutions were used to fit the experimental data. The parameters governing the biokinetics, which depend on the elimination rate from each compartment and the transfer coefficient between compartments, were found. These are useful in understanding the physiology of Perna viridis, in predicting the activity of cesium in each compartment of Perna viridis from a contamination history, or in using Perna viridis as a sentinel organism for surveying and monitoring radioactive contamination. The results showed that the viscera should be represented by more than one compartment. Concentration factors for the four compartments and for Perna viridis were also determined, and these agreed well with reported values in the literature.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of the brown mussel Perna perna (Bivalve, Mytilidae).

    PubMed

    Uliano-Silva, Marcela; Americo, Juliana; Bastos, Alex Schomaker; Furtado, Carolina; Rebelo, Mauro de Freitas; Prosdocimi, Francisco

    2016-11-01

    The complete sequence of the brown mussel Perna perna mitochondrial genome is described in this article. It was sequenced in 1/11 of an Illumina HiSeq lane using Nextera multiplexing kit. The mitogenome was assembled using both (i) de novo assembly and (ii) referenced-based strategies with mitoMaker software. Perna perna mitogenome is a circular molecule of 18,415 bp in size, containing 12 protein-coding genes, 23 transfer RNAs, 2 ribossomal RNAs and several non-coding regions. As shown in the previous studies, Perna perna does not present the doubly uniparental inheritance system (DUI) of mitochondria and does not encode the ATPase8 gene, in accordance with other Mytilidae data.

  15. Characterisation of commercial Perna canaliculus samples and development of extemporaneous oral veterinary paste formulations containing Perna.

    PubMed

    Juliano, Claudia; Manconi, Paola; Cossu, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    Perna canaliculus is a nutritional supplement recently studied and highly recommended for its anti-inflammatory effects in both animals and humans. In this study, the physicochemical properties, the microbiological quality, the total lipid content and fatty acids composition of three commercial samples of Perna powder were determined. Subsequently, three simple formulations of extemporaneous oral pastes containing Perna were prepared and designed for veterinary use. Their microbiological stability was assessed after 1-month storage at either room temperature or 35 °C. The results demonstrated that commercial Perna samples lack homogeneity, in regard to some technological properties and fatty acid composition; therefore, a preliminary characterisation of commercial Perna samples is recommended to assure the quality of formulations containing this nutritional supplement. Oral paste formulations are easy and simple to prepare and show good physical and microbiological stability, suggesting their large-scale production.

  16. Lysosomal membrane stability, phagocytosis and tolerance to emersion in the mussel Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) following exposure to acute, sublethal, copper.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, S

    2003-08-01

    The mytilid mussel Perna viridis is distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific region and is potentially a suitable candidate for biological effects (biomarker) monitoring in the subtropics. A suite of cytological and physiological responses to acute (48-72 h) copper exposures of 50-200 microgl(-1) were assessed in order to determine the suitability of P. viridis for marine pollution monitoring. Copper elicited significant destabilisation of the haemocyte lysosomal membranes and also impaired phagocytosis. Survival during emersion following exposure to copper was not related to the experimental copper exposures suggesting that higher metal concentrations may be required to interfere with anaerobic enzymes responsible for suppression of metabolism. Based on this preliminary study, cytological biomarkers evaluated in the haemocytes extracted from P. viridis should prove an effective non-destructive means of assessing metal pollution throughout the mussels subtropical range.

  17. Effects of furadan in the brown mussel Perna perna and in the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae.

    PubMed

    Alves, Sandra R C; Severino, Patricia C; Ibbotson, Dominique P; da Silva, Angela Z; Lopes, Franklin R A S; Sáenz, Luis A; Bainy, Afonso C D

    2002-01-01

    Furadan is a carbamate pesticide used widely to combat agricultural pests. However little information is available about the toxicity of furadan in aquatic macroinvertebrates. The in vivo effects of furadan were evaluated in mussels, Perna perna, and oysters, Crassostrea rhizophorae. Glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were measured in the gills of both species exposed to furadan (100 microg/l) for 96 h. No changes were observed in GST activity in the exposed groups. CAT activity was higher (9%) in the oysters exposed to furadan. ChE activity was inhibited by 64 and 35%, respectively, in C. rhizophorae and P. perna exposed to furadan, suggesting that the former is more susceptible to the toxic effects of furadan.

  18. A baseline study of metal contamination along the Namibian coastline for Perna perna and Choromytilus meridionalis.

    PubMed

    Dahms, S; van der Bank, F H; Greenfield, R

    2014-08-15

    The use of bivalves such as the brown mussel (Perna perna) and the black mussel (Choromytilus meridionalis) is common in the study of marine pollution and the effect of these pollutants on ecosystems and are important in both economic and ecological roles. Namibian marine ecosystems are threatened by pollution from mining, commercial fishing and population growth. The aims of this study were to determine baseline metal concentrations, spatial variation and variation between species. Metal levels in C. meridionalis from Guano Platform (GP) are the lowest of all the sites. The most polluted sites are Rocky Point (RP), Halifax Island (HIL) and between Walvis Bay and Swakopmund (WS). The bioaccumulation of metals between P. perna and C. meridionalis were not uniform for all metals. Overall the study indicates the condition of the coastline to be mostly normal, with Cd and Pb levels being of concern.

  19. Perna canaliculus and the Intestinal Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Natural medicines are often an attractive option for patients diagnosed with chronic conditions. Three main classes of bioactives that have been reported from marine mussel extracts include proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Commercially, the most relevant species of marine mollusks belong to two genera, Perna and Mytilus. Specifically, the Perna canaliculus species has been repeatedly demonstrated to harbor anti-inflammatory compounds such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) that can ameliorate pro-inflammatory conditions, or proteins that can promote thrombin inhibitory activity. Recent clinical studies have posited that extracts from green-lipped mussels may lead to prebiotic activity in the intestinal microbiome that in turn has been reported to improve symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee. Prebiotics have been reported to favorably interact with the intestinal microbiome through the proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the gut, suppressing exogenous and endogenous intestinal infections and promoting homeostasis by balancing local pro- and anti-inflammatory actions. Bioactive compounds from Perna canaliculus are functional foods and, in this regard, may positively interact with the intestinal microbiome and provide novel therapeutic solutions for intra-intestinal and extra-intestinal inflammatory conditions. PMID:28665349

  20. Partition of organochlorine concentrations among suspended solids, sediments and brown mussel Perna perna, in tropical bays.

    PubMed

    Galvao, Petrus; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Longo, Renan; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2014-11-01

    For evaluating the brown mussel Perna perna as a sentinel organism regarding environmental concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the present study reports original data on the relationship between the concentrations of these chemicals in bottom surface sediments, suspended solids (SS) and concentrations bioaccumulated by this bivalve. Three P. perna cultivation areas, located at three bays in southeastern Brazil were used in this study. The three estuaries are under different degrees of environmental impact. Variations in the OCP and PCB concentrations bioaccumulated by the bivalves tended to be similar to those observed in the sediment, but differed from those found in SS. This latter difference might suggest that the SS trapping apparatuses should have been left in place for approximately 60 days (not only 15 days). This longer period would allow the integration of the environmental variability of the OCP and PCB burden adsorbed to this compartment. Authors encourage future studies to evaluate P. perna exposure to OCPs and PCBs through the evaluation of sediment concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West Coast of Trinidad].

    PubMed

    Koftayan, Tamar; Milano, Jahiro; D'Armas, Haydelba; Salazar, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system). Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%). Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86%) and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87%) and triacylglycerols (12.26%); besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively) and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42%) concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97%) and Chaguaramas (34.51%) samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low

  2. Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin profile of mussels Perna perna from southern Atlantic coasts of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Abouabdellah, Rachid; Taleb, Hamid; Bennouna, Asmae; Erler, Katrin; Chafik, Abdeghani; Moukrim, Abdelatif

    2008-04-01

    During the monitoring programme of harmful algal blooms established along the south Atlantic coast of Morocco, a bimonthly determination of harmful algae and phycotoxins analysis in Perna perna was carried out from May 2003 to December 2004. Results of mouse bioassay (in organs and whole flesh) showed a seasonal evolution of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin. The mussel's contamination was associated with the occurrence in water of Alexandrium minutum. The PSP toxin profile obtained with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/FD) revealed the dominance of gonyautoxins GTX2 and GTX3 and a minority of GTX1, GTX4 and saxitoxin (STX). This profile explains that the toxicity was mainly associated with A. minutum.

  3. DNA damage in digestive gland and mantle tissue of the mussel Perna perna.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Marques, Sabrina de Almeida; Klitzke, Clécio Fernando; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias; de Medeiros, Marisa Helena Gennari; Di Mascio, Paolo; Loureiro, Ana Paula de Melo

    2003-07-01

    Data concerning the susceptibility of DNA to damage by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and other endogenous compounds produced by physiological stress in marine organisms is lacking, especially in bivalve mollusks. In this article, we analyzed the background levels of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and 1,N2-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N2-epsilon dGuo) in digestive gland and mantle tissue of mussels Perna perna collected at a cultivation zone in Florianópolis (Santa Catarina, Brazil). The present data point to the possibility of the use of both 8-oxodGuo and 1,N2-epsilon dGuo as complementary indicators of oxidative stress processes in mussels. A sensitive method coupling high performance liquid chromatography to mass spectrometry was applied for the detection of 1,N2-epsilon dGuo in mussel tissues.

  4. Biochemical biomarkers and metals in Perna perna mussels from mariculture zones of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sáenz, Luis Alberto; Seibert, Edson Luiz; Zanette, Juliano; Fiedler, Haidi Dalida; Curtius, Adilson José; Ferreira, Jaime Fernando; Alves de Almeida, Eduardo; Marques, Maria Risoleta Freire; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias

    2010-07-01

    The activity of cholinesterase (ChE), glutathione-S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and catalase (CAT) was evaluated in the gill and digestive glands of the Perna perna mussel transplanted to three non-contaminated mariculture zones under the influence of distinct physical-chemical characteristics. Differences among sites for ChE, GST and CAT activities in gill, as well as ChE, GST and G6PDH activity in digestive gland of mussels, were found and possibly related to differences in physicochemical characteristics of the sites and/or biological status of the mussels. Mussels that were transplanted to another, more urbanized site (Ponta do Lessa) with similar physicochemical characteristics to one of the farming sites (Sambaqui), was also chosen to evaluate biomarker responses to pollution. Activities of ChE, GST and GR in the digestive glands and CAT in the gills were higher in the polluted site. GR was the only biomarker to be unaltered in different farming sites, but induced in the pollution site. The trace metal concentrations in the mussels were low and unlikely to cause the changes observed in the biomarker levels. The present study strongly suggests that monitoring programs should compare sites with similar physicochemical characteristics when using a complementary biomarker approach. In addition, the baselines for the biomarkers and metal used in the present study can serve as a reference for the monitoring of these mariculture zones in future monitoring programs employing P. perna.

  5. Characterization of ten highly polymorphic microsatellite loci for the intertidal mussel Perna perna, and cross species amplification within the genus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The brown mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) is a dominant constituent of intertidal communities and a strong invader with multiple non-native populations distributed around the world. In a previous study, two polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed and used to determine population-level genetic diversity in invasive and native P. perna populations. However, higher number of microsatellite markers are required for reliable population genetic studies. In this context, in order to understand P. perna origins and history of invasion and to compare population genetic structure in native versus invaded areas, we developed 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Findings Described microsatellite markers were developed from an enriched genomic library. Analyses and characterization of loci using 20 individuals from a population in Western Sahara revealed on average 11 alleles per locus (range: 5–27) and mean gene diversity of 0.75 (range: 0.31 - 0.95). One primer pair revealed possible linkage disequilibrium while heterozygote deficiency was significant at four loci. Six of these markers cross-amplified in P. canaliculus (origin: New Zealand). Conclusions Developed markers will be useful in addressing a variety of questions concerning P. perna, including dispersal scales, genetic variation and population structure, in both native and invaded areas. PMID:23039168

  6. Determination and speciation of cadmium in microcosms with Bunodosoma caissarum and Perna perna using isotopically enriched (116)Cd.

    PubMed

    Rizzini Ansari, Nafisa; Fernández Iglesias, Nerea; Cordeiro, Renato Campello; Fernandez, Marcos Antônio; Bettmer, Jörg

    2017-02-15

    The study of the uptake and distribution of elements in marine environments is of great interest for understanding their pathways and accumulation. Here, we investigated in laboratory experiments the accumulation behavior of Cd in the sea anemone Bunodosoma caissarum and the mussel Perna perna. Specimens were incubated with isotopically enriched (116)Cd in aquariums. Cd concentrations in the seawater and in the tissues of B. caissarum and P. perna were followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) by means of isotope dilution analysis. Bioconcentration factors for B. caissarum and P. perna exposed to 0.9μg·L(-1) of (116)Cd were determined to be 80.5 and 850, respectively. P. perna specimens exposed to 4.5μg·L(-1) of (116)Cd reached 530. Cytosolic proteins associated with Cd from the tissues were extracted and further analyzed by size-exclusion chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. Cd accumulation could be detected in both organisms ranging from high-molecular to low-molecular species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mercury in the bivalves Anadara (Senilia) senilis, Perna perna and Crassostrea tulipa from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Otchere, Fred A; Joiris, Claude R; Holsbeek, Ludo

    2003-03-20

    Three bivalves: Anadara (Senilia) senilis (n=220), Crassostrea tulipa (n=260) from two 'open' lagoons (Benya and Ningo) and a 'closed' lagoon (Sakumo), and Perna perna (n=170) from rocky shores adjacent to Benya and Sakumo, were analyzed for their total and organic Hg concentrations and total body burden. Median concentrations for cockles were 0.20 micro/gdw for the wet season and 0.36 microg/gdw for the dry season. Total mercury concentration for both mussels and oysters ranged from 0.04 to 0.84 microg/gdw. Seasonal variations and age effect were detected in all the species but no significant spatial variation was found along the coast. Organic (methyl) mercury concentration ranged from 0.03 to 0.55 microg/gdw was stable without age effect. The median relative organic mercury varied between 30 and 80% depending on the season, location, species and the type of lagoon. The lower concentrations in the wet season were due to primary production and dilution effect. Log-transformed regression relationships between body burden and size were used to compare the species.

  8. Exposure to crack cocaine causes adverse effects on marine mussels Perna perna.

    PubMed

    Maranho, L A; Fontes, M K; Kamimura, A S S; Nobre, C R; Moreno, B B; Pusceddu, F H; Cortez, F S; Lebre, D T; Marques, J R; Abessa, D M S; Ribeiro, D A; Pereira, C D S

    2017-08-22

    Our study aimed to evaluate crack cocaine effects in different life stages of the marine mussel Perna perna. For this purpose, fertilization rate, embryo-larval development, lysosomal membrane stability and DNA strand breaks were assessed. Effect concentrations in gametes and in larval development were found after 1h (IC50=23.53mg·L(-1)) and 48h (IC50=16.31mg·L(-1)), respectively. The highest tested concentration showing no acute toxicity (NOEC) was 10mg·L(-1), while the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was 20mg·L(-1). NOEC concerning embryo-larval development was 0.625mg·L(-1), while the LOEC was 1.25mg·L(-1). Cyto-genotoxic effects were evidenced in mussels exposed to crack cocaine concentrations ranging from 5 to 500μg·L(-1). Our results report the first data on effects of an illicit drug to marine organisms and should encourage further ecotoxicological studies of these contaminants of emerging concern in coastal ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing mercury contamination in a tropical coastal system using the mussel Perna perna and the sea anemone Bunodosoma caissarum.

    PubMed

    Rizzini Ansari, Nafisa; Fernandez, Marcos Antônio; Brito, José Lailson; Vidal, Lara Gama; de Andrade Costa, Erika Silva; Malm, Olaf

    2016-12-01

    Total mercury concentrations in the mussel Perna perna and the sea anemone Bunodosoma caissarum were determined to assess Hg contamination in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and an adjacent sea area. Concentrations in the tissues of these species were compared. Average total mercury concentrations ranged from 3.54 to 21.01 μg kg(-1) (wet wt.) in P. perna and from 4.51 to 23.19 μg kg(-1) (wet wt.) for B. caissarum. Concentrations varied according to the sampling stations. Distribution of concentrations for both species was similar along the sampling stations, and a significant correlation was observed. Results suggest that B. caissarum could be a suitable biomonitor species for mercury contamination in the study area and could be used as a complementary species for monitoring studies. Further research is, however, needed to assess how environmental conditions and other variables affect Hg concentrations in B. caissarum.

  10. Mussels (Perna perna) as bioindicator of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium species with zoonotic potential

    PubMed Central

    Mariné Oliveira, Geisi Ferreira; do Couto, Melissa Carvalho Machado; de Freitas Lima, Marcelo; do Bomfim, Teresa Cristina Bergamo

    2016-01-01

    Sources of contamination such as animal feces runoff, organic fertilizer application, and the release of partially treated or untreated sewage can lead to the contamination of aquatic environments by Cryptosporidium spp. The quality of mussels as food is closely related to the sanitary conditions of the marine environment where these bivalves are found. Marine mollusks are filter feeders that are able to retain Cryptosporidium oocysts in their tissue, thus functioning as bioindicators. A total of 72 pooled mussel samples of the species Perna perna were collected at two sites (A and B) in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sampling involved removal of 30 mussels, from each collection site every month for one year. The 30 mussels from each sampling were then allocated into three groups of 10. Two Cryptosporidium spp. genes (18S and GP60) were targeted for DNA amplification from the samples obtained. After purification, all of the products obtained were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Of the 72 samples analyzed using the nested-PCR for the 18S gene target, 29.2% were positive for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Of these samples, 52.4% were collected at site A (ie 11/21) and 47.6% at site B (ie 10/21). The 18S genes of all the samples considered positive for Cryptosporidium spp. were sequenced, and the following three species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum, C. meleagridis, and C. andersoni. Three distinct C. parvum subtypes (IIaA19G2R2; IIaA20G2R2; IIaA20G3R2) were identified using the GP60 gene. More studies to evaluate the zoonotic potential of this species should be performed as both sampling locations contain human and/or animal fecal contaminants. PMID:26977402

  11. Mussels (Perna perna) as bioindicator of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium species with zoonotic potential.

    PubMed

    Mariné Oliveira, Geisi Ferreira; do Couto, Melissa Carvalho Machado; de Freitas Lima, Marcelo; do Bomfim, Teresa Cristina Bergamo

    2016-04-01

    Sources of contamination such as animal feces runoff, organic fertilizer application, and the release of partially treated or untreated sewage can lead to the contamination of aquatic environments by Cryptosporidium spp. The quality of mussels as food is closely related to the sanitary conditions of the marine environment where these bivalves are found. Marine mollusks are filter feeders that are able to retain Cryptosporidium oocysts in their tissue, thus functioning as bioindicators. A total of 72 pooled mussel samples of the species Perna perna were collected at two sites (A and B) in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sampling involved removal of 30 mussels, from each collection site every month for one year. The 30 mussels from each sampling were then allocated into three groups of 10. Two Cryptosporidium spp. genes (18S and GP60) were targeted for DNA amplification from the samples obtained. After purification, all of the products obtained were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Of the 72 samples analyzed using the nested-PCR for the 18S gene target, 29.2% were positive for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Of these samples, 52.4% were collected at site A (ie 11/21) and 47.6% at site B (ie 10/21). The 18S genes of all the samples considered positive for Cryptosporidium spp. were sequenced, and the following three species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum, C. meleagridis, and C. andersoni. Three distinct C. parvum subtypes (IIaA19G2R2; IIaA20G2R2; IIaA20G3R2) were identified using the GP60 gene. More studies to evaluate the zoonotic potential of this species should be performed as both sampling locations contain human and/or animal fecal contaminants.

  12. Effects of Bucephalus sp. (Trematoda: Bucephalidae) on Perna perna mussels from a culture station in Ratones Grande Island, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Patrícia M; Magalhães, Aimê R M; Barracco, Margherita A

    2002-03-01

    This study reports the prevalence of Bucephalus sp. in Perna perna populations from a culture station of southern Brazil and its effect on the mussel reproductive tissue and immune system. The prevalence of Bucephalus sp. in P. perna (n = 1871) was considered low (3.1%) and did not seasonally vary. Histological sections of the mantle of infected mussels revealed a marked (80%) reduction of the reproductive tissue that was severe even in mussels exhibiting a moderate infection degree. The total (THC) and differential (DHC) hemocyte counts were lower in infected mussels (3.9 x 10(6) hem/ml; granular hemocytes = 33%) as compared with non-infected animals (5.5 x 10(6) hem/ml; granular hemocytes = 40%). The plasma protein concentration did not vary upon infection. Hemocyte infiltration was significantly higher only in mussels with a very heavy infection degree. The parasite sporocysts were never seen encapsulated by the host hemocytes. Our results indicate that Bucephalus sp. promotes a severe castration in its host and apparently evades the mussel immune system. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. Differential metallothionein, reduced glutathione and metal levels in Perna perna mussels in two environmentally impacted tropical bays in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lavradas, Raquel T; Rocha, Rafael C C; Bordon, Isabella C A C; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Godoy, José M; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A

    2016-07-01

    Mussel farming is an important economic activity in Brazil, and these organisms are consumed by the majority of the population in most coastal zones in the country. However, despite the increasing pollution of aquatic ecosystems in Brazil, little is known about the biochemical activity in mussels in response to metal exposure. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate metal and metalloid exposure effects in Perna perna mussels, by determining metal levels, the induction of metallothionein (MT) synthesis, and oxidative stress, in the form of reduced glutathione (GSH) in 3 contaminated areas from the Guanabara Bay in comparison to a reference site, Ilha Grande Bay, both in summer and winter. Metal and metalloid concentrations were also compared to Brazilian and international guidelines, to verify potential health risks to human consumers. Mussels from all sampling sites were shown to be improper for human consumption due to metal contamination, including Ilha Grande Bay, which has previously been considered a reference site. Several statistically significant correlations and seasonal differences were observed between MT, GSH and metals and metalloids in both analyzed tissues. A Discriminant Canonical Analysis indicated that the digestive gland is a better bioindicator for environmental contamination by metals and metalloids in this species and offers further proof that MT variations observed are due to metal exposure and not oxidative stress, since GSH influence for both muscle tissue and the digestive glands was non-significant in this analysis. These results show that P. perna mussels are an adequate sentinel species for metal contamination with significant effects on oxidative stress and metal exposure biomarkers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report metals, metalloids, MT and GSH levels in the muscle tissue of this species.

  14. Monoamine content during the reproductive cycle of Perna perna depends on site of origin on the Atlantic Coast of Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Klouche, Mounia S.; De Deurwaerdère, Philippe; Dellu-Hagedorn, Françoise; Lakhdar-Ghazal, Nouria; Benomar, Soumaya

    2015-01-01

    Bivalve molluscs such as Perna perna display temporal cycles of reproduction that result from the complex interplay between endogenous and exogenous signals. The monoamines serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline represent possible endocrine and neuronal links between these signals allowing the molluscs to modulate reproductive functions in conjunction with environmental constraints. Here, we report a disruption of the reproductive cycle of mussels collected from two of three sites along the Moroccan atlantic coast soiled by industrial or domestic waste. Using high pressure liquid chromatography, we show that the temporal pattern of monoamine content in the gonads, pedal and cerebroid ganglia varied throughout the reproductive cycle (resting, developing, maturing, egg-laying) of mussels from the unpolluted site. Marked modification of monoamine tissue content was found between sites, notably in noradrenaline content of the gonads. Discriminant statistics revealed a specific impact of mussel location on the temporal variations of noradrenaline and serotonin levels in gonads and cerebroid ganglia. Correlation analyses showed profound and temporal changes in the monoamine content between organs and ganglia, at the two sites where the reproduction was disrupted. We suggest that environmental constraints lead to profound changes of monoaminergic systems, which thereby compromises the entry of mussels into their reproductive cycle. PMID:26349428

  15. Organochlorines (PCBs and pesticides) in the bivalves Anadara (Senilis) senilis, Crassostrea tulipa and Perna perna from the lagoons of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Otchere, Fred A

    2005-09-15

    The bivalves, Anadara (Senilia) senilis (n=95), Crassostrea tulipa (n=75) and Perna perna (n=30) from Ghana, were analyzed for their organochlorines (pesticides and PCBs) concentrations and the body burden. A comparison was done based on two different standard PCB mixtures (Aroclor 1254 and 1260) with the percentage individual congener contribution and that of the sample. From these comparisons, it appeared that the pattern of PCB residues in the samples was neither Aroclor 1254 nor 1260. On the other hand, there was seasonal qualitative difference in the pattern that is purely marine (in the dry season) versus terrestrial input (in the wet season). SigmaPCB was 0.10 microg/g dw or 2.2 microg/g lw (median values). There was no correlation between PCB concentration and lipid content reflecting the importance of indirect contamination of the bivalves. The pesticides, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, lindane, DDTs, HCH, HCB, endosulfan, heptachlor epoxide and heptachlor, were detected. The most abundant pesticides were the SigmaDDT: 73 and SigmaHCH: 29 ng/g dw. DDT/DDE and hept./heptachlor epoxide ratios reflect their recent applications, while the ratio for aldrin/dieldrin suggests that the use of aldrin has been discontinued, at least on the coast of Ghana.

  16. Monoamine content during the reproductive cycle of Perna perna depends on site of origin on the Atlantic Coast of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Klouche, Mounia S; De Deurwaerdère, Philippe; Dellu-Hagedorn, Françoise; Lakhdar-Ghazal, Nouria; Benomar, Soumaya

    2015-09-09

    Bivalve molluscs such as Perna perna display temporal cycles of reproduction that result from the complex interplay between endogenous and exogenous signals. The monoamines serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline represent possible endocrine and neuronal links between these signals allowing the molluscs to modulate reproductive functions in conjunction with environmental constraints. Here, we report a disruption of the reproductive cycle of mussels collected from two of three sites along the Moroccan atlantic coast soiled by industrial or domestic waste. Using high pressure liquid chromatography, we show that the temporal pattern of monoamine content in the gonads, pedal and cerebroid ganglia varied throughout the reproductive cycle (resting, developing, maturing, egg-laying) of mussels from the unpolluted site. Marked modification of monoamine tissue content was found between sites, notably in noradrenaline content of the gonads. Discriminant statistics revealed a specific impact of mussel location on the temporal variations of noradrenaline and serotonin levels in gonads and cerebroid ganglia. Correlation analyses showed profound and temporal changes in the monoamine content between organs and ganglia, at the two sites where the reproduction was disrupted. We suggest that environmental constraints lead to profound changes of monoaminergic systems, which thereby compromises the entry of mussels into their reproductive cycle.

  17. Induction of attachment of the Mussel Perna perna by natural products from the brown seaweed Stypopodium zonale.

    PubMed

    Soares, Angélica R; da Gama, Bernardo A P; da Cunha, Andrea P; Teixeira, Valéria L; Pereira, Renato C

    2008-01-01

    Marine invertebrates settle, attach, and/or metamorphose in response to signals from several sources, including seaweeds. In response to the aquaculture challenge of producing constant numbers of juveniles from cultured species, natural inducers have been screened for their ability to improve those processes. However, few chemical inducers of attachment of invertebrates have been identified, and even less of these were secondary metabolites. The goal of this work was to isolate the natural products responsible for induction activity using bioassay-guided fractionation of the organic extract of the brown seaweed Stypopodium zonale and the attachment of juveniles of the common brown mussel, Perna perna, as a model. The meroditerpene epitaondiol, identified by comparison of spectral data with the literature, promoted as much as 4.7 times more mussel attachment compared to controls at the natural concentration found in this alga (0.041% of the crude extract or 0.012% of algal dry weight). This is the first report showing that a seaweed produces terpenoid compounds as cues for invertebrate attachment, and future studies evaluating this action on settlement of mussels in the field are expected to improve aquaculture technology by increasing mussel spat production.

  18. Biological effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of the pharmaceutical Triclosan in the marine mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Cortez, Fernando Sanzi; Seabra Pereira, Camilo Dias; Santos, Aldo Ramos; Cesar, Augusto; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Martini, Gisela de Assis; Bohrer-Morel, Maria Beatriz

    2012-09-01

    Triclosan (5-Chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol) is an antibacterial compound widely employed in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Although this emerging compound has been detected in aquatic environments, scarce information is found on the effects of Triclosan to marine organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of a concentration range of Triclosan through fertilization assay (reproductive success), embryo-larval development assay (early life stage) and physiological stress (Neutral Red Retention Time assay - NRRT) (adult stage) in the marine sentinel organism Perna perna. The mean inhibition concentrations for fertilization (IC(50) = 0.490 mg L(-1)) and embryo-larval development (IC(50) = 0.135 mg L(-1)) tests were above environmental relevant concentrations (ng L(-1)) given by previous studies. Differently, significant reduction on NRRT results was found at 12 ng L(-1), demonstrating the current risk of the continuous introduction of Triclosan into aquatic environments, and the need of ecotoxicological studies oriented by the mechanism of action of the compound. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Zinc causes acute impairment of glutathione metabolism followed by coordinated antioxidant defenses amplification in gills of brown mussels Perna perna.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Rafael; Flesch, Samira; Mattos, Jacó Joaquim; Milani, Márcio Raimundo; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias; Dafre, Alcir Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Zinc demonstrates protective and antioxidant properties at physiological levels, although these characteristics are not attributed at moderate or high concentrations. Zinc toxicity has been related to a number of factors, including interference with antioxidant defenses. In particular, the inhibition of glutathione reductase (GR) has been suggested as a possible mechanism for acute zinc toxicity in bivalves. The present work investigates the biochemical effects of a non-lethal zinc concentration on antioxidant-related parameters in gills of brown mussels Perna perna exposed for 21 days to 2.6 μM zinc chloride. After 2 days of exposure, zinc caused impairment of the antioxidant system, decreasing GR activity and glutathione levels. An increase in antioxidant defenses became evident at 7 and 21 days of exposure, as an increase in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity along with restoration of glutathione levels and GR activity. After 7 and 21 days, an increase in cellular peroxides and lipid peroxidation end products were also detected, which are indicative of oxidative damage. Changes in GR activity contrasts with protein immunoblotting data, suggesting that zinc produces a long lasting inhibition of GR. Contrary to the general trend in antioxidants, levels of peroxiredoxin 6 decreased after 21 days of exposure. The data presented here support the hypothesis that zinc can impair thiol homeostasis, causes an increase in lipid peroxidation and inhibits GR, imposing a pro-oxidant status, which seems to trigger homeostatic mechanisms leading to a subsequent increase on antioxidant-related defenses.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in inter-tidal mussel Perna perna: space-time observations, source investigation and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Francioni, E; Wagener, A de L R; Scofield, A de L; Depledge, M H; Cavalier, B; Sette, C B; Carvalhosa, L; Lozinsky, C; Mariath, R

    2007-01-01

    The investigation aimed primarily at understanding the PAH record in inter-tidal mussel tissues and evaluating the bivalve performance as a bioindicator for oil contamination. The species Perna perna was used as test organism since it is abundantly distributed in coastal areas of the Americas, Africa and elsewhere. The study was carried out in Guanabara Bay and comprised two observation phases: phase one included seasonal sampling in 8 sites, whereas in phase two 4 sites were examined over 4 years. Among the 35 determined PAH (60-90 microg kg(-1) up to 4000-6000 microg kg(-1)) alkylated homologues predominated by more than 80%. The PAH profile in inter-tidal mussels is largely petrogenic with high contribution of dibenzothiophenes (DBT) and phenanthrenes (Ph). The prevailing petrogenic fingerprint, confirmed by diagnostic ratios, is linked to the properties of the inter-tidal habitat, which favors exposure to oil films. C2DBT/C2Ph and C3DBT/C3Ph ratios, however, show a wide range of values uncorrelated to specific oils. Micronucleus frequencies are significantly related to PAH concentrations, especially to those of alkylated homologues. Genotoxic expression appears at concentrations as low as 300 microg kg(-1) summation operator 35 PAH.

  1. Comparative studies on uptake pathway of cadmium by Perna viridis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhanqiang, Fang

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were designed to expose the filter-feeding bivalve Perna viridis to different Cd-contaminated water environments in order to compare the different pathways through which Cd is accumulated. Results show that mussels can accumulate Cd through seawater, food, sediment and suspended particle pathways in a short period of time. Mussels' uptake of Cd through the seawater pathway reaches the highest concentration approximately 3 and 9 times larger than through the algae and sediment pathways respectively after 7 d. This indicates that the Cd-accumulation through seawater is most efficient. Results also indicate that the uptake directly through contaminated algae, particles or sediments ingested by mussels is less important when compared with the uptake of Cd by mussels through the seawater pathway. Metal uptake pathways and mechanisms of bioaccumulation by marine bivalve are also discussed in this paper.

  2. Hypoosmotic stress in the mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758): Is ecological history a determinant for organismal responses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rola, Regina Coimbra; Souza, Marta Marques; Sandrini, Juliana Zomer

    2017-04-01

    Ecological history of organisms may be related to different responses and adaptations to stressors. This study aims to evaluate whether marine brown mussels (Perna perna Linnaeus, 1758) collected from sites with distinct histories of fluctuations in abiotic parameters, including salinity, respond differently to hypoosmotic stress. Mussels were collected at different sites (a marine site, with no history of salinity variation, and an estuarine site, with usual salinity variations) and exposed in laboratory for 14 days to hypoosmotic stress (salinities 25 and 20). It was observed that mussels collected at the marine site showed increased oxygen consumption (VO2), reduced haemolymph osmolality and concentrations of Na+, Cl-, and K+; increased levels of ninhydrin-positive substances in the haemolymph, and no changes in gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity, as expected for osmoconforming organisms. For animals collected at the estuarine site, except for VO2, this same pattern was only observed on day 1 of hypoosmotic stress. Unexpectedly, on days 4 and 14, VO2 decreased, the osmolality and ionic concentration returned to near baseline values, and mussels gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity increased at day 4. This long-term response detected for estuarine mussels is similar to that observed for osmoregulating organisms, which is very unexpected for marine bivalves. Despite being novel in the relevant literature, these results suggest that in some situations mussels could adopt osmoregulating behavior, such as increasing Na+/K+-ATPase activity and thereby probably reducing water circulating inside valves. In conclusion, these results indicate that ecological history, shown here by differences in organismal origin, influence physiological parameters of mussels in response to a stressful situation.

  3. Glycosylated Hydroxytryptophan in a Mussel Adhesive Protein from Perna viridis*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Sagert, Jason; Hwang, Dong Soo; Waite, J. Herbert

    2009-01-01

    The 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine (Dopa)-containing proteins of mussel byssus play a critical role in wet adhesion and have inspired versatile new synthetic strategies for adhesives and coatings. Apparently, however, not all mussel adhesive proteins are beholden to Dopa chemistry. The cDNA-deduced sequence of Pvfp-1, a highly aromatic and redox active byssal coating protein in the green mussel Perna viridis, suggests that Dopa may be replaced by a post-translational modification of tryptophan. The N-terminal tryptophan-rich domain of Pvfp-1 contains 42 decapeptide repeats with the consensus sequences ATPKPW1TAW2K and APPPAW1TAW2K. A small collagen domain (18 Gly-X-Y repeats) is also present. Tandem mass spectrometry of isolated tryptic decapeptides has detected both C2-hexosylated tryptophan (W1) and C2-hexosylated hydroxytryptophan (W2), the latter of which is redox active. The UV absorbance spectrum of W2 is consistent with 7-hydroxytryptophan, which represents an intriguing new theme for bioinspired opportunistic wet adhesion. PMID:19584055

  4. [Extraction and application of Perna viridis foot protein as bioadhesive].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhen; Liu, Jiapeng; Jin, Lihua; Zhang, Qiqing

    2010-12-01

    Mussel adhesive proteins have attracted increasing interests for their potential use as environmentally friendly bioadhesives in medicine and aqueous conditions. In this study, surface coating analysis, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), cell and bone tissue adhesion and cytotoxicity assay were used to study the properties of the Perna viridis foot proteins (Pvfp) extract as bioadhesive. The results of coating ability on various materials and QCM analysis revealed that Pvfp extract has comparable or superior adsorbtion ability to that of Cell-Tak (the naturally extracted MAP mixture from Mytilus edulis, and has been commercialized), and also, the cell adhesion ability of Pvfp extract was stronger than that of Cell-Tak and poly-L-lysine. No cytotoxicity was detected using human HeLa and 293T cells. Furthermore, broken bones of mouse could be stuck together by use of Pvfp extract. In bulk-scale adhesion tests, Pvfp extract showed much greater tensile strength than did fibrin glue for conglutinating poly (vinl chloride) sticks and for binding together pig's femur segments. These results suggested that Pvfp extract be an efficient cell and tissue adhesive in biotechnological application and it might be a potential bioadhesive in medical practice.

  5. Glycosylated hydroxytryptophan in a mussel adhesive protein from Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua; Sagert, Jason; Hwang, Dong Soo; Waite, J Herbert

    2009-08-28

    The 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine (Dopa)-containing proteins of mussel byssus play a critical role in wet adhesion and have inspired versatile new synthetic strategies for adhesives and coatings. Apparently, however, not all mussel adhesive proteins are beholden to Dopa chemistry. The cDNA-deduced sequence of Pvfp-1, a highly aromatic and redox active byssal coating protein in the green mussel Perna viridis, suggests that Dopa may be replaced by a post-translational modification of tryptophan. The N-terminal tryptophan-rich domain of Pvfp-1 contains 42 decapeptide repeats with the consensus sequences ATPKPW(1)TAW(2)K and APPPAW(1)TAW(2)K. A small collagen domain (18 Gly-X-Y repeats) is also present. Tandem mass spectrometry of isolated tryptic decapeptides has detected both C(2)-hexosylated tryptophan (W(1)) and C(2)-hexosylated hydroxytryptophan (W(2)), the latter of which is redox active. The UV absorbance spectrum of W(2) is consistent with 7-hydroxytryptophan, which represents an intriguing new theme for bioinspired opportunistic wet adhesion.

  6. Brown mussels (Perna perna) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as indicators of organic pollutants in the South African marine environment.

    PubMed

    Degger, N; Wepener, V; Richardson, B J; Wu, R S S

    2011-01-01

    A distinct lack of historical and current data on the status of organic pollutant contaminants within the South African marine environment is evident. This has highlighted the need for more current organic pollutant assessments. Reference mussels and SPMDs were transplanted at five South African harbour sites to assess organic bioaccumulation in brown mussels (Perna perna) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs). Spatial patterns of PAH and PCB contaminants were determined by GC-MS and GC-ECD after appropriate sample preparation. Significant (p<0.05) spatial differences were observed between the sites. Results indicate no correlations between the passive device and the transplanted mussels; however the SPMDs provided complementary information on the presence of dioxin-like PCBs within the environment not detected by the mussel. The results indicate that information provided by both the mussels and SPMDs allow for a more in depth scrutiny of environmental conditions as a result of anthropogenic influence.

  7. Seasonal variations of lipid content and composition in Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Zhang, Yonghua; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2007-08-01

    The total lipid content, composition of main lipid classes, composition of sterols and composition of fatty acids in the main glycerolipids of Perna viridis were analyzed through four seasons using TLC-FID and GLC. Mussel samples were collected during different seasons between 2003 and 2004 from Shengsi Island, Zhejiang Province, China and stored frozen prior to freeze-drying and lipid extraction. Ten grams of dried mussel powder of each season were analyzed. Total lipid content ranged from 14.5 g/100 g in spring month to 7.8 g/100 g dried mussel powder in autumn month. The predominant lipid in spring month was triacylglycerol (TAG), however, in the other three seasons the phospholipids (PL) was the main lipid class. The most abundant fatty acid in TAG, PL and phosphatidylcholine (PC) was 16:0, with the summer samples having the highest proportion (24-30% of total fatty acid) and winter the lowest (14-22%). In phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), the spring samples had the highest proportions of 16:0. The predominant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were 22:6n-3 and 20:5n-3 in TAG, PL, PE and PC (25-40%). The proportions of 22:6n-3 and 20:5n-3 were higher in spring than in other seasons in PL and PE. There were nine sterols identified, with cholesterol being the predominant sterol, and other main ones were desmostersol/brassicasterol and 24-methylenecholesterol. Proportions of other fatty acids in different lipid fractions and the sterol compositions as well also varied seasonally. There were subject to the seasonal variations. Differences in lipid content and composition, fatty acid composition in different lipid fractions may be caused by multiple factors such as lifecycle, sex, variation of plankton in different seasons and temperature, which could influence physiological activities and metabolism.

  8. MOOCs from the Viewpoint of the Learner: A Response to Perna et al. (2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Eric; Thompson, Isaac; Behrend, Tara

    2015-01-01

    This response to Perna et al. provides an alternate approach to research on massive open online courses (MOOCs). We argue that a student-centered, theory-driven conceptualization and methodological approaches allow us to move beyond descriptive statistics and into a deeper understanding of MOOC learners. Examples using a teacher development MOOC…

  9. MOOCs from the Viewpoint of the Learner: A Response to Perna et al. (2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Eric; Thompson, Isaac; Behrend, Tara

    2015-01-01

    This response to Perna et al. provides an alternate approach to research on massive open online courses (MOOCs). We argue that a student-centered, theory-driven conceptualization and methodological approaches allow us to move beyond descriptive statistics and into a deeper understanding of MOOC learners. Examples using a teacher development MOOC…

  10. DiPerna-Lions Flow for Relativistic Particles in an Electromagnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabin, P.-E.; Masmoudi, N.

    2015-09-01

    We show the existence and uniqueness of a DiPerna-Lions flow for relativistic particles subject to a Lorentz force in an electromagnetic field. The electric and magnetic fields solve the linear Maxwell system in the vacuum but for singular initial conditions which are only in the physical energy space. As the corresponding force field is only in L 2, we have to perform a careful analysis of the cancellations over a trajectory.

  11. Transcriptomic responses of Perna viridis embryo to Benzo(a)pyrene exposure elucidated by RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiu; Qiu, Liguo; Zhao, Hongwei; Song, Qinqin; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-11-01

    The green mussel Perna viridis is an ideal biomonitor to evaluate marine environmental pollution. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), which is well known for the mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics. However, the toxicological effects of BaP on Perna viridis embryo are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the embryo transcriptomic profile of Perna viridis treated with BaP via digital gene expression analysis. A total of 92,362,742 reads were produced from two groups (control and BaP exposure) by whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq). Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were used on all genes to determine the biological functions and processes. Genes involved in various molecular pathways of toxicological effects were enriched further. The differential expression genes (DEGs) were related to stress response, infectious disease and innate immunity. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) measured expressional levels of six genes confirmed through the DGE analysis. This study reveals that RNA-seq for transcriptome profiling of P. viridis embryo can better understand the embryo toxic effects of BaP. Furthermore, it also suggests that RNA-seq is a superior tool for generating novel and valuable information for revealing the toxic effects caused by BaP at transcriptional level.

  12. Physiological energetics of the brown mussel Perna perna (L.) transplanted in the Itajaí-Açu river mouth, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Resgalla, C; Radetski, C M; Schettini, C A F

    2010-02-01

    Groups of the mussel Perna perna were transplanted to two points and at three different depths in the coastal region close to the Itajaí-Açu River mouth, an impacted river in the south of Brazil. With the objective of evaluating the physiology changes in the organisms in relation to the control area (origin of the organisms), the clearance, respiration and excretion rates, absorption efficiency and growth were estimated. The levels of metals in the organism tissue were determined in an attempt to explain the physiological changes occurring in the study area. Organisms from Point 2 placed near the bottom showed physiological changes in comparison to the control and the transplanted organisms from Point 1. Point 2 showed greater sediment resuspension and availability of trace metals to the organisms closer to the bed. The increase in Cr concentration in the tissues of the organisms (up to 0.21 mg kg(-1) ww) was not sufficient to explain the decrease in the inhibition of clearance (28.8%) and in the absorption efficiency (15.7%), or the increased excretion rate (282.5%), which led to the organisms having a reduced scope for growth (48.6%). This indicates the possible presence of other contaminants, which were not measured, and which probably had synergistic action with the trace metals investigated.

  13. Bioaccumulation and depuration of some trace metals in the mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus)

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshmanan, P.T. ); Nambisan, P.N.K. )

    1989-07-01

    Bivalves are well known for their ability to concentrate heavy metals in their tissue from environmental water. Experimental studies on the accumulation of these pollutants by molluscs have been extensively conducted. The depuration of accumulated metals in a toxicant free medium has also been studied. Bivalve molluscs may form useful tools in monitoring heavy metal pollution. However, such studies are scant in tropical species. This paper reports the bioaccumulation and depuration of Hg, Cu, Zn and Pb by the mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) from seawater and explores its suitability as an indicator organism for metal pollution.

  14. Antioxidant responses and bioaccumulation in green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis) under acute tributyltin chloride exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-Gang; Jia, Xiao-Ping; Cai, Wen-Gui; Lin, Qin; Ma, Sheng-Wei

    2011-11-01

    Green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis) were exposed to waterborne tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) at different concentrations (0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 μg L(-1)) for up to 72 h. Accumulated TBTCl in Perna viridis correlated linearly with the exposure concentrations of 0.2 μg L(-1)(R(2) = 0.772), 0.4 μg L(-1)(R(2) = 0.952), and 0.8 μg L(-1)(R(2) = 0.909). The results of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and malondialdehyde (MDA) all decreased in gill tissues after 24 h of exposure, but the hepatic SOD and the hepatic GPx showed either little or no effect on exposure of TBTCl solutions. Analysis using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient showed the hepatic GPx activity appeared to have a significant negative correlativity (R(s) = -0.42) with the exposed TBTCl concentrations, and the hepatic MDA was significantly negatively correlated (R(s) = -0.33) with the tissue TBTCl concentrations. Conversely, a significant positive correlation (R(s) = 0.60) was shown between the gill MDA contents and exposure time. This study illustrates oxyradical scavenger GPx best correlated with stress level of pollutants among the various antioxidant parameters.

  15. Effects of mercury and lead on tissue glutathione of the green mussel, Perna viridis L.

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, T.; Teo, L.H.; Sin, Y.M.

    1997-05-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is the major non-protein thiol in animals, and involved in a number of important physiological and detoxification processes. It has been suggested that this tripeptide protects thiol groups in proteins from oxidation, functions as an intracellular redox buffer and serves as a reservoir of cysteine. Tissue GSH is also known to be involved in the metabolism and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous substances, including the binding of inorganic mercury ions. Therefore, a change in the amount of GSH in tissues may be considered to reflect the effects of deposited mercury on tissue function. The functions of the tripeptide have been studied less thoroughly in invertebrates than in vertebrates. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were changes in the amounts of tissue GSH in the green mussel, Perna viridis, at various time intervals after metal exposure. 22 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Establishing the thermal threshold of the tropical mussel Perna viridis in the face of global warming.

    PubMed

    Goh, B P L; Lai, C H

    2014-08-30

    With increasing recognition that maximum oxygen demand is the unifying limit in tolerance, the first line of thermal sensitivity is, as a corollary, due to capacity limitations at a high level of organisational complexity before individual, molecular or membrane functions become disturbed. In this study the tropical mussel Perna viridis were subjected to temperature change of 0.4 °C per hour from ambient to 8-36 °C. By comparing thermal mortality against biochemical indices (hsp70, gluthathione), physiological indices (glycogen, FRAP, NRRT) and behavioural indices (clearance rate), a hierarchy of thermal tolerance was therein elucidated, ranging from systemic to cellular to molecular levels. Generally, while biochemical indices indicated a stress signal much earlier than the more integrated behavioural indices, failure of the latter (indicating a tolerance limit and transition to pejus state) occurred much earlier than the other indices tending towards thermal extremities at both ends of the thermal spectrum.

  17. A serine protease inhibitor from hemolymph of green mussel, Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Khan, M S; Goswami, U; Rojatkar, S R; Khan, M I

    2008-07-15

    Bioactivity guided fractions of cell-free hemolymph of bacterially challenged marine mussel, Perna viridis led to the isolation of a novel quaternary alkaloid 1, which was identified by its spectral data. The isolated molecule 1 has been found to be a potent serine protease inhibitor (SPI) showing IC(50) and K(i) values of 102.5 and 97.1-104.68 microM, respectively. The E(t)/K(i) value of SPI is 6.3, whereas E(t)/K(m) value is 1.04. The Van't Hoff analysis showed that the value of K(i) decreases with increase in temperature, and the binding of the inhibitor is entropically driven.

  18. Dioxin and phthalate uptake and assimilation by the green mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Xiong; Zhang, Qiong

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the aqueous uptake and dietary assimilation (trophic transfer) of two endocrine disrupting compounds (dioxin and phathalic acid) in the green mussel Perna viridis were quantified. During short-term exposure period, dioxin rapidly sorbed onto phytoplankton and its accumulation was much higher than that of phthalate. The uptake of these two compounds by the mussels increased with increasing temperature and salinity (for dioxin only). The dietary assimilation of the two contaminants was rather modest (10-64% for dioxin and 20-47% for phthalate), and was greatly dependent on the food species and concentration. Interestingly, dietary assimilation increased with increasing diatom food concentration. Gut passage time was partially responsible for the variable dietary assimilation. Given the high dissolved uptake rate and the modest dietary assimilation, aqueous exposure was predicted to be the dominant bioaccumulation source for both dioxin and phthalate in the green mussels under most conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of eight novel microsatellite markers in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis (Mytilidae).

    PubMed

    Cao, Y Y; Li, Z B; Li, Q H; Chen, X J; Chen, L; Dai, G

    2013-02-07

    The green lipped mussel, also known as the Asian green mussel (Perna viridis) is a fast reproducing and valuable food source, but it is also considered an invasive species and can clog and damage pipes and marine equipment. Eight novel polymorphic microsatellite loci for P. viridis were isolated and characterized. Microsatellite polymorphism was evaluated in 30 individuals collected from Xiamen, China. The number of alleles per locus and the polymorphism information content ranged from 2 to 5 and from 0.3092 to 0.7031, respectively. The observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.1538-0.8400 and 0.1448-0.6833, respectively. The loci identified in this study could provide a useful tool for the genetic population structure analysis of P. viridis.

  20. Proteomic profile in Perna viridis after exposed to Prorocentrum lima, a dinoflagellate producing DSP toxins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Zou, Ying; Weng, Hui-wen; Li, Hong-Ye; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we compared protein profiles in gills of Perna viridis after exposure to Prorocentrumlima, a dinoflagellate producing DSP toxins, and identified the differential abundances of protein spots using 2D-electrophoresis. After exposure to P. lima, the level of okadaic acid (a main component of DSP toxins) in gills of P. viridis significantly increased at 6 h, but mussels were all apparently healthy without death. Among the 28 identified protein spots by MALDI TOF/TOF-MS, 12 proteins were up-regulated and 16 were down-regulated in the P. lima-exposed mussels. These identified proteins were involved in various biological activities, such as metabolism, cytoskeleton, signal transduction, response to oxidative stress and detoxification. Taken together, our results indicated that the presence of P. lima caused DSP toxins accumulation in mussel gill, and might consequently induce cytoskeletonal disorganization,oxidative stress, a dysfunction in metabolism and ubiquitination/proteasome activity.

  1. Induction of settlement in mussel (Perna canaliculus) larvae by vessel noise.

    PubMed

    Wilkens, S L; Stanley, J A; Jeffs, A G

    2012-01-01

    Underwater sound plays an important role in the settlement behaviour of many coastal organisms. Large steel-hulled vessels are known to be a major source of underwater sound in the marine environment. The possibility that underwater sound from vessels may promote biofouling of hulls through triggering natural larval settlement cues was investigated for the mussel, Perna canaliculus. The mussel larvae showed significantly faster settlement when exposed to the underwater noise produced by a 125-m long steel-hulled passenger and freight ferry. Median time to attachment on the substrata (ie settlement) was reduced by 22% and the time taken for all experimental larvae to settle was reduced by 40% relative to a silent control. There was no difference in the survival of the mussel larvae among the various noise treatments. The decrease in settlement time of the mussel larvae appeared to correlate with the intensity of the vessel sound, suggesting that underwater sound emanating from vessels may be an important factor in exacerbating hull fouling by mussels.

  2. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis) from shell-fish markets of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srisuphanunt, M; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Saksirisampant, W; Karanis, P

    2009-09-01

    Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis), the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24) and Samut Prakan (n = 32) a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels' cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA) in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels' population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6%) than in Bangkok market (8.3%). These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans.

  3. Heavy metals concentration relationship with Perna viridis physical properties in Mengkabong Lagoon, Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Noraini; Tair, Rohana; Abdullah, Mohd Harun

    2014-01-01

    Perna viridis (P. viridis) has been identified as a good biological indicator in identifying environmental pollution, especially when there are various types of Heavy Metals Accumulations (HMA) inside its tissue. Based on the potential of P. viridis to accumulate heavy metals and the data on its physical properties, this study proffers to determine the relationships between both properties. The similarities of the physical properties are used to mathematical model their relationships, which included the size (length, width, height) and weight (wet and dry) of P. viridis, whilst the heavy metals are focused on concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd and Zn. The concentrations of metal elements are detected by using Flame Atomic Adsorption Spectrometry. Results show that the mean concentration of Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, Zn, length, width, height, wet weight and dry weight are: 1.12 +/- 1.00, 2.36 +/- 1.65, 2.12 +/- 2.74, 0.44 +/- 0.41 and 16.52 +/- 10.64 mg kg(-1) (dry weight), 105.08 +/- 14.35, 41.64 +/- 4.64, 28.75 +/- 3.92 mm, 14.56 +/- 3.30 and 2.37 +/- 0.86 g, respectively. It is also found out that the relationships between the Heavy Metals Concentrations (HMA) and the physical properties can be represented using Multiple Linear Regressions (MLR) models, relating that the HMA of Zinc has affected significantly the physical growth properties of P. viridis.

  4. Induction, adaptation and recovery of lysosomal integrity in green-lipped mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Fang, J K H; Wu, R S S; Zheng, G J; Lam, P K S; Shin, P K S

    2008-01-01

    Biomarkers are generally applied to detect pollution in environmental monitoring. Such biological responses should accurately reflect the stress over time in a quantitative manner. As such, the initial and maximum responses induced by stress, as well as adaptation and recovery of these biomarkers, need to be fully understood or else erroneous false-negative or false-positive may be arrived. However, most of the biomarker studies only provided information on initially induced responses under different concentrations of toxicants, while biological adaptation and recovery were poorly known. In this study, the time required for induction, adaptation and recovery of lysosomal integrity in green-lipped mussel Perna viridis upon exposure to benzo[a]pyrene was investigated over a period of 62 days. Maximum induction occurred on day 6 when lysosomal integrity was significantly reduced by 51%, and no further change or adaptation was detected thereafter. When mussels were depurated in clean seawater after 18 days of exposure to benzo[a]pyrene, a gradual recovery was observed, with lysosomal integrity returning to its background level and showing a complete recovery after 20 days of depuration. Lysosomal integrity was significantly correlated with the body burden concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene and condition index of the mussels. The relatively fast induction (6 days) and recovery (20 days) without apparent adaptation suggested that lysosomal integrity in P. viridis can serve as a good biomarker in biomonitoring, as its response is not likely to generate both false-negative and false-positive results.

  5. DNA damage in male gonad cells of Green mussel (Perna viridis) upon exposure to tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Nagarajappa; Ganguly, Anutosh; Goswami, Usha

    2006-05-01

    DNA damage (determined by the Comet Assay) and the occurrence of deformed nuclei were measured as endpoints of genotoxicity in male gonad cells of the marine mussel (Perna viridis). Upon exposure of the organism to varying concentrations of extracts of smoked and non-smoked cigar tobacco over a period of 16 days, DNA damage was found to be highest in marine mussels exposed to extracts of smoked cigar tobacco. Conversely, more deformed nuclei were detected in marine mussels exposed to extracts of non-smoked cigar tobacco. The level of DNA damage and the number of deformed nuclei reach a maximum at day 12 of exposure to both extracts but decrease thereafter. This phenomenon is attributed to the organism's capacity to maintain the integrity of its genetic material upon exposure to potential genotoxicants present in the tobacco extracts. A dose response in DNA damage and deformed nuclei was also detected in isolated gonad cells upon in vitro exposure to hydrogen peroxide a known DNA strand breaking agent. The results of this study indicate that the DNA in male gonad cells of the marine mussel is damaged upon exposure to genotoxicants, and suggests the suitability of the organism for future investigations into the effect of such agents on its reproductive capacities.

  6. Toxicity profile of a nutraceutical formulation derived from green mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu; Chakkalakal, Selsa J

    2014-01-01

    The short-term (acute) and long-term (subchronic) toxicity profile, mean lethal dose 50 (LD50), and no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of a nutraceutical formulation developed from green mussel Perna viridis, which showed in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties, were evaluated in the present study. The formulation was administered to the male and female Wistar rats at graded doses (0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 g/kg body weight) for two weeks of acute toxicity study and 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg body weight for 90 days in subchronic toxicity study. The LD50, variations in clinical signs, changes in body weight, body weight, food/water consumption, organ weight (liver, kidney, spleen, and brain), hematology, serum chemistry, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The LD50 of the formulation was 5,000 mg/kg BW. No test article related mortalities as well as change in body weight, and food and water consumption were observed. No toxicity related significant changes were noted in renal/hepatic function, hematological indices, and serum biochemical parameters between the control and treated groups. Histopathological alterations were not observed in the vital organs of rats. The subchronic NOAEL for the formulation in rats is greater than 2000 mg/kg. This study demonstrated that the green mussel formulation is safe to consume without any adverse effects in the body.

  7. Radioprotection against DNA damage by an extract of Indian green mussel, Perna viridis (L).

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Sreekumar P; Kutty, Binoj C; Chatterji, Anil; Subrayan, Parameswaran P; Mishra, Kaushala Prasad

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the radioprotective ability of a hydrolysate prepared using an enzyme-acid hydrolysis method from the green mussel Perna viridis in terms of its ability to prevent radiation-induced damage in plasmid DNA, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and DNA damage in mice lymphocytes. The mussel hydrolysate (MH) present during irradiation showed significant protection from gamma-radiation-induced strand breaks in plasmid DNA as evaluated by gel electrophoresis. Viability studies by trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT assay showed that preincubation of mice splenic lymphocytes with MH protected them from gamma-radiation-mediated killing. Moreover, the presence of MH during irradiation of isolated mice lymphocytes significantly decreased the DNA damage, as measured by comet assay. Measurement of intracellular ROS by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence revealed that the presence of MH effectively reduced the ROS generated in lymphocytes by both chemical method and gamma-irradiation. Prevention of DNA damage both in plasmid and lymphocytes and cell death in lymphocytes appears correlated with reduction of oxidatively generated free radicals. It is concluded that protection against radiation-induced cell death and DNA damage by MH was attributable to reduction of reactive free radical species generated by gamma-radiation.

  8. Organochlorine pesticides in green mussel, Perna viridis, from the Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Hernández, Carlos Manuel; Gómez-Batista, Miguel; Cattini, Chantal; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Oh, Jae

    2012-11-01

    The green mussel, Perna viridis, was used to measure bioaccumulated levels of organochlorine pesticides in the marine environment of Cuba. Samples were collected in the Cienfuegos Bay between January and December 2010. The organochlorine pesticides (i.e. DDT, Dieldrin, Chlordane, Endosulfan, HCB, Aldrin, Heptachlor and Lindane) were quantified by gas chromatography. The sum of all organochlorine pesticides in P. viridis was 6.31 ng g(-1). The concentration ranged from 3.53 to 4.42 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) for DDTs (i.e. sum of pp' DDT, pp' DDD, op' DDE and pp' DDE); 1.7-1.9 ng g(-1) dw for Dieldrin; 0.17-0.20 ng g(-1) dw for Chlordanes; 0.14-0.16 ng g(-1) dw for Endosulfan; 0.11-0.17 ng g(-1) dw for HCB; 0.07-0.11 ng g(-1) dw for Aldrin; 0.046-0.054 ng g(-1) dw for Heptachlor and 0.035-0.039 ng g(-1) dw for Lindane. These levels can be considered as low when compared to reported values from similar studies conducted elsewhere in the world. The concentrations of all organochlorines residues detected in this study fell below the EU Maximum Residue Limits.

  9. Metallothionein turnover, cytosolic distribution and the uptake of Cd by the green mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Ng, T Y-T; Rainbow, P S; Amiard-Triquet, C; Amiard, J C; Wang, W-X

    2007-08-30

    We examined the relationship between Cd kinetics (uptake from solution and diet, and efflux), metallothionein turnover, and changes in the cytosolic distribution of accumulated Cd between protein fractions in the green mussel Perna viridis. We pre-exposed the mussels to 5, 20, 50 and 200 microg l(-1) of Cd for 1 week and determined the biokinetics of Cd uptake and efflux in the mussels. The dietary assimilation efficiency of Cd increased by 2 times following exposure to 20-200 microg l(-1) Cd, but the dissolved uptake rate was unchanged by pre-exposure to any Cd concentrations. The efflux rate of Cd was also similar among control and Cd pre-exposed mussels. The cytosolic distribution of Cd in the mussels that had been exposed to dissolved Cd, showed that besides metallothionein (7000 - 20,000 Da), high molecular weight proteins (>20,000 Da) were important for Cd binding and depuration. In general, the Cd pre-exposed mussels had higher metallothionein turnover with a higher metallothionein synthesis rate, but similar metallothionein breakdown rates as the control mussels. Metallothionein synthesis rate was correlated to the dietary assimilation of Cd, whereas metallothionein breakdown and Cd efflux rate were independent of each other. This study provides important new information for the role of metallothionein turnover on Cd kinetics in an aquatic invertebrate.

  10. Genetic characterization of Perna viridis L. in peninsular Malaysia using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Ong, C C; Yusoff, K; Yap, C K; Tan, S G

    2009-08-01

    A total of 19 polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to analyse levels of genetic variation for 10 populations of Perna viridis L. collected from all over peninsular Malaysia. The populations involved in this study included Pulau Aman in Penang, Tanjung Rhu in Kedah, Bagan Tiang in Perak, Pulau Ketam in Selangor, Muar, Parit Jawa, Pantai Lido and Kampung Pasir Puteh in Johore, and Kuala Pontian and Nenasi in Pahang state. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to seven, with an average of 3.1. Heterozygote deficiencies were observed across all the 10 populations. Characterization of the populations revealed that local populations of P. viridis in peninsular Malaysia were genetically similar enough to be used as a biomonitoring agent for heavy metal contamination in the Straits of Malacca. Cluster analysis grouped the P. viridis populations according to their geographical distributions with the exception of Parit Jawa. The analysis also revealed that P. viridis from the northern parts of peninsular Malaysia were found to be the most distant populations among the populations of mussels investigated and P. viridis from the eastern part of peninsular Malaysia were closer to the central and southern populations than to the northern populations.

  11. Gender-specific metabolic responses in gonad of mussel Perna viridis to triazophos.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linbao; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Haigang; Jia, Xiaoping; Cai, Wengui

    2017-09-19

    Triazophos, as a lipophilic organophosphate pesticide, displays higher bioaccumulation in the gonads of shellfish. To study the reproductive toxicity of triazophos, we applied metabolomics to characterize the gender-specific metabolic responses in mussel Perna viridis exposed to triazophos. Metabolites were differently altered by triazophos in ovaries of mussel at different concentrations and time intervals, while basically similar metabolic response patterns were observed in male mussels at the two tested concentrations after exposure for 24 and 48h. The significant changes of metabolites in ovaries of mussel exhibited the disturbances in energy metabolism and osmotic regulation, while in male samples triazophos only affected the energy metabolism. Moreover, glycine, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, ethanol, aspartate, etc. exhibited consistent variation tendency in both male and female individuals. While the changes of homarine, betaine, taurine, hypotaurine, malonate, β-alanine, succinate, and choline showed obviously gender-specific responses. Overall, this study confirmed the gender-specific responses in gonad of P. viridis to triazophos exposure. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. [XRD and FTIR spectra characteristics of nacreous layer in perna viridis].

    PubMed

    Jia, Tai-Xuan; Liu, Zi-Li; Zhang, Gang-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The XRD and FTIR of aragonites in nacreous and prismatic layer of perna viridis were systematically measured, and the frequency variations of v1, v2 and v4 band of aragonites were especially analyzed. The results showed that both of them were aragonite and the frequency of v2 band differed in them, but the frequencies of other two bands were not altered and had the same values with cavernous aragonite. In the same specie of shell, the frequency of v2 band in nacreous layers was greater than that in prismatic layers, and there was a frequency shift of v2 band between them. For the first time, the phase transformation of biogenic aragonite was detected. After nacreous aragonite was heated at 300 degrees C, the frequency shift of v2 band was found. So it is concluded that the biogenic aragonite is related to the thermal effects in crystallizing process, meanwhile it stores excess energy. All of these can provide experiential basis for studying biomineralization theory.

  13. Biochemical markers of oxidative stress in Perna viridis exposed to mercury and temperature.

    PubMed

    Verlecar, X N; Jena, K B; Chainy, G B N

    2007-05-01

    Oxidative damage and antioxidant properties have been studied in Perna viridis subjected to short-term exposure to Hg along with temperature (72h) and long-term temperature exposures (14 days) as pollution biomarkers. The elevated thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA-RS) levels observed in gills and digestive gland under exposure to Hg, individually and combined with temperature, as also long-term temperature stress have been assigned to the oxidative damage resulting in lipid peroxidation (LPX). Increased activities of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) both in gills and digestive glands under long-term exposures to temperatures are more prominent to heat rather than cold stress suggesting activation of physiological mechanism to scavenge the ROS produced during heat stress. Also decreased values of reduced glutathione (GSH) on long exposures to temperature stress indicate utilisation of this antioxidant, either to scavenge oxiradicals or act in combination with other enzymes, was more than its production capacity under heat stress. The results suggest that temperature variation does alter the active oxygen metabolism by modulating antioxidant enzyme activities, which can be used as biomarker to detect sublethal effects of pollution.

  14. Co-transport of metal complexes by the green mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Chia-Ying; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2006-07-15

    We examined the uptake of ligand-bound metals (Cd and Zn) by the green mussel Perna viridis using defined artificial seawater. Different free ion concentrations (1 pM to 10 microM) in uptake solutions were created by adding different amounts of total metals (Cd 0.1 nM to 0.1 mM; Zn 0.5 nM to 0.05 mM) and ligands (EDTA, NTA, citric acid). Our results showed that Cd and Zn uptake could not be fully explained by the free Cd and Zn concentrations in the presence of different ligands, indicating that metal-ligand complexes were at least partially available for uptake by the mussels. Total Zn concentrations appeared to be a better predictor of metal uptake than the free Zn ion concentrations in the presence of different ligands. Uptake of lipophilic organic metal complexes was substantially greater than the hydrophilic metal complexes, even though the free ion concentration was comparable or lower. Moreover, the radiolabeled ligand compounds were directly accumulated by the mussels. The accumulation of metal complexes may explain the increased metal uptake with increasing ligand and total metal concentration, even though the free ion metal concentration was constant. Overall, our experimental results indicated that free metal ion cannot fully explain metal uptake since metal complex species were also available to the mussels to some extent, apparently through a co-transport process.

  15. Application of oxidative stress indices in natural populations of Perna viridis as biomarker of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Jena, K B; Verlecar, X N; Chainy, G B N

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress indices were measured in gills and digestive glands of Perna viridis collected from three coastal locations in Goa i.e., Bambolim, Marmugao Harbour and Malim. In addition to lipid peroxidation, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase and two non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione) were investigated in order to understand their variation with respect to pollution status of the sampling locations. We observed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes of both the tissues at Mormugao Harbour and Malim, suggesting that the animals at these two locations are at higher level of oxidative stress as compared to those at Bambolim. Conversely, low levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione, observed at Mormugao Harbour and Malim indicate that the animals may use these compounds to counteract stress in the tissues. This study shows that changes in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and reduced glutathione in tissues of P. viridis can be used as molecular biomarkers in environmental monitoring programs.

  16. Biokinetics and biotransformation of DDTs in the marine green mussels Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Raymond W M; Yu, Peter K N; Lam, Paul K S; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2009-07-26

    The biokinetics of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, p,p'-dichlorodiphenydichloroethylene (DDE) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis were characterized in this study. We exposed the mussels to DDT in aqueous or dietary sources and then compared and evaluated the absorption, accumulation, distribution and elimination of DDT and its metabolites (DDD and DDE) in the mussels. In addition, a dynamic model was employed to quantify the depuration kinetics of each DDT compound in various organs of the mussels. The potential biotransformation pathway in the mussels after dietary exposure to DDT was also analyzed. Differing accumulation and elimination patterns of each DDT compound (DDT, DDD and DDE) in various organs were observed. Most of the DDT was confined to the hepatopancreas following either aqueous or dietary exposure, although the biological fate and biokinetics of DDT were differed significantly between routes of exposure. In addition, the elimination of dietary DDT was markedly slower than that following aqueous uptake. The biotransformation of DDT to DDE was rare in the mussels, suggesting that any DDE in the mussels came primarily from the ambient environment instead of through biotransformation process. Nevertheless, DDE may be retained in the mussels because of its exceptionally low elimination rate. In contrast, DDT was biotransformed to DDD in the mussels following dietary uptake, and this biotransformation may facilitate DDT elimination from the mussels.

  17. Comparative Studies on the Toxicokinetics of Benzo[a]pyrene in Pinctada martensii and Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haihua; Cui, Lili; Cheng, Huamin; Zhang, Yu; Diao, Xiaoping; Wang, Jun

    2017-05-01

    Research on the kinetics of Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) bioaccumulation in the clam Pinctada martensii and mussel Perna viridis showed that the initial rate of uptake was directly related to the PAH concentrations in the ambient environment. The uptake and depuration rate constants were different at the four B[a]P exposure levels, which indicated that the toxicokinetic rate constants mainly depended on the exposure levels of pollutants to the environment. In addition, the uptake rate constants of B[a]P were higher than the depuration rate constants in the entire experiment. The comparison demonstrated that mussels release B[a]P more rapidly than clams. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of B[a]P varied from 3335 to 12892 in the clam and 2373-6235 in the mussel. These findings on the bioaccumulation kinetics for petroleum hydrocarbons, in association with the critical body residue, will be valuable when choosing sensitive organisms to assess the potential ecotoxicological risk to the marine environment.

  18. Polycyclic musks in green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis) from Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Shek, W M; Murphy, M B; Lam, James C W; Lam, Paul K S

    2008-01-01

    Six polycyclic musk compounds [Cashmeran (DPMI), Celestolide (ADBI), Phantolide (AHMI), Traseolide (ATII), Tonalide (AHTN), and Galaxolide (HHCB)] were analysed in marine green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis) from Hong Kong. ADBI, HHCB and AHTN were detected in almost all samples, while AHMI, ATII and DPMI were not detected. Concentrations of ADBI, HHCB and AHTN in mussels ranged from below detection limit-0.0743 (mean: 0.0246), 0.247-6.08 (mean: 1.15) and 0.0591-0.738 (mean: 0.190)mg/kg lipid weight, respectively. Mussels from two sampling sites in central Victoria Harbour contained the highest total polycyclic musk levels, suggesting that these waters are heavily influenced by domestic sewage. Concentrations of HHCB and AHTN detected in the mussel samples were the second highest and the highest levels, respectively, compared to global concentrations. A preliminary risk assessment indicated that HHCB and AHTN in mussels pose little or no threat to the health of shellfish consumers. Nevertheless, more comprehensive studies are required to further assess the ecological and human health risks associated with polycyclic musks.

  19. Modeling of cadmium bioaccumulation in two populations of the green mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tania Y T; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2005-09-01

    This study attempted to quantify differences in Cd biokinetics from two populations of green mussels (Perna viridis) from two sites (eastern and western) in Hong Kong with contrasting hydrological conditions. Body Cd concentrations were modeled using a simple biokinetic model coupled with measurements of dissolved Cd concentrations at each site. Mussels collected from the western site had three to six times higher Cd tissue concentration than the eastern population collected during two seasons (summer wet and winter dry), but the salinity was only lower in the western site during the summer. More Cd was distributed in the metallothionein-like and heat-sensitive proteins in the western population than the eastern population, and Cd predominantly was distributed in the insoluble fraction during summer. The Cd uptake rate constant from the dissolved phase was higher in the western population during summer due to a much lower salinity, but was comparable during winter. Dietary uptake of Cd was similar in both populations, and assimilation was lower from ingested radiolabeled seston than from diatoms. Efflux of Cd remained comparable between the two populations from two seasons (0.02-0.03 /d). Kinetic modeling demonstrates that the faster influx of Cd from aqueous phase caused the higher body Cd concentrations in the western population. The predicted Cd concentrations in mussels were comparable to those observed in the field. Our study highlights differences in Cd accumulation kinetics in different populations of mussels likely caused by the different physical environments.

  20. Toxicity Profile of a Nutraceutical Formulation Derived from Green Mussel Perna viridis

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Deepu; Chakkalakal, Selsa J.

    2014-01-01

    The short-term (acute) and long-term (subchronic) toxicity profile, mean lethal dose 50 (LD50), and no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of a nutraceutical formulation developed from green mussel Perna viridis, which showed in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties, were evaluated in the present study. The formulation was administered to the male and female Wistar rats at graded doses (0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 g/kg body weight) for two weeks of acute toxicity study and 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg body weight for 90 days in subchronic toxicity study. The LD50, variations in clinical signs, changes in body weight, body weight, food/water consumption, organ weight (liver, kidney, spleen, and brain), hematology, serum chemistry, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The LD50 of the formulation was 5,000 mg/kg BW. No test article related mortalities as well as change in body weight, and food and water consumption were observed. No toxicity related significant changes were noted in renal/hepatic function, hematological indices, and serum biochemical parameters between the control and treated groups. Histopathological alterations were not observed in the vital organs of rats. The subchronic NOAEL for the formulation in rats is greater than 2000 mg/kg. This study demonstrated that the green mussel formulation is safe to consume without any adverse effects in the body. PMID:24995298

  1. Uptake, depuration and subcellular distribution of cadmium in various tissues of Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Yang, M S; Chiu, S T; Wong, M H

    1995-06-01

    Green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis) were collected from a local mariculture site and placed in pre-cleaned sea water tanks containing 0, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.3 micrograms/ml CdCl2. The level of Cd in the gill, viscera and gonad was measured. The concentration of Cd in the 3 tissues increased linearly over 4 days' of exposure. The rate of uptake depends on the concentration of Cd in the water. In the 3 tissues studied, the maximum rate of uptake (Vmax) was highest in the gill (500 micrograms/g dry weight/day), followed by viscera (100 micrograms/g dry weight/day) and gonad (56.8 micrograms/g dry weight/day). The majority of the Cd taken up was bound to a fraction of the heat-stable proteins similar to metallothioneins. The rate of Cd depuration from the tissues was poor. There was no change in Cd concentration over 8 days' depuration in clean water.

  2. [Metal accumulation and MTLP induction in the digestive glands of Perna viridis exposed to Cu].

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Di; Yan, Wen; Long, Ai-Min; Ma, Fu-Jun; Chen, Shao-Yong

    2007-08-01

    Mussels have been proposed as appropriate biomonitors of marine pollution, especially for monitoring metallic pollution based on variations of metallothionein as biomarkers. Under 2 exposure levels (12.7 microg/L, 63.5 microg/L), Cu accumulation and metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) induction by mussel (Perna viridis) digestive glands were investigated and simulated into dynamic models in the present work, and the soluble and total Cu burden of digestive glands were also determined. Calculated mean Cu uptake rates by mussel target organ were 2.045 and 7.028 microg x (g x d)(-1) respectively, and the theoretical equilibrium kinetic BCFs of Cu were 2074 and 1619 correspondingly. And within the exposure duration, different changing trends of ratio of soluble Cu to total Cu in digestive glands were observed in the two groups. The MTLP level of control samples was (0.551 +/- 0.037) mg/g, and the counterparts are 0.407 - 0.699 mg/g, 0.826 - 0.942 mg/g respectively when mussels were exposed to 12.7 microg/L and 63.5 microg/L Cu solutions. Statistically significant MTLP induction (p < 0.001) was observed under higher exposure level. MTLP contents in digestive glands increased with the exposure Cu concentration and body accumulation of metal. There is a significantly negative exponential rise relationship (p < 0.000 1) between MTLP and Cu concentrations accumulated in the digestive glands of mussels.

  3. The effects of ocean acidification and a carbon dioxide capture and storage leak on the early life stages of the marine mussel Perna perna (Linneaus, 1758) and metal bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Szalaj, D; De Orte, M R; Goulding, T A; Medeiros, I D; DelValls, T A; Cesar, A

    2017-01-01

    The study assesses the effects of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) leaks and ocean acidification (OA) on the metal bioavailability and reproduction of the mytilid Perna perna. In laboratory-scale experiments, CCS leakage scenarios (pH 7.0, 6.5, 6.0) and one OA (pH 7.6) scenario were tested using metal-contaminated sediment elutriates and seawater from Santos Bay. The OA treatment did not have an effect on fertilisation, while significant effects were observed in larval-development bioassays where only 16 to 27 % of larva developed normally. In treatments that simulated CO2 leaks, when compared with control, fertilisation success gradually decreased and no larva developed to the D-shaped stage. A fall in pH increased the bioavailability of metals to marine mussels. Larva shell size was significantly affected by both elutriates when compared with seawater; moreover, a significant difference occurred at pH 6.5 between elutriates in the fertilisation bioassay.

  4. Modulation of antioxidant defences in digestive gland of Perna viridis (L.), on mercury exposures.

    PubMed

    Verlecar, X N; Jena, K B; Chainy, G B N

    2008-05-01

    Sub-lethal effects of mercury exposure (110th of LC(50), i.e. 0.045 mg l(-1)) for 5, 10 and 15 d was investigated on oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant defences in digestive gland of Perna viridis. In addition to this an in vitro effect of mercury single and supplemented with reduced glutathione on lipid peroxidation was studied. Increased lipid peroxidation (during first 10 days and also during in vitro exposures), protein carbonyl and hydrogen peroxides (from 5th till last day of exposure) indicate the resultant oxidative stress in the mercury exposed specimen. DNA damage (F-value) response although less distinct on 5th and 15th d, its low values on 10th d and significant correlation with hydrogen peroxide suggests the toxic role of free radicals towards DNA integrity. Superoxide dismutase, which remains low initially (5th d) and increases later suggests its immediate response against superoxide radical. Higher activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase on 15th d and glutathione-S-tranferase from 10th d onwards suggests the adaptive behaviour of the tissue against oxyradicals. Increasing levels of non-enzymatic antioxidant molecules, such as reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid indicated its involvement in counteracting oxidative damage. Further role of reduced glutathione in reducing Hg toxicity is evident in in vitro experiments where lipid peroxidation remains low in mercury concentrations supplemented with reduced glutathione. The elevated levels of metallothionein from 5th to 10th d suggest involvement of this protein in detoxification of reactive oxygen species and toxic metal. The above results suggest that both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants play an important role in protecting cell against Hg toxicity, which can be used as a biomarker of metal contamination in aquatic environment.

  5. Seasonality of bioaccumulation of trace organics and lysosomal integrity in green-lipped mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Fang, James K H; Wu, Rudolf S S; Zheng, Gene J; Lam, Paul K S; Shin, Paul K S

    2010-02-15

    Lysosomal integrity in mussels is widely used as a biomarker in coastal environments to demonstrate exposure to trace organic pollutants. However, few studies have determined the long-term influences of seasonal variations on the bioaccumulation of trace organics and subsequently altered response of lysosomal integrity in mussels. This study aimed to test three null hypotheses that (1) bioaccumulations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (SigmaPAH) and (2) total polychlorinated biphenyl (SigmaPCB), and (3) lysosomal integrity as indicated by Neutral Red retention time (NRRT) in haemocytes, in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis were not seasonally dependent. The tissue concentrations of SigmaPAH and SigmaPCB and haemocytic NRRT were determined in P. viridis in a metropolitan harbour, subtropical Hong Kong during the wet and dry seasons from 2004 to 2007. Additional information on temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and total ammonia nitrogen in seawater, and sediment levels of SigmaPAH and SigmaPCB, were extracted from published data and re-analyzed. Our results accepted all null hypotheses, based on the minimal seasonal influences of seawater temperature and salinity on all studied parameters, in which no significant differences between the wet and dry seasons were detected. The seasonal effect was likely outweighed by the greatly improved water quality and pollution abatement noted inside the harbour, with a gradual shift in mussel PAHs from a pyrolytic origin to a petrogenic origin. Spatially, the site east of the harbour was relatively unpolluted. The single use of NRRT in P. viridis explained 25% of the total variation of the integrated pollution patterns in seawater, sediments and mussels. The present study suggested that the dynamic change of trace organics could be reflected by the response on lysosomal integrity in P. viridis, which was recommended as a routine screening biomarker in monitoring of harbour water quality across seasons.

  6. Optimizing deacetylation process for chitosan production from green mussel (perna viridis) shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danarto, Y. C.; Distantina, Sperisa

    2016-02-01

    The green mussel (perna viridis) shell waste could be utilized for chitosan production because it contained chitin. Chitin can be derived into chitosan through the deacetylation process. Chitosan is a polysaccharides polymer that is readily soluble in dilute acid solution and easily modified into other useful compounds. This research aimed to study the chitosan production from green mussel shells. This experiment had the following stages, deproteinization process aimed to eliminate the protein content using 1N NaOH solution, demineralization process aimed to remove minerals in green mussel shells as CaCO3 using 1 N HCl solution and decolorization process aimed to eliminate the color pigments and other impurities using ethanol solvent. All process above resulted chitin. Furthermore, chemical modification of chitin into chitosan by deacetylation process. This stage was very important because it greatly affected the chitosan properties. This research studied two different treatment for deacetylation process. The first treatment was the deacetylation process using concentrated NaOH solution (50% w), at high temperatures (90 - 100 °C) for 2 hours extraction, whilw the second treatment was deacetylation process using a low concentration of NaOH solution (15% w), at room temperature for 24 hours. The results showed that deproteinization, demineralization, and decolorizaton was capable of removing protein, mineral, and pigment. This experiment yield chitin 41.6 %wt. Chitosan yield from second treatment was 39.5%w and it was better than first treatment. Chitosan from first treatment had 79.8% degree of deacetylation and 16.5 kDa molecular weight. It was better than first treatment.

  7. Energetics of byssus attachment and feeding in the green-lipped mussel Perna canaliculus.

    PubMed

    Lurman, Glenn J; Hilton, Zoë; Ragg, Norman L C

    2013-04-01

    In most animals, significant increases in metabolic rate are due to activity and to feeding (known as apparent specific dynamic action). We determined the energetic costs of activity and feeding in adult green-lipped mussels (Perna canaliculus). Maximal metabolic rate was determined, using closed-chamber respirometry, during byssus re-attachment, during specific dynamic action after 16 h of feeding with Isochrysis galbana, and for the two activities combined, in 23 mussels. Metabolic rate was significantly elevated above rest by about 1.9-fold during byssus attachment (17.1 ± 1.53 μg O(2) h(-1) g(-1) whole mussel wet weight at rest, increased to 27.9 ± 0.91 μg O(2) h(-1) g(-1)), and by 2.2-fold after feeding (31.4 ± 1.20 μg O(2) h(-1) g(-1)). Combined feeding and byssus attachment led to a still higher metabolic rate (34.0 ± 1.23 μg O(2) h(-1) g(-1)). Behavior was also significantly altered, with mussels being almost continuously open during attachment and after feeding (90%-99% of the time); however, the time spent open during the day decreased, reaching a minimum of 52% ± 9% 3 days after feeding, and remained low (67%-82%) for the following 45-day starvation period. Significant diurnal differences were observed, with mussels continuously (92%-100%) open at night. The key findings from this study are that green-lipped mussels (1) have an aerobic scope of approximately 2-fold; (2) reach a higher metabolic rate during feeding than during activity, and the two combined can raise the metabolic rate higher still; (3) display a marked diurnal behavior.

  8. Functional and metabolic characterization of hemocytes of the green mussel, Perna viridis: in vitro impacts of temperature.

    PubMed

    Donaghy, Ludovic; Volety, Aswani K

    2011-12-01

    The green mussel, Perna viridis, is a bivalve mollusk native to Asia and was recently introduced to Florida, USA. Since its first observation in 1999 in Tampa Bay, Florida, green mussel population has expanded considerably, to reach the Atlantic coast of Florida, Georgia and South Carolina. Most of currently available studies about the ecology and biology of green mussels were performed in the Indian and Pacific oceans. Very recently, it has been suggested that due to a weak low temperature resistance, green mussels might have already reached the Northern edge of their distribution in the USA. However, there is currently an obvious lack of data about the adaptation capacities of Perna viridis to environmental conditions in Florida, especially at the physiological and cellular levels. In the present work, we determined and characterized the populations of circulating hemocytes, and the cellular components of hemolymph involved in various physiological functions, including immunity. Two main populations were characterized, hyalinocytes and granulocytes. Granulocytes accounted for 60% of circulating cells, and displayed higher phagocytic capacities, lysosomal content and basal oxidative metabolism than hyalinocytes. Hemocyte parameters were not influenced by the size of green mussels. In addition, hemocytes were subjected to acute temperature challenges (10, 20 and 30 °C) and their immune-related functions and metabolism analyzed. Our results showed that 10 °C represent a stressful condition for the Floridian green mussels, as depicted by a low phagocytosis capacity and an increase of oxidative metabolism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. De novo transcriptome analysis of Perna viridis highlights tissue-specific patterns for environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Leung, Priscilla T Y; Ip, Jack C H; Mak, Sarah S T; Qiu, Jian Wen; Lam, Paul K S; Wong, Chris K C; Chan, Leo L; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-09-19

    The tropical green-lipped mussel Perna viridis is a common biomonitor throughout the Indo-Pacific region that is used for environmental monitoring and ecotoxicological investigations. However, there is limited molecular data available regarding this species. We sought to establish a global transcriptome database from the tissues of adductor muscle, gills and the hepatopancreas of P. viridis in an effort to advance our understanding of the molecular aspects involved during specific toxicity responses in this sentinel species. Illumina sequencing results yielded 544,272,542 high-quality filtered reads. After de novo assembly using Trinity, 233,257 contigs were generated with an average length of 1,264 bp and an N50 length of 2,868 bp; 192,879 assembled transcripts and 150,111 assembled unigenes were obtained after clustering. A total of 93,668 assembled transcripts (66,692 assembled genes) with putative functions for protein domains were predicted based on InterProScan analysis. Based on similarity searches, 44,713 assembled transcripts and 25,319 assembled unigenes were annotated with at least one BLAST hit. A total of 21,262 assembled transcripts (11,947 assembled genes) were annotated with at least one well-defined Gene Ontology (GO) and 5,131 assembled transcripts (3,181 assembled unigenes) were assigned to 329 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The quantity of assembled unigenes and transcripts obtained from male and female mussels were similar but varied among the three studied tissues, with the highest numbers recorded in the gills, followed by the hepatopancreas, and then the adductor muscle. Multivariate analyses revealed strong tissue-specific patterns among the three different tissues, but not between sexes in terms of expression profiles for annotated genes in various GO terms, and genes associated with stress responses and degradation of xenobiotics. The expression profiles of certain selected genes in each tissue type were further

  10. Benzo[a]pyrene absorption and exposure pathways in the green mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Xiong; Chow, Alex T S

    2002-02-01

    The absorption efficiency (AE) of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compound, in the green mussel Perna viridis was measured under different biological and food conditions (body size, food quantity, and food species). Uptake of BaP from the aqueous phase by different species of phytoplankton and green mussels was also experimentally quantified. A bioenergetic-based kinetic model was then used to separate the exposure pathways of BaP accumulation in the green mussels. Our results demonstrated that the AE of BaP in the green mussels ranged between 17 and 47%. Body size did not significantly affect the AE of BaP in the mussels. The AEs increased with a decrease in food availability, largely as a result of lengthening the gut passage of chemicals. The AEs differed by up to 2.3 times (17-39%) among the different food diets tested (four phytoplankton diets and one sediment diet). The BaP associated with the sediment was assimilated least efficiently. The difference in gut passage also appeared to account partially for the difference in AEs observed among different food types. No correlation between the AE and the distribution of BaP in the cytoplasm of phytoplankton cells was found. The concentration factor of BaP measured in four different marine phytoplankton species was in the range of 10(4)-5 x 10(4) (L/kg). The calculated uptake rate constant of BaP in the green mussels was 6.37 L/g/d, and the efficiency of absorption of BaP from the aqueous phase was 6.6 to 8.8%. The model calculation indicated that under most circumstances, >56% of BaP in mussels can indeed be derived from the uptake from the aqueous phase. However, the relative importance of aqueous and dietary exposure can be affected by the variation of AE, mussel's ingestion rate, and concentration of BaP in ingested food particles.

  11. Temporal variations of heavy metals levels in Perna viridis, on the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Sucre State, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rafael; Acosta, Vanessa; Segnini, Mary Isabel; Brito, Leonor; Martínez, Gregorio

    2015-02-28

    Perna viridis was used as biomonitor to assess heavy metal levels in the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Venezuela, during rain and drought seasons. The mussels were weighed and measured. The metal concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For rain period, the order of bioavailability was: Cu>Ni>Mn>Co>Cd>Pb, and for drought: Cu>Mn>Ni>Co>Pb>Cd. The concentrations of Ni, Co, Cd and Pb showed significant differences (P<0.05) in both periods. There was higher metal accumulation during drought season, possibly related to upwelling, since it produces an increase in primary productivity, which translates more food into organisms, making metals bioavailable for mussels. Only Cu and Mn showed significant relationships between the size and metal concentration, during drought period, it may be because of the organisms need for these essential metals in different physiological processes.

  12. Spermatogenesis of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis with dual patterns of acrosome and tail development in spermatids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reunov, A. A.; Au, D. W. T.; Wu, R. S. S.

    1999-08-01

    Spermatogenesis in the mussel Perna viridis was studied by electron microscopy. Results demonstrated that cytological development in spermatogonia and spermatocytes was similar to that previously described in other Mytilidae. Acrosome formation began with the arising of proacrosomal vesicles in spermatogonia. The abundance of proacrosomal vesicles increased in spermatocytes, which were flagellated. However, during spermiogenesis, dual patterns of acrosome development as well as flagellum development could be found among spermatids in a male gonad. The two lines of acrosome formation in spermatids ultimately gave rise to morphologically similar acrosomes. The two lines of flagellum development in spermatids resulted in the formation of sperm cells with either a typically posteriorly directed tail or an anteriorly directed tail.

  13. Biomarkers of metal toxicity and histology of Perna viridis from Ennore estuary, Chennai, south east coast of India.

    PubMed

    Arockia Vasanthi, Lourduraj; Revathi, Peranandam; Arulvasu, Chinnasamy; Munuswamy, Natesan

    2012-10-01

    Distribution of heavy metals and its associated histological perturbations were studied in the soft tissues of Perna viridis collected from Ennore estuary and compared with the less polluted Kovalam coast. The concentration of copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, manganese and iron were quantified in gills, digestive gland and adductor muscle. The results showed marked differences between the two sites as well as significant variations within the tissues. Among the heavy metals analyzed, lead and cadmium recorded very low in the soft tissues of mussel. Heavy metal levels in tissues of mussel collected from Ennore estuary were in the order of gills>digestive gland>adductor muscle, while it was digestive gland>gills>adductor muscle in the mussel sampled from Kovalam coast. The decreasing trend of metals in the tissues of mussels sampled from both Ennore estuary and Kovalam coast was in the order of Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd. Overall, the highest metal concentrations were found in the mussel collected from Ennore estuary. The metal accumulation in the gills and digestive gland of Perna viridis was found to be quite high in comparison with the adductor muscle. These soft tissues were further investigated by light microscopy and the results were compared with the reference site (Kovalam coast). These results suggest that thickening of the digestive epithelium, hemocytic infiltration in the gills and myodegeneration in the muscle tissue are useful histological biomarkers for heavy metal induced stress, and demonstrate that precautions need to be taken in Ennore estuary in order to prevent heavy metal pollution that can occur in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An investigation of oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers during Greenshell mussel (Perna canaliculus) oocyte cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Gale, Samantha L; Burritt, David J; Tervit, H Robin; Adams, Serean L; McGowan, Lindsay T

    2014-10-01

    Oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants' response, and the fertilization and development capability of Perna canaliculus oocytes were investigated at critical treatment steps in a previously published controlled-rate cryopreservation protocol. The cryoprotectant (CPA) from this protocol comprises 10% ethylene glycol (v:v) and 0.2 M trehalose (wt/vol) final concentration. Critical treatment steps included (1) seawater control, (2) CPA addition, (3) CPA addition followed by cooling to -6 °C, (4) CPA addition and cooling to -10 °C, and (5) CPA addition and cooling to -35 °C and immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN). The percentage of fertilized oocytes was 53.8 ± 13.3% in the seawater control but was reduced to 26.0 ± 15.6% after -35 °C + LN treatment, whereas development to D-larvae was 21.0 ± 6.4% in the seawater control reduced to 4.8 ± 2.9% after cooling to -6 °C, and was zero at all the subsequent cooling steps. All oxidative damage biomarkers, protein carbonyls (PCs) and lipid hydroperoxides (LPs), and antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, percent reduced glutathione (%GSH), and total glutathione (defined as glutathione; reduced [GSH] plus glutathione disulphide; derived from two molecules of GSH [GSSG]) were measured over all treatments on unfertilized oocytes over a post-treatment recovery period of 0 to 240 minutes in seawater. An ANOVA showed that both treatment and post-treatment periods had significant effects on the concentrations of all biomarkers (P < 0.05). Protein carbonyls and LPs increased very little after CPA addition and cooling treatments, when compared with the seawater control, but large increases up to sixfold occurred between 0 and 240 minutes for the -35 °C + LN treatment. Concentrations of SOD, catalase, total glutathione, and %GSH at 0 minutes decreased by -31.2%, -26.9%, -21.9%, and -25.0%, respectively, between the seawater control and the -35

  15. Seasonal variations of heavy metals content in muscle and viscera of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from Da-Peng Bay Lagoon in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shue, Meei-Fang; Chen, Wen-Der; Bellotindos, Luzvisminda M; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2014-01-01

    As a natural lagoon, rich in biological resources including fish, crabs, and bivalves, Da-Peng Bay Lagoon receives the discharges from the neighboring rivers, Kao-ping, Dong-gang, and Lin-Bian, which have harmed the ecology and reduced the water quality of the lagoon. This study analyzes seasonal variation of heavy metals concentration (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the muscle and viscera of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from Da-Peng Bay Lagoon. Data from this study may provide information on the use of Perna viridis as a bioindicator for heavy metals pollution in the lagoon. The heavy metals concentrations were greater in viscera than in muscles of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis. Results showed that the mussel is capable of accumulating high contents of Cu and Zn. Generally, the order of concentrations in the muscle by season was Zn > Cu > Cr or As. In viscera, the general order of concentrations was Zn > Cu > Pb or Cr or As. Mercury was not detected in winter and spring in muscle and viscera. Cadmium displayed significant variation with season. There was also significant correlation between tissue concentration and heavy metals, including Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd, and As.

  16. Chronic hypoxia and low salinity impair anti-predatory responses of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youji; Hu, Menghong; Cheung, S G; Shin, P K S; Lu, Weiqun; Li, Jiale

    2012-06-01

    The effects of chronic hypoxia and low salinity on anti-predatory responses of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis were investigated. Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from hypoxic to normoxic (1.5 ± 0.3 mg l(-1), 3.0 ± 0.3 mg l(-1) and 6.0 ± 0.3 mg l(-1)), and salinities were selected within the variation during the wet season in Hong Kong coastal waters (15‰, 20‰, 25‰ and 30‰). The dissolved oxygen and salinity significantly affected some anti-predatory responses of mussel, including byssus production, shell thickness and shell weight, and the adductor diameter was only significantly affected by salinity. Besides, interactive effects of dissolved oxygen and salinity on the byssus production and shell thickness were also observed. In hypoxic and low salinity conditions, P. viridis produced fewer byssal threads, thinner shell and adductor muscle, indicating that hypoxia and low salinity are severe environmental stressors for self-defence of mussel, and their interactive effects further increase the predation risk.

  17. Monitoring trace metal contaminants in green mussel, Perna viridis from the coastal waters of Karnataka, southwest coast of India.

    PubMed

    Sasikumar, Geetha; Krishnakumar, P K; Bhat, G S

    2006-08-01

    The green mussel (Perna viridis) is widely distributed in the coastal waters of Asia and is used in mussel watch programmes for monitoring environmental contaminants throughout the region. Green mussels representing different size groups and habitats were sampled from their natural beds at 28 locations in the inshore waters of Karnataka (southwest coast of India) to analyze the tissue concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Tissue concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, and Pb were significantly higher in smaller mussels than in the larger size group. Significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni were observed in mussels sampled from intertidal beds when compared to mussels from the subtidal beds. The sampling sites were categorized into industrial sites (IS), urban sites (US), and nonurban sites (NS) based on principal component analysis of metal concentrations in mussel. Spatial variations in tissue concentrations of all metals were observed except for Zn. Generally, the levels of toxic trace metals like Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr in the whole tissue of P. viridis were within safe limits throughout the coast of Karnataka. However, relatively high concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Pb were observed in the whole tissue of green mussels collected from the industrial sites (IS), which may be derived from a variety of anthropogenic activities.

  18. Immune responses to combined effect of hypoxia and high temperature in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youji; Hu, Menghong; Shin, Paul K S; Cheung, Siu Gin

    2011-01-01

    Flow cytometry was used to examine immune responses in haemocytes of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis under six combinations of oxygen level (1.5 mg O2 l(-1), 6.0 mg O2 l(-1)) and temperature (20 °C, 25 °C and 30 °C) at 24 h, 48 h, 96 h and 168 h. The mussels were then transferred to normoxic condition (6.0 mg O2 l(-1)) at 20 °C for further 24 h to study their recovery from the combined hypoxic and temperature stress. Esterase (Est), reactive oxygen species (ROS), lysosome content (Lyso) and phagocytosis (Pha) were reduced at high temperatures, whereas hypoxia resulted in higher haemocyte mortality (HM) and reduced phagocytosis. For HM and Pha, changes were observed after being exposed to the stresses for 96 h, whereas only a 24 h period was required for ROS and Lyso, and a 48 h one for Est. Recovery from the stresses was observed for HM and Pha but not other immune responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of subpopulations and immune-related parameters of hemocytes in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youji; Hu, Menghong; Chiang, M W L; Shin, P K S; Cheung, S G

    2012-03-01

    The green-lipped mussel Perna viridis is distributed widely in the estuarine and coastal areas of the Indo-Pacific region and extensively cultured as an inexpensive protein source. Morphology and immunological activities of hemocytes of P. viridis were investigated using flow cytometry and light and electron microscopy. Three major types of hemocytes were identified in the hemolymph, including dense-granulocyte, semi-granulocyte (small and large size) and hyalinocyte. Other hemocytes, which occurred in low numbers, included granulocytes with different electron-dense/lucent granules and hemoblast-like cells. Based on flow cytometry, two subpopulations were identified. Granulocytes were larger cells, and the more abundant, containing numerous granules in the cytoplasm, and hyalinocytes were the smaller and less abundant with the fewest granules. Flow cytometry revealed that the granulocytes were more active in cell phagocytosis, contained the higher lysosomal content, and showed higher esterase activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation compared with hyalinocytes. Immune functions assessed by the flow cytometry indicated that the granulocytes were the main hemocytes involved in the cellular defence in P. viridis. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Toxic effects of lead on biochemical and histological alterations in green mussel (Perna viridis) induced by environmentally relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, G; Purvaja, R; Ramesh, R

    2014-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted on green mussel (Perna viridis) to determine the adverse effects of lead (Pb). Exposure of organisms to acute toxicity test for 96 h and lethal concentration (LC(50)) was the endpoint of the test. Acute toxicity for 96-h LC(50) and 95% confidence intervals of P. viridis was 2.62 ± 0.12 (2.62-3.24) mg/L Pb. Chronic toxicity tests revealed that survival of exposed organisms decreased with elevated exposure concentrations. No-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) were calculated based on survival of test organisms. Results of this study demonstrated an increase in toxicity in test organisms with rise in exposure time and concentration. In this study, histology and biochemical enzymes, namely, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, and lipid peroxides, were correlated with chronic value and survival endpoints of P. viridis after chronic exposure to Pb. Biochemical and histological responses to different concentrations of Pb were assessed and significant differences were observed between control and increasing exposure concentrations. Biomarker studies in internal organs confirmed that the observed changes are due to adverse effects of Pb. This assessment of toxicity was the first step to determining the seawater quality criteria for marine organisms.

  1. Trace metal content in mussels, Perna viridis L., obtained from selected seafood markets in a Metropolitan City.

    PubMed

    Dumalagan, H G D; Gonzales, A C; Hallare, A V

    2010-04-01

    Mussels, Perna viridis L., obtained from three selected seafood markets in Metro Manila, were tested for metal content including cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc through atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Water samples from Bacoor Bay, Cavite, which supplies mussels to the market, were likewise subjected to similar metal analyses. Of the metals analyzed in the soft tissues of mussels, only copper and lead with highest obtained values of 10.4 mg/kg and 2.3 mg/kg, respectively exceeded the PEMSEA guideline for safe human consumption. Water samples collected from the harvest sites in Bacoor Bay showed high concentrations of cadmium (0.023 mg/L) and lead (0.25 mg/L) that exceeded the standards of DENR, ASEAN, and US EPA. Zinc, though detected in relatively high concentrations in both water (0.03 mg/L) and soft tissues (12.16-14.43 mg/kg) of mussels remained below the criteria set by the above-mentioned agencies. Overall, the present study indicates that mussels being sold in selected Metro Manila seafood markets were contaminated with metals, notably Cu and Pb, at concentrations that are unsafe for human consumption and thus, represents a health risk.

  2. Biogenic nanospheres of amorphous carbonated Ca-Mg phosphate within the periostracum of the green mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Gangsheng

    2014-12-01

    Recently there is increasing evidence that the shell biomineralization proceeds via an amorphous precursor route. Therefore, the search for and investigation of amorphous biominerals in bivalve shells are of great importance and interest. Here, using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), we investigate the microstructure and mineralogy of the periostracum in Perna viridis. We find that: (1) the periostracum has three layers, of which the inner and outer layer are of proteins, while the middle layer is mineralized with nanospheres of amorphous biominerals; (2) the nanospheres are of amorphous carbonated Ca-Mg phosphate (ACCP), where the CO3(2)(-)/PO4(3)(-) weight ratio is estimated to be ∼0.3, and the Ca/P and Ca/Mg atomic ratio is ∼1.4 and 1.6, respectively; (3) the nanospheres, with a diameter of 43-106nm, are found to assemble into spherules with a diameter of 160-500nm, which are further organized into parallel microlayers separated by the proteins; and (4) the nanospheres are assumed to function as the pH stabilizer to facilitate the shell's initial mineralization. Finally, we expect that these findings will advance our understanding of the shell's biomineralization process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tissue-specific toxicological effects of cadmium in green mussels (Perna viridis): nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huifeng; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2011-04-01

    Toxicity tests for metals have traditionally focused on selected biomarkers to characterize the biological stress induced by metals in marine organisms. Here nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics, a system biology tool, was applied to the marine green mussel, Perna viridis, to investigate the toxicological effects of Cd in both digestive gland and adductor muscle tissues. After Cd exposure for either two or four weeks, there was no significant metabolic change in the mussels exposed to Cd at 2 µg/L. At 20 µg/L, there were major metabolite changes related to amino acids, osmolytes, and energy metabolites. Digestive gland tissue was more sensitive to Cd than adductor muscle tissue. The adductor muscle tissue showed elevated levels of glutamine, glutamate, and lactate, and reduced levels of branched chain amino acids, aspartate, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. Overall, four weeks of Cd exposure produced neurotoxicity and metabolic disturbances and disturbed osmoregulation. These results suggest that the adductor muscle tissue of mussels may be a suitable supplemental biomarker for exposure to toxicants. In addition, the results demonstrate that (1) H-NMR-based metabolomic analysis can provide a systematic view of the toxicological effects of metals on mussels, suggesting that it might be employed to investigate the toxicological effects of other marine pollutants. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  4. Chlorination-induced genotoxicity in the mussel Perna viridis: assessment by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Pooja; Kumar, Rajesh; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam; Venugopalan, Vayalam P

    2016-08-01

    Mussels are important fouling organisms in the cooling water systems of coastal power plants. Continuous low-dose chlorination (CLDC) is being practiced as an effective method to control mussel biofouling in power plant cooling water systems. CLDC effectively controls mussel fouling by discouraging larval settlement rather than by killing the larvae or adults. Mussels are an integral part of the natural benthic community in the receiving water body where the coolant water is discharged. Hence, from a toxicological point of view, they can serve as both target and non-target organisms. Previous researchers have indicated that chlorine residual, rather than elevated temperature, can be the major stress factor in the effluents released from coastal power plants. However, very little data are available on the sub-lethal effects of low level chlorination on representative benthic fauna. In this study, we used native and transplanted mussels (Perna viridis) to study lethal and sub-lethal effects of chlorination in the cooling water circuit of an operating power plant. Experiments involving comet assay suggested that CLDC can cause DNA damage in treated mussels. However, activation of DNA repair appeared to get initiated after the accrued damage reached a threshold. The results indicate that, at chlorine residual levels observed at the discharge point, exposure to chlorinated effluents is unlikely to cause significant genetic damage to mussels in the recipient water body. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. NMR-based metabolomic studies on the toxicological effects of cadmium and copper on green mussels Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huifeng; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2010-11-15

    Traditional toxicology studies have focused on selected biomarkers to characterize the biological stress induced by metals in marine organisms. In this study, a system biology tool, metabolomics, was applied to the marine mussel Perna viridis to investigate changes in the metabolic profiles of soft tissue as a response to copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd), both as single metal and as a mixture. The major metabolite changes corresponding to metal exposure are related to amino acids, osmolytes, and energy metabolites. Following metal exposure for 1 week, there was a significant increase in the levels of branched chain amino acids, histidine, glutamate, glutamine, hypotaurine, dimethylglycine, arginine and ATP/ADP. For the Cu+Cd co-exposed mussels, the levels of lactate, branched chain amino acid, succinate, and NAD increased, whereas the levels of glucose, glycogen, and ATP/ADP decreased, indicating a different metabolic profile for the single metal exposure groups. After 2 weeks of exposure, the mussels showed acclimatization to Cd exposure based on the recovery of some metabolites. However, the metabolic profile induced by the metal mixture was very similar to that from Cu exposure, suggesting that Cu dominantly induced the metabolic disturbances. Both Cu and Cd may lead to neurotoxicity, disturbances in energy metabolism, and osmoregulation changes. These results demonstrate the high applicability and reliability of NMR-based metabolomics in interpreting the toxicological mechanisms of metals using global metabolic biomarkers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of condition index in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis between Sebatu and Pasir Panjang, Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Barwani, S M; Arshad, A; Amin, S M Nurul; Rahman, Aminur

    2016-07-01

    The condition index (which relates to the tissue dry weight to shell volume) of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis was investigated at Sebatu in Melaka and Pasir Panjang in Negri Sembilan from September 2003 to February 2004. Monthly samples of P. viridis were collected from culturing rafts at both sites. Variations in the average monthly condition index (CI) of P. viridis ranged from 21.06 to 26.72 g cm(-3) and 15.18 to 19.41 g cm(-3) in Sebatu and Pasir Panjang, respectively. Salinity values were lowest in November between 27.93 to 28.10 ppt in Sebatu and Pasir Panjang, respectively. Salinity then started increasing gradually until it reached 33.26 ppt in Sebatu and 31.23 ppt in Pasir Panjang in the month of February. Chlorophylla in Pasir Panjang showed higher fluctuation, ranging from 2.93 to 14.39 mg/L, while in Sebatu the fluctuations were lower and ranged between 7.70 and 9.37 mg l(-1). Rapid decline in CI values were recorded during January in Sebatu and February in Pasir Panjang. However, this rapid declining state of CI in P. viridis was an indication of its spawning period, when their gametes were released in the water column. These findings would help in the development of captive breeding techniques and mass seed production in aquaculture.

  7. Anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous/ethanol and methanol extracts of Perna viridis Linn. in mice.

    PubMed

    Sreejamole, K L; Radhakrishnan, C K; Padikkala, J

    2011-12-01

    Anti-inflammatory effect of the edible mytilid bivalve Perna viridis was evaluated using formalin, carrageenan and dextran-induced paw oedema in mice. The whole mussel tissue without shell was first extracted with ethyl acetate and then successively with methanol and water:ethanol, 7:3 (aqueous/ethanol). Three doses (100, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg) of the extracts (methanol and aqueous/ethanol) were administered orally prior to the injection of inflammatory agents. The inflammation induced by formalin was inhibited by the administration of both extracts for 7 days and the activity was found to be higher for methanol than aqueous/ethanol extract. A dose-dependent reduction in paw thickness was observed for carrageenan-induced paw oedema on treatment with methanol and aqueous/ethanol extracts which was comparable to the standard drug diclofenac. The effect of extracts on dextran-induced oedema was less than that produced by the other two inflammatory stimulants.

  8. Multimarker study of the effects of antifouling biocide on benthic organisms: results using Perna viridis as candidate species.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Pooja; Kumar, Rajesh; Joshi, Hiren; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam; Venugopalan, Vayalam P

    2017-07-07

    Toxic effects of continuous low dose application of the antifouling biocide chlorine on marine benthic organisms were monitored using transplanted green mussels (Perna viridis) and a suite of biomarkers. Caged mussels were deployed in chlorinated and non-chlorinated sections of the cooling system of an operating electric power plant. Biomarkers indicative of general stress, oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and catalase), and DNA integrity, along with expression of stress proteins, were studied to assess the effects. Deterioration in condition index with corresponding increase in DNA strand breaks was indicative of chlorine stress. Superoxide dismutase enzyme did not show any particular trend, but catalase activity was high during the initial days of exposure at the chlorinated site; later, it became almost equal to that at the control site. Similarly, expressions of stress proteins (HSP60, HSP70, HSP22, GSTS1, and CYP4) showed bell-shaped pattern during the period of study. Positive correlation among the endpoints indicated the utility of the multimarker approach to monitor the effects of continuous low dose chlorination on mussels.

  9. Suspended micro-sized PVC particles impair the performance and decrease survival in the Asian green mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Rist, Sinja Elena; Assidqi, Khoirunnisa; Zamani, Neviaty Putri; Appel, Daniel; Perschke, Myriam; Huhn, Mareike; Lenz, Mark

    2016-10-15

    Marine bivalves are known to ingest microplastics, but information on the consequences for their physiological performance is limited. To investigate a potential exposure pathway that has not yet been addressed, we mimicked the resuspension of microplastics from the sediment in a laboratory exposure experiment. For this, we exposed the Asian green mussel Perna viridis to 4 concentrations (0mg/l, 21.6mg/l, 216mg/l, 2160mg/l) of suspended polyvinylchloride (PVC) particles (1-50μm) for two 2-hour-time-periods per day. After 44days, mussel filtration and respiration rates as well as byssus production were found to be a negative function of particle concentration. Furthermore, within 91days of exposure, mussel survival declined with increasing PVC abundance. These negative effects presumably go back to prolonged periods of valve closure as a reaction to particle presence. We suggest that microplastics constitute a new seston component that exerts a stress comparable to natural suspended solids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunomodulation the marine green mussel Perna viridis exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of Cu and Hg.

    PubMed

    Thiagarajan, R; Gopalakrishnan, S; Thilagam, H

    2006-10-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing concern and, more importantly, pollution of the aquatic ecosystem is alarming. Marine pollution may be one of the reasons for disease incidence in marine organisms, which is caused due to adverse effects of pollutants on the immune system. Bivalves are commonly used as bio-indicators of marine pollution, and immunomodulation due to toxicants is one of the important bio-markers used. Perna viridis too have been used as a bio-indicator, but this study is, to our knowledge, a first report on immunomodulation produced by metals, in P. viridis. Animals were exposed to copper and mercury at their sub-lethal concentrations of 20 microg L(-1) and 10 microg L(-1), respectively. Immune parameters including phenoloxidase, reactive oxygen species generation, and phagocytosis were monitored. The study period was for 25 days (chronic long-term exposure) and objectives established whether metals produced immunomodulation and to understand the effects of long-term exposure on immunomodulation. Results showed that both metals adversely affected immune parameters studied and, interestingly, there appears to be some level of recovery (depuration) from the toxic effects of metals.

  11. Spatial and temporal genetic variation of green mussel, Perna viridis in the Gulf of Thailand and implication for aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Prakoon, Warangkana; Tunkijjanukij, Suriyan; Nguyen, Thuy T T; Na-Nakorn, Uthairat

    2010-10-01

    The culture of green mussel (Perna viridis) in the Gulf of Thailand depends on natural spat which are believed to come from spawning grounds adjacent to major river mouths. In the present paper, genetic diversity of spatial and temporal populations of green mussel in the Gulf of Thailand was investigated using five microsatellite loci. The results showed moderate genetic variation of all 11 populations (averaged number of alleles per locus, A = 10.4-12.2; effective number of alleles per locus, A(e) = 5.36-6.59; mean allelic richness, A(r) = 10.23-12.06; observed heterozygosity, H(o) = 0.52-0.63, and expected heterozygosity, H(e) = 0.66-0.73) without significant differences among populations. No sign of bottleneck or genetic disequilibrium was observed. Genetic differentiation among spatial populations was low (F (ST) = 0.0046, CI(0.95) = 0.0020-0.0083 for the samples collected in January, 2007, and F (ST) = 0.0088, CI(0.95) = 0.0010-0.0162 for the samples collected in July, 2007) while temporal variation was significant as revealed by the analysis of molecular variance. Multidimensional scaling separated temporal population groups with minor exception. The assignment test revealed that most of the recruits were from other populations.

  12. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, A.J.; Marelli, D.C.; Frischer, M.E.; Danforth, J.M.; Williams, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the green mussel, Perna viridis, was first observed in Tampa Bay, Florida. This was the first reported occurrence of this Indo-Pacific marine bivalve in North America. The mussels found in Tampa Bay were confirmed to be P. viridis based on both morphological and genetic characteristics. Since the initial discovery, surveys in Tampa Bay and on the west coast of Florida have documented the growth, recruitment, and range expansion of P. viridis. From November 1999 to July 2000, the mean shell length of a Tampa Bay population increased from 49.0 mm to 94.1 mm, an increase of 97%. Populations of P. viridis are successfully reproducing in Tampa Bay. Recruitment was observed on sampling plates in May and continued through July 2000. The full extent of mussel colonization is not clear, but mussels were found outside Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida, south to Venice. Based on these studies it is evident that P. viridis has successfully invaded Tampa Bay and the west coast of Florida. The long-term impact of P. viridis on native communities off the west coast of Florida cannot be predicted at this time.

  13. Field-to-laboratory transport protocol impacts subsequent physiological biomarker response in the marine mussel, Perna canaliculus.

    PubMed

    Chandurvelan, Rathishri; Marsden, Islay D; Gaw, Sally; Glover, Chris N

    2013-01-01

    The transfer of mussels from field to laboratory, or transplantation between clean and contaminated field settings, is a common protocol in ecotoxicology. However, collection and transport of mussels could lead to stress that may impact biomarker responses, and thus confound interpretation of results. Physiological responses (clearance rate, absorption efficiency, excretion rate, respiration rate and scope-for-growth) of green-lipped mussels (Perna canaliculus) exposed to four different transportation protocols were investigated. These protocols included immersion in site seawater (SSW), immersion in artificial seawater (ASW), and emersion (aerial transport; EMS) at two temperatures (15°C and 5°C). Physiological measurements were conducted after a simulated 24h "transport" phase and a 48h "recovery" phase. Clearance rates were significantly inhibited by the EMS 5°C and ASW protocols relative to SSW treatment, although the clearance rate of the latter recovered after 48h. A similar pattern was observed for excretion and respiration rates for ASW. Decreased excretion rates for EMS 15°C and respiration rates for EMS 5°C were also recorded relative to values for SSW following "recovery". Negative scope-for-growth was observed for all treatments except EMS 15°C. These data suggest transport emersed at ambient air temperatures is the best method to maintain physiological health of green-lipped mussels.

  14. Mate locating and access behaviour of the parasitic pea crab, Nepinnotheres novaezelandiae, an important parasite of the mussel Perna canaliculus

    PubMed Central

    Trottier, Oliver; Jeffs, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Pea crabs are globally ubiquitous symbionts in the marine environment that cause serious economic impact in the aquaculture production of several major bivalve species. However, little is known about their host-parasite interactions, especially the mating behaviour of these parasites that could prove useful for controlling their infestation in aquaculture. In this study, the mate location behaviour of male New Zealand pea crabs, Nepinnotheres novaezelandiae (Filhol, 1885), was observed when dwelling in its preferred host, the commercially important green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus. Given the cryptic behaviour of the male crabs, a novel trapping system was developed to determine whether male crabs would exit their mussel hosts in response to an upstream female crab. The presence of receptive female crabs placed upstream successfully attracted 60% of male crabs from their host over 24 h. Observations of the nocturnal mate-finding behaviour of male crabs were made in darkness using infrared video recordings. Males spent on average 49 min on empty hosts and never left a mussel containing a female conspecific once found, spending 200 min on average to gain entry to the mussel. Male crabs were often observed stroking the mantle edge of the mussel whilst attempting to gain entry, successfully increasing mussel valve gape during entry from 3.7 to 5.5 mm. A pheromone-based mate location system is likely used by this crab to greatly reduce the risks associated with the location of females. PMID:25786327

  15. Pectenotoxin-2 seco acid: a toxin converted from pectenotoxin-2 by the New Zealand Greenshell mussel, Perna canaliculus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Mackenzie, L; Stirling, D; Adamson, J

    2001-04-01

    Comparison of pectenotoxin (PTX) profiles of toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta, Greenshell mussels (Perna canaliculus) and Blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from Wedge Point, Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand was carried out by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with turbo-ionspray ionization. Although the major PTX homologue in D. acuta was pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), both Greenshell and Blue mussels contained pectenotoxin-2 seco acid (PTX2SA) as the predominant toxin. More than 90% of PTX2 isolated from D. acuta was rapidly converted to PTX2SA and its epimer 7-epi-pectenotoxin-2 seco acid (7-epi-PTX2SA) in the Greenshell mussel extracts. The conversion from PTX2 to PTX2SA and 7-epi-PTX2SA was not observed in phosphate buffers at various pH ranging from 4.1 to 9.1. These findings indicate that PTX2SA and 7-epi-PTX2SA are not artifact toxins resulting from hydrolysis of PTX2, but arise from the conversion of PTX2 by mussel tissues.

  16. Predator-labeling effect on byssus production in marine mussels Perna viridis (L.) and Brachidontes variabilis (Krauss).

    PubMed

    Cheung, S G; Luk, K C; Shin, P K S

    2006-07-01

    Mussels Perna viridis and Brachidontes variabilis were exposed to chemical cues from the predatory crab Thalamita danae maintained on different diets, and byssal thread production of the mussels was studied. P. viridis produced the highest number as well as the thickest and longest byssal threads when they were exposed to crabs maintained on a diet of P. viridis as compared with those exposed to crabs maintained on a diet of the top shell Monodonta labio, the rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata, or crabs that were starved. For B. variabilis, results were similar, in that a diet containing B. variabilis elicited the greatest response as compared with other treatments. This indicates that the mussels were able to discriminate chemical cues released from predators maintained on different diets, and respond accordingly to the level of predation risk. By increasing the strength of byssal attachment as a defensive trait, the chance of being dislodged and consumed by crabs is reduced. As energy cost involved in the induction of an antipredatory response is considerable, this defensive trait seems to be an advantage to the mussels in enhancing efficiency. The short response time in byssal thread production allows the mussels to increase resistance against predation by crabs at the time when predation pressure is the highest in a tidal cycle.

  17. Uptake of dissolved organic carbon-complexed ⁶⁵Cu by the green mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Huan; Evans, Douglas; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-02-21

    Stable Cu isotope ((65)Cu) was complexed with various representative dissolved organic carbon (DOC) types, including coastal seawater DOC, fulvic acid (FA), cyanobacteria spirulina (SP) DOC, histidine (His), cysteine (Cys), and lipophilic diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDC) at different concentrations. The uptake of these dissolved Cu species by the coastal green mussel Perna viridis was quantified for the first time. Copper complexed with different DOC types were taken up in some measure by mussels, depending on the DOC types. However, complexation generally reduced Cu uptake as compared to that of inorganic Cu species, and DOC type-specific negative relationships were found between DOC levels and Cu uptake. Strong Cu binding sites (including His and organic sulfur functional groups) within DOC appeared to control the inhibitory effects of DOC on Cu uptake, possibly due to the competitive binding of Cu between the dissolved phase and biological membranes. Therefore, differences in strong Cu binding site levels may explain the differences in bioavailability of Cu complexed with different types of DOC. At the same time, the variations in Cu-DOC uptake may also be partly attributed to the absorption of Cu-DOC complexes, especially for the small Cu-DOC complexes (e.g., Cu-Cys, Cu-His, or Cu-DDC). Our study highlights the importance of considering the specificity of Cu-DOC complexes when assessing biological exposure to dissolved Cu in natural waters, especially during events, such as phytoplankton bloom periods, that could modify DOC composition and concentrations.

  18. Effects of metals on {alpha}-amylase activity in the digestive gland of the green mussel, Perna viridis L.

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, T.; Teo, L.H.; Sin, Y.M.

    1996-04-01

    A number of digestive enzymes in the green mussel, Perna viridis L., have been reported, and {alpha}-amylase is believed to have a higher activity than the others. Small plankton, on which the green mussel feeds, may supply plenty of starch and glycogen. They may be an important source of nutrients for the green mussel and the ability of the latter to make good use of them depends mainly on the activities of amylase. The effect of heavy metals on amylase activity is also important as the ability of the mussel`s digestive gland to accumulate these metals is well known. High concentrations of heavy metals, especially lead, have been observed in the water around Singapore. The in vitro inhibition of some metals on the activities of digestive enzymes from the green mussel has been observed, but kinetic properties of the inhibition and the in vivo inhibition of the heavy metals on digestive enzymes are little understood. In the present study, in vitro inhibition of four metals (Pb, Cd, Zn and Hg) on the activity of {alpha}-amylase from the digestive gland of the green mussel will be compared. Their effects on the K{sub M} and V{sub max} values of {alpha}-amylase will also be compared. Finally, lead is either added to the food or water, to see how it affects the activity of {alpha}-amylase and how this effect acts in combination with starvation. 12 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Uptake and elimination of brevetoxin in the invasive green mussel, Perna viridis, during natural Karenia brevis blooms in southwest Florida.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Katherine; Jean, Fred; Soudant, Philippe; Volety, Aswani K

    2015-04-01

    Perna viridis is a recently introduced species to US coastal waters and have vigorously spread throughout the southeastern seaboard since their invasion. Little information regarding their response to local environmental factors has been reported including responses to the local HAB species, Karenia brevis. This study monitored the tissue toxin concentration of brevetoxins in P. viridis from existing populations throughout two consecutive natural K. brevis blooms. The results showed P. viridis to rapidly accumulate PbTx upon exposure to the bloom, far exceeding the peak tissue concentrations of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, sampled during the same period, 57,653 ± 15,937 and 33,462 ± 10,391 ng g(-1) PbTx-3 equivalent, respectively. Further, P. viridis retained high PbTx concentrations in their tissues post bloom remaining above the regulatory limit for human consumption for 4-5 months, significantly longer than the depuration time of 2-8 weeks for native oyster and clam species. In the second year, the bloom persisted at high cell concentrations resulting in prolonged exposure and higher PbTx tissue concentrations indicating increased bioaccumulation in green mussels. While this species is not currently harvested for human consumption, the threat for post bloom trophic transfer could pose negative impacts on other important fisheries and higher food web implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy of marinades against Listeria monocytogenes cells in suspension or associated with green shell mussels (Perna canaliculus).

    PubMed Central

    Bremer, P J; Osborne, C M

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine the listericidal efficacies of three marinades used in the production of marinated green shell mussels (Perna canaliculus), decimal reduction times (D values) were determined for a mixture of seven strains of Listeria monocytogenes exposed to marinades in the presence and absence of mussels. With an acetic acid (1.5%, wt/vol) marinade, calculated D values in the presence and absence of mussels were 77.3 and 33.3 h, respectively. Likewise, for an acetic acid (0.75%)-lactic acid (0.75%) marinade and an acetic acid (1.5%)-Glucono Delta-Lactone (0.2%)-based marinade, the D values in the presence and absence of mussels were 125.5 and 26.9 h and 86.3 and 19.3 h, respectively. Various increases in decimal reduction times in the presence of mussels indicated that there was no simple relationship between the listericidal natures of these marinades and the presence of mussels. This result suggests that difficulties may occur in trying to relate acid inhibition studies carried out in model broth systems to "real food" systems. PMID:7747968

  1. Organochlorines and dioxin-like compounds in green-lipped mussels Perna viridis from Hong Kong mariculture zones.

    PubMed

    So, M K; Zhang, X; Giesy, J P; Fung, C N; Fong, H W; Zheng, J; Kramer, M J; Yoo, H; Lam, P K S

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides and dioxin-like compounds were measured in green-lipped mussels, Perna viridis, collected from seven mariculture zones in Hong Kong between September and October in 2002 in order to evaluate the status, spatial distribution and potential sources of pollution in these areas. Concentrations ranged from 300 to 4400 ng/g lipid weight for total OCs and 170-1000 ng/g lipid weight for total PCBs (based on 28 congeners). Relatively smaller DDT concentrations in mussels compared with previous studies suggest reduced discharges of DDTs from nearby regions into Hong Kong waters. Detection of a mixture of HCH isomers in the mussels indicated that Hong Kong waters were predominantly contaminated by technical HCHs rather than lindane. Mussel samples from all sampling locations elicited significant dioxin-like activity in the H4IIE-luc bioassay. The greatest magnitude of dioxin-like response (39 pg TEQ/g wet wt.) was detected in mussels from Ma Wan in the western waters of Hong Kong, which is strongly influenced by the Pearl River discharge. Human health risk assessment was undertaken to evaluate potential risks associated with the consumption of the green-lipped mussels. Risk quotient (RQ) for dioxin-like compounds was greater than unity suggesting that adverse health effects may be associated with high mussel consumption.

  2. A comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and petroleum hydrocarbon uptake by mussels (Perna viridis) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) in Hong Kong coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Bruce J; Zheng, Gene J; Tse, Edmund S C; De Luca-Abbott, Sharon B; Siu, Stanley Y M; Lam, Paul K S

    2003-01-01

    The ability of mussels (Perna viridis) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to accumulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from five sites in Hong Kong's coastal waters was compared. Mussels consistently had higher levels of contaminants, but their utility was limited at one highly polluted site due to mortality. Mussels and SPMDs ranked sites differently in terms of individual contaminant levels. Although SPMDs overcome many of the disadvantages of using living organisms to measure contaminants in marine waters, they cannot be used as "mimics" due to different PAH and PHC accumulation patterns.

  3. Coating Proteins: Structure and Cross-Linking in fp-1 from the Green Shell Mussel Perna canaliculus†‡

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Waite, J. Herbert

    2007-01-01

    The protein family known as fp-1 provides mussel byssus with a protective outer coating and has drawn much attention for its water resistant bioadhesive properties in vitro. A new fp-l isolated from the green shell mussel Perna canaliculus (pcfp-1) reveals a composition dominated by only four amino acids: 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (dopa), lysine, proline, and valine at ~20 mol % each. SDS–PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry detected size variants at 48 and 52 kDa in preparations of purified Pcfp-1. The N-terminal sequence enabled construction of oligonucleotide primers for PCR and RACE-derived cDNAs from which the complete sequence of four variants was deduced. pcfp-1 deviates from all known homologues in other mussels in several notable respects: its mass is half, most of its sequence is represented by 75 tandem repeats of a tetrapeptide, i.e., PY*VK, in which Y* is dopa, prolines are not hydroxylated, and thiolate cysteines are clustered in homologous sequences at both the amino and carboxy termini. Amino acids in the repeat sequence show a striking resemblance to proline-rich cell wall proteins with tandemly repeated PPVYK pentapeptides [Hong, J. C., Nagao, R. T., and Key, J. L. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 8367–8376]. Cysteine plays a key role in cross-linking pcfp-1 by forming adducts with dopaquinone. Significant 5-S-cysteinyldopa and smaller amounts of 2-S-cysteinyldopa were detected in hydrolysates of the byssal threads of P. canaliculus. The cross-links could also be formed by oxidation of pcfp-1 in vitro using mushroom tyrosinase. Cysteinyldopa cross-links were present in trace amounts only in the byssus of other mussel species. PMID:16313194

  4. Thermal Constraints for Range Expansion of the Invasive Green Mussel, Perna viridis, in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    URIAN, ALYSON G.; HATLE, JOHN D.; GILG, MATTHEW R.

    2013-01-01

    Cold temperatures are thought to be among the most important determining factors of geographic distribution for tropical and sub-tropical marine invertebrates. The Asian green mussel, Perna viridis, has been introduced into coastal waters of Florida where its current distribution is hypothesized to be limited by low temperatures during winter. Lethal and sub-lethal effects (heat shock protein/Hsp70 expression) of cold water and air temperatures were analyzed in two size classes of P. viridis from Florida in an effort to determine the effects of current and forecasted temperatures on the potential for range expansion. Mussels were exposed to water temperatures of 14, 10, 7 and 3°C for up to 30 days, or to air temperatures of 14, 7, 0 and –10°C for periods of 2 hr. Mortality was significantly increased at all water and air temperatures ≤ 14°C. No differences in mortality rates were observed between small (15–45 mm) and large (75–105 mm) size classes except after exposure to 7°C air, in which small mussels had higher mortality. Significant increases in Hsp70 expression were observed after a 2-hour exposure to 10°C water, but Hsp70 expression was not significantly increased at any temperatures in which mortality was not also significant. The temperature threshold for survival in this population appears to be between 10 and 14°C, suggesting that under current conditions P. viridis may already be at the northern edge of its potential range in the United States. If water temperatures increase with global climate change, northerly flowing currents may permit range expansion as temperatures allow. PMID:20853420

  5. Isolation, purification and characterization of beta-1,3-glucan binding protein from the plasma of marine mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Jayaraj, S S; Thiagarajan, R; Arumugam, M; Mullainadhan, P

    2008-06-01

    A beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (betaGBP) specific for laminarin (a beta-1,3-glucan) was detected for the first time in a mollusc, Perna viridis. betaGBP was isolated and purified from the plasma using laminarin precipitation and affinity chromatography on laminarin-Sepharose 6B, respectively. It agglutinated bakers yeast, bacteria, and erythrocytes and enhanced prophenoloxidase (proPO) activity of the plasma in a dose-dependent manner. The purified betaGBP appeared as a single band in native-PAGE and the purity was conformed by HPLC. The protein has a molecular weight estimate of 510kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and in isoelectric focusing the purified betaGBP was focused as a single band at pI 5.3. betaGBP was found to possess inherent serine protease activity but lacked beta-1,3-glucanase activity and all these results suggest that plasma betaGBP of P. viridis functions as a recognition molecule for beta-1,3-glucan on the surface of microbial cell walls. This recognition and binding lead to the activation of the prophenoloxidase cascade mediated by the inherent serine protease activity of betaGBP. Presence of agglutinating activity and serine protease activity shows that betaGBP is a bifunctional protein. The findings are discussed in light of the importance of this protein in the innate immune response of P. viridis, and they implicate evolutionary link with similar proteins found in other invertebrates.

  6. Linking trace element variations with macronutrients and major cations in marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fengjie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Marine mussels have long been used as biomonitors of contamination of trace elements, but little is known about whether variation in tissue trace elements is significantly associated with those of macronutrients and major cations. The authors examined the variability of macronutrients and major cations and their potential relationships with bioaccumulation of trace elements. The authors analyzed the concentrations of macronutrients (C, N, P, S), major cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca), and trace elements (Al, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Pb) in the whole soft tissues of marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis collected globally from 21 sites. The results showed that 12% to 84% of the variances in the trace elements was associated with major cations, and the tissue concentration of major cations such as Na and Mg in mussels was a good proxy for ambient seawater concentrations of the major cations. Specifically, bioaccumulation of most of the trace elements was significantly associated with major cations, and the relationships of major cations with trace cations and trace oxyanions were totally opposite. Furthermore, 14% to 69% of the variances in the trace elements were significantly associated with macronutrients. Notably, more than half of the variance in the tissue concentrations of As, Cd, V, Ba, and Pb was explained by the variance in macronutrients in one or both species. Because the tissue macronutrient concentrations were strongly associated with animal growth and reproduction, the observed coupling relationships indicated that these biological processes strongly influenced the bioaccumulation of some trace elements. The present study indicated that simultaneous quantification of macronutrients and major cations with trace elements can improve the interpretation of biomonitoring data. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. Crystalline style and tissue redistribution in Perna viridis as indicators of Cu and Pb bioavailabilities and contamination in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Yap, C K; Ismail, A; Cheng, W H; Tan, S G

    2006-03-01

    The concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn in the crystalline style (CS) and in the remaining soft tissues (ST) of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from 10 geographical sites along the coastal waters off peninsular Malaysia were determined. The CS, compared with the remaining ST, accumulated higher levels of Cu in both contaminated and uncontaminated samples, indicating that the style has a higher affinity for the essential Cu to bind with metallothioneins. The similar pattern of Cu accumulation in the different ST of mussels collected from clean and Cu-contaminated sites indicated that the detoxification capacity of the metallothioneins had not been overloaded. For Pb, higher levels of the metal in the CS than in the remaining ST were found only in mussels collected from a contaminated site at Kg. Pasir Puteh. This indicated a tissue redistribution of Pb due to its binding to metallothioneins for Pb detoxification and the potential of the CS as an indicator organ of Pb bioavailability and contamination. For Zn, the above two phenomena were not found since no obvious patterns were observed (lower levels of Zn in the CS than in the remaining ST) in contaminated and uncontaminated samples due to the mechanism of partial regulation. Generally, all the different STs studied (foot, mantle, gonad, CS, gill, muscle, and byssus) are good biomonitoring tissues for Cu and Pb bioavailabilities and contamination. Among these organs, the CS was found to be the best organ for biomonitoring Cu. The present data also suggest the use of the tissue redistribution of Pb in P. viridis as an indicator of Pb bioavailability and contamination in coastal waters.

  8. [Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate on the antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level of Perna viridis].

    PubMed

    Qin, Jie-fang; Chen, Hai-gang; Cai, Wen-gui; Yang, Tao; Jia, Xiao-ping

    2011-07-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and the lipid peroxidation (LPO) level presented by malondialdehyde (MDA) in visceral mass and mantle of green mussel (Perna viridis) after exposure to 0.5- 62.5 mg x L(-1) of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) for 15 days, and to study the change characteristics of these biochemical indicators after the green mussel released into DBP-free seawater for 10 days. During exposure period, the SOD activity in visceral mass was inhibited first and then reached the level of the control at 0.5 and 2.5 mg x L(-1) of DBP, but inhibited significantly (P< 0.01) at 12.5 and 62.5 mg L(-1) of DBP. The CAT activity in visceral mass was inhibited at all test concentrations of DBP, while the LPO level was obviously induced. During the chronic DBP exposure, the SOD and CAT activities in the mantle were induced significantly but had no regular pattern, and the LPO level was also obviously induced. After the exposed green mussel was released into clean seawater, the SOD and CAT activities in the visceral mass in 12.5 and 62.5 mg DBP x L(-1) groups recovered much slowly, but the LPO level gradually recovered to control level. During the recovery period, the SOD activity in the mantle showed an increasing trend with time, but the CAT activity and LPO level reached gradually to the level of the control.

  9. Variations of 210Po activity in mussel (Perna viridis) of Samut Sakhon and its contribution to dose assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porntepkasemsan, B.; Srisuksawad, K.; Kulsawat, W.

    2015-05-01

    The activities of 210Po and its effective dose in green mussel (Perna viridis) collected from a mussel farming area in Samut Sakhon province during the period of 20122013 are presented. Several parameters including maximum shell length and the physiological performance of mussels using condition index and physical properties of seawater (pH, salinity, conductivity, TDS, DO and cation-anion elements) were measured. Each individual mussel was measured for its maximum shell length which was adopted as size class. The activity concentration of 210Po was determined spectroscopically through its 5.30 MeV alpha particle emission, using 209Po as an internal tracer. The 210Po activity concentration in mussels was found to vary between 1.044 and 6.951 Bq/kg wet weight. The 210Po concentration was higher in smaller-sized (≤35 mm) and lower in larger ones (40-70 mm). This confirmed that larger mussels have lower 210Po activities on a weight basis. The 210Po body burden (activity per mussel) ranged from 1.035 to 17.183 mBq. Contrary to the 210Po concentrations, results of the body burden revealed the lower activities in smaller-sized mussels (≤35 mm) and the higher in larger-sized ones (40-70 mm). The type of fluctuations observed with 210Po concentrations were interpreted as a seasonal effect. Total annual effective 210Po dose due to mussel consumption was calculated to be in the range of 3.081 to 16.401 pSv. Based on the international guideline, the average dose calculated due to 210Po in mussels of Samut Sakhon would not pose any significant radiological impact on human health and the mussels are considered to be safe for consumption.

  10. Thermal constraints for range expansion of the invasive green mussel, Perna viridis, in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Urian, Alyson G; Hatle, John D; Gilg, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    Cold temperatures are thought to be among the most important determining factors of geographic distribution for tropical and sub-tropical marine invertebrates. The Asian green mussel, Perna viridis, has been introduced into coastal waters of Florida where its current distribution is hypothesized to be limited by low temperatures during winter. Lethal and sub-lethal effects (heat shock protein/Hsp70 expression) of cold water and air temperatures were analyzed in two size classes of P. viridis from Florida in an effort to determine the effects of current and forecasted temperatures on the potential for range expansion. Mussels were exposed to water temperatures of 14, 10, 7 and 3°C for up to 30 days, or to air temperatures of 14, 7, 0 and -10°C for periods of 2 hr. Mortality was significantly increased at all water and air temperatures ≤14°C. No differences in mortality rates were observed between small (15-45 mm) and large (75-105 mm) size classes except after exposure to 7°C air, in which small mussels had higher mortality. Significant increases in Hsp70 expression were observed after a 2-hour exposure to 10°C water, but Hsp70 expression was not significantly increased at any temperatures in which mortality was not also significant. The temperature threshold for survival in this population appears to be between 10 and 14°C, suggesting that under current conditions P. viridis may already be at the northern edge of its potential range in the United States. If water temperatures increase with global climate change, northerly flowing currents may permit range expansion as temperatures allow. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  11. P-glycoprotein expression in Perna viridis after exposure to Prorocentrum lima, a dinoflagellate producing DSP toxins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Wang, Jie; Chen, Wen-Chang; Li, Hong-Ye; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Tao Jiang; Yang, Wei-Dong

    2014-08-01

    Bivalves naturally exposed to toxic algae have mechanisms to prevent from harmful effects of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins. However, quite few studies have examined the mechanisms associated, and the information currently available is still insufficient. Multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) is ubiquitous in aquatic invertebrates and plays an important role in defense against xenobiotics. Here, to explore the roles of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the DSP toxins resistance in shellfish, complete cDNA of P-gp gene in the mussel Perna viridis was cloned and analyzed. The accumulation of okadaic acid (OA), a main component of DSP toxins, MXR activity and expression of P-gp in gills of P. viridis were detected after exposure to Prorocentrum lima, a dinoflagellate producing DSP toxins in the presence or absence of P-gp inhibitors PGP-4008, verapamil (VER) and cyclosporin A (CsA). The mussel P. viridis P-gp closely matches MDR/P-gp/ABCB protein from various organisms, having a typical sequence organization as full transporters from the ABCB family. After exposure to P. lima, OA accumulation, MXR activity and P-gp expression significantly increased in gills of P. viridis. The addition of P-gp-specific inhibitors PGP-4008 and VER decreased MXR activity induced by P. lima, but had no effect on the OA accumulation in gills of P. viridis. However, CsA, a broad-spectrum inhibitor of ABC transporter not only decreased MXR activity, but also increased OA accumulation in gills of P. viridis. Together with the ubiquitous presence of other ABC transporters such as MRP/ABCC in bivalves and potential compensatory mechanism in P-gp and MRP-mediated resistance, we speculated that besides P-gp, other ABC transporters, especially MRP might be involved in the resistance mechanisms to DSP toxins.

  12. Seasonal variation of oxidative biomarkers in gills and digestive gland of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlecar, X. N.; Jena, K. B.; Chainy, G. B. N.

    2008-03-01

    Investigations on seasonal variation in oxidative stress biomarkers were carried out on the natural population of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis collected from Bambolim beach area of Goa. Oxidative stress indices such as lipid peroxidation (LPX), hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASA) were measured in gills and digestive gland of P. viridis during February, May, August and November. The present study reveals two important aspects regarding the antioxidant defence status of tissues of P. viridis. Firstly, antioxidant capacity of tissues of P. viridis exhibits seasonal variation. Secondly, various components of antioxidant capacity such as oxidative stress markers, levels of antioxidant enzymes and small antioxidant molecules vary differently in tissues with respect to different seasons. Although the oxidative stress status of gills and digestive gland of P. viridis expressed in terms of LPX and H 2O 2 was the lowest in February, its level was maximal in gills and digestive gland during May and November, respectively. While activities of SOD and GPX of tissues of P. viridis were found to be low in August, activities of CAT and GR were recorded to be low in February. GST activity in gills although remained high in February, in digestive gland elevated values were recorded in August and November. A seasonal variation in the levels of small antioxidant molecules was also noticed. Among non enzymatic antioxidants ASA content of tissues was maximal in May and August in comparison to February and November, but GSH remained high in November. It therefore appears that environmental factors may play a crucial role in regulating the oxidative stress capacity of tissues of P. viridis.

  13. Assimilation of cadmium, chromium, and zinc by the green mussel Perna viridis and the clam Ruditapes philippinarum

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, K.; Wang, W.X.

    2000-06-01

    The green mussel Perna viridis and the clam Ruditapes philippinarum have been frequently used as biomonitors of coastal contamination in subtropical and tropical waters, yet the physiological processes controlling metal uptake in these bivalves are unknown. Assimilation efficiency (AE) is an important physiological parameter quantifying metal bioavailability from ingested food. The authors determined the AEs of Cd, CR, and Zn in these bivalves feeding on five species of phytoplankton and one natural section. The influences of the cytoplasmic distribution of metals in the algal cells and the digestive physiology of bivalves on metal AEs were also examined. Among the three metals, Zn was generally assimilated at the highest efficiency, i.e., 21 to 36% in the mussels and 29 to 59% in the clams. Cr was the least assimilated metal, with AEs being 10 to 16% in the mussels and 11 to 24% in the clams. The AEs of Cd and Zn in the clams were 1.8 to 4.7 and 1.1 to 1.9 times higher, respectively, than the AEs in the mussels. Assimilation efficiencies of Cr were, however, comparable between the mussels and the clams. A positive significant relationship between the metal AE and the percent of metals in the algal cytoplasm was found only for Cd in the clams, suggesting that Cd fractionation in the algal cells influenced its assimilation. No significant relationship, however, was found for other metals in both bivalves. A significant relationship between Cr-assimilation efficiency and gut passage time (GPT) was documented in the mussels, indicating a higher assimilation when Cr was retained longer in the gut. There was also significant correlation of metal AEs among the three metals, which were probably subjected to the same digestive pathway in the bivalves. Their study demonstrated that both the green mussels and the clams were able to accumulate metals from ingested food source, and food quality appeared to have different effects on metal assimilation in different bivalve

  14. Detection of metal induced cytopathological alterations and DNA damage in the gills and hepatopancreas of green mussel Perna viridis from Ennore Estuary, Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Vasanthi, Lourduraj A; Revathi, Peranandam; Babu Rajendran, Ramaswamy; Munuswamy, Natesan

    2017-04-15

    This study report the impact of heavy metals on cytopathology and DNA damage in the gills and hepatopancreas of Perna viridis collected from Ennore estuary and the Kovalam coastal waters. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed significant differences among all variables at the scale of plots. The ultrastructural alterations such as lack of microvilli, distorted mitochondria, electron dense particles and the presence of large mucous droplets were common in the gill and hepatopancreatic cells of mussels from Ennore estuary. However, the gill and hepatopancreatic cells of P. viridis from Kovalam revealed normal compartmentalization of cells. The percentage of tail DNA in the mussels from Ennore estuary was recorded as 12.44 and 10.14% in the gills and hepatopancreas respectively. Overall, it has been demonstrated that the Comet and cytopathological assays are useful biomarkers to assess the level of pollution and it provide reliable information on ecotoxicology and genotoxicology of coastal waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biomarkers of environmental contaminants in field population of green mussel (Perna viridis) from Karnataka-Kerala coast (South West coast of India).

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, P K; Sasikumar, Geetha; Bhat, G S; Asokan, D P K

    2006-05-01

    The green mussel Perna viridis was sampled from relatively clean and contaminated sites along the Kartanata-Kerala coast (south west coast of India) to study the tissue concentration of trace metals and biological responses to stress (biomarkers) such as sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosomal aberration, micronucleus (MN) test, hemic neoplasia (HN), Chromotest (Ames test) and comet assay. In general, mean tissue concentrations of toxic trace metals collected from 25 sampling sites were found to be below the World Health Organisation (WHO) permissible concentration given for seafood. The digestive gland extract of mussels from all 25 sampling sites showed negative reaction for mutagenic activity (Ames test) in the absence of metabolic activation. Very low levels of chromosomal aberration, SCE, MN, HN and comet cells were observed in mussels collected from both the urban associated and relatively clean sites. This study seems to indicate that that the coastal waters of Karnataka and Kerala are minimally contaminated with genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals.

  16. Mercury depuration effectiveness on green mussel (Perna viridis L.) and blood cockle (Anadara granosa L.) from Jakarta Bay using ozone, chitosan and hydrodynamic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiah Ningrum, Endar; Duryadi Solihin, Dedy; Butet, Nurlisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Depuration has been used to eliminate microorganism and toxic chemical contaminants in bivalve. However, scientific research still needs to discover the effectiveness of depuration. This research aimed at assessing the best depuration effectiveness in decreasing mercury (Hg) concentration level in two species of bivalves, green mussel (Perna viridis L.) and blood cockle (Anadara granosa L.). The depuration treatments applied 1.5 ppm ozon, 0.5 ppm chitosan, hydrodynamic technique (1.3 m/s), combination between hydrodynamic-ozon, hydrodynamic-chitosan and ozon-chitosan. The experiment were conducted in mini aquaria for 60 minutes. Mercury concentration was measured in 10 g dry weight of green mussel (4.05±0.020 ppm) and blood cockle (3.27 ± 0.666 ppm). The result showed that mercury depuration were highly effective by combination of ozone-chitosan in green mussel (96.51%) and 1.5 ppm ozone in blood cockle (87.06%).

  17. Enzymatic and molecular characterization of an endo-1,3-β-d-glucanase from the crystalline styles of the mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Zakharenko, Alexander M; Kusaykin, Mikhail I; Kovalchuk, Svetlana N; Anastyuk, Stanislav D; Ly, Bui Minh; Sova, Victoria V; Rasskazov, Valeriy A; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana N

    2011-02-01

    The retaining endo-1,3-β-d-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.39) was isolated from the crystalline styles of the commercially available Vietnamese edible mussel Perna viridis. It catalyzes hydrolysis of β-1,3-bonds in glucans and enables to catalyze a transglycosylation reaction. Resources of mass-spectrometry for analysis of enzymatic products were studied. cDNA sequence of endo-1,3-β-d-glucanase was determined by RT-PCR in conjunction with the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. The cDNA of 1380bp contains an open reading frame of 1332bp encoding a mature protein of 328 amino acids. On basis of amino acid sequence analysis endo-1,3-β-d-glucanase was classified as a glycoside hydrolase of family 16. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The combined effects of oxygen availability and salinity on physiological responses and scope for growth in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youji; Hu, Menghong; Wong, Wai Hing; Shin, Paul K S; Cheung, Siu Gin

    2011-01-01

    Mussels were maintained for 4 weeks under different combinations of dissolved oxygen concentration (1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 mg O2 l(-1)) and salinity (15, 20, 25 and 30) in a 3×4 factorial design experiment. Clearance rate (CR), absorption efficiency (AE), respiration rate (RR) and scope for growth (SFG) decreased with decreasing salinity and dissolved oxygen concentration (DO), while excretion rate (ER) increased with decreasing salinity and increasing DO. The O:N ratio was <10 at salinities of 15 and 20, irrespective of DO levels. SFG was negative in most of the treatments, except for those under 6.0 mg O2 l(-1) or at a salinity of 30 when DO was lower. The results may help explain the distribution pattern of Perna viridis in Hong Kong waters and provide guidelines for mussel culture site selection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Habitat degradation correlates with tolerance to climate-change related stressors in the green mussel Perna viridis from West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Wendling, Carolin Charlotte; Huhn, Mareike; Ayu, Nurina; Bachtiar, Ramadian; von Juterzenka, Karen; Lenz, Mark

    2013-06-15

    It is unclear whether habitat degradation correlates with tolerance of marine invertebrates to abiotic stress. We therefore tested whether resistance to climate change-related stressors differs between populations of the green mussel Perna viridis from a heavily impacted and a mostly pristine site in West Java, Indonesia. In laboratory experiments, we compared their oxygen consumption and mortality under lowered salinity (-13 and -18 units, both responses), hypoxia (0.5 mg/l, mortality only) and thermal stress (+7 °C, mortality only). Mussels from the eutrophied and polluted Jakarta Bay showed a significantly smaller deviation from their normal oxygen consumption and higher survival rates when stressed than their conspecifics from the unaffected Lada Bay. This shows that human induced habitat degradation correlates with mussel tolerance to environmental stress. We discuss possible mechanisms - e.g. the selection of tolerant genotypes or habitat-specific differences in the nutritional status of the mussels - that could explain our observation.

  20. Spatiotemporal variations in metal accumulation, RNA/DNA ratio and energy reserve in Perna viridis transplanted along a marine pollution gradient in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jamius W Y; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2017-01-21

    We examined spatiotemporal variations of metal levels and three growth related biomarkers, i.e., RNA/DNA ratio (RD), total energy reserve (Et) and condition index (CI), in green-lipped mussels Perna viridis transplanted into five locations along a pollution gradient in the marine environment of Hong Kong over 120days of deployment. There were significant differences in metal levels and biomarker responses among the five sites and six time points. Mussels in two clean sites displayed better CI and significantly lower levels of Ag, Cu, Pb and Zn in their tissues than the other sites. Temporal patterns of RD in P. viridis were found to be site-specific. Across all sites, Et decreased in P. viridis over the deployment period, though the rate of decrease varied significantly among the sites. Therefore, temporal variation of biomarkers should be taken to consideration in mussel-watch programs because such information can help discriminate pollution-induced change from natural variation.

  1. Biomonitoring of heavy metals and trace organics using the intertidal mussel Perna viridis in Hong Kong coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Liu, J H; Kueh, C S W

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 6-year (1998-2003) survey of trace toxics in the intertidal mussel Perna viridis conducted by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department. Concentrations of heavy metals and trace organics were measured in the soft bodies of P. viridis collected from five sites in Hong Kong waters, i.e. Wu Kai Sha (Tolo Harbour), Ma Wan (Northwest), Tsim Sha Tsui (Victoria Harbour), Tai Tam (Hong Kong South) and Lamma Island (Southern Waters) in order to establish the spatial patterns of contaminants in mussels. Among the metals analysed, Cd showed a significant concentration gradient in Hong Kong waters. The levels of Cd in P. viridis were significantly higher at Ma Wan as compared to the other sites studied. Ma Wan also had relatively higher concentrations of Pb. Mn concentrations were particularly prominent at Wu Kai Sha. Significantly higher concentrations of Hg and Cu were recorded at Tai Tam and Tsim Sha Tsui. Tai Tam and Wu Kai Sha had higher levels of V; whereas higher Ni concentrations were recorded at Lamma Island and Tai Tam. No clear spatial patterns for Al, As, Cr, Fe and Zn were observed. Higher concentrations of PAHs in P. viridis were observed around urban centres impacted by sewage discharges (e.g. Tsim Sha Tsui); whereas higher PCB levels were found not only in Tsim Sha Tsui but also in less urbanised areas such as Lamma Island and Tai Tam, suggesting that these may be due to non-sewage related inputs. The study also shows that Northwest and Southern waters are subject to a higher degree of DDT pollution compared with other sites. Of the 17 dioxin compounds analysed, positive data were mostly recorded for two compounds which are of low toxicity (i.e. OCDD and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD) whereas the most toxic congeners (i.e. 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD) were not detected in the 6 years of monitoring. In general, the levels of OCDD in P. viridis were found to be higher in Tai Tam and Lamma Island in Southern Waters of Hong

  2. Non-Lethal Heat Shock of the Asian Green Mussel, Perna viridis, Promotes Hsp70 Synthesis, Induces Thermotolerance and Protects Against Vibrio Infection.

    PubMed

    Aleng, Nor Afiqah; Sung, Yeong Yik; MacRae, Thomas H; Abd Wahid, Mohd Effendy

    2015-01-01

    Mild heat stress promotes thermotolerance and protection against several different stresses in aquatic animals, consequences correlated with the accumulation of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). The purpose of this study was to determine if non-lethal heat shock (NLHS) of the Asian green mussel, Perna viridis, an aquatic species of commercial value, promoted the production of Hsp70 and enhanced its resistance to stresses. Initially, the LT50 and LHT for P. viridis were determined to be 42°C and 44°C, respectively, with no heat shock induced death of mussels at 40°C or less. Immunoprobing of western blots revealed augmentation of constitutive (PvHsp70-1) and inducible (PvHsp70-2) Hsp70 in tissue from adductor muscle, foot, gill and mantel of P. viridis exposed to 38°C for 30 min followed by 6 h recovery, NLHS conditions for this organism. Characterization by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that PvHsp70-1 and PvHsp70-2 respectively corresponded most closely to Hsp70 from P. viridis and Mytilus galloprovincialis. Priming of adult mussels with NLHS promoted thermotolerance and increased resistance to V. alginolyticus. The induction of Hsp70 in parallel with enhanced thermotolerance and improved protection against V. alginolyticus, suggests Hsp70 functions in P. viridis as a molecular chaperone and as a stimulator of the immune system.

  3. Impact of marine pollution in green mussel Perna viridis from four coastal sites in Karachi, Pakistan, North Arabian Sea: histopathological observations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Iftikhar; Ayub, Zarrien; Siddiqui, Ghazala

    2015-04-01

    Pathological changes are regarded as a standard technique to monitor the effects of pollutants in marine animals. Histopathological examination of the population of green mussel Perna viridis (L.) from four sites in Pakistan, namely, Manora Channel, Rehri Creek, Sandspit Backwaters and Bhanbore was conducted. The first three sites are on the Karachi coast, whereas the fourth one, Bhanbore is situated outside Karachi, and is considered to be less polluted. Two types of parasites, Rickettsia-like organisms and metacestode were found in the mussels studied. In the present study, we observed various pathological lesions, such as inflammatory responses, granulocytomas, lipofuscin pigments, vacuolation in the digestive gland and gonads, lamellar fusion and dilated hemolymphatic sinus in the gills of P. viridis. These observations indicate the extent of environmental pollution in the studied areas. Although, Bhanbore is considered to be relatively less polluted compared to other three sites, the present results have revealed that the waters of Bhanbore are also polluted as evidenced by the pathological changes observed in the mussels collected from there.

  4. Tolerance to stress differs between Asian green mussels Perna viridis from the impacted Jakarta Bay and from natural habitats along the coast of West Java.

    PubMed

    Huhn, Mareike; Hattich, Giannina S I; Zamani, Neviaty P; von Juterzenka, Karen; Lenz, Mark

    2016-09-30

    It is an open question whether adverse habitat conditions, characteristic for many anthropogenically impacted coastal habitats, can determine resistance to abiotic stress in populations of residing invertebrates. We tested experimentally for differences in stress tolerance between individuals of the Asian green mussel Perna viridis stemming from the heavily impacted Jakarta Bay and from two natural sites, Lada Bay and Pelabuhan Ratu, West Java. Mussel performance under hyposalinity and hypoxia was assessed in laboratory assays by measuring fitness-related response variables, e.g. body condition index, relative shell weight, byssus production, respiration rates and survival. We found stress-specific and population-specific differences in mussel resistance to adverse conditions: Individuals from the impacted Jakarta Bay performed better under hypoxia than their conspecifics from the natural sites, whereas the latter were more resistant to hyposalinity. We explain these differences by differential acclimation to environmental conditions in the respective habitats and by diverging degrees of food supply. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antioxidant responses to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis): do mussels "integrate" biomarker responses?

    PubMed

    Richardson, Bruce J; Mak, Eva; De Luca-Abbott, Sharon B; Martin, Michael; McClellan, Katherine; Lam, Paul K S

    2008-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCs) are generally present in the marine environment in complex mixtures. The ecotoxicological nature of contaminant interactions, however, is poorly understood, with most scientific observations derived from single contaminant exposure experiments. The objective of this experiment was to examine dose-response relationships between antioxidant parameters and body contaminant levels in mussels exposed to different exposure regimes under laboratory conditions. Accordingly, the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis, was challenged with a mixture of PAHs (anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene) and OC pesticides (alpha-HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, p,p'-DDT) over a 4 week period. Contaminants were delivered under four different dosing regimes, with all treatments receiving the same total contaminant load by the end of the exposure period. Antioxidant biomarkers were measured after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks, including glutathione (GSH), gluathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and lipid peroxidase (LPO). GST and CAT were induced in hepatic tissues in most of the exposure regimes, with the majority of significant induction occurring in a constant exposure regime and a two-step alternate exposure regime. Significant differences among exposure regimes were detected in the body burden of contaminants after 28 days. Hepatic CAT and GSH are proposed as potentially useful biomarkers as they showed good correlation with target contaminants and were not readily affected by different dosing patterns.

  6. Sub-lethal effects of cadmium and copper on RNA/DNA ratio and energy reserves in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jamius W Y; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to test if RNA/DNA ratio and various energy reserve parameters (i.e., glycogen, lipid, protein content and total energy reserves) are sensitive biomarkers for indicating stresses induced by metal contaminants in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, a common organism for biomonitoring in Southeast Asia. This study was, therefore, designed to examine the effects of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) on these potential biomarkers in two major energy storage tissues, adductor muscle (AM) and hepatopancreas (HP), of P. viridis after sub-lethal exposure to either metal for 10 days. The results showed that neither Cd nor Cu treatments affected the RNA/DNA ratio, glycogen and protein contents in AM and HP. As the most sensitive biomarker in P. viridis, the total lipid content in both AM and HP was significantly decreased in the treatment of 5μg Cu/L and 0.01-0.1μgCd/L, respectively. However, soft-tissue body burdens of Cu or Cd did not significantly correlate with each of the four biomarkers regardless of the tissue type. In addition, AM generally stored more glycogen than HP, whereas HP stored more lipids than AM. We proposed that multiple biomarkers may be employed as an integrated diagnostic tool for monitoring the health condition of the mussels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-Lethal Heat Shock of the Asian Green Mussel, Perna viridis, Promotes Hsp70 Synthesis, Induces Thermotolerance and Protects Against Vibrio Infection

    PubMed Central

    Aleng, Nor Afiqah; Sung, Yeong Yik; MacRae, Thomas H.; Abd Wahid, Mohd Effendy

    2015-01-01

    Mild heat stress promotes thermotolerance and protection against several different stresses in aquatic animals, consequences correlated with the accumulation of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). The purpose of this study was to determine if non-lethal heat shock (NLHS) of the Asian green mussel, Perna viridis, an aquatic species of commercial value, promoted the production of Hsp70 and enhanced its resistance to stresses. Initially, the LT50 and LHT for P. viridis were determined to be 42°C and 44°C, respectively, with no heat shock induced death of mussels at 40°C or less. Immunoprobing of western blots revealed augmentation of constitutive (PvHsp70-1) and inducible (PvHsp70-2) Hsp70 in tissue from adductor muscle, foot, gill and mantel of P. viridis exposed to 38°C for 30 min followed by 6 h recovery, NLHS conditions for this organism. Characterization by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that PvHsp70-1 and PvHsp70-2 respectively corresponded most closely to Hsp70 from P. viridis and Mytilus galloprovincialis. Priming of adult mussels with NLHS promoted thermotolerance and increased resistance to V. alginolyticus. The induction of Hsp70 in parallel with enhanced thermotolerance and improved protection against V. alginolyticus, suggests Hsp70 functions in P. viridis as a molecular chaperone and as a stimulator of the immune system. PMID:26288319

  8. Isoform-specific responses of metallothioneins in a marine pollution biomonitor, the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, towards different stress stimulations.

    PubMed

    Leung, Priscilla T Y; Park, T J; Wang, Yu; Che, C M; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-08-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are commonly used as biomarker for metal pollution assessment in marine ecosystems. Using integrated genomic and proteomic analyses, this study characterized two types of MT isoform in the digestive gland of a common biomonitor, the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, towards the challenges of a metal (cadmium; Cd) and a non-metal oxidant (hydrogen peroxide; H2 O2 ) respectively. The two isoforms differed in their deduced protein sequences, with 73 amino acids for MT10-I and 72 for MT10-II (a novel type), but both consisted of a high percentage (27.4 to 29.2%) of cysteine. Two-dimensional gel and Western blot showed that the MT proteins were present in multiple isoform spots, and they were further validated to be MT10-I and MT10-II using MS analysis coupled with unrestricted modifications searching. Expression of mRNA revealed that MT10-I responded promptly to Cd but had a lagged induction to H2 O2 treatments, while MT10-II was exclusively induced by Cd treatment over the course of exposure. Expression of the MT proteins also showed a delayed response to H2 O2 , compared to Cd treatments. This study uncovered the potential different functional roles of various MTs isoforms in P. viridis and thus advances the resolution of using MTs as biomarkers in future applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Estimating bioconcentration factors, lethal concentrations and critical body residues of metals in the mollusks Perna viridis and Mytilus edulis using ion characteristics.

    PubMed

    van Kolck, Maurits; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Veltman, Karin; Jan Hendriks, A

    2008-02-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for metal bioconcentration factors (BCF) and median acute lethal water concentrations (LC50) were developed for two species of mollusks, Perna viridis and Mytilus edulis. These endpoints were related to four metal ion characteristics, the covalent index (chi(2)(m)r) (r represents the ion radius in A), the softness index (sigma(p)), the hydrolysis constant (K(OH)) and the ionic index (Z(2)/r). The BCF and LC50 were significantly correlated to chi(m)(2)r. The coefficients of determination r(2) for the relationships with other metal descriptors were much lower. Critical body residue (CBR) QSARs were derived by multiplying the chi(2)(m)r-based BCF and LC50 regressions. The CBRs were independent of the covalent index chi(2)(m)r, as BCF and LC50 scaled to chi(2)(m)r with slope that had opposite signs. Comparison of the estimated CBRs with independent empirical values confirmed the predicted trends, but substantial deviations were noted too.

  10. Toxicological effects of benzo(a)pyrene, DDT and their mixture on the green mussel Perna viridis revealed by proteomic and metabolomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Song, Qinqin; Chen, Hao; Li, Yuhu; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-02-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are persistent organic pollutants and environmental estrogens (EEs) with known toxicity towards the green mussel, Perna viridis. In this study, the toxic effects of BaP (10 µg/L) and DDT (10 µg/L) and their mixture were assessed in green mussel gills with proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Metabolic responses indicated that BaP mainly caused disturbance in osmotic regulation by significantly decrease in branched chain amino acids, dimethylamine and dimethylglycine in gills of male green mussels after exposure for 7 days. DDT mainly caused disturbance in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by differential alteration of betaine, dimethylamine, dimethylglycine, amino acids, and succinate in gills of male green mussels. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT didn't show obvious metabolite changes. Proteomic analysis showed different protein expression profiles between different treatment groups, which demonstrated that BaP, DDT and their mixture may have different modes of action. Proteomic responses revealed that BaP induced cell apoptosis, disturbance in protein digestion and energy metabolism in gills of green mussels, whereas DDT exposure altered proteins that were associated with oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, protein digestion and energy metabolism. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT affected proteins related to the oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, protein biosynthesis and modification, energy metabolism, growth and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influences of ammonia-nitrogen and dissolved oxygen on lysosomal integrity in green-lipped mussel Perna viridis: laboratory evaluation and field validation in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Fang, J K H; Wu, R S S; Chan, A K Y; Yip, C K M; Shin, P K S

    2008-12-01

    Lysosomal integrity in mussels has been applied as a biomarker to detect the pollution of trace organics and metals in the natural environments. However, few studies have examined the effects of water quality on the response of lysosomal integrity, in particular total ammonia-nitrogen (TAN) and dissolved oxygen (DO). This study demonstrated that high level of TAN (2.0mg/l) and low DO (2.5mg O(2)/l) could significantly reduce the lysosomal integrity in green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, respectively by 33% and 38%, whereas the mussel lysosomal integrity decreased by 70% in the combined treatment of TAN and low DO under laboratory conditions after one week. The mussel lysosomal integrity of all treatment groups could return to the control level after a three week recovery period. In the field validation in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong during an one-year study period, lysosomal integrity in P. viridis identified the cleanest site east to the harbour, where the lowest TAN and highest DO concentrations were found. While lysosomal integrity in mussels seemed not affected by seasonal changes, approximately 40% of the variation of this biomarker could be attributable to the changes in TAN and DO in seawater. In conclusion, the response of the mussel lysosomal integrity can be confounded by both TAN and DO prevailing in the natural environments and thus caution must be exercised in relating the observed changes in lysosomal integrity to any specific pollutant in coastal water quality monitoring studies.

  12. Determination of volatile compounds in New Zealand Greenshell™ mussels (Perna canaliculus) during chilled storage using solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tuckey, Nicholas P L; Day, Jacqueline R; Miller, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Greenshell™ mussels (Perna canaliculus) were dry-stored at 6.44±0.54°C for 8 days during which time volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored using SPME GC-MS. Thirty-four VOCs were identified in homogenised mussel meat and 29 in the mussel liquor (i.e. the seawater enclosed in the mantle cavity). Of the 34 VOCs identified 20 were reliably identified throughout the storage treatment and 9 were found to change in relative concentration in homogenised mussel meat. Dimethyl sulphide, 1-penten-3-ol, 1-hexen-3-ol and 1-octen-3-ol increased during storage, whereas pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal and 3-undecen-2-one decreased. In the mussel liquor, dimethyl sulphide was undetectable pre-storage, becoming detectable after 2 days, and a large increase was noted after 6 days. SPME GC-MS was a useful tool for monitoring VOC profiles of Greenshell™ mussels and could aid in the development of technologies that monitor and improve product quality and consistency.

  13. Differential proteomic responses in hepatopancreas and adductor muscles of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis to stresses induced by cadmium and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Leung, Priscilla T Y; Wang, Yu; Mak, Sarah S T; Ng, W C; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to reveal the proteomic responses in the hepatopancreas and adductor muscle of a common biomonitor, Perna viridis after 14-day exposure to two model chemicals, cadmium (Cd; a toxic metal) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2); a pro-oxidant), using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with multivariate statistical analyses. Unique sets of tissue-specific protein expression signatures were revealed corresponding to the two treatment groups. In the hepatopancreas, 15 and 2 spots responded to Cd and H(2)O(2) treatments respectively. 6 and 7 spots were differentially expressed in the adductor muscle for Cd and H(2)O(2) treatments, respectively. 15 differentially expressed spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis. These proteins are involved in glycolysis, amino acid metabolism, energy homeostasis, oxidative stress response, redox homeostasis and protein folding, heat-shock response, and muscle contraction modulation. This is the first time, to have demonstrated that Cd exposure not only leads to substantial oxidative stress but also results in endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatopancreas of the mussel. Such notable stress responses may be attributable to high Cd accumulation in this tissue. Our results suggested that investigations on these stress-associated protein changes could be used as a new and complementary approach in pollution monitoring by this popular biomonitor species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni) and PAHs in Perna viridis collected from seaport and non-seaport waters in the Straits of Johore.

    PubMed

    Yap, C K; Shahbazi, A; Zakaria, M P

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the ranges of pollutants found in the soft tissues of Perna viridis collected from Kg. Masai and Kg. Sg. Melayu, both located in the Straits of Johore, were 0.85-1.58 μg/g dry weight (dw) for Cd, 5.52-12.2 μg/g dw for Cu, 5.66-8.93 μg/g dw for Ni and 63.4-72.3 μg/g dw for Zn, and 36.4-244 ng/g dry weight for ∑PAHs. Significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn and ∑PAHs in the mussels were found in the water of a seaport site at Kg. Masai than a non-seaport site at Kg. Sg. Melayu population. The ratios of low molecular weight/high molecular weight hydrocarbons (2.94-3.42) and fluoranthene/pyrene (0.43-0.45) in mussels from both sites indicated the origin of the PAHs to be mainly petrogenic. This study has demonstrated the utility of using the soft tissues of P. viridis as a biomonitor of PAH contamination and bioavailability in the coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia.

  15. Use of a suite of biomarkers to assess the effects of carbamazepine, bisphenol A, atrazine, and their mixtures on green mussels, Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Juhel, Guillaume; Bayen, Stephane; Goh, Christine; Lee, Wei Kit; Kelly, Barry C

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated the toxicity of several emerging contaminants: the pharmaceutical drug carbamazepine (CBZ), the plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA), and the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) in a marine bivalve. Green mussels (Perna viridis) were exposed to different concentrations of CBZ, BPA, and ATZ, either individually or as mixtures over a 7-d period, and a suite of molecular and cellular biomarkers were analyzed: biomarkers of immunotoxicity (total hemocyte count, phagocytosis, extracellular lysozyme), genotoxicity (Comet assay), neurotoxicity (inhibition of acetylcholinesterase [AChE]), endocrine disruption (vitellin-like proteins), and detoxification enzymes (cytochrome P4501A [CYP1A], 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase [EROD], and glutathione-S-transferase [GST]). Results of the single-chemical exposure tests highlighted the relatively low toxicity of CBZ because most biomarker responses observed were recorded at concentrations well above environmental levels. Bisphenol A exposure at environmentally realistic concentrations resulted in clear immunomodulatory, genotoxic, and endocrine-disruptive effects. Similarly, 3 of the 10 biomarkers tested on green mussels (genotoxicity, inhibition of AchE, and EROD) responded after exposure to ATZ at environmentally relevant doses or below, and confirmed the potency of this herbicide to marine bivalves. Exposure tests using mixtures of CBZ, BPA, and ATZ also revealed that these 3 substances were generally acting in an additive manner on the selected biomarkers, at environmental doses, with some exceptions (antagonism and/or synergy) at low and high concentrations. The present study also confirms that most of the biomarkers used are suitable for biomonitoring studies with green mussels. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:429-441. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  16. The use of selected genotoxicity assays in green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis): a validation study in Hong Kong coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Siu, Stanley Y M; Lam, Paul K S; Martin, Michael; Caldwell, Christopher W; Richardson, Bruce J

    2008-01-01

    In Hong Kong, discharges of domestic and industrial wastewaters and disposal of contaminated muds into coastal waters have resulted in high levels of persistent organic contaminants in the water column, biota and bottom sediments. Although the acute toxicity of effluents has been tested by government regulators using mortality-based bioassays, the sublethal effects of many of the pollutants, including environmental carcinogens, have not been well studied. The objective of the present work was to examine the efficiency and efficacy of using: (1) DNA strand breaks (comet assay and alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis assay); (2) oxidative DNA damage (levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine in cellular DNA) and (3) micronuclei (MN) formation as early warning toxicological indicators of potential environmental carcinogen exposure. Green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis) were transplanted to study sites and retrieved after 4, 8, 12, 16 and 30 days. The bioaccumulation of organic pollutants, including the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OC pesticides) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was observed, and compared with biomarker assays. Some significant dose- and time-dependent inductions of the genotoxic biomarkers, including 8-OHdG, DNA strand breaks and micronuclei were observed. In particular, several very strong (r>0.9) and significantly positive relationships were found at all sites during days 0-12. In addition, significant strong relationships between certain organic contaminants (carcinogenic PAHs and 4 common OC pesticides) and micronuclei were detected at the polluted sites, Tsim Sha Tsui and Sai Wan Ho. The results suggest that the use of micronuclei as a biomarker is potentially effective, especially at the more polluted sites. Nonetheless, further research is required to validate their effectiveness under varying field conditions, especially to elucidate responses under lower contaminant loads, interactions between the

  17. Can the shell of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia be a potential biomonitoring material for Cd, Pb and Zn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, C. K.; Ismail, A.; Tan, S. G.; Abdul Rahim, I.

    2003-07-01

    The distributions of Cd, Pb and Zn in the total soft tissues and total shells of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis were studied in field collected samples as well as from laboratory experimental samples. The results showed that Cd, Pb and Zn were readily accumulated in the whole shells. In mussels sampled from 12 locations along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, the ratios of the shell metals to the soft tissue metals were different at each sampling site. Nevertheless, the Cd and Pb levels in the shells were always higher than those in the soft tissues, while the Zn level was higher in the soft tissues than in the shells. In comparison with soft tissues, the degrees of variability for Pb and Cd concentrations in the shells were lower. The lower degrees of variability and significant ( P<0.05) correlation coefficients of Cd and Pb within the shells support the use of the mussel shell as a suitable biomonitoring material for the two metals rather than the soft tissue since this indicated that there is more precision (lower CV) in the determination of metal concentrations in the shell than in the soft tissue. Experimental work showed that the pattern of depuration in the shell was not similar to that of the soft tissue although their patterns of accumulation were similar. This indicated that the depuration of heavy metals in the shell was not affected by the physiological conditions of the mussels. Although Zn could be regulated by the soft tissue, the incorporated Cd, Pb and Zn remained in the shell matrices. The present results support the use of the total shell of P. viridis as a potential biomonitoring material for long-term contamination of Cd, Pb and Zn.

  18. Toxic effects of male Perna viridis gonad exposed to BaP, DDT and their mixture: A metabolomic and proteomic study of the underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Song, Qinqin; Zheng, Pengfei; Qiu, Liguo; Jiang, Xiu; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-01-05

    Benzo(a)pyrene and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane are typical persistent organic pollutants, and also the widespread environmental estrogens with known toxicity towards green mussels Perna viridis. In this study, the toxicological effects of BaP and DDT and their mixture were assessed in green mussel gonads using proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Metabolomics by NMR spectroscopy revealed that BaP did not show obvious metabolite changes in the gonad of male green mussel. DDT mainly caused some disturbance of osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by changing BCAAs, alanine, threonine, arginine, etc., unknown metabolite (3.53 ppm), glycine, homarine and ATP at different levels. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT mainly caused some disturbance in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by differentially altering branched chain amino acids, glutamate, alanine, arginine, unknown metabolite (3.53 ppm), glycine, 4-aminobutyrate, dimethylglycine, homarine and ATP. The results suggest that DDT alone may cause most of metabolites changes in the mixture exposed male mussel gonad, and the results also show that the male P. viridis gonad was more sensitive to DDT than BaP exposures. Proteomic study showed that BaP, DDT and their mixture may have different modes of action. Proteomic responses revealed that BaP induced signal transduction, oxidative stress, spermatogenesis, etc. in the male green mussel gonad; whereas DDT exposure altered proteins that were associated with signal transduction, oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, cellular organization, energy metabolism, etc. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT affected proteins related to cytoskeleton and cell structure, oxidative stress, cellular organization, etc. This research demonstrated that metabolomic and proteomic approaches could better elucidate the underlying mechanism of environmental pollutants gonad toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Patterns of rapd markers and heavy metal concentrations in Perna viridis (L.), collected from metal-contaminated and uncontaminated coastal waters: are they correlated with each other?

    PubMed

    Yap, C K; Chua, B H; Teh, C H; Tan, S G; Ismail, A

    2007-05-01

    Genetic variation due to heavy metal contamination has always been an interesting topic of study. Because of the numerous contaminants being found in coastal and intertidal waters, there is always much discussion and argument as to which contaminant(s) caused the variations in the genetic structures of biomonitors. This study used a Single Primer Amplification Reaction (SPAR) technique namely Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to determine the genetic diversity of the populations of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis collected from a metal-contaminated site at Kg. Pasir Puteh and those from four relatively' uncontaminated sites (reference sites). Heavy metal levels (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) were also measured in the soft tissues and byssus of the mussels from all the sites. Cluster analyses employing UPGMA done based on the RAPD makers grouped the populations into two major clusters; the Bagan Tiang, Pantai Lido, Pontian and Kg. Pasir Puteh populations were in one cluster, while the Sg. Belungkor population clustered by itself. This indicated that the genetic diversity based on bands resulting from the use of all four RAPD primers on P. viridis did not indicate its potential use as a biomarker of heavy metal pollution in coastal waters. However, based on a correlation analysis between a particular metal and a band resulting from a specific RAPD primer revealed some significant (P < 0.01) correlations between the primers and the heavy metal concentrations in the byssus and soft tissues. Thus, the correlation between a particular metal and the bands resulting from the use of a specific RAPD primer on P. viridis could be used as biomonitoring tool of heavy metal pollution.

  20. Immune toxicity of TiO₂ under hypoxia in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis based on flow cytometric analysis of hemocyte parameters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youji; Hu, Menghong; Li, Qiongzhen; Li, Jiale; Lin, Daohui; Lu, Weiqun

    2014-02-01

    The combined effects of DO and TiO2 (mixed rutile/anatase phase, 7/3) on immune responses in Perna viridis were examined. Mussels were exposed to six combinations of oxygen levels (hypoxia: 1.5 mg O2l(-1), normoxia: 6.0 mg O2 l(-1)) and TiO2 concentrations (0, 2.5 mg l(-1) and 10 mg l(-1)) for 216 h. Mussels were sampled after 24h, 48h, 120 h and 216 h, and immune parameters of hemocytes, including mortality, phagocytosis, non-specific esterase, ROS production, lysosomal content and total hemocyte count were investigated using flow cytometric assay. Hemocyte mortality was higher under hypoxia than normoxia, and increased with TiO2 concentrations, but no interaction was found between DO and TiO2. Phagocytosis was reduced under hypoxia and decreased with TiO2 exposure, and the interactive effect between time and TiO2 was observed. The percentage of hemocytes showing non-specific esterase activity was lower under hypoxia, and decreased as TiO2 concentration increased with the significant interactive effect of DO and TiO2. ROS production and lysosomal content were lower under hypoxia and reduced as concentration of TiO2 increased, and interactive effect of DO and TiO2 on ROS was evident. THC was significantly affected by the interactive effect between TiO2 and DO, with higher values under normoxia in the presence of TiO2. The present study demonstrated that immune functions of P. viridis were influenced by both nano-TiO2 and hypoxia with some synergistic effects between the two stressors. This implies that DO has to be considered in the evaluation of the toxicity of nano-materials to bivalves. © 2013.

  1. De novo assembly and comparative transcriptome analysis of the foot from Chinese green mussel (Perna viridis) in response to cadmium stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinhui; Ruan, Zhiqiang; You, Xinxin; Wang, Jintu; Chen, Jieming; Peng, Chao; Shi, Qiong

    2017-01-01

    The Chinese green mussel, Perna viridis, is a marine bivalve with important economic values as well as biomonitoring roles for aquatic pollution. Byssus, secreted by the foot gland, has been proved to bind heavy metals effectively. In this study, using the RNA sequencing technology, we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis on the mussel feet with or without inducing by cadmium (Cd). Our current work is aiming at providing insights into the molecular mechanisms of byssus binding to heavy metal ions. The transcriptome sequencing generated a total of 26.13-Gb raw data. After a careful assembly of clean data, we obtained a primary set of 105,127 unigenes, in which 32,268 unigenes were annotated. Based on the expression profiles, we identified 9,048 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between Cd treatment (50 or 100 μg/L) at 48 h and the control, suggesting an extensive transcriptome response of the mussels during the Cd stimulation. Moreover, we observed that the expression levels of 54 byssus protein coding genes increased significantly after the 48-h Cd stimulation. In addition, 16 critical byssus protein coding genes were picked for profiling by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Finally, we reached a primary conclusion that high content of tyrosine (Tyr), cysteine (Cys), histidine (His) residues or the special motif plays an important role in the accumulation of heavy metals in byssus. We also proposed an interesting model for the confirmed byssal Cd accumulation, in which biosynthesis of byssus proteins may play simultaneously critical roles since their transcription levels were significantly elevated.

  2. An integrated use of multiple biomarkers to investigate the individual and combined effect of copper and cadmium on the marine green mussel (Perna viridis).

    PubMed

    Goswami, Prasun; Hariharan, G; Godhantaraman, Nallamuthu; Munuswamy, Natesan

    2014-01-01

    The present study documents individual and combined sub-lethal effect of one redox active (copper) and one non-redox active (cadmium) metal on green mussel (Perna viridis). The mussels were exposed to 60 μg L(-1) of Cu and 150 μg L(-1) of Cd (individually and in combination) for 21 days. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies revealed significant metal induced alterations such as vacuolization, fusion of gill lamellae, enhance mucous deposition, hyperplasia and necrosis in gills. Antioxidant enzyme assays revealed significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Similarly, single exposure to Cd and Cu caused significant induction in Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity. However, combined Cu+Cd exposure modulated suppression in MDH activity. Unlike MDH, Cu and Cd individual exposure resulted in a decrease in esterase (EST) activity, but their combined exposure caused an induction. Non-enzymatic biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metallothionein (MT) levels showed no significant change in response to Cu exposure, whereas, individual Cd exposure or Cd exposure in combination with Cu caused significant changes in their levels. Comet assay revealed a significant increase in DNA damage upon metal exposure. These results indicate that Cu (redox active) and Cd (non-redox active) can induce measurable physiological, biochemical as well as genotoxic perturbations in mussels even at sub-lethal concentrations. A monitoring programme based on the biomarkers discussed here would be useful to study the effect of metal pollutants reaching the coastal waters.

  3. Sublethal effect of silver and chromium in the green mussel Perna viridis with reference to alterations in oxygen uptake, filtration rate and membrane bound ATPase system as biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Vijayavel, K; Gopalakrishnan, S; Balasubramanian, M P

    2007-10-01

    Perna viridis is an ideal animal for studying the impairment caused by the effects of heavy metals that are often detected in coastal areas. Preliminary bioassay tests revealed that the lethal (LC(100)), median lethal (LC(50)) and sublethal (LC(0)) concentration of silver and chromium to P. viridis were 6.5, 4.0, 2.0 mg l(-1) and 4.5, 2.5, 1.0 mg l(-1), respectively. Toxic effect of silver and chromium was evaluated in the green mussel P. viridis, with reference to oxygen consumption, filtration rate and ATPase system in laboratory experiments. These parameters were selected as the end point of sublethal stress. Oxygen consumption and filtration rates were calculated as a measure of decline in the dissolved oxygen level and algal concentration (feed) in the aquaria water, respectively. Silver and chromium affects both oxygen consumption and filtration rate significantly (P<0.01) at 96 h when compared to control. The activity of ATPases system in the gills, hepatopancreas, ovary and muscle of mussels were inhibited by silver and chromium indicating that metals exerted significant toxic effect. The inhibition of Na(+)K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase and Mg(2+) ATPase in the mussels were significant (P<0.05) for silver and highly significant (P<0.01) for chromium, which indicates that chromium was more toxic to mussels when compared to silver. The assessment of oxygen consumption, filtration and ATPases system can thus be used as a valid biomarker in aquatic ecotoxicology studies.

  4. De novo assembly and comparative transcriptome analysis of the foot from Chinese green mussel (Perna viridis) in response to cadmium stimulation

    PubMed Central

    You, Xinxin; Wang, Jintu; Chen, Jieming; Peng, Chao; Shi, Qiong

    2017-01-01

    The Chinese green mussel, Perna viridis, is a marine bivalve with important economic values as well as biomonitoring roles for aquatic pollution. Byssus, secreted by the foot gland, has been proved to bind heavy metals effectively. In this study, using the RNA sequencing technology, we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis on the mussel feet with or without inducing by cadmium (Cd). Our current work is aiming at providing insights into the molecular mechanisms of byssus binding to heavy metal ions. The transcriptome sequencing generated a total of 26.13-Gb raw data. After a careful assembly of clean data, we obtained a primary set of 105,127 unigenes, in which 32,268 unigenes were annotated. Based on the expression profiles, we identified 9,048 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between Cd treatment (50 or 100 μg/L) at 48 h and the control, suggesting an extensive transcriptome response of the mussels during the Cd stimulation. Moreover, we observed that the expression levels of 54 byssus protein coding genes increased significantly after the 48-h Cd stimulation. In addition, 16 critical byssus protein coding genes were picked for profiling by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Finally, we reached a primary conclusion that high content of tyrosine (Tyr), cysteine (Cys), histidine (His) residues or the special motif plays an important role in the accumulation of heavy metals in byssus. We also proposed an interesting model for the confirmed byssal Cd accumulation, in which biosynthesis of byssus proteins may play simultaneously critical roles since their transcription levels were significantly elevated. PMID:28520756

  5. Influences of dissolved and colloidal organic carbon on the uptake of Ag, Cd, and Cr by the marine mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jin-Fen; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2004-06-01

    The cross-flow ultrafiltration and radiotracer techniques were used to study the influences of natural dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colloidal organic carbon (COC) on the bioavailability of Ag, Cd, and Cr to the green mussel Perna viridis. We examined the uptake of these metals by the mussels at different concentrations of DOC and COC from different origins (estuarine, coastal, and diatom decomposed). Using the DOC originating from the decomposed diatom (Thalassiosira pseudonana), we demonstrated that Cd and Cr uptake, quantified by the concentration factor (DCF), increased linearly with increasing DOC concentration. There was, however, no consistent influence of natural DOC concentration on the metal uptake when the DOC was obtained from different sources of seawater (coastal and estuarine). The influences of COC on metal bioavailability were metal-specific and dependent on the geochemical properties of colloids and colloid-metal complexation. Cd uptake rate was not influenced by the COC concentrations. Uptake of diatom-decomposed colloidal Cr was enhanced by 3.4x, whereas the uptake of diatom-decomposed colloidal Ag was decreased by 8.2x compared with the uptake of low molecular weight Cr and Ag (<1 kDa). The uptake of diatom-decomposed colloidal Cr and Ag was generally lower than the uptake of metals bound with the same type of colloids for 2 days. Further aging of the colloid-metal binding reduced metal bioavailability to the mussels. In the presence of different sizes of colloidal particles where there was no major binding of colloids with the metals, metal uptake by the mussels was not influenced by different COC concentrations. Overall, our study suggests that although metal dissociation from colloids may be an important step for the uptake of colloidal metals, other mechanisms such as pinocytosis and co-transport may also be involved in the uptake of these metals, especially in aquatic environments with high DOC and COC concentrations.

  6. Seasonal variation in antioxidative responses and acetylcholinesterase activity in Perna viridis in eastern oceanic and western estuarine waters of Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, P. S.; Wong, H. L.; Garrigues, Ph.

    2004-10-01

    A year-round study was conducted to assess the seasonal variations and potential influence of the riverine discharge from the Pearl River on biomarker responses in Hong Kong waters. A suite of biomarkers including antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), a Phase II detoxification enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the neural transmitter enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the green mussel, Perna viridis, were monitored from three coastal sites, Port Shelter, Tung Chung and Tai O, stretching from the east to the west of Hong Kong. Despite of the seasonal variations, the total protein profiles suggested that mussels from the three sites had a growth cycle that was in phase with each other. This implied that intrinsic variation between sites due to a different phase of growth was minimal. Seasonal variations of the biomarker responses in the mussels were found to be significant (Tukey multiple comparison test, p<0.05) with a summer minimum and winter maximum. On top of seasonal variations, the western site, Tai O, was further subjected to the reduced salinity effect of the Pearl River discharge in the summer wet season. This was demonstrated by the significant July minimum in all the biomarker responses at Tai O in relation to the extreme low salinity of 8‰. Mussels from the western site also revealed a higher oxidative stress than those from the eastern side throughout the year (Tukey multiple comparison test, p<0.05), which could be caused by chemical pollutants from the Pearl River discharge. ANOVAs of the year-round dataset suggested that size was a minor factor in affecting the biomarker responses. Gill tissues of the mussels were more advantageous for biomarker studies or monitoring because their protein levels were less sensitive to seasonal variations and they yielded a higher protein normalized biomarker response than the whole body tissues. This increases their

  7. Potential impacts of blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the growth, survival and juvenile recruitment of the non-native green mussel Perna viridis in southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Katherine; Jean, Fred; Thébault, Julien; Volety, Aswani K

    2016-01-01

    Red tide blooms formed by Karenia brevis are frequent along the Gulf coast of Florida and it is unclear what tolerance the green mussel Perna viridis, a recently introduced species to coastal waters, has toward these events. Established populations of P. viridis were monitored along the coastal waters of Estero Bay, Florida before, during and following two consecutive red tide blooms to assess the potential effects on growth, survival and juvenile recruitment. Upon onset of the bloom, growth rates fell from 6 to 10 mm month(-1) (March 2011-November 2011) to less than 3 mm month(-1). In the succeeding years, K. brevis blooms were present, and average growth of individually tagged mussels remained below 3 mm month(-1). During growth monitoring the use of calcein as an internal marker was tested with positive staining results and no observed effect on growth or survival. In March 2012, following the first red tide bloom, a population-wide mortality event was observed. Following this event, increased mortality rates were observed with peaks during onset of the bloom in the fall of 2012 and 2013. Juvenile recruitment was also limited during years in which blooms persisted into the spring spawning period suggesting gamete and/or larval sensitivity to K. brevis. Although it cannot be conclusively determined that the cause of reduced growth and survival is due to red tide events, the parallels observed suggest that K. brevis is a factor in the observed changes in population structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Can the byssus of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia be a biomonitoring organ for Cd, Pb and Zn? Field and laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Yap, C K; Ismail, A; Tan, S G

    2003-07-01

    Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in total soft tissues (ST) and byssus (BYS) of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from 11 different geographical locations off the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were determined. The metal concentrations distributed between the BYS and ST were compared. The results of this study indicated that higher levels of Cd (1.31 microg/g), Pb (38.49 microg/g) and Zn (206.52 microg/g) were accumulated in the BYS than in the total ST (Cd: 0.29 microg/g; Pb: 8.27 microg/g; Zn: 102.6 microg/g). Semi-static and short period controlled laboratory experiments were also conducted for the accumulation and depuration of Cd, Pb and Zn in the total ST and BYS of P. viridis. The ratios (BYS/ST) for Pb and Cd from the laboratory experiments showed that the total ST accumulated more metals than the BYS. Therefore, these laboratory results disagreed with those found for the field samples. However, the laboratory results for the Zn ratio (BYS/ST) agreed with those of the field samples. It was evident that when compared to the ST, the BYS was a more sensitive biomonitoring organ for Zn while it could be a complementary organ for Cd and Pb in the total ST. Since total ST of P. viridis had been reported to have regulative mechanism for Zn, its BYS can be used as a biomonitoring organ for the identification of coastal areas exposed to Zn pollution.

  9. A randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of PCSO-524®, a patented oil extract of the New Zealand green lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus), on the behaviour, mood, cognition and neurophysiology of children and adolescents (aged 6–14 years) experiencing clinical and sub-clinical levels of hyperactivity and inattention: study protocol ACTRN12610000978066

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence rate of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) within Western cultures is between 5% and 12%, and is the most common psychiatric illness among school-aged children, with an estimated 50% of these children retaining ADHD symptoms for the rest of their lives. Children with ADHD have lower blood levels of long-chain Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (LC PUFAs) compared with children without ADHD, and following PUFA supplementation, have shown improvements in ADHD-related symptoms. One highly promising marine based LC PUFA preparation is the Omega-3-rich Lyprinol/Omega XL which is a natural formulation containing standardised lipid extract of the New Zealand green lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) known as PCSO-524® which contains a unique combination of free fatty acids, sterol esters, polar lipids and carotenoids. It is this unique combination of marine lipids that may assist in correcting the decreased levels of LC PUFA levels in children with symptoms of ADHD. The compound is a mixture belonging to a lipid group called sterol esters (SE). The fatty acids in the SE fraction are mainly myristic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Lyprinol/Omega XL has previously been shown to contain a potent group of Omega-3 lipids that block the 5 - lipoxygenase metabolic pathway responsible for inflammation in the body. Methods A randomized double blind placebo controlled trial will be utilized to assess the effects of 14 weeks administration of Lyprinol/Omega XL versus placebo in 150 children aged 6 to 14 years with high levels of hyperactivity and inattention. Additionally, a range of cognitive, mood and central electrophysiological measures will be undertaken during the 14 week supplementation trial. The primary outcome measure, the Conners’ Parent Rating Scales will be completed initially at baseline, then in weeks 4, 8, 10, 14 and then

  10. A randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of PCSO-524, a patented oil extract of the New Zealand green lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus), on the behaviour, mood, cognition and neurophysiology of children and adolescents (aged 6-14 years) experiencing clinical and sub-clinical levels of hyperactivity and inattention: study protocol ACTRN12610000978066.

    PubMed

    Kean, James D; Camfield, David; Sarris, Jerome; Kras, Marni; Silberstein, Richard; Scholey, Andrew; Stough, Con

    2013-07-16

    The prevalence rate of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) within Western cultures is between 5% and 12%, and is the most common psychiatric illness among school-aged children, with an estimated 50% of these children retaining ADHD symptoms for the rest of their lives. Children with ADHD have lower blood levels of long-chain Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (LC PUFAs) compared with children without ADHD, and following PUFA supplementation, have shown improvements in ADHD-related symptoms. One highly promising marine based LC PUFA preparation is the Omega-3-rich Lyprinol/Omega XL which is a natural formulation containing standardised lipid extract of the New Zealand green lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) known as PCSO-524® which contains a unique combination of free fatty acids, sterol esters, polar lipids and carotenoids. It is this unique combination of marine lipids that may assist in correcting the decreased levels of LC PUFA levels in children with symptoms of ADHD. The compound is a mixture belonging to a lipid group called sterol esters (SE). The fatty acids in the SE fraction are mainly myristic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Lyprinol/Omega XL has previously been shown to contain a potent group of Omega-3 lipids that block the 5 - lipoxygenase metabolic pathway responsible for inflammation in the body. A randomized double blind placebo controlled trial will be utilized to assess the effects of 14 weeks administration of Lyprinol/Omega XL versus placebo in 150 children aged 6 to 14 years with high levels of hyperactivity and inattention. Additionally, a range of cognitive, mood and central electrophysiological measures will be undertaken during the 14 week supplementation trial. The primary outcome measure, the Conners' Parent Rating Scales will be completed initially at baseline, then in weeks 4, 8, 10, 14 and then again at 4 weeks post

  11. [Characteristics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from mussels (Perna perna) commercialized at Niterói, Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Christiane Soares; Possas, Cristina de Albuquerque; Viana, Célio Mauro; Rodrigues, Dália dos Prazeres

    2007-01-01

    The marine ecosystem is the natural habitat of bacteria like Vibrio parahaemolyticus, an important pathogen that cause human gastroenteritis associated with seafood consumption. In the present investigation, the presence of V. parahaemolyticus in 86 in natural and precooked mussel samples was evaluated. Vibrio parahaemolyticus was isolated from 11.6% of the in natural and precooked mussels. All strains tested were urease-positive and 28.5% were Kanagawa-positive, which suggests that they have pathogenic potential for humans. There was predominance of the O10:K52 serotype and the emerging O3:K6 strain was identified. These results show the epidemiological relevance of V. parahaemolyticus in cases of human gastroenteritis following mussel consumption without adequately cooking them (100 degrees C/15 min). Moreover, it is important to alert the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance authorities regarding their presence in the food chain and their public health risks.

  12. Assessment of trace element contamination and bioaccumulation in algae (Ulva lactuca), mussels (Perna perna), shrimp (Penaeus kerathurus), and fish (Mugil cephalus, Saratherondon melanotheron) along the Senegalese coast.

    PubMed

    Diop, Mamadou; Howsam, Michael; Diop, Cheikh; Goossens, Jean F; Diouf, Amadou; Amara, Rachid

    2016-02-15

    Concentrations of 11 elements were quantified in five marine species from different trophic levels of a food web (algae, mussel, shrimp and fish), representative for shallow Senegalese coastal waters, and including species of commercial importance. Significant differences in element concentrations and bioaccumulation were demonstrated, revealing the utility of employing a suite of organisms as bioindicators to monitor metal contamination in coastal areas. There was no clear seasonal pattern in concentration of elements, however inter-site differences were observed. Calculations of transfer factors for all the studied elements showed that transfer factors from water were greater than those from sediments. For shrimp and mussel, the concentrations of Pb and Cd were below the EU's maximum level for human consumption, however high concentrations of arsenic in shrimp were recorded at all sites.

  13. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca - Bivalvia.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Rafael; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. For the Mollusca-Bivalvia, data from 5 families (Margaritiferidae, Unionidae, Sphaeriidae, Cyrenidae, Dreissenidae) containing 55 species are included in this paper. European freshwater bivalves belong to the Orders Unionoida and Cardiida. All the European unionoids are included in the superfamily Unionoidea, the freshwater mussels or naiads. The European cardiids belong to the following three superfamilies: Cardioidea, Cyrenoidea and Dreissenoidea. Among the Unionoidea there are the most imperilled animal groups on the planet while the Cardioidea includes the cosmopolitan genus Pisidium, the Cyrenoidea the Asiatic clam (Corbiculafluminea) and the Dreissenoidea the famous invasive zebra mussel (Dreissenapolymorpha). Basic information is summarized on their taxonomy and biology. Tabulations include a complete list of the current estimated families, genera and species.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Taxonomy of potentially hazardous asteroids (Perna+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, D.; Dotto, E.; Ieva, S.; Barucci, M. A.; Bernardi, F.; Fornasier, S.; de Luise, F.; Perozzi, E.; Rossi, A.; Epifani, E. M.; Micheli, M.; Deshapriya, J. D. P.

    2016-07-01

    Observations of 14 Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) were carried out at the 3.6-m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG, La Palma, Spain), the ESO 3.6-m New Technology Telescope (NTT, La Silla, Chile), and the NASA 3.0-m Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF, Mauna Kea, USA). The observational circumstances, as well as the instrumentation used are given in Table1. According to the population model by Mainzer et al. (2012ApJ...752..110M), ~4700+/-1450 PHAs are expected to exist. To further investigate the PHA population as a whole, and in particular to verify how the different taxonomic types are distributed with respect to other physical and dynamical properties, we combined our results with the available literature. We started retrieving the European Asteroid Research Node (EARN; http://earn.dlr.de/; retrieved on 2015 April 28) database of Near-Earth Object (NEO) physical properties, selecting those 255 Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) with published taxonomic classifications. Of our 14 targets, 7 are classified in the present work for the first time, for a total sample of 262 targets to be considered in our analysis (see Table4). The results for our remaining seven targets are in agreement with the literature. (2 data files).

  15. HABITAT AND ECOLOGY OF GREEN MUSSELS, PERNA VIRIDIS, IN FLORIDA. (R828898)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. Eleven novel polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers from the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Ong, C C; Teh, C H; Tan, S G; Yusoff, K; Yap, C K

    2008-04-01

    We report on the characterization of 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci in P. viridis, the first set of such markers developed and characterized for this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7, whereas the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.0447 to 0.4837. These markers should prove useful as powerful genetic markers for this species.

  17. Genotoxicity of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) to the green mussel (Perna viridis).

    PubMed

    Liu, Changhui; Chang, Victor W C; Gin, Karina Y H; Nguyen, Viet Tung

    2014-07-15

    Concerns regarding perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have grown significantly in recent years. However, regulations and guidelines regarding the emission and treatment of PFCs are still missing in most parts of the world, mostly due to the lack of PFC toxicity data. In the current study, the genotoxic effects of four common PFCs, named perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluoroocanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were investigated on marine mussels. The effects of exposure time and concentration on the toxic behavior of the compounds were also examined. Genotoxicity of PFCs was assessed in biomarker assays, showing that exposure to the target compounds could damage the organism's genetic material to varying extents, including DNA strand breaks and fragmentation, chromosomal breaks and apoptosis. The adverse effects increased with both exposure concentration and time and were related with the organism burden of PFCs. The integrated biomarker response analysis demonstrated that PFOS exhibited a higher genotoxicity than the other tested compounds. The EC50 values and confidence intervals based on integrative genotoxicity were 33 (29-37), 594 (341-1036), 195 (144-265) and 78 (73-84) μg/L for PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFDA respectively, classifying PFOS as a highly genotoxic compound. Although primary DNA damage was shown to be recoverable after exposure ceased, permanent genetic damage caused by elevated PFC concentrations was not restored. This is the first ecotoxicity study of PFCs that focuses on the genotoxic effects of the compounds, clearly indicating the genotoxicity of the tested PFCs and demonstrating that functional groups have a major impact on the compounds' genotoxic behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. TRACKING THE SPREAD OF AN INVASIVE MUSSEL (MYTILIDAE: PERNA VIRIDIS) IN FLORIDA. (R828898)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. High mortality and poor growth of green mussels, Perna viridis, in high chlorophyll- a environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soon, Tan Kar; Denil, Delta Jenetty; Ransangan, Julian

    2016-03-01

    The current study was carried out from May 2014 to April 2015 to estimate the stock status of P. viridis in Marudu Bay. The gonad development was monitored by histological examination, while the population parameters including asymptotic length ( L ∞), growth coefficient ( K), mortality rate ( Z, F and M), exploitation level ( E) and recruitment of P. viridis were estimated using the lengthfrequency data. Results of the current study demonstrated that P. viridis in Marudu Bay spawned throughout the year with two major peaks, one in April to May and another one in October to December. The recruitment pattern was continuous with the peak in May to June 2014, which corresponded to the first spawning peak in April. However, no significant recruitment was observed from the second spawning peak due to the difference in spawning timing between male and female populations. The estimated asymptotic length ( L ∞), growth coefficient ( K), total mortality ( Z), natural mortality ( M), fishing mortality ( F) and growth performance ( φ) of P. viridis in Marudu Bay were estimate to be 117 mm, 0.97 yr-1, 4.39 yr-1, 1.23 yr-1, 3.16 yr-1 and 4.123, respectively. The exponent b of the lengthweight relationship was 2.4 and exploitation level ( E) was 0.72. The high mortality, low condition indices and negative allometric of P. viridis in Marudu Bay is caused by a lack of suitable food in the surrounding water.

  20. Cloning, expression and identification of two glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes from Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenzhen; Chen, Rong; Zuo, Zhenghong; Mo, Zhengping; Yu, Ang

    2013-08-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; EC 2.5.1.18) are phase II enzymes involved in major detoxification reactions of xenobiotic in many organisms. In the present study, two classes of GSTs (PvGST1 and PvGST2) were cloned from P. viridis by rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis together supported that PvGST1 and PvGST2 belonged to the pi and omega classes, respectively. The PvGST1 cDNA was 1214 nucleotides (nt) in length and contained a 618 nt open reading frame (ORF) encoding 206 amino acid residues, and had 46 nt of 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 3' UTR of 550 nt including a tailing signal (AATAAA) and a poly (A) tail. The molecular mass of the predicted PvGST1 was 23.815kDa, with the calculated isoelectric point being 5.39. PvGST2 was 1093bp, consisting of a 5' UTR of 13bp, a 3' UTR of 246bp and an ORF of 834bp. The deduced protein was composed of 278 amino acids, with an estimated molecular mass of 32.476kDa and isoelectric point of 8.88. Tissue distribution analysis of the PvGST1 and PvGST2 mRNA revealed that the GST expression level was higher in digestive gland and gonad, while lower in gill and mantle in both genders. Molecular modeling analysis of two GSTs implicated their various functions account for their different enzymatic features. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Uptake, release, and absorption of nutrients into the marine environment by the green mussel (Perna viridis).

    PubMed

    Srisunont, Chayarat; Babel, Sandhya

    2015-08-15

    The nutrient uptake and release by the mussels in relation with amount of food consumption are emphasised in this research. Results of the study demonstrate that about 16% of the total mass dry weight food consumed by the mussels was released as faeces. The depositions of particulate carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in mussel faeces were found to be 26.3, 5.7, and 0.6mg/day/indv respectively. Soluble inorganic nutrients such as NH4(+)-N (2.5mg/day/indv), and PO4(3-)-P (0.6mg/day/indv) were also released as mussel excretion. The nutrient absorption efficiency for the green mussel body was found to be 65.1% for carbon, 62.1% for nitrogen, and 79.2% for phosphorus. Subsequently, green mussels can remove particulate carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus at 108.1, 13.5, and 4.6mg/day/indv from aquatic systems. Finally, the results can help in estimating the carrying capacity of mussel cultivation without deteriorating the water quality in marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating Complementary Therapies for Canine Osteoarthritis Part I: Green-lipped Mussel (Perna canaliculus)

    PubMed Central

    Tulamo, Riitta-Mari; Salonen, Hanna; Raekallio, Marja

    2009-01-01

    A green-lipped mussel (GLM) preparation was evaluated in a randomized, double-controlled and double-blinded clinical trial. It was hypothesized that the treatment effect would be less than that of the positive control (carprofen) but more than that of the negative control (placebo). Forty-five dogs with chronic pain and a radiographic diagnosis of osteoarthritis that were randomly allocated into one of three groups completed the study. All dogs were fed the test products or placebo for 8 weeks. The dogs were evaluated four times, at 4-week intervals. Six different variables were assessed: veterinary-assessed mobility index, two force plate variables, owner-evaluated chronic pain index and pain as well as locomotion visual analogue scales (VASs). Intake of extra carprofen was also evaluated. A chi-squared and a Mann–Whitney test were used to determine significance between groups. When changed to dichotomous variables, there were more dogs in the GLM than in the placebo group that improved, according to veterinary-assessed mobility, owner-evaluated chronic pain index and pain VAS (P = 0.031, P = 0.025, P = 0.011, respectively). For the same three, the odds ratio and their confidence interval were over one. The extent of improvement was significantly different between the GLM and the control in veterinary-assessed mobility (P = 0.012) and pain VAS (P = 0.004). In conclusion, GLM alleviated chronic orthopedic pain in dogs although it was not as effective as carprofen. As no side-effects were detected, GLM may be beneficial in dogs e.g. when non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cannot be used. PMID:18955269

  3. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca – Bivalvia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. For the Mollusca-Bivalvia, data from 5 families (Margaritiferidae, Unionidae, Sphaeriidae, Cyrenidae, Dreissenidae) containing 55 species are included in this paper. European freshwater bivalves belong to the Orders Unionoida and Cardiida. All the European unionoids are included in the superfamily Unionoidea, the freshwater mussels or naiads. The European cardiids belong to the following three superfamilies: Cardioidea, Cyrenoidea and Dreissenoidea. Among the Unionoidea there are the most imperilled animal groups on the planet while the Cardioidea includes the cosmopolitan genus Pisidium, the Cyrenoidea the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) and the Dreissenoidea the famous invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Basic information is summarized on their taxonomy and biology. Tabulations include a complete list of the current estimated families, genera and species. PMID:26311403

  4. Dwarf males in the teredinidae (bivalvia, pholadacea).

    PubMed

    Turner, R D; Yakovlev, Y

    1983-03-04

    Extreme sexual dimorphism in the Bivalvia is rare. The occurrence of dwarf males in Zachsia appears to be the first case in the Teredinidae and the first outside the Leptonacea. Female Zachsia release straight-hinge larvae that develop in the plankton and settle on living rhizomes of Phyllospadix. Larvae entering mantle pouches of females become males. Evolution of this life history pattern is tied to problems of living in a fragile, patchy habitat-that is, the rhizomes of Phyllospadix.

  5. Effect of thermal processing on the biochemical constituents of green mussel (Perna viridis) in Tin-free-steel cans.

    PubMed

    Biji, K B; Shamseer, R M; Mohan, C O; Ravishankar, C N; Mathew, S; Gopal, T K S

    2015-10-01

    The effect of thermal processing on the biochemical constituents of green mussel (Pernaviridis) in brine was investigated. Depurated mussel samples were thermal processed in tin-free steel cans (TFS) at F0 8.43. The time temperature data was collected during heat processing using EVAL data recorder and heat penetration characteristics were determined using formula method. The total process time was 27.48 min and the processed cans were found to be commercially sterile. The mineral composition of processed mussel was significantly higher than raw samples. The instrumental texture analysis indicated that product become soft after thermal processing.The thermal process led to a significant decrease in total amino acid and fatty acid content of the samples. Even though the samples showed a decrease in amino acid and fatty acid composition after thermal processing, the mussel meat was nutritionally well balanced with respect to essential anino acids and fatty acids.Hence the product can be considered as a food source with high quality protein and fat to fulfil consumer's requirements.Based on sensory analysis, the processed products were found acceptable during the study period.

  6. Influence of size and density on filtration rate modeling and nutrient uptake by green mussel (Perna viridis).

    PubMed

    Tantanasarit, Chayarat; Babel, Sandhya; Englande, Andrew J; Meksumpun, Shettapong

    2013-03-15

    This study investigates green mussel filtration rates based on variation of the mussel size and density, and attempts to correlate these with the amount of Chaetoceros calcitrans consumed by kinetic modeling. The filtration rates were found to be more effective in small mussels and with greater volumes of seawater/mussel which represent low mussel densities in the mussel farms. Under field condition, the first order kinetic model is useful for evaluation of mussel filtration rate. However, the composite exponential kinetic model was determined to better describe filtration rates in a close system. Higher ratios of seawater volume L/g DW mussel tissue, resulted in an increasing filtration rate until a maximum plateau was reached at 10.37 L/h/g DW tissue as determined by first order kinetics. Based on the filtration rate, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus uptake by green mussels were found to be 2128.72, 265.41, and 66.67 mg/year/indv, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and biofilm-forming ability of Listeria monocytogenes in New Zealand mussel (Perna canaliculus) processing plants.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Cristina D; Fletcher, Graham C

    2011-10-01

    Greenshell™ mussels are New Zealand's largest seafood export species. Some export markets require compliance with 'zero' tolerance legislation for Listeria monocytogenes in 25 g of product. Even though individually quick frozen (IQF) mussel products are labeled 'to be cooked', and are not classified as ready-to-eat, some markets still require them to comply with the strict policy. Three mussel processing plants were assessed for the pattern of L. monocytogenes contamination on raw material, environment, food contact surfaces, and in the final product. Cultures (n = 101) obtained from an industrial Listeria monitoring program from August 2007 to June 2009 were characterized by serotyping and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Using the crystal violet method, isolates were assessed for their ability to form biofilms. This work confirmed the presence of L. monocytogenes in raw and processed product, and the importance of cross-contamination from external and internal environments. Processing plants had L. monocytogenes pulsotypes that were detected more than once over 6 months. No correlation was found between biofilm-forming ability and persistent isolates. Two pulsotypes (including a persistent one), were previously isolated in human cases of listeriosis in New Zealand, but none of the pulsotypes matched those involved in international outbreaks.

  8. Preparation of gluten free bread enriched with green mussel (Perna canaliculus) protein hydrolysates and characterization of peptides responsible for mussel flavour.

    PubMed

    Vijaykrishnaraj, M; Roopa, B S; Prabhasankar, P

    2016-11-15

    Green mussel protein hydrolysates (GMPH) utilization for the enrichment of gluten-free bread followed by characterization of flavour peptides using chromatography and electronic nose techniques have been done. The degree of hydrolysis was carried out in each protease digest, and the higher degree of hydrolysis was observed in pepsin digestion. Gluten-free (GF) bread was formulated by using buckwheat flour (BWF), rice flour (RF) and chickpea flour (CPF) (70:20:10) and GMPH were added in the range of 0-20% in the GF bread for enrichment with GMPH. Radar plot of the electronic nose analysis showed that the sensors P30/2, T30/1 and T70/2 had a higher response to the GF bread and GMPH. Consequently, the peptide sequence was obtained manually by ESI-MS spectra of GMPH (KGYSSYICDK) and F-II (SSYCIVKICDK). Flavour quality was 97% discriminately comparable to the GMPH and F-II fractions. Mussel flavoured GF bread can be included in the celiac diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Taxonomic composition of bacteria associated with cultivated mollusks Crassostrea lugubris and Perna viridis and with the water of the Gulf of Nha Trang Lagoon, Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Beleneva, I A; Zhukova, N V; Le lan, H; Ngueyen Tran, D H

    2007-01-01

    One hundred and four strains of heterotrophic bacteria have been isolated and characterized from two species of bivalve mollusks cultivated in the Gulf of Nha Trang (Vietnam) and from the water of a mariculture farm. The isolates have been identified on the basis of morphological, physiological, biochemical, and chemotaxonomic properties, as well as by the content of G+C bases in DNA. In the microflora of mollusks, Vibrio alginolyticus was predominant; the pathogenic species V. harveyi and V. splendidus were found as well. Staphylococci and bacilli occupied the second place in abundance after vibrios. In addition, coryneforms and enterobacteria, as well as Pseudomonas spp. and Pseudoalteromonas spp., were revealed. The composition of the water microflora was more diverse as compared with the microflora of mollusks. In the water, Bacillus spp., Vibrio spp., and Pseudomonas spp. were predominant. Brevibacterium spp. and other coryneform bacteria, as well as enterobacteria, occurred in significant amounts. In addition, Pseudoalteromonas spp., Marinococcus sp., Halobacillus sp., Shewanella sp., Sulfitobacter sp., and bacteria of the CFB cluster were noticed. The presence of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic bacterial species in the water and mollusks is probably the reason for the high death rate of cultivated animals at the mariculture farm.

  10. Toxic responses of Perna viridis hepatopancreas exposed to DDT, benzo(a)pyrene and their mixture uncovered by iTRAQ-based proteomics and NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Song, Qinqin; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2017-09-11

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are environmental estrogens (EEs) that are ubiquitous in the marine environment. In the present study, we integrated isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic approaches to explore the toxic responses of green mussel hepatopancreas exposed to DDT (10μg/L), BaP (10μg/L) and their mixture. The metabolic responses indicated that BaP primarily disturbed energy metabolism and osmotic regulation in the hepatopancreas of the male green mussel P. viridis. Both DDT and the mixture of DDT and BaP perturbed the energy metabolism and osmotic regulation in P. viridis. The proteomic responses revealed that BaP affected the proteins involved in energy metabolism, material transformation, cytoskeleton, stress responses, reproduction and development in green mussels. DDT exposure could change the proteins involved in primary metabolism, stress responses, cytoskeleton and signal transduction. However, the mixture of DDT and BaP altered proteins associated with material and energy metabolism, stress responses, signal transduction, reproduction and development, cytoskeleton and apoptosis. This study showed that iTRAQ-based proteomic and NMR-based metabolomic approaches could effectively elucidate the essential molecular mechanism of disturbances in hepatopancreas function of green mussels exposed to environmental estrogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Gas chromatography-chemical ionization-mass spectrometric fatty acid analysis of a commercial supercritical carbon dioxide lipid extract from New Zealand green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus).

    PubMed

    Wolyniak, Christopher J; Brenna, J Thomas; Murphy, Karen J; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2005-04-01

    Supercritical fluid extracts of New Zealand green-lipped mussels (NZGLM) have been suggested to have therapeutic properties related to their oil components. The large number of minor FA in NZGLM extract was characterized by a GC-CIMS/MS method that excels at identification of double-bond positions in FAME. The extract contained five major lipid classes: sterol esters, TAG, FFA, sterols, and polar lipids. The total FA content of the lipid extract was 0.664 g/mL. Fifty-three unsaturated FA (UFA) were fully identified, of which 37 were PUFA, and a further 21 UFA were detected for which concentrations were too low for assignment of double-bond positions. There were 17 saturated FA, with 14:0, 16:0, and 18:0 present in the greatest concentration. The 10 n-3 PUFA detected included 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, the two main n-3 FA; n-3 PUFA at low concentrations were 18:3, 18:4, 20:3, 20:4, 21:5, 22:5, 24:6, and 28:8. There were 43 UFA from the n-4, n-5, n-6, n-7, n-8, n-9, n-10, n-1 families, with 16:2n-4, 16:1n-5, 18:1n-5, 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6, 16:1n-7, 20:1n-7, 16:1n-9, 18:1 n-9, and 20:1 n-9 being the most abundant. In general, we estimated that FAME concentrations greater than 0.05% (w/w) were sufficient to assign double-bond positions. In total, 91 FA were detected in an extract of the NZGLM, whereas previous studies of fresh flesh from the NZGLM had reported identification of 42 FA. These data demonstrate a remarkable diversity of NZGLM FA.

  12. Toxicity and Traces of Hg, Pb and Cd in the Hepatopancreas, Gills and Muscles of Perna viridis from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Irnidayanti, Y

    2015-02-01

    Heavy metals contamination on the coast of Jakarta Bay has led to the level of pollution and can cause toxicity to organisms living in the sea, i.e., green mussels. Green mussels have the ability to detoxify metals entering their bodies. Their ability to accumulate metals is higher than other aquatic animals. This is due to their sedentary life which prevents them from avoiding the effects of pollution and their high tolerance to certain metals. The high concentration of metal content would be toxic to the cell because metal ions can act as oxidants and bind to organic and protein molecules. The results of the study showed that traces of heavy metals were detected in the hepatopancreas, gills, muscles and gonads organs of the mussels living in the waters of Muara Angke. Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were found in all four organs, while mercury (Hg) was not detected in the muscles. Traces of Hg and Cd were not detected in hepatopancreas, gills, muscles and gonads of green mussels in Panimbang, while Pb was detected by 0.00 1 in the male gonads and 0.01 in hepatopancreas. The concentration of Pb in the male gonads are still below the acceptable limit and concentration of Pb in the hepatopancreas is relatively equivalent to the acceptable limit. Metal detection in the organs above shows that the Muara Angke waters tend to be polluted and have an impact on the mussels weight loss as a result of heavy metal toxicity.

  13. Mitogenomics reveals two subspecies in Coelomactra antiquata (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Meng, Xueping; Shen, Xin; Zhao, Nana; Tian, Mei; Liang, Meng; Hao, Jue; Cheng, Hanliang; Yan, Binlun; Dong, Zhiguo; Zhu, Xiaoling

    2013-04-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of Coelomactra antiquata (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in Zhangzhou (zz-mtDNA) was fully sequenced and compared with that in Rizhao (rz-mtDNA) in this study. A tRNA (tRNA (Met) ) located between tRNA (Ala) and cox1 genes was identified in zz-mtDNA but not in rz-mtDNA. The largest non-coding region (NCR; MNR) contained 11 copies 99nt tandem repeat sequences exclusively in rz-mtDNA, while the second largest NCR with 400 bp between tRNA (Ala) and tRNA (Met) in zz-mtDNA was absent in rz-mtDNA. Secondary structures of ZZ and RZ C. antiquata rRNAs are significantly different. The mitochondrial genomic characteristics clearly indicate that there are at least two subspecies in C. antiquata.

  14. [Taxonomic diversity of parasites in agnathans and fishes from the Volga River basin. VI. Acanthocephala, Hirudinea and Bivalvia].

    PubMed

    Molodozhnikova, N M; Zhokhov, A E

    2008-01-01

    The checklist of Acanthocephala, Hirudinea, and Bivalvia parasitizing agnathans and fishes in the Volga River basin is presented. Hosts and areas of distribution are indicated for each parasites species. The checklist includes 10 species of acanthocephalans, 7 species of leeches, and 9 species of Bivalvia (at the glochidium stage) from 45 fish species. None of the given parasite species is alien for the Volga River basin.

  15. A phylogenetic backbone for Bivalvia: an RNA-seq approach

    PubMed Central

    González, Vanessa L.; Andrade, Sónia C. S.; Bieler, Rüdiger; Collins, Timothy M.; Dunn, Casey W.; Mikkelsen, Paula M.; Taylor, John D.; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Bivalves are an ancient and ubiquitous group of aquatic invertebrates with an estimated 10 000–20 000 living species. They are economically significant as a human food source, and ecologically important given their biomass and effects on communities. Their phylogenetic relationships have been studied for decades, and their unparalleled fossil record extends from the Cambrian to the Recent. Nevertheless, a robustly supported phylogeny of the deepest nodes, needed to fully exploit the bivalves as a model for testing macroevolutionary theories, is lacking. Here, we present the first phylogenomic approach for this important group of molluscs, including novel transcriptomic data for 31 bivalves obtained through an RNA-seq approach, and analyse these data with published genomes and transcriptomes of other bivalves plus outgroups. Our results provide a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic backbone for Bivalvia with all major lineages delineated, addressing long-standing questions about the monophyly of Protobranchia and Heterodonta, and resolving the position of particular groups such as Palaeoheterodonta, Archiheterodonta and Anomalodesmata. This now fully resolved backbone demonstrates that genomic approaches using hundreds of genes are feasible for resolving phylogenetic questions in bivalves and other animals. PMID:25589608

  16. Comparative genomics of vesicomyid clam (Bivalvia: Mollusca) chemosynthetic symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Irene LG; Girguis, Peter R; Cavanaugh, Colleen M

    2008-01-01

    Background The Vesicomyidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca) are a family of clams that form symbioses with chemosynthetic gamma-proteobacteria. They exist in environments such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and have a reduced gut and feeding groove, indicating a large dependence on their endosymbionts for nutrition. Recently, two vesicomyid symbiont genomes were sequenced, illuminating the possible nutritional contributions of the symbiont to the host and making genome-wide evolutionary analyses possible. Results To examine the genomic evolution of the vesicomyid symbionts, a comparative genomics framework, including the existing genomic data combined with heterologous microarray hybridization results, was used to analyze conserved gene content in four vesicomyid symbiont genomes. These four symbionts were chosen to include a broad phylogenetic sampling of the vesicomyid symbionts and represent distinct chemosynthetic environments: cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. Conclusion The results of this comparative genomics analysis emphasize the importance of the symbionts' chemoautotrophic metabolism within their hosts. The fact that these symbionts appear to be metabolically capable autotrophs underscores the extent to which the host depends on them for nutrition and reveals the key to invertebrate colonization of these challenging environments. PMID:19055818

  17. A phylogenetic backbone for Bivalvia: an RNA-seq approach.

    PubMed

    González, Vanessa L; Andrade, Sónia C S; Bieler, Rüdiger; Collins, Timothy M; Dunn, Casey W; Mikkelsen, Paula M; Taylor, John D; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2015-02-22

    Bivalves are an ancient and ubiquitous group of aquatic invertebrates with an estimated 10 000-20 000 living species. They are economically significant as a human food source, and ecologically important given their biomass and effects on communities. Their phylogenetic relationships have been studied for decades, and their unparalleled fossil record extends from the Cambrian to the Recent. Nevertheless, a robustly supported phylogeny of the deepest nodes, needed to fully exploit the bivalves as a model for testing macroevolutionary theories, is lacking. Here, we present the first phylogenomic approach for this important group of molluscs, including novel transcriptomic data for 31 bivalves obtained through an RNA-seq approach, and analyse these data with published genomes and transcriptomes of other bivalves plus outgroups. Our results provide a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic backbone for Bivalvia with all major lineages delineated, addressing long-standing questions about the monophyly of Protobranchia and Heterodonta, and resolving the position of particular groups such as Palaeoheterodonta, Archiheterodonta and Anomalodesmata. This now fully resolved backbone demonstrates that genomic approaches using hundreds of genes are feasible for resolving phylogenetic questions in bivalves and other animals.

  18. [Growth and survival of the green mussel P. viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in bottom culture conditions in Turpialito, Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Acosta, Vanessa; Montes, Marbelis; Cortez, Roraysi; Guevara, Miguel; Lodeiros, César

    2012-12-01

    Mussels represent one of the most important mollusk species for culture activities around the world, and their growth may depend on the culture system used and locality. In this study, we evaluated the growth of Perna viridis in bottom culture to test its performance when using natural food, and to decide its use as a culture species in the Gulf of Cariaco. For this, mussel seeds (35.81 +/- 1.41 mm in length) were obtained in the locality of Guaca (North coast of Sucre state) and transferred to the Hydrobiological Station of Turpialito, Gulf of Cariaco, Sucre state, Venezuela, where they were planted in "Spanish baskets" to evaluate their growth between July 2007 and February 2008. Monthly survival was determined and the maximum shell length, dry mass of muscle and remains tissues of the gonad. The environmental parameters (water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, total seston and organic fraction), in the cultivation area were determined every 15 days. Monthly measurements were made of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates to seston. During the entire study the mussels showed continued growth, ultimately reaching a maximum length of 78.7 +/- 4.43 mm. However, the growth rate of the dry mass of somatic (muscle, other tissue) and reproductive tissues showed variability throughout the study, and observed a significant increase by the end of the experiment. The observed variations in the growth rate of the reproductive tissue mass depended on the reserves accumulated and food offered by the environment. The organic seston throughout the experience showed an independence of temperature and chlorophyll a values; this one maintained values above 1 mg/L, thus forming the main food resource for mussels. The high content of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates observed in the seston at the end of the study, might be mainly associated with coastal upwelling, which provides a great food contribution of phytoplankton and organic type. The high survival rate

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic soft-shelled clam, Laternula elliptica (Bivalvia; Laternulidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun; Ahn, Do Hwan

    2015-08-01

    The complete mitogenome of the Antarctic soft-shelled clam, Laternula elliptica was determined to be 14,622 bp in length, and to contain 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and large (rrnL) and small (rrnS) rRNA genes. Its total A + T content is 55.09%. The L. elliptica mitogenome is the smallest one among those of bivalvia, due to the existence of relatively small intergenic non-coding sequences. All genes are transcribed from the light-strand as a template like bivalve taxa except Unionoidea.

  20. Evolution of active host-attraction strategies in the freshwater mussel tribe Lampsilini (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Zanatta, David T; Murphy, Robert W

    2006-10-01

    Most freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida) require a host, usually a fish, to complete their life cycle. Most species of mussels show adaptations that increase the chances of glochidia larvae contacting a host. We investigated the evolutionary relationships of the freshwater mussel tribe Lampsilini including 49 of the approximately 100 extant species including 21 of the 24 recognized genera. Mitochondrial DNA sequence data (COI, 16S, and ND1) were used to create a molecular phylogeny for these species. Parsimony and Bayesian likelihood topologies revealed that the use of an active lure arose early in the evolution of the Lampsiline mussels. The mantle flap lure appears to have been the first to evolve with other lure types being derived from this condition. Apparently, lures were lost independently in several clades. Hypotheses are discussed as to how some of these lure strategies may have evolved in response to host fish prey preferences.

  1. Spermatozoa and spermatogenesis in the northern quahaug Mercenaria mercenaria (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Xue-Ping; Yang, Wan-Xi; Dahms, Hans-U.; Lin, Zhihua; Chai, Xueliang

    2008-12-01

    We studied the ultrastructure of spermatogenesis and spermatozoa in the northern quahaug, the clam Mercenaria mercenaria. Spermatogenetic cells gradually elongate. Mitochondria gradually fuse and increase in size and electron density. During spermatid differentiation, proacrosomal vesicles migrate towards the presumptive anterior pole of the nucleus and eventually form the acrosome. The spermatozoon of M. mercenaria is of a primitive type. It is composed of head, mid-piece, and tail. The acrosome shows a subacrosomal space with a short conical contour. The slightly curved nucleus of the spermatozoon contains fine-grained dense chromatin. The middle piece consists of a centriolar complex which is surrounded by four mitochondria. The flagellum has a standard “9 + 2” microtubular structure. The ultrastructure of spermatozoa and spermatogenesis of M. mercenaria shares a number of features with other species of the family Veneridae. M. mercenaria may be a suitable model species for further investigations into the mechanisms of spermatogenesis in the Bivalvia.

  2. First report of Perkinsus beihaiensis in wild clams Anomalocardia brasiliana (Bivalvia: Veneridae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinho Ferreira, Liana; Sabry, Rachel Costa; da Silva, Patrícia Mirella; Gesteira, Tereza Cristina Vasconcelos; de Souza Romão, Lidiane; Paz, Marcela Pinheiro; Feijó, Rubens Galdino; Neto, Maximiano Pinheiro Dantas; Maggioni, Rodrigo

    2015-03-01

    This is the first report of Perkinsus sp. (Bivalvia: Veneridae) infecting wild clams of the species Anomalocardia brasiliana in Brazil. The gill lamellae and rectum of 150 specimens of A. brasiliana collected in the Timonha river estuary (Ceará, Northeastern Brazil) in March 2012 were incubated in Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM) for detection of Perkinsus sp. In RFTM, the prevalence of Perkinsus sp. was 14.7% (22/150) and the intensity of infection ranged from very light (1-10 cells across the slide) to light (12-100 cells). The presence of Perkinsus sp. was confirmed by PCR in seven (31.8%) out of 22 RFTM-positive specimens. DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of the genus Perkinsus and the phylogenetic analysis strongly indicated Perkinsus beihaiensis as the species responsible for the infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A hybrid zone between hydrothermal vent mussels (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    PubMed

    O'Mullan, G D; Maas, P A; Lutz, R A; Vrijenhoek, R C

    2001-12-01

    This study provides the first example of a hybrid zone between animal taxa distributed along the mid-ocean ridge system. We examined the distribution and genetic structure of deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussels (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) along a 2888-km portion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between 37 degrees 50' N and 14 degrees 45' N latitude. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), allozymes and multivariate-morphometric evidence discriminated between individuals of a northern species, Bathymodiolus azoricus, and a southern species, B. puteoserpentis, that were separated by an intermediate ridge segment almost devoid of mussels. A small sample of mussels from Broken Spur, a vent locality along this intermediate zone, revealed a mixed population with gene frequencies and morphology that were broadly intermediate to those of the northern and southern species. Multilocus clines in mtDNA and allozyme frequencies were centred over the intermediate zone. We consider intrinsic and extrinsic processes that might limit genetic exchange across this hybrid zone.

  4. The Rho GTPase Family Genes in Bivalvia Genomes: Sequence, Evolution and Expression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue; Wang, Ruijia; Xun, Xiaogang; Jiao, Wenqian; Zhang, Mengran; Wang, Shuyue; Wang, Shi; Zhang, Lingling; Huang, Xiaoting; Hu, Xiaoli; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-01-01

    Background Rho GTPases are important members of the Ras superfamily, which represents the largest signaling protein family in eukaryotes, and function as key molecular switches in converting and amplifying external signals into cellular responses. Although numerous analyses of Rho family genes have been reported, including their functions and evolution, a systematic analysis of this family has not been performed in Mollusca or in Bivalvia, one of the most important classes of Mollusca. Results In this study, we systematically identified and characterized a total set (Rho, Rac, Mig, Cdc42, Tc10, Rnd, RhoU, RhoBTB and Miro) of thirty Rho GTPase genes in three bivalve species, including nine in the Yesso scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, nine in the Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri, and twelve in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Phylogenetic analysis and interspecies comparison indicated that bivalves might possess the most complete types of Rho genes in invertebrates. A multiple RNA-seq dataset was used to investigate the expression profiles of bivalve Rho genes, revealing that the examined scallops share more similar Rho expression patterns than the oyster, whereas more Rho mRNAs are expressed in C. farreri and C. gigas than in P. yessoensis. Additionally, Rho, Rac and Cdc42 were found to be duplicated in the oyster but not in the scallops. Among the expanded Rho genes of C. gigas, duplication pairs with high synonymous substitution rates (Ks) displayed greater differences in expression. Conclusion A comprehensive analysis of bivalve Rho GTPase family genes was performed in scallop and oyster species, and Rho genes in bivalves exhibit greater conservation than those in any other invertebrate. This is the first study focusing on a genome-wide characterization of Rho GTPase genes in bivalves, and the findings will provide a valuable resource for a better understanding of Rho evolution and Rho GTPase function in Bivalvia. PMID:26633655

  5. The Rho GTPase Family Genes in Bivalvia Genomes: Sequence, Evolution and Expression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Wang, Ruijia; Xun, Xiaogang; Jiao, Wenqian; Zhang, Mengran; Wang, Shuyue; Wang, Shi; Zhang, Lingling; Huang, Xiaoting; Hu, Xiaoli; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-01-01

    Rho GTPases are important members of the Ras superfamily, which represents the largest signaling protein family in eukaryotes, and function as key molecular switches in converting and amplifying external signals into cellular responses. Although numerous analyses of Rho family genes have been reported, including their functions and evolution, a systematic analysis of this family has not been performed in Mollusca or in Bivalvia, one of the most important classes of Mollusca. In this study, we systematically identified and characterized a total set (Rho, Rac, Mig, Cdc42, Tc10, Rnd, RhoU, RhoBTB and Miro) of thirty Rho GTPase genes in three bivalve species, including nine in the Yesso scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, nine in the Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri, and twelve in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Phylogenetic analysis and interspecies comparison indicated that bivalves might possess the most complete types of Rho genes in invertebrates. A multiple RNA-seq dataset was used to investigate the expression profiles of bivalve Rho genes, revealing that the examined scallops share more similar Rho expression patterns than the oyster, whereas more Rho mRNAs are expressed in C. farreri and C. gigas than in P. yessoensis. Additionally, Rho, Rac and Cdc42 were found to be duplicated in the oyster but not in the scallops. Among the expanded Rho genes of C. gigas, duplication pairs with high synonymous substitution rates (Ks) displayed greater differences in expression. A comprehensive analysis of bivalve Rho GTPase family genes was performed in scallop and oyster species, and Rho genes in bivalves exhibit greater conservation than those in any other invertebrate. This is the first study focusing on a genome-wide characterization of Rho GTPase genes in bivalves, and the findings will provide a valuable resource for a better understanding of Rho evolution and Rho GTPase function in Bivalvia.

  6. Systematics and distribution of Cristaria plicata (Bivalvia, Unionidae) from the Russian Far East

    PubMed Central

    Klishko, Olga K.; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Froufe, Elsa; Bogan, Arthur E.; Abakumova, Vera Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The number of anodontine bivalve species placed in the genus Cristaria (Bivalvia, Unionidae) from the Russian Far East is still not stable among authors. Some recognize only one valid species Cristaria plicata (Leach, 1815) while others accept two additional species, Cristaria tuberculata Schumacher, 1817 and Cristaria herculea (Middendorff, 1847). In the present study, these taxonomic doubts are addressed using analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences and shell morphometry. No significant differences have been revealed by the COI DNA sequences or the main statistical morphometric indices from the three Cristaria forms. In the specimens analysed, changes in shell morphometry with age suggest that original descriptions of the different forms may be attributed solely to differences in age and sex. We consider that Cristaria plicata, Cristaria tuberculata and Cristaria herculea from the Russian Far East should be considered as a single species, namely Cristaria plicata (Leach, 1815), with Cristaria tuberculata and Cristaria herculea as junior synonyms. The geographic range of Cristaria plicata and its conservation status are also presented here. PMID:27110206

  7. Systematics and distribution of Cristaria plicata (Bivalvia, Unionidae) from the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Klishko, Olga K; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Froufe, Elsa; Bogan, Arthur E; Abakumova, Vera Y

    2016-01-01

    The number of anodontine bivalve species placed in the genus Cristaria (Bivalvia, Unionidae) from the Russian Far East is still not stable among authors. Some recognize only one valid species Cristaria plicata (Leach, 1815) while others accept two additional species, Cristaria tuberculata Schumacher, 1817 and Cristaria herculea (Middendorff, 1847). In the present study, these taxonomic doubts are addressed using analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences and shell morphometry. No significant differences have been revealed by the COI DNA sequences or the main statistical morphometric indices from the three Cristaria forms. In the specimens analysed, changes in shell morphometry with age suggest that original descriptions of the different forms may be attributed solely to differences in age and sex. We consider that Cristaria plicata, Cristaria tuberculata and Cristaria herculea from the Russian Far East should be considered as a single species, namely Cristaria plicata (Leach, 1815), with Cristaria tuberculata and Cristaria herculea as junior synonyms. The geographic range of Cristaria plicata and its conservation status are also presented here.

  8. Molecular phylogenetics in 2D: ITS2 rRNA evolution and sequence-structure barcode from Veneridae to Bivalvia.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Daniele; Mariottini, Paolo

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we analyzed the nuclear ITS2 rRNA primary sequence and secondary structure in Veneridae and comparatively with 20 Bivalvia taxa to test the phylogenetic resolution of this marker and its suitability for molecular diagnosis at different taxonomic levels. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian trees based on primary sequences were congruent with (profile-) neighbor-joining trees based on a combined model of sequence-structure evolution. ITS2 showed higher resolution below the subfamily level, providing a phylogenetic signal comparable to (mitochondrial/nuclear) gene fragments 2-5 times longer. Structural elements of the ITS2 folding, such as specific mismatch pairing and compensatory base changes, provided further support for the monophyly of some groups and for their phylogenetic relationships. Veneridae ITS2 folding is structured in six domains (DI-VI) and shows five striking sequence-structure features. Two of them, the Basal and Apical STEMs, are common to Bivalvia, while the presence of both the Branched STEM and the Y/R stretches occurs in five superfamilies of the two Heterodonta orders Myoida and Veneroida, thus questioning their reciprocal monophyly. Our results validated the ITS2 as a suitable marker for venerids phylogenetics and taxonomy, and underlined the significance of including secondary structure information for both applications at several systematic levels within bivalves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vesicomyinae (Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae) of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and adjacent abyssal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylova, Elena M.; Kamenev, Gennady M.; Vladychenskaya, Irina P.; Petrov, Nikolai B.

    2015-01-01

    Representatives of the subfamily Vesicomyinae (Bivalvia, Vesicomyidae) are tiny deep-sea molluscs distributed worldwide and reaching huge abundances of hundreds and thousands of specimens in trawl catches. During the German-Russian deep-sea expedition KuramBio (R/V Sonne, 2012) for the first time two vesicomyin species were collected from the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench from the depths of 4861-5787 m, Vesicomya pacifica (Smith, 1885) and "Vesicomya" filatovae sp.n. Two species of vesicomyins, V. sergeeviFilatova, 1971 and V. profundiFilatova, 1971, which were previously reported from the hadal of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, were not collected at the abyssal depth despite of the close geographical proximity of the sampling area to their distribution ranges. Altogether nine species of vesicomyins are recorded now from the West and Indo-West Pacific; data on distribution and morpho-anatomical characters of these species are provided. Taxonomic description of V. pacifica is revised including information on its soft part anatomy, new localities and COI sequences. For the first time for a vesicomyin bivalve molecular data is given for a species with an explicit morphological description and unambiguous taxonomic affiliation. Molecular analysis of 160 published COI sequences of vesicomyids and newly obtained molecular data on V. pacifica showed that V. pacifica and two undescribed vesicomyin species forming a monophyletic clade which exhibits sister relationships with the Pliocardiinae, the group of chemosymbiotic vesicomyids. "Vesicomya" filatovae sp.n. is provisionally assigned to the genus Vesicomya (s.l.) until additional morphological and molecular data are obtained. It differs from Vesicomya s.s. by a broader hinge margin with more radiating teeth and the presence of only one pair of demibranchs.

  10. Factors driving changes in freshwater mussel (Bivalvia, Unionida) diversity and distribution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zieritz, Alexandra; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Bogan, Arthur E; Sousa, Ronaldo; Walton, Samuel; Rahim, Khairul Adha A; Wilson, John-James; Ng, Pei-Yin; Froufe, Elsa; McGowan, Suzanne

    2016-11-15

    Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionida) fulfil important ecosystem functions and are one of the most threatened freshwater taxa globally. Knowledge of freshwater mussel diversity, distribution and ecology in Peninsular Malaysia is extremely poor, and the conservation status of half of the species presumed to occur in the region has yet to be assessed. We conducted the first comprehensive assessment of Peninsular Malaysia's freshwater mussels based on species presence/absence and environmental data collected from 155 sites spanning all major river catchments and diverse habitat types. Through an integrative morphological-molecular approach we recognised nine native and one widespread non-native species, i.e. Sinanodonta woodiana. Two species, i.e. Pilsbryoconcha compressa and Pseudodon cambodjensis, had not been previously recorded from Malaysia, which is likely a result of morphological misidentifications of historical records. Due to their restriction to single river catchments and declining distributions, Hyriopsis bialata, possibly endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, Ensidens ingallsianus, possibly already extinct in the peninsula, and Rectidens sumatrensis, particularly require conservation attention. Equally, the Pahang, the Perak and the north-western river catchments are of particular conservation value due to the presence of a globally unique freshwater mussel fauna. Statistical relationships of 15 water quality parameters and mussel presence/absence identified acidification and nutrient pollution (eutrophication) as the most important anthropogenic factors threatening freshwater mussel diversity in Peninsular Malaysia. These factors can be linked to atmospheric pollution, deforestation, oil-palm plantations and a lack of functioning waste water treatment, and could be mitigated by establishing riparian buffers and improving waste water treatment for rivers running through agricultural and residential land. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Unionid bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masteller, E.C.; Maleski, K.R.; Schloesser, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine species composition and relative abundance of unionid bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) in Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania 1990-1992. This information was compared with data from the only other extensive survey of unionids in the bay conducted in 1909-1911 (Ortmann 1919) to assess changes over the 80 years preceding the present study. A total of 1,540 individuals representing 18 species were collected in 1990-1992. Five relatively common species (between 7 and 42% of total individuals), six uncommon species (2 and 6%), and seven rare species (<1%) were found. The rare species were Anodontoides ferussacianus, Lasmigona costata, Ligumia recta, Ptychobranchus fasciolaris, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa, Strophitus undaulatus, and Truncilla donaciformis. Five of the species found in Presque Isle Bay (Leptodea fragilis, Ligumia nasuta, Potamilus alatus, Quadrula quadrula, and Truncilla donaciformis) are listed as critically imperiled and one species (Truncilla truncata) as extirpated in the State of Pennsylvania by the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy. Comparisons between unionid populations in 1909-1911 and 1990-1992 indicate few substantial changes occurred during the past 80 years. A total of 22 species were found; 21 in 1909-1911 and 18 in 1990-1992. Seventeen species were found in both studies, an additional four in 1909-1911 and one in 1990-1992. The relative abundance of 11 of the 17 species found in both studies remained stable (i.e., common or uncommon) over the past 80 years. Only four species listed as uncommon in 1909-1911 were listed as rare in 1990-1992. However, the invasion of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is considered a threat to the continued existence of the entire Unionidae fauna in Presque Isle Bay, a unique habitat of the Great Lakes.

  12. Comparative mitogenomic analysis reveals cryptic species: A case study in Mactridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Meng, Xue Ping; Chu, Ka Hou; Zhao, Na Na; Tian, Mei; Liang, Meng; Hao, Jue

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese surf clam Mactra chinensis Philippi, 1846 is a commercially important marine bivalve belonging to the family Mactridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia). In this study, the M. chinensis mitochondrial genomic features are analyzed. The genome has 34 genes on the same strand, lacking atp8 and both trnS (trnS1 and trnS2) as compared with the typical gene content of metazoan mitochondrial genomes. The A+T content of M. chinensis mitochondrial genome is 63.72%, which is slightly lower than that of M. veneriformis (67.59%) and Coelomactra antiquata (64.33% and 64.14% for the samples from Ri Zhao, Shandong Province, and Zhang Zhou, Fujian Province, China, respectively) in the same family. There are 22 NCRs in the M. chinensis mitochondrial genome, accounting for 12.91% of the genome length. The longest NCR (1,075bp in length) is located between trnT and trnQ. A TRS (127bp×8.15) accounts for 96.3% (1,035/1,075) of this NCR. The occurrence of TRS in NCR is shared by the two Mactra mitochondrial genomes, but is not found in the two Coelomactra mitochondrial genomes. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 12 PCGs of 25 bivalve mitochondrial genomes shows that all seven genera (Mactra, Coelomactra, Paphia, Meretrix, Solen, Mytilus, and Crassostrea) constitute monophyletic groups with very high support values. Pairwise genetic distance analyses indicate that the genetic distance of C. antiquata from the two localities is 0.084, which is greater than values between congeneric species, such as those in Mactra, Mytilus, Meretrix, and Crassostrea. The results show that the C. antiquata from the two localities represent cryptic species.

  13. Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea).

    PubMed

    Tëmkin, Ilya

    2010-11-08

    The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Four primary conclusions were reached: (1) the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2) none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae) were monophyletic; (3) the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4) optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species.

  14. Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. Results The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Conclusions Four primary conclusions were reached: (1) the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2) none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae) were monophyletic; (3) the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4) optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species. PMID:21059254

  15. Molecular phylogeny of Pholadoidea Lamarck, 1809 supports a single origin for xylotrophy (wood feeding) and xylotrophic bacterial endosymbiosis in Bivalvia.

    PubMed

    Distel, Daniel L; Amin, Mehwish; Burgoyne, Adam; Linton, Eric; Mamangkey, Gustaf; Morrill, Wendy; Nove, John; Wood, Nicole; Yang, Joyce

    2011-11-01

    The ability to consume wood as food (xylotrophy) is unusual among animals. In terrestrial environments, termites and other xylotrophic insects are the principle wood consumers while in marine environments wood-boring bivalves fulfill this role. However, the evolutionary origin of wood feeding in bivalves has remained largely unexplored. Here we provide data indicating that xylotrophy has arisen just once in Bivalvia in a single wood-feeding bivalve lineage that subsequently diversified into distinct shallow- and deep-water branches, both of which have been broadly successful in colonizing the world's oceans. These data also suggest that the appearance of this remarkable life habit was approximately coincident with the acquisition of bacterial endosymbionts. Here we generate a robust phylogeny for xylotrophic bivalves and related species based on sequences of small and large subunit nuclear rRNA genes. We then trace the distribution among the modern taxa of morphological characters and character states associated with xylotrophy and xylotrepesis (wood-boring) and use a parsimony-based method to infer their ancestral states. Based on these ancestral state reconstructions we propose a set of plausible hypotheses describing the evolution of symbiotic xylotrophy in Bivalvia. Within this context, we reinterpret one of the most remarkable progressions in bivalve evolution, the transformation of the "typical" myoid body plan to create a unique lineage of worm-like, tube-forming, wood-feeding clams. The well-supported phylogeny presented here is inconsistent with most taxonomic treatments for xylotrophic bivalves, indicating that the bivalve family Pholadidae and the subfamilies Teredininae and Bankiinae of the family Teredinidae are non-monophyletic, and that the principle traits used for their taxonomic diagnosis are phylogenetically misleading. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An unusual case of gender-associated mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy: the mytilid Musculista senhousia (Mollusca Bivalvia)

    PubMed Central

    Passamonti, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Background Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI) represents the most outstanding exception to matrilinear inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), typical of Metazoa. In a few bivalve mollusks, two sex-linked mtDNAs (the so-called M and F) are inherited in a peculiar way: both daughters and sons receive their F from the mother, whereas sons inherit M from the father (males do not transmit F to their progeny). This realizes a double mechanism of transmission, in which M and F mtDNAs are inherited uniparentally. DUI systems represent a unique experimental model for testing the evolutionary mechanisms that apply to mitochondrial genomes and their transmission patterns as well as to mtDNA recombination. Results A new case of DUI is described in Musculista senhousia (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Its heteroplasmy pattern is in line with standard DUI. Sequence variability analysis evidenced two main results: F haplotypes sequence variability is higher than that of M haplotypes, and F mitochondrial haplotypes experience a higher mutation rate in males' somatic tissues than in females' ones. Phylogenetic analysis revealed also that M. senhousia M and F haplotypes cluster separately from that of the other mytilids. Conclusion Sequence variability analysis evidenced some unexpected traits. The inverted variability pattern (the F being more variable than M) was new and it challenges most of the rationales proposed to account for sex-linked mtDNA evolution. We tentatively related this to the history of the Northern Adriatic populations analyzed. Moreover, F sequences evidenced a higher mutation level in male's soma, this variability being produced de novo each generation. This suggests that mechanisms evolved to protect mtDNA in females (f.i. antioxidant gene complexes) might be under relaxed selection in males. Phylogenetic analysis of sex-linked haplotypes confirmed that they have switched their roles during the evolutionary history of mytilids, at variance to what has

  17. Occurrence and settlement of the common shipworm Teredo navalis (Bivalvia: Teredinidae) in Bremerhaven harbours, northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuente, Uda; Piepenburg, Dieter; Spindler, Michael

    2002-06-01

    The shipworm Teredo navalis L. is a xylophagous bivalve mollusc (Bivalvia: Teredinidae) with a long record of being very destructive to wooden ships and harbour buildings. It has been reported from numerous sites at the coasts of both the North and Baltic Seas since the eighteenth century. Here, we document for the first time the occurrence of live adult T. navalis in the harbours of Bremerhaven (Weser estuary, northern Germany). From August to December 1998, various wooden structures (fir floating fenders and pier posts, oak piles) from seven stations in different docks of two harbours (Überseehafen, Fischereihafen) were investigated for the presence and density of live specimens and burrows of T. navalis. The settlement of larval shipworms was studied by exposing experimental fir panels 0.06 m2 in size at 20 stations at water depths between 1 and 2 m for periods of 4 months between July and November. In addition, hydrographic profiles (0-8 m water depth) were obtained at 17 stations in five docks once every month from August to December. Live adult shipworms were found in both fir floating fenders and oak piles at four stations. The largest specimen found was 250 mm long. Shipworm burrows were detected at five stations in almost every wooden structure investigated but their abundances differed significantly: Maximum values were >10,000 m-2 in fir floating fenders, 4,600 m-2 in oak piles and 200 m-2 in fir pier posts. Actual shipworm infestation was detected at three of 16 stations in the exposed fir panels (1-3 burrow holes per panel). Water temperatures and salinities varied considerably during the 4-month investigation period. Temperatures decreased from 19.9°C in August to 0.7°C in December. Salinities ranged from 17.6 in August to 1.1 in November, but only at two lock stations during November and December did value drop below 5, which is regarded as the lethal limit for the larvae of this euryhaline teredinid species. We conclude that T. navalis encounters

  18. About Face

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jeff Goodrich US Army 1984 - 2006 Afghanistan, Canada, Germany, Iraq, Macedonia, USA Tap for Video Vince Bryant ... M. Perna US Army 1942 - 1945 Belgium, France, Germany, North Africa, Omaha Beach, Sicily Tap for Video ...

  19. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem

    2016-04-01

    Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia) Sevinç KAPAN, Sinem KABASAKAL, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Engineering Faculty, Geological Engineering Department sevinckapan_yesilyurt@hotmail.com In this study, paleontology and stratigraphy of Neogene and Quaternary units around south of the Dardanelles have been examined using Gastropoda and Bivalvia fauna. In the investigation area, the base of the sediments that belongs to Neogene, consist of the volcanics which are formed with basalts, andesites and tuff. Neogene begins unconformity with basal conglomerate which are formed with basalt and tuff gravels. The measurable thickness of the Neogene sediments is approximately 200meters in total. First fossiliferius level which consist of Lymnocardium (Euxinicardium) nobile Sabba has showed similarities with the Pontian (Late Miocene) fauna of the Eastern Paratethys. The existence of Melanopsis and Psidium species indicate that the basin has been brackish water feeding by fresh water in the Early Pliocene. Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linne), Theodoxus (Calvertia) aff. imbricata Brusina, Theodoxus (Calvertia) licherdopoli scriptus (Stefanescu), Viviparus mammatus (Stefanescu), Valvata (Valavata) sulekiana Brusina, Valvata (Cincinna) crusitensis Fontannes, Hydrobia cf grandis Cobalcescu, Hydrobia ventrosa Monfort, Melanopsis (Melanopsis) cf. bergeroni Stefanescu, , Melanopsis (Melanopsis) sandbergeri rumana Tournouer, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma anili Taner, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma amaradica Fontannes, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) lanceolata Neumayr, Amphimelania fossariformis (Tournouer), Melanoides tuberculata monolithica (Bukowski), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller), Planorbarius thiollierei (Michaud), Potamida (Potamida) craiovensis craiovensis (Tournouer), Potamida (Potamida) berbestiensis (Fontannes), Unio pristinus davilai Porumbaru, Unio subexquisitus Jatzko, Anadonta zmaji

  20. Sequence motifs associated with paternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA in the horse mussel, Modiolus modiolus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae).

    PubMed

    Robicheau, Brent M; Breton, Sophie; Stewart, Donald T

    2017-03-20

    In the majority of metazoans paternal mitochondria represent evolutionary dead-ends. In many bivalves, however, this paradigm does not hold true; both maternal and paternal mitochondria are inherited. Herein, we characterize maternal and paternal mitochondrial control regions of the horse mussel, Modiolus modiolus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). The maternal control region is 808bp long, while the paternal control region is longer at 2.3kb. We hypothesize that the size difference is due to a combination of repeated duplications within the control region of the paternal mtDNA genome, as well as an evolutionarily ancient recombination event between two sex-associated mtDNA genomes that led to the insertion of a second control region sequence in the genome that is now transmitted via males. In a comparison to other mytilid male control regions, we identified two evolutionarily Conserved Motifs, CMA and CMB, associated with paternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA. CMA is characterized by a conserved purine/pyrimidine pattern, while CMB exhibits a specific 13bp nucleotide string within a stem and loop structure. The identification of motifs CMA and CMB in M. modiolus extends our understanding of Sperm Transmission Elements (STEs) that have recently been identified as being associated with the paternal transmission of mitochondria in marine bivalves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Presence and histopathological effects of the Parvatrema sp. (Digenea, Gymnophallidae) in the stout razor clam Tagelus plebeius (Bivalvia, Psammobiidae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Patricia Mirella; Cremonte, Florencia; Sabry, Rachel Costa; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Cantelli, Liege; Barracco, Margherita Anna

    2009-09-01

    The stout razor clam Tagelus plebeius (Bivalvia, Psammobiidae) has a wide geographic distribution range, including the Brazilian coasts from the northeast (Alagoas) to the south (Santa Catarina). In March 2008, an episode of mass T. plebeius mortality (70%) occurred in an intertidal bed at The Pontal da Daniela, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. We report here high prevalences (to 100%) of the trematode parasite Parvatrema sp. Cable, 1953 (Digenea, Gymnophallidae) infecting T. plebeius at high intensities. We describe the gymnophalid, echinostomatid and unidentified metacercariae parasites infecting the clam and the host reactions elicited by them. The use of special diagnostic techniques such as Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM) and PCR assays to detect Perkinsus sp. pathogens, hemolymph cytology, and histopathological examinations did not show Perkinsus sp. infections, microcell infections, or neoplastic conditions. However, neither infections or pathology caused by trematode parasites; nor any other pathological condition could be uniquely correlated with the mortality event. A coincident flash flood might have contributed to cause the mortality episode. This is the first report of the Parvatrema sp. metacercariae larvae infecting the stout razor clam T. plebeius from Brazil.

  2. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of tropical freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionoida) resolves the position of Coelatura and supports a monophyletic Unionidae.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Nathan V; Geneva, Anthony J; Graf, Daniel L

    2011-11-01

    In previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the freshwater mussel family Unionidae (Bivalvia: Unionoida), the Afrotropical genus Coelatura had been recovered in various positions, generally indicating a paraphyletic Unionidae. However that result was typically poorly supported and in conflict with morphology-based analyses. We set out to test the phylogenetic position of Coelatura by sampling tropical lineages omitted from previous studies. Forty-one partial 28S nuclear rDNA and partial COI mtDNA sequences (1130 total aligned nucleotides) were analyzed separately and in combination under both maximum parsimony and likelihood, as well as Bayesian inference. There was significant phylogenetic incongruence between the character sets (partition homogeneity test, p<0.01), but a novel heuristic for comparing bootstrap values among character sets analyzed separately and in combination illustrated that the observed conflict was due to homoplasy rather than separate gene histories. Phylogenetic analyses robustly supported a monophyletic Unionidae, with Coelatura recovered as part of a well-supported Africa-India clade (=Parreysiinae). The implications of this result are discussed in the context of Afrotropical freshwater mussel evolution and the classification of the family Unionidae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermal dependency of shell growth, microstructure, and stable isotopes in laboratory-reared Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Kozue; Suzuki, Atsushi; Isono, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Yuzo; Irie, Takahiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Mori, Chiharu; Sato, Mizuho; Sato, Kei; Sasaki, Takenori

    2015-07-01

    We experimentally examined the growth, microstructure, and chemistry of shells of the bloody clam, Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia), reared at five temperatures (13, 17, 21, 25, and 29°C) with a constant pCO2 condition (˜450 μatm). In this species, the exterior side of the shell is characterized by a composite prismatic structure; on the interior side, it has a crossed lamellar structure on the interior surface. We previously found a negative correlation between temperature and the relative thickness of the composite prismatic structure in field-collected specimens. In the reared specimens, the relationship curve between temperature and the growth increment of the composite prismatic structure was humped shaped, with a maximum at 17°C, which was compatible with the results obtained in the field-collected specimens. In contrast, the thickness of the crossed lamellar structure was constant over the temperature range tested. These results suggest that the composite prismatic structure principally accounts for the thermal dependency of shell growth, and this inference was supported by the finding that shell growth rates were significantly correlated with the thickness of the composite prismatic structure. We also found a negative relationship between the rearing temperature and δ18O of the shell margin, in close quantitative agreement with previous reports. The findings presented here will contribute to the improved age determination of fossil and recent clams based on seasonal microstructural records.

  4. The influence of fish cage culture on δ13C and δ15N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca).

    PubMed

    Benedito, E; Figueroa, L; Takeda, A M; Manetta, G I

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ13C and δ15N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filterer C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ13C and δ15N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ13C and δ15N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem.

  5. Population structure, growth and production of the surf clam Donax serra (Bivalvia, Donacidae) on two Namibian sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudien, J.; Brey, T.; Arntz, W. E.

    2003-10-01

    Population structure, growth and production of the surf clam Donax serra (Bivalvia, Donacidae), inhabiting highly exposed sandy beaches of Namibia, were investigated between November 1997 and December 1999. From length-frequency distribution and tagging-recapture data, a von Bertalanffy growth function with an asymptotic length ( L ∞) of 82 mm and a growth constant ( K) of 0.274 yr -1 was established. Regarding growth performance of Donacidae, D. serra fits in a group of species inhabiting cold temperate and upwelling regions. The intertidal biomass of the studied population ranged between 141 and 546 g ash-free dry mass (AFDM) m -2 yr -1. Individual production was maximal at 56.5 mm shell length (0.83 g AFDM ind. -1 yr -1), and annual production ranged between 167 and 637 g AFDM m -2 yr -1, resulting in productivity values (P/ B¯) between 1.167 and 1.589 yr -1. These data underline the importance of D. serra for the beach/surf ecosystem. Further, the findings of this study are crucial to support future aquaculture or exploitation activities and management.

  6. Reproductive biology of blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Munawar; Yasin, Zulfigar; Hwai, Tan Shau

    2017-02-01

    A study on the reproductive cycle of the blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) was conducted at three different areas in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca. A total of 1,920 samples of adult A. granosa (38-71 mm length) were collected from June 2009 until September 2010. Qualitative techniques (gonadal microscopic fresh smear test and histology analysis) as well as quantitative techniques (analysis of condition index and gonadal index) were used to predict monthly gonadal development stages of A. granosa. The gonadal index of A. granosa from Banda Aceh (Indonesia) (r = 0.469, P > 0.05) and Pulau Pinang (Malaysia) (r = 0.123, P > 0.05) did not show any correlation to their condition index, whereas the gonadal index of A. granosa from Lhokseumawe (Indonesia) (r = 0.609, P < 0.05) showed moderate positive correlation to the condition index. During the 16 month sampling period, four reproductive cycles were observed: each from three to six months. The process of releasing gametes is termed dribble spawning, and is the same in all populations. The principle component analysis (PCA) indicated that A. granosa reproduction was affected by interaction between internal physiological factors and indigenous environmental factors. In all sampling areas, phytoplankton density played a key role in the reproductive cycle in A. granosa. Information on the reproductive biology of this species is essential for species management and to improve the sustainability practices of the fisheries industry. These findings will provide basic information on the biology of the blood cockle A. granosa for stock management in the region.

  7. Reproductive biology of blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Munawar; Yasin, Zulfigar; Hwai, Tan Shau

    2017-03-01

    A study on the reproductive cycle of the blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) was conducted at three different areas in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca. A total of 1,920 samples of adult A. granosa (38-71 mm length) were collected from June 2009 until September 2010. Qualitative techniques (gonadal microscopic fresh smear test and histology analysis) as well as quantitative techniques (analysis of condition index and gonadal index) were used to predict monthly gonadal development stages of A. granosa. The gonadal index of A. granosa from Banda Aceh (Indonesia) ( r = 0.469, P > 0.05) and Pulau Pinang (Malaysia) ( r = 0.123, P > 0.05) did not show any correlation to their condition index, whereas the gonadal index of A. granosa from Lhokseumawe (Indonesia) ( r = 0.609, P < 0.05) showed moderate positive correlation to the condition index. During the 16 month sampling period, four reproductive cycles were observed: each from three to six months. The process of releasing gametes is termed dribble spawning, and is the same in all populations. The principle component analysis (PCA) indicated that A. granosa reproduction was affected by interaction between internal physiological factors and indigenous environmental factors. In all sampling areas, phytoplankton density played a key role in the reproductive cycle in A. granosa. Information on the reproductive biology of this species is essential for species management and to improve the sustainability practices of the fisheries industry. These findings will provide basic information on the biology of the blood cockle A. granosa for stock management in the region.

  8. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Two Transcriptomes Reveal Multiple Light-Mediated Functions in the Scallop Eye (Bivalvia: Pectinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pairett, Autum N.; Serb, Jeanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The eye has evolved across 13 separate lineages of molluscs. Yet, there have been very few studies examining the molecular machinary underlying eye function of this group, which is due, in part, to a lack of genomic resources. The scallop (Bivalvia: Pectinidae) represents a compeling molluscan model to study photoreception due to its morphologically novel and separately evolved mirror-type eye. We sequenced the adult eye transcriptome of two scallop species to: 1) identify the phototransduction pathway components; 2) identify any additional light detection functions; and 3) test the hypothesis that molluscs possess genes not found in other animal lineages. Results A total of 3,039 contigs from the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians and 26,395 contigs from the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus were produced by 454 sequencing. Targeted BLAST searches and functional annotation using Gene Ontology (GO) terms and KEGG pathways identified transcripts from three light detection systems: two phototransduction pathways and the circadian clock, a previously unrecognized function of the scallop eye. By comparing the scallop transcriptomes to molluscan and non-molluscan genomes, we discovered that a large proportion of the transcripts (7,776 sequences) may be specific to the scallop lineage. Nearly one-third of these contain transmembrane protein domains, suggesting these unannotated transcripts may be sensory receptors. Conclusions Our data provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available from a single molluscan eye type. Candidate genes potentially involved in sensory reception were identified, and are worthy of further investigation. This resource, combined with recent phylogenetic and genomic data, provides a strong foundation for future investigations of the function and evolution of molluscan photosensory systems in this morphologically and taxonomically diverse phylum. PMID:23922823

  9. Mitochondrial genomes and Doubly Uniparental Inheritance: new insights from Musculista senhousia sex-linked mitochondrial DNAs (Bivalvia Mytilidae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI) is a fascinating exception to matrilinear inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Species with DUI are characterized by two distinct mtDNAs that are inherited either through females (F-mtDNA) or through males (M-mtDNA). DUI sex-linked mitochondrial genomes share several unusual features, such as additional protein coding genes and unusual gene duplications/structures, which have been related to the functionality of DUI. Recently, new evidence for DUI was found in the mytilid bivalve Musculista senhousia. This paper describes the complete sex-linked mitochondrial genomes of this species. Results Our analysis highlights that both M and F mtDNAs share roughly the same gene content and order, but with some remarkable differences. The Musculista sex-linked mtDNAs have differently organized putative control regions (CR), which include repeats and palindromic motifs, thought to provide sites for DNA-binding proteins involved in the transcriptional machinery. Moreover, in male mtDNA, two cox2 genes were found, one (M-cox2b) 123bp longer. Conclusions The complete mtDNA genome characterization of DUI bivalves is the first step to unravel the complex genetic signals allowing Doubly Uniparental Inheritance, and the evolutionary implications of such an unusual transmission route in mitochondrial genome evolution in Bivalvia. The observed redundancy of the palindromic motifs in Musculista M-mtDNA may have a role on the process by which sperm mtDNA becomes dominant or exclusive of the male germline of DUI species. Moreover, the duplicated M-COX2b gene may have a different, still unknown, function related to DUI, in accordance to what has been already proposed for other DUI species in which a similar cox2 extension has been hypothesized to be a tag for male mitochondria. PMID:21896183

  10. Molecular phylogenetic analysis supports a Gondwanan origin of the Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) and the paraphyly of Australasian taxa.

    PubMed

    Graf, Daniel L; Jones, Hugh; Geneva, Anthony J; Pfeiffer, John M; Klunzinger, Michael W

    2015-04-01

    The freshwater mussel family Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) has a disjunct trans-Pacific distribution in Australasia and South America. Previous phylogenetic analyses have estimated the evolutionary relationships of the family and the major infra-familial taxa (Velesunioninae and Hyriinae: Hyridellini in Australia; Hyriinae: Hyriini, Castaliini, and Rhipidodontini in South America), but taxon and character sampling have been too incomplete to support a predictive classification or allow testing of biogeographical hypotheses. We sampled 30 freshwater mussel individuals representing the aforementioned hyriid taxa, as well as outgroup species representing the five other freshwater mussel families and their marine sister group (order Trigoniida). Our ingroup included representatives of all Australian genera. Phylogenetic relationships were estimated from three gene fragments (nuclear 28S, COI and 16S mtDNA) using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference, and we applied a Bayesian relaxed clock model calibrated with fossil dates to estimate node ages. Our analyses found good support for monophyly of the Hyriidae and the subfamilies and tribes, as well as the paraphyly of the Australasian taxa (Velesunioninae, (Hyridellini, (Rhipidodontini, (Castaliini, Hyriini)))). The Hyriidae was recovered as sister to a clade comprised of all other Recent freshwater mussel families. Our molecular date estimation supported Cretaceous origins of the major hyriid clades, pre-dating the Tertiary isolation of South America from Antarctica/Australia. We hypothesize that early diversification of the Hyriidae was driven by terrestrial barriers on Gondwana rather than marine barriers following disintegration of the super-continent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mantle margin morphogenesis in Nodipecten nodosus (Mollusca: Bivalvia): new insights into the development and the roles of bivalve pallial folds.

    PubMed

    Audino, Jorge A; Marian, José Eduardo A R; Wanninger, Andreas; Lopes, Sônia G B C

    2015-05-28

    Despite extensive knowledge on bivalve anatomy and development, the formation and differentiation of the mantle margin and its associated organs remain largely unclear. Bivalves from the family Pectinidae (scallops) are particularly promising to cast some light on these issues, because they exhibit a complex mantle margin and their developmental stages are easily obtained from scallop farms. We investigated the mantle margin of the scallop Nodipecten nodosus (L. 1758) during larval and postmetamorphic development. A thorough analysis of the mantle margin development in Nodipecten nodosus, from veliger larvae to mature adults, was conducted by means of integrative microscopy techniques, i.e., light, electron, and confocal microscopy. Initially unfolded, the pallial margin is divided into distal and proximal regions by the periostracum-forming zone. The emergence of the pallial musculature and its neural innervation are crucial steps during bivalve larval development. By the late pediveliger stage, the margin becomes folded, resulting in a bilobed condition (i.e., outer and inner folds), a periostracal groove, and the development of different types of cilia. After metamorphosis, a second outgrowth process is responsible for emergence of the middle mantle fold from the outer surface of the inner fold. Once the three-folded condition is established, the general adult features are rapidly formed. Our data show that the middle mantle fold forms from the outer surface of the inner fold after metamorphosis and that the initial unfolded mantle margin may represent a common condition among bivalves. The first outgrowth process, which gives rise to the outer and inner folds, and the emergence of the pallial musculature and innervation occur during larval stages, highlighting the importance of the larval period for mantle margin morphogenesis in Bivalvia.

  12. A new species of freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae), Pleurobema athearni, from the Coosa River Drainage of Alabama, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gangloff, M.M.; Williams, J.D.; Feminella, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The Mobile Basin historically supported one of the most diverse freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) assemblages in North America. More than 65 species of mussels are known from the Basin, but it is difficult to determine how many species were present historically. The drainage's unique physical habitat was largely destroyed between the late 1800s and mid-1900s by impoundment and channel modifications of most of the larger rivers. Many species that were once common are now restricted to small headwater rivers and mid-sized tributaries. Recent Coosa River tributary surveys revealed a new, undescribed species of Pleurobema. This new species, Pleurobema athearni, is distinctive in outward appearance, shell morphometry and reproductive morphology, and can be distinguished from other Coosa River drainage unionids. Our analysis indicates that P. athearni is morphologically different from other similar taxa. It differs both in shell width/length and width/height ratios and thus provides a simple, quantitative means to differentiate this species from P. georgianum (Lea, 1841) Fusconaia barnesiana (Lea, 1838), and F. cerina (Conrad, 1838), which it superficially resembles and that also occur in the area. Our morphological diagnosis of this species is supported by recent molecular analyses that suggest this species is a Pleurobema and one closely related to other endemic Coosa River drainage unionids. The discovery of a new species of large, long-lived macroinvertebrate from a relatively well-sampled drainage in a populated region of the southeast United States underscores the need for more detailed surveys in isolated stretches of tributary streams. It should also serve as a reminder that almost 40 species of aquatic mollusks have been extirpated from the Mobile Basin before anything could be learned about their habitat or life history requirements. Copyright ?? 2006 Magnolia Press.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of chemoautotrophic bacterial symbionts of Solemya velum say (Mollusca: Bivalvia) determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, J A; Smith, S W; Cavanaugh, C M

    1992-01-01

    The protobranch bivalve Solemya velum Say (Mollusca: Bivalvia) houses chemoautotrophic symbionts intracellularly within its gills. These symbionts were characterized through sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA coding regions and hybridization of an Escherichia coli gene probe to S. velum genomic DNA restriction fragments. The symbionts appeared to have only one copy of the 16S rRNA gene. The lack of variability in the 16S sequence and hybridization patterns within and between individual S. velum organisms suggested that one species of symbiont is dominant within and specific for this host species. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S sequences of the symbionts indicates that they lie within the chemoautotrophic cluster of the gamma subdivision of the eubacterial group Proteobacteria. Images PMID:1577710

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of chemoautotrophic bacterial symbionts of Solemya velum say (Mollusca: Bivalvia) determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Eisen, J A; Smith, S W; Cavanaugh, C M

    1992-05-01

    The protobranch bivalve Solemya velum Say (Mollusca: Bivalvia) houses chemoautotrophic symbionts intracellularly within its gills. These symbionts were characterized through sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA coding regions and hybridization of an Escherichia coli gene probe to S. velum genomic DNA restriction fragments. The symbionts appeared to have only one copy of the 16S rRNA gene. The lack of variability in the 16S sequence and hybridization patterns within and between individual S. velum organisms suggested that one species of symbiont is dominant within and specific for this host species. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S sequences of the symbionts indicates that they lie within the chemoautotrophic cluster of the gamma subdivision of the eubacterial group Proteobacteria.

  15. Phylogenetic and morphometric analyses reveal ecophenotypic plasticity in freshwater mussels Obovaria jacksoniana and Villosa arkansasensis (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kentaro; Hayes, David M; Harris, John L; Christian, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Freshwater mollusk shell morphology exhibits clinal variation along a stream continuum that has been termed the Law of Stream Distribution. We analyzed phylogenetic relationships and morphological similarity of two freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae), Obovaria jacksoniana and Villosa arkansasensis, throughout their ranges. The objectives were to investigate phylogenetic structure and evolutionary divergence of O. jacksoniana and V. arkansasensis and morphological similarity between the two species. Our analyses were the first explicit tests of phenotypic plasticity in shell morphologies using a combination of genetics and morphometrics. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA (1416 bp; two genes) and morphometric analyses for 135 individuals of O. jacksoniana and V. arkansasensis from 12 streams. We examined correlations among genetic, morphological, and spatial distances using Mantel tests. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a monophyletic relationship between O. jacksoniana and V. arkansasensis. Within this O. jacksoniana/V. arkansasensis complex, five distinct clades corresponding to drainage patterns showed high genetic divergence. Morphometric analysis revealed relative differences in shell morphologies between the two currently recognized species. We conclude that morphological differences between the two species are caused by ecophenotypic plasticity. A series of Mantel tests showed regional and local genetic isolation by distance. We observed clear positive correlations between morphological and geographic distances within a single drainage. We did not observe correlations between genetic and morphological distances. Phylogenetic analyses suggest O. jacksoniana and V. arkansasensis are synonomous and most closely related to a clade composed of O. retusa, O. subrotunda, and O. unicolor. Therefore, the synonomous O. jacksoniana and V. arkansasensis should be recognized as Obovaria arkansasensis (Lea 1862) n

  16. Phylogenetic and morphometric analyses reveal ecophenotypic plasticity in freshwater mussels Obovaria jacksoniana and Villosa arkansasensis (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kentaro; Hayes, David M; Harris, John L; Christian, Alan D

    2013-08-01

    Freshwater mollusk shell morphology exhibits clinal variation along a stream continuum that has been termed the Law of Stream Distribution. We analyzed phylogenetic relationships and morphological similarity of two freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae), Obovaria jacksoniana and Villosa arkansasensis, throughout their ranges. The objectives were to investigate phylogenetic structure and evolutionary divergence of O. jacksoniana and V. arkansasensis and morphological similarity between the two species. Our analyses were the first explicit tests of phenotypic plasticity in shell morphologies using a combination of genetics and morphometrics. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA (1416 bp; two genes) and morphometric analyses for 135 individuals of O. jacksoniana and V. arkansasensis from 12 streams. We examined correlations among genetic, morphological, and spatial distances using Mantel tests. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a monophyletic relationship between O. jacksoniana and V. arkansasensis. Within this O. jacksoniana/V. arkansasensis complex, five distinct clades corresponding to drainage patterns showed high genetic divergence. Morphometric analysis revealed relative differences in shell morphologies between the two currently recognized species. We conclude that morphological differences between the two species are caused by ecophenotypic plasticity. A series of Mantel tests showed regional and local genetic isolation by distance. We observed clear positive correlations between morphological and geographic distances within a single drainage. We did not observe correlations between genetic and morphological distances. Phylogenetic analyses suggest O. jacksoniana and V. arkansasensis are synonomous and most closely related to a clade composed of O. retusa, O. subrotunda, and O. unicolor. Therefore, the synonomous O. jacksoniana and V. arkansasensis should be recognized as Obovaria arkansasensis (Lea 1862) n. comb

  17. Love thy neighbour: group properties of gaping behaviour in mussel aggregations.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Katy R; Zardi, Gerardo I; McQuaid, Christopher D; Pearson, Gareth A; Serrão, Ester A

    2012-01-01

    By associating closely with others to form a group, an animal can benefit from a number of advantages including reduced risk of predation, amelioration of environmental conditions, and increased reproductive success, but at the price of reduced resources. Although made up of individual members, an aggregation often displays novel effects that do not manifest at the level of the individual organism. Here we show that very simple behaviour in intertidal mussels shows new effects in dense aggregations but not in isolated individuals. Perna perna and Mytilus galloprovincialis are gaping (periodic valve movement during emersion) and non-gaping mussels respectively. P. perna gaping behaviour had no effect on body temperatures of isolated individuals, while it led to increased humidity and decreased temperatures in dense groups (beds). Gaping resulted in cooler body temperatures for P. perna than M. galloprovincialis when in aggregations, while solitary individuals exhibited the highest temperatures. Gradients of increasing body temperature were detected from the center to edges of beds, but M. galloprovincialis at the edge had the same temperature as isolated individuals. Furthermore, a field study showed that during periods of severe heat stress, mortality rates of mussels within beds of the gaping P. perna were lower than those of isolated individuals or within beds of M. galloprovincialis, highlighting the determinant role of gaping on fitness and group functioning. We demonstrate that new effects of very simple individual behaviour lead to amelioration of abiotic conditions at the aggregation level and that these effects increase mussel resistance to thermal stress.

  18. Persistent Contamination of Octopuses and Mussels with Lipophilic Shellfish Toxins during Spring Dinophysis Blooms in a Subtropical Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Mafra, Luiz L.; Lopes, Daiana; Bonilauri, Vanessa C.; Uchida, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the occurrence of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) and their producing phytoplankton species in southern Brazil, as well as the potential for toxin accumulation in co-occurring mussels (Perna perna) and octopuses (Octopus vulgaris). During the spring in 2012 and 2013, cells of Dinophysis acuminata complex were always present, sometimes at relatively high abundances (max. 1143 cells L−1), likely the main source of okadaic acid (OA) in the plankton (max. 34 ng L−1). Dinophysis caudata occurred at lower cell densities in 2013 when the lipophilic toxins pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and PTX-2 seco acid were detected in plankton and mussel samples. Here, we report for the first time the accumulation of DSTs in octopuses, probably linked to the consumption of contaminated bivalves. Perna perna mussels were consistently contaminated with different DSTs (max. 42 µg kg−1), and all octopuses analyzed (n = 5) accumulated OA in different organs/tissues: digestive glands (DGs) > arms > gills > kidneys > stomach + intestine. Additionally, similar concentrations of 7-O-palmytoyl OA and 7-O-palmytoly dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) were frequently detected in the hepatopancreas of P. perna and DGs of O. vulgaris. Therefore, octopuses can be considered a potential vector of DSTs to both humans and top predators such as marine mammals. PMID:26096277

  19. Persistent Contamination of Octopuses and Mussels with Lipophilic Shellfish Toxins during Spring Dinophysis Blooms in a Subtropical Estuary.

    PubMed

    Mafra, Luiz L; Lopes, Daiana; Bonilauri, Vanessa C; Uchida, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshiyuki

    2015-06-18

    This study investigates the occurrence of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) and their producing phytoplankton species in southern Brazil, as well as the potential for toxin accumulation in co-occurring mussels (Perna perna) and octopuses (Octopus vulgaris). During the spring in 2012 and 2013, cells of Dinophysis acuminata complex were always present, sometimes at relatively high abundances (max. 1143 cells L-1), likely the main source of okadaic acid (OA) in the plankton (max. 34 ng L-1). Dinophysis caudata occurred at lower cell densities in 2013 when the lipophilic toxins pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and PTX-2 seco acid were detected in plankton and mussel samples. Here, we report for the first time the accumulation of DSTs in octopuses, probably linked to the consumption of contaminated bivalves. Perna perna mussels were consistently contaminated with different DSTs (max. 42 µg kg-1), and all octopuses analyzed (n = 5) accumulated OA in different organs/tissues: digestive glands (DGs) > arms > gills > kidneys > stomach + intestine. Additionally, similar concentrations of 7-O-palmytoyl OA and 7-O-palmytoly dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) were frequently detected in the hepatopancreas of P. perna and DGs of O. vulgaris. Therefore, octopuses can be considered a potential vector of DSTs to both humans and top predators such as marine mammals.

  20. Existence and Uniqueness of Maximal Regular Flows for Non-smooth Vector Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosio, Luigi; Colombo, Maria; Figalli, Alessio

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we provide a complete analogy between the Cauchy-Lipschitz and the DiPerna-Lions theories for ODE's, by developing a local version of the DiPerna-Lions theory. More precisely, we prove the existence and uniqueness of a maximal regular flow for the DiPerna-Lions theory using only local regularity and summability assumptions on the vector field, in analogy with the classical theory, which uses only local regularity assumptions. We also study the behaviour of the ODE trajectories before the maximal existence time. Unlike the Cauchy-Lipschitz theory, this behaviour crucially depends on the nature of the bounds imposed on the spatial divergence of the vector field. In particular, a global assumption on the divergence is needed to obtain a proper blow-up of the trajectories.

  1. Microplastic contamination in natural mussel beds from a Brazilian urbanized coastal region: Rapid evaluation through bioassessment.

    PubMed

    Santana, M F M; Ascer, L G; Custódio, M R; Moreira, F T; Turra, A

    2016-05-15

    Microplastic pollution (particles <5mm) is a widespread marine threat and a trigger for biological effects, especially if ingested. The mussel Perna perna, an important food resource, was used as bioindicator to investigate the presence of microplastic pollution on Santos estuary, the most urbanized area of the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. A simple and rapid assessment showed that 75% of sampled mussels had ingested microplastics, an issue of human and environmental concern. All sampling points had contaminated mussels and this contamination had no clear pattern of distribution along the estuary. This was the first time that microplastic bioavailability was assessed in nature for the southern hemisphere and that wild P. perna was found contaminated with this pollutant. This is an important issue that should be better assessed due to an increase in seafood consumption and culture in Brazil and worldwide.

  2. A comparative study of the anti-settlement properties of mytilid shells.

    PubMed

    Bers, A V; Prendergast, G S; Zürn, C M; Hansson, L; Head, R M; Thomason, J C

    2006-03-22

    Marine organisms have evolved defence mechanisms to prevent epibiosis. This study investigated the anti-settlement properties of natural periostracal microtopographies of two mytilid species, Mytilus edulis (from North, Baltic and White Seas) and Perna perna (from the SW Atlantic). Resin replicas of shells were exposed to cyprids of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides. Replicas with intact isotropic microtopographies and smooth controls were much less fouled than roughened anisotropic surfaces. This indicates that in both M. edulis and P. perna the periostracum possesses a generic anti-settlement property, at least against S. balanoides cyprids, which is not regionally adapted. Such a potential globally effective anti-settlement mechanism possibly contributes to the invasive success of Mytilidae.

  3. Cheating the Locals: Invasive Mussels Steal and Benefit from the Cooling Effect of Indigenous Mussels.

    PubMed

    Lathlean, Justin A; Seuront, Laurent; McQuaid, Christopher D; Ng, Terence P T; Zardi, Gerardo I; Nicastro, Katy R

    2016-01-01

    The indigenous South African mussel Perna perna gapes during periods of aerial exposure to maintain aerobic respiration. This behaviour has no effect on the body temperatures of isolated individuals, but when surrounded by conspecifics, beneficial cooling effects of gaping emerge. It is uncertain, however, whether the presence of the invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis limits the ability of P. perna for collective thermoregulation. We investigated whether varying densities of P. perna and M. galloprovincialis influences the thermal properties of both natural and artificial mussel beds during periods of emersion. Using infrared thermography, body temperatures of P. perna within mixed artificial beds were shown to increase faster and reach higher temperatures than individuals in conspecific beds, indicating that the presence of M. galloprovincialis limits the group cooling effects of gaping. In contrast, body temperatures of M. galloprovincialis within mixed artificial mussel beds increased slower and exhibited lower temperatures than for individuals in beds comprised entirely of M. galloprovincialis. Interestingly, differences in bed temperatures and heating rates were largely dependent on the size of mussels, with beds comprised of larger individuals experiencing less thermal stress irrespective of species composition. The small-scale patterns of thermal stress detected within manipulated beds were not observed within naturally occurring mixed mussel beds. We propose that small-scale differences in topography, size-structure, mussel bed size and the presence of organisms encrusting the mussel shells mask the effects of gaping behaviour within natural mussel beds. Nevertheless, the results from our manipulative experiment indicate that the invasive species M. galloprovincialis steals thermal properties as well as resources from the indigenous mussel P. perna. This may have significant implications for predicting how the co-existence of these two species may

  4. Cheating the Locals: Invasive Mussels Steal and Benefit from the Cooling Effect of Indigenous Mussels

    PubMed Central

    Lathlean, Justin A.; Seuront, Laurent; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Ng, Terence P. T.; Zardi, Gerardo I.; Nicastro, Katy R.

    2016-01-01

    The indigenous South African mussel Perna perna gapes during periods of aerial exposure to maintain aerobic respiration. This behaviour has no effect on the body temperatures of isolated individuals, but when surrounded by conspecifics, beneficial cooling effects of gaping emerge. It is uncertain, however, whether the presence of the invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis limits the ability of P. perna for collective thermoregulation. We investigated whether varying densities of P. perna and M. galloprovincialis influences the thermal properties of both natural and artificial mussel beds during periods of emersion. Using infrared thermography, body temperatures of P. perna within mixed artificial beds were shown to increase faster and reach higher temperatures than individuals in conspecific beds, indicating that the presence of M. galloprovincialis limits the group cooling effects of gaping. In contrast, body temperatures of M. galloprovincialis within mixed artificial mussel beds increased slower and exhibited lower temperatures than for individuals in beds comprised entirely of M. galloprovincialis. Interestingly, differences in bed temperatures and heating rates were largely dependent on the size of mussels, with beds comprised of larger individuals experiencing less thermal stress irrespective of species composition. The small-scale patterns of thermal stress detected within manipulated beds were not observed within naturally occurring mixed mussel beds. We propose that small-scale differences in topography, size-structure, mussel bed size and the presence of organisms encrusting the mussel shells mask the effects of gaping behaviour within natural mussel beds. Nevertheless, the results from our manipulative experiment indicate that the invasive species M. galloprovincialis steals thermal properties as well as resources from the indigenous mussel P. perna. This may have significant implications for predicting how the co-existence of these two species may

  5. Predicting the effects of climate change on population connectivity and genetic diversity of an imperiled freshwater mussel, Cumberlandia monodonta (Bivalvia: Margaritiferidae), in riverine systems.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kentaro; Berg, David J

    2017-01-01

    In the face of global climate change, organisms may respond to temperature increases by shifting their ranges poleward or to higher altitudes. However, the direction of range shifts in riverine systems is less clear. Because rivers are dendritic networks, there is only one dispersal route from any given location to another. Thus, range shifts are only possible if branches are connected by suitable habitat, and stream-dwelling organisms can disperse through these branches. We used Cumberlandia monodonta (Bivalvia: Unionoida: Margaritiferidae) as a model species to investigate the effects of climate change on population connectivity because a majority of contemporary populations are panmictic. We combined ecological niche models (ENMs) with population genetic simulations to investigate the effects of climate change on population connectivity and genetic diversity of C. monodonta. The ENMs were constructed using bioclimatic and landscape data to project shifts in suitable habitat under future climate scenarios. We then used forward-time simulations to project potential changes in genetic diversity and population connectivity based on these range shifts. ENM results under current conditions indicated long stretches of highly suitable habitat in rivers where C. monodonta persists; populations in the upper Mississippi River remain connected by suitable habitat that does not impede gene flow. Future climate scenarios projected northward and headwater-ward range contraction and drastic declines in habitat suitability for most extant populations throughout the Mississippi River Basin. Simulations indicated that climate change would greatly reduce genetic diversity and connectivity across populations. Results suggest that a single, large population of C. monodonta will become further fragmented into smaller populations, each of which will be isolated and begin to differentiate genetically. Because C. monodonta is a widely distributed species and purely aquatic, our

  6. The linked units of 5S rDNA and U1 snDNA of razor shells (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vierna, J; Jensen, K T; Martínez-Lage, A; González-Tizón, A M

    2011-01-01

    The linkage between 5S ribosomal DNA and other multigene families has been detected in many eukaryote lineages, but whether it provides any selective advantage remains unclear. In this work, we report the occurrence of linked units of 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) and U1 small nuclear DNA (U1 snDNA) in 10 razor shell species (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae) from four different genera. We obtained several clones containing partial or complete repeats of both multigene families in which both types of genes displayed the same orientation. We provide a comprehensive collection of razor shell 5S rDNA clones, both with linked and nonlinked organisation, and the first bivalve U1 snDNA sequences. We predicted the secondary structures and characterised the upstream and downstream conserved elements, including a region at −25 nucleotides from both 5S rDNA and U1 snDNA transcription start sites. The analysis of 5S rDNA showed that some nontranscribed spacers (NTSs) are more closely related to NTSs from other species (and genera) than to NTSs from the species they were retrieved from, suggesting birth-and-death evolution and ancestral polymorphism. Nucleotide conservation within the functional regions suggests the involvement of purifying selection, unequal crossing-overs and gene conversions. Taking into account this and other studies, we discuss the possible mechanisms by which both multigene families could have become linked in the Pharidae lineage. The reason why 5S rDNA is often found linked to other multigene families seems to be the result of stochastic processes within genomes in which its high copy number is determinant. PMID:21364693

  7. The linked units of 5S rDNA and U1 snDNA of razor shells (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae).

    PubMed

    Vierna, J; Jensen, K T; Martínez-Lage, A; González-Tizón, A M

    2011-08-01

    The linkage between 5S ribosomal DNA and other multigene families has been detected in many eukaryote lineages, but whether it provides any selective advantage remains unclear. In this work, we report the occurrence of linked units of 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) and U1 small nuclear DNA (U1 snDNA) in 10 razor shell species (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae) from four different genera. We obtained several clones containing partial or complete repeats of both multigene families in which both types of genes displayed the same orientation. We provide a comprehensive collection of razor shell 5S rDNA clones, both with linked and nonlinked organisation, and the first bivalve U1 snDNA sequences. We predicted the secondary structures and characterised the upstream and downstream conserved elements, including a region at -25 nucleotides from both 5S rDNA and U1 snDNA transcription start sites. The analysis of 5S rDNA showed that some nontranscribed spacers (NTSs) are more closely related to NTSs from other species (and genera) than to NTSs from the species they were retrieved from, suggesting birth-and-death evolution and ancestral polymorphism. Nucleotide conservation within the functional regions suggests the involvement of purifying selection, unequal crossing-overs and gene conversions. Taking into account this and other studies, we discuss the possible mechanisms by which both multigene families could have become linked in the Pharidae lineage. The reason why 5S rDNA is often found linked to other multigene families seems to be the result of stochastic processes within genomes in which its high copy number is determinant.

  8. A new species of pea crab of the genus Serenotheres Ahyong & Ng, 2005 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae) from the date mussel Leiosolenus Carpenter, 1857 (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mytilidae, Lithophaginae) from the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Meyer, Chistopher

    2016-01-01

    The pea crab genus Serenotheres Ahyong & Ng, 2005 (Pinnotheridae) is currently only represented by one species, Serenotheres besutensis (Serène, 1967). A new species is now assigned to this genus, described from a date mussel Leiosolenus obesus Carpenter, 1857 (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae: Lithophaginae) collected in the Solomon Islands. Serenotheres janussp. n. differs from Serenotheres besutensis in possessing a conspicuously broader carapace, with the lateral margins of the dorsal lamellum distinctly produced and the posterolateral part deeply concave, the dorsal lamellum being highest at the median cleft, the rostrum is relatively more prominent, the surfaces of the anterolateral margin and hepatic region are less prominently pitted and eroded, the ischiomerus of the third maxilliped is relatively more rectangular, and the P2 merus is proportionately longer.

  9. A new species of pea crab of the genus Serenotheres Ahyong & Ng, 2005 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae) from the date mussel Leiosolenus Carpenter, 1857 (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mytilidae, Lithophaginae) from the Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Peter K. L.; Meyer, Chistopher

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The pea crab genus Serenotheres Ahyong & Ng, 2005 (Pinnotheridae) is currently only represented by one species, Serenotheres besutensis (Serène, 1967). A new species is now assigned to this genus, described from a date mussel Leiosolenus obesus Carpenter, 1857 (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae: Lithophaginae) collected in the Solomon Islands. Serenotheres janus sp. n. differs from Serenotheres besutensis in possessing a conspicuously broader carapace, with the lateral margins of the dorsal lamellum distinctly produced and the posterolateral part deeply concave, the dorsal lamellum being highest at the median cleft, the rostrum is relatively more prominent, the surfaces of the anterolateral margin and hepatic region are less prominently pitted and eroded, the ischiomerus of the third maxilliped is relatively more rectangular, and the P2 merus is proportionately longer. PMID:27843386

  10. Predictors of Graduate Enrollment in Hard and Soft Academic Disciplines and the Impact of Sex and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnulty, Katheryn G.

    2009-01-01

    Given the underrepresentation of research on graduate college choice, particularly that which utilizes a national sample of students enrolled in a wide range of institutions of higher education across the United States, this study aims to contribute significantly to the field of graduate access and admissions. Building on the work of Perna (2004)…

  11. Why Do All the Study Abroad Students Look Alike? Using an Integrated Student Choice Model to Explore Differences in the Development of White and Minority Students' Intent to Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Mark H.; Paulsen, Michael B.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2010-01-01

    Despite substantial efforts across postsecondary education to increase minority participation in study abroad, the homogeneity of study abroad participants remains largely unchanged (Desoff, 2006; Shih, 2009). This study applies an integrated student choice model (Perna, 2006) to identify differences between white and minority (African-American,…

  12. Mexican Americans Acquiring Bachelor's Degrees: Whose Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Carol

    2009-01-01

    This study offers a small, highly contextualized counter-example to several recent large-scale analyses depicting Latino underachievement in higher education (R. Fry, 2002; J. Immerwahr, 2003; S. Miller & E. Garcia, 2004; W. Swail, A. Cabrera, & C. Lee, 2004; W. S. Swail, K. E. Redd, & L. W. Perna, 2003). The purpose is to analyze…

  13. Graduate Education Attainment and Salary: An Examination of Institutional Type, Major Choice, Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Parental Education and Work Experience Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Chandra M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated two major sources of influence (institution and individual characteristics) on the earnings of graduate degree recipients. These factors have been shown in previous research to influence the initial earnings of graduates at the undergraduate level. This research seeks to build on previous studies by Perna (2003, 2005) that…

  14. Be Bold ... Be Enrollment Rich

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Mark C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, marketing specialist Mark Perna offers advice on how career and technical schools can market themselves and their programs. To become "enrollment rich," he suggests the following: (1) develop a brand plan--something that separates your organization from competitors in the mind of the community; (2) deliver the message--the community…

  15. TOXOPLASMA GONDII ISOLATES FROM FREE-RANGE CHICKENS FORM THE NORTHEAST REGION OF BRAZIL

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 152 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from 22 municipalities in 7 northeastern states (Perna...

  16. Access to College: A Reconsideration of the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun-Barnett, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    Student's access to college is influenced both by their level of academic preparation to do college-level work and the cost of participating in postsecondary education--on this point researchers and policy makers seem to agree (Perna, 2006). The relative importance of each, however, is very much a subject of disagreement and that debate has…

  17. Field Measurements Indicate Unexpected, Serious Underestimation of Mussel Heart Rates and Thermal Tolerance by Laboratory Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tagliarolo, Morgana; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Attempts to predict the response of species to long-term environmental change are generally based on extrapolations from laboratory experiments that inevitably simplify the complex interacting effects that occur in the field. We recorded heart rates of two genetic lineages of the brown mussel Perna perna over a full tidal cycle in-situ at two different sites in order to evaluate the cardiac responses of the two genetic lineages present on the South African coast to temperature and the immersion/emersion cycle. “Robomussel” temperature loggers were used to monitor thermal conditions at the two sites over one year. Comparison with live animals showed that robomussels provided a good estimate of mussel body temperatures. A significant difference in estimated body temperatures was observed between the sites and the results showed that, under natural conditions, temperatures regularly approach or exceed the thermal limits of P. perna identified in the laboratory. The two P. perna lineages showed similar tidal and diel patterns of heart rate, with higher cardiac activity during daytime immersion and minimal values during daytime emersion. Comparison of the heart rates measured in the field with data previously measured in the laboratory indicates that laboratory results seriously underestimate heart rate activity, by as much as 75%, especially during immersion. Unexpectedly, field estimates of body temperatures indicated an ability to tolerate temperatures considered lethal on the basis of laboratory measurements. This suggests that the interaction of abiotic conditions in the field does not necessarily raise vulnerability to high temperatures. PMID:26840775

  18. Global existence proof for relativistic Boltzmann equation

    SciTech Connect

    Dudynski, M. ); Ekiel-Jezewska, M.L. )

    1992-02-01

    The existence and causality of solutions to the relativistic Boltzmann equation in L[sup 1] and in L[sub loc][sup 1] are proved. The solutions are shown to satisfy physically natural a priori bounds, time-independent in L[sup 1]. The results rely upon new techniques developed for the nonrelativistic Boltzmann equation by DiPerna and Lions.

  19. From the Kinetic Theory of Gases to Continuum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Golse, Francois

    2011-05-20

    Recent results on the fluid dynamic limits of the Boltzmann equation based on the DiPerna-Lions theory of renormalized solutions are reviewed in this paper, with an emphasis on regimes where the velocity field behaves to leading order like that of an incompressible fluid with constant density.

  20. Increasing Access to College: Extending Possibilities for All Students. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G., Ed.; Hagedorn, Linda Serra, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines pre-college enrichment programs that offer a specific remedy to the problem of low income and underrepresented students' access to higher education. The 10 papers are: (1) "Pre-College Outreach Programs: A National Perspective" (Watson Scott Swail and Laura W. Perna); (2) "The Relationship between…

  1. Making the Grade: The Importance of Academic Enablers in the Elementary School Counseling Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barna, Jennifer S.; Brott, Pamelia E.

    2014-01-01

    Elementary school counselors can support academic achievement by connecting their comprehensive programs to increasing academic competence. One valuable framework focuses on academic enablers, which are identified as interpersonal skills, motivation, engagement, and study skills (DiPerna, 2004). In this article, the authors (a) discuss the…

  2. An Examination of Construct Validity for the EARLI Numeracy Skill Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Weiyi; Lei, Pui-Wa; DiPerna, James C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine dimensionality and concurrent validity evidence of the EARLI numeracy measures (DiPerna, Morgan, & Lei, 2007), which were developed to assess key skills such as number identification, counting, and basic arithmetic. Two methods (NOHARM with approximate chi-square test and DIMTEST with DETECT…

  3. Structural and Concurrent Validity Evidence for the Academic Competence Evaluation Scales-College Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPerna, James Clyde

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the structural and concurrent validity of the Academic Competence Evaluation Scales-College (ACES-College; J. C. DiPerna & S. N. Elliott, 2001). Results indicated that the ACES-College is composed of 2 scales--Academic Skills and Academic Enablers--each with multiple subscales. Results also indicated that…

  4. A Grounded Theory Approach to Understanding the Persistence Issue That Exists for Lower-Socio Economic Status College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaggs, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of research and program implementation in both the K-12 and higher educational systems, students of low socio-economic status (SES) still have access to and persist in higher education at significantly lower numbers than their more affluent peers (Gollnick & Chinn, 2012; Perna, 2005). This study employed a grounded-theory…

  5. College-"Conocimiento": Toward an Interdisciplinary College Choice Framework for Latinx Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acevedo-Gil, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    This paper builds upon Perna's college choice model by integrating Anzaldúa's theory of "conocimiento" to propose an interdisciplinary college choice framework for Latinx students. Using previous literature, this paper proposes college-"conocimiento" as a framework that contextualizes Latinx student college choices within the…

  6. Making the Grade: The Importance of Academic Enablers in the Elementary School Counseling Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barna, Jennifer S.; Brott, Pamelia E.

    2014-01-01

    Elementary school counselors can support academic achievement by connecting their comprehensive programs to increasing academic competence. One valuable framework focuses on academic enablers, which are identified as interpersonal skills, motivation, engagement, and study skills (DiPerna, 2004). In this article, the authors (a) discuss the…

  7. Be Bold ... Be Enrollment Rich

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Mark C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, marketing specialist Mark Perna offers advice on how career and technical schools can market themselves and their programs. To become "enrollment rich," he suggests the following: (1) develop a brand plan--something that separates your organization from competitors in the mind of the community; (2) deliver the message--the community…

  8. Academic Enablers and Student Achievement: Implications for Assessment and Intervention Services in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPerna, James Clyde

    2006-01-01

    Academic enablers have been defined as attitudes and behaviors that facilitate students' participation in, and benefit from, academic instruction in the classroom (J.C. DiPerna & S.N. Elliott, 2000). The purpose of this article is to provide practitioners with an overview of specific academic enablers (motivation, study skills, engagement, and…

  9. Screening for Early Learning Problems within an Urban Population: The Brief Academic Competence Evaluation Screening System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.

    2007-01-01

    The Brief Academic Competence Evaluation Screening System (BACESS; Elliott, DiPerna, & Huai, 2003) is a multi-phase instrument designed to assist educators in the identification of students who are likely to experience early learning problems. The BACESS was used in eight elementary classrooms (n=71) in southern California. Each phase of the…

  10. Ensuring That Professors Who Enhance the University Earn Tenure and Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Tenure provides professors with a unique level of job security and utmost respect in the academy (Shea, 2002). Receiving tenure and progressing through the academic ranks are among the most visible and valued accomplishments for college and university faculty (Perna, 2001). Faculty who achieve excellence in teaching, research, and service readily…

  11. College Prep and Access from the Perspective of Diversity College Admission Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea, Kathryn A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have found that there is a college access gap for students of color in P-16 education. I utilize Perna's (2006) integrated college access model in exploring college admission's knowledge of college preparation in education. The present study uses qualitative questionnaires to measure diversity college admission professionals' (DCAPs)…

  12. Predictors of Graduate Enrollment in Hard and Soft Academic Disciplines and the Impact of Sex and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnulty, Katheryn G.

    2009-01-01

    Given the underrepresentation of research on graduate college choice, particularly that which utilizes a national sample of students enrolled in a wide range of institutions of higher education across the United States, this study aims to contribute significantly to the field of graduate access and admissions. Building on the work of Perna (2004)…

  13. College Prep and Access from the Perspective of Diversity College Admission Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea, Kathryn A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have found that there is a college access gap for students of color in P-16 education. I utilize Perna's (2006) integrated college access model in exploring college admission's knowledge of college preparation in education. The present study uses qualitative questionnaires to measure diversity college admission professionals' (DCAPs)…

  14. The College Choice Process of Four Students from Rural Appalachian Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kristen L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the college choice process of four students from one high school in rural Appalachian Kentucky aligned with Perna's (2006; 2010) nested process model of college choice. I used qualitative case study methodology and inductive analysis to describe how four high-academic achieving students of varying family…

  15. Graduate Education Attainment and Salary: An Examination of Institutional Type, Major Choice, Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Parental Education and Work Experience Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Chandra M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated two major sources of influence (institution and individual characteristics) on the earnings of graduate degree recipients. These factors have been shown in previous research to influence the initial earnings of graduates at the undergraduate level. This research seeks to build on previous studies by Perna (2003, 2005) that…

  16. Increasing Access to College: Extending Possibilities for All Students. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G., Ed.; Hagedorn, Linda Serra, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines pre-college enrichment programs that offer a specific remedy to the problem of low income and underrepresented students' access to higher education. The 10 papers are: (1) "Pre-College Outreach Programs: A National Perspective" (Watson Scott Swail and Laura W. Perna); (2) "The Relationship between…

  17. Measuring Social-Emotional Skills to Advance Science and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark; Russo-Ponsaran, Nicole; Johnson, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The ability to understand and effectively interact with others is a critical determinant of academic, social, and life success (DiPerna & Elliott, 2002). An area in particular need of scalable, feasible, usable, and scientifically sound assessment tools is social-emotional comprehension, which includes mental processes enlisted to encode,…

  18. Flows for non-smooth vector fields with subexponentially integrable divergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clop, Albert; Jiang, Renjin; Mateu, Joan; Orobitg, Joan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we study flows associated to Sobolev vector fields with subexponentially integrable divergence. Our approach is based on the transport equation following DiPerna-Lions [17]. A key ingredient is to use a quantitative estimate of solutions to the Cauchy problem of transport equation to obtain the regularity of density functions.

  19. The College Choice Process of Four Students from Rural Appalachian Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kristen L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the college choice process of four students from one high school in rural Appalachian Kentucky aligned with Perna's (2006; 2010) nested process model of college choice. I used qualitative case study methodology and inductive analysis to describe how four high-academic achieving students of varying family…

  20. How Four-Year Colleges and Universities Organize Themselves to Promote Student Persistence: The Emerging National Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board Advocacy & Policy Center, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As leading measures of student success and institutional quality, persistence and graduation rates are intensely debated at education conferences, institutional meetings and legislative sessions (Adelman, 1999; American Association of State Colleges and Universities [AASCU], 2002; Gold & Albert, 2006; Perna & Thomas, 2006; Tinto & Pusser, 2006;…

  1. How Four-Year Colleges and Universities Organize Themselves to Promote Student Persistence: The Emerging National Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board Advocacy & Policy Center, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As leading measures of student success and institutional quality, persistence and graduation rates are intensely debated at education conferences, institutional meetings and legislative sessions (Adelman, 1999; American Association of State Colleges and Universities [AASCU], 2002; Gold & Albert, 2006; Perna & Thomas, 2006; Tinto & Pusser, 2006;…

  2. Mexican Americans Acquiring Bachelor's Degrees: Whose Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Carol

    2009-01-01

    This study offers a small, highly contextualized counter-example to several recent large-scale analyses depicting Latino underachievement in higher education (R. Fry, 2002; J. Immerwahr, 2003; S. Miller & E. Garcia, 2004; W. Swail, A. Cabrera, & C. Lee, 2004; W. S. Swail, K. E. Redd, & L. W. Perna, 2003). The purpose is to analyze…

  3. Effects of College Access Programs on College Readiness and Enrollment: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvill, Eleanor L.; Maynard, Rebecca A.; Nguyen, Hoa T. H.; Robertson-Kraft, Claire; Tognatta, Namrata

    2012-01-01

    For decades, college access programs have aimed to improve college readiness and enrollment rates, particularly for underrepresented populations. Though several published reports have produced comprehensive inventories of college access programs (Gandara, 2001; Perna, 2002; Tierney, Bailey, Constantine, Finkelstein, & Hurd, 2009), no systematic…

  4. An Examination of Construct Validity for the EARLI Numeracy Skill Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Weiyi; Lei, Pui-Wa; DiPerna, James C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine dimensionality and concurrent validity evidence of the EARLI numeracy measures (DiPerna, Morgan, & Lei, 2007), which were developed to assess key skills such as number identification, counting, and basic arithmetic. Two methods (NOHARM with approximate chi-square test and DIMTEST with DETECT…

  5. Impact of zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena spp.) on freshwater unionids (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in the Detroit River of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, D.W.; Kovalak, W.P.; Longton, G.D.; Ohnesorg, K.L.; Smithee, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    To assess the impact of zebra and quagga mussel (Dreissena spp.) infestation on unionids, unionids (Bivalvia: Unionidae) were sampled in the Detroit River in 1982-1983, before mussels invaded the river, and in 1992 and 1994, after mussels invaded the river. Live unionids at four stations along the southeastern shore accounted for 97% (20 species) of all shells collected in 1982-1983, whereas live unionids accounted for only 10% (13 species) in 1992. A similar decline in live unionids occurred at nine stations along the northwestern shore, except the decline occurred over the three sampling periods: in 1982-83, 84% (22 species) were live; in 1992, 65% (26 species) were live; and, in 1994, only 3% (13 species) were live. The difference in time to near-total mortality of unionids along the southeastern and northwestern shores is attributed to differences in the time of invasion and abundance of zebra mussel veligers in distinct water masses emanating from Lake St. Clair located immediately upstream of the Detroit River. Although individuals of all species of all unionid subfamilies declined between 1982 and 1992/1994, members of the subfamilies Anodontinae and Lampsilinae declined more than Ambleminae. Between 1986 and 1992/1994, five Anodontinae, three Lampsilinae and 0 Ambleminae species have been extirpated from the river due to dreissenid mussel infestation. Numbers of individuals of commonly found species declined more than numbers of individuals of uncommonly found species. However, the number of uncommon species declined 47% (17 to 9) along both the southeastern and northwestern shores, whereas common species remained the same (3 species) along the southeastern shore and declined only 40% (5 to 3 species) along the northwestern shore. This study, and others, suggest that high mortality of unionids can occur between 4 and 6 yr after initial invasion by dreissenids or up to 8 yr depending on water current patterns. Infestation-induced mortality of unionids in the

  6. Population structure, growth and production of the yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides (Bivalvia: Mesodesmatidae) from a high-energy, temperate beach in northern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Marko; Alfaya, José E. F.; Lepore, Mauro L.; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E.; Arntz, Wolf E.

    2011-09-01

    The yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides (Bivalvia: Mesodesmatidae) was once the most abundant intertidal species on the Atlantic coast of northern Argentina and an important commercial resource in South America. This study of a population inhabiting the intertidal zone of the sheltered-dissipative sandy beach Santa Teresita documents the species' population biology, including demographic structure, growth and production during December 2004 and December 2006, and adumbrates the critical state of M. mactroides at present. A total of 3,015 M. mactroides were collected and measured, whereas individuals were found with an anterior-posterior shell length between 2 and 64 mm. A von Bertalanffy growth function with an asymptotic length ( L ∞) of 85 mm and a growth constant ( K) of 0.47 year-1 was established from length-frequency distributions. The longevity of the species is estimated at approximately 6 years, and instantaneous mortality rate was about three times higher than 40 years ago. Besides, this study confirmed that the overall growth performance index ( OGP) is habitat-specific and can be used to group M. mactroides and M. donacium from different areas into temperate and upwelling species. Furthermore, OGP is inversely correlated with the latitudinal distribution of Mesodesma populations. The intertidal biomass ranged between 0.06 and 0.07 g AFDM m-2 year-1. Individual production was observed to be highest at 47 mm length (0.35 g AFDM m-2 year-1), and annual production ranged between 0.12 and 0.19 g AFDM m-2 year-1, resulting in productivity values ( P/ B) between 1.84 and 2.93. The comparison of the results of the present study with those of growth studies conducted on M. mactroides 40 years ago revealed the following considerable differences in the population structure of M. mactroides, indicating the conservation status of this intertidal bivalve as endangered: (1) present growth rates are faster, but that the maximum length attained has decreased, (2) the

  7. Wider sampling reveals a non-sister relationship for geographically contiguous lineages of a marine mussel

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Regina L; Nicastro, Katy R; Costa, Joana; McQuaid, Christopher D; Serrão, Ester A; Zardi, Gerardo I

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of phylogenetic inference can be significantly improved by the addition of more taxa and by increasing the spatial coverage of sampling. In previous studies, the brown mussel Perna perna showed a sister–lineage relationship between eastern and western individuals contiguously distributed along the South African coastline. We used mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS) sequence data to further analyze phylogeographic patterns within P. perna. Significant expansion of the geographical coverage revealed an unexpected pattern. The western South African lineage shared the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) with specimens from Angola, Venezuela, and Namibia, whereas eastern South African specimens and Mozambique grouped together, indicating a non-sister relationship for the two South African lineages. Two plausible biogeographic scenarios to explain their origin were both supported by the hypotheses-testing analysis. One includes an Indo-Pacific origin for P. perna, dispersal into the Mediterranean and Atlantic through the Tethys seaway, followed by recent secondary contact after southward expansion of the western and eastern South African lineages. The other scenario (Out of South Africa) suggests an ancient vicariant divergence of the two lineages followed by their northward expansion. Nevertheless, the “Out of South Africa” hypothesis would require a more ancient divergence between the two lineages. Instead, our estimates indicated that they diverged very recently (310 kyr), providing a better support for an Indo-Pacific origin of the two South African lineages. The arrival of the MRCA of P. perna in Brazil was estimated at 10 [0–40] kyr. Thus, the hypothesis of a recent introduction in Brazil through hull fouling in wooden vessels involved in the transatlantic itineraries of the slave trade did not receive strong support, but given the range for this estimate, it could not be discarded. Wider geographic sampling of marine organisms shows that

  8. Wider sampling reveals a non-sister relationship for geographically contiguous lineages of a marine mussel.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Regina L; Nicastro, Katy R; Costa, Joana; McQuaid, Christopher D; Serrão, Ester A; Zardi, Gerardo I

    2014-06-01

    The accuracy of phylogenetic inference can be significantly improved by the addition of more taxa and by increasing the spatial coverage of sampling. In previous studies, the brown mussel Perna perna showed a sister-lineage relationship between eastern and western individuals contiguously distributed along the South African coastline. We used mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS) sequence data to further analyze phylogeographic patterns within P. perna. Significant expansion of the geographical coverage revealed an unexpected pattern. The western South African lineage shared the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) with specimens from Angola, Venezuela, and Namibia, whereas eastern South African specimens and Mozambique grouped together, indicating a non-sister relationship for the two South African lineages. Two plausible biogeographic scenarios to explain their origin were both supported by the hypotheses-testing analysis. One includes an Indo-Pacific origin for P. perna, dispersal into the Mediterranean and Atlantic through the Tethys seaway, followed by recent secondary contact after southward expansion of the western and eastern South African lineages. The other scenario (Out of South Africa) suggests an ancient vicariant divergence of the two lineages followed by their northward expansion. Nevertheless, the "Out of South Africa" hypothesis would require a more ancient divergence between the two lineages. Instead, our estimates indicated that they diverged very recently (310 kyr), providing a better support for an Indo-Pacific origin of the two South African lineages. The arrival of the MRCA of P. perna in Brazil was estimated at 10 [0-40] kyr. Thus, the hypothesis of a recent introduction in Brazil through hull fouling in wooden vessels involved in the transatlantic itineraries of the slave trade did not receive strong support, but given the range for this estimate, it could not be discarded. Wider geographic sampling of marine organisms shows that lineages

  9. Evidence for chemoautotrophic symbiosis in a Mediterranean cold seep clam (Bivalvia: Lucinidae): comparative sequence analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA, APS reductase and RubisCO genes.

    PubMed

    Duperron, Sébastien; Fiala-Médioni, Aline; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Olu, Karine; Sibuet, Myriam

    2007-01-01

    Symbioses between lucinid clams (Bivalvia: Lucinidae) and autotrophic sulphide-oxidizing bacteria have mainly been studied in shallow coastal species, and information regarding deep-sea species is scarce. Here we study the symbiosis of a clam, resembling Lucinoma kazani, which was recently collected in sediment cores from new cold-seep sites in the vicinity of the Nile deep-sea fan, eastern Mediterranean, at depths ranging from 507 to 1691 m. A dominant bacterial phylotype, related to the sulphide-oxidizing symbiont of Lucinoma aequizonata, was identified in gill tissue by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. A second phylotype, related to spirochete sequences, was identified twice in a library of 94 clones. Comparative analyses of gene sequences encoding the APS reductase alpha subunit and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase support the hypothesis that the dominant symbiont can perform sulphide oxidation and autotrophy. Transmission electron micrographs of gills confirmed the dominance of sulphide-oxidizing bacteria, which display typical vacuoles, and delta(13)C values measured in gill and foot tissue further support the hypothesis for a chemoautotrophic-sourced host carbon nutrition.

  10. Trophic transference of microplastics under a low exposure scenario: Insights on the likelihood of particle cascading along marine food-webs.

    PubMed

    Santana, M F M; Moreira, F T; Turra, A

    2017-08-15

    Microplastics are emergent pollutants in marine environments, whose risks along food-web still need to be understood. Within this knowledge gap, MPs transference and persistence along trophic levels are key processes. We assessed the potential occurrence of these processes considering a less extreme scenario of exposure than used previously, with microplastics present only in the hemolymph of prey (the mussel Perna perna) and absent in the gut cavity. Predators were the crab Callinectes ornatus and the puffer fish Spheoeroides greeleyi. Transference of microplastics occurred from prey to predators but without evidences of particle persistence in their tissues after 10days of exposure. This suggests a reduced likelihood of trophic cascading of particles and, consequently, a reduced risk of direct impacts of microplastics on higher trophic levels. However, the contact with microplastics along food-webs is still concerning, modulated by the concentration of particles in prey and predators' depuration capacity and rate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Metals and pesticides in commercial bivalve mollusc production areas in the North and South Bays, Santa Catarina (Brazil).

    PubMed

    de Souza, R V; Garbossa, L H P; Campos, C J A; Vianna, L F de N; Vanz, A; Rupp, G S

    2016-04-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals were quantified in mussels Perna perna and Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas in 28 cultivation sites in the North and South Bays, SC (Brazil). Concentrations of pesticides were also quantified in these bivalve, water and sediment samples collected in 14 cultivation sites on four occasions in the period October 2012-October 2013. Pesticides were not detected in any of the mussel, oyster, water or sediment samples. The South Bay was found to be generally more contaminated with As while the North Bay showed higher concentrations of Ni. Concentrations of Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection of the method (0.5mg/kg) in all samples. Mussels accumulated more As and Ni than oysters, while the opposite was observed for Cu. Metal concentrations were below the maximum levels for foodstuffs specified in the Brazilian legislation.

  12. Comparative Study of Various Immune Parameters in Three Bivalve Species during a Natural Bloom of Dinophysis acuminata in Santa Catarina Island, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Danielle Ferraz; Proença, Luis Antonio de Oliveira; Barracco, Margherita Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to verify if Dinophysis acuminata natural blooms affected the immune system of three bivalves: the oyster, Crassostrea gigas, the mussel, Perna perna, and the clam, Anomalocardia brasiliana. Animals were obtained from a renowned mariculture farm in the southern bay of Santa Catarina Island during, and 30 days after (controls), an algal bloom. Various immunological parameters were assessed in the hemolymph of the animals: total and differential hemocyte counts, percentage of apoptotic hemocytes, protein concentration, hemagglutinating titer and phenoloxidase activity. The results showed that the mussel was the most affected species, with several altered immune parameters, whereas the immunological profile of clams and oysters was partially and completely unaffected, respectively. PMID:22069632

  13. [Ecophysiological adaptability of tropical water organisms to salinity changes].

    PubMed

    Chung, K S

    2001-03-01

    Physiological response of tropical organisms to salinity changes was studied for some marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes (Astyanax bimaculatus, Petenia karussii, Cyprinodon dearborni, and Oreochromis mossambicus), marine and freshwater crustaceans (Penaeus brasiliensis, Penaeus schmitti and Macrobrachium carcinus), and marine bivalves (Perna perna, Crassostrea rhizophorae, and Arca zebra) collected from Northeast Venezuela. They were acclimated for four weeks at various salinities, and (1) placed at high salinities to determine mean lethal salinity, (2) tested by increasing salinity 5@1000 per day to define upper lethal salinity tolerance limit, or (3) observed in a saline gradient tank to determine salinity preference. Acclimation level was the most significant factor. This phenomenon is important for tropical aquatic organisms in shallow waters, where they can adapt to high salinity during the dry season and cannot lose their acclimation level at low salinity during abrupt rain. For saline adaptation of tropical organisms, this behavior will contribute to their proliferation and distribution in fluctuating salinity environments.

  14. Challenges associated with pre-border management of biofouling on oil rigs.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Grant A; Forrest, Barrie M

    2010-11-01

    The potential for oil rigs to transport diverse, reef-like communities around the globe makes them high risk vectors for the inadvertent spread of non-indigenous species (NIS). This paper describes two case studies where a suite of pre-border management approaches was applied to semi-submersible drilling rigs. In the first case study, a drilling rig was defouled in-water prior to departure from New Zealand to Australia. Risk mitigation measures were successful in reducing biosecurity risks to the recipient region, but they resulted in the unintentional introduction of the non-indigenous brown mussel (Perna perna) to New Zealand when the rig was defouled in-water by divers. In the second case study, lessons learned from this high-profile incursion resulted in a more structured approach to pre-border management, and this serves as a useful template for future rig transfers.

  15. The Continuous Coagulation-FragmentationEquations with Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurençot, Philippe; Mischler, Stéphane

    Existence of global weak solutions to the continuous coagulation-fragmentation equations with diffusion is investigated when the kinetic coefficients satisfy a detailed balance condition or the coagulation coefficient enjoys a monotonicity condition. Our approach relies on weak and strong compactness methods in L1 in the spirit of the DiPerna-Lions theory for the Boltzmann equation. Under the detailed balance condition the large-time behaviour is also studied.

  16. Toxic responses of bivalves to metal mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, P.; Menon, N.R. )

    1992-02-01

    Although there is a growing body of information on the toxicity of individual heavy metals to economically important on the toxicity of individual heavy metals to economically important species of bivalves, literature on the lethal toxicity of metal mixtures to bivalves under controlled conditions is rather limited. In the present investigation the toxic effects of combinations of copper - mercury and copper - mercury and copper - cadmium at lethal levels of two marine bivalve species, Perna indica and Donax incarnatus, have been delineated.

  17. Linking environmental heavy metal concentrations and salinity gradients with metal accumulation and their effects: A case study in 3 mussel species of Vitória estuary and Espírito Santo bay, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Rodrigues, Paulo Pinheiro; Mubiana, Valentine K; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-08-01

    The present study was conducted to link the heavy metal load in three species of mussels (Perna perna, Mytella falcata and Mytella guyanensis) from the estuaries and bays around Vitória island, south-east of Brazil, with the salinity gradient and the heavy metal levels in the abiotic environment (including water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment). Primarily based on the salinity gradient, a total of 26 sites around Vitória Island were selected for sampling of water, SPM, sediments and organisms. Besides tissue metal levels, the condition index and energy stores (glycogen, lipid and protein) were quantified as an indicator of fitness in response to metal pollution. Dissolved metals in water indicate that Cd and Mn content was higher along Espírito Santo Bay, while Al, Co, Cu, Cr and Fe were elevated in the sites with low salinity such as river mouths, estuarine and sewage canals. Likewise, suspended matter sampled from low salinity sites showed a higher heavy metal load compared to moderate and high salinity sites. Though mussels were sampled from different sites, the contamination for Cd, Cu, Fe and Mn was higher in mussels inhabiting low salinity sites (M. guyanensis and M. falcata) compared to P. perna, a high saline water inhabitant. However, a higher Zn body burden was observed for P. perna compared to Mytella species. Tissue Fe accumulation (but not Mn and Zn) correlated with heavy metal levels in suspended material for all three species, and for M. falcata this correlation also existed for Cd and Cu. Energy store and condition index in all mussels varied depending on the sampling sites and correlated with salinity gradient rather than tissue metal concentration. Overall, metal concentration in mussels did not exceed the safe levels as per the international standards for metals, and would be of no risk for human consumption.

  18. Vesicomyidae (bivalvia): current taxonomy and distribution.

    PubMed

    Krylova, Elena M; Sahling, Heiko

    2010-04-01

    Vesicomyid bivalves are a consistent component of communities of sulphide-rich reducing environments distributed worldwide from 77 degrees N to 70 degrees S at depths from 100 to 9050 m. Up-to-now the taxonomy of the family has been uncertain. In this paper, the current state of vesicomyid taxonomy and distribution at the generic rank are considered. This survey is founded on a database including information both from literature sources and also unpublished data of the authors on all recent species of vesicomyids. We suggest that the Vesicomyidae is not a synonym of Kelliellidae, and is therefore a valid family name. We propose to divide the family Vesicomyidae into two subfamilies: Vesicomyinae and Pliocardiinae. The Vesicomyinae includes one genus, Vesicomya, which comprises small-sized bivalves characterized by non-reduced gut and the absence of subfilamental tissue in gills. Symbiosis with chemoautotrophic bacteria has, so far, not been proved for Vesicomya and the genus is not restricted to sulphide-rich reducing habitats. The subfamily Pliocardiinae currently contains about 15 genera with mostly medium or large body size, characterized by the presence of subfilamental tissue in the gills. The Pliocardiinae are highly specialized for sulphide-rich reducing environments, harbouring chemoautrophic bacteria in their gills. This is the first summary of the generic structure of the family Vesicomyidae that allow us to analyze the distribution of vesicomyids at the generic level. We recognize here five different distribution patterns that are related to the specific environmental demands. The general trends in the distribution patterns of the vesicomyids are an occurrence of the majority of genera in broad geographical ranges and the prevalence of near continental type of distribution.

  19. Vesicomyidae (Bivalvia): Current Taxonomy and Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Krylova, Elena M.; Sahling, Heiko

    2010-01-01

    Vesicomyid bivalves are a consistent component of communities of sulphide-rich reducing environments distributed worldwide from 77° N to 70°S at depths from 100 to 9050 m. Up-to-now the taxonomy of the family has been uncertain. In this paper, the current state of vesicomyid taxonomy and distribution at the generic rank are considered. This survey is founded on a database including information both from literature sources and also unpublished data of the authors on all recent species of vesicomyids. We suggest that the Vesicomyidae is not a synonym of Kelliellidae, and is therefore a valid family name. We propose to divide the family Vesicomyidae into two subfamilies: Vesicomyinae and Pliocardiinae. The Vesicomyinae includes one genus, Vesicomya, which comprises small-sized bivalves characterized by non-reduced gut and the absence of subfilamental tissue in gills. Symbiosis with chemoautotrophic bacteria has, so far, not been proved for Vesicomya and the genus is not restricted to sulphide-rich reducing habitats. The subfamily Pliocardiinae currently contains about 15 genera with mostly medium or large body size, characterized by the presence of subfilamental tissue in the gills. The Pliocardiinae are highly specialized for sulphide-rich reducing environments, harbouring chemoautrophic bacteria in their gills. This is the first summary of the generic structure of the family Vesicomyidae that allow us to analyze the distribution of vesicomyids at the generic level. We recognize here five different distribution patterns that are related to the specific environmental demands. The general trends in the distribution patterns of the vesicomyids are an occurrence of the majority of genera in broad geographical ranges and the prevalence of near continental type of distribution. PMID:20376362

  20. Metal bioaccumulation in consumed marine bivalves in Southeast Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Lino, A S; Galvão, P M A; Longo, R T L; Azevedo-Silva, C E; Dorneles, P R; Torres, J P M; Malm, O

    2016-03-01

    This work aimed to investigate metal bioaccumulation by mussels (Perna perna) and Lion's Scallop (Nodipecten nodosus) farmed in tropical bays, in order to estimate spatial and temporal variation in the exposure to these elements, as well as human health risk. The concentration of each measured element was considered for this evaluation, using maximum residue level (MRL) in foods established by the Brazilian (ANVISA), American (USFDA) and European Communities (EC) legislations. Values for estimated daily ingestion (EDI) were determined for metals intake through mussel and scallop consumption. These estimates were compared with the reference value of (PTDI) proposed by World Health Organization (WHO). Trace elements concentration was measured on ninety mussels P. perna (tissue) and ninety Lion's Scallop N. nodosus (muscle and gonad) reared in four different tropical areas of the Southeast Brazilian coast, between 2009 and 2010. Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Chrome (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) concentrations were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after acid mineralization. Cd and Mn were more efficiently bioaccumulated by scallops than mussels and the opposite was found for Fe, Cu and Ni. Guanabara Bay and Sepetiba Bay were considered the most impacted between ecosystems studied. Higher Cd values in Arraial do Cabo in the other sites studied were associated with upwelling that occurs in the region. Consumption of both species cannot be considered safe, because the Cu and Cr concentrations, in accordance with the limits established by the Brazilian Agency (ANVISA). On the other hand, any EDI value exceeded the corresponding value of the PTDI, proposed by World Health Organization (WHO).

  1. Global existence in L sup 1 for the modified nonlinear Enskog equation in R sup 3

    SciTech Connect

    Polewczak, J. )

    1989-07-01

    A global existence theorem with large initial data in L{sup 1} is given for the modified Enskog equation in R{sup 3}. The method, which is based on the existence of a Liapunov functional (analog of the H-Boltzmann theorem), utilizes a weak compactness argument in L{sup 1} in a similar way to the DiPerna-Lions proof for the Boltzmann equation. The existence theorem is obtained under certain condition on the behavior of the geometric factor Y. The condition on Y amounts to the fact that the L{sup 1} norm of the collision term grows linearly when the local density tends to infinity.

  2. On a Kinetic Equation for Coalescing Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobedo, Miguel; Laurençot, Philippe; Mischler, Stéphane

    Existence of global weak solutions to a spatially inhomogeneous kinetic model for coalescing particles is proved, each particle being identified by its mass, momentum and position. The large time convergence to zero is also shown. The cornestone of our analysis is that, for any nonnegative and convex function, the associated Orlicz norm is a Liapunov functional. Existence and asymptotic behaviour then rely on weak and strong compactness methods in L1 in the spirit of the DiPerna-Lions theory for the Boltzmann equation.

  3. Global existence in L 1 for the modified nonlinear Enskog equation in ℝ3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polewczak, Jacek

    1989-07-01

    A global existence theorem with large initial data in L 1 is given for the modified Enskog equation in ℝ3. The method, which is based on the existence of a Liapunov functional (analog of the H-Boltzmann theorem), utilizes a weak compactness argument in L 1 in a similar way to the DiPerna-Lions proof for the Boltzmann equation. The existence theorem is obtained under certain condition on the behavior of the geometric factor Y. The condition on Y amounts to the fact that the L 1 norm of the collision term grows linearly when the local density tends to infinity.

  4. Evolution of an accretion disc in binary black hole systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Shigeo S.; Takahashi, Sanemichi Z.; Toma, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    We investigate evolution of an accretion disc in binary black hole (BBH) systems and possible electromagnetic counterparts of the gravitational waves from mergers of BBHs. Perna et al. proposed a novel evolutionary scenario of an accretion disc in BBHs in which a disc eventually becomes 'dead', i.e. the magnetorotational instability (MRI) becomes inactive. In their scenario, the dead disc survives until a few seconds before the merger event. We improve the dead disc model and propose another scenario, taking account of effects of the tidal torque from the companion and the critical ionization degree for MRI activation more carefully. We find that the mass of the dead disc is much lower than that in the Perna's scenario. When the binary separation sufficiently becomes small, the mass inflow induced by the tidal torque reactivates MRI, restarting mass accretion on to the black hole. We also find that this disc 'revival' happens more than thousands of years before the merger. The mass accretion induced by the tidal torque increases as the separation decreases, and a relativistic jet could be launched before the merger. The emissions from these jets are too faint compared to gamma-ray bursts, but detectable if the merger events happen within ≲10 Mpc or if the masses of the black holes are as massive as ∼105 M⊙.

  5. Ecological relevance of Sentinels' biomarker responses: a multi-level approach.

    PubMed

    Seabra Pereira, Camilo D; Abessa, Denis M S; Choueri, Rodrigo B; Almagro-Pastor, Victor; Cesar, Augusto; Maranho, Luciane A; Martín-Díaz, María Laura; Torres, Ronaldo J; Gusso-Choueri, Paloma K; Almeida, João E; Cortez, Fernando S; Mozeto, Antonio A; Silbiger, Helcy L N; Sousa, Eduinetty C P M; Del Valls, Tommas Angel; Bainy, Afonso C D

    2014-05-01

    In response to the need for more sensitive and rapid indicators of environmental quality, sublethal effects on the lowest levels of biological organization have been investigated. The ecological relevance of these responses assumes a prevailing role to assure effectiveness as indicator of ecological status. This study aimed to investigate the linkages between biomarker responses of caged bivalves and descriptive parameters of macrobenthic community structure. For this purpose a multi-level environmental assessment of marine and estuarine zones was performed in São Paulo coast, Brazil. Multivariate analysis was applied to identify linkages between biological responses and ecological indices, as well as to characterizing the studied stations. Individuals of the marine mussel Perna perna caged along Santos Bay showed signs of oxidative stress, lysosomal membrane destabilization, histological alterations and reduced embryonic development. The estuarine oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae caged along Santos Port Channel showed alterations on biotransformation enzymes and antioxidant system, DNA damage and lysosomal membrane destabilization. The benthic community analysis showed reduced richness and diversity in the same areas of the Santos bay and estuary where biomarker responses were altered. Our results revealed that xenobiotics are inducing physiological stress, which may lead to changes of the benthic community structure and deterioration of the ecological status over time. Integrating biomarker responses and ecological indexes improved certainty that alterations found at community level could be related to xenobiotic as stressors, which was very useful to improve the discriminatory power of the environmental assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioaccumulation and depuration of Zn and Cd in mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae, Guilding, 1828) transplanted to and from a contaminated tropical coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Rebouças do Amaral, Maria Clara; de Freitas Rebelo, Mauro; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang Christian

    2005-05-01

    In order to study Zn and Cd accumulation and depuration, a set of oysters, Crassostrea rhizophorae, were transplanted to a metal contaminated coastal lagoon and another one was harvested there and transplanted to a non-polluted site. C. rhizophorae oysters and Perna perna mussels native from both sites were collected in order to monitor variability of metal concentration in resident populations. After three months exposure, oysters transplanted to the polluted site accumulated fourfold Zn (307-1319 microgg(-1)) without reaching the concentration level of resident oysters (9770 microgg(-1)). Cadmium concentrations had a slight but significant decrease during the same period (1.25-0.54 microgg(-1)). Oysters transplanted to the non-polluted site, showed threefold Zn depuration (6727-2404 microgg(-1)), while Cd had no significant variation (0.90-1.45 microgg(-1)). Results showed that transplanted oysters do not reach heavy metal concentrations in indigenous populations suggesting transplanted organisms would be better used to evaluate bioavailability instead of environmental concentrations.

  7. Leachate from microplastics impairs larval development in brown mussels.

    PubMed

    Gandara E Silva, Pablo Pena; Nobre, Caio Rodrigues; Resaffe, Pryscila; Pereira, Camilo Dias Seabra; Gusmão, Felipe

    2016-12-01

    Microplastic debris is a pervasive type of contaminant in marine ecosystems, being considered a major threat to marine biota. One of the problems of microplastics is that they can adsorb contaminants in extremely high concentrations. When released from the particle, these contaminants have the potential to cause toxic effects in the biota. So far, reports of toxic effects are mostly linked with the direct exposure of organisms through ingestion of contaminated microplastics. There is little information on the toxicity of leachates from microplastics to marine organisms. In this study, we conducted experiments to evaluate the toxicity of leachates from virgin and beached plastic pellets to embryo development of the brown mussel (Perna perna). We compared the efficiency of two test procedures, and evaluated the toxicity of beached pellets collected in a coastal marine protected area. We observed that mussel embryo is sensitive to leachate from both virgin and beached pellets. However, the toxicity of the leachate from beached pellets was much higher than that of virgin pellets. We suggest contaminants adsorbed onto the surface of beached pellets were responsible for the high toxicity of leachate from beached pellets, while the toxicity of leachate from virgin pellets was mainly due to plastic additives. Our results suggest microplastic debris may be harmful even if ingestion is not the only or main pathway of interaction of marine organisms with contaminated plastic debris.

  8. Interspecies comparison of the mechanical properties and biochemical composition of byssal threads.

    PubMed

    Bouhlel, Zeineb; Genard, Bertrand; Ibrahim, Neilly; Carrington, Emily; Babarro, José M F; Lok, Aynur; Flores, Augusto A V; Pellerin, Christian; Tremblay, Réjean; Marcotte, Isabelle

    2017-03-15

    Several bivalve species produce byssus threads to provide attachment to substrates, with mechanical properties highly variable among species. Here, we examined the distal section of byssal threads produced by a range of bivalve species (Mytilus edulis, Mytilus trossulus, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus californianus, Pinna nobilis, Perna perna, Xenostrobus securis, Brachidontes solisianus and Isognomon bicolor) collected from different nearshore environments. Morphological and mechanical properties were measured, and biochemical analyses were performed. Multivariate redundancy analyses on mechanical properties revealed that byssal threads of M. californianus, M. galloprovincialis and P. nobilis have very distinct mechanical behaviours compared with the remaining species. Extensibility, strength and force were the main variables separating these species groups, which were highest for M. californianus and lowest for P. nobilis Furthermore, the analysis of the amino acid composition revealed that I. bicolor and P. nobilis threads are significantly different from the other species, suggesting a different underlying structural strategy. Determination of metal contents showed that the individual concentration of inorganic elements varies, but that the dominant elements are conserved between species. Altogether, this bivalve species comparison suggests some molecular bases for the biomechanical characteristics of byssal fibres that may reflect phylogenetic limitations. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Mussels as ecosystem engineers: Their contribution to species richness in a rocky littoral community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthagaray, Ana Inés; Carranza, Alvar

    Mussels are important ecosystem engineers in marine benthic systems because they aggregate into beds, thus modifying the nature and complexity of the substrate. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of mussels ( Brachidontes rodriguezii, Mytilus edulis platensis, and Perna perna) to the benthic species richness of intertidal and shallow subtidal communities at Cerro Verde (Uruguay). We compared the richness of macro-benthic species between mussel-engineered patches and patches without mussels but dominated by algae or barnacles at a landscape scale (all samples), between tidal levels, and between sites distributed along a wave exposition gradient. Overall, we found a net increase in species richness in samples with mussels (35 species), in contrast to samples where mussels were naturally absent or scarce (27 species). The positive trend of the effect did not depend upon tidal level or wave exposition, but its magnitude varied between sites. Within sites, a significant positive effect was detected only at the protected site. Within the mussel-engineered patches, the richness of all macro-faunal groups (total, sessile and mobile) was positively correlated with mussel abundance. This evidence indicates that the mussel beds studied here were important in maintaining species richness at the landscape-level, and highlights that beds of shelled bivalves should not be neglected as conservation targets in marine benthic environments.

  10. Antifouling biocides: Impairment of bivalve immune system by chlorothalonil.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Amanda da Silveira; Rola, Regina Coimbra; Rovani, Monique Tomazele; Costa, Simone Rutz da; Sandrini, Juliana Zomer

    2017-08-01

    Marine ecosystems are subjected to a variety of contaminants. Antifouling paints, for example, have been extensively used to protect ship surfaces from marine biofouling, but their toxicity has generated great concern. Thus, we evaluated the effect of the biocide chlorothalonil on the immune system of Perna perna mussels. The mussels were exposed to 0 (control), 0.1μg/L and 10μg/L of chlorothalonil for up to 96h. After 24h and 96h of exposure, the following immune-related parameters were analyzed in the hemolymph of mussels: total hemocyte count, cell adhesion, phagocytic activity, level of reactive oxygen species, cell viability and comet assay. After 24h and 96h of chlorothalonil exposure, cellular adhesion increased and the hemocyte viability reduced. Moreover, an increase in phagocytic activity was also observed after 96h of exposure to cholorothalonil. The exposure to 10μg/L of chlorothalonil for 96h reduced the air survival capacity of mussels. Total hemocyte count, ROS generation and DNA damage were not affected by the contaminant exposure. Our results indicate that chlorothalonil affected important immune responses of the bivalves, demonstrating that this biocide has effects on non-target species. This modulation of immune system reduced the health status of mussels, which could compromise their ability to survive in the environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. A critical examination of the possible application of zinc stable isotope ratios in bivalve mollusks and suspended particulate matter to trace zinc pollution in a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Daniel; Machado, Wilson; Weiss, Dominik; Mulholland, Daniel S; Boaventura, Geraldo R; Viers, Jerome; Garnier, Jeremie; Dantas, Elton L; Babinski, Marly

    2017-07-01

    The application of zinc (Zn) isotopes in bivalve tissues to identify zinc sources in estuaries was critically assessed. We determined the zinc isotope composition of mollusks (Crassostrea brasiliana and Perna perna) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in a tropical estuary (Sepetiba Bay, Brazil) historically impacted by metallurgical activities. The zinc isotope systematics of the SPM was in line with mixing of zinc derived from fluvial material and from metallurgical activities. In contrast, source mixing alone cannot account for the isotope ratios observed in the bivalves, which are significantly lighter in the contaminated metallurgical zone (δ(66)ZnJMC = +0.49 ± 0.06‰, 2σ, n = 3) compared to sampling locations outside (δ(66)ZnJMC = +0.83 ± 0.10‰, 2σ, n = 22). This observation suggests that additional factors such as speciation, bioavailability and bioaccumulation pathways (via solution or particulate matter) influence the zinc isotope composition of bivalves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Polonium-210 in marine mussels (bivalve molluscs) inhabiting the southern coast of India.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Feroz; Wesley, S Godwin; Rajan, M P

    2014-12-01

    The present study focused on the determination of the alpha-emitter, (210)Po, in two species of marine mussels (bivalve molluscs) commonly available in the southern coastal region of India. The brown mussel, Perna indica was collected from the west coast and the green mussel, Perna viridis from the east coast. The concentration of (210)Po was related to the allometry (length of shell, wet/dry weight of shell/soft tissue) of the mussels and significant results were found. The study period focused on three seasons namely, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon for a 1-year period (2010-2011). The results revealed higher activity levels in smaller-sized mussels compared to larger ones. Marked variation in (210)Po activity concentration was noted in the whole-body soft tissues between seasons and sampling site (p < 0.05). The dose rate assessment for mussels was performed using the ERICA Assessment tool. The chronic exposure to mussels due to (210)Po was found to be lesser than the global benchmark dose rate of 10 μGy h(-1). The effective ingestion dose to adults who intake mussels was estimated to be in the range 5.1-34.9 μSv y(-1). The measurement contributes to the furthering of knowledge of (210)Po, since no data exist in this region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antifouling activity of twelve demosponges from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, S M; Rogers, R; Rubem, A C; Da Gama, B A P; Muricy, G; Pereira, R C

    2013-08-01

    Benthic marine organisms are constantly exposed to fouling, which is harmful to most host species. Thus, the production of secondary metabolites containing antifouling properties is an important ecological advantage for sessile organisms and may also provide leading compounds for the development of antifouling paints. High antifouling potential of sponges has been demonstrated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and in the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. Brazilian sponges remain understudied concerning antifouling activities. Only two scientific articles reported this activity in sponges of Brazil. The objective of this study was to test crude extracts of twelve species of sponges from Brazil against the attachment of the mussel Perna perna through laboratorial assays, and highlight promising species for future studies. The species Petromica citrina, Amphimedon viridis, Desmapsamma anchorata, Chondrosia sp., Polymastia janeirensis, Tedania ignis, Aplysina fulva, Mycale angulosa, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Dysidea etheria, Tethya rubra, and Tethya maza were frozen and freeze-dried before extraction with acetone or dichloromethane. The crude extract of four species significantly inhibited the attachment of byssus: Tethya rubra (p = 0.0009), Tethya maza (p = 0.0039), Petromica citrina (p = 0.0277), and Hymeniacidon heliophila (p = 0.00003). These species, specially, should be the target of future studies to detail the substances involved in the ability antifouling well as to define its amplitude of action.

  14. Control of modiolid mussels in cooling water systems by continuous chlorination.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, S; Venugopalan, V P; van der Velde, G; Jenner, H A

    2006-08-01

    . metcalfei are relatively less tolerant to chlorine than Perna viridis, Perna perna, and Brachidontes striatulus, which also cause fouling problems in tropical coastal waters.

  15. Comparative chlorine and temperature tolerance of the oyster Crassostrea madrasensis: implications for cooling system fouling.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, S; Venugopalan, V P; van der Velde, G; Jenner, H A

    2003-04-01

    Crassostrea madrasensis is an important fouling oyster in tropical industrial cooling water systems. C. madrasensis individuals attach to surfaces by cementing one of their two valves to the substratum. Therefore, oyster fouling creates more problems than mussel fouling in the cooling conduits of power stations, because unlike the latter, the shell of the former remains attached to the substratum even after the death of the animal. However, there are no published reports on the tolerance of this species to chlorination and heat treatment. The mortality pattern and physiological behaviour (oxygen consumption and filtration rate) of three size groups (13 mm, 44 mm and 64 mm mean shell length) of C. madrasensis were studied at different residual chlorine concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3 to 5 mg 1-1) and temperatures (30 degrees C to 45 degrees C). The effect of shell size (= age) on C. madrasensis mortality in the presence of chlorine and taking into account temperature was significant, with the largest size group oysters showing highest resistance. At 1 mg l-1 residual chlorine, the 13 mm and 64 mm size group oysters, took 504 h (21 d) and 744 h (31 d), respectively to reach 100% mortality. At 39 degrees C, the 13 mm size group oysters took 218 min to reach 100% mortality, whereas the 64 mm size group oysters took 325 min. The oxygen consumption and filtration rate of C. madrasensis showed progressive reduction with increasing residual chlorine concentrations. However, the filtration rate and oxygen consumption responses of C. madrasensis were not significantly different between 30 degrees C (control) and 37.5 degrees C. There was a sharp decrease in the filtration rate and oxygen consumption at 38.5 degrees C. A comparison of the present mortality data with previous reports on other bivalves suggests that the chlorine tolerance of C. madrasensis lies in between that of Perna viridis and Perna perna, while its temperature tolerance is significantly higher

  16. Environmental risk assessment of triclosan and ibuprofen in marine sediments using individual and sub-individual endpoints.

    PubMed

    Pusceddu, F H; Choueri, R B; Pereira, C D S; Cortez, F S; Santos, D R A; Moreno, B B; Santos, A R; Rogero, J R; Cesar, A

    2017-09-26

    The guidelines for the Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) recommend the use of standard ecotoxicity assays and the assessment of endpoints at the individual level to evaluate potential effects of PPCP on biota. However, effects at the sub-individual level can also affect the ecological fitness of marine organisms chronically exposed to PPCP. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the environmental risk of two PPCP in marine sediments: triclosan (TCS) and ibuprofen (IBU), using sub-individual and developmental endpoints. The environmental levels of TCS and IBU were quantified in marine sediments from the vicinities of the Santos submarine sewage outfall (Santos Bay, São Paulo, Brazil) at 15.14 and 49.0 ng g(-1), respectively. A battery (n = 3) of chronic bioassays (embryo-larval development) with a sea urchin (Lytechinus variegatus) and a bivalve (Perna perna) were performed using two exposure conditions: sediment-water interface and elutriates. Moreover, physiological stress through the Neutral Red Retention Time Assay (NRRT) was assessed in the estuarine bivalve Mytella charruana exposed to TCS and IBU spiked sediments. These compounds affected the development of L. variegatus and P. perna (75 ng g(-1) for TCS and 15 ng g(-1) for IBU), and caused a significant decrease in M. charruana lysosomal membrane stability at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.08 ng g(-1) for TCS and 0.15 ng g(-1) for IBU). Chemical and ecotoxicological data were integrated and the risk quotient estimated for TCS and IBU were higher than 1.0, indicating a high environmental risk of these compounds in sediments. These are the first data of sediment risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products of Latin America. In addition, the results suggest that the ERA based only on individual-level and standard toxicity tests may overlook other biological effects that can affect the health of marine

  17. Carbonate-associated sulfate in lucinid (Bivalvia) shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y.; Bao, H.; Anderson, L.; Engel, A. S.

    2007-12-01

    Symbiosis is a fundamental driver of evolution, with examples ranging from mitochondria in eukaryotic cells to barnacle-whale commensalism. The association between sulfur-oxidizing (thiotrophic) bacteria and the lucinid bivalve clade is particularly intriguing because the inferred antiquity of the relationship (>400 m.y.) seems at odds with the relatively loose ecologic linkage of living members. Because only half of genus-level lucinid taxa are extant, and the δ13C of shell carbonate exhibits no systematic difference between symbiotic and non- symbiotic bivalves, a new morphologically-independent proxy to determine whether fossil taxa possessed thiotrophic endosymbionts is needed. The δ34S of carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) in bivalve shells may hold promise because biogenic carbonate incorporates sulfate into its crystal structure during biomineralization. Incorporation of bacterially derived SO42- (with a more negative δ34S value due to its reduced sulfur origin) into the lucinid-shell crystal lattice would, therefore, impart a distinctly lower δ34SCAS value than that from seawater SO42-, and would be distinguishable from CAS values of co- occurring heterotrophic bivalves. We measured CAS contents, δ34SCAS and δ18OCAS values of 15 sets of lucinid and co-occurring infaunal and epifaunal heterotrophic bivalve shells collected from modern and Cenozoic shallow marine sites. The modern bivalve shells had variable CAS content, from 100 to 2600 ppm. Epifauna often had the highest concentrations relative to the other ecological groups. The δ34SCAS and δ18OCAS clustered at values corresponding to modern seawater sulfate, but with significant scatter. There was no systematic isotope- compositional difference among all bivalves in the same habitat, or among the same lucinid, infaunal, or epifaunal groups across different sites. The fossil bivalve shells tended to preserve lower CAS concentrations and the isotope compositions further deviated from seawater values. These data suggest that 1) pore-water sulfate in shallow sediments is highly heterogeneous in its concentration and isotope composition, probably due to active microbial sulfate reduction, bioturbation, and water-pumping by bivalves and other infaunal filter feeders; 2) CAS is derived from ambient porewater or pumped-in seawater for infauna or epifauna, as well as for lucinids; and 3) CAS concentration and isotope compositions are vulnerable to later diagenetic processes.

  18. Cytogenetics of the razor clam Solen marginatus (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Solenidae).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Tajes, J; González-Tizón, A; Martínez-Lage, A; Méndez, J

    2003-01-01

    The razor clam Solen marginatus has a diploid chromosome number of 38. The karyotype consists of one metacentric/submetacentric, three submetacentric/metacentric, five submetacentric, one submetacentric/subtelocentric, one subtelocentric/submetacentric, six subtelocentric and two telocentric chromosome pairs. Staining with chromomycin A3 revealed bright positive bands subcentromerically in the long arms of one medium-sized subtelocentric pair, while DAPI staining showed uniform fluorescence in all chromosomes of the complement. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using an 18S-5.8S-28S rDNA probe locates these loci at the subcentromeric region of one subtelocentric pair and at the subtelomeric region of another subtelocentric pair.

  19. The behaviour of giant clams (Bivalvia: Cardiidae: Tridacninae).

    PubMed

    Soo, Pamela; Todd, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Giant clams, the largest living bivalves, live in close association with coral reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific. These iconic invertebrates perform numerous important ecological roles as well as serve as flagship species-drawing attention to the ongoing destruction of coral reefs and their associated biodiversity. To date, no review of giant clams has focussed on their behaviour, yet this component of their autecology is critical to their life history and hence conservation. Almost 100 articles published between 1865 and 2014 include behavioural observations, and these have been collated and synthesised into five sections: spawning, locomotion, feeding, anti-predation, and stress responses. Even though the exact cues for spawning in the wild have yet to be elucidated, giant clams appear to display diel and lunar periodicities in reproduction, and for some species, peak breeding seasons have been established. Perhaps surprisingly, giant clams have considerable mobility, ranging from swimming and gliding as larvae to crawling in juveniles and adults. Chemotaxis and geotaxis have been established, but giant clams are not phototactic. At least one species exhibits clumping behaviour, which may enhance physical stabilisation, facilitate reproduction, or provide protection from predators. Giant clams undergo several shifts in their mode of acquiring nutrition; starting with a lecithotrophic and planktotrophic diet as larvae, switching to pedal feeding after metamorphosis followed by the transition to a dual mode of filter feeding and phototrophy once symbiosis with zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium spp.) is established. Because of their shell weight and/or byssal attachment, adult giant clams are unable to escape rapidly from threats using locomotion. Instead, they exhibit a suite of visually mediated anti-predation behaviours that include sudden contraction of the mantle, valve adduction, and squirting of water. Knowledge on the behaviour of giant clams will benefit conservation and restocking efforts and help fine-tune mariculture techniques. Understanding the repertoire of giant clam behaviours will also facilitate the prediction of threshold levels for sustainable exploitation as well as recovery rates of depleted clam populations.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of Lamprotula coreana (Unionidae, Unionoida, Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Hee; Kim, Sang Ki; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Lamprotula coreana, which is an endangered and endemic species in South Korea, was determined. Its length is 15,819 bp, which mainly consists of 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes. In addition, there were 26 noncoding regions (NC) found throughout the mitogenome of L. coreana, ranging in size from 3 bp to 287 bp.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of Ostrea denselamellosa (Bivalvia, Ostreidae).

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng; Li, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the flat oyster, Ostrea denselamellosa, was determined using Long-PCR and genome walking techniques in this study. The total length of the mt genome sequence of O. denselamellosa was 16,227 bp, which is the smallest reported Ostreidae mt genome to date. It contained 12 protein-coding genes (lacking of ATP8), 23 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes. A bias towards a higher representation of nucleotides A and T (60.7%) was detected in the mt genome of O. denselamellosa. The rrnL was split into two fragments (3' half, 711 bp; 5' half, 509 bp), which seems to be the unique characteristics of Ostreidae mt genomes.

  2. Methanotrophic marine molluscan (Bivalvia, Mytilidae) symbiosis: mussels fueled by gas

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, J.J.; Fisher, C.R.; Brooks, J.M.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Bidigare, R.; Anderson, A.E.

    1986-09-19

    An undescribed mussel (family Mytilidae), which lives in the vicinity of hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico, consumes methane (the principal component of natural gas) at a high rate. The methane consumption is limited to the gills of these animals and is apparently due to the abundant intracellular bacteria found there. This demonstrates a methane-based symbiosis between an animal and intracellular bacteria. Methane consumption is dependent on the availability of oxygen and is inhibited by acetylene. The consumption of methane by these mussels is associated with a dramatic increase in oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. As the methane consumption of the bivalve can exceed its carbide dioxide production, the symbiosis may be able to entirely satisfy its carbon needs from methane uptake. The very light (delta/sup 13/C = -51 to -57 per mil) stable carbon isotope ratios found in this animal support methane (delta/sup 13/C = -45 per mil at this site) as the primary carbon source for both the mussels and their symbionts. 19 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  3. Sublethal foot-predation on Donacidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, Carmen; Tirado, Cristina; Manjón-Cabeza, Maria Eugenia

    2001-08-01

    The incidence of foot nipping was studied on the Donax spp. of the littoral of Málaga (Southern Spain, 2875 specimens collected from February 1990 to January 1991) and of Ré island (French Atlantic coast, 262 specimens of Donax vittatus (Da Costa, 1778) collected in May 1996). In Málaga, Donax trunculus L., 1758 was the species most regularly nipped (18% of individuals), with peaks in summer (25% in August and 48% in September) and winter (34% in December). In Ré island, 27% of the specimens showed a nipped foot. Logistic regression shows that in D. trunculus length is the variable that most influences the probability of foot nipping, followed by weight and chlorophyll a. However, the difference in length between damaged and undamaged individuals was not significant (U-Mann-Whitney test). The size class frequency and the values of Ivlev's index show that the small size classes were avoided, while for the other size classes predation remained balanced throughout the year. Therefore, the avoidance of the small size classes makes length the most influential variable. The logistic regression indicated a coefficient B=-0.03 for weight. This implies a slightly negative influence on the probability of foot nipping. However, without the data of September, there is a positive correlation ( r=0.76, p<0.01) between the monthly percentages of predation and the flesh dry weight of a standard individual (25 mm long). The peak in September could be due to the recruitment peak of bivalves, which may have attracted more predators to the area, and/or to the recruitment of predators such as crabs to the swash zone. Logistic regression and test of comparison of percentages indicate that there was not any influence of the sex of an animal on the probability of foot nipping. Only in February was a significantly higher percentage ( p<0.05) of females nipped (44.44%) than the total of females in the sample (20.20%). The biomass (as flesh dry weight) of D. trunculus lost by foot nipping amounts to more than 20% in most of the size classes. There was an increase from the small sizes to the largest ones, in which it reaches 37%, with a positive correlation ( r=0.84; p<0.005) between size class and loss of biomass. Possible predators responsible for the foot nipping are crabs. Crab species usually found together with the donacids were Portumnus latipes (Pennant, 1777) Liocarcinus vernalis (Risso, 1816) and Atelecyclus undecimdentatus (Herbst, 1783). In aquarium experiments, they demonstrated an ability to nip the foot of clams. Portumnus latipes was the most active foot nipper, but left alive all the damaged clams. Therefore, we conclude that crabs are the most likely foot-nipping predators in the field.

  4. Mitochondrial genome of the Peruvian scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Bivalvia: Pectinidae).

    PubMed

    Marín, Alan; Alfaro, Rubén; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Arai, Katsutoshi

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the Peruvian scallop Argopecten purpuratus was determined. The length of the mitochondrial coding region is 15,608 bp. A typical bivalve mitochondrial composition was detected with 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 21 transfer RNA genes, with the absence of the atp8 gene. Fifty percent of the protein-coding genes use typical ATG start codon, whereas five genes utilize ATA as their start codon. Only one gene was found to utilize TTG as its start codon. The A. purpuratus mitogenome shows a significant similarity to that of A. irradians irradians, in length as well as in gene composition.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of Crassostrea gasar (Bivalvia: Ostreidae).

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, Nathalia P; Solé-Cava, Antonio M; Melo, Cláudio M R; de Almeida, Luiz G; Lazoski, Cristiano; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Crassostrea gasar was sequenced using the Ion Proton technology in combination with 454 Roche GS-FLX plataform data. We assembled a 17,686 bp complete circular mitochondrial genome, containing 13 protein-coding genes, a major non-coding region (MNR), two ribosomal RNA genes and 24 transfer RNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated amino acid sequences from mitochondria showed monophyletic clades formed with high bootstrap values. This is the first complete mitochondrial sequence of an oyster from South America. Mitogenome sequence was deposited in GenBank under the accession number KR856227.

  6. Chromosome study of Anodonta anatina (L., 1758) (Bivalvia, Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Woznicki, Pawel; Jankun, Malgorzata

    2004-01-01

    The chromosome complement of the freshwater mussel Anodonta anatina was studied using Giemsa, Ag-NOR and chromomycin A3 staining. The diploid chromosome number of this species is 2n=38 and the arm number (NF) = 76. The nucleolar organizer region (NOR) was found on one chromosome pair and it was connected to GC rich chromatin as visualized by CMA3 staining.

  7. Army Logistician. Volume 39, Issue 6, November-December 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Salmons 14 Modular Medical Logistics Support at the JRTC—Colonel Mitchell E. Brew and Captain Shawn R. Campbell 16 The Diverse Missions of the...deGree in buSineSS ManaGeMent froM troy State univerSity. NOVEMBER–DECEMBER 200710 by colonel GuStave f. Perna anD Staff SerGeant joShua SalMonS ...arMed forceS. Staff SerGeant joShua SalMonS iS a journaliSM inStructor at the defenSe inforMation School at fort Meade, Maryland. he haS a

  8. Trace metals in water, sediment and bivalves of a tropical estuary, west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Parvez Al-Usmani, S M; Jagtap, T G; Patil, D N

    2015-10-15

    Trace metal pollution was studied in water, sediment and three selected bivalves in Mandovi and Chapora estuaries of Goa. The trace metal in water and sediment of Mandovi was higher than in Chapora. The concentration in the tissues was in the range of 1205.2-2506.7 ppm for Paphia malabarica, 1906.2-2802.6 ppm for Perna viridis and 778.7-1607.5 ppm for Saccostrea cucullata in Mandovi estuary. Tha values for Chapora were 199.4-625.8 ppm for P. malabarica, 812.6-1220.2 for P. viridis and 392.5-418.6 ppm for S. cucullata. The anthropogenic input of metal in Mandovi estuary appears to be mainly responsible for the high accumulation of trace metals. These bivalves have potential to serve as indicator for metal contamination in seafood of Goa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A few remarks on ordinary differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Desjardins, B.

    1996-12-31

    We present in this note existence and uniqueness results for solutions of ordinary differential equations and linear transport equations with discontinuous coefficients in a bounded open subset {Omega} of R{sup N} or in the whole space R{sup N} (N {ge} 1). R.J. Di Perna and P.L. Lions studied the case of vector fields b with coefficients in Sobolev spaces and bounded divergence. We want to show that similar results hold for more general b: we assume in the bounded autonomous case that b belongs to W{sup 1,1}({Omega}), b.n = 0 on {partial_derivative}{Omega}, and that there exists T{sub o} > O such that exp(T{sub o}{vert_bar}div b{vert_bar}) {element_of} L{sup 1}({Omega}). Furthermore, we establish results on transport equations with initial values in L{sup p} spaces (p > 1). 9 refs.

  10. Accumulation patterns of lipophilic organic contaminants in surface sediments and in economic important mussel and fish species from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dwiyitno; Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Andarwulan, Nuri; Irianto, Hari Eko; Lioe, Hanifah Nuryani; Ariyani, Farida; Kleinertz, Sonja; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2016-09-30

    Non-target screening analyses were conducted in order to identify a wide range of organic contaminants in sediment and animal tissue samples from Jakarta Bay. High concentrations of di-iso-propylnaphthalenes (DIPNs), linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in all samples, whereas phenylmethoxynaphthalene (PMN), DDT and DDT metabolites (DDX) were detected at lower concentrations. In order to evaluate the uptake and accumulation by economic important mussel (Perna viridis) and fish species, contaminant patterns of DIPNs, LABs and PAHs in different compartments were compared. Different patterns of these contaminant groups were found in sediment and animal tissue samples, suggesting compound-specific accumulation and metabolism processes. Significantly higher concentrations of these three contaminant groups in mussel tissue as compared to fish tissue from Jakarta Bay were found. Because P. viridis is an important aquaculture species in Asia, this result is relevant for food safety.

  11. Heavy metals in bivalve mollusks collected from Da-Peng Bay Lagoon in south-southwestern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shue, Meei-Fang; Chen, Wen-Der; Su, Chia-Chi; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, concentrations of several heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, and Cd) were measured in Katelysia hiantina, Anomalocardia squamosa, Perna viridis, Anadara antiquata, Paphia undulata, and Sanguinolaria diphos bivalve mollusks from Da-Peng Bay Lagoon near the south-southwestern coast of Taiwan. The metal pollution index (MPI) values were highest and lowest in winter and autumn, respectively. The MPI value in the viscera of P. viridis was higher than in muscles. In all four seasons, Zn concentrations in viscera and muscles of P. viridis were higher than for other metals. The capacities of A. squamosa to accumulate the concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Cr and of A. antiquata to accumulate concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd were significant. Analytical results suggested that A. squamosa and A. antiquata may be used as bioindicators for monitoring Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cd heavy-metal pollution in Da-Peng Bay Lagoon throughout the year.

  12. Environmentally benign antifouling activity and toxic properties of bioactive metabolites from mangrove Excoecaria agallocha L.

    PubMed

    Ramasubburayan, Ramasamy; Prakash, Santhiyagu; Venkatesan, Srinivasan; Palavesam, Arunachalam; Immanuel, Grasian

    2017-10-04

    This study was aimed to investigate the antifouling (AF) potentials and toxic properties of methanol extract from leaves of mangrove Excoecaria agallocha. Antimicrofouling activity results inferred that this extract strongly inhibited fouling bacterial and microalgal growth. This extract had also inhibited the settlement of brown mussel Perna indica and larvae of barnacle Balanus amphitrite. Further, EC50 < LC50 and therapeutic ratio > 1 together propagated non-toxic nature of the extract. Mollusk foot adherence assay result showed complete inhibition of foot spreading and loss of attachment of common rocky fouler Patella vulgata to the substrata. Field assay results affirmed that this extract effectively deterred settlement of biofoulers. Purification and GC-MS analysis of bioassay-guided active spot evidenced presence of three major compounds (> 85%) responsible for the promising AF activity. The identified lead compounds subjected to an estimation (BIOWIN™) program developed by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) predicts that they are biodegradable in nature. Graphical abstract.

  13. Power analysis for biomarkers in mussels for use in coastal pollution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fang, J K H; Wu, R S S; Yip, C K M; Shin, P K S

    2009-08-01

    Data from literature on neutral red retention time (NRRT) in lysosomes, micronucleus (MN) frequency and condition index (CI) in mussel Mytilus, especially Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis, were re-analyzed to ascertain their statistical power in detecting a minimum 20% spatial/temporal change in field studies. Results showed that CI largely displayed higher statistical power (>90%) than lysosomal NRRT and MN frequency (<50%), suggesting that data from the latter two biomarkers may lead to erroneous conclusions if sample size is inadequate. Samples of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis were also analyzed in Hong Kong. To achieve statistically valid power, the optimal sample sizes for monitoring lysosomal NRRT, MN frequency, CI and gonosomatic index (GSI) were determined as >or=34, >or=90, >or=16 and >or=29, respectively. Natural variability of lysosomal NRRT and MN frequency was significantly greater than CI and/or GSI in mussels, rejecting the general belief in the greater variability of higher-tiered hierarchical biomarkers.

  14. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Early Arithmetic, Reading, and Learning Indicators (EARLI)☆

    PubMed Central

    Norwalk, Kate E.; DiPerna, James Clyde; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing interest in early intervention, there are few measures available to monitor the progress of early academic skills in preschoolers. The Early Arithmetic, Reading, and Learning Indicators (EARLI; DiPerna, Morgan, & Lei, 2007) were developed as brief assessments of critical early literacy and numeracy skills. The purpose of the current study was to examine the factor structure of the EARLI probes via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in a sample of Head Start preschoolers (N = 289). A two-factor model with correlated error terms and a bifactor model provided comparable fit to the data, although there were some structural problems with the latter model. The utility of the bifactor model for explaining the structure of early academic skills as well as the utility of the EARLI probes as measures of literacy and numeracy skills in preschool are discussed. PMID:24495496

  15. Uniqueness and Long Time Asymptotic for the Keller-Segel Equation: The Parabolic-Elliptic Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egaña Fernández, Giani; Mischler, Stéphane

    2016-06-01

    The present paper deals with the parabolic-elliptic Keller-Segel equation in the plane in the general framework of weak (or "free energy") solutions associated to initial datum with finite mass M, finite second moment and finite entropy. The aim of the paper is threefold: (1) We prove the uniqueness of the "free energy" solution on the maximal interval of existence [0, T*) with T* = ∞ in the case when M ≦ 8π and T* < ∞ in the case when M > 8π. The proof uses a DiPerna-Lions renormalizing argument which makes it possible to get the "optimal regularity" as well as an estimate of the difference of two possible solutions in the critical L 4/3 Lebesgue norm similarly to the 2 d vorticity Navier-Stokes equation.

  16. Does cannibalism of larvae by adults affect settlement and connectivity of mussel populations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porri, Francesca; Jordaan, Tembisa; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2008-09-01

    Intertidal population dynamics are driven by a complex series of processes, including larval supply and the possibility of larval predation by benthic animals such as filter-feeders. We hypothesised that cannibalism by adults could play a major role in the population connectivity of mussel populations by removing larvae as they attempt to settle in the adult habitat. Specifically, we tested hypotheses that consumption of mussel larvae by adults removes a significant proportion of potential settlers and is influenced by both settlement intensity and tidal state (flooding or ebbing). Predation of mussel larvae by adult mussels was investigated on incoming and ebbing tides during four spring tides by analysing the gut contents of adult Perna perna and Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from the low intertidal mussel zone between October 2005 and January 2006. Consumption rates were then compared with estimates of successful settler densities on natural beds. The results showed that mortality of competent mussel larvae through adult ingestion removes up to 77% a of potential settlers. Rates of larval consumption were highest during months of intense settlement, suggesting that mussels feed opportunistically, filtering a relatively fixed volume of water and removing particles, including larvae, in proportion to their densities in the water. Rates of larviphagy were also higher during receding than incoming tides. We suggest that this is due to changes in larval density or, more probably, in adult filtration efficiency that are related to the state of the tide. Despite significant effects of both tidal state and settlement intensity on rates of larval ingestion, neither had a significant effect on the proportion of potential settlers removed. During settlement more than half of all potential settlers are lost through cannibalism, with potentially serious consequences for population maintenance. The results highlight the paradoxical nature of the evolution of settlement

  17. Mevalonosomes: specific vacuoles containing the mevalonate pathway in Plocamium brasiliense cortical cells (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Paradas, Wladimir Costa; Crespo, Thalita Mendes; Salgado, Leonardo Tavares; de Andrade, Leonardo Rodrigues; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Hellio, Claire; Paranhos, Ricardo Rogers; Hill, Lilian Jorge; de Souza, Geysa Marinho; Kelecom, Alphonse Germaine Albert Charles; Da Gama, Bernardo Antônio Perez; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Amado-Filho, Gilberto Menezes

    2015-04-01

    This paper has identified, for the first time in a member of the Rhodophyta, a vacuolar organelle containing enzymes that are involved in the mevalonate pathway-an important step in red algal isoprenoid biosynthesis. These organelles were named mevalonosomes (Mev) and were found in the cortical cells (CC) of Plocamium brasiliense, a marine macroalgae that synthesizes several halogenated monoterpenes. P. brasiliense specimens were submitted to a cytochemical analysis of the activity of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGS). Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we confirmed the presence of HMGS activity within the Mev. Because HMGS is necessary for the biosynthesis of halogenated monoterpenes, we isolated a hexanic fraction (HF) rich in halogenated monoterpenes from P. brasiliense that contained a pentachlorinated monoterpene as a major metabolite. Because terpenes are often related to chemical defense, the antifouling (AF) activity of pentachlorinated monoterpene was tested. We found that the settlement of the mussel Perna perna was reduced by HF treatment (2.25 times less than control; 40% and 90% of fouled surface, respectively; P = 0.001; F9,9 = 1.13). The HF (at 10 μg · mL(-1) ) also inhibited three species of fouling microalgae (Chlorarachnion reptans, Cylindrotheca cloisterium, and Exanthemachrysis gayraliae), while at a higher concentration (50 μg · mL(-1) ), it inhibited the bacteria Halomonas marina, Polaribacter irgensii, Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii, Shewanella putrefaciens, and Vibrio aestuarianus. The AF activity of P. brasiliense halogenated monoterpenes and the localization of HMGS activity inside Mev suggest that this cellular structure found in CC may play a role in thallus protection against biofouling. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  18. Chronic contamination assessment integrating biomarkers' responses in transplanted mussels--a seasonal monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pereira, C D S; Martín-Díaz, M L; Catharino, M G M; Cesar, A; Choueri, R B; Taniguchi, S; Abessa, D M S; Bícego, M C; Vasconcellos, M B A; Bainy, A C D; Sousa, E C P M; Delvalls, T A

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to provide the first biomonitoring integrating biomarkers and bioaccumulation data in São Paulo coast, Brazil and, for this purpose, a battery of biomarkers of defense mechanisms was analyzed and linked to contaminants' body burden in a weigh-of-evidence approach. The brown mussel Perna perna was selected to be transplanted from a farming area (Caraguatatuba) to four possibly polluted sites: Engenho D'Água, DTCS (Dutos e Terminais do Centro-Oeste de São Paulo) oil terminal (Sao Sebastiao zone), Palmas Island, and Itaipu (It; Santos Bay zone). After 3 months of exposure in each season, mussels were recollected and the cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)- and CYP3A-like activities, glutathione-S-transferase and antioxidants enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were analyzed in gills. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes, and nonessential metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, and Hg) in whole tissue were also analyzed and data were linked to biomarkers' responses by multivariate analysis (principal component analysis-factor analysis). A representation of estimated factor scores was performed to confirm the factor descriptions and to characterize the studied stations. Biomarkers exhibited most significant alterations all year long in mussels transplanted to It, located at Santos Bay zone, where bioaccumulation of organic and inorganic compounds was detected. This integrated approach using transplanted mussels showed satisfactory results, pointing out differences between sites, seasons, and critical areas, which could be related to land-based contaminants' sources. The influence of natural factors and other contaminants (e.g., pharmaceuticals) on biomarkers' responses are also discussed. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effects of Endolithic Parasitism on Invasive and Indigenous Mussels in a Variable Physical Environment

    PubMed Central

    McQuaid, Christopher David; Gektidis, Marcos

    2009-01-01

    Biotic stress may operate in concert with physical environmental conditions to limit or facilitate invasion processes while altering competitive interactions between invaders and native species. Here, we examine how endolithic parasitism of an invasive and an indigenous mussel species acts in synergy with abiotic conditions of the habitat. Our results show that the invasive Mytilus galloprovincialis is more infested than the native Perna perna and this difference is probably due to the greater thickness of the protective outer-layer of the shell of the indigenous species. Higher abrasion due to waves on the open coast could account for dissimilarities in degree of infestation between bays and the more wave-exposed open coast. Also micro-scale variations of light affected the level of endolithic parasitism, which was more intense at non-shaded sites. The higher levels of endolithic parasitism in Mytilus mirrored greater mortality rates attributed to parasitism in this species. Condition index, attachment strength and shell strength of both species were negatively affected by the parasites suggesting an energy trade-off between the need to repair the damaged shell and the other physiological parameters. We suggest that, because it has a lower attachment strength and a thinner shell, the invasiveness of M. galloprovincialis will be limited at sun and wave exposed locations where endolithic activity, shell scouring and risk of dislodgement are high. These results underline the crucial role of physical environment in regulating biotic stress, and how these physical-biological interactions may explain site-to-site variability of competitive balances between invasive and indigenous species. PMID:19668334

  20. Detection of a parasitic amoeba (Order Dactylopodida) in the female gonads of oysters in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sühnel, Simone; Ivachuk, Celene da S; Schaefer, Ana L C; Pontinha, Vitor A; Martins, Maurício L; Figueras, Antonio; Meyer, Gary R; Jones, Simon R M; Stewart, Johnson C; Gurney-Smith, Helen J; Magalhães, Aimê R M; Bower, Susan M

    2014-07-03

    The impacts of oocyte parasites on the reproductive success of molluscs are largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the presence of gonad parasites in 6 species of marine bivalve molluscs native to southern Brazil. Cultured bivalves included the mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar (sometimes called C. brasiliana), the brown mussel Perna perna, the lion's paw scallop Nodipecten nodosus and the wing pearl oyster Pteria hirundo. Another species of mangrove oyster, C. rhizophorae, and the carib pointed venus clam Anomalocardia brasiliana (syn. A. flexuosa) were collected from the wild. Molluscs were collected in winter 2009 and summer 2010 for histopathological and molecular evaluation. An unknown ovarian parasite (UOP) was observed in histopathological sections of female gonads of C. gasar and C. rhizophorae. The UOP possessed features suggestive of amoebae, including an irregular outer membrane, frothy cytoplasm, a nucleus with a prominent central nucleolus and a closely associated basophilic parasome. PCR analysis was negative for Marteilioides chungmuensis, Perkinsus spp. and Paramoeba perurans. However, real-time PCR successfully amplified DNA from oyster gonads when using universal Paramoeba spp. primers. Also, conventional PCR amplified DNA using primers specific for Perkinsela amoebae-like organisms (syn. Perkinsiella), which are considered as endosymbionts of Parameoba spp., previously thought to be the parasome. Our results suggest that this UOP is a species of amoeba belonging to 1 of the 2 families of the order Dactylopodida, possibly related to Paramoeba spp. This study represents the first report of this type of organism in oysters. We found that C. gasar and C. rhizophorae were the most susceptible molluscs to these UOPs.

  1. The biological importance of glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxin backup systems in bivalves during peroxide exposure.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Rafael; Mello, Danielle Ferraz; Uliano-Silva, Marcela; Delapedra, Gabriel; Arl, Miriam; Dafre, Alcir Luiz

    2014-10-01

    Organic peroxide elimination in eukaryotes essentially depends on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and peroxiredoxin (Prx) enzymes, which are supported by their respective electron donors, glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin (Trx). This system depends on the ancillary enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) to maintain GSH and Trx in their reduced state. This study discusses the biological importance of GR and TrxR in supporting GPx and Prx during cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) exposure in brown mussel Perna perna. ZnCl2 or 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenze (CDNB) was used to decrease GR and TrxR activities in gills, as already reported with mammals and bivalves. ZnCl2 exposure lowered GR activity (28%), impaired the in vivo CHP decomposition and decreased the survival rates under CHP exposure. CDNB decreased GR (54%) and TrxR (73%) activities and induced glutathione depletion (99%), promoting diminished peroxide elimination and survival rates at a greater extent than ZnCl2. CDNB also increased the susceptibility of hemocytes to CHP toxicity. Despite being toxic and causing mortality at longer exposures, short (2 h) exposure to CHP promoted an up regulation of GSH (50 and 100 μM CHP) and protein-thiol (100 μM CHP) levels, which was blocked by ZnCl2 or CDNB pre-exposure. Results highlight the biological importance of GSH, GR and TrxR in supporting GPx and Prx activities, contributing to organic peroxides elimination and mussel survival under oxidative challenges. To our knowledge, this is the first work that demonstrates, albeit indirectly, the biological importance of GPx/GR/GSH and Prx/TrxR/Trx systems on in vivo organic peroxide elimination in bivalves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of metal accumulation in mussels at different local and global scales.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Graham; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2003-02-01

    Cadmium and zinc uptake from the dissolved phase, assimilation efficiency (AE) from the dietary phase, and body burden as well as clearance rate were measured in green mussels, Perna viridis, and blue mussels Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis and Mytilus trossulus. Perna viridis was collected from four sites differentially enriched with trace metals in Hong Kong and blue mussels were collected from different climatic zones, i.e., subarctic and temperate, to allow comparisons with the more tropical green mussels. Despite similar shell length, the dry weight of mussels varied significantly between sites and species and this had a large effect on Cd and Zn accumulation, clearance rate, and metal body burden. All data were, therefore, weight adjusted to allow comparison without this confounding factor. Trace-metal body concentrations were significantly different between sites, and P. viridis collected from Tsing Yi, Hong Kong, had the highest levels of all measured metals when compared with other Hong Kong sites. There was, however, no relationship between the degree of metal enrichment and the Cd and Zn uptake (both from dissolved and particulate sources) and clearance rates. Furthermore, Cd and Zn uptake (dissolved and particulate) and clearance rate varied little between species or climatic zones of collection. Thus, over the range of body trace-metal concentrations measured and between mussel species over large geographical distances and climatic zones, the uptake rates, AEs, and clearance rates are similar when measured under the same laboratory conditions after body-size correction. When other factors such as salinity are also corrected, biomonitoring data from different areas and even utilizing different mussel species may be directly comparable. This study therefore provides important evidence in support of Mussel Watch Programs.

  3. Patchiness and co-existence of indigenous and invasive mussels at small spatial scales: the interaction of facilitation and competition.

    PubMed

    Erlandsson, Johan; McQuaid, Christopher D; Sköld, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Ecological theory predicts that two species with similar requirements will fail to show long-term co-existence in situations where shared resources are limiting, especially at spatial scales that are small relative to the size of the organisms. Two species of intertidal mussels, the indigenous Perna perna and the invasive Mytilus galloprovincialis, form mixed beds on the south coast of South Africa in a situation that has been stable for several generations of these species, even though these populations are often limited by the availability of space. We examined the spatial structure of these species where they co-exist at small spatial scales in the absence of apparent environmental heterogeneity at two sites, testing: whether conspecific aggregation of mussels can occur (using spatial Monte-Carlo tests); the degree of patchiness (using Korcak B patchiness exponent), and whether there was a relationship between percent cover and patchiness. We found that under certain circumstances there is non-random conspecific aggregation, but that in other circumstances there may be random distribution (i.e. the two species are mixed), so that spatial patterns are context-dependent. The relative cover of the species differed between sites, and within each site, the species with higher cover showed low Korcak B values (indicating low patchiness, i.e. the existence of fewer, larger patches), while the less abundant species showed the reverse, i.e. high patchiness. This relationship did not hold for either species within sites. We conclude that co-existence between these mussels is possible, even at small spatial scales because each species is an ecological engineer and, while they have been shown to compete for space, this is preceded by initial facilitation. We suggest that a patchy pattern of co-existence is possible because of a balance between direct (competitive) and indirect (facilitative) interactions.

  4. Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mitochondrial DNA in Donax trunculus (Bivalvia: Donacidae) and the problem of its sporadic detection in Bivalvia.

    PubMed

    Theologidis, Ioannis; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Gaspar, Miguel B; Zouros, Eleftherios

    2008-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA is transmitted maternally in metazoan species. This rule does not hold in several species of bivalves that have two mtDNA types, one that is transmitted maternally and the other paternally. This system of mitochondrial DNA transmission is known as doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI). Here we present evidence of DUI in the clam Donax trunculus making Donacidae the sixth bivalve family in which the phenomenon has been found. In addition, we present the taxonomic affiliation of all species in which DUI is currently known to occur and construct a phylogeny of the maternal and paternal genomes of these species. We use this information to address the question of a single or multiple origins of DUI and to discuss whether failed attempts to demonstrate the presence of DUI in several bivalve species might be due to problems of detection or to genuine absence of the phenomenon.

  5. Recruit/algal interaction prevents recovery of overexploited mussel beds: Indirect evidence that post-settlement mortality structures mussel populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandsson, Johan; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Stanczak, Sara

    2011-03-01

    The mechanisms maintaining community structure following an ecosystem shift are poorly understood and we propose that they must inherently be biological. Over-exploitation can provide a "natural experiment" with man as a predator driving a change in community structure, possibly an ecosystem shift. We examined a possible mechanism that maintains algal beds as an alternative state on the east coast of South Africa where the mussel Perna perna has been overexploited. Even on unexploited shores, about 50% of mussel larvae settle onto algae, but it is unclear whether they later recruit into adult beds. On such shores we used two indirect field approaches to understand the fate of recruits, testing whether inhibition of mussel recruitment by macroalgae could constitute a biological mechanism preventing reversion from the algal to the pre-disturbance mussel-dominated state. First, we examined possible ontogenetic migration of recruits from algae to adult mussels, testing the prediction that the ratio large:small recruits in adult beds is greater where algae are liberally interspersed with mussels. Second, we examined whether, like adults, recruits show spatial structure that is related to the distribution of topographic depressions, testing the hypothesis that large and small recruits show different co-variation with depressions, microhabitats where algae commonly occur. We found no evidence that recruits on algae actively move to nearby mussel beds as neither the ratio large:small recruits nor the abundances of small or large recruits showed any relationship with algal cover/variability. Small and large recruits showed different co-variation with topographic depressions on spatially structured transects. Like adults, large recruits commonly exhibited negative relationships with depressions. Thus, large recruits neither occur on algae nor migrate from algae to the primary substratum or onto adult beds. Consequently our results (a) highlight the importance of post

  6. Life history and propagation of the endangered dromedary pearlymussel (Dromus dromas) (Bivalvia:Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, J.W.; Neves, R.J.; Ahlstedt, S.A.; Mair, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The reproduction, demography, and propagation of the endangered dromedary pearlymussel (Dromus dromas) (Lea, 1834) were studied in the Clinch and Powell rivers, Tennessee. Viable populations of the dromedary pearlymussel now occur only in the Clinch and Powell rivers; the species has been extirpated from the remaining portions of its range in the Cumberland and Tennessee river drainages. Females are long-term winter brooders, and they are gravid from October to June. Glochidia are contained in conglutinates that are red to white and resemble freshwater leeches or flatworms. Conglutinates are 20 to 40 mm long and are released through the excurrent aperture. Estimates of fecundity based on 7 gravid females collected from the Clinch River were 55,110 to 253,050 glochidia/mussel. The ages of 66 valves of D. dromas were determined by thin-sectioning and ranged from 3 to 25 y. Annual growth averaged 5 mm/y until age 10 and decreased to ???1.2 mm/ y thereafter. Nineteen fish species were tested for suitability as hosts for glochidia. Ten were confirmed as hosts through induced infestations of glochidia: black sculpin (Cottus baileyi), greenside darter (Etheostoma blennioides), fantail darter (Etheostoma flabellare), snubnose darter (Etheostoma simoterum), tangerine darter (Percina aurantiaca), blotchside logperch (Percina burtoni), logperch (Percina caprodes), channel darter (Percina copelandi), gilt darter (Percina evides), and Roanoke darter (Percina roanoka). Juveniles produced from these hosts were cultured in dishes held in nonrecirculating aquaculture systems containing fine sediment (<105 ??m) and were fed the green alga Nannochloropsis oculata every 2 d. Survival of 2810 newly metamorphosed juveniles was 836 (29.7%) after 1 to 2 wk.

  7. Life history and propagation of the endangered fanshell pearlymussel, Cyprogenia stegaria Rafinesque (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, J.W.; Neves, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Aspects of the reproduction, age, growth, fish hosts, and culture of juveniles were determined for the endangered fanshell pearlymussel, Cyprogenia stegaria Rafinesque, 1820, in the Clinch River, Tennessee. Glochidia of C. stegaria are contained in red, worm-like conglutinates that resemble oligochaetes. Conglutinates are 20 to 80 mm long and are released through the excurrent aperture. Estimated fecundity was 22,357 to 63,459 glochidia/mussel. Eighty-four valves of C. stegaria were thin-sectioned for aging; ages ranged from 6 to 26 y. Of 16 fish species tested, 9 hosts were identified through induced infestations of glochidia: mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), banded sculpin (Cottus carolinae), greenside darter (Etheostoma blennioides), snubnose darter (Etheostoma simoterurn), banded darter (Etheostoma zonale), tangerine darter (Percina aurantiaca), blotchside logperch (Percina burtoni), logperch (Percina caprodes), and Roanoke darter (Percina roanoka). Newly metamorphosed juveniles were cultured in recirculating and nonrecirculating aquaculture systems within dishes containing sediments of 300 to 500 ??m diameter (sand) or <105 ??m diameter (silt), and fed either the green algae Neochloris oleoabundans or Scenedesrnus quadricauda daily. Growth and survival of juvenile mussels were highest in the nonrecirculating aquaculture system, with a mean survival of 72% after 2 wk and 38% after 4 wk.

  8. Direct evidence for maternal inheritance of bacterial symbionts in small deep-sea clams (Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae).

    PubMed

    Szafranski, Kamil M; Gaudron, Sylvie M; Duperron, Sébastien

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial symbiont transmission is a key step in the renewal of the symbiotic interaction at each host generation, and different modes of transmission can be distinguished. Vesicomyidae are chemosynthetic bivalves from reducing habitats that rely on symbiosis with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, in which two studies suggesting vertical transmission of symbionts have been published, both limited by the imaging techniques used. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that bacterial symbionts of Isorropodon bigoti, a gonochoristic Vesicomyidae from the Guiness cold seep site, occur intracellularly within female gametes at all stages of gametogenesis from germ cells to mature oocytes and in early postlarval stage. Symbionts are completely absent from the male gonad and gametes. This study confirms the transovarial transmission of symbionts in Vesicomyidae and extends it to the smaller species for which no data were previously available.

  9. Mitochondrial genome of the cockscomb pearl mussel Cristaria plicata (Bivalvia, Unionoida, Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Hee; Choi, Eun Hwa; Kim, Sang Ki; Ryu, Shi Hyun; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2012-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the cockscomb pearl mussel Cristaria plicata, which is an endangered species in South Korea, was sequenced. The circle genome (15,708 bp in size) consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes. There were 26 noncoding regions (NCs) found throughout the mitogenome of C. plicata, ranging in size from 2 to 327 bp, and the two largest NC regions, NC286 and NC326, were found between ND5 and tRNA(Gln) (286 bp) and between tRNA(Glu) and ND2 (326 bp), respectively. The 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes of a female individual of C. plicata collected from Korea (15,708 bp) were compared to those of the Chinese individual (15,712 bp) published before. The result showed that ND3 is the most conserved with 100% nucleotide similarity, and each of the other protein-coding genes has ca. 99%, respectively. The two largest NCs among 26 NCs have totally 98% nucleotide similarity between Korean and Chinese ones.

  10. The Complete Maternally and Paternally Inherited Mitochondrial Genomes of a Freshwater Mussel Potamilus alatus (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Dan; Xu, Pao; Ma, Xue Y.; Jin, Wu; Yuan, Xin H.; Gu, Ruo B.

    2017-01-01

    Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mitochondrial DNA, found only in some bivalve families and characterized by the existence of gender-associated mtDNA lineages that are inherited through males (M-type) or females (F-type), is one of the very few exceptions to the general rule of strict maternal mtDNA inheritance in animals. M-type sequences are often undetected and hence still underrepresented in the GenBank, which hinders the progress of the understanding of the DUI phenomenon. We have sequenced and analyzed the complete M and F mitogenomes of a freshwater mussel, Potamilus alatus. The M-type was 493 bp longer (M = 16 560, F = 16 067 bp). Gene contents, order and the distribution of genes between L and H strands were typical for unionid mussels. Candidates for the two ORFan genes (forf and morf) were found in respective mitogenomes. Both mitogenomes had a very similar A+T bias: F = 61% and M = 62.2%. The M mitogenome-specific cox2 extension (144 bp) is much shorter than in other sequenced unionid mitogenomes (531–576 bp), which might be characteristic for the Potamilus genus. The overall topology of the phylogenetic tree is in very good agreement with the currently accepted phylogenetic relationships within the Unionidae: both studied sequences were placed within the Ambleminae subfamily clusters in the corresponding M and F clades. PMID:28068380

  11. Factorial microarray analysis of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha: Dreissenidae, Bivalvia) adhesion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Faisal, Mohamed

    2010-05-28

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been well known for its expertise in attaching to substances under the water. Studies in past decades on this underwater adhesion focused on the adhesive protein isolated from the byssogenesis apparatus of the zebra mussel. However, the mechanism of the initiation, maintenance, and determination of the attachment process remains largely unknown. In this study, we used a zebra mussel cDNA microarray previously developed in our lab and a factorial analysis to identify the genes that were involved in response to the changes of four factors: temperature (Factor A), current velocity (Factor B), dissolved oxygen (Factor C), and byssogenesis status (Factor D). Twenty probes in the microarray were found to be modified by one of the factors. The transcription products of four selected genes, DPFP-BG20_A01, EGP-BG97/192_B06, EGP-BG13_G05, and NH-BG17_C09 were unique to the zebra mussel foot based on the results of quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression profiles of these four genes under the attachment and non-attachment were also confirmed by qRT-PCR and the result is accordant to that from microarray assay. The in situ hybridization with the RNA probes of two identified genes DPFP-BG20_A01 and EGP-BG97/192_B06 indicated that both of them were expressed by a type of exocrine gland cell located in the middle part of the zebra mussel foot. The results of this study suggested that the changes of D. polymorpha byssogenesis status and the environmental factors can dramatically affect the expression profiles of the genes unique to the foot. It turns out that the factorial design and analysis of the microarray experiment is a reliable method to identify the influence of multiple factors on the expression profiles of the probesets in the microarray; therein it provides a powerful tool to reveal the mechanism of zebra mussel underwater attachment.

  12. Cytogenetic characterization of the invasive mussel species Xenostrobus securis Lmk. (Bivalvia: Mytilidae).

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Concepción; Morán, Paloma; Pasantes, Juan J

    2011-09-01

    The chromosomes of the invasive black-pigmy mussel (Xenostrobus securis (Lmk. 1819)) were analyzed by means of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) / propidium iodide (PI) and chromomycin A3 (CMA) / DAPI fluorescence staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization using major rDNA, 5S rDNA, core histone genes, linker histone genes, and telomeric sequences as probes. The diploid chromosome number in this species is 2n = 30. The karyotype is composed of seven metacentric, one meta/submetacentric, and seven submetacentric chromosome pairs. Telomeric sequences appear at both ends of every single chromosome. Major rDNA clusters appear near the centromeres on chromosome pairs 1 and 3 and are associated with bright CMA fluorescence and dull DAPI fluorescence. This species shows five 5S rDNA clusters close to the centromeres on four chromosome pairs (2, 5, 6, and 8). Three of the four core histone gene clusters map to centromeric positions on chromosome pairs 7, 10, and 13. The fourth core histone gene cluster occupies a terminal position on chromosome pair 8, also bearing a 5S rDNA cluster. The two linker histone gene clusters are close to the centromeres on chromosome pairs 12 and 14. Therefore, the use of these probes allows the unequivocal identification of 11 of the 15 chromosome pairs that compose the karyotype of X. securis.

  13. Factorial microarray analysis of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha: Dreissenidae, Bivalvia) adhesion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been well known for its expertise in attaching to substances under the water. Studies in past decades on this underwater adhesion focused on the adhesive protein isolated from the byssogenesis apparatus of the zebra mussel. However, the mechanism of the initiation, maintenance, and determination of the attachment process remains largely unknown. Results In this study, we used a zebra mussel cDNA microarray previously developed in our lab and a factorial analysis to identify the genes that were involved in response to the changes of four factors: temperature (Factor A), current velocity (Factor B), dissolved oxygen (Factor C), and byssogenesis status (Factor D). Twenty probes in the microarray were found to be modified by one of the factors. The transcription products of four selected genes, DPFP-BG20_A01, EGP-BG97/192_B06, EGP-BG13_G05, and NH-BG17_C09 were unique to the zebra mussel foot based on the results of quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression profiles of these four genes under the attachment and non-attachment were also confirmed by qRT-PCR and the result is accordant to that from microarray assay. The in situ hybridization with the RNA probes of two identified genes DPFP-BG20_A01 and EGP-BG97/192_B06 indicated that both of them were expressed by a type of exocrine gland cell located in the middle part of the zebra mussel foot. Conclusions The results of this study suggested that the changes of D. polymorpha byssogenesis status and the environmental factors can dramatically affect the expression profiles of the genes unique to the foot. It turns out that the factorial design and analysis of the microarray experiment is a reliable method to identify the influence of multiple factors on the expression profiles of the probesets in the microarray; therein it provides a powerful tool to reveal the mechanism of zebra mussel underwater attachment. PMID:20509938

  14. Troponin-like regulation in muscle thin filaments of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Bivalvia: Mytiloida).

    PubMed

    Vyatchin, Ilya G; Shevchenko, Ulyana V; Lazarev, Stanislav S; Matusovsky, Oleg S; Shelud'ko, Nikolay S

    2015-10-01

    Muscles of bivalve molluscs have double calcium regulation--myosin-linked and actin-linked. While the mechanism of myosin-linked regulation is sufficiently studied, there is still no consensus on the mechanism of actin-linked regulation. Earlier we showed a high degree of Ca2+-sensitivity of thin filaments from the adductor muscle of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Mytiloida). In order to elucidate the nature of this regulation, we isolated the fraction of minor proteins from the mussel thin filaments, which confers Ca2+-sensitivity to reconstituted actomyosin-tropomyosin. Proteins of this fraction, ABP-19, ABP-20, and ABP-28, were chromatographically purified and identified. According to the results of mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis, as well as by their functional properties, these mussel actin-binding proteins appeared to correspond to the troponin components from the skeletal muscles of vertebrates (TnC, TnI and TnT). The reconstituted mussel troponin complex confers to actomyosin-tropomyosin more than 80% Ca2+-sensitivity. The in vivo molar ratio of actin/tropomyosin/troponin was calculated to be 7:1:0.5, i.e., the content of troponin in mussel thin filaments is two times lower than in thin filaments of skeletal muscles of vertebrates. These data demonstrate that troponin-like regulation found in the catch muscle of the mussel C. grayanus is present at least in two suborders of bivalves: Pectinoida and Mytiloida. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Complete maternal mitochondrial genome of freshwater mussel Aculamprotula tientsinensis (Bivalvia: Unionidae: Unioninae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Rui-Wen; An, Chang-Ting; Wu, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Chun-Hua; Ouyang, Shan

    2016-11-01

    Aculamprotula tientsinensis is a rare and endemic species of freshwater mussel in China. This study firstly determined the complete F-type mitochondrial genome of A. tientsinensis. The circle genome (15 695 bp) comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, 1 FORF gene. Except for cob, nad5 and nad6, the remaining protein-coding genes initiate with the orthodox start codon (ATG, ATA, ATT). There are 26 non-coding regions in the mitogenome of A. tientsinensis, ranging in size from 1 to 229 bp. The base composition of the genome is A (37.83%), G (12.69%), T (25.43%) and C (24.06%). Gene order is identical to other female species of Unionidae but for Gonideinae. The phylogenetic analyses of Unionidae indicate that A. tientsinensis is closely related to A. tortuosa and A. coreana, which belong to Unioninae. The complete mitogenome can deepen comparative and evolutionary genomics of Unionidae and be more comprehensive to parse the genetic relationship between the species and the ownership beyond species.

  16. Host specificity and metamorphosis of the glochidium of the freshwater mussel Unio tumidiformis (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Reis, Joaquim; Collares-Pereira, Maria João; Araujo, Rafael

    2014-02-01

    The glochidium larvae of freshwater mussels of the family Unionidae need to find suitable hosts to attach themselves and metamorphose into free-living juveniles. The specificity of the host-parasite relationship was investigated for the Iberian Unio tumidiformis Castro, 1885 by means of experimental infections and also by analyzing naturally infected fish. The process of encapsulation of glochidia was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Unio tumidiformis has proven to be an unusual host-specific unionid mussel, apparently parasitizing only fish of the genus Squalius Bonaparte, 1837. Successful encapsulation or complete metamorphosis was observed in five fish taxa: S. aradensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues et Collares-Pereira), S. caroliterti (Doadrio), S. pyrenaicus (Günther), S. torgalensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues et Collares-Pereira) and S. alburnoides (Steindachner) complex (only for the nuclear hybrids with at least one copy of the S. pyrenaicus genome). Complete metamorphose was achieved in 6 to 14 days at mean temperatures ranging from 21.8 to 26.1 degrees C. The current study provides support for cell migration being the main force of cyst formation and shows the influence of potential host's genome in response to the infection process to determine the success of the metamorphosis.

  17. Using DNA barcoding to differentiate invasive Dreissena species (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    PubMed Central

    Marescaux, Jonathan; Van Doninck, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) are considered as the most competitive invaders in freshwaters of Europe and North America. Although shell characteristics exist to differentiate both species, phenotypic plasticity in the genus Dreissena does not always allow a clear identification. Therefore, the need to find an accurate identification method is essential. DNA barcoding has been proven to be an adequate procedure to discriminate species. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I mitochondrial gene (COI) is considered as the standard barcode for animals. We tested the use of this gene as an efficient DNA barcode and found that it allow rapid and accurate identification of adult Dreissena individuals. PMID:24453560

  18. The complete maternal mitochondrial genome of rare Chinese freshwater mussel Lepidodesma languilati (Bivalvia: Unionidae: Unioninae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chun-Hua; Ouyang, Shan; Wu, Xiao-Ping; Ding, Mei-Huang

    2016-11-01

    Lepidodesma languilati is considered threatened because of the influence of human activities in China. The complete F-type mitochondrial genome of L. languilati was determined in this study (GenBank accession no. KT381195). It is a 15 754-bp-long circular molecule that consists of 37 genes that are typically found in other invertebrates. The overall base composition of the entire sequence is as follows: A (39.1%), T (25.7%), C (23.4%), and G (11.8%). Except for cox1 (TTG), cob (ATT), nad1 (ATT), nad6 (ATA), nad4 (TTG), and atp8 (GTG), 7 of the 13 protein-coding genes initiate with orthodox ATG start codon. All the 13 protein-coding genes have complete termination codon TAA or TAG. Phylogenetic tree indicates that L. languilati belongs to Unioninae. The newly sequenced complete mitogenome can provide basic data for comparative studies on mitochondrial genomes of Unionidae. It could also lay the important theoretical foundation for phylogenetics, population genetics, germplasm resources protection, sustainable, and reasonable utilization.

  19. Byssogenesis in the juvenile pink heelsplitter mussel, Potamilus alatus (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Wen, Hai B; Hua, Dan; Ma, Xue Y; Jin, Wu; Zhuang, Yan B; Gu, Ruo B; Yuan, Xin H; Du, Xin W; Xu, Pao

    2015-11-01

    The North American pink heelsplitter (Potamilus alatus) differs from most freshwater mussels in China by the ability to secrete an ephemeral byssus during its juvenile stage. In the present study, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate this ephemeral byssal structure, and amino acid composition was analyzed and compared with that of other species. The results revealed that the byssus consists of a long byssal thread and a few adhesive plaques which are randomly set up along the thread and assembled by petioles. There is a thin but distinctive cuticle with a continuous homogeneous matrix surrounding the byssal thread. Structural variation occurred when the byssal thread was differentially stretched. Four-stranded helical primary fasciculi, which form a stable rope-like structure, become evident after removal of the cuticle. The primary fasciculi consist of bundles of hundreds of parallel secondary fasciculi, each measuring about 5 μm in diameter. All evidence indicates that the byssus of the pink heelsplitter has a significantly different macrostructure and microstructure than the permanent byssus of the marine mussel Mytilus. Byssogenesis ceases when juveniles exceed 30 mm in length, although it varies greatly even among juveniles of similar size. Byssus formation is influenced by substrate type. The unique characteristics of the byssus have important advantages for survival, transition, and aggregation during the early life history. This study not only provides first insight into the structure of the ephemeral byssus and its relationship to freshwater mussel development and growth, but also suggests possibilities for the synthesis of novel biopolymer materials particularly useful in freshwater ecosystems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sinanodonta Woodiana (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae): Isolation and Characterization of the First Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Popa, Oana Paula; Popa, Luis Ovidiu; Krapal, Ana-Maria; Murariu, Dumitru; Iorgu, Elena Iulia; Costache, Marieta

    2011-01-01

    Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834) is a large Unionid species with a real invasion success. It colonized Europe, Central America, the Indonesian Islands and recently North America. The species life cycle involves a larval parasitic stage on freshwater fish species which contributes to the spread of the mussel. In this paper we describe, for the first time, eight polymorphic microsatellite loci for the species Sinanodonta woodiana. The genetic screening of individuals confirmed that all loci were highly polymorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 7 to 14 and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.650 to 0.950. These loci should prove useful to study the species population genetics which could help to infer important aspects of the invasion process. PMID:21954356

  1. The Complete Maternally and Paternally Inherited Mitochondrial Genomes of a Freshwater Mussel Potamilus alatus (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Wen, Hai B; Cao, Zhe M; Hua, Dan; Xu, Pao; Ma, Xue Y; Jin, Wu; Yuan, Xin H; Gu, Ruo B

    2017-01-01

    Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mitochondrial DNA, found only in some bivalve families and characterized by the existence of gender-associated mtDNA lineages that are inherited through males (M-type) or females (F-type), is one of the very few exceptions to the general rule of strict maternal mtDNA inheritance in animals. M-type sequences are often undetected and hence still underrepresented in the GenBank, which hinders the progress of the understanding of the DUI phenomenon. We have sequenced and analyzed the complete M and F mitogenomes of a freshwater mussel, Potamilus alatus. The M-type was 493 bp longer (M = 16 560, F = 16 067 bp). Gene contents, order and the distribution of genes between L and H strands were typical for unionid mussels. Candidates for the two ORFan genes (forf and morf) were found in respective mitogenomes. Both mitogenomes had a very similar A+T bias: F = 61% and M = 62.2%. The M mitogenome-specific cox2 extension (144 bp) is much shorter than in other sequenced unionid mitogenomes (531-576 bp), which might be characteristic for the Potamilus genus. The overall topology of the phylogenetic tree is in very good agreement with the currently accepted phylogenetic relationships within the Unionidae: both studied sequences were placed within the Ambleminae subfamily clusters in the corresponding M and F clades.

  2. Complete maternal mitochondrial genome of freshwater mussel Anodonta lucida (Bivalvia: Unionidae: Anodontinae).

    PubMed

    Song, Xue-Lin; Ouyang, Shan; Zhou, Chun-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomy of genus Anodonta is rather ambiguous, as it has great variation on the shell shape. Anodonta lucida is an endemic species of freshwater mussel in China, characterized by shining epidermis. The complete maternal mitochondrial genome of freshwater mussel A. lucida was first determined (GenBank accession no. KF667529). The genome is 16,285 bp long with an AT content of 64.02%. All the 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes are found, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes. The genome also contains 24 unassigned regions, ranking from 1 to 830 bp in length, the largest of which is the putative control region (CR). The base composition of the genome is A (36.32%), G (13.01%), T (27.70%) and C (22.98%). Gene order is identical to other species of Unionidae except Gonideinae.

  3. Intraspecific phylogeography of Lasmigona subviridis (Bivalvia: Unionidae): Conservation implications of range discontinuity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, T.L.; Eackles, M.S.; Gjetvaj, B.; Hoeh, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    A nucleotide sequence analysis of the first internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1) between the 5.8S and 18S ribosomal DNA genes (640 bp) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (576 bp) was conducted for the freshwater bivalve Lasmigona subviridis and three congeners to determine the utility of these regions in identifying phylogeographic and phylogenetic structure. Sequence analysis of the ITS-1 region indicated a zone of discontinuity in the genetic population structure between a group of L. subviridis populations inhabiting the Susquehanna and Potomac Rivers and more southern populations. Moreover, haplotype patterns resulting from variation in the COI region suggested an absence of gene exchange between tributaries within two different river drainages, as well as between adjacent rivers systems. The authors recommend that the northern and southern populations, which are reproductively isolated and constitute evolutionarily significant lineages, be managed as separate conservation units. Results from the COI region suggest that, in some cases, unionid relocations should be avoided between tributaries of the same drainage because these populations may have been reproductively isolated for thousands of generations. Therefore, unionid bivalves distributed among discontinuous habitats (e.g. Atlantic slope drainages) potentially should be considered evolutionarily distinct. The DNA sequence divergences observed in the nuclear and mtDNA regions among the Lasmigona species were congruent, although the level of divergence in the COI region was up to three times greater. The genus Lasmigona, as represented by the four species surveyed in this study, may not be monophyletic.

  4. Lifespan, growth rate, and body size across latitude in marine Bivalvia, with implications for Phanerozoic evolution

    PubMed Central

    Ivany, Linda C.; Judd, Emily J.; Cummings, Patrick W.; Bearden, Claire E.; Kim, Woo-Jun; Artruc, Emily G.; Driscoll, Jeremy R.

    2016-01-01

    Mean body size in marine animals has increased more than 100-fold since the Cambrian, a discovery that brings to attention the key life-history parameters of lifespan and growth rate that ultimately determine size. Variation in these parameters is not well understood on the planet today, much less in deep time. Here, we present a new global database of maximum reported lifespan and shell growth coupled with body size data for 1 148 populations of marine bivalves and show that (i) lifespan increases, and growth rate decreases, with latitude, both across the group as a whole and within well-sampled species, (ii) growth rate, and hence metabolic rate, correlates inversely with lifespan, and (iii) opposing trends in lifespan and growth combined with high variance obviate any demonstrable pattern in body size with latitude. Our observations suggest that the proposed increase in metabolic activity and demonstrated increase in body size of organisms over the Phanerozoic should be accompanied by a concomitant shift towards faster growth and/or shorter lifespan in marine bivalves. This prediction, testable from the fossil record, may help to explain one of the more fundamental patterns in the evolutionary and ecological history of animal life on this planet. PMID:27488653

  5. Growth, mortality, and reproduction of Tagelus plebeius (Bivalvia: Solecurtidae) in Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Camila Fernanda; Corte, Guilherme Nascimento; Yokoyama, Leonardo Querobim; Abrahão, Jolnnye Rodrigues; Amaral, Antônia Cecília Zacagnini

    2015-03-01

    Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786) is a stout razor clam that is economically exploited in several countries, including several local fisheries along the Brazilian coast. Despite its wide distribution and economic importance, there are few studies that have examined the population biology of this species. This study aimed to improve the current knowledge about the biology of T. plebeius by investigating its growth and mortality on a subtropical sandy beach in Southeast Brazil over a 1-year period. In addition, the reproduction of T. plebeius was analyzed through qualitative and quantitative histological analyses during the last 7 months of the study. The parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function were estimated to be L ∞ = 74.14 mm, K = 0.52 year-1, C = 0.47, and WP = 0.94. The instantaneous mortality rate ( Z) was 2.16 year-1, and the life span was 2.58 years. We confirmed variations ( H = 651.35; P < 0.05) in the shell length over the months of the study, and the recruitment was higher—but still low—in summer. Four cohorts were observed in the distribution of shell length frequencies. The sex ratio of the population was 1:1 during the study period, and a synchronism in gonadal development and spawning was found between males and females. The high mortality ( Z) and low recruitment rates can be interpreted as reflecting that the population of T. plebeius is under a low restoration process and could be an indication that this species has an endangered status in the study area.

  6. Morphological differences in Macoma balthica (Bivalvia, Tellinacea) from a Dutch and three southeastern United States estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamermans, Pauline; Van der Veer, Henk W.; Witte, Johannes IJ.; Adriaans, Ewout J.

    1999-05-01

    Field collections of the bivalve Macoma balthica in the Dutch Wadden Sea and three southeastern United States estuaries revealed morphological differences between populations of the two sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Individuals of the same age showed much larger shell lengths at the American stations. In addition, bivalves of the same body weight had higher siphon weights at the American stations than at the Dutch stations. This difference in siphon size was related to their burying depths. The American population, which invested more in heavier siphons, was able to burrow much deeper into the sediment (up to 30 cm). Deep burial may be an adaptation to avoid exposure to the high southern temperatures. Furthermore, it may serve as a refuge from blue crab predation. The results of our comparison between the southern American population and the European support the suggestion that populations of M. balthica living in these two regions should be considered separate and sibling species.

  7. Lifespan, growth rate, and body size across latitude in marine Bivalvia, with implications for Phanerozoic evolution.

    PubMed

    Moss, David K; Ivany, Linda C; Judd, Emily J; Cummings, Patrick W; Bearden, Claire E; Kim, Woo-Jun; Artruc, Emily G; Driscoll, Jeremy R

    2016-08-17

    Mean body size in marine animals has increased more than 100-fold since the Cambrian, a discovery that brings to attention the key life-history parameters of lifespan and growth rate that ultimately determine size. Variation in these parameters is not well understood on the planet today, much less in deep time. Here, we present a new global database of maximum reported lifespan and shell growth coupled with body size data for 1 148 populations of marine bivalves and show that (i) lifespan increases, and growth rate decreases, with latitude, both across the group as a whole and within well-sampled species, (ii) growth rate, and hence metabolic rate, correlates inversely with lifespan, and (iii) opposing trends in lifespan and growth combined with high variance obviate any demonstrable pattern in body size with latitude. Our observations suggest that the proposed increase in metabolic activity and demonstrated increase in body size of organisms over the Phanerozoic should be accompanied by a concomitant shift towards faster growth and/or shorter lifespan in marine bivalves. This prediction, testable from the fossil record, may help to explain one of the more fundamental patterns in the evolutionary and ecological history of animal life on this planet.

  8. Influence of the invasive Asian clam Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae) on estuarine epibenthic assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilarri, M. I.; Souza, A. T.; Antunes, C.; Guilhermino, L.; Sousa, R.

    2014-04-01

    One of the most widespread invasive alien species (IAS) in aquatic ecosystems is the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea. Several studies have shown that C. fluminea can cause large-scale changes in macrozoobenthic assemblages; however, very few attempted to investigate the effects of this IAS on mobile epibenthic species, such as fishes and crustaceans. In this context, the influence of C. fluminea on epibenthic species was investigated during one year by comparing the associated epibenthic fauna in three nearby sites of the Minho estuary (NW of the Iberian Peninsula), wherein the abiotic conditions are similar but the density of the Asian clam is highly different. From a total of 13 species, six were significantly influenced by C. fluminea; five responded positively, namely the brown shrimp Crangon crangon, the European eel Anguilla anguilla, the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, the brown trout Salmo trutta fario and the great pipefish Syngnathus acus, whereas the shore crab Carcinus maenas was negatively influenced. However, stomach contents analysis revealed that fish and crustacean species do not feed on C. fluminea, suggesting that this IAS is still not a large component of the diet of higher trophic levels in this estuarine ecosystem. Our results suggest that the structure provided by C. fluminea shells is likely to be one of the main factors responsible for the differences observed. C. fluminea physical structure seems to influence the epibenthic associated fauna, when found in densities higher than 1000 ind./m2, with sedentary small-bodied crustaceans and fishes being mainly attracted by the increasing in habitat complexity and consequent enhancement of heterogeneity and shelter availability.

  9. Characteristics of a refuge for native freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in Lake St. Clair

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGoldrick, D.J.; Metcalfe-Smith, J. L.; Arts, M.T.; Schloesser, D.W.; Newton, T.J.; Mackie, G.L.; Monroe, E.M.; Biberhofer, J.; Johnson, K.

    2009-01-01

    The Lake St. Clair delta (??? 100??km2) provides an important refuge for native freshwater mussels (Unionidae) wherein 22 of the ??? 35 historical species co-occur with invasive dreissenids. A total of 1875 live unionids representing 22 species were found during snorkeling surveys of 32 shallow (??? 1??m) sites throughout the delta. Richness and density of unionids and zebra mussel infestation rates varied among sites from 3 to 13 unionid species, 0.02 to 0.12 unionids/m2, and < 1 to 35 zebra mussels/unionid, respectively. Zebra mussel infestation of unionids in the delta appears to be mitigated by dominant offshore currents, which limit densities of zebra mussel veligers in nearshore compared to offshore waters (13,600 vs. 28,000/m3, respectively). Glycogen concentrations in the tissues of a common and widespread species in the delta (Lampsilis siliquoidea) suggest that zebra mussels may be adversely affecting physiological condition of unionids in a portion of the Lake St. Clair delta. Physiological condition and community structure of unionids within the delta may also be influenced by differences in food quantity and quality resulting from the uneven distribution of water flowing from the St. Clair River. The delta likely supports the largest living unionid community in the lower Great Lakes and includes several species that have been listed as Endangered or Threatened in Canada and/or the state of Michigan, making it an important refuge for the conservation of native unionids. Crown Copyright ?? 2009.

  10. [Rearing crassostrea gigas (Bivalvia:Ostreidae) in a semi-rigid net].

    PubMed

    Acosta Ruíz, M J; Gutiérrez Wing, M T

    1996-08-01

    A culture system, consisting of a semi-rigid net, with an ABS frame filled with styrofoam was used for the culture of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, from 3.0 mm length seed. The culture system was tested in three locations, two inside San Quintín Bay and one in San Martín Island. The mean monthly growth was 8.69 mm and 8.96 mm in the Bay and 7.33 mm in San Martín Island. These growth rates show that this species can attain commercial sizes in 6 months, using the culture system tested.

  11. Body condition and gametogenic cycle of Galatea paradoxa (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Volta River estuary, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjei-Boateng, D.; Wilson, J. G.

    2013-11-01

    The reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa which is the basis for an artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana, was studied using condition indices and histological methods from March 2008 to July 2009. The cycle is annual with a single spawning event between June and October. Gametogenesis starts in November progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning begins until October when the animal is spent. The condition indices (shell-free wet weight/total wet weight, ash-free dry weight/shell weight and gonad wet weight/shell weight) showed a clear relationship with the gametogenic stage rising from a minimum at stage (I) start of gametogenesis, to their highest values at stages (IIIA) ripe and (IIIB) start of spawning before declining significantly to stage (IV) spent.It is suggested that condition index may prove a valuable technique in fishery management to recognise the reproductive stages of G. paradoxa as it is less expensive and time consuming than histological techniques in addition to being easier to teach to non-specialists. The data presented in this study provide information on the timing of spawning events for G. paradoxa, which is necessary for developing sustainable management strategies and selection of broodstock for aquaculture.

  12. Temporal dynamics of amino and fatty acid composition in the razor clam Ensis siliqua (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Narciso, Luis; Marques, António; Bandarra, Narcisa; Rosa, Rui

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have been conducted on the temporal dynamics of both amino acid (AA) and fatty acid (FA) profiles in marine bivalves. We investigated the seasonal variation of these compounds in the pod razor clam Ensis siliqua in relation to food availability, salinity, water temperature and reproductive cycle. AA content varied between 46.94 and 54.67 % dry weight (DW), and the AAs found in greater quantity were glutamic acid, glycine and aspartic acid. FA content varied between 34.02 and 87.94 mg g-1 DW and the FAs found in greater quantity were 16:0 and 22:6 n-3. Seasonal trends were observed for AAs and FAs. FAs increased with gametogenesis and decreased with spawning while AA content increased throughout spawning. The effect of increasing temperature and high food availability during the spawning season masked the loss of AAs resulting from gamete release. Still, a comparatively greater increase in the contents of glutamic acid and leucine with spawning indicate their possible involvement in a post-spawning gonad recovery mechanism. A post-spawning decrease in 14:0, 16:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-7 and 18:1 n-9 is indicative of the importance of these FAs in bivalve eggs. An increase in 18:3 n-3, 18:4 n-3, 20:1 n-9 and 20:2 n-6 during gametogenesis suggests their involvement in oocyte maturation. The FA 22:4 n-6, while increasing with spawning, appears to play a role in post-spawning gonad recovery. Salinity did not have an effect on the AA composition. None of the environmental parameters measured had an effect on FA composition.

  13. Cytogenetics of Anodonta cygnea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) as possible indicator of environmental adversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrilho, J.; Leitão, A.; Vicente, C.; Malheiro, I.

    2008-11-01

    Anodonta cygnea is a freshwater clam, belonging to the Unionidae family, which can be found in rivers and lagoons all over Europe and Northern America. As they appear as important case studies for ecological damage assessments, the various species of the Unionidae family have been submitted to a sort of recent studies on their chromosomal or cytogenetic status. In this study we confirmed the diploid chromosome number of 2 n = 38 for this species, and established for the first time the karyotype, which comprised six metacentric, 12 submetacentric and one subtelocentric chromosome pairs. We also found a high percentage of cells with an abnormal number of chromosomes. Considering that karyotype disturbances in Unionids have been previously related with exposure to chemicals, either natural or produced by human activity, we determined the aneuploidy index for our population. The aneuploidy index is an excellent marker for pollutant presence/effect. The animals acclimatized in tap water and in natural water from the lake where the individuals were collected showed different levels of aneuploidy. The higher values were found in tap water. Chromosome analysis techniques seem a suitable tool to study the impact of contaminants referred above, and making A. cygnea a suitable organism for assessment of an eugenic damage in aquatic systems. On the other hand, our results also point out to the importance of doing the acclimatizing process of the collected animals in their own natural water.

  14. [Effect of probiotic bacteria on survival and growth of Cortez oyster larvae, Crassostrea corteziensis (Bivalvia: Ostreidae)].

    PubMed

    Campa-Córdova, Angel Isidro; Luna-González, Antonio; Mazón-Suastegui, José Manuel; Aguirre-Guzmán, Gabriel; Ascencio, Felipe; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2011-03-01

    Disease control problems have major constraints in aquaculture production, and the use of probiotics in larviculture is a valid alternative to antibiotics. This study analyzed the effect of probiotic bacteria on survival and final size of Cortez oyster larvae Crassostrea corteziensis. Two different probiotic concentrations were evaluated, 1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(5) CFU/ml of Lactic acid bacteria (strain NS61) isolated from Nodipecten subnodosus, and bacilli isolated from the white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, strain YC58) and C. corteziensis (Burkholderia cepacia, strain Y021). Bacteria were added directly into culture tanks, starting the bioassays from veliger to pediveliger stages as follows: (1) Control, without probiotics; (2) lactic acid bacteria (Lb); (3) bacilli mix (Mb) in a proportion 1:1. Results showed a higher larval survival with Lb and Mb at a dose of 1 x 10(4) CFU/ml compared to the control group. Larvae exposed to Mb at 1 x 10(5) CFU/ml showed higher survival than Lb and control. Larval final size was not significantly increased with the tested probiotics, but larvae treated with Lb at 1 x 10(5) CFU/ml showed less survival rate than those treated at 1 x 10(4) CFU/ml. This study showed the beneficial effect of these probiotics, added individually or mixed in C. corteziensis larvae culture.

  15. Epibiotic relationships on Zygochlamys patagonica (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinidae) increase biodiversity in a submarine canyon in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schejter, Laura; López Gappa, Juan; Bremec, Claudia Silvia

    2014-06-01

    The continental slope of the southern SW Atlantic Ocean has many distinguishable deep submarine canyons, varying in depth and extension. The benthic fauna within one of them, detected in April 2005 by means of a multibeam SIMRAD EM1002 sonar, and located at 43°35‧S to 59°33‧W, 325 m depth, was studied to discuss faunal affinities with the neighbouring Patagonian scallop fishing grounds located at upper slope depths. In order to add faunal information to the previous general study, we studied the epibiotic species settled on Patagonian scallops (the dominant species in the area) collected in the reference sampling site using a 2.5-m mouth-opening dredge, 10 mm mesh size. We sampled 103 scallops with shell heights between 22 and 69 mm; epibionts were recorded on both valves. We found 53 epibiotic taxa, which were most conspicuous on the upper valve. Bryozoa was the most diverse group (34 species) while Polychaeta was the most abundant group, recorded on 94% of the scallops. Stylasteridae (2 species) and Clavulariidae (Cnidaria) conform newly recorded epibionts on Z. patagonica and the sponge Tedania (Tedaniopsis) infundibuliformis also represents a new record for the SW Atlantic Ocean.

  16. Gill Development and its functional and evolutionary implications in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae).

    PubMed

    Cannuel, Rozenn; Beninger, Peter G; McCombie, Helen; Boudry, Pierre

    2009-10-01

    Study of gill development in bivalve larvae and postlarvae provides information on the evolution of this organ and feeding mechanisms of early stages. Scanning electron microscopy was used to document the development of the filibranch homorhabdic gill in hatchery-reared larval, postlarval, and juvenile Mytilus edulis. Four key stages were identified during gill development: (1) transfer of the particle collection function from velum to gill at metamorphosis, with subsequent elongation of the gill filaments to form a gill basket, with complete frontal ciliation; (2) reflection of the inner demibranchs, and transition to a V-shaped gill; (3) delayed development of the outer demibranchs, occuring simultaneously along the gill axis, with transition to the adult final W-shape; and (4) formation of the ventral particle grooves and concomitant acquisition of dense abfrontal ciliation. These key stages signal shifts in the mechanisms of particle processing during the early development of M. edulis. Gill development in the homorhabdic filibranch M. edulis was similar to that of the early homorhabdic stages of the heterorhabdic filibranchs studied to date (Pectinidae), but different from that of the pseudolamellibranchs (Ostreidae), suggesting divergent evolution of this character. Similarly, the systems responsible for gill cohesion and structural integrity are common to both the homorhabdic and heterorhabdic filibranchs, suggesting evolutionary proximity, but they are patently different from those of the eulamellibranchs and pseudolamellibranchs, suggesting evolutionary divergence.

  17. [The testing of growth functions for the length of Siliqua patula (Bivalvia) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sager, G

    1980-01-01

    After preceding investigations of the author into increase and growth functions of organic matter the gained formulae are tested together with the classical functions. As an example the razor clam siliqua patula from the Alaskan coast seems rather well fitted because of the number of length measurements and the existence of an inflexion point of the growth curve. Non linear regressions are exercised following the Paul-method. Results are not seldom unexpected, sometimes leaving firmly introduced functions with smaller chances than recently developed ones. The number of parameters of the functions will not necessarily increase the quality of approximation. The best results arise from the increase ansatz W = k Wm/tp proposed by the author Sager 1979c).

  18. Reproductive Cycle of Hard Clam, Meretrix lyrata Sowerby, 1851 (Bivalvia: Veneridae) from Sarawak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hamli, Hadi; Idris, Mohd Hanafi; Rajaee, Amy Halimah; Kamal, Abu Hena Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    A study of the reproductive cycle of the hard clam, Meretrix lyrata, was documented based on histological observation and Gonad Index (GI). Samples were taken from estuarine waters of the Buntal River in Sarawak, Malaysia. The gonad of M. lyrata started to develop in September 2013. Gametogenesis continued to develop until the maturation and spawning stage from February to April 2014. The GI pattern for a one-year cycle showed a significant correlation with chlorophyll a. The corresponding GI with chlorophyll a suggested that the development of the reproductive cycle of M. lyrata required a high amount of food to increase gametogenesis. PMID:26868710

  19. Mesozoic Bivalvia from Clerke and Mermaid Canyons, northwest Australian continental slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant-Mackie, J. A.

    Four sets of rock samples from two sites off the northwest Australian shelf in 3625-4480 m of water contain macrofaunas, mainly bivalves, of warm shallow-water origin. Mermaid Canyon (16 deg 19 min S, 118 deg 23 min E) provided many samples of oolitic calcarenite containing Pseudopecten (Pseudopecten) dugong n.sp., indicating an Early Jurassic age and Tethyan relationship. Three hand-specimens from the ridge forming the western edge of Clerke Canyon (16 deg 29 min S, 118 deg 30 min E) yielded a Norian coral-?Lima-oyster assemblage and the Norian-Rhaetian bivalve Palaeocardita aff. globiformis (Boettger). The latter shows relationship with south-east Asian (Indonesia-Vietnam-south China) forms.

  20. [Reproductive cycle of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Lenz, Tiago; Boehs, Guisla

    2011-03-01

    The mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is important fishery resource along the entire Brasilian coast with excellent potential for marine culture. The purpose of this paper was to examine the reproductive characteristics of the oyster of the Maraú river estuary in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil. The samples were collected monthly, from September 2006 to August 2007, at two points (I and II) in Camamu Bay. At each site 20 oysters were collected for histological analysis, fixed in Davidson's solution, embedded in paraffin, dehydrated in an ethanol series, sectioned (7 microm thick) and stained with Harris hematoxylin and Eosin (HE). Additionally, 30 oysters were sampled, at each point, for a condition index analysis. The water temperature ranged from 23.5 degrees C to 30 degrees C and the salinity from 15 to 25 ups at Point I (Maraú) and from 25 to 35 at Point II (Tanque Island). The oyster's height ranged from 30 to 92 mm at Point I and from 27 to 102 mm at Point II, with an average of 49.0 mm +/- 9.1 (n = 230) and 49.9 mm +/- 9.9 (n = 237), respectively. Among the sampled oysters at Point I, 59.1% were females, 31.3% males, 1.3% hermaphrodites and 8.2% of the oysters of undetermined sex. At Point II, 66.2% were females, 30.4% males, 0.8% hermaphrodites and 2.5% (n = 237) of undetermined sex. The gonadic stage analysis indicated that the reproduction period of the C. rhizophorae in the Maraú Peninsula was continuous all year, without any regressive phase. The condition index (R) ranged from 8.0% to 17.7%. The peak periods of R coincided with the expressive oyster's percentage in the maturation and liberation gametic stages. The results of these findings will contribute information for the oyster spat collection and to the process installation of the oyster culture in Camamu Bay.

  1. Effects of salinity on biomarker responses in Crassostrea rhizophorae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) exposed to diesel oil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Angela Zaccaron; Zanette, Juliano; Fernando Ferreira, Jaime; Guzenski, João; Marques, Maria Risoleta Freire; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias

    2005-11-01

    Crassostrea rhizophorae is a euryhaline oyster that inhabits mangrove areas, which are widely distributed along the Brazilian coast. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of salinity (9, 15, 25, and 35ppt) on the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), catalase (CAT), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the digestive gland of this species after exposure to diesel oil for 7 days at nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 1mlL(-1) and after depuration for 24h and 7 days. GST activity increased in a diesel oil concentration-dependent manner at salinities 25 and 15ppt and remained slightly elevated even after depuration periods of 24h and 7 days. No changes were observed in the activities of G6PDH, CAT, and AChE in the oysters exposed to diesel and depurated. Based on these results, GST activity in the digestive gland of C. rhizophorae might be used as a biomarker of exposure to diesel oil in sites where the salinity is between 15 and 25ppt, values usually observed in mangrove ecosystems.

  2. Long-term decline in freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the western basin of Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nalepa, Thomas F.; Manny, Bruce A.; Roth, James C.; Mozley, Samuel C.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1991-01-01

    Long-term trends in the abundance of unionids in the western basin of Lake Erie were examined from data collected at 17 stations in 1961, 1972, and 1982. The mean number of unionids at these stations declined over this time period, decreasing from 10 m−2 in 1961, to 6 m−2 in 1972, down to 4 m−2 in 1982. This decline in abundance was reflected in the decrease in the number of stations where mussels were found; unionids were found at 16 of the 17 stations in 1961, but at only 6 stations in 1982. Reasons for the decrease in the unionid population are not generally apparent, but are probably related to the decline in water quality and periods of low oxygen levels over the time period of the surveys.

  3. Pyganodon (Bivalvia: Unionoida: Unionidae) phylogenetics: a male- and female-transmitted mitochondrial DNA perspective.

    PubMed

    Doucet-Beaupré, Hélène; Blier, Pierre U; Chapman, Eric G; Piontkivska, Helen; Dufresne, France; Sietman, Bernard E; Mulcrone, Renee S; Hoeh, Walter R

    2012-05-01

    Species boundaries, evolutionary relationships and geographic distributions of many unionoid bivalve species, like those in the genus Pyganodon, remain unresolved in Eastern North America. Because unionoid bivalves are one of the most imperiled groups of animals in the world, understanding the genetic variation within and among populations as well as among species is crucial for effective conservation planning. Conservation of unionoid species is indispensable from a freshwater habitat perspective but also because they possess a unique mitochondrial inheritance system where distinct gender-associated mitochondrial DNA lineages coexist: a female-transmitted (F) mt genome and a male-transmitted (M) mt genome that are involved in the maintenance of separate sexes (=dioecy). In this study, 42 populations of Pyganodon sp. were sampled across a large geographical range and fragments of two mitochondrial genes (cox1 and cox2) were sequenced from both the M- and F-transmitted mtDNA genomes. Our results support the recency of the divergence between P. cataracta and P. fragilis. We also found two relatively divergent F and M lineages within P. grandis. Surprisingly, the relationships among the P. grandis specimens in the F and M sequence trees are not congruent. We found that a single haplotype in P. lacustris has recently swept throughout the M genotype space leading to an unexpectedly low diversity in the M lineage in that species. Our survey put forward some challenging results that force us to rethink hybridization and species boundaries in the genus Pyganodon. As the M and F genomes do not always display the same phylogeographic story in each species, we also discuss the importance of being careful in the interpretation of molecular data based solely on maternal transmitted mtDNA genomes. The involvement of F and M genomes in unionoid bivalve sex determination likely played a role in the genesis of the unorthodox phylogeographic patterns reported herein. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Morphology of glochidia of Lampsilis higginsi (Bivalvia: Unionidae) compared with three related species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Holland Bartels, L. E.; Mitchell, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    Glochidia of the endangered unionid mussel Lampsilis higginsi (Lea) are morphologically similar to those of several other species in the upper Mississippi River. Life history details, such as the timing of reproduction and identity of host fish, can be readily studied if the glochidia of L. higginsi can be distinguished from those of related species. Authors used light and scanning electron microscopy and statistical analyses of three shell measurements, shell length, shell height, and hinge length, to compare the glochidia of L. higginsi with those of L. radiata siliquoidea (Barnes), L. ventricosa (Barnes), and Ligumia recta (Lamarck). Glochidia of L. higginsi were differentiated by scanning electron microscopy on the basis of a combined examination of the position of the hinge ligament and the width of dorsal ridges, but were indistinguishable by light microscope examination or by statistical analyses of measurements.

  5. Description of the glochidium of Margaritifera auricularia (Spengler 1793) (Bivalvia, Unionoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, R.

    1998-01-01

    The glochidium of Margaritifera auricularia is described for the first time by using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and histological techniques. The larval mantle is formed by only two layers of cells; the inner one being much thicker, with microvilli. All cell masses of the glochidium are temporary aggregations that are the rudiments of organs of the subsequent juveniles which will be released after metamorphosis in the host tissues. In the glochidium there are three main masses of cells: (i) the muscle, which is in an anterior position; (ii) the oral plate in the centre of the larva; and (iii) the more ventrally and posteriorly situated ventral plate, or foot rudiment, flanged with lateral pits all bearing dense cilia. No rudimentary organs such as the pericardium, the kidney, the heart or nerve ganglia have developed. There are no visible hooks in the valve margins, but by using light microscopy we observed minute teeth covered by a rim of the periostracum. Near the margin of the shell there are two pairs of sensory hair tufts only observable by scanning electron microscopy. The glochidium of M. auricularia is the largest of the family Margaritiferidae and intermediate between the glochidium of the known species of this family and those of Unionidae.

  6. Are Cristaria herculea (Middendorff, 1847) and Cristaria plicata (Leach, 1815) (Bivalvia, Unionidae) separate species?

    PubMed

    Klishko, Olga K; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Froufe, Elsa; Bogan, Arthur E

    2014-01-01

    The number of species in the freshwater mussel genus Cristaria Schumacher, 1817 recognized from Far East Russia has varied over the last several decades. While some authors consider the occurrence of only one species, Cristaria plicata (Leach, 1815), widespread in East Asia, others, recognize two separate species Cristaria herculea (Middendorff, 1847) and Cristaria tuberculata Schumacher, 1817 from Far East Russia, distinct from C. plicata. For the present study, freshwater mussels, identified as C. herculea, were collected in the Upper Amur basin (Transbaikalia, Russia). The shell morphology and the whole soft body anatomy were analysed in detail and compared with previously published information on other Cristaria spp.. Additionally, a cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene fragment was sequenced from foot tissue samples of selected animals, collected from the same region, and compared with published data. Based upon morphological similarities of glochidia and adult morphology and anatomy as well as the mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis, we consider C. herculea as a synonym of C. plicata. Further analysis of Far East Russia C. herculea and C. tuberculata specimens using both molecular and morphological characters should be carried in the future to enhance our knowledge about the taxonomy within the Cristaria genus. Moreover, a comprehensive revision of the genus Cristaria is needed, restricting the type locality and comparing topotypic specimens for both C. plicata and C. tuberculata, and including all recognized Cristaria species.

  7. Sensitivity of glochidial stages of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) to copper

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, P.J.; Neves, R.J.; Cherry, D.S.; Farris, J.L.

    1997-11-01

    The sensitivity of glochidial stages of unionid mussels was evaluated in a series of exposures to aqueous copper. Glochidia held within marsupia of gravid Villosa iris exhibited no observable effect following a 30-d copper exposure at levels up to 19.1 {micro}g Cu/L. Similarly, transformation of encapsulated glochidia of Actinonaias pectoroso, Pyganodon grandis (Say, 1829), and V. iris to the juvenile stage was unaffected by 12- to 20-d copper exposures of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides (Lacepede), at levels up to 200 {micro}g Cu/L. In contrast, released glochidia of all species were sensitive to copper at comparatively low concentrations. The median lethal concentrations (24-h) for Lampsilis fasciola (Rafinesque, 1820) ranged from 26 to 48 {micro}g Cu/L, from 36 to 89 {micro}g Cu/L for V. iris, from 37 to 81 {micro}g Cu/L for Medionidus conradicus, from 42 to 132 {micro}g Cu/L for A. pectorosa, and from 46 to 347 {micro}g Cu/L for P. grandis. Copper sensitivity varied with changes in test conditions, including length of exposure, water temperature, and water hardness. Although sensitivity of released glochidia to copper was comparable to previously reported values for juvenile mussels, the juveniles may be at greater risk given their residency in benthic sediments where toxicants such as metals may be sequestered at high levels. An evaluation of this risk is an urgent priority for further research.

  8. Complete sequences of maternally inherited mitochondrial genomes in mussels Unio pictorum (Bivalvia, Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Soroka, M; Burzyński, A

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes are frequently used to infer phylogenetic relationships. Some taxa are, however, poorly represented. To facilitate better understanding of the potential of mitochondrial genome data in freshwater mussels, we present here, for the first time, the mitochondrial sequences of 4 complete F-type mitochondrial genomes from the European freshwater bivalve Unio pictorum (Unionidae). These genomes are very compact (15,761 bp) but have a typical gene complement for bilaterian mitochondrial genomes and a very similar organization to other unionid genomes available in databases. Very low nucleotide diversity within the species suggests a small effective population size of Polish U. pictorum, a phenomenon of potential importance for environmental management policies.

  9. Sinanodonta woodiana (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae): isolation and characterization of the first microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Popa, Oana Paula; Popa, Luis Ovidiu; Krapal, Ana-Maria; Murariu, Dumitru; Iorgu, Elena Iulia; Costache, Marieta

    2011-01-01

    Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834) is a large Unionid species with a real invasion success. It colonized Europe, Central America, the Indonesian Islands and recently North America. The species life cycle involves a larval parasitic stage on freshwater fish species which contributes to the spread of the mussel. In this paper we describe, for the first time, eight polymorphic microsatellite loci for the species Sinanodonta woodiana. The genetic screening of individuals confirmed that all loci were highly polymorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 7 to 14 and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.650 to 0.950. These loci should prove useful to study the species population genetics which could help to infer important aspects of the invasion process.

  10. MULTIPLE ORIGINS OF GENDER-ASSOCIATED MITOCHONDRIAL DNA LINEAGES IN BIVALVES (MOLLUSCA: BIVALVIA).

    PubMed

    Hoeh, Walter R; Stewart, Donald T; Sutherland, Brent W; Zouros, Eleftherios

    1996-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that marine mussels (genus Mytilus) and a freshwater mussel (Pyganodon grandis) contain two distinct gender-associated mitotypes, which is a characteristic feature of the phenomenon of doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Here we present evidence for the presence of distinct male (M) and female (F) mitotypes in three other bivalve species, the mytilid Geukensia demissa, and the unionid species P. fragilis and Fusconaia flava. Nucleotide sequences of a segment of the COI gene from the M and F mitotypes from each of the three mytilid species (M. edulis, M. trossulus, G. demissa) and three unionid species (P. grandis, P. fragilis, F. flava) were used for phylogenetic analysis. The analysis suggests three independent origins of M and F mitotypes for the six species examined; one for the three unionid species, one for the two Mytilus species, and one for Geukensia. The first of these F/M divergence events, while of uncertain age, predates the divergence of the two unionid genera and is likely older than either of the two F/M divergence events in the mytilid taxa. The most parsimonious explanation of multiple F/M divergence events is that they represent independent origins of DUI. Another possibility is that, in a given taxon, an F or M mitotype assumes the role of the opposite mitotype (by virtue of a mechanism that remains to be clarified) and subsequently was fixed within its new gender. The fixation of a mtDNA lineage derived from a mitotype of switched function would reset the divergence of the gender-associated lineages to zero, thereby mimicking a de novo split of F and M lineages from a preexisting mtDNA genome that was not gender specific. Further broad-scale taxonomic studies of the occurrence of distinct M and F mitotypes may allow for the evaluation of the latter hypothesis. © 1996 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Convergent and parallel evolution in life habit of the scallops (Bivalvia: Pectinidae).

    PubMed

    Alejandrino, Alvin; Puslednik, Louise; Serb, Jeanne M

    2011-06-14

    We employed a phylogenetic framework to identify patterns of life habit evolution in the marine bivalve family Pectinidae. Specifically, we examined the number of independent origins of each life habit and distinguished between convergent and parallel trajectories of life habit evolution using ancestral state estimation. We also investigated whether ancestral character states influence the frequency or type of evolutionary trajectories. We determined that temporary attachment to substrata by byssal threads is the most likely ancestral condition for the Pectinidae, with subsequent transitions to the five remaining habit types. Nearly all transitions between life habit classes were repeated in our phylogeny and the majority of these transitions were the result of parallel evolution from byssate ancestors. Convergent evolution also occurred within the Pectinidae and produced two additional gliding clades and two recessing lineages. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that byssal attaching gave rise to significantly more of the transitions than any other life habit and that the cementing and nestling classes are only represented as evolutionary outcomes in our phylogeny, never as progenitor states. Collectively, our results illustrate that both convergence and parallelism generated repeated life habit states in the scallops. Bias in the types of habit transitions observed may indicate constraints due to physical or ontogenetic limitations of particular phenotypes.

  12. Convergent and parallel evolution in life habit of the scallops (Bivalvia: Pectinidae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We employed a phylogenetic framework to identify patterns of life habit evolution in the marine bivalve family Pectinidae. Specifically, we examined the number of independent origins of each life habit and distinguished between convergent and parallel trajectories of life habit evolution using ancestral state estimation. We also investigated whether ancestral character states influence the frequency or type of evolutionary trajectories. Results We determined that temporary attachment to substrata by byssal threads is the most likely ancestral condition for the Pectinidae, with subsequent transitions to the five remaining habit types. Nearly all transitions between life habit classes were repeated in our phylogeny and the majority of these transitions were the result of parallel evolution from byssate ancestors. Convergent evolution also occurred within the Pectinidae and produced two additional gliding clades and two recessing lineages. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that byssal attaching gave rise to significantly more of the transitions than any other life habit and that the cementing and nestling classes are only represented as evolutionary outcomes in our phylogeny, never as progenitor states. Conclusions Collectively, our results illustrate that both convergence and parallelism generated repeated life habit states in the scallops. Bias in the types of habit transitions observed may indicate constraints due to physical or ontogenetic limitations of particular phenotypes. PMID:21672233

  13. Size-differential feeding in Pinna nobilis L. (Mollusca: Bivalvia): Exploitation of detritus, phytoplankton and zooplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, John; Ezgeta-Balić, Daria; Peharda, Melita; Skejić, Sanda; Ninčević-Gladan, Živana; Matijević, Slavica

    2011-04-01

    The endangered fan shell Pinna nobilis is a large bivalve mollusc (<120 cm shell length) endemic to the Mediterranean that lives one-third buried in soft substrata, generally in shallow coastal waters. We hypothesised that P. nobilis of different sizes would ingest different food sources, because small fan shells will inhale material from closer to the substratum than do large fan shells. We studied stomach contents and faeces of 18 fan shells, 6 small (mean 23.0 cm length), 6 medium-sized (mean 41.5 cm length) and 6 large (mean 62.7 cm length) living in a small area of a low-energy coastal detritic bottom characterised by mud, sand and macroalgae at Mali Ston Bay, Croatia. We found that all P. nobilis ingested copious quantities of undetermined detritus (probably at least 95% of ingested material), phytoplankton, micro and mesozooplankton and pollen grains. Large P. nobilis stomach contents showed a preponderance of water column calanoid copepods, while small fan shells had higher numbers of bivalve larvae. All fan shells took in high numbers of harpacticoid copepods that are benthonic, feeding on microbial communities of detritus and benthic vegetation. There was also a significant selection of phytoplankton species, some apparently occurring between inhalation and ingestion. The stomach contents of small P. nobilis had a higher organic matter content than either medium-sized or large fan shells; this indicated that small fan shells ingested detritus of higher organic content than did larger P. nobilis. As the faeces of all P. nobilis had similar organic matter content, this also indicates higher assimilation efficiencies in small fan shells. The demonstration of differential dietary selectivity by different sized animals has implications for future trophic studies of this endangered species. This study also provides the first demonstration of predation on zooplankton by P. nobilis.

  14. Distinct symbiont lineages in three thyasirid species (Bivalvia: Thyasiridae) from the eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Clara F.; Duperron, Sébastien

    2011-04-01

    Thyasiridae are one of the less studied groups of chemosymbiotic bivalves. Here, we investigated symbioses in three different thyasirid species collected at three cold seeps from the Atlantic and Mediterranean. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences demonstrated that each thyasirid species harbours a single phylotype of symbiont that belongs to a distinct lineage of putative sulphur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria. This result is confirmed by other marker genes (encoding 23S rRNA and APS reductase) and fluorescence in situ hybridization. This work highlights the diversity of bacteria involved in symbiosis with thyasirids and underlines the relevance of this group as a target for future symbiosis studies.

  15. Multi-species generalist predation on the stochastic harvested clam Tivela mactroides (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turra, Alexander; Fernandez, Wellington S.; Bessa, Eduardo; Santos, Flavia B.; Denadai, Márcia R.

    2015-12-01

    Top-down control is an important force modulating the abundance of prey and structuring marine communities. The harvested trigonal clam Tivela mactroides is hypothesized to be part of the diet of a variety of marine organisms, with its stock influencing predator abundance and being influenced by them. Here we analyzed the diet of potential predators of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay, northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil, to identify the main consumers of this marine resource, and also to address the importance of this clam in the diet of each predator. Samples were taken year-round by trawls; all specimens collected were identified and measured and the food items identified and quantified. Twenty-one species consumed T. mactroides, whose importance in the diet varied greatly in both the volume ingested and the frequency of occurrence (pompano Trachinotus carolinus > blue crab Callinectes danae > starfish Astropecten marginatus). Top-down influence on T. mactroides was also dependent on the abundance of consumers (yellow catfish Cathorops spixii > rake stardrum Stellifer rastrifer > barred grunt Conodon nobilis > A. marginatus). Considering the mean volume ingested, the frequency of occurrence of T. mactroides in the diet, and the relative abundance of consumers, the predators that most influenced T. mactroides were T. carolinus, A. marginatus, and C. danae, in decreasing order. Large numbers of small-sized individuals of T. mactroides (<10 mm) were generally preyed upon by A. marginatus, which may have a stronger effect on clam abundance in comparison to C. danae and T. carolinus, which preyed upon larger clams. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that predators' consumption of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay can influence its stocks, mainly due to the type and/or abundance of predator species, the volume and number of individuals of T. mactroides preyed upon, and the temporal variations in the abundance of predators.

  16. External morphology of spermatozoa and spermatozeugmata of the freshwater mussel Truncilla truncata (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Lasee, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Truncilla truncata males release spherical aggregates of spermatozoa, called spermatozeugmata, at spawning. Sperm aggregates from other bivalve species have been described, but few detailed studies exist of the morphology of unionid spermatozeugmata and spermatozoa. We provide the first description of the external morphology of spermatozeugmata and spermatozoa of T. Truncata. The spermatozeugmata had an inside diameter of 76 mu m and contained 8000-9000 spermatozoa. Heads of spermatozoa were directed toward the center of the sphere into a translucent shell; tails were arranged radially and caused the spermatozeugmata to rotate. Spermatozoa of T. Truncata measured 3.3 mu m in length (excluding tail) and each had a head, a midpiece and a flagellum. We also documented the release of spermatozeugmata in two additional unionid species, Lampsilis cardium and Amblema plicata plicata.

  17. Spawning, fertilization, and larval development of Potamocorbula amurensis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicolini, M.H.; Penry, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    In Potamocorbula amurensis time for development to the straight-hinge larval stage is 48 hr at 15??C. Potamocorbula amurensis settles at a shell length of approximately 135 ??m 17 to 19 days after fertilization. Our observations of timing of larval devdlopment in P. amurensis support the hypothesis of earlier workers that its route of initial introduction to San Francisco Bay was as veliger larvae transported in ballast water by trans-Pacific cargo ships. The length of the larval period of P. amurensis relative to water mass residence times in San Francisco Bay suggests that it is sufficient to allow substantial dispersal from North Bay to South Bay populations in concordance with previous observations that genetic differentiation among populations of P. amurensis in San Francisco Bay is low. Potamocorbula amurensis is markedly euryhaline at all stages of development. Spawning and fertilization can occur at salinities from 5 to 25 psu, and eggs and sperms can each tolerance at least a 10-psu step increase or decrease in salinity. Embryos that are 2 hr old can tolerate the same range of salinities from (10 to 30 psu), and by the time they are 24 hr old they can tolerate the same range of salinities (2 to 30 psu) that adult clams can. The ability of P. amurensis larvae to tolerate substantial step changes in salinity suggests a strong potential to survive incomplete oceanic exchanges of ballast water and subsequent discharge into receiving waters across a broad range of salinities.

  18. Submarine canyons as the preferred habitat for wood-boring species of Xylophaga (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, C.; Voight, J. R.; Company, J. B.; Plyuscheva, M.; Martin, D.

    2013-11-01

    Submarine canyons are often viewed as natural “debris concentrators” on the seafloor. Organic substrates may be more abundant inside than outside canyon walls. To determine the effects of the presence these substrates in the Blanes submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean) and its adjacent western open slope, we deployed wood to study colonizing organisms. Three replicate pine and oak cubes (i.e. most common trees inland) were moored at 900, 1200, 1500 and 1800 m depth and collected after 3, 9 and 12 months. Wood from inside the canyon was significantly more heavily colonized by the five morphotypes of wood-boring bivalves than was wood on the adjacent open slope. Xylophaga sp. A dominated all wood types and locations, with peak abundance at 900 and 1200 m depth. Its growth rate was highest (0.070 mm d-1) during the first three months and was faster (or it recruits earlier) in pine than in oak. Size distribution showed that several recruitment events may have occurred from summer to winter. Xylophaga sp. B, appeared first after 9 months and clearly preferred pine over oak. As the immersion time was the same, this strongly supported a specific association between recruiters and type of substrate. Three morphotypes, pooled as Xylophaga spp. C, were rare and seemed to colonize preferentially oak inside the canyon and pine in the adjacent open slope. Individuals of Xylophaga were more abundant inside the canyon than in nearby off-canyon locations. Blanes Canyon may serve as a long-term concentrator of land-derived vegetal fragments and as a consequence sustain more animals. Are the species richness and abundance of wood-boring bivalves higher inside the canyon than on the adjacent open slope? Do the composition and density of the wood-boring bivalves change with deployment time and depth, as well as on the type of the sunken wood? What is the growth rate of the dominant wood-boring species?

  19. Phylogeny and evolution of ontogeny of the family Oxytomidae Ichikawa, 1958 (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutikov, O. A.; Temkin, I. E.; Shurygin, B. N.

    2010-08-01

    We described ontogenies and reconstructed morphogeneses of hinges in some supraspecific taxa of the bivalve family Oxytomidae Ichikawa, 1958 from the Mesozoic of Russia. The phylogeny of the family is reconstructed using evolutionary and cladistic methods. The appearance of the endemic genus Arctotis Bodylevsky, 1960 in the epicontinental seas of Siberia can be explained in terms of gradual transformations of the ligament and byssal apparatus in the Northern Siberian members of Praemeleagrinella Lutikov et Shurygin, 2009 and Praearctotis Lutikov et Shurygin, 2009.

  20. Clarifying phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history of the bivalve order Arcida (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pteriomorphia).

    PubMed

    Combosch, David J; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    The systematics of the bivalve order Arcida constitutes an unresolved conundrum in bivalve systematics. The current definition of Arcida encompasses two superfamilies: Limopsoidea, which includes the recent families Philobryidae and Limopsidae, and Arcoidea, which encompasses the families Arcidae, Cucullaeidae, Noetiidae, Glycymerididae and Parallelodontidae. This classification, however, is controversial particularly with respect to the position and taxonomic status of Glycymerididae. Previous molecular phylogenies were limited either by the use of only a single molecular marker or by including only a few limopsoid and glycymeridid taxa. The challenging nature of Arcida taxonomy and the controversial results of some of the previous studies, prompted us to use a broad range of taxa (55 species), three nuclear markers (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and histone H3) and a wide range of algorithmic approaches. This broad but stringent approach led to a number of results that differ significantly from previous studies. We provide the first molecular evidence that supports the separation of Arcoidea from Limopsoidea, although the exact position of Glycymerididae remains unresolved, and the monophyly of Limopsoidea is algorithm-dependent. In addition, we present the first time-calibrated evolutionary tree of Arcida relationships, indicating a significant increase in the diversification of arcidan lineages at the beginning of the Cretaceous, around 140Ma. The monophyly of Arcida, which has been supported previously, was confirmed in all our analyses. Although relationships among families remain somehow unresolved we found support for the monophyly of most arcidan families, at least under some analytical conditions (i.e., Glycymerididae, Noetiidae, Philobryidae, and Limopsidae). However, Arcidae, and particularly Arcinae, remain a major source of inconsistency in the current system of Arcida classification and are in dire need of taxonomic revision.

  1. Microbial distribution and abundance in the digestive system of five shipworm species (Bivalvia: Teredinidae).

    PubMed

    Betcher, Meghan A; Fung, Jennifer M; Han, Andrew W; O'Connor, Roberta; Seronay, Romell; Concepcion, Gisela P; Distel, Daniel L; Haygood, Margo G

    2012-01-01

    Marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms) are voracious consumers of wood in marine environments. In several shipworm species, dense communities of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts have been observed within specialized cells (bacteriocytes) of the gills (ctenidia). These bacteria are proposed to contribute to digestion of wood by the host. While the microbes of shipworm gills have been studied extensively in several species, the abundance and distribution of microbes in the digestive system have not been adequately addressed. Here we use Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and laser scanning confocal microscopy with 16S rRNA directed oligonucleotide probes targeting all domains, domains Bacteria and Archaea, and other taxonomic groups to examine the digestive microbiota of 17 specimens from 5 shipworm species (Bankia setacea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Lyrodus massa, Lyrodus sp. and Teredo aff. triangularis). These data reveal that the caecum, a large sac-like appendage of the stomach that typically contains large quantities of wood particles and is considered the primary site of wood digestion, harbors only very sparse microbial populations. However, a significant number of bacterial cells were observed in fecal pellets within the intestines. These results suggest that due to low abundance, bacteria in the caecum may contribute little to lignocellulose degradation. In contrast, the comparatively high population density of bacteria in the intestine suggests a possible role for intestinal bacteria in the degradation of lignocellulose.

  2. Redescription and anatomy of Diplodonta portesiana (d’Orbigny, 1846) (Bivalvia, Ungulinidae) from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Romera, Bárbara L. V.; Simone, Luiz R. L.; Cunha, Carlo M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The present redescription of Diplodonta portesiana (d’Orbigny, 1846) is the first part of the revision of this genus in the East Atlantic. This species, despite being common in the Atlantic coast, remains poorly known. A detailed shell and anatomical study was conducted based not only on specimens from the type locality’s vicinities but also on samples from other regions. Diagnostic characters for Diplodonta portesiana includes: rounded shell with a small ligament; triangular, short and deep nymph; external micro ornamentation composed of small concavities in a concentric pattern; small adductor muscles; reduced pedal gape; pair of long hemipalps with a large area covered by folds; stomach with four ducts leading to digestive diverticula; and long intestine length. Our study suggests at least two new diagnostic characters to the genus: the two pair of muscles that controls the incurrent and excurrent openings and a residual ring-like tissue surrounding the anterior half of the posterior foot retractor muscle. PMID:23794808

  3. Uncovering a gene duplication of the photoreceptive protein, opsin, in scallops (Bivalvia: Pectinidae).

    PubMed

    Serb, Jeanne M; Porath-Krause, Anita J; Pairett, Autum N

    2013-07-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long been interested in how expansions of the photosensory system might contribute to morphological differentiation of animals. Comparative studies in vertebrate and arthropod lineages have provided considerable insight into how the duplication of opsin, the first gene of the phototransduction pathway, have led to functional differentiation and new ecological opportunities; however, this relationship cannot be examined in many invertebrate groups as we have yet to characterize their opsin content. Scallops (Pectinidae) are a promising molluscan model to study the evolution of opsin and its potential role in speciation. Recently, we discovered a second Gq-coupled, or r-, opsin gene expressed in the eyes of two scallop species. To investigate the evolutionary origin of this opsin, we screened 12 bivalve species from 4 families, representing both mobile and sessile species, with and without eyes. Although only one ortholog was recovered from the genome of the eyeless, immobile oyster, we found both genes to have been retained in 3 families comprising the order Pectinoida. Within this clade, non-mobile species of scallops appear to have lost one gene. Phylogeny-based tests of selection indicate different degrees of purifying selection following duplication. These data, in conjunction with highly divergent gene sequences and ortholog-specific retention, suggest functional differences. Our results are congruent with a Gq-opsin gene duplication in an oyster-Pectinoida ancestor, approximately 470 Mya, and suggest the likelihood of retaining both genes is associated with either the presence of eyes and/or degree of mobility. The identification of two highly divergent Gq-opsin genes in scallops is valuable for future functional investigations and provides a foundation for further study of a morphologically and ecologically diverse clade of bivalves that has been understudied with respect to visual ecology and diversification of opsin.

  4. Molecular insights into the taxonomy of Hypanis (Bivalvia, Cardiidae, Lymnocardiinae) in the Black Sea lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Luis; Popa, Oana; Iorgu, Elena; Kelemen, Beatrice; Murariu, Dumitru

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we used data from morphology and three DNA markers to assess the taxonomic status of the putative bivalve species Hypanis colorata and Hypanis angusticostata in a Black Sea lagoon, the Razelm Lake in Romania. The morphological data (the shape of shell ribs and the multivariate analysis of morphometric variance of three variables constructed as the ratios between the main dimensions of the shell) confirmed that the two analyzed species are distinct morphological entities. Three molecular markers, one from the nuclear genome (18S rRNA) and two from the mitochondrial genome (16S rRNA and COI), showed extremely reduced sequence divergence (0-0.1%) between the two putative species. Based on these results, we suggest that H. angusticostata and H. colorata are morphotypes of a single species.

  5. Evolutionary history of relict Congeria (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae): unearthing the subterranean biodiversity of the Dinaric Karst

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patterns of biodiversity in the subterranean realm are typically different from those encountered on the Earth’s surface. The Dinaric karst of Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is a global hotspot of subterranean biodiversity. How this was achieved and why this is so remain largely unresolved despite a long tradition of research. To obtain insights into the colonisation of the Dinaric Karst and the effects of the subterranean realm on its inhabitants, we studied the tertiary relict Congeria, a unique cave-dwelling bivalve (Dreissenidae), using a combination of biogeographical, molecular, morphological, and paleontological information. Results Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses using both nuclear and mitochondrial markers have shown that the surviving Congeria lineage has actually split into three distinct species, i.e., C. kusceri, C. jalzici sp. nov. and C. mulaomerovici sp. nov., by vicariant processes in the late Miocene and Pliocene. Despite millions of years of independent evolution, analyses have demonstrated a great deal of shell similarity between modern Congeria species, although slight differences in hinge plate structure have enabled the description of the two new species. Ancestral plesiomorphic shell forms seem to have been conserved during the processes of cave colonisation and subsequent lineage isolation. In contrast, shell morphology is divergent within one of the lineages, probably due to microhabitat differences. Conclusions Following the turbulent evolution of the Dreissenidae during the Tertiary and major radiations in Lake Pannon, species of Congeria went extinct. One lineage survived, however, by adopting a unique life history strategy that suited it to the underground environment. In light of our new data, an alternative scenario for its colonisation of the karst is proposed. The extant Congeria comprises three sister species that, to date, have only been found to live in 15 caves in the Dinaric karst. Inter-specific morphological stasis and intra-specific ecophenotypic plasticity of the congerid shell demonstrate the contrasting ways in which evolution in the underground environments shapes its inhabitants. PMID:23388548

  6. Trends in the sand: Directional evolution in the shell shape of recessing scallops (Bivalvia: Pectinidae).

    PubMed

    Sherratt, Emma; Alejandrino, Alvin; Kraemer, Andrew C; Serb, Jeanne M; Adams, Dean C

    2016-09-01

    Directional evolution is one of the most compelling evolutionary patterns observed in macroevolution. Yet, despite its importance, detecting such trends in multivariate data remains a challenge. In this study, we evaluate multivariate evolution of shell shape in 93 bivalved scallop species, combining geometric morphometrics and phylogenetic comparative methods. Phylomorphospace visualization described the history of morphological diversification in the group; revealing that taxa with a recessing life habit were the most distinctive in shell shape, and appeared to display a directional trend. To evaluate this hypothesis empirically, we extended existing methods by characterizing the mean directional evolution in phylomorphospace for recessing scallops. We then compared this pattern to what was expected under several alternative evolutionary scenarios using phylogenetic simulations. The observed pattern did not fall within the distribution obtained under multivariate Brownian motion, enabling us to reject this evolutionary scenario. By contrast, the observed pattern was more similar to, and fell within, the distribution obtained from simulations using Brownian motion combined with a directional trend. Thus, the observed data are consistent with a pattern of directional evolution for this lineage of recessing scallops. We discuss this putative directional evolutionary trend in terms of its potential adaptive role in exploiting novel habitats. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. BIOMARKER RESPONSES IN MACOMA NASUTA (BIVALVIA) EXPOSED TO SEDIMENTS FROM NORTHERN SAN FRANCISCO BAY. (R826940)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Our study investigates biomarker responses and survival of Macoma nasuta exposed to sediments collected from six locations in northern San Francisco Bay. Biomarkers analyzed were stress proteins (hsp70) in gill, mantle and digestive gland, lysosomal mem...

  8. Microbial Distribution and Abundance in the Digestive System of Five Shipworm Species (Bivalvia: Teredinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Betcher, Meghan A.; Fung, Jennifer M.; Han, Andrew W.; O’Connor, Roberta; Seronay, Romell; Concepcion, Gisela P.; Distel, Daniel L.; Haygood, Margo G.

    2012-01-01

    Marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms) are voracious consumers of wood in marine environments. In several shipworm species, dense communities of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts have been observed within specialized cells (bacteriocytes) of the gills (ctenidia). These bacteria are proposed to contribute to digestion of wood by the host. While the microbes of shipworm gills have been studied extensively in several species, the abundance and distribution of microbes in the digestive system have not been adequately addressed. Here we use Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and laser scanning confocal microscopy with 16S rRNA directed oligonucleotide probes targeting all domains, domains Bacteria and Archaea, and other taxonomic groups to examine the digestive microbiota of 17 specimens from 5 shipworm species (Bankia setacea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Lyrodus massa, Lyrodus sp. and Teredo aff. triangularis). These data reveal that the caecum, a large sac-like appendage of the stomach that typically contains large quantities of wood particles and is considered the primary site of wood digestion, harbors only very sparse microbial populations. However, a significant number of bacterial cells were observed in fecal pellets within the intestines. These results suggest that due to low abundance, bacteria in the caecum may contribute little to lignocellulose degradation. In contrast, the comparatively high population density of bacteria in the intestine suggests a possible role for intestinal bacteria in the degradation of lignocellulose. PMID:23028923

  9. Oceanographic conditions govern shell growth of Arctica islandica (Bivalvia) in surface waters off Northeast Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marali, Soraya; Schöne, Bernd R.

    2015-04-01

    Shells of the long-lived bivalve Arctica islandica provide absolutely dated, highly resolved archives of environmental variability in the extratropical realm. Shell growth rates of contemporaneous A. islandica specimens are synchronized by one or several environmental factor(s), such as seawater temperature, food supply etc. Based on the growth synchrony, increment width records can be combined to composite chronologies. However, according to existing studies, A. islandica specimens from shallow waters do not show synchronous changes in shell growth and may thus not provide information about environmental conditions such as sea surface temperature. Here, we present the first statistically robust composite chronology of A. islandica from unpolluted surface waters (8-23 m) off Northeast Iceland. The complete record spans the time interval of 1835 to 2012. Times of enhanced shell growth coincide with periods of higher temperature and elevated food supply. Instrumental sea surface temperature (SST) during the growing season explains up to 43% of the variation in relative shell growth. However, the correlation strength varies over time. When the environmental conditions at the sampling site were stable over many consecutive years, i.e. one of the two major surface currents (the warm, nutrient-rich Irminger Current or the cold, nutrient-deficient East Icelandic Current) predominated the area over longer time intervals, the growth synchrony among coeval A. islandica weakened and the correlation between shell growth and SSTs was markedly reduced. Conversely, if the habitat was under the alternating influence of both ocean currents, shell growth was stronger correlated to each other and to SST. Thus, environmental variability is required to synchronize shell growth rates within an A. islandica population. This study further enlightens the relationship between bivalve shell growth and environmental variables.

  10. Divergent chemosymbiosis-related characters in Thyasira cf. gouldi (Bivalvia: Thyasiridae).

    PubMed

    Batstone, Rebecca T; Laurich, Jason R; Salvo, Flora; Dufour, Suzanne C

    2014-01-01

    Within the marine bivalve family Thyasiridae, some species have bacterial chemosymbionts associated with gill epithelial cells while other species are asymbiotic. Although the abundance of symbionts in a particular thyasirid species may vary, the structure of their gills (i.e., their frontal-abfrontal thickening) does not. We examined gill structure in a species tentatively identified as Thyasira gouldi from a Northwest Atlantic fjord (Bonne Bay, Newfoundland) and found remarkable differences among specimens. Some individuals had thickened gill filaments with abundant symbionts, while others had thin filaments and lacked symbionts. We could differentiate symbiotic and asymbiotic specimens based on the size and outline of their shell as well as 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and CO1 sequences. The wide morphological, genetic and symbiosis-related disparity described herein suggests that chemosymbiosis may influence host divergence, and that Thyasira gouldi forms a cryptic species complex.

  11. The complete mitogenome of the marine bivalve Lutraria rhynchaena Jonas 1844 (Heterodonta: Bivalvia: Mactridae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Thai, Binh Thanh; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the commercially important snout otter clam Lutraria rhynchaena was obtained from low-coverage shotgun sequencing data on the MiSeq platform. The L. rhynchaena mitogenome has 16,927 base pairs (69% A + T content) and made up of 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a 953 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This is the first mitogenome to be sequenced from the genus Lutraria, and the seventh to be reported for the family Mactridae.

  12. Organization pattern of nacre in Pteriidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca) explained by crystal competition

    PubMed Central

    Checa, Antonio G; Okamoto, Takashi; Ramírez, Joaquín

    2006-01-01

    Bivalve nacre is a brick-wall-patterned biocomposite of aragonite platelets surrounded by organic matter. SEM–electron back scatter diffraction analysis of nacre of the bivalve family Pteriidae reveals that early aragonite crystals grow with their c-axes oriented perpendicular to the growth surface but have their a- and b-axes disoriented. With the accumulation of successive lamellae, crystals progressively orient themselves with their b-axes mutually parallel and towards the growth direction. We propose that progressive orientation is a result of competition between nacre crystals at the growth front of lamellae, which favours selection of crystals whose fastest growth axis (b-axis) is oriented parallel to the direction of propagation of the lamella. A theoretical model has been developed, which simulates competition of rhombic plates at the lamellar growth front as well as epitaxial growth of crystals onto those of the preceding lamella. The model predicts that disordered nacre progressively produces bivalve-like oriented nacre. As growth fronts become diffuse (as is the common case in bivalves) it takes longer for nacre to become organized. Formation of microdomains of nacre platelets with different orientations is also reproduced. In conclusion, not only the organic matrix component, but also the mineral phase plays an active role in organizing the final microstructure. PMID:16777720

  13. Pattern and process of diversification in an ecologically diverse epifaunal bivalve group Pterioidea (Pteriomorphia, Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Remi; Kameda, Yuichi; Kato, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    The pterioid bivalves (superfamily Pterioidea) are epifaunal filter feeders that attach to various substrata, including rocks, corals, gorgonians, and sponges. An intriguing question is how different substratum types have affected the diversification of pterioid bivalves. To elucidate the evolutionary pathway of Pterioidea, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 49 individuals belonging to 18 pterioid and 5 outgroup species using 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes. The results supported the monophyly of superfamily Pterioidea and recovered three major clades within Pterioidea: Malleus, Pteria and Electroma (Pterelectroma) zebra and the rest. This result contradicts the current circumscription of the pterioid families, Pteriidae, Malleidae, and Isognomonidae, and suggests that hinge morphology, which has long been used as a diagnostic character, does not reflect phylogenetic relationships. The monophyly of most genera, however, was confirmed. Mapping substrata types on the phylogenetic tree indicated that the ancestors of pterioid bivalves were epifaunal on rocks, and that epizoic life on sessile cnidarians had a single origin. Although we could not ascertain whether endozoic life in sponges evolved once or twice, our results suggest that colonization of biotic substrata resulted in diversification and morphological and ecological adaptation to epi-/endozoic life. We estimated that the genus Pteria has diversified since the late Cretaceous in response to gorgonian diversification. These results emphasize the importance of substratum shifts in speciation and diversification of pterioid bivalves. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative Large-Scale Mitogenomics Evidences Clade-Specific Evolutionary Trends in Mitochondrial DNAs of Bivalvia

    PubMed Central

    Plazzi, Federico; Puccio, Guglielmo; Passamonti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Despite the figure of complete bivalve mitochondrial genomes keeps growing, an assessment of the general features of these genomes in a phylogenetic framework is still lacking, despite the fact that bivalve mitochondrial genomes are unusual under different aspects. In this work, we constructed a dataset of one hundred mitochondrial genomes of bivalves to perform the first systematic comparative mitogenomic analysis, developing a phylogenetic background to scaffold the evolutionary history of the class' mitochondrial genomes. Highly conserved domains were identified in all protein coding genes; however, four genes (namely, atp6, nad2, nad4L, and nad6) were found to be very divergent for many respects, notwithstanding the overall purifying selection working on those genomes. Moreover, the atp8 gene was newly annotated in 20 mitochondrial genomes, where it was previously declared as lacking or only signaled. Supernumerary mitochondrial proteins were compared, but it was possible to find homologies only among strictly related species. The rearrangement rate on the molecule is too high to be used as a phylogenetic marker, but here we demonstrate for the first time in mollusks that there is correlation between rearrangement rates and evolutionary rates. We also developed a new index (HERMES) to estimate the amount of mitochondrial evolution. Many genomic features are phylogenetically congruent and this allowed us to highlight three main phases in bivalve history: the origin, the branching of palaeoheterodonts, and the second radiation leading to the present-day biodiversity. PMID:27503296

  15. Novel Microsatellite Markers of Meretrix petechialis and Cross-species Amplification in Related Taxa (Bivalvia: Veneroida)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Byeng-Hak; Park, Jung-Youn; Lee, Jung-Mi; Jeong, Ji-Eun; Lee, Jun-Sang; Ko, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Yong-Seok

    2012-01-01

    The Asian hard clam, Meretrix petechialis, is an economically important bivalve, but its catch and population sizes are decreasing rapidly, owing to many factors, including large-scale reclamation of its natural habitat on the western coast of the Korean peninsula. Attempts to restore the resources and production of this species require genetic structure and diversity information. In this study, we developed 15 microsatellite markers from a partial genomic library enriched in GT repeats. Nine of these markers were polymorphic, with an average allele number of six, and six were monomorphic in 95 tested individuals. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci (p > 0.05), and deviations from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) test showing excess of heterozygotes was observed in only one of nine loci. In addition, no null alleles or genetic differentiation between two tested populations were detected. A cross-species amplification in 12 species of four families resulted in two M. petechialis-specific loci and three possible universal markers. This information will be useful in the future development of high-quality artificial seedlings and sustainable resource management. PMID:23443103

  16. Physiological effects of hypercapnia in the deep-sea bivalve Acesta excavata (Fabricius, 1779) (Bivalvia; Limidae).

    PubMed

    Hammer, Karen M; Kristiansen, Erlend; Zachariassen, Karl Erik

    2011-09-01

    The option of storing CO(2) in subsea rock formations to mitigate future increases in atmospheric CO(2) may induce problems for animals in the deep sea. In the present study the deep-sea bivalve Acesta excavata was subjected to environmental hypercapnia (pHSW 6.35, P(CO₂) =33,000 μatm) corresponding to conditions reported from natural CO(2) seeps. Effects on acid-base status and metabolic rate were related to time of exposure and subsequent recovery. During exposure there was an uncompensated drop in both hemolymph and intracellular pH. Intracellular pH returned to control values, while extracellular pH remained significantly lower during recovery. Intracellular non-bicarbonate buffering capacity of the posterior adductor muscle of hypercapnic animals was significantly lower than control values, but this was not the case for the remaining tissues analyzed. Oxygen consumption initially dropped by 60%, but then increased during the final stages of exposure, which may suggest a higher tolerance to hypercapnia than expected for a deep-living species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Habitat Preferences and Growth of Ruditapes bruguieri (Bivalvia: Veneridae) at the Northern Boundary of Its Range

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This work is the first attempt to study growth and some morphological parameters of the clam Ruditapes bruguieri, as well as its habitat preferences. It is found that R. bruguieri lives on bottom sediments including pebble and coarse- and medium-grained sand with a slight admixture of silt. At the study area, this bivalve inhabits sea waters with good aeration, stable oceanic water salinity, and a high oxygen concentration. The annual fluctuations of the water temperature from 13-14°C (in winter) to 22–29°C (in summer) are close to the threshold temperature values, within which the species can exist. Near the boundary of the species range, along the Jeju Island coasts, south of Republic of Korea, 83.8% of all clams die during the coldest period of the year. Here, annual rings are formed on R. bruguieri shells during winter. The maximum age of R. bruguieri, determined during the study, is 6.5 years, but the clam samples contain mainly individuals at 3.0–3.5 years of age (34%). The largest clam dimensions are 36.0 × 26.5 mm (length × height of shell). At the study area, a usual shell length is 20.0–32.0 mm (75% of all the collected individuals). PMID:24526886

  18. Divergent Chemosymbiosis-Related Characters in Thyasira cf. gouldi (Bivalvia: Thyasiridae)

    PubMed Central

    Batstone, Rebecca T.; Laurich, Jason R.; Salvo, Flora; Dufour, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Within the marine bivalve family Thyasiridae, some species have bacterial chemosymbionts associated with gill epithelial cells while other species are asymbiotic. Although the abundance of symbionts in a particular thyasirid species may vary, the structure of their gills (i.e., their frontal-abfrontal thickening) does not. We examined gill structure in a species tentatively identified as Thyasira gouldi from a Northwest Atlantic fjord (Bonne Bay, Newfoundland) and found remarkable differences among specimens. Some individuals had thickened gill filaments with abundant symbionts, while others had thin filaments and lacked symbionts. We could differentiate symbiotic and asymbiotic specimens based on the size and outline of their shell as well as 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and CO1 sequences. The wide morphological, genetic and symbiosis-related disparity described herein suggests that chemosymbiosis may influence host divergence, and that Thyasira gouldi forms a cryptic species complex. PMID:24658402

  19. Microanatomy and ultrastructure of the foot of the infaunal bivalve Tegillarca granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Sick; Lee, Yeon Gyu; Park, Jung Jun; Shin, Yun Kyung

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the morphology and ultrastructure of the foot of Tegillarca granosa was compared with the bivalves from different habitats. The sediment of habitat of T. granosa is mostly a mixture of sand (68.93%) and mud (24.12%). The foot is wedge-shaped with multiple projections on the surface and covered with ciliary tufts. The epithelial layer is simple and composed of ciliated columnar epithelia and mucous cells. Although the mucous cells are distributed mostly in the epithelial layer, they are developed even in the connective tissues and muscle layers, and the mucous cells mostly contain acidic carboxylated mucosubstances. From the TEM observation, secretory cells are classified into three types. Type A secretory cell has a goblet form and is most widely distributed among the three types. Type B secretory cell has an oval form and the secretory granule has fibrous substance. Type C secretory cell has an elongated elliptic form and membrane-bounded secretory granules. The muscle fiber bundles are composed mainly of smooth muscle fibers. The smooth muscle fibers can be divided into two types. Type A muscle fibers have evenly distributed thick microfilaments between the thin microfilaments of cytoplasm. Type B muscle fiber has cluster of condensed microfilaments in the medulla cytoplasm while the cortical cytoplasm has loose distribution of thin microfilaments. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Revision of the Bivalvia from the Upper Jurassic Reuchenette Formation, Northwest Switzerland--Ostreoidea.

    PubMed

    Koppka, Jens

    2015-03-10

    The current work is the first part of a taxonomic revision of the highly diverse Kimmeridgian bivalve fauna of the Reuchenette Formation of northwestern Switzerland (Canton Jura). It provides a taxonomic, paleoecologic and bibliographic review of the eight oyster species characterizing the northern Helvetic shelf: Circunula n. gen. cotyledon (Contejean, 1859) (Gryphaeidae, ?Pycnodonteinae), Nanogyra (Nanogyra) nana (J. Sowerby, 1822), Nanogyra (Palaeogyra) reniformis (Goldfuss, 1833), Nanogyra (Palaeogyra) virgula (Deshayes, 1831) (Gryphaeidae, Exogyrinae), Helvetostrea n. gen. sequana (Thurmann & Etallon, 1862) (Flemingostreidae, Crassostreinae), Praeexogyra dubiensis (Contejean, 1859), Praeexogyra monsbeliardensis (Contejean, 1859) (Flemingostreidae, Liostreinae), and Actinostreon gregareum (J. Sowerby, 1815) (Arctostreidae, Palaeolophinae).The paper proposes two new genera: Circunula and Helvetostrea. Palaeogyra Mirkamalov, 1963, is considered a subgenus of Nanogyra Beurlen, 1958. Lectotypes are designated for six species: C. cotyledon, Praeexogyra acuminata, P. dubiensis, P. monsbeliardensis, H. caprina, H. sequana. The figured types of H. oxfordiana (Rollier, 1917) and N. auricularis (Münster in Goldfuss, 1833) are considered holotypes by monotypy. All types are refigured in drawings and/or photographs. Early phases of shell ontogeny in general and the generic characters of Praeexogyra are revisited. Larval shells or their internal moulds are shown for six species: N. nana, N. reniformis, N. virgula, N. cf. auricularis, Praeexogyra cf. sandalinoides (de Loriol, 1901), and Actinostreon marshii (J. Sowerby, 1814). All of them are "Crassostrea"-like suggesting a planktic-planktotrophic mode of development. Circunula n. gen. shows a relatively high incidence of prosogyry (up to ca. 20% of studied specimens) during very early postlarval development. To a lesser extent, prosogyry has also been observed in species of Catinula, Praeexogyra and Pernostrea. Chomata are typical of early ontogenetic stages of Circunula n. gen., but they disappear during later growth stages. Circunula n. gen. cotyledon is a typical early settler on hardgrounds but occurs also in subtidal soft-bottom environments attached to large shells. Nanogyra (N.) nana attached itself to all kinds of biogenous hard and soft substrates including algal stems and thalli. It is regularly found in calm to moderately energetic shallow marine paleoenvironments. Nanogyra (P.) reniformis frequently settled on the interior of empty bivalve shells. Nanogyra (P.) virgula was esentially a secondary soft-bottom dweller of shallow marine marls and lime muds. The species is often found concentrated in widely distributed (par)autochthonous lumachelles ("virgula marls" of authors) in the Upper Oxfordian, Upper Kimmeridgian and Tithonian. Praeexogyra dubiensis and P. monsbeliardensis occur in marly, shallow marine paleoenvironments. Praeexogyra dubiensis appears to have preferred attachment to small objects in a moderately energetic facies. In the study area it is also associated with algal meadows. Praeexogyra monsbeliardensis was preferentially gregarious in somewhat deeper and calmer paleoenvironments. The strongly chambered and probably fast growing Helvetostrea n. gen. sequana was adapted to moderate to high energetic shallow marine, marly habitats. It is frequently associated with corals and forms ostreoliths or small oyster buildups. Actinostreon gregareum usually lived gregariously but was also able to attach itself to algae on soft substrates. The species is known from calm marly to higher energetic coralline paleoenvironments.

  1. Transfection of eggs in the bivalve mollusc Chamelea gallina (Bivalvia, Veneridae).

    PubMed

    Guerra, R; Esponda, P

    2006-04-01

    Eggs from the bivalve mollusc Chamelea gallina were transfected in vitro. The p-GeneGrip gene construction that expresses the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was employed. It was necessary to remove the jelly coat which covers the egg surface for a successful transfection, and then 44.2% of gametes appeared transfected after using naked DNA. On the other hand, cationic liposomes (Lipofectamine) and neutral lipids (GenePORTER) were employed as gene vectors. After the employ of Lipofectamine 35.6% of eggs were transfected and 41.4% after using GenePORTER. Fluorescence analysis showed that the foreign gene appeared principally located in the egg cytoplasm, but laser confocal microscopy showed that it was also present in the nucleus. Furthermore, PCR analysis demonstrated that the foreign DNA appeared in the DNA extracted from the treated eggs. This simple method for the transfection of mollusc eggs would be interesting for future biotechnological applications in species of commercial interest.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Solemya velum (Mollusca: Bivalvia) and its relationships with conchifera.

    PubMed

    Plazzi, Federico; Ribani, Anisa; Passamonti, Marco

    2013-06-18

    Bivalve mitochondrial genomes exhibit a wide array of uncommon features, like extensive gene rearrangements, large sizes, and unusual ways of inheritance. Species pertaining to the order Solemyida (subclass Opponobranchia) show many peculiar evolutionary adaptations, f.i. extensive symbiosis with chemoautotrophic bacteria. Despite Opponobranchia are central in bivalve phylogeny, being considered the sister group of all Autobranchia, a complete mitochondrial genome has not been sequenced yet. In this paper, we characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of the Atlantic awning clam Solemya velum: A-T content, gene arrangement and other features are more similar to putative ancestral mollusks than to other bivalves. Two supranumerary open reading frames are present in a large, otherwise unassigned, region, while the origin of replication could be located in a region upstream to the cox3 gene. We show that S. velum mitogenome retains most of the ancestral conchiferan features, which is unusual among bivalve mollusks, and we discuss main peculiarities of this first example of an organellar genome coming from the subclass Opponobranchia. Mitochondrial genomes of Solemya (for bivalves) and Haliotis (for gastropods) seem to retain the original condition of mollusks, as most probably exemplified by Katharina.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Solemya velum (Mollusca: Bivalvia) and its relationships with Conchifera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bivalve mitochondrial genomes exhibit a wide array of uncommon features, like extensive gene rearrangements, large sizes, and unusual ways of inheritance. Species pertaining to the order Solemyida (subclass Opponobranchia) show many peculiar evolutionary adaptations, f.i. extensive symbiosis with chemoautotrophic bacteria. Despite Opponobranchia are central in bivalve phylogeny, being considered the sister group of all Autobranchia, a complete mitochondrial genome has not been sequenced yet. Results In this paper, we characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of the Atlantic awning clam Solemya velum: A-T content, gene arrangement and other features are more similar to putative ancestral mollusks than to other bivalves. Two supranumerary open reading frames are present in a large, otherwise unassigned, region, while the origin of replication could be located in a region upstream to the cox3 gene. Conclusions We show that S. velum mitogenome retains most of the ancestral conchiferan features, which is unusual among bivalve mollusks, and we discuss main peculiarities of this first example of an organellar genome coming from the subclass Opponobranchia. Mitochondrial genomes of Solemya (for bivalves) and Haliotis (for gastropods) seem to retain the original condition of mollusks, as most probably exemplified by Katharina. PMID:23777315

  4. Muscle and neuronal differentiation in primary cell culture of larval Mytilus trossulus (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Odintsova, Nelly A; Dyachuk, Vyacheslav A; Nezlin, Leonid P

    2010-03-01

    Molluscan in vitro technology allows the study of the differentiation of isolated cells undergoing experimental manipulations. We have used the immunofluorescence technique and laser scanning microscopy to investigate the organization of muscle proteins (actin, myosin, paramyosin, and twitchin) and the localization of neurotransmitters (serotonin and FMRFamide) in cultured mussel larval cells. Differentiation into muscle and neuron-like cells occurs during the cultivation of mussel cells from premyogenic and prenervous larval stages. Muscle proteins are colocalized in contractile cells through all stages of cultivation. The cultivation of mussel cells on various substrates and the application of integrin receptor blockers suggest that an integrin-dependent mechanism is involved in cell adhesion and differentiation. Dissociated mussel cells aggregate and become self-organized in culture. After 20 days of cultivation, they form colonies in which serotonin- and FMRFamide-immunoreactive cells are located centrally, whereas muscle cells form a contractile network at the periphery. The pattern of thick and thin filaments in cultivated mussel cells changes according to the scenario of muscle arrangement in vivo: initially, a striated pattern of muscle filaments forms but is then replaced by a smooth muscle pattern with a diffuse distribution of muscle proteins, typical of muscles of adult molluscs. Myogenesis in molluscs thus seems to be a highly dynamic and potentially variable process. Such a "flexible" developmental program can be regarded as a prerequisite for the evolution of the wide variety of striated and smooth muscles in larval and adult molluscs.

  5. Identifying the true oysters (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) with mitochondrial phylogeny and distance-based DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Li, Qi; Kong, Lingfeng; Yu, Hong; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2011-09-01

    Oysters (family Ostreidae), with high levels of phenotypic plasticity and wide geographic distribution, are a challenging group for taxonomists and phylogenetics. As a useful tool for molecular species identification, DNA barcoding might offer significant potential for oyster identification and taxonomy. This study used two mitochondrial fragments, cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and the large ribosomal subunit (16S rDNA), to assess whether oyster species could be identified by phylogeny and distance-based DNA barcoding techniques. Relationships among species were estimated by the phylogenetic analyses of both genes, and then pairwise inter- and intraspecific genetic divergences were assessed. Species forming well-differentiated clades in the molecular phylogenies were identical for both genes even when the closely related species were included. Intraspecific variability of 16S rDNA overlapped with interspecific divergence. However, average intra- and interspecific genetic divergences for COI were 0-1.4% (maximum 2.2%) and 2.6-32.2% (minimum 2.2%), respectively, indicating the existence of a barcoding gap. These results confirm the efficacy of species identification in oysters via DNA barcodes and phylogenetic analysis.

  6. [Does the comparator method has a future in diagnosing large bivalves (Bivalvia: Unionida)?].

    PubMed

    Bogatov, V V

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that the contours of the frontal sections of valves in shells of different size of the same species run through different parts of the valve. A new modification of the comparator method is proposed, which allows studying the shape of the maximum convex contour of the cross-section of the shell.

  7. Reproductive ecology of Actinonaias ligamentina (Bivalvia:Unionidae) in a regulated river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moles, K.R.; Layzer, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Factors affecting the reproductive success of freshwater mussels in lotic systems are poorly understood. Gravidity, fecundity, and fertilization success of Actinonaias ligamentina were examined at 4 sites along a 63-km reach of the Green River immediately below the Green River Dam, Kentucky. No gravid females were collected at the site closest to the dam, and the percentage of gravid females at downstream sites ranged from 20 to 36%. Not all females became gravid, despite the presence of early stages of ova in the gonadal fluid. This observation suggests that female A. ligamentina undergo a resting stage and, therefore, might not become gravid every year. Fecundity differed among sites and increased with distance from the dam. Fertilization rates ranged from 32 to 97% among sites and increased with distance from the dam. Fertilization rate was independent of local mussel density and position in the mussel bed. The high fertilization rates observed in the upstream portions of mussel beds indicate that freshwater mussel sperm have the ability to travel to distant females in lotic systems. Therefore, females are not necessarily dependent upon nearby males for fertilization. Successful fertilization of A. ligamentina at low mussel densities in the Green River suggests that natural recovery of rare endangered species might be possible if host fish and suitable conditions for juvenile survival and growth are present. ?? 2008 by The North American Benthological Society.

  8. Immunological and biochemical responses in Mya arenaria (Mollusca Bivalvia) exposed in vivo to estradiol-17beta.

    PubMed

    Gauthier-Clerc, S; Pellerin, J; Fournier, M; Amiard, J-C

    2006-11-01

    Soft-shell clams Mya arenaria were injected with 10, 20 or 40 nmol of estradiol 17beta (E2). We observed a significant inhibiting effect of E2 on phagocytic activity of hemocytes from clams exposed to 10 and 20 nmol. A dose-response increase of the glycogen phosphorylase in the gonad tended to show a remobilisation of glycogen reserves involved in vitellogenesis although the exposure time must have been too short to observe a decrease in glycogen reserves or an increase in RNA concentration. Both results corroborate those of other studies about estrogen involvement in controlling immune capacity and energy metabolism related to vitellogenesis in bivalves. We can assume that immune parameters should now be taken into consideration in assessing endocrine disruption in bivalves. Nevertheless further studies are needed to understand the controlling pathways of E2 with a special regard on its interactions with other effectors involved in bivalve immunity and reproduction as well.

  9. Fine structural study of the spermatogenic cycle in Pitar rudis and Chamelea gallina (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae).

    PubMed

    Erkan, M; Sousa, M

    2002-08-01

    A comparative ultrastructural study of spermatogenesis was performed in the bivalve molluscs Pitar rudis and Chamelea gallina (Veneridae) from Turkey. Sertoli cells appeared to be rich in glycogen, lipid droplets and germ-cell phagolysosomes. Premeiotic cells exhibited nuage and a flagellum, with the Golgi complex and the rough endoplasmic reticulum originating proacrosomal vesicles during the pachytene stage. In round spermatids, the acrosomal vesicle migrated linked to the plasma membrane. In P. rudis, the acrosomal vesicle base formed a thin expansion that attached to the nuclear apex and was associated with development of the perforatorium. The cap-shaped acrosomal vesicle then differentiated into external and internal regions, and also into a small apical light region, although some cells exhibited an apical extension of the external component. On the contrary, two lateroapical light pouches developed in C. gallina. During spermiogenesis, chromatin became fibrillar and then condensed while the nucleus turned conical shaped in P. rudis or slightly curved in C. gallina. In P. rudis, the midpiece contained glycogen and four mitochondria, although five mitochondria were sometimes observed, whereas in C. gallina the midpiece contained four mitochondria. Comparison with other members of Veneroida shows a common ectaquasperm type, but novel findings in acrosome biogenesis.

  10. Mechanisms and functional morphology associated with metal transport in Mercenaria mercenaria (Bivalvia:Mollusca)

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W.E.; Morse, M.P.

    1984-02-20

    Studies on the morphological and physiological effects of environmental pollutants on both adult and larval marine bivalve molluscs are described. We have established a substantial data base on metals accumulation within individual organs of the quahog, Mercenaria mercenaria. In addition, studies on the transport, detoxification and elimination of cadmium and silver in this important species are reported. We have shown that various components of marine oilwell drilling muds can have deleterious effects on both adult sea scallops, Placopecten magellanicus, and surf clams, Spisula solidissima. For example, both Q-broxin and attapulgite clay, at concentrations as low as 100 mg 1/sup -1/, effected both the integrity of the sea scallop pseudolamellibranch gill and the rate of gill frontal ciliary activity.

  11. Larval morphology of the brooding clam Lasaea adansonii (Gmelin, 1791) (Bivalvia, Heterodonta, Galeommatoidea).

    PubMed

    Altnöder, Andreas; Haszprunar, Gerhard

    2008-06-01

    The strongly modified mode of development of the small and brooding galeommatoid bivalve Lasaea adansonii (Gmelin, 1791) [syn. Lasaea rubra (Montagu, 1803)] has been studied by means of transmission and scanning electron microscopy and by fluorescent staining of the muscular system and of two neurotracers, FMRFamide and serotonin. In addition, two developmental stages were visualized using computer-aided 3D-reconstruction. All larval stages of L. adansonii lack ciliary rings. The apical organ appears invaginated: the base of the duct contacts the cerebral ganglia and opens on the preoral region. Larval protonephridia are lacking. The adult kidneys develop independently of the pericardial cavity and contain a protonephridial part that enables excretory function until the pericardium is formed. The larval muscular system is composed of smooth muscle fibers; striated fibers are lacking. Posteriorly and immediately below the ligament, a paired cell of unknown function is present that contains serotonin and FMRFamide. In summary, L. adansonii exhibits the direct mode of development. Only few truly larval structures (e.g., the modified apical organ) are elaborated. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  12. Arctica islandica (Bivalvia): A unique paleoenvironmental archive of the northern North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöne, Bernd R.

    2013-12-01

    High-resolution environmental proxy data from the extratropical North Atlantic prior to the instrumental era are of critical importance to decipher processes and mechanisms of global change. In this regard, shells of the extremely long-lived bivalve mollusc, Arctica islandica (Linnaeus, 1767), have gained particular attention during the last decade because they serve as reliable, subseasonally resolved multi-proxy archives of environmental variability in that very region. With a lifespan of more than 500 years, A. islandica is the longest-lived solitary animal. Its shell grows periodically throughout life and contains distinct annual and daily growth increments. These growth patterns function as a calendar that can be used to place each shell portion into a precise temporal context. Furthermore, changing environmental conditions are encoded in the shells in the form of variable increment widths and geochemical properties. By means of cross-dating, growth increment width chronologies from different specimens can be combined into much longer time-series, so-called composite or master chronologies, covering centuries to millennia and many generations of bivalves. The present paper provides a comprehensive review of research on this species with a special focus on long-term climate and environmental reconstructions using isotopes, trace and minor elements and variations in shell growth. This review also highlights challenges involved with the interpretation of proxy data obtained from A. islandica and identifies future research needs. A. islandica does not easily reveal its secrets. It needs a holistic approach to unlock the multi-proxy records stored in their shells. The goal of this paper is to increase the recognition of this high-potential natural archive and encourage future interdisciplinary research.

  13. Chlorine toxicity to early life stages of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Valenti, Theodore W; Cherry, Donald S; Currie, Rebecca J; Neves, Richard J; Jones, Jess W; Mair, Rachel; Kane, Cynthia M

    2006-09-01

    Chlorine (Cl) is a highly toxic, widely used halogen disinfectant that is present in point-source pollution discharges from wastewater treatment plants and industrial facilities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency freshwater criteria for Cl are 19 microg total residual Cl (TRC)/L as a maximum 1-h average concentration and 11 microg TRC/L as a maximum 4-d average; however, toxicological data for unionids were not used in these calculations. To address this void in the data, we conducted acute tests with glochidia from several species and 21-d bioassays with three-month-old Epioblasma capsaeformis and three-, six-, and 12-month-old Villosa iris juveniles. The 24-h lethal concentration 50 values for glochidia were between 70 and 220 [Lg TRC/L, which are 2.5 to 37 times higher than those reported in other studies for cladocerans. Significant declines in growth and survivorship were observed in the 21-d test with E. capsaeformis at 20 microg TRC/L. Lowest-observed-adverse-effects concentrations in bioassays with juvenile V. iris were higher (30-60 microg TRC/L) but showed a significant trend of declining toxicity with increased age. Although endpoints were above water quality criteria, the long life spans of unionids and potential implications of chronic exposure to endangered juvenile mussels still warrant concern.

  14. [Population dynamic of Donax denticulatus (Bivalvia: Donacidae) at Carenero Beach, Southeastern Cuba].

    PubMed

    Ocaña, Frank A; Apín, Yanet C; Cala, Yuself R

    2013-12-01

    Bivalve molluscs of Donax genus are a very important component of macro-invertebrate assemblages of sandy beaches, and some species are of commercial value in different countries. Although in Cuba Donax denticulatus is not a currently exploited species, the information concerning a stock assessment is a basic step for future use of this resource. With the aim to generate new data on this species structure, growth and secondary production, monthly samples of D. denticulatus were taken from a beach of the Southeastern coast of Cuba, from February to December 2008. Samples were taken from four stations located along the beach; three strata were marked (P1, P2 and P3) per station across the intertidal zone. Three replicated samples of sediments were taken from each stratum with a 0.025 m2 PVC core and were posteriorly sieved with a 1 mm mesh. Histograms of shell length were constructed based on 1 mm intervals and growth parameters were estimated using ELEFAN I routine of FISAT. Mean density ranged from 146.67-855.55 ind./m2 and no differences were found among months (ANOVA, p > 0.05) but among strata (Scheffé, p < 0.05). An association of recruits, young and adults abundances with the strata (chi2, p < 0.01) was found. Most of the recruits were found in the upper strata while young and adult individuals were abundant in the mid-lower strata. Size frequency histograms of this population showed recruitment between March-June. Growth parameters estimated by Von Bertalanffy were Linfinity = 27.5 mm and K = 1.5/year; and the life spam was estimated in 1.5 years. Using the length-converted catch curve, the mortality rate (Z) was estimated in 4.97/year. Based in terms of Ash free dry mass (AFDM), mean biomass was estimated in 0.47 g/m2.year and the somatic production in 12.4 g/m2.year. The renewal rate (P/B) estimated for this population was 26.38, the highest among other Donax populations. High densities, fast growth and high somatic production indicate that this population can be exploited for fishing purposes for which some management measures are proposed.

  15. Ultrastructure of the spermatogenesis of the cockle Anadara granosa L. (Bivalvia: Arcidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwanjarat, J.

    1999-11-01

    In this paper spermatogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of the cockle Anadara granosa are studied using transmission electron microscopy. The spermatocyte presents electron-dense vesicles and the arising axoneme that begins to form the flagellum. During spermatid differentiation, proacrosomal vesicles appear to migrate towards the presumptive anterior pole of the nucleus; eventually these vesicles become acrosome. The spermatozoon of Anadara granosa is of the primitive type. The acrosome, situated at the apex of the nucleus, is cap-shaped and deeply invaginated at the inner side. The spherical nucleus of the spermatozoon contains dense granular chromatin and shows invagination at the posterior poles. The centriole shows the classic nine triplets of microtubules. The middle piece consists of the centriolar complex surrounded by five giant mitochondria. It is shown that the ultrastructure of spermatozoa and spermiogenesis of Anadara granosa reveals a number of features that are common among bivalves.

  16. Physiological responses of the European cockle Cerastoderma edule (Bivalvia: Cardidae) as indicators of coastal lagoon pollution.

    PubMed

    Nilin, Jeamylle; Pestana, João Luís Teixeira; Ferreira, Nuno Gonçalo; Loureiro, Susana; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2012-10-01

    Physiological responses can be used as effective parameters to identify environmentally stressful conditions. In this study, physiology changes such as oxygen consumption, clearance rate, survival in air, condition index and energy reserves were measured on natural populations of cockles collected from different sites at Ria de Aveiro, Portugal. At those sites, sediment samples were collected for Hg concentration analysis. Cockles were used for the evaluation of both the Hg concentration and physiological response. Mercury was detected in the cockle tissue and in the sediment collected from the sampling points both nearby and distant from the main mercury contamination source. The energy content was negatively correlated with both Hg concentration in cockle tissues and survival in air. Nonetheless, the energy content was positively correlated with the condition index, and there was a positive correlation between the survival in air test and the tissue mercury concentration. A PCA-factor analysis explained 86.8% of the total variance. The principal factor (62.7%) consisted of the air survival, the Hg in soft tissues (positive) and the condition index (negative). The second factor (24.1%) consisted of a negative correlation between the oxygen consumption and the clearance rate. Due to their sensitivity to environmental conditions, the physiological responses of cockles can be used to assess the ecological status of aquatic environments. More effort should be invested in investigating the effects of environmental perturbations on cockle health once they are a good reporter organism.

  17. Inheritance of the general shell color in the scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Bivalvia: Pectinidae).

    PubMed

    Winkler, F M; Estévez, B F; Jollán, L B; Garrido, J P

    2001-01-01

    Although some external coloration and pigmentation patterns in molluscan shells may be attributable to environmental factors, most variation in these phenotypic characters depends on uncomplicated genetic mechanisms. Genetic research on inheritance of color variations in the north-Chilean scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) has now been expanded to analyze color segregation in juvenile scallops produced under controlled conditions employing self- and cross-fertilization. Calculations from the results were used for comparison with different numerical models based on Mendelian inheritance, and results were also obtained on the inheritance of a dorsoventral white line often observed on the left (upper) valve in this species. The results confirmed the hereditary basis for color variation in the shell of this scallop, suggesting a simple, dominant model of epistasis to explain the distribution of the different color variants observed (purple, brown, orange, yellow, and white). The presence of the white line may be controlled by a recessive allele with simple Mendelian traits on a locus distinct from those that control color variation.

  18. [Energy metabolism and body mass ratio in bivalves mollusca (Mollusca: Bivalvia)].

    PubMed

    Vladimirova, I G; Kleĭmenov, S Iu; Radzinskaia, L I

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of experimental and published data, the interspecific and intraspecific (ontogenetic) dependence of energy metabolism on body weight in bivalves was calculated. Changes in the parameters of intraspecific allometric dependence under the effect of environmental factors were analyzed. The rate of comparable standard metabolism (coefficient a at k = 0.76) was shown to vary in different taxonomic and zoogeographic groups of bivalves.

  19. Geometrical and crystallographic constraints determine the self-organization of shell microstructures in Unionidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca).

    PubMed Central

    Checa, A. G.; Rodríguez-Navarro, A.

    2001-01-01

    Unionid shells are characterized by an outer aragonitic prismatic layer and an inner nacreous layer. The prisms of the outer shell layer are composed of single-crystal fibres radiating from spheruliths. During prism development, fibres progressively recline to the growth front. There is competition between prisms, leading to the selection of bigger, evenly sized prisms. A new model explains this competition process between prisms, using fibres as elementary units of competition. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray texture analysis show that, during prism growth, fibres become progressively orientated with their three crystallographic axes aligned, which results from geometric constraints and space limitations. Interestingly transition to the nacreous layer does not occur until a high degree of orientation of fibres is attained. There is no selection of crystal orientation in the nacreous layer and, as a result, the preferential orientation of crystals deteriorates. Deterioration of crystal orientation is most probably due to accumulation of errors as the epitaxial growth is suppressed by thick or continuous organic coats on some nacre crystals. In conclusion, the microstructural arrangement of the unionid shell is, to a large extent, self-organized with the main constraints being crystallographic and geometrical laws. PMID:11321067

  20. Growth and production of Donax striatus (Bivalvia: Donacidae) from Las Balsas beach, Gibara, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Ocaña, Frank A

    2015-09-01

    Clams of the genus Donax are worldwide the dominating group of the invertebrate community on sandy beaches. They are primary consumers that provide a significant abundance and biomass to the ecosystem. In the Caribbean, Donax striatus has an important role for nature and human, nonetheless studies on the population dynamics of this beach clam are scarce and no information exists on secondary production of this species. Growth parameters and secondary production of D. striatus were estimated from February 2008 to November 2009 at Las Balsas beach, Northeastern Cuba, in order to provide basic information for management purposes. In each month 45 samples were taken by means of a PVC corer of 0.025 m2 area and sieved with a 1 mm mesh. Animals were measured and weighted with and without shell. A total of 5 471 specimens were collected during the sampling period. Shell length ranged from 2.7-33.3 mm. Growth parameters estimated from length frequency data were L∞ = 36.1 mm, K= 0.8/yr and t0= 0.2/yr. The growth performance resulted in values of Φ'= 3.02. Life span was 2.4 yrs and mortality rate was 3.07 /yr. In 2008, mean abundance of D. striatus ranged between 17.1 - 770.7 ind./m2. In 2009 the lowest mean abundance was 34.4 and the highest was 892.5 ind./m2. During 2009 biomass and production was more than twice higher in comparison with 2008. Individual production showed highest values in the 24 mm shell size (3.74 g/m2.yr) and 25 mm (0.71 g/m2.yr), considering mass with shell and without shell, respectively. During 2009 abundance of individuals with 15 mm shell length or more increased resulting in higher biomass and production, compared to 2008. Using the conversion factor of wet mass to ash free dry mass (AFDM), annual production ranged between 2.87-6.11 g AFDM/m2.yr, resulting in a turnover rate (P/B) between 5.11 and 3.47 in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The rapid growth and high turnover rate of D. striatus suggest a rapid recovery of the population. These results support the idea that this beach clam is an important resource at Las Balsas beach. Thus its exploitation must continue with caution, and only at the level of a recreational fishery.

  1. Molecular Cytogenetics in Trough Shells (Mactridae, Bivalvia): Divergent GC-Rich Heterochromatin Content

    PubMed Central

    García-Souto, Daniel; Pérez-García, Concepción; Kendall, Jack; Pasantes, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    The family Mactridae is composed of a diverse group of marine organisms, commonly known as trough shells or surf clams, which illustrate a global distribution. Although this family includes some of the most fished and cultured bivalve species, their chromosomes are poorly studied. In this work, we analyzed the chromosomes of Spisula solida, Spisula subtruncata and Mactra stultorum by means of fluorochrome staining, C-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization using 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), 5S rDNA, H3 histone gene and telomeric probes. All three trough shells presented 2n = 38 chromosomes but different karyotype compositions. As happens in most bivalves, GC-rich regions were limited to the nucleolus organizing regions in Spisula solida. In contrast, many GC-rich heterochromatic bands were detected in both Spisula subtruncata and Mactra stultorum. Although the three trough shells presented single 5S rDNA and H3 histone gene clusters, their chromosomal locations differed. Regarding major rDNA clusters, while Spisula subtruncata presented a single cluster, both Spisula solida and Mactra stultorum showed two. No evidence of intercalary telomeric signals was detected in these species. The molecular cytogenetic characterization of these taxa will contribute to understanding the role played by chromosome changes in the evolution of trough shells. PMID:27537915

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Olympia oyster Ostrea lurida (Bivalvia, Ostreidae).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shu; Wu, Xiangyun; Li, Lu; Yu, Ziniu

    2015-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the Olympia oyster Ostrea lurida (16,344 bp), an economically important bivalve, was newly sequenced and annotated. Ostrea lurida is the largest reported Ostrea oyster mt genomes to date and has a comparatively highest overall A + T content (65%) among the available genomes of marine oysters. High levels of variability of nad2 and nad6 genes and that of major non-coding region (MNR) indicate their potential value as useful molecular markers for population and conservation genetic studies in the future. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated nucleotide sequences from all 13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes show that the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis is sister to the Asian slipper oyster Ostrea denselamellosa, while O. lurida is put at the most basal position of the clade, and indicate that Ostrea are closer to Saccostrea than Crassostrea, although gene arrangement shows a closer relationship between Ostrea and Crassostrea. The observations of the evolutionary pattern of start codon usage among the three congeneric oysters indicate that variation in start codon usage is species-correlated rather than gene-correlated, and to some extent, bears useful phylogenetic information.

  3. Carotenoid extraction from the gonad of the scallop Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bivalvia: Pectinidae).

    PubMed

    Suhnel, S; Lagreze, F; Ferreira, J F; Campestrini, L H; Maraschin, M

    2009-02-01

    In marine bivalve mollusks, unsaturated molecules called carotenoids are present in the natural diet and play an important role in different biological process, especially in reproduction. In order to gain more insights into these compounds in Nodipecten nodosus it was necessary to develop a suitable protocol for extraction of carotenoids from the gonads. Female gonads of cultured scallops (75 mm length) were lyophilized and macerated in liquid N2. To verify the effect of composition in organosolvents on the extracting solutions, two organic solvents were tested: acetone and hexane (Ac = O:Hex) at four ratios, 1:1, 1:3, 1:5, and 2:3, in four static extraction times: 0, 5, 10, and 15 minutes. Total carotenoids and astaxanthin contents were determined in the crude extracts by UV-visible spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Triplicate aliquots of 50 mg were used for each treatment. The results indicated that the best single extraction (0.312 +/- 0.016 microg carotenoids/mg) was attained with Ac = O: Hex 1:3, for 15 minutes. Through exhaustive extraction methodology (10x), a superior yield (0.41 +/- 0.001 microg carotenoids/mg) was obtained from a gonad sample in comparison to the highest value found for a single extraction. Astaxanthin content was reduced by 8.6% in carotenoid extract preservation assay, i.e., -18 degrees C, 26 days incubation, under N2 atmosphere.

  4. New insights into diversity and evolution of deep-sea Mytilidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Lorion, Julien; Buge, Barbara; Cruaud, Corinne; Samadi, Sarah

    2010-10-01

    Bathymodiolinae mussels have been used as a biological model to better understand the evolutionary origin of faunas associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Most studies to date, however, have sampled with a strong bias towards vent and seep species, mainly because of a lack of knowledge of closely related species from organic falls. Here we reassess the species diversity of deep-sea mussels using two genes and a large taxon sample from the South-Western Pacific. This new taxonomic framework serves as a basis for a phylogenetic investigation of their evolutionary history. We first highlight an unexpected allopatric pattern and suggest that mussels usually reported from organic falls are in fact poorly specialized with regard to their environment. This challenges the adaptive scenarios proposed to explain the diversification of the group. Second, we confirm that deep-sea mussels arose from organic falls and then colonized hydrothermal vents and cold seeps in multiple events. Overall, this study constitutes a new basis for further phylogenetic investigations and a global systematic revision of deep-sea mussels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The unionid (Bivalvia) fauna of the Sipsey River in northwestern Alabama, an aquatic hotspot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullagh, W. Henry; Williams, James D.; McGregor, Stuart W.; Pierson, J. Malcom; Lydeard, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Recent surveys for unionid bivalves were conducted in the mainstem of the Sipsey River and headwater tributaries (Tombigbee River drainage) during the summer and autumn of 1996-1999. A total of 35 species and 22 genera were found. Museum records from the upper Sipsey, based largely on the efforts of H. H. Smith during 1910-11, raised the total number of recorded unionids in the Sipsey to 42. Smith documented 25 species in the river; however, most of his collections were made in the mid- to upper-Sipsey, which has lower diversity. The three most common recently observed species in descending order of abundance were Quadrula asperata (I. Lea, 1861), Pleurobema decisum (I. Lea, 1831), and Tritogonia verrucosa (Rafinesque, 1820). Federally listed species observed recently include Lampsilis perovalis (Conrad, 1834) (threatened), Medionidus acutissimus (I. Lea, 1831) (threatened), P. decisum (endangered), P. perovatum (Conrad, 1834) (endangered), and Potamilus inflatus (I. Lea, 1831) (threatened). Species not observed recently but recorded in prior surveys include Anodontoides radiatus (Conrad, 1834), Arcidens confragosus (Say, 1829), Plectomerus dombeyanus (Valenciennes, 1827), Q. metanevra (Rafinesque, 1820), Q. stapes (I. Lea, 1831) (federally endangered), P. taitianum (I. Lea, 1834) (federally endangered), and Toxolasma parvus (Barnes, 1823). Many, species are known recently or historically by only five or fewer recorded specimens including: A. radiatus, Elliptio arctata (Conrad, 1834), Ligumia recta (Lamarck, 1819), P. taitianum, P. inflatus, Q. aspera (Lea, 1831), Q. metanevra, Q. stapes, T. parvus, Truncilla donaciformis (I. Lea, 1828), Uniomerus tetralasmus (Say, 1831), Utterbackia imbecillis (Say, 1829), A. confragosus, and P. dombeyanus. Unlike the mussel fauna of most Alabama streams, that of the Sipsey River is still relatively intact in terms of species richness despite impacts from mining, silvicultural, and agricultural activities. A concerted effort should be made to provide guidelines to manage floodplain and watershed activities to avoid future adverse impacts on this aquatic hotspot.

  6. A Methanotrophic Marine Molluscan (Bivalvia, Mytilidae) Symbiosis: Mussels Fueled by Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childress, James J.; Fisher, C. R.; Brooks, J. M.; Kennicutt, M. C.; Bidigare, R.; Anderson, A. E.

    1986-09-01

    An undescribed mussel (family Mytilidae), which lives in the vicinity of hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico, consumes methane (the principal component of natural gas) at a high rate. The methane consumption is limited to the gills of these animals and is apparently due to the abundant intracellular bacteria found there. This demonstrates a methane-based symbiosis between an animal and intracellular bacteria. Methane consumption is dependent on the availability of oxygen and is inhibited by acetylene. The consumption of methane by these mussels is associated with a dramatic increase in oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. As the methane consumption of the bivalve can exceed its carbon dioxide production, the symbiosis may be able to entirely satisfy its carbon needs from methane uptake. The very light (δ 13C = -51 to -57 per mil) stable carbon isotope ratios found in this animal support methane (δ 13C = -45 per mil at this site) as the primary carbon source for both the mussels and their symbionts.

  7. Intraspecific phylogeography of Lasmigona subviridis (Bivalvia: Unionidae): conservation implications of range discontinuity.

    PubMed

    King, T L; Eackles, M S; Gjetvaj, B; Hoeh, W R

    1999-12-01

    A nucleotide sequence analysis of the first internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1) between the 5.8S and 18S ribosomal DNA genes (640 bp) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (576 bp) was conducted for the freshwater bivalve Lasmigona subviridis and three congeners to determine the utility of these regions in identifying phylogeographic and phylogenetic structure. Sequence analysis of the ITS-1 region indicated a zone of discontinuity in the genetic population structure between a group of L. subviridis populations inhabiting the Susquehanna and Potomac Rivers and more southern populations. Moreover, haplotype patterns resulting from variation in the COI region suggested an absence of gene exchange between tributaries within two different river drainages, as well as between adjacent rivers systems. The authors recommend that the northern and southern populations, which are reproductively isolated and constitute evolutionarily significant lineages, be managed as separate conservation units. Results from the COI region suggest that, in some cases, unionid relocations should be avoided between tributaries of the same drainage because these populations may have been reproductively isolated for thousands of generations. Therefore, unionid bivalves distributed among discontinuous habitats (e.g. Atlantic slope drainages) potentially should be considered evolutionarily distinct. The DNA sequence divergences observed in the nuclear and mtDNA regions among the Lasmigona species were congruent, although the level of divergence in the COI region was up to three times greater. The genus Lasmigona, as represented by the four species surveyed in this study, may not be monophyletic.

  8. Age and growth in three populations of Dosinia exoleta (Bivalvia: Veneridae) from the Portuguese coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Paula; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Gaspar, Miguel B.

    2013-12-01

    The present study aimed at estimating the age and growth in three populations of Dosinia exoleta from the Portuguese coast (Aveiro in the north, Setúbal in the southwest and Faro in the south). Two techniques were compared to ascertain the most suitable method for ageing D. exoleta. Growth marks on the shell surface and acetate peel replicas of sectioned shells were the techniques applied. Two hypotheses were tested: growth parameters present latitudinal variation along the Portuguese coast; growth parameters are influenced by the fishing exploitation. Shell surface rings proved inappropriate for ageing this species, whereas acetate peels provided realistic estimates of the von Bertalanffy growth parameters ( K, L ∞ and t 0). A latitudinal gradient in growth rate was detected, with a clear southward increase in the growth coefficient ( K) of D. exoleta (Faro > Setúbal and Aveiro) indicating that warmer waters in southern Portugal provide optimal conditions for the growth of this species. Fishing exploitation in northern Portugal targets larger individuals and leaves behind a younger population of smaller individuals, decreasing the asymptotic shell length ( L ∞ ) of D. exoleta from Aveiro. The overall growth performance was compared among populations of D. exoleta and with other venerid species worldwide.

  9. A biomechanical model of rock drilling in the piddock Barnea candida (Bivalvia; Mollusca).

    PubMed

    Nederlof, Ralf; Muller, Mees

    2012-11-07

    The bivalve Barnea candida (Pholadacea) makes its burrow in clay, soft rock and peat. Barnea has developed a number of adaptations to accommodate this lifestyle. Four muscles enable burrowing. These are situated around a dorsal pivot in such a way that the piddock is able to rotate the shells around two approximate orthogonal axes. The anterior adductor muscle anterior (AAM-A) and the posterior adductor muscle rotate the shells around a dorso-ventral axis; the anterior adductor muscle posterior (AAM-P) and the ventral adductor muscle rotate the shells around an antero-posterior axis. The AAM-A and the AAM-P have evolved from a single anterior adductor muscle and are attached to a piece of the shell that is folded inside out, the umbonal reflection. At the dorsal side of the piddock, the shell margins are reduced. This prevents collision of these margins during movement. Electrical stimulation experiments revealed that the opening of the antero-ventral side of the piddock is faster than its closure. These results were incorporated into a computer model that could simulate shell movements. The computer model allowed predictions about the shapes of burrows and scrape marks. As in Nature, simulated burrows had a long droplet shape with straight scrape marks.

  10. Bacterial Symbiont Transmission in the Wood-Boring Shipworm Bankia setacea (Bivalvia: Teredinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sipe, Alison R.; Wilbur, Ami E.; Cary, S. Craig

    2000-01-01

    The Teredinidae (shipworms) are a morphologically diverse group of marine wood-boring bivalves that are responsible each year for millions of dollars of damage to wooden structures in estuarine and marine habitats worldwide. They exist in a symbiosis with cellulolytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria that provide the host with the necessary enzymes for survival on a diet of wood cellulose. These symbiotic bacteria reside in distinct structures lining the interlamellar junctions of the gill. This study investigated the mode by which these nutritionally essential bacterial symbionts are acquired in the teredinid Bankia setacea. Through 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing, the symbiont residing within the B. setacea gill was phylogenetically characterized and shown to be distinct from previously described shipworm symbionts. In situ hybridization using symbiont-specific 16S rRNA-directed probes bound to bacterial ribosome targets located within the host gill coincident with the known location of the gill symbionts. These specific probes were then used as primers in a PCR-based assay which consistently detected bacterial rDNA in host gill (symbiont containing), gonad tissue, and recently spawned eggs, demonstrating the presence of symbiont cells in host ovary and offspring. These results suggest that B. setacea ensures successful inoculation of offspring through a vertical mode of symbiont transmission and thereby enables a broad distribution of larval settlement. PMID:10742261

  11. Bacterial symbiont transmission in the wood-boring shipworm Bankia setacea (Bivalvia: Teredinidae).

    PubMed

    Sipe, A R; Wilbur, A E; Cary, S C

    2000-04-01

    The Teredinidae (shipworms) are a morphologically diverse group of marine wood-boring bivalves that are responsible each year for millions of dollars of damage to wooden structures in estuarine and marine habitats worldwide. They exist in a symbiosis with cellulolytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria that provide the host with the necessary enzymes for survival on a diet of wood cellulose. These symbiotic bacteria reside in distinct structures lining the interlamellar junctions of the gill. This study investigated the mode by which these nutritionally essential bacterial symbionts are acquired in the teredinid Bankia setacea. Through 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing, the symbiont residing within the B. setacea gill was phylogenetically characterized and shown to be distinct from previously described shipworm symbionts. In situ hybridization using symbiont-specific 16S rRNA-directed probes bound to bacterial ribosome targets located within the host gill coincident with the known location of the gill symbionts. These specific probes were then used as primers in a PCR-based assay which consistently detected bacterial rDNA in host gill (symbiont containing), gonad tissue, and recently spawned eggs, demonstrating the presence of symbiont cells in host ovary and offspring. These results suggest that B. setacea ensures successful inoculation of offspring through a vertical mode of symbiont transmission and thereby enables a broad distribution of larval settlement.

  12. A cellulolytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium cultured from the gland of deshayes in shipworms (bivalvia: teredinidae).

    PubMed

    Waterbury, J B; Calloway, C B; Turner, R D

    1983-09-30

    A novel bacterium has been isolated in pure culture from the gland of Deshayes in six species of teredinid bivalves. It is the first bacterium known to both digest cellulose and fix nitrogen, and it is a participant in a unique symbiotic relation with shipworms that may explain how teredinids are able to use wood as their principal food source.

  13. Location of glycogen in spermatids and spermatozoa of the shipworm, Bankia australis (Teredinidae, Bivalvia, Mollusca).

    PubMed

    Popham, J D; Dickson, M R

    1975-12-18

    The periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate technique and alpha-amylase digestion were used to locate glycogen in the spermatids and sperms of the bivalve Bankia australis. Glycogen was found in the middle piece and around the acrosome in spermatozoa, apparently randomly scattered throughout the cytoplasm of young spermatids, and in a cytoplasmic bead in old spermatids.

  14. The fine structure of the oocyte of bankia australis (teredinidae, bivalvia) before and after fertilization.

    PubMed

    Popham, J D

    1975-01-01

    The fine structure of the oocyte of Bankia australis is compared with that of other bivalve oocytes. It was observed that following fertilization, the microvilli changed their spatial organisation and behaviour towards sperm, the cortical granules disappeared in regions of high concentrations of supernumerary sperm, and the mitochondria apparently stated to divide.

  15. Phylogeny and androgenesis in the invasive Corbicula clams (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae) in Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Corbicula is one of the most invasive groups of molluscs. It includes both sexual and androgenetic lineages. The present study re-assessed the different morphotypes and haplotypes of West European Corbicula in order to clarify their taxonomic identification and phylogenetic relationships with American and Asian Corbicula clams. We studied several populations from West European river basins (Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Rhône) through an "integrative taxonomy" approach. We combined morphology, partial mitochondrial COI and cyt b sequences and eleven microsatellite loci. Furthermore, we looked for discrepancies between mtDNA and nrDNA/morphology, indicative of androgenesis between lineages. Results There are three Corbicula morphotypes in Western Europe associated to three mitochondrial lineages and three genotypes. Form R shares the same COI haplotype as the American form A and the Japanese C. leana. Form S and the American form C have the same haplotype, although their morphologies seem divergent. The European form Rlc belongs to the same mitochondrial lineage as both the American form B and the Asian C. fluminea. Interestingly, within each haplotype/genotype or lineage, no genetic diversity was found although their invasive success is high. Moreover, we detected rare mismatches between mtDNA and nrDNA/morphology, indicative of androgenesis and mitochondrial capture between form R and form S and therefore challenging the phylogenetic relatedness and the species status within this genus. The global phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sexual Corbicula lineages seem restricted to the native areas while their androgenetic relatives are widespread and highly invasive. Conclusions We clarified the discrepancies and incongruent results found in the literature about the European morphotypes of Corbicula and associated mitochondrial lineages. The three West European morphotypes belong to three distinct nuclear and mitochondrial lineages. However mitochondrial capture occurs in sympatric populations of forms R and S. The species status of the morphotypes therefore remains doubtful. Moreover the androgenetic lineages seem widely distributed compared to their sexual relatives, suggesting that androgenesis and invasive success may be linked in the genus Corbicula. PMID:21619630

  16. Oocyte Degeneration Associated with Follicle Cells in Female Mactra chinensis (Bivalvia: Mactridae)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Han; Chung, Ee-Yung; Lee, Ki-Young

    2014-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies of oocyte degeneration in the oocyte, and the functions of follicle cells during oocyte degeneration are described to clarify the reproductive mechanism on oocyte degeneration of Mactra chinensis using cytological methods. Commonly, the follicle cells are attached to the oocyte. Follicle cells play an important role in oocyte degeneration. In particular, the functions of follicle cells during oocyte degeneration are associated with phagocytosis and the intracellular digestion of products. In this study, morphologically similar degenerated phagosomes (various lysosomes), which were observed in the degenerated oocytes, appeared in the follicle cells. After the spawning of the oocytes, the follicle cells were involved in oocyte degeneration through phagocytosis by phagolysosomes. Therefore, it can be assumed that follicle cells reabsorb phagosomes from degenerated oocytes. In this study, the presence of lipid granules, which occurred from degenerating yolk granules, gradually increased in degenerating oocytes. The function of follicle cells can accumulate reserves of lipid granules and glycogen in the cytoplasm, which can be employed by the vitellogenic oocyte. Based on observations of follicle cells attached to degenerating oocytes after spawning, the follicle cells of this species are involved in the lysosomal induction of oocyte degeneration for the reabsorption of phagosomes (phagolysosomes) in the cytoplasm for nutrient storage, as seen in other bivalves. PMID:25949203

  17. Host fishes and host-attracting behavior of Lampsilis altilis and Villosa vibex (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    Treesearch

    Wendell R. Haag; Melvin L. Warren; Mahala. Shillingsford

    1999-01-01

    Suitable host fishes were identified for two species of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) from the Coosa River drainage, Mobile Basin: Lampsilis altilis, the fine-lines pocketbook and Villosa vibex, the southern rainbow. Suitable hosts are defined as fishes that produce juvenile mussels from glochidial infestations in the laboratory....

  18. Reproductive cycle and gonad development of the Northern Argentinean Mesodesma mactroides (Bivalvia: Mesodesmatidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Marko; Alfaya, José E. F.; Lepore, Mauro L.; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E.; Laudien, Jürgen

    2009-09-01

    The reproductive cycle and gonad development of the yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides was studied over a period of 24 months (January 2005-December 2006) at the Argentinean sandy beach Santa Teresita. Histological examination of gonadal tissue revealed that sex ratios did not significantly deviate from the proportion of 1:1 and no case of hermaphroditism was found. The reproductive cycle of M. mactroides followed an annual cyclicality, which was significantly correlated to monthly mean sea surface temperatures (SST). Oocytes showed highest abundance in winter, indicating a process of gonadal development and sexual maturation. The mean oocyte size decreased significantly during spring. Modal oocyte sizes decreased significantly during winter and late spring of each year, suggesting spawning events. The condition index was not useful in describing the annual reproductive cycle of M. mactroides. Ash-free, shell-free dry mass was chosen to detect the condition of the specimens, and this significantly correlated with monthly mean SST and the gametogenic cycle. Annual recruitment patterns during summer-autumn indicated a 3-month-long planktonic phase of M. mactroides. The reproduction cycle and gonad development of M. mactroides showed only weak differences between data from the present study and those collected 40 years ago.

  19. Comparisons of Gymnophallid digeneans from north Pacific and Baltic clams, Macoma balthica (Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Pekkarinen, M; Ching, H L

    1994-08-01

    Three gymnophallid species in Macoma balthica from the northeastern Pacific Ocean are similar to 3 species in M. balthica from the Baltic Sea. Using light and scanning electron microscopy, we compared the anatomy of the larvae of 2 species of Lacunovermis and of Gymnophallus, and the adults of 2 species of Lacunovermis recovered from incubation on chick allantoic membrane. The third similar pair of Meiogymnophallus multigemmulus and Parvatrema affinis was restudied with light microscopy. Previously described anatomical differences between the 3 pairs of Pacific and Baltic gymnophallids were nullified in this study. Lacunovermis conspicuus Ching, 1965 is synonymized with Lacunovermis macomae (Lebour, 1908), and Gymnophallus gibberosus Loos-Frank, 1971 is synonymized with Gymnophallus somateriae (Levinsen, 1881). Meiogymnophallus multigemmulus Ching, 1965 is synonymized with Parvatrema affinis (Jameson and Nicoll, 1913), becoming M. affinis n. comb.

  20. Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography amid shifting continents in the cockles and giant clams (Bivalvia: Cardiidae).

    PubMed

    Herrera, Nathanael D; Ter Poorten, Jan Johan; Bieler, Rüdiger; Mikkelsen, Paula M; Strong, Ellen E; Jablonski, David; Steppan, Scott J

    2015-12-01

    Reconstructing historical biogeography of the marine realm is complicated by indistinct barriers and, over deeper time scales, a dynamic landscape shaped by plate tectonics. Here we present the most extensive examination of model-based historical biogeography among marine invertebrates to date. We conducted the largest phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses to date for the bivalve family Cardiidae (cockles and giant clams) with three unlinked loci for 110 species representing 37 of the 50 genera. Ancestral ranges were reconstructed using the dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis (DEC) method with a time-stratified paleogeographic model wherein dispersal rates varied with shifting tectonics. Results were compared to previous classifications and the extensive paleontological record. Six of the eight prior subfamily groupings were found to be para- or polyphyletic. Cardiidae originated and subsequently diversified in the tropical Indo-Pacific starting in the Late Triassic. Eastern Atlantic species were mainly derived from the tropical Indo-Mediterranean region via the Tethys Sea. In contrast, the western Atlantic fauna was derived from Indo-Pacific clades. Our phylogenetic results demonstrated greater concordance with geography than did previous phylogenies based on morphology. Time-stratifying the DEC reconstruction improved the fit and was highly consistent with paleo-ocean currents and paleogeography. Lastly, combining molecular phylogenetics with a rich and well-documented fossil record allowed us to test the accuracy and precision of biogeographic range reconstructions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Mollusc diversity in an Arca zebra (Mollusca: Bivalvia) community, Chacopata, Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Prieto, A S; Ruiz, L J; García, N; Alvarez, M

    2001-06-01

    The diversity of a subtidal epifaunal mollusk community was studied from September, 1990 to September, 1991 in Chacopata, Sucre State, Venezuela. There were 40 species (24 bivalves and 16 gastropods). The diversity indexes (H' = 2.087, J' = 0.392, 1/D = 0.528) were low when compared with other tropical zones. Monthly diversity reached its maximum in September, 1990 (1.63 bits/ind.) and July, 1991 (1.60 bits/ind.); minimum diversity occurred in June, 1991 (0.52 bits/ind.). A Log series model applied to species abundance data showed a straight line with a diversity index alpha of 5.56. Of 40 species identified, the turkeywing Arca zebra was dominant (69% in number of individuals and 72% of biomass) followed by Pinctada imbricata, Modiolus squamosus, Chama macerophyla and Anadara notabilis. The predatory snails Phyllonotus pomum, Chicoreus brevifrons and Murex recurvirostris seemed to have trophic relationships with A. zebra. The total mean biomass in wet weight (469.20 +/- 263 g m-2, shell included) was high which indicates that A. zebra, a species with a rapid growth rate, occupies a central role in the assemblage as an efficient filter feeder that converts planktonic food into available biomass, supporting one of the most important fisheries in Venezuela.

  2. Transcriptomics provides insight into Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) mantle function and its role in biomineralisation.

    PubMed

    Bjärnmark, Nadège A; Yarra, T; Churcher, A M; Felix, R C; Clark, M S; Power, D M

    2016-06-01

    The mantle is an organ common to all molluscs and is at the forefront of the biomineralisation process. The present study used the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a model species to investigate the structural and functional role of the mantle in shell formation. The transcriptomes of three regions of the mantle edge (umbo to posterior edge) were sequenced using Illumina technology which yielded a total of 61,674,325 reads after adapter trimming and filtering. The raw reads assembled into 179,879 transcripts with an N50 value of 1086bp. A total of 1363 transcripts (321, 223 and 816 in regions 1, 2 and 3, respectively) that differed in abundance in the three mantle regions were identified and putative function was assigned to 54% using BLAST sequence similarity searches (cut-off less than 1e(-10)). Morphological differences detected by histology of the three mantle regions was linked to functional heterogeneity by selecting the top five most abundant Pfam domains in the annotated 1363 differentially abundant transcripts across the three mantle regions. Calcium binding domains dominated region two (middle segment of the mantle edge). Candidate biomineralisation genes were mined and tested by qPCR. This revealed that Flp-like, a penicillin binding protein potentially involved in shell matrix maintenance of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), had significantly higher expression in the posterior end of the mantle edge (region one). Our findings are intriguing as they indicate that the mantle edge appears to be a heterogeneous tissue, displaying structural and functional bias.

  3. The ultrastructure of the mature spermatozoon of the bivalve Gafrarium tumidum (Bivalvia, Heterodonta, Veneridae, Circinae).

    PubMed

    Cheng, C H; Yang, W T; Gwo, J C

    2002-01-01

    Using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, we have described the mature spermatozoon of the bivalve Gafrarium tumidum (Heterodonta, Veneridae, Circinae) for the first time. The spermatozoon of G. tumidum is the ect-aquasperm type. The head contains a slightly curved nucleus. At its apex is a short cone-shaped acrosome. The structure of the acrosome is typical of heterodont bivalves and two major components of the acrosome vesicle material can be distinguished. The midpiece is an annular band of five mitochondria which surround the centriole complex. Sperm ultrastructure of G. tumidum provides additional information for the existing Veneridae phylogeny.

  4. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Alasmidonta heterodon (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaw, K.M.; King, T.L.; Lellis, W.A.; Eackles, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    We developed 13 species-specific microsatellite markers for the federally endangered Atlantic slope unionid Alasmidonta heterodon. Four to 18 alleles per locus were observed among 30 individuals. Observed heterozygosity throughout the loci ranged from 26.9 to 86.2% and averaged 63.6%. Estimates of individual pairwise genetic distances indicated that levels of genetic diversity among loci were sufficient to produce unique multilocus genotypes for all animals surveyed. Randomization tests showed that genotypes for this collection were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, and no significant linkage disequilibrium was observed between loci. These loci therefore appear suitable for population surveys, kinship assessment and other such applications. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. BIOMARKER RESPONSES IN MACOMA NASUTA (BIVALVIA) EXPOSED TO SEDIMENTS FROM NORTHERN SAN FRANCISCO BAY. (R826940)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Our study investigates biomarker responses and survival of Macoma nasuta exposed to sediments collected from six locations in northern San Francisco Bay. Biomarkers analyzed were stress proteins (hsp70) in gill, mantle and digestive gland, lysosomal mem...

  6. Direct evidence for maternal inheritance of bacterial symbionts in small deep-sea clams (Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szafranski, Kamil M.; Gaudron, Sylvie M.; Duperron, Sébastien

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial symbiont transmission is a key step in the renewal of the symbiotic interaction at each host generation, and different modes of transmission can be distinguished. Vesicomyidae are chemosynthetic bivalves from reducing habitats that rely on symbiosis with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, in which two studies suggesting vertical transmission of symbionts have been published, both limited by the imaging techniques used. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that bacterial symbionts of Isorropodon bigoti, a gonochoristic Vesicomyidae from the Guiness cold seep site, occur intracellularly within female gametes at all stages of gametogenesis from germ cells to mature oocytes and in early postlarval stage. Symbionts are completely absent from the male gonad and gametes. This study confirms the transovarial transmission of symbionts in Vesicomyidae and extends it to the smaller species for which no data were previously available.

  7. Misidentification of freshwater mussel species (Bivalvia:Unionidae): contributing factors, management implications, and potential solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shea, Colin P.; Peterson, James T.; Wisniewski, Jason M.; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Surveys of freshwater mussel populations are used frequently to inform conservation decisions by providing information about the status and distribution of species. It is generally accepted that not all mussels or species are collected during surveys, and incomplete detection of individuals and species can bias data and can affect inferences. However, considerably less attention has been given to the potential effects of species misidentification. To evaluate the prevalence of and potential reasons for species misidentification, we conducted a laboratory-based identification exercise and quantified the relationships between mussel species characteristics, observer experience, and misidentification rate. We estimated that misidentification was fairly common, with rates averaging 27% across all species and ranging from 0 to 56%, and was related to mussel shell characteristics and observer experience. Most notably, species with shell texturing were 6.09× less likely than smooth-shelled species to be misidentified. Misidentification rates declined with observer experience, but for many species the risk of misidentification averaged >10% even for observers with moderate levels of experience (5–6 y). In addition, misidentification rates among observers showed substantial variability after controlling for experience. Our results suggest that species misidentification may be common in field surveys of freshwater mussels and could potentially bias estimates of population status and trends. Misidentification rates possibly could be reduced through use of regional workshops, testing and certification programs, and the availability of archived specimens and tissue samples in museum collections.

  8. The complete F-type mitochondrial genome of Chinese Anodonta arcaeformis (Bivalvia: Unionidae: Anodontinae).

    PubMed

    An, Changting; Ouyang, Shan; Zhou, Chun-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Anodonta arcaeformis is a Chinese common species. The complete F-type mitochondrial genome was first determined. The complete genome is 15,672 bp in length, with AT content 64.59%. All the 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes were identified, including 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes. And a novel FORF (277 bp, 92aa) was found between tRNA(Glu) and ND2, which was considered to be involved in sex determination. The putative control region (270 bp) is located between ND5 and tRNAGln, with an A + T content of 70.07%. The gene order is identical to other species of Unionidae female mitochondrial except Gonideinae.

  9. Genetic variability among freshwater mussel Anodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834) (Bivalvia: Unionidae) populations recently introduced in Poland.

    PubMed

    Soroka, Marianna

    2005-10-01

    The alien Chinese mussel Anodonta woodiana was first reported in Poland in the system of heated lakes near Konin in 1993. Genetic studies with use of three molecular techniques (isoenzyme electrophoresis, PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of a COI gene fragment) were carried out on the Polish first populations of A. woodiana. The studies have revealed low genetic variation between the populations (Nei's genetic distance for 12 loci ranged 0.000 to 0.007) as well as their considerable polymorphism. Each population averaged 2.28 alleles per locus, 2.72 alleles per polymorphic locus, and 75% polymorphic loci. Restriction analysis of the COI gene fragment have not revealed variability between the analysed specimens, including males and females. Restriction enzymes, ScrFI, Csp6I, and EcoRI used in the COI gene fragment PCR-RFLP generate distinct restriction patterns, which can be molecular markers for A. woodiana. The sequence obtained for COI fragment was the same in the examined female and male specimens and represents F mitotype (DNA was isolated from somatic tissues). The divergence between A. woodiana F and M mitotypes is high (34%), however it remains within the range of the general character of the DUI (doubly uniparental inheritance) phenomenon in freshwater bivalves (Unionidae).

  10. Are Cristaria herculea (Middendorff, 1847) and Cristaria plicata (Leach, 1815) (Bivalvia, Unionidae) separate species?

    PubMed Central

    Klishko, Olga K.; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Froufe, Elsa; Bogan, Arthur E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The number of species in the freshwater mussel genus Cristaria Schumacher, 1817 recognized from Far East Russia has varied over the last several decades. While some authors consider the occurrence of only one species, Cristaria plicata (Leach, 1815), widespread in East Asia, others, recognize two separate species Cristaria herculea (Middendorff, 1847) and Cristaria tuberculata Schumacher, 1817 from Far East Russia, distinct from C. plicata. For the present study, freshwater mussels, identified as C. herculea, were collected in the Upper Amur basin (Transbaikalia, Russia). The shell morphology and the whole soft body anatomy were analysed in detail and compared with previously published information on other Cristaria spp.. Additionally, a cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene fragment was sequenced from foot tissue samples of selected animals, collected from the same region, and compared with published data. Based upon morphological similarities of glochidia and adult morphology and anatomy as well as the mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis, we consider C. herculea as a synonym of C. plicata. Further analysis of Far East Russia C. herculea and C. tuberculata specimens using both molecular and morphological characters should be carried in the future to enhance our knowledge about the taxonomy within the Cristaria genus. Moreover, a comprehensive revision of the genus Cristaria is needed, restricting the type locality and comparing topotypic specimens for both C. plicata and C. tuberculata, and including all recognized Cristaria species. PMID:25197215

  11. Doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in the freshwater bivalve Anodonta woodiana (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Soroka, Marianna

    2008-01-01

    Unlike the vast majority of organisms in which mitochondrial DNA is transmitted maternally (standard mitochondrial inheritance, SMI), some marine or freshwater bivalves exhibit a different pattern of mtDNA transmission, named doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI). In this case there are two types of mtDNA, i.e. the female-transmitted (F-type) and the male-transmitted (M-type), the latter being present only in the male gonads of Unionidae bivalves. Current knowledge on DUI does not cover any freshwater mussels that are found in Poland. This study confirms DUI ofmtDNA in A. woodiana, a Chinese mussel discovered in Poland in 1993. The sequence divergence in the COI gene region for the F-type ranged between 0% (separately for Polish and Japanese mussels) and 8.1% (between Polish and Japanese specimens). On the other hand, this parameter was higher for the M-type, reaching 9.7% between Polish and Japanese specimens. Sequence divergence between the F- and M-types reached 34-35% and, although very high, was still characteristic for the bivalves in which DUI had been found.

  12. Juvenile freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: unionidae) responses to acute toxicity testing with copper

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, P.J.; Cherry, D.S.; Neves, R.J. ); Farris, J.L. )

    1993-05-01

    The sensitivities of newly metamorphosed juveniles of Villosa iris and Anodonta grandis to copper were determined using 24-h static bioassays. Two methods of assessing postexposure response were compared: direct visual examination and the use of vital staining with neutral red. Both species responded to copper exposures, exhibiting valve closure at concentrations as low as 24 [mu]g Cu per liter for Villosa iris and 17 [mu]g Cu per liter for Anodonta grandis. EC50 values of 27 [mu]g Cu per liter (Villosa iris) and 33 [mu]g Cu per liter (Anodonta grandis) were calculated on the basis of the valve closure response. Use of vital staining with neutral red provided an EC50 of 29 [mu]g Cu per liter for Villosa iris. The amber coloration of Anodonta grandis valves prevented determination of an EC50 using the vital staining. LC50 values of 83 [mu]g Cu per liter (Villosa iris) and 44 [mu]g Cu per liter (Anodonta grandis) were calculated from the results of vital staining. Neutral red was found to be effective in assessing postexposure mortality and sublethal responses after acute exposures to copper.

  13. Parasites of the mangrove mussel Mytella guyanensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G

    2012-08-01

    This contribution reports the parasites found in the mangrove mussel Mytella guyanensis in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil. Samples were collected monthly from September 2006 through October 2007. A total of 460 individuals were collected, fixed in Davidson's solution, and processed by standard histological techniques, and the sections were stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The water temperature ranged from 23.5 to 31.6 ºC, and the salinity from 25 to 37‰. Microscopic analysis showed Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs), Nematopsis sp. (Apicomplexa), and Platyhelminthes, including a turbellarian, sporocysts of Bucephalus sp., metacercariae, and metacestodes of Tylocephalum sp. Parasites were observed mainly in the gills, mantle, and digestive gland. The prevalence of Nematopsis sp. was 100%, and in heavily infected mussels the tissues of the labial palps were damaged. RLOs occurred in high prevalence and intensity of infection in some periods. The digenean sporocysts showed moderate prevalence but high intensity of infection, and caused parasitic castration. In general, there was no significant spatial or temporal variation (p > 0.05) of the parasites, which is probably attributable to the small variations of temperature and salinity in the region.

  14. Non-invasive method to obtain DNA from freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henley, W.F.; Grobler, P.J.; Neves, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether DNA could be isolated from tissues obtained by brush-swabbing the mantle, viscera and foot, mantle-clips and swabbed cells were obtained from eight Quadrula pustulosa (Lea, 1831). DNA yields from clips and swabbings were 447.0 and 975.3 ??g/??L, respectively. Furthermore, comparisons of sequences from the ND-1 mitochondrial gene region showed a 100% sequence agreement of DNA from cells obtained by clips and swabs. To determine the number of swabs needed to obtain adequate yields of DNA for analyses, the visceras and feet of 5 Q. pustulosa each were successively swabbed 2, 4 and 6 times. DNA yields from the 2, 4 and 6 swabbed mussel groups were 399.4, 833.8 and 852.6 ng/??L, respectively. ND-1 sequences from the lowest yield still provided 846-901 bp for the ND-1 region. Nevertheless, to ensure adequate DNA yield from cell samples obtained by swabbing, we recommend that 4 swab-strokes of the viscera and foot be obtained. The use of integumental swabbing for collection of cells for determination of genetic relationships among freshwater mussels is noninvasive, when compared with tissue collection by mantle-clipping. Therefore, its use is recommended for freshwater mussels, especially state-protected or federally listed mussel species.

  15. Chlorine toxicity to early life stages of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valenti, T.W.; Cherry, D.S.; Currie, R.J.; Neves, R.J.; Jones, J.W.; Mair, R.; Kane, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Chlorine (Cl) is a highly toxic, widely used halogen disinfectant that is present in point-source pollution discharges from wastewater treatment plants and industrial facilities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency freshwater criteria for Cl are 19 ??g total residual Cl (TRC)/L as a maximum 1-h average concentration and 11 ??g TRC/L as a maximum 4-d average; however, toxicological data for unionids were not used in these calculations. To address this void in the data, we conducted acute tests with glochidia from several species and 21-d bioassays with three-month-old Epioblasma capsaeformis and three-, six-, and 12-month-old Villosa iris juveniles. The 24-h lethal concentration 50 values for glochidia were between 70 and 220 ??g TRC/L, which are 2.5 to 37 times higher than those reported in other studies for cladocerans. Significant declines in growth and survivorship were observed in the 21-d test with E. capsaeformis at 20 ??g TRC/L. Lowest-observed-adverse- effects concentrations in bioassays with juvenile V. iris were higher (30-60 ??g TRC/L) but showed a significant trend of declining toxicity with increased age. Although endpoints were above water quality criteria, the long life spans of unionids and potential implications of chronic exposure to endangered juvenile mussels still warrant concern. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  16. Vertical transmission of chemoautotrophic symbionts in the bivalve Solemya velum (Bivalvia: Protobranchia).

    PubMed

    Krueger, D M; Gustafson, R G; Cavanaugh, C M

    1996-04-01

    Adults of the bivalve species Solemya velum live in symbiosis with chemoautotrophic bacteria in specialized gill bacteriocytes. The bacteria play an essential nutritional role in the mature association, fixing CO2 via the Calvin cycle with energy obtained through the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds. To understand how the continuity of this partnership is maintained between host generations, we investigated the mode of symbiont transfer in S. velum. A diagnostic assay using the polymerase chain reaction and primers specific for the S. velum symbiont ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RubisCO) gene consistently detected bacterial sequence in female gonad tissue, suggesting the presence of symbiont cells in host ovaries and a vertical mode of symbiont transmission from mother to offspring. Furthermore, intracellular bacteria were present in the developing gills of juveniles that had not yet hatched from the gelatinous capsule in which larval development occurs (11 days after fertilization). By 64 days postfertilization, the typical adult gill ultrastructure of alternating bacteriocytes and symbiont-free-intercalary cells was apparent. Knowledge about the mode of symbiont transfer in S. velum allows further study into the dynamics of host-symbiont interactions in chemoautotrophic associations.

  17. Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory - Processing, Taxonomy, and Quality Control of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Samples

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Species Nematomorpha Phylum Bryozoa Phylum Plecoptera Gastropoda Genus Capniidae Genus Bivalvia Genus Chloroperlidae Genus Polychaeta Family... Nematomorpha Phylum Bryozoa Phylum Gastropoda Family Bivalvia Family Polychaeta Family Aphanoneura Family Oligochaeta Family Hirudinea Family Hydrachnidia

  18. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins.

    PubMed

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N; Patil, Navinkumar J; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-10-28

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives.

  19. Estimation of ²¹⁰Po and ²¹⁰Pb and its dose to human beings due to consumption of marine species of Ennore Creek, South India.

    PubMed

    Musthafa, M Saiyad; Krishnamoorthy, R

    2012-10-01

    A systemic study on the natural radionuclides such as (210)Po and (210)Pb in the environmental matrices and biota of Ennore Creek has been undertaken to establish a baseline data on the radiation profile of Ennore Creek environment. The environmental samples such as water, sediment, and biota (seaweeds, molluscs, crustaceans, and fishes) have been subjected to analyses. It has been observed that the concentration of (210)Po and (210)Pb in the water samples of Ennore Creek as 2.7 and 1.63 m Bq L(-1), respectively. The activity concentration of (210)Po and (210)Pb in the sediment sample was 17.9 and 28.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The bivalve mollusk Perna viridis have been identified to accumulate higher concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb suggesting that they could serve as bioindicator of radionuclides in the Ennore Creek environment. The committed effective dose for human beings was found at 81.13-216.8 and 2.1-297.2 μSv year(-1) for (210)Po and (210)Pb, respectively.

  20. Central Compact Objects in Kes 79 and RCW 103 as `Hidden' Magnetars with Crustal Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, S. B.; Kaurov, A. A.; Kaminker, A. D.

    2015-05-01

    We propose that observations of `hidden' magnetars in central compact objects can be used to probe crustal activity of neutron stars with large internal magnetic fields. Estimates based on calculations by Perna & Pons, Pons & Rea and Kaminker et al. suggest that central compact objects, which are proposed to be `hidden' magnetars, must demonstrate flux variations on the time scale of months-years. However, the most prominent candidate for the `hidden' magnetars - CXO J1852.6+0040 in Kes 79 - shows constant (within error bars) flux. This can be interpreted by lower variable crustal activity than in typical magnetars. Alternatively, CXO J1852.6+0040 can be in a high state of variable activity during the whole period of observations. Then we consider the source 1E161348 - 5055 in RCW103 as another candidate. Employing a simple 2D-modelling we argue that properties of the source can be explained by the crustal activity of the magnetar type. Thus, this object may be supplemented for the three known candidates for the `hidden' magnetars among central compact objects discussed in literature.

  1. Protective coatings on extensible biofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holten-Andersen, Niels; Fantner, Georg E.; Hohlbauch, Sophia; Waite, J. Herbert; Zok, Frank W.

    2007-09-01

    Formulating effective coatings for use in nano- and biotechnology poses considerable technical challenges. If they are to provide abrasion resistance, coatings must be hard and adhere well to the underlying substrate. High hardness, however, comes at the expense of extensibility. This property trade-off makes the design of coatings for even moderately compliant substrates problematic, because substrate deformation easily exceeds the strain limit of the coating. Although the highest strain capacity of synthetic fibre coatings is less than 10%, deformable coatings are ubiquitous in biological systems. With an eye to heeding the lessons of nature, the cuticular coatings of byssal threads from two species of marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Perna canaliculus, have been investigated. Consistent with their function to protect collagenous fibres in the byssal-thread core, these coatings show hardness and stiffness comparable to those of engineering plastics and yet are surprisingly extensible; the tensile failure strain of P. canaliculus cuticle is about 30% and that of M. galloprovincialis is a remarkable 70%. The difference in extensibility is attributable to the presence of deformable microphase-separated granules within the cuticle of M. galloprovincialis. The results have important implications in the design of bio-inspired extensible coatings.

  2. n-Alkanes and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in fresh-forzen and precooked-frozen mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J.E.; Machado, L.T.; Corbella, R.

    1995-09-01

    Heavy oil pollution has been found in sea water and coastal environments not only near industrial petroleum districts and places of oil spillage but also in other places where crude oil and/or refined products can be carried to by winds, streams, etc. Marine oil pollution may not only affect productivity and quality of marine organisms but may ultimately affect the health of the human population as there is a possible health risk from consumption of sea food contaminated by oil-derived carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the marine habitat, many organisms readily accumulate n-alkanes and PAHs from the environment and store them at a relatively high level in their tissues, and studies have been carried out on the accumulation and depuration of toxic organic pollutants in marine organisms. As a part of a continuous monitoring program of the foods imported to the Canary Islands this paper presents the results obtained in the determination of n-alkanes and PAHs in fresh-frozen and precooked-frozen mussels, Perna canaliculus, commercialized in these islands. 9 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of nicotinamide as an anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic agent in uveal melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Evangelina; Aldrees, Sultan; Mastromonaco, Christina; Zoroquiain, Pablo; Vila, Natalia; Logan, Patrick T; Hari, Shriya; Burnier, Miguel N

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect of nicotinamide on the secretion of pro-an giogenic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in uveal melanoma cell lines. Two human uveal melanoma cell lines (92.1 and OCM-1) were treated with nicotinamide (10 mmol/L) or control media for 48 hours in culture. The su perna tant from each culture was used in sandwich enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay-based angiogenesis and inflammation arrays to evaluate the effects of exogenously administered nicotinamide on the secretion of a total of 20 pro-an gio genic and pro-inflammatory proteins. Seven pro-angiogenic cytokines were detected under control conditions for both uveal melanoma cell lines. Treatment with nicotinamide resulted in a significant decrease in secretion of the following pro-angiogenic cytokines: angiogenin, angiopoietin-2, epidermal growth factor, and vascular epithelial growth factor-A in the 92.1 cells; basic fibroblast growth factor in the OCM-1 cells; and placenta growth factor in both cell lines. Among the pro-inflammatory proteins, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and interleukin-8 were expressed in both untreated cell lines and both were significantly reduced when treated with nicotinamide. Results from this in vitro model suggest that nicotinamide may have anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties, which may open the possibility of using it as a chemopreventive agent for uveal melanoma; however, further studies including animal models are warranted.

  4. Characterization of Generalized Gradient Young Measures Generated by Sequences in W1,1 and BV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Jan; Rindler, Filip

    2010-08-01

    Generalized Young measures as introduced by DiPerna and Majda (Commun Math Phys 108:667-689, 1987) provide a quantitative tool for studying the one-point statistics of oscillation and concentration in sequences of functions. In this work, after developing a functional-analytic framework for such measures, including a compactness theorem and results on the generation of such Young measures by L1-bounded sequences (or even by sequences of bounded Radon measures), we turn to investigation of those Young measures that are generated by bounded sequences of W1,1-gradients or BV-derivatives. We provide several techniques to manipulate such measures (including shifting, averaging and approximation by piecewise-homogeneous Young measures) and then establish the main new result of this work, the duality characterization of the set of (BV- or W1,1-)gradient Young measures in terms of Jensen-type inequalities for quasiconvex functions with linear growth at infinity. This result is the natural generalization of the Kinderlehrer-Pedregal Theorem (Arch Ration Mech Anal 115:329-365, 1991; J Geom Anal 4:59-90, 1994) for classical Young measures to the W1,1- and BV-case and contains its version for weakly converging sequences in W1,1 as a special case. Finally, we give an application to a new lower semicontinuity theorem in BV.

  5. Case Report: Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Maria; Jelip, Jenarun; Rundi, Christina; Chua, Tock H

    2017-10-09

    During the months of January-February and May-June 2013 coinciding with the red tide occurrence in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, six episodes involving 58 cases of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) or saxitoxin (STX) poisoning and resulting in four deaths were reported. Many of them were intoxicated from consuming shellfish purchased from the markets, whereas others were intoxicated from eating shellfish collected from the beach. Levels of STX in shellfish collected from the affected areas were high (mean 2,920 ± 780 and 360 ± 140 µg STX equivalents/100 g shellfish meat respectively for the two periods). The count of toxic dinoflagellates (Pyrodinium bahamense var compressum) of the sea water sampled around the coast was also high (mean 34,200 ± 10,300 cells/L). Species of shellfish containing high levels of STX were Atrina fragilis, Perna viridis, and Crassostrea belcheri. The age of victims varied from 9 to 67 years. Symptoms presented were typical of PSP, such as dizziness, numbness, vomiting, and difficulty in breathing. Recommended steps to prevent or reduce PSP in future red tide season include better monitoring of red tide occurrence, regular sampling of shellfish for determination of STX level, wider dissemination of information on the danger of eating contaminated shellfish among the communities, fishermen, and fishmongers.

  6. Arsenic, cadmium, and manganese levels in shellfish from Map Ta Phut, an industrial area in Thailand, and the potential toxic effects on human cells.

    PubMed

    Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Siripriwon, Pantaree; Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Suriyo, Tawit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2015-01-01

    Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate is a major industrial area in Thailand for both petrochemical and heavy industries. The release of hazardous wastes and other pollutants from these industries increases the potential for contamination in foods in the surrounding area, especially farmed shellfish. This study determined the arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn) concentrations in the edible flesh of farmed shellfish, including Perna viridis, Meretrix meretrix, and Scapharca inaequivalvis, around the Map Ta Phut area using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that shellfish samples contained high levels of total As [1.84-6.42 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww)]. High Mn concentrations were found in P. viridis and M. meretrix, whereas S. inaequivalis contained the highest Cd. Arsenobetaine (AsB) was found to be the major As species in shellfish (>45% of total As). The in vitro cytotoxicity of these elements was evaluated using human cancer cells (T47D, A549, and Jurkat cells). An observed decrease in cell viability in T47D and Jurkat cells was mainly caused by exposure to inorganic As (iAs) or Mn but not to AsB or Cd. The combined elements (AsB+Mn+Cd) at concentrations predicted to result from the estimated daily intake of shellfish flesh by the local people showed significant cytotoxicity in T47D and Jurkat cells.

  7. Bioactive compounds from marine mussels and their effects on human health.

    PubMed

    Grienke, Ulrike; Silke, Joe; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of marine mussels as popular seafood has increased steadily over the past decades. Awareness of mussel derived molecules, that promote health, has contributed to extensive research efforts in that field. This review highlights the bioactive potential of mussel components from species of the genus Mytilus (e.g. M. edulis) and Perna (e.g. P. canaliculus). In particular, the bioactivity related to three major chemical classes of mussel primary metabolites, i.e. proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, is evaluated. Within the group of proteins the focus is mainly on mussel peptides e.g. those obtained by bio-transformation processes, such as fermentation. In addition, mussel lipids, comprising polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are discussed as compounds that are well known for prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Within the third group of carbohydrates, mussel polysaccharides are investigated. Furthermore, the importance of monitoring the mussel as food material in respect to contaminations with natural toxins produced by microalgae is discussed.

  8. Adhesion mechanism in a DOPA-deficient foot protein from green mussels†

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Dong Soo; Zeng, Hongbo; Lu, Qingye; Israelachvili, Jacob; Waite, J. Herbert

    2012-01-01

    The holdfast or byssus of Asian green mussels, Perna viridis, contains a foot protein, pvfp-1, that differs in two respects from all other known adhesive mussel foot proteins (mfp): (1) instead of the hallmark L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) residues in mfp-1, for example, pvfp-1 contains C2-mannosyl-7-hydroxytryptophan (Man7OHTrp). (2) In addition, pvfp-1 chains are not monomeric like mfp-1 but trimerized by collagen and coiled-coil domains near the carboxy terminus after a typical domain of tandemly repeated decapeptides. Here, the contribution of these peculiarities to adhesion was examined using a surface forces apparatus (SFA). Unlike previously studied mfp-1s, pvfp-1 showed significant adhesion to mica and, in symmetric pvfp-1 films, substantial cohesive interactions were present at pH 5.5. The role of Man7OHTrp in adhesion is not clear, and a DOPA-like role for Man7OHTrp in metal complexation (e.g., Cu2+, Fe3+) was not observed. Instead, cation–π interactions with low desolvation penalty between Man7OHTrp and lysyl side chains and conformational changes (raveling and unraveling of collagen helix and coiled-coil domains) are the best explanations for the strong adhesion between pvfp-1 monomolecular films. The strong adhesion mechanism induced by cation–π interactions and conformational changes in pvfp-1 provides new insights for the development of biomimetic underwater adhesives. PMID:23105946

  9. Pathogenic marine microbes influence the effects of climate change on a commercially important tropical bivalve

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Lucy M.; Alsterberg, Christian; Turner, Andrew D.; Girisha, S. K.; Rai, Ashwin; Havenhand, Jonathan N.; Venugopal, M. N.; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate change will increase the prevalence of toxic algae and harmful bacteria, which can accumulate in marine bivalves. However, we know little about any possible interactions between exposure to these microorganisms and the effects of climate change on bivalve health, or about how this may affect the bivalve toxin-pathogen load. In mesocosm experiments, mussels, Perna viridis, were subjected to simulated climate change (warming and/or hyposalinity) and exposed to harmful bacteria and/or toxin-producing dinoflagellates. We found significant interactions between climate change and these microbes on metabolic and/or immunobiological function and toxin-pathogen load in mussels. Surprisingly, however, these effects were virtually eliminated when mussels were exposed to both harmful microorganisms simultaneously. This study is the first to examine the effects of climate change on determining mussel toxin-pathogen load in an ecologically relevant, multi-trophic context. The results may have considerable implications for seafood safety. PMID:27576351

  10. Effects of ocean acidification on the metabolic rates of three species of bivalve from southern coast of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenguang; He, Maoxian

    2012-03-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide results in a decrease in seawater pH, a process known as "ocean acidification". The pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, the noble scallop Chlamys nobilis, and the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis are species of economic and ecological importance along the southern coast of China. We evaluated the effects of seawater acidification on clearance, respiration, and excretion rates in these three species. The ammals were reared in seawater at pH 8.1 (control), 7.7, or 7.4. The clearance rate was highest at pH 7.7 for P. fucata and at pH 8.1 for C. nobilis and P. viridis. The pH had little effect on the respiration rate of P. fucata and P. viridis. In contrast, the respiration rate was significantly lower at pH 7.4 in C. nobilis. The excretion rate was significantly lower at pH 7.4 than pH 8.1 for all species. The results indicate that the reduction in seawater pH likely affected the metabolic process (food intake, oxygen consumption, and ammonia excretion) of these bivalves. Different species respond differently to seawater acidification. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the exact mechamsms for this effect and evaluate adaptability of these bivalves to future acidified oceans.

  11. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N.; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives. PMID:26508080

  12. Hydatid disease of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Calamai, G.; Perna, A. M.; Venturini, A.

    1974-01-01

    Calamai, G., Perna, A. M., and Venturini, A. (1974).Thorax, 29, 451-458. Hydatid disease of the heart: report of five cases and review of the literature. The world literature on the surgical treatment of echinococcosis of the heart is reviewed. Few cases are surgically treated, although the disease has been known for a long time. Localization to the liver and lungs is the most frequent. Cardiopulmonary bypass techniques make possible surgical treatment of hydatid cyst of the heart. The present paper is concerned with five cases operated upon between 1959 and 1969, three males and two females, their ages ranging from 13 to 46 years. A preoperative diagnosis was made in each case. One case was operated upon under cardiopulmonary bypass. The need for cardiopulmonary bypass on a stand-by basis is emphasized. The localization of the hydatid cyst was in the left ventricular wall (three cases), right ventricular wall (one case), and multiple (one case). The frequency of cardiac echinococcosis ranges between 0·5% and 2% according to various authors. Diagnosis is achieved with the aid of laboratory tests, radiology, and angiography; but the presence of the disease must be suspected in all patients who come from endemic areas. Surgical therapy is mandatory. Due to the growth characteristics of the cyst itself, the danger of damaging the ventricular wall at operation is increased; thus it is essential to have cardiopulmonary bypass facilities immediately available. Images PMID:4277513

  13. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N.; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives.

  14. Spectral Evolution in GRB 990510

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vreeswijk, P. M.; Rol, E.; Galama, T. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; vanParadijs, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Frontera, F.; Pian, E.; Palazzi, E.; Masetti, N.

    2000-01-01

    We present time-resolved spectroscopy of the afterglow of GRB 990510. Through the identification of several absorption lines in the first epoch spectrum, we determine the redshift for this burst to be z >= 1.6190 +/- 0.0016. No clear emission lines are detected. From the absence of the Ly.alpha drop, we can put an upper limit to the redshift of z <= 2.3. We study the time evolution of the MgII absorption line in our spectra taken 0.8 and 3.9 days after the burst, whose equivalent width (E.W.) is expected to change in case the burst resides in a dense compact medium (Perna & Loeb 1998). We measure an E.W. of 2.5 /- 0.2 and 2.3 +/- 0.6 in the spectra 0.8 and 3.8 days after the burst, respectively. Our results suggest that the atoms responsible for the absorption are not in the vicinity of the site of the burst.

  15. Cadmium-induced changes in trace element bioaccumulation and proteomics perspective in four marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fengjie; Wang, Da-Zhi; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-06-01

    Bivalves are employed widely as biomonitors of metal pollution and proteomics has increasingly been applied to solve ecotoxicological issues. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Cd exposure on the bioaccumulation of other trace elements and reveal the molecular mechanisms using proteomics technologies. The results showed that Cd exposure resulted in remarkable changes in body concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ag, Co, Ni, Pb, and Se in four marine bivalves (scallop Chlamys nobilis, clam Ruditapes philippinarum, mussel Perna viridis, and oyster Saccostrea cucullata). Generally, the bivalves exposed to higher Cd concentration accumulated higher concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Se, but a lower concentration of Co. The accumulation of Ag, Ni, and Pb was specific for different species. The data strongly suggest that the influences of one metal exposure on the bioaccumulation of other metals/metalloids need to be considered in interpreting body concentrations of the elements in the biomonitors. Cd exposure had little effect on bivalve proteomes, and the identified proteins were insufficient to explain the observed disruption of trace element metabolism. However, protein expression signatures composed of the altered proteins could distinguish the clams and the mussels with different body Cd levels. The strong up-regulation of galectin in Cd-exposed oysters indicated the protein as a novel biomarker in environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  16. Mercury accumulation in marine bivalves: influences of biodynamics and feeding niche.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ke; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2011-10-01

    Differences in the accumulation of mercury (Hg) in five species of marine bivalves, including scallops Chlamys nobilis, clams Ruditapes philippinarum, oysters Saccostrea cucullata, green mussels Perna viridis, and black mussels Septifer virgatus, were investigated. The bivalves displayed different patterns of Hg accumulation in terms of the body concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) and total Hg (THg), as well as the ratio of MeHg to THg. Parameters of the biodynamics of the accumulation of Hg(II) and MeHg could reflect the species-dependent Hg concentrations in the bivalves. With the exception of black mussels, we found a significant relationship between the efflux rates of Hg(II) and the THg concentrations in the bivalves. The interspecific variations in the MeHg to THg ratio were largely controlled by the relative difference between the elimination rates of Hg(II) and MeHg. Stable isotope (δ(13)C) analysis indicated that the five bivalve species had contrasting feeding niches, which may also affect the Hg accumulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediments and mussel tissues from Hong Kong marine waters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zheng, Gene J; Yu, Hongxia; Martin, Michael; Richardson, Bruce J; Lam, Michael H W; Lam, Paul K S

    2005-11-01

    Sediments and green-lipped mussels, Perna viridis, were used to investigate concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Hong Kong's marine environment. PBDEs have been used extensively over the past two decades as flame retardants in polymer additives for a variety of plastics, computers, furniture, building materials, and fabrics. Many measurements of PBDEs in various environmental matrices have been reported from Belgium, Holland, Japan, Europe and North America, but few measurements are available for the southeast Asian region and Hong Kong. PBDE congeners (n=15) were measured in 13 sediments and nine mussel samples, taken from Hong Kong marine waters. The Sigma15PBDEs in sediments ranged between 1.7 and 53.6 ng g(-1) dry wt, with the highest concentrations located around the most heavily populated areas of Victoria Harbour and Sai Kung, while the lowest concentrations of Sigma15PBDEs were found at more remote locations of Sha Tau Kok, Wong Chuk Bay, Castle Peak Bay, and Gold Coast. Sigma15PBDEs ranged from 27.0 to 83.7 ng g(-1) dry wt of mussel tissues. Although not identical, most of the congeners in sediments were found in mussel tissues, with BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-153 and BDE-183 being the most prominent in both matrices. On the basis of a literature survey, the concentrations of PBDEs reported in Hong Kong sediments and mussel tissues are amongst the highest in the world.

  18. An overview of trace metal pollution in the coastal waters of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, G

    1998-06-18

    The state of metal pollution in Hong Kong's coastal waters has been assessed by measuring metal levels in: (i) the water column; (ii) sediments and (iii) in organisms, i.e. biomonitors. Current literature is reviewed. Data from sediment analysis have shown that metal pollution is most severe in the urban areas of Victoria Harbour, Tolo Harbour, Deep Bay and Northwestern waters. Bottom sediments in typhoon shelters are particularly heavily polluted with, for example, Cu levels from Kowloon Bay reaching 5300 mg.kg-1 in 1995. Since 1987, levels of pollution have generally either stabilized or fallen in Deep Bay and Victoria Harbour but have increased in Inner Tolo Harbour and Northwestern waters. Many biomonitors have been used to study metal pollution in Hong Kong, the most popular of which are barnacles, mussels (in particular Perna viridis) and algae (in particular Ulva lactuca). Biomonitoring studies generally recorded high levels of metal pollution in Victoria Harbour in the late nineteen seventies and early eighties, with increasing pollution of the semi-enclosed Tolo Harbour through the eighties and early nineties. In a recent study using barnacles, the levels of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn were shown to be greatly reduced as compared to those recorded in 1986 and 1989, respectively. Levels of metal pollution in Hong Kong coastal waters may have lowered in the last 10 years.

  19. The genetic architecture of hybridisation between two lineages of greenshell mussels

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, J P A; Wei, K-J

    2015-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach has identified sigmoidal genetic clines on the east and west coasts in central New Zealand where low-density ecological interactions occur between northern and southern lineages of the endemic greenshell mussel, Perna canaliculus. The sigmoidal clines indicate the existence of a mussel hybrid zone in a region of genetic discontinuities for many continuously distributed coastal taxa, in particular marine invertebrates. Examination of the genetic architecture of the hybrid zone revealed the differential contribution of individual microsatellite loci and/or alleles to defining the zone of interaction and no evidence of increased allelic richness or heterozygosity inside versus outside the hybrid zone. Genomics cline analysis identified one locus in particular (Pcan1–27) as being different from neutral expectations, thereby contributing to lineage differentiation. Estimates of contemporary gene flow revealed very high levels of within-lineage self-recruitment and a hybrid zone composed mostly (~85%) of northern immigrants. Broad scale interpretation of these results is consistent with a zone of genetic interaction that was generated between 0.3 and 1.3 million years before present at a time of pronounced global sea-level change. At that time, the continuous distribution of the greenshell mussel was split into northern and southern groups, which differentiated to become distinct lineages, and which have subsequently been reunited (secondary contact) resulting in the generation of the hybrid zone at ~42°S. PMID:25424842

  20. Selective colors reflection from stratified aragonite calcium carbonate plates of mollusk shells.

    PubMed

    Lertvachirapaiboon, Chutiparn; Parnklang, Tewarak; Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Wongravee, Kanet; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2015-08-01

    An interaction between the incident light and the structural architecture within the shell of Asian green mussel (Perna viridis) induces observable pearlescent colors. In this paper, we investigate the influence of the structural architecture on the expressed colors. After a removal of the organic binder, small flakes from crushed shells show vivid rainbow reflection under an optical microscope. An individual flake expresses vivid color under a bright-field illumination while become transparent under a dark-field illumination. The expressed colors of the aragonite flakes are directly associated with its structural architecture. The flakes with aragonite thickness of 256, 310, and 353 nm, respectively, appear blue, green, and red under an optical microscope. The spectral simulation corroborates the experimentally observed optical effects as the flakes with thicker aragonite layers selectively reflected color with longer wavelengths. Flakes with multiple aragonite thicknesses expressed multi-color as the upper aragonite layers allow reflected colors from the lower layers to be observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.