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Sample records for pernambuco cancer hospital

  1. [Severe malnutrition: epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children hospitalized in the Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco (IMIP), Brazil].

    PubMed

    Falbo, Ana Rodrigues; Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra

    2002-01-01

    Ninety-nine children admitted to the Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco with severe malnutrition from May 1999 to May 2000 were investigated in a cross-sectional study focusing on key epidemiological and clinical variables. The majority of the children (88.9%) were less than 6 months of age, 42.4% had a history of low birth weight, and 36.4% were premature. Some 19.2% had never been breastfed, and 49.5% had been breastfed for less than 2 months. Some 15.2% of the mothers were illiterate. Most of the families (86.1%) had incomes less than twice the minimum wage (approximately US$150/month), and 51.5% had migrated from rural areas. Only 26.3% of the homes had running water, and 40.4% lacked sewage disposal facilities. Diarrhea was the reason for hospital admission in 55.6% of the cases. Hospital mortality was 34.3% in this group.

  2. [The influence of breastfeeding in the hospitalization of children under two years of age in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, in 1997 and 2006].

    PubMed

    Mota, Thaysa Thatyana Aragão Guerra; Caminha, Maria de Fátima Costa; Figueiroa, José Natal; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Batista Filho, Malaquias

    2015-08-01

    The scope of this paper was to evaluate the influence of breastfeeding and other factors on the incidence of hospitalization and the frequency and main causes of hospitalization in children under two years of age in the State of Pernambuco. It is a cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study using secondary data obtained from the II and III State Health and Nutrition Surveys (PESN) carried out in 1997 and 2006, respectively. A sample of 1503 infants under two years of age was studied. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to analyze bivariate associations and Fisher's exact test for comparison of risk of hospitalization in the two years of observation and Poisson regression for the adjustment of the multivariate model of hospitalizations in the last survey. In the two years analyzed, there was no statistically significant difference in the percentage of hospitalizations of children. The lower risk of hospitalization remained for those who were breastfed exclusively. Regarding to environmental, socioeconomic, demographic characteristics and health assistance, several factors have evolved favorably in the period assessed. In the final model, only the weight/length ratio (low weight category) remained associated with the risk of hospitalization in children under two years of age factors.

  3. NOSOLOGY OF HAND DISEASES IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS OPERATED IN PROVISIONAL FACILITIES IN A MODEL HOSPITAL - PERNAMBUCO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Mauri; Silva, Rui Ferreira da; Gilbert, Alain; Brandt, Carlos Teixeira; Valenti, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    To report the frequencies of congenital hand diseases in patients who underwent surgery on a collective mobilization basis at SOS Hand, Recife, Pernambuco, between 2005 and 2009. Methods: Information was collected from 833 children and adolescents who were examined in eight missions. Results: Among the patients, 306 (36.7%) underwent surgery: 240 (78.4%) because of congenital malformation and 66 (21.6%) because of acquired lesions. The most frequent congenital malformations were: syndactyly, 72 cases (30.0%); polydactyly, 30 cases (12.5%); bifid thumb, 19 cases (7.9%); complex hand malformation, 14 cases (5.8%); cleft hand, 13 cases (5.4%); trigger finger, 12 cases (5.0%); camptodactyly, 11 cases (4.6%); and brachysyndactyly, 9 cases (3.7%). The most frequently acquired injuries were: obstetric traumatic lesions, 26 cases (39.4%); hand trauma sequelae, 18 cases (27.3%); cerebral paralysis sequelae, 7 cases (10.6%); electric shock sequelae, 5 cases (7.6%); and burn sequelae, 4 cases (6.1%). Conclusion: The nosology of hand diseases is similar to that of large series of elective surgery, especially regarding congenital deformities. The frequency of acquired hand lesions seems to be higher than the frequency in international series. The collective mobilization system for hand surgery is important for decreasing the need for this activity in public institutions, and it has been shown to be very efficient. The success of the project may provide support for the Brazilian National Health System to enroll hand surgeons in the on-call system, in emergency units. PMID:27022593

  4. Microcephaly in Infants, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2015

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We studied the clinical characteristics for 104 infants born with microcephaly in the delivery hospitals of Pernambuco State, Brazil, during 2015. Testing is ongoing to exclude known infectious causes. However, microcephaly peaked in October and demonstrated central nervous system abnormalities with brain dysgenesis and intracranial calcifications consistent with an intrauterine infection. PMID:27071041

  5. NASA Sponsors Cancer Research at Children's Hospital

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left), during a visit at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, discussed how NASA's special lighting technology may soon treat cancer. Goldin talked with Dr.Harry Whelan (right) and Dr. Kerneth Reichert (center left), both pediatric neurologists with the Hospital and professors at the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Accompanied by Astronaut Mary Ellen Weber, Goldin was shown this innovative treatment, called Photodynamic Therapy, a method used to destroy the tumor without damaging the delicate brain tissue around it. The treatment uses tiny pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) developed for Space Product Development plant growth experiments.

  6. Depression among hospitalized and non-hospitalized gonadal cancer patients in tertiary care public hospitals in Karachi.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Tahira; Zadeh, Zainab Fotowwat

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed at determining the differences in the levels of depression between hospitalized and non-hospitalized Gonadal cancer patients in tertiary care public hospitals in Karachi. The present study was conducted at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre and Civil Hospital, Karachi, from July to October 2009. One hundred adult patients diagnosed with Gonadal cancer volunteered for the study. Cases with any other co-morbidity were excluded. Urdu version of Siddiqui Shah Depression Scale (SSDS) was administered. Purposive and snowball sampling methods were used for data collection. The ages of participants in the sample ranged from 20 to 27 years with the mean age of 23.85 years. The participants belonged to the lower and middle classes. Out of the 30 hospitalized gonadal cancer patients 40% were moderately depressed and 60% were severely depressed, whereas out of 70 non-hospitalized gonadal cancer patients 74.3% were mildly depressed, 24.3% were moderately depressed and only 1.4% were severely depressed, which clearly indicated that the depression level of hospitalized gonadal cancer patients was high as compared to non-hospitalized gonadal cancer patients.

  7. Risk adjusting survival outcomes of hospitals that treat cancer patients without information on cancer stage

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, David G.; Rubin, David M.; Elkin, Elena B.; Neill, Ushma S.; Duck, Elaine; Radzyner, Mark; Bach, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Instituting widespread measurement of outcomes for cancer hospitals using administrative data is difficult due to the lack of cancer specific information such as disease stage. Objective To evaluate the performance of hospitals that treat cancer patients using Medicare data for outcome ascertainment and risk adjustment, and to assess whether hospital rankings based on these measures are influenced by the addition of cancer-specific information. Design Risk adjusted cumulative mortality of patients with cancer captured in Medicare claims from 2005–2009 nationally were assessed at the hospital level. Similar analyses were conducted in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result (SEER)-Medicare data for the subset of the US covered by the SEER program to determine whether the exclusion of cancer specific information (only available in cancer registries) from risk adjustment altered measured hospital performance. Setting Administrative claims data and SEER cancer registry data Participants Sample of 729,279 fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries treated for cancer in 2006 at hospitals treating 10+ patients with each of the following cancers, according to Medicare claims: lung, prostate, breast, colon. An additional sample of 18,677 similar patients in SEER-Medicare administrative data. Main Outcomes and Measures Risk-adjusted mortality overall and by cancer type, stratified by type of hospital; measures of correlation and agreement between hospital-level outcomes risk adjusted using Medicare data alone and Medicare data with SEER data. Results There were large outcome differences between different types of hospitals that treat Medicare patients with cancer. At one year, cumulative mortality for Medicare-prospective-payment-system exempt hospitals was 10% lower than at community hospitals (18% versus 28%) across all cancers, the pattern persisted through five years of follow-up and within specific cancer types. Performance ranking of hospitals was

  8. HOSPITAL VARIATION IN SPHINCTER PRESERVATION FOR ELDERLY RECTAL CANCER PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Dodgion, Christopher M.; Neville, Bridget A; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Schrag, Deborah; Breen, Elizabeth; Zinner, Michael J.; Greenberg, Caprice C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate hospital variation in the use of low anterior resection (LAR), local excision (LE) and abdominoperineal resection (APR) in the treatment of rectal cancer in elderly patients. Methods Using SEER-Medicare linked data, we identified 4,959 stage I–III rectal cancer patients over age 65 diagnosed from 2000–2005 who underwent operative intervention at one of 370 hospitals. We evaluated the distribution of hospital-specific procedure rates and used generalized mixed models with random hospital effects to examine the influence of patient characteristics and hospital on operation type, using APR as a reference. Results The median hospital performed APR on 33% of elderly rectal cancer patients. Hospital was a stronger predictor of LAR receipt than any patient characteristic, explaining 32% of procedure choice, but not a strong predictor of LE, explaining only 3.8%. Receipt of LE was primarily related to tumor size and tumor stage, which, combined, explained 31% of procedure variation. Conclusions Receipt of local excision is primarily determined by patient characteristics. In contrast, the hospital where surgery is performed significantly influences whether a patient undergoes an LAR or APR. Understanding the factors that cause this institutional variation is crucial to ensuring equitable availability of sphincter preservation. PMID:24750983

  9. Use of deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis in hospitalized cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Awar, Zeina; Sheikh-Taha, Marwan

    2009-10-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a common complication and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Patients with malignancies have a four-fold greater risk of venous thromboembolism compared with patients without malignancies. Underuse of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis persists, despite guidelines supporting its use in hospitalized cancer patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the use of DVT prophylaxis and its appropriateness in hospitalized cancer patients. This retrospective study included cancer patients admitted to Rafik Hariri University Hospital, a tertiary referral center in Beirut, Lebanon, over 2-month period, who were hospitalized for at least 2 days. We evaluated the use of anticoagulants for DVT prophylaxis in the absence of contraindications for their use. The risk factor profiles of the patients were reported in addition to the choice of the anticoagulant and the use of mechanical prophylaxis in patients with contraindications to anticoagulation. One hundred and thirty patients were studied out of which 34 (26.2%) had contraindications to anticoagulation use. In addition, 21 patients out of 95 (22.1%) who qualified for DVT prophylaxis received pharmacologic DVT prophylaxis. Enoxaparin was the most frequently prescribed anticoagulant (76.2% of the patients). Of those who received anticoagulation, only 47.6% received appropriate agent and dose. Among patients with contraindications to anticoagulation, only three (8.8%) received mechanical devices as nonpharmacologic DVT prophylaxis. DVT prophylaxis in hospitalized cancer patients is significantly underutilized. Several options are available to increase physicians' awareness of the problem.

  10. Integrating cancer rehabilitation into medical care at a cancer hospital.

    PubMed

    Grabois, M

    2001-08-15

    In spite of national health care legislative and model program initiatives, cancer rehabilitation has not kept pace with rehabilitation for patients with other medical problems. This article discusses, from a historical perspective, unsuccessful health care legislation related to cancer and problems in establishing and expanding cancer rehabilitation programs. The attempts to establish a cancer rehabilitation program at the Texas Medical Center and the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center are reviewed. Lessons learned over past 40 years and strategies for maintaining the success of a cancer rehabilitation program are discussed. PMID:11519034

  11. [Prevalence of skin tears among hospitalized patients with cancer].

    PubMed

    Amaral, Ana Flávia dos Santos; Pulido, Kelly Cristina Strazzieri; Santos, Vera Lucia Conceição de Gouveia

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of skin tears (ST) among hospitalized oncology patients and associated demographic and clinical variables. This is an epidemiological cross-sectional study type, performed at Octavio Frias de Oliveira State of São Paulo Cancer Institute. All adult patients hospitalized from April 10th to 18th 2010 were evaluated by interview and physical examination. Chi-square test was used to compare demographic and clinical variables between patients with and without ST. Five patients among 157 had nine skin tears, resulting in a prevalence of 3.3%. Among demographic variables, only number of children showed statistically significant difference (p=0.027) between groups. Clinically, patients with ST had lower Karnofsky scores (p=0.031), lower scores at Braden Scale (p=0.026) and less collaborative behaviors (p=0.042) when compared to patients with no lesions. This study contributes to a better knowledge of ST in oncology patients.

  12. Do Hospital Characteristics Influence Cancer-Specific Survival for Early Stage Lung Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    David, Elizabeth A; Chen, Yingjia; Cooke, David T; Perry, Andrew; Canter, Robert J; Cress, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Background Quality of oncologic outcomes is of paramount importance in the care of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We sought to evaluate the relationship of hospital volume for lobectomy on cancer-specific survival in NSCLC patients treated in California, as well as the influence of Committee on Cancer (CoC) accreditation. Methods The California Cancer Registry was queried from 2004–2011 for cases of Stage I NSCLC and 8,345 patients were identified. Statistical analysis was used to determine prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival. Results 7,587 patients were treated surgically. CoC accreditation was not significant for cancer-specific survival, but treatment in high volume centers was associated with longer survival when compared to low and medium volume centers (HR 1.77, 1.474–2.141 and HR 1.23, 1.058–1.438). Conclusions These data suggest that surgical treatment in high volume hospitals is associated with longer cancer-specific survival for early-stage NSCLC, but that CoC accreditation is not. PMID:26193801

  13. Factors Associated with Waiting Time for Breast Cancer Treatment in a Teaching Hospital in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedey, Florence; Wu, Lily; Ayettey, Hannah; Sanuade, Olutobi A.; Akingbola, Titilola S.; Hewlett, Sandra A.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Cole, Helen V.; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Adanu, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in Ghana. Data are limited on the predictors of poor outcomes in breast cancer patients in low-income countries; however, prolonged waiting time has been implicated. Among breast cancer patients who received treatment at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, this study…

  14. Meaning of touch to hospitalized Puerto Ricans with cancer.

    PubMed

    Morales, E

    1994-12-01

    This ethnographic study was undertaken to elicit the meaning of nurse's touch for hospitalized Puerto Rican patients with cancer. The key informants were eight cancer patients at a tertiary 12-bed oncology research unit in Puerto Rico. Data gathering methods included participant observation and several ethnographic interviews during a month period. Content analysis was used to identify pattern of behavior and meaning. Analysis of the field notes and interviews was done to search for domains. Theme analysis was used in the search for the relationship among domains. In the analysis of the patient interviews, two types of touch were identified: procedural and affective touch. The predominant theme about perception of nurse's touch was that of conveying confidence. Confidence was related to the patient's increase in positive expectation as much as the possibility of recovery from the cancer illness. The confidence theme was represented by two domains: the enhancement of the abilities of the patient for coping and through the acceptance of the patient as a person during their illness experience. PMID:7820824

  15. Burden of hospital admissions for cervical cancer in Spain during 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Gil, Angel; San-Martín, María; Gil, Ruth; Hernández, Valentín; Ribes, Josepa; González, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Population-based retrospective epidemiological study to estimate the burden of to hospitalizations by cervical cancer in Spain. It was conducted by using hospital discharge data from the national surveillance system for hospital data, Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos (CMBD). Records of all patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of malignant neoplasm of the cervix (ICD-9-MC codes 180.0-180.9) or carcinoma in situ of cervix (code 233.1) during a four year period (1999-2002), were selected. An annual average of 4,151 hospitalizations with a primary or secondary diagnosis of cervical cancer and 2,761 hospitalizations due to carcinoma in situ were identified. Annually there were 25.5 and 17.0 hospitalizations by cervical cancer and carcinoma in situ per 100,000 women > or =20 years of age, respectively. Hospitalization rate by cervical cancer and carcinoma in situ peaks in between 45 and 59 years of age (39.4 admissions per 100,000 women) and 30 to 44 years of age (32.2 per 100,000 women), respectively. The mean cost of a hospitalization by cervical cancer and carcinoma in situ euro3,098 and euro2,192, respectively. The estimated annual cost of hospitalizations cervical cancer and carcinoma in situ in Spain was 19 million euro.

  16. Epidemiology of Cancers in Kashmir, India: An Analysis of Hospital Data.

    PubMed

    Qurieshi, Mariya A; Khan, S M Salim; Masoodi, Muneer A; Qurieshi, Uruj; Ain, Quratul; Jan, Yasmeen; Haq, Inaamul; Ahmad, Sheikh Zahoor

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. The aim of the present study was to measure the pattern of different cancers in Kashmir, India, a cancer belt with peculiar cancer profile. A hospital based cancer registry was started by the Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Srinagar, in January 2006, wherein information was collected from cancer patients who were diagnosed and treated in the hospital. Data has been analysed for a period extending from January 2006 to December 2012. Descriptive analysis has been done by using statistical software. A total of 1598 cancer patients were admitted during this period. Overall male to female ratio was 1.33 : 1. Stomach cancer was the most commonly reported cancer (25.2%), followed by colorectal cancer (16.4%) and lung cancer (13.2%) among males. For females, colorectal cancer (16.8%), breast cancer (16.1%), and stomach cancer (10.4%) were the most frequently reported cancers in order of frequency. Tobacco related cancers contributed to more than three-fourths of cancers among men and more than half of cancers for women. There is an urgent need to set up a population based cancer registration system to understand the profile of cancers specific to this geographic region.

  17. Epidemiology of Cancers in Kashmir, India: An Analysis of Hospital Data

    PubMed Central

    Khan, S. M. Salim; Qurieshi, Uruj; Ain, Quratul; Jan, Yasmeen; Ahmad, Sheikh Zahoor

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. The aim of the present study was to measure the pattern of different cancers in Kashmir, India, a cancer belt with peculiar cancer profile. A hospital based cancer registry was started by the Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Srinagar, in January 2006, wherein information was collected from cancer patients who were diagnosed and treated in the hospital. Data has been analysed for a period extending from January 2006 to December 2012. Descriptive analysis has been done by using statistical software. A total of 1598 cancer patients were admitted during this period. Overall male to female ratio was 1.33 : 1. Stomach cancer was the most commonly reported cancer (25.2%), followed by colorectal cancer (16.4%) and lung cancer (13.2%) among males. For females, colorectal cancer (16.8%), breast cancer (16.1%), and stomach cancer (10.4%) were the most frequently reported cancers in order of frequency. Tobacco related cancers contributed to more than three-fourths of cancers among men and more than half of cancers for women. There is an urgent need to set up a population based cancer registration system to understand the profile of cancers specific to this geographic region. PMID:27478644

  18. The national database of hospital-based cancer registries: a nationwide infrastructure to support evidence-based cancer care and cancer control policy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Takahiro; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Shibata, Akiko; Emori, Yoshiko; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the current status of cancer care is essential for effective cancer control and high-quality cancer care. To address the information needs of patients and physicians in Japan, hospital-based cancer registries are operated in 397 hospitals designated as cancer care hospitals by the national government. These hospitals collect information on all cancer cases encountered in each hospital according to precisely defined coding rules. The Center for Cancer Control and Information Services at the National Cancer Center supports the management of the hospital-based cancer registry by providing training for tumor registrars and by developing and maintaining the standard software and continuing communication, which includes mailing lists, a customizable web site and site visits. Data from the cancer care hospitals are submitted annually to the Center, compiled, and distributed as the National Cancer Statistics Report. The report reveals the national profiles of patient characteristics, route to discovery, stage distribution, and first-course treatments of the five major cancers in Japan. A system designed to follow up on patient survival will soon be established. Findings from the analyses will reveal characteristics of designated cancer care hospitals nationwide and will show how characteristics of patients with cancer in Japan differ from those of patients with cancer in other countries. The database will provide an infrastructure for future clinical and health services research and will support quality measurement and improvement of cancer care. Researchers and policy-makers in Japan are encouraged to take advantage of this powerful tool to enhance cancer control and their clinical practice.

  19. Palliative care of cancer patients: audit of current hospital procedures.

    PubMed

    Sessa, C; Pampallona, S; Carobbio, M; Neuenschwander, H; Cavalli, F

    1998-05-01

    The palliative care of cancer patients admitted for tumour-related symptoms to three different departments (medical oncology, radiotherapy, internal medicine) of a general hospital was prospectively audited. The physicians directly responsible for the patients provided prospective data by reporting both the diagnostic and therapeutic interventions performed and the degree of control achieved for each symptom. A patient form for evaluation of the control achieved in the case of each symptom by means of linear analogue scales was also provided. The appropriateness of all procedures was evaluated by two external auditors. Over 6 months, 125 such admissions were recorded: 24 patients entered the study and the management of 56 symptoms, the most common of which were pain and dyspnoea, was reviewed. A total of 72 diagnostic procedures were performed, deemed necessary for only 50% of symptoms, optional for 15%, and performed as part of a logical sequence for 38%. A total of 130 therapeutic interventions were undertaken, deemed necessary for 55% of symptoms, optional for 15% and carried out as part of a logical sequence for 44%. Re-evaluations of symptoms and physician and patient evaluations of the degree of control achieved could not be assessed because of lack of information. The audit could not be repeated owing to the low accrual of patients and incompleteness of the data collection. Reasons for failure of the study and proposals for feasible methods of auditing the management of symptoms in cancer patients are discussed.

  20. An outbreak of invasive fusariosis in a children's cancer hospital.

    PubMed

    Litvinov, Nadia; da Silva, Mariama Tomaz N; van der Heijden, Inneke M; Graça, Mariana G; Marques de Oliveira, Larissa; Fu, Liang; Giudice, Mauro; Zilda de Aquino, Maria; Odone-Filho, Vicente; Marques, Heloisa Helena; Costa, Silvia F; Levin, Anna S

    2015-03-01

    Fusarium is considered an emerging pathogen, and there are few reports of fusariosis in children. The objective of this study was to describe an outbreak of invasive fusariosis in a children's cancer hospital. A neutropenic 17-year-old male patient hospitalized for 10 days for a relapse of acute myeloid leukaemia, under chemotherapy, presented fever without any other symptoms; a thoracic computerized tomography showed bilateral pulmonary nodules. During voriconazole treatment, 1-cm reddened and painful subcutaneous nodules appeared on arms and legs and the culture of a skin biopsy revealed F. solani. Another case occurred 11 days later and started an outbreak investigation. Water samples for cultures were collected from taps, showers and water reservoirs. Air from all patient rooms was sampled. Faucets and the drains of sinks and showers were swabbed and cultured. Environmental and clinical isolates were typed. There were 10 confirmed cases of infection caused by Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani were isolated from water, swabs and air in patient rooms. Many control measures were instituted, but the outbreak was only controlled 1 year after the first case, when water filters filtering 0.2 μm were installed at the exit of all faucets and showers in all patient rooms (points-of-use). Typing demonstrated that clinical isolates of F. oxysporum were similar to those of the environment. In conclusion, to our knowledge this is the first reported outbreak of invasive fusariosis in children with oncohaematologic disease. It was controlled using 0.2-μm filters in all tap faucets and showers. PMID:25658562

  1. Knowledge about breast cancer and hereditary breast cancer among nurses in a public hospital 1

    PubMed Central

    Prolla, Carmen Maria Dornelles; da Silva, Patrícia Santos; Netto, Cristina Brinckmann Oliveira; Goldim, José Roberto; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge of nurses involved in the care of oncology patients in a public university hospital, regarding breast cancer and hereditary breast cancer, and to verify the use of such knowledge in their daily practice. METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Data were obtained through a structured, self-administered questionnaire. Out of 154 nurses, 137 (88.9%) agreed to participate in the study. Two questionnaires were excluded such that 135 questionnaires were analyzed. RESULTS: The global percentage of correct answers was not associated with age (p=0.173) or degree/specialization (p=0.815). Questions were classified into categories. In categories involving knowledge of established breast cancer risk factors and indicators of hereditary breast cancer, the rate of correct answers was 65.8% and 66.4%, respectively. On the practice of genetic counseling, 40.7% of those interviewed were not sure about the definition of genetic counseling and 78.5% reported never having identified or referred a patient at genetic risk for specialized risk assessment. Practice of educational actions regarding this subject was reported by 48.5% of those interviewed. CONCLUSION: This study reinforces the need to develop qualifying actions for nurses, so that strategies to control breast cancer become effective in their health care practice. PMID:25806636

  2. Malignant Neoplasm Burden in Nepal - Data from the Seven Major Cancer Service Hospitals for 2012.

    PubMed

    Pun, Chin Bahadur; Pradhananga, Kishore K; Siwakoti, Bhola; Subedi, Krishna; Moore, Malcolm A

    2015-01-01

    In Nepal, while no population based cancer registry program exists to assess the incidence, prevalence, morbidity and mortality of cancer, at the national level a number of hospital based cancer registries are cooperating to provide relevant data. Seven major cancer diagnosis and treatment hospitals are involved, including the BP Koirala Memorial Cancer hospital, supported by WHO-Nepal since 2003. The present retrospective analysis of cancer patients of all age groups was conducted to assess the frequencies of different types of cancer presenting from January 1st to December 31st 2012. A total of 7,212 cancer cases were registered, the mean age of the patients being 51.9 years. The most prevalent age group in males was 60-64 yrs (13.6%), while in females it was 50-54 yrs (12.8%). The commonest forms of cancer in males were bronchus and lung (17.6%) followed by stomach (7.3%), larynx (5.2%) and non Hodgkins lymphoma (4.5%). In females, cervix uteri (19.1%) and breast (16.3%), were the top ranking cancer sites followed by bronchus and lung (10.2%), ovary (6.1%) and stomach (3.8%). The present data provide an update of the cancer burden in Nepal and highlight the relatively young age of breast and cervical cancer patients.

  3. Malignant Neoplasm Burden in Nepal - Data from the Seven Major Cancer Service Hospitals for 2012.

    PubMed

    Pun, Chin Bahadur; Pradhananga, Kishore K; Siwakoti, Bhola; Subedi, Krishna; Moore, Malcolm A

    2015-01-01

    In Nepal, while no population based cancer registry program exists to assess the incidence, prevalence, morbidity and mortality of cancer, at the national level a number of hospital based cancer registries are cooperating to provide relevant data. Seven major cancer diagnosis and treatment hospitals are involved, including the BP Koirala Memorial Cancer hospital, supported by WHO-Nepal since 2003. The present retrospective analysis of cancer patients of all age groups was conducted to assess the frequencies of different types of cancer presenting from January 1st to December 31st 2012. A total of 7,212 cancer cases were registered, the mean age of the patients being 51.9 years. The most prevalent age group in males was 60-64 yrs (13.6%), while in females it was 50-54 yrs (12.8%). The commonest forms of cancer in males were bronchus and lung (17.6%) followed by stomach (7.3%), larynx (5.2%) and non Hodgkins lymphoma (4.5%). In females, cervix uteri (19.1%) and breast (16.3%), were the top ranking cancer sites followed by bronchus and lung (10.2%), ovary (6.1%) and stomach (3.8%). The present data provide an update of the cancer burden in Nepal and highlight the relatively young age of breast and cervical cancer patients. PMID:26745133

  4. At home in hospital? Interaction and stigma in people affected by cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kate; Luker, Karen A

    2006-04-01

    Social research conducted in cancer hospitals has tended to focus on interaction between patients and staff, and studies of interaction amongst people with cancer often centre on group therapy and patient-patient support mediated by health professionals. Informal interaction between patients and fellow patients, and their carers/visitors, occurs in cancer hospitals every day but has remained largely unanalysed, particularly in the case of visitors. In this paper, based on data from 71 in-depth interviews, we compare patient and carer perceptions of interacting with fellow patients/visitors in a cancer centre with their perceptions of interacting in the outside world. We apply Erving Goffman's theories on stigma to the data and argue that these theories have both relevance and currency. The outside world can be seen as a 'civil place' where people with cancer often encountered difficulties such as undue admiration, uneasiness, avoidance and lack of tact, whereas the cancer centre appears to have been a 'back place' where, for most patients, stigmatisation was not an issue, and they could 'get on with it' in the company of fellow patients and their visitors. However, some groups of patients experienced social isolation in the hospital or seemed to be assigned to the lower strata of cancer patient society. We conclude that patients who are outside the informal support system in cancer hospitals may have psychosocial difficulties that might be recognised and addressed by healthcare staff, and that patients and their carers might benefit from enhanced support following discharge from hospital.

  5. Lessons Learned from Unfavorable Microsurgical Head and Neck Reconstruction: Japan National Cancer Center Hospital and Okayama University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Narusi; Onoda, Satoshi; Sakuraba, Minoru

    2016-10-01

    The risk of surgical site infection (SSI) remains high after major reconstructive surgery of the head and neck. Clinical data regarding SSI in microsurgical tongue reconstruction are described at National Cancer Hospital in Japan, including discussions of unfavorable representative cases, the relationship between SSI and preoperative irradiation at Okayama University Hospital in Japan, and strategies for SSI control in head and neck reconstruction. Local complications are inevitable in patients undergoing reconstruction in the head and neck areas. The frequency of major complications can be decreased, and late postoperative complications can be prevented with the help of appropriate methods. PMID:27601396

  6. Lessons Learned from Unfavorable Microsurgical Head and Neck Reconstruction: Japan National Cancer Center Hospital and Okayama University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Narusi; Onoda, Satoshi; Sakuraba, Minoru

    2016-10-01

    The risk of surgical site infection (SSI) remains high after major reconstructive surgery of the head and neck. Clinical data regarding SSI in microsurgical tongue reconstruction are described at National Cancer Hospital in Japan, including discussions of unfavorable representative cases, the relationship between SSI and preoperative irradiation at Okayama University Hospital in Japan, and strategies for SSI control in head and neck reconstruction. Local complications are inevitable in patients undergoing reconstruction in the head and neck areas. The frequency of major complications can be decreased, and late postoperative complications can be prevented with the help of appropriate methods.

  7. Efficacy Beliefs and the Learning Experiences of Children with Cancer in the Hospital Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    A study examined how self-efficacy beliefs influenced motivation, affect, and adjustment in five students aged 9-13 with cancer, receiving educational services in a hospital setting. Education was an effective vehicle through which children with cancer could experience control and autonomy and also achieve many necessary developmental outcomes for…

  8. Costs and outcomes associated with hospitalized cancer patients with neutropenic complications: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Schilling, M Blane; Parks, Connie; Deeter, Robert G

    2011-09-01

    The average total hospitalization costs for adult cancer patients with neutropenic complications were quantified and the average length of hospital stay (LOS), all-cause mortality during hospitalization and reimbursement rates were determined. This observational retrospective cohort study identified adult patients with cancer who were hospitalized from January 2005 through June 2008 using a large private US health care database (>342 inpatient facilities). ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes identified patients by cancer type and who had neutropenic complications. The utilization and accounting systems of the hospitals were used to calculate mean (±95% confidence interval) hospitalization costs and LOS and percent all-cause mortality and reimbursement. Costs were adjusted to 2009 US dollars. There were 3,814 patients who had cancer and neutropenia, 1,809 (47.4%) also had an infection or fever and 1,188 (31.1%) had infection. Mean hospitalization costs were $18,042 (95% CI 16,997-19,087) for patients with neutropenia, $22,839 (95% CI 21,006-24,672) for patients with neutropenia plus infection or fever and $27,587 (95% CI 24,927-30,247) for patients with neutropenia plus infection. Mean LOS were 9 days (95% CI 8.7-9.3), 10.7 days (95% CI 10.2-11.2) and 12.6 days (95% CI 11.9-13.3), respectively. Mortality followed a similar trend; 8.3, 13.7 and 19.4%, respectively. By cancer type, hematologic malignancies had the highest average hospitalization costs and longest mean LOS of $52,579 (95% CI 42,183-62,975) and 20.3 days (95% CI 17.4-23.2), and a high mortality rate of 20.0%, while primary breast cancer patients had the lowest cost of $8,413 (95% CI 6,103-10,723), shortest LOS of 5.5 days (95% CI 4.2-6.8) and lowest mortality (0%). Mean reimbursement rates were 100.0, 101.5 and 95.4% for patients with neutropenia, neutropenia plus infection or fever and neutropenia plus infection, respectively. Hospitalized cancer patients with neutropenic complications had a higher all

  9. The role of the hospital registry in achieving outcome benchmarks in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Greene, Frederick L; Gilkerson, Sharon; Tedder, Paige; Smith, Kathy

    2009-06-15

    The hospital registry is a valuable tool for evaluating quality benchmarks in cancer care. As payment for performance standards are adopted, the registry will assume a more dynamic and economically important role in the hospital setting. At Carolinas Medical Center, the registry has been a key instrument in the comparison of state and national benchmarks and for program improvement in meeting standards in the care of breast and colon cancer. One of the significant successes of the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer (CoC) Hospital Approvals Program is the support of hospital registries, especially in small and midsized community hospitals throughout the United States. To become a member of the Hospital Approvals Program, a registry must be staffed appropriately and include analytic data for patients who have their primary diagnosis or treatment at the facility 1. The current challenge for most hospitals is to prove that the registry has specific worth when many facets of care are not compensated. Unfortunately a small number of hospitals have disbanded their registries because of the short-sighted decision that the registry and its personnel are a drain on the hospital system and do not generate revenue. In the present era of meeting benchmarks for care as a prelude to being paid by third party and governmental agencies 2,3, a primary argument is that the registry can be revenue-enhancing by quantifying specific outcomes in cancer care. Without having appropriate registry and abstract capability, the hospital leadership cannot measure the specific outcome benchmarks required in the era of "pay for performance" or "pay for participation".

  10. Caring for severely ill cancer patients. A comparison of working conditions in hospital-based home care and in hospital.

    PubMed

    Beck-Friis, B; Strang, P; Sjödén, P O

    1993-05-01

    The goal of the study was to compare working conditions in a hospital with the conditions in a specialized hospital-based home care (HBHC) unit, which aims to replace hospital care for patients in need of institutional car. Staff (doctors included) in a HBHC unit (n = 35) and on three hospital wards (n = 113) participated in the study. All staff members worked regularly with severely ill cancer patients. Question about stress, job satisfaction and working conditions were asked in a self-administered questionnaire. Both groups showed a limited degree of continuous stress and a high degree of job satisfaction. Thus, the overall perception was than the working conditions were good. When significant differences were found, the responses of the HBHC staff were more positive. This included items such as more freedom to make their own decisions (P < 0.001), better co-operation between day and night shifts (P < 0.001), a more reasonable work load (P = 0.0001), fewer problems in communication with patients (P < 0.001), and fewer problems with tension (P < 0.05) and with sleeping (P < 0.05). The findings may be due to several factors: the HBHC staff were older, more often married, had more children, had worked longer in health care and were thus more experienced. Complementary explanations may be continuous education within the HBHC and an organization stimulating the staff's own initiative, but also capable of supporting when necessary.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Dying from cancer in community hospitals or a hospice: closest lay carers' perceptions.

    PubMed Central

    Seamark, D A; Williams, S; Hall, M; Lawrence, C J; Gilbert, J

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite there being around 400 community hospitals in the United Kingdom, there is little published research on the quality of service provided by these hospitals. AIM: To compare the quality of terminal cancer care in community hospitals with a hospice as assessed by patients' closest lay carer (relative or friend). METHOD: Structured interview (or questionnaire based on the interview proforma) with closest lay carers of all patients dying over one year in 12 community hospitals in east Devon and a purpose-built hospice in the city of Exeter. RESULTS: A total of 292 cases (176 in community hospitals and 116 in a hospice) were identified, resulting in 238 carers being eligible for interview or questionnaire survey. Overall, 106 successful interviews and 55 questionnaires were completed, giving a response rate of 67.6%. Carers gave a near unanimous vote of excellence for the total care given by the hospice, while around 40% of carers of patients in community hospitals considered that improvements were possible. Community hospitals attracted more negative comments than hospices, with criticism being directed at problems of communication, lack of nursing staff, and lack of support in bereavement. Carers of hospice patients were significantly more likely to be present at the time of death than those of community hospital patients [45/70 (64%) vs. 31/89 (35%); chi 2 = 13.6, P < 0.001], an observation possibly because nursing staff in community hospitals are less experienced at dealing with terminally ill patients and such hospitals have fewer adequate facilities. CONCLUSIONS: Lay carers indicated great satisfaction with care given in the hospice and less satisfaction with care given in the community hospitals. However, the community hospitals are non-specialist units with far lower levels of trained staff. Improvements in terms of the communication skills of doctors and nurses, specific training for nurses in palliative care, and structured bereavement care

  12. Cancer patients and positive sensory impressions in the hospital environment--a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, C; Uhrenfeldt, L; Birkelund, R

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how cancer patients experience the meaning of positive sensory impressions in the hospital environment such as architecture, decoration and the interior. Data were obtained at a general hospital in Denmark by interviewing six cancer patients at two different wards. The analysis process was guided by the hermeneutical-phenomenological theory of interpretation as presented by the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur. Two main themes were identified: to preserve identity and positive thoughts and feelings. The participants experienced that positive sensory impressions in the hospital environment had a significant impact on their mood, generating positive thoughts and feelings. A view to nature also helped them to forget their negative thoughts for a while. The possibility of having a view helped some cancer patients to connect with good memories and personal life stories that enabled them to recall some of their feelings of identity. This paper adds knowledge about how cancer patients experience sensory impressions in the hospital environment. An environment that provides homeliness and offers a view to nature seems to help some patients to preserve their identity. Furthermore, positive sensory impressions and the opportunity for recreation through environmental facilities strengthen the patient's positive thoughts and feelings.

  13. What Is Important to Young Children Who Have Cancer while in Hospital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldiss, Susie; Horstman, Maire; O'Leary, Chris; Richardson, Alison; Gibson, Faith

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a participatory research project exploring children's experiences and views of cancer care services. It focusses on findings from interviews conducted with 10 children aged four and five years old. Play and puppets were used to help children express their views. The themes elicited reveal important aspects of hospital care…

  14. Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Soares, Fábio Angelo M; Souza, Bruno O F; Valença, Raul Baltazar P; Sá, Fabrício B

    2008-01-01

    Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in the State of Pernambuco are reviewed, based on the current literature and new collections recently carried out by the authors. To date, three tick species have been found on amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum appears to be exclusively associated with Boa constrictor, its type host. Amblyomma rotundatum has a relatively low host-specificity, being found on toads, snakes, and iguana. Amblyomma dissimile has been found on a lizard and also small mammals (i.e., rodents and marsupials). New tick-host associations and locality records are given.

  15. Trend and forecasting rate of cancer deaths at a public university hospital using univariate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A.; Hassan, Noor I.

    2013-09-01

    Cancer is one of the principal causes of death in Malaysia. This study was performed to determine the pattern of rate of cancer deaths at a public hospital in Malaysia over an 11 year period from year 2001 to 2011, to determine the best fitted model of forecasting the rate of cancer deaths using Univariate Modeling and to forecast the rates for the next two years (2012 to 2013). The medical records of the death of patients with cancer admitted at this Hospital over 11 year's period were reviewed, with a total of 663 cases. The cancers were classified according to 10th Revision International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Data collected include socio-demographic background of patients such as registration number, age, gender, ethnicity, ward and diagnosis. Data entry and analysis was accomplished using SPSS 19.0 and Minitab 16.0. The five Univariate Models used were Naïve with Trend Model, Average Percent Change Model (ACPM), Single Exponential Smoothing, Double Exponential Smoothing and Holt's Method. The overall 11 years rate of cancer deaths showed that at this hospital, Malay patients have the highest percentage (88.10%) compared to other ethnic groups with males (51.30%) higher than females. Lung and breast cancer have the most number of cancer deaths among gender. About 29.60% of the patients who died due to cancer were aged 61 years old and above. The best Univariate Model used for forecasting the rate of cancer deaths is Single Exponential Smoothing Technique with alpha of 0.10. The forecast for the rate of cancer deaths shows a horizontally or flat value. The forecasted mortality trend remains at 6.84% from January 2012 to December 2013. All the government and private sectors and non-governmental organizations need to highlight issues on cancer especially lung and breast cancers to the public through campaigns using mass media, media electronics, posters and pamphlets in the attempt to decrease the rate of cancer deaths in Malaysia.

  16. Application of hospital preparations for cancer treatment, and an approach toward their commercialization.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kyohei; Goto, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Toshiaki; Masada, Mikio

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, pharmacists who are in consultation with doctors independently prepare medications in an attempt to meet the needs of patients in the hospital. In particular, the need for hospital preparations to treat cancer is high and diverse. However, unlike gov]ernment-approved medications, independently and individually prepared hospital preparations raise concerns about their effectiveness, safety, economic efficiency, quality control, etc. One way to address these concerns is to commercialize these preparations and to understand the difference between necessity and demand from various points of view. We have conducted nation-wide utilization surveys and evaluated the literature on hospital preparations. On the basis of the findings of this survey, we have concluded that pharmaceutical companies and the government need to implement the commercialization of hospital preparations in clinical practice. In this report, we discuss the significance of commercialization of hospital preparations, concerns regarding pharmaceutical preparations, and our recent efforts on cancer treatment. We hope to continuously contribute to society and to medical care by improving individualized care and by commercializing medications needed in clinical practice.

  17. Two decades of external peer review of cancer care in general hospitals; the Dutch experience.

    PubMed

    Kilsdonk, Melvin J; Siesling, Sabine; Otter, Rene; van Harten, Wim H

    2016-03-01

    External peer review was introduced in general hospitals in the Netherlands in 1994 to assess and improve the multidisciplinary team approach in cancer care. This paper aims to explore the value, perceived impact, and (future) role of external peer review in cancer care. Semistructured interviews were held with clinicians, oncology nurses, and managers from fifteen general hospitals that participated in three rounds of peer review over a period of 16 years. Interviewees reflected on the goals and expectations, experiences, perceived impact, and future role of external peer review. Transcriptions of the interviews were coded to discover recurrent themes. Improving clinical care and organization were the main motives for participation. Positive impact was perceived on multiple aspects of care such as shared responsibilities, internal prioritization of cancer care, improved communication, and a clear structure and position of cancer care within general hospitals. Establishing a direct relationship between the external peer review and organizational or clinical impact proved to be difficult. Criticism was raised on the content of the program being too theoretical and organization-focussed after three rounds. According to most stakeholders, external peer review can improve multidisciplinary team work in cancer care; however, the acceptance is threatened by a perceived disbalance between effort and visible clinical impact. Leaner and more clinically focused programs are needed to keep repeated peer reviews challenging and worthwhile. PMID:26714788

  18. Risk factors and costs of oral cancer in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sandeep; Tiwari, Vijay Kumar; Nair, Kesavan Sreekantan; Raj, Sherin

    2014-01-01

    The present study conducted with 100 oral cancer patients at a private tertiary care hospital in Delhi demonstrated that stage III cancer was associated with longer use of tobacco and poor oral hygiene. There was also statistically significant association (p<.05) between consumption of tobacco and alcohol. More than 60% treatment expenditure was on surgery followed by accommodation (9%) and investigations (8%). The effect of tobacco was well known among patients as 76% of the patients knew that common cancer in tobacco chewer is 'oral cancer', 22% of the patients however responded that they did not know which cancer is common in tobacco chewers. 58% said that they learnt about ill effects of tobacco from media while 24% said they learnt from family and friends. Out of 78 tobacco users, 60 (77%) said that they never received help to quit tobacco while 18(23%) have received help to quit.

  19. Bedside charting of pain levels in hospitalized patients with cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kravitz, R L; Delafield, J P; Hays, R D; Drazin, R; Conolly, M

    1996-02-01

    Despite advances in the technology of cancer pain assessment and control, cancer pain often remains undertreated even in hospital settings. To determine whether a graphical display of cancer patients' pain levels might improve their treatment, the investigators conducted a randomized controlled trial. Patients assigned to the intervention group (N = 40) had periodic pain assessments by study staff, who graphically recorded their reported pain-intensity levels on bedside wall charts. Control group patients (N = 38) had periodic pain assessments by study staff but did not have this information displayed. The results failed to show a significant beneficial effect of the intervention on pain control, sleep, cancer-related symptoms, or analgesic dosing, but confidence intervals were broad. More research is needed to improve the quality of care for inpatients with cancer-related pain. PMID:8907138

  20. H1N1pdm Influenza Infection in Hospitalized Cancer Patients: Clinical Evolution and Viral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bozza, Fernando A.; Mesquita, Milene; Soares, Márcio; Motta, Fernando C.; Pitrowsky, Melissa Tassano; de Lourdes Oliveira, Maria; Mishin, Vasiliy P.; Gubareva, Larissa V.; Whitney, Anne; Rocco, Sandra Amaral; Gonçalves, Vânia Maria C.; Marques, Venceslaine Prado; Velasco, Eduardo; Siqueira, Marilda M.

    2010-01-01

    Background The novel influenza A pandemic virus (H1N1pdm) caused considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide in 2009. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical course, duration of viral shedding, H1N1pdm evolution and emergence of antiviral resistance in hospitalized cancer patients with severe H1N1pdm infections during the winter of 2009 in Brazil. Methods We performed a prospective single-center cohort study in a cancer center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Hospitalized patients with cancer and a confirmed diagnosis of influenza A H1N1pdm were evaluated. The main outcome measures in this study were in-hospital mortality, duration of viral shedding, viral persistence and both functional and molecular analyses of H1N1pdm susceptibility to oseltamivir. Results A total of 44 hospitalized patients with suspected influenza-like illness were screened. A total of 24 had diagnosed H1N1pdm infections. The overall hospital mortality in our cohort was 21%. Thirteen (54%) patients required intensive care. The median age of the studied cohort was 14.5 years (3–69 years). Eighteen (75%) patients had received chemotherapy in the previous month, and 14 were neutropenic at the onset of influenza. A total of 10 patients were evaluated for their duration of viral shedding, and 5 (50%) displayed prolonged viral shedding (median 23, range = 11–63 days); however, this was not associated with the emergence of a resistant H1N1pdm virus. Viral evolution was observed in sequentially collected samples. Conclusions Prolonged influenza A H1N1pdm shedding was observed in cancer patients. However, oseltamivir resistance was not detected. Taken together, our data suggest that severely ill cancer patients may constitute a pandemic virus reservoir with major implications for viral propagation. PMID:21152402

  1. Mucorales from the semiarid of Pernambuco, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; dos Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; Maia, Leonor Costa

    2013-01-01

    Nineteen taxa of Mucorales, belonging to Absidia, Apophysomyces, Cunninghamella, Fennellomyces, Lichtheimia, Mucor, Mycotypha, Rhizopus and Syncephalastrum were isolated from 36 composite soil samples in three semiarid areas in the State of Pernambuco (Triunfo, Cabrobó and Belém de São Francisco), Northeast Brazil, which are characterized by Caatinga vegetation. Triunfo is preserved, whereas Cabroró and Belém de São Francisco are experiencing low and severe desertification processes, respectively. Mucorales were isolated in Petri dishes in triplicate from 5 mg samples of soil placed on the surface of wheat germ agar plus chloramphenicol and Cercobin [Dimethyl 4,49-(103 phenylene) bis (3-thioallophanate)] medium. The plates were left on a bench at room temperature (28 ± 2 °C) for 72 h of alternating dark and light periods. Absidia cylindrospora presented the highest amount of CFU/g of soil, followed by L. hyalospora, C. phaeospora and C. echinulata var. echinulata. The latter, and R. microsporus var. microsporus, presented the highest frequencies of occurrence. Soils from Triunfo showed higher diversity of Mucorales than the samples from the other areas, although without differing statistically in relation to species richness. The communities of Mucorales from the degraded areas were more similar, while that from the preserved area was quite different. Most of the identified specimens have been commonly isolated from soil in other Brazilian regions, which indicates that they are not endemic of the semiarid. Eleven taxa are registered for the first time in this ecosystem, while F. heterothallicus is reported for the first time in Brazil. PMID:24159320

  2. Health Status After Cancer: Does It Matter Which Hospital You Belong To?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Survival rates are widely used to compare the quality of cancer care. However, the extent to which cancer survivors regain full physical or cognitive functioning is not captured by this statistic. To address this concern we introduce post-diagnosis employment as a supplemental measure of the quality of cancer care. Methods This study is based on individual level data from the Norwegian Cancer Registry (n = 46,720) linked with data on labor market outcomes and socioeconomic status from Statistics Norway. We study variation across Norwegian hospital catchment areas (n = 55) with respect to survival and employment five years after cancer diagnosis. To handle the selection problem, we exploit the fact that cancer patients in Norway (until 2001) have been allocated to local hospitals based on their place of residence. Results We document substantial differences across catchment areas with respect to patients' post-diagnosis employment rates. Conventional quality indicators based on survival rates indicate smaller differences. The two sets of indicators are only moderately correlated. Conclusions This analysis shows that indicators based on survival and post-diagnosis employment may capture different parts of the health status distribution, and that using only one of them to capture quality of care may be insufficient. PMID:20626866

  3. In-Hospital Death Caused by Pancreatic Cancer in Spain: Application with a Bayesian Network

    PubMed Central

    Álvaro-Meca, A.; Gil-Prieto, R.; Gil de Miguel, A.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the least common tumors (2.1%), but it remains one of the most lethal. This lethality is primarily due to late stage diagnosis in the vast majority of patients. Here we demonstrate, using a Bayesian network, that we can determine a posteriori, with a high probability of success, the probability of in-hospital death of pancreatic cancer in hospitals across Spain with information related to the type of admission, the type of procedure, the primary diagnosis or the Charlson co-morbidity index. The advantages of using a Bayesian network are that it allows us to examine multiple hypotheses and to measure the effect of the introduction of variables on our hypotheses. Being able to determine deceases in the probability of survival based on hospital admission data, such as the diagnosis resulting in the present admission or the presence of co-morbidities, could facilitate the detection of deficiencies in the patient treatment and improve hospital management. Moreover, the control of related co-morbidities may have an impact on the in-hospital deaths of these patients. PMID:23675228

  4. Building Data-Driven Pathways From Routinely Collected Hospital Data: A Case Study on Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jeremy; Cooper, Colin S; Mills, Robert; Rayward-Smith, Victor J; de la Iglesia, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Background Routinely collected data in hospitals is complex, typically heterogeneous, and scattered across multiple Hospital Information Systems (HIS). This big data, created as a byproduct of health care activities, has the potential to provide a better understanding of diseases, unearth hidden patterns, and improve services and cost. The extent and uses of such data rely on its quality, which is not consistently checked, nor fully understood. Nevertheless, using routine data for the construction of data-driven clinical pathways, describing processes and trends, is a key topic receiving increasing attention in the literature. Traditional algorithms do not cope well with unstructured processes or data, and do not produce clinically meaningful visualizations. Supporting systems that provide additional information, context, and quality assurance inspection are needed. Objective The objective of the study is to explore how routine hospital data can be used to develop data-driven pathways that describe the journeys that patients take through care, and their potential uses in biomedical research; it proposes a framework for the construction, quality assessment, and visualization of patient pathways for clinical studies and decision support using a case study on prostate cancer. Methods Data pertaining to prostate cancer patients were extracted from a large UK hospital from eight different HIS, validated, and complemented with information from the local cancer registry. Data-driven pathways were built for each of the 1904 patients and an expert knowledge base, containing rules on the prostate cancer biomarker, was used to assess the completeness and utility of the pathways for a specific clinical study. Software components were built to provide meaningful visualizations for the constructed pathways. Results The proposed framework and pathway formalism enable the summarization, visualization, and querying of complex patient-centric clinical information, as well as the

  5. Microscopically diagnosed head and neck cancers in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Jayalakshmi, P; Pathmanathan, R; Raman, R; Prasad, U

    1989-03-01

    A retrospective study of 1000 cases of microscopically diagnosed head and neck cancers in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur was done. Head and neck neoplasms comprise 7.1% of all tumours diagnosed in this Hospital and the commonest sites of involvement are the nasopharynx (29.1%), cervical lymph nodes (22.6%), oral cavity (10.2%), thyroid (8.2%) and skin (6.5%). Histologically, 87% of tumours are epithelial in nature. The results of this study show that nasopharyngeal carcinoma is commonest in Chinese males, while oral and laryngeal malignancies occur more frequently in Indians.

  6. Validation of administrative hospital data for identifying incident pancreatic and periampullary cancer cases: a population-based study using linked cancer registry and administrative hospital data in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Creighton, Nicola; Walton, Richard; Roder, David; Aranda, Sanchia; Currow, David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Informing cancer service delivery with timely and accurate data is essential to cancer control activities and health system monitoring. This study aimed to assess the validity of ascertaining incident cases and resection use for pancreatic and periampullary cancers from linked administrative hospital data, compared with data from a cancer registry (the ‘gold standard’). Design, setting and participants Analysis of linked statutory population-based cancer registry data and administrative hospital data for adults (aged ≥18 years) with a pancreatic or periampullary cancer case diagnosed during 2005–2009 or a hospital admission for these cancers between 2005 and 2013 in New South Wales, Australia. Methods The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of pancreatic and periampullary cancer case ascertainment from hospital admission data were calculated for the 2005–2009 period through comparison with registry data. We examined the effect of the look-back period to distinguish incident cancer cases from prevalent cancer cases from hospital admission data using 2009 and 2013 as index years. Results Sensitivity of case ascertainment from the hospital data was 87.5% (4322/4939), with higher sensitivity when the cancer was resected (97.9%, 715/730) and for pancreatic cancers (88.6%, 3733/4211). Sensitivity was lower in regional (83.3%) and remote (85.7%) areas, particularly in areas with interstate outflow of patients for treatment, and for cases notified to the registry by death certificate only (9.6%). The PPV for the identification of incident cases was 82.0% (4322/5272). A 2-year look-back period distinguished the majority (98%) of incident cases from prevalent cases in linked hospital data. Conclusions Pancreatic and periampullary cancer cases and resection use can be ascertained from linked hospital admission data with sufficient validity for informing aspects of health service delivery and system-level monitoring. Limited tumour clinical

  7. High prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in liver cancer patients: A hospital based study of 4610 patients with benign tumors or specific cancers

    PubMed Central

    Roujun, Chen; Yanhua, Yi; Bixun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were hypothesised to be different among different tumor patients. This study aimed to study the association between the prevalence of DM, IGT and IFG and liver cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer and benign tumor. Methods:  A hospital based retrospective study was conducted on 4610 patients admitted to the Internal Medical Department of the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, China. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between gender, age group, ethnicity , cancer types or benign tumors and prevalence of DM, IFG, IGT. Results: Among 4610 patients, there were 1000 liver cancer patients, 373 breast cancer patients, 415 nasopharyngeal cancer patients, 230 cervical cancer patients, 405 colorectal cancer patients, and 2187 benign tumor patients. The prevalence of DM and IGT in liver cancer patients was 14.7% and 22.1%, respectively. The prevalence of DM and IGT was 13.8% and 20%, respectively, in colorectal cancer patients, significantly higher than that of benign cancers. After adjusting for gender, age group, and ethnicity, the prevalence of DM and IGT in liver cancers patients was 1.29 times (CI :1.12-1.66) and 1.49 times (CI :1.20-1.86) higher than that of benign tumors, respectively. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of DM and IGT in liver cancer patients.

  8. High prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in liver cancer patients: A hospital based study of 4610 patients with benign tumors or specific cancers

    PubMed Central

    Roujun, Chen; Yanhua, Yi; Bixun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were hypothesised to be different among different tumor patients. This study aimed to study the association between the prevalence of DM, IGT and IFG and liver cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer and benign tumor. Methods:  A hospital based retrospective study was conducted on 4610 patients admitted to the Internal Medical Department of the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, China. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between gender, age group, ethnicity , cancer types or benign tumors and prevalence of DM, IFG, IGT. Results: Among 4610 patients, there were 1000 liver cancer patients, 373 breast cancer patients, 415 nasopharyngeal cancer patients, 230 cervical cancer patients, 405 colorectal cancer patients, and 2187 benign tumor patients. The prevalence of DM and IGT in liver cancer patients was 14.7% and 22.1%, respectively. The prevalence of DM and IGT was 13.8% and 20%, respectively, in colorectal cancer patients, significantly higher than that of benign cancers. After adjusting for gender, age group, and ethnicity, the prevalence of DM and IGT in liver cancers patients was 1.29 times (CI :1.12-1.66) and 1.49 times (CI :1.20-1.86) higher than that of benign tumors, respectively. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of DM and IGT in liver cancer patients. PMID:27610222

  9. Factors Associated With Waiting Time for Breast Cancer Treatment in a Teaching Hospital in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dedey, Florence; Wu, Lily; Ayettey, Hannah; Sanuade, Olutobi A; Akingbola, Titilola S; Hewlett, Sandra A; Tayo, Bamidele O; Cole, Helen V; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Adanu, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Background Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in Ghana. Data are limited on the predictors of poor outcomes in breast cancer patients in low-income countries; however, prolonged waiting time has been implicated. Among breast cancer patients who received treatment at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, this study evaluated duration and factors that influenced waiting time from first presentation to start of definitive treatment. Method We conducted a hospital-based retrospective study of 205 breast cancer patients starting definitive treatment at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital between May and December 2013. We used descriptive statistics to summarize patient characteristics. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests and Spearman rank correlation were performed to examine the patients, health system, and health worker factors associated with median waiting time. Poisson regression was used to examine the determinants of waiting time. Results The mean age of the patients was 51.1 ± 11.8 years. The median waiting time was 5 weeks. The determinants of waiting time were level of education, age, income, marital status, ethnicity, disease stage, health insurance status, study sites, time interval between when biopsy was requested and when results were received and receipt of adequate information from health workers. Conclusion A prolonged waiting time to treatment occurs for breast cancer patients in Ghana, particularly for older patients, those with minimal or no education, with lower income, single patients, those with late disease, those who are insured, and who did not receive adequate information from the health workers. Time to obtain biopsy reports should be shortened. Patients and providers need education on timely treatment to improve prognosis. PMID:27091222

  10. Breast Cancer Risk Factors among Ugandan Women at a Tertiary Hospital: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Galukande, Moses; Wabinga, Henry; Mirembe, Florence; Karamagi, Charles; Asea, Alexzander

    2016-01-01

    Background Although East Africa, like other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, has a lower incidence of breast cancer than high-income countries, the disease rate is rising steeply in Africa; it has nearly tripled in the past few decades in Uganda. There is a paucity of studies that have examined the relation between reproductive factors and breast cancer risk factors in Ugandan women. Objective To determine breast cancer risk factors among indigenous Ugandan women. Methods This is a hospital-based unmatched case-control study. Interviews were conducted between 2011 and 2012 using structured questionnaires. Patients with histologyproven breast cancer were recruited over a 2-year period. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 350 women were recruited; 113 were cases and 237 were controls. The mean age was 47.5 years (SD 14) for the cases and 45.5 years (SD 14.1) for the controls. The odds of breast cancer risk seemed lower for those who breastfed (adjusted OR = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.18). There was no significance for early age at first full-term birth (adjusted OR = 1.96; 95% CI: 0.97, 3.96; p = 0.061), and urban residence carried no increased odds of breast cancer either (p = 0.201). Conclusion Breastfeeding seems to be associated with reduced odds of breast cancer. PMID:27104645

  11. Cancer patient experience with navigation service in an urban hospital setting: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Gotlib Conn, L; Hammond Mobilio, M; Rotstein, O D; Blacker, S

    2016-01-01

    Cancer patient navigators are increasingly present on the oncology health care team. The positive impact of navigation on cancer care is recognised, yet a clear understanding of what the patient navigator does and how he/she executes the role continues to emerge. This study aimed to understand cancer patients' perceptions of, and experiences with patient navigation, exploring how navigation may enhance the patient experience in an urban hospital setting where patients with varying needs are treated. A qualitative study using a constructionist approach was conducted. Fifteen colorectal cancer patients participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Data were analyzed inductively and iteratively. Findings provide insight into two central aspects of cancer navigation: navigation as patient-centred coordination and explanation of clinical care, and navigation as individualised, holistic support. Within these themes, the key benefits of navigation from the patients' perspective were demystifying the system; ensuring comprehension, managing expectations; and, delivering patient-centred care. The navigator provided individualised and extended family support; a holistic approach; and, addressed emotional and psychological needs. These findings provide a means to operationalise and validate an emerging role description and competency framework for the cancer navigator who must identify and adapt to patients' varying needs throughout the cancer care continuum.

  12. In-hospital mortality following lung cancer resection: nationwide administrative database.

    PubMed

    Pagès, Pierre-Benoit; Cottenet, Jonathan; Mariet, Anne-Sophie; Bernard, Alain; Quantin, Catherine

    2016-06-01

    Our aim was to determine the effect of a national strategy for quality improvement in cancer management (the "Plan Cancer") according to time period and to assess the influence of type and volume of hospital activity on in-hospital mortality (IHM) within a large national cohort of patients operated on for lung cancer.From January 2005 to December 2013, 76 235 patients were included in the French Administrative Database. Patient characteristics, hospital volume of activity and hospital type were analysed over three periods: 2005-2007, 2008-2010 and 2011-2013.Global crude IHM was 3.9%: 4.3% during 2005-2007, 4% during 2008-2010 and 3.5% during 2011-2013 (p<0.01). 296, 259 and 209 centres performed pulmonary resections in 2005-2007, 2008-2010 and 2011-2013, respectively (p<0.01). The risk of death was higher in centres performing <13 resections per year than in centres performing >43 resections per year (adjusted (a)OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.197-1.834). The risk of death was lower in the period 2011-2013 than in the period 2008-2010 (aOR 0.841, 95% CI 0.764-0.926). Adjustment variables (age, sex, Charlson score and type of resection) were significantly linked to IHM, whereas the type of hospital was not.The French national strategy for quality improvement seems to have induced a significant decrease in IHM.

  13. International benchmarking of specialty hospitals. A series of case studies on comprehensive cancer centres

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Benchmarking is one of the methods used in business that is applied to hospitals to improve the management of their operations. International comparison between hospitals can explain performance differences. As there is a trend towards specialization of hospitals, this study examines the benchmarking process and the success factors of benchmarking in international specialized cancer centres. Methods Three independent international benchmarking studies on operations management in cancer centres were conducted. The first study included three comprehensive cancer centres (CCC), three chemotherapy day units (CDU) were involved in the second study and four radiotherapy departments were included in the final study. Per multiple case study a research protocol was used to structure the benchmarking process. After reviewing the multiple case studies, the resulting description was used to study the research objectives. Results We adapted and evaluated existing benchmarking processes through formalizing stakeholder involvement and verifying the comparability of the partners. We also devised a framework to structure the indicators to produce a coherent indicator set and better improvement suggestions. Evaluating the feasibility of benchmarking as a tool to improve hospital processes led to mixed results. Case study 1 resulted in general recommendations for the organizations involved. In case study 2, the combination of benchmarking and lean management led in one CDU to a 24% increase in bed utilization and a 12% increase in productivity. Three radiotherapy departments of case study 3, were considering implementing the recommendations. Additionally, success factors, such as a well-defined and small project scope, partner selection based on clear criteria, stakeholder involvement, simple and well-structured indicators, analysis of both the process and its results and, adapt the identified better working methods to the own setting, were found. Conclusions The improved

  14. [The university hospital palliative care team's approach to the transfer of end-stage cancer patients from hospital care to home medical care].

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Kazuho; Nishiumi, Noboru; Kushino, Nobuhisa; Tsukada, Michiko; Douzono, Sachiko; Saito, Yuki; Yagame, Mitsunori; Tokuda, Yutaka

    2009-12-01

    The palliative care team's roles are to provide a symptom relief to cancer patients, help them accept their medical conditions, and offer advice regarding the selection of appropriate medical treatments to suit their needs. Seeking the comfort of their homes, patients prefer a home care of superior medical care provided at hospitals. In 2008, 25 of the end-stage cancer patients at hospitals were expressed their desires to have a home medical care, and 10 of them were allowed to do so. We considered the following contributing factors that a patient should have for a smooth transition from hospital care to home medical care: (1) life expectancy of more than 2 months, (2) no progressive breathing difficulties experienced daily, (3) good awareness of medical condition among patients and families, (4) living with someone who has a good understanding of the condition, (5) availability of an appropriate hospital in case of a sudden change in medical requirements, and (6) good collaboration between emergency care hospitals, home physicians, and visiting nurses. To treat the end-stage cancer patients at home, there is a need for information sharing and a joint training of physicians specialized in cancer therapy, palliative care teams, home physicians, and visiting nurses. This would ensure a sustainable "face-to-face collaboration" in community health care.

  15. Subsequent Oophorectomy and Ovarian Cancer after Hysterectomy for Benign Gynecologic Conditions at Chiang Mai University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Jitkunnatumkul, Aurapin; Tantipalakorn, Charuwan; Charoenkwan, Kittipat; Srisomboon, Jatupol

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the incidence of subsequent oophorectomy due to ovarian pathology or ovarian cancer in women with prior hysterectomy for benign gynecologic conditions at Chiang Mai University Hospital. Medical records of women who underwent hysterectomy for benign gynecologic diseases and pre-cancerous lesions between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2013 at Chiang Mai University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The incidence and indications of oophorectomy following hysterectomy were analyzed. During the study period, 1,035 women had hysterectomy for benign gynecologic conditions. Of these, 590 women underwent hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and 445 hysterectomy with bilateral ovarian preservation or unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The median age was 47 years (range, 11-75 years). Ten women (2.45 %) had subsequent oophorectomy for benign ovarian cysts. No case of ovarian cancer was found. The mean time interval between hysterectomy and subsequent oophorectomy was 43.1 months (range, 2-97 months) and the mean follow-up time for this patient cohort was 51 months (range, 1.3-124.9 months). According to our hospital-based data, the incidence of subsequent oophorectomy in women with prior hysterectomy for benign gynecologic conditions is low and all present with benign conditions. PMID:27644627

  16. Cancer nursing into the millennium: the Robert Tiffany Annual Lecture, Royal Marsden Hospital.

    PubMed

    Yarbro, C H

    1998-06-01

    The nursing profession has shown tremendous adaptability throughout the ages. Cancer nurses have encountered many challenges and changes during this past century that have marked our increasingly rapid progress on the long road of development of cancer nursing. The movement from an illness-focused, hospital-based, physician-dominated health care model to preventive, community-defined and collaborative health care is providing exciting new opportunities for nurses. Advances in science and technology and a more informed consumer present unique challenges as well. Based on the trends and the tremendous breakthroughs occurring during this decade, this article explores visions and dreams of the preferred future of cancer nursing as we march into the next millennium.

  17. Dying in Palliative Care Units and in Hospital: A Comparison of the Quality of Life of Terminal Cancer Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viney, Linda L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Compared quality of life of terminal cancer patients (n=182) in two palliative care units with that of those in general hospital. Patients in specialized palliative care units were found to differ from those dying in hospital, showing less indirectly expressed anger but more positive feelings. They also reported more anxiety about death but less…

  18. Use of Hospital-Based Food Pantries Among Low-Income Urban Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Lee, Trevor; Loeb, Rebecca; Ramirez, Julia; Moran, Alyssa; Crist, Michael; McNish, Thelma; Leng, Jennifer C F

    2015-12-01

    To examine uptake of a novel emergency food system at five cancer clinics in New York City, hospital-based food pantries, and predictors of use, among low-income urban cancer patients. This is a nested cohort study of 351 patients who first visited the food pantries between October 3, 2011 and January 1, 2013. The main outcome was continued uptake of this food pantry intervention. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) statistical analysis was conducted to model predictors of pantry visit frequency. The median number of return visits in the 4 month period after a patient's initial visit was 2 and the mean was 3.25 (SD 3.07). The GEE model showed that younger patients used the pantry less, immigrant patients used the pantry more (than US-born), and prostate cancer and Stage IV cancer patients used the pantry more. Future long-term larger scale studies are needed to further assess the utilization, as well as the impact of food assistance programs such as the this one, on nutritional outcomes, cancer outcomes, comorbidities, and quality of life. Cancer patients most at risk should be taken into particular consideration.

  19. The interplay between hospital and surgeon factors and the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Tina W.F.; Li, Jianing; Sparapani, Rodney A.; Laud, Purushuttom W.; Nattinger, Ann B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Several surgeon characteristics are associated with the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for breast cancer. No studies have systematically examined the relative contribution of both surgeon and hospital factors on receipt of SLNB. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between surgeon and hospital characteristics, including a novel claims-based classification of hospital commitment to cancer care (HC), and receipt of SLNB for breast cancer, a marker of quality care. Data Sources/Study Design: Observational prospective survey study was performed in a population-based cohort of Medicare beneficiaries who underwent incident invasive breast cancer surgery, linked to Medicare claims, state tumor registries, American Hospital Association Annual Survey Database, and American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. Multiple logistic regression models determined surgeon and hospital characteristics that were predictors of SLNB. Results: Of the 1703 women treated at 471 different hospitals by 947 different surgeons, 65% underwent an initial SLNB. Eleven percent of hospitals were high-volume and 58% had a high commitment to cancer care. In separate adjusted models, both high HC (odds ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12–2.10) and high hospital volume (HV, OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.28–2.79) were associated with SLNB. Adding surgeon factors to a model including both HV and HC minimally modified the effect of high HC (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.95–1.88) but significantly weakened the effect of high HV (OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.82–1.90). Surgeon characteristics (higher volume and percentage of breast cancer cases) remained strong independent predictors of SLNB, even when controlling for various hospital characteristics. Conclusions: Hospital factors are associated with receipt of SLNB but surgeon factors have a stronger association. Since regionalization of breast cancer care in the U.S. is unlikely to occur, efforts to improve the surgical care and

  20. [Decentralization of epidemiological surveillance in Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Ana Coelho de; Mota, Eduardo Luiz Andrade; Felisberto, Eronildo

    2015-04-01

    The study aimed to analyze the relationship between decentralization of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and the development of epidemiological surveillance activities in municipalities (counties) in Pernambuco State, Brazil. This was an exploratory descriptive qualitative and quantitative study, including a document search, completion of semi-structured interviews by key informants, and an ecological spatial and time trend study of selected health indicators, covering a 10-year period (2001-2010). The study showed that municipalities adhered to the decentralization process, which was making progress in Pernambuco, but with inequalities and weaknesses in its development. There was also a fluctuation in the time series for the selected indicators. Thus, even though the decentralization of epidemiological surveillance is still incipient in some municipalities, their protagonist role in implementing the activities promotes empowerment at the local level by producing key information for decision-making.

  1. Impact of a Fast-Track Esophagectomy Protocol on Esophageal Cancer Patient Outcomes and Hospital Charges

    PubMed Central

    Shewale, Jitesh B.; Correa, Arlene M.; Baker, Carla M.; Villafane-Ferriol, Nicole; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Jordan, Victoria S.; Kehlet, Henrik; Lewis, Katie M.; Mehran, Reza J.; Summers, Barbara L.; Schaub, Diane; Wilks, Sonia A.; Swisher, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of a fast-track esophagectomy protocol (FTEP) on esophageal cancer patients' safety, length of hospital stay (LOS) and hospital charges. Background FTEP involved transferring patients to the telemetry unit instead of the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) after esophagectomy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 708 consecutive patients who underwent esophagectomy for primary esophageal cancer during the 4 years before (group A; 322 patients) or 4 years after (group B; 386 patients) the institution of an FTEP. Postoperative morbidity and mortality, LOS, and hospital charges were reviewed. Results Compared with group A, group B had significantly shorter median LOS (12 days vs 8 days; P < 0.001); lower mean numbers of SICU days (4.5 days vs 1.2 days; P < 0.001) and telemetry days (12.7 days vs 9.7 days; P < 0.001); and lower rates of atrial arrhythmia (27% vs 19%; P = 0.013) and pulmonary complications (27% vs 20%; P = 0.016). Multivariable analysis revealed FTEP to be associated with shorter LOS (P < 0.001) even after adjustment for predictors like tumor histology and location. FTEP was also associated with a lower rate of pulmonary complications (odds ratio = 0.655; 95% confidence interval = 0.456, 0.942; P = 0.022). In addition, the median hospital charges associated with primary admission and readmission within 90 days for group B ($65,649) were lower than that for group A ($79,117; P < 0.001). Conclusion These findings suggest that an FTEP reduces patients' LOS, perioperative morbidity and hospital charges. PMID:25243545

  2. Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in Ghanaian Women: The Korle Bu Teaching Hospital Experience.

    PubMed

    Der, Edmund M; Gyasi, Richard K; Tettey, Yao; Edusei, Lawrence; Bayor, Marcel T; Jiagge, Evelyn; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Merajver, Sofia D; Newman, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancers that have negative or extremely low expression of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and non-amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)/neu are termed triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The majority of TNBC tumors belong to the biologically aggressive basal subtype, and they cannot be managed with targeted endocrine or anti-HER2/neu agents. In western, high resource environments, risk factors for TNBC include younger age at diagnosis and hereditary susceptibility. Women of African ancestry in the United States and in continental Africa have higher frequencies of TNBC, prompting speculation that this risk may have an inherited basis and may at least partially explain breast cancer survival disparities related to racial/ethnic identity. Efforts to document and confirm the breast cancer burden of continental Africa have been hampered by the limited availability of registry and immunohistochemistry resources. Our goal was to evaluate the breast cancers diagnosed in one of the largest health care facilities in western Africa, and to compare the frequencies as well as risk factors for TNBC versus non-TNBC in this large referral tertiary hospital. The Korle Bu Teaching Hospital is affiliated with the University of Ghana and is located in Accra, the capital of Ghana. We conducted an institutional, Department of Pathology-based review of the breast cancer cases seen at this facility for the 2010 calendar year, and for which histopathologic specimens were available. The overall study population of 223 breast cancer cases had a median age of 52.4 years, and most had palpable tumors larger than 5 cm in diameter. More than half were TNBC (130; 58.3%). We observed similar age-specific frequencies, distribution of stage at diagnosis and tumor grade among cases of TNBC compared to cases of non-TNBC. Ghanaian breast cancer patients tend to have an advanced stage distribution and relatively younger age at diagnosis compared to

  3. Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in Ghanaian Women: The Korle Bu Teaching Hospital Experience.

    PubMed

    Der, Edmund M; Gyasi, Richard K; Tettey, Yao; Edusei, Lawrence; Bayor, Marcel T; Jiagge, Evelyn; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Merajver, Sofia D; Newman, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancers that have negative or extremely low expression of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and non-amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)/neu are termed triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The majority of TNBC tumors belong to the biologically aggressive basal subtype, and they cannot be managed with targeted endocrine or anti-HER2/neu agents. In western, high resource environments, risk factors for TNBC include younger age at diagnosis and hereditary susceptibility. Women of African ancestry in the United States and in continental Africa have higher frequencies of TNBC, prompting speculation that this risk may have an inherited basis and may at least partially explain breast cancer survival disparities related to racial/ethnic identity. Efforts to document and confirm the breast cancer burden of continental Africa have been hampered by the limited availability of registry and immunohistochemistry resources. Our goal was to evaluate the breast cancers diagnosed in one of the largest health care facilities in western Africa, and to compare the frequencies as well as risk factors for TNBC versus non-TNBC in this large referral tertiary hospital. The Korle Bu Teaching Hospital is affiliated with the University of Ghana and is located in Accra, the capital of Ghana. We conducted an institutional, Department of Pathology-based review of the breast cancer cases seen at this facility for the 2010 calendar year, and for which histopathologic specimens were available. The overall study population of 223 breast cancer cases had a median age of 52.4 years, and most had palpable tumors larger than 5 cm in diameter. More than half were TNBC (130; 58.3%). We observed similar age-specific frequencies, distribution of stage at diagnosis and tumor grade among cases of TNBC compared to cases of non-TNBC. Ghanaian breast cancer patients tend to have an advanced stage distribution and relatively younger age at diagnosis compared to

  4. [Mortality due to bicycle accidents in Pernambuco, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Galvão, Pauliana Valéria Machado; Pestana, Luciana Pinto; Pestana, Valter Mário; Spíndola, Michelline Oliveira Pedrosa; Campello, Reginaldo Inojosa Carneiro; de Souza, Eliane Helena Alvim

    2013-05-01

    The scope of this paper was to conduct a quantitative analysis of deaths resulting from bicycle accidents in the state of Pernambuco by studying secondary data between 2001 and 2010. The sample consisted of all the Deaths recorded in the Mortality Information System of the Unified Health System Database that reported bicycle accidents between 2001 and 2010. Descriptive measures were determined for all variables. Socio-demographic variables were paired with the basic cause of death in order to find a statistical correlation. In Pernambuco, the aforementioned information system recorded 517 deaths resulting from bicycle accidents, with greater frequency in men between 25 and 59 years of age, Afro-Brazilians, single and of unknown schooling. The mean age was 36.82 years (SD = 17.026), and the minimum and maximum age of 4 and 86 years old, respectively. The findings highlight the need for the creation of adequate infrastructure and effective legal measures to prevent traffic accidents involving this type of vehicle, relying on the evidence of distribution of cases in most Pernambuco municipalities.

  5. Distribution of forensic marker allelic frequencies in Pernambuco, Northestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, S M; Souza, C A; Rabelo, K C N; Souza, P R E; Moura, R R; Oliveira, T C; Crovella, S

    2015-04-30

    Pernambuco is one of the 27 federal units of Brazil, ranking seventh in the number of inhabitants. We examined the allele frequencies of 13 short tandem repeat loci (CFS1PO, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, FGA, TH01, vWA, and TPOX), the minimum recommended by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and commonly used in forensic genetics laboratories in Brazil, in a sample of 609 unrelated individuals from all geographic regions of Pernambuco. The allele frequencies ranged from 5 to 47.2%. No significant differences for any loci analyzed were observed compared with other publications in other various regions of Brazil. Most of the markers observed were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The occurrence of the allele 47.2 (locus FGA) and alleles 35.1 and 39 (locus D21S11), also described in a single study of the Brazilian population, was observed. The other forensic parameters analyzed (matching probability, power of discrimination, polymorphic information content, paternity exclusion, complement factor I, observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity) indicated that the studied markers are very informative for human forensic identification purposes in the Pernambuco population.

  6. The characteristics of advanced cancer patients followed at home, but admitted to the hospital for the last days of life.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Masedu, Francesco; Valenti, Marco; Mercadante, Alessandro; Aielli, Federica

    2016-08-01

    Information regarding advanced cancer patients followed at home who are admitted to the hospital in the last days of life are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of patients who were hospitalized in the last days of life after being assisted by a home palliative care team. The secondary outcome was to identify possible risk factors for hospitalization. The charts were analyzed of a consecutive sample of advanced cancer patients admitted to hospital wards in the last days of life after being followed at home by a palliative care team. Of 550 consecutive patients followed at home, 138 (25.1 %) were admitted to the hospital. Younger patients were more likely to die in the hospital. In a logistic risk analysis adjusted for age, patients with lung and head-neck cancer were more likely to die in the hospital. Patients having a female relative or a female consort as a caregiver were more likely to die at home. CAGE-positive patients (7.25 %), and patients with a shorter period of home assistance were more likely transported to hospital before dying (p = 0.00 and p < 0.024, respectively). The most frequent reason for hospital admission was dyspnea. Admission was more frequent to the oncology ward. Patients who were admitted to the hospital died after a mean of 10.2 days (SD 8.2, range 0-40). This study provides preliminary data on the risk factors of hospitalization at the end of life for advanced cancer patients followed at home.

  7. [French lines in Recife architecture: Pedro II Hospital].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Geraldo

    2011-12-01

    Pedro II Hospital was inaugurated in Recife in 1861 and for several decades was the leading center of its kind in the state of Pernambuco and in Northeast Brazil. Its construction followed French design, as developed by physician Jacques-René Tenon, that is, the so-called pavilion style that was the norm in Pernambuco and in Brazil for many years. After being nearly abandoned in 1982, the hospital was reformed shortly thereafter and reopened its doors to offer a variety of services, thanks to negotiations between the Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira and the Archdiocese of Olinda and Recife.

  8. Sociological evaluation of patients with lung cancer--revision study in hospital patients.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Graça; Costa, David; Rocha, Lúcia; Monteiro, Ada; Mendes, Elisabete

    2005-01-01

    Lung cancer was a rare disease until the middle of the XX century, a time when it became one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the actual world. Nowadays, it is esteemed that one million people all over the world die every year due to lung cancer, which means that a life is lost each 30 seconds. The quality of life of this patients decreases inevitably, being frequent hospital readmission due to the lack of conditions to lead a normal and painless life. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical and cognitive incapacity and the social needs of patients with lung cancer in the outpatient department of Hospital de S. João--Porto. Our study includes 68 patients, predominantly married male, with average age of 63, retired, ex-smokers. Moreover, they had high physical dependence degrees and the most frequent social need was the attribution of the "complemento por dependência". In this type of patients, the family has a very important role on which the treatment is concerned, as well as to the level of the personal adjustment of the patient to his disease. Its social workers job to play a mediating role between the patients and their relatives and the several institutions which can give better responses to the needs of this sort of patients.

  9. Changing Trends of Skin Cancer: A Tertiary Care Hospital Study in Malwa Region of Punjab

    PubMed Central

    Banipal, Raja Paramjeet Singh; Bhatti, Deepak John; Yadav, Hanuman Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Skin cancer constitutes a small but significant proportion of patients with cancer. Although the presence of eumelanin in dark skin is protective against the development of skin cancer, it is increasingly being diagnosed in the Indian population. Aim To study the profile of skin cancer patients presenting to a tertiary hospital in Malwa area of Punjab, India. Materials and Methods Retrospective study was done to analyse the profile of skin cancer patients who attended the institution over one year from 1st December 2013 to 30th November 2014. A comprehensive review of aetiology and related risk factors was done to correlate the environmental factors with high skin cancer prevalence in this region. Results Skin cancer constituted (3.18%) 84 out of 2638 patients registered with cancer of all types. The age of the patients was 62±14.2 years and ranged from 27 to 92 yrs. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) was the most common histological type(46/84, 54.76%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (31/84, 36.91%) and malignant melanoma (MM) (7/84, 8.33%). Male: female ratio was found to be 0.79:1. BCC showed higher female preponderance (p<0.05). Head and Neck was the commonest site involved (p<0.05). Majority (88%) of patients were from rural area. 92% of patients were directly into the profession of agriculture with history of prolonged exposure to sunlight. Conclusion Skin cancer constitutes a small but significant proportion of patients with cancers. This study highlights a paradoxically increasing trend of BCC and female preponderance. Head and neck is the most common site involved. Exposure to Ultra Violet B (UVB) radiation and higher levels of arsenic in drinking water has been reported to be associated with skin cancers. Limited studies show that levels of arsenic and pesticides were higher in the samples of drinking water in Malwa area of Punjab. Therefore a multipronged strategy to provide safe drinking water supply and discouraging the indiscriminate

  10. High Hospitalization Rates in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study Using Medical Record Linkage.

    PubMed

    Sieswerda, Elske; Font-Gonzalez, Anna; Reitsma, Johannes B; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Heinen, Richard C; Jaspers, Monique W; van der Pal, Helena J; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Caron, Huib N; Geskus, Ronald B; Kremer, Leontien C

    2016-01-01

    Hospitalization rates over time of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) provide insight into the burden of unfavorable health conditions on CCS and health care resources. The objective of our study was to examine trends in hospitalizations of CCS and risk factors in comparison with the general population. We performed a medical record linkage study of a cohort of 1564 ≥five-year CCS with national registers. We obtained a random sample of the general population matched on year of birth, gender and calendar year per CCS retrieved. We quantified and compared hospitalization rates of CCS and reference persons from 1995 until 2005, and we analyzed risk factors for hospitalization within the CCS cohort with multivariable Poisson models. We retrieved hospitalization information from 1382 CCS and 25583 reference persons. The overall relative hospitalization rate (RHR) was 2.2 (95%CI:1.9-2.5) for CCS compared to reference persons. CCS with central nervous system and solid tumors had highest RHRs. Hospitalization rates in CCS were increased compared to reference persons up to at least 30 years after primary diagnosis, with highest rates 5-10 and 20-30 years after primary cancer. RHRs were highest for hospitalizations due to neoplasms (10.7; 95%CI:7.1-16.3) and endocrine/nutritional/metabolic disorders (7.3; 95%CI:4.6-11.7). Female gender (P<0.001), radiotherapy to head and/or neck (P<0.001) or thorax and/or abdomen (P = 0.03) and surgery (P = 0.01) were associated with higher hospitalization rates in CCS. In conclusion, CCS have increased hospitalization rates compared to the general population, up to at least 30 years after primary cancer treatment. These findings imply a high and long-term burden of unfavorable health conditions after childhood cancer on survivors and health care resources. PMID:27433937

  11. High Hospitalization Rates in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study Using Medical Record Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Sieswerda, Elske; Font-Gonzalez, Anna; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Heinen, Richard C.; Jaspers, Monique W.; van der Pal, Helena J.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Caron, Huib N.

    2016-01-01

    Hospitalization rates over time of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) provide insight into the burden of unfavorable health conditions on CCS and health care resources. The objective of our study was to examine trends in hospitalizations of CCS and risk factors in comparison with the general population. We performed a medical record linkage study of a cohort of 1564 ≥five-year CCS with national registers. We obtained a random sample of the general population matched on year of birth, gender and calendar year per CCS retrieved. We quantified and compared hospitalization rates of CCS and reference persons from 1995 until 2005, and we analyzed risk factors for hospitalization within the CCS cohort with multivariable Poisson models. We retrieved hospitalization information from 1382 CCS and 25583 reference persons. The overall relative hospitalization rate (RHR) was 2.2 (95%CI:1.9–2.5) for CCS compared to reference persons. CCS with central nervous system and solid tumors had highest RHRs. Hospitalization rates in CCS were increased compared to reference persons up to at least 30 years after primary diagnosis, with highest rates 5–10 and 20–30 years after primary cancer. RHRs were highest for hospitalizations due to neoplasms (10.7; 95%CI:7.1–16.3) and endocrine/nutritional/metabolic disorders (7.3; 95%CI:4.6–11.7). Female gender (P<0.001), radiotherapy to head and/or neck (P<0.001) or thorax and/or abdomen (P = 0.03) and surgery (P = 0.01) were associated with higher hospitalization rates in CCS. In conclusion, CCS have increased hospitalization rates compared to the general population, up to at least 30 years after primary cancer treatment. These findings imply a high and long-term burden of unfavorable health conditions after childhood cancer on survivors and health care resources. PMID:27433937

  12. High Hospitalization Rates in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study Using Medical Record Linkage.

    PubMed

    Sieswerda, Elske; Font-Gonzalez, Anna; Reitsma, Johannes B; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Heinen, Richard C; Jaspers, Monique W; van der Pal, Helena J; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Caron, Huib N; Geskus, Ronald B; Kremer, Leontien C

    2016-01-01

    Hospitalization rates over time of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) provide insight into the burden of unfavorable health conditions on CCS and health care resources. The objective of our study was to examine trends in hospitalizations of CCS and risk factors in comparison with the general population. We performed a medical record linkage study of a cohort of 1564 ≥five-year CCS with national registers. We obtained a random sample of the general population matched on year of birth, gender and calendar year per CCS retrieved. We quantified and compared hospitalization rates of CCS and reference persons from 1995 until 2005, and we analyzed risk factors for hospitalization within the CCS cohort with multivariable Poisson models. We retrieved hospitalization information from 1382 CCS and 25583 reference persons. The overall relative hospitalization rate (RHR) was 2.2 (95%CI:1.9-2.5) for CCS compared to reference persons. CCS with central nervous system and solid tumors had highest RHRs. Hospitalization rates in CCS were increased compared to reference persons up to at least 30 years after primary diagnosis, with highest rates 5-10 and 20-30 years after primary cancer. RHRs were highest for hospitalizations due to neoplasms (10.7; 95%CI:7.1-16.3) and endocrine/nutritional/metabolic disorders (7.3; 95%CI:4.6-11.7). Female gender (P<0.001), radiotherapy to head and/or neck (P<0.001) or thorax and/or abdomen (P = 0.03) and surgery (P = 0.01) were associated with higher hospitalization rates in CCS. In conclusion, CCS have increased hospitalization rates compared to the general population, up to at least 30 years after primary cancer treatment. These findings imply a high and long-term burden of unfavorable health conditions after childhood cancer on survivors and health care resources.

  13. Pattern of head and neck cancers in a sample of Syrian population: a retrospective hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Moudallal, Y Al; Khankan, N

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck cancers include a wide number of different types of cancer arising from a variety of different sites in the head and neck. Cancer patterns show a large worldwide variation. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive analysis of the pattern of occurrence of head and neck cancers in a sample of the Syrian population. A retrospective hospital-based descriptive study was conducted of all cases of head and neck cancer at two hospitals in Damascus over a 3-year period (2008-2010). Information was obtained from the records of the 2 centres: Maxillofacial Hospital and the head and neck surgery department in Al Mouasah Hospital. A total of 267 cases of head and neck cancers were recorded. The male to female ratio was 4:1 and the mean age was 57.7 years. The 5 most common sites were larynx (45.0%), oral cavity (16.5%), skin of the head and neck (14.0%), lower lip (6.0%) and lymph nodes (5%). Nose and external auditory tube were the least common sites. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histological type (69%). This study indicates the relative prominence of laryngeal, oral and skin cancers in this area. PMID:24995760

  14. Candidiasis in pediatric patients with cancer interned in a university hospital

    PubMed Central

    De Carvalho Parahym, Ana Maria Rabelo; De Melo, Luciana Resende Bandeira; De Morais, Vera Lúcia Lins; Neves, Rejane Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Fungi are common causes of infection in immunocompromised patients. Candida species are frequently involved in these cases. In order to investigate candidiasis in pediatric patients with cancer, clinical samples were collected from one hundred and twenty two patients interned in the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital in Recife, Brazil. Yeasts were isolated from thirty-four clinical samples. The species isolated were: Candida albicans (fourteen isolates), C. parapsilosis (nine isolates), C. guilliermondii (two isolates) and C. tropicalis (two isolates). We found that candidemia was most frequent in patients with malignant hematology and that C. parapsilosis infections caused the highest mortality. PMID:24031365

  15. [Participation of the family in hospital-based palliative cancer care: perspective of nurses].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcelle Miranda; Lima, Lorhanna da Silva

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to understand the perspective of nurses about the participation of the family in palliative cancer care and to analyze the nursing care strategies to meet their needs. Descriptive and qualitative research, conducted at the National Cancer Institute between January and March 2013, with 17 nurses. Elements of the Roy Adaptation Model were used for the interpretation of the data. Two categoriesemergedfrom the thematic analysis: perspective of nurses about the presence and valuation of family in the hospital; and appointing strategies to encourage family participation in care and meet their needs. This participation is essentialand represents a training opportunity for the purpose of homecare. Nurses create strategies to encourage it and seek to meet the needs. The results contribute to promote the family adaptation and integrity, in order to balance the dependent and independent behaviors, aimingfor quality of life and comfort. Further studies are neededdue to the challenges of the specialty. PMID:25842775

  16. [Professional practice of nurses who care for cancer patients in general hospitals].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Josiane Travençolo; Matheus, Maria Clara Cassuli; Fustinoni, Suzete Maria; de Gutiérrez, Maria Gaby Rivero

    2012-01-01

    The present article discusses a qualitative study which aimed to understand the typical of nurses' professional practice caring for patient with cancer in general hospitals. In order to find out the reasons that motivate nurse's action, and to put in evidence what is original, significant, specific and typical about this phenomenon, we have taken into consideration the premises of the philosopher Alfred Schütz, which provide us with subsidies to unveil them. The data collected through semi-structured interviews reported that nurses admit not having the required theoretical knowledge and experience or enough practice to take care of a cancer patient. Thus, they don't feel capable of developing actions which may positively influence care on patients and their family members. PMID:23032337

  17. [Promotion plan for the promotion of cancer: coping measures at Matsuyama Red Cross Hospital in Ehime prefecture - the current state of affairs at the hospital's cancer treatment promotion office].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Motohiro

    2013-05-01

    Recent cancer control strategies in Japan have been aimed at lowering morbidity and mortality rates, based on the Thirdterm Comprehensive 10-year Strategy for Cancer Control initiated by the Japanese government. In April 2007, the Cancer Control Basic Law was promulgated to necessitate promotion of cancer control by national and local authorities. In June 2007, the Japanese Health Ministry released a plan for the promotion of measures to cope with cancer. The cancer control measures adopted by the Matsuyama Red Cross Hospital(MRCH)in Ehime Prefecture were as follows: ·Progress in the promotion of measures to cope with cancer in Ehime, including a review of 2012, problems with new treatment methods for childhood cancer, employment of cancer patients, and promotion of home care. ·Cancer treatment measures adopted by MRCH as a hub medical institution for the past 5 years. ·The distinctive efforts of the intensive professionals team at the Cancer Treatment Promotion Office for cancer treatment at MRCH, and its work on cancer care from the 4 perspectives of the balanced scorecard in accordance with the basic policy of MRCH. PMID:23863580

  18. Pilot study on workload estimate in breast cancer, lung cancer and colorectal cancer in a Medical Oncology Service at Valme hospital.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Javier; Grávalos, Cristina; Albanell, Joan; Barnadas, Agustin; Borrega, Pablo; García-Mata, Jesús; Garrido, Pilar; Gonzalez-Flores, Encarnación; Isla, Dolores; Lomas, María; Rodríguez-Lescure, Alvaro; Cruz, Juan Jesus; Alba, Emilio

    2012-11-01

    New advances in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and the increased incidence and prevalence of this disease have led to an increase in the number and duration of visits in Medical Oncology in the last few years. Based on the functions of a medical oncologist and the time recommended for each work activity established by the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM), we carried out a pilot study on the three most frequent neoplasias in our country [breast cancer (BC), lung cancer (LC) and colorectal cancer (CRC)], in order to determine the real time each patient requires from a physician and thus establish a recommendation on the number of medical oncologists necessary. Using the actual itinerary of the first 20 patients of 2009 in each of the three neoplasias seen at the Medical Oncology Service of the Virgen de Valme University Hospital, we measured the number of visits, the antineoplastic treatments received, the number of hospital admissions and average length of stay. During the years following the study, these data were estimated based on the natural history of each neoplasia. During the first year, the average time spent by the medical oncologist was 235, 390 and 265 min on each outpatient with BC, LC and CRC, respectively. In hospitalisation, the average oncologist/patient minutes were 40, 360 and 118 for BC, LC and CRC, respectively. Finally, the time spent on each visit or day of hospitalisation was that recommended by the SEOM, achieving an ultimate ratio of 1 oncologist for every 83 first visits.

  19. Oncogenetics service and the Brazilian public health system: the experience of a reference Cancer Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Palmero, Edenir I.; Galvão, Henrique C.R.; Fernandes, Gabriela C.; de Paula, André E.; Oliveira, Junea C.; Souza, Cristiano P.; Andrade, Carlos E.; Romagnolo, Luis G.C.; Volc, Sahlua; C., Maximiliano; Sabato, Cristina; Grasel, Rebeca; Mauad, Edmundo; Reis, Rui M.; Michelli, Rodrigo A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The identification of families at-risk for hereditary cancer is extremely important due to the prevention potential in those families. However, the number of Brazilian genetic services providing oncogenetic care is extremely low for the continental dimension of the country and its population. Therefore, at-risk patients do not receive appropriate assistance. This report describes the creation, structure and management of a cancer genetics service in a reference center for cancer prevention and treatment, the Barretos Cancer Hospital (BCH). The Oncogenetics Department (OD) of BCH offers, free of charge, to all patients/relatives with clinical criteria, the possibility to perform i) genetic counseling, ii) preventive examinations and iii) genetic testing with the best quality standards. The OD has a multidisciplinary team and is integrated with all specialties. The genetic counseling process consists (mostly) of two visits. In 2014, 614 individuals (371 families) were seen by the OD. To date, over 800 families were referred by the OD for genetic testing. The support provided by the Oncogenetics team is crucial to identify at-risk individuals and to develop preventive and personalized behaviors for each situation, not only to the upper-middle class population, but also to the people whose only possibility is the public health system. PMID:27192127

  20. Prevalence of Depression and Anxiety amongst Cancer Patients in a Hospital Setting: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Faheem, Muhammad; Fahim, Ammad; Innocent, Haran; Mansoor, Zainab; Rizvi, Shehrbano; Farrukh, Hizra

    2016-01-01

    Background. The biomedical care for cancer has not been complemented by psychosocial progressions in cancer care. Objectives. To find the prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst cancer patients in a hospital setting. Design and Setting. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the tertiary care hospitals Shifa International Hospital Islamabad and Nuclear Medicine, Oncology, and Radiotherapy Institute [NORI]. Patients and Methods. 300 patients were interviewed from both the outpatient and inpatient department using The Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS). Main Outcome Measures. Using a score of 20 and above on the AKUADS, 146 (48.7%) patients were suffering from anxiety and depression. Results. When cross tabulation was done between different factors and the cancer patients with anxiety and depression, the following factors were found out to be significant with associated p value < 0.05: education of the patient, presence of cancer in the family, the severity of pain, and the patient's awareness of his anxiety and depression. Out of 143 (47.7%) uneducated patients, 85 (59.4%) were depressed, hence making it the highest educational category suffering from depression and anxiety. Conclusion. The prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst cancer patients was high showing that importance should be given to screening and counseling cancer patients for anxiety and depression, to help them cope with cancer as a disease and its impact on their mental wellbeing. Limitations. The frequency of female patients in our research was higher than those of male patients. PMID:27752508

  1. Out-of-Hospital Mortality among Patients Receiving Methadone for Non-Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Wayne A.; Chung, Cecilia P.; Murray, Katherine T.; Cooper, William O.; Hall, Kathi; Stein, C. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Importance Growing methadone use in pain management has raised concerns regarding its safety relative to other long-acting opioids. Methadone may increase risk for both lethal respiratory depression related to accidental overdose and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Objective To compare risk of out-of-hospital death in users of methadone for non-cancer pain to that for comparable users of sustained-release (SR) morphine. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Tennessee Medicaid, 1997 through 2009. Participants Cohort included current users of morphine SR or methadone 30–74 years of age without cancer or other life-threatening illness and not in a hospital or nursing home. At cohort entry, 32,742 and 6,014 had filled a prescription for morphine SR or methadone, respectively. The median age was 48 years, 58% were female, and comparable proportions had received cardiovascular, psychotropic, and other musculoskeletal medications. Nearly 90% of patients received the opioid for either back or other musculoskeletal pain. The median daily doses prescribed for morphine SR and methadone were 90mg and 40mg, respectively. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary study endpoint was out-of-hospital mortality, given that opioid-related deaths typically occur outside the hospital. Results There were 477 deaths during 28,699 person years of followup, or 166 deaths per 10,000 person-years. After control for study covariates, current methadone users had a 46% increased risk of death during followup, with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.46 (95% confidence interval 1.17–1.83, p = .0008), resulting in 72 (27–130) excess deaths per 10,000 person-years. Methadone users of doses ≤20mg/day, the lowest dose quartile, had increased risk (HR =1.59 [1.01–2.51], p = .0461) relative to a comparable dose of morphine SR (<60mg/day). Conclusions and Relevance The increased risk of death observed for users of methadone, even for low doses, supports recommendations that it

  2. [Euthanasia: refusal requires alternatives. The home hospital model could be a solution for some cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Tanneberger, S

    1995-04-01

    Maybe more important than an emotional debate on "pro and con" of euthanasia is search of alternatives for all who would request for physician-assisted suicide. Obviously it is not easy to find such alternative approaches. However only these justify a position "contra euthanasia". As one alternative Franco Pannuti introduced 1985 the concept of Eubiosia. Eubiosia, what means, the set of qualities that give life dignity, was proposed as a fundamental right of all patients. And dying in dignity as part of life in dignity excludes euthanasia. In the same way as respecting beginning life we have to respect ending life. A possible approach to guarantee Eubiosia for cancer patients is the hospital at home. A hospital at home is a part of the health care system having his own structural and organisational characteristics. It guarantees for a certain group of patients clinical level of care at the comfort of their own homes. The evaluation of 10,236 patients admitted in the Bologna home hospital, show that a majority of patients favour this care model which additional can have economical advantages.

  3. Results of curative therapy for esophageal cancer in a community training hospital.

    PubMed

    Averbach, Andrew; Akbarov, Alisher; Sidel, Todd; Mech, Karl; Parandian, Bahman; Waterfield, William; Poussin-Rosillo, Hipolito; Chang, David; Sardi, Armando

    2002-01-01

    A 12-year experience of therapy for esophageal carcinoma in a community-based cancer center was reviewed retrospectively. Of a total of 88 patients with histologically proven carcinoma of the esophagus 30 (34.1%) underwent curative esophagectomy. Twelve patients received preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Fourteen esophagectomies were performed transhiatally and 16 via the thoracolaparotomy approach. The average distance from incisors was 32.2 and 32.1 cm, respectively. Overall morbidity was 36.7%, with major complications in 30% of patients. Mortality was 3.3%. A comparison of patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (12 patients) and surgery alone (18 patients) showed no statistical difference in morbidity, mortality, or length of hospital stay. Analysis of these parameters in groups of patients operated via the transhiatal versus thoracolaparotomy approach demonstrated statistically lower morbidity (14.3% versus 56.3%, respectively), with no difference in mortality and a trend toward a shorter hospital stay in the former group. Overall survival at 3 years was 63.9%. In the combined therapy group, 90.9% of patients survived 3 years compared to 40.4% in the surgery only group (P = 0.0177). There was a trend toward better survival in the group of patients treated via the transhiatal approach. This study demonstrated that curative therapy for esophageal carcinoma can be performed with acceptable morbidity and mortality in a community teaching hospital.

  4. Are patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer getting appropriate DEXA scans? A District General Hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huan; Dayananda, Pete; Preece, Shay-Anne; Carmichael, Amtul

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer patients are often at high risk of fragility fractures partly due to adjuvant endocrine therapy such as aromatase inhibitors and chemotherapy. Baseline dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning is recommended as a standard of care in identifying patients who are at risk so they can be commenced on bone protective therapy. NICE guideline 80 - "Early and locally advanced breast cancer"[1] states that patients with early invasive breast cancer should have a baseline DEXA scan to assess BMD before the commencement of aromatase inhibitor treatment; if patients have treatment-induced menopause or are starting ovarian ablation/suppression therapy. We have audited the performance of a DGH against these guidelines with a target of 100% concordance. During a one year period (April 2012-April 2013), 100 patients with a new diagnosis of breast cancer were selected at random from the hospital coding database. 100 patients were chosen as this was a convenient sample size. We gathered information for these patients using electronic records, letters, and imaging. This showed a poor compliance of 38% against NICE guidelines. This in turn means that patients with low BMD at diagnosis of breast cancer are being under diagnosed and under treated, resulting in increased potential morbidity associated with fragility fractures. The interventions that resulted from this audit were: dissemination of these results to surgical and oncology departments, posters summarising the guidelines put up in breast clinics, and breast MDTs to discuss the need for DEXA scans for patients with breast cancer. A re-audit was performed for patients diagnosed with early, invasive breast cancer in January 2014 where a compliance of 90% was achieved. This represents a huge improvement in compliance from the baseline measure of 38%. In order to show that this improvement could be sustained, two further cycles were performed in February and March 2014, where the compliance was 92% and 100

  5. Cancer-associated malnutrition, cachexia and sarcopenia: the skeleton in the hospital closet 40 years later.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Aoife M; Power, Derek G; Daly, Louise; Cushen, Samantha J; Ní Bhuachalla, Ēadaoin; Prado, Carla M

    2016-05-01

    An awareness of the importance of nutritional status in hospital settings began more than 40 years ago. Much has been learned since and has altered care. For the past 40 years several large studies have shown that cancer patients are amongst the most malnourished of all patient groups. Recently, the use of gold-standard methods of body composition assessment, including computed tomography, has facilitated the understanding of the true prevalence of cancer cachexia (CC). CC remains a devastating syndrome affecting 50-80 % of cancer patients and it is responsible for the death of at least 20 %. The aetiology is multifactorial and complex; driven by pro-inflammatory cytokines and specific tumour-derived factors, which initiate an energy-intensive acute phase protein response and drive the loss of skeletal muscle even in the presence of adequate food intake and insulin. The most clinically relevant phenotypic feature of CC is muscle loss (sarcopenia), as this relates to asthenia, fatigue, impaired physical function, reduced tolerance to treatments, impaired quality of life and reduced survival. Sarcopenia is present in 20-70 % depending on the tumour type. There is mounting evidence that sarcopenia increases the risk of toxicity to many chemotherapy drugs. However, identification of patients with muscle loss has become increasingly difficult as 40-60 % of cancer patients are overweight or obese, even in the setting of metastatic disease. Further challenges exist in trying to reverse CC and sarcopenia. Future clinical trials investigating dose reductions in sarcopenic patients and dose-escalating studies based on pre-treatment body composition assessment have the potential to alter cancer treatment paradigms. PMID:26786393

  6. Cancer-associated malnutrition, cachexia and sarcopenia: the skeleton in the hospital closet 40 years later.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Aoife M; Power, Derek G; Daly, Louise; Cushen, Samantha J; Ní Bhuachalla, Ēadaoin; Prado, Carla M

    2016-05-01

    An awareness of the importance of nutritional status in hospital settings began more than 40 years ago. Much has been learned since and has altered care. For the past 40 years several large studies have shown that cancer patients are amongst the most malnourished of all patient groups. Recently, the use of gold-standard methods of body composition assessment, including computed tomography, has facilitated the understanding of the true prevalence of cancer cachexia (CC). CC remains a devastating syndrome affecting 50-80 % of cancer patients and it is responsible for the death of at least 20 %. The aetiology is multifactorial and complex; driven by pro-inflammatory cytokines and specific tumour-derived factors, which initiate an energy-intensive acute phase protein response and drive the loss of skeletal muscle even in the presence of adequate food intake and insulin. The most clinically relevant phenotypic feature of CC is muscle loss (sarcopenia), as this relates to asthenia, fatigue, impaired physical function, reduced tolerance to treatments, impaired quality of life and reduced survival. Sarcopenia is present in 20-70 % depending on the tumour type. There is mounting evidence that sarcopenia increases the risk of toxicity to many chemotherapy drugs. However, identification of patients with muscle loss has become increasingly difficult as 40-60 % of cancer patients are overweight or obese, even in the setting of metastatic disease. Further challenges exist in trying to reverse CC and sarcopenia. Future clinical trials investigating dose reductions in sarcopenic patients and dose-escalating studies based on pre-treatment body composition assessment have the potential to alter cancer treatment paradigms.

  7. Pancreatic cancer in Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital: a retrospective review of years 2001-2008.

    PubMed

    Norsa' adah, Bachok; Nur-Zafira, Azemi; Knight, Aishah

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is usually detected late and has a high mortality rate. Since little is known about this cancer in Malaysia, a review of all cases admitted to Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital was conducted to identify the epidemiological distribution and assess survival. A list of pancreatic cancer patients in 2001-2008 was obtained from the Hospital Record Department. Only cases confirmed by radio-imaging or histo-pathology examination were included. We excluded those with incomplete medical records. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard approaches were used for data analysis. Only 56 cases were included with a mean (SD) age of 49.6 (16.0) years, with 60.7% males and 82.1% of Malay ethnicity. Previous history included cholelithiasis in 23.2%, diabetes mellitus in 16.1%, previous laparotomy in 10.7%, chronic pancreatitis in 7.1%, alcohol drinking in 5.4% and positive family history in 3.6%. The common presenting history included 67.9% loss of appetite, 66.1% loss of weight, 58.9% jaundice and 46.4% abdominal pain. Tumour staging was: 21.5% stage l, 17.8% stage ll, 3.6% stage lll and 57.1% stage lV. The median (95% CI) survival time was 3.4 (0.5, 6.3) months and significant prognostic factors were duration of symptoms (HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95, 0.99; p value 0.013), ascites (HR 2.64; 95% CI: 1.28, 5.44; p value 0.008) and Whipple surgery (HR 4.20; 95% CI: 2.27, 7.76; p value <0.001). The history of presenting complaints was short and the majority presented at late stages of the disease, thus the median survival time was very poor.

  8. Assessment of a Hospital Palliative Care Unit (HPCU) for Cancer Patients; A Conceptual Framework

    PubMed Central

    Rouhollahi, Mohammad Reza; Saghafinia, Masoud; Zandehdel, Kazem; Motlagh, Ali Ghanbari; Kazemian, Ali; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Tahmasebi, Mamak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The first hospital palliative care unit (HPCU) in Iran (FARS-HPCU) has been established in 2008 in the Cancer Institute, which is the largest referral cancer center in the country. We attempted to assess the performance of the HPCU based on a comprehensive conceptual framework. The main aim of this study was to develop a conceptual framework for assessment of the HPCU performances through designing a value chain in line with the goals and the main processes (core and support). Materials and Methods: We collected data from a variety of sources, including international guidelines, international best practices, and expert opinions in the country and compared them with national policies and priorities. We also took into consideration the trend of the HPCU development in the Cancer Institute of Iran. Through benchmarking the gap area with the performance standards, some recommendations for better outcome are proposed. Results: The framework for performance assessment consisted of 154 process indicators (PIs), based on which the main stakeholders of the HPCU (including staff, patients, and families) offered their scoring. The outcome revealed the state of the processes as well as the gaps Conclusion: Despite a significant improvement in many processes and indicators, more development in the comprehensive and integrative aspects of FARS-HPCU performance is required. Consideration of all supportive and palliative requirements of the patients through interdisciplinary and collaborative approaches is recommended. PMID:26600701

  9. Creating a “culture of research” in a community hospital: Strategies and tools from the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program

    PubMed Central

    St. Germain, Diane; Nacpil, Lianne M; Zaren, Howard A; Swanson, Sandra M; Minnick, Christopher; Carrigan, Angela; Denicoff, Andrea M; Igo, Kathleen E; Acoba, Jared D; Gonzalez, Maria M; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta

    2015-01-01

    Background The value of community-based cancer research has long been recognized. In addition to the National Cancer Institute’s Community Clinical and Minority-Based Oncology Programs established in 1983, and 1991 respectively, the National Cancer Institute established the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program in 2007 with an aim of enhancing access to high-quality cancer care and clinical research in the community setting where most cancer patients receive their treatment. This article discusses strategies utilized by the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program to build research capacity and create a more entrenched culture of research at the community hospitals participating in the program over a 7-year period. Methods To facilitate development of a research culture at the community hospitals, the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program required leadership or chief executive officer engagement; utilized a collaborative learning structure where best practices, successes, and challenges could be shared; promoted site-to-site mentoring to foster faster learning within and between sites; required research program assessments that spanned clinical trial portfolio, accrual barriers, and outreach; increased identification and use of metrics; and, finally, encouraged research team engagement across hospital departments (navigation, multidisciplinary care, pathology, and disparities) to replace the traditionally siloed approach to clinical trials. Limitations The health-care environment is rapidly changing while complexity in research increases. Successful research efforts are impacted by numerous factors (e.g. institutional review board reviews, physician interest, and trial availability). The National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program sites, as program participants, had access to the required resources and support to develop and implement the strategies described. Metrics are an important

  10. Development of a Patient Registry to Evaluate Hospital Admissions Related to Chemotherapy Toxicity in a Community Cancer Center1

    PubMed Central

    Krzyzanowska, Monika K.; Treacy, Jean; Maloney, Betty; Lavino, Antoinette; Jacobson, Joseph O.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose Most chemotherapy (CT) administration occurs in routine care settings, yet little is known about treatment-related toxicity outside of clinical trials. To examine trends in toxicity, modify practice, and establish benchmarks for severe toxicity in a community cancer center we created a prospective registry of all treatment-related hospitalizations at the North Shore Medical Center Cancer Center, a community-based cancer facility in Peabody, MA. Methods Eligible population consisted of all adult cancer patients admitted to the hospital within 30 days of their last CT administration. Each admission was reviewed by a panel of hospital staff to determine whether admission was treatment-related. Information on admission was collected using a standard form. Results Between October 2001 and December 2003, there were 365 hospitalizations among patients receiving CT, 117 (32%) of which were deemed treatment-related. The median age of the cohort with treatment-related toxicity was 67 years, and 41% were male. Most frequent diagnoses were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (23%) and colorectal cancer (21%), with 49% of the patients receiving treatment with palliative intent. The most common reasons for admission were gastrointestinal toxicity or infection. The mean length of stay was 7.1 days. Seven patients (6%) died during hospitalization. When the registry was reviewed to identify areas where care may be improved, several admissions for decadron-related hyperglycemia in nondiabetic patients with myeloma were noted. This led to introduction of glucose monitoring guidelines with no subsequent admissions for this toxicity since then. Conclusions About one third of hospital admissions in patients receiving CT are treatment-related and most occur in patients with advanced disease. Collection of data on toxicity in the routine care setting is feasible and may facilitate quality improvement. PMID:20871674

  11. Penile cancer: about ten cases at the University Hospital of Rabat, review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Slaoui, Amine; Jabbour, Youness; El Ghazoui, Anouar; Karmouni, Tarik; Elkhader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdelatif; Attaya, Ahmed Ibn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to report the status of penile cancer sites in the urology department at the University Hospital of Rabat and evaluate long-term results of surgical treatment of this cancer. Patients and Methods: Between 1989 and 2015, 10 patients were treated for penile cancer. 10 cases were retrospectively reviewed and the following data were recorded: mode of revelation, seat, staging, TNM stage, treatment, evolution and survival. The mean age of patients was 58,1 years (48-81 years). All patients had squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. Six patients had a partial amputation of the penis, and three patients underwent total amputation. The median size of the lesion was 4.25 cm (1.5-8 cm). All tumors had a distal seat (gland- Furrow balanopreputial), 8 were localized and non-invasive (PT1 - PT2) and 2 had infiltrated the urethra (PT3). Four patients had lymph node localization. A single bilateral lymphadenectomy was performed and was positive only on one side, with a node <3 cm and no extracapsular extension. Two patients were referred for chemotherapy, a neoadjuvant referred to basic (Bleomycin - Methotrexate, Cisplatin) the other in a palliative goal. Median follow-up was 42 months (6 -72mois). Four patients died, one of which was presented immediately with metastatic mode. Six patients were alive at last node or local recurrence negative. Cancer of the penis seems rare in Morocco. His oncologic and functional outcomes (sexual and urinary) depend on the precocity of the treatment. The surgery of lymph node resection with lymphadenectomy remains the reference treatment. PMID:26664554

  12. [Radiotherapy in vulvar cancer. Experience in the Hospital de Oncología, CMN, SXXI, IMSS].

    PubMed

    Huerta Bahena, J; Padilla Arrieta, P; Ayala Hernández, J R

    1995-11-01

    Between 1986 and 1992, 42 patients with carcinoma of the vulva diagnosis, were treated at the Hospital de Oncologia, CMN, SXXI. Mean age was 63 years. There was 1 case stage I, 5 stage II, 25 stage III, 4 stage IV, 2 with recurrent disease and 5 patients could not be classified. Local control was reached in 60% of patients however, 12 patients developed local recurrence after surgery and/or radiation therapy, finally 43% of patients remained disease free after a mean of 19 months of followup. In the subset of advanced disease patients treated with radical or preoperative radiation therapy (27 patients), 41% of them remained without disease. Mean radiation doses for patients treated only with radiation therapy was 6500 cGy. Late vulvar fibrosis and acute desquamative dermatitis, were the morbidity more frequently observed. New directions in the management of vulvar cancer must be developed to improve treatment results, in patients with advanced disease.

  13. Risk of cancer of unknown primary after hospitalization for autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Ji, Jianguang

    2015-12-15

    Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is a heterogeneous syndrome diagnosed at metastatic sites. The etiology is unknown but immune dysfunction may be a contributing factor. Patients with autoimmune diseases were identified from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for subsequent CUP and compared with subjects without autoimmune diseases. A total of 789,681 patients were hospitalized for any of 32 autoimmune diseases during years 1964-2012; 2,658 developed subsequent CUP, giving an overall SIR of 1.27. A total of 16 autoimmune diseases were associated with an increased risk for CUP; polymyositis/dermatomyositis showed the highest SIR of 3.51, followed by primary biliary cirrhosis (1.81) and Addison's disease (1.77). CUP risk is known to be reduced in long-time users of pain-relieving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin. For patients with ankylosing spondylitis and with some other autoimmune diseases, with assumed chronic medication by NSAIDSs, CUP risks decreased in long-term follow-up. The overall risk of CUP was increased among patients diagnosed with autoimmune diseases, which call for clinical attention and suggest a possible role of immune dysfunction in CUP. The associations with many autoimmune diseases were weak which may imply that autoimmunity may not synergize with CUP-related immune dysfunction. However, long-term NSAID medication probably helped to curtail risks in some autoimmune diseases and CUP risks were generally higher in autoimmune diseases for which NSAIDs are not used and for these CUP appears to be a serious side effect.

  14. Risk of cancer of unknown primary after hospitalization for autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Ji, Jianguang

    2015-12-15

    Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is a heterogeneous syndrome diagnosed at metastatic sites. The etiology is unknown but immune dysfunction may be a contributing factor. Patients with autoimmune diseases were identified from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for subsequent CUP and compared with subjects without autoimmune diseases. A total of 789,681 patients were hospitalized for any of 32 autoimmune diseases during years 1964-2012; 2,658 developed subsequent CUP, giving an overall SIR of 1.27. A total of 16 autoimmune diseases were associated with an increased risk for CUP; polymyositis/dermatomyositis showed the highest SIR of 3.51, followed by primary biliary cirrhosis (1.81) and Addison's disease (1.77). CUP risk is known to be reduced in long-time users of pain-relieving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin. For patients with ankylosing spondylitis and with some other autoimmune diseases, with assumed chronic medication by NSAIDSs, CUP risks decreased in long-term follow-up. The overall risk of CUP was increased among patients diagnosed with autoimmune diseases, which call for clinical attention and suggest a possible role of immune dysfunction in CUP. The associations with many autoimmune diseases were weak which may imply that autoimmunity may not synergize with CUP-related immune dysfunction. However, long-term NSAID medication probably helped to curtail risks in some autoimmune diseases and CUP risks were generally higher in autoimmune diseases for which NSAIDs are not used and for these CUP appears to be a serious side effect. PMID:26103152

  15. Self-expanding metal stenting for obstructing left colon cancer: A district hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Harilingam, Mohan Raj; Khushal, Amjad; Aikoye, Abdulmalik

    2016-07-01

    Stenting of malignant colonic obstructions using self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) is commonly used for palliation and can be used as an interim procedure prior to definitive surgery. We retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data from all consecutive colonic stenting procedures undertaken between September 2007 and December 2014 at a district general hospital. Technical and clinical success rates, mortality, colonic perforation, and other complications were documented and analyzed. Sixty-four colonic stenting procedures were undertaken. Fifty-three (83 %) were for palliation and eleven (17 %) were performed as a bridge to definitive surgery. Technical (98.4 %) and clinical (89.9 %) success rates were excellent. The single documented failure was secondary to complete luminal obstruction. Three stent occlusions (4.6 %), one colonic perforation (1.5 %), and one migration were encountered. There were no procedure-related deaths. Colonic stenting for obstructing left-sided colon cancer is a safe and effective procedure, even in the district general hospital setting. The use of SEMS as a bridge to elective surgery balances surgical and oncological considerations and, therefore, is most appropriate for high surgical risk patients in this setting. PMID:27448435

  16. Academic hospital staff compliance with a fecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening program

    PubMed Central

    Vlachonikolou, Georgia; Gkolfakis, Paraskevas; Sioulas, Athanasios D; Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Melissaratou, Anastasia; Moustafa, Giannis-Aimant; Xanthopoulou, Eleni; Tsilimidos, Gerasimos; Tsironi, Ioanna; Filippidis, Paraskevas; Malli, Chrysoula; Dimitriadis, George D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    AIM To measure the compliance of an Academic Hospital staff with a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program using fecal immunochemical test (FIT). METHODS All employees of “Attikon” University General Hospital aged over 50 years were thoroughly informed by a team of physicians and medical students about the study aims and they were invited to undergo CRC screening using two rounds of FIT (DyoniFOB® Combo H, DyonMed SA, Athens, Greece). The tests were provided for free and subjects tested positive were subsequently referred for colonoscopy. One year after completing the two rounds, participants were asked to be re-screened by means of the same test. RESULTS Among our target population consisted of 211 employees, 59 (27.9%) consented to participate, but only 41 (19.4%) and 24 (11.4%) completed the first and the second FIT round, respectively. Female gender was significantly associated with higher initial participation (P = 0.005) and test completion - first and second round - (P = 0.004 and P = 0.05) rates, respectively. Physician’s (13.5% vs 70.2%, P < 0.0001) participation and test completion rates (7.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.0001 for the first and 2.3% vs 34%, P < 0.0001 for the second round) were significantly lower compared to those of the administrative/technical staff. Similarly, nurses participated (25.8% vs 70.2%, P = 0.0002) and completed the first test round (19.3% vs 57.6%, P = 0.004) in a significant lower rate than the administrative/technical staff. One test proved false positive. No participant repeated the test one year later. CONCLUSION Despite the well-organized, guided and supervised provision of the service, the compliance of the Academic Hospital personnel with a FIT-based CRC screening program was suboptimal, especially among physicians. PMID:27574556

  17. [Survey of cnidarian accident records in some beaches of the coast of Pernambuco (Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Neves, Ricardo F; Amaral, Fernanda D; Steiner, Andrea Q

    2007-01-01

    Cnidarians are among the most venomous organisms known to man. They are characterized by stinging cells called cnidocytes, and several species, such as the Portuguese-man-of-war and the jellyfish, can cause harm to human beings. Despite not attracting () much attention on the Brazilian coast, the studies that have been carried out to date show that the occurrence of this kind of accident is significant. The aim of this study was to survey cnidarian related accidents with beach goers on some beaches of the state of Pernambuco, as well as to investigate the knowledge of relevant professions on this theme. () Archives of hospitals and life guard posts were visited for the survey, and 17 professionals were interviewed. During the visits, records were obtained for a total of 35 accidents at Boa Viagem Beach (Recife) over a two-year period, as well as informal records of an average of four to five cases a week at Piedade Beach and an average of two to three cases a week for Pontas de Pedras Beach. As to the knowledge of the professionals interviewed, most answers agree, in general, with the literature available, despite a certain level of inadequate or insufficient information on the theme.

  18. Hospital administration team development and support in a children's cancer service.

    PubMed

    Slater, Penelope J

    2011-11-01

    The administration team in the Queensland Children's Cancer Centre at the Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane, included a team of 16 administration staff supporting the service and the state-wide clinical network. Shortly after the creation of a new expanded service, issues became apparent in administration team morale, relationships, communication, processes, leadership, support and training. The analysis of these issues included team interviews and surveys, consultation with senior administration staff and monthly sick leave monitoring. Strategies implemented included providing information; the joint development of a team business plan and individual performance plans; a review of the team's structure, workload and business processes; engaging staff in quality improvements; and the development of relationships and leadership. As a result, the team reported being more comfortable and supported in their roles, had improved morale and worked better together with more consistent and improving business processes. They had clear purpose and expectations of their roles, displayed better customer service and had reduced sick leave. The study shows that in a high stress environment, such as a children's cancer centre, attention to the team's culture, vision and purpose, providing information and improving communication and relationships, when combined with a team's enthusiasm, will improve the team's growth, cooperation and work outcomes.

  19. Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. Methods This was a hospital-based case-control study covering 626 lung cancer patients and 626 controls recruited in Asturias and matched by ethnicity, hospital, age, and sex. Distances from the respective participants' residential locations to industrial facilities and city centers were computed. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to urban and industrial pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for sex, age, hospital area, tobacco consumption, family history of cancer, and occupation. Results Whereas individuals living near industries displayed an excess risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.49; 95%CI = 0.93-2.39), which attained statistical significance for small cell carcinomas (OR = 2.23; 95%CI = 1.01-4.92), residents in urban areas showed a statistically significant increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92; 95%CI = 1.09-3.38). In the Gijon health area, residents in the urban area registered a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.25-3.76), whereas in the Aviles health area, no differences in risk were found by area of exposure. Conclusions This study provides further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor for lung cancer. PMID:21266041

  20. Assessment of knowledge and practice of nutritional and life style risk factors associated with cancer among hospital workers at two university teaching hospitals in Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojofeitimi, E O; Aderounmu, A O; Lomuwagun, A F; Owolabi, O O; Fadiora, A O; Asa, S S; Bamiwuye, S O; Ihedioha, O D

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess both the predisposing and precipitating risk factors in the aetiology of any form of cancer among hospital workers at two teaching Hospitals in Osun State, Nigeria. Pre-tested and modified questionnaires were administered to 250 respondents. One hundred and seventy questionnaires were duly filled and completed. Less than 9% of the respondents consumed fruits and vegetables on a daily basis; while the highest percentage (65%) regularly consumed butter/margarine, followed with consumption of red meat. Twenty nine percent (29%) from both locations were classified as overweight and obese. Half did physical exercise twice a week. Of the 168 respondents. 34 (20.2%) did meet the criteria for completely emptying their bowels within a specified time of three minutes. It is concluded that whilst predisposing risk factors do not pose a threat to the onset of any form of cancer among respondents, precipitating factors are real major factors that need to be addressed through information, education and communication (I.E.C). Such an I.E.C. should be geared towards promotion of healthy eating and life style strategies. Alter all, 'the first step in cancer prevention is knowing the risk profile'.

  1. Molecular breast cancer subtypes and therapies in a public hospital of Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The frequencies of molecular breast cancer subtypes vary among different human populations. The Northeastern region of Brazil has a mixed population of African, Indigenous and European ancestry. This retrospective study investigated breast cancer subtypes and applied therapies in a public hospital of Northeastern Brazil. Methods Data of 633 patients with invasive breast cancer from 2005 to 2011 were obtained from medical records. Status of hormone receptor (HR), HER2 and Ki67 expression index of 269 out of 633 patients were used to define subtypes of Luminal A and B, HER2 and triple negative (TN) breast cancer. Expression index of Ki67 ≥ 14% was applied to distinguish Luminal A from Luminal B subtypes. Results Overall, 185 (68.77%) and 132 (49.07%) patients showed positive hormone receptor (HR+) and positive HER2 (HER2+) tumors. The mean age ranged from 53.33 to 58.25 years for patients with tumors of Luminal B and Luminal A subtypes, respectively (p = 0.0182). In general, 67.39% of patients with TN tumors aged over 50 and 19.57% aged between 31 and 40 years (p = 0.0046). The rate of small tumors (T1: ≤ 2.0 cm) varied from 22.73% to 52.46% for TN and Luminal A subtypes (p = 0.0088). The rate of high graded (G3) tumors was increased for HER2 and TN subtypes (35.29% and 34.28%) compared to Luminal A and Luminal B subtypes (3.92% and 12.62%), respectively (p < 0.0001). The five-year survival rate ranged from 92.86% to 75.00%, for Luminal A, HER2 and TN subtypes, respectively (HR: 0.260 to 1.015; 95% CI: 0.043 to 3.594; p = 0.2589). Patients with HER2 positive (HER2+) breast tumors did not receive immunotherapy and chemotherapy application varied from 54.84% to 86.49% for Luminal A and HER2 subtypes, respectively (p = 0.0131). Conclusions The results of this study revealed a high percentage of HER2+ breast tumors and an increased rate of patients with TN tumors aged over 50 years. This emphasizes the need for establishing

  2. Characteristics of the Nighttime Hospital Bedside Care Environment (Sound, Light, and Temperature) for Children with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Lauri A.; Christian, Becky J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Children with cancer must cope not only with their disease and its treatment but also the environment in which treatment is given. The intensities of sound and light levels required to perform necessary patient care may result in a disruptive nighttime care environment. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe nighttime patterns of environmental factors, sound light, and temperature levels, at the bedside of children with cancer receiving inpatient chemotherapy. Methods Participants were 15 school-age children receiving chemotherapy on an inpatient pediatric oncology unit. Sound, light, and temperature in the child’s room were measured continuously using a digital sound pressure level meter and an external channel data logger. Results Mean nighttime sound levels were 49.5 dB (SD=3.1; range 34.6–84.8 dB). Sound and light intensity were greatest early in the shift and decreased through the night. A basic mixed linear model identified significant main effects of time of night for both sound (F=50.42, p<.01) and light (F=12.43, p<.01). Conclusions Study findings identified a bedside care environment with persistently elevated sound levels and abrupt increases in sound intensity throughout the night. Such a disruptive nighttime environment is not conducive to restful nighttime sleep and may serve as an additional source of physiologic and psychologic stress for hospitalized children with cancer. Implications for Practice Efforts are needed to identify modifiable sources of nighttime sound and develop interventions to reduce nighttime sound. Collaborative efforts to organize clinical care to minimize nighttime disruptions may lead to to reduced bedside sound levels. PMID:21522058

  3. Use of Chinese herbal medicine therapies in comprehensive hospitals in central China: A parallel survey in cancer patients and clinicians.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Qiao, Ting-ting; Ding, Hao; Li, Chen-xi; Zheng, Hui-ling; Chen, Xiao-ling; Hu, Shao-ming; Yu, Shi-ying

    2015-12-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), as the largest application category of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely accepted among cancer patients in China. Herbal slice (HS) and Chinese patent drug (CPD) are commonly used CHM in China. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of CHM among clinicians and cancer patients in central China. Five hundred and twenty-five patients and 165 clinicians in 35 comprehensive hospitals in central China were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire that was designed to evaluate the use of CHM. The results showed that 90.74% clinicians and 72.24% cancer patients used CHM during cancer treatment. The educational backgrounds of the clinicians and the age, education level, annual income, and cancer stage of the cancer patients were related to use of CHM. More than 90% clinicians and cancer patients had used CPD. Comparatively, the percentage of HS use was 10% lower than that of CPD use among clinicians and cancer patients. More clinicians preferred to use CHM after surgery than cancer patients did (20.41% vs. 5.37%). Enhancing physical fitness and improving performance status were regarded as the most potential effect of CHM on cancer treatment (85.71% among clinicians and 94.07% among cancer patients), in comparison with directly killing tumor cells (24.49% among clinicians and 31.36% among patients). As for refusal reasons, imprecise efficacy was the unanimous (100%) reason for clinicians' rejection of CHM, and 95.58% patients objected to using CHM also for this reason. Furthermore, the side effects of CHM were more concerned by clinicians than by patients (33.33% vs. 15.81%). In conclusion, our survey revealed that CHM was popularly accepted by clinicians and cancer patients in central China. The reasons of use and rejection of CHM were different between clinicians and cancer patients.

  4. Evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of criteria for isolation of patients admitted to a specialized cancer hospital.

    PubMed

    Cataneo, Caroline; Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva; e Castro, Paulo de Tarso Oliveira; Hayashida, Miyeko; Gir, Elucir

    2011-01-01

    Early isolation of patients possibly colonized by multi-resistant microorganisms can minimize their spread, reducing cases of hospital infection and the related costs. This study aimed to identify the sensitivity and specificity of the criteria for isolation of patients admitted to a specialized cancer hospital. Cross-sectional study with a population of 61 patients coming from other hospitals who were admitted to the hospital between March 1st and August 31th, 2009. At the moment of admission, a data collection instrument was filled out and nasal and anal swabs were collected for microbiological culture. Of the 56 patients who met the isolation criteria, 30 (49.2%) presented positive cultures for multi-resistant microorganisms and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently identified microorganism. Most patients colonized by multi-resistant microorganisms were isolated at the moment of admission. The sensitivity of the isolation criteria was 90% and the specificity was 6.5%. PMID:22030570

  5. The costs and effects of cervical and breast cancer screening in a public hospital emergency room. The Cancer Control Center of Harlem.

    PubMed Central

    Mandelblatt, J; Freeman, H; Winczewski, D; Cagney, K; Williams, S; Trowers, R; Tang, J; Gold, K; Lin, T H; Kerner, J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of cervix and breast cancer screening in a public hospital emergency room. METHODS: Age-eligible women with nonurgent conditions and without recent screening were offered screening by a nurse. A decision analysis compared the costs and outcomes of emergency room screening and standard hospital screening efforts. RESULTS: The undiscounted cost-effectiveness results for establishing new programs were $4050 (cervical cancer), $403,203 (breast cancer), and $4375 (joint cervix and breast cancer) per year of life saved. If screening is added to an existing program, results are more favorable ($429, $21,324, and $479 per year of life saved for cervix, breast, and joint screening, respectively). Results were most sensitive to volume and probability of receiving treatment after an abnormal screen. CONCLUSIONS: Emergency room screening was cost-effective for cervical cancer; breast cancer screening was relatively expensive given the low number of women reached. More intensive recruitment and follow-up strategies are needed to maximize the cost-effectiveness of such programs. PMID:9240110

  6. Acceptance of hospital diets and nutritional status among inpatients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Daiane; Guimarães, Tessa Gomes; Marcadenti, Aline

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To verify acceptance of hospital diets as to the nutritional status among patients admitted to the Oncology/Hematology Unit of a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted among 100 patients, aged ≥18 years, of both genders. Body mass index and subjective global nutritional evaluation by patients were used to detect the nutritional status. The rest-ingestion index was used to evaluate diet acceptance, and the reasons for non-acceptance were identified by means of a questionnaire. Data were expressed in means and standard deviation, or medians and percentages. Comparisons were made using the Student's t test, Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test, and Pearson's χ2 test. Results: A total of 59% of patients were males, and mean age was 51.6±13.5 years. According to the global subjective nutritional evaluation done by the patients themselves, 33% of the participants were considered malnourished and the body mass index detected 6.3% of malnutrition. The main symptoms reported were lack of appetite, xerostomia (dry mouth), constipation, dysgeusia, odor-related nausea, and early satiety. The rest-ingestion index was approximately 37% and significantly greater among the malnourished relative to the well-nourished (58.8 versus 46.4%; p=0.04). The primary reasons reported for non-acceptance of the diet offered were lack of flavor, monotonous preparations, large quantities offered, lack of appetite, and inappropriate temperature of the meal. Conclusion: A high the rest-ingestion index was seen among the patients with cancer, especially those who were malnourished according to the global nutritional evaluation produced by the patient. PMID:23579742

  7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus sp. colonizing health care workers of a cancer hospital

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Dayane de Melo; Kipnis, André; Leão-Vasconcelos, Lara Stefânia Netto de Oliveira; Rocha-Vilefort, Larissa Oliveira; Telles, Sheila Araújo; André, Maria Cláudia Dantas Porfírio Borges; Tipple, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; Lima, Ana Beatriz Mori; Ribeiro, Nádia Ferreira Gonçalves; Pereira, Mayara Regina; Prado-Palos, Marinésia Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze epidemiological and microbiological aspects of oral colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus of health care workers in a cancer hospital. Interview and saliva sampling were performed with 149 health care workers. Antimicrobial resistance was determined by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration. Polymerase Chain Reaction, Internal Transcribed Spacer-Polymerase Chain Reaction and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis were performed for genotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus. Risk factors were determined by logistic regression. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus colonization prevalence was 19.5%, denture wearing (p = 0.03), habit of nail biting (p = 0.04) and preparation and administration of antimicrobial (p = 0.04) were risk factors identified. All methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus were S. epidermidis, 94.4% of them had mecA gene. Closely related and indistinguishable methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis were detected. These results highlight that HCWs which have contact with patient at high risk for developing infections were identified as colonized by MRSE in the oral cavity, reinforcing this cavity as a reservoir of these bacteria and the risk to themselves and patients safety, because these microorganisms may be spread by coughing and talking. PMID:25477910

  8. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus sp. colonizing health care workers of a cancer hospital.

    PubMed

    Costa, Dayane de Melo; Kipnis, André; Leão-Vasconcelos, Lara Stefânia Netto de Oliveira; Rocha-Vilefort, Larissa Oliveira; Telles, Sheila Araújo; André, Maria Cláudia Dantas Porfírio Borges; Tipple, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; Lima, Ana Beatriz Mori; Ribeiro, Nádia Ferreira Gonçalves; Pereira, Mayara Regina; Prado-Palos, Marinésia Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze epidemiological and microbiological aspects of oral colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus of health care workers in a cancer hospital. Interview and saliva sampling were performed with 149 health care workers. Antimicrobial resistance was determined by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration. Polymerase Chain Reaction, Internal Transcribed Spacer-Polymerase Chain Reaction and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis were performed for genotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus. Risk factors were determined by logistic regression. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus colonization prevalence was 19.5%, denture wearing (p = 0.03), habit of nail biting (p = 0.04) and preparation and administration of antimicrobial (p = 0.04) were risk factors identified. All methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus were S. epidermidis, 94.4% of them had mecA gene. Closely related and indistinguishable methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis were detected. These results highlight that HCWs which have contact with patient at high risk for developing infections were identified as colonized by MRSE in the oral cavity, reinforcing this cavity as a reservoir of these bacteria and the risk to themselves and patients safety, because these microorganisms may be spread by coughing and talking. PMID:25477910

  9. Escalation of Oncologic Services at the End of Life Among Patients With Gynecologic Cancer at an Urban, Public Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Eijean; Rogers, Anna; Ji, Lingyun; Sposto, Richard; Church, Terry; Roman, Lynda; Tripathy, Debu; Lin, Yvonne G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Use of oncology-related services is increasingly scrutinized, yet precisely which services are actually rendered to patients, particularly at the end of life, is unknown. This study characterizes the end-of-life use of medical services by patients with gynecologic cancer at a safety-net hospital. Methods: Oncologic history and metrics of medical use (eg, hospitalizations, chemotherapy infusions, procedures) for patients with gynecologic oncology who died between December 2006 and February 2012 were evaluated. Mixed-effect regression models were used to test time effects and construct usage summaries. Results: Among 116 subjects, cervical cancer accounted for the most deaths (42%). The median age at diagnosis was 55 years; 63% were Hispanic, and 65% had advanced disease. Only 34% died in hospice care. The median times from do not resuscitate/do not intubate documentation and from last therapeutic intervention to death were 9 days and 55 days, respectively. Significant time effects for all services (eg, hospitalizations, diagnostics, procedures, treatments, clinic appointments) were detected during the patient's final year (P < .001), with the most dramatic changes occurring during the last 2 months. Patients with longer duration of continuity of care used significantly fewer resources toward the end of life. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report enumerating medical services obtained by patients with gynecologic cancer in a large, public hospital during the end of life. Marked changes in interventions in the patient's final 2 months highlight the need for cost-effective, evidence-based metrics for delivering cancer care. Our data emphasize continuity of care as a significant determinant of oncologic resource use during this critical period. PMID:25604595

  10. Associations between Dietary Allium Vegetables and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Hospital-Based Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Pourzand, Ali; Tajaddini, Aynaz; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Samadi, Nasser; Ostadrahimi, Ali-Reza; Sanaat, Zohre

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The protective effect of Allium vegetables against carcinogenesis has been reported in experimental studies particularly focusing on the gut. Therefore, we conducted a hospital-based matched case-control study to explore the association between dietary Allium consumption and risk of breast cancer among Iranian women in northwest Iran. Methods A validated, quantitative, food frequency questionnaire was completed in 285 women (aged 25–65 years old) newly diagnosed with histopathologically confirmed breast cancer (grade II, III or clinical stage II, III) in Tabriz, northwest Iran, and the completed questionnaires were included in an age- and regional-matched hospital based-control study. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. Results Multivariate analysis showed that there was a negative association between the consumption of raw onion and risk of breast cancer after adjustment for covariates (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.40–1.00); however, this association was insignificant. On the other hand, there was a positive association between consumption of cooked onion and risk of breast cancer, after adjustment for covariates (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.02–2.32). However, reduced risk of breast cancer was associated with higher consumption of garlic and leek with adjusted ORs of 0.41 (95% CI, 0.20–0.83) and 0.28 (95% CI, 0.15–0.51), respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that high consumption of certain Allium vegetables, in particular garlic and leek, may reduce the risk of breast cancer, while high consumption of cooked onion may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. PMID:27721879

  11. Effect of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Inoculated During Anti-Cancer Treatment Period in Elderly Lung Cancer Patients on Community-Acquired Pneumonia Hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Wen-Yen; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lai, Chun-Liang; Lin, Hon-Yi; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Chun; Shen, Bing-Jie; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Lee, Moon-Sing; Li, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) inoculated during defined “vaccination period,” first 6 months post cancer diagnosis (ie, an anti-cancer treatment period), in elderly lung cancer patients on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) hospitalization incidence. This was a nationwide population-based cohort study of 157 newly diagnosed elderly lung cancer patients receiving PPSV23 during “vaccination period”, and 628 age and sex one-to-one matched controls enrolled in the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan between 2007 and 2010. All patients were ≥75 years old and still survival post “vaccination period.” Incidence density (ID) of all-cause inpatient CAP and cumulative survival risk were analyzed by multivariate Poisson regression and Kaplan–Meier method, respectively. After a 4-year follow-up, IDs of all-cause inpatient CAP for vaccination and control cohorts were 297 and 444 per 1000 PYs, respectively. Less vaccinated patients had CAP incidence density >1 time per PY (12.7% vs 21.2%) than non-vaccinated patients. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, like influenza vaccination, comorbidities, cancer treatment modalities, and socioeconomic status, adjusted inpatient CAP incidence rate in PPSV23 vaccination cohort was 0.74 times lower than control cohort (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.740, P = 0.0339). Two-year cumulative CAP hospitalization rates and overall survival rates were 37.1% vs. 55.4%, and 46.6% vs. 26.2%, respectively, for lung cancer patients with and without PPSV23 (both P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that for elderly lung cancer patients not ever receiving influenza vaccine, PPSV23 still had trend to reduce all-cause inpatient CAP. For elderly lung cancer patients aged ≥75 years, PPSV23 inoculated during anti-cancer treatment period could reduce CAP hospitalizations and improve survival. PMID:26131806

  12. Challenges in the Delivery of Quality Breast Cancer Care: Initiation of Adjuvant Hormone Therapy at an Urban Safety Net Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Meaghan M.; McCoy, Molly E.; Bak, Sharon M.; Caron, Sarah E.; Ko, Naomi Y.; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Alvis, Faber; Battaglia, Tracy A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Breast cancer treatment disparities in racial/ethnic minority and low-income populations are well documented; however, underlying reasons remain poorly understood. This study sought to identify barriers to the delivery of quality breast cancer treatment, addressing compliance with the National Quality Forum (NQF) quality metric for adjuvant hormone therapy (HT; administration of HT within 365 days of diagnosis in eligible patients) at an urban safety net hospital. Methods: This retrospective, observational study included women diagnosed with nonmetastatic, T1c or greater, estrogen and/or progesterone receptor–positive breast cancer from 2006 to 2008. Data sources included the hospital cancer registry and electronic medical record. Compliance with the NQF quality metric was defined as HT prescription within 365 days of diagnosis. Bivariate analysis compared compliant with noncompliant patients. Qualitative analysis assessed reasons for delayed compliance (HT at > 365 days) and never compliance (no HT at 4 years). Results: Of 113 eligible patients, the majority were racial/ethnic minority (56%), stage II (54%), unmarried (60%), and had public or no insurance (72%). Sixty-four percent were compliant, and 36% were noncompliant. Of the noncompliant, 78% had delayed compliance, and 22% were never compliant. Noncompliant patients were significantly more likely to be Black, Hispanic, foreign-born, and stage III at diagnosis. Ten reasons for delayed compliance were identified, including patient- and system-level barriers. Most patients (56%) had more than one reason contributing to delay. Conclusion: Urgently needed interventions to reduce disparities in breast cancer treatment should take into account obstacles inherent among immigrant and indigent populations and complexities of multidisciplinary cancer care. PMID:24345397

  13. Ambulatory care for cancer in the United States: results from two national surveys comparing visits to physicians' offices and hospital outpatient departments.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Lisa C.; Tangka, Florence K.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among the general population, type of health insurance has been reported to affect the location of ambulatory visits and the content of those visits. We examined where cancer patient visits occurred (physicians' offices or hospital clinics), and whether anticancer therapy is administered or prescribed. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Care Survey (NAMCS/NHAMCS) data to characterize ambulatory cancer patient visits from 2001-2003. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with where a cancer patient went for care (office practice versus hospital clinic) and anticancer therapy received. RESULTS: Thirteen percent of patients visited hospital clinics, with the remainder visiting office-based settings. Younger cancer patients and those with Medicaid were more likely to visit hospital clinics compared to older and privately insured cancer patients. Cancer patients with <6 visits in the last year were less likely to be seen in the office setting. Patients with lung cancer, lymphoma/leukemia and melanoma were less likely to have anticancer therapy administered or prescribed compared to breast cancer patients. The uninsured were less likely to have anticancer administered or prescribed compared with the privately insured. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer patients with Medicaid were more likely to visit hospital clinics than privately insured patients. Treatment was associated with cancer type, not where care occurred and health insurance type, though there was a trend for the uninsured and those insured by Medicaid to be less likely to be administered or be prescribed anticancer therapy. PMID:18229771

  14. Intravenous paracetamol infusion: Superior pain management and earlier discharge from hospital in patients undergoing palliative head-neck cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Saikat; Das, Anjan; Kundu, Ratul; Mukherjee, Dipankar; Hazra, Bimal; Mitra, Tapobrata

    2014-01-01

    Background: Paracetamol; a cyclooxygenase inhibitor; acts through the central nervous system as well as serotoninergic system as a nonopioid analgesic. A prospective, double-blinded, and randomized-controlled study was carried out to compare the efficacy of preoperative 1g intravenous (iv) paracetamol with placebo in providing postoperative analgesia in head-neck cancer surgery. Materials and Methods: From 2008 February to 2009 December, 80 patients for palliative head-neck cancer surgery were randomly divided into (F) and (P) Group receiving ivplacebo and iv paracetamol, respectively, 5 min before induction. Everybody received fentanyl before induction and IM diclofenac for pain relief at8 hourly for 24 h after surgery. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and amount of fentanyl were measured for postoperative pain assessment (24 h). Results and Statistical analysis: The mean VAS score in 1st, 2nd postoperative hour, and fentanyl requirement was less and the need for rescue analgesic was delayed in ivparacetamol group which were all statistically significant. Paracetamol group had a shorter surgical intensive care unit (SICU) and hospital stay which was also statistically significant. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the effectiveness of ivparacetamol as preemptive analgesic in the postoperative pain control after head-neck cancer surgery and earlier discharge from hospital. PMID:25276627

  15. Acute hospital care is the chief driver of regional spending variation in Medicare patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Gabriel A; Li, Ling; Uno, Hajime; Hassett, Michael J; Landon, Bruce E; Schrag, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    The root causes of regional variation in medical spending are poorly understood and vary by clinical condition. To identify drivers of regional spending variation for Medicare patients with advanced cancer, we used linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (SEER)-Medicare data from the period 2004-10. We broke down Medicare spending into thirteen cancer-relevant service categories. We then calculated the contribution of each category to spending and regional spending variation. Acute hospital care was the largest component of spending and the chief driver of regional spending variation, accounting for 48 percent of spending and 67 percent of variation. In contrast, chemotherapy accounted for 16 percent of spending and 10 percent of variation. Hospice care constituted 5 percent of spending. However, variation in hospice spending was fully offset by opposing variation in other categories. Our analysis suggests that the strategy with the greatest potential to improve the value of care for patients with advanced cancer is to reduce reliance on acute hospital care for this patient population.

  16. Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Cancer Patients during Treatment by Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment: a Hospital-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dibyendu; Kannan, Ravi; Tapkire, Ritesh; Nath, Soumitra

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients frequently experience malnutrition. Cancer and cancer therapy effects nutritional status through alterations in the metabolic system and reduction in food intake. In the present study, fifty seven cancer patients were selected as subjects from the oncology ward of Cachar Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Silchar, India. Evaluation of nutritional status of cancer patients during treatment was carried out by scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). The findings of PG-SGA showed that 15.8% (9) were well nourished, 31.6% (18) were moderately or suspected of being malnourished and 52.6% (30) were severely malnourished. The prevalence of malnutrition was highest in lip/oral (33.33%) cancer patients. The study showed that the prevalence of malnutrition (84.2%) was high in cancer patients during treatment.

  17. Bayesian Semi-parametric Analysis of Semi-competing Risks Data: Investigating Hospital Readmission after a Pancreatic Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Ha; Haneuse, Sebastien; Schrag, Deborah; Dominici, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Summary In the U.S., the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services uses 30-day readmission, following hospitalization, as a proxy outcome to monitor quality of care. These efforts generally focus on treatable health conditions, such as pneumonia and heart failure. Expanding quality of care systems to monitor conditions for which treatment options are limited or non-existent, such as pancreatic cancer, is challenging because of the non-trivial force of mortality; 30-day mortality for pancreatic cancer is approximately 30%. In the statistical literature, data that arise when the observation of the time to some non-terminal event is subject to some terminal event are referred to as ‘semi-competing risks data’. Given such data, scientific interest may lie in at least one of three areas: (i) estimation/inference for regression parameters, (ii) characterization of dependence between the two events, and (iii) prediction given a covariate profile. Existing statistical methods focus almost exclusively on the first of these; methods are sparse or non-existent, however, when interest lies with understanding dependence and performing prediction. In this paper we propose a Bayesian semi-parametric regression framework for analyzing semi-competing risks data that permits the simultaneous investigation of all three of the aforementioned scientific goals. Characterization of the induced posterior and posterior predictive distributions is achieved via an efficient Metropolis-Hastings-Green algorithm, which has been implemented in an R package. The proposed framework is applied to data on 16,051 individuals diagnosed with pancreatic cancer between 2005-2008, obtained from Medicare Part A. We found that increased risk for readmission is associated with a high comorbidity index, a long hospital stay at initial hospitalization, non-white race, male, and discharge to home care. PMID:25977592

  18. Exposure to ACEI/ARB and β-Blockers Is Associated with Improved Survival and Decreased Tumor Progression and Hospitalizations in Patients with Advanced Colon Cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Engineer, Diana R; Burney, Basil O; Hayes, Teresa G; Garcia, Jose M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Advanced colon cancer is associated with weight loss and decreased survival. Studies suggest that angiotensin and β-adrenergic blockade decrease colon cancer progression and ameliorate weight loss. This study aims to determine whether exposure to β-adrenoceptor blockers (BBs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is associated with decreased mortality, tumor progression, number of hospitalizations, or weight loss in colorectal cancer. METHODS: Retrospective chart review included patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Survival, stage, hospitalization, cancer progression, cancer treatment, and body weight history were collected. RESULTS: Two hundred sixty-two of 425 new stage III to IV colorectal cancer cases reviewed met the study criteria. Those exposed to ACEI/ARB, BB, or both were more likely to have diabetes, hypertension, and stage III colorectal cancer. Adjusting for age, presence of hypertension and diabetes, and stage, ACEI/ARB + BB exposure was associated with decreased mortality compared to unexposed individuals [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.5, confidence interval (CI) = 0.29–0.85; Cox regression, P = .01]. Fewer total and cancer-related hospitalizations and decreased cancer progression in the ACEI/ARB + BB group versus the unexposed group (HR = 0.59, CI = 0.36–0.99, P = .047) were seen. Exposure did not affect weight changes; furthermore, body weight changes from both prediagnosis and at diagnosis to 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postdiagnosis predicted survival. CONCLUSIONS: We have observed an association between exposure to a combination of ACEI/ARB + BB and increased survival, decreased hospitalizations, and decreased tumor progression in advanced colorectal cancer. Future studies will be needed to replicate these results and generalize them to broader populations. Determination of causality will require a randomized controlled trial. PMID:24151534

  19. 2D AND 3D dose verification at The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital using EPIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijnheer, Ben; Mans, Anton; Olaciregui-Ruiz, Igor; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Tielenburg, Rene; Van Herk, Marcel; Vijlbrief, Ron; Stroom, Joep

    2010-11-01

    A review is given of the clinical use of EPID dosimetry in the Department of Radiation Oncology of The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital. All curative plans (almost all IMRT or VMAT) are verified with EPID dosimetry, mostly in vivo. The 2D approach for IMRT verification and the 3D method for VMAT verification are elucidated and their clinical implementation described. It has been shown that EPID dosimetry plays an important role in the total chain of verification procedures that are implemented in our department. It provides a safety net for advanced treatments such as IMRT and VMAT, as well as a full account of the dose delivered.

  20. Exposure to an atomic bomb explosion is a risk factor for in-hospital death after esophagectomy to treat esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Y; Takeishi, K; Guntani, A; Tsujita, E; Yoshinaga, K; Matsuyama, A; Hamatake, M; Maeda, T; Tsutsui, S; Matsuda, H; Ishida, T

    2015-01-01

    Esophagectomy, one of the most invasive of all gastrointestinal operations, is associated with a high frequency of postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether exposure to the atomic bomb explosion at Hiroshima in 1945 might be a preoperative risk factor for in-hospital mortality after esophagectomy in esophageal cancer patients. We thus reviewed the outcomes of esophagectomy in 31 atomic bomb survivors with esophageal cancer and 96 controls (also with cancer but without atomic bomb exposure). We compared the incidences of postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality. Of the clinicopathological features studied, mean patient age was significantly higher in atomic bomb survivors than in controls. Of the postoperative complications noted, atomic bomb survivors experienced a longer mean period of endotracheal intubation and higher incidences of severe pulmonary complications, severe anastomotic leakage, and surgical site infection. The factors associated with in-hospital mortality were exposure to the atomic bomb explosion, pulmonary comorbidities, and electrocardiographic abnormalities. Multivariate analysis revealed that exposure to the atomic bomb explosion was an independent significant preoperative risk factor for in-hospital mortality. Exposure to the atomic bomb explosion is thus a preoperative risk factor for in-hospital death after esophagectomy to treat esophageal cancer.

  1. Exposure to an atomic bomb explosion is a risk factor for in-hospital death after esophagectomy to treat esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Y; Takeishi, K; Guntani, A; Tsujita, E; Yoshinaga, K; Matsuyama, A; Hamatake, M; Maeda, T; Tsutsui, S; Matsuda, H; Ishida, T

    2015-01-01

    Esophagectomy, one of the most invasive of all gastrointestinal operations, is associated with a high frequency of postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether exposure to the atomic bomb explosion at Hiroshima in 1945 might be a preoperative risk factor for in-hospital mortality after esophagectomy in esophageal cancer patients. We thus reviewed the outcomes of esophagectomy in 31 atomic bomb survivors with esophageal cancer and 96 controls (also with cancer but without atomic bomb exposure). We compared the incidences of postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality. Of the clinicopathological features studied, mean patient age was significantly higher in atomic bomb survivors than in controls. Of the postoperative complications noted, atomic bomb survivors experienced a longer mean period of endotracheal intubation and higher incidences of severe pulmonary complications, severe anastomotic leakage, and surgical site infection. The factors associated with in-hospital mortality were exposure to the atomic bomb explosion, pulmonary comorbidities, and electrocardiographic abnormalities. Multivariate analysis revealed that exposure to the atomic bomb explosion was an independent significant preoperative risk factor for in-hospital mortality. Exposure to the atomic bomb explosion is thus a preoperative risk factor for in-hospital death after esophagectomy to treat esophageal cancer. PMID:24224952

  2. Glanders in donkeys (Equus Asinus) in the state of pernambuco, Brazil: A case report.

    PubMed

    Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; da Fonseca Oliveira, Andréa Alice; da Silva, Andréa Marques Vieira; Junior, José Wilton Pinheiro; da Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza; de Farias Brito, Marilene; Rabelo, Silvana Suely Assis

    2010-01-01

    The clinical, anatomical and histopatological findings of glanders diagnosis in donkeys in the state of Pernambuco-Brazil are reported. The animals were euthanized and necropsied, and evaluated for lesions in respiratory and lymphatic systems, confirming the disease by isolation of Burkholderia mallei and Strauss test.

  3. Paying Teachers to Perform: The Impact of Bonus Pay in Pernambuco, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraz, Claudio; Bruns, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of a group (school-based) teacher bonus program introduced in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco in 2008. Research questions are: i) Does setting school level targets and awarding bonus pay produce improvements in student learning? ii) Does setting school level targets and awarding bonus pay stimulate visible…

  4. Glanders in donkeys (Equus Asinus) in the state of pernambuco, Brazil: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; da Fonseca Oliveira, Andréa Alice; da Silva, Andréa Marques Vieira; Junior, José Wilton Pinheiro; da Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza; de Farias Brito, Marilene; Rabelo, Silvana Suely Assis

    2010-01-01

    The clinical, anatomical and histopatological findings of glanders diagnosis in donkeys in the state of Pernambuco-Brazil are reported. The animals were euthanized and necropsied, and evaluated for lesions in respiratory and lymphatic systems, confirming the disease by isolation of Burkholderia mallei and Strauss test. PMID:24031474

  5. Indicators of breast cancer severity and appropriateness of surgery based on hospital administrative data in the Lazio Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Schifano, Patrizia; Papini, Paolo; Agabiti, Nera; Scarinci, Marina; Borgia, Piero; Perucci, Carlo A

    2006-01-01

    Background Administrative data can serve as an easily available source for epidemiological and evaluation studies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of hospital administrative data to determine breast cancer severity and the appropriateness of surgical treatment. Methods the study population consisted of 398 patients randomly selected from a cohort of women hospitalized for first-time breast cancer surgery in the Lazio Region, Italy. Tumor severity was defined in three different ways: 1) tumor size; 2) clinical stage (TNM); 3) severity indicator based on HIS data (SI). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of the severity indicator in evaluating appropriateness of surgery were calculated. The accuracy of HIS data was measured using Kappa statistic. Results Most of 387 cases were classified as T1 and T2 (tumor size), more than 70% were in stage I or II and the SI classified 60% of cases in medium-low category. Variation from guidelines indications identified under and over treatments. The accuracy of the SI to predict under-treatment was relatively good (58% of all procedures classified as under-treatment using pT where also classified as such using SI), and even greater predicting over-treatment (88.2% of all procedures classified as over treatment using pT where also classified as such using SI). Agreement between clinical chart and hospital discharge reports was K = 0.35. Conclusion Our findings suggest that administrative data need to be used with caution when evaluating surgical appropriateness, mainly because of the limited ability of SI to predict tumor size and the questionable quality of HIS data as observed in other studies. PMID:16464258

  6. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by cancer patients at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ezeome, Emmanuel R; Anarado, Agnes N

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) by cancer patients is very common and varies between populations. The referenced English literature has no local study from Africa on this subject. This study was conducted to define the prevalence, pattern of use, and factors influencing the use of CAM by cancer patients at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu (UNTH-E), Nigeria Method Face-to-face interviews using semi-structured questionnaire were used to determine the use of CAM by cancer patients. All consenting cancer patients were interviewed as they presented at the core surgical units of the UNTH- E, from June 2003 to September 2005. Results 160 patients were interviewed; 68 (42.5%) were males and 94 (57.5%) were females. Ages ranged from 13–86 years. Breast, urogenital system, gastrointestinal system, and soft tissue cancers predominated. One hundred and four patients (65.0%) have used CAM at some time during their current cancer illness; 56 (35.0%) patients have not used any form of CAM. There were more females than males among the non-CAM users. The use of CAM was not affected by age, marital status, level of education, religious affiliation, or socioeconomic status. The most frequently used CAMs were herbs (51.9%), faith/prayer healing (49.4%), aloe vera (23.1%), Forever Living Products (16.3%), medicinal tea (14.4%), and Blackstone (12.5%). Over 23% of those who used CAM were satisfied, but 68.3% were disappointed. Most users (67.3%) did not see any benefit from the CAM, but 25% could describe some specific benefits. More than 21% of users reported various unwanted effects. While 86.5% of CAM users will use orthodox medicine instead of CAM in the future, 9.6% will use the two together to help each other. Most users (79.8%) will not repeat CAM or recommend its use for cancer. The majority of patients (55.8%) did not mention their use of CAM to their doctors – mostly because the doctor did not ask. Conclusion CAM use is

  7. Self-reported use of internet by cervical cancer clients in two National Referral Hospitals in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer remains a devastating disease in Kenya accounting for more than 2000 deaths each year. Lack of information on cervical cancer prevention and management has been attributed to the apathy among women in seeking health interventions. Use of internet-based and mobile e-health tools could increase information access among cervical cancer patients. The objective of the study was; to establish the extent of use of mobile phones and internet by cervical cancer patients in accessing information related to cancer treatment and management.; find out the characteristics of patients associated with internet use and identify barriers faced by the patients in internet use. A cross sectional descriptive survey of 199 cervical patients visiting the two main referral hospitals in Kenya was done. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings The average length of illness was 2.43 years (SD ± 3.0). Only 7.5 %( n=15) reported to having used the internet as a source of information. 92.5 %( n=184) did not use internet. With Multiple options, 70.9% did not know how to use a computer, 29.2% did not have access to a computer, 14.6% lacked the money to use computers at the local cyber cafe while other barriers identified accounted for 11.1%. Patients reported that the internet had an important role in the management of cancer of the cervix in health education (17.6%), online consultation (14.6%), booking of patients (13.6%), referrals (8.5%) and collecting data (7%). The 96.5% of the respondents who had access to a mobile phone, recommended mobile phones for health education messages (31.7%), reminder alerts for medication (29.7%) and booking appointments (21.6%). There was a statistically significant association between income of the patients and internet use (p = 0.026) in this study. Conclusions There is low level use of the internet by cervical cancer clients attended in Public referral facilities in Kenya. This was attributed to; lack of

  8. Diagnosing visceral leishmaniasis and HIV/AIDS co-infection: a case series study in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Aracele Tenório de Almeida e; Medeiros, Zulma; Lopes, Fábio; Andrade, Luiz Dias de; Ferreira, Valéria de Melo; Magalhães, Vera; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito de Barros

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS-associated visceral leishmaniasis may display the characteristics of an aggressive disease or without specific symptoms at all, thus making diagnosis difficult. The present study describes the results of diagnostic tests applied to a series of suspected VL cases in HIV-infected/AIDS patients admitted in referral hospitals in Pernambuco, Brazil. From a total of 14 eligible patients with cytopenias and/or fever of an unknown etiology, and indication of bone marrow aspirate, 10 patients were selected for inclusion in the study. Diagnosis was confirmed by the following examinations: Leishmania detection in bone marrow aspirate, direct agglutination test, indirect immunofluorescence, rK39 dipstick test, polymerase chain reaction and latex agglutination test. Five out of the ten patients were diagnosed with co-infection. A positive direct agglutination test was recorded for all five co-infected patients, the Leishmania detection and latex agglutination tests were positive in four patients, the rK39 dipstick test in three, the indirect immunofluorescence in two and a positive polymerase chain reaction was recorded for one patient. This series of cases was the first to be conducted in Brazil using this set of tests in order to detect co-infection. However, no consensus has thus far been reached regarding the most appropriate examination for the screening and monitoring of this group of patients.

  9. Tubal ligation regret and related risk factors: findings from a case-control study in Pernambuco State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Machado, Kátia Maria de Melo; Costa, Aurélio Molina da; Alves, Sandra Valongueiro; Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto de

    2009-06-01

    A case-control study was carried out at a public teaching hospital in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil in 1997 to investigate risk factors among women who feel regret after undergoing sterilization through tubal ligation. The study compared sterilized women who had requested or undergone a tubal reversal with women who were also sterilized but had not undergone this surgery, nor had requested to do so. Women showing a significantly greater probability of regret were those sterilized at a young age, those who had not themselves made the decision to undergo surgery , those for whom the sterilization was carried out up to the 45th day after childbirth and those who had acquired knowledge about contraceptive methods after the tubal ligation procedure. Having had a deceased child, a partner with no children prior to the current union or a change of partner after the tubal sterilization procedure were also associated to the request for or submission to tubal sterilization reversal. It is necessary to assess women's psycho-socio-demographic profiles, their reasons for requesting tubal ligation and to advise the patient about family planning in order to reduce rates of post-sterilization regret.

  10. Frequency of thyroid cancer in patients operated at Cantonal Hospital Zenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the period 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Hrnčić, Nermin; Goga, Amna; Hrnčić, Selma; Filipovska-Mušanović, Marijana; Hatibović, Haris; Hodžić, Ðenad

    2016-08-01

    Aim To determine frequency and type of thyroid cancer (TC) as well as gender and age distribution of patients operated at the Department of Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT), Cantonal Hospital Zenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods A retrospective analysis of data obtained from an operating protocol and disease history of patients operated in the eightyear period (2007- 2014) was made according to the frequency and type of thyroid cancer, as well as age and gender of the patients. χ2 test was used for statistical with p<0.05. Results A total of 818 surgeries of the thyroid gland were conducted, in 714 (87.29%) female and 104 (12.71%) male patients. Malignancies were diagnosed in 74 (9.05%) patients, of whom 64 (86.49%) were females and 10 (13.51%) were males, resulting in the gender prevalence of 8.96% and 9.62%, respectively. The most often presented type was papillary carcinoma, in 48(out of 74, 64.86%) patients, followed by follicular carcinoma in 10 (13.51%), medullary carcinoma in four (5.41%), Hurthle cell carcinoma in four (5.41%) patients, while anaplastic carcinoma was found in one (1.35%) patient. The number of diagnosed malignancy varied from 0% (in 2007) to 13.91% (in 2014) (p=0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of thyroid cancer is low, but has an increasing trend. A large number of unnecessary surgeries on thyroid gland was performed. Preoperative diagnostic procedures for diseases of the thyroid gland in Cantonal Hospital Zenica should be improved in order to avoid unessential surgeries. PMID:27313111

  11. Hospital Recorded Morbidity and Breast Cancer Incidence: A Nationwide Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Garne, Jens Peter; Nyström, Petra Mariann Witt; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Tarp, Maja; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Lash, Timothy L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Chronic diseases and their complications may increase breast cancer risk through known or still unknown mechanisms, or by shared causes. The association between morbidities and breast cancer risk has not been studied in depth. Methods Data on all Danish women aged 45 to 85 years, diagnosed with breast cancer between 1994 and 2008 and data on preceding morbidities were retrieved from nationwide medical registries. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression associating the Charlson comorbidity score (measured using both the original and an updated Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI)) with incident breast cancer. Furthermore, we estimated associations between 202 morbidity categories and incident breast cancer, adjusting for multiple comparisons using empirical Bayes (EB) methods. Results The study included 46,324 cases and 463,240 population controls. Increasing CCI score, up to a score of six, was associated with slightly increased breast cancer risk. Among the Charlson diseases, preceding moderate to severe renal disease (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.48), any tumor (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.25), moderate to severe liver disease (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.62), and metastatic solid tumors (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.89), were most strongly associated with subsequent breast cancer. Preceding myocardial infarction (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99), connective tissue disease (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94), and ulcer disease (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83, 0.99) were most strongly inversely associated with subsequent breast cancer. A history of breast disorders was associated with breast cancer after EB adjustment. Anemias were inversely associated with breast cancer, but the association was near null after EB adjustment. Conclusions There was no substantial association between morbidity measured with the CCI and breast cancer risk. PMID:23094045

  12. Cure frailty models for survival data: application to recurrences for breast cancer and to hospital readmissions for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, Virginie; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Corbière, Fabien; Gonzalez, Juan R; Mathoulin-Pélissier, Simone

    2013-06-01

    Owing to the natural evolution of a disease, several events often arise after a first treatment for the same subject. For example, patients with a primary invasive breast cancer and treated with breast conserving surgery may experience breast cancer recurrences, metastases or death. A certain proportion of subjects in the population who are not expected to experience the events of interest are considered to be 'cured' or non-susceptible. To model correlated failure time data incorporating a surviving fraction, we compare several forms of cure rate frailty models. In the first model already proposed non-susceptible patients are those who are not expected to experience the event of interest over a sufficiently long period of time. The other proposed models account for the possibility of cure after each event. We illustrate the cure frailty models with two data sets. First to analyse time-dependent prognostic factors associated with breast cancer recurrences, metastases, new primary malignancy and death. Second to analyse successive rehospitalizations of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Estimates were obtained by maximization of likelihood using SAS proc NLMIXED for a piecewise constant hazards model. As opposed to the simple frailty model, the proposed methods demonstrate great potential in modelling multivariate survival data with long-term survivors ('cured' individuals).

  13. Effectiveness and feasibility of using the computerized interactive virtual space in reducing depressive symptoms of Hong Kong Chinese children hospitalized with cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, William H C; Chung, Joyce O K; Ho, Eva K Y; Chiu, Sau Ying

    2011-07-01

    PURPOSE. To examine the effectiveness and feasibility of using the computerized interactive virtual space in reducing depressive symptoms of children hospitalized with cancer. DESIGN AND METHODS. A nonequivalent control group design was employed. Children (8-16 years of age; n= 122) admitted to a pediatric oncology ward during a 14-month period were recruited. RESULTS. The results support the effectiveness and feasibility of using the computerized interactive virtual space in reducing depressive symptoms of children hospitalized with cancer. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. The results heighten the awareness in nurses of the importance of integrating play activities as an essential component of holistic and quality nursing care.

  14. Performance of Implementing Guideline Driven Cervical Cancer Screening Measures in an Inner City Hospital System

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, Daryl L.; Reimers, Laura L.; Wu, Eijean; Nathan, Lisa M.; Gruenberg, Tammy; Abadi, Maria; Einstein, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective In 2006, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) updated evidence based guidelines recommending screening intervals for women with abnormal cervical cytology. In our low-income inner city population, we sought to improve performance by uniformly applying the guidelines to all patients. We report the prospective performance of a comprehensive tracking, evidence-based algorithmically driven call-back and appointment scheduling system for cervical cancer screening in a resource-limited inner city population. Materials and Methods Outreach efforts were formalized with algorithm-based protocols for triage to colposcopy, with universal adherence to evidence-based guidelines. During implementation from August 2006 through July 2008, we prospectively tracked performance using the electronic medical record with administrative and pathology reports to determine performance variables such as the total number of Pap tests, colposcopy visits, and the distribution of abnormal cytology and histology results, including all CIN 2,3 diagnoses. Results 86,257 gynecologic visits and 41,527 Pap tests were performed system-wide during this period of widespread and uniform implementation of standard cervical cancer screening guidelines. The number of Pap tests performed per month varied little. The incidence of CIN 1 significantly decreased from 117/171 (68.4%) the first tracked month to 52/95 (54.7%) the last tracked month (p=0.04). The monthly incidence rate of CIN 2,3, including incident cervical cancers did not change. The total number of colposcopy visits declined, resulting in a 50% decrease in costs related to colposcopy services and approximately a 12% decrease in costs related to excisional biopsies. Conclusions Adherence to cervical cancer screening guidelines reduced the number of unnecessary colposcopies without increasing numbers of potentially missed CIN 2,3 lesions, including cervical cancer. Uniform implementation of administrative

  15. [Study of diagnostic features, health care quality and surgical treatment among women living in the LHAs of Novara and Verbano Cusio Ossola hospitalized for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Padoan, Marina; Ferrante, Daniela; Pretti, Giorgio; Magnani, Corrado

    2015-01-01

    This study included 304 women, 128 Screen Detected (SD) e 176 non Screen Detected (NSD), aged 50-69, living in the ex-local health authorities (LHAs) 13 and 14, hospitalized for breast cancer or related chemotherapy or radiation treatments in 2003-2004. Some variables were detected from medical records in order to evaluate the local screening program. The results confirm that a prevention activity allows a rapid identification of cancer and less invasive surgery procedures. PMID:26057175

  16. An Interdisciplinary Nutrition Support Team Improves Clinical and Hospitalized Outcomes of Esophageal Cancer Patients with Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Ming-Hua; Li, Shu-Luan; Cheng, Guo-Wei; Liu, Jin-Ying; Song, Chen-Xin; Deng, Ying-Bing; Shang, Wei-Hu; Yang, Di; Liu, Xue-Hui; Liu, Wei-Wei; Lu, Shi-Yan; Yu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of malnutrition is very high in patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not a nutrition support team (NST) could benefit esophageal cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods: Between June 2012 and April 2014, 50 esophageal cancer patients undergoing concurrent CRT were randomly assigned into two groups: The NST group and the control group. The nutritional statuses of 25 patients in the NST group were managed by the NST. The other 25 patients in the control group underwent the supervision of radiotherapy practitioners. At the end of the CRT, nutritional status, the incidence of complications, and completion rate of radiotherapy were evaluated. Besides, the length of hospital stay (LOS) and the in-patient cost were also compared between these two groups. Results: At the completion of CRF, the nutritional status in the NST group were much better than those in the control group, as evidenced by prealbumin (ALB), transferrin, and ALB parameters (P = 0.001, 0.000, and 0.000, respectively). The complication incidences, including bone marrow suppression (20% vs. 48%, P = 0.037) and complications related infections (12% vs. 44%, P = 0.012), in the NST group were lower and significantly different from the control group. In addition, only one patient in the NST group did not complete the planned radiotherapy while 6 patients in the control group had interrupted or delayed radiotherapy (96% vs. 76%, P = 0.103). Furthermore, the average LOS was decreased by 4.5 days (P = 0.001) and in-patient cost was reduced to 1.26 ± 0.75 thousand US dollars person-times (P > 0.05) in the NST group. Conclusions: A NST could provide positive effects in esophageal cancer patients during concurrent CRT on maintaining their nutrition status and improving the compliance of CRF. Moreover, the NST could be helpful on reducing LOS and in-patient costs. PMID:26608978

  17. Perceptions of burden of caregiving by informal caregivers of cancer patients attending University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akpan-Idiok, Paulina Ackley; Anarado, Agnes Nonye

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cancer care is devastating to families. This research studied the informal caregivers’ perceptions of burden of caregiving to cancer patients attending University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. Methods The research adopted a cross-sectioned descriptive design and 210 caregivers providing care to advanced cancer patients were purposively selected. Data were collected using a researcher developed questionnaire and standardized Zarit Burden Interview scale (ZBIS). Data collected were analysed using descriptive and chi-square statistics with the help of SPSS 18.0 and PAS 19.0 softwares. Results The results indicated that the caregivers were in their youthful and active economic age, dominated by females, Christians, spouses, partners and parents. The burden levels experienced by the caregivers were as follows: severe (46.2%), moderate (36.2%) and trivial of no burden (17.6%). The forms of burden experienced were physical (43.4%), psychological (43.3%), financial (41.1%) and social (46.7%), quite frequently and nearly always. Psychological and social forms of burden had the highest weighted score of 228 in terms of magnitude of burden. The result further showed that there was a significant (P = 0.001) and inverse association between caregivers’ burden and the care receivers’ functional ability. The level of burden also increased significantly (P = 0.000) with the duration of care, while there was also a significant (P = 0.01) relationship between caregivers’ experience of burden and their desire to continue caregiving. Conclusion Caregiving role can be enhanced by provision of interventions such as formal education programme on cancer caregiving, oncology, home services along side with transmural care. PMID:25419297

  18. Energy metabolism and nutritional status in hospitalized patients with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Yumi; Sasaki, Masaya; Goto, Kenichi; Takaoka, Azusa; Ohi, Akiko; Kurihara, Mika; Nakanishi, Naoko; Nakano, Yasutaka; Hanaoka, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the energy metabolism of patients with lung cancer and the relationship between energy metabolism and proinflammatory cytokines. Twenty-eight patients with lung cancer and 18 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The nutritional status upon admission was analyzed using nutritional screening tools and laboratory tests. The resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were measured using indirect calorimetry, and the predicted resting energy expenditure was calculated using the Harris–Benedict equation. Energy expenditure was increased in patients with advanced stage disease, and there were positive correlations between measured resting energy expenditure/body weight and interleukin-6 levels and between measured resting energy expenditure/predicted resting energy expenditure and interleukin-6 levels. There were significant relationships between body mass index and plasma leptin or acylated ghrelin levels. However, the level of appetite controlling hormones did not affect dietary intake. There was a negative correlation between plasma interleukin-6 levels and dietary intake, suggesting that interleukin-6 plays a role in reducing dietary intake. These results indicate that energy expenditure changes significantly with lung cancer stage and that plasma interleukin-6 levels affect energy metabolism and dietary intake. Thus, nutritional management that considers the changes in energy metabolism is important in patients with lung cancer.

  19. Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Treatment Delay Within Appalachia – The Role of For-Profit Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Seiber, Eric E.; Camacho, Fabian; Zeeshan, Muhammad Fazal; Kern, Teresa T.; Fleming, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Background Appalachian residents have a higher overall cancer burden than the rest of the United States because of the unique features of the region. Treatment delays vary widely within Appalachia, with colorectal cancer patients undergoing median treatment delays of 5 days in Kentucky compared to 9 days for patients in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and North Carolina combined. Objective This study identified the source of this disparity in treatment delay using statistical decomposition techniques. Methodology This study used linked 2006 to 2008 cancer registry and Medicare claims data for the Appalachian counties of Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and North Carolina to estimate a 2-part model of treatment delay. An Oaxaca Decomposition of the 2-part model revealed the contribution of the individual determinants to the disparity in delay between Kentucky counties and the remaining 3 states. Results The Oaxaca Decomposition revealed that the higher percentage of patients treated at for-profit facilities in Kentucky proved the key contributor to the observed disparity. In Kentucky, 22.3% patients began their treatment at a for-profit facility compared to 1.4% in the remaining states. Patients initiating treatment at for-profit facilities explained 79% of the observed difference in immediate treatment (<2 days after diagnosis) and 72% of Kentucky’s advantage in log days to treatment. Conclusions The unique role of for-profit facilities led to reduced treatment delay for colorectal cancer patients in Kentucky. However, it remains unknown whether for-profit-hospitals’ more rapid treatment converts to better health outcomes for colorectal cancer patients. PMID:26032695

  20. Treatment Outcomes in Black and White Children With Cancer: Results From the SEER Database and St Jude Children's Research Hospital, 1992 Through 2007

    PubMed Central

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Pei, Deqing; Pappo, Alberto S.; Howard, Scott C.; Cheng, Cheng; Sandlund, John T.; Furman, Wayne L.; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Spunt, Sheri L.; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Jeha, Sima; Hudson, Melissa M.; Kun, Larry E.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Kocak, Mehmet; Broniscer, Alberto; Metzger, Monika L.; Downing, James R.; Leung, Wing; Evans, William E.; Gajjar, Amar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Treatment outcome for black patients with cancer has been significantly worse than for their white counterparts. We determined whether recent improved treatment had narrowed the gap in outcome between black and white pediatric patients. Patients and Methods In a parallel comparison, we analyzed survival by disease category between black and white patients with childhood cancer registered in one of the 17 cancer registries of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program or treated at St Jude Children's Research Hospital, which provides comprehensive treatment to all patients regardless of their ability to pay, from 1992 to 2000 and from 2001 to 2007. Results Analysis of the SEER data indicated that in both study periods, black patients had significantly poorer rates of survival than did white patients, with the exception of a few types of cancer. Despite significantly improved treatment outcomes for patients who were treated from 2001 to 2007, the racial difference in survival has actually widened for acute myeloid leukemia and neuroblastoma. By contrast, in the cohorts treated at St Jude Children's Research Hospital, there were no significant differences in survival between black and white patients in either study period, regardless of the cancer type. Importantly, the outcome of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and retinoblastoma has improved in parallel for both races during the most recent study period. Conclusion With equal access to comprehensive treatment, black and white children with cancer can achieve the same high cure rates. PMID:22547602

  1. Genetic variability in accessions of the acerola germplasm bank of Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes Filho, R M; Martins, L S S; Musser, R S; Montarroyos, A V V; Silva, E F

    2013-10-29

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of acerola, Malpighia emarginata (Malpighiaceae); the Northeast is responsible for 60% of the national production. The culture of acerola in Brazil has great genetic variability; plantings have high phenotypic diversity and are not very productive, often originating from propagation by seed. We evaluated the genetic diversity of 42 accessions from the Acerola Active Germplasm Bank of Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Using 15 RAPD primers, 182 markers were obtained, of which 166 were polymorphic and 16 were monomorphic. We found high genetic variability among the accessions (ĤE = 0.29), with no redundancy. Considering the accessions from the states of Pernambuco, Bahia and Pará as distinct groups, there was greater diversity in accessions from Bahia than from the other two states.

  2. Food groups and nutrient intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a hospital-based case-control study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Banqué, Marta; Raidó, Blanca; Masuet, Cristina; Ramon, Josep M

    2012-04-01

    Although evidence supports that colorectal cancer (CRC) has an environmental etiology, the potential influence of diet appears to be one of the most important components. We studied the relation between food groups and nutrient intake and the risk of CRC. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Spain between 2007 and 2009. The authors matched 245 patients with incident histologically confirmed CRC by age, gender, and date of admission with 490 controls. Information about nutrient intake was gathered by using a semiquantitative frequency food questionnaire. Univariate analysis was done with individual food items. Odds ratios (ORs) for consecutive tertiles of nutrient intake were computed after allowance for sociodemographic variables and consumption of food groups. Vitamin B6 (OR: 0.26), vitamin D (OR: 0.45), vitamin E (OR: 0.42), polyunsaturated fatty acids (OR: 0.57), and fiber (OR: 0.40) were inversely associated with CRC, whereas carbohydrates (OR: 1.82) were significantly associated with CRC risk for the upper tertile. In multivariate analysis adjusting for major covariables (energy, age, and gender), vitamin D (OR:0.45), vitamin E (OR:0.36), and fiber (OR:0.46) remained associated with CRC. Data suggest that the etiology of colorectal cancer is not due to lifestyle and dietary patterns being important the effect of single nutrients. PMID:22369135

  3. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Children with Cancer: A Study at a Swiss University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Magi, Tatjana; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Torchetti, Loredana; Wengenroth, Laura; Lüer, Sonja; Frei-Erb, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Though complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are frequently used by children and adolescents with cancer, there is little information on how and why they use it. This study examined prevalence and methods of CAM, the therapists who applied it, reasons for and against using CAM and its perceived effectiveness. Parent-perceived communication was also evaluated. Parents were asked if medical staff provided information on CAM to patients, if parents reported use of CAM to physicians, and what attitude they thought physicians had toward CAM. Study Design All childhood cancer patients treated at the University Children’s Hospital Bern between 2002–2011 were retrospectively surveyed about their use of CAM. Results Data was collected from 133 patients (response rate: 52%). Of those, 53% had used CAM (mostly classical homeopathy) and 25% of patients received information about CAM from medical staff. Those diagnosed more recently were more likely to be informed about CAM options. The most frequent reason for choosing CAM was that parents thought it would improve the patient’s general condition. The most frequent reason for not using CAM was lack of information. Of those who used CAM, 87% perceived positive effects. Conclusions Since many pediatric oncology patients use CAM, patients’ needs should be addressed by open communication between families, treating oncologists and CAM therapists, which will allow parents to make informed and safe choices about using CAM. PMID:26694320

  4. [Risk factors for cervico-uterine cancer associated to HPV: p53 codon 72 polymorphism in women attending hospital care].

    PubMed

    Sifuentes Alvarez, A; Reyes Romero, Miguel

    2003-01-01

    In codon 72 of the p53 antioncogene there are two alleles, arginine and proline; the arg/arg genotype has recently been identified as a risk factor for developing of cervicouterine cancer (CuCa) associated to human papillomavirus (HVP) infection. The aim of this work was to determine in a sample of women the frequency of proline-arginine alleles and genotypes of p53 codon 72. The study was conducted in a sample of inpatient women at the hospital. p53 codon 72 alleles were determined in genomic ADN by amplification of specific sequences by chi 2 test. From 102 analyzed samples, p53-arginine allele corresponded to 67.64% and p53-proline allele corresponded to 32.36%; 47 women (46.10%) were arg/arg homocygotes, 11 women (10.77%) were pro/pro homocygotes, 44 women (43.13%) were arg/pro heterocigotes; the genotype distribution was within the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The detection of a high percentage of arginine homocygotes suggests that this genotype, considered as a risk factor for cancer associated to oncogenic HPV, has a high prevalence in the north of Mexico. The determination of this kind of polymorphisms is important as preventive action with regard to identification of risk factors for CaCu associated to HPV infection. PMID:12708345

  5. Is the "Centro de Endemismo Pernambuco" a biodiversity hotspot for orchid bees?

    PubMed

    Nemésio, A; Santos Junior, J E

    2014-08-01

    The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossina) of the three largest forest remnants in the "Centro de Endemismo Pernambuco", northeastern Brazil, namely Estação Ecológica de Murici (ESEC Murici), RPPN Frei Caneca, and a forest preserve belonging to Usina Serra Grande, in the states of Alagoas and Pernambuco, were surveyed using seventeen different scents as baits to attract orchid-bee males. Eight sites were established in the three preserves, where samplings were carried out using two protocols: insect netting and bait trapping. We collected 3,479 orchid-bee males belonging to 29 species during 160 hours in early October, 2012. Seven species were collected in the "Centro de Endemismo Pernambuco" for the first time. Richness proved to be one of the highest of the entire Atlantic Forest domain, and diversity in some sites, especially at ESEC Murici, revealed to be one of the highest in the Neotropics. Eulaema felipei Nemésio, 2010, a species previously recorded only at ESEC Murici, was found in no other preserve in the region and its conservation status is discussed.

  6. The impact of nutritional status, nutritional risk, and nutritional treatment on clinical outcome of 2248 hospitalized cancer patients: a multi-center, prospective cohort study in Chinese teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongming; Cai, Sanjun; Ji, Jiafu; Jiang, Zhiwei; Liang, Houjie; Lin, Feng; Liu, Xiyong

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of undernutrition, nutritional risk, and nutritional treatment on the clinical outcomes of hospitalized cancer patients in China, the authors conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional study with 2248 cancer patients from 20 hospitals from January to June 2010. The authors defined 19.7% and 26.8% patients as undernourished at baseline and reassessment, respectively. Patients with gastrointestinal malignancies had a higher rate of undernutrition than other patients. The nutritional risk rate was 24.6% and 40.2% at baseline and reassessment, respectively. For patients with nutritional risk, the relative risk (RR) of adverse events (AEs) significantly increased with and without nutritional treatment. In comparison with the nonnutritional treatment subgroup, patients who received enteral nutrition (EN) or total parenteral nutrition (TPN) significantly reduced the RR of AE development. The RR of AEs for EN and TPN were 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01-0.62) and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.33-0.96), respectively. Separated nutrient infusion increased the risk of AEs. The authors concluded that undernutrition and nutritional risk are general problems that impact the outcomes of hospitalized cancer patients in China. Higher NRS2002 scores are related to AE risk but not weight loss. In nutritional treatment, EN and TPN can significantly reduce the risk of AEs.

  7. [Change in the occurrence of breast cancer in hospital registries (1980-2000)].

    PubMed

    Belicza, Mladen; Lenicek, Tanja; Glasnović, Margareta; Elez, Martina; Gladić, Vedrana; Marton, Ingrid; Zuteković, Suncana; Jurlina, Hrvoje; Kusić, Zvonko; Cvrtila, Drago; Strnad, Marija; Tomas, Davor; Cupić, Hrvoje; Kruslin, Bozo

    2002-01-01

    The aim of our retrospective study was to analyze distribution of histological types, age of patients and hormonal dependency of breast cancer cases in the period 1980-2000 using computer database "Thanatos". This period was divided with regard to the war into a pre-war (1980-1990), war (1991-1995) and post-war period (1996-2000). We also paid attention to the Chernobyl accident (pre-Chernobyl from 1980-1986 and post-Chernobyl from 1987-2000). Special attention was focused on the period during the war mainly due to the fact that very little data exist in literature dealing with the war as a stress factor that may have induced and promoted carcinogenesis. During this twenty-one year period 2296 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer. In the female population of 2274, 2228 (98%) of these were ductal and only 46 (2%) were invasive lobular carcinomas. In all of the male cases (22) the cancer was pathohistologically verified as the invasive ductal type. The male:female ratio was 1:103. Comparing the pre-war and war periods we found a more than double increase in the male:female ratio (from 1:131 to 1:66). We observed similar results when we looked at the period after the Chernobyl incident where the ratio increased from 1:139 to 1:79. When we analyzed the distribution of histological types we found a significant increase in lobular carcinomas during the post-war period, from 1.1% to 5.5%; this increase was less significant for the post-Chernobyl period (1.0% to 3.3%). The average age of the patients with invasive ductal carcinomas increased from 56.7 yrs during the pre-war period to 59.7 yrs during the war and finally to 61.1 yrs during the post-war period. The average age of males with breast cancer decreased from 63.6 and 63.5 during the pre-war and war periods to 58.8 yrs during the post-war period. These results suggest that the war could have influenced the shift in the age of occurrence of breast cancer in both sexes appearing in younger males and in females

  8. Detection of Cervical Cancer through Visual Inspection of Cervix with Acetic Acid (VIA) and Colposcopy at Mymensingh Medical College Hospital.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M F; Akhter, S N; Alam, M J; Sarker, A S; Uddin, M J; Bashar, A; Banu, S

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality in women with 50% mortality rate. It is preventable if cervical cellular changes are detected and managed at early stage. This was a retrospective study conducted at VIA center of outpatient department and Colposcopy clinic at in-patient department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh covering a period from September 2013 to November 2014. Objective of this study was detection of cervical cancer and precancerous condition amongst patients reported to VIA center and Colposcopy clinic. In primary screening at VIA Center, total respondents were 3604, their mean age was 35.9 and highest were in the age group 31 to 40 years. At VIA center, 110(3.05%) were found positive and highest were between 31 to 40 years. In Colposcopy Clinic, out of 700 patients, 51.7% were CIN 1, 4.9% CIN 2, 1.4% CIN 3, invasive carcinoma was 0.3% and unsatisfactory or inconclusive were 34.3%. Most of the respondents were housewives and majority had poor monthly income. Amongst respondents, 72.1% were from rural area and Colposcopic findings revealed in 62.5% abnormal cervical changes, 46.5% were from rural area. Mean age at marriage or age at first coitus was found 16.25 years and 92.7% were in 11 to 20 years. Maximum abnormal cervical findings including CIN were between the ages ranged from 11 to 20 years of marriage age. In patients having 1 - 5 number of child having abnormal (58%) cervical changes, 48% were CIN 1. Histopathology reports found 19.6% CIN 1 (Total CIN 20.7%), cervical carcinoma 1.3%, inflammatory 7.0% and 0.42% cases were reported normal. Amongst 438 histopathology advised cases, 230 respondent's reports with patients were not available. VIA followed by Colposcopy has been a feasible, easy and reliable tools for screening cervical cancer in Bangladesh. PMID:27612882

  9. Second Hand Smoke Exposure and Excess Heart Disease and Lung Cancer Mortality among Hospital Staff in Crete, Greece: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Vardavas, Constantine I.; Mpouloukaki, Izolde; Linardakis, Manolis; Ntzilepi, Penelope; Tzanakis, Nikos; Kafatos, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a serious threat to public health, and a significant cause of lung cancer and heart disease among non-smokers. Even though Greek hospitals have been declared smoke free since 2002, smoking is still evident. Keeping the above into account, the aim of this study was to quantify the levels of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and to estimate the attributed lifetime excess heart disease and lung cancer deaths per 1000 of the hospital staff, in a large Greek public hospital. Environmental airborne respirable suspended particles (RSP) of PM2.5 were performed and the personnpel’s excess mortality risk was estimated using risk prediction formulas. Excluding the intensive care unit and the operating theatres, all wards and clinics were polluted with environmental tobacco smoke. Mean SHS-RSP measurements ranged from 11 to 1461 μg/m3 depending on the area. Open wards averaged 84 μg/m3 and the managing wards averaged 164 μg/m3 thus giving an excess lung cancer and heart disease of 1.12 (range 0.23–1.88) and 11.2 (range 2.3–18.8) personnel in wards and 2.35 (range 0.55–12.2) and 23.5 (range 5.5–122) of the managing staff per 1000 over a 40-year lifespan, respectively. Conclusively, SHS exposure in hospitals in Greece is prevalent and taking into account the excess heart disease and lung cancer mortality risk as also the immediate adverse health effects of SHS exposure, it is clear that proper implementation and enforcement of the legislation that bans smoking in hospitals is imperative to protect the health of patients and staff alike. PMID:19139529

  10. [Follow-up of cancer treatment activities at the University Teaching Hospital in Dijon: the value of data from standardized discharge summaries].

    PubMed

    Titton, Monique; Binquet, Christine; Vourc'h, Michèle; Martin, Laurent; Girodon, François; Quantin, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This work aimed to assess the feasibility of coalescing data sources to follow up on the management and delivery of cancer patient care using both anatomical-pathological data and a medical record information system based on the "Medicalisation of Information Systems Programme" which is administered by an independent source. The study group was comprised of all hospitalised cancer patients in the Dijon university teaching hospital during the first quarter of 2001. Data were obtained from a cross-analysis of medical records with pathological information and standard discharge files. A manual validation was then carried out to ensure a valid synthesis. Overall, 1377 abstracts were created and selected for cancer patients hospitalized for the first time. Among these, 60% were validated by the compatibility and concordance of data between the medical record discharge issued and the pathological record, less than 5% were identified only through looking at the anatomical-pathological data in the medical record, and 24% identified by exploring the patient discharge forms. These results demonstrate the difficulty and challenge as well as the benefits of crossing multiple sources of patient information and combine them to more thoroughly and appropriately assess the hospital's activity for caring for cancer patients.

  11. Influence of data quality on computed Dutch hospital quality indicators: a case study in colorectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Our study aims to assess the influence of data quality on computed Dutch hospital quality indicators, and whether colorectal cancer surgery indicators can be computed reliably based on routinely recorded data from an electronic medical record (EMR). Methods Cross-sectional study in a department of gastrointestinal oncology in a university hospital, in which a set of 10 indicators is computed (1) based on data abstracted manually for the national quality register Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit (DSCA) as reference standard and (2) based on routinely collected data from an EMR. All 75 patients for whom data has been submitted to the DSCA for the reporting year 2011 and all 79 patients who underwent a resection of a primary colorectal carcinoma in 2011 according to structured data in the EMR were included. Comparison of results, investigating the causes for any differences based on data quality analysis. Main outcome measures are the computability of quality indicators, absolute percentages of indicator results, data quality in terms of availability in a structured format, completeness and correctness. Results All indicators were fully computable based on the DSCA dataset, but only three based on EMR data, two of which were percentages. For both percentages, the difference in proportions computed based on the two datasets was significant. All required data items were available in a structured format in the DSCA dataset. Their average completeness was 86%, while the average completeness of these items in the EMR was 50%. Their average correctness was 87%. Conclusions Our study showed that data quality can significantly influence indicator results, and that our EMR data was not suitable to reliably compute quality indicators. EMRs should be designed in a way so that the data required for audits can be entered directly in a structured and coded format. PMID:24721489

  12. Reducing the Time From Diagnosis to Treatment of Patients With Stage II/III Rectal Cancer at a Large Public Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Lori A.; Jacobs, Ryan W.; Millas, Stefanos; Surabhi, Venkateswar; Mok, Henry; Jhaveri, Pavan; Kott, Marylee M.; Jackson, Lymesia; Rieber, Alyssa; Bhadkamkar, Nishin A.

    2016-01-01

    Curative-intent therapy for stage II/III rectal cancer is necessarily complex. Current guidelines by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommend preoperative concurrent chemoradiation followed by resection and additional adjuvant chemotherapy. We used standard quality improvement methodology to implement a cost-effective intervention that reduced the time from diagnosis to treatment of patients with stage II/III rectal cancer by approximately 30% in a large public hospital in Houston, Texas. Implementation of the program resulted in a reduction in time from pathologic diagnosis to treatment of 29% overall, from 62 to 44 days. These gains were cost neutral and resulted from improvements in scheduling and coordination of care alone. Our results suggest that: (1) quality improvement methodology can be successfully applied to multidisciplinary cancer care, (2) effective interventions can be cost neutral, and (3) effective strategies can overcome complexities such as having multiple sites of care, high staff turnover, and resource limitations. PMID:26869658

  13. Radiotherapy for Patients With Metastases to the Spinal Column: A Review of 603 Patients at Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital

    SciTech Connect

    Mizumoto, Masashi; Harada, Hideyuki; Asakura, Hirofumi; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Furutani, Kazuhisa; Hashii, Haruko; Murata, Hideki; Takagi, Tatsuya; Katagiri, Hirohisa; Takahashi, Mitsuru; Nishimura, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Long- and short-course radiotherapy have similar outcomes in the treatment of spinal metastases. Long-course radiotherapy is recommended for patients with good predicted survival to reduce the risk of in-field recurrence, whereas short-course radiotherapy is used for those with poor predicted survival. Therefore, prediction of prognosis and local control is required for selecting the optimal course of radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The subjects were 603 patients with spinal metastases who received radiotherapy at the Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital between September 2002 and February 2007. Factors associated with survival and local control were retrospectively investigated by multivariate analyses. Local recurrence was defined as regrowth within the irradiated field or exacerbation of symptoms such as pain and motor deficits. Results: Of the 603 patients, 555 (92%) were followed for 12 months or until death. The survival rates after 6, 12, and 24 months were 50%, 32%, and 19%, respectively, with a median survival of 6.2 months. The median survival periods after long- and short-course radiotherapy were 7.9 and 1.8 months, respectively. In multivariate analysis, primary tumor site, good performance status, absence of previous chemotherapy, absence of visceral metastasis, single bone metastasis, younger age, and nonhypercalcemia were associated with good survival. The local control rates after 6, 12, and 24 months were 91%, 79%, and 69%, respectively, and non-mass-type tumor, breast cancer, and absence of previous chemotherapy were predictors of good local control. Conclusions: Identification of factors associated with good local control and survival may allow selection of an optimal radiotherapy schedule for patients with spinal metastases.

  14. Factors associated with delays to diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in women in a Louisiana urban safety net hospital.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only lung cancer surpasses breast cancer as a cause of death from cancer; however, the burden of breast cancer is not borne equally across racial and ethnic groups. In the United States, African American (AA) women have significantly higher mortality rates from breast cancer than white women. Dela...

  15. Knowledge and Awareness about Cervical Cancer and Its Prevention amongst Interns and Nursing Staff in Tertiary Care Hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Syed Faizan; Ayub, Samia; Manzoor, Nauman Fazal; Azim, Sidra; Afif, Muneeza; Akhtar, Nida; Jafery, Wassi Ali; Tahir, Imran; Farid-ul-Hasnian, Syed; Uddin, Najam

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objective Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality amongst the gynecological cancers worldwide, especially in developing countries. It is imperative for at least health professionals in developing countries like Pakistan to have a sound knowledge about the disease. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer and its prevention amongst health professionals in tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods and Design A cross-sectional, interview based survey was conducted in June, 2009. Sample of 400 was divided between the three tertiary care centers. Convenience sampling was applied as no definitive data was available regarding the number of registered interns and nurses at each center. Results Of all the interviews conducted, 1.8% did not know cervical cancer as a disease. Only 23.3% of the respondents were aware that cervical cancer is the most common cause of gynecological cancers and 26% knew it is second in rank in mortality. Seventy-eight percent were aware that infection is the most common cause of cervical cancer, of these 62% said that virus is the cause and 61% of the respondents knew that the virus is Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Majority recognized that it is sexually transmitted but only a minority (41%) knew that it can be detected by PCR. Only 26% of the study population was aware of one or more risk factors. Thirty seven percent recognized Pap smear as a screening test. In total only 37 out of 400 respondents were aware of the HPV vaccine. Conclusion This study serves to highlight that the majority of working health professionals are not adequately equipped with knowledge concerning cervical cancer. Continuing Medical Education program should be started at the hospital level along with conferences to spread knowledge about this disease. PMID:20548787

  16. Hospital stays for hepatitis B or C virus infection or primary liver cancer among immigrants: a census-linked population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Edward; Myers, Robert P.; Manuel, Doug; Sanmartin, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The recent increase in the incidence of primary liver cancer in Canada has been attributed to a higher proportion of immigrants from countries endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). We examined hospital discharges for liver disease in Canada, focusing on those for all liver-related diseases, HBV infection, HCV infection and primary liver cancer, by 3 immigration-related variables: immigration status, duration of residence in Canada and risk level of the source country. Methods: We calculated annualized crude and age-standardized rates of a hospital stay in Canada for HBV infection, HCV infection, primary liver cancer and all liver-related diseases using data from the 2006 Canadian census (long form) linked to the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstract Database for fiscal years 2006/07 to 2008/09. We estimated the odds of a hospital stay using logistic regression for the 3 immigration-related variables, adjusting for sociodemographic indicators. Results: Immigrants were less likely than Canadian-born residents to be discharged with a diagnosis of any liver-related condition (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-0.89); however, they were more likely to be discharged with a diagnosis of HBV infection (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.57-2.60) and primary liver cancer (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.22-1.68). There was a clear association between a hospital stay for HBV infection and immigration from HBV-endemic countries (OR 5.15, 95% CI 3.87-6.84) and between a stay for HCV infection and immigration from HCV-endemic countries (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.74-5.11). Adjustment for low income status and urban residence did not change the results. Interpretation: Although the odds of a liver-related hospital stay were lower among immigrants than among those born in Canada, immigrants from countries at high risk for HBV infection, HCV infection and primary liver cancer were more likely than Canadian-born residents to have a

  17. Nutritional status of patients with gastrointestinal cancer receiving care in a public hospital; 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Dias do Prado, Corina; Alvares Duarte Bonini Campos, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar el estado nutricional de los pacientes con cáncer gastrointestinal y verificar su asociación con características demográficas y clínicas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal, con un diseño de muestreo no probabilístico. Los participantes fueron 143 pacientes adultos con cáncer gastrointestinal, que reciben atención en el Hospital Amaral Carvalho (Jaú-SP, Brasil) entre noviembre de 2010 y octubre de 2011. Se realizó una encuesta para recoger información con el fin de caracterización demográfica y clínica. Para identificar el estado nutricional se aplico la Valoración Subjetiva Global - Generada por el Paciente Score (VSGGP score). La razón de prevalencia (RP) fue estimada. El nivel de significancia adoptado fue de 5%. Resultados: La edad media de los pacientes fue de 57,45 (DE = 9,62) AÑOs, con los estadíos III y IV de la enfermedad es la más frecuente (39,2% y 35,0%). Había 44,8% de prevalencia de la malnutrición. La persona desnutrida tenía problemas más frecuentes para comer. La estadística descriptiva y la prueba de Chi-cuadrado (< 0,001), presentaron menor deseo de comer (p < 0,001), más náuseas (p = 0,001), vómitos (p = 0,006), estreñimiento (p < 0,001) y dolor (p < 0,001) que los pacientes eutróficos y se declararon enfermos por el olor de los alimentos (p = 0,012), dificultad para tragar (p = 0,002) y la saciedad precoz (p = 0,020) com más frecuencia. En cuanto a la proporción de prevalencia, se observó una probabilidad mayor de individuos desnutridos expuestos a una porción más grande de los síntomas relacionados en la puntuación VSG-GP score. Conclusión: La alta prevalencia de desnutrición se observó en pacientes con cáncer gastrointestinal, con asociación significativa con los síntomas clínicos directamente relacionados con el proceso de alimentación.

  18. Adjuvant Hypofractionated Versus Conventional Whole Breast Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Long-Term Hospital-Related Morbidity From Cardiac Causes

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Elisa K.; Woods, Ryan; McBride, Mary L.; Virani, Sean; Nichol, Alan; Speers, Caroline; Wai, Elaine S.; Tyldesley, Scott

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The risk of cardiac injury with hypofractionated whole-breast/chest wall radiation therapy (HF-WBI) compared with conventional whole-breast/chest wall radiation therapy (CF-WBI) in women with left-sided breast cancer remains a concern. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an increase in hospital-related morbidity from cardiac causes with HF-WBI relative to CF-WBI. Methods and Materials: Between 1990 and 1998, 5334 women ≤80 years of age with early-stage breast cancer were treated with postoperative radiation therapy to the breast or chest wall alone. A population-based database recorded baseline patient, tumor, and treatment factors. Hospital administrative records identified baseline cardiac risk factors and other comorbidities. Factors between radiation therapy groups were balanced using a propensity-score model. The first event of a hospital admission for cardiac causes after radiation therapy was determined from hospitalization records. Ten- and 15-year cumulative hospital-related cardiac morbidity after radiation therapy was estimated for left- and right-sided cases using a competing risk approach. Results: The median follow-up was 13.2 years. For left-sided cases, 485 women were treated with CF-WBI, and 2221 women were treated with HF-WBI. Mastectomy was more common in the HF-WBI group, whereas boost was more common in the CF-WBI group. The CF-WBI group had a higher prevalence of diabetes. The 15-year cumulative hospital-related morbidity from cardiac causes (95% confidence interval) was not different between the 2 radiation therapy regimens after propensity-score adjustment: 21% (19-22) with HF-WBI and 21% (17-25) with CF-WBI (P=.93). For right-sided cases, the 15-year cumulative hospital-related morbidity from cardiac causes was also similar between the radiation therapy groups (P=.76). Conclusions: There is no difference in morbidity leading to hospitalization from cardiac causes among women with left-sided early-stage breast

  19. Social, demographic and healthcare factors associated with stage at diagnosis of cervical cancer: cross-sectional study in a tertiary hospital in Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mwaka, Amos Deogratius; Garimoi, Christopher Orach; Were, Edward Maloba; Roland, Martin; Wabinga, Henry; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine patient and primary healthcare factors and stage at diagnosis in women with cervical cancer in Northern Uganda with the intention to identify factors that are associated with advanced stages in order to inform policies to improve survival from cervical cancer in low income and middle income countries. Design Cross-sectional hospital-based study. Setting Tertiary, not-for-profit private hospital in postconflict region. Participants Consecutive tissue-diagnosed symptomatic patients with cervical attending care. Of 166 patients, 149 were enrolled and analysed. Primary outcome Cervical cancer stage at diagnosis. Results Most women were diagnosed at stages III (45%) or IV (21%). After controlling for age, marital status, educational attainment and number of biological children, there was evidence for association between advanced stage at diagnosis and pre-referral diagnosis of cancer by primary healthcare professionals (adjusted OR (AOR)=13.04:95% CI 3.59 to 47.3), and financial difficulties precluding prompt help seeking (AOR=5.5:95% CI 1.58 to 20.64). After adjusting for age, marital status and educational attainment, women with 5–9 biological children (AOR=0.27:95% CI 0.08 to 0.96) were less likely to be diagnosed with advanced stage (defined as stages III/IV) cancer. In this pilot study, there was no statistical evidence for associations between stage at diagnosis, and factors such as age at diagnosis and marital status. Conclusions This study is a first attempt to understand the descriptive epidemiology of cervical cancer in rural Ugandan settings. Understanding individual patient factors, patients’ behavioural characteristics and healthcare factors associated with advanced stage at diagnosis is essential for targeted effective public health interventions to promote prompt health seeking, diagnosis at early stage and improved survival from cervical cancer. PMID:26801459

  20. Ecological study on hospitalizations for cancer, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases in the industrial area of Etang-de-Berre in the South of France.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Laurence; Pascal, Mathilde; Stempfelet, Morgane; Goria, Sarah; Declercq, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The Etang-de-Berre area is a large industrialized area in the South of France, exposing 300,000 inhabitants to the plumes of its industries. The possible associated health risks are of the highest concern to the population, who asked for studies investigating their health status. A geographical ecological study based on standardized hospitalizations ratios for cancer, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases was carried out over the 2004-2007 period. Exposure to air pollution was assessed using dispersion models coupled with a geographic information system to estimate an annual mean concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO₂) for each district. Results showed an excess risk of hospitalization for myocardial infarction in women living in districts with medium or high SO₂ exposure, respectively, 38% [CI 95% 4 : 83] and 54% [14 : 110] greater than women living in districts at the reference level exposure. A 26% [2 : 57] excess risk of hospitalization for myocardial infarction was also observed in men living in districts with high SO₂ levels. No excess risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases or for cancer was observed, except for acute leukemia in men only. Results illustrate the impact of industrial air pollution on the cardiovascular system and call for an improvement of the air quality in the area.

  1. Ecological Study on Hospitalizations for Cancer, Cardiovascular, and Respiratory Diseases in the Industrial Area of Etang-de-Berre in the South of France

    PubMed Central

    Pascal, Laurence; Stempfelet, Morgane; Declercq, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The Etang-de-Berre area is a large industrialized area in the South of France, exposing 300,000 inhabitants to the plumes of its industries. The possible associated health risks are of the highest concern to the population, who asked for studies investigating their health status. A geographical ecological study based on standardized hospitalizations ratios for cancer, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases was carried out over the 2004–2007 period. Exposure to air pollution was assessed using dispersion models coupled with a geographic information system to estimate an annual mean concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) for each district. Results showed an excess risk of hospitalization for myocardial infarction in women living in districts with medium or high SO2 exposure, respectively, 38% [CI 95% 4 : 83] and 54% [14 : 110] greater than women living in districts at the reference level exposure. A 26% [2 : 57] excess risk of hospitalization for myocardial infarction was also observed in men living in districts with high SO2 levels. No excess risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases or for cancer was observed, except for acute leukemia in men only. Results illustrate the impact of industrial air pollution on the cardiovascular system and call for an improvement of the air quality in the area. PMID:23864868

  2. Radium-228 as an indicator of thorium-232 presence in a soil in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos Júnior, J A; Amaral, R S; Silva, C M; Menezes, R S C; Bezerra, J D

    2009-06-01

    Radiometric measurements were taken in a small area of Pernambuco, Brazil, with the objective of monitoring the radium of the soil. For this, 78 soil samples were collected. The gamma analyses of the samples were carried out using HPGe. The values obtained for the (226)Ra varied from 14 to 367 Bqkg(-1) and for the (228)Ra from 73 to 429 Bqkg(-1). The ratio (228)Ra/(226)Ra varied from 1.0 to 7.0. Therefore, it is an indicator of an additional radioactivity source in this soil, maybe (232)Th, which will be further investigated in future studies.

  3. Post-rift volcanic structures of the Pernambuco Plateau, northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buarque, Bruno V.; Barbosa, José A.; Magalhães, José R. G.; Cruz Oliveira, Jefferson T.; Filho, Osvaldo J. Correia

    2016-10-01

    The Pernambuco marginal basin is located on the eastern continental margin of northeastern Brazil, covers an area of 20,800 km2, and represents one of the most prominent frontiers for deep water oil and gas exploration off the Brazilian coast. The onshore region of this basin was highly affected by extrusive and intrusive magmatism during the Upper Albian, and the relation of that event with the volcanic structures observed in the offshore sector has not been thoroughly characterized to date. This study aims to characterize the major extrusive and intrusive volcanic structures of the offshore portion of this basin, which is dominated by the Pernambuco Plateau, and its stratigraphic relations. A set of 143 2D multichannel seismic sections that cover the Pernambuco Plateau region are used to interpret the major tectono-stratigraphic sequences and describe the distribution of volcanoes, sills, vent complexes and related volcaniclastic sequences. The interpretations are supported by aeromagnetic and gravimetric geophysical surveys. Volcanoes are classified into two groups that differ in terms of their morphology: shield-like structures and cone-shaped volcanic structures. Sill intrusions are mainly identified beneath the volcanic structures and are characterized by high-amplitude reflectors with short extensions and abrupt terminations. Volcaniclastic sequences are found adjacent to the volcanoes and are characterized by high-amplitude, disrupted reflections with local chaotic configurations. Vent complexes are classified on the basis of their morphologies as either eye-shaped or crater-shaped. The volcanic features identified within the available seismic dataset are concentrated in two main areas: in the centre of the plateau and near its northeastern border. These two regions are host basement outer highs and are surrounded by hyper-extended continental crust, which forms the plateau itself. The extrusive and intrusive features described in the offshore region were

  4. New records of natural enemies of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva-Torres, Christian S A; Pontes, Itillio V A F; Torres, Jorge B; Barros, Reginaldo

    2010-01-01

    We report the occurrence of natural enemies of Plutella xylostela (L.) in organically farmed kale in Pernambuco, Brazil. Seven natural enemies were observed parasitizing or preying on larvae and pupae of P. xylostella--three parasitoids: Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Hym.: Braconidae), Conura pseudofulvovariegata (Becker) (Hym.: Chalcididae) and Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff) (Hym.: Eulophidae), and four predators: Cheiracanthium inclusum (Hentz) (Araneae: Miturgidae), Pheidole sp.Westwood (Hym.: Formicidae), nymphs and adults of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Hem.: Pentatomidae), and one unidentified species of solitary wasp. Beyond recording these natural enemies, data on predation of P. xylostella larvae in the field and laboratory by C. inclusum are presented.

  5. Genetic analyses, phenotypic adaptability and stability in sugarcane genotypes for commercial cultivation in Pernambuco.

    PubMed

    Dutra Filho, J A; Junior, T C; Simões Neto, D E

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we assessed the agro-industrial performance of 22 sugarcane genotypes adaptable to edaphoclimatic conditions in production microregions in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, and we recommended the commercial cultivation of select genotypes. The variables analyzed were as follows: sucrose percentage in cane juice, tonnage of saccharose per hectare (TPH), sugarcane tonnage per hectare (TCH), fiber, solid soluble contents, total recoverable sugar tonnage (ATR), and total recoverable sugar tonnage per hectare (ATR t/ha). A randomized block design with 4 repeats was used. Combined variance of the experiments, genetic parameter estimates, and environment stratification were analyzed. Phenotypic adaptability and stability were analyzed using the Annicchiarico and Wricke methods and analysis of variance. Genetic gain was estimated using the classic index and sum of ranks. Genotype selection was efficient for TPH, TCH, and ATR t/ha. Genotypes presented a great potential for improvement and a similar response pattern in Litoral Norte and Mata Sul microregions for TPH and TCH and Litoral Norte and Litoral Sul microregions for ATR t/ha. Genotypes SP78-4764, RB813804, and SP79-101 showed better productivity and phenotypic adaptability and stability, according to the Wricke and Annicchiarico methods. These genotypes can be recommended for cultivation in the sugarcane belt in the State of Pernambuco. PMID:26505357

  6. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN PETROLINA, STATE OF PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, 2007-2013

    PubMed Central

    ARAUJO, Andreina de Carvalho; GONÇALVES, Nara Nagle Vieira Matos; DANTAS-TORRES, Filipe; FERREIRA, Fernando; HORTA, Mauricio Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease of great public health relevance in Brazil. The municipality of Petrolina is an endemic area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This study was designed to assess the recent expansion of VL in the municipality of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Patients data were obtained from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN). A total of 111 records from 2007 to 2013 were investigated, of which 69 were residents in Petrolina. The disease has predominantly affected 1-4 year old children (34.8%). Most of the patients were males (59.4%). Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus occurred in 14.5% of the cases. The criterion most frequently used was the clinical and epidemiological confirmation (59.4%), with clinical cure in 78.3% of cases and one fatal outcome. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Petrolina with transmission levels varying from moderate to high. The present study has shown the precariousness of the use of diagnostic tests in primary healthcare units, and this misuse has interfered with the diagnosis and treatment of cases. PMID:27074323

  7. Spontaneous and experimental poisoning of cattle by Palicourea aeneofusca in the region of Pernambuco and introduction of conditioned food aversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and pathological aspects of Palicourea aeneofusca poisoning in cattle in the region of Pernambuco, Brazil and to determine if it is possible to induce food aversion by P. aeneofusca poisoning in cattle raised under extensive ...

  8. Survival of patients with operable breast cancer (Stages I-III) at a Brazilian public hospital - a closer look into cause-specific mortality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer incidence is increasing. The survival rate varies and is longer in high-income countries. In Brazil, lower-income populations rely on the Unified Public Health System (Sistema Único de Saude, SUS) for breast cancer care. The goal of our study is to evaluate the survival of patients with operable breast cancer stages I-III at a Brazilian public hospital that treats mostly patients from the SUS. Methods A cohort study of patients who underwent surgery for breast cancer treatment at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Minas Gerais from 2001 to 2008 was performed, with a population of 897 cases. Information on tumor pathology and staging, as well as patients’ age and type of health coverage (SUS or private system) was collected. A probabilistic record linkage was performed with the database of the Mortality Information System to identify patients who died by December 31th, 2011. The basic cause of death was retrieved, and breast cancer-specific survival rates were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for univariate and multivariate analysis of factors related to survival. Results A total of 282 deaths occurred during the study’s period, 228 of them due to breast cancer. Five-year breast cancer-specific survival rates were 95.5% for stage I, 85.1% for stage II and 62.1% for stage III disease. Patients from the SUS had higher stages at diagnosis (42% was in stage III, and from the private system only 17.6% was in this stage), and in the univariate but not multivariate analysis, being treated by the SUS was associated with shorter survival (hazard ratio, HR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.24-3.98). In the multivariate analysis, larger tumor size, higher histologic grade, higher number of positive nodes and age older than 70 years were associated with a shorter breast cancer-specific survival. Conclusions Five-year breast cancer survival was comparable to other Brazilian cohorts. Patients

  9. Impact of socio-economic position on cancer stage at presentation: Findings from a large hospital-based study in Germany.

    PubMed

    Singer, Susanne; Roick, Julia; Briest, Susanne; Stark, Sylvia; Gockel, Ines; Boehm, Andreas; Papsdorf, Kirsten; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Müller, Tobias; Prietzel, Torsten; Schiefke, Franziska; Dietel, Anja; Bräunlich, Jens; Danker, Helge

    2016-10-15

    We explored the relationship between socio-economic characteristics and cancer stage at presentation. Patients admitted to a university hospital for diagnosis and treatment of cancer provided data on their education, vocational training, income, employment, job, health insurance and postcode. Tumor stage was classified according to the Union International Contre le Cancer (UICC). To analyze disparities in the likelihood of late-stage (UICC III/IV vs. I/II) diagnoses, logistic regression models adjusting for age and gender were used. Out of 1,012 patients, 572 (59%) had late-stage cancer. Separately tested, increased odds of advanced disease were associated with post-compulsory education compared to college degrees, with apprenticeship and no vocational training, with unemployment, disability pension, jobs with a low hierarchy level, blue collar jobs and with low income. Health insurance and community size were not related with late-stage cancer. Jointly modelled, there was evidence for an independent effect of unemployment (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, CI 1.0-2.8), disability pension (OR 1.8, CI 1.0-3.2) and very low income (OR 2.6, CI 1.1-6.1) on the likelihood of advanced disease stage. It is of great concern that these socio-economic gradients occur even in systems with equal access to health care. PMID:27244597

  10. Impact of socio-economic position on cancer stage at presentation: Findings from a large hospital-based study in Germany.

    PubMed

    Singer, Susanne; Roick, Julia; Briest, Susanne; Stark, Sylvia; Gockel, Ines; Boehm, Andreas; Papsdorf, Kirsten; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Müller, Tobias; Prietzel, Torsten; Schiefke, Franziska; Dietel, Anja; Bräunlich, Jens; Danker, Helge

    2016-10-15

    We explored the relationship between socio-economic characteristics and cancer stage at presentation. Patients admitted to a university hospital for diagnosis and treatment of cancer provided data on their education, vocational training, income, employment, job, health insurance and postcode. Tumor stage was classified according to the Union International Contre le Cancer (UICC). To analyze disparities in the likelihood of late-stage (UICC III/IV vs. I/II) diagnoses, logistic regression models adjusting for age and gender were used. Out of 1,012 patients, 572 (59%) had late-stage cancer. Separately tested, increased odds of advanced disease were associated with post-compulsory education compared to college degrees, with apprenticeship and no vocational training, with unemployment, disability pension, jobs with a low hierarchy level, blue collar jobs and with low income. Health insurance and community size were not related with late-stage cancer. Jointly modelled, there was evidence for an independent effect of unemployment (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, CI 1.0-2.8), disability pension (OR 1.8, CI 1.0-3.2) and very low income (OR 2.6, CI 1.1-6.1) on the likelihood of advanced disease stage. It is of great concern that these socio-economic gradients occur even in systems with equal access to health care.

  11. Psychometric properties of the Malay Version of the hospital anxiety and depression scale: a study of husbands of breast cancer patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Nasir; Low, Wah Yun; Yip, Cheng-Har

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine the psychometric properties of the Malay Version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), tested on 67 husbands of the women who were diagnosed with breast cancer. The eligible husbands were retrieved from the Clinical Oncology Clinic at three hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data was collected at three weeks and ten weeks following surgery for breast cancer of their wives. The psychometric properties of the HADS were reported based on Cronbach' alpha, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), Effect Size Index (ESI), sensitivity and discriminity of the scale. Internal consistency of the scale is excellent, with Cronbach's alpha of 0.88 for Anxiety subscale and 0.79 for Depression subscale. Test-retest Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is 0.35 and 0.42 for Anxiety and Depression Subscale, respectively. Small mean differences were observed at test-retest measurement with ESI of 0.21 for Anxiety and 0.19 for Depression. Non-significant result was revealed for the discriminant validity (mastectomy vs lumpectomy). The Malay Version of the HADS is appropriate to measure the anxiety and depression among the husbands of the women with breast cancer in Malaysia. PMID:21790225

  12. Prospective Cohort Study of Hospital Palliative Care Teams for Inpatients With Advanced Cancer: Earlier Consultation Is Associated With Larger Cost-Saving Effect

    PubMed Central

    May, Peter; Garrido, Melissa M.; Cassel, J. Brian; Kelley, Amy S.; Meier, Diane E.; Normand, Charles; Smith, Thomas J.; Stefanis, Lee; Morrison, R. Sean

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies report that early palliative care is associated with clinical benefits, but there is limited evidence on economic impact. This article addresses the research question: Does timing of palliative care have an impact on its effect on cost? Patients and Methods Using a prospective, observational design, clinical and cost data were collected for adult patients with an advanced cancer diagnosis admitted to five US hospitals from 2007 to 2011. The sample for economic evaluation was 969 patients; 256 were seen by a palliative care consultation team, and 713 received usual care only. Subsamples were created according to time to consult after admission. Propensity score weights were calculated, matching the treatment and comparison arms specific to each subsample on observed confounders. Generalized linear models with a γ distribution and a log link were applied to estimate the mean treatment effect on cost within subsamples. Results Earlier consultation is associated with a larger effect on total direct cost. Intervention within 6 days is estimated to reduce costs by −$1,312 (95% CI, −$2,568 to −$56; P = .04) compared with no intervention and intervention within 2 days by −$2,280 (95% CI, −$3,438 to −$1,122; P < .001); these reductions are equivalent to a 14% and a 24% reduction, respectively, in cost of hospital stay. Conclusion Earlier palliative care consultation during hospital admission is associated with lower cost of hospital stay for patients admitted with an advanced cancer diagnosis. These findings are consistent with a growing body of research on quality and survival suggesting that early palliative care should be more widely implemented. PMID:26056178

  13. Risk analysis for occurrences of schistosomiasis in the coastal area of Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Manson’s schistosomiasis continues to be a severe public health problem in Brazil, where thousands of people live under the risk of contracting this parasitosis. In the Northeast of Brazil, schistosomiasis has expanded from rural areas to the coast of Pernambuco State, where the intermediate host is Biomphalaria glabrata snails. This study aims at presenting situational analyses on schistosomiasis at the coastal locality of Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brazil, by determining the risk factors relating to its occurrence from the epidemiological and spatial perspectives. Methods In order to gather prevalence data, a parasitological census surveys were conducted in 2010 in the light of the Kato-Katz technique. Furthermore, malacological surveys were also conducted in the same years so as to define the density and infection rates of the intermediate host. Lastly, socioeconomic-behavioral survey was also conducted to determine the odds ratio for infection by Schistosoma mansoni. Based on these data, spatial analyses were done, resulting in maps of the risk of disease transmission. To predict the risk of schistosomiasis occurrence, a multivariate logistic regression was performed using R 2.13 software. Results Based on prevalence, malacological and socioeconomic-behavioural surveys, it was identified a prevalence of 15.7% in the investigated population (2,757 individuals). Due to the malacological survey, 36 breeding sites were identified, of which 11 were classified as foci of schistosomiasis transmission since they pointed out snails which were infected by Schistosoma mansoni. Overall, 11,012 snails (Biomphalaria glabrata) were collected. The multivariate regression model identified six explanatory variables of environmental, socioeconomic and demographic nature. Spatial sweep analysis by means of the Bernoulli method identified one statistically significant cluster in Salinas (RR = 2.2; p-value < 0.000), the district with the highest occurrence

  14. Detection of blaSPM-1, blaKPC, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. from cancer patients with healthcare-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Jácome, Paula Regina Luna de Araújo; Alves, Lílian Rodrigues; Jácome-Júnior, Agenor Tavares; Silva, Maria Jesuíta Bezerra da; Lima, Jailton Lobo da Costa; Araújo, Paulo Sérgio Ramos; Lopes, Ana Catarina S; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. are three of the pathogens most frequently involved in infections of cancer patients, and the production of β -lactamases is a major mechanism of resistance due to its wide diversity of existing enzymes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the microbiological profile and data related to patients and infections, and to search for β -lactamase genes in bacterial isolates from hospitalized cancer patients in a hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A total of 169 isolates were recovered between 2012 and 2014, of which 58 were P. aeruginosa, 36 were Acinetobacter spp. and 75 were Klebsiella spp. A high percentage of carbapenem resistance was observed in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Among the carbapenem-resistant bacteria, the blaSPM-1 gene was detected in P. aeruginosa (35.5 %) and Acinetobacter spp. (3.8 %), while blaKPC was detected in P. aeruginosa (25.8 %) only. Among the third- and fourth-generation cephalosporin-resistant strains, in Klebsiella spp. we detected the genes blaTEM (30.6 %), blaCTX-M (58.3 %) and blaKPC (5.6 %), and in Acinetobacter spp. only blaTEM (25.9 %). This the first report of an Acinetobacter baumannii blaSPM-1 gene carrier that has been isolated in Brazil. The most frequent cancer types were bowel tumour [14.8 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI95 %) 9.8-21.1 %], breast cancer (13.6 %; CI95 % 8.8-19.7 %) and prostate cancer (11.2%; CI95 % 6.9-17.0 %). These results therefore provide knowledge of susceptibility profile and resistance mechanisms and thus can contribute to the strategic formulation of hospital infection control plans and the rational use of antimicrobials, reducing mortality from infection levels in cancer patients. PMID:27217349

  15. Knowledge and Attitude of Patients, and Practice of the Arrest of Breast Cancer in Outpatient Consultations in Mastology at the General Hospital of Huambo, Angola.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Hamilton Dos Prazeres; Tavares, Suelma Beatriz Marques Prata; Natanel, Felizardo Abraão; Capingana, Daniel Pires

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to understand the knowledge and perceptions of women aged over 40 years with breast cancer seen in mastology outpatients at the Maternity Hospital of Huambo, central Angola, from February to August 2010. It also examines the clinical practice of prevention and detection of breast cancer. The research consisted of a collection of descriptive, cross-sectional data through a questionnaire. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using Epi Info, version 6.04b. In our sample, half of the women were single, all had history of breast cancer in the family, and most had heard of breast self-examination, with the primary source of information being the mass media. Almost all women reported that it was important to perform self-examination and that they were aware of the seriousness of breast cancer, and although most of them had not been taught how to do breast self-examination, almost all knew the basics of how to do it. Some 17.6% had heard of mammography, but none had ever had a mammogram. PMID:26379452

  16. Combined risk assessment of physical activity and dietary habits on the development of colorectal cancer. A hospital-based case-control study in Poland.

    PubMed

    Steindorf, K; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B; Popiela, T; Jedrychowski, W; Penar, A; Matyja, A; Wahrendorf, J

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the importance of physical activity performed both in occupational settings and in leisure time on the risk of colorectal cancer, considering the possible confounding effects of dietary habits. The hospital-based case-control study was carried out in Poland. In total, 180 incident cases of colorectal cancer were recruited. An equal number of controls, individually matched by gender and age, were chosen from patients with no history of cancer. A food frequency questionnaire combined with quantity of foods eaten was used to assess the usual dietary pattern for 148 food items. The average physical load of the interviewed patients before the occurrence of disease was ascertained by self-assessment. The degree to which patients' recreational time was sedentary was measured by the number of hours spent watching TV. The adjusted risk of colorectal cancer was reduced by half in those active in leisure time (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.84). The effect of occupational physical activity was of about the same order of magnitude in terms of risk reduction (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.29-1.29) and both activities combined acted as independent protective factors. The protective effect of healthy nutrition appeared to be independent from that attributed to physical effort.

  17. [Isolation of Vibrio cholerae O1 from aquatic environments and foods in Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Colaço, W; Silva Filho, S V; Rodrigues, P; Hofer, E

    1998-01-01

    Incidence of Vibrio cholerae O1 was studied in 2,585 samples from different aquatic environments and 91 from foods in Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil, from 1992 to 1994. A total of 193 (7.21%) samples of V. cholerae were isolated with a higher prevalence of the Inaba serovar (183-94.8%) than the Ogawa serotype (10-5.1%). All isolates were classified as biotype El Tor, and resistance patterns to antibiotics showed that all strains were susceptible tetracycline. Some 70 random samples of Vibrio cholerae proved toxigenic, including all the Ogawa serovars. Incidence of V. cholerae O1 in river water and sewage (86.0%) pointed to fecal contamination as the most common source and vehicle for rapid spread of the microorganism in the aquatic environment. The vibrio was isolated in 2.1% of all food examined, which was less than expected.

  18. Prevalence of human herpesvirus 8 infection in people living with HIV/AIDS in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Mendes Cahú, Georgea Gertrudes; Morais, Viviane Martha Santos; Lopes, Thaisa Regina Rocha; da Silva, Dayvson Maurício; Tozetto-Mendoza, Tania Regina; Pannuti, Claudio Sergio; Cunha Duarte Coêlho, Maria Rosângela

    2016-11-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence and risk factors for Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection among people living with HIV/AIDS in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A total of 500 individuals were tested for antibodies against HHV-8 using the whole-virus ELISA. The prevalence of anti-HHV-8 was 28.6% and the frequency among 140 men who have sex with men (MSM) was 38.6%. In the univariate model, there were significant associations with male gender, detectable HIV load, travel abroad, bissexual, and homossexual orientation. The first HHV-8 seroepidemiologic study, in northeast Brazil, documents a highly prevalent HHV-8 infection among MSM living with HIV/AIDS. J. Med. Virol. 88:2016-2020, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27089548

  19. [Years of potential life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Leonildo Severino da; Menezes, Maria Lúcia Neto de; Lopes, Cyntia Lins de Almeida; Corrêa, Maria Suely Medeiros

    2011-09-01

    This cross-sectional epidemiological study aimed to calculate the potential years of life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in 2003-2007. A database was used from the Operational Division for Information on Births and Deaths under the Recife Municipal Health Department. All death certificates for childbearing-age women were reviewed for the five-year period. The results showed a total of 12,120 potential years of life lost by these women, mostly young, black (88%), with unknown levels of schooling (78.2%), single (80%), in District III of the city, and murdered with firearms in their own homes. The specific mortality rate was 10.8 homicides per 100,000 childbearing-age women. The 43.3 years of life lost per woman express the city's characteristics, poverty levels, unemployment, population density, residential instability, and social inequality, exposing residents to social strife, crime, and violence. PMID:21986600

  20. The Prevalence of HIV in Cancer Patients at the Surgical Oncology Unit of Donka University Hospital of Conakry (Guinea)

    PubMed Central

    Traore, Bangaly; Bah, Thierno Souleymane; Traore, Fode Amara; Sow, Mamadou Saliou; Diane, Solomana; Keita, Mamady; Cisse, Mohamed; Koulibaly, Moussa; Camara, Naby Daouda

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among patients seen at the surgical oncology unit of Donka (Conakry, Guinea). Method. We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study of HIV infection in cancer patients from May 2007 to December 2012. Social characteristics (age, gender, marital status, and education) and immune status (HIV type, CD4 count) were reviewed. Results. Out of 2598 cancer patients, 54 (2.1%) tested positive for HIV. There were 11 (20.4%) defining AIDS and 43 (79.6%) nondefining AIDS cancers. The most frequent cancers were breast (14) (26.0%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6) (11.1%), liver (6) (11.1%), eye and annexes (6) (11.1%), and cervical cancer (5) (9.3%). These patients were female in 34 (63.0%) and had a median age of 39 years and body mass index was 20,3 Kg/m2. They were unschooled in 40 (74.1%) and married in 35 (64.8%). CD4 count showed a median of 317 cells/mL. Antiretroviral treatment was performed in 40 (74.1%). Conclusion. HIV prevalence is higher in patients in our unit of surgical oncology. Breast cancer was the most common in this association. A national survey of a large sample is needed to determine the true prevalence and impact of HIV on cancer prognosis. PMID:26770197

  1. Establishing and sustaining a prospective screening program for breast cancer-related lymphedema at the massachusetts general hospital: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Brunelle, Cheryl; Skolny, Melissa; Ferguson, Chantal; Swaroop, Meyha; O'Toole, Jean; Taghian, Alphonse G

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing call to prospectively screen patients with breast cancer for the development of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) following their breast cancer treatment. While the components of a prospective screening program have been published, some centers struggle with how to initiate, establish, and sustain a screening program of their own. The intent of this manuscript is to share our experience and struggles in establishing a prospective surveillance program within the infrastructure of our institution. It is our hope that by sharing our history other centers can learn from our mistakes and successes to better design their own prospective screening program to best serve their patient population. PMID:26011383

  2. Clinical evaluation of BIOXTRA in relieving signs and symptoms of dry mouth after head and neck radiotherapy of cancer patients at Seyed-al-Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Gookizadeh, Abbas; Emami, Hamid; Najafizadeh, Nadia; Roayaei, Mahnaz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy of head and neck cancers causes acute and chronic xerostomia and acute mucositis. Xerostomia increases risk of radiation caries and affects on oral comfort, fit of prostheses, speech, swallowing, and the growth of caries-producing organisms. Salivary flow rate can be measured by asking patients some questions. There are different types of commercial synthetic saliva such as BIOXTRA, but until now, no one can effectively relieve xerostomia. We tried to design a clinical research on BIOXTRA efficacy for treating xerostomia. Materials and Methods: In this research, 58 patients with head and neck cancer (except salivary gland cancers) treated in Seyed-al-Shohada Hospital. The patients received at least 40-50 GY; and after 2 months of compilation treatment, they were evaluated by asking about having xerostomia. Before and after treatment with the BIOXTRA, the PH of the oral cavity, candida albicans, and lactobacillus counts measured and documented in laboratory. We used BIOXTRA for 2 weeks, 3 times daily, and then re-evaluated patients with some questions. Results: The counts of candida albicans and lactobacilli statistically significant decreased. Conclusion: Xerostomia for most patients improved clinically during the day and night while PH of the oral cavity increased. PMID:23326802

  3. Insecticide resistance in populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), from the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, V C; de Siqueira, H A A; da Silva, J E; de Farias, M J D C

    2011-01-01

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.) has a great economic importance in Brassicaceae crops in many parts of the world. Recurrent infestations of this pest in growing areas of Pernambuco state, Brazil, have led farmers to frequently spray their crops with insecticides. However, control failures by several insecticides have been alleged by farmers. The objective of this study was to check whether resistance to insecticides could explain these control failures in P. xylostella. Populations of P. xylostella from Pernambuco were collected between January and April 2009. The resistance ratios of P. xylostella populations were compared among five different active ingredients: abamectin, methomyl, lufenuron, indoxacarb, and diafenthiuron by leaf dipping bioassays using foliar discs of kale leaves. Mortality data were submitted to probit analysis. The P. xylostella populations showed variable response and significant resistance to one or more insecticides. The population from Bezerros County exhibited the highest resistance ratios to indoxacarb (25.3 times), abamectin (61.7 times), and lufenuron (705.2 times), when compared to the reference population. The populations from Bonito and Jupi Counties were 33.0 and 12.0 times more resistant to lufenuron and abamectin, respectively, when compared with the reference population. Resistance to methomyl was the least common, but not less important, in at least four populations. These results indicated that control failures were associated with resistance by some of the evaluated insecticides, reinforcing the need for resistance management in areas of the state of Pernambuco. PMID:21584410

  4. Insecticide resistance in populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), from the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, V C; de Siqueira, H A A; da Silva, J E; de Farias, M J D C

    2011-01-01

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.) has a great economic importance in Brassicaceae crops in many parts of the world. Recurrent infestations of this pest in growing areas of Pernambuco state, Brazil, have led farmers to frequently spray their crops with insecticides. However, control failures by several insecticides have been alleged by farmers. The objective of this study was to check whether resistance to insecticides could explain these control failures in P. xylostella. Populations of P. xylostella from Pernambuco were collected between January and April 2009. The resistance ratios of P. xylostella populations were compared among five different active ingredients: abamectin, methomyl, lufenuron, indoxacarb, and diafenthiuron by leaf dipping bioassays using foliar discs of kale leaves. Mortality data were submitted to probit analysis. The P. xylostella populations showed variable response and significant resistance to one or more insecticides. The population from Bezerros County exhibited the highest resistance ratios to indoxacarb (25.3 times), abamectin (61.7 times), and lufenuron (705.2 times), when compared to the reference population. The populations from Bonito and Jupi Counties were 33.0 and 12.0 times more resistant to lufenuron and abamectin, respectively, when compared with the reference population. Resistance to methomyl was the least common, but not less important, in at least four populations. These results indicated that control failures were associated with resistance by some of the evaluated insecticides, reinforcing the need for resistance management in areas of the state of Pernambuco.

  5. Estrogen Receptor-Beta Gene Polymorphism in women with Breast Cancer at the Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    ER-alpha and ER-beta genes have been proven to play a significant role in breast cancer. Epidemiologic studies have revealed that age-incidence patterns of breast cancer in Middle East differ from those in the Western countries. Two selected coding regions in the ER-β gene (exons 3 and 7) were scanned in Iranian women with breast cancer (150) and in healthy individuals (147). PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism was performed. A site of silent single nucleotide polymorphism was found only on exon 7. The SNP was found only in breast cancer patients (5.7%) (χ2 = 17.122, P = 0.01). Codon 392 (C1176G) of allele 1 was found to have direct association with the occurrence of lymph node metastasis. Our data suggest that ER-β polymorphism in exon 7 codon 392 (C1176G) is correlated with various aspects of breast cancer and lymph node metastasis in our group of patients. PMID:20604969

  6. Clinico- pathological profile and course of malignant pleural effusion in a tertiary care teaching hospital in western U.P. with special reference to lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Anurag; Tandon, Rajeev; Singh, Lalit; Chawla, Aakanksha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Malignant pleural effusion is a major clinical problem associated with primary and metastatic pleural malignancies. Pleural effusions from an unknown primary are responsible for 7-15% of all malignant pleural effusions. Presence of malignant pleural effusion puts the patient in advanced stage and renders the prognosis as poor. Aim: In this study we intend to find out the incidence of malignant pleural effusion, its aetiology and clinical course in patients attending a tertiary care teaching hospital. Results: A total of 308 patients were included in this study. A majority of the patients were in age group 50- 70 years (median age = 58.8 years; range 32- 85 yrs). Male to female ratio was 2.5:1. The major primary cancers were lung cancer (135), lymphoma (40), breast cancer (36), female genital tract (30) gastrointestinal (21), and others (8). In 38 cases primary remained unknown. The yields of pleural fluid cytology, blind pleural biopsy, CT/USG guided pleural biopsy and thoracoscopy were 60%, 49%, 76% and 91% respectively. Chemical pleurodesis yielded complete response in 80%, incomplete response in another 13% patients. Only 136 (44%) cases could be followed up for minimum of 6 months. A majority of them (95, 69.85%) died. Conclusion: We conclude that malignant pleural effusion is a commonly misdiagnosed medical entity. Lung cancer is the commonest cause. Despite all efforts, in about 15% of the cases, primary remains undiagnosed. Thoracoscopy/pleuroscopy is a cost effective measure for diagnosis. Chemical pleurodesis provides expected results but mortality remains high. PMID:26180380

  7. The effectiveness of the quality program Pac-IficO to improve pain management in hospitalized cancer patients: a before-after cluster phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer-related pain continues to be a major healthcare issue worldwide. Despite the availability of effective analgesic drugs, published guidelines and educational programs for Health Care Professionals (HCPs) the symptom is still under-diagnosed and its treatment is not appropriate in many patients. The objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of the Pac-IFicO programme in improving the quality of pain management in hospitalised cancer patients. Methods/design This is a before-after cluster phase II study. After the before assessment, the experimental intervention – the Pac-IFicO programme – will be implemented in ten medicine, oncology and respiratory disease hospital wards. The same assessment will be repeated after the completion of the intervention. The Pac-IFicO programme is a complex intervention with multiple components. It includes focus group with ward professionals for identifying possible local obstacles to optimal pain control, informative material for the patients, an educational program performed through guides from the wards, and an organisational intervention to the ward. The primary end-point of the study is the proportion of cancer patients with severe pain. Secondary end-points include opioids administered in the wards, knowledge in pain management, and quality of pain management. We plan to recruit about 500 cancer patients. This sample size should be sufficient, after appropriate statistical adjustments for clustering, to detect an absolute decrease in the primary end-point from 20% to 9%. Discussion This trial is aimed at exploring with an experimental approach the efficacy of a new quality improvement educational intervention. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02035098 PMID:24678911

  8. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... your life Being exposed to chemicals that can cause cancer Being at risk for skin cancer Depending on ... than nonsmokers. Other forms of tobacco can also cause cancer, such as cigars, chewing tobacco and snuff. If ...

  9. Land use intensification effects in soil arthropod community of an entisol in Pernambuco State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, G M; Silva, E F F; Paz-Ferreiro, J

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between soil invertebrates and land use and management are fundamental for soil quality assessment but remain largely unaddressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil arthropod community of an entisol brought about by different land use systems under semiarid climate in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The soil invertebrate community was sampled using pitfall traps from areas with eight vegetation types by the end of the austral winter. The land uses studied were native thorn forest plus seven agricultural fields planted with elephant grass, apple guava, passion fruit, carrot, maize, tomato, and green pepper. Native vegetation was considered as a reference, whereas the agricultural fields showed a range of soil use intensities. The abundance of organisms, the total and average richness, Shannon's diversity index, and the Pielou uniformity index were determined, and all of these were affected by several crop and soil management practices such as residue cover, weed control, and pesticide application. Our study found differences in community assemblages and composition under different land use systems, but no single taxa could be used as indicator of soil use intensity.

  10. Land Use Intensification Effects in Soil Arthropod Community of an Entisol in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, G. M.; Silva, E. F. F.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between soil invertebrates and land use and management are fundamental for soil quality assessment but remain largely unaddressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil arthropod community of an entisol brought about by different land use systems under semiarid climate in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The soil invertebrate community was sampled using pitfall traps from areas with eight vegetation types by the end of the austral winter. The land uses studied were native thorn forest plus seven agricultural fields planted with elephant grass, apple guava, passion fruit, carrot, maize, tomato, and green pepper. Native vegetation was considered as a reference, whereas the agricultural fields showed a range of soil use intensities. The abundance of organisms, the total and average richness, Shannon's diversity index, and the Pielou uniformity index were determined, and all of these were affected by several crop and soil management practices such as residue cover, weed control, and pesticide application. Our study found differences in community assemblages and composition under different land use systems, but no single taxa could be used as indicator of soil use intensity. PMID:25431792

  11. Susceptibility of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) to pyrethroids and their associations in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Santana, Breno Barros; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Santana, Marília de Andrade; Alves, Leucio Cãmara; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The synthetic pyrethroids and their associations have been widely used for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The frequent use of acaricides has been inducing the development of resistance in the tick populations. The aim of this study was to assess the susceptibility of R. (B.) microplus populations to pyrethroids and their associations in the region of Garanhuns, Pernambuco, Brazil. In addition, the level of information among farm owners regarding tick control measures was investigated. Ticks were collected directly from naturally infested dairy cattle in the region and were exposed to pyrethroids and their associations. At the same time, an epidemiological questionnaire was applied with the aim of investigating the level of information among the farmers. The results reported here indicate that R. (B.) microplus populations in the dairy region of Garanhuns show resistance to pyrethroids and their associations, except when the product is associated with piperonyl butoxide. Regarding the results from the epidemiological survey, it was seen that there is a considerable lack of information among the farmers in relation to ixodid control measures. The level of ticks resistance to acaricides varied widely across the region studied. No alternative control programs have been implemented among these farms, thus demonstrating that there is a need for more information relating to the biology and control of R. (B.) microplus. PMID:23856731

  12. Biological aspects of sharks caught off the Coast of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fischer, A F; Hazin, F H V; Carvalho, F; Viana, D L; Rêgo, M G; Wor, C

    2009-11-01

    One hundred seventeen specimens of sharks were caught along the coast of Pernambuco State, Northern Brazil, between May 2004 and May 2007, among which 86 were blacknose sharks, Carcharhinus acronotus, enabling a more detailed study of the species. Blacknose sharks were caught in the 2 study areas along the Boa Viagem/Piedade and Paiva beaches, accounting for the highest relative abundance among the species caught (73.5% of total). Potentially dangerous sharks, tiger and bull sharks, were also caught in the same areas, whereas hammerhead and blacktip sharks were only captured off Boa Viagem/Piedade. Concerning the blacknose shark, the total length (TL) ranged from 39.0 to 180.0 cm. Among the 38 females analysed, 32 were juveniles, 11 were maturing, 2 were pre-ovulatory and 21 were pregnant. Sexing was possible for 75 of the 83 embryos, 38 of which were males and 37 were females, with a sex proportion of 1:0.9 and total length ranging between 6.4 and 63.5 cm. Ovarian fecundity ranged from 5 to 10 and uterine fecundity from 1 to 3, with an estimated gestational period of 9 months. Among the 48 males, 6 were juveniles and 42 were adults. Both males and females seem to reach sexual maturity at about 105.0 cm TL. Among the 86 stomachs analysed, only 22.1% had contents, with teleosts as the most frequent item.

  13. The ergonomic and legal aspects of the heritage of the state of Pernambuco--Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Jesus Pereira da Silva, Terezinha; Neto, Augusto Eugenio Paashaus

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the situation of the buildings declared a historical landmark by the government spheres in the state of Pernambuco, and how they attend the norms of accessibility for those with special needs. The methodology of the research contemplated a sample of 46 heritage buildings, approximately 16% of the universe of properties, which are around 268. In turn, these were limited to Recife's Metropolitan Region Area - RMR comprising 30% of the 153 properties of the municipalities of: Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Igarassu, Itamaracá, Ipojuca, Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Moreno, Olinda, Paulista, Recife and São Lourenço da Mata. From the specific forms set up based on the theoretical reference, as well as graphics and photographic records were assessed the aspects of both internal and external accessibility, displacement, (visual) orientation, and the use of space and equipment. In the analysis of different types was assembled a summary table ranking the samples in accessible, partially accessible and not accessible. As general results were found that from the 46 properties examined, 2 (5%) are accessible, 16 (35%) are partially accessible and 28(60%) are not accessible. Such data, although sample, shows that the majority of heritage properties does not provide access to people physically disabled or with reduced mobility signaling for professionals, managers and society institutions on the need to reduce physical barriers in such heritage.

  14. Dynamics of medicinal plants knowledge and commerce in an urban ecosystem (Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil).

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Julio Marcelino; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; Araújo, Elcida de Lima; Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2011-07-01

    Given the importance of markets and fairs for the commerce of medicinal plants, an ethnobotanical study was undertaken at the Caruaru Fair (Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil) to compare the richness of species sold and their values of relative importance (RI) using two datasets collected with a 4-year interval. The seasonality of these plants' supplies was also analyzed. The Caruaru Fair is located in the 18 de Maio Park. It covers an area 40,000 m(2) and is used by merchants who sell several types of products, such as supplies, handicrafts, clay and aluminum utensils, shoes, clothes and medicinal plants. Semistructured interviews were carried out with the vendors who agreed to take part in the study in order to record which plants were sold and their respective indications. The plants were collected, and the species were determined. The information was analyzed with quantitative tools. A total of 169 plants were identified from both surveys, which were significantly different with regard to species richness (p < 0.05) but did not vary in relation to species' Relative Importance (p > 0.05). In relation to the seasonality of the plant supply, habit may explain the lack of some species during certain periods of the year, as most of the absent plants are herbaceous. In terms of the species most sold locally, it was found that spontaneous tree species are well known and extensively commercialized.

  15. [Municipal public health spending in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, from 2000 to 2007].

    PubMed

    Espírito Santo, Antônio Carlos Gomes do; Fernando, Virgínia Conceição Nascimento; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola Benjamin

    2012-04-01

    In order to assess the impact of macro-political measures implemented in the latter half of the 1990s on the increase in public spending on health and the possible reduction in allocation inequity, a descriptive, quantitative, cross-sectional study was carried out involving 184 municipalities in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Data from the Public Health Budget Information System was used, with the selected indicator being spending on health per inhabitant under the responsibility of the municipality. The correlations of this variable with the municipal Human Development Index, population size and value of the municipal budget per capita were analyzed. It was seen that, although the mean increase in municipal spending on health is 190.76%, the value per capita has remained relatively low - at around R$183.79 - which is below the national and macro-regional averages. Both spending on health per capita and growth percentages are distributed irregularly among health regions as well as among municipalities within a single region. In conclusion, there is marked allocation inequity among municipalities with regard to the distribution of public resources for health, despite the macro-political measures adopted to reduce this inequity.

  16. [Analysis of coverage in the Mortality Information System in Olinda, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Figueiroa, Barbara de Queiroz; Vanderlei, Lygia Carmen de Moraes; Frias, Paulo Germano de; Carvalho, Patricia Ismael de; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann

    2013-03-01

    This article analyzes the coverage of the Mortality Information System (SIM) in Olinda, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in the year 2008. The study involved secondary data from SIM on deaths (excluding stillbirths) in residents of the municipality and primary data from the Active Search of Deaths and Births in the Northeast and Legal Amazonia, which collected the events from multiple sources and located deaths that had not been reported to the system. Coverage was calculated as the number of deaths recorded in SIM divided by the total (SIM + active search). The study showed 94.8% coverage and detected an important contribution by notary public offices to the identification of deaths that were missing from the SIM. Of these unreported deaths, 29.7% occurred in health services, 49% occurred at home with death certificates signed by private physicians, and 25.5% had been attested by the forensic examiner's office. The method allowed calculating the coverage rate for the Mortality Information System in a municipality in the metropolitan area. Despite the low proportion of deaths missing in the system, the study detected problems with data collection and flow.

  17. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in the State of Pernambuco, 1995-2006.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; Schatzmayr, Hermann Gonçalves; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Oliveira, Valdete Felix de; Melo, Wellinton Tavares de; Carvalho, Eduardo Freese de

    2007-01-01

    In Pernambuco, the first dengue cases occurred in 1987. After a seven-year interval without autochthonous cases, a new epidemic occurred in 1995. Important aspects of the dengue epidemics during the period 1995-2006 have been analyzed here, using epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data. A total of 378,374 cases were notified, with 612 confirmed cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever and 33 deaths. The mortality rate was 5.4%. The incidence rate increased from 134 to 1,438/100,000 inhabitants, corresponding to the epidemics due to serotypes 2 and 3, in 1995 and 2002, respectively. Dengue mainly affected adults (20-49 years); 40.7% were male and 59.3% were female. From 2003 onwards, the number of cases among individuals younger than 15 years old increased. Out of 225 dengue hemorrhagic fever cases, 42.7% primary and 57.3% secondary infections were identified (p = 0.0279). Neurological manifestations were also observed. From 2002 onwards, serotypes 1, 2 and 3 were circulating; serotype 3 was predominant.

  18. Plankton diversity and limnological characterization in two shallow tropical urban reservoirs of Pernambuco State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Viviane L S; Melão, Maria da Graça G; Moura, Ariadne N

    2012-06-01

    Plankton diversity, physical and chemical variables and chlorophyll a were analyzed in two shallow urban reservoirs with different trophic degrees on Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. High eutrophication levels were observed in Apipucos reservoir, while Prata reservoir was considered oligotrophic. Values reported for physical and chemical variables and chlorophyll a differed among the studied ecosystems. Richness and plankton diversity were higher in Apipucos reservoir especially for phytoplankton. The presence of potential toxic Cyanophyceae in both reservoirs reflects a problem mainly to Prata reservoir, which is used for public water supply. Differences were observed for some variables among sites of study in Apipucos reservoir, while the differences among strata were negligible in both reservoirs, reflecting the water column mixing by wind action. Rainfall regulated the temporal dynamics for the analyzed variables, with significant seasonal differences, mainly for the major of limnological variables in Apipucos reservoir. Plankton diversity was higher in Apipucos reservoir, especially to phytoplankton, showing that eutrophication and pollution can favor plankton diversity in tropical urban shallow reservoirs.

  19. Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to cervical cancer among adult women: A hospital-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Agam B.; Pakhare, Abhijit P.; Kapoor, Neelkamal; Mehrotra, Ragini; Kokane, Arun Mahadeo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among Indian women of reproductive age. Unfortunately, despite the evidence of methods for prevention, most of the women remain unscreened. The reported barriers to screening include unawareness of risk factors, symptoms and prevention; stigma and misconceptions about gynecological diseases and lack of national cervical cancer screening guidelines and policies. This study attempts to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices related to cervical cancer and its screening among women of reproductive age (15-45 years). Materials and Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was done on 400 females of reproductive age who presented to out-patient-department of All India Institute of Medical Sciences Bhopal. Structured questionnaire consisting 20 knowledge items and 7-items for attitude and history of pap smear for practices were administered by one of the investigators after informed consent. Data were entered and analyzed using Epi-Info version 7. Qualitative variables were summarized as counts and percentages while quantitative variables as mean and standard deviation. Predictors of better knowledge, attitude, and practices were identified by binary logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 442 women were approached for interview of which 400 responded of which two-third (65.5%) had heard of cervical cancer. At least one symptom and one risk factor were known to 35.25% and 39.75% participants. Only 34.5% participants had heard, and 9.5% actually underwent screening test, however, 76.25% of the participants expressed a favorable attitude for screening. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that education age and income were independent predictors of better knowledge. Education level influences attitude toward screening and actual practice depends on age, income, and marital status. This study shows that despite the fact that women had suboptimal level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer

  20. The impact of erlotinib use in non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated in a private reference general hospital and in a private cancer clinic from 2005 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Bognar, Cinthia Leite Frizzera Borges; Simon, Sergio Daniel; Gansl, Rene Claudio; Abramoff, Roberto; Aisen, Marcelo; Lopes, Gilberto de Lima; Smaletz, Oren; Peres, Stela Verzinhasse; Tabacof, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To report the demographic data and clinical outcomes of non-small-cell lung cancer patients exposed to erlotinib in any line of treatment. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of nonsmall-cell lung cancer patients from a reference general hospital and a private oncology clinic, who received erlotinib from 2005 to 2011. Statistical analysis was performed and we evaluated demographic data and response to treatment, by correlating the results of this first cohort published in Brazil with results of current literature. Results: A total of 44 patients were included; 65.9% were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, and 63.6% had metastatic disease. The mean age was 63.3 years. The median follow-up was 47.9 months. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutation screening was performed in 22.7% of patients (n=10), with mutation present in 30% of patients. The median overall survival was 46.3 months, and there was a higher probability of survival at 60 months for females compared to males (29.4% versus 15.8%; p=0.042). The other variables did not present significant statistical difference. Conclusion: We collected the largest cohort of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer who have used erlotinib in Brazil to date, and demonstrated that outcomes of patients treated at our clinic during the study period were consistent with the results of current literature in similar patients. PMID:26154542

  1. Usability application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of microorganisms isolated from urine of patients treated in cancer hospital

    PubMed Central

    Cybulski, Zefiryn; Schmidt, Katarzyna; Grabiec, Alicja; Talaga, Zofia; Bociąg, Piotr; Wojciechowicz, Jacek; Roszak, Andrzej; Kycler, Witold

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was: i) to compare the results of urine culture with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) -based detection of microorganisms using two commercially available kits, ii) to assess antimicrobial susceptibility of urine isolates from cancer patients to chosen antimicrobial drugs and, if necessary, to update the recommendation of empirical therapy. Materials and methods. A one-year hospital-based prospective study has been conducted in Greater Poland Cancer Centre and Genetic Medicine Laboratory CBDNA Research Centre in 2011. Urine cultures and urine PCR assay from 72 patients were examined Results Urine cultures and urine PCR assay from 72 patients were examined. Urine samples were positive for 128 strains from which 95 (74%) were identical in both tests. The most frequently isolated bacteria in both culture and PCR assay were coliform organisms and Enterococcus spp. The Gram negative bacilli were most resistant to cotrimoxazol. 77.2% of these bacilli and 100% of E. faecalis and S. agalactiae were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. 4.7% of Gram positive cocci were resistant to nitrofurantoin. Conclusions The PCR method quickly finds the causative agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) and, therefore, it can help with making the choice of the proper antimicrobial therapy at an early stage. It appears to be a viable alternative to the recommendations made in general treatment guidelines, in cases where diversified sensitivity patterns of microorganisms have been found. PMID:24133395

  2. An assessment of occupation and industry data from death certificates and hospital medical records for population-based cancer surveillance.

    PubMed

    Swanson, G M; Schwartz, A G; Burrows, R W

    1984-05-01

    This study analyzed 30,194 incident cases and 4,301 death certificates for completeness of occupational reporting. Analysis of data accuracy was based upon a comparison of more than 2,000 death certificates with incident abstracts and 352 death certificates with interview data. Death certificates had a higher proportion with occupation (94.3%) and industry (93.4%) reported than did incident abstracts of hospital medical records (39.0% and 63.5%, respectively). Compared with occupational history data obtained by interview, 76.1% of the death certificates were exact matches for usual occupation and industry.

  3. Breast cancer quality of life evaluation in Mexican Women at La Raza Hospital, Mexico City: A preliminary approach

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Rico, Jacobo Alejandro; Altagracia-Martínez, Marina; Kravzov-Jinich, Jaime; Cárdenas-Elizalde, Rosario; Hinojosa-Cruz, Juan Carlos; Rubio-Poo, Consuelo

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the second leading cause of death among Mexican women over 40 years of age. This study aimed to identify and examine the effects of cancer stage and surgical treatment on the quality of life (QOL) of Mexican women with early stage breast cancer (ESBC) treated with either modified radical mastectomy (MRM) or breast conservative surgery (BCS), plus adjuvant chemotherapy. The QLQ-C30 and QLQ BR-23 questionnaires were used to assess QOL. Sociodemographic characteristics and clinical factors of 102 women with early BC were also evaluated; analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed and a statistical significance of p < 0.05 was assumed. Most women were of reproductive age. Meaningful differences in QOL as a result of surgical treatment, in women receiving BCS compared with those receiving MRM, were limited to body image. We conclude that MRM and BCS are essentially equivalent choices in terms of QOL, with the exception of the impact on body image. In general, women who received BCS had a better perceived QOL. PMID:21935301

  4. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening in women visiting a tertiary care hospital of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Ranjan, R; Das, B; Gupta, K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer being a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women in developing countries, its awareness is essential. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of women regarding the basic screening test for detection of cancer cervix. Settings and Design: Population based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional prospective study was conducted. Information from consenting participants (450) was collected using structured questionnaire. Answers were described in terms of knowledge, attitude and practice and their respective adequacy with respect to Papanicolaou (Pap) test, the most common test used for early detection of cervical cancer. Adequacy was compared between the categories of socio demographic and clinical variables. Statistical Analysis: The data collected was analyzed using statistical package (SPSS version 18.0). Adequacy was compared between the categories of the control variables by χ2 test with a 5% significance level. Results: Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding Pap test were adequate in 32.7%, 18.2% and 7.3% of women respectively. Major impediment to adequate practice was lack of request by physician. Knowledge, attitudes and practices were found to increase significantly with increasing age and education. Conclusion: Effective information, education and communication strategies are required to improve the level of awareness of public. Health-care professional should be proactive in imparting knowledge at every opportunity. PMID:25494130

  5. [Human papillomavirus in squamous cell cancer of the head and neck. A study at the Ulm Military Hospital, Germany].

    PubMed

    Maier, M; Kraft, K; Steinestel, K; Schramm, A; Lorenz, K J; Tisch, M; Schwerer, M; Maier, H

    2013-07-01

    There is increasing evidence worldwide that human papillomavirus is a major risk factor for head and neck cancer. Only few studies on this association have been performed in Germany to date. For the purposes of the present study, tumor specimens from 223 patients with squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx were analyzed for HPV DNA and p16INK4a expression. The prevalence of HPV genotype 16 (HPV16) DNA in the study population was 17.5%. Further high-risk HPV types were not detected. All HPV16-positive tumors showed intense p16INK4a expression. HPV16 prevalence was highest in tonsillar carcinoma (37.5%) and lowest in laryngeal cancer (2.8%). We observed a significantly higher incidence of cervical lymph node metastases in patients with HPV16-positive tonsillar carcinoma in comparison to HPV-negative tumors (p < 0.016). Tobacco and/or alcohol consumption was significantly lower in patients with HPV-positive tumors (p < 0.0001).

  6. Environmental and social benefits of the targeted intraoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer: data from UK TARGIT-A trial centres and two UK NHS hospitals offering TARGIT IORT

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, Nathan J; Coombs, Joel M; Vaidya, Uma J; Singer, Julian; Bulsara, Max; Tobias, Jeffrey S; Wenz, Frederik; Joseph, David J; Brown, Douglas A; Rainsbury, Richard; Davidson, Tim; Adamson, Douglas J A; Massarut, Samuele; Morgan, David; Potyka, Ingrid; Corica, Tammy; Falzon, Mary; Williams, Norman; Baum, Michael; Vaidya, Jayant S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the journeys and CO2 emissions if women with breast cancer are treated with risk-adapted single-dose targeted intraoperative radiotherapy (TARGIT) rather than several weeks' course of external beam whole breast radiotherapy (EBRT) treatment. Setting (1) TARGIT-A randomised clinical trial (ISRCTN34086741) which compared TARGIT with traditional EBRT and found similar breast cancer control, particularly when TARGIT was given simultaneously with lumpectomy, (2) 2 additional UK centres offering TARGIT. Participants 485 UK patients (249 TARGIT, 236 EBRT) in the prepathology stratum of TARGIT-A trial (where randomisation occurred before lumpectomy and TARGIT was delivered simultaneously with lumpectomy) for whom geographical data were available and 22 patients treated with TARGIT after completion of the TARGIT-A trial in 2 additional UK breast centres. Outcome measures The shortest total journey distance, time and CO2 emissions from home to hospital to receive all the fractions of radiotherapy. Methods Distances, time and CO2 emissions were calculated using Google Maps and assuming a fuel efficiency of 40 mpg. The groups were compared using the Student t test with unequal variance and the non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test. Results TARGIT patients travelled significantly fewer miles: TARGIT 21 681, mean 87.1 (SE 19.1) versus EBRT 92 591, mean 392.3 (SE 30.2); had lower CO2 emissions 24.7 kg (SE 5.4) vs 111 kg (SE 8.6) and spent less time travelling: 3 h (SE 0.53) vs 14 h (SE 0.76), all p<0.0001. Patients treated with TARGIT in 2 hospitals in semirural locations were spared much longer journeys (753 miles, 30 h, 215 kg CO2 per patient). Conclusions The use of TARGIT intraoperative radiotherapy for eligible patients with breast cancer significantly reduces their journeys for treatment and has environmental benefits. If widely available, 5 million miles (8 000 000 km) of travel, 170 000 woman-hours and 1200

  7. [One staged laparoscopic surgery of colon cancer with liver metastasis in the Guillermo Almenara Hospital, Lima, Peru].

    PubMed

    Núñez Ju, Juan José; Coronado3, Cesar Carlos; Anchante Castillo, Eduardo; Sandoval Jauregui, Javier; Arenas Gamio, José

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient who was diagnosed sigmoid colon cancer associated with liver metastases in segment III. The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery where the sigmoid colon resection and hepatic metastasectomy were performed in a “one staged” surgical procedure. The pathological results showed moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma in sigmoid colon, tubular adenocarcinoma metastases also in liver. Oncological surgical results were obtained with free edges of neoplasia, R0 Surgery, T3N0M1. After the optimal surgical results, the patient is handled by oncology for adjuvant treatment. We report here the sequence of events and a review of the literature.

  8. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou cytology samples with liquid-based cervical cytology samples from women in Pernambuco, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, M.O.L.P.; Heráclio, S.A.; Coelho, A.V.C.; Acioly, V.L.; Souza, P.R.E.; Correia, M.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we compared the performance of a ThinPrep cytological method with the conventional Papanicolaou test for diagnosis of cytopathological changes, with regard to unsatisfactory results achieved at the Central Public Health Laboratory of the State of Pernambuco. A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed with women aged 18 to 65 years, who spontaneously sought gynecological services in Public Health Units in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, between April and November 2011. All patients in the study were given a standardized questionnaire on sociodemographics, sexual characteristics, reproductive practices, and habits. A total of 525 patients were assessed by the two methods (11.05% were under the age of 25 years, 30.86% were single, 4.4% had had more than 5 sexual partners, 44% were not using contraception, 38.85% were users of alcohol, 24.38% were smokers, 3.24% had consumed drugs previously, 42.01% had gynecological complaints, and 12.19% had an early history of sexually transmitted diseases). The two methods showed poor correlation (k=0.19; 95%CI=0.11–0.26; P<0.001). The ThinPrep method reduced the rate of unsatisfactory results from 4.38% to 1.71% (χ2=5.28; P=0.02), and the number of cytopathological changes diagnosed increased from 2.47% to 3.04%. This study confirmed that adopting the ThinPrep method for diagnosis of cervical cytological samples was an improvement over the conventional method. Furthermore, this method may reduce possible losses from cytological resampling and reduce obstacles to patient follow-up, improving the quality of the public health system in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. PMID:26247400

  9. [Frequency of cancer in a specialty hospital in Mexico City. Implications for the development of early detection methods].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Torre, Analy; García-Rodríguez, Francisco Mario; García, Rebeca Gil; Jiménez-Villanueva, Xicoténcatl; Hernández-Rubio, Angela; Aboharp-Hasan, Ziad

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el cáncer es la segunda causa de muerte en México. El Hospital Juárez de México es una institución general de alta especialidad, por lo que la frecuencia de pacientes con cáncer atendidos en su Unidad de Oncología es una muestra representativa de la frecuencia de cáncer en el país. Objetivo: conocer la estadística de tumores diagnosticados en un hospital de tercer nivel. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo efectuado con base en la revisión de los expedientes guardados en los archivos de Anatomía Patológica de pacientes atendidos entre los años 2006 y 2010. Se registraron todos los casos positivos a cáncer de material obtenido mediante biopsia o pieza quirúrgica. Se agruparon por edad, sexo y sitios anatómicos. Resultados: se identificaron las 10 neoplasias más frecuentes en uno y otro sexo, los grupos de edad, y sexo más afectado. Conclusiones: la información obtenida refleja la realidad del país de población abierta no derechohabiente. En México, las mujeres padecen más cáncer que los hombres; las neoplasias de mama y tracto genital son las más frecuentes. Deben reforzarse los sistemas de detección oportuna para que la identificación de casos tempranos sea mayor en nuestra población.

  10. A snakebite caused by a bushmaster (Lachesis muta): report of a confirmed case in State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Pedro Henrique Santana de; Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of envenomation caused by a bushmaster ( Lachesis muta) in a male child in State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The victim showed discrete local manifestations, but presented altered blood coagulation 2 hours after the bite. Ten ampoules of bothropic-lachetic antivenom therapy were administered, and 48 hours later, the patient showed discrete edema, pain, and ecchymosis around the bite and normal blood coagulation. The patient was discharged 5 days after the envenomation. The prompt administration of specific treatment was important for the favorable outcomes observed. PMID:26516981

  11. Schistosomiasis transmission and environmental change: a spatio-temporal analysis in Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco - Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Brazil, schistosomiasis mansoni infection is an endemic disease that mainly affects the country’s rural populations who carry out domestic and social activities in rivers and water accumulations that provide shelter for the snails of the disease. The process of rural migration to urban centers and the disorderly occupation of natural environments by these populations from endemic areas have favored expansion of schistosomiasis to locations that had been considered to be disease-free. Based on environmental changes that have occurred in consequent to an occupation and urbanization process in the locality of Porto de Galinhas, the present study sought to identify the relationship between those chances, measure by remote-sensing techniques, and establish a new endemic area for schistosomiasis on the coast of Pernambuco State - Brazil. Methods To gather prevalence data, two parasitological census surveys were conducted (2000 and 2010) using the Kato-Katz technique. Two malacological surveys were also conducted in the same years in order to define the density and infection rate of the intermediate host. Based on these data, spatial analyses were done, resulting in maps of the risk of disease transmission. To ascertain the environmental changes that have occurred at the locality, images from the QuickBird satellite were analyzed, thus resulting in land use maps. Results Over this 10-year period, the foci of schistosomiasis became more concentrated in the Salinas district. This area was considered to be at the greatest risk of schistosomiasis transmission and had the highest prevalence rates over this period. The study illustrated that this was the area most affected by the environmental changes resulting from the disorderly urbanization process, which gave rise to unsanitary environments that favored the establishment and maintenance of foci of schistosomiasis transmission, thereby consolidating the process of expansion and endemization of this

  12. Rickettsia amblyommii infecting Amblyomma auricularium ticks in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil: isolation, transovarial transmission, and transstadial perpetuation.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Danilo G; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Horta, Maurício C; Soares, Herbert S; Nicola, Patricia A; Pereira, Luiz Cezar M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated rickettsial infection in Amblyomma auricularium ticks from the state of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. An engorged female of A. auricularium collected from a skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) was sent alive to the laboratory, where the female was found through molecular analysis to be infected by Rickettsia amblyommii. This engorged female oviposited, and its offspring was reared through three consecutive generations, always using tick-naïve rabbits to feed the ticks. PCR performed on five egg pools, 10 larvae, 10 nymphs, and 10 adults of each of the three generations always yielded rickettsial DNA, indicating maintenance of rickettsial infection in the ticks by transstadial and transovarial passages. DNA sequences of random PCR products from eggs, larvae, nymphs, and adults were identified as R. amblyommii. All infested rabbits seroconverted to R. amblyommii antigens at the 21(st) day after infestation, indicating that larvae, nymphs, and adults transmitted R. amblyommii through parasitism. However, no infested rabbit presented fever or any clinical alteration during the experimental period. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated from the two A. auricularium females, and the isolates were established in Vero cell culture. Molecular characterization of the isolates confirmed R. amblyommii by sequencing partial gltA, ompA, and ompB genes. From another sample of 15 A. auricularium adult ticks collected from two armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus), eight (53.3%) were infected by R. amblyommii. This study reports R. amblyommii infecting the tick A. auricularium for the first time. This is also the first report of rickettsia infecting ticks in the northeastern region of Brazil. PMID:23705586

  13. [Intra-family violence: health workers' practice in São Joaquim do Monte, Pernambuco, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marluce Tavares; Samico, Isabella; Ishigami, Ana Beatriz Matos; Nascimento, Renata Maria Moura

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to verify the association between assistance, referral and reporting of Intra-family Violence/ IFV against pregnant adolescents, and the socio-demographic characteristics of 84 professionals of the Family Health Program/FHP in the agreste region of Pernambuco. The study is part of a multicenter, cross sectional research, carried out from October 2008 to April 2009. A structured questionnaire related to the various types of violence (psychological, physical or sexual) and validated for Brazil was used. Sociodemographic variables and professional experience in assisting cases of IFV were added to the instrument: identification of types, care, referral, and notification. The analysis of results showed a large number of professionals that had never identified a case of violence (72%). Among the 23 who provided care to cases of violence, there was a majority of psychological (86.9%), followed by physical (60.8%), and sexual (43.5%) cases. Only eight professionals (34.8%) referred the adolescents to the Tutelary Council, Police Office and/or Public Prosecutor's Office. The analysis of association with care and reporting found older age (p = 0.018; IC(95) 1.31-17.1) and having children (p = 0.039; IC(95) 0.04-17.1) as statistically significant. On the other hand, a borderline association was found with work in an urban area and higher education. There was no association with sex, marriage status and years of work variables. The authors concluded that, despite the 'invisibleness' of IFV, the analysis of actions developed at the FHP represented an approximation to this complex and multifaceted phenomenon and the possibility of critical thinking on its different ways of social understanding.

  14. Rickettsia amblyommii infecting Amblyomma auricularium ticks in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil: isolation, transovarial transmission, and transstadial perpetuation.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Danilo G; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Horta, Maurício C; Soares, Herbert S; Nicola, Patricia A; Pereira, Luiz Cezar M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated rickettsial infection in Amblyomma auricularium ticks from the state of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. An engorged female of A. auricularium collected from a skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) was sent alive to the laboratory, where the female was found through molecular analysis to be infected by Rickettsia amblyommii. This engorged female oviposited, and its offspring was reared through three consecutive generations, always using tick-naïve rabbits to feed the ticks. PCR performed on five egg pools, 10 larvae, 10 nymphs, and 10 adults of each of the three generations always yielded rickettsial DNA, indicating maintenance of rickettsial infection in the ticks by transstadial and transovarial passages. DNA sequences of random PCR products from eggs, larvae, nymphs, and adults were identified as R. amblyommii. All infested rabbits seroconverted to R. amblyommii antigens at the 21(st) day after infestation, indicating that larvae, nymphs, and adults transmitted R. amblyommii through parasitism. However, no infested rabbit presented fever or any clinical alteration during the experimental period. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated from the two A. auricularium females, and the isolates were established in Vero cell culture. Molecular characterization of the isolates confirmed R. amblyommii by sequencing partial gltA, ompA, and ompB genes. From another sample of 15 A. auricularium adult ticks collected from two armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus), eight (53.3%) were infected by R. amblyommii. This study reports R. amblyommii infecting the tick A. auricularium for the first time. This is also the first report of rickettsia infecting ticks in the northeastern region of Brazil.

  15. Role of serum sodium in assessing hospital mortality in cancer patients with spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome inducing acute uric acid nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, H-H; Chen, Y-C; Tian, Y-C; Chan, Y-L; Kuo, M-C; Tang, C-C; Fang, J-T; Lee, S-Y; Yang, C-W

    2009-05-01

    Spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome (STLS) inducing acute uric acid nephropathy, a rare and neglected disease, presents more insidiously than conventional post-treatment tumour lysis syndrome. Although STLS is a serious and potentially fatal complication in patients with neoplastic disorders, few investigations have addressed the relevance of clinical and laboratory features in assessing prognosis. A retrospective study was conducted, reviewing the records of all patients who developed acute renal failure (ARF) at Chang Gung memorial hospital between 1 July 1999 and 30 June 2003. STLS-induced acute uric acid nephropathy was identified in 12 of 1072 ARF patients (1.1%) during the study period. All patients had advanced stage tumours with large tumour burden, and 66.7% of cases had abdominal organ involvement. All 12 hyperuricemic patients became oliguric despite conservative therapy, and remained hyperuricemic (21.6 +/- 5.2 mg/dl) before dialysis therapy. Diuresis developed in eight patients (66.7%), with associated resolution of hyperuricemia, azotemia and metabolic derangements following dialysis initiation. Overall hospital mortality was 58.3%. Death in most patients was related to hyponatremia and hypoalbuminemia on admission. The serum sodium was found to have the best Youden index (0.86) and highest overall prediction accuracy (93%). Moreover, serum sodium and serum albumin for individual patients were significantly and positively correlated (r = 0.617, p = 0.032). This investigation confirms a grave prognosis for cancer patients with STLS inducing acute uric acid nephropathy. Hyponatremia and hypoalbuminemia on the first day of admission indicate poor prognosis in such patients.

  16. Use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire for screening depression in head and neck cancer patients in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu; Wu, Yi-Shan; Chien, Chih-Yen; Fang, Fu-Min; Hung, Chi-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study are 1) to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders including depressive disorder in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) at baseline and at the 6-month follow-up and 2) to test the validity of two self-reported questionnaires, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire (TDQ), for screening depression in patients with HNC. Methods Participants were recruited from the outpatient collaborative care clinic for HNC of a tertiary hospital in Taiwan between January 2010 and January 2011. Ninety-three patients with HNC were enrolled and assessed using the HADS, TDQ, and Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, Patient edition, at baseline and at the 6-month follow-up. Conventional validity indices of the HADS and TDQ were examined. Results Our results showed that the validity of the TDQ was satisfactory and comparable to that of both the HADS depression subscale and the HADS total scale. The cutoff scores of the HADS and TDQ for screening possible depressive disorders were 8 and 15, respectively. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the HADS and TDQ were mean 0.975±0.015 and 0.966±0.019, respectively. Thirteen participants (14%) were diagnosed with depressive disorders at the 6-month follow-up, compared with 8.5% at baseline. Conclusion Our results indicate that both the HADS and TDQ are valid instruments for screening depression in patients with HNC. PMID:27789953

  17. 42 CFR 412.23 - Excluded hospitals: Classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... classification. (i) It was recognized as a comprehensive cancer center or clinical cancer research center by the... and research on cancer (that is, the facility is not a subunit of an acute general hospital or... hospital satellite facility as of October 1, 2011. (f) Cancer hospitals—(1) General rule. Except...

  18. Initial experience in a cancer hospital in Nepal with sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy for evaluation of axillary lymph node status in palpable invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Nirmal; Pradhan, Manohar; Neupane, Prakash Raj; Shrestha, Bhakta Man; Dhakal, Hari Prasad; Thakur, Binay Kumar; Cox, Charles Evandor

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate the performance and feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy in early breast cancer patients using patent blue dye. From March 2004, we are consecutively enrolling breast cancer patients with tumor size less than 5 cm with no clinically palpable axillary lymph nodes in this feasibility study. So far, 21 patients underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy using 1.0% patent blue dye injection around the tumor followed by axillary dissection. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was compared with axillary dissection for its ability to accurately reflect the final pathological status of the axillary nodes. Age of patients ranged form 32-67 years old with mean age of 46.72 years. Fifty seven percent of patients were postmenopausal. Patients with T1 lesions were 8 and T2 were 13. The sentinel lymph node/s were successfully identified in 20 out of 21 patients (95.0%). The number of sentinel lymph nodes ranged from 1 to 5 (average 2.0) and non-sentinel nodes ranged from 5-22 (average 12.0). Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was diagnosed in 15 patients, DCIS with early invasion in 4 patients, invasive lobular carcinoma in 1 and medullary carcinoma in 1 patient. Of the 20 patients in whom sentinel lymph nodes were successfully identified, nodes were positive in 35.0% (7/20) of patients. All the positive nodes were detected in group with T2 lesions. SLNs were the only positive nodes in 2 patients. There were no false negative patients, yielding an accuracy of 100.0%. Lymphatic mapping using patent blue dye alone is technically feasible for patients with small (T1 or T2) palpable breast tumors. The sentinel node can be reliably identified in the majority of these patients, and its histology reflects that of the axilla with a high degree of accuracy. This method is very useful in economically backward countries as it involves less expensive material.

  19. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  20. Passive Smoking Exposure from Partners as a Risk Factor for ER+/PR+ Double Positive Breast Cancer in Never-Smoking Chinese Urban Women: A Hospital-Based Matched Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Li, He-ming; Wang, Yan; Fu, Ling-yu; Liu, Yun-peng

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between passive smoking exposure (PSE) and breast cancer risk is of major interest. Objective To evaluate the relationship between PSE from partners and breast cancer risk stratified by hormone-receptor (HR) status in Chinese urban women population. Design Hospital-based matched case control study. Setting Chinese urban breast cancer patients without current or previous active smoking history in China Medical University 1st Hospital, Liaoning Province, China between Jan 2009 and Nov 2009. Patients Each breast cancer patient was matched 1∶1 with healthy controls by gender and age (±2 years) from the same hospital. Measurements The authors used unconditional logistic regression analyses to estimate odds ratio for women with PSE from partners and breast cancer risk. Results 312 pairs were included in the study. Women who endured PSE had significantly increased risk of breast cancer (adjusted OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.05–2.03; P = 0.027), comparing with unexposed women. Women who exposed to >5 cigarettes/day also had significant increased risk (adjusted OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.28–3.10; P = 0.002), as were women exposed to passive smoke for 16–25 years (adjusted OR: 1.87 95% CI: 1.22–2.86; P = 0.004), and those exposed to > 4 pack-years (adjusted OR: 1.71 95% CI: 1.17–2.50; P = 0.004). Similar trends were significant for estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) double positive subgroup(adjusted OR: 1.71; 2.20; 1.99; 1.92, respectively), but not for ER+/PR−, ER−/PR+, or ER−/PR− subgroups. Limitations limitations of the hospital-based retrospective study, lack of information on entire lifetime PSE and low statistical power. Conclusions Our findings provide further evidence that PSE from partners contributes to increased risk of breast cancer, especially for ER/PR double positive breast cancer, in Chinese urban women. PMID:24866166

  1. Norovirus - hospital

    MedlinePlus

    Gastroenteritis - norovirus; Colitis - norovirus; Hospital acquired infection - norovirus ... Symptoms start within 24 to 48 hours of infection, and can last for 1 ... norovirus. Hospital patients who are very old, very young, or ...

  2. Doença de depósito lisossomal induzida pelo consumo de Ipomoea verbascoidea (Convolvulaceae) em caprinos no semiárido de Pernambuco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this paper was to reproduce the poisoning of Ipomoea verbascoidea in goats and describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of spontaneous poisoning by this plant in Pernambuco. For this, we studied the epidemiology of the disease in seven mu¬nicipalities in the semiari...

  3. Effect of Early Individualized Dietary Counseling on Weight Loss, Complications, and Length of Hospital Stay in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Leistra, Eva; Eerenstein, Simone E J; van Aken, Loes H; Jansen, Femke; de van der Schueren, Marian A E; Twisk, Jos W R; Visser, Marjolein; Langius, Jacqueline A E

    2015-01-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) are at risk for undernutrition. Dietary counseling during treatment has positive effects on nutritional status and quality of life, however, the effects of dietary counseling started before initiation of treatment are currently unknown. Therefore we assessed the effect of early individualized dietary counseling (DC) on weight loss, major complications, and length of hospital stay (LOS) in patients with HNC. Ninety-five newly diagnosed HNC patients with (risk of) undernutrition receiving DC were compared to 95 matched HNC patients receiving usual nutritional care (UC). Difference in weight change over time was analyzed by generalized estimating equations (GEE). Differences in complications and LOS were studied by Pearson chi-squared and student's t-tests. Weight change between diagnosis and end of treatment was -6.0 ± 6.9% (DC) and -5.4 ± 5.7% (UC; GEE: -0.4kg, 95% confidence interval: -1.2 to 0.5; P = 0.44). Less DC patients experienced overall postoperative complications (44%/70%, P = 0.04). No effect on major postoperative or (chemo)radiotherapy complications or LOS was found. This study showed a lower prevalence of overall postoperative complications in HNC patients receiving DC but could not demonstrate an effect on weight loss, other complications, and LOS. PMID:26317372

  4. Radiotherapy alone in breast cancer. I. Analysis of tumor parameters, tumor dose and local control: the experience of the Gustave-Roussy Institute and the Princess Margaret Hospital

    SciTech Connect

    Arriagada, R.; Mouriesse, H.; Sarrazin, D.; Clark, R.M.; Deboer, G.

    1985-10-01

    This retrospective study involved 463 breast cancer patients treated by radiotherapy alone at the Princess Margaret Hospital and at the Institut Gustave-Roussy. These patients either had operable tumors, but were unfit for general anesthesia, or had inoperable tumors due to local contraindications to surgery. Results were analyzed according to tumor response, local recurrence rate, tumor size, tumor fixation, nodal fixation and tumor dose. Conventional statistical analysis of local control showed two significant factors: tumor dose and tumor size. Multivariate analysis permitted to define an ''individual risk'' (IR) of local recurrence according to three independent factors: tumor size, tumor fixation, and nodal fixation. It was shown that the IR was a good prognostic factor for local control. Increase in tumor dose gave a similar effect in the local recurrence relative risk for all the IR groups. According to the slope of the dose-effect curve, it was deduced that a dose increase of 15 Gy can decrease the relative risk of local recurrence 2-fold. In fact, it was shown that tumor dose was the most significant independent factor on local control, able to produce up to a 10-fold increase compared to 2-fold decrease for tumor size. If the IR of local recurrence is known, a theoretical predictive value on local control, taking into account the tumor dose, can be determined according to the present data.

  5. Associations Between Adult and Childhood Secondhand Smoke Exposures with Fecundity and Fetal Loss Among Women who Visited a Cancer Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Peppone, Luke J.; Piazza, Kenneth M.; Mahoney, Martin C.; Morrow, Gary R.; Mustian, Karen; Palesh, Oxana G.; Hyland, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND A large percentage of the population continues to be exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS). Although studies have consistently linked active smoking to various pregnancy outcomes, results from the few studies examining SHS exposure and pregnancy difficulties have been inconsistent. METHODS Approximately 4,800 women who presented to Roswell Park Cancer Institute between 1982 and 1998 and reported being pregnant at least once were queried about their childhood and adult exposures to SHS using a standardized questionnaire. Women were asked to report on selected prenatal pregnancy outcomes (fetal loss and difficulty becoming pregnant). RESULTS Approximately 11.3% of women reported difficulty becoming pregnant, while 32% reported a fetal loss or 12.4% reported multiple fetal losses. Forty percent reported any prenatal pregnancy difficulty (fetal loss and/or difficulty becoming pregnant). SHS exposures from their parents were associated with difficulty becoming pregnant (OR=1.26, 95%CI 1.07–1.48) and lasting > 1 year (OR=1.34, 95%CI 1.12–1.60). Exposure to SHS in both at home during childhood and at the time of survey completion was also associated with fetal loss (OR=1.39, 95%CI 1.17–1.66) and multiple fetal losses (OR=1.62, 95%CI 1.25–2.11). Increasing current daily hours of SHS exposure as an adult was related to the occurrence of both multiple fetal loss and reduced fecundity (ptrend<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Reports of exposures to SHS during childhood and as an adult were associated with increased odds for prenatal pregnancy difficulties. These findings underscore the public health perspective that all persons, especially women in their reproductive years, should be fully protected from tobacco smoke. PMID:19039010

  6. [Cancer].

    PubMed

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  7. 42 CFR 412.23 - Excluded hospitals: Classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... diagnosis and treatment of mentally ill persons; and (3) Meet the conditions of participation for hospitals... hospital satellite facility as of October 1, 2011. (f) Cancer hospitals—(1) General rule. Except as... as a cancer hospital and is excluded from the prospective payment systems beginning with its...

  8. Microcephaly in Pernambuco State, Brazil: epidemiological characteristics and evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of cutoff points for reporting suspected cases.

    PubMed

    Souza, Wayner Vieira de; Araújo, Thalia Velho Barreto de; Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima P Militão; Braga, Maria Cynthia; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito de Barros; Bezerra, Luciana Caroline Albuquerque; Dimech, George Santiago; Carvalho, Patrícia Ismael de; Assunção, Romildo Siqueira de; Santos, Roselene Hans; Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber de; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the number of reported cases of microcephaly in Pernambuco State, and Northeast Brazil, characterized an epidemic that led the Brazilian Ministry of Health to declare a national public health emergency. The Brazilian Ministry of Health initially defined suspected cases as newborns with gestational age (GA) ≥ 37 weeks and head circumference (HC) ≤ 33cm, but in December 2015 this cutoff was lowered to 32cm. The current study aimed to estimate the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of different cutoff points for HC, using ROC curves, with the Fenton and Intergrowth (2014) curves as the gold standard. The study described cases reported in Pernambuco from August 8 to November 28, 2015, according to sex and GA categories. The Fenton and Intergrowth methods provide HC growth curves according to GA and sex, and microcephaly is defined as a newborn with HC below the 3rd percentile in these distributions. Of the 684 reported cases, 599 were term or post-term neonates. For these, the analyses with ROC curves show that according to the Fenton criterion the cutoff point with the largest area under the ROC curve, with sensitivity greater than specificity, is 32cm for both sexes. Using the Intergrowth method and following the same criteria, the cutoff points are 32cm and 31.5cm for males and females, respectively. The cutoff point identified by the Fenton method (32cm) coincided with the Brazilian Ministry of Health recommendation. Adopting Intergrowth as the standard, the choice would be 32cm for males and 31.5cm for females. The study identified the need to conduct critical and on-going analyses to evaluate cutoff points, including other characteristics for microcephaly case definition.

  9. Hydrology of the Upper Capibaribe Basin, Pernambuco, Brazil - A reconnaissance in an Area of Crystalline Rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chada Filho, Luiz Goncalves; Dias Pessoa, Mario; Sinclair, William C.

    1966-01-01

    The upper Capibaribe basin is the western three-fourths, approximately, of the valley of the river that empties into the Atlantic Ocean at Recife, the capital of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. It is the part of the drainage basin that is within the Drought Polygon of northeast Brazil, and it totals about 5,400 square kilometers. It receives relatively abundant precipitation in terms of the annual average, yet is regarded as hot subhumid to semiarid because the precipitation is uneven from year to year and place to place. The dependable water supply, therefore, is small. The basin has water, which could be put to better use than at present, but the opportunities for augmenting the usable supply are not great. The streams are intermittent and therefore cannot be expected to fill surface reservoirs and to keep them filled. The ground-water reservoirs have small capacity--quickly filled and quickly drained. A rough estimate based on the records for 1964 suggests that, of 4,700 million cubic meters of precipitation in the upper Capibaribe basin, 2,700 million cubic meters (57 percent) left the basin as runoff and 2,000 million cubic meters {43 percent) went into underground storage or was evaporated or transpired. The bedrock of the upper Capibaribe basin is composed of granite, gneiss, schist, and other varieties of crystalline rocks, which have only insignificant primary permeability. They are permeable mainly where fractured. The principal fracture zones, fortunately, are in the valleys, where water accumulates and can feed into them, but the volume of fractured rock is small in relation to the basin as a whole. A well in a large water-filled fracture zone may yield up to 20,000 liters per hour, but the average well yields less than one-fourth this amount, and some wells yield none. The saprolite, or weathered rock, is many meters thick at some places especially in the eastern half of the upper Capibaribe basin. It contains water locally, but ordinarily will yield

  10. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight Minimizing your exposure to radiation and toxic chemicals Not smoking or chewing tobacco Reducing sun exposure, especially if you burn easily Cancer screenings, such as mammography and breast ...

  11. Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free-living Bradypus variegatus (Schiz, 1825) in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Gileno Antônio Araújo; da Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza; da Silva, Davi Rubem; de Moraes Peixoto, Rodolfo; Lino, Gileno Câmara; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2008-07-01

    Three cases of dermatophytosis in free living brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) in the Zona da Mata, North of Pernambuco State, Brazil, were studied. Two animals presented areas of alopecia on the pelvic member and thorax and one animal on the pelvic member only. The three animals presented scabs. Hair and scabs samples were submitted to microscopical examination after treatment with a 30 % KOH and cultivated in Mycosel Agar. The direct examination indicated the presence of arthrospores in the hair. Colonies grown after seven days of culture were confirmed as Microsporum based on examination of the structure of the macroconidia. This is the first observation of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free living sloths in the State of Pernambuco. PMID:24031255

  12. Stomach Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine Stomach cancer is fairly rare in the US, but ... the early stages. To estimate your risk of stomach cancer and learn about ways to lower that ...

  13. Hospital fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Althausen, Peter L; Hill, Austin D; Mead, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    Under the current system, orthopaedic trauma surgeons must work in some form of hospital setting as our primary service involves treatment of the trauma patient. We must not forget that just as a trauma center cannot exist without our services, we cannot function without their support. As a result, a clear understanding of the balance between physicians and hospitals is paramount. Historical perspective enables physicians and hospital personnel alike to understand the evolution of hospital-physician relationship. This process should be understood upon completion of this chapter. The relationship between physicians and hospitals is becoming increasingly complex and multiple forms of integration exist such as joint ventures, gain sharing, and co-management agreements. For the surgeon to negotiate well, an understanding of hospital governance and the role of the orthopaedic traumatologist is vital to success. An understanding of the value provided by the traumatologist includes all aspects of care including efficiency, availability, cost effectiveness, and research activities. To create effective and sustainable healthcare institutions, physicians and hospitals must be aligned over a sustained period of time. Unfortunately, external forces have eroded the historical basis for the working relationship between physicians and hospitals. Increased competition and reimbursement cuts, coupled with the increasing demands for quality, efficiency, and coordination and the payment changes outlined in healthcare reform, have left many organizations wondering how to best rebuild the relationship. The principal goal for the physician when partnering with a hospital or healthcare entity is to establish a sustainable model of service line management that protects or advances the physician's ability to make impactful improvements in quality of patient care, decreases in healthcare costs, and improvements in process efficiency through evidence-based practices and protocols. PMID

  14. Hospital fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Althausen, Peter L; Hill, Austin D; Mead, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    Under the current system, orthopaedic trauma surgeons must work in some form of hospital setting as our primary service involves treatment of the trauma patient. We must not forget that just as a trauma center cannot exist without our services, we cannot function without their support. As a result, a clear understanding of the balance between physicians and hospitals is paramount. Historical perspective enables physicians and hospital personnel alike to understand the evolution of hospital-physician relationship. This process should be understood upon completion of this chapter. The relationship between physicians and hospitals is becoming increasingly complex and multiple forms of integration exist such as joint ventures, gain sharing, and co-management agreements. For the surgeon to negotiate well, an understanding of hospital governance and the role of the orthopaedic traumatologist is vital to success. An understanding of the value provided by the traumatologist includes all aspects of care including efficiency, availability, cost effectiveness, and research activities. To create effective and sustainable healthcare institutions, physicians and hospitals must be aligned over a sustained period of time. Unfortunately, external forces have eroded the historical basis for the working relationship between physicians and hospitals. Increased competition and reimbursement cuts, coupled with the increasing demands for quality, efficiency, and coordination and the payment changes outlined in healthcare reform, have left many organizations wondering how to best rebuild the relationship. The principal goal for the physician when partnering with a hospital or healthcare entity is to establish a sustainable model of service line management that protects or advances the physician's ability to make impactful improvements in quality of patient care, decreases in healthcare costs, and improvements in process efficiency through evidence-based practices and protocols.

  15. Impact of hospital type and treatment on long-term survival among patients with FIGO Stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer: follow-up through two recurrences and three treatment lines in search for predictors for survival.

    PubMed

    Szczesny, W; Vistad, I; Kaern, J; Nakling, J; Tropé, C; Paulsen, T

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of hospital type determined at primary treatment and find possible predictors of survival in a cohort of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who recurred twice and received three lines of treatment during eight-year follow-up. Using the Norwegian Cancer Registry, the authors identified 174 women with FIGO Stage IIIC EOC diagnosed in 2002. First-line treatment consisted of up-front debulking surgery and chemotherapy, received in either a teaching hospital (TH, n = 84) or a non-teaching hospital (NTH, n = 90). After recurrence all patients in Norway are equally consulted at TH. Survival determined for three time intervals (TI): TI-1, from end date of first-line treatment to first recurrence or death, TI-2, from beginning of second-line treatment until second recurrence or death, and TI-3, from beginning of third-line treatment to death or end of follow-up. Extensive surgery carried out in TH followed by at least six cycles of platinol-taxan chemotherapy resulted in longer survival in the TH group during TI-1. Altogether, the majority of those who receive treatment for recurrences were primary better debulked with following platinol-taxane chemotherapy. Survival in TI-2 was influenced by platinol-sensitivity. During TI-3 the majority (96%) had good performance status and their mean age at primary diagnosis at either hospital type was 57 years. Extensive primary surgery at TH, platinol sensitivity, age, and performance status were predictors of survival in this cohort. PMID:27352555

  16. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  17. Hospital philanthropy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dean G; Clement, Jan P

    2013-01-01

    It remains an open question whether hospital spending on fundraising efforts to garner philanthropy is a good use of funds. Research and industry reports provide conflicting results. We describe the accounting and data challenges in analysis of hospital philanthropy, which include measurement of donations, measurement of fundraising expenses, and finding the relationships among organizations where these cash flows occur. With these challenges, finding conflicting results is not a surprise. PMID:23614267

  18. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation. PMID:14753323

  19. [Men of the sugarcane fields and their hospitals: the architecture of health under the Estado Novo].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Marcia Rocha

    2011-12-01

    The article explores the emergence of an architectural heritage in the realm of healthcare assistance for workers in the sugarcane agroindustry in Brazil following enactment of the law known as the Estatuto da Lavoura Canavieira (1941), under the auspices of the Instituto do Açúcar e do Álcool and as part of Estado Novo policies (1937-1945). The institute proposed solutions based on surveys conducted at sugarcane mills in cane-producing states and on the medical and hospital system adopted by the institute's enlightened bureaucracy in the 1940s, which took the U.S. system as its model. Special focus is given to the central hospitals in Pernambuco and especially in Alagoas, which opposed institute guidelines.

  20. [Have Case Loads of Radical Surgery for Prostate Cancer Been Concentrated in Hospitals with Robotic Equipment ?--Analyses with Questionnaire Survey and Diagnostic Procedure Combination (DPC) Data].

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Taiji; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether installation of robot-assisted surgical equipment in hospitals resulted in concentration of the case loads of radical prostatectomy. We selected 11 areas with populations of around 1 million or more where there were one or more hospitals with robotic equipment and 4 or more without it. In addition, annual changes of case loads for prostatectomy over 4 years from 2010 to 2013 were clearly determined in these areas. The case loads were determined based on the results of a questionnaire survey for the hospitals with robots and on the Diagnostic Procedures Combination data provided by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Wealth for those without such equipment. The concentration of the case loads was principally defined as when hospitals with robots had more predominant proportion of cases than those without them in the comparison between case loads prior to instillation of robots (or in the initial year of the study) and those in the final years. The 11 selected areas included 44 hospitals with robots and 156 without them. Concentration of case loads was found in 5 areas. In 4 areas, installation of robots did not have a specific relation to the distribution pattern s of case loads in hospitals with or without the equipment. The remaining 2 areas tended to have a weak but not definite concentration of case loads. In the areas in which installation did not influence case loads the further analysis revealed that their case loads had already been concentrated in the initial year (2010) of the study. Although the current results were found in a single department of the hospital, robotic installation may result in concentration of prostatectomy case loads for such hospitals in some areas. The current results are intriguing when we consider the future roles of acute care hospitals and beds in our country where the number of aged patients having chronic diseases will increase. In conclusion, installation of robotic equipment may result in concentration

  1. Clinical-epidemiological profile of children with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy attended at the Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Karina Conceição G M; Rosa e Silva, Cristiana da; Barbosa, Constança Simões; Ferrari, Teresa C A

    2006-09-01

    The most critical phase of exposure to schistosomal infection is the infancy, because of the more frequent contact with contaminated water and the immaturity of the immune system. One of the most severe presentations of this parasitosis is the involvement of the spinal cord, which prognosis is largely dependent on early diagnosis and treatment. Reports on this clinical form of schistosomiasis in children are rare in the literature. We present here the clinical-epidemiological profile of schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR) from ten children who were admitted at the Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco over a five-year period. They were evaluated according to an investigation protocol. Most of these patients presented an acute neurological picture which included as the main clinical manifestations: sphincteral disorders, low back and lower limbs pain, paresthesia, lower limbs muscle weakness and absence of deep tendon reflex, and impairment of the gait. The diagnosis was presumptive in the majority of the cases. This study emphasizes the importance of considering the diagnosis of SMR in pediatric patients coming from endemic areas who present a low cord syndrome, in order to start the appropriate therapy and avoid future complications.

  2. [Team work and interdiciplinarity: challenges facing the implementation of comprehensive outpatient care for people with HIV/Aids in Pernambuco].

    PubMed

    Borges, Maria Jucineide Lopes; Sampaio, Aletheia Soares; Gurgel, Idê Gomes Dantas

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of providing healthcare to people with HIV/Aids requires investment in comprehensive action and care, constituting a challenge for the multidisciplinary work teams to build an interdisciplinary practice. This study sought to analyze comprehensive healthcare in the Specialized Assistance Services for HIV/Aids (SAE-HIV/Aids) in Recife, in the State of Pernambuco, starting with the process and organization of team work. This is a case study developed in three SAE-HIV/Aids units, based on a qualitative approach using different research techniques. The results show that SAE-HIV/Aids have complied with most of the Brazilian Health Ministry recommendations in terms of basic infrastructure, though none of them had a team of appropriate size. These services have shown signs of fragmentation and difficulty in establishing a systematic intersectorial and interdisciplinary practice, with failings in ensuring the reference and counter-reference flow. It was seen that there was little appreciation of the role of the manager as team leader. The need to perceive the user as a whole was identified, as well as for the team to work in a coordinated manner in order to ensure communicative and relational activities.

  3. The aquatic environment as a reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1 in hydrographic basins of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Marques, Carina Lucena; Silveira Filho, Vladimir da Mota; da Costa, Ana Paula Rocha; Nunes, Mariana de Lira; da Silva Filho, Sandoval Vieira; Figueirôa, Ângela Cristina Torres de Araújo; Hofer, Ernesto; de Almeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; Leal, Nilma Cintra

    2013-01-01

    After the worldwide cholera epidemic in 1993, permanent environmental monitoring of hydrographic basins was established in Pernambuco, Brazil, where cholera is endemic. After a quiescent period, 4 rfbN (serogroup O1) positive water samples that were culture negative were detected by multiplex single-tube nested PCR (MSTNPCR); 2 of these were also ctxA (cholera toxin) positive. From May to June 2012, 30 V. cholerae O1 isolates were obtained by culturing samples. These isolates were analyzed for the presence of virulence genes by PCR, intergenic spacer region 16S-23S PCR (ISR-PCR), and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The isolates were positive for the rfbN gene and negative for the assessed pathogenic genes and were classified into 2 groups by ISR and the same profile by PFGE. Close genetic similarity was observed between them (2012) and environmental strains from 2004 to 2005, indicating the permanence of endemic V. cholerae O1 in the region. PMID:23533357

  4. The conception of administrators regarding the formation of a healthcare consortium in Pernambuco, Brazil: a case study.

    PubMed

    e Silva, Keila S Brito; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola B

    2011-01-01

    The formation of healthcare consortia is a management strategy adopted by a number of cities in Brazil in order to minimize the difficulties the population has in access to services of greater technological complexity. As administrators are the main governmental actors in the promotion of this strategy, the aim of the present study was to identify the motives, expectations and difficulties faced by the mayors, and secretaries of health that make up a healthcare consortium undergoing a formation process in the rural, coastal zone of the state of Pernambuco. A descriptive, qualitative, case study was conducted. Data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews held with mayors and secretaries of health of the municipalities participating in the consortium. Data were analyzed by means of content analysis, using the NVivo 2.0 software program. The administrators cited difficulty in access to specialized services and the high cost of transporting patients to distant locations for treatment as motives for the formation of the consortium. With the implantation of this healthcare strategy, the expectations are a reduction in costs regarding patient transportation, an increase in access to services of greater complexity, and negotiations with other spheres of government. The main difficulties faced are political-partisan conflicts and excessive bureaucracy. Although there were no considerable divergences in the administrators' perceptions, it was evident that those who initiated the formation of the consortium offered a deeper, more detailed discourse, thereby demonstrating greater involvement when compared to those who offered continuity to the process.

  5. Insects (Diptera) associated with cadavers at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Pernambuco, Brazil: implications for forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tatiana Costa; Vasconcelos, Simao Dias

    2010-05-20

    Increasing rates of unsolved homicides in Brazil prompt the need for applied entomological data to be used as a complementary tool by criminal investigators. In that context, we analyzed the occurrence of forensically important insect species (Order Diptera) on 14 cadavers taken into the Institute of Legal Medicine (ILM), in Pernambuco, Brazil, according to the conditions of the body and the pattern of colonisation by insects. Simultaneously, we surveyed the diversity of insects in the surrounding environment using bait traps. Five species were present on cadavers: Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Cochliomyia macellaria (Calliphoridae), Oxysarcodexia riograndensis and Ravinia belforti (Sarcophagidae). A total of 4689 adult insects belonging to 24 species of seven dipteran families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae and Stratiomyidae) was collected at the ILM premises. C. albiceps was the most frequent species on the corpses and the most abundant in the traps. Species referred to as of forensic importance, such as Lucilia eximia, Chrysomya putoria, Oxysarcodexia modesta and Ophyra chalcogaster were collected on traps, but not on cadavers. There seems to be a limited colonisation of cadavers at the scene of the death, despite the ubiquity of necrophagous species in the area. The results contribute to differentiate between species that are involved in decomposition and those found in and around the mortuary installations of the ILM, thus providing potential clues about the locality of death and the post-mortem interval.

  6. [Seroprevalence and factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis in inmates in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Ana Cecília Cavalcanti; da Silva, Débora Maria; Rabelo, Deyse Caroline Cabral; de Lucena, Waldenia Agny Torres; de Lima, Paloma Cássia Silva; Coelho, Maria Rosângela Cunha Duarte; Tiago, Guilherme Gustavo de Brito

    2014-07-01

    Prison inmates are more vulnerable to HIV and other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) due to risk factors such as needle sharing and unprotected sex with homosexuals. The aim of this work was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1/2) and syphilis among male inmates in Caruaru, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed between May and July 2011, when 1,097 inmates at a prison in Caruaru were assessed by means of interviews and blood sample collection for performing the respective tests. The prevalence was 1.19% for HIV infection and 3.92% for syphilis. HIV infection showed a statistically significant association (p <0.05), with injected drug use, homosexuality and blood transfusions. With respect to HIV status and syphilis, factors related to sex life were statistically significant (p <0.05). The prison population is a high risk group for the diseases investigated. The prevalence rates identified indicate the need to implement prevention programs, helping to contain such diseases in this particular population group. PMID:25014292

  7. Study of the dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) community at two sites: Atlantic forest and clear-cut, Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, F A B; Costa, C M Q; Moura, R C; Farias, A I

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dung beetle (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) community structure at two sites in the Charles Darwin Ecological Refuge in Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brazil. Dung beetles were collected in 2006 using monthly samples from 48 pitfall traps baited with human dung and bovine carrion. The dung beetle communities from the study sites were compared in terms of abundance, species richness, and diversity (Shannon index). Seasonality was analyzed by Spearman correlation between rainfall data and community parameters. In total, 2,560 individuals belonging to 40 species, 16 genera, and 6 tribes were collected. Species richness was higher for the clear-cut area compared with the forest habitat. Estimators of species richness suggested a total richness of 42-47 species in the entire study area. A positive correlation was observed between monthly rainfall and total abundance of individuals for the clear-cut area but not for the forest habitat. This study contributes to a better understanding of Scarabaeinae ecology in the Atlantic rainforest of northeastern Brazil.

  8. Two common species dominate the species-rich Euglossine bee fauna of an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R; Pinto, C E; Schlindwein, C

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the northern part of the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil is largely destroyed and forest remnants rarely exceed 100 ha. In a 118 ha forest fragment within a state nature reserve of Pernambuco (Reserva Ecológica Gurjaú), we surveyed the orchid bee fauna (Apidae, Euglossini) using eight different scent baits to attract males. Once a month during one year, the bees were actively collected with entomological nets, from November 2002 to October 2003 by two collectors. We collected 2,908 orchid bee males belonging to 23 species, one of the highest richness values of the Northern Atlantic Rainforest. Bees of only two species, Euglossa carolina (50%) and Eulaema nigrita (25%), which occurred throughout the year, accounted for three quarter of the collected individuals. Both species are typical for open or disturbed areas. Rainforest remnants like those of Gurjaú within the predominant sugar cane monocultures in the coastal plains of the northern Atlantic Rainforest play an important role in orchid bee conservation and maintenance of biodiversity.

  9. Two common species dominate the species-rich Euglossine bee fauna of an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R; Pinto, C E; Schlindwein, C

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the northern part of the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil is largely destroyed and forest remnants rarely exceed 100 ha. In a 118 ha forest fragment within a state nature reserve of Pernambuco (Reserva Ecológica Gurjaú), we surveyed the orchid bee fauna (Apidae, Euglossini) using eight different scent baits to attract males. Once a month during one year, the bees were actively collected with entomological nets, from November 2002 to October 2003 by two collectors. We collected 2,908 orchid bee males belonging to 23 species, one of the highest richness values of the Northern Atlantic Rainforest. Bees of only two species, Euglossa carolina (50%) and Eulaema nigrita (25%), which occurred throughout the year, accounted for three quarter of the collected individuals. Both species are typical for open or disturbed areas. Rainforest remnants like those of Gurjaú within the predominant sugar cane monocultures in the coastal plains of the northern Atlantic Rainforest play an important role in orchid bee conservation and maintenance of biodiversity. PMID:26602351

  10. Modelling of point and diffuse pollution: application of the Moneris model in the Ipojuca river basin, Pernambuco State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Lima Barros, Alessandra Maciel; do Carmo Sobral, Maria; Gunkel, Günter

    2013-01-01

    Emissions of pollutants and nutrients are causing several problems in aquatic ecosystems, and in general an excess of nutrients, specifically nitrogen and phosphorus, is responsible for the eutrophication process in water bodies. In most developed countries, more attention is given to diffuse pollution because problems with point pollution have already been solved. In many non-developed countries basic data for point and diffuse pollution are not available. The focus of the presented studies is to quantify nutrient emissions from point and diffuse sources in the Ipojuca river basin, Pernambuco State, Brazil, using the Moneris model (Modelling Nutrient Emissions in River Systems). This model has been developed in Germany and has already been implemented in more than 600 river basins. The model is mainly based on river flow, water quality and geographical information system data. According to the Moneris model results, untreated domestic sewage is the major source of nutrients in the Ipojuca river basin. The Moneris model has shown itself to be a useful tool that allows the identification and quantification of point and diffuse nutrient sources, thus enabling the adoption of measures to reduce them. The Moneris model, conducted for the first time in a tropical river basin with intermittent flow, can be used as a reference for implementation in other watersheds. PMID:23863428

  11. Vertical geochemical distribution of some contaminants in estuarine sediments from the Jaboatão River, Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Marta; Neumann, Virgínio; Castro, Maria Teresa; Lima, Enjôlras; Lima, Edmilson; Silva, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    Sediment core samples with length ranging from 50 cm was collected in the Jaboatão river estuary and analyzed to ( As, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni and Zn) level concentrations using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The studied area is located in the northeastern coast of Pernambuco State and is comprised of a densely urbanized region, the largest industrial complex of the state, with a predominance of fertilizer plants. These elements have a consistent vertical evolution compatible with the increase of the pelitic-organic material. There is an increase from bottom to top of the core but this may not represent a real increase in the input, but rather a concentration associated to the fine particle fraction and organic matter that increases to the top of the core profile. These conditions of clay predominance in estuarine sediments on the top indicate a decrease of the energy condition in the system and not necessarily an increase in the supply of contaminating metals. The majority of the chemical species, the concentration did not reach toxicity levels, when considering the values (ERL and ERM) established by USEPA (1998). The only exception is Cr, which has already surpassed the ERM value, and suggests that this increase is related to industrial contribution. Chromium concentration reached preliminary alert levels according to international environmental agencies, whereas the other species analyzed do not show toxicity. Key-words: environmental geochemistry, estuarine sediments

  12. Hospitality Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA.

    A project was conducted at College of the Canyons (Valencia, California) to initiate a new 2-year hospitality program with career options in hotel or restaurant management. A mail and telephone survey of area employers in the restaurant and hotel field demonstrated a need for, interest in, and willingness to provide internships for such a program.…

  13. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  14. The prognostic role of preoperative and (early) postoperatively change in CA15.3 serum levels in a single hospital cohort of primary operable breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Brouckaert, O; Laenen, A; Wildiers, H; Floris, G; Moerman, P; Van Limbergen, E; Vergote, I; Billen, J; Christiaens, M R; Neven, P

    2013-06-01

    Measuring CA15.3 serum levels in the early breast cancer setting is not recommended by current ASCO guidelines. In this large single center study, we assess the prognostic value of preoperative (n = 3746), postoperative (n = 4049) and change in (n = 3252) CA15.3, also across different breast cancer phenotypes. Preoperative, postoperative and change in CA15.3 were all significant (p = 0.0348, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 respectively in multivariate analysis) predictors of distant metastasis free survival. For breast cancer specific survival, only postoperative and change in CA15.3 were significant predictors (p < 0.0001 both). Multivariate prognostic models did not improve by incorporating information on preoperative CA15.3, but did improve when introducing information on postoperative CA15.3 for distant metastasis (p = 0.0365) and on change in CA15.3 for breast cancer specific survival (p = 0.0291). Change in CA15.3 impacts on prognosis (distant metastasis) differently in different breast cancer phenotypes. A decrease in CA15.3 may be informative of improved prognosis in basal like and HER2 like breast cancer.

  15. [Postoperative radiotherapy in patients with invasive uterine cervix cancer treated previously with simple hysterectomy. Results from the Hospital de Oncología, Centro Médico Nacional SXXI. ].

    PubMed

    Huerta Bahena, Judith; Labastida Almendaro, Sonia; Cortez Arroyo, Héctor; Calva, Angel

    2003-06-01

    Invasive carcinoma found after simple hysterectomy for several causes is an increasing clinical condition. That situation results in the necessity for further therapy: re-operation or radiotherapy. The purpose of this review is to analyze our results with postoperative radiotherapy for these patients. In 1998, 59 patients were submitted to postoperative radiotherapy at the Oncology Hospital, Medical Cancer Center for invasive cervical cancer found after simple hysterectomy for several causes. All patients had postoperative radiotherapy, the dose depended of the magnitude of residual disease after surgery (range 10-80 Gy). After surgery 27 patients had gross residual disease; and no residual disease or microscopic disease was present in 32 patients. Three years overall survival rate was 59% for the whole group. With the results of the univariate analysis, prognostic factors found that significantly affect disease free survival were interval between hysterectomy and radiotherapy of more than 6 months, radiotherapy dose less than 50 Grays and histology. With multivariate analysis only presence of gross residual disease affect significantly disease free survival p = 0.0000. Postoperative radiotherapy results in patients with invasor cervical cancer incidentally found in hysterectomy specimens with minimal residual disease are excellent. However with the presence of more extensive residual disease the results in disease free survival are worse than those obtained in patients with similar stages who had not been treated with hysterectomy. A well established diagnostic procedure must be done in all patients candidates to simple hysterectomy.

  16. Genotoxicity evaluation of hospital wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Preeti; Mathur, N; Bhatnagar, P; Nagar, P; Srivastava, S

    2009-10-01

    In hospitals a large variety of substances are in use for medical purposes such as diagnostics and research. After application, diagnostic agents, disinfectants and excreted non-metabolized pharmaceuticals by patients reach the wastewater. Indeed, some of the substances found in wastewaters are genotoxic and are suspected to be a possible cause of the cancers observed in the last decades. Genotoxicity tests are an excellent means to study the toxicity and the risk associated with these releases. This paper points out the areas of concern for hospital wastewater disposal and reports the findings of genotoxicity tests for hospital effluents from 3 major hospitals in Delhi, namely All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Apollo and Escorts. Mutagenicity of hospital wastewaters from effluent treatment plants (before and after treatment) was studied. The results of this study show that the genotoxicity of hospital wastewaters is highly reduced after the treatment process. This study calls for establishment of advanced and effective effluent treatment plants in the hospitals, which are merely dumping the wastewaters in the municipal sewerage system. The results of this study call for further detailed study in this area.

  17. Cancer Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The patient shown is undergoing cancer radiation treatment in a hospital-like atmosphere but he is not in a hospital. The treatment room is at NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. It is a converted portion of the Center's cyclotron facility, originally designed for radiation studies related to nuclear propulsion for aircraft and spacecraft. Under an agreement between the Center and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, the 50 million volt cyclotron is now being used to evaluate the effectiveness of "fast neutron" therapy in the treatment of cancerous tumors.

  18. Towards a pain free hospital: an in-depth qualitative analysis of the pain experiences of head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, Natalie; Brown, Matthew RD; Gubbay, Anthony; Peacock, Janet; Ross, Joy R; Chapman, Suzanne; Sauzet, Odile; Williams, John

    2015-01-01

    Background: Treatment for head and neck cancer can frequently be a painful experience with implications for patients in terms of quality of life, nutrition and ultimately treatment outcomes. Pain may arise for a number of reasons in this patient group including the influence of localised tissue damage from radiotherapy, the effects of chemotherapeutic agents as well as the disease process itself. Early identification of cancer pain, through screening and early analgesic and pain management are thought to be the most appropriate approaches to the problem. Aim: To explore in-depth, patients’ views of the experience of pain related to radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, within the context of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of pain screening and intervention. Sample: A purposive sample of head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy who were participating in a separate RCT of a proactive pain screening intervention. Methods: A qualitative design using one-off, face-to-face, in-depth interviews. Data were inductively analysed for themes using thematic analysis. Data were collected from September 2012 to January 2013. Findings: Eight participants were interviewed. Several issues around pain management arose and the influence of various factors became apparent. Four dominant themes emerged: facets of radiotherapy pain in head and neck cancer, facilitators and barriers to pain management, pain services and finally interdisciplinary working. Conclusion: The specific issues faced by head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy highlight the need for pain relieving interventions delivered by pain specialists, in tandem with the development of robust self-management strategies. An integrated approach to care is optimal, comprising pain screening at each outpatient encounter, and review by specialists as necessary. PMID:27551409

  19. Soil moisture and soil loss study under different cover densities in Ultisolsin Pernambuco State semi-arid (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, T. K. S.; Montenegro, A. A. A.; Santos, T. E. M.; Silva Junior, V. P.; Siqueira, G. M.

    2012-04-01

    Throughout Brazil occurs a large loss of soil and water runoff due to soil erosion especially in rural areas. The soil moisture monitoringhas been a practice increasingly important in agriculture, especially in regions where water scarcity is high and rainfed cropping is adopted. The soil cover is one of the factors that minimize these effects of degradation arising from agricultural land use. To monitor the water content in the soil profile, point measurements were performed using an FDR equipment, which is a capacitance probe, Diviner 2000 ® model, the Sentek Pty Ltd, Australia. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamics of soil water content under different types of ground cover, using a probe and the Diviner soil loss in the semi-arid Pernambuco. The study was carried out in the Municipality of Pesqueira-PE, located in the State of Pernambuco, in the Alto Ipanema Representative Basin, with average annual rainfall of 730 mm and average annual potential evapotranspiration of 1683 mm. The soil of the study areas is classified as Eutrophic Yellow Ultisol abruptly (Area A) and typical Eutrophic Yellow Ultisol (Area B). For this, study three experimental plots were installed in two different areas, totalling six plots, bounded by brick, with 4.5 m wide and 11 m long in the direction of the slope, under three soil cover conditions. The treatments involved in this study are: bare soil (SD); with cactus (P) and natural cover (CN). The water content in soil was evaluated at 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 m at the soil profile and sediment sampling were carried out fortnightly between April and July 2011 (rainy season). In this work we used cumulative precipitation for seven and fourteen days before the readings with the Divinerprobe. The highest rainfall is concentrated during the months of May and July of 2011, and May is the month with the highest cumulative rainfall. April received the lowest rainfall, considered the driest. The water content in the soil

  20. Prevalence and risk factors associated with bovine genital campylobacteriosis and bovine trichomonosis in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Júnior Mário Baltazar; da Silva, Gesika Maria; Batista Filho, Antônio Fernando Barbosa; de Melo Borges, Jonas; de Oliveira, Pollyanne Raysa Fernandes; Brandespim, Daniel Friguglietti; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Pinheiro, José Wilton

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis and Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cows from dairy herds in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. In total, 383 samples of cervico-vaginal mucus were collected from cows on 21 herds in 19 districts. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples and submitted for polymerase chain reaction analysis. An investigative questionnaire was used to analyze the risk factors, using questions related to reproductive and hygiene/sanitation management. A prevalence of 1.8% (0.8-3.9%; confidence interval (CI) 95%) and 33.4% (28.7-38.4%; CI 95%) was found for C. fetus subsp. venerealis and T. foetus, respectively. In terms of the number of foci, 28.6% of the herds contained at least one animal that was positive for C. fetus subsp. venerealis and 90.5% for T. foetus. The present study identified herds larger than 100 animals as a risk factor for bovine genital campylobacteriosis (OR = 7.2; CI 1.3-38.4%; p = 0.020) and the use of natural breeding as a risk factor for bovine trichomonosis (OR = 2.4; CI 1.1-5.9%; p = 0.041). In conclusion, C. fetus subsp. venerealis and T. foetus infections occurred in the region studied and high numbers of foci were found. Thus, prophylaxis and control measures, such as diagnosis, separation, and sexual rest for infected females, are suggested. An artificial insemination program with early rigorous sanitary care should be implemented on the properties in order to avoid the spread of agents in the herds.

  1. Epidemiological, Clinical and Antiretroviral Susceptibility Characterization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Subtypes B and Non-B in Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Kledoaldo; de Souza Leal, Élcio; Cavalcanti, Ana Maria Salustiano; Salustiano, Daniela Medeiros; de Medeiros, Luzidalva Barbosa; da Silva, Sirleide Pereira; Lacerda, Heloísa Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV-1 diversity causes important differences in the virus’ biological properties and their interactions with hosts, such as cell tropism, responses to antiretroviral therapy, drug-resistance, and disease progression. Objectives We evaluated the interrelationship of phylogenetic inference with epidemiological and laboratory data for HIV-1 isolates circulating in Pernambuco, Northeast Region—Brazil. Study design A total of 168 HIV-1 pol sequences were analysed, 64 were obtained from 2002–2003, and 104, from 2007–2009. Socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioural data were obtained from medical records. Laboratory testing enabled the determination of recent HIV-1 infections and co-infections with HBV, HCV, HTLV, or syphilis. Surveillance drug-resistance mutation analysis and antiretroviral susceptibility profiling were performed using HIV Drug-Resistance Database. Results HIV-1 non-B was associated with female, lower education, lower viral loads, and higher T cell counts mean. Frequencies of co-infection HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV, and HIV-syphilis were 27.8% (95% CI: 19.8–37.7), 1.04% (95% CI: 0.05–5.00) and 14.7% (95% CI: 8.6–23.0), respectively. Drug-resistant mutations rate was 2.98% (95% CI: 1.10–6.47). HIV-HBV subtype B co-infection was associated with men who have sex with men (MSM), higher education, higher viral loads and males. HIV-syphilis subtype non-B co-infection was associated with MSM status, lower T cell counts and males. Conclusions Data showed the importance of molecular characterisations of the HIV-1 epidemic and its relation with epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the population, as well as its association with other infectious diseases, so they can effort to improve preventive measures for health services and more information about the progress and effects of the epidemic in Northeastern–Brazil. PMID:27218259

  2. Hospitals for sale.

    PubMed

    Costello, Michael M; West, Daniel J; Ramirez, Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    The pace of hospital merger and acquisition activity reflects the economic theory of supply and demand: Publicly traded hospital companies, private equity funds, and large nonprofit hospital systems are investing capital to purchase and operate freestanding community hospitals at a time when many of those hospitals find themselves short of capital reserves and certain forms of management expertise. But the sale of those community hospitals also raises questions about the impact of absentee ownership on the communities which those hospitals serve.

  3. Telephone calls postdischarge from hospital to home: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Hand, Kristin E; Cunningham, Regina S

    2014-02-01

    The oncology population is particularly affected by hospital readmissions because hospitalized patients with cancer often have complex needs. The complexity and diversity of care requirements create substantial challenges in planning for appropriate postdischarge support. Implementing postdischarge telephone calls in the population of patients with cancer could offer a low-cost intervention to address the complex needs of patients during the transition from hospital to home. The goal of the current literature review is to provide an understanding about postdischarge telephone calls in patients with cancer. Findings from this review support the notion that discharge phone calls could improve care continuity for patients transitioning from hospital to home. The literature review outlines information related to telephone call content, timing, and structure for healthcare systems that want to use a postdischarge telephone intervention for patients with cancer. However, additional research is needed to develop and test cancer-specific protocols.

  4. Oral Candidiasis among Cancer Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Chennai, South India: An Evaluation of Clinicomycological Association and Antifungal Susceptibility Pattern.

    PubMed

    Jayachandran, Abirami Lakshmy; Katragadda, Radhika; Thyagarajan, Ravinder; Vajravelu, Leela; Manikesi, Suganthi; Kaliappan, Shanmugam; Jayachandran, Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis is one of the common manifestations seen in cancer patients on cytotoxic therapy and invasion into deeper tissues can occur if not treated promptly. Emergence of antifungal drug resistance is of serious concern owing to the associated morbidity and mortality. The present study aims at evaluation of clinicomycological association and antifungal drug susceptibility among the 180 recruited patients with cancer on chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy with signs or symptoms suggestive of oral candidiasis. Speciation and antifungal susceptibility was done by Microbroth dilution method for fluconazole, Itraconazole, and Amphotericin B as per standard microbiological techniques. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant). Candida albicans was the predominant species isolated (94) (58%) followed by Candida tropicalis (34) (20.9%). Fluconazole and Itraconazole showed an overall resistance rate of 14% and 14.8%, respectively. All the isolates were susceptible to Amphotericin B. There was a significant association between the presence of dry mouth and isolation of Candida (p < 0.001). Such clinicomicrobiological associations can help in associating certain symptoms with the isolation of Candida. Species level identification with in vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern is essential to choose the appropriate drug and to predict the outcome of therapy.

  5. Oral Candidiasis among Cancer Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Chennai, South India: An Evaluation of Clinicomycological Association and Antifungal Susceptibility Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Katragadda, Radhika; Thyagarajan, Ravinder; Vajravelu, Leela; Manikesi, Suganthi; Kaliappan, Shanmugam

    2016-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis is one of the common manifestations seen in cancer patients on cytotoxic therapy and invasion into deeper tissues can occur if not treated promptly. Emergence of antifungal drug resistance is of serious concern owing to the associated morbidity and mortality. The present study aims at evaluation of clinicomycological association and antifungal drug susceptibility among the 180 recruited patients with cancer on chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy with signs or symptoms suggestive of oral candidiasis. Speciation and antifungal susceptibility was done by Microbroth dilution method for fluconazole, Itraconazole, and Amphotericin B as per standard microbiological techniques. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant). Candida albicans was the predominant species isolated (94) (58%) followed by Candida tropicalis (34) (20.9%). Fluconazole and Itraconazole showed an overall resistance rate of 14% and 14.8%, respectively. All the isolates were susceptible to Amphotericin B. There was a significant association between the presence of dry mouth and isolation of Candida (p < 0.001). Such clinicomicrobiological associations can help in associating certain symptoms with the isolation of Candida. Species level identification with in vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern is essential to choose the appropriate drug and to predict the outcome of therapy. PMID:27403171

  6. Strain localization in the middle- to upper continental crust: examples from the Patos and Pernambuco shear zones (Borborema Province, NE Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viegas, G.; Archanjo, C. J.; Hollanda, M. H.; Vauchez, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    The accommodation of deformation in the Earth's lithosphere typically results in a heterogeneous distribution of strain in the continental crust, which is a function of effective pressure, temperature and strain rate at different structural levels. In Northeast Brazil, the Borborema Province is characterized by an interconnected, crustal-scale shear zone system associated with a widespread granitic plutonism. Two of the most prominent structures of this system, the Patos and Pernambuco shear zones, are characterized by ~ 600 km long E-W striking mylonite belts in which strain localization processes are observed either in association with partial melting in the Patos strike-slip fault, or as zones of overprinting brittle-ductile deformation in the Pernambuco shear zone. Deformation mechanisms are distinct across the Patos shear zone, mainly marked by crystalline plasticity and diffusion creep in the high-temperature northern border, magmatic flow in the central region and dislocation creep coupled with microfracturing in the southern sector. The Espinho Branco migmatite (~ 565 Ma) acts as a weak rheological layer that accumulates strain in the northern portion of the fault. Alternatively, the absence of partial melting and the dominant cataclastic/plastic flow regime lead to grain-size sensitive strain localization at the southern border. The Pernambuco shear zone was nucleated at the vicinities of two granitoid batholiths at c.a. 588 Ma. Low-temperature mylonites adjacent to the batholiths show several microstructures indicating coeval activity of brittle-ductile deformation. Recent zircon U-Pb (SHRIMP) data on these mylonites yielded mean ages of ~ 539 Ma, suggesting successive events of thermal input and shearing within the structure. These features suggest that strain localization processes exert an important control on the rheology of the continental lithosphere; the accommodation of deformation in the middle crust is mainly attained by the presence of weak

  7. Women and Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Horrigan Conners Center for Women’s Health and Gender Biology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, April, ... Lung Cancer in Women: The Differences in Epidemiology, Biology and Treatment Outcomes, Maria Patricia Rivera MD Expert ...

  8. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... tends to be more serious than other lung infections because: People in the hospital are often very sick and cannot fight off ... prevent pneumonia. Most hospitals have programs to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  9. An Information Retrieval System for Computerized Patient Records in the Context of a Daily Hospital Practice: the Example of the Léon Bérard Cancer Center (France)

    PubMed Central

    Biron, P.; Metzger, M.H.; Pezet, C.; Sebban, C.; Barthuet, E.; Durand, T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background A full-text search tool was introduced into the daily practice of Léon Bérard Center (France), a health care facility devoted to treatment of cancer. This tool was integrated into the hospital information system by the IT department having been granted full autonomy to improve the system. Objectives To describe the development and various uses of a tool for full-text search of computerized patient records. Methods The technology is based on Solr, an open-source search engine. It is a web-based application that processes HTTP requests and returns HTTP responses. A data processing pipeline that retrieves data from different repositories, normalizes, cleans and publishes it to Solr, was integrated in the information system of the Leon Bérard center. The IT department developed also user interfaces to allow users to access the search engine within the computerized medical record of the patient. Results From January to May 2013, 500 queries were launched per month by an average of 140 different users. Several usages of the tool were described, as follows: medical management of patients, medical research, and improving the traceability of medical care in medical records. The sensitivity of the tool for detecting the medical records of patients diagnosed with both breast cancer and diabetes was 83.0%, and its positive predictive value was 48.7% (gold standard: manual screening by a clinical research assistant). Conclusion The project demonstrates that the introduction of full-text-search tools allowed practitioners to use unstructured medical information for various purposes. PMID:24734133

  10. Metastatic Breast Cancer With ESR1 Mutation: Clinical Management Considerations From the Molecular and Precision Medicine (MAP) Tumor Board at Massachusetts General Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Iafrate, John A.; Sundaresan, Tilak; Younger, Jerry; Nardi, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The last decade in oncology has witnessed impressive response rates with targeted therapies, largely because of collaborative efforts at understanding tumor biology and careful patient selection based on molecular fingerprinting of the tumor. Consequently, there has been a push toward routine molecular genotyping of tumors, and large precision medicine-based clinical trials have been launched to match therapy to the molecular alteration seen in a tumor. However, selecting the “right drug” for an individual patient in clinic is a complex decision-making process, including analytical interpretation of the report, consideration of the importance of the molecular alteration in driving growth of the tumor, tumor heterogeneity, the availability of a matched targeted therapy, efficacy and toxicity considerations of the targeted therapy (compared with standard therapy), and reimbursement issues. In this article, we review the key considerations involved in clinical decision making while reviewing a molecular genotyping report. We present the case of a 67-year-old postmenopausal female with metastatic estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, whose tumor progressed on multiple endocrine therapies. Molecular genotyping of the metastatic lesion revealed the presence of an ESR1 mutation (encoding p.Tyr537Asn), which was absent in the primary tumor. The same ESR1 mutation was also detected in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) extracted from her blood. The general approach for interpretation of genotyping results, the clinical significance of the specific mutation in the particular cancer, potential strategies to target the pathway, and implications for clinical practice are reviewed in this article. Key Points ER+ breast tumors are known to undergo genomic evolution during treatment with the acquisition of new mutations that confer resistance to treatment. ESR1 mutations in the ligand-binding domain of ER can lead to a ligand-independent, constitutively active form of ER

  11. Natural Leishmania infantum infection in Migonemyia migonei (França, 1920) (Diptera:Psychodidae:Phlebotominae) the putative vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Pernambuco State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Maria Rosimery; Valença, Helio França; da Silva, Fernando José; de Pita-Pereira, Daniela; de Araújo Pereira, Thaís; Britto, Constança; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Brandão Filho, Sinval Pinto

    2010-10-01

    A study of the natural infection of phlebotomine sand flies by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum was conducted in an area of visceral leishmaniasis in São Vicente Férrer, located in the northern part of the Atlantic rain forest region in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. In a previous study, Migonemyia migonei have been found predominantly in peridomiciles and houses in this endemic area. The analysis of M. migonei, collected by CDC light trap, by multiplex PCR assay coupled to non-isotopic hybridization showed that 2 females out of 50 were infected by L. infantum. This is the first finding of natural infection of M. migonei by L. infantum suggesting that M. migonei may be the vector of L. infantum in areas of visceral leishmaniasis where Lutzomyia longipalpis, the usual vector, is absent.

  12. Multi-View Interaction Modelling of human collaboration processes: a business process study of head and neck cancer care in a Dutch academic hospital.

    PubMed

    Stuit, Marco; Wortmann, Hans; Szirbik, Nick; Roodenburg, Jan

    2011-12-01

    In the healthcare domain, human collaboration processes (HCPs), which consist of interactions between healthcare workers from different (para)medical disciplines and departments, are of growing importance as healthcare delivery becomes increasingly integrated. Existing workflow-based process modelling tools for healthcare process management, which are the most commonly applied, are not suited for healthcare HCPs mainly due to their focus on the definition of task sequences instead of the graphical description of human interactions. This paper uses a case study of a healthcare HCP at a Dutch academic hospital to evaluate a novel interaction-centric process modelling method. The HCP under study is the care pathway performed by the head and neck oncology team. The evaluation results show that the method brings innovative, effective, and useful features. First, it collects and formalizes the tacit domain knowledge of the interviewed healthcare workers in individual interaction diagrams. Second, the method automatically integrates these local diagrams into a single global interaction diagram that reflects the consolidated domain knowledge. Third, the case study illustrates how the method utilizes a graphical modelling language for effective tree-based description of interactions, their composition and routing relations, and their roles. A process analysis of the global interaction diagram is shown to identify HCP improvement opportunities. The proposed interaction-centric method has wider applicability since interactions are the core of most multidisciplinary patient-care processes. A discussion argues that, although (multidisciplinary) collaboration is in many cases not optimal in the healthcare domain, it is increasingly considered a necessity to improve integration, continuity, and quality of care. The proposed method is helpful to describe, analyze, and improve the functioning of healthcare collaboration. PMID:21867775

  13. Multi-View Interaction Modelling of human collaboration processes: a business process study of head and neck cancer care in a Dutch academic hospital.

    PubMed

    Stuit, Marco; Wortmann, Hans; Szirbik, Nick; Roodenburg, Jan

    2011-12-01

    In the healthcare domain, human collaboration processes (HCPs), which consist of interactions between healthcare workers from different (para)medical disciplines and departments, are of growing importance as healthcare delivery becomes increasingly integrated. Existing workflow-based process modelling tools for healthcare process management, which are the most commonly applied, are not suited for healthcare HCPs mainly due to their focus on the definition of task sequences instead of the graphical description of human interactions. This paper uses a case study of a healthcare HCP at a Dutch academic hospital to evaluate a novel interaction-centric process modelling method. The HCP under study is the care pathway performed by the head and neck oncology team. The evaluation results show that the method brings innovative, effective, and useful features. First, it collects and formalizes the tacit domain knowledge of the interviewed healthcare workers in individual interaction diagrams. Second, the method automatically integrates these local diagrams into a single global interaction diagram that reflects the consolidated domain knowledge. Third, the case study illustrates how the method utilizes a graphical modelling language for effective tree-based description of interactions, their composition and routing relations, and their roles. A process analysis of the global interaction diagram is shown to identify HCP improvement opportunities. The proposed interaction-centric method has wider applicability since interactions are the core of most multidisciplinary patient-care processes. A discussion argues that, although (multidisciplinary) collaboration is in many cases not optimal in the healthcare domain, it is increasingly considered a necessity to improve integration, continuity, and quality of care. The proposed method is helpful to describe, analyze, and improve the functioning of healthcare collaboration.

  14. Clinical-pathological changes in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) over time (1997-2010): data from the University Hospital "Maggiore della Carità" in Novara.

    PubMed

    Pagano, L; Caputo, M; Samà, M T; Garbaccio, V; Zavattaro, M; Mauri, M G; Prodam, F; Marzullo, P; Boldorini, R; Valente, G; Aimaretti, G

    2012-10-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is an important clinical entity in our population (Novara, Piedmont, Italy) which is characterized by important environmental influences, as iodine deficiency (ID) and subsequent supplementation, thyroiditis and occupational exposure. To evaluate the features of DTC in our population 20 years after the iodine-prophylaxis pondering the effects of the introduction of the new guidelines for diagnosis and management of DTC after 2005. 322 patients [244 females, age: mean (±SD) 53.8 ± 15.8 years] treated for DTC in a tertiary care center between 1997 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. Medical history, demographics, and pathological features were considered. Patients were subdivided into two groups: A (n = 139, diagnosis 1997–2005) and B (n = 183, diagnosis 2006–2010). The population of group A showed a mild ID, while normal iodine status was recorded in group B. A significant increase in histological tumor-associated thyroiditis was found from group A to B (p = 0.021). Recurrent or persistent diseases were found to be correlated with lymph nodes metastases and/or a distant disease at diagnosis, stimulated thyroglobulin levels at the first follow-up and an additional radioiodine therapy. Twenty percent of our patients were females employed in textile industries. The tumor-related inflammation and the occupational exposure should be considered as important factors in the pathogenesis of DTC. Further studies are required in order to confirm our findings.

  15. Vaginal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal cancer; Cancer - vagina; Tumor - vaginal ... Most vaginal cancers occur when another cancer, such as cervical or endometrial cancer , spreads. This is called secondary vaginal cancer. Cancer ...

  16. Hospital Charges of Potentially Preventable Pediatric Hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Sam; Kuo, Dennis Z.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Reducing the number of preventable hospitalizations represents a possible source of healthcare savings. However, the current literature lacks a description of the extent of potentially preventable pediatric hospitalizations. The study objectives are to (1) identify the charges and (2) demographic characteristics associated with potentially preventable pediatric hospitalizations. Methods Secondary analysis of the 2006 Kids’ Inpatient Database (weighted N=7,558,812). ICD-9-CM codes for 16 previously validated pediatric ambulatory care-sensitive (ACS) conditions identified potentially preventable hospitalizations; seven additional conditions reflected updated care guidelines. Outcome variables included number of admissions, hospitalization days, and hospital charges. Demographic and diagnostic variables associated with an ACS condition were compared with regression analyses using appropriate person-level weights. Results Pediatric ACS hospitalizations totaled $4.05B in charges and 1,087,570 hospitalization days in 2006. Two respiratory conditions—asthma and bacterial pneumonia—comprised 48.4% of ACS hospital charges and 46.7% of ACS hospitalization days. In multivariate analysis, variables associated with an ACS condition included: male gender (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.07–1.13); race/ethnicity of black (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.16–1.27) or Hispanic (OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.06–1.18); and emergency department (ED) as admission source (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.27–1.48). Conclusions Respiratory conditions comprised the largest proportion of potentially preventable pediatric hospitalizations, totaling as much as $1.96B in hospital charges. Children hospitalized with an ACS condition tend to be male, non-white, and admitted through the ED. Future research to prevent pediatric hospitalizations should examine targeted interventions in the primary care setting, specifically around respiratory conditions and minority populations. PMID:22922047

  17. What Women Need to Know about Colon Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... requires an overnight stay in a hospital. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in women in the United ... True - After lung cancer and breast cancer, colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in women in the United ...

  18. Hospital Library Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Anne

    The objectives of a hospital are to improve patient care, while the objectives of a hospital library are to improve services to the staff which will support their efforts. This handbook dealing with hospital administration is designed to aid the librarian in either implementing a hospital library, or improving services in an existing medical…

  19. Hospital marketing revisited.

    PubMed

    Costello, M M

    1987-05-01

    With more hospitals embracing the marketing function in their organizational management over the past decade, hospital marketing can no longer be considered a fad. However, a review of hospital marketing efforts as reported in the professional literature indicates that hospitals must pay greater attention to the marketing mix elements of service, price and distribution channels as their programs mature.

  20. Measuring Rural Hospital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscovice, Ira; Wholey, Douglas R.; Klingner, Jill; Knott, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    Increased interest in the measurement of hospital quality has been stimulated by accrediting bodies, purchaser coalitions, government agencies, and other entities. This paper examines quality measurement for hospitals in rural settings. We seek to identify rural hospital quality measures that reflect quality in all hospitals and that are sensitive…

  1. Hospitable Classrooms: Biblical Hospitality and Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to a Christian hermeneutic of special education by suggesting the biblical concept of hospitality as a necessary characteristic of classroom and school environments in which students with disabilities and other marginalized students can be effectively incorporated into the body of the classroom. Christian hospitality, seen…

  2. The application of hospitality elements in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziqi; Robson, Stephani; Hollis, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, many hospital designs have taken inspiration from hotels, spurred by factors such as increased patient and family expectations and regulatory or financial incentives. Increasingly, research evidence suggests the value of enhancing the physical environment to foster healing and drive consumer decisions and perceptions of service quality. Although interest is increasing in the broader applicability of numerous hospitality concepts to the healthcare field, the focus of this article is design innovations, and the services that such innovations support, from the hospitality industry. To identify physical hotel design elements and associated operational features that have been used in the healthcare arena, a series of interviews with hospital and hotel design experts were conducted. Current examples and suggestions for future hospitality elements were also sought from the experts, academic journals, and news articles. Hospitality elements applied in existing hospitals that are addressed in this article include hotel-like rooms and decor; actual hotels incorporated into medical centers; hotel-quality food, room service, and dining facilities for families; welcoming lobbies and common spaces; hospitality-oriented customer service training; enhanced service offerings, including concierges; spas or therapy centers; hotel-style signage and way-finding tools; and entertainment features. Selected elements that have potential for future incorporation include executive lounges and/or communal lobbies with complimentary wireless Internet and refreshments, centralized controls for patients, and flexible furniture. Although the findings from this study underscore the need for more hospitality-like environments in hospitals, the investment decisions made by healthcare executives must be balanced with cost-effectiveness and the assurance that clinical excellence remains the top priority.

  3. The application of hospitality elements in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziqi; Robson, Stephani; Hollis, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, many hospital designs have taken inspiration from hotels, spurred by factors such as increased patient and family expectations and regulatory or financial incentives. Increasingly, research evidence suggests the value of enhancing the physical environment to foster healing and drive consumer decisions and perceptions of service quality. Although interest is increasing in the broader applicability of numerous hospitality concepts to the healthcare field, the focus of this article is design innovations, and the services that such innovations support, from the hospitality industry. To identify physical hotel design elements and associated operational features that have been used in the healthcare arena, a series of interviews with hospital and hotel design experts were conducted. Current examples and suggestions for future hospitality elements were also sought from the experts, academic journals, and news articles. Hospitality elements applied in existing hospitals that are addressed in this article include hotel-like rooms and decor; actual hotels incorporated into medical centers; hotel-quality food, room service, and dining facilities for families; welcoming lobbies and common spaces; hospitality-oriented customer service training; enhanced service offerings, including concierges; spas or therapy centers; hotel-style signage and way-finding tools; and entertainment features. Selected elements that have potential for future incorporation include executive lounges and/or communal lobbies with complimentary wireless Internet and refreshments, centralized controls for patients, and flexible furniture. Although the findings from this study underscore the need for more hospitality-like environments in hospitals, the investment decisions made by healthcare executives must be balanced with cost-effectiveness and the assurance that clinical excellence remains the top priority. PMID:23424818

  4. Hospitals as health educators

    MedlinePlus

    ... than your local hospital. From health videos to yoga classes, many hospitals offer information families need to ... care and breastfeeding Parenting Baby sign language Baby yoga or massage Babysitting courses for teens Exercise classes ...

  5. Surviving Your Child's Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The parent of a young child who required major open heart surgery shares his suggestions for coping with a young child's hospitalization including parent visitation, relating to the hospital staff, getting answers to questions, and utilizing available services. (DB)

  6. Brittle grain size reduction of feldspar, phase mixing and strain localization in granitoids at mid-crustal conditions (Pernambuco shear zone, NE Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viegas, Gustavo; Menegon, Luca; Archanjo, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The Pernambuco shear zone (northeastern Brazil) is a large-scale strike-slip fault that, in its eastern segment, deforms granitoids at mid-crustal conditions. Initially coarse (> 50 μm) grained feldspar porphyroclasts are intensively fractured and reduced to an ultrafine-grained mixture consisting of plagioclase and K-feldspar grains (< 15 μm in size) localized in C' shear bands. Detailed microstructural observations and EBSD analysis do not show evidence of intracrystalline plasticity in feldspar porphyroclasts and/or fluid-assisted replacement reactions. Quartz occurs either as thick (˜ 1-2 mm) monomineralic bands or as thin ribbons dispersed in the feldspathic mixture. The microstructure and c-axis crystallographic preferred orientation are similar in the thick monomineralic band and in the thin ribbons, and suggest dominant subgrain rotation recrystallization and activity of prism and rhomb slip systems. However, the grain size in monophase recrystallized domains decreases when moving from the monomineralic veins to the thin ribbons embedded in the feldspathic C' bands (14 μm vs 5 μm, respectively).The fine-grained feldspar mixture has a weak crystallographic preferred orientation interpreted as the result of oriented growth during diffusion creep, as well as the same composition as the fractured porphyroclasts, suggesting that it generated by mechanical fragmentation of rigid porphyroclasts with a negligible role of chemical disequilibrium. Assuming that the C' shear bands deformed under constant stress conditions, the polyphase feldspathic aggregate would have deformed at a strain rate one order of magnitude faster than the monophase quartz ribbons. Overall, our dataset indicates that feldspar underwent a brittle-viscous transition while quartz was deforming via crystalline plasticity. The resulting rock microstructure consists of a two-phase rheological mixture (fine-grained feldspars and recrystallized quartz) in which the feldspathic material

  7. Brittle grain-size reduction of feldspar, phase mixing and strain localization in granitoids at mid-crustal conditions (Pernambuco shear zone, NE Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viegas, Gustavo; Menegon, Luca; Archanjo, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    The Pernambuco shear zone (northeastern Brazil) is a large-scale strike-slip fault that, in its eastern segment, deforms granitoids at mid-crustal conditions. Initially coarse-grained (> 50 µm) feldspar porphyroclasts are intensively fractured and reduced to an ultrafine-grained mixture consisting of plagioclase and K-feldspar grains (< 15 µm) localized in C' shear bands. Detailed microstructural observations and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis do not show evidence of intracrystalline plasticity in feldspar porphyroclasts and/or fluid-assisted replacement reactions. Quartz occurs either as thick (˜ 1-2 mm) monomineralic veins transposed along the shear zone foliation or as thin ribbons ( ≤ 25 µm width) dispersed in the feldspathic mixture. The microstructure and c axis crystallographic-preferred orientation are similar in the thick monomineralic veins and in the thin ribbons, and they suggest dominant subgrain rotation recrystallization and activity of prism < a > and rhomb < a > slip systems. However, the grain size in monophase recrystallized domains decreases when moving from the quartz monomineralic veins to the thin ribbons embedded in the feldspathic C' bands (14 µm vs. 5 µm respectively). The fine-grained feldspar mixture has a weak crystallographic-preferred orientation interpreted as the result of shear zone parallel-oriented growth during diffusion creep, as well as the same composition as the fractured porphyroclasts, suggesting that it generated by mechanical fragmentation of rigid porphyroclasts with a negligible role of chemical disequilibrium. Once C' shear bands were generated and underwent viscous deformation at constant stress conditions, the polyphase feldspathic aggregate would have deformed at a strain rate 1 order of magnitude faster than the monophase quartz monomineralic veins, as evidenced by applying experimentally and theoretically calibrated flow laws for dislocation creep in quartz and diffusion creep in

  8. University Hospitals for Sale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culliton, Barbara J.

    1984-01-01

    Although faculty opposition stopped the sale of Harvard's McLean Hospital to the Hospital Corporation of America (HCA), a partnership remains a possibility. Issues related to the proposed sale as well as those affecting hospital economics are considered. Proposed terms of the sale are included. (JN)

  9. HOSPITALS FOR RURAL PEOPLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANNY, ELSIE S.; ROGERS, CHARLES E.

    MODERN ADVANCEMENTS IN MEDICAL SCIENCE HAVE PRECIPITATED THE NEED FOR ADEQUATE UP-TO-DATE HOSPITAL FACILITIES REASONABLY CLOSE TO ALL PEOPLE. RURAL COMMUNITIES HAVE UTILIZED FEDERAL AID, STATE AID, ASSISTANCE FROM FOUNDATIONS, CIVIC BONDS, AND VOLUNTEER CONTRIBUTIONS AND DRIVES TO ERECT AND EQUIP HOSPITALS. HOSPITAL CARE FOR RURAL PEOPLE USUALLY…

  10. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  11. Cancer Control in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  12. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  13. Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    The 465-bed Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital is the largest medical facility on the California coast between Los Angeles and the San Francisco bay area. The hospital dates back to 1888, when a group of local citizens began raising funds to build a "cottage-style" hospital for the growing community. Their original plans called for a complex in which each medical specialty would be housed in a separate bungalow. Even then, however, such a decentralized plan was too costly, so work began instead on a single cottage for all hospital departments. The first Cottage Hospital opened in 1891, with 25 beds housed in a two story Victorian building. Now a hugh medical complex employing some 1,500 people, the hospital continues to be called "Cottage" after the original home-like building. Rodney J. Lamb has been Hospital Administrator for the last 30 years.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of livestock rabies viruses isolated in the northeastern Brazilian states of Paraíba and Pernambuco from 2003 - 2009

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited or no epidemiological information has been reported for rabies viruses (RABVs) isolated from livestock in the northeastern Brazilian states of Paraíba (PB) and Pernambuco (PE). The aim of this study was to clarify the molecular epidemiology of RABVs circulating in livestock, especially cattle, in these areas between 2003 and 2009. Findings Phylogenetic analysis based on 890 nt of the nucleoprotein (N) gene revealed that the 52 livestock-derived RABV isolates characterized here belonged to a single lineage. These isolates clustered with a vampire bat-related RABV lineage previously identified in other states in Brazil; within PB and PE, this lineage was divided between the previously characterized main lineage and a novel sub-lineage. Conclusions The occurrences of livestock rabies in PB and PE originated from vampire bat RABVs, and the causative RABV lineage has been circulating in this area of northeastern Brazil for at least 7 years. This distribution pattern may correlate to that of a vampire bat population isolated by geographic barriers. PMID:22243739

  15. [Prevalence and factors associated with violence suffered by incarcerated women for drug trafficking in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: a cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Valquíria Pereira; da Silva, Maria Arleide; Noronha Neto, Carlos; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois; Chaves, Cynthia Vasconcelos; Bello, Rodrigo Pereira

    2014-07-01

    The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with the violence suffered by women accused of drug trafficking in the 24 months prior to incarceration in the Women's Penal Colony in the State of Pernambuco. A cross-sectional study including 290 women aged 18 and above, with up to twelve months imprisonment, was performed for the data collection period. A questionnaire was applied to research the socioeconomic and demographic variables and the characteristics of violence and drug trafficking. All of the participants signed a consent form. The association between variables and intensity of exposure and response were determined by the chi-square test and the values (p < 0.05) were considered statistically significant. The study revealed that 71.4% of women were young; 78.9% non white, 85.8% unmarried with children, 83.3% had low education and 72.6% had income below the minimum wage. Furthermore, 56.9% were users of illicit drugs and 67.5% participated by performing some role in drug trafficking. A high prevalence of some form of violence suffered were observed in the population studied and the partner was the most frequent perpetrator (44.1%), calling for the authorities to pay greater attention in the actions of prevention of such violence. PMID:25014304

  16. Removal of ammonia nitrogen from leachate of Muribeca municipal solid waste landfill, Pernambuco, Brazil, using natural zeolite as part of a biochemical system.

    PubMed

    Lins, Cecilia Maria M S; Alves, Maria Cristina M; Campos, Juacyara C; Silva, Fabrícia Maria S; Jucá, José Fernando T; Lins, Eduardo Antonio M

    2015-01-01

    The inadequate disposal of leachate is one of the key factors in the environmental impact of urban solid waste landfills in Brazil. Among the compounds present in the leachates from Brazilian landfills, ammonia nitrogen is notable for its high concentrations. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of a permeable reactive barrier filled with a natural zeolite, which is part of a biochemical system for the tertiary treatment of the leachate from Muribeca Municipal Solid Waste Landfill in Pernambuco, Brazil, to reduce its ammonia nitrogen concentration. This investigation initially consisted of kinetic studies and batch equilibrium tests on the natural zeolite to construct the sorption isotherms, which showed a high sorption capacity, with an average of 12.4 mg NH4+.L(-1), a value close to the sorption rates found for the aqueous ammonium chloride solution. A permeable reactive barrier consisting of natural zeolite, as simulated by the column test, was efficient in removing the ammonia nitrogen present in the leachate pretreated with calcium hydroxide. Nevertheless, the regenerated zeolite did not satisfactorily maintain the sorption properties of the natural zeolite, and an analysis of their cation-exchange properties showed a reduced capacity of 54 meq per 100 g for the regenerated zeolite compared to 150 meq per 100 g for the natural zeolite.

  17. Impact of antihelminthic treatment on infection by Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms in Covas, a rural community of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zani, Luciana Carvalho; Favre, Tereza Cristina; Pieri, Otávio Sarmento; Barbosa, Constança Simões

    2004-01-01

    This work aims to evaluate the impact of drug treatment on infection by Ascaris lumbricoides (Al), Trichuris trichiura (Tt) and hookworms (Hook) in a rural community from the sugar-cane zone of Pernambuco, Brazil. Four parasitological surveys were carried out from March 2001 to March 2002. Individual diagnosis was based on eight slides (four by the Kato-Katz method and four by the Hoffman method) per survey. Infected subjects were assigned to two groups for treatment with either albendazole (n = 62) or mebendazole (n = 57). Prevalence of infection fell significantly (p < 0.05) one month after treatment: Al (from 47.7% to 6.6%); Tt (from 45.7% to 31.8%) and Hook (from 47.7% to 24.5%). One year after treatment, infections by Tt and Hook remained significantly below pre-control levels. A substantial decrease in single-infection cases and multiple infections was found. Egg-negative rate was significant for Al (94.0%), Hook (68.3%) but not for Tt (45.5%), and did not differ significantly between subjects treated with mebendazole or albendazole. Egg counts fell significantly in the individuals remaining positive for Tt. It is recommended that antihelminthic treatment should be selective and given at yearly intervals preferably with albendazole, due to its cost-effectiveness.

  18. Risk factors for default from tuberculosis treatment in HIV-infected individuals in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Concomitant treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB) presents a series of challenges for treatment compliance for both providers and patients. We carried out this study to identify risk factors for default from TB treatment in people living with HIV. Methods We conducted a cohort study to monitor HIV/TB co-infected subjects in Pernambuco, Brazil, on a monthly basis, until completion or default of treatment for TB. Logistic regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals and P-values. Results From a cohort of 2310 HIV subjects, 390 individuals (16.9%) who had started treatment after a diagnosis of TB were selected, and data on 273 individuals who completed or defaulted on treatment for TB were analyzed. The default rate was 21.7% and the following risk factors were identified: male gender, smoking and CD4 T-cell count less than 200 cells/mm3. Age over 29 years, complete or incomplete secondary or university education and the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were identified as protective factors for the outcome. Conclusion The results point to the need for more specific actions, aiming to reduce the default from TB treatment in males, younger adults with low education, smokers and people with CD4 T-cell counts < 200 cells/mm3. Default was less likely to occur in patients under HAART, reinforcing the strategy of early initiation of HAART in individuals with TB. PMID:22176628

  19. Quality control of food products purchased by the National School-Feeding Programme in Pernambuco, northeast Brazil, from 1985 to 1988.

    PubMed

    Guerra, N B; Pires, E M; Martins, G de C; Lima Filho, J B; Guerra, G N; Borges, L B; Tavares, M O; Cavalcante, M L; de Melo Filho, A B; de Oliveira, A R

    1992-12-01

    The effectiveness of the Quality Control System (QCS) implemented by the Fundação de Assistência ao Escolar (FAE) for quality control of food products from different types and origins purchased by the National School-Feeding Programme (NSFP) in Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, was evaluated. Physicochemical, microbiological, microscopical and organopetical analyses were performed in 4,860 food samples and the main causes of alterations were detected. Perishability was the characteristic used for distribution of food items into 3 main groups: A, B, and C. In accordance with 972 Quality Certificates between 1985 and 1988, 31.89 of the samples were rejected. The main reasons for rejection were innacuracies of net weight and drained weight and high moisture contents. Group B presented the smallest number of altered samples (27%); for Groups A and C these values were 33% and 44%, respectively. Our data lead to the conclusion that the QCS implemented by FAE is of paramount importance for an adequate quality control of foods provided to beneficiaries and for a good cost effectiveness of the school-feeding programme. PMID:1342181

  20. [Obesity and overweight in adult Xukuru of Ororubá Indians, Pernambuco State, Brazil: magnitude and associated socioeconomic and demographic factors].

    PubMed

    Fávaro, Thatiana Regina; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Cunha, Geraldo Marcelo da; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Coimbra Jr, Carlos E A

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study focused on the epidemiology of overweight and obesity and the association with demographic and socioeconomic variables in a sample of 794 Xukuru of Ororubá adults 19-59 years of age, from an indigenous reserve in Pesqueira County, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression were carried out, using cut-off points of BMI > 24.99kg/m2 for overweight and > 29.99kg/m2 for obesity. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were higher in women (52.2% and 21%, respectively) than in men (44.1% and 7.5%, respectively). Female sex and age (> 30 years) were associated with both outcomes in the multivariate regression. For obesity, the following variable showed statistically significant associations: socioeconomic status and the interaction between male gender and per capita income. As in other indigenous populations in Brazil, the study's findings suggest that the Xukuru are experiencing a rapid nutritional transition.

  1. Hospital diversification strategy.

    PubMed

    Eastaugh, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    To determine the impact of health system restructuring on the levels of hospital diversification and operating ratio this article analyzed 94 teaching hospitals and 94 community hospitals during the period 2008-2013. The 47 teaching hospitals are matched with 47 other teaching hospitals experiencing the same financial market position in 2008, but with different levels of preference for risk and diversification in their strategic plan. Covariates in the analysis included levels of hospital competition and the degree of local government planning (for example, highly regulated in New York, in contrast to Texas). Moreover, 47 nonteaching community hospitals are matched with 47 other community hospitals in 2008, having varying manager preferences for service-line diversification and risk. Diversification and operating ratio are modeled in a two-stage least squares (TSLS) framework as jointly dependent. Institutional diversification is found to yield better financial position, and the better operating profits provide the firm the wherewithal to diversify. Some services are in a growth phase, like bariatric weight-loss surgery and sleep disorder clinics. Hospital managers' preferences for risk/return potential were considered. An institution life cycle hypothesis is advanced to explain hospital behavior: boom and bust, diversification, and divestiture, occasionally leading to closure or merger. PMID:25223156

  2. Hospital diversification strategy.

    PubMed

    Eastaugh, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    To determine the impact of health system restructuring on the levels of hospital diversification and operating ratio this article analyzed 94 teaching hospitals and 94 community hospitals during the period 2008-2013. The 47 teaching hospitals are matched with 47 other teaching hospitals experiencing the same financial market position in 2008, but with different levels of preference for risk and diversification in their strategic plan. Covariates in the analysis included levels of hospital competition and the degree of local government planning (for example, highly regulated in New York, in contrast to Texas). Moreover, 47 nonteaching community hospitals are matched with 47 other community hospitals in 2008, having varying manager preferences for service-line diversification and risk. Diversification and operating ratio are modeled in a two-stage least squares (TSLS) framework as jointly dependent. Institutional diversification is found to yield better financial position, and the better operating profits provide the firm the wherewithal to diversify. Some services are in a growth phase, like bariatric weight-loss surgery and sleep disorder clinics. Hospital managers' preferences for risk/return potential were considered. An institution life cycle hypothesis is advanced to explain hospital behavior: boom and bust, diversification, and divestiture, occasionally leading to closure or merger.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from skin and soft tissue infections of outpatients from a university hospital in Recife - PE, Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Caraciolo, Fabiana Beserra; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira; dos Santos, Josemir Belo; Rabelo, Marcelle Aquino; Magalhães, Vera

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus has a notable ability to acquire resistance to antibiotics, and methicillin resistance represents a growing public health problem. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has also become important outside the hospital environment, particularly in the United States. In Brazil, since 2005, cases of community skin infections caused by MRSA have been reported, but resistance studies involving outpatients are scarce. OBJECTIVE To know the resistance profile of S. aureus involved in skin and soft tissue infections of patients seen at the Dermatology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in Recife, Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. METHODS Prospective study involving 30 patients with skin and soft tissue infections, seen at the Dermatology outpatient clinic from May until November 2011. To evaluate the susceptibility of S. aureus to antibiotics, the disk diffusion method and oxacillin screening agar were used. RESULTS From a total of 30 samples of skin lesions, 19 (63%) had positive culture for S. aureus. The following resistance patterns of S. aureus were observed: penicillin, 95%; tetracycline, 32%; erythromycin, 21%; gentamicin, 16%; cefoxitin, 11%; oxacillin, 11%; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 11%; chloramphenicol, 11%; clindamycin, 5% ; and ciprofloxacin, 0%. One of the identified MRSA was obtained from a patient without risk factors for its acquisition, and was resistant, beyond to the beta-lactams, only to tetracycline. CONCLUSIONS With regard to the resistance patterns of S. aureus, resistances to tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin were the highest. It was documented, for the first time in Pernambuco, a case of skin infection caused by community-associated MRSA. PMID:23197204

  4. Measuring Hospital Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Ruchlin, Hirsch S.; Leveson, Irving

    1974-01-01

    This study presents a comprehensive method for quantifying hospital output and estimating hospital productivity. A number of less comprehensive productivity measures that can be quantified from data available from regional third-party payers and from the American Hospital Association are also developed and evaluated as proxies for the comprehensive measure, which is based on local area data. Methods are discussed for estimating the necessary variables on a regional or national level. PMID:4461703

  5. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Cancer - Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Eye Cancer - Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Eye Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Eye Cancer Overview Statistics ...

  6. Cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org Cancer Care -- www.cancercare.org National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov

  7. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  8. Hospital benefit segmentation.

    PubMed

    Finn, D W; Lamb, C W

    1986-12-01

    Market segmentation is an important topic to both health care practitioners and researchers. The authors explore the relative importance that health care consumers attach to various benefits available in a major metropolitan area hospital. The purposes of the study are to test, and provide data to illustrate, the efficacy of one approach to hospital benefit segmentation analysis.

  9. [Music in the hospital].

    PubMed

    Bouteloup, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Occasional events, regular workshops, concerts, shows, artists in residence, cultural outings...Hospital does not necessarily have to be a place of silence and sadness. But this situation has not always been so straightforward as on the face of it, nothing is more incompatible with a hospital environment than music, which, by definition, is festive and noisy. PMID:20684389

  10. Hospitality Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.

    This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…

  11. Hospitality Services Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

  12. Library Services in Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Social Security, London (England).

    The memorandum gives guidance to the provision and organization of library services at hospitals both for staff and for patients. It also draws attention to the assistance available from outside sources towards the development and maintenance of these services so hospital authorities may make the most effective use of the available facilities.…

  13. Hospitals are dangerous places.

    PubMed

    de Richemond, Albert L

    2010-01-01

    Hospital fire dangers are real, widespread, and ever present, the article demonstrates, spelling out the locations, conditions, and ignition potentials which exist in such a setting. Knowledge of codes and standards, good maintenance practices, and frequent drills in fire prevention and suppression are among the practices recommended for keeping a hospital fire from becoming a disaster, the author says. PMID:20873506

  14. Smaller hospitals accept advertising.

    PubMed

    Mackesy, R

    1988-07-01

    Administrators at small- and medium-sized hospitals gradually have accepted the role of marketing in their organizations, albeit at a much slower rate than larger institutions. This update of a 1983 survey tracks the increasing competitiveness, complexity and specialization of providing health care and of advertising a small hospital's services. PMID:10288550

  15. Hospitality services generate revenue.

    PubMed

    Bizouati, S

    1993-01-01

    An increasing number of hospitals are undertaking external revenue-generating activities to supplement their shrinking budgets. Written at the request of Leadership, this article outlines an example of a successful catering service -- a money-generating business that more Canadian hospitals could profitably consider.

  16. Hospitality Services. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This guide, which was developed as part of Texas' home economics education program, is intended to assist teachers of a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The first 40% of the approximately 600-page guide consists of strategies for teaching each of 29 essential…

  17. Hospital 360°.

    PubMed

    Giraldo Valencia, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Liliana Claudia

    2015-01-01

    There are forces that are greater than the individual performance of each hospital institution and of the health system structural of each country. The world is changing and to face up to the future in the best possible way, we need to understand how contexts and emerging trends link up and how they affect the hospital sector. The Columbian Association of Hospitals and Clinics, ACHC, has thus come up with the Hospital 360° concept which uses hospitals capable of anticipating changing contexts by means of the transition between present and future and takes on board the experience of global, socio-economic, demographic, political, environmental and technological fields as its model. Hospital 360° is an invitation to reinvent processes and institution themselves allowing them to adapt and incorporate a high degree of functional flexibility. Hospital 360° purses goals of efficiency, effectiveness and relevance, but also of impact and sustainability, and is coherent with the internal needs of hospital institutions and society for long-term benefits. PMID:26521380

  18. Mental hospitals in India.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, K; Venugopal, D; Alimchandani, A K

    2000-04-01

    This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present statusThe earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals.Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925

  19. [Music in the hospital].

    PubMed

    Bouteloup, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Occasional events, regular workshops, concerts, shows, artists in residence, cultural outings...Hospital does not necessarily have to be a place of silence and sadness. But this situation has not always been so straightforward as on the face of it, nothing is more incompatible with a hospital environment than music, which, by definition, is festive and noisy.

  20. Handbook on Hospital Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prynne, T. A.

    Designed for both hospital personnel interested in television and audiovisual personnel entering the medical field, this handbook is a verbal and pictorial survey of what is being done with TV within the medical profession. After an introduction which answers technical questions about medical TV posed during the American Hospital Association's…

  1. Designing sustainable acute hospitals.

    PubMed

    Cory, Alistair

    2008-01-01

    The need to provide sustainable hospitals lies in the fact that we have an obligation to act responsibly towards good stewardship of our environment and the world's precious resources, ensuring a healthy future for coming generations. As such, a sustainable hospital must sit squarely in a sustainable society, and the global and local context should be considered when designing a sustainable health facility.

  2. Hospitality services generate revenue.

    PubMed

    Bizouati, S

    1993-01-01

    An increasing number of hospitals are undertaking external revenue-generating activities to supplement their shrinking budgets. Written at the request of Leadership, this article outlines an example of a successful catering service -- a money-generating business that more Canadian hospitals could profitably consider. PMID:10127850

  3. [Hospital medicine in Chile].

    PubMed

    Eymin, Gonzalo; Jaffer, Amir K

    2013-03-01

    After 15 years of development of Hospital Medicine in Chile, there are several benefits of this discipline. Among others, a reduction in the length of hospital stay, readmissions, costs, and improved medical teaching of students, residents and fellows have been observed. However, in South América there are only isolated groups dedicated to Hospital Medicine in Chile, Argentina and Brazil, with a rather slow growth. The unjustified fear of competition from sub specialists, and the fee for service system of payment in our environment may be important factors to understand this phenomenon. The aging of the population makes imperative to improve the safety of our patients and to optimize processes and resources within the hospital, to avoid squandering healthcare resources. The following is a detailed and evidence-based article, on how hospital medicine might benefit both the public and prívate healthcare systems in Chile. PMID:23900327

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF PLAY DURING HOSPITALIZATION OF CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Koukourikos, Konstantinos; Tzeha, Laila; Pantelidou, Parthenopi; Tsaloglidou, Areti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Play constitutes an essential parameter of the normal psychosomatic development of children, as well as their statutory right. It is also an important means of communication in childhood. Objective: To review, detect and highlight all data cited regarding the role of play during the hospitalization of children. Methodology: Literature review was achieved by searching the databases Scopus, PubMed, Cinhal in English, using the following key words: therapeutic play, play therapy, hospitalized child, therapist. Results: During hospitalization, play either in the form of therapeutic play, or as in the form of play therapy, is proven to be of high therapeutic value for ill children, thus contributing to both their physical and emotional well-being and to their recovery. It helps to investigate issues related to the child’s experiences in the hospital and reduce the intensity of negative feelings accompanying a child’s admission to hospital and hospitalization. Play is widely used in pre-operative preparation and invasive procedures, while its use among children hospitalized for cancer is beneficial. Conclusion: The use of play in hospital may become a tool in the hands of healthcare professionals, in order to provide substantial assistance to hospitalized children, as long as they have appropriate training, patience, and will to apply it during hospitalization. PMID:26889107

  5. Surgery for pancreatic cancer -- discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... enable JavaScript. Pancreatic surgery is done to treat cancer of the pancreas gland. When You Are in the Hospital All ... Claudius C, Lillemoe KD. Palliative Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer. In: Cameron ... Vickers SM. Exocrine Pancreas. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, ...

  6. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  7. Hospitality as an Environmental Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwood, Bert

    1991-01-01

    Compares stewardship and hospitality as they relate to the biosphere. Traces the origin of the word "hospitality," discusses cultural traditions of hospitality, and applies the concept of hospitality to the natural world. Considers forms of symbiosis in nature: commensals, mutualism, and parasitism. Hospitality promotes respect, humility, and…

  8. Hospital diversification: evaluating alternatives.

    PubMed

    Hammer, L

    1987-05-01

    The appropriateness of diversification as a growth strategy for hospitals is discussed, and planning for diversification is described. Because new forms of health-care delivery are now in direct competition with hospitals, many hospitals are confronting environmental pressures and preparing for future survival through diversification. To explore the potential risks and benefits of diversification, the hospital must identify opportunities for new business ventures. Diversification can be "related," through an expansion of the primary product line (health care), or "unrelated," into areas not directly associated with health care. The hospital must establish specific criteria for evaluating each diversification alternative, and the two or three most attractive options should be analyzed further through a financial feasibility study. The hospital should also seek legal advice to determine the implications of diversification for maintenance of tax status, antitrust limitations, and applicability of certificate of need. Although diversification may not be appropriate for every institution, hospitals should consider it as a strategy for increasing their revenue base, confronting environmental pressures, and securing future survival. PMID:3300300

  9. Philanthropy and hospital financing.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D G; Clement, J P; Wheeler, J R

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study explores the relationships among donations to not-for-profit hospitals, the returns provided by these hospitals, and fund-raising efforts. It tests a model of hospital behavior and addresses an earlier debate regarding the supply price of donations. DATA SOURCES. The main data source is the California Office of Statewide Health Planning data tapes of hospital financial disclosure reports for fiscal years 1980/1981 through 1986/1987. Complete data were available for 160 hospitals. STUDY DESIGN. Three structural equations (donations, returns, and fund-raising) are estimated as a system using a fixed-effects, pooled cross-section, time-series least squares regression. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Estimation results reveal the expected positive relation between donations and returns. The reverse relation between returns and donations is insignificant. The estimated effect of fund-raising on donations is insignificantly different from zero, and the effect of donations on fund-raising is negative. Fund-raising and returns are negatively associated with one another. CONCLUSION. The empirical results presented here suggest a positive donations-returns relations and are consistent with a positive supply price for donations. Hospitals appear to view a trade-off between providing returns and soliciting donations, but donors do not respond equally to these two activities. Attempts to increase free cash flow through expansion of community returns or fund-raising activity, at least in the short run, are not likely to be highly successful financing strategies for many hospitals. PMID:8537223

  10. Hospitals' Internal Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K.; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  11. Hospital diversification: evaluating alternatives.

    PubMed

    Hammer, L

    1987-05-01

    The appropriateness of diversification as a growth strategy for hospitals is discussed, and planning for diversification is described. Because new forms of health-care delivery are now in direct competition with hospitals, many hospitals are confronting environmental pressures and preparing for future survival through diversification. To explore the potential risks and benefits of diversification, the hospital must identify opportunities for new business ventures. Diversification can be "related," through an expansion of the primary product line (health care), or "unrelated," into areas not directly associated with health care. The hospital must establish specific criteria for evaluating each diversification alternative, and the two or three most attractive options should be analyzed further through a financial feasibility study. The hospital should also seek legal advice to determine the implications of diversification for maintenance of tax status, antitrust limitations, and applicability of certificate of need. Although diversification may not be appropriate for every institution, hospitals should consider it as a strategy for increasing their revenue base, confronting environmental pressures, and securing future survival.

  12. Hospitals' internal accountability.

    PubMed

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  13. Cancer Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  14. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  15. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... but can also be caused by fungi. Hospital construction. Hospital staff do everything they can to prevent ... patients staying at hospitals where there is ongoing construction or renovation. 5 This is thought to be ...

  16. New registry: National Cancer Patient Registry--Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wendy, L; Radzi, M

    2008-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is emerging as one of the commonest cancers in Malaysia. Data on colorectal cancer from the National Cancer Registry is very limited. Comprehensive information on all aspects of colorectal cancer, including demographic details, pathology and treatment outcome are needed as the management of colorectal cancer has evolved rapidly over the years involving several disciplines including gastroenterology, surgery, radiology, pathology and oncology. This registry will be an important source of information that can help the development of guidelines to improve colorectal cancer care relevant to this country. The database will initially recruit all colorectal cancer cases from eight hospitals. The data will be stored on a customized web-based case report form. The database has begun collecting data from 1 October 2007 and will report on its first year findings at the end of 2008. PMID:19230248

  17. New registry: National Cancer Patient Registry--Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wendy, L; Radzi, M

    2008-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is emerging as one of the commonest cancers in Malaysia. Data on colorectal cancer from the National Cancer Registry is very limited. Comprehensive information on all aspects of colorectal cancer, including demographic details, pathology and treatment outcome are needed as the management of colorectal cancer has evolved rapidly over the years involving several disciplines including gastroenterology, surgery, radiology, pathology and oncology. This registry will be an important source of information that can help the development of guidelines to improve colorectal cancer care relevant to this country. The database will initially recruit all colorectal cancer cases from eight hospitals. The data will be stored on a customized web-based case report form. The database has begun collecting data from 1 October 2007 and will report on its first year findings at the end of 2008.

  18. A palliative care initiative in Dokuz Eylul University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Mutafoglu, Kamer

    2011-04-01

    Turkey is among the countries with only "capacity building activity" in terms of palliative care development according to the mapping levels reported by the International Observatory on End of Life Care (http://www.eolc-observatory.net/global/pdf/world_map.pdf). Palliative care units are lacking even in major hospitals. Although some medical oncologists and pain specialists have been providing pain control and symptom relief to some extend, all these interventions remain a fragmented approach to care since there are no palliative care programs. Establishing palliative care services should be a priority in the development of comprehensive cancer care, particularly in a country where more than 60% of the cancer patients present with advanced stage disease. Like all the other university hospitals in the country, palliative care services have not been established so far in Dokuz Eylul University Hospital for several reasons although almost all the modern cancer treatment modalities have been provided to cancer patients. A group of health professionals have recently started a palliative care initiative in the hospital with an aim to raise awareness and to implement basic palliative care interventions to the current cancer care. This paper aims to tell the story of how this initiative get started and which step were taken so far.

  19. Hospital free cash flow.

    PubMed

    Kauer, R T; Silvers, J B

    1991-01-01

    Hospital managers may find it difficult to admit their investments have been suboptimal, but such investments often lead to poor returns and less future cash. Inappropriate use of free cash flow produces large transaction costs of exit. The relative efficiency of investor-owned and tax-exempt hospitals in the product market for hospital services is examined as the free cash flow theory is used to explore capital-market conditions of hospitals. Hypotheses concerning the current competitive conditions in the industry are set forth, and the implications of free cash flow for risk, capital-market efficiency, and the cost of capital to tax-exempt institution is compared to capital-market norms.

  20. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CAH Conditions of Participation . What are the location requirements for CAH status? Critical Access Hospitals must be ... clinic that does not meet the CAH distance requirements? As of January 1, 2008, all CAHs, including ...

  1. Objections to hospital philosophers.

    PubMed Central

    Ruddick, W; Finn, W

    1985-01-01

    Like morally sensitive hospital staff, philosophers resist routine simplification of morally complex cases. Like hospital clergy, they favour reflective and principled decision-making. Like hospital lawyers, they refine and extend the language we use to formulate and defend our complex decisions. But hospital philosophers are not redundant: they have a wider range of principles and categories and a sharper eye for self-serving presuppositions and implicit contradictions within our practices. As semi-outsiders, they are often best able to take an 'external point of view,' unburdened by routine, details, and departmental loyalties. Their clarifications can temporarily disrupt routine, but can eventually improve staff morale, hence team practice and patient welfare. PMID:3981573

  2. Practice Hospital Bed Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bed? Todd says that there is no standard definition for hospital beds, a fact that consumers shopping ... in retail stores that don’t meet the definition of medical devices under the law, but which ...

  3. Hospital free cash flow.

    PubMed

    Kauer, R T; Silvers, J B

    1991-01-01

    Hospital managers may find it difficult to admit their investments have been suboptimal, but such investments often lead to poor returns and less future cash. Inappropriate use of free cash flow produces large transaction costs of exit. The relative efficiency of investor-owned and tax-exempt hospitals in the product market for hospital services is examined as the free cash flow theory is used to explore capital-market conditions of hospitals. Hypotheses concerning the current competitive conditions in the industry are set forth, and the implications of free cash flow for risk, capital-market efficiency, and the cost of capital to tax-exempt institution is compared to capital-market norms. PMID:1743965

  4. Home versus hospital confinement

    PubMed Central

    Barry, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    The case for hospital rather than home delivery has been powerfully argued, especially in and since the Report of the Peel Committee. Nevertheless, evidence of comparison with other countries, notably the Netherlands, suggests the choice is not necessarily simple. Some general practitioner units are now reporting perinatal mortality rates which are consistently lower than those of specialist units, and recent statistical analyses suggest that the presence of more high risk cases in consultant units does not explain this. The only big controlled home-versus-hospital trial did not lead to a significantly lower perinatal mortality rate in the hospital group. The onus of proof now seems to lie with those who advocate 100 per cent hospital confinement. PMID:7373581

  5. Gynecological cancer in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Aziz, M Farid

    2009-03-01

    To overview the status of gynecologic cancer in Indonesia. Information regarding Indonesia obtained from World Bank Report and Statistical Yearbook of Indonesia 2007, epidemiological data obtained from Histopathological Data of Cancer in Indonesia 2002, Department of Health-Registry Body of Indonesian Specialist of Pathology Association-Indonesian Cancer Society; Various Hospitals in big Cities in Indonesia. Indonesia is an Archipelago with a total area of 1,922,570.00 km(2), the population is 222,192,000 (2006), the fourth world rank. Female is 49.86% with life expectancy 69 years. Gross National Product per Capita is 690.00 USD. Histopathological report in 2002 revealed that cervical cancer, ovarian cancer and uterine cancer were the most frequent cancer among female, which were the first (2,532 cases), the third (829 cases) and the eighth (316 cases) rank respectively. The peak age for cervical, uterine and ovarian cancer was 45-54 years. HPV 16, 18 were found in 82% of invasive cervical. Data from various academic hospitals in 2007 showed that cervical cancer is the most common malignancy followed by ovary, uterus, vulva and vagina. Five-year survival rate of stage I, II, III, IV cervical cancer were 50%, 40%, 20%, and 0% respectively. Overall five-year survival rate of carcinoma of the ovary was 54.8%. If sub-classified by stage, five-year survival rate are 94.3%, 75.0%, 31%, and 11.7% for stage I, II, III, and IV respectively. Five-year disease-free survival rate of endometrial cancer was 71.9%. Indonesia is the biggest Archipelago with a dense population but the income per capita still low (poor country). The most common gynecologic cancer is cervical cancer, followed by ovarian and uterine cancer. These cancers are included in top ten cancers in Indonesia. HPV 16, 18 were the most cause of cervical cancer. The five-year survival rates are comparable with world report.

  6. Vulva cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer - perineum; Cancer - vulvar; Genital warts - vulvar cancer; HPV - vulvar cancer ... is rare. Risk factors include: Human papilloma virus (HPV, or genital warts ) infection in women under age ...

  7. Managing diversity in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Sullivan, D B

    1993-01-01

    Hospital work force diversity, although potentially a source of creativity and improved problem solving, is often a source of political strife and the mistreatment of people based on their identification with one or another of the diverse groups that are employed in hospitals. Factors linked to these phenomena are discussed and are the basis for suggestions about how administrators can deal with the organizational pathologies that are often associated with unmanaged work force diversity.

  8. [Hospital organizational structure].

    PubMed

    Bittar, O J

    1994-01-01

    The basic point for an Institution to work is the existence of a definite organizational structure that puts together similar areas allowing decisions and the operationalization of different tasks. Knowledge and analysis of structures of private and public hospitals and a bibliography review about the issue is the purpose of this paper. Suggestions are given about the elaboration of small structures and the utilization of matrix management in order to accomplish the hospitals objectives.

  9. Organizational leadership in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Longest, B B; Darr, K; Rakich, J S

    1993-01-01

    Hospitals face very dynamic environments and must meet diverse needs in the communities they serve and respond to multiple expectations imposed by their stakeholders. Coupled with these variables, the fact that leadership in these organizations is a shared phenomenon makes organizational leadership in them very complicated. An integrative overview of the organizational leadership role of CEOs in hospitals is presented, and determinants of success in playing this role are discussed.

  10. Cogeneration for hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    With health care costs on the rise, hospitals are looking for ways to reduce operating expenses-especially utility bills. But hospitals, more than anyone else, need a continuous source of electricity, heating and air conditioning. They cannot turn off medical equipment or climate control systems in the name of energy conservation. Hospital Corporation of America (HCA), with the help of the Gas Research Institute (GRI), has found a way to supply affordable and efficient power to a mid-size hospital in Houston, Texas. A 500-kilowatt (kw) gasfired cogeneration system, sold as a package, is now being field-tested at the Medical Center Del Oro, a 258-bed hospital facility. The cogeneration system, which began operating last month, will supply the medical center with 145 tons of cooling (or 2.3 MMBtu/hour space heating) and 500,000 Btu/hour for water heating, in addition to the 500 kw of electricity. A Caterpillar continuous-duty turbocharged gas-fueled engine serves as the prime mover, and heat is recovered from its exhaust and from water used to cool the engine. A Trane single-effect absorption chiller supplies chilled water for air conditioning the hospital.

  11. Financing hospital disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Disaster preparedness and response have gained increased attention in the United States as a result of terrorism and disaster threats. However, funding of hospital preparedness, especially surge capacity, has lagged behind other preparedness priorities. Only a small portion of the money allocated for national preparedness is directed toward health care, and hospitals receive very little of that. Under current policy, virtually the entire funding stream for hospital preparedness comes from general tax revenues. Medical payers (e.g., Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance) directly fund little, if any, of the current bill. Funding options to improve preparedness include increasing the current federal grants allocated to hospitals, using payer fees or a tax to subsidize preparedness, and financing other forms of expansion capability, such as mobile hospitals. Alternatively, the status quo of marginal preparedness can be maintained. In any event, achieving higher levels of preparedness likely will take the combined commitment of the hospital industry, public and private payers, and federal, state, and local governments. Ultimately, the costs of preparedness will be borne by the public in the form of taxes, higher healthcare costs, or through the acceptance of greater risk.

  12. Sisters in Dutch hospitals.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh-Braam, A H

    1985-11-01

    This study focuses on hospital sisters in 30 Dutch hospitals. The so-called role-set approach has been adopted. In this approach the sisters are the focal persons. Direct superiors, specialists, registered nurses and student nurses acted as role-senders. The possible number of respondents is 600 (120 of each group). The response of hospital sisters is 100%, that of role-senders 88%. The study started out as an attempt to collect background information on the causes of wastage of sisters. High wastage rates are generally regarded as an indication of an unfavourable working environment. Since hospital sisters occupy a key position in hospitals, the ward problems will be studied from their angle. Although wastage rates have dropped recently, it does not necessarily follow that the working environment has improved. Wastage is known to act as a safety valve, thus allowing tensions to resolve. The threat of unemployment clogs this outlet, which increases the tensions on the hospital ward. Data from the study show that work overload is one of the major stress factors for sisters. Analyses demonstrated that there exists a relationship between work overload and tensions with the management and direct superiors, tensions in job execution, irritableness on the ward, low self-esteem, health complaints and psychological condition. Sisters with an excessive job involvement refer to work overload more often than their moderate colleagues. There is a relationship between an unfavourable working environment and irritableness of sisters.

  13. Comprehensive update on cancer scenario of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Syed Md Akram

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh, at 142 million people, is the ninth most populous country in the world. There are 13 to 15 lakh cancer patients in Bangladesh, with about two lakh patients newly diagnosed with cancer each year. As an overview, lung cancer and mouth-oropharynx cancer rank as the top two prevalent cancers in males. Other types of cancers are esophagus cancer and stomach cancer. In women, cancer cervix uteri and breast cancer are most prevalent. Other cancer types, which affect women, are mouth and oropharynx cancer, lung cancer, and esophagus cancer. There are around 150 qualified clinical oncologists and 16 pediatric oncologists working in the different parts of the country. Regular cancer treatment is available in 19 hospitals and 465 hospital beds are attached as indoor or day care facilities for chemotherapy in the oncology/radiotherapy departments. There are about 15 linear accelerators, 12 Co-60 teletherapy and 12 brachytherapy units currently available. Approximately, 56 cancer chemotherapeutic agents are obtainable in Bangladesh. Research facilities are available at tertiary care centers and a few multi country collaborative research activities are ongoing. Bangladesh has a unique National Cancer Control Strategy and Plan of Action 2009-2015 formulated with the assistance of WHO with an objective to develop and implement continuum of cancer care through a comprehensive cancer control programe. Preventive measures taken to reduce the incidence of cancer include reduced tobacco smoking, change of dietary habit and reduced food adulteration, ensuring reproductive hygiene, increased physical activity, and reduced occupational hazard. Awareness buildup and media campaign are going on by organizing the general people, opinion leaders of the society, and boy and girl scout. Training of general physicians on cancer warning signs and setup of early cancer detection centers at each medical college and district levels are ongoing. Beside these, some other major cancer

  14. Medicare program; changes to the hospital inpatient prospective payment systems and fiscal year 2007 rates; fiscal year 2007 occupational mix adjustment to wage index; health care infrastructure improvement program; selection criteria of loan program for qualifying hospitals engaged in cancer-related health care and forgiveness of indebtedness; and exclusion of vendor purchases made under the competitive acquisition program (CAP) for outpatient drugs and biologicals under part B for the purpose of calculating the average sales price (ASP). Final rules and interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2006-08-18

    -based hospital payments for services and health information technology, as well as how to improve health data transparency for consumers. In addition, we are responding to public comments received on a proposed rule issued in the Federal Register on May 17, 2006 that proposed to revise the methodology for calculating the occupational mix adjustment to the wage index for the FY 2007 hospital inpatient prospective payment system by applying an adjustment to 100 percent of the wage index using new 2006 occupational mix survey data collected from hospitals. We are finalizing two policy documents published in the Federal Register relating to the implementation of the Health Care Infrastructure Improvement Program, a hospital loan program for cancer research, established under the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003. This final rule also revises the definition of the term "unit" to specify the exclusion of units of drugs sold to approved Medicare Competitive Acquisition Program (CAP) vendors for use under the CAP from average sales price (ASP) calculations for a period of up to 3 years, at which time we will reevaluate our policy.

  15. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and bladder cancer: evaluation from a gene-environment perspective in a hospital-based case-control study in the Canary Islands (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Navarro, Patricio; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Camacho, María; Álvarez-León, Eva E; Valencia-Santana, Jorge A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been linked to bladder cancer. Objective: To evaluate the role of PAHs in bladder cancer, PAHs serum levels were measured in patients and controls from a case-control study. Methods: A total of 140 bladder cancer patients and 206 healthy controls were included in the study. Sixteen PAHs were analyzed from the serum of subjects by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Serum PAHs did not appear to be related to bladder cancer risk, although the profile of contamination by PAHs was different between patients and controls: pyrene (Pyr) was solely detected in controls and chrysene (Chry) was exclusively detected in the cases. Phenanthrene (Phe) serum levels were inversely associated with bladder cancer (OR = 0·79, 95%CI = 0·64–0·99, P = 0·030), although this effect disappeared when the allelic distribution of glutathione-S-transferase polymorphisms of the population was introduced into the model (multinomial logistic regression test, P = 0·933). Smoking (OR = 3·62, 95%CI = 1·93–6·79, P<0·0001) and coffee consumption (OR = 1·73, 95%CI = 1·04–2·86, P = 0·033) were relevant risk factors for bladder cancer. Conclusions: Specific PAH mixtures may play a relevant role in bladder cancer, although such effect seems to be highly modulated by polymorphisms in genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:25291984

  16. Pediatric Cancer Recognition Training in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Slone, Jeremy S; Ishigami, Elise; Mehta, Parth S

    2016-01-01

    Delayed presentation of children with cancer is a significant barrier to improving the survival from children's cancer in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Botswana, a country of approximately 2 million people in southern Africa, has only 1 pediatric cancer treatment program, based at Princess Marina Hospital (PMH) in the capital of Gaborone. A pediatric cancer recognition training program was developed that reached 50% of the government hospitals in Botswana teaching 362 health care workers how to recognize and refer children with cancer to PMH. Through evaluation of attendees, limitations in pediatric cancer training and general knowledge of pediatric cancer were identified. Attendees demonstrated improvement in their understanding of pediatric cancer and the referral process to PMH following the workshop. PMID:27336006

  17. Changes in HIV-related hospitalizations during the HAART era in an inner-city hospital.

    PubMed

    Pulvirenti, Joseph; Muppidi, Uma; Glowacki, Robert; Cristofano, Michael; Baker, Laurie

    2007-08-01

    We evaluated admissions of HIV-positive persons to an inner-city hospital from 2000 to 2005. There was a decline in the number of substance abusers, homeless persons, injection drug abusers, and African Americans, and there was an increase in patients older than 50 years. There were no significant changes in CD4 counts or in utilization of highly active antiretroviral therapy,m but there were more admissions of persons with HIV RNA levels less than 1000 copies/mL, internal medicine problems, cancers, and skin infections. Changes in the demographics of this patient population may reflect external factors (eg, gentrification of low-income housing areas, opening of a new hospital). Lower viral loads suggest better response in those on a highly active antiretroviral regimen, and changes in diagnoses leading to hospitalization may reflect the aging of the HIV population. PMID:17717882

  18. Provenance of metasedimentary rocks of the Western Pernambuco-Alagoas Domain: Contribution to understand the crustal evolution of southern Borborema Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Rodrigo Fabiano da; Pimentel, Márcio Martins; Accioly, Ana Cláudia de Aguiar

    2014-12-01

    The Borborema Province is a complex neoproterozoic orogen in northeastern Brazil, made of a mosaic of fault-bounded terrains and several metassedimentary sequences. In the present work, new zircon U-Pb provenance data for metasedimentary rocks in the Western Pernambuco-Alagoas Domain, southern part of the Province, are reported. Detrital zircon ages range from Archean to Neoproterozoic. Three samples of the Cabrobó Complex were investigated: (i) sillimanite-kyanite-garnet-biotite schist, which presented mostly Ediacaran and Cryogenian detrital zircon ages (youngest zircon at ca. 554 Ma) indicating erosion of neoproterozoic sources, (ii) garnet-biotite schist, which has a dominant Tonian/Stenian population, a less abundant Cryogenian (youngest zircon age at ca. 643 Ma) as well as Paleoproterozoic and Archean zircon grains, and (iii) tourmaline-muscovite quartzite, which contains detrital zircon varying in age between ca. 2.08 Ga and 1.57 Ga, and an abundant population close to the Meso/Paleoproterozoic boundary, possibly associated with the erosion of rocks formed during the Statherian taphrogenesis, known in the central part of the São Francisco Craton as well as in other areas of the Borborema Province. Two samples of the Riacho Seco Metasedimentary Complex were also investigated: (i) a biotite schist with a dominant population presenting ages mostly between 2.3 and 2.7 Ga (youngest zircon age at ca. 2023 Ma) and (ii) a magnetite-biotite-muscovite quartzite, having detrital zircon grains with ages ranging between ca. 1.9 and 2.7 Ga. The sedimentary rocks of the Riacho Seco Complex may have their origin related to the erosion of sources within the São Francisco Craton. The data for the Riacho Seco metasedimentary rocks, however, are not conclusive with respect to the depositional age of the original sedimentary rocks. The sequence might represent exposure of an old (Paleoproterozoic) sedimentary pile or, alternatively, it comprises a neoproterozoic passive

  19. Free-standing cancer centers: rationale for improving cancer care delivery.

    PubMed

    Lokich, J J; Silvers, S; Brereton, H; Byfield, J; Bick, R

    1989-10-01

    Free-standing cancer centers (FSCC) represent a growing trend in cancer care delivery within community practice. The critical components to FSCC are multidisciplinary cancer care, a complete menu of direct care and support services, a commitment to clinical trials and clinical investigation, and a comprehensive program for quality assurance. The advantages of FSCC to the community, to hospital programs, to the practicing surgical, medical, and radiation oncologists, and to the third-party carriers, including health maintenance organizations, are detailed. The development of an FSCC depends on the resolution of issues of (a) competition (between hospitals, hospitals and physicians, therapeutic disciplines, regional comprehensive cancer centers and FSCCs) and (b) concerns about conflict of interest. The ideal model of FSCC may well be represented by the joint venture of community hospital(s) and the community oncologists.

  20. Cancer Statistics: Endometrial Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 60,050 % of All New Cancer Cases 3.6% Estimated Deaths in 2016 10,470 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 635,437 women living with endometrial cancer in ...

  1. [Communication among hospital leaders].

    PubMed

    Haberey-Knuessi, Véronique; Heeb, Jean-Luc; De Morgan, Paula Emilie

    2013-12-01

    New management styles imposed on hospital institutions in recent years, have fundamentally changed the organization of the latter. Many texts discuss the consequences, specifically on the field of communication. The aim of this study was to understand the real impact of new management methods on communication by managers in hospital, but also on care teams in termes of satisfaction and/or stress. This two-year study was conducted among 900 executives in hospitals in Western Switzerland using a mixed methodology. A first phase of questionnaires highlighted the problematic areas, while a second phase in the form of organized group interviews in each hospital, had the objective of achieving a better understanding of the relationship between management and communication. The latter proved to be particularly significant in terms of results, and this is the one we focused on in this article.These results indeed show that a crucial role is given to communication by carers, and, at the same time a lessening of the time devoted to relationships, both among peers and with patients. Frustration then arises, which is not without consequences both for the management of patients and the institutions themselves. It is by means of these results that awareness is raised of the omnipresence of communication at all levels and the major advantages that positive dynamic supports. And, on the contrary, of the serious problems which may arise from management practice that do not give due importance to the dimension of communication, present in all sectors of the hospital. PMID:24490450

  2. Utilization of hospital resources.

    PubMed

    Black, C D; Roos, N P; Burchill, C A

    1995-12-01

    A population-based approach was used to analyze the utilization patterns of hospital care by Manitoba residents during the fiscal year 1991/1992. Patterns were analyzed for eight administrative regions, with use assigned to the patient's region of residence, regardless of the location of the hospitalization. Regional boundaries consistent with those used for presentation of data on health status and socioeconomic risk permitted integration of findings across the Population Health Information System. Marked differences in acute hospital use were found. Residents of the urban Winnipeg ("good health") region had the lowest rates of use of acute care overall, and northern rural ("poor health") regions had significantly higher rates of use. However, almost one half of hospital days by Winnipeg residents were used in long-stay care (60+ days), while rural residents were more likely to use short-stay hospital care. Despite a concentration of surgical specialists in Winnipeg, there were only small regional differences in overall rates of surgery. PMID:7500670

  3. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Riley, R; Paddon, P

    1989-01-01

    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985. PMID:2491351

  4. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Riley, R; Paddon, P

    1989-01-01

    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985.

  5. Oral and pharyngeal cancers in Yemen: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Halboub, E S; Abdulhuq, M; Al-Mandili, A

    2012-09-01

    Hospital-based studies have revealed very high relative frequencies of oral and pharyngeal cancers in Yemen. This study estimated the relative frequencies of oral and pharyngeal cancers among Yemeni cancer patients registered in 2007 and 2008 and determined patients' demographic and tumour characteristics. Of the registered 7515 cases, 302 (4.0%) were oral cancer and 239 (3.2%) pharyngeal cancer. Oral cancer was significantly more frequent among females while pharyngeal cancer was significantly more frequent among males. Oral cancer patients were significantly older than pharyngeal cancer patients. The tongue was the most affected oral site (53.6%) while the nasopharynx comprised 89.5% of pharyngeal cancers. The most frequent morphological type was squamous cell carcinoma (93.2%). High proportions of oral cancer (71.5%) and pharyngeal cancer (77.4%) patients were diagnosed at advanced stages. Compared with other countries in the region, oral cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer represent substantial national health burdens in Yemen.

  6. Hospitals as interpretation systems.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J B; McDaniel, R R; Anderson, R A

    1991-01-01

    In this study of 162 hospitals, it was found that the chief executive officer's (CEO's) interpretation of strategic issues is related to the existing hospital strategy and the hospital's information processing structure. Strategy was related to interpretation in terms of the extent to which a given strategic issue was perceived as controllable or uncontrollable. Structure was related to the extent to which an issue was defined as positive or negative, was labeled as controllable or uncontrollable, and was perceived as leading to a gain or a loss. Together, strategy and structure accounted for a significant part of the variance in CEO interpretations of strategic events. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1991677

  7. Internal auditing in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Don; Kusel, Jim; Oxner, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The authors analyzed two national surveys to determine answers for two basic questions: How do the roles of internal auditors compare with those of their counterparts in other industries and to what extent over the past 6 years have the activities of internal auditors changed? Internal auditors in hospitals allocate their time primarily to financial/compliance and operational types of audits, as do their counterparts. The current trend is toward more operational types of audits. In the early years of employment, staff turnover in hospitals is significantly higher than in all combined industries, often leading to internal auditors' filling other positions in the organization. Hospital staff salaries are higher than are salaries in other industries combined. Staff composition continues to reflect the growing presence of women in the field. The majority of internal auditing directors believe that their salaries are fair, would recommend internal auditing as a career position, and are treated as valued consultants in the organization.

  8. Synkinematic emplacement of the magmatic epidote bearing Major Isidoro tonalite-granite batholith: Relicts of an Ediacaran continental arc in the Pernambuco-Alagoas domain, Borborema Province, NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Thyego R. da; Ferreira, Valderez P.; Lima, Mariucha M. Correia de; Sial, Alcides N.; Silva, José Mauricio R. da

    2015-12-01

    The Neoproterozoic Major Isidoro batholith (˜100 km2), composed of metaluminous to slightly peraluminous magmatic epidote-bearing tonalite to granite, is part of the Águas Belas-Canindé composite batholith, which intruded the Pernambuco-Alagoas Domain of the Borborema Province, northeastern Brazil. These rocks contain biotite, amphibole, titanite and epidote that often shows an allanite core as key mafic mineral phases. K-diorite mafic enclaves are abundant in this pluton as well as are amphibole-rich clots. The plutonic rocks are medium-to high-K calc-alkaline, with SiO2 varying from 59.1 to 71.6%, Fe# from 0.6 to 0.9 and total alkalis from 6.1 to 8.5%. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns are moderately fractionated, show (La/Lu)N ratios from 13.6 to 31.8 and discrete negative Eu anomalies (0.48-0.85). Incompatible-element spidergrams exhibit negative Nb-Ta and Ti anomalies. This batholith was emplaced around 627 Ma (U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age) coevally with an amphibolite-facies metamorphic event in the region. It shows Nd-model age varying from 1.1 to 1.4 Ga, average ɛNd(627Ma) of -1.60 and back-calculated (627 Ma) initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.7069 to 0.7086. Inherited zircon cores that yielded 206Pb/238U ages from 800 to 1000 Ma are likely derived from rocks formed during the Cariris Velhos (1.1-0.9 Ga) orogenic event. These isotopic data coupled with calculated δ18O(w.r.) value of +8.75‰ VSMOW indicate an I-type source and suggest a reworked lower continental crust as source rock. A granodioritic orthogneiss next to the Major Isidoro pluton, emplaced along the Jacaré dos Homens transpressional shear zone, yielded a U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age of 642 Ma, recording early tectonic movements along this shear zone that separates the Pernambuco-Alagoas Domain to the north, from the Sergipano Domain to the south. The emplacement of the Major Isidoro pluton was synkinematic, coeval with the development of a regional flat-lying foliation, probably during the peak of

  9. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  10. The benchmark analysis of gastric, colorectal and rectal cancer pathways: toward establishing standardized clinical pathway in the cancer care.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Munemasa; Hamano, Masaaki; Nakagawara, Akira; Shinoda, Masayuki; Shimizu, Hideaki; Miura, Takeshi; Yoshida, Isao; Nemoto, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Aki

    2011-01-01

    Most clinical pathways in treating cancers in Japan are based on individual physician's personal experiences rather than on an empirical analysis of clinical data such as benchmark comparison with other hospitals. Therefore, these pathways are far from being standardized. By comparing detailed clinical data from five cancer centers, we have observed various differences among hospitals. By conducting benchmark analyses, providing detailed feedback to the participating hospitals and by repeating the benchmark a year later, we strive to develop more standardized clinical pathways for the treatment of cancers. The Cancer Quality Initiative was launched in 2007 by five cancer centers. Using diagnosis procedure combination data, the member hospitals benchmarked their pre-operative and post-operative length of stays, the duration of antibiotics administrations and the post-operative fasting duration for gastric, colon and rectal cancers. The benchmark was conducted by disclosing hospital identities and performed using 2007 and 2008 data. In the 2007 benchmark, substantial differences were shown among five hospitals in the treatment of gastric, colon and rectal cancers. After providing the 2007 results to the participating hospitals and organizing several brainstorming discussions, significant improvements were observed in the 2008 data study. The benchmark analysis of clinical data is extremely useful in promoting more standardized care and, thus in improving the quality of cancer treatment in Japan. By repeating the benchmark analyses, we can offer truly clinical evidence-based higher quality standardized cancer treatment to our patients.

  11. Cancer trends and risk factors in Cyprus

    PubMed Central

    Farazi, Paraskevi A.

    2014-01-01

    Cyprus, a European Union member state, is a small island in the Mediterranean with a population approaching 900,000 people. Cancer is the second leading cause of death; more therapeutic options for any patient with the disease are available in a central oncology centre in the capital of the island (Nicosia) and fewer therapeutic options (e.g. chemotherapy and hormone therapy only) in a few other public hospitals. Palliative care is offered in several hospices and hospitals, although the field needs improvement. With regards to screening, a national breast cancer screening programme has been in place countrywide since 2007 and is offered free of charge to women between the ages of 50 and 69 years, while colorectal and prostate cancer screening is performed on an individual basis (a pilot programme for colorectal cancer screening was recently initiated). Genetic testing is available for breast and colon cancer. To improve understanding of the causes of cancer in the country, a cancer research centre was established in 2010 (Mediterranean Centre for Cancer Research). Recent epidemiologic work has revealed increasing cancer trends in Cyprus; prostate cancer is the most common in men and breast cancer is the most common in women. Interestingly, thyroid cancer incidence in women has been rising from 1998 to 2008. Cancer of the colon and rectum is also on the rise affecting both sexes. Overall, cancer incidence in Cyprus is lower than other EuroMed countries with similar lifestyle and geography. PMID:24678344

  12. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  13. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  14. Hospital structure and consumer satisfaction.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, G V

    1981-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between hospital structural characteristics and patient satisfaction with hospital care. Teaching hospitals and private hospitals were expected to receive higher ratings of patient satisfaction than were nonteaching and government-controlled hospitals, because they generally are reputed to be technologically superior. Results show that, in general, most patients are satisfied with their hospital stays, but they are clearly more dissatisfied with their stays in teaching hospitals. Although a number of other correlates of patient satisfaction with the hospital stay are identified, no measure succeeds in reducing to insignificance the strong relationship between teaching status and dissatisfaction. Some suggestions are made as to why teaching hospital receive relatively poor evaluations from their patients. PMID:7228714

  15. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colthurst, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  16. Hospital perceived value.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    The creation, distribution and communication of value have been considered to be the key element of marketing (American Marketing Association, 2004, www.marketingpower.com). The aim of this article is to identify the indicators of perceived value in a hospital context. The results show that perceived quality and emotions are key dimensions of perceived value.

  17. Hospital restructuring and burnout.

    PubMed

    Greenglass, Esther R; Burke, Ronald J

    2002-01-01

    Increasingly, organizations are experiencing changes as a result of extensive downsizing, restructuring, and merging. In Canada, government-sponsored medicine has been affected as hospitals have merged or closed, reducing essential medical services and resulting in extensive job loss for hospital workers, particularly nurses. Hospital restructuring has also resulted in greater stress and job insecurity in nurses. The escalation of stressors has created burnout in nurses. This study examines predictors of burnout in nurses experiencing hospital restructuring using the MBI-General Survey which yields scores on three scales: Emotional exhaustion, Cynicism, and Professional efficacy. Multiple regressions were conducted where each burnout scale was the criterion and stressors (e.g., amount of work, use of generic workers to do nurses' work), restructuring effects, social support, and individual resources (e.g., control coping, self-efficacy, prior organizational commitment) were predictors. There were differences in the amount of variance accounted for in the burnout components by stressors and resources. Stressors contributed most to emotional exhaustion and least to professional efficacy. Individual resources were more likely to contribute to professional efficacy and least to emotional exhaustion. Stressors and resources accounted for approximately equal amounts of variance in cynicism. Three conclusions were drawn. First, present findings parallel others by showing that individual coping patterns contribute to professional efficacy. Second, emotional exhaustion was found to be the prototype of stress. Third, prior organizational commitment, self-efficacy, and control coping resulted in lower burnout.

  18. Planning Australia's hospital workforce.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mary; Gavel, Paul; Conn, Warwick

    2002-01-01

    Growing government support has been evident during the past decade for macro-level workforce planning to ensure that future populations have access to appropriate health care services. Population ageing is impacting on workforce requirements and on workforce supply within Australia and internationally. Changes in financing and the organisation of health services are impacting on the availability of training and on the quality of working life. The age and gender profile and career expectations of young Australians are changing. These factors are all adding to the importance and complexity of workforce planning. This paper draws on data from various sources to describe Australia's hospital workforce, to explore supply-side workforce trends and to discuss some contemporary issues of concern to policy makers and workforce planners. The paper finds that in recent years there has been a 3 per cent decline in the number of full time equivalent staff in public hospitals, while the number in the private hospital workforce has increased by 28 per cent. The paper concludes that, nationally, there are serious limitations in the data available to describe and monitor the hospital workforce and that there is a need to remedy this situation.

  19. Hospital Library Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Anne

    Although this handbook is addressed primarily to the hopital administrator, it contains material of interest to the librarian as well. Basic requirements for providing good library services to hospital staff are identified as: (1) well chosen and well trained manpower; (2) a current collection of information materials; and (3) appropriate space in…

  20. In-hospital resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Mason, Christine

    2016-09-21

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The CPD article outlined the response sequence required for cardiac arrest in an in-hospital environment and discussed effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation. PMID:27654563

  1. Incarceration and hospital care.

    PubMed

    Prince, Jonathan D

    2006-01-01

    Risk for jail or prison recidivism is well documented among incarcerated individuals with schizophrenia. However, it is less clear that risk is also high for psychiatric hospital readmission after accounting for mediating influences such as psychopathology severity, functioning level, substance misuse, and demographic characteristics. Relative to counterparts without prior time in jail, this study therefore assessed whether formerly incarcerated individuals with schizophrenia were more likely to repeatedly use hospital care after controlling for level of functioning and symptomatology. Among 315 inpatients, former inmates had a greater mean number of previous hospital stays than other patients (t = -2.13; df = 305; p = 0.03) and were more likely to visit the emergency room or be rehospitalized within 3 months of discharge (chi2 = 8.83; df = 1; p = 0.003). They were twice as likely to be readmitted, moreover, even after accounting in logistic regression for age, sex, race, global functioning, psychopathology severity, alcohol abuse or dependence, and drug abuse or dependence (OR = .49; CI = .26-.95). Implications for community care are discussed, and the suggestion is made that jail diversion programs should be renamed and refocused as "jail and hospital diversion." PMID:16462553

  2. Hospital perceived value.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    The creation, distribution and communication of value have been considered to be the key element of marketing (American Marketing Association, 2004, www.marketingpower.com). The aim of this article is to identify the indicators of perceived value in a hospital context. The results show that perceived quality and emotions are key dimensions of perceived value. PMID:17077707

  3. Cost characteristics of hospitals.

    PubMed

    Smet, Mike

    2002-09-01

    Modern hospitals are complex multi-product organisations. The analysis of a hospital's production and/or cost structure should therefore use the appropriate techniques. Flexible functional forms based on the neo-classical theory of the firm seem to be most suitable. Using neo-classical cost functions implicitly assumes minimisation of (variable) costs given that input prices and outputs are exogenous. Local and global properties of flexible functional forms and short-run versus long-run equilibrium are further issues that require thorough investigation. In order to put the results based on econometric estimations of cost functions in the right perspective, it is important to keep these considerations in mind when using flexible functional forms. The more recent studies seem to agree that hospitals generally do not operate in their long-run equilibrium (they tend to over-invest in capital (capacity and equipment)) and that it is therefore appropriate to estimate a short-run variable cost function. However, few studies explicitly take into account the implicit assumptions and restrictions embedded in the models they use. An alternative method to explain differences in costs uses management accounting techniques to identify the cost drivers of overhead costs. Related issues such as cost-shifting and cost-adjusting behaviour of hospitals and the influence of market structure on competition, prices and costs are also discussed shortly. PMID:12220092

  4. Speech intelligibility in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ryherd, Erica E; Moeller, Michael; Hsu, Timothy

    2013-07-01

    Effective communication between staff members is key to patient safety in hospitals. A variety of patient care activities including admittance, evaluation, and treatment rely on oral communication. Surprisingly, published information on speech intelligibility in hospitals is extremely limited. In this study, speech intelligibility measurements and occupant evaluations were conducted in 20 units of five different U.S. hospitals. A variety of unit types and locations were studied. Results show that overall, no unit had "good" intelligibility based on the speech intelligibility index (SII > 0.75) and several locations found to have "poor" intelligibility (SII < 0.45). Further, occupied spaces were found to have 10%-15% lower SII than unoccupied spaces on average. Additionally, staff perception of communication problems at nurse stations was significantly correlated with SII ratings. In a targeted second phase, a unit treated with sound absorption had higher SII ratings for a larger percentage of time as compared to an identical untreated unit. Taken as a whole, the study provides an extensive baseline evaluation of speech intelligibility across a variety of hospitals and unit types, offers some evidence of the positive impact of absorption on intelligibility, and identifies areas for future research.

  5. Peptic ulcer in hospital

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, H. Daintree

    1962-01-01

    This study corresponds to an estimated 142,250 admissions for peptic ulcer to the wards of National Health Service hospitals in England and Wales during the two years 1956 and 1957. It presents a picture of the incidence and mortality of complications and surgical treatment throughout England and Wales. PMID:14036965

  6. [Leadership in the hospital].

    PubMed

    Schrappe, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Current concepts in leadership and governance on the level of supervisory board, management and departments are often considered as insufficient to cope with the profound structural change which actually takes place in the German health care system. While vertical and horizontal disconnecting is typical of the professional bureaucracy of hospitals, transition from functional to divisional structure further increases this risk. Accordingly, medical experts are oriented towards their professional peers and patient care on the one side; on the other side the management gets isolated and looses operative and strategic control. Several studies provide evidence for the relevance of role models to serve as agents of change, which are now developed into the concept of "Clinical Governance": evidence-based medicine, guidelines, continuous quality improvement, safety culture, resource accountability and organisational learning. The present situation makes it necessary to extend this conception, which focuses on the departmental level in an organisation with divisional features, to one of "Clinical Corporate Governance". This term, which also includes supervisory structures and the management board and is relevant for the total hospital and company, respectively, is based on the corporate governance concept. Inside the hospital, the management and the heads of the departments have to agree that (1) experts really need to be integrated into the decision process, and that (2) the outcomes of the entire hospital have to be regarded as equal or superior to the aims of a single department. The public image of the hospital should be one of a strong and reliable partner in health care and health care business on a local, regional and national level. Members of the supervisory board should clearly put corporate aspects above political and other implications and pay attention to personal independence from the leaders of the medical departments.

  7. Improving Hospital Discharge Time

    PubMed Central

    El-Eid, Ghada R.; Kaddoum, Roland; Tamim, Hani; Hitti, Eveline A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Delays in discharging patients can impact hospital and emergency department (ED) throughput. The discharge process is complex and involves setting specific challenges that limit generalizability of solutions. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of using Six Sigma methods to improve the patient discharge process. This is a quantitative pre and post-intervention study. Three hundred and eighty-six bed tertiary care hospital. A series of Six Sigma driven interventions over a 10-month period. The primary outcome was discharge time (time from discharge order to patient leaving the room). Secondary outcome measures included percent of patients whose discharge order was written before noon, percent of patients leaving the room by noon, hospital length of stay (LOS), and LOS of admitted ED patients. Discharge time decreased by 22.7% from 2.2 hours during the preintervention period to 1.7 hours post-intervention (P < 0.001). A greater proportion of patients left their room before noon in the postintervention period (P < 0.001), though there was no statistical difference in before noon discharge. Hospital LOS dropped from 3.4 to 3.1 days postintervention (P < 0.001). ED mean LOS of patients admitted to the hospital was significantly lower in the postintervention period (6.9 ± 7.8 vs 5.9 ± 7.7 hours; P < 0.001). Six Sigma methodology can be an effective change management tool to improve discharge time. The focus of institutions aspiring to tackle delays in the discharge process should be on adopting the core principles of Six Sigma rather than specific interventions that may be institution-specific. PMID:25816029

  8. [Leadership in the hospital].

    PubMed

    Schrappe, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Current concepts in leadership and governance on the level of supervisory board, management and departments are often considered as insufficient to cope with the profound structural change which actually takes place in the German health care system. While vertical and horizontal disconnecting is typical of the professional bureaucracy of hospitals, transition from functional to divisional structure further increases this risk. Accordingly, medical experts are oriented towards their professional peers and patient care on the one side; on the other side the management gets isolated and looses operative and strategic control. Several studies provide evidence for the relevance of role models to serve as agents of change, which are now developed into the concept of "Clinical Governance": evidence-based medicine, guidelines, continuous quality improvement, safety culture, resource accountability and organisational learning. The present situation makes it necessary to extend this conception, which focuses on the departmental level in an organisation with divisional features, to one of "Clinical Corporate Governance". This term, which also includes supervisory structures and the management board and is relevant for the total hospital and company, respectively, is based on the corporate governance concept. Inside the hospital, the management and the heads of the departments have to agree that (1) experts really need to be integrated into the decision process, and that (2) the outcomes of the entire hospital have to be regarded as equal or superior to the aims of a single department. The public image of the hospital should be one of a strong and reliable partner in health care and health care business on a local, regional and national level. Members of the supervisory board should clearly put corporate aspects above political and other implications and pay attention to personal independence from the leaders of the medical departments. PMID:19545081

  9. Direct admission to the hospital: An alternative approach to hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Leyenaar, JoAnna K; Lagu, Tara; Lindenauer, Peter K

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate use of emergency departments (EDs) is a focus of national healthcare reform efforts, and patients requiring hospital admission account for a substantial proportion of ED utilization. Despite this, little attention has been paid to evaluating direct admission to the hospital as an alternative to hospital admissions beginning in the ED. In this Perspective, we discuss the role of hospital medicine in the changing epidemiology of hospital admissions, the potential risks and benefits of direct admission to the hospital, and the need for research to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this admission approach. We propose that transitions of care research and quality improvement, historically focused on hospital-to-home transitions, be expanded to address transitions into the hospital. PMID:26588666

  10. Hospital-acquired infections - when are hospitals legally liable?

    PubMed

    McQuoid-Mason, David

    2012-04-12

    Hospital-acquired infections (nosocomial infections) are acquired in healthcare settings by patients admitted for reasons unrelated to the infection or not previously infected when admitted to the facility. Liability for hospital-acquired infections depends on whether the hospital: (i) has introduced best practice infection control measures; (ii) has implemented best practice infection control measures; or (iii) will be vicariously liable for negligent or intentional failures by staff to comply with the infection control measures implemented. A hospital and hospital administrators may be held directly liable for not introducing or implementing best practice infection control measures, resulting in harm to patients. The hospital may also be held vicariously liable where patients have been harmed because hospital staff negligently or intentionally failed to comply with the infection control measures that have been implemented by the hospital, during the course and scope of their employment.

  11. Patterns of hospital resource utilization of children with leukemia and CNS tumors: a comparison of children who survive and those who die within 3 years of diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Karrie Cummings; Rimar, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Hospital admissions for children with cancer tend to be longer than admissions for adults with cancer and longer, more frequent, and more costly than other pediatric admissions. The two childhood cancers most commonly requiring hospitalization are leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system (CNS tumors). Determining the best use of limited financial resources and preparing children and their parents for what to expect requires a better understanding of the patterns and cost of hospital resource utilization by children with cancer. Both hospital administrators and third-party payers can use this understanding to better allocate resources and plan the care of children with cancer in the future. Because many parents of children with cancer struggle financially due to the high cost of treatments, time off of work, and other non-medical expenses, more education in this area may help parents to prepare, thus alleviating some of the uncertainty and unexpected financial costs associated with childhood cancer.

  12. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Thyroid Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Thyroid Cancer Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Symptoms ...

  13. Anal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Anal Cancer Anal Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Anal Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Anal Cancer Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention Screening ...

  14. Cancer Statistics: Pancreas Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Series Pancreatic Cancer - Did you know that an estimated 46,000 Americans were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 53,070 % of All ...

  15. Hospital Library Development. Hospital Library Handbooks No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Anne

    Addressed to the administrator of the hospital as well as the librarian, this handbook covers aspects of library service policy and long-range planning. While hospitals of all sizes are discussed, a special effort is made to cover problems of small hospitals (17 to 100 beds) in sparsely-settled regions. Contents: The library as a clinical service,…

  16. [Hospital clinical ethics committees].

    PubMed

    Gómez Velásquez, Luis; Gómez Espinosa, Luis Néstor

    2007-01-01

    The scientific and technological advances have been surprising, more in the two last decades, but they don't go united with to the ethical values of the medical professional practice, it has been totally escaped, specially when the biological subsistence, the maintenance of the life through apparatuses and the mechanisms that prolong the existence are who undergoes an alteration that until recently time was mortal shortly lapse. It is common listening that exist a crisis in the medical profession, but what really is it of human values, which as soon and taken into nowadays, actually professional account, which gives rise to a dehumanization towards the life, the health, the disease, the suffering and the death. The ideal of the doctor to give to service to the man in its life and health, as well to be conscious that the last biological process that must fulfill is the death, and when it appears, does not have considered as a actually professional failure. It has protect to the patient as the extreme cruelty therapeutic, that it has right a worthy death. It's taking to the birth of the hospital ethics committees, they have like function to analyze, to advise and to think about the ethical dilemmas that appear actually clinical or in the biomedical investigation. In 1982 in the UEA only 1% of its hospitals had a ethics committees; by 1988, it was 67% and the 100% in 2000. In Mexico the process of the formation by these committees begins, only in the Military Central Hospital, to count the ethics committee on 1983, also the Hospital no. 14 of the IMSS in Guadalajara, it works with regularity from 1995, with internal teaching of bioethic. The Secretariat of Health has asked the formation of the bioethical committees in each hospital, and order the it was be coordinated by the National Committee of Bioética. The integration of these committees is indispensable that their members have the knowledge necessary of bioética. The Mexican Society of Ortopedia, conscious of

  17. [Volgograd military hospital--70 years].

    PubMed

    Novikov, V Ia; Alborov, Z Ts

    2012-01-01

    History of the Volgograd military hospital dates back to July 24, 1941, when on the basis of the regional children's bone tuberculosis sanatorium in Krasnodar was transformed into 2150th military hospital consisted of 240 beds. Since May 1944 relocated in the city of Stalingrad became a garrison hospital. Today the hospital is a multidisciplinary health centre of the Russian Defense Ministry. Annually, the hospital performed at least 3000 surgical procedures, including more than 37%--are complex. In surgery, improved endovideosurgical direction, over 31% of emergency operations performed using this method. Since December 2009 the hospital became a structural division of the District Hospital in 1602 in Rostov on Don. The close connection between the branch and district hospital allows for complex diagnostic situations to consult leading experts, including consultation, thus ensuring the most effective treatment results.

  18. Hanging on the hospital telephone.

    PubMed

    Bates, Jane

    2016-09-21

    When someone dear to you is admitted to hospital in an emergency, you are not in a calm frame of mind. You want news, and fast. But when you call the hospital, the phone just keeps ringing. PMID:27654550

  19. E-procurement in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Julio Villalobos; Orrit, Joan; Villalobos, Juan Pablo

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the history, current status, advantages of and opposition to the implementation of e-procurement in hospitals and examines the results of its implementation in a psychiatric hospital.

  20. Guide to Choosing a Hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... the following and more: • Find hospitals by name, city, county, state, or ZIP code. • Check the results ... by the hospital name, or by ZIP Code, City, State or Territory, or County. • Select General Search, ...

  1. Hospital Preparedness and SARS

    PubMed Central

    Wallington, Tamara; Rutledge, Tim; Mederski, Barbara; Rose, Keith; Kwolek, Sue; McRitchie, Donna; Ali, Azra; Wolff, Bryan; White, Diane; Glassman, Edward; Ofner, Marianna; Low, Don E.; Berger, Lisa; McGeer, Allison; Wong, Tom; Baron, David; Berall, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    On May 23, 2003, Toronto experienced the second phase of a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. Ninety cases were confirmed, and >620 potential cases were managed. More than 9,000 persons had contact with confirmed or potential case-patients; many required quarantine. The main hospital involved during the second outbreak was North York General Hospital. We review this hospital’s response to, and management of, this outbreak, including such factors as building preparation and engineering, personnel, departmental workload, policies and documentation, infection control, personal protective equipment, training and education, public health, management and administration, follow-up of SARS patients, and psychological and psychosocial management and research. We also make recommendations for other institutions to prepare for future outbreaks, regardless of their origin. PMID:15200807

  2. How hospitals approach price transparency.

    PubMed

    Houk, Scott; Cleverley, James O

    2014-09-01

    A survey of finance leaders found that hospitals with lower charges were more likely than other hospitals to emphasize making prices defensible rather than simply transparent. Finance leaders of hospitals with higher charges were more likely to express concern that price transparency would cause a reduction in hospital revenue by forcing them to lower charges. Those respondents said commercial payers likely will have to agree to renegotiate contracts for price transparency to be a financially viable proposition. PMID:25647890

  3. Childrens Hospital Inservice Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Joan

    A description is provided of a 15-month, in-service nursing education program at Childrens Hospital (Los Angeles, California). The first sections of the paper describe Childrens Hospital and provide a rationale for the hospital-based program. A listing of program goals and objectives is also provided, indicating that the curriculum is designed to…

  4. Hospitality Services. Student Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This student activity book contains pencil-and-paper activities for use in a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The activities are organized into 29 chapters on the following topics: hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization/management structures in…

  5. Strategic market planning for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Zallocco, R L; Joseph, W B; Doremus, H

    1984-01-01

    The application of strategic market planning to hospital management is discussed, along with features of the strategic marketing management process. A portfolio analysis tool, the McKinsey/G.E. Business Screen, is presented and, using a large urban hospital as an example, discussed in detail relative to hospital administration. Finally, strategic implications of the portfolio analysis are examined.

  6. Before Hospitalization: A Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Beverly H.

    1974-01-01

    A tour of the hospital, a puppet show, and a discussion period afterwards over lemonade and cookies are all part of one hospital's efforts to prepare children and their families for the hospitalization, surgery, or other experiences young patients must undergo. (Author/CS)

  7. Hospitality Studies: Escaping the Tyranny?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashley, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore current strands in hospitality management education and research, and suggest that future programs should reflect a more social science informed content. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews current research in hospitality management education and in the study of hospitality and…

  8. Library Hospitality: Some Preliminary Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eric D. M.; Kazmer, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    Library scholars and practitioners have frequently reflected on the various factors that in combination make up a hospitable library, but there has been little theoretical synthesis of the notion of the library as a place of hospitality. The hospitality industry provides a rich vein of theoretical material from which to draw definitions of…

  9. Epidemiology of cancer in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lo, E K

    1985-12-01

    Some information on cancer in Malaysia are available, and its epidemiology is described. There is a need for systematic and coordinated collection of cancer statistics which are essential to patient management, cancer control programme formulation, implementation and evaluation. The decision of the Ministry of Health to introduce National Cancer Registry and to encourage epidemiological studies, which will ultimately lead to the utilization of data and introduction of control and preventive activities for cancers are positive steps in the right direction. Meanwhile, curative and palliative treatment is available from the existing hospital facilities, and preventive activities such as actions on smoking and health will be continued until such time when a comprehensive prevention and control programme for cancers in the country is evolved.

  10. Cancer recurrence worry, risk perception, and informational-coping styles among Appalachian cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Shedlosky-Shoemaker, Randi; Porter, Kyle; Desimone, Philip; Andrykowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the psychosocial impact of the threat of cancer recurrence, underserved populations, such as those from the Appalachian region, have been understudied. To examine worry and perceived risk in cancer survivors, Appalachian and non-Appalachian cancer patients at an ambulatory oncology clinic in a university hospital were surveyed. Appalachians had significantly higher worry than non-Appalachians. Cancer type and lower need for cognition were associated with greater worry. Those with missing perceived risk data were generally older, less educated, and lower in monitoring, blunting, and health literacy. Additional resources are needed to assist Appalachians and those with cancers with poor prognoses (e.g., liver cancer, pancreatic cancer) to cope with worry associated with developing cancer again. More attention for cancer prevention is critical to improve quality of life in underserved populations where risk of cancer is greater.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus in health care workers at a university hospital of Recife-PE.

    PubMed

    Silva, Eduardo Caetano Brandão Ferreira da; Antas, Maria das Graças C; Monteiro B Neto, Armando; Rabelo, Marcelle Aquino; Melo, Fábio Lopes de; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira

    2008-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the main human pathogen that colonizes individuals in general population. The objective of the study was evaluate the epidemiological and sensitivity profile of S. aureus lineage, isolated in health care workers (HCW) of a University Hospital in Pernambuco state, Brazil. Biological samples of hands and nasal cavities were sown in agar sheep blood. Colonies under suspicion of being S. aureus were identified using Gram staining, catalase test and coagulase, mannitol-salty agar fermentation and DNAse agar. The resistance to mupirocin was analyzed through the Kirby Bauer technique. In relation to methicillin and vancomycin the determination was by the minimum inhibitory concentration method (E-test). From the 202 HCW evaluated, 52 were colonized by S. aureus (25,7%). The factors associated to the colonization by S. aureus were: age-group, professional category, use of individual protection equipments (frequency and numbers). All S. aureus isolate lineages were sensitive to mupirocin and vancomycin, and three of them were identified as methicillin-resistant. The prevalence of MSSA and MRSA among HCW was considered low and was below the results described in the literature. The isolate S. aureus lineages have shown low resistance profile.

  12. Hospital mergers and market overlap.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, G R; Jones, V G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To address two questions: What are the characteristics of hospitals that affect the likelihood of their being involved in a merger? What characteristics of particular pairs of hospitals affect the likelihood of the pair engaging in a merger? DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Hospitals in the 12 county region surrounding the San Francisco Bay during the period 1983 to 1992 were the focus of the study. Data were drawn from secondary sources, including the Lexis/Nexis database, the American Hospital Association, and the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development of the State of California. STUDY DESIGN: Seventeen hospital mergers during the study period were identified. A random sample of pairs of hospitals that did not merge was drawn to establish a statistically efficient control set. Models constructed from hypotheses regarding hospital and market characteristics believed to be related to merger likelihood were tested using logistic regression analysis. DATA COLLECTION: See Data Sources/Study Setting. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis shows that the likelihood of a merger between a particular pair of hospitals is positively related to the degree of market overlap that exists between them. Furthermore, market overlap and performance difference interact in their effect on merger likelihood. In an analysis of individual hospitals, conditions of rivalry, hospital market share, and hospital size were not found to influence the likelihood that a hospital will engage in a merger. CONCLUSIONS: Mergers between hospitals are not driven directly by considerations of market power or efficiency as much as by the existence of specific merger opportunities in the hospitals' local markets. Market overlap is a condition that enables a merger to occur, but other factors, such as the relative performance levels of the hospitals in question and their ownership and teaching status, also play a role in influencing the likelihood that a merger will in fact take place. PMID

  13. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Prostate Cancer What is Prostate Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) How Prostate Cancer Occurs Prostate cancer occurs when a tumor forms ...

  14. Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... esophagus, and chest wall Lung Cancer Esophageal Cancer Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Barrett’s Esophagus Chest Wall Tumors Mediastinal Tumors ... Section Navigation Select Topic Lung Cancer Esophageal Cancer Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Barrett’s Esophagus Chest Wall Tumors Mediastinal Tumors ...

  15. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Breast Cancer What is Breast Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... tumors form in the breast tissue. Who Gets Breast Cancer? Breast cancer is one of the most common ...

  16. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Ovarian Cancer There are five main types of cancer that affect a woman’s reproductive organs: cervical, ovarian, uterine, ... rare fallopian tube cancer.) This fact sheet about ovarian cancer is part of the Centers for Disease Control ...

  17. Cancer Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer statistics across the world. U.S. Cancer Mortality Trends The best indicator of progress against cancer is ... the number of cancer survivors has increased. These trends show that progress is being made against the ...

  18. Testicular cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - testes; Germ cell tumor; Seminoma testicular cancer; Nonseminoma testicular cancer ... The exact cause of testicular cancer is unknown. Factors that may ... increases if he has: Abnormal testicle development Exposure ...

  19. [Refuse disposal at the hospital].

    PubMed

    Knoll, K H

    1990-02-01

    For the classification of hospital-wastes in the categories infectious-contaminate or special waste are only significant views of the prevention by nosocomial infection in the hospital. Solely infectious waste become removed hospital-intern and -extern on conditions of hygienic prevention, namely through secure packing during the transport, combustion or desinfection. Special wastes to be defeated by special-conditions. The hygienist of the hospital is only competent for the classification of the wastes in the hospital as well as for their refuse.

  20. A novel approach for estimating the nationwide incidence of renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to provide a novel approach for estimating the incidence of renal cancer in Germany by using hospitalization data from the years 2005–2006 and to compare these estimates with incidence rates from cancer registries. We used nationwide hospitalization data from the years 2005–2006 including 34.2 million hospitalizations. We used three definitions of potential incident renal cancer cases: 1) a main or secondary diagnosis of renal cancer and a partial or total nephrectomy; 2) a main diagnosis of renal cancer and a partial or total nephrectomy; and 3) a main diagnosis of renal cancer (without a secondary diagnosis of renal pelvis cancer) and a partial or total nephrectomy. In addition, we used cancer registry data for comparison of rates. Results Hospitalization data to which definition 2 applied provided incidence rate estimates nearly identical to those provided by the cancer registries (when the cases registered from death certificates only were excluded). Age-standardized (European standard population) incidence rates based on hospitalization data and cancer registry data were 15.6 per 100 000 and 15.7 per 100 000 among men and 8.0 per 100 000 and 7.6 per 100 000 among women respectively. Cancer registry-based incidence rates were lower especially among those federal states with an estimated completeness of registration below 90% (Berlin and Saxony-Anhalt). Conclusions Representative hospitalization data can be used to estimate incidence rates of renal cancer. We propose that incidence rates can be estimated by hospitalization data if 1) the primary treatment is performed during an in-hospital stay and 2) nearly all patients undergo a defined surgical procedure that is not repeated for the treatment of the same cancer. Our results may be useful for countries with no or incomplete cancer registration or for countries that use hospitalization data to provide a representative incidence of renal cancer. PMID:25057278

  1. Lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer.

  2. Hospital administrator's perspectives regarding the health care industry.

    PubMed

    McDermott, D R; Little, M W

    1988-01-01

    Based on responses from 52 hospital administrators, four areas of managerial concern have been addressed, including: (1) decision-making factors; (2) hospital service offerings: current and future; (3) marketing strategy and service priorities; and (4) health care industry challenges. Of the total respondents, 35 percent indicate a Director of Marketing has primary responsibility for making marketing-related decisions in their hospital, and 19 percent, a Vice-President of Marketing, thus demonstrating the increased priority of the marketing function. The continued importance of the physician being the primary market target is highlighted by 70 percent of the administrators feeling physician referrals will be more important regarding future admissions than in the past, compared to only two percent feeling the physicians' role will be less important. Of primary importance to patients selecting a hospital, as perceived by the administrators, are the physician's referral, the patient's previous experience, the hospital's reputation, and the courtesy of the staff. The clear majority of the conventional-care hospitals surveyed offer out-patient surgery, a hospital pharmacy, obstetrics/maternity care, and diabetic services. The future emphasis on expanding services is evidenced by some 50 percent of the hospital administrators indicating they either possibly or definitely plan to offer long-term nursing care, out-patient substance abuse programs, and cancer clinics by 1990. In addition, some one-third of the respondents are likely to expand their offerings to include wellness/fitness centers, in-patient substance abuse programs, remote or satellite primary care clinics, and diabetic services. Other areas having priority for future offerings include services geared specifically toward women and the elderly. Perceived as highest in priority by the administrators regarding how their hospital can achieve its goals in the next three years are market development strategies

  3. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... for Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the ...

  4. Simulation in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Proctor, T

    1996-01-01

    Health care costs continue to rise because increased demand for services and limited budgets put pressure on resources, however efficiently they may be used. Proposes discrete event simulation as an effective tool in the search for more efficient health care systems. Looks at the application of a desktop computer simulation package to model part of a hospital subsystem. The simulation package shows how efficiency might be improved by moderating available resources and times taken to complete tasks. Maintains that the principles expounded here are applicable to many different aspects of health care management. PMID:10161783

  5. Immunoscore in Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-28

    Cancer of the Rectum; Neoplasms, Rectal; Rectal Cancer; Rectal Tumors; Rectal Adenocarcinoma; Melanoma; Breast Cancer; Renal Cell Cancer; Lung Cancer; Bladder Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Thyroid Cancer

  6. What Causes Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » What Causes Cancer? Cancer is a complex group of diseases with ... cancer. Learn About Cancer Topics Cancer Basics What Causes Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate ...

  7. [Satisfaction of hospitalized patients in a hospital in Apurimac, Peru].

    PubMed

    Sihuin-Tapia, Elsa Yudy; Gómez-Quispe, Oscar Elisban; Ibáñez-Quispe, Vladimiro

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the satisfaction of hospitalized patients in the Sub-regional Hospital of Andahuaylas, 175 patients were surveyed using the Servqual multidimensional model. The estimate of variables associated with the satisfaction of the hospitalized patients was performed by using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. We found 25.0% satisfaction. Lower levels of satisfaction were associated with having a secondary level education (aOR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.64) and with having been hospitalized in the surgery department (aOR 0.14, CI: 95%: 0.04 to 0.53). It was concluded that there was a low level of satisfaction with the quality of care received by hospitalized patients and this was associated with the level of education and type of hospital department. PMID:26338391

  8. [Family and psychiatric hospitalization in a general hospital].

    PubMed

    de Mello, Rita Mello; Schneider, Jacó Fernando

    2011-06-01

    This study aims to identify the reasons that lead relatives to hospitalize patients in a psychiatric unit of a general hospital. It is a qualitative study based on Alfred Schutz' phenomenological sociology. Fourteen relatives, each with one family member hospitalized, were interviewed from August to October 2009. The guiding question of the phenomenological interview was "What do you expect from psychiatric hospitalization in a general hospital?". Phenomenological sociology was used to understand and interpret the interviews. Statements showed three concrete categories, that lead to the reasons for: treatment guidelines and continuity; prospects for improvement; ideas about normality. This research shows the experiences of relatives, contributing with mental health professionals' reflection about their actions and about the involvement of families in a general hospital's psychiatric unit. PMID:21987981

  9. [Satisfaction of hospitalized patients in a hospital in Apurimac, Peru].

    PubMed

    Sihuin-Tapia, Elsa Yudy; Gómez-Quispe, Oscar Elisban; Ibáñez-Quispe, Vladimiro

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the satisfaction of hospitalized patients in the Sub-regional Hospital of Andahuaylas, 175 patients were surveyed using the Servqual multidimensional model. The estimate of variables associated with the satisfaction of the hospitalized patients was performed by using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. We found 25.0% satisfaction. Lower levels of satisfaction were associated with having a secondary level education (aOR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.64) and with having been hospitalized in the surgery department (aOR 0.14, CI: 95%: 0.04 to 0.53). It was concluded that there was a low level of satisfaction with the quality of care received by hospitalized patients and this was associated with the level of education and type of hospital department.

  10. Opportunistic immunisation in hospital

    PubMed Central

    Conway, S

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To assess the potential for administering catch up and scheduled immunisations during hospital admission.
METHODS—Immunisation status according to the child's principal carer was checked against official records for 1000 consecutively admitted preschool age children. Junior doctors were instructed to offer appropriate vaccination before discharge, and consultants were asked to reinforce this proactive policy on ward rounds.
RESULTS—Excluding those children who were not fully immunised against pertussis through parental choice, 142 children (14.2%) had missed an age appropriate immunisation and 41 were due a scheduled immunisation. None had a valid contraindication. Only 43 children were offered vaccination on the ward but uptake was 65% in this group.
CONCLUSIONS—Admission to hospital provides opportunities for catch up and routine immunisations and can contribute to the health care of an often disadvantaged group of children. These opportunities are frequently missed. Junior doctors must be encouraged to see opportunistic immunisation as an important part of their routine work.
 PMID:10519717

  11. Hospital-Associated Infections.

    PubMed

    Babady, N Esther

    2016-06-01

    Hospital-associated infection (HAI) in immunocompromised patients can result in high rates of morbidity and mortality. Infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are especially worrisome because of the limited choice of remaining antibiotics available when a patient becomes colonized or infected with an MDRO. It is therefore important that immunocompromised patients be cared for in an environment that limits the risk for acquiring infections. However, with healthcare being increasingly delivered in settings other than the traditional inpatient hospital wards, a bigger effort will need to be set forth to prevent or rapidly diagnose HAI. The last few years have seen a significant increase in the number of singleplex and multiplex molecular assays for the detection of many of the organisms responsible for HAI, but more is needed as infections caused by organisms like Legionella pneumophila and Aspergillus species are still diagnosed with methods that have relatively low yield and are slow to provide actionable results. Finally, the use of novel techniques for outbreak investigations will provide new information on transmission of infectious agents in healthcare settings and allow stronger, evidence-based recommendations to be developed for prevention of HAIs in the immunocompromised host. PMID:27337459

  12. Design of paediatric hospitals.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Veronica

    2016-05-01

    The impact of healthcare environments on children and young people's (CYP) health and psychosocial wellbeing has attracted much attention in recent years. This sits within the realm of the political drive for enhanced awareness of the need to take account of the rights and voice of the child. Perhaps as a direct result of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and recognition from evidence in adult population studies of the impact of healthcare environments on psychosocial healing, contemporary times have witnessed a discernible movement towards enhancing quality care by promoting child and adolescent-friendly hospital environments. The Council of Europe guidelines on child-friendly health care moved to place the rights and needs of children at the heart of health care. The Council acknowledges that the delivery of child-oriented services, which includes the notion of family-centred care, should be delivered in child and family friendly environments. However, knowledge about what constitutes a child-friendly healthcare environment from CYP's perspective is often lacking with hospital architectural blueprints predominantly designed around adult proxy-reported assumptions about the needs and desires of children.

  13. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses

    PubMed Central

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M.; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62%) completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors. PMID:26729142

  14. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses.

    PubMed

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O

    2015-12-29

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62%) completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors.

  15. Structural determinants of hospital closure.

    PubMed

    Longo, D R; Chase, G A

    1984-05-01

    In a retrospective case-control study, structural characteristics of hospitals that closed during the years 1976-1980 were contrasted with three comparison groups: hospitals that were acquired in a merger; hospitals that joined a multihospital system; and hospitals that remained autonomously opened, to investigate these characteristics as predictors of closure. Characteristics investigated included environmental, structural, and process variables. The independent variables were measured 5 years prior to outcome. Findings indicate that closed hospitals resemble hospitals acquired in a merger ("failure"), and likewise autonomous hospitals resemble hospitals that join a multihospital system ("success"). The most important predictors of hospital failure were the physician-to-population ratio, the East North Central and West North Central census regions, the level of diversification, low occupancy rate, location in a standard metropolitan statistical area, the chief executive officer's lack of affiliation in the American College of Hospital Administrators, profit status, bed size of less than 50, and presence in a state with a rate-setting agency. Surprisingly, this study shows the bed-to-population ratio to be unrelated to closure. In addition, the findings strongly support the open-system perspective, which, unlike the closed-system perspective, is concerned with the vulnerability of the organization to the uncontrollable and often unpredictable influences of the environment.

  16. Hospital service offerings: does Catholic ownership matter?

    PubMed

    White, Kenneth R; Begun, James W; Tian, Wenqiang

    2006-01-01

    Controlling for market and organizational characteristics, Catholic hospitals in 2001 offered more stigmatized and compassionate care services than investor-owned hospitals, and more stigmatized services than public hospitals. There were no differences between Catholic hospitals and other nonprofit hospitals, however, in the number of compassionate, stigmatized, and access services offered. This may reflect growing isomorphism in the nonprofit hospital sector.

  17. Hospitalization for diseases attributable to human papillomavirus in the Veneto Region (North-East Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually-transmitted pathogens. A number of studies in the literature have estimated the burden of HPV-related diseases by collecting data at primary care level, while a comprehensive assessment of the global burden of HPV-related diseases on hospital resources is still lacking. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study based on hospital discharge data collected from 2000 to 2010 in the Veneto Region (north-east Italy). All hospitalizations for diseases potentially associated with HPV were identified by searching the hospital discharge records, then the proportion of these hospitalizations relating to diseases attributable to the HPV infection was calculated. Results Overall, the annual hospitalization rate for HPV-related diseases was 21.3 per 100,000 individuals in the general population, 15.8 per 100,000 males, and 27.6 per 100,000 females. Hospitalizations were due mainly to genital warts, and peak among 15- to 44-year-olds in both genders. Taking both sexes together, the hospitalizations attributable to HPV dropped from 24.5/100,000 in 2000 to 17.5/100,000 in 2011, showing a significant decline during this period, with an average annual percent change (AAPC) of −1.9% (CI 95%: -2.8, -0.9;). On the other hand, the hospitalization rate for genital warts tended to increase significantly (AAPC 3.0% [CI 95%: 1.4;4.7]), whilst there was a significantly declining trend in the hospitalization rate for anal cancer (AAPC - 5.0% [CI 95%: -7.7;-2.2]), genital cancer (AAPC −6.2% [CI 95%: -7.8;-4.6]) and oropharyngeal cancer (AAPC −4.3% [CI 95%: -4.8;-3,8]). Conclusion Data derived from the hospital records indicate that HPV-related diseases are an important public health issue. PMID:24094080

  18. Quality of Life in Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy for Primary Lung Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, or Gastrointestinal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Anal Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer

  19. Total quality in acute care hospitals: guidelines for hospital managers.

    PubMed

    Holthof, B

    1991-08-01

    Quality improvement can not focus exclusively on peer review and the scientific evaluation of medical care processes. These essential elements have to be complemented with a focus on individual patient needs and preferences. Only then will hospitals create the competitive advantage needed to survive in an increasingly market-driven hospital industry. Hospital managers can identify these patients' needs by 'living the patient experience' and should then set the hospital's quality objectives according to its target patients and their needs. Excellent quality program design, however, is not sufficient. Successful implementation of a quality improvement program further requires fundamental changes in pivotal jobholders' behavior and mindset and in the supporting organizational design elements.

  20. Has competition increased hospital technical efficiency?

    PubMed

    Lee, Keon-Hyung; Park, Jungwon; Lim, Seunghoo; Park, Sang-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Hospital competition and managed care have affected the hospital industry in various ways including technical efficiency. Hospital efficiency has become an important topic, and it is important to properly measure hospital efficiency in order to evaluate the impact of policies on the hospital industry. The primary independent variable is hospital competition. By using the 2001-2004 inpatient discharge data from Florida, we calculate the degree of hospital competition in Florida for 4 years. Hospital efficiency scores are developed using the Data Envelopment Analysis and by using the selected input and output variables from the American Hospital Association's Annual Survey of Hospitals for those acute care general hospitals in Florida. By using the hospital efficiency score as a dependent variable, we analyze the effects of hospital competition on hospital efficiency from 2001 to 2004 and find that when a hospital was located in a less competitive market in 2003, its technical efficiency score was lower than those in a more competitive market.

  1. Does outsourcing affect hospital profitability?

    PubMed

    Danvers, Kreag; Nikolov, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Organizations outsource non-core service functions to achieve cost reductions and strategic benefits, both of which can impact profitability performance. This article examines relations between managerial outsourcing decisions and profitability for a multi-state sample of non-profit hospitals, across 16 states and four regions of the United States. Overall regression results indicate that outsourcing does not necessarily improve hospital profitability. In addition, we identify no profitability impact from outsourcing for urban hospitals, but somewhat positive effects for teaching hospitals. Our regional analysis suggests that hospitals located in the Midwest maintain positive profitability effects with outsourcing, but those located in the South realize negative effects. These findings have implications for cost reduction efforts and the financial viability of non-profit hospitals.

  2. Union Density and Hospital Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Koys, Daniel J; Martin, Wm Marty; LaVan, Helen; Katz, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    The authors address the hospital outcomes of patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income per bed. They define union density as the percentage of a hospital's employees who are in unions, healthcare quality as its 30-day acute myocardial infraction (AMI; heart attack) mortality rate, and patient satisfaction as its overall Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems score. Using a random sample of 84 union and 84 nonunion hospitals from across the United States, multiple regression analyses show that union density is negatively related to patient satisfaction. Union density is not related to healthcare quality as measured by the AMI mortality rate or to net income per bed. This implies that unions per se are not good or bad for hospitals. The authors suggest that it is better for hospital administrators to take a Balanced Scorecard approach and be concerned about employee satisfaction, patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income. PMID:26652043

  3. Association between body mass index and in-hospital outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Meng, Qingrui; Vin-Raviv, Neomi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Importance: Over one-third of American adults (36%) are obese and more than two-thirds (69%) are overweight. The impact of obesity on hospitalization outcomes is not well understood. Objective: To examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and overall, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific in-hospital mortality; postsurgical complications; and hospital length of stay (LOS). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Representative sample of US hospitals included in the Health Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. Participants: We obtained data for patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of cancer, COPD, asthma, and CVD. Main Outcome: In-hospital mortality, postsurgical complications, and hospital LOS. Results: A total of 800,417 patients were included in this analysis. A higher proportion of Blacks (26.8%; 12.5%) and Whites (23.3%; 8.7%) had BMI of 40 to 49.9 and ≥50, respectively, compared with Hispanics (20.4%; 7.3%). Compared with normal BMI patients, the odds of in-hospital mortality increased 3.6-fold (odds ratio [OR] 3.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.37–3.89) for preobese patients, 6.5-fold (OR: 6.52, 95% CI: 5.79–7.34) for patients with BMI: 30 to 31.9, 7.5-fold (OR: 7.57, 95% CI: 6.67–8.59) for patients with BMI: 34 to 35.9, and 1.6- fold (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.56–1.79) for patients with BMI ≥ 50. Compared with normal BMI patients, preobese and overweight patients had shorter hospital stays (β preobese: −1.58, 95% CI: −1.63, −1.52); however, no clear trends were observed for postsurgical complications. Conclusions: The majority of hospitalized patients in this analysis had a BMI > 30, and higher BMI was associated with increased risk of mortality and longer hospital stay. PMID:27428218

  4. [Ten Years after Implementation of Cancer Control Act].

    PubMed

    Kakizoe, Tadao

    2016-09-01

    A brief description of the history of Cancer Control in Japan was presented for the first time. The establishment of the National Cancer Center and Comprehensive 10-year Strategy for Cancer Control Program, which has been implemented for 30 years, is most important. In response to the concerns raised by cancer patients, their families, and lay people, such as elimination of disparity arising from where they live or which hospital they attend, and asymmetrical cancer information, the Cancer Control Act was established in 2006 and executed in 2007. The Basic Plan to Promote Cancer Control Programs was started in 2007 as a 10-year plan. Hospitals that specialize in cancer treatment, nearly 400 in total, were appointed all over Japan. Hospitals that specialize in pediatric cancer were also appointed all over Japan. Cancer education for children and special issues, including employment of cancer patients, were stressed. Since the establishment of the Cancer Control Act, the Cancer Control Strategy in this country has been achieved remarkably as a frame. Henceforth, all items should be elucidated by giving importance to the opinion of patients, their families, and lay people. PMID:27628541

  5. Lower Mortality in Magnet Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Matthew D.; Kelly, Lesly A.; Smith, Herbert L.; Wu, Evan S.; Vanak, Jill M.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although there is evidence that hospitals recognized for nursing excellence—Magnet hospitals—are successful in attracting and retaining nurses, it is uncertain whether Magnet recognition is associated with better patient outcomes than non-Magnets, and if so why. Objectives To determine whether Magnet hospitals have lower risk-adjusted mortality and failure-to-rescue compared with non-Magnet hospitals, and to determine the most likely explanations. Method and Study Design Analysis of linked patient, nurse, and hospital data on 56 Magnet and 508 non-Magnet hospitals. Logistic regression models were used to estimate differences in the odds of mortality and failure-to-rescue for surgical patients treated in Magnet versus non-Magnet hospitals, and to determine the extent to which differences in outcomes can be explained by nursing after accounting for patient and hospital differences. Results Magnet hospitals had significantly better work environments and higher proportions of nurses with bachelor's degrees and specialty certification. These nursing factors explained much of the Magnet hospital effect on patient outcomes. However, patients treated in Magnet hospitals had 14% lower odds of mortality (odds ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.76–0.98; P = 0.02) and 12% lower odds of failure-to-rescue (odds ratio 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.77–1.01; P = 0.07) while controlling for nursing factors as well as hospital and patient differences. Conclusions The lower mortality we find in Magnet hospitals is largely attributable to measured nursing characteristics but there is a mortality advantage above and beyond what we could measure. Magnet recognition identifies existing quality and stimulates further positive organizational behavior that improves patient outcomes. PMID:24022082

  6. Lower Mortality in Magnet Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Matthew D.; Kelly, Lesly A.; Smith, Herbert L.; Wu, Evan S.; Vanak, Jill M.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although there is evidence that hospitals recognized for nursing excellence— Magnet hospitals—are successful in attracting and retaining nurses, it is uncertain whether Magnet recognition is associated with better patient outcomes than non-Magnets, and if so why. Objectives To determine whether Magnet hospitals have lower risk-adjusted mortality and failure-to-rescue compared to non-Magnet hospitals, and to determine the most likely explanations. Method and Study Design Analysis of linked patient, nurse, and hospital data on 56 Magnet and 508 non-Magnet hospitals. Logistic regression models were used to estimate differences in the odds of mortality and failure-to-rescue for surgical patients treated in Magnet vs. non-Magnet hospitals, and to determine the extent to which differences in outcomes can be explained by nursing after accounting for patient and hospital differences. Results Magnet hospitals had significantly better work environments and higher proportions of nurses with bachelor’s degrees and specialty certification. These nursing factors explained much of the Magnet hospital effect on patient outcomes. However, patients treated in Magnet hospitals had 14% lower odds of mortality (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.76-0.98, p=0.02) and 12% lower odds of failure-to-rescue (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.77-1.01, p=0.07) while controlling for nursing factors as well as hospital and patient differences. Conclusions Magnet hospitals have lower mortality than is fully accounted for by measured characteristics of nursing. Magnet recognition likely both identifies existing quality and stimulates further positive organizational behavior that improves patient outcomes. PMID:23047129

  7. IK Brunel's Crimean war hospital.

    PubMed

    Merridew, C G

    2014-07-01

    "Those wonderful huts…" (Florence Nightingale). This is the story of the British Civil Hospital, erected in 1855 at Renkioi on the south Dardanelles coast of Turkey. The spectacular hospital was a portable one designed by British engineer IK Brunel. It was his only health-related project, and it was known as a Civil Hospital because its staff were all civilians, despite its patients being military.

  8. RFID solution benefits Cambridge hospital.

    PubMed

    James, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Keeping track of thousands of pieces of equipment in a busy hospital environment is a considerable challenge, but, according to RFID tagging and asset tracking specialist, Harland Simon, RFID technology can make the task considerably simpler. Here Andrew James, the company's RFID sales manager, describes the positive benefits the technology has brought the Medical Equipment Library (MEL) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, one of the world's most famous teaching hospitals.

  9. Wearing gloves in the hospital

    MedlinePlus

    Infection control - wearing gloves; Patient safety - wearing gloves; Personal protective equipment - wearing gloves; PPE - wearing gloves; Nosocomial infection - wearing gloves; Hospital acquired infection - wearing gloves

  10. The physician exodus from hospitals.

    PubMed

    Royce, P C

    1997-04-01

    Physicians are spending increasingly less of their work week in the hospital. This is true of surgeons because they are performing more ambulatory surgery, often off the hospital premises, and for primary care physicians because they are delegating hospital care of their patients to others. What are the effects of this physician exodus on hospitals, patients, physicians, and medical education? Some of these consequences are explored, from disruptions in the continuity of care, to increase in practice productivity, to preparing undergraduates for the realities of medical practice.

  11. Psychiatric hospitalization in Poland.

    PubMed

    Frydman, L

    1983-01-01

    An overview of psychiatric hospitalization in Poland is presented in the context of Polish political and socio-cultural developments. The areas addressed include: the characteristics of the patient population; the organization of Polish mental health service; the nature of psychiatric treatment; psychiatric legislation; patients' rights; and the training and social status of the various mental health professionals. In spite of the meager resources allocated to mental health services, and the consequent staff shortages and overcrowded, drab living conditions in psychiatric facilities, the care afforded patients is generally humane and nonoppressive. Polish psychiatry has succeeded in maintaining its professional autonomy and has assumed a leadership role in the modernization of its service delivery system.

  12. Controlling hospital library theft

    PubMed Central

    Cuddy, Theresa M.; Marchok, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    At Capital Health System/Fuld Campus (formerly Helene Fuld Medical Center), the Health Sciences Library lost many books and videocassettes. These materials were listed in the catalog but were missing when staff went to the shelves. The hospital had experienced a downsizing of staff, a reorganization, and a merger. When the library staff did an inventory, $10,000 worth of materials were found to be missing. We corrected the situation through a series of steps that we believe will help other libraries control their theft. Through regularly scheduling inventories, monitoring items, advertising, and using specific security measures, we have successfully controlled the library theft. The January 2002 inventory resulted in meeting our goal of zero missing books and videocassettes. We work to maintain that goal. PMID:12883573

  13. Controlling hospital library theft.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Theresa M; Marchok, Catherine

    2003-04-01

    At Capital Health System/Fuld Campus (formerly Helene Fuld Medical Center), the Health Sciences Library lost many books and videocassettes. These materials were listed in the catalog but were missing when staff went to the shelves. The hospital had experienced a downsizing of staff, a reorganization, and a merger. When the library staff did an inventory, $10,000 worth of materials were found to be missing. We corrected the situation through a series of steps that we believe will help other libraries control their theft. Through regularly scheduling inventories, monitoring items, advertising, and using specific security measures, we have successfully controlled the library theft. The January 2002 inventory resulted in meeting our goal of zero missing books and videocassettes. We work to maintain that goal.

  14. Evaluation of institutional cancer registries in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, L G; Roca, S; Rodríguez, M N; Stein, J; Izquierdo, J; Trujillo, A; Mora, M

    1999-09-01

    The four primary objectives of this descriptive study were to: 1) design a quality-measurement instrument for institutional cancer registries (ICRs), 2) evaluate the existing ICRs in Colombia with the designed instrument, 3) categorize the different registries according to their quality and prioritize efforts that will efficiently promote better registries with the limited resources available, and 4) determine the institution with the greatest likelihood of successfully establishing Colombia's second population-based cancer registry. In 1990 the National Cancer Institute of Colombia developed 13 institution-based cancer registries in different Colombian cities in order to promote the collection of data from a large group of cancer diagnostic and treatment centers. During the first half of 1997, this evaluation reviewed 12 registries; one of the original 13 no longer existed. All of the Colombian institutions (hospitals) that maintain institution-based cancer registries were included in the study. At each institution, a brief survey was administered to the hospital director, the registry coordinator, and the registrar (data manager). Researchers investigated the institutions by looking at six domains that are in standard use internationally. Within each domain, questions were developed and selected through the Delphi method. Each domain and each question were assigned weights through a consensus process. In most cases, two interviewers went to each site to collect the information. The university hospitals in Cali, Pereira, and Medellín had substantially higher scores, reflecting a good level of performance. Four of the 12 institutions had almost no cancer registry work going on. Five of the 12 hospital directors considered that the information provided by the cancer registries influenced their administrative decisions. Three of the registries had patient survival data. Four of the institutions allocated specific resources to operate their cancer registries; in the

  15. Molecular alterations of Ras-Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathways in colorectal cancers from a tertiary hospital at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yip, Wai Kien; Choo, Chee Wei; Leong, Vincent Ching-Shian; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Jabar, Mohd Faisal; Seow, Heng Fong

    2013-10-01

    Molecular alterations in KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and PTEN have been implicated in designing targeted therapy for colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study aimed to determine the status of these molecular alterations in Malaysian CRCs as such data are not available in the literature. We investigated the mutations of KRAS, BRAF, and PTEN, the gene amplification of PIK3CA, and the protein expression of PTEN and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunit (p110α) by direct DNA sequencing, quantitative real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in 49 CRC samples. The frequency of KRAS (codons 12, 13, and 61), BRAF (V600E), and PTEN mutations, and PIK3CA amplification was 25.0% (11/44), 2.3% (1/43), 0.0% (0/43), and 76.7% (33/43), respectively. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated loss of PTEN protein in 54.5% (24/44) of CRCs and no significant difference in PI3K p110α expression between CRCs and the adjacent normal colonic mucosa (p = 0.380). PIK3CA amplification was not associated with PI3K p110α expression level, but associated with male cases (100% of male cases vs 56% of female cases harbored amplified PIK3CA, p = 0.002). PI3K p110α expression was significantly higher (p = 0.041) in poorly/moderately differentiated carcinoma compared with well-differentiated carcinoma. KRAS mutation, PIK3CA amplification, PTEN loss, and PI3K p110α expression did not correlate with Akt phosphorylation or Ki-67 expression. KRAS mutation, PIK3CA amplification, and PTEN loss were not mutually exclusive. This is the first report on CRC in Malaysia showing comparable frequency of KRAS mutation and PTEN loss, lower BRAF mutation rate, higher PIK3CA amplification frequency, and rare PTEN mutation, as compared with published reports.

  16. Pre-hospital emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark H; Habig, Karel; Wright, Christopher; Hughes, Amy; Davies, Gareth; Imray, Chirstopher H E

    2015-12-19

    Pre-hospital care is emergency medical care given to patients before arrival in hospital after activation of emergency medical services. It traditionally incorporated a breadth of care from bystander resuscitation to statutory emergency medical services treatment and transfer. New concepts of care including community paramedicine, novel roles such as emergency care practitioners, and physician delivered pre-hospital emergency medicine are re-defining the scope of pre-hospital care. For severely ill or injured patients, acting quickly in the pre-hospital period is crucial with decisions and interventions greatly affecting outcomes. The transfer of skills and procedures from hospital care to pre-hospital medicine enables early advanced care across a range of disciplines. The variety of possible pathologies, challenges of environmental factors, and hazardous situations requires management that is tailored to the patient's clinical need and setting. Pre-hospital clinicians should be generalists with a broad understanding of medical, surgical, and trauma pathologies, who will often work from locally developed standard operating procedures, but who are able to revert to core principles. Pre-hospital emergency medicine consists of not only clinical care, but also logistics, rescue competencies, and scene management skills (especially in major incidents, which have their own set of management principles). Traditionally, research into the hyper-acute phase (the first hour) of disease has been difficult, largely because physicians are rarely present and issues of consent, transport expediency, and resourcing of research. However, the pre-hospital phase is acknowledged as a crucial period, when irreversible pathology and secondary injury to neuronal and cardiac tissue can be prevented. The development of pre-hospital emergency medicine into a sub-specialty in its own right should bring focus to this period of care. PMID:26738719

  17. Segmentation in local hospital markets.

    PubMed

    Dranove, D; White, W D; Wu, L

    1993-01-01

    This study examines evidence of market segmentation on the basis of patients' insurance status, demographic characteristics, and medical condition in selected local markets in California in the years 1983 and 1989. Substantial differences exist in the probability patients may be admitted to particular hospitals based on insurance coverage, particularly Medicaid, and race. Segmentation based on insurance and race is related to hospital characteristics, but not the characteristics of the hospital's community. Medicaid patients are more likely to go to hospitals with lower costs and fewer service offerings. Privately insured patients go to hospitals offering more services, although cost concerns are increasing. Hispanic patients also go to low-cost hospitals, ceteris paribus. Results indicate little evidence of segmentation based on medical condition in either 1983 or 1989, suggesting that "centers of excellence" have yet to play an important role in patient choice of hospital. The authors found that distance matters, and that patients prefer nearby hospitals, moreso for some medical conditions than others, in ways consistent with economic theories of consumer choice.

  18. Faculty Internships for Hospitality Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Christine; Hales, Jonathan A; Wiener, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Internships can help hospitality faculty build industry relationships while also ensuring the best and most current training for their students. Many hospitality organizations have structured faculty internships available or are willing to work with faculty to provide individualized internship opportunities. Career and technical educators in…

  19. Practicing Hospitality in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burwell, Rebecca; Huyser, Mackenzi

    2013-01-01

    This article explores pedagogical approaches to teaching students how to practice hospitality toward the other. Using case examples from the college classroom, the authors discuss the roots of Christian hospitality and educational theory on transformative learning to explore how students experience engaging with others after they have…

  20. Management of the Hospital Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Alvis G.

    1976-01-01

    Hospital studies indicate the need for an environmental/sanitarian specialist for control of nosocomial infection and maintenance of a quality environment. The author recommends these requirements for certification as a hospital environmentalist: academic studies including toxicology, epidemiology, hygiene, management, and an internship in…

  1. Comparing Candidate Hospital Report Cards

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, T.L.; Rivenburgh, R.D.; Scovel, J.C.; White, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    We present graphical and analytical methods that focus on multivariate outlier detection applied to the hospital report cards data. No two methods agree which hospitals are unusually good or bad, so we also present ways to compare the agreement between two methods. We identify factors that have a significant impact on the scoring.

  2. Latex in the Hospital Environment

    MedlinePlus

    LATEX in the Hospital Environment Updated Fall 2015 This list provides a guide to some of the most common objects containing latex and offers some ... remover–Sepha Pharm) 1 LATEX in the Hospital Environment (continued) Frequently contains LATEX OR/Infection Control masks, ...

  3. Hospitality Management Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotherton, Bob, Ed.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Seven articles on hospitality management training discuss the following: computerized management games for restaurant manager training, work placement, real-life exercises, management information systems in hospitality degree programs, modular programming, service quality concepts in the curriculum, and General National Vocational Qualifications…

  4. Cancer - penis

    MedlinePlus

    ... an organ that makes up part of the male reproductive system. Causes The exact cause is unknown. Smegma, a ... Squamous cell cancer - penis Images Male reproductive anatomy Male reproductive system References National Comprehensive Cancer Network. National Comprehensive Cancer ...

  5. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  6. Esophageal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - esophagus ... Esophageal cancer is not common in the United States. It occurs most often in men over 50 years old. There are two main types of esophageal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. These two types ...

  7. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Lung Cancer What is Lung Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made ... button on your keyboard.) Two Major Types of Lung Cancer There are two major types of lung ...

  8. Anal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Anal Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Whether you (or ... the topics below to get started. What Is Anal Cancer? What is anal cancer? What are the ...

  9. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  10. Breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink per day (women at high risk for breast cancer should not drink alcohol at all) ... Services Task Force. Risk assessment, genetic counseling, and ... cancer treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Date ...

  11. Bone Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  12. Stomach cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - stomach; Gastric cancer; Gastric carcinoma; Adenocarcinoma of the stomach ... Several types of cancer can occur in the stomach. The most common type is called adenocarcinoma. It starts from one of the cell ...

  13. Uterine Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus. This type of cancer is sometimes called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of ...

  14. Stomach Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  15. Cancer Moonshot

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Moonshot, led by Vice President Joe Biden, will marshal resources across the federal government to speed progress in cancer research and lead to improved cancer prevention, detection, and treatment.

  16. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  17. Hospital transformation and organisational learning.

    PubMed

    Ho, W

    1999-12-01

    Kwong Wah Hospital was founded by the charity organisation Tung Wah Group of Hospitals some 88 years ago, with management transfer to the Hong Kong Hospital Authority in 1991. Capitalizing both from the traditional caring culture of its founder, as well as opportunities in the new management environment, the hospital has scored remarkable successes in service quality, community partnership, organisational effectiveness, and staff development. Underpinning these transformations were Structure, Process, People, and Culture strategies. The learning imperative is heavily mandated or the success of each of these strands of development. Indeed, the embodiment of a learning organisation culture provides the impetus in sustaining the change momentum, towards achieving the Vision of becoming a 'Most Preferred Hospital' in Hong Kong. PMID:10673847

  18. New directions in hospital governance.

    PubMed

    Shortell, S M

    1989-01-01

    This article suggests new directions for hospital governance to meet the demands of a rapidly changing health care environment. Board members must increasingly play roles as risk takers, strategic directors, experts, mentors, and evaluators. Lessons from other industries regarding risk taking, use of expertise, and streamlining decision making must be adapted to meet hospital needs. Recent data suggest that these needs may still differ by hospital ownership despite a convergence in investor-owned and not-for-profit corporate structures. The effectiveness of hospital boards in the future will depend on their ability to: (1) manage a diverse group of stakeholders; (2) involve physicians in the management and governance process; (3) meet the governance needs of multi-institutional systems and hospital restructuring; (4) meet the challenges of diversification and vertical integration; and (5) understand strategy formulation and implementation as interdependent and interrelated processes.

  19. NCI-supported facility to conduct cancer trials breaks ground in Puerto Rico

    Cancer.gov

    The Puerto Rican government has allocated $196 million dollars to build a 287,000 sq. ft., 96-bed, cancer hospital in San Juan. The new hospital, which will provide cancer treatment and conduct clinical trials, is the first of its kind in the Caribbean.

  20. Americans' view of cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J; Blanchard, J; Harvey, C

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of the town hall meeting and discusses how it can be used as a forum for those who have been touched by cancer. It can be a platform for people to express their views about cancer, not only in the community but also nationally. Empowerment is the hallmark of a town hall meeting. Those who are in leadership positions in health care and elected officials and community leaders are given the opportunity to hear the opinions of people who represent a broad-based constituency of individuals affected by cancer. The idea of holding a town hall meeting was first introduced in the cancer community by the National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship NCCS) as a means of identifying issues, exchanging information and considering creative solutions to problems. The first town hall meeting was held in 1994 in conjunction with the NCCS annual assembly. Since then, utilizing the guidelines set forth by the NCCS, 30 or more town hall meetings have been held across the United States. Cancer survivors have, by and large, been responsible for garnering the necessary support for conducting a town hall in their local area. Organizations such as the American Cancer Society, the Leukemia Society of America, hospitals, clinics, pharmaceutical and healthcare companies and also noncancer groups, such as the YMCA, churches, and radio/T.V. stations, join with the cancer survivors in organizing the meeting, planning related displays, and advertising the event. In 1998, seven town hall meetings were sponsored jointly by OnCare and NCCS in advance and support of the upcoming THE MARCH- Coming Together To Conquer Cancer, a national rally held in Washington, D.C. in September 1998. Attendees at the meetings included not only cancer survivors and their families, but also healthcare professionals, local and state legislators, community leaders and the media. Results of the 1998 town hall meetings are discussed and compared with the topics identified during the meetings

  1. Americans' view of cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J; Blanchard, J; Harvey, C

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of the town hall meeting and discusses how it can be used as a forum for those who have been touched by cancer. It can be a platform for people to express their views about cancer, not only in the community but also nationally. Empowerment is the hallmark of a town hall meeting. Those who are in leadership positions in health care and elected officials and community leaders are given the opportunity to hear the opinions of people who represent a broad-based constituency of individuals affected by cancer. The idea of holding a town hall meeting was first introduced in the cancer community by the National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship NCCS) as a means of identifying issues, exchanging information and considering creative solutions to problems. The first town hall meeting was held in 1994 in conjunction with the NCCS annual assembly. Since then, utilizing the guidelines set forth by the NCCS, 30 or more town hall meetings have been held across the United States. Cancer survivors have, by and large, been responsible for garnering the necessary support for conducting a town hall in their local area. Organizations such as the American Cancer Society, the Leukemia Society of America, hospitals, clinics, pharmaceutical and healthcare companies and also noncancer groups, such as the YMCA, churches, and radio/T.V. stations, join with the cancer survivors in organizing the meeting, planning related displays, and advertising the event. In 1998, seven town hall meetings were sponsored jointly by OnCare and NCCS in advance and support of the upcoming THE MARCH- Coming Together To Conquer Cancer, a national rally held in Washington, D.C. in September 1998. Attendees at the meetings included not only cancer survivors and their families, but also healthcare professionals, local and state legislators, community leaders and the media. Results of the 1998 town hall meetings are discussed and compared with the topics identified during the meetings

  2. Physicians and foundation hospitals.

    PubMed

    Cooper, John; Black, Carol

    2003-01-01

    Foundation NHS Trusts will be constituted in the same way as Mutual Societies, and local people and patients will be invited to become subscribers. Subscribers will elect a board of governors who will appoint the non-executive directors of the Trusts. Foundation Trusts will be outside the performance management system, but will be subject to a regulator and to inspection. Contracts with commissioners will be legally enforceable. Issues discussed in the article include: financial borrowing; whether competition is being reintroduced; poaching staff; fears of a two-tier health service; fragmentation of the NHS; the impact on research and teaching; and the impact on the current 'target culture'. Local communities and patient groups may welcome involvement with their local hospitals, but special interest groups could be a danger. Foundation Trusts may bring back some of the better features of NHS Trusts as originally conceived, and offer better opportunities for clinicians to influence local policies and priorities. Fears of yet another organisational change are an important issue. Only time will tell whether the outcome will justify the effort the changes will involve. PMID:14703035

  3. Cancer Core Europe: a consortium to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum challenge.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, Alexander M M; Caldas, Carlos; Ringborg, Ulrik; Medema, René; Tabernero, Josep; Wiestler, Otmar

    2014-11-01

    European cancer research for a transformative initiative by creating a consortium of six leading excellent comprehensive cancer centres that will work together to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum. Prerequisites for joint translational and clinical research programs are very demanding. These require the creation of a virtual single 'e-hospital' and a powerful translational platform, inter-compatible clinical molecular profiling laboratories with a robust underlying computational biology pipeline, standardised functional and molecular imaging, commonly agreed Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for liquid and tissue biopsy procurement, storage and processing, for molecular diagnostics, 'omics', functional genetics, immune-monitoring and other assessments. Importantly also it requires a culture of data collection and data storage that provides complete longitudinal data sets to allow for: effective data sharing and common database building, and to achieve a level of completeness of data that is required for conducting outcome research, taking into account our current understanding of cancers as communities of evolving clones. Cutting edge basic research and technology development serve as an important driving force for innovative translational and clinical studies. Given the excellent track records of the six participants in these areas, Cancer Core Europe will be able to support the full spectrum of research required to address the cancer research- cancer care continuum. Cancer Core Europe also constitutes a unique environment to train the next generation of talents in innovative translational and clinical oncology. PMID:25263570

  4. Implementing personalized medicine in a cancer center.

    PubMed

    Fenstermacher, David A; Wenham, Robert M; Rollison, Dana E; Dalton, William S

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the Moffitt Cancer Center partnered with patients, community clinicians, industry, academia, and 17 hospitals in the United States to begin a personalized cancer care initiative called Total Cancer Care. Total Cancer Care was designed to collect tumor specimens and clinical data throughout a patient's lifetime, with the goal of finding "the right treatment, for the right patient, at the right time." Because Total Cancer Care is a partnership with the patient and involves collection of clinical data and tumor specimens for research purposes, a formal protocol and patient consent process was developed, and an information technology platform was constructed to provide a robust "warehouse" for clinical and molecular profiling data. To date, more than 76,000 cancer patients from Moffitt and consortium medical centers have been enrolled in the protocol. The Total Cancer Care initiative has developed many of the capabilities and resources that are building the foundation of personalized medicine.

  5. Incidence and Treatment Patterns in Hospitalizations for Malignant Spinal Cord Compression in the United States, 1998-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Mak, Kimberley S.; Lee, Leslie K.; Mak, Raymond H.; Wang, Shuang; Pile-Spellman, John; Abrahm, Janet L.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Balboni, Tracy A.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To characterize patterns in incidence, management, and costs of malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) hospitalizations in the United States, using population-based data. Methods and Materials: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, an all-payer healthcare database representative of all U.S. hospitalizations, MSCC-related hospitalizations were identified for the period 1998-2006. Cases were combined with age-adjusted Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results cancer death data to estimate annual incidence. Linear regression characterized trends in patient, treatment, and hospital characteristics, costs, and outcomes. Logistic regression was used to examine inpatient treatment (radiotherapy [RT], surgery, or neither) by hospital characteristics and year, adjusting for confounding. Results: We identified 15,367 MSCC-related cases, representing 75,876 hospitalizations. Lung cancer (24.9%), prostate cancer (16.2%), and multiple myeloma (11.1%) were the most prevalent underlying cancer diagnoses. The annual incidence of MSCC hospitalization among patients dying of cancer was 3.4%; multiple myeloma (15.0%), Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (13.9%), and prostate cancer (5.5%) exhibited the highest cancer-specific incidence. Over the study period, inpatient RT for MSCC decreased (odds ratio [OR] 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61-0.81), whereas surgery increased (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.17-1.84). Hospitalization costs for MSCC increased (5.3% per year, p < 0.001). Odds of inpatient RT were greater at teaching hospitals (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.19-1.67), whereas odds of surgery were greater at urban institutions (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.29-2.58). Conclusions: In the United States, patients dying of cancer have an estimated 3.4% annual incidence of MSCC requiring hospitalization. Inpatient management of MSCC varied over time and by hospital characteristics, with hospitalization costs increasing. Future studies are required to determine the impact of treatment patterns on MSCC

  6. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  7. Integrated Molecular Profiling in Advanced Cancers Trial

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-19

    Breast Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Gastrointestinal Cancer; Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer; Gynecological Cancers; Melanoma Cancers; Rare Cancers; Unknown Primary Cancers

  8. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis and High Risk Individuals.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma

  9. [Hospitals' evolution through the ages].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    The predecessor institutions of modern hospitals--Byzantine nosocómeion, European hospitale and Islamic maristan--were dissimilar both in their patients and their aims. The first charitable organizations in West Europe (Rome) and in the East (Cesarea in Cappadocia) were rather hospices. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire (476 A.D.), some monastic centers were prepared to provide medical assistance to religious and secular patients. Since the XI and XII Centuries in all of Christian Europe the charitable institutions, designated as hospitale, multiplied. Among the Italian ones, the Roman Santo Spirito (Holy Ghost) Hospital, built in the 1201-1204 period, reached a preeminet position. This one soon became the most important of the entire Christendom (archihospital), with a lot of affiliated hospitals in Europe and later in America. The first American hospital, Saint Nicholas Hospital, opened on December 29, 1503 in Santo Domingo, obtained in 1541 its affiliation to the Santo Spirito archihospital. Regarding continental America, the first health centers were established in Mexico: the Immaculate Conception Hospital and the Saint Lazarus Hospital, both established by Hernán Cortés. For its part, clinical teaching was systematized at the Saint Francis Hospital in Padua and by there moved to Leyden. In Mexico, the chair of medical clinics or practical medicine was established in 1806 at the Saint Andrew Hospital. During the XX century, Dr. Ignacio Chávez was the driving force behind the creation of the modern Mexican Health Institutes. These ones are dedicated to the treatment of poor patients, as well as to medical teaching and research.

  10. Pediatric oncology at Hospital Infantil de Mexico: fifty-five years of accomplishment.

    PubMed

    Medina-Sanson, A; Martínez-Avalos, A; Gallegos-Castorena, S; Juárez-Villegas, L E; González-Montalvo, P; Perales-Arroyo, A; Gallegos-González, E; Ayometzi-Ouchi, M T

    2002-09-01

    The Department of Oncology at Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez (HIMFG) was the first unit in our country, and one of the first in Latin America, to specialize in the management of children with cancer. The HIMFG is part of the National Institutes of Health of Mexico, and is a reference hospital with research, educative, and tertiary care medical function. To date, the HIMFG and the Instituto Nacional de Pediatria are the principal medical centers in which children with cancer receive comprehensive care.

  11. [Application of cohort study in cancer prevention and control].

    PubMed

    Dai, Min; Bai, Yana; Pu, Hongquan; Cheng, Ning; Li, Haiyan; He, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Cancer control is a long-term work. Cancer research and intervention really need the support of cohort study. In the recent years, more and more cohort studies on cancer control were conducted in China along with the increased ability of scientific research in China. Since 2010, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, collaborated with Lanzhou University and the Worker' s Hospital of Jinchuan Group Company Limited, have carried out a large-scale cohort study on cancer, which covered a population of more than 50 000 called " Jinchang cohort". Since 2012, a National Key Public Health Project, "cancer screening in urban China" , has been conducted in Jinchang, which strengthened the Jinchang cohort study. Based on the Jinchang cohort study, historical cohort study, cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study have been conducted, which would provide a lot of evidence for the cancer control in China.

  12. The Status of Hospital Information Systems in Iranian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Jahanbakhsh, Maryam; Sharifi, Mohammed; Ayat, Masar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The area of e-Health is broad and has an excellent growth potential. An increasing number of experts believe that e-Health will fuel the next breakthroughs in health system improvements throughout the world, but there is frequent evidence of unsustainable use of e-Health systems in medical centres, particularly hospitals, for different reasons in different countries. Iran is also a developing country which is presently adopting this promising technology for its traditional healthcare delivery but there is not much information about the use of e-Health systems in its hospitals, and the weakness and opportunities of utilization of such Hospital Information Systems (HIS). Methods: For this research, a number of Hospitals from Isfahan, Iran, are selected using convenient sampling. E-health research professionals went there to observe their HIS and collect required data as a qualitative survey. The design of interview questions was based on the researchers’ experiences and knowledge in this area along with elementary interviews with experts on HIS utilization in hospitals. Results: Efficient administration of e-health implementation improves the quality of healthcare, reduces costs and medical errors, makes healthcare resources available to rural areas, etc. However, there are numerous issues affecting the successful utilization of e-health in Hospitals, such as a lack of a perfect HIS implementation plan and well-defined strategy, inadequate IT-security for the protection of e-health-related data, improper training and educational issues, legal challenges, privacy concerns, improper documentation of lessons learned, resistance to the application of new technologies, and finally a lack of recovery plan and disaster management. These results along with some informative stories are extracted from interview sessions to uncover associated challenges of HIS utilization in Iranian hospitals. Conclusion: The utilization of e-health in Iranian hospitals

  13. The treatment of melanoma at Westminster Hospital in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Retsas, S

    2013-01-01

    At Saint Dunstan's Coffee House in 1715 four London men met to form "A charitable proposal for Relieving the Poor and Needy and Other Distressed Persons". The proposal marked the beginnings of Westminster Hospital in London. Following the admission of the first patient in 1720, Westminster Hospital and later Westminster Medical School dominated the medical scene of London for over two and a half centuries until its closure in 1993 and transfer to the new Chelsea and Westminster Hospital. The Hospital and Medical school are credited with pioneering work in the fields of anaesthesia, immunology, bone marrow transplantation and the treatment of cancer. In the 20th century Westminster became a centre of tertiary referrals for cancer and under the leadership of Sir Stanford Cade and later of Gerald Westbury and Kenneth Newton the hospital pioneered the multidisciplinary management of malignant disease exemplified by the internationally- famous Wednesday afternoon clinics where the patients' best interests were discussed and served by a multitude of surgical and medical specialists. This paper focuses on the treatment of melanoma at Westminster Hospital in the 20th Century, placing in perspective the latest therapeutic developments based on the genetics of this cancer. PMID:23818375

  14. The Infusaid Pump in the Management of Intractable Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, D'Orsay D.; DeWitty, Robert L.; Dennis, Gary C.

    1987-01-01

    At Howard University Hospital, nine terminally ill cancer patients with chronic pain have been treated with continuous intrathecal infusion of morphine delivered by the implantable Infusaid pump. The case of a patient treated at Howard University Hospital with this method of pain management is presented. Following Infusaid pump insertion, the patient lived for 22 months and obtained substantial relief of his cancer pain with no adverse side effects. PMID:3573060

  15. Why urban voluntary hospitals close.

    PubMed Central

    Sager, A

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, we argue for the importance of understanding hospital closings and relocations. Broad descriptive data on closings, relocations, and other reconfigurations of beds in 52 large and mid-size U.S. cities are presented. The period covered is 1937 to 1980. Two contrasting outlooks on hospital closings and relocations are offered. As hypothesized, smaller and less specialized nonteaching hospitals and those located in minority neighborhoods or serving above-average proportions of minority or Medicaid-funded patients were more likely to close. A potentially more effective but more costly and less accessible system of urban health care appears to result. PMID:6360956

  16. A computerized hospital maintenance system.

    PubMed

    Kresch, E; Katz, P; Schwartz, H; Hamarman, H

    1985-01-01

    The Biomedical Instrumentation Department at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital maintains most of the clinical equipment owned by the hospital and provides support to six other hospitals, as well. In order to document these services, a computerized support system has been developed. This system maintains the inventory of equipment, documents the occurrence of repair and preventive maintenance procedures, generates lists of items due for maintenance and inspection, and prints reports and summaries of all activities performed by department staff. The system was designed for ease of use and requires a minimum of training for personnel who use it. PMID:10271514

  17. Preventable hospitalizations and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Blustein, J; Hanson, K; Shea, S

    1998-01-01

    "Preventable" hospitalizations have been proposed as indicators of poor health plan performance. In this study of elderly Medicare beneficiaries, however, we found that preventable hospitalizations are also more common among elders of lower socioeconomic status (SES). The relationship persisted even when an up-to-date severity-of-illness adjustment system was used. To the extent that indicators of health plan "performance" reflect enrollees' characteristics, plans will be rewarded for marketing their services to wealthier, healthier, and better-educated patients. Further work is needed to clarify issues of accountability for preventable hospitalizations and other putative indices of health plan performance. PMID:9558796

  18. Energy audits at 48 hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, E.

    1981-11-01

    Staff at the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) conducted energy audits at 48 hospitals in four states (New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Tennessee) between 1978 and 1980. Staff at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ORAU developed and organized a computerized data base containing information from these audits. This paper describes the ORAU audit process; summarizes the data collected from these audits on hospital characteristics annual energy use, and the audit recommendations; and analyzes the audit data in terms of cost effectiveness, type of recommendations, and the relationship between potential energy saving and characteristics of the individual hospital.

  19. Trends affecting hospitals' human resources.

    PubMed

    Neudeck, M M

    1985-01-01

    Hospital workers at every level--from administrators to housekeepers--will be affected by the interaction of changes already underway in the healthcare industry. Societal forces that will affect the hospital workforce include demographic change, the rise of the participatory ethic and decentralization, a growing philosophy of job entitlement, and new pressures for unionization. At the same time, the industry is faced with changing manpower requirements, cost containment, and the oversupply of physicians. This article identifies some of the likely effects of these changes on hospital human resources and suggests ways that administrators can prepare for them.

  20. Assessing Greek Public Hospitals' Websites.

    PubMed

    Tsirintani, Maria; Binioris, Spyros

    2015-01-01

    Following a previous (2011) survey, this study assesses the web pages of Greek public hospitals according to specific criteria, which are included in the same web page evaluation model. Our purpose is to demonstrate the evolution of hospitals' web pages and document e-health applications trends. Using descriptive methods we found that public hospitals have made significant steps towards establishing and improving their web presence but there is still a lot of work that needs to be carried out in order to take advantage of the benefits of new technologies in the e-health ecosystem.