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Sample records for peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal

  1. Modulation of keratinocyte expression of antioxidants by 4-hydroxynonenal, a lipid peroxidation end product

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Ruijin; Heck, Diane E.; Mishin, Vladimir

    2014-03-01

    4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is a lipid peroxidation end product generated in response to oxidative stress in the skin. Keratinocytes contain an array of antioxidant enzymes which protect against oxidative stress. In these studies, we characterized 4-HNE-induced changes in antioxidant expression in mouse keratinocytes. Treatment of primary mouse keratinocytes and PAM 212 keratinocytes with 4-HNE increased mRNA expression for heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), catalase, NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) A1-2, GSTA3 and GSTA4. In both cell types, HO-1 was the most sensitive, increasing 86–98 fold within 6 h. Further characterization of the effects of 4-HNE on HO-1 demonstrated concentration- and time-dependentmore » increases in mRNA and protein expression which were maximum after 6 h with 30 μM. 4-HNE stimulated keratinocyte Erk1/2, JNK and p38 MAP kinases, as well as PI3 kinase. Inhibition of these enzymes suppressed 4-HNE-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. 4-HNE also activated Nrf2 by inducing its translocation to the nucleus. 4-HNE was markedly less effective in inducing HO-1 mRNA and protein in keratinocytes from Nrf2 −/− mice, when compared to wild type mice, indicating that Nrf2 also regulates 4-HNE-induced signaling. Western blot analysis of caveolar membrane fractions isolated by sucrose density centrifugation demonstrated that 4-HNE-induced HO-1 is localized in keratinocyte caveolae. Treatment of the cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, which disrupts caveolar structure, suppressed 4-HNE-induced HO-1. These findings indicate that 4-HNE modulates expression of antioxidant enzymes in keratinocytes, and that this can occur by different mechanisms. Changes in expression of keratinocyte antioxidants may be important in protecting the skin from oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Lipid peroxidation generates 4-hydroxynonenal, a reactive aldehyde. • 4-HNE induces antioxidant proteins in mouse keratinocytes. • Induction of

  2. Intercellular transfer of pathogenic α-synuclein by extracellular vesicles is induced by the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi; Eitan, Erez; Wu, Tsung-Yu; Mattson, Mark P

    2018-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by accumulations of toxic α-synuclein aggregates in vulnerable neuronal populations in the brainstem, midbrain, and cerebral cortex. Recent findings suggest that α-synuclein pathology can be propagated transneuronally, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Advances in the genetics of rare early-onset familial PD indicate that increased production and/or reduced autophagic clearance of α-synuclein can cause PD. The cause of the most common late-onset PD is unclear, but may involve metabolic compromise and oxidative stress upstream of α-synuclein accumulation. As evidence, the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) is elevated in the brain during normal aging and moreso in brain regions afflicted with α-synuclein pathology. Here, we report that HNE increases aggregation of endogenous α-synuclein in primary neurons and triggers the secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing cytotoxic oligomeric α-synuclein species. EVs released from HNE-treated neurons are internalized by healthy neurons which as a consequence degenerate. Levels of endogenously generated HNE are elevated in cultured cells overexpressing human α-synuclein, and EVs released from those cells are toxic to neurons. The EV-associated α-synuclein is located both inside the vesicles and on their surface, where it plays a role in EV internalization by neurons. On internalization, EVs harboring pathogenic α-synuclein are transported both anterogradely and retrogradely within axons. Focal injection of EVs containing α-synuclein into the striatum of wild-type mice results in spread of synuclein pathology to anatomically connected brain regions. Our findings suggest a scenario for late-onset PD in which lipid peroxidation promotes intracellular accumulation and then extrusion of EVs containing toxic α-synuclein species; the EVs are then internalized by adjacent neurons, so propagating the neurodegenerative process. Published

  3. The generation of 4-hydroxynonenal, an electrophilic lipid peroxidation end product, in rabbit cornea organ cultures treated with UVB light and nitrogen mustard

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Ruijin; Po, Iris; Mishin, Vladimir

    The cornea is highly sensitive to oxidative stress, a process that can lead to lipid peroxidation. Ultraviolet light B (UVB) and nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine) are corneal toxicants known to induce oxidative stress. Using a rabbit air-lifted corneal organ culture model, the oxidative stress responses to these toxicants in the corneal epithelium was characterized. Treatment of the cornea with UVB (0.5 J/cm{sup 2}) or nitrogen mustard (100 nmol) resulted in the generation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a reactive lipid peroxidation end product. This was associated with increased expression of the antioxidant, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In human corneal epithelial cells in culture, additionmore » of 4-HNE or 9-nitrooleic acid, a reactive nitrolipid formed during nitrosative stress, caused a time-dependent induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein; maximal responses were evident after 10 h with 30 μM 4-HNE or 6 h with 10 μM 9-nitrooleic acid. 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid were also found to activate Erk1/2, JNK and p38 MAP kinases, as well as phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3)/Akt. Inhibition of p38 blocked 4-HNE- and 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1 expression. Inhibition of Erk1/2, and to a lesser extent, JNK and PI3K/Akt, suppressed only 4-HNE-induced HO-1, while inhibition of JNK and PI3K/Akt, but not Erk1/2, partly reduced 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1. These data indicate that the actions of 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid on corneal epithelial cells are distinct. The sensitivity of corneal epithelial cells to oxidative stress may be an important mechanism mediating tissue injury induced by UVB or nitrogen mustard. - Highlights: • UVB or nitrogen mustard causes rabbit corneal epithelial injury. • 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) was formed and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was increased. • 4-HNE induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human corneal epithelial cells. • The induction of HO-1 by 4-HNE was through MAP kinase activation.« less

  4. Toll-Like Receptor-4 Mediates Neuronal Apoptosis Induced by Amyloid β-Peptide and the Membrane Lipid Peroxidation Product 4-Hydroxynonenal

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Sung-Chun; Lathia, Justin D.; Selvaraj, Pradeep K.; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Cheng, Aiwu; Siler, Dominic A.; Markesbery, William R.; Arumugam, Thiruma V.; Mattson, Mark. P.

    2008-01-01

    The innate immune system senses the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms and tissue injury through Toll-like receptors (TLR), a mechanism thought to be limited to immune cells. We recently found that neurons express several TLRs, and that the levels of TLR2 and TLR4 are increased in neurons in response to energy deprivation. Here we report that TLR4 expression increases in neurons when exposed to amyloid β-peptide (Aβ1-42) or the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). Neuronal apoptosis triggered by Aβ and HNE was mediated by jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); neurons from TLR4 mutant mice exhibited reduced JNK and caspase-3 activation and were protected against apoptosis induced by Aβ and HNE. Levels of TLR4 were decreased in inferior parietal cortex tissue specimens from end-stage AD patients compared to aged-matched control subjects, possibly as the result of loss of neurons expressing TLR4. Our findings suggest that TLR4 signaling increases the vulnerability of neurons to Aβ and oxidative stress in AD, and identify TLR4 as a potential therapeutic target for AD. PMID:18586243

  5. MicroRNA expression changes during human leukemic HL-60 cell differentiation induced by 4-hydroxynonenal, a product of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Pizzimenti, Stefania; Ferracin, Manuela; Sabbioni, Silvia; Toaldo, Cristina; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Dianzani, Mario Umberto; Negrini, Massimo; Barrera, Giuseppina

    2009-01-15

    4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) is one of several lipid oxidation products that may have an impact on human pathophysiology. It is an important second messenger involved in the regulation of various cellular processes and exhibits antiproliferative and differentiative properties in various tumor cell lines. The mechanisms by which HNE affects cell growth and differentiation are only partially clarified. Because microRNAs (miRNAs) have the ability to regulate several cellular processes, we hypothesized that HNE, in addition to other mechanisms, could affect miRNA expression. Here, we present the results of a genome-wide miRNA expression profiling of HNE-treated HL-60 leukemic cells. Among 470 human miRNAs, 10 were found to be differentially expressed between control and HNE-treated cells (at p<0.05). Six miRNAs were down-regulated (miR-181a*, miR-199b, miR-202, miR-378, miR-454-3p, miR-575) and 4 were up-regulated (miR-125a, miR-339, miR-663, miR-660). Three of these regulated miRNAs (miR-202, miR-339, miR-378) were further assayed and validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, consistent with the down-regulation of miR-378, HNE also induced the expression of the SUFU protein, a tumor suppressor recently identified as a target of miR-378. The finding that HNE could regulate the expression of miRNAs and their targets opens new perspectives on the understanding of HNE-controlled pathways. A functional analysis of 191 putative gene targets of miRNAs modulated by HNE is discussed.

  6. Inhibition of hydrogen peroxide signaling by 4-hydroxynonenal due to differential regulation of Akt1 and Akt2 contributes to decreases in cell survival and proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shearn, Colin T; Reigan, Philip; Petersen, Dennis R

    2012-07-01

    Dysregulation of cell signaling by electrophiles such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is a key component in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory liver disease. Another consequence of inflammation is the perpetuation of oxidative damage by the production of reactive oxidative species such as hydrogen peroxide. Previously, we have demonstrated Akt2 as a direct target of 4-HNE in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In the present study, we used the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 as model to understand the combinatorial effects of 4-HNE and hydrogen peroxide. We demonstrate that 4-HNE inhibits hydrogen peroxide-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 but not Akt2. Pretreatment of HepG2 cells with 4-HNE prevented hydrogen peroxide stimulation of Akt-dependent phosphorylation of downstream targets and intracellular Akt activity compared with untreated control cells. Using biotin hydrazide capture, it was confirmed that 4-HNE treatment resulted in carbonylation of Akt1, which was not observed in untreated control cells. Using a synthetic GSK3α/β peptide as a substrate, treatment of recombinant human myristoylated Akt1 (rAkt1) with 20 or 40 μΜ 4-HNE inhibited rAkt1 activity by 29 and 60%, respectively. We further demonstrate that 4-HNE activates Erk via a PI3 kinase and PP2A-dependent mechanism leading to increased Jnk phosphorylation. At higher concentrations, 4-HNE decreased both cell survival and proliferation as evidenced by MTT assays and EdU incorporation as well as decreased expression of cyclin D1 and β-catenin, an effect only moderately increased by the addition of hydrogen peroxide. The ability of 4-HNE to exert combinatorial effects on Erk, Jnk, and Akt-dependent cell survival pathways provides additional insight into the mechanisms of cellular damage associated with chronic inflammation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Depletion of Intracellular Thiols and Increased Production of 4-Hydroxynonenal that Occur During Cryopreservation of Stallion Spermatozoa Lead to Caspase Activation, Loss of Motility, and Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Martin Muñoz, Patricia; Ortega Ferrusola, Cristina; Vizuete, Guillermo; Plaza Dávila, Maria; Rodriguez Martinez, Heriberto; Peña, Fernando J

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been linked to sperm death and the accelerated senescence of cryopreserved spermatozoa. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered relevant signaling molecules for sperm function, only becoming detrimental when ROS homeostasis is lost. We hereby hypothesize that a major component of the alteration of ROS homeostasis in cryopreserved spermatozoa is the exhaustion of intrinsic antioxidant defense mechanisms. To test this hypothesis, semen from seven stallions was frozen using a standard technique. The parameters of sperm quality (motility, velocity, and membrane integrity) and markers of sperm senescence (caspase 3, 4-hydroxynonenal, and mitochondrial membrane potential) were assessed before and after cryopreservation. Changes in the intracellular thiol content were also monitored. Cryopreservation caused significant increases in senescence markers as well as dramatic depletion of intracellular thiols to less than half of the initial values (P < 0.001) postthaw. Interestingly, very high and positive correlations were observed among thiol levels with sperm functionality postthaw: total motility (r = 0.931, P < 0.001), progressive motility (r = 0.904, P < 0.001), and percentage of live spermatozoa without active caspase 3 (r = 0.996, P < 0.001). In contrast, negative correlations were detected between active caspase 3 and thiol content both in living (r = -0.896) and dead (r = -0.940) spermatozoa; additionally, 4-hydroxynonenal levels were negatively correlated with thiol levels (r = -0.856). In conclusion, sperm functionality postthaw correlates with the maintenance of adequate levels of intracellular thiols. The accelerated senescence of thawed spermatozoa is related to oxidative and electrophilic stress induced by increased production of 4-hydroxynoneal in thawed samples once intracellular thiols are depleted. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction

  8. Differential metabolism of 4-hydroxynonenal in liver, lung and brain of mice and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Ruijin; Dragomir, Ana-Cristina; Mishin, Vladimir

    2014-08-15

    The lipid peroxidation end-product 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is generated in tissues during oxidative stress. As a reactive aldehyde, it forms Michael adducts with nucleophiles, a process that disrupts cellular functioning. Liver, lung and brain are highly sensitive to xenobiotic-induced oxidative stress and readily generate 4-HNE. In the present studies, we compared 4-HNE metabolism in these tissues, a process that protects against tissue injury. 4-HNE was degraded slowly in total homogenates and S9 fractions of mouse liver, lung and brain. In liver, but not lung or brain, NAD(P)+ and NAD(P)H markedly stimulated 4-HNE metabolism. Similar results were observed in rat S9 fractionsmore » from these tissues. In liver, lung and brain S9 fractions, 4-HNE formed protein adducts. When NADH was used to stimulate 4-HNE metabolism, the formation of protein adducts was suppressed in liver, but not lung or brain. In both mouse and rat tissues, 4-HNE was also metabolized by glutathione S-transferases. The greatest activity was noted in livers of mice and in lungs of rats; relatively low glutathione S-transferase activity was detected in brain. In mouse hepatocytes, 4-HNE was rapidly taken up and metabolized. Simultaneously, 4-HNE-protein adducts were formed, suggesting that 4-HNE metabolism in intact cells does not prevent protein modifications. These data demonstrate that, in contrast to liver, lung and brain have a limited capacity to metabolize 4-HNE. The persistence of 4-HNE in these tissues may increase the likelihood of tissue injury during oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Lipid peroxidation generates 4-hydroxynonenal, a highly reactive aldehyde. • Rodent liver, but not lung or brain, is efficient in degrading 4-hydroxynonenal. • 4-hydroxynonenal persists in tissues with low metabolism, causing tissue damage.« less

  9. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography and 4-hydroxynonenal-histidine immunohistochemistry reveal differential onset of lipid peroxidation in primary lung cancer and in pulmonary metastasis of remote malignancies.

    PubMed

    Živković, Nevenka Piskač; Petrovečki, Mladen; Lončarić, Čedna Tomasović; Nikolić, Igor; Waeg, Georg; Jaganjac, Morana; Žarković, Kamelija; Žarković, Neven

    2017-04-01

    The Aim of the study was to reveal if PET-CT analysis of primary and of secondary lung cancer could be related to the onset of lipid peroxidation in cancer and in surrounding non-malignant lung tissue. Nineteen patients with primary lung cancer and seventeen patients with pulmonary metastasis were involved in the study. Their lungs were analyzed by PET-CT scanning before radical surgical removal of the cancer. Specific immunohistochemistry for the major bioactive marker of lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), was done for the malignant and surrounding non-malignant lung tissue using genuine monoclonal antibody specific for the HNE-histidine adducts. Both the intensity of the PET-CT analysis and the HNE-immunohistochemistry were in correlation with the size of the tumors analyzed, while primary lung carcinomas were larger than the metastatic tumors. The intensity of the HNE-immunohistochemistry in the surrounding lung tissue was more pronounced in the metastatic than in the primary tumors, but it was negatively correlated with the cancer volume determined by PET-CT. The appearance of HNE was more pronounced in non-malignant surrounding tissue than in cancer or stromal cells, both in case of primary and metastatic tumors. Both PET-CT and HNE-immunohistochemistry reflect the size of the malignant tissue. However, lipid peroxidation of non-malignant lung tissue in the vicinity of cancer is more pronounced in metastatic than in primary malignancies and might represent the mechanism of defense against cancer, as was recently revealed also in case of human liver cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of 4-hydroxynonenal in chemopreventive activities of sulforaphane

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajendra; Sharma, Abha; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Sahu, Mukesh; Jaiswal, Shailesh; Awasthi, Sanjay; Awasthi, Yogesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemoprevention of cancer via herbal and dietary supplements is a logical approach to combat cancer and presently it is an attractive area of research investigations. Over the years, the use of isothiocyanates, such as sulforaphane (SFN) found in cruciferous vegetables, has been advocated as chemopreventive agents and their efficacy has been demonstrated in cell lines and animal models. In-vivo studies with SFN suggest that besides protecting normal healthy cells from environmental carcinogens it also exhibits cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects against various cancer cell types. Among several mechanisms for the chemopreventive activity of SFN against chemical carcinogenesis, its effect on drug metabolizing enzymes that causes activation/ neutralization of carcinogenic metabolites is well established. Recent studies suggest that SFN exerts its selective cytotoxicity to cancer cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated generation of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products particularly 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). Against the background of the known biochemical effects of SFN on normal and cancer cells, in this article we have reviewed the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the overall chemopreventive effects of SFN focusing on the role of HNE in these mechanisms that may also contribute to its selective cytotoxicity to cancer cells. PMID:22579574

  11. Preferential recognition of auto-antibodies against 4-hydroxynonenal modified DNA in the cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Mohammad; Shahab, Uzma; Alatar, Abdulrahman A; Ahmad, Saheem

    2017-11-01

    The structural perturbations in DNA molecule may be caused by a break in a strand, a missing base from the backbone, or a chemically changed base. These alterations in DNA that occurs naturally can result from metabolic or hydrolytic processes. DNA damage plays a major role in the mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, aging and various other patho-physiological conditions. DNA damage can be induced through hydrolysis, exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other reactive carbonyl metabolites including 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). 4-HNE is an important lipid peroxidation product which has been implicated in the mutagenesis and carcinogenesis processes. The present study examines to probe the presence of auto-antibodies against 4-hydroxynonenal damaged DNA (HNE-DNA) in various cancer subjects. In this study, the purified calf thymus DNA was damaged by the action of 4-HNE. The DNA was incubated with 4-HNE for 24 h at 37°C temperature. The binding characteristics of cancer auto-antibodies were assessed by direct binding and competitive inhibition ELISA. DNA modifications produced hyperchromicity in UV spectrum and decreased fluorescence intensity. Cancer sera exhibited enhanced binding with the 4-HNE modified calf thymus DNA as compared to its native conformer. The 4-HNE modified DNA presents unique epitopes which may be one of the factors for the auto-antibody induction in cancer patients. The HNE modified DNA presents unique epitopes which may be one of the factors for the autoantibody induction in cancer patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Role of physiological levels of 4-hydroxynonenal on adipocyte biology: implications for obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dasuri, Kalavathi; Ebenezer, Philip; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Zhang, Le; Gao, Zhanguo; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Freeman, Linnea R; Keller, Jeffrey N

    2013-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) are known to be increased in response to oxidative stress, and are known to cause dysfunction and pathology in a variety of tissues during periods of oxidative stress. The aim of the current study was to determine the chronic (repeated HNE exposure) and acute effects of physiological concentrations of HNE toward multiple aspects of adipocyte biology using differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our studies demonstrate that acute and repeated exposure of adipocytes to physiological concentrations of HNE is sufficient to promote subsequent oxidative stress, impaired adipogenesis, alter the expression of adipokines, and increase lipolytic gene expression and subsequent increase in free fatty acid (FFA) release. These results provide an insight in to the role of HNE-induced oxidative stress in regulation of adipocyte differentiation and adipose dysfunction. Taken together, these data indicate a potential role for HNE promoting diverse effects toward adipocyte homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation, which may be important to the pathogenesis observed in obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  13. Yeast aquaporin regulation by 4-hydroxynonenal is implicated in oxidative stress response.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Claudia; Tartaro Bujak, Ivana; Mihaljević, Branka; Soveral, Graça; Cipak Gasparovic, Ana

    2017-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species, especially hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), contribute to functional molecular impairment and cellular damage, but also are necessary in normal cellular metabolism, and in low doses play stimulatory role in cell proliferation and stress resistance. In parallel, reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), are lipid peroxidation breakdown products which also contribute to regulation of numerous cellular processes. Recently, channeling of H 2 O 2 by some mammalian aquaporin isoforms has been reported and suggested to contribute to aquaporin involvement in cancer malignancies, although the mechanism by which these membrane water channels are implicated in oxidative stress is not clear. In this study, two yeast models with increased levels of membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and aquaporin AQY1 overexpression, respectively, were used to evaluate their interplay in cell's oxidative status. In particular, the aim of the study was to investigate if HNE accumulation could affect aquaporin function with an outcome in oxidative stress response. The data showed that induction of aquaporin expression by PUFAs results in increased water permeability in yeast membranes and that AQY1 activity is impaired by HNE. Moreover, AQY1 expression increases cellular sensitivity to oxidative stress by facilitating H 2 O 2 influx. On the other hand, AQY1 expression has no influence on the cellular antioxidant GSH levels and catalase activity. These results strongly suggest that aquaporins are important players in oxidative stress response and could contribute to regulation of cellular processes by regulation of H 2 O 2 influx. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(5):355-362, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  14. The lack of 4-hydroxynonenal in otosclerotic bone tissue in Ethiopian population.

    PubMed

    Rudic, Milan; Wagner, Richard; Willkinson, Eric; Danese, Giovanni; Kiros, Nega; Zarkovic, Kamelija; Zarkovic, Neven

    2015-10-01

    In Ethiopians, like in other Africans, the incidence of otosclerosis is lower than in Western and Asian populations. Unfortunately, due to the lack of available otorhinolaryngology specialists many patients are not treated and suffer the progression of the disease and severe hearing loss. This program of the Global ENT Outreach Organization (GEO) together with the Ethiopian partners was done to help some of these patients and in parallel to evaluate the presence of the oxidative stress bioactive marker 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), which is known as major lipid peroxidation product and the second messenger of free radicals, in the otosclerotic bone specimens. Namely, we described recently that as HNE acts as a bone growth regulator associated with pathogenesis of otosclerosis. The prospective study conducted at the ENT Department of the Migbare Senay General Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in June 2012, under the auspices of the Global ENT Outreach Organization, USA. Altogether 36 patients (male = 12, female = 24) underwent surgery due to the previous otosclerosis diagnosis based on the clinical and audiometric findings. The bone samples were harvested from patients with intraoperatively confirmed otosclerosis diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry for HNE-modified proteins was carried out on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. The presence of HNE was found in almost all bone samples analyzed, without particular difference in the HNE distribution pattern between the otosclerotic and respective control bone specimens. Although there was no significant association between the HNE appearance and otosclerotic bone outgrowth observed, several cases have shown tendency of higher HNE expression in patients with more severe hearing loss. The results of the present study are in contrast with our previous findings obtained on European patients most likely due to the differences between studied population groups.

  15. Formation of Malondialdehyde, 4-Hydroxynonenal, and 4-Hydroxyhexenal during in Vitro Digestion of Cooked Beef, Pork, Chicken, and Salmon.

    PubMed

    Steppeler, Christina; Haugen, John-Erik; Rødbotten, Rune; Kirkhus, Bente

    2016-01-20

    Red meat high in heme iron may promote the formation of potentially genotoxic aldehydes during lipid peroxidation in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) equivalents measured by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method was determined during in vitro digestion of cooked red meat (beef and pork), as well as white meat (chicken) and fish (salmon), whereas analysis of 4-hydroxyhexenal (HHE) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) was performed during in vitro digestion of cooked beef and salmon. Comparing products with similar fat contents indicated that the amount of unsaturated fat and not total iron content was the dominating factor influencing the formation of aldehydes. It was also shown that increasing fat content in beef products caused increasing concentrations of MDA equivalents. The highest levels, however, were found in minced beef with added fish oil high in unsaturated fat. This study indicates that when ingested alone, red meat products low in unsaturated fat and low in total fat content contribute to relatively low levels of potentially genotoxic aldehydes in the gastrointestinal tract.

  16. Pathophysiology of mitochondrial lipid oxidation: Role of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and other bioactive lipids in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Mengqing; Zhong, Huiqin; Xia, Lin; Tao, Yongzhen; Yin, Huiyong

    2017-10-01

    Mitochondrial lipids are essential for maintaining the integrity of mitochondrial membranes and the proper functions of mitochondria. As the "powerhouse" of a cell, mitochondria are also the major cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress occurs when the antioxidant system is overwhelmed by overproduction of ROS. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in mitochondrial membranes are primary targets for ROS attack, which may lead to lipid peroxidation (LPO) and generation of reactive lipids, such as 4-hydroxynonenal. When mitochondrial lipids are oxidized, the integrity and function of mitochondria may be compromised and this may eventually lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, which has been associated with many human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. How mitochondrial lipids are oxidized and the underlying molecular mechanisms and pathophysiological consequences associated with mitochondrial LPO remain poorly defined. Oxidation of the mitochondria-specific phospholipid cardiolipin and generation of bioactive lipids through mitochondrial LPO has been increasingly recognized as an important event orchestrating apoptosis, metabolic reprogramming of energy production, mitophagy, and immune responses. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of how mitochondrial LPO and generation of bioactive lipid mediators in mitochondria are involved in the modulation of mitochondrial functions in the context of relevant human diseases associated with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Lipid Peroxidation Products on the Activity of Human Retinol Dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12) and Retinoid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Ah; Belyaeva, Olga V.; Kedishvili, Natalia Y.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Mutations in human Retinol Dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12) are known to cause photoreceptor cell death but the physiological function of RDH12 in photoreceptors remains poorly understood. In vitro, RDH12 recognizes both retinoids and medium-chain aldehydes as substrates. Our previous study suggested that RDH12 protects cells against toxic levels of retinaldehyde and retinoic acid [Lee et al., J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007) 35621–35628]. Here, we investigated whether RDH12 can also protect cells against highly reactive medium-chain aldehydes. Analysis of cell survival demonstrated that RDH12 was protective against nonanal but not against 4-hydroxynonenal. At high concentrations, nonanal inhibited the activity of RDH12 towards retinaldehyde, suggesting that nonanal was metabolized by RDH12. 4-Hydroxynonenal did not inhibit the RDH12 retinaldehyde reductase activity, but it strongly inhibited the activities of lecithin:retinol acyl transferase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, resulting in decreased levels of retinyl esters and retinoic acid and accumulation of unesterified retinol. Thus, the results of this study showed that RDH12 is more effective in protection against retinaldehyde than against medium-chain aldehydes, and that medium-chain aldehydes, especially 4-hydroxynonenal, severely disrupt cellular retinoid homeostasis. Together, these findings provide a new insight into the effects of lipid peroxidation products and the impact of oxidative stress on retinoid metabolism. PMID:18396173

  18. Olive leaf extracts protect cardiomyocytes against 4-hydroxynonenal-induced toxicity in vitro: comparison with oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin.

    PubMed

    Bali, Elif Burcu; Ergin, Volkan; Rackova, Lucia; Bayraktar, Oğuz; Küçükboyaci, Nurgün; Karasu, Çimen

    2014-08-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) leaf, an important traditional herbal medicine, displays cardioprotection that may be related to the cellular redox modulating effects of its polyphenolic constituents. This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the ethanolic and methanolic extracts of olive leaves compared to the effects of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin as a positive standard in a carbonyl compound (4-hydroxynonenal)-induced model of oxidative damage to rat cardiomyocytes (H9c2). Cell viability was detected by the MTT assay; reactive oxygen species production was assessed by the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate method, and the mitochondrial membrane potential was determined using a JC-1 dye kit. Phospho-Hsp27 (Ser82), phospho-MAPKAPK-2 (Thr334), phospho-c-Jun (Ser73), cleaved-caspase-3 (cl-CASP3) (Asp175), and phospho-SAPK/JNK (Thr183/Tyr185) were measured by Western blotting. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of olive leaves inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal-induced apoptosis, characterized by increased reactive oxygen species production, impaired viability (LD50: 25 µM), mitochondrial dysfunction, and activation of pro-apoptotic cl-CASP3. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of olive leaves also inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal-induced phosphorylation of stress-activated transcription factors, and the effects of extracts on p-SAPK/JNK, p-Hsp27, and p-MAPKAPK-2 were found to be concentration-dependent and comparable with oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin. While the methanolic extract downregulated 4-hydroxynonenal-induced p-MAPKAPK-2 and p-c-Jun more than the ethanolic extract, it exerted a less inhibitory effect than the ethanolic extract on 4-hydroxynonenal-induced p-SAPK/JNK and p-Hsp27. cl-CASP3 and p-Hsp27 were attenuated, especially by quercetin. Experiments showed a predominant reactive oxygen species inhibitory and mitochondrial protecting ability at a concentration of 1-10 µg/mL of each extract, oleuropein

  19. Quantification of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal adducts to lysine residues in native and oxidized human low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Requena, J R; Fu, M X; Ahmed, M U; Jenkins, A J; Lyons, T J; Baynes, J W; Thorpe, S R

    1997-01-01

    Malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) are major end-products of oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and are frequently measured as indicators of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in vivo. MDA forms Schiff-base adducts with lysine residues and cross-links proteins in vitro; HNE also reacts with lysines, primarily via a Michael addition reaction. We have developed methods using NaBH4 reduction to stabilize these adducts to conditions used for acid hydrolysis of protein, and have prepared reduced forms of lysine-MDA [3-(N epsilon-lysino)propan-1-ol (LM)], the lysine-MDA-lysine iminopropene cross-link [1,3-di(N epsilon-lysino)propane (LML)] and lysine-HNE [3-(N epsilon-lysino)-4-hydroxynonan-l-ol (LHNE)]. Gas chromatography/MS assays have been developed for quantification of the reduced compounds in protein. RNase incubated with MDA or HNE was used as a model for quantification of the adducts by gas chromatography/MS. There was excellent agreement between measurement of MDA bound to RNase as LM and LML, and as thiobarbituric acid-MDA adducts measured by HPLC; these adducts accounted for 70-80% of total lysine loss during the reaction with MDA. LM and LML (0.002-0.12 mmol/ mol of lysine) were also found in freshly isolated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from healthy subjects. LHNE was measured in RNase treated with HNE, but was not detectable in native LDL. LM, LML and LHNE increased in concert with the formation of conjugated dienes during the copper-catalysed oxidation of LDL, but accounted for modification of < 1% of lysine residues in oxidized LDL. These results are the first report of direct chemical measurement of MDA and HNE adducts to lysine residues in LDL. LM, LML and LHNE should be useful as biomarkers of lipid peroxidative modification of protein and of oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. PMID:9078279

  20. Mass Spectrometric Evidence of Malonaldehyde and 4-Hydroxynonenal Adductions to Radical-Scavenging Soy Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Chen, Jing; Zhu, Haining; Xiong, Youling L.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidative peptides in food systems are potential targets of lipid oxidation-generated reactive aldehydes, such as malonaldehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). In this study, covalent modifications on radical-scavenging peptides prepared from soy protein hydrolysate by MDA and HNE were characterized by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). MS/MS analyses detected the formation of Schiff base type adducts of MDA on the side chain groups of lysine, histidine, arginine, glutamine, and asparagine residues as well as the N-termini of peptides. MDA also formed a fluorescent product with lysine residues. HNE adducted on lysine residues through Schiff base formation and on histidine, arginine, glutamine, and asparagine residues mainly through Michael addition. In spite of the extensive MDA modification, peptide cross-linking by this potential mechanism was undetectable. PMID:22946674

  1. Alterations in mitochondrial respiratory functions, redox metabolism and apoptosis by oxidant 4-hydroxynonenal and antioxidants curcumin and melatonin in PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie; Brown, Eric M.

    Cellular oxidative stress and alterations in redox metabolisms have been implicated in the etiology and pathology of many diseases including cancer. Antioxidant treatments have been proven beneficial in controlling these diseases. We have recently shown that 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a by-product of lipid peroxidation, induces oxidative stress in PC12 cells by compromising the mitochondrial redox metabolism. In this study, we have further investigated the deleterious effects of 4-HNE on mitochondrial respiratory functions and apoptosis using the same cell line. In addition, we have also compared the effects of two antioxidants, curcumin and melatonin, used as chemopreventive agents, on mitochondrial redox metabolismmore » and respiratory functions in these cells. 4-HNE treatment has been shown to cause a reduction in glutathione (GSH) pool, an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein carbonylation and apoptosis. A marked inhibition in the activities of the mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and aconitase was observed after 4-HNE treatment. Increased nuclear translocation of NF-kB/p65 protein was also observed after 4-HNE treatment. Curcumin and melatonin treatments, on the other hand, maintained the mitochondrial redox and respiratory functions without a marked effect on ROS production and cell viability. These results suggest that 4-HNE-induced cytotoxicity may be associated, at least in part, with the altered mitochondrial redox and respiratory functions. The alterations in mitochondrial energy metabolism and redox functions may therefore be critical in determining the difference between cell death and survival.« less

  2. Reduced cellular redox status induces 4-hydroxynonenal-mediated caspase 3 activation leading to erythrocyte death during chronic arsenic exposure in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Debabrata; Sen, Gargi; Biswas, Tuli, E-mail: tulibiswas@iicb.res.i

    2010-05-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic in rats led to gradual accumulation of the toxicant in erythrocytes causing oxidative stress in these cells. 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a major aldehyde product of lipid peroxidation, contributed significantly to the cytopathological events observed during oxidative stress in the erythrocytes of exposed rats. 4-HNE triggered death signal cascade that was initiated with the formation of HNE-protein adducts in cytosol. HNE-protein adduct formation resulted in depletion of cytosolic antioxidants followed by increased generation of ROS. Results showed accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) from the early stages of arsenic exposure, while superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup c}entre dot{sup -})more » and hydroxyl radical ({sup c}entre dotOH) also contributed to the oxidative stress during longer period of exposure. Suppression of antioxidant system coupled with increased generation of ROS eventually led to activation of caspase 3 during arsenic exposure. Attenuation of HNE-mediated activation of caspase 3 in presence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) indicated the involvement of GSH in the process. Prevention of HNE-mediated degradation of membrane proteins in presence of Z-DEVD-FMK identified caspase 3 as the principal mediator of HNE-induced cellular damage during arsenic exposure. Degradation of band 3 followed by its aggregation on the red cell surface promoted immunologic recognition of redistributed band 3 by autologous IgG with subsequent attachment of C3b. Finally, the formation of C3b-IgG-band 3 immune complex accelerated the elimination of affected cells from circulation and led to the decline of erythrocyte life span during chronic arsenic toxicity.« less

  3. Mitochondria as a source and target of lipid peroxidation products in healthy and diseased heart.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ethan J; Katunga, Lalage A; Willis, Monte S

    2012-02-01

    The heart is a highly oxidative organ in which cardiomyocyte turnover is virtually absent, making it particularly vulnerable to accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (LPP) formed as a result of oxidative damage. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are the most common electrophiles formed during lipid peroxidation and lead to the formation of both stable and unstable LPP. Of the LPP formed, highly reactive aldehydes are a well-recognized causative factor in ageing and age-associated diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Recent studies have identified that the mitochondria are both a primary source and target of LPP, with specific emphasis on aldehydes in cardiomyocytes and how these affect the electron transport system and Ca(2+) balance. Numerous studies have found that there are functional consequences in the heart following exposure to specific aldehydes (acrolein, trans-2-hexanal, 4-hydroxynonenal and acetaldehyde). Because these LPP are known to form in heart failure, cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion injury and diabetes, they may have an underappreciated role in the pathophysiology of these disease processes. Lipid peroxidation products are involved in the transcriptional regulation of endogenous anti-oxidant systems. Recent evidence demonstrates that transient increases in LPP may be beneficial in cardioprotection by contributing to mitohormesis (i.e. induction of anti-oxidant systems) in cardiomyocytes. Thus, exploitation of the cardioprotective actions of the LPP may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for future treatment of heart disease. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Carcinine has 4-hydroxynonenal scavenging property and neuroprotective effect in mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Marchette, Lea D; Wang, Huaiwen; Li, Feng; Babizhayev, Mark A; Kasus-Jacobi, Anne

    2012-06-20

    Oxidative stress induces retinal damage and contributes to vision loss in progressive retinopathies. Carcinine (β-alanyl-histamine) is a natural imidazole-containing peptide derivative with antioxidant activity. It is predicted to scavenge 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a toxic product of lipid oxidation. The aim of this study was to confirm the 4-HNE scavenging effect and evaluate the neuroprotective effect of carcinine in mouse retina subjected to oxidative stress. HPLC coupled with mass spectrometry was used to analyze carcinine and 4-HNE-carcinine adduct. Protection of retinal proteins from modification by 4-HNE was tested by incubating carcinine with retinal protein extract and 4-HNE. Modified retinal proteins were quantified by dot-blot analysis. Mice were treated with carcinine (intravitreal injection and gavage) and exposed to bright light to induce oxidative damage in the retina. Photoreceptor degeneration was measured by histology and electroretinography. Retinal levels of retinol dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12) were measured by immunoblot analysis, after exposure to bright light and in retinal explants after exposure to 4-HNE. The ability of carcinine to form an adduct with 4-HNE, as well as to prevent and even reverse the adduction of retinal proteins by the toxic aldehyde was demonstrated in vitro. Carcinine, administered by intravitreal injection or gavage, strongly protected mouse retina against light-induced photoreceptor degeneration and had a protective effect on RHD12, a protein found specifically in photoreceptor cells. This study suggests that carcinine can be administered noninvasively to efficiently protect photoreceptor cells from oxidative damage. Carcinine could be administered daily to prevent vision loss in progressive retinopathies.

  5. Assessment of human 4-hydroxynonenal, 8-isoprostane concentrations and glutathione reductase activity after synbiotics administration.

    PubMed

    Kleniewska, Paulina; Pawliczak, Rafał

    2018-05-30

    Probiotics and prebiotics have become an object of intense research, to identify methods of mitigating oxidative stress. Over the past few years, the number of in vitro and in vivo studies, related to antioxidant properties of probiotics/prebiotics has significantly increased. The aim of the present study was to assess whether probiotic in combination with prebiotic influences the level of human 4-hydroxynonenal, 8-isoprostane and glutathione reductase activity. Experiments were carried out on healthy volunteers (male and female). All oxidative stress markers were measured in blood plasma pre- and post-administration of synbiotic. The administration of synbiotic resulted in a significant decrease in 4-hydroxynonenal in the female-synbiotic group (p < 0.05), 8-isoprostanes in the female-synbiotic group and male-synbiotic group (p < 0.05) and non-significant increase in the activity of glutathione reductase (p > 0.05) vs. control. The present results show that supplementation of synbiotics contributed to the decrease in oxidative stress parameters in the female patients. Copyright © 2018 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 activity controls 4-hydroxynonenal metabolism and activity in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Ciamporcero, Eric; Medana, Claudio; Pizzimenti, Stefania; Dal Bello, Federica; Minero, Valerio Giacomo; Toaldo, Cristina; Minelli, Rosalba; Uchida, Koji; Dianzani, Mario Umberto; Pili, Roberto; Barrera, Giuseppina

    2011-10-15

    4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) is an end product of lipoperoxidation with antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties in various tumors. Here we report a greater sensitivity to HNE in PC3 and LNCaP cells compared to DU145 cells. In contrast to PC3 and LNCaP cells, HNE-treated DU145 cells showed a smaller reduction in growth and did not undergo apoptosis. In DU145 cells, HNE did not induce ROS production and DNA damage and generated a lower amount of HNE-protein adducts. DU145 cells had a greater GSH and GST A4 content and GSH/GST-mediated HNE detoxification. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a regulator of the antioxidant response. Nrf2 protein content and nuclear accumulation were higher in DU145 cells compared to PC3 and LNCaP cells, whereas the expression of KEAP1, the main negative regulator of Nrf2 activity, was lower. Inhibition of Nrf2 expression with specific siRNA resulted in a reduction in GST A4 expression and GS-HNE formation, indicating that Nrf2 controls HNE metabolism. In addition, Nrf2 knockdown sensitized DU145 cells to HNE-mediated antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity. In conclusion, we demonstrated that increased Nrf2 activity resulted in a reduction in HNE sensitivity in prostate cancer cells, suggesting a potential mechanism of resistance to pro-oxidant therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Protective effects of red wine flavonols on 4-hydroxynonenal-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Young Jin; Kang, Nam Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2009-08-01

    There is accumulating evidence that a moderate consumption of red wine has health benefits, such as the inhibition of neurodegenerative diseases. Although this is generally attributed to resveratrol, the protective mechanisms and the active substance(s) remain unclear. We examined whether and how red wine extract (RWE) and red wine flavonols quercetin and myricetin inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE)-induced apoptosis of rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. RWE attenuated HNE-induced PC12 cell death in a dose-dependent manner. HNE induced cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, which is involved in DNA repair in the nucleus, and this was inhibited by RWE treatment. Treatment with RWE also inhibited HNE-induced nuclear condensation in PC12 cells. Data of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate showed that RWE protected against apoptosis of PC12 cells by attenuating intracellular reactive oxygen species. The cytoprotective effects on HNE-induced cell death were stronger for quercetin and myricetin than for resveratrol. HNE-induced nuclear condensation was attenuated by quercetin and myricetin. These results suggest that the neuroprotective potential of red wine is attributable to flavonols rather than to resveratrol.

  8. Mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid peroxidation in rat frontal cortex by chronic NMDA administration can be partially prevented by lithium treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Helena K; Isaacs-Trepanier, Cameron; Elmi, Nika; Rapoport, Stanley I; Andreazza, Ana C

    2016-05-01

    Chronic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) administration to rats may be a model to investigate excitotoxicity mediated by glutamatergic hyperactivity, and lithium has been reported to be neuroprotective. We hypothesized that glutamatergic hyperactivity in chronic NMDA injected rats would cause mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid peroxidation in the brain, and that chronic lithium treatment would ameliorate some of these NMDA-induced alterations. Rats treated with lithium for 6 weeks were injected i.p. 25 mg/kg NMDA on a daily basis for the last 21 days of lithium treatment. Brain was removed and frontal cortex was analyzed. Chronic NMDA decreased brain levels of mitochondrial complex I and III, and increased levels of the lipid oxidation products, 8-isoprostane and 4-hydroxynonenal, compared with non-NMDA injected rats. Lithium treatment prevented the NMDA-induced increments in 8-isoprostane and 4-hydroxynonenal. Our findings suggest that increased chronic activation of NMDA receptors can induce alterations in electron transport chain complexes I and III and in lipid peroxidation in brain. The NMDA-induced changes may contribute to glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, which plays a role in brain diseases such as bipolar disorder. Lithium treatment prevented changes in 8-isoprostane and 4-hydroxynonenal, which may contribute to lithium's reported neuroprotective effect and efficacy in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemistry and Biology of DNA Containing 1,N2-Deoxyguanosine Adducts of the α,β-Unsaturated Aldehydes Acrolein, Crotonaldehyde, and 4-Hydroxynonenal

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (enals) acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and trans-4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) are products of endogenous lipid peroxidation, arising as a consequence of oxidative stress. The addition of enals to dG involves Michael addition of the N2-amine to give N2-(3-oxopropyl)-dG adducts, followed by reversible cyclization of N1 with the aldehyde, yielding 1,N2-dG exocyclic products. The 1,N2-dG exocyclic adducts from acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and 4-HNE exist in human and rodent DNA. The enal-induced 1,N2-dG lesions are repaired by the nucleotide excision repair pathway in both Escherichia coli and mammalian cells. Oligodeoxynucleotides containing structurally defined 1,N2-dG adducts of acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and 4-HNE were synthesized via a postsynthetic modification strategy. Site-specific mutagenesis of enal adducts has been carried out in E. coli and various mammalian cells. In all cases, the predominant mutations observed are G→T transversions, but these adducts are not strongly miscoding. When placed into duplex DNA opposite dC, the 1,N2-dG exocyclic lesions undergo ring opening to the corresponding N2-(3-oxopropyl)-dG derivatives. Significantly, this places a reactive aldehyde in the minor groove of DNA, and the adducted base possesses a modestly perturbed Watson−Crick face. Replication bypass studies in vitro indicate that DNA synthesis past the ring-opened lesions can be catalyzed by pol η, pol ι, and pol κ. It also can be accomplished by a combination of Rev1 and pol ζ acting sequentially. However, efficient nucleotide insertion opposite the 1,N2-dG ring-closed adducts can be carried out only by pol ι and Rev1, two DNA polymerases that do not rely on the Watson−Crick pairing to recognize the template base. The N2-(3-oxopropyl)-dG adducts can undergo further chemistry, forming interstrand DNA cross-links in the 5′-CpG-3′ sequence, intrastrand DNA cross-links, or DNA−protein conjugates. NMR and mass spectrometric analyses

  10. Increased levels of urinary biomarkers of lipid peroxidation products among workers occupationally exposed to diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Li, Haibin; Sun, Xin; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Xiao; Dai, Yufei; Gao, Weimin; Gu, Guizhen; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-08-01

    Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) was found to induce lipid peroxidation (LPO) in animal exposure studies. LPO is a class of oxidative stress and can be reflected by detecting the levels of its production, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and etheno-DNA adducts including 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (ɛdA) and 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (ɛdC). However, the impact of DEE exposure on LPO has not been explored in humans. In this study, we evaluated urinary MDA, 4-HNE, ɛdA, and ɛdC levels as biomarkers of LPO among 108 workers with exclusive exposure to DEE and 109 non-DEE-exposed workers. Results showed that increased levels of urinary MDA and ɛdA were observed in subjects occupationally exposed to DEE before and after age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, and alcohol use were adjusted (all p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant relationship between the internal exposure dose (urinary ΣOH-PAHs) and MDA, 4-HNE, and ɛdA (all p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant increased relations between urinary etheno-DNA adduct and MDA, 4-HNE were observed (all p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggested that the level of LPO products (MDA and ɛdA) was increased in DEE-exposed workers, and urinary MDA and ɛdA might be feasible biomarkers for DEE exposure. LPO induced DNA damage might be involved and further motivated the genomic instability could be one of the pathogeneses of cancer induced by DEE-exposure. However, additional investigations should be performed to understand these observations.

  11. Increased accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal adducts in female GSTA4/PPAR alpha double knockout mice enhance steatosis and inflammation in a model of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hepatocellular injury resulting from increased lipid peroxidation products and oxidative stress is considered a potential mechanism driving the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitsis (NASH). To test the significance of lipid peroxidation and protein...

  12. Glutaredoxin 2 Reduces Both Thioredoxin 2 and Thioredoxin 1 and Protects Cells from Apoptosis Induced by Auranofin and 4-Hydroxynonenal

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huihui; Du, Yatao; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Mitochondrial thioredoxin (Trx) is critical for defense against oxidative stress-induced cell apoptosis. To date, mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is the only known enzyme catalyzing Trx2 reduction in mitochondria. However, TrxR is sensitive to inactivation by exo/endogenous electrophiles, for example, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). In this study, we characterized the mitochondrial glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) system as a backup for the mitochondrial TrxR. Meanwhile, as Grx2 is also present in the cytosol/nucleus of certain cancer cell lines, the reducing activity of Grx2 on Trx1 was also tested. Results: Glutathione alone could reduce oxidized Trx2, and the presence of physiological concentrations of Grx2 markedly increased the reaction rate. HeLa cells with Grx2 overexpression (particularly in the mitochondria) exhibited higher viabilities than the wild-type cells after treatment with TrxR inhibitors (Auranofin or HNE), whereas knockdown of Grx2 sensitized the cells to TrxR inhibitors. Accordingly, Grx2 overexpression in the mitochondria had protected Trx2 from oxidation by HNE treatment, whereas Grx2 knockdown had sensitized Trx2 to oxidation. On the other hand, Grx2 reduced Trx1 with similar activities as that of Trx2. Overexpression of Grx2 in the cytosol had protected Trx1 from oxidation, indicating a supportive role of Grx2 in the cytosolic redox balance of cancer cells. Innovation: This work explores the reductase activity of Grx2 on Trx2/1, and demonstrates the physiological importance of the activity by using in vivo redox western blot assays. Conclusion: Grx2 system could help to keep Trx2/1 reduced during an oxidative stress, thereby contributing to the anti-apoptotic signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 669–681. PMID:24295294

  13. Identification of Protein Targets of 4-Hydroxynonenal Using Click Chemistry for Ex Vivo Biotinylation of Azido and Alkynyl Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Andrew; Tallman, Keri A.; Jacobs, Aaron T.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Porter, Ned A.; Marnett, Lawrence J.

    2009-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are primary targets of free radical damage during oxidative stress. Diffusible electrophilic α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), have been shown to modify proteins that mediate cell signaling (e.g. IKK and Keap1) and alter gene expression pathways responsible for inducing antioxidant genes, heat shock proteins, and the DNA damage response. To fully understand cellular responses to HNE, it is important to determine its protein targets in an unbiased fashion. This requires a strategy for detecting and isolating HNE-modified proteins regardless of the nature of the chemical linkage between HNE and its targets. Azido or alkynyl derivatives of HNE were synthesized and demonstrated to be equivalent to HNE in their ability to induce heme oxygenase induction and induce apoptosis in colon cancer (RKO) cells. Cells exposed to the tagged HNE derivatives were lysed and exposed to reagents to effect Staudinger ligation or copper-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3 dipolar cycloaddition reaction (click chemistry) to conjugate HNE-adducted proteins with biotin for subsequent affinity purification. Both strategies yielded efficient biotinylation of tagged HNE-protein conjugates but click chemistry was found to be superior for recovery of biotinylated proteins from streptavidin-coated beads. Biotinylated proteins were detected in lysates from RKO cell incubations with azido-HNE at concentrations as low as 1 μM. These proteins were affinity purified with streptavidin beads and proteomic analysis was performed by linear ion trap mass spectrometry. Proteomic analysis revealed a dose-dependent increase in labeled proteins with increased sequence coverage at higher concentrations. Several proteins involved in stress signaling (heat shock proteins 70 and 90, and the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein) were selectively adducted by azido- and alkynyl-HNE. The use of azido and alkynyl derivatives in conjunction with click chemistry appears to be

  14. Combined metformin and insulin treatment reverses metabolically impaired omental adipogenesis and accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal in obese diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Jaganjac, Morana; Almuraikhy, Shamma; Al-Khelaifi, Fatima; Al-Jaber, Mashael; Bashah, Moataz; Mazloum, Nayef A; Zarkovic, Kamelija; Zarkovic, Neven; Waeg, Georg; Kafienah, Wael; Elrayess, Mohamed A

    2017-08-01

    Obesity-associated impaired fat accumulation in the visceral adipose tissue can lead to ectopic fat deposition and increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study investigated whether impaired adipogenesis of omental (OM) adipose tissues and elevated 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) accumulation contribute to this process, and if combined metformin and insulin treatment in T2DM patients could rescue this phenotype. OM adipose tissues were obtained from forty clinically well characterized obese individuals during weight reduction surgery. Levels of 4-HNE protein adducts, adipocyte size and number of macrophages were determined within these tissues by immunohistochemistry. Adipogenic capacity and gene expression profiles were assessed in preadipocytes derived from these tissues in relation to insulin resistance and in response to 4-HNE, metformin or combined metformin and insulin treatment. Preadipocytes isolated from insulin resistant (IR) and T2DM individuals exhibited lower adipogenesis, marked by upregulation of anti-adipogenic genes, compared to preadipocytes derived from insulin sensitive (IS) individuals. Impaired adipogenesis was also associated with increased 4-HNE levels, smaller adipocytes and greater macrophage presence in the adipose tissues. Within the T2DM group, preadipocytes from combined metformin and insulin treated subset showed better in vitro adipogenesis compared to metformin alone, which was associated with less presence of macrophages and 4-HNE in the adipose tissues. Treatment of preadipocytes in vitro with 4-HNE reduced their adipogenesis and increased proliferation, even in the presence of metformin, which was partially rescued by the presence of insulin. This study reveals involvement of 4-HNE in the impaired OM adipogenesis-associated with insulin resistance and T2DM and provides a proof of concept that this impairment can be reversed by the synergistic action of insulin and metformin. Further studies are

  15. 4-Hydroxynonenal activates Src through a non-canonical pathway that involves EGFR/PTP1B

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongqiao; Forman, Henry Jay

    2015-01-01

    Src, a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase involved in many biological processes, can be activated through both redox-dependent and independent mechanisms. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is a lipid peroxidation product that is increased in pathophysiological conditions associated with Src activation. This study examined how HNE activates human c-Src. In the canonical pathway Src activation is initiated by dephosphorylation of pTyr530 followed by conformational change that causes Src auto-phosphorylation at Tyr419 and its activation. HNE increased Src activation in both dose- and time-dependent manner, while it also increased Src phosphorylation at Tyr530 (pTyr530 Src), suggesting that HNE activated Src via a non-canonical mechanism. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitor (539741), at concentrations that increased basal pTyr530 Src, also increased basal Src activity and significantly reduced HNE-mediated Src activation. The EGFR inhibitor, AG1478, and EGFR silencing, abrogated HNE-mediated EGFR activation and inhibited basal and HNE-induced Src activity. In addition, AG1478 also eliminated the increase of basal Src activation by a PTP1B inhibitor. Taken together these data suggest that HNE can activate Src partly through a non-canonical pathway involving activation of EGFR and inhibition of PTP1B. PMID:26453921

  16. Electrochemical production of ozone and hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Methods of using ozone have been developed which sterilize instruments and medical wastes, oxidize organics found in wastewater, clean laundry, break down contaminants in soil into a form more readily digested by microbes, kill microorganisms present in food products, and destroy toxins present in food products. The preferred methods for killing microorganisms and destroying toxins use pressurized, humidified, and concentrated ozone produced by an electrochemical cell.

  17. Antioxidant role of glutathione S-transferases: 4-Hydroxynonenal, a key molecule in stress-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Sharad S; Singh, Sharda P; Singhal, Preeti; Horne, David; Singhal, Jyotsana; Awasthi, Sanjay

    2015-12-15

    4-Hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (4HNE), one of the major end products of lipid peroxidation (LPO), has been shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of cell lines. It appears to modulate signaling processes in more than one way because it has been suggested to have a role in signaling for differentiation and proliferation. It has been known that glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) can reduce lipid hydroperoxides through their Se-independent glutathione-peroxidase activity and that these enzymes can also detoxify LPO end-products such as 4HNE. Available evidence from earlier studies together with results of recent studies in our laboratories strongly suggests that LPO products, particularly hydroperoxides and 4HNE, are involved in the mechanisms of stress-mediated signaling and that it can be modulated by the alpha-class GSTs through the regulation of the intracellular concentrations of 4HNE. We demonstrate that 4HNE induced apoptosis in various cell lines is accompanied with c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase-3 activation. Cells exposed to mild, transient heat or oxidative stress acquire the capacity to exclude intracellular 4HNE at a faster rate by inducing GSTA4-4 which conjugates 4HNE to glutathione (GSH), and RLIP76 which mediates the ATP-dependent transport of the GSH-conjugate of 4HNE (GS-HNE). The balance between formation and exclusion promotes different cellular processes - higher concentrations of 4HNE promote apoptosis; whereas, lower concentrations promote proliferation. In this article, we provide a brief summary of the cellular effects of 4HNE, followed by a review of its GST-catalyzed detoxification, with an emphasis on the structural attributes that play an important role in the interactions with alpha-class GSTA4-4. Taken together, 4HNE is a key signaling molecule and that GSTs being determinants of its intracellular concentrations, can regulate stress-mediated signaling, are reviewed in this article. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. Antioxidant role of glutathione S-transferases: 4-Hydroxynonenal, a key molecule in stress-mediated signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, Sharad S., E-mail: ssinghal@coh.org; Singh, Sharda P.; Singhal, Preeti

    2015-12-15

    4-Hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (4HNE), one of the major end products of lipid peroxidation (LPO), has been shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of cell lines. It appears to modulate signaling processes in more than one way because it has been suggested to have a role in signaling for differentiation and proliferation. It has been known that glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) can reduce lipid hydroperoxides through their Se-independent glutathione-peroxidase activity and that these enzymes can also detoxify LPO end-products such as 4HNE. Available evidence from earlier studies together with results of recent studies in our laboratories strongly suggests that LPO products, particularly hydroperoxidesmore » and 4HNE, are involved in the mechanisms of stress-mediated signaling and that it can be modulated by the alpha-class GSTs through the regulation of the intracellular concentrations of 4HNE. We demonstrate that 4HNE induced apoptosis in various cell lines is accompanied with c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase-3 activation. Cells exposed to mild, transient heat or oxidative stress acquire the capacity to exclude intracellular 4HNE at a faster rate by inducing GSTA4-4 which conjugates 4HNE to glutathione (GSH), and RLIP76 which mediates the ATP-dependent transport of the GSH-conjugate of 4HNE (GS-HNE). The balance between formation and exclusion promotes different cellular processes — higher concentrations of 4HNE promote apoptosis; whereas, lower concentrations promote proliferation. In this article, we provide a brief summary of the cellular effects of 4HNE, followed by a review of its GST-catalyzed detoxification, with an emphasis on the structural attributes that play an important role in the interactions with alpha-class GSTA4-4. Taken together, 4HNE is a key signaling molecule and that GSTs being determinants of its intracellular concentrations, can regulate stress-mediated signaling, are reviewed in this article. - Highlights: • GSTs are the major

  19. Glycerophosphate-dependent peroxide production by brown fat mitochondria from newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Drahota, Z; Rauchova, H; Jesina, P; Vojtísková, A; Houstek, J

    2003-03-01

    Glycerophosphate (GP)-dependent, ferricyanide-induced hydrogen peroxide production was studied in brown adipose tissue mitochondria from newborn rats. Relations between the rate of hydrogen peroxide production and total amount of hydrogen peroxide produced at different GP and ferricyanide concentrations were determined. It was found that the rate of hydrogen peroxide production increases with increasing GP concentration and decreases with increasing ferricyanide concentration. Total amount of hydrogen peroxide produced increases with increasing ferricyanide concentration, however, not proportionally, and the efficiency of this process (oxygen/ferricyanide ratio) strongly declines. Data presented provide further information on the character and kinetics of hydrogen peroxide production by mammalian mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase.

  20. Glycerophosphate-dependent hydrogen peroxide production by rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jesina, P; Kholová, D; Bolehovská, R; Cervinková, Z; Drahota, Z; Houstek, J

    2004-01-01

    We studied the extent to which hormonally-induced mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) activity contributes to the supply of reducing equivalents to the mitochondrial respiratory chain in the rat liver. The activity of glycerophosphate oxidase was compared with those of NADH oxidase and/or succinate oxidase. It was found that triiodothyronine-activated mGPDH represents almost the same capacity for the saturation of the respiratory chain as Complex II. Furthermore, the increase of mGPDH activity induced by triiodothyronine correlated with an increase of capacity for glycerophosphate-dependent hydrogen peroxide production. As a result of hormonal treatment, a 3-fold increase in glycerophosphate-dependent hydrogen peroxide production by liver mitochondria was detected by polarographic and luminometric measurements.

  1. SELECTIVE SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM THORIUM, PROTACTINIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS BY PEROXIDE DISSOLUTION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1959-08-18

    A method is described for separating U/sup 233/ from thorium and fission products. The separation is effected by forming a thorium-nitric acid solution of about 3 pH, adding hydrogen peroxide to precipitate uranium and thorium peroxide, treating the peroxides with sodium hydroxide to selectively precipitate the uranium peroxide, and reacting the separated solution with nitric acid to re- precipitate the uranium peroxide.

  2. Synthesis of five- and six-membered cyclic organic peroxides: Key transformations into peroxide ring-retaining products

    PubMed Central

    Borisov, Dmitry A; Vil’, Vera A; Dembitsky, Valery M

    2014-01-01

    Summary The present review describes the current status of synthetic five and six-membered cyclic peroxides such as 1,2-dioxolanes, 1,2,4-trioxolanes (ozonides), 1,2-dioxanes, 1,2-dioxenes, 1,2,4-trioxanes, and 1,2,4,5-tetraoxanes. The literature from 2000 onwards is surveyed to provide an update on synthesis of cyclic peroxides. The indicated period of time is, on the whole, characterized by the development of new efficient and scale-up methods for the preparation of these cyclic compounds. It was shown that cyclic peroxides remain unchanged throughout the course of a wide range of fundamental organic reactions. Due to these properties, the molecular structures can be greatly modified to give peroxide ring-retaining products. The chemistry of cyclic peroxides has attracted considerable attention, because these compounds are used in medicine for the design of antimalarial, antihelminthic, and antitumor agents. PMID:24454562

  3. 40 CFR 415.90 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen peroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydrogen peroxide production subcategory. 415.90 Section 415.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Peroxide Production Subcategory § 415.90 Applicability; description of the hydrogen peroxide production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  4. 40 CFR 415.90 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen peroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydrogen peroxide production subcategory. 415.90 Section 415.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Peroxide Production Subcategory § 415.90 Applicability; description of the hydrogen peroxide production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  5. 40 CFR 415.90 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen peroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrogen peroxide production subcategory. 415.90 Section 415.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Peroxide Production Subcategory § 415.90 Applicability; description of the hydrogen peroxide production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  6. 40 CFR 415.90 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen peroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hydrogen peroxide production subcategory. 415.90 Section 415.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Peroxide Production Subcategory § 415.90 Applicability; description of the hydrogen peroxide production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  7. 40 CFR 415.90 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen peroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydrogen peroxide production subcategory. 415.90 Section 415.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Peroxide Production Subcategory § 415.90 Applicability; description of the hydrogen peroxide production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  8. 4-Hydroxy-nonenal—A Bioactive Lipid Peroxidation Product

    PubMed Central

    Schaur, Rudolf J.; Siems, Werner; Bresgen, Nikolaus; Eckl, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    This review on recent research advances of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-nonenal (HNE) has four major topics: I. the formation of HNE in various organs and tissues, II. the diverse biochemical reactions with Michael adduct formation as the most prominent one, III. the endogenous targets of HNE, primarily peptides and proteins (here the mechanisms of covalent adduct formation are described and the (patho-) physiological consequences discussed), and IV. the metabolism of HNE leading to a great number of degradation products, some of which are excreted in urine and may serve as non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress. PMID:26437435

  9. Hydrogen Peroxide as a Sustainable Energy Carrier: Electrocatalytic Production of Hydrogen Peroxide and the Fuel Cell.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Yamada, Yusuke; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2012-11-01

    This review describes homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reduction of dioxygen with metal complexes focusing on the catalytic two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide. Whether two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide or four-electron O 2 -reduction to produce water occurs depends on the types of metals and ligands that are utilized. Those factors controlling the two processes are discussed in terms of metal-oxygen intermediates involved in the catalysis. Metal complexes acting as catalysts for selective two-electron reduction of oxygen can be utilized as metal complex-modified electrodes in the electrocatalytic reduction to produce hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide thus produced can be used as a fuel in a hydrogen peroxide fuel cell. A hydrogen peroxide fuel cell can be operated with a one-compartment structure without a membrane, which is certainly more promising for the development of low-cost fuel cells as compared with two compartment hydrogen fuel cells that require membranes. Hydrogen peroxide is regarded as an environmentally benign energy carrier because it can be produced by the electrocatalytic two-electron reduction of O 2 , which is abundant in air, using solar cells; the hydrogen peroxide thus produced could then be readily stored and then used as needed to generate electricity through the use of hydrogen peroxide fuel cells.

  10. Kinetic release of hydrogen peroxide from different whitening products.

    PubMed

    da Silva Marques, Duarte Nuno; Silveira, Joao Miguel; Marques, Joana Rita; Amaral, Joao Almeida; Guilherme, Nuno Marques; da Mata, António Duarte

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the kinetics of hydrogen peroxide (HP) release from five different bleaching products: VivaStyle® 10% fitted tray gel, VivaStyle® 30% in-office bleaching gel, VivaStyle® Paint-On Plus paint-on bleaching varnish, Opalescence PF® 10% carbamide peroxide gel and Trèswhite Supreme™ 10% HP gel. Each product was firstly titrated for its HP content by a described method. HP release kinetics was assessed by a modified spectrophotometric technique. One sample t test was performed to test for differences between the manufacturers' claimed HP concentrations and the titrated HP content in the whitening products. Analysis of variance plus Tamhane's post hoc tests and Pearson correlation analysis were used as appropriate. Values of P < 0.05 were taken as significant. Titrated HP revealed an increased content when compared to the manufacturer's specifications for all the products tested (P < 0.05), although only products from one manufacturer produced significantly higher results. All products presented a significant (P < 0.05) and sustained release of HP. However, the product with paint-on cellulose-based matrix resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) faster kinetics when compared to other products tested. These results are consistent with manufacturers' reduced recommended application times. The results of this study suggest that modifying the matrix composition may be a viable alternative to HP concentration increase, since this may result in faster release kinetics without exposure to high HP concentrations.

  11. Rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 4-hydroxynonenal for the assessment of oxidative degradation and safety of vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Gabbanini, Simone; Matera, Riccardo; Valvassori, Alice; Valgimigli, Luca

    2015-04-15

    A novel method for the UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of (E)-4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is described. The method is based on derivatization of 4-HNE with pentafluorophenylhydrazine (1) or 4-trifluoromethylphenylhydrazine (2) in acetonitrile in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid as catalyst at room temperature and allows complete analysis of one sample of vegetable oil in only 21 min, including sample preparation and chromatography. The method involving hydrazine 1, implemented in an ion trap instrument with analysis of the transition m/z 337→154 showed LOD=10.9 nM, average accuracy of 101% and precision ranging 2.5-4.0% RSD intra-day (2.7-4.1% RSD inter-day), with 4-HNE standard solutions. Average recovery from lipid matrices was 96.3% from vaseline oil, 91.3% from sweet almond oil and 105.3% from olive oil. The method was tested on the assessment of safety and oxidative degradation of seven samples of dietary oil (soybean, mixed seeds, corn, peanut, sunflower, olive) and six cosmetic-grade oils (avocado, blackcurrant, apricot kernel, echium, sesame, wheat germ) and effectively detected increased 4-HNE levels in response to chemical (Fenton reaction), photochemical, or thermal stress and aging, aimed at mimicking typical oxidation associated with storage or industrial processing. The method is a convenient, cost-effective and reliable tool to assess quality and safety of vegetable oils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrophilic aldehyde products of lipid peroxidation selectively adduct to heat shock protein 90 and arylsulfatase A in stallion spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Hall, Sally E; Aitken, R John; Nixon, Brett; Smith, Nathan D; Gibb, Zamira

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major determinant of mammalian sperm function stimulating lipid peroxidation cascades that culminate in the generation of potentially cytotoxic aldehydes. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of such aldehydes on the functionality of stallion spermatozoa. The impact of exposure to exogenous acrolein (ACR) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) was manifested in a highly significant dose- and time-dependent increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), total cellular ROS, a decrease in sperm motility, and a time-dependent increase in lipid peroxidation. Notably, low doses of ACR and 4HNE also caused a significant decrease in zona binding. In contrast, exogenous malondialdehyde, a commonly used marker of oxidative stress, had little impact on the various sperm parameters assessed. In accounting for the negative physiological impact of ACR and 4HNE, it was noted that both aldehydes readily adducted to sperm proteins located predominantly within the head, proximal centriole, and tail. The detoxifying activity of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 appeared responsible for a lack of adduction in the midpiece; however, this activity was overwhelmed by 24 h of electrophilic aldehyde exposure. Sequencing of the dominant proteins targeted for ACR and 4HNE covalent modification identified heat shock protein 90 alpha (cytosolic) class A member 1 and arylsulfatase A, respectively. These collective findings may prove useful in the identification of diagnostic biomarkers of stallion fertility and resolving the mechanistic basis of sperm dysfunction in this species. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Lipid peroxidation products do not activate hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hsun-Lang; Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2008-11-20

    Lipid peroxidation (LPO) is known to be associated with liver fibrosis in chronic liver injury. However, direct effects of the products of LPO on liver fibrogenesis are still not clear. In this study, we examined the LPO products, such as malondiladehyde (MDA), 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) (8-iso-PGF(2alpha)), and 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-PGF(2alpha) (15-keto-PGF(2alpha)), on the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vivo and in vitro. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) was given orally to rats twice a week for 8 weeks. Corn oil was given daily to rats for 8 weeks. CCl(4) induced both free-radical-medicated and cyclooxygenase-2-dependent LPO. Free radical-medicated LPO showed an increase with corn oil treatment, whereas no effect was reflected on COX-2-dependent LPO. CCl(4) induced liver fibrosis in rats, but no liver fibrosis was observed in rats treated with corn oil. In vitro studies demonstrated that MDA, 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) and 15-keto-PGF(2alpha), did not activate HSCs, which were preactivated or not preactivated by TGF-beta1. Our results clearly indicate that LPO products, such as MDA, 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) and 15-keto-PGF(2alpha), cannot directly activate HSCs.

  14. 4-Hydroxynonenal self-limits Fas-mediated DISC independent apoptosis by promoting export of Daxx from nucleus to cytosol and its binding to Fas†

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajendra; Sharma, Abha; Dwivedi, Seema; Zimniak, Piotr; Awasthi, Sanjay; Awasthi, Yogesh C.

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) induces Fas-mediated apoptosis in HLE B-3 cells through a pathway which is independent of FasL, FADD, procaspase8-and DISC (Li, J. et al. Biochemistry, 45, 12253-12264). The involvement of Daxx has also been suggested in this pathway but its role is not clear. Here, we report that Daxx plays an important regulatory role during 4-HNE induced, Fas-mediated apoptosis in Jurkat cells. 4-HNE induces Fas-dependent apoptosis in procaspase8 deficient Jurkat cells via the activation of ASK1, JNK and caspase3 and the apoptosis can be inhibited by masking Fas with the antagonistic anti-Fas antibodies. We demonstrate that 4-HNE exposure to Jurkat cells leads to the induction of both Fas and Daxx. 4-HNE binds to both Fas and Daxx and promotes the export of Daxx from nucleus to cytosol where it binds to Fas and inhibits apoptosis. Depletion of Daxx results in increase in the activation of ASK1, JNK, and caspase3 along with exacerbation of 4-HNE-induced apoptosis suggesting that Daxx inhibits apoptosis by binding to Fas. 4-HNE-induced translocation of the Daxx is also accompanied with the activation of the transcription factor HSF1. Results of these studies are consistent with a model in which by interacting with Fas, 4-HNE promotes pro-apoptotic signaling via ASK1, JNK and caspase3. In parallel, 4-HNE induces Daxx and promotes its export from the nucleus to cytosol where it interacts with Fas to self-limit the extent of apoptosis by inhibiting the downstream pro-apoptotic signaling. Cytoplasmic translocation of Daxx also results in up-regulation of HSF1 associated stress responsive genes. PMID:18069800

  15. The oxidative stress mediator 4-hydroxynonenal is an intracellular agonist of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ)

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Jeffrey D.; Prabhu, K. Sandeep; Thompson, Jerry T.; Reddy, P. Sreenivasula; Peters, Jeffrey M.; Peterson, Blake R.; Reddy, C. Channa; Vanden Heuvel, John P.

    2007-01-01

    Liver insufficiency and damage is a major cause of death and disease worldwide and may result from exposure to environmental toxicants, specific combinations or dosages of pharmaceuticals and microbial metabolites. The generation of reactive intermediates, in particular 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), is a common event in liver damage caused by a variety of hepatotoxic drugs and solvents. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors that are involved in the transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism as well as other biological functions. Importantly, we have observed that the PPARβ/δ−/− mouse is more susceptible to chemically-induced hepatotoxicity than its wildtype counterpart, and our objective in this study was to elucidate the mechanism(s) by which PPARβ/δ confers protection to hepatocytes. We hypothesized that PPARβ/δ plays a protective role by responding to toxic lipids and altering gene expression accordingly. In support, oxidized-VLDL and constituents including 13-S-hydroxyoctadeca-dienoic acid (13(S)-HODE) and 4-HNE are PPARβ/δ ligands. A structure-activity relationship was established where 4-HNE and 4-hydroperoxynonenal (4-HpNE) enhanced the activity of the PPARβ/δ subtype while 4-hyroxy-hexenal (4-HHE), 4-oxo-2-Nonenal (4-ONE), and trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal did not activate this receptor. Increasing PPARβ/δ activity with a synthetic agonist decreased sensitivity of hepatocytes to 4-HNE and other toxic agents, whereas inhibition of this receptor had the opposite result. Gene expression microarray analysis identified several important PPARβ/δ-regulated detoxification enzymes involved in 4-HNE metabolism that are regulated at the transcript level. This research established 4-HNE as an endogenous modulator of PPARβ/δ activity and raises the possibility that agonists of this nuclear receptor may be utilized to prevent or treat liver disease associated with oxidative damage. PMID:17382197

  16. THE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BY HIGH OXYGEN PRESSURES

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Daniel L.; Gerschman, Rebeca; Ruhm, K. Barclay; Price, William E.

    1958-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is formed in solutions of glutathione exposed to oxygen. This hydrogen peroxide or its precursors will decrease the viscosity of polymers like desoxyribonucleic acid and sodium alginate. Further knowledge of the mechanism of these chemical effects of oxygen might further the understanding of the biological effects of oxygen. This study deals with the rate of solution of oxygen and with the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in chemical systems exposed to high oxygen pressures. At 6 atmospheres, the absorption coefficient for oxygen into water was about 1 cm./hour and at 143 atmospheres, it was about 2 cm./hour; the difference probably being due to the modus operandi. The addition of cobalt (II), manganese (II), nickel (II), or zinc ions in glutathione (GSH) solutions exposed to high oxygen pressure decreased the net formation of hydrogen peroxide and also the reduced glutathione remaining in the solution. Studies on hydrogen peroxide decomposition indicated that these ions act probably by accelerating the hydrogen perioxide oxidation of glutathione. The chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt, inhibited the oxidation of GSH exposed to high oxygen pressure for 14 hours. However, indication that oxidation still occurred, though at a much slower rate, was found in experiments lasting 10 weeks. Thiourea decomposed hydrogen peroxide very rapidly. When GSH solutions were exposed to high oxygen pressure, there was oxidation of the GSH, which became relatively smaller with increasing concentrations of GSH. PMID:13525677

  17. Modular Advanced Oxidation Process Enabled by Cathodic Hydrogen Peroxide Production

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is frequently used in combination with ultraviolet (UV) light to treat trace organic contaminants in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In small-scale applications, such as wellhead and point-of-entry water treatment systems, the need to maintain a stock solution of concentrated H2O2 increases the operational cost and complicates the operation of AOPs. To avoid the need for replenishing a stock solution of H2O2, a gas diffusion electrode was used to generate low concentrations of H2O2 directly in the water prior to its exposure to UV light. Following the AOP, the solution was passed through an anodic chamber to lower the solution pH and remove the residual H2O2. The effectiveness of the technology was evaluated using a suite of trace contaminants that spanned a range of reactivity with UV light and hydroxyl radical (HO•) in three different types of source waters (i.e., simulated groundwater, simulated surface water, and municipal wastewater effluent) as well as a sodium chloride solution. Irrespective of the source water, the system produced enough H2O2 to treat up to 120 L water d–1. The extent of transformation of trace organic contaminants was affected by the current density and the concentrations of HO• scavengers in the source water. The electrical energy per order (EEO) ranged from 1 to 3 kWh m–3, with the UV lamp accounting for most of the energy consumption. The gas diffusion electrode exhibited high efficiency for H2O2 production over extended periods and did not show a diminution in performance in any of the matrices. PMID:26039560

  18. Glutamate release from activated microglia requires the oxidative burst and lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Barger, Steven W; Goodwin, Mary E; Porter, Mandy M; Beggs, Marjorie L

    2007-06-01

    When activated by proinflammatory stimuli, microglia release substantial levels of glutamate, and mounting evidence suggests this contributes to neuronal damage during neuroinflammation. Prior studies indicated a role for the Xc exchange system, an amino acid transporter that antiports glutamate for cystine. Because cystine is used for synthesis of glutathione (GSH) synthesis, we hypothesized that glutamate release is an indirect consequence of GSH depletion by the respiratory burst, which produces superoxide from NADPH oxidase. Microglial glutamate release triggered by lipopolysaccharide was blocked by diphenylene iodonium chloride and apocynin, inhibitors of NADPH oxidase. This glutamate release was also blocked by vitamin E and elicited by lipid peroxidation products 4-hydroxynonenal and acrolein, suggesting that lipid peroxidation makes crucial demands on GSH. Although NADPH oxidase inhibitors also suppressed nitrite accumulation, vitamin E did not; moreover, glutamate release was largely unaffected by nitric oxide donors, inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase, or changes in gene expression. These findings indicate that a considerable degree of the neurodegenerative consequences of neuroinflammation may result from conversion of oxidative stress to excitotoxic stress. This phenomenon entails a biochemical chain of events initiated by a programmed oxidative stress and resultant mass-action amino acid transport. Indeed, some of the neuroprotective effects of antioxidants may be due to interference with these events rather than direct protection against neuronal oxidation.

  19. Safety issues of high-concentrated hydrogen peroxide production used as rocket propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romantsova, O. V.; Ulybin, V. B.

    2015-04-01

    The article dwells on the possibility of production of high-concentrated hydrogen peroxide with the Russian technology of isopropyl alcohol autoxidation. Analysis of fire/explosion hazards and reasons of insufficient quality is conducted for the technology. Modified technology is shown. Non-standard fire/explosion characteristics required for integrated fire/explosion hazards rating for modified hydrogen peroxide production based on the autoxidation of isopropyl alcohol are defined.

  20. Lipid Peroxidation: Production, Metabolism, and Signaling Mechanisms of Malondialdehyde and 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Mario F.; Argüelles, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation can be described generally as a process under which oxidants such as free radicals attack lipids containing carbon-carbon double bond(s), especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Over the last four decades, an extensive body of literature regarding lipid peroxidation has shown its important role in cell biology and human health. Since the early 1970s, the total published research articles on the topic of lipid peroxidation was 98 (1970–1974) and has been increasing at almost 135-fold, by up to 13165 in last 4 years (2010–2013). New discoveries about the involvement in cellular physiology and pathology, as well as the control of lipid peroxidation, continue to emerge every day. Given the enormity of this field, this review focuses on biochemical concepts of lipid peroxidation, production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of two main omega-6 fatty acids lipid peroxidation products: malondialdehyde (MDA) and, in particular, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), summarizing not only its physiological and protective function as signaling molecule stimulating gene expression and cell survival, but also its cytotoxic role inhibiting gene expression and promoting cell death. Finally, overviews of in vivo mammalian model systems used to study the lipid peroxidation process, and common pathological processes linked to MDA and 4-HNE are shown. PMID:24999379

  1. Increased 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts in male GSTA4–4/PPAR-alpha double knockout mice enhance injury during early stages of alcoholic liver disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To test the significance of lipid peroxidation in the development of alcoholic liver injury, an ethanol (EtOH) liquid diet was fed to male wild type 129/SvJ mice, and glutathione S-transferase A4-4 null (GSTA4-/-) mice for 40 d. GSTA4-/- mice were also crossed with peroxisome proliferator-activated ...

  2. Solar-Driven Hydrogen Peroxide Production Using Polymer-Supported Carbon Dots as Heterogeneous Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoi, Satyabrat; Karak, Niranjan

    2017-10-01

    Safe, sustainable, and green production of hydrogen peroxide is an exciting proposition due to the role of hydrogen peroxide as a green oxidant and energy carrier for fuel cells. The current work reports the development of carbon dot-impregnated waterborne hyperbranched polyurethane as a heterogeneous photo-catalyst for solar-driven production of hydrogen peroxide. The results reveal that the carbon dots possess a suitable band-gap of 2.98 eV, which facilitates effective splitting of both water and ethanol under solar irradiation. Inclusion of the carbon dots within the eco-friendly polymeric material ensures their catalytic activity and also provides a facile route for easy catalyst separation, especially from a solubilizing medium. The overall process was performed in accordance with the principles of green chemistry using bio-based precursors and aqueous medium. This work highlights the potential of carbon dots as an effective photo-catalyst.

  3. Trends in Selective Hydrogen Peroxide Production on Transition Metal Surfaces from First Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, Rees B.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.

    2012-10-19

    We present a comprehensive, Density Functional Theory-based analysis of the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, on twelve transition metal surfaces. We determine the full thermodynamics and selected kinetics of the reaction network on these metals, and we analyze these energetics with simple, microkinetically motivated rate theories to assess the activity and selectivity of hydrogen peroxide production on the surfaces of interest. By further exploiting Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi relationships and scaling relationships between the binding energies of different adsorbates, we express the results in the form of a two dimensional contour volcano plot, with the activity and selectivity being determined as functionsmore » of two independent descriptors, the atomic hydrogen and oxygen adsorption free energies. We identify both a region of maximum predicted catalytic activity, which is near Pt and Pd in descriptor space, and a region of selective hydrogen peroxide production, which includes Au. The optimal catalysts represent a compromise between activity and selectivity and are predicted to fall approximately between Au and Pd in descriptor space, providing a compact explanation for the experimentally known performance of Au-Pd alloys for hydrogen peroxide synthesis, and suggesting a target for future computational screening efforts to identify improved direct hydrogen peroxide synthesis catalysts. Related methods of combining activity and selectivity analysis into a single volcano plot may be applicable to, and useful for, other aqueous phase heterogeneous catalytic reactions where selectivity is a key catalytic criterion.« less

  4. The Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) Controls Natural Protective Mechanisms against Lipid Peroxidation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis*

    PubMed Central

    Benedusi, Valeria; Martorana, Francesca; Brambilla, Liliana; Maggi, Adriana; Rossi, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as critical neuroprotective factors in several neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To gain new mechanistic insights into the role of these receptors in the context of ALS, here we investigated how PPAR transcriptional activity varies in hSOD1G93A ALS transgenic mice. We demonstrate that PPARγ-driven transcription selectively increases in the spinal cord of symptomatic hSOD1G93A mice. This phenomenon correlates with the up-regulation of target genes, such as lipoprotein lipase and glutathione S-transferase α-2, which are implicated in scavenging lipid peroxidation by-products. Such events are associated with enhanced PPARγ immunoreactivity within motor neuronal nuclei. This observation, and the fact that PPARγ displays increased responsiveness in cultured hSOD1G93A motor neurons, points to a role for this receptor in neutralizing deleterious lipoperoxidation derivatives within the motor cells. Consistently, in both motor neuron-like cultures and animal models, we report that PPARγ is activated by lipid peroxidation end products, such as 4-hydroxynonenal, whose levels are elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord from ALS patients. We propose that the accumulation of critical concentrations of lipid peroxidation adducts during ALS progression leads to the activation of PPARγ in motor neurons. This in turn triggers self-protective mechanisms that involve the up-regulation of lipid detoxification enzymes, such as lipoprotein lipase and glutathione S-transferase α-2. Our findings indicate that anticipating natural protective reactions by pharmacologically modulating PPARγ transcriptional activity may attenuate neurodegeneration by limiting the damage induced by lipid peroxidation derivatives. PMID:22910911

  5. Coupling of Solar Energy to Hydrogen Peroxide Production in the Cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Roncel, Mercedes; Navarro, José A.; De la Rosa, Miguel A.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide production by blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) under photoautotrophic conditions is of great interest as a model system for the bioconversion of solar energy. Our experimental system was based on the photosynthetic reduction of molecular oxygen with electrons from water by Anacystis nidulans 1402-1 as the biophotocatalyst and methyl viologen as a redox intermediate. It has been demonstrated that the metabolic conditions of the algae in their different growth stages strongly influence the capacity for hydrogen peroxide photoproduction, and so the initial formation rate and net peroxide yield became maximum in the mid-log phase of growth. The overall process can be optimized in the presence of certain metabolic inhibitors such as iodoacetamide and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, as well as by permeabilization of the cellular membrane after drastic temperature changes and by immobilization of the cells in inert supports such as agar and alginate. PMID:16347855

  6. Hydrogen peroxide prevents vascular calcification induced ROS production by regulating Nrf-2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wensong; Li, Yi; Ding, Hanlu; Du, Yaqin; Wang, Li

    2016-08-01

    Although vascular calcification in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) represents a ubiquitous human health problem, effective therapies with limited side effects are still lacking, and the precise mechanisms are not fully understood. The Nrf-2/ARE pathway is a pivotal to regulate anti-oxidative responses in vascular calcification upon ESRD. Although Nrf-2 plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and brain ischemia, the effect of Nrf-2 and oxidative stress on vascular calcification in ESRD patients is still unclear. The aim of this research was to study the protective role of hydrogen peroxide in vascular calcification and the mechanism of Nrf-2 and oxidative stress on vascular calcification. Here we used the rat vascular smooth muscle cell model of β-glycerophosphate-induced calcification resembling vascular calcification in ESRD to investigate the therapeutic effect of 0.01 mM hydrogen peroxide on vascular calcification and further explores the possible underlying mechanisms. Our current report shows the in vitro role of 0.01 mM hydrogen peroxide in protecting against intracellular ROS accumulation upon vascular calcification. Both hydrogen peroxide and sulforaphane pretreatment reduced ROS production, increased the expression of Nrf-2, and decreased the expression of Runx2 following calcification. Our study demonstrates that 0.01 mM hydrogen peroxide can effectively protect rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells against oxidative stress by preventing vascular calcification induced ROS production through Nrf-2 pathway. These data might define an antioxidant role of hydrogen peroxide in vascular calcification upon ESRD.

  7. Hydrogen peroxide production is affected by oxygen levels in mammalian cell culture.

    PubMed

    Maddalena, Lucas A; Selim, Shehab M; Fonseca, Joao; Messner, Holt; McGowan, Shannon; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2017-11-04

    Although oxygen levels in the extracellular space of most mammalian tissues are just a few percent, under standard cell culture conditions they are not regulated and are often substantially higher. Some cellular sources of reactive oxygen species, like NADPH oxidase 4, are sensitive to oxygen levels in the range between 'normal' physiological (typically 1-5%) and standard cell culture (up to 18%). Hydrogen peroxide in particular participates in signal transduction pathways via protein redox modifications, so the potential increase in its production under standard cell culture conditions is important to understand. We measured the rates of cellular hydrogen peroxide production in some common cell lines, including C2C12, PC-3, HeLa, SH-SY5Y, MCF-7, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) maintained at 18% or 5% oxygen. In all instances the rate of hydrogen peroxide production by these cells was significantly greater at 18% oxygen than at 5%. The increase in hydrogen peroxide production at higher oxygen levels was either abolished or substantially reduced by treatment with GKT 137831, a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase subunits 1 and 4. These data indicate that oxygen levels experienced by cells in culture influence hydrogen peroxide production via NADPH oxidase 1/4, highlighting the importance of regulating oxygen levels in culture near physiological values. However, we measured pericellular oxygen levels adjacent to cell monolayers under a variety of conditions and with different cell lines and found that, particularly when growing at 5% incubator oxygen levels, pericellular oxygen was often lower and variable. Together, these observations indicate the importance, and difficulty, of regulating oxygen levels experienced by cells in culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Artificial photosynthesis for production of hydrogen peroxide and its fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2016-05-01

    The reducing power released from photosystem I (PSI) via ferredoxin enables the reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH, which is essential in the Calvin-Benson cycle to make sugars in photosynthesis. Alternatively, PSI can reduce O2 to produce hydrogen peroxide as a fuel. This article describes the artificial version of the photocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide from water and O2 using solar energy. Hydrogen peroxide is used as a fuel in hydrogen peroxide fuel cells to make electricity. The combination of the photocatalytic H2O2 production from water and O2 using solar energy with one-compartment H2O2 fuel cells provides on-site production and usage of H2O2 as a more useful and promising solar fuel than hydrogen. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--The design and engineering of electronc transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a sterilizing in-place application for a production machine using Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Mau, T; Hartmann, V; Burmeister, J; Langguth, P; Häusler, H

    2004-01-01

    The use of steam in sterilization processes is limited by the implementation of heat-sensitive components inside the machines to be sterilized. Alternative low-temperature sterilization methods need to be found and their suitability evaluated. Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP) technology was adapted for a production machine consisting of highly sensitive pressure sensors and thermo-labile air tube systems. This new kind of "cold" surface sterilization, known from the Barrier Isolator Technology, is based on the controlled release of hydrogen peroxide vapour into sealed enclosures. A mobile VHP generator was used to generate the hydrogen peroxide vapour. The unit was combined with the air conduction system of the production machine. Terminal vacuum pumps were installed to distribute the gas within the production machine and for its elimination. In order to control the sterilization process, different physical process monitors were incorporated. The validation of the process was based on biological indicators (Geobacillus stearothermophilus). The Limited Spearman Karber Method (LSKM) was used to statistically evaluate the sterilization process. The results show that it is possible to sterilize surfaces in a complex tube system with the use of gaseous hydrogen peroxide. A total microbial reduction of 6 log units was reached.

  10. Fuel ethanol production from alkaline peroxide pretreated corn stover

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn stover (CS) has the potential to serve as an abundant low-cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. Due to heterogeneous complexity and recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks, pretreatment is required to break the lignin seal and/or disrupt the structure of crystalline cellulose to in...

  11. Anti-Atherosclerotic Actions of Azelaic acid, an End Product of Linoleic Acid Peroxidation, in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Litvinov, Dmitry; Selvarajan, Krithika; Garelnabi, Mahdi; Brophy, Larissa; Parthasarathy, Sampath

    2009-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with the accumulation of oxidized lipids in arterial lesions. Recently we studied the degradation of peroxidized linoleic acid and suggested that oxidation is an essential process that results in the generation of terminal products, namely mono- and dicarboxylic acids that may lack the pro-atherogenic effects of peroxidized lipids. In continuation of that study, we tested the effects of azelaic acid (AzA), one of the end products of linoleic acid peroxidation, on the development of atherosclerosis using low density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr−/−) mice. Methods and results LDLr−/− mice were fed with a high fat and high cholesterol Western diet (WD group). Another group of animals were fed the same diet with AzA supplementation (WD+AzA group). After four months of feeding, mice were sacrificed and atherosclerotic lesions were measured. The results showed that the average lesion area in WD+AzA group was 38% (p<0.001) less as compared to WD group. The athero-protective effect of AzA was not related to changes in plasma lipid content. AzA supplementation decreased the level of CD68 macrophage marker by 34% (p<0.05). Conclusions The finding that AzA exhibits an anti-atherogenic effect suggests that oxidation of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes into carboxylic acids could be an important step in the body’s defense against oxidative damage. PMID:19880116

  12. Anti-atherosclerotic actions of azelaic acid, an end product of linoleic acid peroxidation, in mice.

    PubMed

    Litvinov, Dmitry; Selvarajan, Krithika; Garelnabi, Mahdi; Brophy, Larissa; Parthasarathy, Sampath

    2010-04-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with the accumulation of oxidized lipids in arterial lesions. Recently we studied the degradation of peroxidized linoleic acid and suggested that oxidation is an essential process that results in the generation of terminal products, namely mono- and dicarboxylic acids that may lack the pro-atherogenic effects of peroxidized lipids. In continuation of that study, we tested the effects of azelaic acid (AzA), one of the end products of linoleic acid peroxidation, on the development of atherosclerosis using low density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr(-/-)) mice. LDLr(-/-) mice were fed with a high fat and high cholesterol Western diet (WD group). Another group of animals were fed the same diet with AzA supplementation (WD+AzA group). After 4 months of feeding, mice were sacrificed and atherosclerotic lesions were measured. The results showed that the average lesion area in WD+AzA group was 38% (p<0.001) less as compared to WD group. The athero-protective effect of AzA was not related to changes in plasma lipid content. AzA supplementation decreased the level of CD68 macrophage marker by 34% (p<0.05). The finding that AzA exhibits an anti-atherogenic effect suggests that oxidation of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes into carboxylic acids could be an important step in the body's defense against oxidative damage. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Unexpected high yields of carbonyl and peroxide products of aqueous isoprene ozonolysis and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. L.; Huang, D.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, Y.; Chen, Z. M.

    2012-03-01

    The aqueous phase reaction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has not been considered in most analyses of atmospheric chemical processes. However, some experimental evidence has shown that, compared to the corresponding gas phase reaction, the aqueous chemical processes of VOCs in the bulk solutions and surfaces of ambient wet particles (cloud, fog, and wet aerosols) may potentially contribute to the products and formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In the present study, we performed a laboratory experiment of the aqueous ozonolysis of isoprene at different pHs (3-7) and temperatures (4-25 °C). We detected three important kinds of products, including carbonyl compounds, peroxide compounds, and organic acids. Our results showed that the molar yields of these products were nearly independent of the investigated pHs and temperatures. These products included (1) carbonyls: 56.7 ± 6.7% formaldehyde, 42.8 ± 2.5% methacrolein (MAC), and 57.7 ± 3.4% methyl vinyl ketone (MVK); (2) peroxides: 53.4 ± 4.1% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 15.1 ± 3.1% hydroxylmethyl hydroperoxide (HMHP); and (3) organic acids: undetectable (< 1% estimated by the detection limit). Based on the amounts of products formed and the isoprene consumed, the total carbon yield was estimated to be 95 ± 4%. This implied that most of the products in the reaction system were detected. Of note, the combined yields of both MAC + MVK and H2O2 + HMHP in the aqueous isoprene ozonolysis were much higher than those observed in the corresponding gas phase reaction. We suggested that these unexpected high yields of carbonyls and peroxides were related to the greater capability of condensed water, compared to water vapor, to stabilize energy-rich Criegee radicals. This aqueous ozonolysis of isoprene (and possibly other biogenic VOCs) could potentially occur on the surfaces of ambient wet particles and plants. Moreover, the high-yield carbonyl and peroxide products might provide a considerable source of

  14. Volatile fingerprints of seeds of four species indicate the involvement of alcoholic fermentation, lipid peroxidation, and Maillard reactions in seed deterioration during ageing and desiccation stress

    PubMed Central

    Colville, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The volatile compounds released by orthodox (desiccation-tolerant) seeds during ageing can be analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Comparison of three legume species (Pisum sativum, Lathyrus pratensis, and Cytisus scoparius) during artificial ageing at 60% relative humidity and 50 °C revealed variation in the seed volatile fingerprint between species, although in all species the overall volatile concentration increased with storage period, and changes could be detected prior to the onset of viability loss. The volatile compounds are proposed to derive from three main sources: alcoholic fermentation, lipid peroxidation, and Maillard reactions. Lipid peroxidation was confirmed in P. sativum seeds through analysis of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Volatile production by ageing orthodox seeds was compared with that of recalcitrant (desiccation-sensitive) seeds of Quercus robur during desiccation. Many of the volatiles were common to both ageing orthodox seeds and desiccating recalcitrant seeds, with alcoholic fermentation forming the major source of volatiles. Finally, comparison was made between two methods of analysis; the first used a Tenax adsorbent to trap volatiles, whilst the second used solid phase microextraction to extract volatiles from the headspace of vials containing powdered seeds. Solid phase microextraction was found to be more sensitive, detecting a far greater number of compounds. Seed volatile analysis provides a non-invasive means of characterizing the processes involved in seed deterioration, and potentially identifying volatile marker compounds for the diagnosis of seed viability loss. PMID:23175670

  15. [The accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in the eye structures of mice under whole-body x-ray irradiation].

    PubMed

    Sakina, N L; Dontsov, A E; Afanas'ev, G G; Ostrovski, M A; Pelevina, I I

    1990-01-01

    In studying the effect of whole-body X-irradiation on the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (conjugated dienes, TBA-active products, and Schiff bases) in retina and retinal pigmented epithelium of pigmented and nonpigmented mice it was shown that irradiation of dark-pigmented mice does not cause even a slight accumulation of lipid peroxidation products as compared to that in the controls. Albino mice exhibited a marked increase in the level of lipid peroxidation products which was manifested soon after irradiation and persisted for at least 3 months after irradiation. Melanine is suggested to participate in protecting eye structures against pro-oxidizing action of ionizing radiation.

  16. Optimization study on the hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and production of bioethanol from seaweed Ulva prolifera biomass.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinping; Cui, Jiefen; Zhang, Gaoli; Liu, Zhengkun; Guan, Huashi; Hwang, Hueymin; Aker, Winfred G; Wang, Peng

    2016-08-01

    The seaweed Ulva prolifera, distributed in inter-tidal zones worldwide, contains a large percentage of cellulosic materials. The technical feasibility of using U. prolifera residue (UPR) obtained after extraction of polysaccharides as a renewable energy resource was investigated. An environment-friendly and economical pretreatment process was conducted using hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide pretreatment improved the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. The resulting yield of reducing sugar reached a maximum of 0.42g/g UPR under the optimal pretreatment condition (hydrogen peroxide 0.2%, 50°C, pH 4.0, 12h). The rate of conversion of reducing sugar in the concentrated hydrolysates to bioethanol reached 31.4% by Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation, which corresponds to 61.7% of the theoretical maximum yield. Compared with other reported traditional processes on Ulva biomass, the reducing sugar and bioethanol yield are substantially higher. Thus, hydrogen peroxide pretreatment is an effective enhancement of the process of bioethanol production from the seaweed U. prolifera. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation product-scavenging ability of yogurt organisms.

    PubMed

    Lin, M Y; Yen, C L

    1999-08-01

    The antioxidative activity of the intracellular extracts of yogurt organisms was investigated. All 11 strains tested, including five strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and six strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, demonstrated an antioxidative effect on the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. The antioxidative effect of intracellular extracts of 10(8) cells of yogurt organisms was equivalent to 25 to 96 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene, which indicated that all strains demonstrated excellent antioxidative activity. The scavenging of reactive oxygen species, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide was studied for intracellular extracts of yogurt organisms. All strains showed reactive oxygen species-scavenging ability. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus Lb demonstrated the highest hydroxyl radical-scavenging ability at 234 microM. Streptococcus thermophilus MC and 821 and L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus 448 and 449 scavenged the most hydrogen peroxide at approximately 50 microM. The scavenging ability of lipid peroxidation products, t-butylhydroperoxide and malondialdehyde, was also evaluated. Results showed that the extracts were not able to scavenge the t-butylhydroperoxide. Nevertheless, malondialdehyde was scavenged well by most strains.

  18. Copper peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, L.

    1988-01-01

    A number of oxidizing agents, including chlorine, bromine, ozone and other peroxides, were allowed to act on copper solutions with the intention of forming copper peroxide. The only successful agent appears to be hydrogen peroxide. It must be used in a neutral 50 to 30 percent solution at a temperature near zero. Other methods described in the literature apparently do not work. The excess of hydrogen must be quickly sucked out of the brown precipitate, which it is best to wash with alcohol and ether. The product, crystalline under a microscope, can be analyzed only approximately. It approaches the formula CuO2H2O. In alkaline solution it appears to act catalytically in causing the decomposition of other peroxides, so that Na2O2 cannot be used to prepare it. On the addition of acids the H2O2 is regenerated. The dry substance decomposes much more slowly than the moist but is not very stable.

  19. Caspase activation, hydrogen peroxide production and Akt dephosphorylation occur during stallion sperm senescence.

    PubMed

    Gallardo Bolaños, J M; Balao da Silva, C; Martín Muñoz, P; Plaza Dávila, M; Ezquerra, J; Aparicio, I M; Tapia, J A; Ortega Ferrusola, C; Peña, F J

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms inducing sperm death after ejaculation, stallion ejaculates were incubated in BWW media during 6 h at 37°C. At the beginning of the incubation period and after 1, 2, 4 and 6 h sperm motility and kinematics (CASA), mitochondrial membrane potential and membrane permeability and integrity were evaluated (flow cytometry). Also, at the same time intervals, active caspase 3, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion (flow cytometry) and Akt phosphorylation (flow cytometry) were evaluated. Major decreases in sperm function occurred after 6 h of incubation, although after 1 h decrease in the percentages of motile and progressive motile sperm occurred. The decrease observed in sperm functionality after 6 h of incubation was accompanied by a significant increase in the production of hydrogen peroxide and the greatest increase in caspase 3 activity. Additionally, the percentage of phosphorylated Akt reached a minimum after 6 h of incubation. These results provide evidences that sperm death during in vitro incubation is largely an apoptotic phenomena, probably stimulated by endogenous production of hydrogen peroxide and the lack of prosurvival factors maintaining Akt in a phosphorylated status. Disclosing molecular mechanisms leading to sperm death may help to develop new strategies for stallion sperm conservation. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Methods and apparatus for the on-site production of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buschmann, Wayne E. (Inventor); James, Patrick I. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Methods, apparatus, and applications for the on-site production of hydrogen peroxide are described. An embodiment of the apparatus comprises at least one anolyte chamber coupled to at least one anode, at least one catholyte chamber, wherein the at least one catholyte chamber is coupled to at least one cathode, at least one anode membrane and at least one cathode membrane, wherein the anode membrane is adjacent to the at least one anode, wherein the cathode membrane is adjacent to the at least one cathode, at least one central chamber disposed between the at least one anolyte chamber and the at least one catholyte chamber. Hydrogen peroxide is produced by reduction of an oxygen-containing gas at the cathode.

  1. Oxidative stress and human spermatozoa: diagnostic and functional significance of aldehydes generated as a result of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Moazamian, Ryan; Polhemus, Ashley; Connaughton, Haley; Fraser, Barbara; Whiting, Sara; Gharagozloo, Parviz; Aitken, Robert John

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress is known to compromise human sperm function and to activate the intrinsic apoptotic cascade in these cells. One of the key features of oxidatively stressed spermatozoa is the induction of a lipid peroxidation process that results in the formation of aldehydes potentially capable of disrupting sperm function through the formation of adducts with DNA and key proteins. In this study, we have examined the impact of a range of small molecular mass aldehydes generated as a consequence of lipid peroxidation on human sperm function and also compared the two most commonly formed compounds, 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) and malondialdehyde (MDA), for their relative ability to reflect a state of oxidative stress in these cells. Dramatic differences in the bioactivity of individual aldehydes were observed, that generally correlated with the second order rate constants describing their interaction with the model nucleophile, glutathione. Our results demonstrate that acrolein and 4HNE were the most reactive lipid aldehydes, inhibiting sperm motility while augmenting reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage and caspase activation, in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.001). In contrast, a variety of saturated aldehydes and the well-known marker of oxidative stress, MDA, were without effect on this cell type. While MDA was not cytotoxic per se, its generation did reflect the induction of oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro in a manner that was highly correlated with the bioactive lipid aldehyde, 4HNE. Despite such overall correlations, individual patient samples were observed in which either MDA or 4HNE predominated. Given the relative cytotoxicity of 4HNE, we propose that this aldehyde should be the preferred criterion for diagnosing oxidative stress in the male germ line. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  2. [Participation of final products of lipid peroxidation in the anticancer mechanism of ionizing radiation and radiomimetic cytostatics].

    PubMed

    Przybyszewski, W M

    2001-01-01

    This review reports the evidence for the participation of final products of lipid peroxidation in the anticancer mechanism of ionising radiation and radiomimetic cytostatics. Processes of lipid peroxidation occur endogenously in response to oxidative stress and great diversity of reactive metabolites is formed. However, direct observation of radical reaction in pathophysiology of cells, tissues and organs is limited technically. Most investigations focused on the indirect assessment of their final products, aldehydes. The peroxidative breakdown of polyunsaturated fatty acids is believed to be involved in the regulation of cell division, and antitumor effect through biochemical and genetic processes.

  3. Guidelines for the acceptance of peroxide-containing oral hygiene products. American Dental Association Council on Dental Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    Safety and efficacy criteria are defined for oral products containing various forms of peroxides. The guidelines ask for safety and efficacy studies plus observation criteria that include long-term follow-up.

  4. A comparison between lime and alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatments of sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Sarita C; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Costa, Aline C

    2008-01-01

    Pretreatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and compared. Analyses were performed using 2(3) factorial designs, with pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) and glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis. Experiments were performed using the bagasse, as it comes from an alcohol/sugar factory and bagasse, in the size, range from 0.248 to 1.397 mm (12-60 mesh). The results show that, when hexoses and pentoses are of interest, lime should be the pretreatment agent chosen, as high TRS yields are obtained for non-screened bagasse using 0.40 g lime/g dry biomass at 70 degrees C for 36 h. When the product of interest is glucose, the best results were obtained with lime pretreatment of screened bagasse. However, the results for alkaline peroxide and lime pretreatments of non-screened bagasse are not very different.

  5. A Comparison between Lime and Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Pretreatments of Sugarcane Bagasse for Ethanol Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabelo, Sarita C.; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Costa, Aline C.

    Pretreatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and compared. Analyses were performed using 2 × 2 × 2 factorial designs, with pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) and glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis. Experiments were performed using the bagasse as it comes from an alcohol/ sugar factory and bagasse in the size range of 0.248 to 1.397 mm (12-60 mesh). The results show that when hexoses and pentoses are of interest, lime should be the pretreatment agent chosen, as high TRS yields are obtained for nonscreened bagasse using 0.40 g lime/g dry biomass at 70 °C for 36 h. When the product of interest is glucose, the best results were obtained with lime pretreatment of screened bagasse. However, the results for alkaline peroxide and lime pretreatments of nonscreened bagasse are not very different.

  6. A comparison between lime and alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatments of sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Sarita C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Costa, Aline C

    2008-03-01

    Pretreatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and compared. Analyses were performed using 2 x 2 x 2 factorial designs, with pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) and glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis. Experiments were performed using the bagasse as it comes from an alcohol/sugar factory and bagasse in the size range of 0.248 to 1.397 mm (12-60 mesh). The results show that when hexoses and pentoses are of interest, lime should be the pretreatment agent chosen, as high TRS yields are obtained for nonscreened bagasse using 0.40 g lime/g dry biomass at 70 degrees C for 36 h. When the product of interest is glucose, the best results were obtained with lime pretreatment of screened bagasse. However, the results for alkaline peroxide and lime pretreatments of nonscreened bagasse are not very different.

  7. Simultaneous high-resolution measurement of mitochondrial respiration and hydrogen peroxide production.

    PubMed

    Krumschnabel, Gerhard; Fontana-Ayoub, Mona; Sumbalova, Zuzana; Heidler, Juliana; Gauper, Kathrin; Fasching, Mario; Gnaiger, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial respiration is associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species, primarily in the form of superoxide (O2 (•-)) and particularly hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Since H2O2 plays important roles in physiology and pathology, measurement of hydrogen peroxide has received considerable attention over many years. Here we describe how the well-established Amplex Red assay can be used to detect H2O2 production in combination with the simultaneous assessment of mitochondrial bioenergetics by high-resolution respirometry. Fundamental instrumental and methodological parameters were optimized for analysis of the effects of various substrate, uncoupler, and inhibitor titrations (SUIT) on respiration versus H2O2 production. The sensitivity of the H2O2 assay was strongly influenced by compounds contained in different mitochondrial respiration media, which also exerted significant effects on chemical background fluorescence changes. Near linearity of the fluorescence signal was restricted to narrow ranges of accumulating resorufin concentrations independent of the nature of mitochondrial respiration media. Finally, we show an application example using isolated mouse brain mitochondria as an experimental model for the simultaneous measurement of mitochondrial respiration and H2O2 production in SUIT protocols.

  8. Elastin aging and lipid oxidation products in human aorta

    PubMed Central

    Zarkovic, Kamelija; Larroque-Cardoso, Pauline; Pucelle, Mélanie; Salvayre, Robert; Waeg, Georg; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Zarkovic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    Vascular aging is associated with structural and functional modifications of the arteries, and by an increase in arterial wall thickening in the intima and the media, mainly resulting from structural modifications of the extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Among the factors known to accumulate with aging, advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs) are a hallmark of oxidative stress-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis. Aldehydes generated from the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), (4-hydroxynonenal, malondialdehyde, acrolein), form adducts on cellular proteins, leading to a progressive protein dysfunction with consequences in the pathophysiology of vascular aging. The contribution of these aldehydes to ECM modification is not known. This study was carried out to investigate whether aldehyde-adducts are detected in the intima and media in human aorta, whether their level is increased in vascular aging, and whether elastin fibers are a target of aldehyde-adduct formation. Immunohistological and confocal immunofluorescence studies indicate that 4-HNE-histidine-adducts accumulate in an age-related manner in the intima, media and adventitia layers of human aortas, and are mainly expressed in smooth muscle cells. In contrast, even if the structure of elastin fiber is strongly altered in the aged vessels, our results show that elastin is not or very poorly modified by 4-HNE. These data indicate a complex role for lipid peroxidation and in particular for 4-HNE in elastin homeostasis, in the vascular wall remodeling during aging and atherosclerosis development. PMID:25553420

  9. Singlet oxygen production by chloroperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-halide systems.

    PubMed

    Kanofsky, J R

    1984-05-10

    Singlet oxygen production in the chloroperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-halide system was studied using 1268 nm chemiluminescence. With chloride or bromide ions, singlet oxygen is produced by the mechanism (formula; see text) (formula; see text) where X- is chloride or bromide ion. Under conditions where there is high enzyme activity and when Reaction B is fast relative to Reaction A, singlet oxygen is produced in near stoichiometric amounts. In contrast, when Reaction A is fast relative to Reaction B, oxidized halogen species (chlorine and hypochlorous acid for chloride ion; bromide, tribromide ion, and hypobromous acid for bromide ion) are the principle reaction products. With iodide ion, no 1268 nm chemiluminescence was detected. Past studies have shown that iodine and iodate ion are the major end products of this system.

  10. Mutagenicity of ω-3 fatty acid peroxidation products in the Ames test.

    PubMed

    Grúz, Petr; Shimizu, Masatomi; Sugiyama, Kei-Ichi; Honma, Masamitsu

    2017-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) represent one of the main building blocks of cellular membranes and their varying composition impacts lifespan as well as susceptibility to cancer and other degenerative diseases. Increased intake of ω-3 PUFA is taught to compensate for the abundance of ω-6 PUFA in modern human diet and prevent cardiocirculatory diseases. However, highly unsaturated PUFA of marine and seed origin easily oxidize to aldehydic products which form DNA adducts. With increased PUFA consumption it is prudent to re-evaluate ω-3 PUFA safety and the genotoxic hazards of their metabolites. We have used the standard Ames test to examine the mutagenicity of 2 hexenals derived from lipid peroxidation of the common ω-3 PUFA in human diet and tissues. Both 4-hydroxyhexenal and 2-hexenal derived from the ω-3 docosahexaenoic and α-linolenic acid, respectively, induced base substitutions in the TA104 and TA100 Ames strains in a dose dependent manner. Their mutagenicity was dependent on the Y-family DNA polymerase RI and they did not induce other types of mutations such as the -2 and -1 frameshifts in the TA98 and TA97 strains. Our results expand previous findings about the mutagenicity of related ω-3 peroxidation product 4-oxohexenal and raise alert that overuse of ω-3 rich oils may have adverse effect on genome stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrogen peroxide production by Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 and its role in anti-Salmonella activity.

    PubMed

    Pridmore, Raymond David; Pittet, Anne-Cécile; Praplan, Fabienne; Cavadini, Christoph

    2008-06-01

    The human intestinal isolate Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 (La1) is a probiotic strain with well-documented antimicrobial properties. Previous research has identified the production of lactic acid and bacteriocins as important factors, but that other unidentified factors are also involved. We used the recently published genome sequence of L. johnsonii NCC 533 to search for novel antipathogen factors and identified three potential gene products that may catalyze the synthesis of the known antimicrobial factor hydrogen peroxide, H(2)O(2). In this work, we confirmed the ability of NCC 533 as well as eight different L. johnsonii strains and Lactobacillus gasseri to produce H(2)O(2) when resting cells were incubated in the presence of oxygen, and that culture supernatant containing NCC 533-produced H(2)O(2) was effective in killing the model pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 in vitro.

  12. Hydrogen peroxide production is not primarily increased in human myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Minet, A D; Gaster, M

    2011-09-01

    Increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. To date, it is unknown whether increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes is primarily increased or a secondary adaptation to environmental, lifestyle, and hormonal factors. This study investigates whether ROS production is primarily increased in isolated diabetic myotubes. Mitochondrial membrane potential, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), superoxide, and mitochondrial mass were determined in human myotubes precultured under normophysiological conditions. Furthermore, the corresponding ATP synthesis was measured in isolated mitochondria. Muscle biopsies were taken from 10 lean subjects, 10 obese subjects, and 10 subjects with type 2 diabetes; satellite cells were isolated, cultured, and differentiated to myotubes. Mitochondrial mass, membrane potential/mitochondrial mass, and superoxide-production/mitochondrial mass were not different between groups. In contrast, H(2)O(2) production/mitochondrial mass and ATP production were significantly reduced in diabetic myotubes compared to lean controls (P < 0.05). The ATP/H(2)O(2) ratios were not significantly different between groups. Our result indicates that the ROS production is not primarily increased in diabetic myotubes but rather is reduced. Moreover, the comparable ATP/H(2)O(2) ratios indicate that the reduced ROS production in diabetic myotubes parallels the reduced ATP production because ROS production in diabetic myotubes must be considered to be in a proportion comparable to lean. Thus, the increased ROS production seen in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients is an adaptation to the in vivo conditions.

  13. [Dipeptide nootropic agent GVS-111 prevents accumulation of the lipid peroxidation products during immobilization].

    PubMed

    Lysenko, A V; Uskova, N I; Ostrovskaia, R U; Gudasheva, T A; Voronina, T A

    1997-01-01

    Immobilization of rats in a narrow plastic chamber for 24 h caused a sharp increase in the level of diene conjugates and the content of schiff bases in the synaptosomes of the brain cortex as well as accumulation of extraerythrocytic hemoglobin in blood serum. The dipeptide nootropic agent GVS-111 (ethyl ether of phenylacetylprolylglycine), when administered 15 and particularly 60 min before immobilization reduced the accumulation of these products of lipid peroxidation in the brain and blood. GVS-111 demonstrated these signs of its antioxidant effect after a single i.p. injection in doses of 0.12 and 0.5 mg/kg. Pyracetam produced a similar effect on the listed parameters in injection in a dose of 300 mg/kg for three successive days. The protective effect of the new pyracetam dipeptide analog GVS-111 in relation to activation of free-radical processes induced by immobilization is additional proof of the antistress action of this dipeptide.

  14. Chemistry of peroxide compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volnov, I. I.

    1981-01-01

    The history of Soviet research from 1866 to 1967 on peroxide compounds is reviewed. This research dealt mainly with peroxide kinetics, reactivity and characteristics, peroxide production processes, and more recently with superoxides and ozonides and emphasis on the higher oxides of group 1 and 2 elements. Solid state fluidized bed synthesis and production of high purity products based on the relative solubilities of the initial, intermediate, and final compounds and elements in liquid ammonia are discussed.

  15. Headspace gas chromatography of volatile lipid peroxidation products from human red blood cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Frankel, E N; Tappel, A L

    1991-06-01

    An improved headspace capillary gas chromatographic (GC) method was developed to measure the oxidative susceptibility of human red blood cell (RBC) membranes. This method analyzed volatile peroxidation products of both n-6 (hexanal and pentane) and n-3 (propanal) polyunsaturated fatty acids. Oxidative susceptibility tests were standardized by incubating in a sealed 10-mL headspace bottle 0.25 or 1 mL of human RBC membrane in 40 mM phosphate buffer for 1 hr at 37 degrees C with a mixture of Fe++, ascorbic acid and H2O2. Sodium dodecyl sulfate increased significantly the amount of hexanal measured by headspace GC. By this standard headspace method, in one series of red blood cell membranes (RBCM) samples a four-fold variation in oxidative susceptibility was observed in RBCM from blood freshly drawn from six healthy subjects. In another series of RBCM samples a sixteen-fold variation in oxidative susceptibility was noted in frozen RBCM from blood freshly drawn from five healthy subjects. Correlation between hexanal formation and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) depletion provided good evidence that under these standard conditions hexanal is exclusively derived from the oxidation of arachidonic acid. Hydroperoxides of arachidonic acid are more readily formed and decomposed than those of linoleic acid in the presence of Fe++, ascorbic acid and H2O2 to produce hexanal as the main product that can be readily analyzed by headspace GC. This method may provide a useful tool to study susceptibility toward lipid peroxidative damage in human RBC membranes.

  16. Production of Hydroxyl Radical via the Activation of Hydrogen Peroxide by Hydroxylamine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liwei; Li, Xuchun; Zhang, Jing; Fang, Jingyun; Huang, Yanmin; Wang, Ping; Ma, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The production of the hydroxyl radical (HO·) is important in environmental chemistry. This study reports a new source of HO· generated solely from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) activated by hydroxylamine (HA). Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis and the oxidation of a HO· probe, benzoic acid, were used to confirm the production of HO·. The production of HO· increased with increasing concentrations of either HA or H2O2 as well as decreasing pH. The second-order rate constant for the reaction was (2.2 ± 0.2) × 10(-4) M(-1) s(-1). HO· was probably produced in two steps: the activation of H2O2 by protonated HA and then reaction between the H2O2 and the intermediate protonated aminoxyl radical generated in the first step. Such a two-step oxidation can possibly be ascribed to the ionizable hydroxyl moiety in the molecular structure of HA, as is suggested by comparing the reactivity of a series of HA derivatives in HO· production. The results shed light on a previously unknown source of HO· formation, which broadens the understanding of its role in environmental processes.

  17. Hydrogen peroxide production regulates the mitochondrial function in insulin resistant muscle cells: effect of catalase overexpression.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Marina R; Sampaio, Igor H; Teodoro, Bruno G; Sousa, Thais A; Zoppi, Claudio C; Queiroz, André L; Passos, Madla A; Alberici, Luciane C; Teixeira, Felipe R; Manfiolli, Adriana O; Batista, Thiago M; Cappelli, Ana Paula Gameiro; Reis, Rosana I; Frasson, Danúbia; Kettelhut, Isis C; Parreiras-e-Silva, Lucas T; Costa-Neto, Claudio M; Carneiro, Everardo M; Curi, Rui; Silveira, Leonardo R

    2013-10-01

    The mitochondrial redox state plays a central role in the link between mitochondrial overloading and insulin resistance. However, the mechanism by which the ROS induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells is not completely understood. We examined the association between mitochondrial function and H2O2 production in insulin resistant cells. Our hypothesis is that the low mitochondrial oxygen consumption leads to elevated ROS production by a mechanism associated with reduced PGC1α transcription and low content of phosphorylated CREB. The cells were transfected with either the encoded sequence for catalase overexpression or the specific siRNA for catalase inhibition. After transfection, myotubes were incubated with palmitic acid (500μM) and the insulin response, as well as mitochondrial function and fatty acid metabolism, was determined. The low mitochondrial oxygen consumption led to elevated ROS production by a mechanism associated with β-oxidation of fatty acids. Rotenone was observed to reduce the ratio of ROS production. The elevated H2O2 production markedly decreased the PGC1α transcription, an effect that was accompanied by a reduced phosphorylation of Akt and CREB. The catalase transfection prevented the reduction in the phosphorylated level of Akt and upregulated the levels of phosphorylated CREB. The mitochondrial function was elevated and H2O2 production reduced, thus increasing the insulin sensitivity. The catalase overexpression improved mitochondrial respiration protecting the cells from fatty acid-induced, insulin resistance. This effect indicates that control of hydrogen peroxide production regulates the mitochondrial respiration preventing the insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells by a mechanism associated with CREB phosphorylation and β-oxidation of fatty acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production from cashew apple bagasse pretreated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Jessyca Aline; Marques, José Edvan; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha Barros; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte

    2015-03-01

    The effect of combinations and ratios between different enzymes has been investigated in order to assess the optimal conditions for hydrolysis of cashew apple bagasse pretreated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide (the solids named CAB-AHP). The separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes were evaluated in the ethanol production. The enzymatic hydrolysis conducted with cellulase complex and β-glucosidase in a ratio of 0.61:0.39, enzyme loading of 30FPU/g(CAB-AHP) and 66CBU/g(CAB-AHP), respectively, using 4% cellulose from CAB-AHP, turned out to be the most effective conditions, with glucose and xylose yields of 511.68 mg/g(CAB-AHP) and 237.8 mg/g(CAB-AHP), respectively. Fermentation of the pure hydrolysate by Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 36907 led to an ethanol yield of 61.8kg/ton(CAB), corresponding to 15 g/L ethanol and productivity of 3.75 g/( Lh). The ethanol production obtained for SSF process using K. marxianus ATCC 36907 was 18 g/L corresponding to 80% yield and 74.2kg/ton(CAB). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation products in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Golubović, Slavica; Stanković, Ivana; Ristić, Lidija; Cosić, Vladan; Dordević, Ivanka; Radović, Milan

    2010-01-01

    A lot of studies have dealt with the oxidative stress in pulmonary diseases, and some of them with tuberculosis as well. The aim of this study was to examine the antioxidant enzyme level (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase) and the lipid peroxidation products in patients with tuberculosis. Forty patients with tuberculosis were included in the study. The examined parameters were measured before and three weeks after the beginning of the antituberculosis treatment (group I). The control group included 40 healthy persons (group II). The superoxide dismutase level was significantly lower in group I in both measurements (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01) in relation to group II, but there were no significant changes in its level during the therapy. During the treatment, the glutation peroxidase level significantly increased (p < 0.05), and in relation to group II, its level was significantly lower in both measurements in group I (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). The catalase level significantly increased during the treatment, but there was no significant difference in relation to group II level. There was no significant difference in relation to the lipid peroxidase products between the groups. Our study group had reduced antioxidant enzyme level and some of them showed significant improvement during the treatment. The lipid peroxidase product level was stable. In patients with tuberculosis the antioxidative status is lower and its level and possible development of the oxidative stress depend on the disease severity.

  20. Photoirradiation of Retinyl Palmitate in Ethanol with Ultraviolet Light - Formation of Photodecomposition Products, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Lipid Peroxides

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Qingsu; Yin, Jun J.; Wamer, Wayne G.; Cherng, Shu-Hui; Boudreau, Mary D.; Howard, Paul C.; Yu, Hongtao; Fu, Peter P.

    2006-01-01

    We have previously reported that photoirradiation of retinyl palmitate (RP), a storage and ester form of vitamin A (retinol), with UVA light resulted in the formation of photodecomposition products, generation of reactive oxygen species, and induction of lipid peroxidation. In this paper, we report our results following the photoirradiation of RP in ethanol by an UV lamp with approximately equal UVA and UVB light. The photodecomposition products were separated by reversed-phase HPLC and characterized spectroscopically by comparison with authentic standards. The identified products include: 4-keto-RP, 11-ethoxy-12-hydroxy-RP, 13-ethoxy-14-hydroxy-RP, anhydroretinol (AR), and trans- and cis-15-ethoxy-AR. Photoirradiation of RP in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate, resulted in induction of lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation was inhibited when sodium azide was present during photoirradiation which suggests free radicals were formed. Our results demonstrate that, similar to irradiation with UVA light, RP can act as a photosensitizer leading to free radical formation and induction of lipid peroxidation following irradiation with UVB light. PMID:16823091

  1. Hydrogen peroxide - production, fate and role in redox signaling of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Lennicke, Claudia; Rahn, Jette; Lichtenfels, Rudolf; Wessjohann, Ludger A; Seliger, Barbara

    2015-09-14

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in various signal transduction pathways and cell fate decisions. The mechanism of the so called "redox signaling" includes the H2O2-mediated reversible oxidation of redox sensitive cysteine residues in enzymes and transcription factors thereby altering their activities. Depending on its intracellular concentration and localization, H2O2 exhibits either pro- or anti-apoptotic activities. In comparison to normal cells, cancer cells are characterized by an increased H2O2 production rate and an impaired redox balance thereby affecting the microenvironment as well as the anti-tumoral immune response. This article reviews the current knowledge about the intracellular production of H2O2 along with redox signaling pathways mediating either the growth or apoptosis of tumor cells. In addition it will be discussed how the targeting of H2O2-linked sources and/or signaling components involved in tumor progression and survival might lead to novel therapeutic targets.

  2. Production of hydrogen peroxide in the atmosphere of a Snowball Earth and the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Mao-Chang; Hartman, Hyman; Kopp, Robert E.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Yung, Yuk L.

    2006-01-01

    During Proterozoic time, Earth experienced two intervals with one or more episodes of low-latitude glaciation, which are probable “Snowball Earth” events. Although the severity of the historical glaciations is debated, theoretical “hard Snowball” conditions are associated with the nearly complete shutdown of the hydrological cycle. We show here that, during such long and severe glacial intervals, a weak hydrological cycle coupled with photochemical reactions involving water vapor would give rise to the sustained production of hydrogen peroxide. The photochemical production of hydrogen peroxide has been proposed previously as the primary mechanism for oxidizing the surface of Mars. During a Snowball, hydrogen peroxide could be stored in the ice; it would then be released directly into the ocean and the atmosphere upon melting and could mediate global oxidation events in the aftermath of the Snowball, such as that recorded in the Fe and Mn oxides of the Kalahari Manganese Field, deposited after the Paleoproterozoic low-latitude Makganyene glaciation. Low levels of peroxides and molecular oxygen generated during Archean and earliest Proterozoic non-Snowball glacial intervals could have driven the evolution of oxygen-mediating and -using enzymes and thereby paved the way for the eventual appearance of oxygenic photosynthesis. PMID:17138669

  3. Combined acid/alkaline-peroxide pretreatment of olive tree biomass for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Patiño, José Carlos; Ruiz, Encarnación; Romero, Inmaculada; Cara, Cristóbal; López-Linares, Juan Carlos; Castro, Eulogio

    2017-09-01

    Olive tree biomass (OTB) can be used for producing second generation bioethanol. In this work, extracted OTB was subjected to fractionation using a sequential acid/alkaline oxidative pretreatment. In the first acid stage, the effects of sulfuric acid concentration and reaction times at 130°C were investigated. Up to 71% solubilization of hemicellulosic sugars was achieved under optimized conditions (2.4% H 2 SO 4 , 84min). In the second stage, the influence of hydrogen peroxide concentration and process time were evaluated at 80°C. Approximately 80% delignification was achieved under the best operational conditions (7% H 2 O 2 , 90min) within the experimental range studied. This pretreatment produced a substrate with 72% cellulose that was highly accessible to enzymatic attack, yielding 82g glucose/100g glucose in delignified OTB. Ethanol production from both hemicellulosic sugars solubilized in the acid pretreatment and glucose from enzymatic hydrolysis of delignified OTB yielded 15g ethanol/100g OTB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Seawater usable for production and consumption of hydrogen peroxide as a solar fuel

    PubMed Central

    Mase, Kentaro; Yoneda, Masaki; Yamada, Yusuke; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in water has been proposed as a promising solar fuel instead of gaseous hydrogen because of advantages on easy storage and high energy density, being used as a fuel of a one-compartment H2O2 fuel cell for producing electricity on demand with emitting only dioxygen (O2) and water. It is highly desired to utilize the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water for the practical use of H2O2 as a solar fuel. Here we have achieved efficient photocatalytic production of H2O2 from the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water and O2 in a two-compartment photoelectrochemical cell using WO3 as a photocatalyst for water oxidation and a cobalt complex supported on a glassy-carbon substrate for the selective two-electron reduction of O2. The concentration of H2O2 produced in seawater reached 48 mM, which was high enough to operate an H2O2 fuel cell. PMID:27142725

  5. Structural Basis for Inhibitor-Induced Hydrogen Peroxide Production by Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Tae; Na, Byeong Kwan; Chung, Jiwoung; Kim, Sulhee; Kwon, Sool Ki; Cha, Hyunju; Son, Jonghyeon; Cho, Joong Myung; Hwang, Kwang Yeon

    2018-04-19

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms of flavin reduction and hydrogen peroxide production by KMO inhibitors are unknown. Herein, we report the structure of human KMO and crystal structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (sc) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (pf) KMO with Ro 61-8048. Proton transfer in the hydrogen bond network triggers flavin reduction in p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase, but the mechanism triggering flavin reduction in KMO is different. Conformational changes via π-π interactions between the loop above the flavin and substrate or non-substrate effectors lead to disorder of the C-terminal α helix in scKMO and shifts of domain III in pfKMO, stimulating flavin reduction. Interestingly, Ro 61-8048 has two different binding modes. It acts as a competitive inhibitor in scKMO and as a non-substrate effector in pfKMO. These findings provide understanding of the catalytic cycle of KMO and insight for structure-based drug design of KMO inhibitors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tailoring Microbial Electrochemical Cells for Production of Hydrogen Peroxide at High Concentrations and Efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Young, Michelle N; Links, Mikaela J; Popat, Sudeep C; Rittmann, Bruce E; Torres, César I

    2016-12-08

    A microbial peroxide producing cell (MPPC) for H 2 O 2 production at the cathode was systematically optimized with minimal energy input. First, the stability of H 2 O 2 was evaluated using different catholytes, membranes, and catalyst materials. On the basis of these results, a flat-plate MPPC fed continuously using 200 mm NaCl catholyte at a 4 h hydraulic retention time was designed and operated, producing H 2 O 2 for 18 days. H 2 O 2 concentration of 3.1 g L -1 H 2 O 2 with 1.1 Wh g -1 H 2 O 2 power input was achieved in the MPPC. The high H 2 O 2 concentration was a result of the optimum materials selected. The small energy input was largely the result of the 0.5 cm distance between the anode and cathode, which reduced ionic transport losses. However, >50 % of operational overpotentials were due to the 4.5-5 pH unit difference between the anode and cathode chambers. The results demonstrate that a MPPC can continuously produce H 2 O 2 at high concentration by selecting compatible materials and appropriate operating conditions. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Structural and antioxidant modification of wheat peptides modified by the heat and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xue; Wu, Qiuping; Le, Guowei; Wang, Jiao; Yin, Kaijian; Shi, Yonghui

    2012-01-01

    Wheat peptides, the biological active peptides derived from foods, has an array of biological actions, including antiobesity, antimicrobial, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory effects in mammalian species. Recent studies showed that some wheat peptides may show the noteworthy antioxidant potency against the peroxidation of lipids or fatty acids, but the effect of oxidation on its antioxidant activities is unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that heat and malandialdehyde (MDA)-oxidized wheat peptides lose its surface hydrophobicity and reducing power, and show a relatively lower free radical-scavenging activitiy in vitro. Those modifications also lead to gradual formation of aggregates in wheat peptides and induce more reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in vivo. These findings indicate that oxidation may influence the functional properties and directly alter the structure of wheat peptides, and lead to the loss of its antioxidant potency both in vitro and in vivo, thereby providing a novel explanation for some of the potential health risks proposed for oxidized food in human. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Seawater usable for production and consumption of hydrogen peroxide as a solar fuel.

    PubMed

    Mase, Kentaro; Yoneda, Masaki; Yamada, Yusuke; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2016-05-04

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in water has been proposed as a promising solar fuel instead of gaseous hydrogen because of advantages on easy storage and high energy density, being used as a fuel of a one-compartment H2O2 fuel cell for producing electricity on demand with emitting only dioxygen (O2) and water. It is highly desired to utilize the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water for the practical use of H2O2 as a solar fuel. Here we have achieved efficient photocatalytic production of H2O2 from the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water and O2 in a two-compartment photoelectrochemical cell using WO3 as a photocatalyst for water oxidation and a cobalt complex supported on a glassy-carbon substrate for the selective two-electron reduction of O2. The concentration of H2O2 produced in seawater reached 48 mM, which was high enough to operate an H2O2 fuel cell.

  9. Vapor Phase Hydrogen Peroxide Sanitization of an Isolator for Aseptic Filling of Monoclonal Antibody Drug Product - Hydrogen Peroxide Uptake and Impact on Protein Quality.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Aaron; Reodl, Thomas; Hui, Ada; Knueppel, Stephanie; Eppler, Kirk; Lehnert, Siegfried; Maa, Yuh-Fun

    2018-03-15

    A monoclonal antibody drug product (DP) manufacturing process was transferred to a different production site, where aseptic filling took place within an isolator that was sanitized using vapor phase hydrogen peroxide (VPHP). A quality-by-design approach was applied for study design to understand the impact of VPHP uptake in the isolator on DP quality. A combination of small-scale and manufacturing-scale studies was performed to evaluate the sensitivity of the monoclonal antibody to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as well as VPHP uptake mechanisms during the filling process. The acceptable H2O2 level was determined to be 100 ng/mL for the antibody in the H2O2 spiking study; protein oxidation was observed above this threshold. The most prominent sources of VPHP uptake were identified to be via the silicone tubing assembly (associated with the peristaltic pumps) and open, filled vials. Silicone tubing, an effective depot to H2O2, could absorb VPHP during different stages of the filling process and discharge H2O2 into the DP solution during filling interruptions. A small-scale isolator model, established to simulate manufacturing-scale conditions, was a useful tool in understanding H2O2 uptake in relation to tubing dimensions and VPHP concentration in the isolator air (or atmosphere). Although the tubing assembly had absorbed a substantial amount of VPHP during the decontamination phase, the majority of H2O2 could be removed during tubing cleaning and sterilization in the subsequent isolator aeration phase, demonstrating that H2O2 in the DP solution is taken up primarily via atmospheric VPHP residues in the isolator during filling. Picarro sensor monitoring suggested that the validated VPHP aeration process generates reproducible residual VPHP profiles in isolator air, thus allowing small-scale studies to provide more relevant recommendations on tubing size and interruption time limits for commercial manufacturing. The recommended process parameters were demonstrated to be

  10. Increased Production of Hydrogen Peroxide by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus upon Aeration: Involvement of an NADH Oxidase in Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Marty-Teysset, C.; de la Torre, F.; Garel, J.-R.

    2000-01-01

    The growth of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) on lactose was altered upon aerating the cultures by agitation. Aeration caused the bacteria to enter early into stationary phase, thus reducing markedly the biomass production but without modifying the maximum growth rate. The early entry into stationary phase of aerated cultures was probably related to the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the medium. Indeed, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in aerated cultures was two to three times higher than in unaerated ones. Also, a similar shift from exponential to stationary phase could be induced in unaerated cultures by adding increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. A significant fraction of the hydrogen peroxide produced by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus originated from the reduction of molecular oxygen by NADH catalyzed by an NADH:H2O2 oxidase. The specific activity of this NADH oxidase was the same in aerated and unaerated cultures, suggesting that the amount of this enzyme was not directly regulated by oxygen. Aeration did not change the homolactic character of lactose fermentation by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and most of the NADH was reoxidized by lactate dehydrogenase with pyruvate. This indicated that NADH oxidase had no (or a very small) energetic role and could be involved in eliminating oxygen. PMID:10618234

  11. Enhancing methane production from waste activated sludge using a novel indigenous iron activated peroxidation pre-treatment process.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu; Wang, Qilin; Jiang, Guangming

    2015-04-01

    Methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor methane potential of WAS. This study presents a novel pre-treatment strategy based on indigenous iron (in WAS) activated peroxidation to enhance methane production from WAS. Pre-treatment of WAS for 30 min at 50mg H2O2/g total solids (dry weight) and pH 2.0 (iron concentration in WAS was 7 mg/g TS) substantially enhanced WAS solubilization. Biochemical methane potential tests demonstrated that methane production was improved by 10% at a digestion time of 16d after incorporating the indigenous iron activated peroxidation pre-treatment. Model-based analysis indicated that indigenous iron activated peroxidation pre-treatment improved the methane potential by 13%, whereas the hydrolysis rate was not significantly affected. The economic analysis showed that the proposed pre-treatment method can save the cost by $112,000 per year in a treatment plant with a population equivalent of 300,000. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Advanced lipid peroxidation end products in oxidative damage to proteins. Potential role in diseases and therapeutic prospects for the inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Negre-Salvayre, A; Coatrieux, C; Ingueneau, C; Salvayre, R

    2008-01-01

    Reactive carbonyl compounds (RCCs) formed during lipid peroxidation and sugar glycoxidation, namely Advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs) and Advanced Glycation end products (AGEs), accumulate with ageing and oxidative stress-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes or neurodegenerative diseases. RCCs induce the 'carbonyl stress' characterized by the formation of adducts and cross-links on proteins, which progressively leads to impaired protein function and damages in all tissues, and pathological consequences including cell dysfunction, inflammatory response and apoptosis. The prevention of carbonyl stress involves the use of free radical scavengers and antioxidants that prevent the generation of lipid peroxidation products, but are inefficient on pre-formed RCCs. Conversely, carbonyl scavengers prevent carbonyl stress by inhibiting the formation of protein cross-links. While a large variety of AGE inhibitors has been developed, only few carbonyl scavengers have been tested on ALE-mediated effects. This review summarizes the signalling properties of ALEs and ALE-precursors, their role in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress-associated diseases, and the different agents efficient in neutralizing ALEs effects in vitro and in vivo. The generation of drugs sharing both antioxidant and carbonyl scavenger properties represents a new therapeutic challenge in the treatment of carbonyl stress-associated diseases.

  13. Benzoyl Peroxide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... the benzoyl peroxide product to one or two small areas you want to treat for 3 days when ... cream, or gel, first wash the affected skin areas and gently pat dry with a towel. Then apply a small amount of benzoyl Peroxide, rub it in gently. ...

  14. High-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide present or released in teeth bleaching kits and hair cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Pascal; Bousquet, Claudine; Lassu, Nelly; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Civade, Corinne; Brenier, Charlotte; Lempereur, Laurent

    2015-03-25

    This manuscript presents an HPLC/UV method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide present or released in teeth bleaching products and hair products. The method is based on an oxidation of triphenylphosphine into triphenylphosphine oxide by hydrogen peroxide. Triphenylphosphine oxide formed is quantified by HPLC/UV. Validation data were obtained using the ISO 12787 standard approach, particularly adapted when it is not possible to make reconstituted sample matrices. For comparative purpose, hydrogen peroxide was also determined using ceric sulfate titrimetry for both types of products. For hair products, a cross validation of both ceric titrimetric method and HPLC/UV method using the cosmetic 82/434/EEC directive (official iodometric titration method) was performed. Results obtained for 6 commercialized teeth whitening products and 5 hair products point out similar hydrogen peroxide contain using either the HPLC/UV method or ceric sulfate titrimetric method. For hair products, results were similar to the hydrogen peroxide content using the cosmetic 82/434/EEC directive method and for the HPLC/UV method, mean recoveries obtained on spiked samples, using the ISO 12787 standard, ranges from 100% to 110% with a RSD<3.0%. To assess the analytical method proposed, the HPLC method was used to control 35 teeth bleaching products during a market survey and highlight for 5 products, hydrogen peroxide contents higher than the regulated limit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Can perchlorates be transformed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) products by cosmic rays on the Martian surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, Parker B.; Góbi, Sándor; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2017-09-01

    Due to their oxidizing properties, perchlorates (ClO4-) are suggested by the planetary science community to play a vital role in the scarcity of organics on the Martian surface. However, alternative oxidation agents such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have received surprisingly little attention. In this study, samples of magnesium perchlorate hexahydrate (Mg(ClO4)2 · 6H2O) were exposed to monoenergetic electrons and D2+ ions separately, sequentially, and simultaneously to probe the effects of galactic cosmic ray exposure of perchlorates and the potential incorporation of hydrogen (deuterium) into these minerals. The experiments were carried out under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions at 50 K, after which the samples were slowly heated to 300 K while the subliming products were monitored by a quadrupole mass spectrometer. In all cases, molecular oxygen (O2) was detected upon the onset of irradiation and also during the warmup phase. In case of a simultaneous D2+-electron exposure, deuterated water (D2O) and deuterium peroxide (D2O2) were also detected in the warmup phase, whereas only small amounts of D2O2 were found after an exclusive D2+ irradiation. These experiments yield the first data identifying hydrogen peroxide as a potential product in the interaction of cosmic rays with perchlorates in the Martian regolith revealing that perchlorates are capable of producing multiple oxidizing agents (O2 and D2O2) that may account for the destruction of organics on the Martian surface.

  16. Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of corn stover for enzymatic saccharification and ethanol production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification were evaluated for conversion of corn stover cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. Corn stover used in this study contained 37.0±0.2% cellulose, 26.8±0.2% hemicellulose and 18.0±0.1% lignin on dry basis. Unde...

  17. Alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment of cashew apple bagasse for ethanol production: study of parameters.

    PubMed

    Correia, Jessyca Aline da Costa; Júnior, José Edvan Marques; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha B; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte

    2013-07-01

    The alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment of cashew apple bagasse (CAB) was evaluated based on the conversion of the resultant cellulose into glucose. The effects of the concentration of hydrogen peroxide at pH 11.5, the biomass loading and the pretreatment duration performed at 35°C and 250 rpm were evaluated after the subsequent enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated biomass using a commercial cellulase enzyme. The CAB used in this study contained 20.56 ± 2.19% cellulose, 10.17 ± 0.89% hemicellulose and 35.26 ± 0.90% lignin. The pretreatment resulted in a reduced lignin content in the residual solids. Increasing the H2O2 concentration (0-4.3% v/v) resulted in a higher rate of enzymatic hydrolysis. Lower biomass loadings gave higher glucose yields. In addition, no measurable furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural were produced in the liquid fraction during the pretreatment. The results show that alkaline hydrogen peroxide is effective for the pretreatment of CAB. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inactivation of biologically active dna by gamma ray induced superoxide radicals and their dismutation products singlet molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Vanhemmen, J.J.; Meuling, W.J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The reactivity of gamma ray induced superoxide radicals and dismutation products (singlet molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide) with DNA were studied. Superoxide dismutase, which removes superoxide radicals and inhibits the formation of singlet oxygen, protects biologically active DNA (OX174 RF) against inactivation by ionizing radiation. Catalase, which removes hydrogen peroxide, also protects the DNA. Attempts with various chemical sources of singlet oxygen to determine whether this species inactivates DNA did not yield an unequivocal answer. It was concluded that a combination of the protonated form of the superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide inactivates DNA. (Author) (GRA)

  19. [Methodological aspects of evaluation of potential lipid capacity for peroxidation from the serum levels of TBA-active products during iron ion stimulation].

    PubMed

    Kulikova, A I; Tugusheva, F A; Zubina, I M; Shepilova, I N

    2008-05-01

    The authors propose a simple and reproducible procedure for using iron ions to stimulate serum lipid peroxidation, with TBA-active products being further determined. The procedure determines the reserve of lipids that can be oxidized during oxidative stress. A combination of direct studies and correlation analysis suggests that low-density lipoproteins and very low-density lipoproteins are the major substrates for lipid peroxidation while high-density lipoproteins show a high resistance to this process. The presented procedure may be used to monitor lipid peroxidation in various conditions and upon various exposures in common laboratory practice.

  20. Cellulosic bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) using hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Song, Younho; Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Ho Myeong; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is recognized as a suitable candidate biomass crop for bioethanol production because it has a rapid growth rate and high biomass productivity. In this study, hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment was used to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and to effectively remove the lignin of JA. With optimized enzyme doses, synergy was observed from the combination of three different enzymes (RUT-C30, pectinase, and xylanase) which provided a conversion rate was approximately 30% higher than the rate with from treatment with RUT-C30 alone. Fermentation of the JA hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced a fermentation yield of approximately 84%. Therefore, Jerusalem artichoke has potential as a bioenergy crop for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethanol production from bamboo using mild alkaline pre-extraction followed by alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhaoyang; Wen, Yangbing; Kapu, Nuwan Sella

    2018-01-01

    A sequential two-stage pretreatment process comprising alkaline pre-extraction and alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHP) was investigated to convert bamboo carbohydrates into bioethanol. The results showed that mild alkaline pre-extraction using 8% (w/w) sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 100°C for 180min followed by AHP pretreatment with 4% (w/w) hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was sufficient to generate a substrate that could be efficiently digested with low enzyme loadings. Moreover, alkali pre-extraction enabled the use of lower H 2 O 2 charges in AHP treatment. Two-stage pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with only 9FPU/g cellulose led to the recovery of 87% of the original sugars in the raw feedstock. The use of the pentose-hexose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8u strain enabled the utilization of 95.7% sugars in the hydrolysate to reach 4.6%w/v ethanol titer. The overall process also enabled the recovery of 62.9% lignin and 93.8% silica at high levels of purity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Elastin aging and lipid oxidation products in human aorta.

    PubMed

    Zarkovic, Kamelija; Larroque-Cardoso, Pauline; Pucelle, Mélanie; Salvayre, Robert; Waeg, Georg; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Zarkovic, Neven

    2015-01-01

    Vascular aging is associated with structural and functional modifications of the arteries, and by an increase in arterial wall thickening in the intima and the media, mainly resulting from structural modifications of the extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Among the factors known to accumulate with aging, advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs) are a hallmark of oxidative stress-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis. Aldehydes generated from the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), (4-hydroxynonenal, malondialdehyde, acrolein), form adducts on cellular proteins, leading to a progressive protein dysfunction with consequences in the pathophysiology of vascular aging. The contribution of these aldehydes to ECM modification is not known. This study was carried out to investigate whether aldehyde-adducts are detected in the intima and media in human aorta, whether their level is increased in vascular aging, and whether elastin fibers are a target of aldehyde-adduct formation. Immunohistological and confocal immunofluorescence studies indicate that 4-HNE-histidine-adducts accumulate in an age-related manner in the intima, media and adventitia layers of human aortas, and are mainly expressed in smooth muscle cells. In contrast, even if the structure of elastin fiber is strongly altered in the aged vessels, our results show that elastin is not or very poorly modified by 4-HNE. These data indicate a complex role for lipid peroxidation and in particular for 4-HNE in elastin homeostasis, in the vascular wall remodeling during aging and atherosclerosis development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrogen peroxide production and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to the fusaric acid-induced programmed cell death in tobacco cells.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiao; Sun, Ling; Zhou, Benguo; Gao, Zhengliang; Hao, Yu; Zhu, Xiaoping; Liang, Yuancun

    2014-08-15

    Fusaric acid (FA), a non-specific toxin produced mainly by Fusarium spp., can cause programmed cell death (PCD) in tobacco suspension cells. The mechanism underlying the FA-induced PCD was not well understood. In this study, we analyzed the roles of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and mitochondrial function in the FA-induced PCD. Tobacco suspension cells were treated with 100 μM FA and then analyzed for H2O2 accumulation and mitochondrial functions. Here we demonstrate that cells undergoing FA-induced PCD exhibited H2O2 production, lipid peroxidation, and a decrease of the catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities. Pre-treatment of tobacco suspension cells with antioxidant ascorbic acid and NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyl iodonium significantly reduced the rate of FA-induced cell death as well as the caspase-3-like protease activity. Moreover, FA treatment of tobacco cells decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP content. Oligomycin and cyclosporine A, inhibitors of the mitochondrial ATP synthase and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, respectively, could also reduce the rate of FA-induced cell death significantly. Taken together, the results presented in this paper demonstrate that H2O2 accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction are the crucial events during the FA-induced PCD in tobacco suspension cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Thai banana (Musa AA group) in reducing accumulation of oxidation end products in UVB-irradiated mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Leerach, Nontaphat; Yakaew, Swanya; Phimnuan, Preeyawass; Soimee, Wichuda; Nakyai, Wongnapa; Luangbudnark, Witoo; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2017-03-01

    Chronic UVB exposure causes skin disorders and cancer through DNA strand breaks and oxidation of numerous functional groups of proteins and lipids in the skin. In this study, we investigated the effects of Thai banana (Musa AA group, "Khai," and Musa ABB group, "Namwa") on the prevention of UVB-induced skin damage when fed to male ICR mice. Mice were orally fed banana (Khai or Namwa) fruit pulps at dose of 1mg/g body weight/day for 12weeks. The shaved backs of the mice were irradiated with UVB for 12weeks. The intensity dose of UVB-exposure was increased from 54mJ/cm 2 /exposure at week 1 to 126mJ/cm 2 /exposure at week 12. A significant increase in skin thickness, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation end products, and expression of MMP-1 was observed in UVB-irradiated mouse skin. A reduction in the accumulation of oxidation end products was found in the skin of UVB-irradiated mice receiving Khai. This occurred in conjunction with a reduction in MMP-1 expression, inhibition of epidermal thickening, and induction of γ-GCS expression. The dietary intake of Khai prevented skin damage from chronic UVB exposure by increased γ-GCS expression and reduced oxidation end products included carbonyls, malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. New assays for detection and localization of endogenous lipid peroxidation products in living boar sperm after BTS dilution or after freeze-thawing.

    PubMed

    Brouwers, Jos F; Silva, Patricia F N; Gadella, Barend M

    2005-01-15

    Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in sperm aberrations causing multiple pathologies including sub- and infertility. Freeze/thawing of sperm samples is routinely performed in the cattle breeding industries for semen storage prior to artificial insemination but unusual in porcine breeding industries as semen dilution and storage at 17 degrees C is sufficient for artificial insemination within 2-3 days. However, longer semen storage requires cryopreservation of boar semen. Freeze/thawing procedures induce sperm damage and induce reactive oxygen species in mammalian sperm and boar sperm seems to be more vulnerable for this than bull sperm. We developed a new method to detect reactive oxygen species induced damage at the level of the sperm plasma membrane in bull sperm. Lipid peroxidation in freshly stored and frozen/thawed sperm cells was assessed by mass spectrometric analysis of the main endogenous lipid classes, phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol and by fluorescence techniques using the lipid peroxidation reporter probe C11-BODIPY(581/591). Peroxidation as reported by the fluorescent probe, clearly corresponded with the presence of hydroxy- and hydroperoxyphosphatidylcholine in the sperm membranes, which are early stage products of lipid peroxidation. This allowed us, for the first time, to correlate endogenous lipid peroxidation with localization of this process in the living sperm cells. Cytoplasmatic droplets in incompletely matured sperm cells were intensely peroxidized. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation was particularly strong in the mid-piece and tail of frozen/thawed spermatozoa and significantly less intense in the sperm head. Induction of peroxidation in fresh sperm cells with the lipid soluble reactive oxygen species tert-butylhydroperoxide gave an even more pronounced effect, demonstrating antioxidant activity in the head of fresh sperm cells. Furthermore, we were able to show using the flow cytometer that spontaneous peroxidation was not a

  6. Sporicidal performance induced by photocatalytic production of organic peroxide under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Yuichi; Shimodo, Takahito; Chikamori, Noriyasu; Usuki, Sho; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Endo, Takeshi; Katsumata, Ken-Ichi; Terashima, Chiaki; Ikekita, Masahiko; Fujishima, Akira; Suzuki, Tomonori; Sakai, Hideki; Nakata, Kazuya

    2016-09-01

    Bacteria that cause serious food poisoning are known to sporulate under conditions of nutrient and water shortage. The resulting spores have much greater resistance to common sterilization methods, such as heating at 100 °C and exposure to various chemical agents. Because such bacteria cannot be inactivated with typical alcohol disinfectants, peroxyacetic acid (PAA) often is used, but PAA is a harmful agent that can seriously damage human health. Furthermore, concentrated hydrogen peroxide, which is also dangerous, must be used to prepare PAA. Thus, the development of a facile and safe sporicidal disinfectant is strongly required. In this study, we have developed an innovative sporicidal disinfection method that employs the combination of an aqueous ethanol solution, visible light irradiation, and a photocatalyst. We successfully produced a sporicidal disinfectant one hundred times as effective as commercially available PAA, while also resolving the hazards and odor problems associated with PAA. The method presented here can potentially be used as a replacement for the general disinfectants employed in the food and health industries.

  7. Effect of sodium metabisulfite on hydrogen peroxide production in light-exposed pediatric parenteral amino acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Brawley, V; Bhatia, J; Karp, W B

    1998-06-15

    The effect of sodium metabisulfite (MBS) on hydrogen peroxide (HP) production in model and commercial amino acid solutions exposed to phototherapy light was studied. Model and commercial pediatric amino acid solutions were prepared such that the amino acid concentration was 1%. MBS concentration, riboflavin concentration, and duration of exposure to phototherapy light were varied to determine the effect on HP production. Control solutions were kept in the dark. HP production was assayed in the model amino acid solutions by using potassium iodide in the presence of ammonium molybdate. In all experiments, HP production was measured at 360 nm in the presence and absence of catalase. In light-exposed solutions, HP production increased linearly for several hours and reached a plateau by eight hours. A mean maximum of 940 microM was produced (data pooled for all solutions). No detectable HP was generated in the solutions kept in the dark. After two hours of light exposure, it was necessary to add at least 10 times more MBS than is typically found in commercial total parenteral nutrient solutions to scavenge all the HP produced. An average of up to 940 microM of HP was produced in model and commercial pediatric parenteral 1% amino acid solutions in the presence of phototherapy light and clinically relevant concentrations of riboflavin and MBS. Light exposure decreased the antioxidant effect of MBS.

  8. Influence of feeding thermally peroxidized soybean oil on growth performance, digestibility, and gut integrity in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Overholt, Martin F; Dilger, Anna C; Boler, Dustin D; Kerr, Brian J

    2018-05-26

    Consumption of peroxidized lipids has been shown to reduce pig performance and energy and lipid digestibility. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effect of feeding soybean oil (SO) with different levels of peroxidation on growth performance, lipid, N, and GE digestibility, plasma Trp, and gut integrity in finishing pigs. Fifty-six barrows (46.7 ± 5.1 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to one of four diets in each of two dietary phases, containing either 10% fresh SO (22.5 °C) or thermally processed SO (45 °C for 288 h, 90 °C for 72 h, or 180 °C for 6 h), each infused with of 15 L/min of air. Peroxide values were 2.0, 17.4, 123.6, and 19.4 mEq/kg; 2,4-decadienal values were 2.07, 1.90, 912.15, and 915.49 mg/kg; and 4-hydroxynonenal concentrations were 0.66, 1.49, 170.48, and 82.80 mg/kg, for the 22.5, 45, 90, and 180 °C processed SO, respectively. Pigs were individually housed and fed ad libitum for 81 d to measure growth performance, including a metabolism period to collect urine and feces for determination of GE, lipid, N digestibility, and N retention. Following the last day of fecal and urine collection when pigs were in the metabolism crates, lactulose and mannitol were fed and subsequently measured in the urine to evaluate gut permeability, while markers of oxidative stress were evaluated in plasma, urine, and liver. There were no differences observed in ADFI (P = 0.91), but average daily gain (ADG) and gain:feed G:F were decreased in pigs fed 90 °C SO diet (P ≤ 0.07) compared to pigs fed the other SO diets. Pigs fed the 90 and 180 °C SO had the lowest (P = 0.05) DE as a % of GE compared to pigs fed the 22.5 °C SO, with pigs fed the 45 °C SO being intermediate. Lipid digestibility was similarly affected (P = 0.01) as energy digestibility, but ME as a % of DE was not affected by dietary treatment (P = 0.16). There were no effects of lipid peroxidation on N digested, N retained, or the urinary lactulose:mannitol ratio (P ≥ 0

  9. Streptococcus sanguinis induces neutrophil cell death by production of hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Sumioka, Ryuichi; Nakata, Masanobu; Okahashi, Nobuo; Li, Yixuan; Wada, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Hayashi, Mikako; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus is the dominant bacterial genus in the human oral cavity and a leading cause of infective endocarditis. Streptococcus sanguinis belongs to the mitis group of streptococci and produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by the action of SpxB, a pyruvate oxidase. In this study, we investigated the involvement of SpxB in survival of S. sanguinis in human blood and whether bacterial H2O2 exhibits cytotoxicity against human neutrophils. Results of a bactericidal test with human whole blood revealed that the spxB mutation in S. sanguinis is detrimental to its survival in blood. When S. sanguinis strains were exposed to isolated neutrophils, the bacterial survival rate was significantly decreased by spxB deletion. Furthermore, human neutrophils exposed to the S. sanguinis wild-type strain, in contrast to those exposed to an spxB mutant strain, underwent cell death with chromatin de-condensation and release of web-like extracellular DNA, reflecting induction of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Since reactive oxygen species-mediated NET induction requires citrullination of arginine residues in histone proteins and subsequent chromatin de-condensation, we examined citrullination levels of histone in infected neutrophils. It is important to note that the citrullinated histone H3 was readily detected in neutrophils infected with the wild-type strain, as compared to infection with the spxB mutant strain. Moreover, decomposition of streptococcal H2O2 with catalase reduced NET induction. These results suggest that H2O2 produced by S. sanguinis provokes cell death of neutrophils and NET formation, thus potentially affecting bacterial survival in the bloodstream. PMID:28222125

  10. Streptococcus sanguinis induces neutrophil cell death by production of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Sumioka, Ryuichi; Nakata, Masanobu; Okahashi, Nobuo; Li, Yixuan; Wada, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Hayashi, Mikako; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus is the dominant bacterial genus in the human oral cavity and a leading cause of infective endocarditis. Streptococcus sanguinis belongs to the mitis group of streptococci and produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by the action of SpxB, a pyruvate oxidase. In this study, we investigated the involvement of SpxB in survival of S. sanguinis in human blood and whether bacterial H2O2 exhibits cytotoxicity against human neutrophils. Results of a bactericidal test with human whole blood revealed that the spxB mutation in S. sanguinis is detrimental to its survival in blood. When S. sanguinis strains were exposed to isolated neutrophils, the bacterial survival rate was significantly decreased by spxB deletion. Furthermore, human neutrophils exposed to the S. sanguinis wild-type strain, in contrast to those exposed to an spxB mutant strain, underwent cell death with chromatin de-condensation and release of web-like extracellular DNA, reflecting induction of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Since reactive oxygen species-mediated NET induction requires citrullination of arginine residues in histone proteins and subsequent chromatin de-condensation, we examined citrullination levels of histone in infected neutrophils. It is important to note that the citrullinated histone H3 was readily detected in neutrophils infected with the wild-type strain, as compared to infection with the spxB mutant strain. Moreover, decomposition of streptococcal H2O2 with catalase reduced NET induction. These results suggest that H2O2 produced by S. sanguinis provokes cell death of neutrophils and NET formation, thus potentially affecting bacterial survival in the bloodstream.

  11. Hydrogen peroxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Watt, Barbara E; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is an oxidising agent that is used in a number of household products, including general-purpose disinfectants, chlorine-free bleaches, fabric stain removers, contact lens disinfectants and hair dyes, and it is a component of some tooth whitening products. In industry, the principal use of hydrogen peroxide is as a bleaching agent in the manufacture of paper and pulp. Hydrogen peroxide has been employed medicinally for wound irrigation and for the sterilisation of ophthalmic and endoscopic instruments. Hydrogen peroxide causes toxicity via three main mechanisms: corrosive damage, oxygen gas formation and lipid peroxidation. Concentrated hydrogen peroxide is caustic and exposure may result in local tissue damage. Ingestion of concentrated (>35%) hydrogen peroxide can also result in the generation of substantial volumes of oxygen. Where the amount of oxygen evolved exceeds its maximum solubility in blood, venous or arterial gas embolism may occur. The mechanism of CNS damage is thought to be arterial gas embolisation with subsequent brain infarction. Rapid generation of oxygen in closed body cavities can also cause mechanical distension and there is potential for the rupture of the hollow viscus secondary to oxygen liberation. In addition, intravascular foaming following absorption can seriously impede right ventricular output and produce complete loss of cardiac output. Hydrogen peroxide can also exert a direct cytotoxic effect via lipid peroxidation. Ingestion of hydrogen peroxide may cause irritation of the gastrointestinal tract with nausea, vomiting, haematemesis and foaming at the mouth; the foam may obstruct the respiratory tract or result in pulmonary aspiration. Painful gastric distension and belching may be caused by the liberation of large volumes of oxygen in the stomach. Blistering of the mucosae and oropharyngeal burns are common following ingestion of concentrated solutions, and laryngospasm and haemorrhagic gastritis have been

  12. Modulation of nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide and cytokine production in a clonal macrophage model by the trichothecene vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol).

    PubMed

    Ji, G E; Park, S Y; Wong, S S; Pestka, J J

    1998-02-06

    Characterization of how vomitoxin (VT) and other trichothecenes affect macrophage regulatory and effector function may contribute to improved understanding of mechanisms by which these mycotoxins impact the immune system. The RAW 264.7 murine cell line was used as a macrophage model to assess effects of the VT on proliferation and the production of nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and cytokines. Using the MTT cleavage assay, VT at concentrations of 50 ng/ml or higher was found to significantly decrease proliferation and viability of RAW 264.7 cells without stimulation or with stimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interferon (IFN)-gamma. In the absence of an activation agent, VT (25-250 ng/ml) had negligible effects on the production of NO, H2O2, and cytokines. Upon activation with LPS at concentrations of 10 to 100 ng/ml, VT at 25-100 ng/ml markedly enhanced production of H2O2 but was inhibitory at 250 ng/ml. VT enhancement of H2O2 production was observed as early as 12 h after LPS stimulation. When IFN-gamma was used as the stimulant, VT (25-250 ng/ml) delayed peak H2O2 production. VT (25-250 ng/ml) also markedly decreased NO production in cells activated with LPS or IFN-gamma. Interestingly, VT superinduced TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in LPS-stimulated cells and also elevated TNF-alpha in IFN-gamma stimulated cells. These results suggest that VT can selectively and concurrently upregulate or downregulate critical functions associated with activated macrophages.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide production from fibrous pectic cellulose analogs and effect on dermal fibroblasts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Naturally derived products with folklore remedies have in recent years been reconsidered for their benefit to wound healing i.e., honey’s application to chronic wound dressing products. Similarly, we have undertaken an evaluation of Fibrous pectin-cellulose (FPC) (cellulose blended with primary cel...

  14. Hydrogen peroxide as sustainable fuel: electrocatalysts for production with a solar cell and decomposition with a fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yusuke; Fukunishi, Yurie; Yamazaki, Shin-ichi; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2010-10-21

    Hydrogen peroxide was electrochemically produced by reducing oxygen in an aqueous solution with [Co(TCPP)] as a catalyst and photovoltaic solar cell operating at 0.5 V. Hydrogen peroxide thus produced is utilized as a fuel for a one-compartment fuel cell with Ag-Pb alloy nanoparticles as the cathode.

  15. Plasticity of the Pyruvate Node Modulates Hydrogen Peroxide Production and Acid Tolerance in Multiple Oral Streptococci.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xingqun; Redanz, Sylvio; Cullin, Nyssa; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Xin; Joshi, Vrushali; Koley, Dipankar; Merritt, Justin; Kreth, Jens

    2018-01-15

    Commensal Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii are pioneer oral biofilm colonizers. Characteristic for both is the SpxB-dependent production of H 2 O 2 , which is crucial for inhibiting competing biofilm members, especially the cariogenic species Streptococcus mutans H 2 O 2 production is strongly affected by environmental conditions, but few mechanisms are known. Dental plaque pH is one of the key parameters dictating dental plaque ecology and ultimately oral health status. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to characterize the effects of environmental pH on H 2 O 2 production by S. sanguinis and S. gordonii S. sanguinis H 2 O 2 production was not found to be affected by moderate changes in environmental pH, whereas S. gordonii H 2 O 2 production declined markedly in response to lower pH. Further investigation into the pyruvate node, the central metabolic switch modulating H 2 O 2 or lactic acid production, revealed increased lactic acid levels for S. gordonii at pH 6. The bias for lactic acid production at pH 6 resulted in concomitant improvement in the survival of S. gordonii at low pH and seems to constitute part of the acid tolerance response of S. gordonii Differential responses to pH similarly affect other oral streptococcal species, suggesting that the observed results are part of a larger phenomenon linking environmental pH, central metabolism, and the capacity to produce antagonistic amounts of H 2 O 2 IMPORTANCE Oral biofilms are subject to frequent and dramatic changes in pH. S. sanguinis and S. gordonii can compete with caries- and periodontitis-associated pathogens by generating H 2 O 2 Therefore, it is crucial to understand how S. sanguinis and S. gordonii adapt to low pH and maintain their competitiveness under acid stress. The present study provides evidence that certain oral bacteria respond to environmental pH changes by tuning their metabolic output in favor of lactic acid production, to increase their acid survival

  16. Hydrogen peroxide induced by the fungicide prothioconazole triggers deoxynivalenol (DON) production by Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fusarium head blight is a very important disease of small grain cereals with F. graminearum as one of the most important causal agents. It not only causes reduction in yield and quality but from a human and animal healthcare point of view, it produces mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) which can accumulate to toxic levels. Little is known about external triggers influencing DON production. Results In the present work, a combined in vivo/in vitro approach was used to test the effect of sub lethal fungicide treatments on DON production. Using a dilution series of prothioconazole, azoxystrobin and prothioconazole + fluoxastrobin, we demonstrated that sub lethal doses of prothioconazole coincide with an increase in DON production 48 h after fungicide treatment. In an artificial infection trial using wheat plants, the in vitro results of increased DON levels upon sub lethal prothioconazole application were confirmed illustrating the significance of these results from a practical point of view. In addition, further in vitro experiments revealed a timely hyperinduction of H2O2 production as fast as 4 h after amending cultures with prothioconazole. When applying H2O2 directly to germinating conidia, a similar induction of DON-production by F. graminearum was observed. The effect of sub lethal prothioconazole concentrations on DON production completely disappeared when applying catalase together with the fungicide. Conclusions These cumulative results suggest that H2O2 induced by sub lethal doses of the triazole fungicide prothioconazole acts as a trigger of DON biosynthesis. In a broader framework, this work clearly shows that DON production by the plant pathogen F. graminearum is the result of the interaction of fungal genomics and external environmental triggers. PMID:20398299

  17. Sites of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production during fatty acid oxidation in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Perevoshchikova, Irina V.; Quinlan, Casey L.; Orr, Adam L.; Gerencser, Akos A.; Brand, Martin D.

    2013-01-01

    H2O2 production by skeletal muscle mitochondria oxidizing palmitoylcarnitine was examined under two conditions: the absence of respiratory chain inhibitors and the presence of myxothiazol to inhibit complex III. Without inhibitors, respiration and H2O2 production were low unless carnitine or malate was added to limit acetyl-CoA accumulation. With palmitoylcarnitine alone, H2O2 production was dominated by complex II (44% from site IIF in the forward reaction); the remainder was mostly from complex I (34%, superoxide from site IF). With added carnitine, H2O2 production was about equally shared between complexes I, II, and III. With added malate, it was 75% from complex III (superoxide from site IIIQo) and 25% from site IF. Thus complex II (site IIF in the forward reaction) is a major source of H2O2 production during oxidation of palmitoylcarnitine ± carnitine. Under the second condition (myxothiazol present to keep ubiquinone reduced), the rates of H2O2 production were highest in the presence of palmitoylcarnitine ± carnitine and were dominated by complex II (site IIF in the reverse reaction). About half the rest was from site IF, but a significant portion, ~40 pmol H2O2 · min−1 · mg protein−1, was not from complex I, II, or III and was attributed to the proteins of β-oxidation (electron-transferring flavoprotein (ETF) and ETF-ubiquinone oxidoreductase). The maximum rate from the ETF system was ~200 pmol H2O2 · min−1 ~ mg protein−1 under conditions of compromised antioxidant defense and reduced ubiqui-none pool. Thus complex II and the ETF system both contribute to H2O2 production during fatty acid oxidation under appropriate conditions. PMID:23583329

  18. Ferulic Acid Suppresses Amyloid β Production in the Human Lens Epithelial Cell Stimulated with Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Noriaki; Kotani, Sachiyo; Mano, Yu; Ueno, Akina; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kitaba, Toshio; Takata, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that oxidative stresses induce the production of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain, lens, and retina, leading to age-related diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ferulic acid on the Aβ levels in H2O2-stimulated human lens epithelial (HLE) SRA 01/04 cells. Three types of Aβ peptides (Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42, and Aβ1-43) were measured by ELISA, and the levels of mRNA for the expressed proteins related to Aβ production (APP, BACE1, and PS proteins) and degradation (ADAM10, NEP, and ECE1 proteins) were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. H2O2 stimulation augmented gene expression of the proteins related to Aβ production, resulting in the production of three types of Aβ peptides. Treatment with 0.1 μM ferulic acid attenuated the augmentations of gene expression and production of the proteins related to the secretion of three types of Aβ peptides in the H2O2-stimulated HLE cells. These results provided evidence of antioxidative functions of ferulic acid for lens epithelial cells. PMID:28409157

  19. A PDI-catalyzed thiol-disulfide switch regulates the production of hydrogen peroxide by human Ero1.

    PubMed

    Ramming, Thomas; Okumura, Masaki; Kanemura, Shingo; Baday, Sefer; Birk, Julia; Moes, Suzette; Spiess, Martin; Jenö, Paul; Bernèche, Simon; Inaba, Kenji; Appenzeller-Herzog, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) involves ER oxidoreductin 1 (Ero1)-mediated disulfide formation in protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). In this process, Ero1 consumes oxygen (O2) and releases hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), but none of the published Ero1 crystal structures reveal any potential pathway for entry and exit of these reactants. We report that additional mutation of the Cys(208)-Cys(241) disulfide in hyperactive Ero1α (Ero1α-C104A/C131A) potentiates H2O2 production, ER oxidation, and cell toxicity. This disulfide clamps two helices that seal the flavin cofactor where O2 is reduced to H2O2. Through its carboxyterminal active site, PDI unlocks this seal by forming a Cys(208)/Cys(241)-dependent mixed-disulfide complex with Ero1α. The H2O2-detoxifying glutathione peroxidase 8 also binds to the Cys(208)/Cys(241) loop region. Supported by O2 diffusion simulations, these data describe the first enzymatically controlled O2 access into a flavoprotein active site, provide molecular-level understanding of Ero1α regulation and H2O2 production/detoxification, and establish the deleterious consequences of constitutive Ero1 activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. SpxA1 Involved in Hydrogen Peroxide Production, Stress Tolerance and Endocarditis Virulence in Streptococcus sanguinis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Ge, Xiuchun; Wang, Xiaojing; Patel, Jenishkumar R.; Xu, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is one of the most common agents of infective endocarditis. Spx proteins are a group of global regulators that negatively or positively control global transcription initiation. In this study, we characterized the spxA1 gene in S. sanguinis SK36. The spxA1 null mutant displayed opaque colony morphology, reduced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, and reduced antagonistic activity against Streptococcus mutans UA159 relative to the wild type strain. The ΔspxA1 mutant also demonstrated decreased tolerance to high temperature, acidic and oxidative stresses. Further analysis revealed that ΔspxA1 also exhibited a ∼5-fold reduction in competitiveness in an animal model of endocarditis. Microarray studies indicated that expression of several oxidative stress genes was downregulated in the ΔspxA1 mutant. The expression of spxB and nox was significantly decreased in the ΔspxA1 mutant compared with the wild type. These results indicate that spxA1 plays a major role in H2O2 production, stress tolerance and endocarditis virulence in S. sanguinis SK36. The second spx gene, spxA2, was also found in S. sanguinis SK36. The spxA2 null mutant was found to be defective for growth under normal conditions and showed sensitivity to high temperature, acidic and oxidative stresses. PMID:22768210

  1. SpxA1 involved in hydrogen peroxide production, stress tolerance and endocarditis virulence in Streptococcus sanguinis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Ge, Xiuchun; Wang, Xiaojing; Patel, Jenishkumar R; Xu, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is one of the most common agents of infective endocarditis. Spx proteins are a group of global regulators that negatively or positively control global transcription initiation. In this study, we characterized the spxA1 gene in S. sanguinis SK36. The spxA1 null mutant displayed opaque colony morphology, reduced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production, and reduced antagonistic activity against Streptococcus mutans UA159 relative to the wild type strain. The ΔspxA1 mutant also demonstrated decreased tolerance to high temperature, acidic and oxidative stresses. Further analysis revealed that ΔspxA1 also exhibited a ∼5-fold reduction in competitiveness in an animal model of endocarditis. Microarray studies indicated that expression of several oxidative stress genes was downregulated in the ΔspxA1 mutant. The expression of spxB and nox was significantly decreased in the ΔspxA1 mutant compared with the wild type. These results indicate that spxA1 plays a major role in H(2)O(2) production, stress tolerance and endocarditis virulence in S. sanguinis SK36. The second spx gene, spxA2, was also found in S. sanguinis SK36. The spxA2 null mutant was found to be defective for growth under normal conditions and showed sensitivity to high temperature, acidic and oxidative stresses.

  2. Sites of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production during fatty acid oxidation in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Perevoshchikova, Irina V; Quinlan, Casey L; Orr, Adam L; Gerencser, Akos A; Brand, Martin D

    2013-08-01

    H2O2 production by skeletal muscle mitochondria oxidizing palmitoylcarnitine was examined under two conditions: the absence of respiratory chain inhibitors and the presence of myxothiazol to inhibit complex III. Without inhibitors, respiration and H2O2 production were low unless carnitine or malate was added to limit acetyl-CoA accumulation. With palmitoylcarnitine alone, H2O2 production was dominated by complex II (44% from site IIF in the forward reaction); the remainder was mostly from complex I (34%, superoxide from site IF). With added carnitine, H2O2 production was about equally shared between complexes I, II, and III. With added malate, it was 75% from complex III (superoxide from site IIIQo) and 25% from site IF. Thus complex II (site IIF in the forward reaction) is a major source of H2O2 production during oxidation of palmitoylcarnitine ± carnitine. Under the second condition (myxothiazol present to keep ubiquinone reduced), the rates of H2O2 production were highest in the presence of palmitoylcarnitine ± carnitine and were dominated by complex II (site IIF in the reverse reaction). About half the rest was from site IF, but a significant portion, ∼40pmol H2O2·min(-1)·mg protein(-1), was not from complex I, II, or III and was attributed to the proteins of β-oxidation (electron-transferring flavoprotein (ETF) and ETF-ubiquinone oxidoreductase). The maximum rate from the ETF system was ∼200pmol H2O2·min(-1)·mg protein(-1) under conditions of compromised antioxidant defense and reduced ubiquinone pool. Thus complex II and the ETF system both contribute to H2O2 productionduring fatty acid oxidation under appropriate conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) duration on superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide production by polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Zozulińska, D A; Wierusz-Wysocka, B; Wysocki, H; Majchrzak, A E; Wykretowicz, A

    1996-08-01

    We address the question whether oxygen metabolism of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) is influenced by disease duration in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). PMN were isolated from patients with IDDM of various durations and from healthy controls. We measured PMN production of superoxide anions (O2-) by cytochrome c reduction (see Babior, B.M. et al. (1973) J. Clin. Invest. 52, 741-746) and PMN production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by phenol red oxygenation (see Pick, E. (1980) J. Immunol. Methods 38, 161-169) in three groups of IDDM patients subdivided according to disease duration (group A: IDDM less that 10 years; group B: IDDM of 10-15 years; group C: IDDM of more than 15 years) and in control healthy subjects (group H). Unstimulated O2- production in all IDDM patients was not statistically different from control values (A: 4.3 +/- 0.4 nmol/10(6) PMN per 30 min, nmol/10(6) PMN per 30 min; C: 4.9 +/- 0.9 nmol/10(6) PMN per 30 min; and H: 3.5 +/- 0.2 nmol/10(6) PMN per 30 min, respectively). In contrast, stimulated O2- production was significantly lower in both patients with 10-15 years, and patients with more than 15 years, duration of IDDM than in controls (B: 25.7 +/- 2.5 nmol/10(6) PMN per 30 min; C: 21.1 +/- 3.4 nmol/10(6) PMN per 30 min and H: 42.2 +/- 1.1 nmol/10(6) PMN per 30 min, respectively) correlating with disease duration (r = -0.44, P < 0.033). The stimulated O2- production in patients with less than 10 years duration of IDDM (A: 35.7 +/- 1.9 nmol/10(6) PMN per 30 min) was slightly lower than in controls. H2O2 production of unstimulated PMN (A: 4.0 +/- 0.5 nmol/10(6) PMN per 30 min; B: 4.4 +/- 0.8 nmol/10(6) PMN per 30 min and C: 4.4 +/-1.0 nmol/10(6) PMN per 30 min, respectively) was much higher than those in controls. In contrast, stimulated H2O2 production did not differ statistically from the value noticed in healthy subjects. The results obtained might indicate that production of H2O2 by unstimulated cells is

  4. Impacts of cloud water droplets on the OH production rate from peroxide photolysis.

    PubMed

    Martins-Costa, M T C; Anglada, J M; Francisco, J S; Ruiz-López, Manuel F

    2017-12-06

    Understanding the difference between observed and modeled concentrations of HO x radicals in the troposphere is a current major issue in atmospheric chemistry. It is widely believed that existing atmospheric models miss a source of such radicals and several potential new sources have been proposed. In recent years, interest has increased on the role played by cloud droplets and organic aerosols. Computer modeling of ozone photolysis, for instance, has shown that atmospheric aqueous interfaces accelerate the associated OH production rate by as much as 3-4 orders of magnitude. Since methylhydroperoxide is a main source and sink of HO x radicals, especially at low NO x concentrations, it is fundamental to assess what is the influence of clouds on its chemistry and photochemistry. In this study, computer simulations for the photolysis of methylhydroperoxide at the air-water interface have been carried out showing that the OH production rate is severely enhanced, reaching a comparable level to ozone photolysis.

  5. Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennakoon, Charles L. K.; Singh, Waheguru; Anderson, Kelvin C.

    2010-01-01

    Two-electron reduction of oxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide is a much researched topic. Most of the work has been done in the production of hydrogen peroxide in basic media, in order to address the needs of the pulp and paper industry. However, peroxides under alkaline conditions show poor stabilities and are not useful in disinfection applications. There is a need to design electrocatalysts that are stable and provide good current and energy efficiencies to produce hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions. The innovation focuses on the in situ generation of hydrogen peroxide using an electrochemical cell having a gas diffusion electrode as the cathode (electrode connected to the negative pole of the power supply) and a platinized titanium anode. The cathode and anode compartments are separated by a readily available cation-exchange membrane (Nafion 117). The anode compartment is fed with deionized water. Generation of oxygen is the anode reaction. Protons from the anode compartment are transferred across the cation-exchange membrane to the cathode compartment by electrostatic attraction towards the negatively charged electrode. The cathode compartment is fed with oxygen. Here, hydrogen peroxide is generated by the reduction of oxygen. Water may also be generated in the cathode. A small amount of water is also transported across the membrane along with hydrated protons transported across the membrane. Generally, each proton is hydrated with 3-5 molecules. The process is unique because hydrogen peroxide is formed as a high-purity aqueous solution. Since there are no hazardous chemicals or liquids used in the process, the disinfection product can be applied directly to water, before entering a water filtration unit to disinfect the incoming water and to prevent the build up of heterotrophic bacteria, for example, in carbon based filters. The competitive advantages of this process are: 1. No consumable chemicals are needed in the process. The only raw materials

  6. Decreased production of neuronal NOS-derived hydrogen peroxide contributes to endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Capettini, LSA; Cortes, SF; Silva, JF; Alvarez-Leite, JI; Lemos, VS

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Reduced NO availability has been described as a key mechanism responsible for endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. We previously reported that neuronal NOS (nNOS)-derived H2O2 is an important endothelium-derived relaxant factor in the mouse aorta. The role of H2O2 and nNOS in endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis remains undetermined. We hypothesized that a decrease in nNOS-derived H2O2 contributes to the impaired vasodilatation in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (ApoE−/−). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Changes in isometric tension were recorded on a myograph; simultaneously, NO and H2O2 were measured using carbon microsensors. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides were used to knockdown eNOS and nNOS in vivo. Western blot and confocal microscopy were used to analyse the expression and localization of NOS isoforms. KEY RESULTS Aortas from ApoE−/− mice showed impaired vasodilatation paralleled by decreased NO and H2O2 production. Inhibition of nNOS with L-ArgNO2-L-Dbu, knockdown of nNOS and catalase, which decomposes H2O2 into oxygen and water, decreased ACh-induced relaxation by half, produced a small diminution of NO production and abolished H2O2 in wild-type animals, but had no effect in ApoE−/− mice. Confocal microscopy showed increased nNOS immunostaining in endothelial cells of ApoE−/− mice. However, ACh stimulation of vessels resulted in less phosphorylation on Ser852 in ApoE−/− mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our data show that endothelial nNOS-derived H2O2 production is impaired and contributes to endothelial dysfunction in ApoE−/− aorta. The present study provides a new mechanism for endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis and may represent a novel target to elaborate the therapeutic strategy for vascular atherosclerosis. PMID:21615722

  7. Products of lipid peroxidation, but not membrane susceptibility to oxidative damage, are conserved in skeletal muscle following temperature acclimation.

    PubMed

    Grim, Jeffrey M; Semones, Molly C; Kuhn, Donald E; Kriska, Tamas; Keszler, Agnes; Crockett, Elizabeth L

    2015-03-01

    Changes in oxidative capacities and phospholipid remodeling accompany temperature acclimation in ectothermic animals. Both responses may alter redox status and membrane susceptibility to lipid peroxidation (LPO). We tested the hypothesis that phospholipid remodeling is sufficient to offset temperature-driven rates of LPO and, thus, membrane susceptibility to LPO is conserved. We also predicted that the content of LPO products is maintained over a range of physiological temperatures. To assess LPO susceptibility, rates of LPO were quantified with the fluorescent probe C11-BODIPY in mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum from oxidative and glycolytic muscle of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) acclimated to 7°C and 25°C. We also measured phospholipid compositions, contents of LPO products [i.e., individual classes of phospholipid hydroperoxides (PLOOH)], and two membrane antioxidants. Despite phospholipid headgroup and acyl chain remodeling, these alterations do not counter the effect of temperature on LPO rates (i.e., LPO rates are generally not different among acclimation groups when normalized to phospholipid content and compared at a common temperature). Although absolute levels of PLOOH are higher in muscles from cold- than warm-acclimated fish, this difference is lost when PLOOH levels are normalized to total phospholipid. Contents of vitamin E and two homologs of ubiquinone are more than four times higher in mitochondria prepared from oxidative muscle of warm- than cold-acclimated fish. Collectively, our data demonstrate that although phospholipid remodeling does not provide a means for offsetting thermal effects on rates of LPO, differences in phospholipid quantity ensure a constant proportion of LPO products with temperature variation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Products of lipid peroxidation, but not membrane susceptibility to oxidative damage, are conserved in skeletal muscle following temperature acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Semones, Molly C.; Kuhn, Donald E.; Kriska, Tamas; Keszler, Agnes; Crockett, Elizabeth L.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in oxidative capacities and phospholipid remodeling accompany temperature acclimation in ectothermic animals. Both responses may alter redox status and membrane susceptibility to lipid peroxidation (LPO). We tested the hypothesis that phospholipid remodeling is sufficient to offset temperature-driven rates of LPO and, thus, membrane susceptibility to LPO is conserved. We also predicted that the content of LPO products is maintained over a range of physiological temperatures. To assess LPO susceptibility, rates of LPO were quantified with the fluorescent probe C11-BODIPY in mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum from oxidative and glycolytic muscle of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) acclimated to 7°C and 25°C. We also measured phospholipid compositions, contents of LPO products [i.e., individual classes of phospholipid hydroperoxides (PLOOH)], and two membrane antioxidants. Despite phospholipid headgroup and acyl chain remodeling, these alterations do not counter the effect of temperature on LPO rates (i.e., LPO rates are generally not different among acclimation groups when normalized to phospholipid content and compared at a common temperature). Although absolute levels of PLOOH are higher in muscles from cold- than warm-acclimated fish, this difference is lost when PLOOH levels are normalized to total phospholipid. Contents of vitamin E and two homologs of ubiquinone are more than four times higher in mitochondria prepared from oxidative muscle of warm- than cold-acclimated fish. Collectively, our data demonstrate that although phospholipid remodeling does not provide a means for offsetting thermal effects on rates of LPO, differences in phospholipid quantity ensure a constant proportion of LPO products with temperature variation. PMID:25519739

  9. Elevated serum concentration of cardiotoxic lipid peroxidation products in chronic renal failure in relation to severity of renal anemia.

    PubMed

    Siems, W; Carluccio, F; Grune, T; Jakstadt, M; Quast, S; Hampl, H; Sommerburg, O

    2002-07-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis (HD) are exposed to oxidative stress. Increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxylnonenal (HNE) were found in plasma of uremic patients indicating accelerated lipid peroxidation (LPO) as a consequence of multiple pathogenetic factors. The catabolism and action of those products was already intensively studied. As highly reactive metabolites they are able to bind to proteins, nucleic acids, and other molecules. Doing so, they exert molecular signal effects in cells and are able to exacerbate tissue and organ damage, e.g. cardiotoxic effects. Since renal anemia was shown to promote oxidative stress as well, the aim of our investigation was to examine its role in HD patients. Therefore, two groups of HD patients were investigated (group I Hb < 10 g/dl, group II Hb > 10 g/dl) and serum concentrations of MDA, HNE, and of protein carbonyls, a marker for protein oxidation, were determined. All HD patients had significantly higher levels of the LPO products MDA and HNE compared with controls. However, group I patients showed higher MDA and HNE concentrations compared to group II patients. The same result could be seen for protein carbonyls. During HD concentration of both LPO products decreased. However, this was not the case for protein carbonyls. These results lead to the conclusion that optimized correction of the renal anemia may result in a significant reduction of oxidative stress and therefore in the reduction of organ tissue damage. In this way correction of renal anemia will reduce the cardiovascular risk and comorbidity of HD patients improving their prognosis.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide stimulates rat colonic prostaglandin production and alters electrolyte transport.

    PubMed Central

    Karayalcin, S S; Sturbaum, C W; Wachsman, J T; Cha, J H; Powell, D W

    1990-01-01

    The changes in short circuit current (electrogenic Cl- secretion) of rat colon brought about by xanthine/xanthine oxidase in the Ussing chamber were inhibited by catalase and diethyldithiocarbamate, but not by superoxide dismutase. These results, the reproduction of the response with glucose/glucose oxidase and with exogenous H2O2, and the lack of effect of preincubation with deferoxamine or thiourea implicate H2O2, and not O2- or OH., as the important reactive oxygen metabolite altering intestinal electrolyte transport. 1 mM H2O2 stimulated colonic PGE2 and PGI2 production 8- and 15-fold, respectively, inhibited neutral NaCl absorption, and stimulated biphasic electrogenic Cl secretion with little effect on enterocyte lactic dehydrogenase release, epithelial conductance, or histology. Cl- secretion was reduced by cyclooxygenase inhibition. Also, the Cl- secretion, but not the increase in prostaglandin production, was reduced by enteric nervous system blockade with tetrodotoxin, hexamethonium, or atropine. Thus, H2O2 appears to alter electrolyte transport by releasing prostaglandins that activate the enteric nervous system. The change in short circuit current in response to Iloprost, but not PGE2, was blocked by tetrodotoxin. Therefore, PGI2 may be the mediator of the H2O2 response. H2O2 produced in nontoxic concentrations in the inflamed gut could have significant physiologic effects on intestinal water and electrolyte transport. Images PMID:2164049

  11. Normotensive sepsis is associated with increased lipid peroxidation products in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, C.; Fox, G.; Neal, A.

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the development of sepsis-induced multiple systems organ failure, possibly through biomembrane lipid perioxidation (BLP) which produces a loss of cell integrity and function. The authors examined the hypothesis that ROS activity contributes to non-pulmonary cell injury in hyperdynamic sepsis by measuring BLP products in skeletal muscle. The authors measured systemic flow (Q) by thermodilution and Q-gastrocnemius by the radioactive microsphere technique in 10 awake sheep, 48 hours following (i) the induction of hyperdynamic sepsis by cecal ligation and perforation or (ii) sham laparotomy. The animals were then anesthetized and biopsies from themore » gastrocnemius muscle were taken and flash frozen in liquid nitrogen for the determination of BLP products, which included conjugated dienes (CD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and acid-soluble sulfhydryls (SH). At the 48 hours study, Q was increased in the septic compared to the sham group while mean BP and Q-gastrocnemius were not different between the groups. Both CD and SH were significantly increased in the septic group. It was concluded that normotensive sepsis in this animal model produces evidence of increased ROS mediated BLP in non-pulmonary organs distant from the site of inflammation.« less

  12. Enhancement of lipid production in Scenedesmus sp. by UV mutagenesis and hydrogen peroxide treatment.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Incharoensakdi, Aran

    2017-07-01

    The high potential UV mutagenized Scenedesmus sp. was obtained in which the cells had a higher biomass and lipid content than the wild type with an increase from 1.9 to 2.4g/L and from 40 to 55% of dry cell weight respectively after 12days. Oxidative stress imposed by H 2 O 2 treatment decreased the biomass of both the wild type and the mutant. The H 2 O 2 treated mutant when grown in BG11 medium showed an increase in biomass which was in contrast to a decreased biomass observed in the H 2 O 2 treated wild type. A 3-fold increase in lipid yield of 1.63g/L was obtained in the oxidative stress-induced mutant compared to the wild type. Overall results indicate that prior treatment of UV-mutagenized Scenedesmus with oxidative stress can increase the total lipid production which, due to its derived methyl ester having acceptable biodiesel properties, can be potentially utilized for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 21 CFR 529.1150 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 529.1150 Section 529.1150 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS CERTAIN OTHER DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 529.1150 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 396.1 milligrams (mg) hydrogen peroxide...

  14. 21 CFR 529.1150 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 529.1150 Section 529.1150 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS CERTAIN OTHER DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 529.1150 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 396.1 milligrams (mg) hydrogen peroxide...

  15. 21 CFR 529.1150 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 529.1150 Section 529.1150 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS CERTAIN OTHER DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 529.1150 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 396.1 milligrams (mg) hydrogen peroxide...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1366 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 582.1366 Section 582.1366 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1366 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Product. Hydrogen peroxide. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1366 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 582.1366 Section 582.1366 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1366 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Product. Hydrogen peroxide. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1366 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 582.1366 Section 582.1366 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1366 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Product. Hydrogen peroxide. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1366 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 582.1366 Section 582.1366 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1366 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Product. Hydrogen peroxide. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  20. 21 CFR 529.1150 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 529.1150 Section 529.1150 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS CERTAIN OTHER DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 529.1150 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 396.1 milligrams (mg) hydrogen peroxide...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1366 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 582.1366 Section 582.1366 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1366 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Product. Hydrogen peroxide. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  2. 21 CFR 529.1150 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 529.1150 Section 529.1150 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS CERTAIN OTHER DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 529.1150 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 396.1 milligrams (mg) hydrogen peroxide...

  3. Respiratory Symptoms in Hospital Cleaning Staff Exposed to a Product Containing Hydrogen Peroxide, Peracetic Acid, and Acetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Brie; Casey, Megan; Virji, Mohammed Abbas; Cummings, Kristin J.; Johnson, Alyson; Cox-Ganser, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Cleaning and disinfecting products consisting of a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (HP), peracetic acid (PAA), and acetic acid (AA) are widely used as sporicidal agents in health care, childcare, agricultural, food service, and food production industries. HP and PAA are strong oxidants and their mixture is a recognized asthmagen. However, few exposure assessment studies to date have measured HP, PAA, and AA in a health care setting. In 2015, we performed a health and exposure assessment at a hospital where a new sporicidal product, consisting of HP, PAA, and AA was introduced 16 months prior. We collected 49 full-shift time-weighted average (TWA) air samples and analyzed samples for HP, AA, and PAA content. Study participants were observed while they performed cleaning duties, and duration and frequency of cleaning product use was recorded. Acute upper airway, eye, and lower airway symptoms were recorded in a post-shift survey (n = 50). A subset of 35 cleaning staff also completed an extended questionnaire that assessed symptoms reported by workers as regularly occurring or as having occurred in the previous 12 months. Air samples for HP (range: 5.5 to 511.4 ppb) and AA (range: 6.7 to 530.3 ppb) were all below established US occupational exposure limits (OEL). To date, no full-shift TWA OEL for PAA has been established in the United States, however an OEL of 0.2 ppm has been suggested by several research groups. Air samples for PAA ranged from 1.1 to 48.0 ppb and were well below the suggested OEL of 0.2 ppm. Hospital cleaning staff using a sporicidal product containing HP, PAA, and AA reported work-shift eye (44%), upper airway (58%), and lower airway (34%) symptoms. Acute nasal and eye irritation were significantly positively associated with increased exposure to the mixture of the two oxidants: HP and PAA, as well as the total mixture (TM) of HP, PAA, and AA. Shortness of breath when hurrying on level ground or walking up a slight hill was significantly associated

  4. Respiratory Symptoms in Hospital Cleaning Staff Exposed to a Product Containing Hydrogen Peroxide, Peracetic Acid, and Acetic Acid.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Brie; Casey, Megan; Virji, Mohammed Abbas; Cummings, Kristin J; Johnson, Alyson; Cox-Ganser, Jean

    2017-12-15

    Cleaning and disinfecting products consisting of a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (HP), peracetic acid (PAA), and acetic acid (AA) are widely used as sporicidal agents in health care, childcare, agricultural, food service, and food production industries. HP and PAA are strong oxidants and their mixture is a recognized asthmagen. However, few exposure assessment studies to date have measured HP, PAA, and AA in a health care setting. In 2015, we performed a health and exposure assessment at a hospital where a new sporicidal product, consisting of HP, PAA, and AA was introduced 16 months prior. We collected 49 full-shift time-weighted average (TWA) air samples and analyzed samples for HP, AA, and PAA content. Study participants were observed while they performed cleaning duties, and duration and frequency of cleaning product use was recorded. Acute upper airway, eye, and lower airway symptoms were recorded in a post-shift survey (n = 50). A subset of 35 cleaning staff also completed an extended questionnaire that assessed symptoms reported by workers as regularly occurring or as having occurred in the previous 12 months. Air samples for HP (range: 5.5 to 511.4 ppb) and AA (range: 6.7 to 530.3 ppb) were all below established US occupational exposure limits (OEL). To date, no full-shift TWA OEL for PAA has been established in the United States, however an OEL of 0.2 ppm has been suggested by several research groups. Air samples for PAA ranged from 1.1 to 48.0 ppb and were well below the suggested OEL of 0.2 ppm. Hospital cleaning staff using a sporicidal product containing HP, PAA, and AA reported work-shift eye (44%), upper airway (58%), and lower airway (34%) symptoms. Acute nasal and eye irritation were significantly positively associated with increased exposure to the mixture of the two oxidants: HP and PAA, as well as the total mixture (TM)of HP, PAA, and AA. Shortness of breath when hurrying on level ground or walking up a slight hill was significantly associated

  5. Mechanistic study on ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Ramadoss, Govindarajan; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production. Among the different metal salts used, maximum holocellulose recovery and delignification were achieved with ultrasound assisted titanium dioxide (TiO2) pretreatment (UATP) system. At optimum conditions (1% H2O2, 4 g SCB dosage, 60 min sonication time, 2:100 M ratio of metal salt and H2O2, 75°C, 50% ultrasound amplitude and 70% ultrasound duty cycle), 94.98 ± 1.11% holocellulose recovery and 78.72 ± 0.86% delignification were observed. The pretreated SCB was subjected to dilute acid hydrolysis using 0.25% H2SO4 and maximum xylose, glucose and arabinose concentration obtained were 10.94 ± 0.35 g/L, 14.86 ± 0.12 g/L and 2.52 ± 0.27 g/L, respectively. The inhibitors production was found to be very less (0.93 ± 0.11 g/L furfural and 0.76 ± 0.62 g/L acetic acid) and the maximum theoretical yield of glucose and hemicellulose conversion attained were 85.8% and 77%, respectively. The fermentation was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and at the end of 72 h, 0.468 g bioethanol/g holocellulose was achieved. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of pretreated SCB was made and its morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compounds formed during the pretreatment were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical stability and resistance to peroxidation of a range of liquid-fill hard gelatin capsule products on extreme long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Bowtle, William; Kanyowa, Lionel; Mackenzie, Mark; Higgins, Paul

    2011-06-01

    The industrial take-up of liquid-fill hard capsule technology is limited in part by lack of published long-term physical and chemical stability data which demonstrate the robustness of the system. To assess the effects of extreme long-term storage on liquid-fill capsule product quality and integrity, with respect to both the capsules per se and a standard blister-pack type (foil-film blister). Fourteen sets of stored peroxidation-sensitive liquid-fill hard gelatin capsule product samples, originating ~20 years from the current study, were examined with respect to physical and selected chemical properties, together with microbiological evaluation. All sets retained physical integrity of capsules and blister-packs. Capsules were free of leaks, gelatin cross-linking, and microbiological growth. Eight samples met a limit (anisidine value, 20) commonly used as an index of peroxidation for lipid-based products with shelf lives of 2-3 years. Foil-film blister-packs using PVC or PVC-PVdC as the thermoforming film were well-suited packaging components for the liquid-fill capsule format. The study confirms the long-term physical robustness of the liquid-fill hard capsule format, together with its manufacturing and banding processes. It also indicates that various peroxidation-sensitive products using the capsule format may be maintained satisfactorily over very prolonged storage periods.

  7. Assessing the genotoxic effects of two lipid peroxidation products (4-oxo-2-nonenal and 4-hydroxy-hexenal) in haemocytes and midgut cells of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    PubMed

    Demir, Eşref; Marcos, Ricard

    2017-07-01

    Lipid peroxidation products can induce tissue damage and are implicated in diverse pathological conditions, including aging, atherosclerosis, brain disorders, cancer, lung and various liver disorders. Since in vivo studies produce relevant information, we have selected Drosophila melanogaster as a suitable in vivo model to characterise the potential risks associated to two lipid peroxidation products namely 4-oxo-2-nonenal (4-ONE) and 4-hydroxy-hexenal (4-HHE). Toxicity, intracellular reactive oxygen species production, and genotoxicity were the end-points evaluated. Haemocytes and midgut cells were the evaluated targets. Results showed that both compounds penetrate the intestine of the larvae, affecting midgut cells, and reaching haemocytes. Significant genotoxic effects, as determined by the comet assay, were observed in both selected cell targets in a concentration/time dependent manner. This study highlights the importance of D. melanogaster as a model organism in the study of the different biological effects caused by lipid peroxidation products entering via ingestion. This is the first study reporting genotoxicity data in haemocytes and midgut cells of D. melanogaster larvae for the two selected compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition and Dispersal of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms by Combination Treatment with Escapin Intermediate Products and Hydrogen Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Ariel J; Ahmed, Marwa N A; Wang, Shu-Lin; Damera, Krishna; Wang, Binghe; Tai, Phang C; Gilbert, Eric S; Derby, Charles D

    2016-09-01

    Escapin is an l-amino acid oxidase that acts on lysine to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ammonia, and equilibrium mixtures of several organic acids collectively called escapin intermediate products (EIP). Previous work showed that the combination of synthetic EIP and H2O2 functions synergistically as an antimicrobial toward diverse planktonic bacteria. We initiated the present study to investigate how the combination of EIP and H2O2 affected bacterial biofilms, using Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a model. Specifically, we examined concentrations of EIP and H2O2 that inhibited biofilm formation or fostered disruption of established biofilms. High-throughput assays of biofilm formation using microtiter plates and crystal violet staining showed a significant effect from pairing EIP and H2O2, resulting in inhibition of biofilm formation relative to biofilm formation in untreated controls or with EIP or H2O2 alone. Similarly, flow cell analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the EIP and H2O2 combination reduced the biomass of established biofilms relative to that of the controls. Area layer analysis of biofilms posttreatment indicated that disruption of biomass occurs down to the substratum. Only nanomolar to micromolar concentrations of EIP and H2O2 were required to impact biofilm formation or disruption, and these concentrations are significantly lower than those causing bactericidal effects on planktonic bacteria. Micromolar concentrations of EIP and H2O2 combined enhanced P. aeruginosa swimming motility compared to the effect of either EIP or H2O2 alone. Collectively, our results suggest that the combination of EIP and H2O2 may affect biofilms by interfering with bacterial attachment and destabilizing the biofilm matrix. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Ethanol production from a biomass mixture of furfural residues with green liquor-peroxide saccarified cassava liquid.

    PubMed

    Ji, Li; Zheng, Tianran; Zhao, Pengxiang; Zhang, Weiming; Jiang, Jianxin

    2016-06-01

    As the most abundant renewable resources, lignocellulosic materials are ideal candidates as alternative feedstock for bioethanol production. Cassava residues (CR) are byproducts of the cassava starch industry which can be mixed with lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production. The presence of lignin in lignocellulosic substrates can inhibit saccharification by reducing the cellulase activity. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of furfural residues (FR) pretreated with green liquor and hydrogen peroxide (GL-H2O2) with CR saccharification liquid was investigated. The final ethanol concentration, yield, initial rate, number of live yeast cells, and the dead yeast ratio were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of combining delignificated lignocellulosic substrates and starchy substrates for ethanol production. Our results indicate that 42.0 % of FR lignin removal was achieved on FR using of 0.06 g H2O2/g-substrate and 9 mL GL/g-substrate at 80 °C. The highest overall ethanol yield was 93.6 % of the theoretical. When the ratio of 0.06 g/g-H2O2-GL-pretreated FR to CR was 5:1, the ethanol concentration was the same with that ratio of untreated FR to CR of 1:1. Using 0.06 g/g-H2O2-GL-pretreated FR with CR at a ratio of 2:1 resulted in 51.9 g/L ethanol concentration. Moreover, FR pretreated with GL-H2O2 decreased the concentration of byproducts in SSF compared with that obtained in the previous study. The lignin in FR would inhibit enzyme activity and GL-H2O2 is an advantageous pretreatment method to treat FR and high intensity of FR pretreatment increased the final ethanol concentration. The efficiency of ethanol fermentation of was improved when delignification increased. GL-H2O2 is an advantageous pretreatment method to treat FR. As the pretreatment dosage of GL-H2O2 on FR increased, the proportion of lignocellulosic substrates was enhanced in the SSF of the substrate mixture of CR and FR as compared with untreated FR. Moreover, the

  10. The mechanism of action of lymphokines. IX. The enzymatic basis of hydrogen peroxide production by lymphokine-activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Freund, M; Pick, E

    1986-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the biochemical basis of the enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production by guinea pig peritoneal macrophages (MP) cultured in lymphokine (LK)-containing medium. The markedly augmented H2O2 generation by these cells, demonstrable by the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed oxidation of phenol red, is distinguished by its lack of dependence on a second stimulus. We demonstrate that H2O2 production is truly spontaneous and is not caused by a stimulant present among the H2O2 assay reagents. The principal candidate for such a role was HRP type II (a mixture of five isoenzymes) that was reported to be capable of eliciting an oxidative burst in MP. Four distinct HRP isoenzymes that were found incapable of provoking an oxidative response were nevertheless adequate for demonstrating H2O2 production by LK-activated MP. Blocking the MP receptor for mannose by the addition of mannan to the assay system resulted in enhanced detection of H2O2 by low concentrations of HRP type II and by three out of four HRP isoenzymes. Treatment of MP with LK-containing medium for 72 hr did not result in a significant change in the activity of cellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with MP cultured for the same length of time in control medium. By using the specific inhibitor of copper, zinc-containing SOD, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), and the universal SOD inhibitor, sodium nitroprusside, we found that the predominant enzyme in guinea pig peritoneal MP is probably manganese-containing SOD. Incubation of LK-activated MP with nitroprusside resulted in almost total inhibition of H2O2 production and a simultaneous switch to superoxide (O2-) liberation. Similar exposure to DDC had no effect. These data indicate that H2O2 produced by LK-activated MP is derived exclusively by enzymatic dismutation of O2- mediated by a manganese-containing SOD. The increase in spontaneous H2O2 production induced by LK is therefore secondary to augmented O2

  11. Action of UV-A and blue light on enzymes activity and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in attached and detached frog retinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapina, Victoria A.; Doutsov, Alexander E.

    1994-07-01

    The effect of the UV-A and blue light on the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and activities of succinate dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase in the retina was examined in eye cup model of dark and light adapted frogs R. temporaria. Retinas were exposed to UV-A radiation (8 mW/cm2) and blue light (10 to 150 mW/cm2) for periods from 5 min to 1 hr. We have measured TBA-active products both in the retina homogenates and in the reaction media. Enzyme activities was measured in the retina homogenates only. The measurements revealed a significant increase in the endogenous and exogenous forms of lipid peroxidation products in the retina of dark adapted frog (1.6+/- 0.4; 1.4+/- 0.3 nmole TBA-active products per mg protein, respectively) compared to light adapted (0.85+/- 0.16; 0.32+/- 0.06 nmole TBA-active products per mg protein, respectively). In the same conditions succinate dehydrogenase activity was decline more than 50% but superoxide dismutase activity didn't decrease. Disorganized inner and outer segments were observed after 40 min exposures. No light microscopic changes were detected after 5 min exposures. Light damage was significantly higher in the retina of dark adapted frog. The results indicate that the retina from eye cup of dark adapted frog is more susceptible to UV-A and blue light damages.

  12. Inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and antibody production in vitro by silica, talc, bentonite or Corynebacterium parvum: involvement of peroxidative processes.

    PubMed

    Hoffeld, J T

    1983-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether and by what means particles which induce granulomata in vivo can affect murine spleen lymphoproliferative and antibody responses in vitro. Particles of silica, talc, Bentonite or C. parvum cells inhibited lipopolysaccharide- or concanavalin A-stimulated proliferation and sheep red blood cell-induced antibody response in vitro. The inhibition required at least 48 hours exposure of the cells to the particles. The late onset of inhibition and its reproducibility at different cell or mitogen concentrations implicated particle-induced injury to both phagocytes and lymphocytes. Either alpha-tocopherol or 2-mercaptoethanol prevented the particle-induced inhibition of spleen cell responses. alpha-Tocopherol and 2-mercaptoethanol have in common the capacity to protect cells against membrane lipid peroxidation. The inhibitory peroxidative process(es) implicated by these studies are most likely attributable to: (a) stimulation of oxidative metabolism of phagocytic cells by particles; and (b) iron-catalyzed peroxidation directly by the particles. These data may be relevant in understanding the pathogenesis of and devising therapeutic approaches toward various granulomatous conditions.

  13. Antagonistic potential against pathogenic microorganisms and hydrogen peroxide production of indigenous lactobacilli isolated from vagina of Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Heng-Yi; Tian, Wan-Hong; Wan, Cui-Xiang; Jia, Li-Jun; Wang, Lan-Yin; Yuan, Jing; Liu, Chun-Mei; Zeng, Ming; Wei, Hua

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the indigenous lactobacilli from the vagina of pregnant women and to screen the isolates with antagonistic potential against pathogenic microorganisms. The strains were isolated from pregnant women's vagina and identified using the API50CH system. The ability of the isolates to produce hydrogen peroxide was analyzed semi-quantitatively using the TMB-HRP-MRS agar. The antagonistic effects of the isolates on pathogenic microorganisms were determined with a double layer agar plate. One hundred and three lactobacilli strains were isolated from 60 samples of vaginal secretion from healthy pregnant women. Among them, 78 strains could produce hydrogen peroxide, in which 68%, 80%, 80%, and 88% had antagonistic effects against Candida albicans CMCC98001, Staphylococcus aureus CMCC26003, Escherichia coli CMCC44113, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa CMCC10110, respectively. The recovery of hydrogen peroxide-producing lactobacilli decreases with the increasing pregnant age and time. The most commonly isolated species from vagina of Chinese pregnant women are Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus crispatus. Most of L. acidophilus and L. crispatus produce a high H2O2 level.

  14. Protein oxidation and peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are major targets for radicals and two-electron oxidants in biological systems due to their abundance and high rate constants for reaction. With highly reactive radicals damage occurs at multiple side-chain and backbone sites. Less reactive species show greater selectivity with regard to the residues targeted and their spatial location. Modification can result in increased side-chain hydrophilicity, side-chain and backbone fragmentation, aggregation via covalent cross-linking or hydrophobic interactions, protein unfolding and altered conformation, altered interactions with biological partners and modified turnover. In the presence of O2, high yields of peroxyl radicals and peroxides (protein peroxidation) are formed; the latter account for up to 70% of the initial oxidant flux. Protein peroxides can oxidize both proteins and other targets. One-electron reduction results in additional radicals and chain reactions with alcohols and carbonyls as major products; the latter are commonly used markers of protein damage. Direct oxidation of cysteine (and less commonly) methionine residues is a major reaction; this is typically faster than with H2O2, and results in altered protein activity and function. Unlike H2O2, which is rapidly removed by protective enzymes, protein peroxides are only slowly removed, and catabolism is a major fate. Although turnover of modified proteins by proteasomal and lysosomal enzymes, and other proteases (e.g. mitochondrial Lon), can be efficient, protein hydroperoxides inhibit these pathways and this may contribute to the accumulation of modified proteins in cells. Available evidence supports an association between protein oxidation and multiple human pathologies, but whether this link is causal remains to be established. PMID:27026395

  15. Hydrogen peroxide on the surface of Europa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, R.W.; Anderson, M.S.; Johnson, R.E.; Smythe, W.D.; Hendrix, A.R.; Barth, C.A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Hansen, G.B.; McCord, T.B.; Dalton, J.B.; Clark, R.N.; Shirley, J.H.; Ocampo, A.C.; Matson, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Spatially resolved infrared and ultraviolet wavelength spectra of Europa's leading, anti-jovian quadrant observed from the Galileo spacecraft show absorption features resulting from hydrogen peroxide. Comparisons with laboratory measurements indicate surface hydrogen peroxide concentrations of about 0.13 percent, by number, relative to water ice. The inferred abundance is consistent with radiolytic production of hydrogen peroxide by intense energetic particle bombardment and demonstrates that Europa's surface chemistry is dominated by radiolysis.

  16. Hydrogen peroxide on the surface of Europa.

    PubMed

    Carlson, R W; Anderson, M S; Johnson, R E; Smythe, W D; Hendrix, A R; Barth, C A; Soderblom, L A; Hansen, G B; McCord, T B; Dalton, J B; Clark, R N; Shirley, J H; Ocampo, A C; Matson, D L

    1999-03-26

    Spatially resolved infrared and ultraviolet wavelength spectra of Europa's leading, anti-jovian quadrant observed from the Galileo spacecraft show absorption features resulting from hydrogen peroxide. Comparisons with laboratory measurements indicate surface hydrogen peroxide concentrations of about 0.13 percent, by number, relative to water ice. The inferred abundance is consistent with radiolytic production of hydrogen peroxide by intense energetic particle bombardment and demonstrates that Europa's surface chemistry is dominated by radiolysis.

  17. Production of bioethanol and value added compounds from wheat straw through combined alkaline/alkaline-peroxide pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhaoyang; Wen, Yangbing; Li, Guodong

    2018-07-01

    An efficient scheme was developed for the conversion of wheat straw (WS) into bioethanol, silica and lignin. WS was pre-extracted with 0.2 mol/L sodium hydroxide at 30 °C for 5 h to remove about 91% of initial silica. Subsequently, the alkaline-pretreated solids were subjected to alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment with 40 mg hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )/g biomass at 50 °C for 7 h to prepare highly digestible substrate. The results of enzymatic hydrolysis demonstrated that the sequential alkaline-AHP pretreated WS was efficiently hydrolyzed at 10% (w/v) solids loading using an enzyme dosage of 10 mg protein/g glucan. The total sugar conversion of 92.4% was achieved. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) was applied to produce ethanol from the two-stage pretreated substrate using Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8u strain. Ethanol with concentration of 31.1 g/L was produced. Through the proposed process, about 86.4% and 54.1% of the initial silica and lignin were recovered, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. PRECIPITATION OF PLUTONOUS PEROXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Barrick, J.G.; Manion, J.P.

    1961-08-15

    A precipitation process for recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution is described. In the process for precipitating plutonium as plutonous peroxide, hydroxylamine or hydrazine is added to the plutoniumcontaining solution prior to the addition of peroxide to precipitate plutonium. The addition of hydroxylamine or hydrazine increases the amount of plutonium precipitated as plutonous peroxide. (AEC)

  19. Pretreating wheat straw by phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic saccharification and ethanol production at high solid loading.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jingwen; Ma, Lunjie; Shen, Fei; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuai; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Yongmei; Hu, Yaodong

    2017-08-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP) for enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation at high solid loadings. Results indicated solid loading could reach 20% with 77.4% cellulose-glucose conversion and glucose concentration of 164.9g/L in hydrolysate, it even was promoted to 25% with only 3.4% decrease on cellulose-glucose conversion as the pretreated-wheat straw was dewatered by air-drying. 72.9% cellulose-glucose conversion still was achieved as the minimized enzyme input of 20mg protein/g cellulose was employed for hydrolysis at 20% solid loading. In the corresponding conditions, 100g wheat straw can yield 11.2g ethanol with concentration of 71.2g/L by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Thus, PHP-pretreatment benefitted the glucose or ethanol yield at high solid loadings with lower enzyme input. Additionally, decreases on the maximal cellulase adsorption and the direct-orange/direct-blue indicated drying the PHP-pretreated substrates negatively affected the hydrolysis due to the shrinkage of cellulase-size-accommodable pores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Aspirin may promote mitochondrial biogenesis via the production of hydrogen peroxide and the induction of Sirtuin1/PGC-1α genes

    PubMed Central

    Kamble, Pratibha; Selvarajan, Krithika; Narasimhulu, Chandrakala Aluganti; Nandave, Mukesh; Parthasarathy, Sampath

    2013-01-01

    Based on the rapid hydrolysis of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA, Aspirin) to salicylic acid (SA), the ability of SA to form dihydroxy benzoic acid (DBA), and the latter’s redox reactions to yield hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), we predicted that ASA may have the potential to induce Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) and its downstream effects. We observed that treatment of cultured liver cells with ASA resulted in the induction of Sirt1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1α (PGC-1α), and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1) genes. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) siRNA transfections inhibited the induction of gene expressions by ASA suggesting the need for the acetyl ester hydrolysis and hydroxylation to DHBA. The latter also induced Sirt1, confirming the proposed pathway. As predicted, ASA and SA treatment resulted in the production of H2O2, a known inducer of Sirt1 and confirmed in the current studies. More importantly, ASA treatment resulted in an increase in mitochondria as seen by tracking dyes. We suggest that DHBA, generated from ASA, via its oxidation/reduction reactions mediated by Nqo1 might be involved in the production of O2-. and H2O2. As Sirt1 and PGC-1α profoundly affect mitochondrial metabolism and energy utilization, ASA may have therapeutic potential beyond its ability to inhibit cyclooxygenases. PMID:23228932

  1. On copper peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, L.

    1988-01-01

    The action of hydrogen superoxide on copper salts in alcoholic solutions is studied. The action of hydrogen peroxide on copper hydroxide in alcoholic suspensions, and the action of ethereal hydrogen peroxide on copper hydroxide are discussed. It is concluded that using the procedure proposed excludes almost entirely the harmful effect of hydrolysis.

  2. Liquid-liquid reaction of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite for the production of singlet oxygen in a centrifugal flow singlet oxygen generator

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Rongrong; Deng Liezheng; Shi Wenbo

    An attempt is made to produce gas-phase singlet oxygen O{sub 2}(a{sup 1{Delta}}{sub g}) in a liquid-liquid reaction between acidic hydrogen peroxide (AHP) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The attempt arises from the fact that basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP) has long been the prime source for producing singlet delta oxygen through its reaction with chlorine. However, BHP suffers from the defect of being unstable during storage. Exploratory experiments were performed in a centrifugal flow singlet oxygen generator (CF-SOG) with two streams of solutions, AHP and NaOCl, mixed in a slit nozzle and then injected into the arc-shaped concavity in the CF-SOG tomore » form a rotating liquid flow with a remarkable centrifugal force. With the help of this centrifugal force, the product of the O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) reaction was quickly separated from the liquid phase. The gas-phase O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) was detected via the spectrum of O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) cooperative dimolecular emission with a CCD spectrograph. Experimental results show that it is feasible to produce gas-phase O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) from the AHP + NaOCl reaction, and the stronger the acidity, the more efficient the O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) production. However, since in the AHP + NaOCl reaction, Cl{sub 2} unavoidably appears as a byproduct, its catalytic action on the decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} into ground-state O{sub 2} remains a major obstacle to utilising the AHP + NaOCl reaction in producing gas-phase O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}). Qualitative interpretation shows that the AHP + NaOCl reaction is virtually the reaction of interaction of molecular H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with molecular HOCl, its mechanism being analogous to that of reaction of BHP with Cl{sub 2}, where HOOCl is the key intermediate. It is difficult to form the intermediate HOOCl via the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} + NaOCl reaction in a basic medium, thus gas-phase O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) cannot be obtained in appreciable quantities. (active

  3. Induction of antroquinonol production by addition of hydrogen peroxide in the fermentation of Antrodia camphorata S-29.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yongjun; Zhou, Xuan; Wang, Guangqiang; Zhang, Bobo; Xu, Ganrong; Ai, Lianzhong

    2017-01-01

    Antroquinonol have significantly anti-tumour effects on various cancer cells. There is still lack of reports on regulation of environmental factors on antroquinonol production by Antrodia camphorata. An effective submerged fermentation method was employed to induce antroquinonol with adding H 2 O 2 . The production of antroquinonol was 57.81 mg L -1 after fermentation for 10 days when adding 25 mmol L -1 H 2 O 2 at day 4 of the fermentation process. Then, antroquinonol was further increased to 80.10 mg L -1 with cell productivity of 14.94 mg g -1 dry mycelium when the feeding rate of H 2 O 2 was adjusted to 0.2 mmol L -1 h -1 in the 7 L fermentation bioreactor. After inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species with the inhibitor diphenyleneiodoium, the synthesis of antroquinonol from A. camphorata was significantly reduced, and the yield was only 3.3 mg L -1 . The results demonstrated that addition of H 2 O 2 was a very effective strategy to induce and regulate the synthesis of antroquinonol in submerged fermentation. Reactive oxygen species generated by H 2 O 2 during fermentation caused oxidative stress, which induced the synthesis of antroquinonol and other chemical compounds. Moreover, it is very beneficial process to improve production and diversity of the active compounds during liquid fermentation of A. camphorata mycelium. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Sites of Superoxide and Hydrogen Peroxide Production by Muscle Mitochondria Assessed ex Vivo under Conditions Mimicking Rest and Exercise*

    PubMed Central

    Goncalves, Renata L. S.; Quinlan, Casey L.; Perevoshchikova, Irina V.; Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Brand, Martin D.

    2015-01-01

    The sites and rates of mitochondrial production of superoxide and H2O2 in vivo are not yet defined. At least 10 different mitochondrial sites can generate these species. Each site has a different maximum capacity (e.g. the outer quinol site in complex III (site IIIQo) has a very high capacity in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria, whereas the flavin site in complex I (site IF) has a very low capacity). The maximum capacities can greatly exceed the actual rates observed in the absence of electron transport chain inhibitors, so maximum capacities are a poor guide to actual rates. Here, we use new approaches to measure the rates at which different mitochondrial sites produce superoxide/H2O2 using isolated muscle mitochondria incubated in media mimicking the cytoplasmic substrate and effector mix of skeletal muscle during rest and exercise. We find that four or five sites dominate during rest in this ex vivo system. Remarkably, the quinol site in complex I (site IQ) and the flavin site in complex II (site IIF) each account for about a quarter of the total measured rate of H2O2 production. Site IF, site IIIQo, and perhaps site EF in the β-oxidation pathway account for most of the remainder. Under conditions mimicking mild and intense aerobic exercise, total production is much less, and the low capacity site IF dominates. These results give novel insights into which mitochondrial sites may produce superoxide/H2O2 in vivo. PMID:25389297

  5. Sites of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production by muscle mitochondria assessed ex vivo under conditions mimicking rest and exercise.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Renata L S; Quinlan, Casey L; Perevoshchikova, Irina V; Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Brand, Martin D

    2015-01-02

    The sites and rates of mitochondrial production of superoxide and H2O2 in vivo are not yet defined. At least 10 different mitochondrial sites can generate these species. Each site has a different maximum capacity (e.g. the outer quinol site in complex III (site IIIQo) has a very high capacity in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria, whereas the flavin site in complex I (site IF) has a very low capacity). The maximum capacities can greatly exceed the actual rates observed in the absence of electron transport chain inhibitors, so maximum capacities are a poor guide to actual rates. Here, we use new approaches to measure the rates at which different mitochondrial sites produce superoxide/H2O2 using isolated muscle mitochondria incubated in media mimicking the cytoplasmic substrate and effector mix of skeletal muscle during rest and exercise. We find that four or five sites dominate during rest in this ex vivo system. Remarkably, the quinol site in complex I (site IQ) and the flavin site in complex II (site IIF) each account for about a quarter of the total measured rate of H2O2 production. Site IF, site IIIQo, and perhaps site EF in the β-oxidation pathway account for most of the remainder. Under conditions mimicking mild and intense aerobic exercise, total production is much less, and the low capacity site IF dominates. These results give novel insights into which mitochondrial sites may produce superoxide/H2O2 in vivo. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Effects of temperature on the production of hydrogen peroxide and volatile halocarbons by brackish-water algae.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsson, Katarina; Choo, Kyung Sil; Pedersén, Marianne; Johansson, Gustav; Snoeijs, Pauli

    2003-10-01

    Marine algae produce volatile halocarbons, which have an ozone-depleting potential. The formation of these compounds is thought to be related to oxidative stress, involving H2O2 and algal peroxidases. In our study we found strong correlations between the releases of H2O2 and brominated and some iodinated compounds to the seawater medium, but no such correlation was found for CHCl3, suggesting the involvement of other formation mechanisms as well. Little is known about the effects of environmental factors on the production of volatile halocarbons by algae and in the present study we focused on the influence of temperature. Algae were sampled in an area of the brackish Baltic Sea that receives thermal discharge, allowing us to collect specimens of the same species that were adapted to different field temperature regimes. We exposed six algal species (the diatom Pleurosira laevis, the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus and four filamentous green algae, Cladophora glomerata, Enteromorpha ahlneriana, E. flexuosa and E. intestinalis) to temperature changes of 0-11 degrees C under high irradiation to invoke oxidative stress. The production rates, as well as the quantitative composition of 16 volatile halocarbons, were strongly species-dependent and different types of responses to temperature were recorded. However, no response patterns to temperature change were found that were consistent for all species or for all halocarbons. We conclude that the production of certain halocarbons may increase with temperature in certain algal species, but that the amount and composition of the volatile halocarbons released by algal communities are probably more affected by temperature-associated species shifts. These results may have implications for climatic change scenarios.

  7. Activity of antioxidant enzymes and concentration of lipid peroxidation products in selected tissues of mice of different ages, both healthy and melanoma-bearing.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, A; Drewa, G; Woźniak, B; Schachtschabel, D O

    2004-06-01

    The activity of antioxidant enzymes and the concentration of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) as indicator of oxidative damage were determined in selected tissues of healthy mice and transplanted B16 melanoma-bearing mice with increasing age. A total of 60 male mice were divided into 6 groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3 consisted of tumor-free, healthy mice aged 1, 9 and 16 months, respectively (average life span: 2 years). Groups 4, 5 and 6 consisted of mice of the same age as the healthy mice, but given intraperitoneally 10(6) cells of B16 melanoma for 2 weeks. An increase in the concentration of MDA was found in all the studied tissues (brain, liver, lungs, erythrocytes) and blood plasma of 16-month old healthy mice compared with the younger ones. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was elevated in the brain and the activity of CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the liver of aged healthy mice. The transplantation of melanoma caused an increase of the concentration of MDA and of the activity of all studied enzymes in all tissues. This elevation was most pronounced in the youngest mice group 4 and was higher than in the oldest healthy group 3. Thus, these early changes of the "(anti-)oxidative status" in the investigated tissues caused by the tumor development have similarities with age-associated alterations of healthy mice, especially in regard to MDA in all tissues or SOD and CAT in brain.

  8. A double-blind, randomized, bilateral comparison of skin irritancy following application of the combination acne products clindamycin/tretinoin and benzoyl peroxide/adapalene.

    PubMed

    Goreshi, Renato; Samrao, Aman; Ehst, Benjamin D

    2012-12-01

    The use of topical medications for acne vulgaris is often limited by their irritant properties. Newer combination preparations are available and offer convenience, but irritant potential may still be a hindrance, perhaps more so with the combination of 2 agents. Few studies have compared these formulations directly for tolerability. We sought to compare the tolerability of 2 combination topical acne products, clindamycin 1.2%-tretinoin 0.025% (CLIN/RA) gel and benzoyl peroxide 2.5%-adapalene 0.1% (BPO/ADA) gel. CLIN/RA and BPO/ADA were applied daily to opposite sides of a subject's face for 21 days in a double-blinded fashion. Investigators' Global Assessments and study subject self-assessments of burning/stinging, itching, erythema, and dryness/scaling were collected. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was also measured as an objective measure of skin irritation. A mixed model analysis and repeated-measures analysis of variance were used to compare outcomes for both acne formulations. CLIN/RA produced significantly less burning/stinging than BPO/ADA (P<.001) as well as significantly less pruritus than BPO/ ADA (P<.001). BPO/ADA caused significantly more TEWL than CLIN/RA (P=.005). There was no significant difference in the amount of erythema or the amount of dryness/scaling caused by either formulation. CLIN/RA produced significantly less skin irritancy and TEWL than BPO/ADA.

  9. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis colonization and ex vivo hydrogen peroxide production in carious lesion-free and high caries adults.

    PubMed

    Giacaman, Rodrigo A; Torres, Sebastián; Gómez, Yenifer; Muñoz-Sandoval, Cecilia; Kreth, Jens

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate oral colonization by Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in adults with high and without any caries experience. Furthermore, differences in the amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by S. sanguinis isolated from both groups were assessed. Forty adults were divided into: (i) carious lesion-free, without any carious lesion, assessed by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), or restoration, (CF) and (ii) high caries experience (HC). Saliva samples were collected and seeded on respective agar-plates for enumeration of total streptococci, S. mutans and S. sanguinis (CFU/mL) and compared between groups. Additionally, S. sanguinis colonies obtained from both groups were inoculated on Prussian blue agar for H2O2 detection. Production of H2O2 was quantified and compared between the two groups. S. sanguinis counts were significantly higher in CF than HC individuals (p<0.05). Conversely, S. mutans showed significantly higher levels in HC than CF subjects (p<0.001). S. sanguinis colonies from CF individuals produced significantly larger H2O2 halos compared with HC subjects. S. sanguinis predominates over S. mutans in saliva of adults without caries experience. In those people, S. sanguinis produces more H2O2ex vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Combined free nitrous acid and hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment of waste activated sludge enhances methane production via organic molecule breakdown

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Batstone, Damien; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel pre-treatment strategy using combined free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to enhance methane production from WAS, with the mechanisms investigated bio-molecularly. WAS from a full-scale plant was treated with FNA alone (1.54 mg N/L), H2O2 alone (10–80 mg/g TS), and their combinations followed by biochemical methane potential tests. Combined FNA and H2O2 pre-treatment substantially enhanced methane potential of WAS by 59–83%, compared to 13–23% and 56% with H2O2 pre-treatment alone and FNA pre-treatment alone respectively. Model-based analysis indicated the increased methane potential was mainly associated with up to 163% increase in rapidly biodegradable fraction with combined pre-treatment. The molecular weight distribution and chemical structure analyses revealed the breakdown of soluble macromolecules with the combined pre-treatment caused by the deamination and oxidation of the typical functional groups in proteins, polysaccharides and phosphodiesters. These changes likely improved the biodegradability of WAS. PMID:26565653

  11. Enhanced short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge by combining calcium peroxide with free ammonia pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongbo; Shuai, Kun; Xu, Qiuxiang; Liu, Xuran; Li, Yifu; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Qilin; Li, Xiaoming; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Qi

    2018-08-01

    This study reported a new low-cost and high-efficient combined method of CaO 2  + free ammonia (FA) pretreatment for sludge anaerobic fermentation. Experimental results showed that the optimal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) yield of 338.6 mg COD/g VSS was achieved when waste activated sludge (WAS) was pretreated with 0.05 g/g VSS of CaO 2  + 180 mg/L of FA for 3 d, which was 2.5-fold of that from CaO 2 pretreatment and 1.5-fold of that from FA pretreatment. The mechanism investigations exhibited that the CaO 2  + FA could provided more biodegradable substrates, this combination accelerated the disintegration of sludge cells, which thereby providing more organics for subsequent SCFA production. It was also found that the combination of CaO 2 and FA inhibited the specific activities of hydrolytic microbes, SCFA producers, and methanogens to some extents, but its inhibition to methanogens was much severer than that to the other two types of microbes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrogen peroxide and dioxygen activation by dinuclear copper complexes in aqueous solution: hydroxyl radical production initiated by internal electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qing; Lian, Yuxiang; Thyagarajan, Sunita; Rokita, Steven E; Karlin, Kenneth D; Blough, Neil V

    2008-05-21

    Dinuclear Cu(II) complexes, CuII2Nn (n = 4 or 5), were recently found to specifically cleave DNA in the presence of a reducing thiol and O2 or in the presence of H2O2 alone. However, CuII2N3 and a closely related mononuclear Cu(II) complex exhibited no selective reaction under either condition. Spectroscopic studies indicate an intermediate is generated from CuII2Nn (n = 4 or 5) and mononuclear Cu(II) solutions in the presence of H2O2 or from CuI2Nn (n = 4 or 5) in the presence of O2. This intermediate decays to generate OH radicals and ligand degradation products at room temperature. The lack of reactivity of the intermediate with a series of added electron donors suggests the intermediate discharges through a rate-limiting intramolecular electron transfer from the ligand to the metal peroxo center to produce an OH radical and a ligand-based radical. These results imply that DNA cleavage does not result from direct reaction with a metal-peroxo intermediate but instead arises from reaction with either OH radicals or ligand-based radicals.

  13. A novel carbon black graphite hybrid air-cathode for efficient hydrogen peroxide production in bioelectrochemical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; An, Jingkun; Zhou, Lean; Li, Tian; Li, Junhui; Feng, Cuijuan; Wang, Xin

    2016-02-01

    Carbon black and graphite hybrid air-cathode is proved to be effective for H2O2 production in bioelectrochemical systems. The optimal mass ratio of carbon black to graphite is 1:5 with the highest H2O2 yield of 11.9 mg L-1 h-1 cm-2 (12.3 mA cm-2). Continuous flow is found to improve the current efficiency due to the avoidance of H2O2 accumulation. In the biological system, the highest H2O2 yield reaches 3.29 mg L-1h-1 (0.079 kg m-3day-1) with a current efficiency of 72%, which is higher than the abiotic system at the same current density. H2O2 produced in this system is mainly from the oxygen diffused through this air-cathode (>66%), especially when a more negative cathode potential is applied (94% at -1.0 V). This hybrid air-cathode has advantages of high H2O2 yield, high current density and no need of aeration, which make the synthesis of H2O2 more efficient and economical.

  14. Detection of Catalase as a major protein target of the lipid peroxidation product 4-HNE and the lack of its genetic association as a risk factor in SLE

    PubMed Central

    D'souza, Anil; Kurien, Biji T; Rodgers, Rosalie; Shenoi, Jaideep; Kurono, Sadamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Hensley, Kenneth; Nath, Swapan K; Scofield, R Hal

    2008-01-01

    Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifactorial disorder characterized by the presence of autoantibodies. We and others have implicated free radical mediated peroxidative damage in the pathogenesis of SLE. Since harmful free radical products are formed during this oxidative process, including 4-hydroxy 2-nonenol (4-HNE) and malondialdehyde (MDA), we hypothesized that specific HNE-protein adducts would be present in SLE red blood cell (RBC) membranes. Catalase is located on chromosome 11p13 where linkage analysis has revealed a marker in the same region of the genome among families with thrombocytopenia, a clinical manifestation associated with severe lupus in SLE affected pedigrees. Moreover, SLE afflicts African-Americans three times more frequently than their European-American counterparts. Hence we investigated the effects of a genetic polymorphism of catalase on risk and severity of SLE in 48 pedigrees with African American ancestry. Methods Tryptic digestion followed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) analysis was used to identify the protein modified by HNE, following Coomassie staining to visualize the bands on the acrylamide gels. Genotyping analysis for the C → T, -262 bp polymorphism in the promoter region of catalase was performed by PCR-RFLP and direct PCR-sequencing. We used a "pedigree disequilibrium test" for the family based association analysis, implemented in the PDT program to analyze the genotyping results. Results We found two proteins to be HNE-modified, migrating around 80 and 50 kD respectively. Tryptic digestion followed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) analysis of the Coomassie stained 80 kD band revealed that the target of HNE modification was catalase, a protein shown to associate with RBC membrane proteins. All the test statistics carried out on the genotyping analysis for the C → T, -262 bp

  15. A Modified Demonstration of the Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Carlos Alexander

    2005-06-01

    A safer and cheaper version of the popular catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide demonstration commonly called the “Elephants’ Toothpaste” is presented. Hydrogen peroxide is decomposed in the presence of a surfactant by the enzyme catalase producing foam. Catalase has a higher activity compared with the traditional iodide and permits the use of diluted hydrogen peroxide solutions. The demonstration can be made with household products with similar amazing effects.

  16. The Peroxide Pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNeal, Curtis I., Jr.; Anderson, William

    1999-01-01

    NASA's current focus on technology roadmaps as a tool for guiding investment decisions leads naturally to a discussion of NASA's roadmap for peroxide propulsion system development. NASA's new Second Generation Space Transportation System roadmap calls for an integrated Reusable Upper-Stage (RUS) engine technology demonstration in the FY03/FY04 time period. Preceding this integrated demonstration are several years of component developments and subsystem technology demonstrations. NASA and the Air Force took the first steps at developing focused upper stage technologies with the initiation of the Upper Stage Flight Experiment with Orbital Sciences in December 1997. A review of this program's peroxide propulsion development is a useful first step in establishing the peroxide propulsion pathway that could lead to a RUS demonstration in 2004.

  17. Hydrogen peroxide catalytic decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide in a gaseous stream is converted to nitrogen dioxide using oxidizing species generated through the use of concentrated hydrogen peroxide fed as a monopropellant into a catalyzed thruster assembly. The hydrogen peroxide is preferably stored at stable concentration levels, i.e., approximately 50%-70% by volume, and may be increased in concentration in a continuous process preceding decomposition in the thruster assembly. The exhaust of the thruster assembly, rich in hydroxyl and/or hydroperoxy radicals, may be fed into a stream containing oxidizable components, such as nitric oxide, to facilitate their oxidation.

  18. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of hydroxytyrosol on different tumour cells: the role of extracellular production of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Fabiani, Roberto; Sepporta, Maria Vittoria; Rosignoli, Patrizia; De Bartolomeo, Angelo; Crescimanno, Marilena; Morozzi, Guido

    2012-06-01

    Several recently published data suggest that the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties of hydroxytyrosol [3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol (3,4-DHPEA)] on HL60 cells may be mediated by the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) in the culture medium. The aim of this study was to clarify the role played by H₂O₂ in the chemopreventive activities of 3,4-DHPEA on breast (MDA and MCF-7), prostate (LNCap and PC3) and colon (SW480 and HCT116) cancer cell lines and to investigate the effects of cell culture medium components and the possible mechanisms at the basis of the H₂O₂-producing properties of 3,4-DHPEA. The proliferation was measured by the MTT assay and the apoptosis by both fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The concentration of H₂O₂ in the culture medium was measured by the ferrous ion oxidation-xylenol orange method. It was found that the H₂O₂-inducing ability of 3,4-DHPEA is completely prevented by pyruvate and that the exposure of cells to conditions not supporting the H₂O₂ accumulation (addition of either catalase or pyruvate to the culture medium) inhibited the anti-proliferative effect of 3,4-DHPEA. Accordingly, the sensitivity of the different cell lines to the anti-proliferative effect of 3,4-DHPEA was inversely correlated with their ability to remove H₂O₂ from the culture medium. With regard to the mechanism by which 3,4-DHPEA causes the H₂O₂ accumulation, it was found that superoxide dismutase increased the H₂O₂ production while tyrosinase, slightly acidic pH (6,8) and absence of oxygen (O₂) completely prevented this activity. In addition, different transition metal-chelating compounds did not modify the H₂O₂-producing activity of 3,4-DHPEA. The pro-oxidant activity of 3,4-DHPEA deeply influences its 'in vitro' chemopreventive activities. The main initiation step in the H₂O₂-producing activity is the auto-oxidation of 3,4-DHPEA by O₂ with the formation of the semiquinone, superoxide ions

  19. Role of damage-specific DNA polymerases in M13 phage mutagenesis induced by a major lipid peroxidation product trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal.

    PubMed

    Janowska, Beata; Kurpios-Piec, Dagmara; Prorok, Paulina; Szparecki, Grzegorz; Komisarski, Marek; Kowalczyk, Paweł; Janion, Celina; Tudek, Barbara

    2012-01-03

    One of the major lipid peroxidation products trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), forms cyclic propano- or ethenoadducts bearing six- or seven-carbon atom side chains to G>C≫A>T. To specify the role of SOS DNA polymerases in HNE-induced mutations, we tested survival and mutation spectra in the lacZα gene of M13mp18 phage, whose DNA was treated in vitro with HNE, and which was grown in uvrA(-)Escherichia coli strains, carrying one, two or all three SOS DNA polymerases. When Pol IV was the only DNA SOS polymerase in the bacterial host, survival of HNE-treated M13 DNA was similar to, but mutation frequency was lower than in the strain containing all SOS DNA polymerases. When only Pol II or Pol V were present in host bacteria, phage survival decreased dramatically. Simultaneously, mutation frequency was substantially increased, but exclusively in the strain carrying only Pol V, suggesting that induction of mutations by HNE is mainly dependent on Pol V. To determine the role of Pol II and Pol IV in HNE induced mutagenesis, Pol II or Pol IV were expressed together with Pol V. This resulted in decrease of mutation frequency, suggesting that both enzymes can compete with Pol V, and bypass HNE-DNA adducts in an error-free manner. However, HNE-DNA adducts were easily bypassed by Pol IV and only infrequently by Pol II. Mutation spectrum established for strains expressing only Pol V, showed that in uvrA(-) bacteria the frequency of base substitutions and recombination increased in relation to NER proficient strains, particularly mutations at adenine sites. Among base substitutions A:T→C:G, A:T→G:C, G:C→A:T and G:C→T:A prevailed. The results suggest that Pol V can infrequently bypass HNE-DNA adducts inducing mutations at G, C and A sites, while bypass by Pol IV and Pol II is error-free, but for Pol II infrequent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Superoxide dismutase 1-mediated production of ethanol- and DNA-derived radicals in yeasts challenged with hydrogen peroxide: molecular insights into the genome instability of peroxiredoxin-null strains.

    PubMed

    Ogusucu, Renata; Rettori, Daniel; Netto, Luis E S; Augusto, Ohara

    2009-02-27

    Peroxiredoxins are receiving increasing attention as defenders against oxidative damage and sensors of hydrogen peroxide-mediated signaling events. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, deletion of one or more isoforms of the peroxiredoxins is not lethal but compromises genome stability by mechanisms that remain under scrutiny. Here, we show that cytosolic peroxiredoxin-null cells (tsa1Deltatsa2Delta) are more resistant to hydrogen peroxide than wild-type (WT) cells and consume it faster under fermentative conditions. Also, tsa1Deltatsa2Delta cells produced higher yields of the 1-hydroxyethyl radical from oxidation of the glucose metabolite ethanol, as proved by spin-trapping experiments. A major role for Fenton chemistry in radical formation was excluded by comparing WT and tsa1Deltatsa2Delta cells with respect to their levels of total and chelatable metal ions and of radical produced in the presence of chelators. The main route for 1-hydroxyethyl radical formation was ascribed to the peroxidase activity of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1), whose expression and activity increased approximately 5- and 2-fold, respectively, in tsa1Deltatsa2Delta compared with WT cells. Accordingly, overexpression of human Sod1 in WT yeasts led to increased 1-hydroxyethyl radical production. Relevantly, tsa1Deltatsa2Delta cells challenged with hydrogen peroxide contained higher levels of DNA-derived radicals and adducts as monitored by immuno-spin trapping and incorporation of (14)C from glucose into DNA, respectively. The results indicate that part of hydrogen peroxide consumption by tsa1Deltatsa2Delta cells is mediated by induced Sod1, which oxidizes ethanol to the 1-hydroxyethyl radical, which, in turn, leads to increased DNA damage. Overall, our studies provide a pathway to account for the hypermutability of peroxiredoxin-null strains.

  1. DHA reduces oxidative stress following hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglets: a study of lipid peroxidation products in urine and plasma.

    PubMed

    Huun, Marianne Ullestad; Garberg, Håvard T; Escobar, Javier; Chafer, Consuelo; Vento, Maximo; Holme, Ingar M; Saugstad, Ola Didrik; Solberg, Rønnaug

    2018-02-23

    Lipid peroxidation mediated by reactive oxygen species is a major contributor to oxidative stress. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has anti-oxidant and neuroprotective properties. Our objective was to assess how oxidative stress measured by lipid peroxidation was modified by DHA in a newborn piglet model of hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Fifty-five piglets were randomized to (i) hypoxia, (ii) DHA, (iii) hypothermia, (iv) hypothermia+DHA or (v) sham. All groups but sham were subjected to hypoxia by breathing 8% O2. DHA was administered 210 min after end of hypoxia and the piglets were euthanized 9.5 h after end of hypoxia. Urine and blood were harvested at these two time points and analyzed for F4-neuroprostanes, F2-isoprostanes, neurofuranes and isofuranes using UPLC-MS/MS. F4-neuroprostanes in urine were significantly reduced (P=0.006) in groups receiving DHA. Hypoxia (median, IQR 1652 nM, 610-4557) vs. DHA (440 nM, 367-738, P=0.016) and hypothermia (median, IQR 1338 nM, 744-3085) vs. hypothermia+DHA (356 nM, 264-1180, P=0.006). The isoprostane compound 8-iso-PGF2α was significantly lower (P=0.011) in the DHA group compared to the hypoxia group. No significant differences were found between the groups in blood. DHA significantly reduces oxidative stress by measures of lipid peroxidation following HI in both normothermic and hypothermic piglets.

  2. Oxidation of white phosphorus by peroxides in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdreimova, R. R.; Akbaeva, D. N.; Polimbetova, G. S.

    2017-10-01

    A mixture of hypophosphorous, phosphorous, and phosphoric acids is formed during the anaerobic oxidation of white phosphorus by peroxides [ROOH; R = H, 3-ClC6H4CO, (CH3)3C] in water. The rate of reactions grows considerably upon adding nonpolar organic solvents. The activity series of peroxides and solvents are determined experimentally. NMR spectroscopy shows that the main product of the reaction is phosphorous acid, regardless of the nature of the peroxide and solvent. A radical mechanism of oxidation of white phosphorus by peroxides in water is proposed. It is initiated by the homolysis of peroxide with the formation of HO• radicals that are responsible for the homolytic opening of phosphoric tetrahedrons. Further oxidation and stages of the hydrolysis of intermediate phosphorus-containing compounds yield products of the reaction.

  3. Rapid Production of Mixed-Base Hydrogen Peroxide by Direct-Contact Liquefied Nitrogen Evaporation; Process Design, Scale-Up, and Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    phase in November 1996. 1-2. BASIC HYDROGEN PEROXIDE In the early COIL work, either potassium hydroxide (KOH) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was the base of...the candidate refrigerants include: R22, R404a, R134a, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. 2-3-3. Surface Evaporator To improve the heat transfer efficiency...monohydrate (LiOH.H20), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The use of solids allows numerous variations of blending sequence and heat

  4. 2-Hydroxy-succinaldehyde, a lipid peroxidation product proving that polyunsaturated fatty acids are able to react with three molecules of oxygen.

    PubMed

    Mlakar, A; Spiteller, G

    1997-01-01

    2-Hydroxy-succinaldehyde was detected by a GC/MS analysis of trapped aldehydic compounds obtained after Fe2+/ascorbate lipid peroxidation of arachidonic acid. Precursor molecules of aldehydes are hydroperoxy compounds. Thus the generation of the two aldehydic groups in 2-hydroxysuccinaldehyde requires a precursor molecule with two hydroperoxy groups. The hydroxy group in 2-position is generated by a third hydroperoxidation reaction. The detection of 2-hydroxysuccinaldehyde--although found only in traces--is the first example for triple dioxigenation of unsaturated fatty acid. Linolenic acid produces 2-hydroxysuccinaldehyde in much lower amounts than arachidonic acid. A similar oxidation of linoleic acid was not observed.

  5. Efficacy, efficiency and safety aspects of hydrogen peroxide vapour and aerosolized hydrogen peroxide room disinfection systems.

    PubMed

    Fu, T Y; Gent, P; Kumar, V

    2012-03-01

    This was a head-to-head comparison of two hydrogen-peroxide-based room decontamination systems. To compare the efficacy, efficiency and safety of hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV; Clarus R, Bioquell, Andover, U.K.) and aerosolized hydrogen peroxide (aHP; SR2, Sterinis, now supplied as Glosair, Advanced Sterilization Products (ASP), Johnson & Johnson Medical Ltd, Wokingham, U.K.) room disinfection systems. Efficacy was tested using 4- and 6-log Geobacillus stearothermophilus biological indicators (BIs) and in-house prepared test discs containing approximately 10(6) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Clostridium difficile and Acinetobacter baumannii. Safety was assessed by detecting leakage of hydrogen peroxide using a hand-held detector. Efficiency was assessed by measuring the level of hydrogen peroxide using a hand-held sensor at three locations inside the room, 2 h after the start of the cycles. HPV generally achieved a 6-log reduction, whereas aHP generally achieved less than a 4-log reduction on the BIs and in-house prepared test discs. Uneven distribution was evident for the aHP system but not the HPV system. Hydrogen peroxide leakage during aHP cycles with the door unsealed, as per the manufacturer's operating manual, exceeded the short-term exposure limit (2 ppm) for more than 2 h. When the door was sealed with tape, as per the HPV system, hydrogen peroxide leakage was <1 ppm for both systems. The mean concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the room 2 h after the cycle started was 1.3 [standard deviation (SD) 0.4] ppm and 2.8 (SD 0.8) ppm for the four HPV and aHP cycles, respectively. None of the readings were <2 ppm for the aHP cycles. The HPV system was safer, faster and more effective for biological inactivation. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibition of Mitochondrial Complex I Leads to Decreased Motility and Membrane Integrity Related to Increased Hydrogen Peroxide and Reduced ATP Production, while the Inhibition of Glycolysis Has Less Impact on Sperm Motility.

    PubMed

    Plaza Davila, María; Martin Muñoz, Patricia; Tapia, Jose A; Ortega Ferrusola, Cristina; Balao da Silva C, Carolina; Peña, Fernando J

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria have been proposed as the major source of reactive oxygen species in somatic cells and human spermatozoa. However, no data regarding the role of mitochondrial ROS production in stallion spermatozoa are available. To shed light on the role of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in the origin of oxidative stress in stallion spermatozoa, specific inhibitors of complex I (rotenone) and III (antimycin-A) were used. Ejaculates from seven Andalusian stallions were collected and incubated in BWW media at 37 °C in the presence of rotenone, antimycin-A or control vehicle. Incubation in the presence of these inhibitors reduced sperm motility and velocity (CASA analysis) (p<0.01), but the effect was more evident in the presence of rotenone (a complex I inhibitor). These inhibitors also decreased ATP content. The inhibition of complexes I and III decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (p<0.01) as assessed by flow cytometry after staining with CellRox deep red. This observation suggests that the CellRox probe mainly identifies superoxide and that superoxide production may reflect intense mitochondrial activity rather than oxidative stress. The inhibition of complex I resulted in increased hydrogen peroxide production (p<0.01). The inhibition of glycolysis resulted in reduced sperm velocities (p<0.01) without an effect on the percentage of total motile sperm. Weak and moderate (but statistically significant) positive correlations were observed between sperm motility, velocity and membrane integrity and the production of reactive oxygen species. These results indicate that stallion sperm rely heavily on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for the production of ATP for motility but also require glycolysis to maintain high velocities. These data also indicate that increased hydrogen peroxide originating in the mitochondria is a mechanism involved in stallion sperm senescence.

  7. Inhibition of Mitochondrial Complex I Leads to Decreased Motility and Membrane Integrity Related to Increased Hydrogen Peroxide and Reduced ATP Production, while the Inhibition of Glycolysis Has Less Impact on Sperm Motility

    PubMed Central

    Plaza Davila, María; Martin Muñoz, Patricia; Tapia, Jose A.; Ortega Ferrusola, Cristina; Balao da Silva C, Carolina; Peña, Fernando J.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria have been proposed as the major source of reactive oxygen species in somatic cells and human spermatozoa. However, no data regarding the role of mitochondrial ROS production in stallion spermatozoa are available. To shed light on the role of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in the origin of oxidative stress in stallion spermatozoa, specific inhibitors of complex I (rotenone) and III (antimycin-A) were used. Ejaculates from seven Andalusian stallions were collected and incubated in BWW media at 37°C in the presence of rotenone, antimycin-A or control vehicle. Incubation in the presence of these inhibitors reduced sperm motility and velocity (CASA analysis) (p<0.01), but the effect was more evident in the presence of rotenone (a complex I inhibitor). These inhibitors also decreased ATP content. The inhibition of complexes I and III decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (p<0.01) as assessed by flow cytometry after staining with CellRox deep red. This observation suggests that the CellRox probe mainly identifies superoxide and that superoxide production may reflect intense mitochondrial activity rather than oxidative stress. The inhibition of complex I resulted in increased hydrogen peroxide production (p<0.01). The inhibition of glycolysis resulted in reduced sperm velocities (p<0.01) without an effect on the percentage of total motile sperm. Weak and moderate (but statistically significant) positive correlations were observed between sperm motility, velocity and membrane integrity and the production of reactive oxygen species. These results indicate that stallion sperm rely heavily on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for the production of ATP for motility but also require glycolysis to maintain high velocities. These data also indicate that increased hydrogen peroxide originating in the mitochondria is a mechanism involved in stallion sperm senescence. PMID:26407142

  8. Algal toxicity of the alternative disinfectants performic acid (PFA), peracetic acid (PAA), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and their by-products hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorite (ClO2-).

    PubMed

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Baun, Anders; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2017-05-01

    Environmental effect evaluation of disinfection of combined sewer overflow events with alternative chemical disinfectants requires that the environmental toxicity of the disinfectants and the main by-products of their use are known. Many disinfectants degrade quickly in water which should be included in the evaluation of both their toxicity as determined in standardized tests and their possible negative effect in the water environment. Here we evaluated according to the standardized ISO 8692 test the toxicity towards the green microalgae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, of three disinfectants: performic acid (PFA), peracetic acid (PAA) and chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) as well as two by-products of their use: hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and chlorite. All of the five chemicals investigated showed clear toxicity to the algae with well-defined dose response curves. The EC 50 values ranged from 0.16 to 2.9mg/L based on nominal concentrations leading to the labeling of the chemicals as either toxic or very toxic. The five investigated chemicals decreased in toxicity in the order chlorine dioxide, performic acid, peracetic acid, chlorite and hydrogen peroxide. The stability of the chemicals increased in the same order as the toxicity decrease. This indicates that even though ClO 2 has the highest environmental hazard potential, it may still be suitable as an alternative disinfectant due to its rapid degradation in water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. A 6% Benzoyl Peroxide Foaming Cloth Cleanser Used in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate the product attributes of a new benzoyl peroxide-containing foaming cloth cleanser and to compare the overall patient satisfaction of this product with two currently available benzoyl peroxide acne products (6% benzoyl peroxide cleanser and 4% benzoyl peroxide wash). Design: This was a randomized, single-blind study. Setting: Two clinical trial sites. Participants: Male and female subjects (N=193) aged 17 to 30 years with a history of acne vulgaris were enrolled. Measures: Subjects initially cleansed their face with the benzoyl peroxide foaming cloth and then completed a product-attribute survey. Following an interval of five minutes or more, subjects cleansed their face again using one of two randomly assigned comparator benzoyl peroxide-containing cleansing products and then completed a comparative survey. Survey results were tabulated and a top-two box analysis was performed. Results: Following the use of the benzoyl peroxide-containing foaming cloth, 94 percent of the product-attribute responses were positive (p≤0.05). With respect to convenience, usability, and cosmetic elegance, the majority of subjects indicated a preference for the benzoyl peroxide foaming cloth compared to the 6% benzoyl peroxide cleanser and 4% benzoyl peroxide wash (for each, p≤0.05). There were no reports of adverse events. Conclusion: These attributes supporting preference for the benzoyl peroxide foaming cloth cleanser may improve patient satisfaction with topical acne treatment resulting in improved patient compliance. (J Clin Aesthetic Dermatol. 2009;2(7):26–29.) PMID:20729967

  10. Pomegranate (Punicagranatum) juice decreases lipid peroxidation, but has no effect on plasma advanced glycated end-products in adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Golbon; Angoorani, Pooneh; Tohidi, Maryam; Tabibi, Hadi; Kimiagar, Masoud; Nasrollahzadeh, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus characterized by hyperglycemia could increase oxidative stress and formation of advanced glycated end-products (AGEs), which contribute to diabetic complications. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of pomegranate juice (PJ) containing natural antioxidant on lipid peroxidation and plasma AGEs in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 44 patients (age range 56±6.8 years), T2D were randomly assigned to one of two groups: group A (PJ, n=22) and group B (Placebo, n=22). At the baseline and the end of 12-week intervention, biochemical markers including fasting plasma glucose, insulin, oxidative stress, and AGE markers including carboxy methyl lysine (CML) and pentosidine were assayed. At baseline, there were no significant differences in plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels between the two groups, but malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased levels were significantly different (P<0.001). After 12 weeks of intervention, TAC increased (P<0.05) and MDA decreased (P<0.01) in the PJ group when compared with the placebo group. However, no significant differences were observed in plasma concentration of CML and pentosidine between the two groups. The study showed that PJ decreases lipid peroxidation. Therefore, PJ consumption may delay onset of T2D complications related to oxidative stress.

  11. Pomegranate (Punicagranatum) juice decreases lipid peroxidation, but has no effect on plasma advanced glycated end-products in adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Sohrab, Golbon; Angoorani, Pooneh; Tohidi, Maryam; Tabibi, Hadi; Kimiagar, Masoud; Nasrollahzadeh, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus characterized by hyperglycemia could increase oxidative stress and formation of advanced glycated end-products (AGEs), which contribute to diabetic complications. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of pomegranate juice (PJ) containing natural antioxidant on lipid peroxidation and plasma AGEs in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Materials and methods In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 44 patients (age range 56±6.8 years), T2D were randomly assigned to one of two groups: group A (PJ, n=22) and group B (Placebo, n=22). At the baseline and the end of 12-week intervention, biochemical markers including fasting plasma glucose, insulin, oxidative stress, and AGE markers including carboxy methyl lysine (CML) and pentosidine were assayed. Results At baseline, there were no significant differences in plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels between the two groups, but malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased levels were significantly different (P<0.001). After 12 weeks of intervention, TAC increased (P<0.05) and MDA decreased (P<0.01) in the PJ group when compared with the placebo group. However, no significant differences were observed in plasma concentration of CML and pentosidine between the two groups. Conclusions The study showed that PJ decreases lipid peroxidation. Therefore, PJ consumption may delay onset of T2D complications related to oxidative stress. PMID:26355954

  12. Dissolution of spent nuclear fuel in carbonate-peroxide solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderquist, Chuck; Hanson, Brady

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that spent UO2 fuel can be completely dissolved in a room temperature carbonate-peroxide solution apparently without attacking the metallic Mo-Tc-Ru-Rh-Pd fission product phase. In parallel tests, identical samples of spent nuclear fuel were dissolved in nitric acid and in an ammonium carbonate, hydrogen peroxide solution. The resulting solutions were analyzed for strontium-90, technetium-99, cesium-137, europium-154, plutonium, and americium-241. The results were identical for all analytes except technetium, where the carbonate-peroxide dissolution had only about 25% of the technetium that the nitric acid dissolution had.

  13. Tumor Suppression and Sensitization to Taxol Induces Apoptosis of EIA in Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    participated in the regulation of apoptosis induced by ceramide, mistletoe lectin, and 4-hydroxynonenal, an aldehyde product of mem- brane lipid peroxidation... Mistletoe lectin induces apoptosis and telomerase inhibition in hu- man A253 cancer cells through dephosphorylation of Akt. Arch Pharm Res 2004; 27:68-76...participated subunit of protein phosphatase 2A [PP2A (PP2A/C)l enhanced the activity in the regulation of apoptosis induced by ceramide, mistletoe lectin, of

  14. Oxygen Mass Flow Rate Generated for Monitoring Hydrogen Peroxide Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. Richard

    2002-01-01

    Recent interest in propellants with non-toxic reaction products has led to a resurgence of interest in hydrogen peroxide for various propellant applications. Because peroxide is sensitive to contaminants, material interactions, stability and storage issues, monitoring decomposition rates is important. Stennis Space Center (SSC) uses thermocouples to monitor bulk fluid temperature (heat evolution) to determine reaction rates. Unfortunately, large temperature rises are required to offset the heat lost into the surrounding fluid. Also, tank penetration to accomodate a thermocouple can entail modification of a tank or line and act as a source of contamination. The paper evaluates a method for monitoring oxygen evolution as a means to determine peroxide stability. Oxygen generation is not only directly related to peroxide decomposition, but occurs immediately. Measuring peroxide temperature to monitor peroxide stability has significant limitations. The bulk decomposition of 1% / week in a large volume tank can produce in excess of 30 cc / min. This oxygen flow rate corresponds to an equivalent temperature rise of approximately 14 millidegrees C, which is difficult to measure reliably. Thus, if heat transfer were included, there would be no temperature rise. Temperature changes from the surrounding environment and heat lost to the peroxide will also mask potential problems. The use of oxygen flow measurements provides an ultra sensitive technique for monitoring reaction events and will provide an earlier indication of an abnormal decomposition when compared to measuring temperature rise.

  15. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens: substrate-like inhibitors both stimulate flavin reduction and stabilize the flavin-peroxo intermediate yet result in the production of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Crozier-Reabe, Karen R; Phillips, Robert S; Moran, Graham R

    2008-11-25

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is a flavin-dependent hydroxylase that catalyzes the conversion of l-kynurenine (l-Kyn) to 3-hydroxykynurenine (3OHKyn) in the pathway for tryptophan catabolism. KMO inhibition has been widely suggested as an early treatment for stroke and other neurological disorders that involve ischemia. We have investigated the reductive and the oxidative half-reactions of a stable form of KMO from Pseudomonas fluorescens (KMO). The binding of l-Kyn by the enzyme is relatively slow and involves at least two reversible steps. The rate constant for reduction of the flavin cofactor by NADPH increases by a factor of approximately 2.5 x 10(3) when l-Kyn is bound. The rate of reduction of the KMO.l-Kyn complex is 160 s(-1), and the K(d) for the NADPH complex is 200 microM with charge-transfer absorption bands for the KMO(RED).l-Kyn.NADP(+) complex accumulating after reduction. The reduction potential of KMO is -188 mV and is unresponsive to the addition of l-Kyn or other inhibitory ligands. KMO inhibitors whose structures are reminiscent of l-Kyn such as m-nitrobenzoylalanine and benzoylalanine also stimulate reduction of flavin by NADPH and, in the presence of dioxygen, result in the stoichiometric liberation of hydrogen peroxide, diminishing the perceived therapeutic potential of inhibitors of this type. In the presence of the native substrate, the oxidative half-reaction exhibits triphasic absorbance data. A spectrum consistent with that of a peroxyflavin species accumulates and then decays to yield the oxidized enzyme. This species then undergoes minor spectral changes that, based on flavin difference spectra defined in the presence of 3OHKyn, can be correlated with product release. The oxidative half-reaction observed in the presence of saturating benzoylalanine or m-nitrobenzoylalanine also shows the accumulation of a peroxyflavin species that then decays to yield hydrogen peroxide without hydroxylation.

  16. In-office tooth bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide promotes moderate/severe pulp inflammation and production of ll-1β, TNF-β, GPX, FGF-2 and osteocalcin in rats.

    PubMed

    Silva-Costa, Renata Suellen Galvão da; Ribeiro, Andressa Eveline de Lima; Assunção, Isauremi Vieira de; Araújo Júnior, Raimundo Fernandes de; Araújo, Aurigena Antunes de; Guerra, Gerlane Coelho Bernardo; Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra

    2018-06-11

    To study the intensity of inflammatory infiltrate and production of interleukin-1β (ll-1β), tumor necrosis factor-β (TNF-β), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and osteocalcin in response to in-office tooth bleaching in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups (n=5) according to the received treatment (tooth bleaching or no treatment - control) and the period of euthanasia after treatment (24 h or 10 days). We performed tooth bleaching using a 38% hydrogen peroxide gel on maxillary and mandibular incisors. After euthanasia, incisors (20 per group) were processed for histological analysis, immunohistochemistry staining of ll-1β, TNF-β, FGF-2 and GPX and osteocalcin by immunofluorescence. We analyzed data using the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn tests (p<0.05). The bleached groups presented statistically significant differences regarding the pulp inflammation stage compared with the control groups. Bleached teeth showed moderate/severe inflammatory infiltrate and control groups presented absent inflammatory cells or a negligible number of mononuclear cells (p<0.001) at two times (24 h and 10 days). There was strong staining for ll-1β, TNF-β, and GPX in bleached groups at 24 h and strong staining for ll-1β, TNF-β, GPX and FGF-2 at 10 days. After 10 days of tooth bleaching, the bleached group showed a statistically superior amount of osteocalcin than the other groups (p<0.01). Tooth bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide causes severe pulp inflammation, but characteristics of tissue repair after 10 days.

  17. In-office tooth bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide promotes moderate/severe pulp inflammation and production of ll-1β, TNF-β, GPX, FGF-2 and osteocalcin in rats

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To study the intensity of inflammatory infiltrate and production of interleukin-1β (ll-1β), tumor necrosis factor-β (TNF-β), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and osteocalcin in response to in-office tooth bleaching in rats. Material and Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups (n=5) according to the received treatment (tooth bleaching or no treatment - control) and the period of euthanasia after treatment (24 h or 10 days). We performed tooth bleaching using a 38% hydrogen peroxide gel on maxillary and mandibular incisors. After euthanasia, incisors (20 per group) were processed for histological analysis, immunohistochemistry staining of ll-1β, TNF-β, FGF-2 and GPX and osteocalcin by immunofluorescence. We analyzed data using the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn tests (p<0.05). Results: The bleached groups presented statistically significant differences regarding the pulp inflammation stage compared with the control groups. Bleached teeth showed moderate/severe inflammatory infiltrate and control groups presented absent inflammatory cells or a negligible number of mononuclear cells (p<0.001) at two times (24 h and 10 days). There was strong staining for ll-1β, TNF-β, and GPX in bleached groups at 24 h and strong staining for ll-1β, TNF-β, GPX and FGF-2 at 10 days. After 10 days of tooth bleaching, the bleached group showed a statistically superior amount of osteocalcin than the other groups (p<0.01). Conclusions: Tooth bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide causes severe pulp inflammation, but characteristics of tissue repair after 10 days.

  18. Stabilized aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution

    SciTech Connect

    Malin, M.J.; Sciafani, L.D.

    1988-05-17

    This patent describes a stabilized aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution having a pH below 7 and an amount of Ferric ion up to about 2 ppm comprising hydrogen peroxide, acetanilide having a concentration which ranges between 0.74 M Mol/L and 2.22 mMol/L, and o-benzene disulfonic acid or salt thereof at a concentration between about 0.86 mMol/L to about 1.62 mMol/L.

  19. Ocular response to hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Paugh, J R; Brennan, N A; Efron, N

    1988-02-01

    A controlled, randomized, double-masked study was conducted on eight human subjects to determine the threshold level of hydrogen peroxide, which is toxic when introduced into the eye via a high water content (75%; Durasoft 4) hydrogel contact lens. Subjective comfort, conjunctival hyperemia, corneal and conjunctival epithelial staining, and corneal oxygen uptake were assessed in response to 5-min wear of lenses that were presoaked in isotonic saline solutions of physiologic pH containing 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 parts per million (ppm) hydrogen peroxide. Higher levels of hydrogen peroxide were associated with greater discomfort (p less than 0.05) and increased conjunctival hyperemia (p less than 0.001). The highest level of hydrogen peroxide tested (800 ppm) did not induce significant corneal or conjunctival epithelial staining or alter the corneal aerobic response. We conclude that residual concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in contact lens care systems should not exceed 100 ppm. Practitioners can use these data to estimate the level of residual hydrogen peroxide to which a patient may have been exposed upon lens application after neutralization.

  20. Unsolved mysteries: How does lipid peroxidation cause ferroptosis?

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Huizhong

    2018-01-01

    Ferroptosis is a cell death process driven by damage to cell membranes and linked to numerous human diseases. Ferroptosis is caused by loss of activity of the key enzyme that is tasked with repairing oxidative damage to cell membranes—glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). GPX4 normally removes the dangerous products of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, protecting cell membranes from this type of damage; when GPX4 fails, ferroptosis ensues. Ferroptosis is distinct from apoptosis, necroptosis, necrosis, and other modes of cell death. Several key mysteries regarding how cells die during ferroptosis remain unsolved. First, the drivers of lipid peroxidation are not yet clear. Second, the subcellular location of lethal lipid peroxides remains an outstanding question. Finally, how exactly lipid peroxidation leads to cell death is an unsolved mystery. Answers to these questions will provide insights into the mechanisms of ferroptotic cell death and associated human diseases, as well as new therapeutic strategies for such diseases. PMID:29795546

  1. Decreased hydrogen peroxide production and mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle but not cardiac muscle of the green-striped burrowing frog, a natural model of muscle disuse.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Beau D; Hickey, Anthony J R; Cramp, Rebecca L; Franklin, Craig E

    2014-04-01

    Suppression of disuse-induced muscle atrophy has been associated with altered mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mammals. However, despite extended hindlimb immobility, aestivating animals exhibit little skeletal muscle atrophy compared with artificially immobilised mammalian models. Therefore, we studied mitochondrial respiration and ROS (H2O2) production in permeabilised muscle fibres of the green-striped burrowing frog, Cyclorana alboguttata. Mitochondrial respiration within saponin-permeabilised skeletal and cardiac muscle fibres was measured concurrently with ROS production using high-resolution respirometry coupled to custom-made fluorometers. After 4 months of aestivation, C. alboguttata had significantly depressed whole-body metabolism by ~70% relative to control (active) frogs, and mitochondrial respiration in saponin-permeabilised skeletal muscle fibres decreased by almost 50% both in the absence of ADP and during oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial ROS production showed up to an 88% depression in aestivating skeletal muscle when malate, succinate and pyruvate were present at concentrations likely to reflect those in vivo. The percentage ROS released per O2 molecule consumed was also ~94% less at these concentrations, indicating an intrinsic difference in ROS production capacities during aestivation. We also examined mitochondrial respiration and ROS production in permeabilised cardiac muscle fibres and found that aestivating frogs maintained respiratory flux and ROS production at control levels. These results show that aestivating C. alboguttata has the capacity to independently regulate mitochondrial function in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Furthermore, this work indicates that ROS production can be suppressed in the disused skeletal muscle of aestivating frogs, which may in turn protect against potential oxidative damage and preserve skeletal muscle structure during aestivation and following arousal.

  2. Thyrotropin-induced hydrogen peroxide production in FRTL-5 thyroid cells is mediated not by adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate, but by Ca2+ signaling followed by phospholipase-A2 activation and potentiated by an adenosine derivative.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Okajima, F; Sho, K; Kobayashi, I; Kondo, Y

    1995-01-01

    The production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an essential process for iodide organification is a key reaction in TSH-induced thyroid hormone synthesis. Here we characterize the signal transduction pathway involved in TSH-induced H2O2 production in FRTL-5 thyroid cells. At higher than 1 nM TSH, N6-(L-2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine (PIA), an adenosine receptor agonist having, by itself, no influence on H2O2 generation, potentiated this TSH action, whereas the TSH increase and PIA addition reduced cAMP accumulation. RO 20-1724, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, amplified the TSH-induced cAMP accumulation, but did not change H2O2 generation in the whole range of TSH used. Ca(2+)-mobilizing agonists, GTP and ATP, also induced H2O2 production without stimulating cAMP accumulation. Chelation of intracellular Ca2+ markedly inhibited the TSH action, but intracellular Ca2+ increases by either thapsigargin or ionomycin mimicking it. All of the findings show the participation of Ca2+, but not cAMP, in the action of TSH. Desensitization of protein kinase-C (PKC) did not influence the receptor-mediated H2O2 production, suggesting the reduced importance of PKC activation compared to Ca2+ signaling to the reaction. A rise in intracellular Ca2+ independent of receptor activation also induced H2O2 production as well as arachidonate release, and both were potentiated by PIA. In addition, inhibitors of phospholipase-A2 and the arachidonate metabolic pathway depressed H2O2 generation, suggesting the participation of an arachidonate cascade in the Ca(2+)-dependent H2O2 production. Lipoxygenase inhibitors depressed the Ca2+ action without influencing arachidonate release, suggesting the involvement of a lipoxygenase product(s) of arachidonate in the Ca(2+)-signaling mechanism. In conclusion, in FRTL-5 cells, TSH-induced H2O2 production is mediated not by cAMP, but by the phospholipase-C/Ca2+ cascade, possibly followed by the Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase-A2/arachidonate cascade. PIA

  3. Bioethanol production from sodium hydroxide/hydrogen peroxide-pretreated water hyacinth via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with a newly isolated thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianu strain.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinping; Wei, Zhilei; Wang, Qiaoping; He, Manman; Li, Shumei; Irbis, Chagan

    2015-10-01

    In this study, bioethanol production from NaOH/H2O2-pretreated water hyacinth was investigated. Pretreatment of water hyacinth with 1.5% (v/v) H2O2 and 3% (w/v) NaOH at 25 °C increased the production of reducing sugars (223.53 mg/g dry) and decreased the cellulose crystallinity (12.18%), compared with 48.67 mg/g dry and 22.80% in the untreated sample, respectively. The newly isolated Kluyveromyces marxianu K213 showed greater ethanol production from glucose (0.43 g/g glucose) at 45 °C than did the control Saccharomyces cerevisiae angel yeast. The maximum ethanol concentration (7.34 g/L) achieved with K. marxianu K213 by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) from pretreated water hyacinth at 42 °C was 1.78-fold greater than that produced by angel yeast S. cerevisiae at 30 °C. The present work demonstrates that bioethanol production achieved via SSF of NaOH/H2O2-pretreated water hyacinth with K. marxianu K213 is a promising strategy to utilize water hyacinth biomass. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Aluminum-induced cell death of barley-root border cells is correlated with peroxidase- and oxalate oxidase-mediated hydrogen peroxide production.

    PubMed

    Tamás, L; Budíková, S; Huttová, J; Mistrík, I; Simonovicová, M; Siroká, B

    2005-06-01

    The function of root border cells (RBC) during aluminum (Al) stress and the involvement of oxalate oxidase, peroxidase and H(2)O(2) generation in Al toxicity were studied in barley roots. Our results suggest that RBC effectively protect the barley root tip from Al relative to the situation in roots cultivated in hydroponics where RBC are not sustained in the area surrounding the root tip. The removal of RBC from Al-treated roots increased root growth inhibition, Al and Evans blue uptake, inhibition of RBC production, the level of dead RBC, peroxidase and oxalate oxidase activity and the production of H(2)O(2). Our results suggest that even though RBC actively produce active oxygen species during Al stress, their role in the protection of root tips against Al toxicity is to chelate Al in their dead cell body.

  5. The nitroxide Tempo inhibits hydroxyl radical production from the Fenton-like reaction of iron(II)-citrate with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fengqiang; Zhang, Peifeng; Mao, Yujia; Wang, Can; Zheng, Meiqing; Zhao, Zhongwei

    2017-01-29

    In vivo physiological ligand citrate can bind iron(II) ions to form the iron(II)-citrate complex. Inhibition of hydroxyl radical (OH) production from the Fenton-like reaction of iron(II)-citrate with H 2 O 2 is biologically important, as this reaction may account for one of the mechanisms of the labile iron pool in vivo to induce oxidative stress and pathological conditions. Nitroxides have promising potentials as therapeutic antioxidants. However, there are controversial findings indicating that they not only act as antioxidants but also as pro-oxidants when engaged in Fenton reactions. Although the underlying mechanisms are proposed to be the inhibition or enhancement of the OH production by nitroxides, the proposed elucidations are only based on assessing biological damages and not demonstrated directly by measuring the OH production in the presence of nitroxides. In this study, therefore, we employed EPR and fluorescence spectroscopies to show direct evidence that nitroxide 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl (Tempo) inhibited OH production from the Fenton-like reaction of iron(II)-citrate with H 2 O 2 by up to 90%. We also demonstrated spectrophotometrically, for the first time, that this inhibition was due to oxidation of the iron(II)-citrate by Tempo with a stoichiometry of Tempo:Iron(III)-citrate = 1.1:1.0. A scheme was proposed to illustrate the roles of nitroxides engaged in Fenton/Fenton-like reactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High level extracellular production of a recombinant alkaline catalase in E. coli BL21 under ethanol stress and its application in hydrogen peroxide removal after cotton fabrics bleaching.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenxiao; Zheng, Hongchen; Zhao, Xingya; Li, Shufang; Xu, Jianyong; Song, Hui

    2016-08-01

    The effects of induction parameters, osmolytes and ethanol stress on the productivity of the recombinant alkaline catalase (KatA) in Escherichia coli BL21 (pET26b-KatA) were investigated. The yield of soluble KatA was significantly enhanced by 2% ethanol stress. And a certain amount of Triton X-100 supplementation could markedly improved extracellular ratio of KatA. A total soluble catalase activity of 78,762U/mL with the extracellular ratio of 92.5% was achieved by fed-batch fermentation in a 10L fermentor, which was the highest yield so far. The purified KatA showed high stability at 50°C and pH 6-10. Application of KatA for elimination of H2O2 after cotton fabrics bleaching led to less consumption of water, steam and electric power by 25%, 12% and 16.7% respectively without productivity and quality losing of cotton fabrics. Thus, the recombinant KatA is a promising candidate for industrial production and applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lipid peroxidation and neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Reed, Tanea T

    2011-10-01

    Lipid peroxidation is a complex process involving the interaction of oxygen-derived free radicals with polyunsaturated fatty acids, resulting in a variety of highly reactive electrophilic aldehydes. Since 1975, lipid peroxidation has been extensively studied in a variety of organisms. As neurodegenerative diseases became better understood, research establishing a link between this form of oxidative damage, neurodegeneration, and disease has provided a wealth of knowledge to the scientific community. With the advent of proteomics in 1995, the identification of biomarkers for neurodegenerative disorders became of paramount importance to better understand disease pathogenesis and develop potential therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on the relationship between lipid peroxidation and neurodegenerative diseases. It also demonstrates how findings in current research support the common themes of altered energy metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Progress toward hydrogen peroxide micropulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J C; Dittman, M D; Ledebuhr, A G

    1999-07-08

    A new self-pressurizing propulsion system has liquid thrusters and gas jet attitude control without heavy gas storage vessels. A pump boosts the pressure of a small fraction of the hydrogen peroxide, so that reacted propellant can controllably pressurize its own source tank. The warm decomposition gas also powers the pump and is supplied to the attitude control jets. The system has been incorporated into a prototype microsatellite for terrestrial maneuvering tests. Additional progress includes preliminary testing of a bipropellant thruster, and storage of unstabilized hydrogen peroxide in small sealed tanks.

  9. Evaluation of three simple direct or indirect carbonyl detection methods for characterization of oxidative modifications of proteins.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Garzón, Verónica R; Rouimi, Patrick; Jouanin, Isabelle; Waeg, Georg; Zarkovic, Neven; Villa-Treviño, Saul; Guéraud, Françoise

    2012-05-01

    Among disruptions induced by oxidative stress, modifications of proteins, particularly irreversible carbonylation, are associated with the development of several diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Carbonylation of proteins can occur directly or indirectly through the adduction of lipid oxidation products. In this study, three classical and easy-to-perform techniques to detect direct or indirect carbonylation of proteins were compared. A model protein apomyoglobin and a complex mixture of rat liver cytosolic proteins were exposed to cumene hydroperoxide oxidation or adduction to the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal in order to test direct or indirect carbonylation, respectively. The technique using a specific anti-4-hydroxynonenal-histidine adduct antibody was effective to detect in vitro modification of model apomyoglobin and cytosolic proteins by 4-hydroxynonenal but not by direct carbonylation which was achieved by techniques using biotin-coupled hydrazide or dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization of carbonyls. Sequential use of these methods enabled the detection of both direct and indirect carbonyl modification in proteins, although constitutively biotinylated proteins were detected by biotin-hydrazide. Although rather classical and efficient, methods for carbonyl detection on proteins in oxidative stress studies may be biased by some artifactual detections and complicated by proteins multimerizations. The use of more and more specific available antibodies is recommended to complete detection of lipid peroxidation product adducts on proteins.

  10. Regio- and stereo-chemical oxidation of linoleic acid by human myoglobin and hydrogen peroxide: Tyr103 affects rate and product distribution

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Mb (myoglobin) plus H2O2 catalyses the oxidation of various substrates via a peroxidase-like activity. A Y103F (Tyr103→Phe) variant of human Mb has been constructed to assess the effect of exchanging an electron-rich oxidizable amino acid on the peroxidase activity of human Mb. Steady-state analyses of reaction mixtures containing Y103F Mb, purified linoleic acid and H2O2 revealed a lower total yield of lipid oxidation products than mixtures containing the wild-type protein, consistent with the reported decrease in the rate constant for reaction of Y103F Mb with H2O2 [Witting, Mauk and Lay (2002) Biochemistry 41, 11495–11503]. Irrespective of the Mb employed, lipid oxidation yielded 9(R/S)-HODE [9(R,S)-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid] in preference to 13(R/S)-HODE [13(R,S)-hydroxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid], while 9- and 13-keto-octadecadienoic acid were formed in trace amounts. However, lipid oxidation by the Y103F variant of Mb proceeded with a lower Vmax value and an increased Km value relative to the wild-type control. Consistent with the increased Km, the product distribution from reactions with Y103F Mb showed decreased selectivity compared with the wild-type protein, as judged by the decreased yield of 9(S)-relative to 9(R)-HODE. Together, these data verify that Tyr103 plays a significant role in substrate binding and orientation in the haem pocket of human Mb. Also, the midpoint potential for the Fe(III)/(II) one-electron reduction was shifted slightly, but significantly, to a higher potential, confirming the importance of Tyr103 to the hydrogen-bonding network involving residues that line the haem crevice of human Mb. PMID:15035657

  11. The Tolerability Profile of Clindamycin 1%/Benzoyl Peroxide 5% Gel vs. Adapalene 0.1%/Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% Gel for Facial Acne

    PubMed Central

    Cirigliano, Marcela; Gwazdauskas, Jennifer A; Gonzalez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the first two weeks of tolerability of clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide gel versus adapalene/benzoyl peroxide gel followed by six weeks of open-label clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide gel therapy in subjects with mild-to-moderate acne who participated in two eight-week, identically designed, clinical studies. Methods: Using a split-face method, patients received both clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide gel and adapalene/benzoyl peroxide gel once daily for two weeks (allocation to the right or left side of the face was randomized) in an investigator-blinded fashion. Patients then went on to receive a further six weeks of open-label, full-face clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide gel. The primary outcome was to compare signs and symptoms of tolerability during the first two weeks of treatment using an investigator-assessed 4-point rating scale. Secondary endpoints included assessment of acne severity (Investigator Static Global Assessment and lesion counts), quality of life, product acceptability/preference, and patient assessments of tolerability and safety. Results: Of the 76 subjects enrolled in the two studies, 72 completed them. Overall both products were well tolerated, but mean scores for erythema, dryness, and peeling were significantly higher with adapalene/benzoyl peroxide gel than with clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide gel at both Weeks 1 and 2 (p<0.03). Patients also rated clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide gel significantly more tolerable than adapalene/benzoyl peroxide gel for redness, dryness, burning, itching, and scaling at Weeks 1 and 2 (p 0.0073). Mean Investigator Static Global Assessment score improved with both products during the first two weeks of treatment and continued to show significant improvement versus baseline when treatment with clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide gel was continued for a further six weeks (p<0.001 at Week 8). Lesion counts improved throughout the study with significant reductions from baseline occurring at Weeks 5 and 8 (p<0.0001 for

  12. Different Modes of Hydrogen Peroxide Action During Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyla, Łukasz; Lechowska, Katarzyna; Kubala, Szymon; Garnczarska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide was initially recognized as a toxic molecule that causes damage at different levels of cell organization and thus losses in cell viability. From the 1990s, the role of hydrogen peroxide as a signaling molecule in plants has also been discussed. The beneficial role of H2O2 as a central hub integrating signaling network in response to biotic and abiotic stress and during developmental processes is now well established. Seed germination is the most pivotal phase of the plant life cycle, affecting plant growth and productivity. The function of hydrogen peroxide in seed germination and seed aging has been illustrated in numerous studies; however, the exact role of this molecule remains unknown. This review evaluates evidence that shows that H2O2 functions as a signaling molecule in seed physiology in accordance with the known biology and biochemistry of H2O2. The importance of crosstalk between hydrogen peroxide and a number of signaling molecules, including plant phytohormones such as abscisic acid, gibberellins, and ethylene, and reactive molecules such as nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide acting on cell communication and signaling during seed germination, is highlighted. The current study also focuses on the detrimental effects of H2O2 on seed biology, i.e., seed aging that leads to a loss of germination efficiency. The dual nature of hydrogen peroxide as a toxic molecule on one hand and as a signal molecule on the other is made possible through the precise spatial and temporal control of its production and degradation. Levels of hydrogen peroxide in germinating seeds and young seedlings can be modulated via pre-sowing seed priming/conditioning. This rather simple method is shown to be a valuable tool for improving seed quality and for enhancing seed stress tolerance during post-priming germination. In this review, we outline how seed priming/conditioning affects the integrative role of hydrogen peroxide in seed germination and aging. PMID:26870076

  13. BASIC PEROXIDE PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINANTS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Perlman, I.

    1959-02-10

    A process is described for the separation from each other of uranyl values, tetravalent plutonium values and fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution. First the pH of the solution is adjusted to between 2.5 and 8 and hydrogen peroxide is then added to the solution causing precipitation of uranium peroxide which carries any plutonium values present, while the fission products remain in solution. Separation of the uranium and plutonium values is then effected by dissolving the peroxide precipitate in an acidic solution and incorporating a second carrier precipitate, selective for plutonium. The plutonium values are thus carried from the solution while the uranium remains flissolved. The second carrier precipitate may be selected from among the group consisting of rare earth fluorides, and oxalates, zirconium phosphate, and bismuth lihosphate.

  14. Cathodic electrocatalyst layer for electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennakoon, Charles L. K. (Inventor); Singh, Waheguru Pal (Inventor); Rhodes, Christopher P. (Inventor); Anderson, Kelvin C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cathodic gas diffusion electrode for the electrochemical production of aqueous hydrogen peroxide solutions. The cathodic gas diffusion electrode comprises an electrically conductive gas diffusion substrate and a cathodic electrocatalyst layer supported on the gas diffusion substrate. A novel cathodic electrocatalyst layer comprises a cathodic electrocatalyst, a substantially water-insoluble quaternary ammonium compound, a fluorocarbon polymer hydrophobic agent and binder, and a perfluoronated sulphonic acid polymer. An electrochemical cell using the novel cathodic electrocatalyst layer has been shown to produce an aqueous solution having between 8 and 14 weight percent hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, such electrochemical cells have shown stable production of hydrogen peroxide solutions over 1000 hours of operation including numerous system shutdowns.

  15. Investigating the role of melanin in UVA/UVB- and hydrogen peroxide-induced cellular and mitochondrial ROS production and mitochondrial DNA damage in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Swalwell, Helen; Latimer, Jennifer; Haywood, Rachel M; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2012-02-01

    Skin cancer incidence is dramatically increasing worldwide, with exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) a predominant factor. The UVA component initiates oxidative stress in human skin, although its exact role in the initiation of skin cancer, particularly malignant melanoma, remains unclear and is controversial because there is evidence for a melanin-dependent mechanism in UVA-linked melanoma studies. Nonpigmented (CHL-1, A375), moderately pigmented (FM55, SKmel23), and highly pigmented (FM94, hyperpigmented FM55) human melanoma cell lines have been used to investigate UVA-induced production of reactive oxygen species using FACS analysis, at both the cellular (dihydrorhodamine-123) and the mitochondrial (MitoSOX) level, where most cellular stress is generated. For the first time, downstream mtDNA damage (utilizing a quantitative long-PCR assay) has been investigated. Using UVA, UVB, and H(2)O(2) as cellular stressors, we have explored the dual roles of melanin as a photoprotector and photosensitizer. The presence of melanin has no influence over cellular oxidative stress generation, whereas, in contrast, melanin protects against mitochondrial superoxide generation and mtDNA damage (one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey's analysis, P<0.001). We show that if melanin binds directly to DNA, it acts as a direct photosensitizer of mtDNA damage during UVA irradiation (P<0.001), providing evidence for the dual roles of melanin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigating the Stability of Benzoyl Peroxide in Over-the-Counter Acne Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittredge, Marina Canepa; Kittredge, Kevin W.; Sokol, Melissa S.; Sarquis, Arlyne M.; Sennet, Laura M.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most commonly used ingredients in over-the-counter acne treatments in cream, gel, and wash form is benzoyl peroxide. It is an anti-bacterial agent that kills the bacterium ("Propionibacterium acne") involved in the formation of acne. The formulation of these products is extremely difficult owing to the instability of benzoyl peroxide.…

  17. Engineering bacterial motility towards hydrogen-peroxide.

    PubMed

    Virgile, Chelsea; Hauk, Pricila; Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Shang, Wu; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Payne, Gregory F; Bentley, William E

    2018-01-01

    Synthetic biologists construct innovative genetic/biological systems to treat environmental, energy, and health problems. Many systems employ rewired cells for non-native product synthesis, while a few have employed the rewired cells as 'smart' devices with programmable function. Building on the latter, we developed a genetic construct to control and direct bacterial motility towards hydrogen peroxide, one of the body's immune response signaling molecules. A motivation for this work is the creation of cells that can target and autonomously treat disease, the latter signaled by hydrogen peroxide release. Bacteria naturally move towards a variety of molecular cues (e.g., nutrients) in the process of chemotaxis. In this work, we engineered bacteria to recognize and move towards hydrogen peroxide, a non-native chemoattractant and potential toxin. Our system exploits oxyRS, the native oxidative stress regulon of E. coli. We first demonstrated H2O2-mediated upregulation motility regulator, CheZ. Using transwell assays, we showed a two-fold increase in net motility towards H2O2. Then, using a 2D cell tracking system, we quantified bacterial motility descriptors including velocity, % running (of tumble/run motions), and a dynamic net directionality towards the molecular cue. In CheZ mutants, we found that increased H2O2 concentration (0-200 μM) and induction time resulted in increased running speeds, ultimately reaching the native E. coli wild-type speed of ~22 μm/s with a ~45-65% ratio of running to tumbling. Finally, using a microfluidic device with stable H2O2 gradients, we characterized responses and the potential for "programmed" directionality towards H2O2 in quiescent fluids. Overall, the synthetic biology framework and tracking analysis in this work will provide a framework for investigating controlled motility of E. coli and other 'smart' probiotics for signal-directed treatment.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1366 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 184.1366 Section 184.1366 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1366 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, CAS Reg. No. 7722-84-1) is also referred to as hydrogen dioxide. It is made by the electrolytic oxidation of...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1366 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 184.1366 Section 184.1366 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1366 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, CAS Reg. No. 7722-84-1) is also referred to as hydrogen dioxide. It is made by the electrolytic oxidation of...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1366 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 184.1366 Section 184.1366 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1366 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, CAS Reg. No. 7722-84-1) is also referred to as hydrogen dioxide. It is made by the electrolytic oxidation of...

  1. 21 CFR 173.356 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 173.356 Section 173.356 Food... Specific Usage Additives § 173.356 Hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide (CAS Reg. No. 7722-84-1) may be....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the United States Pharmacopeial Convention...

  2. 21 CFR 173.356 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 173.356 Section 173.356 Food... Specific Usage Additives § 173.356 Hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide (CAS Reg. No. 7722-84-1) may be....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the United States Pharmacopeial Convention...

  3. 21 CFR 173.356 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 173.356 Section 173.356 Food... Specific Usage Additives § 173.356 Hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide (CAS Reg. No. 7722-84-1) may be....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the United States Pharmacopeial Convention...

  4. Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonios, George; Dimou, Aikaterini; Galaris, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important oxidizing agent in biological systems. In dermatology, it is frequently used as topical antiseptic, it has a haemostatic function, it can cause skin blanching, and it can facilitate skin tanning. In this work, we investigated skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide, non-invasively, using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. We observed transient changes in the oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin concentrations as a result of topical application of dilute H2O2 solutions to the skin, with changes in deoxyhaemoglobin concentration being more pronounced. Furthermore, we did not observe any appreciable changes in melanin absorption properties as well as in the skin scattering properties. We also found no evidence for production of oxidized haemoglobin forms. Our observations are consistent with an at least partial decomposition of hydrogen peroxide within the stratum corneum and epidermis, with the resulting oxygen and/or remaining hydrogen peroxide inducing vasoconstriction to dermal blood vessels and increasing haemoglobin oxygen saturation. An assessment of the effects of topical application of hydrogen peroxide to the skin may serve as the basis for the development of non-invasive techniques to measure skin antioxidant capacity and also may shed light onto skin related disorders such as vitiligo.

  5. Improved Electrolytic Hydrogen Peroxide Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Patrick I.

    2005-01-01

    An improved apparatus for the electrolytic generation of hydrogen peroxide dissolved in water has been developed. The apparatus is a prototype of H2O2 generators for the safe and effective sterilization of water, sterilization of equipment in contact with water, and other applications in which there is need for hydrogen peroxide at low concentration as an oxidant. Potential applications for electrolytic H2O2 generators include purification of water for drinking and for use in industrial processes, sanitation for hospitals and biotechnological industries, inhibition and removal of biofouling in heat exchangers, cooling towers, filtration units, and the treatment of wastewater by use of advanced oxidation processes that are promoted by H2O2.

  6. PROPULSE 980: A Hydrogen Peroxide Enrichment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, Robert; Bromley, G.; Wanger, Robert; Pauls, Dan; Maynard, Bryon; McNeal, Curtis; Dumbacher, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The PROPULSE 980 unit is a transportable processing plant that enriches aerospace grade hydrogen peroxide from 90% to 98% final concentration. The unit was developed by Degussa-H Is, in cooperation with Orbital, NASA Marshall Space Center, and NASA Stennis Space Center. The system is a self-contained unit that houses all of the process equipment, instrumentation and controls to perform the concentration operation nearly autonomously. It is designed to produce non-bulk quantities of 98% hydrogen peroxide. The enrichment unit design also maintains system, personnel and environmental safety during all aspects of the enrichment process and final product storage. As part of the Propulse 980 checkout and final buyoff, it will be disassembled at the Degussa-H Is Corporation plant in Theodore, AL, transported to the Stennis Space Center, reassembled and subjected to a series of checkout tests to verify design objectives have been met. This paper will summarize the basic project elements and provide an update on the present status of the project.

  7. Hydrogen peroxide kinetics in water radiolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamatsu, Kazuhiro; Sundin, Sara; LaVerne, Jay A.

    2018-04-01

    The kinetics of the formation and reaction of hydrogen peroxide in the long time γ- radiolysis of water is examined using a combination of experiment with model calculations. Escape yields of hydrogen peroxide on the microsecond time scale are easily measured with added radical scavengers even with substantial amounts of initial added hydrogen peroxide. The γ-radiolysis of aqueous hydrogen peroxide solutions without added radical scavengers reach a steady state limiting concentration of hydrogen peroxide with increasing dose, and that limit is directly proportional to the initial concentration of added hydrogen peroxide. The dose necessary to reach that limiting hydrogen peroxide concentration is also proportional to the initial concentration, but dose rate has a very small effect. The addition of molecular hydrogen to aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide leads to a decrease in the high dose limiting hydrogen peroxide concentration that is linear with the initial hydrogen concentration, but the amount of decrease is not stoichiometric. Proton irradiations of solutions with added hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen are more difficult to predict because of the decreased yields of radicals; however, with a substantial increase in dose rate there is a sufficient decrease in radical yields that hydrogen addition has little effect on hydrogen peroxide decay.

  8. Hydrogen peroxide fuels aging, inflammation, cancer metabolism and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Lin, Zhao; Pavlides, Stephanos; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Pestell, Richard G; Howell, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    In 1889, Dr. Stephen Paget proposed the “seed and soil” hypothesis, which states that cancer cells (the seeds) need the proper microenvironment (the soil) for them to grow, spread and metastasize systemically. In this hypothesis, Dr. Paget rightfully recognized that the tumor microenvironment has an important role to play in cancer progression and metastasis. In this regard, a series of recent studies have elegantly shown that the production of hydrogen peroxide, by both cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts, may provide the necessary “fertilizer,” by driving accelerated aging, DNA damage, inflammation and cancer metabolism, in the tumor microenvironment. By secreting hydrogen peroxide, cancer cells and fibroblasts are mimicking the behavior of immune cells (macrophages/neutrophils), driving local and systemic inflammation, via the innate immune response (NFκB). Thus, we should consider using various therapeutic strategies (such as catalase and/or other antioxidants) to neutralize the production of cancer-associated hydrogen peroxide, thereby preventing tumor-stroma co-evolution and metastasis. The implications of these findings for overcoming chemo-resistance in cancer cells are also discussed in the context of hydrogen peroxide production and cancer metabolism. PMID:21734470

  9. High levels of hydrogen peroxide in overnight tooth-whitening formulas: effects on enamel and pulp.

    PubMed

    Pugh, George; Zaidel, Lynette; Lin, Nora; Stranick, Michael; Bagley, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Limited data are available to assess the safety of high levels of hydrogen peroxide in overnight tooth-whitening formulas. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of hydrogen peroxide on enamel microhardness, pulp penetration, and enamel morphology. Colgate Platinum Professional Overnight Whitening System (Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Canton, MA, USA) (10% carbamide peroxide, equivalent to 3.5% hydrogen peroxide) was compared with two prototype formulations containing either 7.0% or 12.0% hydrogen peroxide. In the pulp chamber studies, human extracted teeth were exposed to 3.5%, 7.0%, or 12.0% hydrogen peroxide for 30 minutes, 4 hours, or 7 hours. Microhardness, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and atomic force microscopy evaluations were made from enamel blocks cut from human extracted molars. The enamel blocks were evaluated following 14 7-hour treatments (98 h total). At 7 hours' post-treatment, hydrogen peroxide penetrated the pulp chamber at 23.12 +/- 10.09, 24.58 +/- 6.90, and 26.39 +/- 5.43 microg for 3.5%, 7.0%, and 12.0% hydrogen peroxide, respectively. With regard to enamel morphology, pulp penetration, microhardness, and elemental composition, no statistically significant differences were observed between treatment groups following 98 hours of treatment. Hydrogen peroxide does not adversely affect enamel morphology or microhardness. The levels recovered in pulp indicate that hydrogen peroxide is not expected to inhibit pulpal enzymes. Overnight tray products containing levels of hydrogen peroxide of 3.5%, 7.0%, and 12.0% are not expected to adversely affect the enamel or pulpal enzymes. Additional safety studies are needed to assess the potential for tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation.

  10. Detection of hydrogen peroxide with graphyne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majidi, R.; Karami, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the electronic properties of graphyne has been investigated to explore the possibility of using graphyne based biosensor. We have used density functional theory to study the electronic properties of γ-graphyne in the presence of different number of hydrogen peroxide. The optimal adsorption position, orientation, and distance of hydrogen peroxide adsorbed on the graphyne sheet have been determined by calculating adsorption energy. It is found that γ-graphyne which is an intrinsic semiconductor becomes an n-type semiconductor due to the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The energy band gap of γ-graphyne is decreased by increasing the number of hydrogen peroxide. The results demonstrate that γ-graphyne is a promising candidate for biosensor application because of its electrical sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide.

  11. Coating for components requiring hydrogen peroxide compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yousefiani, Ali (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a heretofore-unknown use for zirconium nitride as a hydrogen peroxide compatible protective coating that was discovered to be useful to protect components that catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide or corrode when exposed to hydrogen peroxide. A zirconium nitride coating of the invention may be applied to a variety of substrates (e.g., metals) using art-recognized techniques, such as plasma vapor deposition. The present invention further provides components and articles of manufacture having hydrogen peroxide compatibility, particularly components for use in aerospace and industrial manufacturing applications. The zirconium nitride barrier coating of the invention provides protection from corrosion by reaction with hydrogen peroxide, as well as prevention of hydrogen peroxide decomposition.

  12. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for systemic gas embolism after hydrogen peroxide ingestion.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Brendan; Sherwin, Robert; Courage, Cheryl; Baylor, Alfred; Dolcourt, Bram; Brudzewski, Jacek R; Mosteller, Jeffrey; Wilson, Robert F

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is a commonly available product and its ingestion has been demonstrated to produce in vivo gas bubbles, which can embolize to devastating effect. We report two cases of hydrogen peroxide ingestion with resultant gas embolization, one to the portal system and one cerebral embolus, which were successfully treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO), and review the literature. Two individuals presented to our center after unintentional ingestion of concentrated hydrogen peroxide solutions. Symptoms were consistent with portal gas emboli (Patient A) and cerebral gas emboli (Patient B), which were demonstrated on imaging. They were successfully treated with HBO and recovered without event. As demonstrated by both our experience as well as the current literature, HBO has been used to successfully treat gas emboli associated with hydrogen peroxide ingestion. We recommend consideration of HBO in any cases of significant hydrogen peroxide ingestion with a clinical picture compatible with gas emboli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxidative stress markers during a course of hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Lampka, Magdalena; Junik, Roman; Nowicka, Anna; Kopczyńska, Ewa; Tyrakowski, Tomasz; Odrowaz-Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the presence of oxidative stress in hyperthyroid patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of hyperthyroidism on lipid peroxidation, plasma lipoprotein oxidation and antioxidant status. We have estimated the clinical utility of the biochemical parameters analysed as markers of oxidative stress in hyperthyroidism. Twenty five patients with overt hyperthyroidism because of Graves' disease or toxic multinodular goitre and 20 healthy subjects were included in the study. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measurement of peroxides and malondialdehyde with 4-hydroxynonenal (MDA + 4-HNE) concentrations. Autoantibodies against oxidised LDL (anti-oxLDL) were assayed as a marker of lipoprotein oxidation. Changes in the antioxidant defence system were estimated by measurement of total antioxidant status in serum (TAS) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity (SOD). A significant increase in serum concentration of peroxides and MDA + 4-HNE was observed in patients with hyperthyroidism. However, no difference was found in anti-oxLDL concentration and antioxidant status parameters (TAS, SOD) between the control group and the patient group. Our results indicate an intensification of the oxidative processes caused by an excess of thyroid hormones, which is not accompanied by a response from the antioxidant system. Elevated concentrations of lipid peroxidation products in serum, both peroxides and malondialdehyde with 4-hydroxynonenal, may be useful as markers of oxidative stress during the course of hyperthyroidism.

  14. PEROXIDE PROCESS FOR SEPARATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Perlman, I.

    1958-09-16

    reduced state, from hexavalent uranium. It consists in treating an aqueous solution containing such uranium and plutonium ions with sulfate ions in order to form a soluble uranium sulfate complex and then treating the solution with a soluble thorium compound and a soluble peroxide compound in order to ferm a thorium peroxide carrier precipitate which carries down with it the plutonium peroxide present. During this treatment the pH of the solution must be maintained between 2 and 3.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1366 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 184.1366 Section 184.1366 Food... GRAS § 184.1366 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, CAS Reg. No. 7722-84-1) is also referred to as hydrogen dioxide. It is made by the electrolytic oxidation of sulfuric acid or a sulfate to...

  16. High temperature decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is oxidized into nitrogen dioxide (NO2) by the high temperature decomposition of a hydrogen peroxide solution to produce the oxidative free radicals, hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl. The hydrogen peroxide solution is impinged upon a heated surface in a stream of nitric oxide where it decomposes to produce the oxidative free radicals. Because the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide solution occurs within the stream of the nitric oxide, rapid gas-phase oxidation of nitric oxide into nitrogen dioxide occurs.

  17. 21 CFR 173.356 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 173.356 Section 173.356 Food... peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide (CAS Reg. No. 7722-84-1) may be safely used to treat food in accordance with... approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may...

  18. High Temperature Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is oxidized into nitrogen dioxide (NO2) by the high temperature decomposition of a hydrogen peroxide solution to produce the oxidative free radicals, hydroxyl and hydropemxyl. The hydrogen peroxide solution is impinged upon a heated surface in a stream of nitric oxide where it decomposes to produce the oxidative free radicals. Because the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide solution occurs within the stream of the nitric oxide, rapid gas-phase oxidation of nitric oxide into nitrogen dioxide occurs.

  19. Oxidation resistant peroxide cross-linked UHMWPE produced by blending and surface diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gul, Rizwan M.; Oral, Ebru; Muratoglu, Orhun K.

    2014-06-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been widely used as acetabular cup in total hip replacement (THR) and tibial component in total knee replacement (TKR). Crosslinking of UHMWPE has been successful used to improve its wear performance leading to longer life of orthopedic implants. Crosslinking can be performed by radiation or organic peroxides. Peroxide crosslinking is a convenient process as it does not require specialized equipment and the level of crosslinking can be manipulated by changing the amount of peroxide added. However, there is concern about the long-term stability of these materials due to possible presence of by-products. Vitamin E has been successfully used to promote long-term oxidative stability of UHMWPE. In this study, UHMWPE has been crosslinked using organic peroxide in the presence of Vitamin E to produce an oxidation resistant peroxide crosslinked material. Crosslinking was performed both in bulk by mixing peroxide and resin, and only on the surface using diffusion of peroxides.The results show that UHMWPE can be crosslinked using organic peroxides in the presence of vitamin E by both methods. However, the level of crosslinking decreases with the increase in vitamin E content. The wear resistance increases with the increase in crosslink density, and oxidation resistance significantly increases due to the presence of vitamin E.

  20. [The origin of hydrogen peroxide in oral cavity and its role in oral microecology balance].

    PubMed

    Keke, Zhang; Xuedong, Zhou; Xin, Xu

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen peroxide, an important antimicrobial agent in oral cavity, plays a significant role in the balance of oral microecology. At the early stage of biofilm formation, about 80% of the detected initial colonizers belong to the genus Streptococcus. These oral streptococci use different oxidase to produce hydrogen peroxide. Recent studies showed that the produced hydrogen peroxide plays a critical role in modulating oral microecology. Hydrogen peroxide modulates biofilm development attributed to its growth inhibitory nature. Hydrogen peroxide production is closely associated with extracellular DNA(eDNA) release from microbe and the development of its competent cell which are critical for biofilm development and also serves as source for horizontal gene transfer. Microbe also can reduce the damage to themselves through several detoxification mechanisms. Moreover, hydrogen peroxide is also involved in the regulation of interactions between oral microorganisms and host. Taken together, hydrogen peroxide is an imperative ecological factor that contributes to the microbial equilibrium in the oral cavity. Here we will give a brief review of both the origin and the function in the oral microecology balance of hydrogen peroxide.

  1. Hydrogen peroxide as a fungicide for fish culture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Rach, J.J.; Schreier, Theresa M.

    1994-01-01

    Antifungal agents are needed to maintain healthy stocks of fish in the intensive culture systems currently employed in fish hatcheries. Malachite green has been the most widely used antifungal agent; however, its potential for producing teratology in animals and fish precludes further use in fish culture. Preliminary studies at the National Fisheries Research Center, La Crosse, WI, USA (La Crosse Center) indicate that hydrogen peroxide is effective for control of Saprolegnia sp. fungus on incubating eggs of rainbow trout. It is also effective against a wide variety of other organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, viruses, and spores, and has been proposed as a treatment for sea lice on salmon. Hydrogen peroxide and its primary decomposition products, oxygen and water, are not systemic poisons and are considered environmentally compatible. In response to a petition from the La Crosse Center, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently classified hydrogen peroxide as a 'low regulatory priority' when used for control of fungus on fish and fish eggs. Preliminary tests conducted at the La Crosse Center suggest that prophylactic treatments of 250 to 500 ppm (based on 100% active ingredient) for 15 minutes every other day will inhibit fungal infections on healthy rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs. This treatment regime also seems to inhibit fungal development and increase hatching success among infected eggs. Efficacy and safety of hydrogen peroxide as a fungicide for fish are currently being evaluated.

  2. Absence of Degradation of Tretinoin When Benzoyl Peroxide is Combined with an Optimized Formulation of Tretinoin Gel (0.05%)

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Radhakrishnan; Moore, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians have been reluctant to prescribe benzoyl peroxide concurrently with topical tretinoin due to a belief that the benzoyl peroxide may cause oxidation and degradation of the tretinoin molecule, thereby reducing its effectiveness. However, benzoyl peroxide-induced degradation of tretinoin may not necessarily apply to all topical tretinoin formulations. Objective: To evaluate the potential for benzoyl peroxide-induced degradation of an optimized aqueous gel formulation of tretinoin (0.05%). Methods: Tretinoin gel (0.05%) and benzoyl peroxide gel (6.26% premix concentration to produce 5% benzoyl peroxide in a fixed combination clindamycin product) were mixed together (1:1) at 32ºC and samples assayed after 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 hours. Each sample was analyzed for tretinoin (expressed as % tretinoin remaining) and its degradation product content. Results: No loss of tretinoin was observed over the seven-hour time period. When tretinoin gel (0.05%) was combined with benzoyl peroxide, 100 percent of the initial tretinoin concentration remained after seven hours. There was no increase in the degradation products of tretinoin. Conclusions: There was no benzoyl peroxide-induced degradation of tretinoin when the optimized formulation of tretinoin gel (0.05%) was admixed with benzoyl peroxide gel (6.26%). Although the direct clinical significance of these results is unknown, clinicians may feel comfortable using this particular combination concurrently without concerns about tretinoin oxidation and degradation. PMID:20967192

  3. Molecular Association and Structure of Hydrogen Peroxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giguere, Paul A.

    1983-01-01

    The statement is sometimes made in textbooks that liquid hydrogen peroxide is more strongly associated than water, evidenced by its higher boiling point and greater heat of vaporization. Discusses these and an additional factor (the nearly double molecular mass of the peroxide), focusing on hydrogen bonds and structure of the molecule. (JN)

  4. 7 CFR 58.431 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 58.431 Section 58.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.431 Hydrogen peroxide. The solution shall comply with the specification of the U.S...

  5. 7 CFR 58.431 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 58.431 Section 58.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.431 Hydrogen peroxide. The solution shall comply with the specification of the U.S...

  6. 7 CFR 58.431 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 58.431 Section 58.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.431 Hydrogen peroxide. The solution shall comply with the specification of the U.S...

  7. 7 CFR 58.431 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 58.431 Section 58.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.431 Hydrogen peroxide. The solution shall comply with the specification of the U.S...

  8. 7 CFR 58.431 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 58.431 Section 58.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.431 Hydrogen peroxide. The solution shall comply with the specification of the U.S...

  9. [Advances in peroxide-based decontaminating technologies].

    PubMed

    Xi, Hai-ling; Zhao, San-ping; Zhou, Wen

    2013-05-01

    With the boosting demand for eco-friendly decontaminants, great achievements in peroxide-based decontaminating technologies have been made in recent years. These technologies have been applied in countering chemical/biological terrorist attacks, dealing with chemical/biological disasters and destructing environmental pollutants. Recent research advances in alpha-nucleophilic/oxidative reaction mechanisms of peroxide-based decontamination against chemical warfare agents were reviewed, and some classical peroxide-based decontaminants such as aqueous decontaminating solution, decontaminating foam, decontaminating emulsions, decontaminating gels, decontaminating vapors, and some newly developed decontaminating media (e.g., peroxide-based self-decontaminating materials and heterogeneous nano-catalytic decontamination systems) were introduced. However, currently available peroxide-based decontaminants still have some deficiencies. For example, their decontamination efficiencies are not as high as those of chlorine-containing decontaminants, and some peroxide-based decontaminants show relatively poor effect against certain agents. More study on the mechanisms of peroxide-based decontaminants and the interfacial interactions in heterogeneous decontamination media is suggested. New catalysts, multifunctional surfactants, self-decontaminating materials and corrosion preventing technologies should be developed before peroxide-based decontaminants really become true "green" decontaminants.

  10. Fundamentals of ISCO Using Hydrogen Peroxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogen peroxide is a common oxidant that has been applied extensively with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). Because of its widespread use in this and other fields, it has been extensively researched. This research has revealed that hydrogen peroxide has very complex chemistry...

  11. 21 CFR 172.802 - Acetone peroxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... grams to 10 grams of hydrogen peroxide equivalent per 100 grams of the additive, plus carrier, for use in flour maturing and bleaching; or (2) approximately 0.75 gram of hydrogen peroxide equivalent per 100 grams of the additive, plus carrier, for use in dough conditioning. (c) It is used or intended for...

  12. 21 CFR 172.802 - Acetone peroxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... grams to 10 grams of hydrogen peroxide equivalent per 100 grams of the additive, plus carrier, for use in flour maturing and bleaching; or (2) approximately 0.75 gram of hydrogen peroxide equivalent per 100 grams of the additive, plus carrier, for use in dough conditioning. (c) It is used or intended for...

  13. 21 CFR 172.802 - Acetone peroxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... may be mixed with an edible carrier to give a concentration of: (1) 3 grams to 10 grams of hydrogen peroxide equivalent per 100 grams of the additive, plus carrier, for use in flour maturing and bleaching; or (2) approximately 0.75 gram of hydrogen peroxide equivalent per 100 grams of the additive, plus...

  14. 21 CFR 172.802 - Acetone peroxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... grams to 10 grams of hydrogen peroxide equivalent per 100 grams of the additive, plus carrier, for use in flour maturing and bleaching; or (2) approximately 0.75 gram of hydrogen peroxide equivalent per 100 grams of the additive, plus carrier, for use in dough conditioning. (c) It is used or intended for...

  15. 21 CFR 172.802 - Acetone peroxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... grams to 10 grams of hydrogen peroxide equivalent per 100 grams of the additive, plus carrier, for use in flour maturing and bleaching; or (2) approximately 0.75 gram of hydrogen peroxide equivalent per 100 grams of the additive, plus carrier, for use in dough conditioning. (c) It is used or intended for...

  16. Vapor Hydrogen Peroxide Sterilization Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Chung, Shirley; Barengoltz, Jack

    For interplanetary missions landing on a planet of potential biological interest, United States NASA planetary protection currently requires that the flight system must be assembled, tested and ultimately launched with the intent of minimizing the bioload taken to and deposited on the planet. Currently the only NASA approved microbial reduction method is dry heat sterilization process. However, with utilization of such elements as highly sophisticated electronics and sensors in modern spacecraft, this process presents significant materials challenges and is thus an undesirable bioburden reduction method to design engineers. The objective of this work is to introduce vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an alternative to dry heat microbial reduction to meet planetary protection requirements. The VHP sterilization technology is widely used by the medical industry, but high doses of VHP may degrade the performance of flight hardware, or compromise material compatibility. The goal of our study is determine the minimum VHP process conditions for PP acceptable microbial reduction levels. A series of experiments were conducted using Geobacillus stearothermophilus to determine VHP process parameters that provided significant reductions in spore viability while allowing survival of sufficient spores for statistically significant enumeration. In addition to the obvious process parameters -hydrogen peroxide concentration, number of pulses, and exposure duration -the investigation also considered the possible effect of environmental pa-rameters. Temperature, relative humidity, and material substrate effects on lethality were also studied. Based on the results, a most conservative D value was recommended. This recom-mended D value was also validated using VHP "hardy" strains that were isolated from clean-rooms and environmental populations collected from spacecraft relevant areas. The efficiency of VHP at ambient condition as well as VHP material compatibility will also be

  17. Assay to detect lipid peroxidation upon exposure to nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Potter, Timothy M; Neun, Barry W; Stern, Stephan T

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes a method for the analysis of human hepatocarcinoma cells (HEP G2) for lipid peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), following treatment with nanoparticle formulations. Oxidative stress has been identified as a likely mechanism of nanoparticle toxicity, and cell-based in vitro systems for evaluation of nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress are widely considered to be an important component of biocompatibility screens. The products of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides, and aldehydes, such as MDA, can be measured via a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. In this assay, which can be performed in cell culture or in cell lysate, MDA combines with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) to form a fluorescent adduct that can be detected at an excitation wavelength of 530 nm and an emission wavelength of 550 nm. The results are then expressed as MDA equivalents, normalized to total cellular protein (determined by Bradford assay).

  18. Preparation of water soluble chitosan by hydrolysis using hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhenqiang; Wu, Shengjun; Chen, Jinhua

    2013-08-01

    Chitosan is not soluble in water, which limits its wide application particularly in the medicine and food industry. In the present study, water soluble chitosan (WSC) was prepared by hydrolyzing chitosan using hydrogen peroxide under the catalysis of phosphotungstic acid in homogeneous phase. Factors affecting hydrolysis were investigated and the optimal hydrolysis conditions were determined. The WSC structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The resulting products were composed of chitooligosaccharides of DP 2-9. The WSC content of the product and the yield were 94.7% and 92.3% (w/w), respectively. The results indicate that WSC can be effectively prepared by hydrolysis of chitosan using hydrogen peroxide under the catalysis of phosphotungstic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Simple, field portable colorimetric detection device for organic peroxides and hydrogen peroxide

    DOEpatents

    Pagoria, Philip F.; Mitchell, Alexander R.; Whipple, Richard E.; Carman, M. Leslie; Reynolds, John G.; Nunes, Peter; Shields, Sharon J.

    2010-11-09

    A simple and effective system for the colorimetric determination of organic peroxides and hydrogen peroxide. A peroxide pen utilizing a swipe material attached to a polyethylene tube contains two crushable vials. The two crushable vials contain a colorimetric reagent separated into dry ingredients and liquid ingredients. After swiping a suspected substance or surface the vials are broken, the reagent is mixed thoroughly and the reagent is allowed to wick into the swipe material. The presence of organic peroxides or hydrogen peroxide is confirmed by a deep blue color.

  20. Rearrangements of organic peroxides and related processes

    PubMed Central

    Yaremenko, Ivan A; Vil’, Vera A; Demchuk, Dmitry V

    2016-01-01

    Summary This review is the first to collate and summarize main data on named and unnamed rearrangement reactions of peroxides. It should be noted, that in the chemistry of peroxides two types of processes are considered under the term rearrangements. These are conventional rearrangements occurring with the retention of the molecular weight and transformations of one of the peroxide moieties after O–O-bond cleavage. Detailed information about the Baeyer−Villiger, Criegee, Hock, Kornblum−DeLaMare, Dakin, Elbs, Schenck, Smith, Wieland, and Story reactions is given. Unnamed rearrangements of organic peroxides and related processes are also analyzed. The rearrangements and related processes of important natural and synthetic peroxides are discussed separately. PMID:27559418

  1. A novel procedure to assess the non-enzymatic hydrogen-peroxide antioxidant capacity of metabolites with high UV absorption.

    PubMed

    Csepregi, Kristóf; Hideg, Éva

    2016-12-01

    Assays assessing non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide antioxidant capacities are often hampered by the high UV absorption of the sample itself. This is a typical problem in studies using plant extracts with high polyphenol content. Our assay is based on comparing the 405 nm absorption of the product of potassium iodine and hydrogen peroxide in the presence and absence of a putative hydrogen peroxide reactive antioxidant. This method is free of interference with either hydrogen peroxide or antioxidant self-absorption and it is also suitable for high-throughput plate reader applications.

  2. Rapid detection of benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour by using Raman scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Juan; Peng, Yankun; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Dhakal, Sagar; Xu, Tianfeng

    2015-05-01

    Benzoyl peroxide is a common flour additive that improves the whiteness of flour and the storage properties of flour products. However, benzoyl peroxide adversely affects the nutritional content of flour, and excess consumption causes nausea, dizziness, other poisoning, and serious liver damage. This study was focus on detection of the benzoyl peroxide added in wheat flour. A Raman scattering spectroscopy system was used to acquire spectral signal from sample data and identify benzoyl peroxide based on Raman spectral peak position. The optical devices consisted of Raman spectrometer and CCD camera, 785 nm laser module, optical fiber, prober, and a translation stage to develop a real-time, nondestructive detection system. Pure flour, pure benzoyl peroxide and different concentrations of benzoyl peroxide mixed with flour were prepared as three sets samples to measure the Raman spectrum. These samples were placed in the same type of petri dish to maintain a fixed distance between the Raman CCD and petri dish during spectral collection. The mixed samples were worked by pretreatment of homogenization and collected multiple sets of data of each mixture. The exposure time of this experiment was set at 0.5s. The Savitzky Golay (S-G) algorithm and polynomial curve-fitting method was applied to remove the fluorescence background from the Raman spectrum. The Raman spectral peaks at 619 cm-1, 848 cm-1, 890 cm-1, 1001 cm-1, 1234 cm-1, 1603cm-1, 1777cm-1 were identified as the Raman fingerprint of benzoyl peroxide. Based on the relationship between the Raman intensity of the most prominent peak at around 1001 cm-1 and log values of benzoyl peroxide concentrations, the chemical concentration prediction model was developed. This research demonstrated that Raman detection system could effectively and rapidly identify benzoyl peroxide adulteration in wheat flour. The experimental result is promising and the system with further modification can be applicable for more products in near

  3. Detection of hydrogen peroxide with chemiluminescent micelles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongwon; Erigala, Venkata R; Dasari, Madhuri; Yu, Junhua; Dickson, Robert M; Murthy, Niren

    2008-01-01

    The overproduction of hydrogen peroxide is implicated in the progress of numerous life-threatening diseases and there is a great need for the development of contrast agents that can detect hydrogen peroxide in vivo. In this communication, we present a new contrast agent for hydrogen peroxide, termed peroxalate micelles, which detect hydrogen peroxide through chemiluminescence, and have the physical/chemical properties needed for in vivo imaging applications. The peroxalate micelles are composed of amphiphilic peroxalate based copolymers and the fluorescent dye rubrene, they have a ‘stealth’ polyethylene glycol (PEG) corona to evade macrophage phagocytosis, and a diameter of 33 nm to enhance extravasation into permeable tissues. The peroxalate micelles can detect nanomolar concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (>50 nM) and thus have the sensitivity needed to detect physiological concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. We anticipate numerous applications of the peroxalate micelles for in vivo imaging of hydrogen peroxide, given their high sensitivity, small size, and biocompatible PEG corona. PMID:19337415

  4. Characterization of an organic phase peroxide biosensor based on horseradish peroxidase immobilized in Eastman AQ.

    PubMed

    Konash, Anastassija; Magner, Edmond

    2006-07-15

    Due to their frequent occurrence in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products, and their poor solubility in water, the detection of peroxides in organic solvents has aroused significant interest. For diagnostics or on-site testing, a fast and specific experimental approach is required. Although aqueous peroxide biosensors are well known, they are usually not suitable for nonaqueous applications due to their instability. Here we describe an organic phase biosensor for hydrogen peroxide based on horseradish peroxidase immobilized in an Eastman AQ 55 polymer matrix. Rotating disc amperometry was used to examine the effect of the solvent properties, the amount and pH of added buffer, the concentration of peroxide and ferrocene dimethanol, and the amount of Eastman AQ 55 and of enzyme on the response of the biosensor to hydrogen peroxide. The response of the biosensor was limited by diffusion. Linear responses (with detection limits to hydrogen peroxide given in parentheses) were obtained in methanol (1.2 microM), ethanol (0.6 microM), 1-propanol (2.8 microM), acetone (1.4 microM), acetonitrile (2.6 microM), and ethylene glycol (13.6 microM). The rate of diffusion of ferrocene dimethanol was more constrained than the rate of diffusion of hydrogen peroxide, resulting in a comparatively narrow linear range. The main advantages of the sensor are its ease of use and a high degree of reproducibility, together with good operational and storage stability.

  5. Metal peroxide- polymer composites for dye degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anshu, Ashwini; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2017-11-01

    Semiconductor metal oxides/its composites with polymers have been explored for dye degradation through photocatalytic mechanism; these require UV or visible light for activation. Hence, there is need to develop (photo) catalyst that work in absence/presence of light. Towards this objective we are exploring metal peroxides and its composites for dye degradation. Here, we report our work on magnesium peroxide and its composites for dye degradation by photochemical pathways. The nanocomposites are synthesized from monomers and peroxides. The synthesized composites have been characterized by IR, DRS and powder XRD. The composites did not degrade dyes in dark.

  6. High temperature decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is oxidized into nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2) by the high temperature decomposition of a hydrogen peroxide solution to produce the oxidative free radicals, hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl. The hydrogen peroxide solution is impinged upon a heated surface in a stream of nitric oxide where it decomposes to produce the oxidative free radicals. Because the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide solution occurs within the stream of the nitric oxide, rapid gas-phase oxidation of nitric oxide into nitrogen dioxide occurs.

  7. High temperature decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is oxidized into nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2) by the high temperature decomposition of a hydrogen peroxide solution to produce the oxidative free radicals, hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl. The hydrogen peroxide solution is impinged upon a heated surface in a stream of nitric oxide where it decomposes to produce the oxidative free radicals. Because the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide solution occurs within the stream of the nitric oxide, rapid gas-phase oxidation of nitric oxide into nitrogen dioxide occurs.

  8. [Accelerated senescence of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut tissues in relation to hydrogen peroxide accumulation].

    PubMed

    Peng, Li-Tao; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Yang, Shu-Zhen; Pan, Si-Yi

    2005-10-01

    Accelerated senescence of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut (CWC) tissues in relation to active oxygen species (AOS) metabolism was investigated. Fresh-cut CWC (2 mm thick) and intact CWC were stored at 4 degrees C in trays wrapped with plastic films. Changes in superoxide anion production rate, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were monitored, while contents of hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid, MDA as well as electrolyte leakage were measured. Fresh-cutting of CWC induced activities of SOD, CAT and APX to a certain extent (Fig. 2B and Fig. 3), but simultaneously stimulated superoxide anion production markedly (Fig. 2A), enhanced hydrogen peroxide accumulation and accelerated loss in ascorbic acid (Figs. 4 and 5), which resulted in increased lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage (Fig. 1). Statistics analysis indicated that there was a significantly positive correlation among hydrogen peroxide accumulation, MDA content and electrolyte leakage (Table 1). Histochemical detection with 3, 3'-diaminobenzidine further demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide accumulation increased in fresh-cut CWC during storage (Fig. 5). AOS production rate and activities of SOD, CAT and APX changed little while no obvious hydrogen peroxide accumulation was observed, in intact CWC during storage.

  9. Isothermal Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide Dihydrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new method of growing pure solid hydrogen peroxide in an ultra high vacuum environment and apply it to determine thermal stability of the dihydrate compound that forms when water and hydrogen peroxide are mixed at low temperatures. Using infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, we quantified the isothermal decomposition of the metastable dihydrate at 151.6 K. This decomposition occurs by fractional distillation through the preferential sublimation of water, which leads to the formation of pure hydrogen peroxide. The results imply that in an astronomical environment where condensed mixtures of H2O2 and H2O are shielded from radiolytic decomposition and warmed to temperatures where sublimation is significant, highly concentrated or even pure hydrogen peroxide may form.

  10. NASA Hydrogen Peroxide Propellant Hazards Technical Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David L.; Greene, Ben; Frazier, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    The Fire, Explosion, Compatibility and Safety Hazards of Hydrogen Peroxide NASA technical manual was developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility. NASA Technical Memorandum TM-2004-213151 covers topics concerning high concentration hydrogen peroxide including fire and explosion hazards, material and fluid reactivity, materials selection information, personnel and environmental hazards, physical and chemical properties, analytical spectroscopy, specifications, analytical methods, and material compatibility data. A summary of hydrogen peroxide-related accidents, incidents, dose calls, mishaps and lessons learned is included. The manual draws from art extensive literature base and includes recent applicable regulatory compliance documentation. The manual may be obtained by United States government agencies from NASA Johnson Space Center and used as a reference source for hazards and safe handling of hydrogen peroxide.

  11. Hydroxynonenal and uncoupling proteins: a model for protection against oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Echtay, Karim S; Pakay, Julian L; Esteves, Telma C; Brand, Martin D

    2005-01-01

    In this mini review we summarize recent studies from our laboratory that show the involvement of superoxide and the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal in the regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling. Superoxide produced during mitochondrial respiration is a major cause of the cellular oxidative damage that may underlie degenerative diseases and ageing. Superoxide production is very sensitive to the magnitude of the mitochondrial protonmotive force, so can be strongly decreased by mild uncoupling. Superoxide is able to give rise to other reactive oxygen species, which elicit deleterious effects primarily by oxidizing intracellular components, including lipids, DNA and proteins. Superoxide-induced lipid peroxidation leads to the production of reactive aldehydes, including 4-hydroxynonenal. These aldehydic lipid peroxidation products are in turn able to modify proteins such as mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and the adenine nucleotide translocase, converting them into active proton transporters. This activation induces mild uncoupling and so diminishes mitochondrial superoxide production, hence protecting against disease and oxidative damage at the expense of energy production.

  12. EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION CATALYST TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    HALGREN DL

    2008-07-30

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) main treatment train includes the peroxide destruction module (PDM) where the hydrogen peroxide residual from the upstream ultraviolet light/hydrogen peroxide oxidation unit is destroyed. Removal of the residual peroxide is necessary to protect downstream membranes from the strong oxidizer. The main component of the PDM is two reaction vessels utilizing granular activated carbon (GAC) as the reaction media. The PDM experienced a number of operability problems, including frequent plugging, and has not been utilized since the ETF changed to groundwater as the predominant feed. The unit seemed to be underperforming in regards tomore » peroxide removal during the early periods of operation as well. It is anticipated that a functional PDM will be required for wastewater from the vitrification plant and other future streams. An alternate media or methodology needs to be identified to replace the GAC in the PDMs. This series of bench scale tests is to develop information to support an engineering study on the options for replacement of the existing GAC method for peroxide destruction at the ETF. A number of different catalysts will be compared as well as other potential methods such as strong reducing agents. The testing should lead to general conclusions on the viability of different catalysts and identify candidates for further study and evaluation.« less

  13. Determination of berberine in pharmaceutical preparations using acidic hydrogen peroxide-nitrite chemiluminescence system.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yao-Dong; Yu, Chun-Xia

    2013-03-01

    A stronger chemiluminescence (CL) was observed when hydrogen peroxide was mixed with nitrite and berberine in sulfuric acid solution. The stronger CL originated from peroxidation of berberine by peroxynitrous acid that was synthesized online by the mixing of acidic hydrogen peroxide solution with nitrite solution in a flow system. The emitting species was excited state oxyberberine, a peroxidized product of berberine. Based on the stronger CL, a flow injection CL method for the determination of berberine was proposed. Under optimum experimental conditions, the stronger CL intensity was linearly related to the concentration of berberine over the range of 2.0 × 10(-7) -2.0 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) . The limit of detection (s/n = 3) was 6.2 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) . The proposed method has been evaluated by analyzing berberine in pharmaceutical preparations. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Chemistry and biology of ω-3 PUFA peroxidation-derived compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weicang; Yang, Haixia; Johnson, David; Gensler, Catherine; Decker, Eric; Zhang, Guodong

    2017-09-01

    The ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are among the most popular dietary supplements in the US, but they are chemically unstable and highly prone to lipid peroxidation. Many studies performed in different countries demonstrate that the majority of ω-3 PUFA products on the market are oxidized, suggesting that the resulting ω-3 PUFA peroxidation-derived compounds could be widely consumed by the general public. Therefore, it is of practical importance to understand the effects of these oxidized lipid compounds on human health. In this review, we summarize and discuss the chemical structures and biological activities of ω-3 PUFA peroxidation-derived compounds, and emphasize the importance to better understand the role of lipid peroxidation in biological activities of ω-3 PUFAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 21 CFR 178.1005 - Hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide solution. 178.1005 Section 178... Growth of Microorganisms § 178.1005 Hydrogen peroxide solution. Hydrogen peroxide solution identified in...)(1) of this section. (a) Identity. For the purpose of this section, hydrogen peroxide solution is an...

  16. Lipid Peroxidation and Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Levels in Gastric Cancer at Pathologic Stages.

    PubMed

    Tüzün, Sefa; Yücel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Kemik, Ahu Sarbay; Kemik, Ozgür

    2012-09-01

    High levels of TGF-β1 and enhanced TGF-β1 receptor signaling are related to the pathology of gastric cancer. This effect is caused by oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation products. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of TGF-β1 and lipid peroxidation products in gastric cancer patients and their correlation with pathologic stage. Lipid peroxidation products and TGF-β1 levels were studied in the serum samples of 50 gastric cancer patients and 18 control subjects. HNE-protein adducts and TGF-β1 levels were significantly higher in T2, T3 and T4 gastric cancers than in either the T1 stage or controls (p<0.001). Pathologic stage was correlated with TGF-β1 levels (r=0.702, p<0.05). These markers production may contribute to tumor angiogenesis and aid in the prognosis of the gastric cancer.

  17. Mechanisms of haptoglobin protection against hemoglobin peroxidation triggered endothelial damage.

    PubMed

    Schaer, C A; Deuel, J W; Bittermann, A G; Rubio, I G; Schoedon, G; Spahn, D R; Wepf, R A; Vallelian, F; Schaer, D J

    2013-11-01

    Extracellular hemoglobin (Hb) has been recognized as a disease trigger in hemolytic conditions such as sickle cell disease, malaria, and blood transfusion. In vivo, many of the adverse effects of free Hb can be attenuated by the Hb scavenger acute-phase protein haptoglobin (Hp). The primary physiologic disturbances that can be caused by free Hb are found within the cardiovascular system and Hb-triggered oxidative toxicity toward the endothelium has been promoted as a potential mechanism. The molecular mechanisms of this toxicity as well as of the protective activities of Hp are not yet clear. Within this study, we systematically investigated the structural, biochemical, and cell biologic nature of Hb toxicity in an endothelial cell system under peroxidative stress. We identified two principal mechanisms of oxidative Hb toxicity that are mediated by globin degradation products and by modified lipoprotein species, respectively. The two damage pathways trigger diverse and discriminative inflammatory and cytotoxic responses. Hp provides structural stabilization of Hb and shields Hb's oxidative reactions with lipoproteins, providing dramatic protection against both pathways of toxicity. By these mechanisms, Hp shifts Hb's destructive pseudo-peroxidative reaction to a potential anti-oxidative function during peroxidative stress.

  18. Effect of americium-241 on luminous bacteria. Role of peroxides.

    PubMed

    Alexandrova, M; Rozhko, T; Vydryakova, G; Kudryasheva, N

    2011-04-01

    The effect of americium-241 ((241)Am), an alpha-emitting radionuclide of high specific activity, on luminous bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum was studied. Traces of (241)Am in nutrient media (0.16-6.67 kBq/L) suppressed the growth of bacteria, but enhanced luminescence intensity and quantum yield at room temperature. Lower temperature (4 °C) increased the time of bacterial luminescence and revealed a stage of bioluminescence inhibition after 150 h of bioluminescence registration start. The role of conditions of exposure the bacterial cells to the (241)Am is discussed. The effect of (241)Am on luminous bacteria was attributed to peroxide compounds generated in water solutions as secondary products of radioactive decay. Increase of peroxide concentration in (241)Am solutions was demonstrated; and the similarity of (241)Am and hydrogen peroxide effects on bacterial luminescence was revealed. The study provides a scientific basis for elaboration of bioluminescence-based assay to monitor radiotoxicity of alpha-emitting radionuclides in aquatic solutions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrogen Peroxide Inhibits Cytochrome P450 Epoxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Brandon T.; Gutterman, David D.; Sato, Atsushi; Toyama, Kazuyoshi; Campbell, William B.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Manthati, Vijay L.; Falck, John R.; Miura, Hiroto

    2008-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 epoxygenase (CYP)-derived metabolites of arachidonic acid the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) both function as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) in the human coronary microcirculation. However, the relative importance of and potential interactions between these 2 vasodilators remain unexplored. We identified a novel inhibitory interaction between CYPs and H2O2 in human coronary arterioles, where EDHF-mediated vasodilatory mechanisms are prominent. Bradykinin induced vascular superoxide and H2O2 production in an endothelium-dependent manner and elicited a concentration-dependent dilation that was reduced by catalase but not by 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (EEZE), 6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl)hexanoic acid, sulfaphenazole, or iberiotoxin. However, in the presence of catalase, an inhibitory effect of these compounds was unmasked. In a tandem-bioassay preparation, application of bradykinin to endothelium-intact donor vessels elicited dilation of downstream endothelium-denuded detectors that was partially inhibited by donor-applied catalase but not by detector-applied EEZE; however, EEZE significantly inhibited dilation in the presence of catalase. EET production by human recombinant CYP 2C9 and 2J2, 2 major epoxygenase isozymes expressed in human coronary arterioles, was directly inhibited in a concentration-dependent fashion by H2O2 in vitro, as observed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); however, EETs were not directly sensitive to oxidative modification. H2O2 inhibited dilation to arachidonic acid but not to 11,12-EET. These findings suggest that an inhibitory interaction exists between 2 EDHFs in the human coronary microcirculation. CYP epoxygenases are directly inhibited by H2O2, and this interaction may modulate vascular EET bioavailability. PMID:17975109

  20. Localised hydrogen peroxide sensing for reproductive health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdey, Malcolm S.; Schartner, Erik P.; Sutton-McDowall, Melanie L.; Ritter, Lesley J.; Thompson, Jeremy G.; Monro, Tanya M.; Abell, Andrew D.

    2015-05-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to affect the developmental competence of embryos. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) an important reactive oxygen species, is also known to causes DNA damage and defective sperm function. Current techniques require incubating a developing embryo with an organic fluorophore which is potentially hazardous for the embryo. What we need is a localised ROS sensor which does not require fluorophores in solution and hence will allow continuous monitoring of H2O2 production without adversely affect the development of the embryo. Here we report studies on such a fibre-based sensor for the detection of H2O2 that uses a surface-bound aryl boronate fluorophore carboxyperoxyfluor-1(CPF1). Optical fibres present a unique platform due to desirable characteristics as dip sensors in biological solutions. Attempts to functionalise the fibre tips using polyelectrolyte layers and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) coatings resulted in a limited signal and poor fluorescent response to H2O2 due to a low tip surface density of the fluorophore. To increase the surface density, CPF1 was integrated into a polymer matrix formed on the fibre tip by a UV-catalysed polymerisation process of acrylamide onto a methacrylate silane layer. The polyacrylamide containing CPF1 gave a much higher surface density than previous surface attachment methods and the sensor was found to effectively detect H2O2. Using this method, biologically relevant concentrations of H2O2 were detected, enabling remote sensing studies into ROS releases from embryos throughout early development.

  1. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on antibacterial activities of Canadian honeys.

    PubMed

    Brudzynski, Katrina

    2006-12-01

    Honey is recognized as an efficacious topical antimicrobial agent in the treatment of burns and wounds. The antimicrobial activity in some honeys depends on the endogenous hydrogen peroxide content. This study was aimed to determine whether honey's hydrogen peroxide level could serve as a honey-specific, activity-associated biomarker that would allow predicting and assessing the therapeutic effects of honey. Using a broth microdilution assay, I analyzed antibacterial activities of 42 Canadian honeys against two bacterial strains: Escherichia coli (ATCC 14948) and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633). The MIC90 and MIC50 were established from the dose-response relationship between antibacterial activities and honey concentrations. The impact of H2O2 on antibacterial activity was determined (i) by measuring the levels of H2O2 before and after its removal by catalase and (ii) by correlating the results with levels of antibacterial activities. Canadian honeys demonstrated moderate to high antibacterial activity against both bacterial species. Both MIC90 and MIC50 revealed that the honeys exhibited a selective growth inhibitory activity against E. coli, and this activity was strongly influenced by endogenous H2O2 concentrations. Bacillus subtilis activity was marginally significantly correlated with H2O2 content. The removal of H2O2 by catalase reduced the honeys' antibacterial activity, but the enzyme was unable to completely decompose endogenous H2O2. The 25%-30% H2O2 "leftover" was significantly correlated with the honeys' residual antibacterial activity against E. coli. These data indicate that all Canadian honeys exhibited antibacterial activity, with higher selectivity against E. coli than B. subtilis, and that these antibacterial activities were correlated with hydrogen peroxide production in honeys. Hydrogen peroxide levels in honey, therefore, is a strong predictor of the honey's antibacterial activity.

  2. PROCESS OF ELIMINATING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Barrick, J.G.; Fries, B.A.

    1960-09-27

    A procedure is given for peroxide precipitation processes for separating and recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution. When plutonium peroxide is precipitated from an aqueous solution, the supernatant contains appreciable quantities of plutonium and peroxide. It is desirable to process this solution further to recover plutonium contained therein, but the presence of the peroxide introduces difficulties; residual hydrogen peroxide contained in the supernatant solution is eliminated by adding a nitrite or a sulfite to this solution.

  3. Catalyst Development for Hydrogen Peroxide Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morlan, P. W.; Wu, P.-K.; Ruttle, D. W.; Fuller, R. P.; Nejad, A. S.; Anderson, W. E.

    1999-01-01

    The development of various catalysts of hydrogen peroxide was conducted for the applications of liquid rocket engines. The catalyst development includes silver screen technology, solid catalyst technology, and homogeneous catalyst technology. The silver screen technology development was performed with 85% (by weight) hydrogen peroxide. The results of this investigation were used as the basis for the catalyst design of a pressure-fed liquid-fueled upper stage engine. Both silver-plated nickel 200 screens and pure silver screens were used as the active metal catalyst during the investigation, The data indicate that a high decomposition efficiency (greater than 90%) of 85% hydrogen peroxide can be achieved at a bed loading of 0.5 lbm/sq in/sec with both pure silver and silver plated screens. Samarium oxide coating, however, was found to retard the decomposition process and the catalyst bed was flooded at lower bed loading. A throughput of 200 lbm of hydrogen peroxide (1000 second run time) was tested to evaluate the catalyst aging issue and performance degradation was observed starting at approximately 400 seconds. Catalyst beds of 3.5 inch in diameter was fabricated using the same configuration for a 1,000-lbf rocket engine. High decomposition efficiency was obtained with a low pressure drop across the bed. Solid catalyst using precious metal was also developed for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide from 85% to 98% by weight. Preliminary results show that the catalyst has a strong reactivity even after 15 minutes of peroxide decomposition. The development effort also includes the homogeneous catalyst technology. Various non-toxic catalysts were evaluated with 98% peroxide and hydrocarbon fuels. The results of open cup drop tests indicate an ignition delay around 11 ms.

  4. [Status of the lipid peroxidation system in the tissues of rats following a 7-day flight on the Kosmos-1667 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Delenian, N V; Markin, A A

    1989-01-01

    Rats flown for 7 days on Cosmos-1667 were for the first time used to measure antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase), lipid peroxidation products (diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, Schiff bases) and tocopherol. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in the heart was completely compensated by activation of antioxidative enzymes. The content of all lipid peroxidation products measured in the liver increased; this was accompanied by a decrease of glutathione peroxidase and an increase of superoxide dismutase activities. It is suggested that lipid peroxidation was activated in response to altered gravity.

  5. Nanostructuring one-dimensional and amorphous lithium peroxide for high round-trip efficiency in lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Arghya; Wong, Raymond A; Park, Woonghyeon; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Ohta, Toshiaki; Jung, Yousung; Byon, Hye Ryung

    2018-02-14

    The major challenge facing lithium-oxygen batteries is the insulating and bulk lithium peroxide discharge product, which causes sluggish decomposition and increasing overpotential during recharge. Here, we demonstrate an improved round-trip efficiency of ~80% by means of a mesoporous carbon electrode, which directs the growth of one-dimensional and amorphous lithium peroxide. Morphologically, the one-dimensional nanostructures with small volume and high surface show improved charge transport and promote delithiation (lithium ion dissolution) during recharge and thus plays a critical role in the facile decomposition of lithium peroxide. Thermodynamically, density functional calculations reveal that disordered geometric arrangements of the surface atoms in the amorphous structure lead to weaker binding of the key reaction intermediate lithium superoxide, yielding smaller oxygen reduction and evolution overpotentials compared to the crystalline surface. This study suggests a strategy to enhance the decomposition rate of lithium peroxide by exploiting the size and shape of one-dimensional nanostructured lithium peroxide.

  6. Impacts of heterogeneous reactions to atmospheric peroxides: Observations and budget analysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Mengru; Chen, Zhongming; Shen, Hengqing; Li, Huan; Wu, Huihui; Wang, Yin

    2018-06-01

    Atmospheric peroxides play important roles in atmospheric chemistry, acting as reactive oxidants and reservoirs of HOX and ROX radicals. Field measurements of atmospheric peroxides were conducted over urban Beijing from 2015 to 2016, including dust storm days, haze days and different seasons. We employed a box model based on RACM2 mechanism to conduct concentration simulation and budget analysis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and peroxyacetic acid (PAA). In this study, heterogeneous reaction is found to be a significant sink for atmospheric H2O2 and PAA in urban Beijing. Here, we recommend a suitable uptake coefficient formula considering the water effect for model research of peroxides. It is found that H2O2 and PAA unexpectedly maintained considerable concentrations on haze days, even higher than that on non-haze days. This phenomenon is mainly ascribed to relatively high levels of volatile organic compounds and ozone on haze days. In addition, high levels of water vapor in pollution episode can promote not only the heterogeneous uptake to aerosol phase but also the production of H2O2. Atmospheric PAA formation is suggested to be sensitive to alkenes and NOX in urban Beijing. In particular, with the help of peroxides, sulfate formation rate from heterogeneous uptake could increase by ∼4 times on haze days, indicating the potential effect of peroxides on enhancement of aerosol oxidative property and secondary sulfate formation.

  7. Resistance to Botrytis cinerea in sitiens, an Abscisic Acid-Deficient Tomato Mutant, Involves Timely Production of Hydrogen Peroxide and Cell Wall Modifications in the Epidermis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Asselbergh, Bob; Curvers, Katrien; França, Soraya C.; Audenaert, Kris; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Van Breusegem, Frank; Höfte, Monica

    2007-01-01

    Plant defense mechanisms against necrotrophic pathogens, such as Botrytis cinerea, are considered to be complex and to differ from those that are effective against biotrophs. In the abscisic acid-deficient sitiens tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, which is highly resistant to B. cinerea, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was earlier and stronger than in the susceptible wild type at the site of infection. In sitiens, H2O2 accumulation was observed from 4 h postinoculation (hpi), specifically in the leaf epidermal cell walls, where it caused modification by protein cross-linking and incorporation of phenolic compounds. In wild-type tomato plants, H2O2 started to accumulate 24 hpi in the mesophyll layer and was associated with spreading cell death. Transcript-profiling analysis using TOM1 microarrays revealed that defense-related transcript accumulation prior to infection was higher in sitiens than in wild type. Moreover, further elevation of sitiens defense gene expression was stronger than in wild type 8 hpi both in number of genes and in their expression levels and confirmed a role for cell wall modification in the resistant reaction. Although, in general, plant defense-related reactive oxygen species formation facilitates necrotrophic colonization, these data indicate that timely hyperinduction of H2O2-dependent defenses in the epidermal cell wall can effectively block early development of B. cinerea. PMID:17573540

  8. In vivo involvement of cytochrome P450 4A family in the oxidative metabolism of the lipid peroxidation product trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, using PPARalpha-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Guéraud, F; Alary, J; Costet, P; Debrauwer, L; Dolo, L; Pineau, T; Paris, A

    1999-01-01

    Trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is a potent cytotoxic and genotoxic compound originating from the peroxidation of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Its metabolism has been previously studied in the rat (Alary et al. 1995. Chem. Res. Toxicol., 8: 35-39). In addition to major urinary mercapturic derivatives, some polar urinary metabolites were isolated and could correspond to hydroxylated compounds. 4-Hydroxynonenoic acid (HNA), resulting from the oxidation of the HNE carbonyl group, is a medium chain fatty acid and its omega-hydroxylation might be hypothesized. Therefore, the involvement of the CYP 4A family isoenzymes in the metabolism of [3H]HNE has been investigated in vivo using inducer treatments (fibrates) in wild-type or in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-deficient mice. In wild-type mice, but not in PPARalpha (-/-) mice, fibrate treatments resulted in an increase of two urinary metabolites characterized, after HPLC purifications and mass spectrometry analyses, as the omega-hydroxylated metabolite of HNA, i.e., 4,9-dihydroxy-2-nonenoic acid, and its oxidized form, 4-hydroxy-2-nonene-1,9-dicarboxylic acid. The formation of the latter is correlated accurately to laurate hydroxylase activity studied concurrently in microsomes prepared from the liver of these animals. Basal levels of these two metabolites were measured in urine of normal and PPARalpha-deficient mice. These results are in accord with an implication of the P450 4A family in the extended oxidative metabolism of 4-HNE.

  9. Glutamine Deprivation Causes Hydrogen Peroxide-induced Interleukin-8 Expression via Jak1/Stat3 Activation in Gastric Epithelial AGS Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun Mi; Kim, Mi Jung; Kim, Youngha; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Janus kinase (Jak)/Signal transducers of activated transcription (Stat) pathway is an upstream signaling pathway for NF-κB activation in Helicobacter pylori-induced interleukin (IL)-8 production in gastric epithelial AGS cells. H. pylori activates NADPH oxidase and produces hydrogen peroxide, which activates Jak1/Stat3 in AGS cells. Therefore, hydrogen peroxide may be critical for IL-8 production via Jak/Stat activation in gastric epithelial cells. Glutamine is depleted during severe injury and stress and contributes to the formation of glutathione (GSH), which is involved in conversion of hydrogen peroxide into water as a cofactor for GSH peroxidase. Methods: We investigated whether glutamine deprivation induces hydrogen peroxide-mediated IL-8 production and whether hydrogen peroxide activates Jak1/Stat3 to induce IL-8 in AGS cells. Cells were cultured in the presence or absence of glutamine or hydrogen peroxide, with or without GSH or a the Jak/Stat specific inhibitor AG490. Results: Glutamine deprivation decreased GSH levels, but increased levels of hydrogen peroxide and IL-8, an effect that was inhibited by treatment with GSH. Hydrogen peroxide induced the activation of Jak1/Stat3 time-dependently. AG490 suppressed hydrogen peroxide- induced activation of Jak1/Stat3 and IL-8 expression in AGS cells, but did not affect levels of reactive oxygen species in AGS cells. Conclusions: In gastric epithelial AGS cells, glutamine deprivation increases hydrogen peroxide levels and IL-8 expression, which may be mediated by Jak1/Stat3 activation. Glutamine supplementation may be beneficial for preventing gastric inflammation by suppressing hydrogen peroxide-mediated Jak1/Stat3 activation and therefore, reducing IL-8 production. Scavenging hydrogen peroxide or targeting Jak1/Stat3 may also prevent oxidant-mediated gastric inflammation. PMID:26473156

  10. Hydrogen Peroxide - Material Compatibility Studied by Microcalorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homung, Steven D.; Davis, Dennis D.; Baker, David; Popp, Christopher G.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental and toxicity concerns with current hypergolic propellants have led to a renewed interest in propellant grade hydrogen peroxide (HP) for propellant applications. Storability and stability has always been an issue with HP. Contamination or contact of HP with metallic surfaces may cause decomposition, which can result in the evolution of heat and gas leading to increased pressure or thermal hazards. The NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility has developed a technique to monitor the decompositions of hydrogen peroxide at temperatures ranging from 25 to 60 C. Using isothermal microcalorimetry we have measured decomposition rates at the picomole/s/g level showing the catalytic effects of materials of construction. In this paper we will present the results of testing with Class 1 and 2 materials in 90 percent hydrogen peroxide.

  11. Peroxide as a Novel Treatment for Ecchymoses

    PubMed Central

    Sroa, Novie; Campbell, Shannon M.; Bechtel, Mark A.; Mitch Opremcak, E.

    2010-01-01

    Ecchymoses, commonly known as bruises, frequently occur after injury to the skin causes extravasation of red blood cells into interstitial tissue. This extravasation can lead to an inflammatory cascade. The case report presented details one patient who displayed rapid improvement in the pain and appearance of a partially treated bruise on her thigh after an eight-hour application of hydrogen peroxide 15% carbamide gel under occlusion. Hydrogen peroxide 15% carbamide gel may represent a novel treatment for ecchymoses. This potential new treatment for bruises needs to be studied further to detail its adverse effects, safety profile, and efficacy profile. PMID:21103315

  12. [The influence of the actoprotectors on lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte membranes in rats poisoned with malathion ].

    PubMed

    Myshkin, V A; Guliaeva, I A; Ibatullina, R B; Savlukov, A I; Enikeev, D A; Sergeeva, S A

    2004-01-01

    Actoprotecting properties ofbemitil, tietasol in combination with atropin were studied in red cell membranes and lipid peroxidation of rats poisoned with MI in a dose 320 mg/kg (0.9 LD50). Atropin treatment showed a low effect. The addition of bemitil and tietasol normalized electric charge and osmotic resistance in red cell membranes, activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and content of lipid peroxidation products--ketodienes and TBA-reacting products. Efficacy of the combined treatment is due primarily to noncholinergic mechanism of action of bemitil and tietasol--stimulation of endogenic antioxidant systems of erythron and antiradical activity (bemitil).

  13. Effect of quercetin and genistein on copper- and iron-induced lipid peroxidation in methyl linolenate.

    PubMed

    Boadi, William Y; Iyere, Peter A; Adunyah, Samuel E

    2003-01-01

    The single and combined effects of two abundant flavonoids, namely quercetin and genistein, were investigated according to their ability to inhibit the oxidation of methyl linolenate via Fenton's pathway. Antioxidative activity was determined by oxidizing methyl linolenate suspended in a buffer solution with either Fe2+ (50 microM) or Cu2+ (50 microM) and hydrogen peroxide (0.01 mM) without or with a flavonoid sample (10 or 20 microM). Lipid peroxidation products were measured by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay and the amounts of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were calculated from a calibration curve using 1,1,3,3-tetraethoxypropane as the standard. Both quercetin and genistein at the 10 or 20 microM level decreased lipid peroxidation significantly compared with their respective controls. Of the two flavonoids tested, quercetin had a more marked effect on inhibiting lipid peroxides. Peroxidation products for the control samples were higher for the Fe2+-treated samples compared with the Cu2+ samples. Combination of both flavonoids at the same dose levels continued to decrease lipid peroxidation, the effect being the same for both metal ions. The data suggest that the combined flavonoids offered better protection than the single treatments and this may be attributed to the better radical scavenging or increased chelating capabilities of the combined over the single treatments. The differences in peroxide levels for the single treatment of quercetin compared with the genistein-treated samples may reflect the structural differences between these compounds in combating oxidative stress. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide for treating saprolegniasis in channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, G.E.; Gingerich, W.H.; Dawson, V.K.; Olson, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Hatchery-reared fish and their eggs are commonly afflicted with saprolegniasis, a fungal disease that can cause significant losses in production. Fish culturists need safe and effective fungicides to minimize losses and meet production demands. The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide was evaluated for preventing or controlling mortality associated with saprolegniasis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Saprolegniasis was systematically induced in channel catfish so various therapies could be evaluated in a controlled laboratory environment. Both prophylactic and therapeutic hydrogen peroxide bath treatments of 50, 100, and 150 ??L/L for 1 h were administered every other day for seven total treatments. All untreated positive control fish died of saprolegniasis during the prophylactic and therapeutic tests. Hydrogen peroxide treatments of 150 ??L/L were harmful (relative to lower concentrations) to test fish and resulted in 73-95% mortality. Mortality was attributed to a combination of abrasion, temperature, chemical treatment, and disease stressors. Treatments of 100 ??L/L were less harmful (relatively) but also appeared to contribute to mortality (60-79%). These treatments, however, significantly reduced the incidence of mortality and infection compared with those observed for fish of the positive control or 150-??L/L treatment groups. Overall, treatments of 50 ??L/L were found to be the most safe and effective of those tested. Mortality with this concentration ranged from 16% in therapeutic tests to 41% in prophylactic tests. The statistical model employed estimated that the optimum treatment concentration for preventing or controlling mortality, reducing the incidence of infections, and enhancing the recovery of infected fish was 75 ??L H2O2/L.

  15. Ozonation and alkaline-peroxide pretreatment of wheat straw for Cryptococcus curvatus fermentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwalt, C. J.; Hunter, J. B.; Lin, S.; McKenzie, S.; Denvir, A.

    2000-01-01

    Crop residues in an Advanced Life Support System (ALS) contain many valuable components that could be recovered and used. Wheat is 60% inedible, with approximately 90% of the total sugars in the residue cellulose and hemicellulose. To release these sugars requires pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Cryptococcus curvatus, an oleaginous yeast, uses the sugars in cellulose and hemicellulose for growth and production of storage triglycerides. In this investigation, alkaline-peroxide and ozonation pretreatment methods were compared for their efficiency to release glucose and xylose to be used in the cultivation of C. curvatus. Leaching the biomass with water at 65 degrees C for 4 h prior to pretreatment facilitated saccharification. Alkaline-peroxide and ozone pretreatment were almost 100% and 80% saccharification efficient, respectively. The sugars derived from the hydrolysis of alkaline-peroxide-treated wheat straw supported the growth of C. curvatus and the production of edible single-cell oil.

  16. Kinetics of lithium peroxide monohydrate thermal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedov, Roman; Posternak, Nikolay; Ferapontov, Yuriy

    2017-11-01

    Topochemical dehydration of lithium peroxide was studied to determine kinetic parameters at the range of temperatures from 90°C to 147°C in non-isothermal conditions by derivatographic method. The study was conducted to select optimal conditions of lithium peroxide synthesis in dehydration reaction of triple LiOH-H2O2-H2O system in ultra-high frequency radiation field. Conditions of dehydration reaction were caused by the thermal conductivity of LiOH -H2O2-H2O system. It is determined that dehydration process runs close to the first order reaction (n=0.85±0.03). The activation energy and pre-exponential factor values were found as Eak = 86.0 ± 0.8 kJ/mol, k0 = (2.19 ± 0.16) .1011 min-1, correspondingly. It is supposed that there is a similarity between the dehydration mechanism of lithium peroxide monohydrate and peroxide hydrates of alkaline-earth metals (calcium, barium and strontium).

  17. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  18. Investigation of flavonoid influence on peroxidation processes intensity in the blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navolokin, N. A.; Mudrak, D. A.; Plastun, I. L.; Bucharskaya, A. B.; Agandeeva, K. E.; Ivlichev, A. V.; Tychina, S. A.; Afanasyeva, G. A.; Polukonova, N. V.; Maslyakova, G. N.

    2017-03-01

    Influence of flavonoids on the intensity of peroxidation processes in the blood is investigated by numerical modeling and by experiment in vivo. As an example we consider the effects of flavonoid-containing extract of Helichrysum arenarium L. with antitumor activity on serum of rats with transplanted liver cancer PC-1. It was found that the content of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and average mass molecules were decreased in animals with transplanted liver cancer after intramuscular and oral administration of Helichrysum arenarium L extract in a dose of 1000 mg/mL. The extract reduces the intensity of lipid peroxidation processes in animals. The compound formation possibility of flavonoids and products of lipid peroxidation is investigated by numerical simulations. Using the density functional theory method of molecular modeling, we analyze hydrogen bonds formation and their influence on IR - spectra and structure of molecular complex which is formed due to interaction between flavonoids and products of lipid peroxidation processes on example of naringine and malondialdehyde. We have found that naringine can form a steady molecular complex with malondialdehyde by hydrogen bonds formation. Thus, the application of Helichrysum arenarium L. extract for suppression processes of lipid peroxidation and activation of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems is promising.

  19. The hydrogen peroxide impact on larval settlement and metamorphosis of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangjing; Yang, Zhihui; Cai, Zhonghua

    2008-08-01

    Abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta is an important economic mollusk. The settlement and metamorphosis are two critical stages during its development period, which has direct influence on abalone survival and production. The influence of reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide) on abalone embryo and juvenile development were examined in this study. Larvae of Haliotis diversicolor supertexta were induced to settlement and metamorphose by exposure to seawater supplemented with hydrogen peroxide. They had the best performance at 800 μmol/L. The concentration of 1 000 μmol/L or higher was toxic to the larvae, as the larvae could settle down only at benthic diatom plates without complete metamorphosis. In addition, H2O2 adding time was critical to the larval performance. 24h after two-day post-fertilization was proved to be the optimal adding time. In this paper, two action mechanisms of hydrogen peroxide are discussed: (1) hydrogen peroxide has direct toxicity to ciliated cells, thus cause apoptosis; (2) hydrogen peroxide, as a product from catecholamines’ autoxidation process in vivo, can reverse this process to produce neuro-transmitters to induce abalone metamorphosis.

  20. Systems and methods for generation of hydrogen peroxide vapor

    DOEpatents

    Love, Adam H; Eckels, Joel Del; Vu, Alexander K; Alcaraz, Armando; Reynolds, John G

    2014-12-02

    A system according to one embodiment includes a moisture trap for drying air; at least one of a first container and a second container; and a mechanism for at least one of: bubbling dried air from the moisture trap through a hydrogen peroxide solution in the first container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above a hydrogen peroxide solution in the second container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor. A method according one embodiment includes at least one of bubbling dried air through a hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a first hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above the hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a second hydrogen peroxide vapor. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  1. Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in controlling mortality associated with saprolegniasis on walleye, white sucker, and paddlefish eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Rach, J.J.; Drobish, M.; Hamilton, J.; Harder, T.; Lee, L.A.; Moen, C.; Moore, A.

    2003-01-01

    The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in controlling saprolegniasis on eggs of walleye Stizostedion vitreum, white sucker Catostomus commersoni, and paddlefish Polyodon spathula was evaluated at four private, state, and federal production hatcheries participating in an Investigational New Animal Drug efficacy study (experiment 1; walleyes) and in a laboratory-based miniature egg jar incubation system (experiment 2; walleyes, white suckers, and paddlefish). Naturally occurring fungal infestations (saprolegniasis) were observed on eggs in both experiments. Confirmatory diagnosis of infested eggs from one hatchery in experiment 1 identified the pathogen as Saprolegnia parasitica. During experiment 1, eggs were treated daily for 15 min with either 0, 500, or 750 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide, and one trial compared a 500-mg/L hydrogen peroxide treatment with a formalin treatment at 1,667 mg/L. Saprolegniasis infestation was observed in control egg jars, whereas treatment with either formalin or hydrogen peroxide virtually eliminated the infestation. Hydrogen peroxide treatments of 500 mg/L either increased egg hatch or were as effective as physical removal of infested eggs in controlling mortality. Although treatment with formalin at 1,667 mg/L significantly increased the percent eye-up of walleye eggs compared with that of those treated with hydrogen peroxide at 500 mg/L, the difference was only 1.9-2.6%. In experiment 2, noneyed eggs were treated for 15 min every other day with 0, 283, 565, or 1,130 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide until the viable eggs hatched. Saprolegniasis infestation engulfed most control eggs, whereas infestation of treated eggs was either reduced or not visible. Hydrogen peroxide significantly increased egg hatch for all three species tested in experiment 2. Although hydrogen peroxide treatments as low as 283 mg/L significantly increased walleye and white sucker hatch, treatments between 500 and 1,000 mg/L are more likely to be effective in production egg

  2. Noninvasive assessment of peroxidative lung damage by HIPDM lung scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Miniati, M.; Borrelli, E.; Monti, S.

    1991-03-15

    The basic compound iodobenzyl-propanediamine (HIPDM), when given intravenously, is extracted by the lungs whence it is effluxed at a slow exponential rate. In humans (normal non smokers), the mean residence time ({bar t}) of 123I-HIPDM, assessed by external detection, averages 7.2 {plus minus} 1.1 hrs. Persistence of HIPDM in lungs is significantly increased in asymptomatic smokers and, to a greater extent, in patients with ARDS. Since production of free oxygen radicals reportedly occurs as a consequence of smoke exposure and in the course of acute lung injury, the authors hypothesized that the prolonged persistence of HIPDM in the lungs ofmore » smokers and of patients with ARDS might reflect a peroxidative damage of lung tissue. They tested this hypothesis in rabbits since their baseline HIPDM lung clearance is similar to that of nonsmoking humans. In rabbits, acute lung injury was induced by phorbol myristate acetate. Three hrs after PMA administration, the animals received an i.v. bolus of {sup 131}I-HIPDM. Radioactivity over the chest was recorded for 2 hrs by gamma camera and HIPDM mean residence time in the lungs was computed. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and their lungs were removed to measure wet/dry weight ratio as index of lung edema and malondialdehyde (MDA) content as index of lipid peroxidation. HIPDM mean residence time was positively correlated with MDA level in lung tissue, but not with wet/dry weight ratio. Noninvasive assessment of HIPDM lung kinetics may then serve as specific in vivo marker of peroxidative lung injury.« less

  3. 21 CFR 178.1005 - Hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide solution. 178.1005 Section 178... SANITIZERS Substances Utilized To Control the Growth of Microorganisms § 178.1005 Hydrogen peroxide solution. Hydrogen peroxide solution identified in this section may be safely used to sterilize polymeric food...

  4. 21 CFR 178.1005 - Hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide solution. 178.1005 Section 178... SANITIZERS Substances Utilized To Control the Growth of Microorganisms § 178.1005 Hydrogen peroxide solution. Hydrogen peroxide solution identified in this section may be safely used to sterilize polymeric food...

  5. 21 CFR 178.1005 - Hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide solution. 178.1005 Section 178... SANITIZERS Substances Utilized To Control the Growth of Microorganisms § 178.1005 Hydrogen peroxide solution. Hydrogen peroxide solution identified in this section may be safely used to sterilize polymeric food...

  6. 21 CFR 178.1005 - Hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydrogen peroxide solution. 178.1005 Section 178... SANITIZERS Substances Utilized To Control the Growth of Microorganisms § 178.1005 Hydrogen peroxide solution. Hydrogen peroxide solution identified in this section may be safely used to sterilize polymeric food...

  7. MEASUREMENT AND MODELING OF THE DRY DEPOSITION OF PEROXIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of the dry deposition velocity (Vd) of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and total organic peroxides (ROOH) were made during four experiments at three forested sites. Details and uncertainties associated with the measurement of peroxide...

  8. Potential for free radical-induced lipid peroxidation as a cause of endothelial cell injury in Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, D J; Santucci, L A

    1988-01-01

    Cells infected by Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, display unusual intracellular morphological changes characterized by dilatation of the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and outer nuclear envelope. These changes are consistent with those that might be expected to occur following peroxidation of membrane lipids initiated by oxygen radical species, such as the hydroxyl radical or a variety of organic radicals. Using a fluorescent probe, we have found significantly increased levels of peroxides in human endothelial cells infected by R. rickettsii. Studies with desferrioxamine, an iron chelator effective in preventing formation of the hydroxyl radical from hydrogen peroxide and the superoxide free radical, reduced peroxide levels in infected cells to those found in uninfected cells. This observation suggests that the increased peroxides in infected cells may be lipid peroxides, degradation products of free radical attack on polyenoic fatty acids. The potential for lipid peroxidation as an important mechanism in endothelial cell injury caused by R. rickettsii is discussed. Images PMID:3141280

  9. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS AND EPOXIDATION OF OLEFINS WITH HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AS OXIDANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an ideal oxidant of choice for these oxidations due to economic and environmental reasons by giving water as a by-product. Two catalysts used are vanadium phosphorus oxide (VPO) and Fe3+/montmorillonite-K10 catalyst prepared by ion-exchange method at a...

  10. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE FORMATION FROM THE PHOTOOXIDATION OF FORMALDEHYDE AND ITS PRESENCE IN RAINWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The photooxidation of formaldehyde with sunlamps (E(max) = 3100 A) produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at varying concentrations depending upon the amount of water vapor present. It is postulated that the variable production of H2O2 is a result of condensation on the reactor surfac...

  11. The Feasibility of Using Hydrogen Peroxide Decomposition Studies for High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gillian E.

    1986-01-01

    Highlights difficulties that occur when teachers attempt to devise new experiments (use of hydrogen peroxide decomposition) and how seemingly useless results can be turned into productive student projects. Considers effects of ions present in tap water, pH, dust, and nature of vessel's surface. Reaction order and safety precautions are noted. (JN)

  12. Transenamel and transdentinal penetration of hydrogen peroxide applied to cracked or microabrasioned enamel.

    PubMed

    Briso, A L F; Lima, A P B; Gonçalves, R S; Gallinari, M O; dos Santos, P H

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated transenamel and transdentinal penetration of hydrogen peroxide during tooth whitening recognized in altered enamel by the presence of cracks or microabrasion. We used 72 experimental units (n=20) obtained from bovine incisors: GI-sound enamel; GII-teeth showing visible enamel cracks (4 mm to 5.7 mm in length); and GIII-microabrasioned enamel. The 12 remaining specimens were used to analyze the enamel surface morphology using scanning electron microscopy. The specimens were cylindrical and 5.7 mm in diameter and 3.5 mm thick. A product based on 35% hydrogen peroxide was used for bleaching, following the manufacturer's recommendations for use. To quantify the H2O2 penetration, the specimens were placed in artificial pulp chambers containing an acetate buffer solution. After bleaching, the solution was collected and adequately proportioned with leucocrystal violet, peroxidase enzyme, and deionized water. The resulting solution was evaluated using ultraviolet visible reflectance spectrophotometer equipment. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's PLSD at a significance level of 0.05, and significant differences in the penetration of peroxide in different substrate conditions were observed (p<0.0001). The penetration of hydrogen peroxide was more intense in cracked teeth. The group in which the enamel was microabraded showed intermediate values when compared to the control group. Microabrasion and the presence of cracks in the enamel make this substrate more susceptible to penetration of hydrogen peroxide during in-office whitening.

  13. Electrosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide via the reduction of oxygen assisted by power ultrasound.

    PubMed

    González-García, José; Banks, Craig E; Sljukić, Biljana; Compton, Richard G

    2007-04-01

    The electrosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide using the oxygen reduction reaction has been studied in the absence and presence of power ultrasound in a non-optimized sono-electrochemical flow reactor (20 cm cathodic compartment length with 6.5 cm inner diameter) with reticulated vitreous glassy carbon electrode (30 x 40 x 10 mm, 10 ppi, 7 cm(2)cm(-3)) as the cathode. The effect of several electrochemical operational variables (pH, volumetric flow, potential) and of the sono-electrochemical parameters (ultrasound amplitude and horn-to-electrode distance) on the cumulative concentration of hydrogen peroxide and current efficiency of the electrosynthesis process have been explored. The application of power ultrasound was found to increase both the cumulative concentration of hydrogen peroxide and the current efficiency. The application of ultrasound is therefore a promising approach to the increased efficiency of production of hydrogen peroxide by electrosynthesis, even in the solutions of lower pH (<12). The results demonstrate the feasibility of at-site-of-use green synthesis of hydrogen peroxide.

  14. Red fluorescent genetically encoded indicator for intracellular hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakova, Yulia G.; Bilan, Dmitry S.; Matlashov, Mikhail E.; Mishina, Natalia M.; Markvicheva, Ksenia N.; Subach, Oksana M.; Subach, Fedor V.; Bogeski, Ivan; Hoth, Markus; Enikolopov, Grigori; Belousov, Vsevolod V.

    2014-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are conserved regulators of numerous cellular functions, and overproduction of ROS is a hallmark of various pathological processes. Genetically encoded fluorescent probes are unique tools to study ROS production in living systems of different scale and complexity. However, the currently available recombinant redox sensors have green emission, which overlaps with the spectra of many other probes. Expanding the spectral range of recombinant in vivo ROS probes would enable multiparametric in vivo ROS detection. Here we present the first genetically encoded red fluorescent sensor for hydrogen peroxide detection, HyPerRed. The performance of this sensor is similar to its green analogues. We demonstrate the utility of the sensor by tracing low concentrations of H2O2 produced in the cytoplasm of cultured cells upon growth factor stimulation. Moreover, using HyPerRed we detect local and transient H2O2 production in the mitochondrial matrix upon inhibition of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake.

  15. Hydrogen peroxide and the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, C. P.; Hartman, H.

    1991-01-01

    Possible pathways for the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis in the early reducing atmosphere of the earth are discussed. It is suggested that the abiotic production of atmospheric oxidants could have provided a mechanism by which locally oxidizing conditions were sustained within spatially confined habitats thus removing the available reductants and forcing photosynthetic organisms to utilize water (rather than ferrous or sulfide ions) as the electron donor. It is argued that atmospheric H2O2 played the key role in inducing oxygenic photosynthesis, because, as peroxide concentrations local environments increased, primitive organisms would not only be faced with a loss of a reductant, but would be also forced to develop a biochemical apparatus (such as catalase) that would protect them against the products of oxygenic photosynthesis. This scenario allows for the early evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis at the time when global conditions were still anaerobic.

  16. Frost-weathering on Mars: experimental evidence for peroxide formation.

    PubMed

    Huguenin, R L; Miller, K J; Harwood, W S

    1979-12-01

    A laboratory study of the interaction of H2O frost with samples of the minerals olivine (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 and pyroxene (Mg,Fe)SiO3 at -11 degrees C to -22 degrees C revealed that an acidic oxidant was produced. Exposure of the frost-treated minerals to liquie H2O produced a sudden drop in pH and resulted in the production of copious O2(g) (as much as approximately 10(20) molecules g-1). Exposure of frost-treated samples to 5 ml of 0.1M HCOONa solution resulted in the rapid oxidation of up to 43% of the formate to CO2(g). These reactions were qualitatively similar to the chemical activity observed during the active cycles of the Viking lander Gas Exchange and Labeled Release Biology experiments. Attempts to identify the oxidant by chemical indicators were inconclusive, but they tentatively suggested that chemisorbed hydrogen peroxide may have formed. The formation of chemisorbed peroxide could be explained as a byproduct of the chemical reduction of the mineral. The following model was proposed. H+ was incorporated into the mineral from surface frost. This would have left behind a residual of excess OH-(ads) (relative to surface H+). Electrons were then stripped from the surface OH-(ads) (due to the large repulsive potential between neighboring OH-(ads)) and incorporated into the crystal to restore charge balance and produce a chemical reduction of the mineral. The resultant surface hydroxyl radicals could then have combined to form the more stable chemisorbed hydrogen peroxide species. While the chemisorbed peroxide should be relatively stable at low temperatures, it should tend to decay to O(ads)+ H2O(g) at higher temperatures with an activation energy of greater than or approximately 34 kcal mole-1. This is consistent with the long-term storage and sterilization behavior of the Viking soil oxidants. It is possible that as little as 0.1--1% frost-weathered material in the martian soil could have produced the unusual chemical activity that occurred during the Viking Gas

  17. Fluorescent Probes Used for Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide under Biological Conditions.

    PubMed

    Żamojć, Krzysztof; Zdrowowicz, Magdalena; Jacewicz, Dagmara; Wyrzykowski, Dariusz; Chmurzyński, Lech

    2016-05-03

    Hydrogen peroxide is a well-established precursor of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that are known to contribute to oxidative stress-the crucial factor responsible for the course of a wide range of phy-sicochemical processes as well as the genesis of various diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, the development of sensitive and selective methods for the detection and quantitative determination of hydrogen peroxide is of great importance in monitoring the in vivo production of that species and elucidating its biological functions. This review highlights the progress that has been made in the development of fluorescent and luminescent probes (excluding nanoparticles) employed to monitor hydrogen peroxide under biological conditions. Attention was focused on probes developed in the past 10 years.

  18. Progress in the development of peroxide-based anti-parasitic agents.

    PubMed

    Muraleedharan, K M; Avery, Mitchell A

    2009-08-01

    Progress made in the past decade pertaining to the development of anti-parasitic agents based on artemisinin is presented. Apart from discussions on important derivatives obtained through functionalization at the C-3, C-9, C-10 and O-11 positions of artemisinin, an outline on its seco analogs and artemisinin bundles are given for a broader perspective on structure-activity relationships. Success with synthetic peroxides, drug-hybrid approaches, broad-spectrum anti-infective properties of peroxide compounds and a survey on peroxide-containing natural products other than artemisinin with available biological data are included to highlight recent trends and avenues for future research. A supplementary material with details on the biological properties of a larger collection of molecules belonging to the above structural classes is also given for reference.

  19. An upper limit for stratospheric hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.; Traub, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    It has been postulated that hydrogen peroxide is important in stratospheric chemistry as a reservoir and sink for odd hydrogen species, and for its ability to interconvert them. The present investigation is concerned with an altitude dependent upper limit curve for stratospheric hydrogen peroxide, taking into account an altitude range from 21.5 to 38.0 km for January 23, 1983. The data employed are from balloon flight No. 1316-P, launched from the National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF) in Palestine, Texas. The obtained upper limit curve lies substantially below the data reported by Waters et al. (1981), even though the results are from the same latitude and are both wintertime measurements.

  20. Cloning, expression and biochemical characterization of one Epsilon-class (GST-3) and ten Delta-class (GST-1) glutathione S-transferases from Drosophila melanogaster, and identification of additional nine members of the Epsilon class.

    PubMed Central

    Sawicki, Rafał; Singh, Sharda P; Mondal, Ashis K; Benes, Helen; Zimniak, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    From the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, ten members of the cluster of Delta-class glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; formerly denoted as Class I GSTs) and one member of the Epsilon-class cluster (formerly GST-3) have been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and their catalytic properties have been determined. In addition, nine more members of the Epsilon cluster have been identified through bioinformatic analysis but not further characterized. Of the 11 expressed enzymes, seven accepted the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal as substrate, and nine were active in glutathione conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Since the enzymically active proteins included the gene products of DmGSTD3 and DmGSTD7 which were previously deemed to be pseudogenes, we investigated them further and determined that both genes are transcribed in Drosophila. Thus our present results indicate that DmGSTD3 and DmGSTD7 are probably functional genes. The existence and multiplicity of insect GSTs capable of conjugating 4-hydroxynonenal, in some cases with catalytic efficiencies approaching those of mammalian GSTs highly specialized for this function, indicates that metabolism of products of lipid peroxidation is a highly conserved biochemical pathway with probable detoxification as well as regulatory functions. PMID:12443531

  1. MEMS-Based Satellite Micropropulsion Via Catalyzed Hydrogen Peroxide Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitt, Darren L.; Zakrzwski, Charles M.; Thomas, Michael A.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques offer great potential in satisfying the mission requirements for the next generation of "micro-scale" satellites being designed by NASA and Department of Defense agencies. More commonly referred to as "nanosats", these miniature satellites feature masses in the range of 10-100 kg and therefore have unique propulsion requirements. The propulsion systems must be capable of providing extremely low levels of thrust and impulse while also satisfying stringent demands on size, mass, power consumption and cost. We begin with an overview of micropropulsion requirements and some current MEMS-based strategies being developed to meet these needs. The remainder of the article focuses the progress being made at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center towards the development of a prototype monopropellant MEMS thruster which uses the catalyzed chemical decomposition of high concentration hydrogen peroxide as a propulsion mechanism. The products of decomposition are delivered to a micro-scale converging/diverging supersonic nozzle which produces the thrust vector; the targeted thrust level approximately 500 N with a specific impulse of 140-180 seconds. Macro-scale hydrogen peroxide thrusters have been used for satellite propulsion for decades; however, the implementation of traditional thruster designs on a MEMS scale has uncovered new challenges in fabrication, materials compatibility, and combustion and hydrodynamic modeling. A summary of the achievements of the project to date is given, as is a discussion of remaining challenges and future prospects.

  2. Lipid peroxidation in workers exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y L; Chen, C Y; Sheu, J Y; Chuang, I C; Pan, J H; Lin, T H

    1999-02-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to hexavalent chromium induces lipid peroxidation in human. This study involved 25 chrome-plating factory workers and a reference group of 28 control subjects. The whole-blood and urinary chromium concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA), the product of lipid peroxidation, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the activities of protective enzymes were measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. In the chrome-plating workers, the mean concentrations of chromium in blood and urine were 5.98 microg/L and 5.25 microg/g creatinine, respectively; the mean concentrations of MDA in blood and urine were 1.7 micromol/L and 2.24 micromol/g creatinine. The concentrations of both chromium and MDA in blood and urine were significantly higher in the chromium-exposed workers. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT) were not markedly different between control and exposed workers. Data suggest that MDA may be used as a biomarker for occupational chromium exposure. Antioxidant enzymic activities are not a suitable marker for chromium exposure.

  3. Antifungal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in dental unit waterline disinfection.

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Jolanta

    2006-01-01

    The concentration and composition of fungal flora in dental unit waterlines (DUWL) were evaluated. For this purpose, water samples from unit reservoirs and high-speed handpieces, and biofilm samples from the waterline walls from units were collected. Subsequently, analogous samples from DUWL were taken before and after disinfection using agent containing hydrogen peroxide. In the examined samples, the yeast-like fungi Candida albicans and Candida curvata were found. The following species of mould were also identified: Aspergillus amstelodami, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus glaucus group, Aspergillus (=Eurotium herbariorum) repens, Citromyces spp., Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium (glabrum) frequentans, Penicillium pusillum, Penicillium turolense and Sclerotium sclerotiorum (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum). Before disinfection, Candida curvata and Candida albicans constituted the greatest proportion of the total fungi in the reservoirs water; in the water of handpieces--Candida albicans and Aspergillus glaucus group; and in the biofilm samples--Aspergillus glaucus group and Candida albicans. After disinfection, in all 3 kinds of samples, Candida albicans prevailed, constituting from 31.2-85.7 % of the total fungi. The application of agent containing hydrogen peroxide caused a significant decrease both in the number of total fungi and individual fungal species, which confirms the product effectiveness in fungal decontamination of DUWL.

  4. Hydroxy acetone and lactic acid synthesis from aqueous propylene glycol/hydrogen peroxide catalysis on Pd-black

    SciTech Connect

    Disselkamp, Robert S.; Harris, Benjamin D.; Hart, Todd R.

    2008-07-20

    The production of polyol chemicals is of increasing interest as they are obtained from the catalytic processing of biological feedstock materials, which also is becoming more prevalent. A case in point is glycerol production, formed as a byproduct in biodiesel catalytic processing. Here we report the reaction of a simple 1,2-diol, propylene glycol, with hydrogen peroxide and a Pd-black catalyst under reflux conditions at 368 K. The experiments were performed by either co-addition of hydrogen peroxide with air sparging, or addition of hydrogen peroxide alone, each yielding hydroxy acetone (HA) and acetic acid (AA) products, with a lesser amount ofmore » lactic acid (LA) formed. Product conversion data at near neutral pH versus hydrogen peroxide equivalents added relative to substrate is presented. Hydrogen peroxide addition without air sparging at 5 equivalents resulted in 65% conversion with an HA:AA molar ratio of 2:1. Conversely, hydrogen peroxide addition with air sparging at only 0.75 equivalents resulted in 40% conversion with an HA:AA ratio of 3:1. From this it is concluded that although the product distribution in these chemistries is somewhat unchanged by air sparging, it is surprising that the amount of reactive oxygen is greatly enhanced with co-addition of O2/H2O2. Additional studies have revealed the amount of LA formed can be enhanced under acidic conditions (pH=1.5 compared to pH=8.5), such that 26% of total product formation is LA. Since hydrogen peroxide is an environmentally clean reagent and becoming more cost effective to use, this work may guide future applied investigations into polyol chemical syntheses.« less

  5. Silver-palladium catalysts for the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Zainab; Dummer, Nicholas F.; Edwards, Jennifer K.

    2017-11-01

    A series of bimetallic silver-palladium catalysts supported on titania were prepared by wet impregnation and assessed for the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide, and its subsequent side reactions. The addition of silver to a palladium catalyst was found to significantly decrease hydrogen peroxide productivity and hydrogenation, but crucially increase the rate of decomposition. The decomposition product, which is predominantly hydroxyl radicals, can be used to decrease bacterial colonies. The interaction between silver and palladium was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The results of the TPR and XPS indicated the formation of a silver-palladium alloy. The optimal 1% Ag-4% Pd/TiO2 bimetallic catalyst was able to produce approximately 200 ppm of H2O2 in 30 min. The findings demonstrate that AgPd/TiO2 catalysts are active for the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide and its subsequent decomposition to reactive oxygen species. The catalysts are promising for use in wastewater treatment as they combine the disinfectant properties of silver, hydrogen peroxide production and subsequent decomposition. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Providing sustainable catalytic solutions for a rapidly changing world'.

  6. Propagation rate constants for the peroxidation of sterols on the biosynthetic pathway to cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Lamberson, Connor R; Muchalski, Hubert; McDuffee, Kari B; Tallman, Keri A; Xu, Libin; Porter, Ned A

    2017-10-01

    The free radical chain autoxidation of cholesterol and the oxidation products formed, i.e. oxysterols, have been the focus of intensive study for decades. The peroxidation of sterol precursors to cholesterol such as 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) and desmosterol as well as their oxysterols has received less attention. The peroxidation of these sterol precursors can become important under circumstances in which genetic conditions or exposures to small molecules leads to an increase of these biosynthetic intermediates in tissues and fluids. 7-DHC, for example, has a propagation rate constant for peroxidation some 200 times that of cholesterol and this sterol is found at elevated levels in a devastating human genetic condition, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS). The propagation rate constants for peroxidation of sterol intermediates on the biosynthetic pathway to cholesterol were determined by a competition kinetic method, i.e. a peroxyl radical clock. In this work, propagation rate constants for lathosterol, zymostenol, desmosterol, 7-dehydrodesmosterol and other sterols in the Bloch and Kandutsch-Russell pathways are assigned and these rate constants are related to sterol structural features. Furthermore, potential oxysterols products are proposed for sterols whose oxysterol products have not been determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanism of ascorbic acid interference in biochemical tests that use peroxide and peroxidase to generate chromophore.

    PubMed

    Martinello, Flávia; Luiz da Silva, Edson

    2006-11-01

    Ascorbic acid interferes negatively in peroxidase-based tests (Trinder method). However, the precise mechanism remains unclear for tests that use peroxide, a phenolic compound and 4-aminophenazone (4-AP). We determined the chemical mechanism of this interference, by examining the effects of ascorbic acid in the reaction kinetics of the production and reduction of the oxidized chromophore in urate, cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose tests. Reaction of ascorbic acid with the Trinder method constituents was also verified. Ascorbic acid interfered stoichiometrically with all tests studied. However, it had two distinct effects on the reaction rate. In the urate test, ascorbic acid decreased the chromophore formation with no change in its production kinetics. In contrast, in cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose tests, an increase in the lag phase of color development occurred. Of all the Trinder constituents, only peroxide reverted the interference. In addition, ascorbic acid did not interfere with oxidase activity nor reduce significantly the chromophore formed. Peroxide depletion was the predominant chemical mechanism of ascorbic acid interference in the Trinder method with phenolics and 4-AP. Distinctive effects of ascorbic acid on the reaction kinetics of urate, cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride might be due to the rate of peroxide production by oxidases.

  8. Oxalomalate, a competitive inhibitor of NADP+ -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, regulates lipid peroxidation-mediated apoptosis in U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun Sun; Yang, Joon-Hyuck; Park, Ji Eun; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2005-01-01

    Membrane lipid peroxidation processes yield products that may react with DNA and proteins to cause oxidative modifications. Recently, we demonstrated that the control of cytosolic redox balance and the cellular defense against oxidative damage is one of the primary functions of cytosolic NADP+ -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) through to supply NADPH for antioxidant systems. The protective role of IDPc against lipid peroxidation-mediated apoptosis in U937 cells was investigated in control and cells pre-treated with oxlalomalate, a competitive inhibitor of IDPc. Upon exposure to 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH) to U937 cells, which induces lipid peroxidation in membranes, the susceptibility to apoptosis was higher in oxalomalate-treated cells as compared to control cells. The results suggest that IDPc plays an important protective role in apoptosis of U937 cells induced by lipid peroxidation-mediated oxidative stress.

  9. Pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus indica modulates arachidonate metabolism and prostaglandin synthesis through lipid peroxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Allegra, M.; D’Acquisto, F.; Tesoriere, L.; Attanzio, A.; Livrea, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages come across active prostaglandin (PG) metabolism during inflammation, shunting early production of pro-inflammatory towards anti-inflammatory mediators terminating the process. This work for the first time provides evidence that a phytochemical may modulate the arachidonate (AA) metabolism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, promoting the ultimate formation of anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone 15deoxy-PGJ2. Added 1 h before LPS, indicaxanthin from Opuntia Ficus Indica prevented activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and over-expression of PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1), but up-regulated cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and PGD2 synthase (H-PGDS), with final production of the anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone. The effects were positively related with concentration between 50 and 100 µM. Indicaxanthin did not have any effect in the absence of LPS. A kinetic study investigating the redox status of LPS-stimulated macrophages between 0.5 and 12 h, either in the absence or in the presence of 50–100 µM indicaxanthin, revealed a differential control of ROS production, with early (0.5–3 h) modest inhibition, followed by a progressive (3–12 h) concentration-dependent enhancement over the level induced by LPS alone. In addition, indicaxanthin caused early (0.5–3 h) concentration-dependent elevation of conjugated diene lipid hydroperoxides, and production of hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, over the amount induced by LPS. In LPS-stimulated macrophages indicaxanthin did not affect PG metabolism when co-incubated with either an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase or vitamin E. It is concluded that LPS-induced pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin at the membrane level allows formation of signaling intermediates whose accumulation modulates PG biosynthetic pathway in inflamed macrophages. PMID:25180166

  10. Pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus indica modulates arachidonate metabolism and prostaglandin synthesis through lipid peroxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Allegra, M; D'Acquisto, F; Tesoriere, L; Attanzio, A; Livrea, M A

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages come across active prostaglandin (PG) metabolism during inflammation, shunting early production of pro-inflammatory towards anti-inflammatory mediators terminating the process. This work for the first time provides evidence that a phytochemical may modulate the arachidonate (AA) metabolism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, promoting the ultimate formation of anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone 15deoxy-PGJ2. Added 1 h before LPS, indicaxanthin from Opuntia Ficus Indica prevented activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and over-expression of PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1), but up-regulated cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and PGD2 synthase (H-PGDS), with final production of the anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone. The effects were positively related with concentration between 50 and 100 µM. Indicaxanthin did not have any effect in the absence of LPS. A kinetic study investigating the redox status of LPS-stimulated macrophages between 0.5 and 12 h, either in the absence or in the presence of 50-100 µM indicaxanthin, revealed a differential control of ROS production, with early (0.5-3 h) modest inhibition, followed by a progressive (3-12 h) concentration-dependent enhancement over the level induced by LPS alone. In addition, indicaxanthin caused early (0.5-3 h) concentration-dependent elevation of conjugated diene lipid hydroperoxides, and production of hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, over the amount induced by LPS. In LPS-stimulated macrophages indicaxanthin did not affect PG metabolism when co-incubated with either an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase or vitamin E. It is concluded that LPS-induced pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin at the membrane level allows formation of signaling intermediates whose accumulation modulates PG biosynthetic pathway in inflamed macrophages.

  11. Efficacy of disinfectants containing accelerated hydrogen peroxide against conidial arthrospores and isolated infective spores of Microsporum canis and Trichophyton sp.

    PubMed

    Moriello, Karen A; Hondzo, Hanna

    2014-06-01

    Accelerated hydrogen peroxide is a proprietary disinfectant formulation that is available for both commercial and home use and is labelled as antifungal. To determine the antifungal efficacy of accelerated hydrogen peroxide disinfectants against Microsporum and Trichophyton spp. Three products formulated as ready to use and three concentrates were used. Concentrates were tested at dilutions of 1:8, 1:16 (recommended dilution) and 1:32. One product was a surgical instrument disinfectant. Sterile water, sodium hypochlorite (1:32 dilution) and over-the-counter 3% hydrogen peroxide were used as controls. Conidial suspensions contained ~9.6 × 10(5) /mL Microsporum canis, ~1.0 × 10(7) /mL M. gypseum or ~2.0 × 10(7) /mL Trichophyton sp. and were tested at 1:10 dilution. Isolated infective spore suspensions of M. canis from an untreated cat and T. erinacei from an untreated hedgehog were tested at 1:10, 1:5 and 1:1 spore-to-disinfectant dilutions. Too many colonies to count were present on untreated control plates. Accelerated hydrogen peroxide and household hydrogen peroxide inhibited growth of both pathogens in conidial (1:10 dilution) and spore suspensions (1:10, 1:5 and 1:10 dilution). There was no lack of efficacy of products that were >12 months old. Accelerated hydrogen peroxide products are an option for environmental disinfection of surfaces exposed to M. canis and Trichophyton sp. after appropriate gross decontamination and mechanical cleaning with a detergent. The results from conidial testing were identical to those of isolated infected spore testing, which suggests that accelerated hydrogen peroxide products with label claim as antifungal against Trichophyton mentagrophytes may be suitable as an alternative disinfectant to sodium hypochlorite. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  12. Comparative trial of benzoyl peroxide versus benzoyl peroxide with urea in inflammatory acne.

    PubMed

    Prince, R A; Harris, J M; Maroc, J A

    1982-06-01

    Improvement in vehicle design may improve the delivery of drugs to the target site. A clinical trial was performed to evaluate an improved vehicle for topical benzoyl peroxide. Thirty-nine subjects participated in a split-face, double-blind trial of topical benzoyl peroxide 5 percent versus benzoyl peroxide 5 percent in 8 percent urea. All subjects had grade II or III acne as described by Pillsbury. Study solutions were randomly assigned to a selected side of the subject's face and applied twice a day to the appropriate side of the face for eight weeks. Total and inflammatory lesion counts were performed by the same investigator during the eight weeks of study at biweekly intervals. No overall differences in the response to the study preparations were observed when assessed objectively and subjectively.

  13. The impact of iron on the bleaching efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in liquid whey systems.

    PubMed

    Jervis, Suzanne M; Drake, MaryAnne

    2013-02-01

    Whey is a value-added product that is utilized in many food and beverage applications for its nutritional and functional properties. Whey and whey products are generally utilized in dried ingredient applications. One of the primary sources of whey is from colored Cheddar cheese manufacture that contains the pigment annatto resulting in a characteristic yellow colored Cheddar cheese. The colorant is also present in the liquid cheese whey and must be bleached so that it can be used in ingredient applications without imparting a color. Hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl peroxide are 2 commercially approved chemical bleaching agents for liquid whey. Concerns regarding bleaching efficacy, off-flavor development, and functionality changes have been previously reported for whey bleached with hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl peroxide. It is very important for the dairy industry to understand how bleaching can impact flavor and functionality of dried ingredients. Currently, the precise mechanisms of off-flavor development and functionality changes are not entirely understood. Iron reactions in a bleached liquid whey system may play a key role. Reactions between iron and hydrogen peroxide have been widely studied since the reaction between these 2 relatively stable species can cause great destruction in biological and chemical systems. The actual mechanism of the reaction of iron with hydrogen peroxide has been a controversy in the chemistry and biological community. The precise mechanism for a given reaction can vary greatly based upon the concentration of reactants, temperature, pH, and addition of biological material. In this review, some hypotheses for the mechanisms of iron reactions that may occur in fluid whey that may impact bleaching efficacy, off-flavor development, and changes in functionality are presented. Cheese whey is bleached to remove residual carotenoid cheese colorant. Concerns regarding bleaching efficacy, off-flavor development, and functionality changes have

  14. Chemiluminescence of Organic Peroxides. Thermal Generation of an o-Xylylene Peroxide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-07

    Iq It. KEY WORDS (Countinue oni tow.e* ole At neesar did tffoiltl by *lack Mmber) ?T. chemil uminesceflce AR~~ 1 * peroxides A CIEEL therniol1ys is b...recrystallization of the result- ing residue gives a peroxidic white solid. The structure of this material was deduced from spectroscopic, osmometric...recrystallized from pentane-CH2Cl to 22 give j 36 mg (32%,) as a white solid, m.p. 1.090 (with decomposition). 1HNMR (CDC]3): 7.0-6.8 (d, 2H1); 7.9-7.2

  15. Hydrogen peroxide stabilization in one-dimensional flow columns.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jeremy T; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J

    2011-09-25

    Rapid hydrogen peroxide decomposition is the primary limitation of catalyzed H(2)O(2) propagations in situ chemical oxidation (CHP ISCO) remediation of the subsurface. Two stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide, citrate and phytate, were investigated for their effectiveness in one-dimensional columns of iron oxide-coated and manganese oxide-coated sand. Hydrogen peroxide (5%) with and without 25 mM citrate or phytate was applied to the columns and samples were collected at 8 ports spaced 13 cm apart. Citrate was not an effective stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide in iron-coated sand; however, phytate was highly effective, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals two orders of magnitude over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Both citrate and phytate were effective stabilizers for manganese-coated sand, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals by four-fold over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Phytate and citrate did not degrade and were not retarded in the sand columns; furthermore, the addition of the stabilizers increased column flow rates relative to unstabilized columns. These results demonstrate that citrate and phytate are effective stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide under the dynamic conditions of one-dimensional columns, and suggest that citrate and phytate can be added to hydrogen peroxide before injection to the subsurface as an effective means for increasing the radius of influence of CHP ISCO. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Hydrogen peroxide stabilization in one-dimensional flow columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jeremy T.; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L.; Watts, Richard J.

    2011-09-01

    Rapid hydrogen peroxide decomposition is the primary limitation of catalyzed H 2O 2 propagations in situ chemical oxidation (CHP ISCO) remediation of the subsurface. Two stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide, citrate and phytate, were investigated for their effectiveness in one-dimensional columns of iron oxide-coated and manganese oxide-coated sand. Hydrogen peroxide (5%) with and without 25 mM citrate or phytate was applied to the columns and samples were collected at 8 ports spaced 13 cm apart. Citrate was not an effective stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide in iron-coated sand; however, phytate was highly effective, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals two orders of magnitude over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Both citrate and phytate were effective stabilizers for manganese-coated sand, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals by four-fold over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Phytate and citrate did not degrade and were not retarded in the sand columns; furthermore, the addition of the stabilizers increased column flow rates relative to unstabilized columns. These results demonstrate that citrate and phytate are effective stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide under the dynamic conditions of one-dimensional columns, and suggest that citrate and phytate can be added to hydrogen peroxide before injection to the subsurface as an effective means for increasing the radius of influence of CHP ISCO.

  17. Kinetics of hydrogen peroxide decomposition by catalase: hydroxylic solvent effects.

    PubMed

    Raducan, Adina; Cantemir, Anca Ruxandra; Puiu, Mihaela; Oancea, Dumitru

    2012-11-01

    The effect of water-alcohol (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, propan-2-ol, ethane-1,2-diol and propane-1,2,3-triol) binary mixtures on the kinetics of hydrogen peroxide decomposition in the presence of bovine liver catalase is investigated. In all solvents, the activity of catalase is smaller than in water. The results are discussed on the basis of a simple kinetic model. The kinetic constants for product formation through enzyme-substrate complex decomposition and for inactivation of catalase are estimated. The organic solvents are characterized by several physical properties: dielectric constant (D), hydrophobicity (log P), concentration of hydroxyl groups ([OH]), polarizability (α), Kamlet-Taft parameter (β) and Kosower parameter (Z). The relationships between the initial rate, kinetic constants and medium properties are analyzed by linear and multiple linear regression.

  18. Alkaline Peroxide Delignification of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Ashutosh; Katahira, Rui; Donohoe, Bryon S.

    Selective biomass fractionation into carbohydrates and lignin is a key challenge in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. In the present study, alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment was investigated to fractionate lignin from polysaccharides in corn stover (CS), with a particular emphasis on the fate of the lignin for subsequent valorization. The influence of peroxide loading on delignification during AHP pretreatment was examined over the range of 30-500 mg H2O2/g dry CS at 50 degrees C for 3 h. Mass balances were conducted on the solid and liquid fractions generated after pretreatment for each of the threemore » primary components, lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. AHP pretreatment at 250 mg H2O2/g dry CS resulted in the pretreated solids with more than 80% delignification consequently enriching the carbohydrate fraction to >90%. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) spectroscopy of the AHP pretreated residue shows that, under high peroxide loadings (>250 mg H2O2/g dry CS), most of the side chain structures were oxidized and the aryl-ether bonds in lignin were partially cleaved, resulting in significant delignification of the pretreated residues. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis shows that AHP pretreatment effectively depolymerizes CS lignin into low molecular weight (LMW) lignin fragments in the aqueous fraction. Imaging of AHP pretreated residues shows a more granular texture and a clear lamellar pattern in secondary walls, indicative of layers of varying lignin removal or relocalization. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this pretreated residue at 20 mg/g of glucan resulted in 90% and 80% yields of glucose and xylose, respectively, after 120 h. Overall, AHP pretreatment is able to selectively remove more than 80% of the lignin from biomass in a form that has potential for downstream valorization processes and enriches the solid pulp into a highly digestible material.« less

  19. Depletion Rate of Hydrogen Peroxide from Sodium Perborate Bleaching Agent.

    PubMed

    Tran, Liliann; Orth, Rebecca; Parashos, Peter; Tao, Ying; Tee, Calvin W J; Thomas, Vineet Thenalil; Towers, Georgina; Truong, Diem Thuy; Vinen, Cynthia; Reynolds, Eric C

    2017-03-01

    Internal bleaching of discolored teeth uses sodium perborate reacting with water to form the active agent, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Sodium perborate is replaced at varying time intervals depending on clinician preference and until esthetically acceptable results are achieved, but this is done without scientific basis. This study measured the depletion rate of hydrogen peroxide from sodium perborate as a bleaching agent. Two sodium perborate bleaching products (Odontobleach [Australian Dental Manufacturing, Kenmore Hills, Queensland, Australia] and Endosure Perborate Micro [Dentalife, Ringwood, Victoria, Australia]) and distilled deionized water mixtures at ratios of 25 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, and 100 μg/mL were placed into sealed microtubes and incubated at 37°C. H 2 O 2 concentrations were measured at 23 time points over 4 weeks. Quantification of H 2 O 2 concentrations was obtained using a ferrothiocyanate oxidation reduction reaction followed by spectrophotometry readings. The H 2 O 2 concentration rapidly peaked within 27 hours and reached a plateau by about 3 days (75 hours). Low levels of H 2 O 2 were evident beyond 3 days and for at least 28 days. No significant differences were found between the 2 sodium perborate products. There was also no significant difference in the depletion rate between the different ratios. Based on the chemistry of H 2 O 2 depletion, the minimum replacement interval for the bleaching agent is 3 days. Frequent replacements of the perborate clinically may be unnecessary because of the continued presence of low H 2 O 2 levels for at least 28 days. Although these data cannot be extrapolated to the clinical situation, they set a baseline for further studies to address the many clinical variables influencing internal bleaching. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogen Peroxide, Signaling in Disguise during Metal Phytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Cuypers, Ann; Hendrix, Sophie; Amaral dos Reis, Rafaela; De Smet, Stefanie; Deckers, Jana; Gielen, Heidi; Jozefczak, Marijke; Loix, Christophe; Vercampt, Hanne; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Keunen, Els

    2016-01-01

    Plants exposed to excess metals are challenged by an increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide (O2•-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the hydroxyl radical (•OH). The mechanisms underlying this oxidative challenge are often dependent on metal-specific properties and might play a role in stress perception, signaling and acclimation. Although ROS were initially considered as toxic compounds causing damage to various cellular structures, their role as signaling molecules became a topic of intense research over the last decade. Hydrogen peroxide in particular is important in signaling because of its relatively low toxicity, long lifespan and its ability to cross cellular membranes. The delicate balance between its production and scavenging by a plethora of enzymatic and metabolic antioxidants is crucial in the onset of diverse signaling cascades that finally lead to plant acclimation to metal stress. In this review, our current knowledge on the dual role of ROS in metal-exposed plants is presented. Evidence for a relationship between H2O2 and plant metal tolerance is provided. Furthermore, emphasis is put on recent advances in understanding cellular damage and downstream signaling responses as a result of metal-induced H2O2 production. Finally, special attention is paid to the interaction between H2O2 and other signaling components such as transcription factors, mitogen-activated protein kinases, phytohormones and regulating systems (e.g. microRNAs). These responses potentially underlie metal-induced senescence in plants. Elucidating the signaling network activated during metal stress is a pivotal step to make progress in applied technologies like phytoremediation of polluted soils. PMID:27199999

  1. Mitochondrial generation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide as the source of mitochondrial redox signaling.

    PubMed

    Brand, Martin D

    2016-11-01

    This review examines the generation of reactive oxygen species by mammalian mitochondria, and the status of different sites of production in redox signaling and pathology. Eleven distinct mitochondrial sites associated with substrate oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation leak electrons to oxygen to produce superoxide or hydrogen peroxide: oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes that feed electrons to NAD + ; respiratory complexes I and III, and dehydrogenases, including complex II, that use ubiquinone as acceptor. The topologies, capacities, and substrate dependences of each site have recently clarified. Complex III and mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase generate superoxide to the external side of the mitochondrial inner membrane as well as the matrix, the other sites generate superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide exclusively in the matrix. These different site-specific topologies are important for redox signaling. The net rate of superoxide or hydrogen peroxide generation depends on the substrates present and the antioxidant systems active in the matrix and cytosol. The rate at each site can now be measured in complex substrate mixtures. In skeletal muscle mitochondria in media mimicking muscle cytosol at rest, four sites dominate, two in complex I and one each in complexes II and III. Specific suppressors of two sites have been identified, the outer ubiquinone-binding site in complex III (site III Qo ) and the site in complex I active during reverse electron transport (site I Q ). These suppressors prevent superoxide/hydrogen peroxide production from a specific site without affecting oxidative phosphorylation, making them excellent tools to investigate the status of the sites in redox signaling, and to suppress the sites to prevent pathologies. They allow the cellular roles of mitochondrial superoxide/hydrogen peroxide production to be investigated without catastrophic confounding bioenergetic effects. They show that sites III Qo and I Q are active in cells

  2. Selective detection of vapor phase hydrogen peroxide with phthalocyanine chemiresistors.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Forest I; Colesniuc, Corneliu N; Park, Jeongwon; Schuller, Ivan K; Kummel, Andrew C; Trogler, William C

    2008-03-26

    The use of hydrogen peroxide as a precursor to improvised explosives has made its detection a topic of critical importance. Chemiresistor arrays comprised of 50 nm thick films of metallophthalocyanines (MPcs) are redox selective vapor sensors of hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is shown to decrease currents in cobalt phthalocyanine sensors while it increases currents in nickel, copper, and metal-free phthalocyanine sensors; oxidation and reduction of hydrogen peroxide via catalysis at the phthalocyanine surface are consistent with the pattern of sensor responses. This represents the first example of MPc vapor sensors being oxidized and reduced by the same analyte by varying the metal center. Consequently, differential analysis by redox contrast with catalytic amplification using a small array of sensors may be used to uniquely identify peroxide vapors. Metallophthalocyanine chemiresistors represent an improvement over existing peroxide vapor detection technologies in durability and selectivity in a greatly decreased package size.

  3. Hazard Assessment of Personal Protective Clothing for Hydrogen Peroxide Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Ben; McClure, Mark B.; Johnson, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Selection of personal protective equipment (PPE) for hydrogen peroxide service is an important part of the hazard assessment process. But because drip testing of chemical protective clothing for hydrogen peroxide service has not been reported for about 40 years, it is of great interest to test new protective clothing materials with new, high-concentration hydrogen peroxide following similar procedures. The suitability of PPE for hydrogen peroxide service is in part determined by observations made when hydrogen peroxide is dripped onto swatches of protective clothing material. Protective clothing material was tested as received, in soiled condition, and in grossly soiled condition. Materials were soiled by pretreating the material with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution then drying to promote a reaction. Materials were grossly soiled with solid KMnO4 to greatly promote reaction. Observations of results including visual changes to the hydrogen peroxide and materials, times to ignition, and self-extinguishing characteristics of the materials are reported.

  4. Quantification of peroxide ion passage in dentin, enamel, and cementum after internal bleaching with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Palo, R M; Bonetti-Filho, I; Valera, M C; Camargo, C H R; Camargo, Sea; Moura-Netto, C; Pameijer, C

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of peroxide passage from the pulp chamber to the external enamel surface during the internal bleaching technique. Fifty bovine teeth were sectioned transversally 5 mm below the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ), and the remaining part of the root was sealed with a 2-mm layer of glass ionomer cement. The external surface of the samples was coated with nail varnish, with the exception of standardized circular areas (6-mm diameter) located on the enamel, exposed dentin, or cementum surface of the tooth. The teeth were divided into three experimental groups according to exposed areas close to the CEJ and into two control groups (n=10/group), as follows: GE, enamel exposure area; GC, cementum exposed area; GD, dentin exposed area; Negative control, no presence of internal bleaching agent and uncoated surface; and Positive control, pulp chamber filled with bleaching agent and external surface totally coated with nail varnish. The pulp chamber was filled with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Opalescence Endo, Ultradent). Each sample was placed inside of individual flasks with 1000 μL of acetate buffer solution, 2 M (pH 4.5). After seven days, the buffer solution was transferred to a glass tube, in which 100 μL of leuco-crystal violet and 50 μL of horseradish peroxidase were added, producing a blue solution. The optical density of the blue solution was determined by spectrophotometer and converted into microgram equivalents of hydrogen peroxide. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn-Bonferroni tests (α=0.05). All experimental groups presented passage of peroxide to the external surface that was statistically different from that observed in the control groups. It was verified that the passage of peroxide was higher in GD than in GE (p<0.01). The GC group presented a significantly lower peroxide passage than did GD and GE (p<0.01). It can be concluded that the hydrogen peroxide placed into the pulp chamber passed through the

  5. Liver Necrosis and Lipid Peroxidation in the Rat as the Result of Paraquat and Diquat Administration

    PubMed Central

    Burk, Raymond F.; Lawrence, Richard A.; Lane, James M.

    1980-01-01

    Paraquat and diquat facilitate formation of superoxide anion in biological systems, and lipid peroxidation has been postulated to be their mechanism of toxicity. Paraquat has been shown to be more toxic to selenium-deficient mice than to controls, presumably as the result of decreased activity of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase. The present study was designed to measure lipid peroxidation and to assess toxicity in control and selenium-deficient rats given paraquat and diquat. Lipid peroxidation was measured by determining ethane production rates of intact animals; toxicity was assessed by survival and by histological and serum enzyme evidence of liver and kidney necrosis. Paraquat and diquat were both much more toxic to selenium-deficient rats than to control rats. Diquat (19.5 μmol/kg) caused rapid and massive liver and kidney necrosis and very high ethane production rates in selenium-deficient rats. The effect of paraquat (78 μmol/kg) was similar to that of diquat but was not as severe. Acutely lethal doses of paraquat (390 μmol/kg) and diquat (230 μmol/kg) in control rats caused very little ethane production and no evidence of liver necrosis. These findings suggest that paraquat and diquat exert their acute toxicity largely through lipid peroxidation in selenium-deficient rats. Selenium deficiency had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes or in 105,000 g supernate of liver or kidney. Glutathione peroxidase, which represents the only well-characterized biochemical function of selenium in animals, was dissociated from the protective effect of selenium against diquat-induced lipid peroxidation and toxicity by a time-course study in which selenium-deficient rats were injected with 50 μg of selenium and later given diquat (19.5 μmol/kg). Within 10 h, the selenium injection provided significant protection against diquat-induced lipid peroxidation and mortality even though this treatment resulted in no rise in glutathione peroxidase

  6. Nonthermal dielectric-barrier discharge plasma-induced inactivation involves oxidative DNA damage and membrane lipid peroxidation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Suresh G; Cooper, Moogega; Yost, Adam; Paff, Michelle; Ercan, Utku K; Fridman, Gregory; Friedman, Gary; Fridman, Alexander; Brooks, Ari D

    2011-03-01

    Oxidative stress leads to membrane lipid peroxidation, which yields products causing variable degrees of detrimental oxidative modifications in cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the key regulators in this process and induce lipid peroxidation in Escherichia coli. Application of nonthermal (cold) plasma is increasingly used for inactivation of surface contaminants. Recently, we reported a successful application of nonthermal plasma, using a floating-electrode dielectric-barrier discharge (FE-DBD) technique for rapid inactivation of bacterial contaminants in normal atmospheric air (S. G. Joshi et al., Am. J. Infect. Control 38:293-301, 2010). In the present report, we demonstrate that FE-DBD plasma-mediated inactivation involves membrane lipid peroxidation in E. coli. Dose-dependent ROS, such as singlet oxygen and hydrogen peroxide-like species generated during plasma-induced oxidative stress, were responsible for membrane lipid peroxidation, and ROS scavengers, such as α-tocopherol (vitamin E), were able to significantly inhibit the extent of lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage. These findings indicate that this is a major mechanism involved in FE-DBD plasma-mediated inactivation of bacteria.

  7. Nonthermal Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma-Induced Inactivation Involves Oxidative DNA Damage and Membrane Lipid Peroxidation in Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Suresh G.; Cooper, Moogega; Yost, Adam; Paff, Michelle; Ercan, Utku K.; Fridman, Gregory; Friedman, Gary; Fridman, Alexander; Brooks, Ari D.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress leads to membrane lipid peroxidation, which yields products causing variable degrees of detrimental oxidative modifications in cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the key regulators in this process and induce lipid peroxidation in Escherichia coli. Application of nonthermal (cold) plasma is increasingly used for inactivation of surface contaminants. Recently, we reported a successful application of nonthermal plasma, using a floating-electrode dielectric-barrier discharge (FE-DBD) technique for rapid inactivation of bacterial contaminants in normal atmospheric air (S. G. Joshi et al., Am. J. Infect. Control 38:293-301, 2010). In the present report, we demonstrate that FE-DBD plasma-mediated inactivation involves membrane lipid peroxidation in E. coli. Dose-dependent ROS, such as singlet oxygen and hydrogen peroxide-like species generated during plasma-induced oxidative stress, were responsible for membrane lipid peroxidation, and ROS scavengers, such as α-tocopherol (vitamin E), were able to significantly inhibit the extent of lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage. These findings indicate that this is a major mechanism involved in FE-DBD plasma-mediated inactivation of bacteria. PMID:21199923

  8. Uranyl peroxide nanoclusters at high-pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Katlyn M.; Szymanowski, Jennifer E. S.; Zhang, Fuxiang

    Here, U 60 ([UO 2(O 2)(OH)] 60 60– in water) is a uranyl peroxide nanocluster with a fullerene topology and O h symmetry. U 60 clusters can exist in crystalline solids or in liquids; however, little is known of their behavior at high pressures. We compressed the U 60-bearing material: Li 68K 12(OH) 20[UO 2(O 2)(OH)] 60(H 2O) 310 ( Fm3¯; a = 37.884 Å) in a diamond anvil cell to determine its response to increasing pressure. Three length scales and corresponding structural features contribute to the compression response: uranyl peroxide bonds (<0.5 nm), isolated single nanoclusters (2.5 nm), andmore » the long-range periodicity of nanoclusters within the solid (>3.7 nm). Li 68K 12(OH) 20[UO 2(O 2)(OH)] 60(H 2O) 310 transformed to a tetragonal structure below 2 GPa and irreversibly amorphized between 9.6 and 13 GPa. The bulk modulus of the tetragonal U 60-bearing material was 25 ± 2 GPa. The pressure-induced amorphous phase contained intact U 60 clusters, which were preserved beyond the loss of long-range periodicity. The persistence of U 60 clusters at high pressure may have been enhanced by the interaction between U 60 nanoclusters and the alcohol pressure medium. Once formed, U 60 nanoclusters persist regardless of their associated long-range ordering—in crystals, amorphous solids, or solutions.« less

  9. Monolithic Hydrogen Peroxide Catalyst Bed Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponzo, J. B.

    2003-01-01

    With recent increased industry and government interest in rocket grade hydrogen peroxide as a viable propellant, significant effort has been expended to improve on earlier developments. This effort has been predominately centered in improving heterogeneous. typically catalyst beds; and homogeneous catalysts, which are typically solutions of catalytic substances. Heterogeneous catalyst beds have traditionally consisted of compressed wire screens plated with a catalytic substance, usually silver, and were used m many RCS applications (X-1, Mercury, and Centaur for example). Aerojet has devised a heterogeneous catalyst design that is monolithic (single piece), extremely compact, and has pressure drops equal to or less than traditional screen beds. The design consists of a bonded stack of very thin, photoetched metal plates, silver coated. This design leads to a high surface area per unit volume and precise flow area, resulting in high, stable, and repeatable performance. Very high throughputs have been demonstrated with 90% hydrogen peroxide. (0.60 lbm/s/sq in at 1775-175 psia) with no flooding of the catalyst bed. Bed life of over 900 seconds has also been demonstrated at throughputs of 0.60 lbm/s/sq in across varying chamber pressures. The monolithic design also exhibits good starting performance, short break-in periods, and will easily scale to various sizes.

  10. Uranyl peroxide nanoclusters at high-pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Turner, Katlyn M.; Szymanowski, Jennifer E. S.; Zhang, Fuxiang; ...

    2017-08-14

    Here, U 60 ([UO 2(O 2)(OH)] 60 60– in water) is a uranyl peroxide nanocluster with a fullerene topology and O h symmetry. U 60 clusters can exist in crystalline solids or in liquids; however, little is known of their behavior at high pressures. We compressed the U 60-bearing material: Li 68K 12(OH) 20[UO 2(O 2)(OH)] 60(H 2O) 310 ( Fm3¯; a = 37.884 Å) in a diamond anvil cell to determine its response to increasing pressure. Three length scales and corresponding structural features contribute to the compression response: uranyl peroxide bonds (<0.5 nm), isolated single nanoclusters (2.5 nm), andmore » the long-range periodicity of nanoclusters within the solid (>3.7 nm). Li 68K 12(OH) 20[UO 2(O 2)(OH)] 60(H 2O) 310 transformed to a tetragonal structure below 2 GPa and irreversibly amorphized between 9.6 and 13 GPa. The bulk modulus of the tetragonal U 60-bearing material was 25 ± 2 GPa. The pressure-induced amorphous phase contained intact U 60 clusters, which were preserved beyond the loss of long-range periodicity. The persistence of U 60 clusters at high pressure may have been enhanced by the interaction between U 60 nanoclusters and the alcohol pressure medium. Once formed, U 60 nanoclusters persist regardless of their associated long-range ordering—in crystals, amorphous solids, or solutions.« less

  11. Placebo-controlled clinical trial of use of 10% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips for medication-induced xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Papas, Athena S; Kugel, Gerard; Singh, Mabi; Barker, Matthew L; Gerlach, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of peroxide-containing strip-based tooth whitening among subjects with medication-induced hyposalivation. Eligibility for this tooth whitening study was limited to dentate adults taking xerogenic medications with an unstimulated salivary flow < or = 0.2 ml/min. After giving informed consent, 42 subjects were randomized using a 2:1 ratio to 10% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips (Crest Whitestrips Premium) or placebo strips without peroxide. Strips were used for 30 min twice daily for a 14-day period. Usage was unsupervised, and only the maxillary arch was treated. On days 8 and 15, efficacy was assessed from standard digital images of the anterior dentition and quantified using the Cielab color system, while safety was assessed from interviews and clinical examinations. At day 8, the peroxide group experienced significant (p < 0.001) color improvement relative to baseline and placebo. Adjusted means +/- standard errors for yellowness reduction were -1.65 +/- 0.115 units for the peroxide group and -0.32 +/- 0.170 units for the placebo group. For the increase in lightness, adjusted means +/- standard errors on day 8 were 1.53 +/- 0.130 units for the peroxide group and 0.37 +/- 0.191 units for the controls. Continued strip use through day 15 yielded incremental color improvement for the peroxide group. Mild and transient tooth sensitivity represented the most common adverse events. No subject discontinued treatment due to a product-related adverse event. Twice daily use of 10% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips by adults with medication-induced xerostomia was well tolerated, with significant tooth color improvement evident within 7 days. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A survey of chemicals inducing lipid peroxidation in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Kappus, H

    1987-01-01

    A great number of drugs and chemicals are reviewed which have been shown to stimulate lipid peroxidation in any biological system. The underlying mechanisms, as far as known, are also dealt with. Lipid peroxidation induced by iron ions, organic hydroperoxides, halogenated hydrocarbons, redox cycling drugs, glutathione depleting chemicals, ethanol, heavy metals, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and a number of miscellaneous compounds, e.g. hydrazines, pesticides, antibiotics, are mentioned. It is shown that lipid peroxidation is stimulated by many of these compounds. However, quantitative estimates cannot be given yet and it is still impossible to judge the biological relevance of chemical-induced lipid peroxidation.

  13. Synthesis and thermal properties of strontium and calcium peroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, Warren H.; Kraft, Patricia A.

    1989-01-01

    A practical synthesis and a discussion of some chemical properties of pure strontium peroxide and calcium peroxide are presented. The general synthesis of these peroxides involves precipitation of their octahydrates by addition of H2O2 to aqueous ammoniacal Sr(NO3)2 or CaCl2. The octahydrates are converted to the anhydrous peroxides by various dehydration techniques. A new x-ray diffraction powder pattern for CaO2 x 8H2O is given from which lattice parameters a=6.212830 and c=11.0090 were calculated on the basis of the tetragonal crystal system.

  14. Use of Hydrogen Peroxide to Disinfect Hydroponic Plant Growth Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Henderson, Keith

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide was studied as an alternative to conventional bleach and rinsing methods to disinfect hydroponic plant growth systems. A concentration of 0.5% hydrogen peroxide was found to be effective. Residual hydrogen peroxide can be removed from the system by repeated rinsing or by flowing the solution through a platinum on aluminum catalyst. Microbial populations were reduced to near zero immediately after treatment but returned to pre-disinfection levels 2 days after treatment. Treating nutrient solution with hydrogen peroxide and planting directly into trays being watered with the nutrient solution without replenishment, was found to be detrimental to lettuce germination and growth.

  15. Hydrogen Peroxide Probes Directed to Different Cellular Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Malinouski, Mikalai; Zhou, You; Belousov, Vsevolod V.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells. Principal Findings Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular compartments, HyPer occurred in the reduced state in the nucleus, cytosol, peroxisomes, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, but low levels of the oxidized form of the biosensor were also observed in each of these compartments, consistent with a low peroxide tone in mammalian cells. In contrast, HyPer was mostly oxidized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using this system, we characterized control of hydrogen peroxide in various cell systems, such as cells deficient in thioredoxin reductase, sulfhydryl oxidases or subjected to selenium deficiency. Generation of hydrogen peroxide could also be monitored in various compartments following signaling events. Conclusions We found that HyPer can be used as a valuable tool to monitor hydrogen peroxide generated in different cellular compartments. The data also show that hydrogen peroxide generated in one compartment could translocate to other compartments. Our data provide information on compartmentalization, dynamics and homeostatic control of hydrogen peroxide in mammalian cells. PMID:21283738

  16. Direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from plasma-water interactions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiandi; He, Bangbang; Chen, Qiang; Li, Junshuai; Xiong, Qing; Yue, Guanghui; Zhang, Xianhui; Yang, Size; Liu, Hai; Liu, Qing Huo

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is usually considered to be an important reagent in green chemistry since water is the only by-product in H2O2 involved oxidation reactions. Early studies show that direct synthesis of H2O2 by plasma-water interactions is possible, while the factors affecting the H2O2 production in this method remain unclear. Herein, we present a study on the H2O2 synthesis by atmospheric pressure plasma-water interactions. The results indicate that the most important factors for the H2O2 production are the processes taking place at the plasma-water interface, including sputtering, electric field induced hydrated ion emission, and evaporation. The H2O2 production rate reaches ~1200 μmol/h when the liquid cathode is purified water or an aqueous solution of NaCl with an initial conductivity of 10500 μS cm−1. PMID:27917925

  17. Bactericidal Efficacy of Hydrogen Peroxide-Based Disinfectants Against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria on Stainless Steel Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Castillo, Abel G; González-Rivas, Fabián; Rodríguez-Jerez, José J

    2017-10-01

    In order to develop disinfectant formulations that leverage the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), this study evaluated the bactericidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide-based disinfectants against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria on stainless steel surfaces. Low concentration of hydrogen peroxide as 0.5% with a cationic polymer, ethoxylated fatty alcohol, and ethyl alcohol had bactericidal efficacy (reductions ≥ 4 log 10 CFU/mL) against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus hirae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Hydrogen peroxide-based disinfectants were more effective against E. hirae and P. aeruginosa than to S. aureus. However, the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide against catalase positive bacteria such as S. aureus was increased when this compound was formulated with low concentrations of benzalkonium chloride or ethyl alcohol, lactic acid, sodium benzoate, cationic polymer, and salicylic acid. This study demonstrates that the use of hydrogen peroxide with other antimicrobial products, in adequate concentrations, had bactericidal efficacy in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria on stainless steel surfaces, enabling to reduce the effective concentration of hydrogen peroxide. In the same way, the use of hydrogen peroxide-based disinfectants could reduce the concentrations of traditional disinfectants as quaternary ammonium compounds and therefore a reduction of their chemical residues in the environment after being used. The study of the bactericidal properties of environmentally nontoxic disinfectants such as hydrogen peroxide, sole or in formulations with other disinfectants against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria can enhance the efficacy of various commonly used disinfectant formulations with the hygiene benefits that it entails. Also, the use of hydrogen peroxide formulations can reduce the concentration levels of products that generate environmental residues. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Hydrophytes lack potential to exhibit cadmium stress induced enhancement in lipid peroxidation and accumulation of proline.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Bhupinder; Sharmila, P; Saradhi, P Pardha

    2004-02-10

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate if hydrophytes (viz. Ceratophyllum, Wolffia, and Hydrilla) can be used as markers to assess the level of heavy metal pollution in aquatic bodies. The potential of these hydrophytes for lipid peroxidation and accumulation of proline in response to cadmium (Cd2+) pollution was studied. Hydrophytes were raised in artificial pond water (APW) supplemented with various levels of Cd2+. Interestingly, unlike mesophytes none of the hydrophytes showed ability to accumulate proline. Infact, in response to Cd2+ pollution hydrophytes exhibited a decline in proline levels in comparison to controls but mesophytes (viz. Brassica juncea, Vigna radiata and Triticum aestivum) showed progressive increase in the level of proline with increase in the extent of Cd2+ pollution. Mesophytes showed six to nine-fold increase in the level of proline in response to 1 mM Cd2+. The potential of the above hydrophytes for lipid peroxidation was also low under Cd2+ stress. In contrast, as expected a significant enhancement in the lipid peroxidation was observed in all three mesophytes in response to their exposure to Cd2+. About two-fold increase in production of malondialdehyde (a cytotoxic product of lipid peroxidation) was recorded in mesophytes exposed to 1 mM Cd2+. However, a decline in chlorophyll (Chl a and Chl b) levels was recorded in response to Cd2+pollution both in hydrophytes as well as mesophytes. In summary, hydrophytes neither have potential to accumulate proline nor have ability to accelerate lipid peroxidation under heavy metal stress. This suggests that the adaptive mechanism(s) existing in hydrophytes to tackle heavy metal stress is distinct from that in mesophytes.

  19. Understanding the mechanism of DNA deactivation in ion therapy of cancer cells: hydrogen peroxide action*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatnytskyi, Dmytro V.; Zdorevskyi, Oleksiy O.; Perepelytsya, Sergiy M.; Volkov, Sergey N.

    2015-11-01

    Changes in the medium of biological cells under ion beam irradiation has been considered as a possible cause of cell function disruption in the living body. The interaction of hydrogen peroxide, a long-lived molecular product of water radiolysis, with active sites of DNA macromolecule was studied, and the formation of stable DNA-peroxide complexes was considered. The phosphate groups of the macromolecule backbone were picked out among the atomic groups of DNA double helix as a probable target for interaction with hydrogen peroxide molecules. Complexes consisting of combinations including: the DNA phosphate group, H2O2 and H2O molecules, and Na+ counterion, were considered. The counterions have been taken into consideration insofar as under the natural conditions they neutralise DNA sugar-phosphate backbone. The energy of the complexes have been determined by considering the electrostatic and the Van der Waals interactions within the framework of atom-atom potential functions. As a result, the stability of various configurations of molecular complexes was estimated. It was shown that DNA phosphate groups and counterions can form stable complexes with hydrogen peroxide molecules, which are as stable as the complexes with water molecules. It has been demonstrated that the formation of stable complexes of H2O2-Na+-PO4- may be detected experimentally by observing specific vibrations in the low-frequency Raman spectra. The interaction of H2O2 molecule with phosphate group of the double helix backbone can disrupt DNA biological function and induce the deactivation of the cell genetic apparatus. Thus, the production of hydrogen peroxide molecules in the nucleus of living cells can be considered as an additional mechanism by which high-energy ion beams destroy tumour cells during ion beam therapy. Contribution to the Topical Issue "COST Action Nano-IBCT: Nano-scale Processes Behind Ion-Beam Cancer Therapy", edited by Andrey Solov'yov, Nigel Mason, Gustavo García, Eugene

  20. An in vitro model to test relative antioxidant potential: Ultraviolet-induced lipid peroxidation in liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Pelle, E.; Maes, D.; Padulo, G.A.

    1990-12-01

    Since antioxidants have been shown to play a major role in preventing some of the effects of aging and photoaging in skin, it is important to study this phenomenon in a controlled manner. This was accomplished by developing a simple and reliable in vitro technique to assay antioxidant efficacy. Inhibition of peroxidation by antioxidants was used as a measure of relative antioxidant potential. Liposomes, high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were dispersed in buffer and irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light. Irradiated liposomes exhibited a significantly higher amount of hydroperoxides than liposomes containing antioxidants in a dose- and concentration-dependent manner. Lipidmore » peroxidation was determined spectrophotometrically by an increase in thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. To further substantiate the production of lipid peroxides, gas chromatography was used to measure a decrease in PUFA substrate. In order of decreasing antioxidant effectiveness, the following results were found among lipophilic antioxidants: BHA greater than catechin greater than BHT greater than alpha-tocopherol greater than chlorogenic acid. Among hydrophilic antioxidants, ascorbic acid and dithiothreitol were effective while glutathione was ineffective. In addition, ascorbic acid was observed to act synergistically with alpha-tocopherol, which is in agreement with other published reports on the interaction of these two antioxidants. Although peroxyl radical scavengers seem to be at a selective advantage in this liposomal/UV system, these results demonstrate the validity of this technique as an assay for measuring an antioxidant's potential to inhibit UV-induced peroxidation.« less

  1. Isolation of Nicotinic Acid (Vitamin B3) and N-Propylamine after Myosmine Peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Zwickenpflug, Wolfgang; Högg, Christof; Feierfeil, Johannes; Dachs, Manuel; Gudermann, Thomas

    2016-01-13

    The alkaloid myosmine (3-(1-pyrroline-2-yl)pyridine) is widespread in biological matrixes including foodstuffs and tobacco products. Some in vitro tests in cellular systems showed mutagenic activity for myosmine. Myosmine activation including peroxidation mechanism employs unstable oxazirane intermediates. The formation of minor metabolite 3-hydroxymethyl-pyridine in rat metabolism experiments as well as in in vitro peroxidation assays suggests its further oxidation to nicotinic acid and possible concomitant formation of n-propylamine. A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method was developed for the direct analysis of n-propylamine in the peroxidation assay solution of myosmine employing derivatization with 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride. Additionally, during peroxidation procedures, formation of 3-pyridylmethanol to nicotinic acid, the essential vitamin B3, was observed and characterized using HPLC-UV and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. This new reaction pathway may present further contribution to our knowledge of myosmine's significance in human food including its activation in human organism, foodstuffs, and biological systems.

  2. Radical-scavenging activity, protective effect against lipid peroxidation and mineral contents of monofloral Cuban honeys.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Suarez, José M; Giampieri, Francesca; Damiani, Elisabetta; Astolfi, Paola; Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco; Quiles, José L; Battino, Maurizio

    2012-03-01

    Several monofloral Cuban honeys were analyzed to determine their free radical-scavenging activity and from this the total antioxidant content was estimated. The protective effect against lipid peroxidation in an in vitro model of rat liver homogenates was evaluated and, lastly, the mineral content of the honeys, which can be related to the maintenance of intracellular oxidative balance, was determined. The scavenging capacities against hydroxyl and superoxide radicals were determined using the spin-trapping technique and the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay, respectively. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated through the production of TBARS and hydroperoxides. All honeys tested showed potential antioxidant activity with Linen vine displaying the highest scavenging capacity towards the DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, while the least efficient was Christmas vine honey. Honeys also inhibited, in a concentration-dependent mode, lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenates, with Linen vine resulting the best while the least effective was Christmas vine honey. The ability to scavenge free radicals and protect against lipid peroxidation may contribute to the ability of certain Cuban honeys to help in preventing/reducing some inflammatory diseases in which oxidative stress is involved. A total of eight minerals were identified and quantified as follows: cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, iron, manganese, lead, and zinc. Minerals found in higher concentrations were iron, zinc and manganese.

  3. Lipid Peroxidation and Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Levels in Gastric Cancer at Pathologic Stages

    PubMed Central

    Tüzün, Sefa; Yücel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Kemik, Ahu Sarbay; Kemik, Özgür

    2012-01-01

    Objective: High levels of TGF-β1 and enhanced TGF-β1 receptor signaling are related to the pathology of gastric cancer. This effect is caused by oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation products. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of TGF-β1 and lipid peroxidation products in gastric cancer patients and their correlation with pathologic stage. Material and Methods: Lipid peroxidation products and TGF-β1 levels were studied in the serum samples of 50 gastric cancer patients and 18 control subjects. Results: HNE-protein adducts and TGF-β1 levels were significantly higher in T2, T3 and T4 gastric cancers than in either the T1 stage or controls (p<0.001). Pathologic stage was correlated with TGF-β1 levels (r=0.702, p<0.05). Conclusion: These markers production may contribute to tumor angiogenesis and aid in the prognosis of the gastric cancer. PMID:25207013

  4. Peroxidized mineral oil increases the oxidant status of culture media and inhibits in vitro porcine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Martinez, C A; Nohalez, A; Ceron, J J; Rubio, C P; Roca, J; Cuello, C; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Martinez, E A; Gil, M A

    2017-11-01

    The use of oils with undetected alterations is a long-recognized problem for in vitro embryo production systems. Since peroxides in oils have been associated with reduced embryo production outcomes, our goals were (1) to evaluate the effects of a batch of mineral oil (MO) that was suspected to be altered on the in vitro production of pig embryos and (2) to determine oil peroxide values throughout culture and the transfer of oxidant agents from oil to culture media. Sunflower oil, which has a completely different chemical composition than MO but a higher oxidative status, and unaltered MO were used as controls. Oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo development were affected differently depending on the oil overlay used. While the suspected MO was not able to sustain in vitro maturation and fertilization, the oocytes incubated in the presence of sunflower oil were matured and fertilized similarly to those of the unaltered MO group. Moreover, the cleavage rate of presumed zygotes cultured under the suspected MO was severely reduced compared with those cultured under the other oils, and none of the cleaved embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Although the cleavage rates in the sunflower oil and unaltered MO groups were similar, embryos cultured under sunflower oil also failed to develop to the blastocyst stage. Our results revealed that the suspected MO and sunflower oil had similar levels of peroxides and that these levels were much higher than those of the unaltered MO. The total oxidant status was higher in media incubated under peroxidized oils than in fresh media or media incubated without an oil overlay or under unaltered MO, indicating that oxidant agents were transferred to the incubation media. However, unlike the sunflower oil group, the culture media incubated under the suspected MO had high levels of total oxidant status and low levels of hydrogen peroxide and reactive oxygen species, suggesting the presence of other unknown oxidant agents in

  5. Levels of cytokines in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, but not in plasma, are associated with levels of markers of lipid peroxidation in breath of ventilated ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Boshuizen, Margit; Leopold, Jan Hendrik; Zakharkina, Tetyana; Knobel, Hugo H; Weda, Hans; Nijsen, Tamara M E; Vink, Teunis J; Sterk, Peter J; Schultz, Marcus J; Bos, Lieuwe D J

    2015-09-03

    Alkanes and alkenes in the breath are produced through fatty acid peroxidation, which is initialized by reactive oxygen species. Inflammation is an important cause and effect of reactive oxygen species. We aimed to evaluate the association between fatty acid peroxidation products and inflammation of the alveolar and systemic compartment in ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients.Volatile organic compounds were measured by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in the breath of newly ventilated ICU patients within 24 h after ICU admission. Cytokines were measured in non-directed bronchial lavage fluid (NBL) and plasma by cytometric bead array. Correlation coefficients were calculated and presented in heatmaps.93 patients were included. Peroxidation products in exhaled breath were not associated with markers of inflammation in plasma, but were correlated with those in NBL. IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α concentration in NBL showed inverse correlation coefficients with the peroxidation products of fatty acids. Furthermore, NBL IL-10, IL-13, GM-CSF and IFNγ demonstrated positive associations with breath alkanes and alkenes. Correlation coefficients for NBL cytokines were high regarding peroxidation products of n-6, n-7 and particularly in n-9 fatty acids.Levels of lipid peroxidation products in the breath of ventilated ICU patients are associated with levels of inflammatory markers in NBL, but not in plasma. Alkanes and alkenes in breath seems to be associated with an anti-inflammatory, rather than a pro-inflammatory state in the alveoli.

  6. A Three-Step Synthesis of Benzoyl Peroxide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her, Brenda; Jones, Alexandra; Wollack, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Benzoyl peroxide is used as a bleaching agent for flour and whey processing, a polymerization initiator in the synthesis of plastics, and the active component of acne medication. Because of its simplicity and wide application, benzoyl peroxide is a target molecule of interest. It can be affordably synthesized in three steps from bromobenzene using…

  7. Demonstration of the Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Alfred R. Jr.; Kessinger, Angela

    1996-01-01

    Describes a demonstration known as Elephant's Toothpaste in which the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is catalyzed by iodide. Oxygen is released and soap bubbles are produced. The foam produced is measured, and results show a good relationship between the amount of foam and the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide. (DDR)

  8. Demonstration of the Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, Alfred R., Jr.; Kessinger, Angela

    1996-09-01

    Catalytic decomposition is demonstrated by placing hydrogen peroxide solutions in a one liter graduated cylinder and adding soap, food coloring, and potassium iodide. Released oxygen is trapped by the soap producing bubbles. The volume of bubbles is proportional to the concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Chloride and bromide do not cause decomposition. Increased reactant temperature increases the volume of bubbles formed.

  9. Optimisation of the enzyme-based determination of hydrogen peroxide using the quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Martin, S P; Lynch, J M; Reddy, S M

    2002-09-01

    The benzidines, 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB), 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine (DMOB) and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) were enzymatically oxidised to detect hydrogen peroxide, using the quartz crystal. The oxidised product mainly remains in suspension, resulting in a limited quartz sensor signal. We have used two non-ionic surfactants, Tween 80 and Triton X-100 to interact with the oxidised amphiphilic products to increase their solubility and surface activity, and their ability to adsorb to the crystal surface. Tween 80 exhibits optimised response effects for DAB, DMOB and TMB at 0.012, 0.005, and 0.002% (v/v), respectively, whereas Triton X-100 is optimum at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.006% (v/v), respectively. As a result, we have improved the quartz crystal sensor sensitivity to peroxide. The use of Triton X-100 gave an improved response time.

  10. Role of Lipid Peroxidation-Derived α, β-Unsaturated Aldehydes in Vascular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Park, Yong Seek

    2013-01-01

    Vascular diseases are the most prominent cause of death, and inflammation and vascular dysfunction are key initiators of the pathophysiology of vascular disease. Lipid peroxidation products, such as acrolein and other α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, have been implicated as mediators of inflammation and vascular dysfunction. α, β-Unsaturated aldehydes are toxic because of their high reactivity with nucleophiles and their ability to form protein and DNA adducts without prior metabolic activation. This strong reactivity leads to electrophilic stress that disrupts normal cellular function. Furthermore, α, β-unsaturated aldehydes are reported to cause endothelial dysfunction by induction of oxidative stress, redox-sensitive mechanisms, and inflammatory changes such as induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and cytokines. This review provides an overview of the effects of lipid peroxidation products, α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, on inflammation and vascular dysfunction. PMID:23819013

  11. High throughput assay for evaluation of reactive carbonyl scavenging capacity.

    PubMed

    Vidal, N; Cavaille, J P; Graziani, F; Robin, M; Ouari, O; Pietri, S; Stocker, P

    2014-01-01

    Many carbonyl species from either lipid peroxidation or glycoxidation are extremely reactive and can disrupt the function of proteins and enzymes. 4-hydroxynonenal and methylglyoxal are the most abundant and toxic lipid-derived reactive carbonyl species. The presence of these toxics leads to carbonyl stress and cause a significant amount of macromolecular damages in several diseases. Much evidence indicates trapping of reactive carbonyl intermediates may be a useful strategy for inhibiting or decreasing carbonyl stress-associated pathologies. There is no rapid and convenient analytical method available for the assessment of direct carbonyl scavenging capacity, and a very limited number of carbonyl scavengers have been identified to date, their therapeutic potential being highlighted only recently. In this context, we have developed a new and rapid sensitive fluorimetric method for the assessment of reactive carbonyl scavengers without involvement glycoxidation systems. Efficacy of various thiol- and non-thiol-carbonyl scavenger pharmacophores was tested both using this screening assay adapted to 96-well microplates and in cultured cells. The scavenging effects on the formation of Advanced Glycation End-product of Bovine Serum Albumin formed with methylglyoxal, 4-hydroxynonenal and glucose-glycated as molecular models were also examined. Low molecular mass thiols with an α-amino-β-mercaptoethane structure showed the highest degree of inhibitory activity toward both α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and dicarbonyls. Cysteine and cysteamine have the best scavenging ability toward methylglyoxal. WR-1065 which is currently approved for clinical use as a protective agent against radiation and renal toxicity was identified as the best inhibitor of 4-hydroxynonenal.

  12. Organic hydrogen peroxide-driven low charge potentials for high-performance lithium-oxygen batteries with carbon cathodes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shichao; Qiao, Yu; Yang, Sixie; Ishida, Masayoshi; He, Ping; Zhou, Haoshen

    2017-01-01

    Reducing the high charge potential is a crucial concern in advancing the performance of lithium-oxygen batteries. Here, for water-containing lithium-oxygen batteries with lithium hydroxide products, we find that a hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution added in the electrolyte can effectively promote the decomposition of lithium hydroxide compounds at the ultralow charge potential on a catalyst-free Ketjen Black-based cathode. Furthermore, for non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries with lithium peroxide products, we introduce a urea hydrogen peroxide, chelating hydrogen peroxide without any water in the organic, as an electrolyte additive in lithium-oxygen batteries with a lithium metal anode and succeed in the realization of the low charge potential of ∼3.26 V, which is among the best levels reported. In addition, the undesired water generally accompanying hydrogen peroxide solutions is circumvented to protect the lithium metal anode and ensure good battery cycling stability. Our results should provide illuminating insights into approaches to enhancing lithium-oxygen batteries. PMID:28585527

  13. Organic hydrogen peroxide-driven low charge potentials for high-performance lithium-oxygen batteries with carbon cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shichao; Qiao, Yu; Yang, Sixie; Ishida, Masayoshi; He, Ping; Zhou, Haoshen

    2017-06-01

    Reducing the high charge potential is a crucial concern in advancing the performance of lithium-oxygen batteries. Here, for water-containing lithium-oxygen batteries with lithium hydroxide products, we find that a hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution added in the electrolyte can effectively promote the decomposition of lithium hydroxide compounds at the ultralow charge potential on a catalyst-free Ketjen Black-based cathode. Furthermore, for non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries with lithium peroxide products, we introduce a urea hydrogen peroxide, chelating hydrogen peroxide without any water in the organic, as an electrolyte additive in lithium-oxygen batteries with a lithium metal anode and succeed in the realization of the low charge potential of ~3.26 V, which is among the best levels reported. In addition, the undesired water generally accompanying hydrogen peroxide solutions is circumvented to protect the lithium metal anode and ensure good battery cycling stability. Our results should provide illuminating insights into approaches to enhancing lithium-oxygen batteries.

  14. [Lipid peroxidation in thyroid tissue of people with diffuse toxic goiter].

    PubMed

    Rom-Boguslavskaia, E S; Somova, E V; Ovsiannikova, T N; Diageleva, E A; Karachentsev, Iu I; Asaula, V A

    1997-01-01

    The processes of lipids free-radical oxidation in euthyroid and thyrotoxic tissue samples of human thyroid gland were studied. It was shown, that the content of TBA-active lipid peroxidation products was considerably increased in thyrotoxic tissue of the thyroid, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutation peroxidase) was decreased in it. Possible mechanism of the tissue lipoperoxide alternation under conditions of the thyroid hyperfunction is discussed.

  15. Kinetic Modeling of Methionine Oxidation in Monoclonal Antibodies from Hydrogen Peroxide Spiking Studies.

    PubMed

    Hui, Ada; Lam, Xanthe M; Kuehl, Christopher; Grauschopf, Ulla; Wang, Y John

    2015-01-01

    When isolator technology is applied to biotechnology drug product fill-finish process, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) spiking studies for the determination of the sensitivity of protein to residual peroxide in the isolator can be useful for assessing a maximum vapor phase hydrogen peroxide (VPHP) level. When monoclonal antibody (mAb) drug products were spiked with H2O2, an increase in methionine (Met 252 and Met 428) oxidation in the Fc region of the mAbs with a decrease in H2O2 concentration was observed for various levels of spiked-in peroxide. The reaction between Fc-Met and H2O2 was stoichiometric (i.e., 1:1 molar ratio), and the reaction rate was dependent on the concentrations of mAb and H2O2. The consumption of H2O2 by Fc-Met oxidation in the mAb followed pseudo first-order kinetics, and the rate was proportional to mAb concentration. The extent of Met 428 oxidation was half of that of Met 252, supporting that Met 252 is twice as reactive as Met 428. Similar results were observed for free L-methionine when spiked with H2O2. However, mAb formulation excipients may affect the rate of H2O2 consumption. mAb formulations containing trehalose or sucrose had faster H2O2 consumption rates than formulations without the sugars, which could be the result of impurities (e.g., metal ions) present in the excipients that may act as catalysts. Based on the H2O2 spiking study results, we can predict the amount Fc-Met oxidation for a given protein concentration and H2O2 level. Our kinetic modeling of the reaction between Fc-Met oxidation and H2O2 provides an outline to design a H2O2 spiking study to support the use of VPHP isolator for antibody drug product manufacture. Isolator technology is increasing used in drug product manufacturing of biotherapeutics. In order to understand the impact of residual vapor phase hydrogen peroxide (VPHP) levels on protein product quality, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) spiking studies may be performed to determine the sensitivity of monoclonal antibody

  16. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    HALGREN DL

    2010-03-12

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the samemore » six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft{sup 2}) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.« less

  17. Sensory and Functionality Differences of Whey Protein Isolate Bleached by Hydrogen or Benzoyl Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tucker J; Foegeding, E Allen; Drake, MaryAnne

    2015-10-01

    bleached by hydrogen and benzoyl peroxide and provides insights for the product applications which may benefit from bleaching. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Salinity-gradient energy driven microbial electrosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohu; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2017-02-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a strong oxidant, is widely used in various chemical industries and environmental remediation processes. In this study, we developed an innovative method for cost-effective production of H2O2 by using a microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cell (MREC). In the MREC, electrical potential generated by the exoelectrogens and the salinity-gradient between salt and fresh water were utilized to drive the high-rate H2O2 production. Operational parameters such as air flow rate, pH, cathodic potential, flow rate of salt and fresh water were investigated. The optimal H2O2 production was observed at salt and fresh water flow rate of 0.5 mL min-1, air flow rate of 12-20 mL min-1, cathode potential of -0.485 ± 0.025 V (vs Ag/AgCl). The maximum H2O2 accumulated concentration of 778 ± 11 mg L-1 was obtained at corresponding production rate of 11.5 ± 0.5 mg L-1 h-1. The overall energy input for the synthesis process was 0.45 ± 0.03 kWh kg-1 H2O2. Cathode potential was the key factor for H2O2 production, which was mainly affected by the air flow rate. This work for the first time proved the potential of MREC as an efficient platform technology for simultaneous electrosynthesis of valuable chemicals and utilization of salinity-gradient energy.

  19. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Skrzydlewska, Elzbieta; Sulkowski, Stanislaw; Koda, Mariusz; Zalewski, Bogdan; Kanczuga-Koda, Luiza; Sulkowska, Mariola

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce carcinogenesis via DNA injury. Both enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters participate in cell protection against harmful influence of oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to assess the levels of final lipid peroxidation products like malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) in primary colorectal cancer. Moreover, we analysed the activity of main antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GSSRG-R) and the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione, vitamins C and E). METHODS: Investigations were conducted in 81 primary colorectal cancers. As a control, the same amount of sample was collected from macroscopically unchanged colon regions of the most distant location to the cancer. Homogenisation of specimens provided 10% homogenates for our evaluations. Activity of antioxidant enzymes and level of glutathione were determined by spectrophotometry. HPLC revealed levels of vitamins C and E and served as a method to detect terminal products of lipid peroxidation in colorectal cancer. RESULTS: Our studies demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the level of lipid peroxidation products (MDA-Adc.muc.-2.65±0.48 nmol/g, Adc.G3-2.15±0.44 nmol/g, clinical IV stage 4.04±0.47 nmol/g, P<0.001 and 4-HNE-Adc.muc. -0.44±0.07 nmol/g, Adc.G3-0.44±0.10 nmol/g, clinical IV stage 0.52±0.11 nmol/g, P<0.001) as well as increase of Cu,Zn-SOD (Adc.muc.-363±72 U/g, Adc.G3-318±48 U/g, clinical IV stage 421±58 U/g, P<0.001), GSH-Px (Adc.muc. -2143±623 U/g, Adc.G3-2005±591 U/g, clinical IV stage 2467±368 U/g, P<0.001) and GSSG-R (Adc.muc.-880±194 U/g, Adc.G3-795±228 U/g, clinical IV stage 951±243 U/g, P<0.001) in primary tumour comparison with normal colon (MDA-1.39±0.15 nmol/g, HNE-0.29±0.03 nmol/g, Cu, Zn-SOD-117±25 U/g, GSH-Px-1723±189 U/g, GSSG-R-625±112 U/g) especially in mucinous and G3-grade

  20. Oxidative stress and cytotoxicity elicited lipid peroxidation in hemocytes of Bombyx mori larva infested with dipteran parasitoid, Exorista bombycis.

    PubMed

    Pooja, Makwana; Pradeep, Appukuttan Nair R; Hungund, Shambhavi P; Sagar, Chandrashekhar; Ponnuvel, Kangayam M; Awasthi, Arvind K; Trivedy, Kanika

    2017-12-20

    Parasitization of silkworm, Bombyx mori by invasive larva of dipteran parasitoid Exorista bombycis caused upto 20% revenue loss in sericulture. The parasitism was successful by suppressing host immune system however mechanism of immune suppression induced by E. bombycis is unknown which is unravelled here. The infestation induced cytotoxic symptoms in host hemocytes, such as vacuolated cytoplasm, porous plasma membrane, indented nuclei with condensed chromatin and dilated RER. One of the markers of necrosis is cell permeabilization, which can be measured as released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). LDH level showed significantly (P<0.01) high release into extracellular medium in vitro after exposure of hemocytes to parasitoid larval tissue protein compared with control revealing membrane permeability and loss of cell integrity. At five minutes after exposure, cytotoxicity was 43% and was increased to 99% at 3h. The cytotoxicity is signalled by increased content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) causing lipid peroxidation followed by porosity in plasma membrane. A test for lipid peroxidation by measurement of lipid peroxidation breakdown product, malondialdehyde (MDA) revealed significant increase in peroxidation from one to 24 h post-invasion, with maximum at 12 h (P<0.008). Level of reactive oxygen species measured as H2O2 production increased from 6 to 12 h post-invasion and continued to increase significantly (P<0.03) reaching maximum at 48 h. These observations reveal that dipteran endoparasitoid invasion induced H2O2 production in the hemocytes causing cytotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and membrane porosity that suppressed both humoral- and cell-mediated immune responses of hemocytes in B. mori.

  1. Chronic toxicity of hydrogen peroxide to Daphnia magna in a continuous exposure, flow-through test system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, J.R.; Greseth, Shari L.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Schmidt, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    A flow-through, continuous exposure test system was developed to expose Daphnia magna to an unstable compound. 35% Perox-Aid?? is a specially formulated hydrogen peroxide (a highly oxidative chemical) product approved for use in U.S. aquaculture and therefore has the potential to be released from aquaculture facilities and pose a risk to aquatic invertebrates. The study objective was to assess the effects of 35% Perox-Aid?? on an aquatic invertebrate by evaluating the survival, growth, production, and gender ratio of progeny from a representative aquatic invertebrate continuously exposed to 35% Perox-Aid??. The study design consisted of 6 treatment groups (10 test chambers each) with target hydrogen peroxide concentrations of 0.0, 0.32, 0.63, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0??mg L- 1. The study was initiated with < 24-h-old Daphnia (1 daphnid per chamber) that were exposed to hydrogen peroxide for 21??days. Hydrogen peroxide concentrations ??? 1.25??mg L- 1 had no significant effect on Daphnia time to death compared to controls and no significant effect on the time to first brood production and the number of broods produced. Concentrations ??? 0.63??mg L- 1 had no significant effect on the total number of young produced. Concentrations ??? 0.32??mg L- 1 had a negative effect on Daphnia growth. Hydrogen peroxide had no significant effect on the gender ratio of young produced. All second generation Daphnia were female. A continuous discharge of hydrogen peroxide into aquatic ecosystems is not likely to affect cladocerans if the concentration is maintained at ??? 0.63??mg L- 1 for less than 21??days.

  2. Kinetics of Platinum-Catalyzed Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Tiffany A.; Colombo, D. Philip, Jr.

    2003-07-01

    CIBA Vision Corporation markets a contact lens cleaning system that consists of an AOSEPT disinfectant solution and an AOSEPT lens cup. The disinfectant is a buffered 3.0% m/v hydrogen peroxide solution and the cup includes a platinum-coated AOSEPT disc. The hydrogen peroxide disinfects by killing bacteria, fungi, and viruses found on the contact lenses. Because the concentration of hydrogen peroxide needed to disinfect is irritating to eyes, the hydrogen peroxide needs to be neutralized, or decomposed, before the contact lenses can be used again. A general chemistry experiment is described where the kinetics of the catalyzed decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide are studied by measuring the amount of oxygen generated as a function of time. The order of the reaction with respect to the hydrogen peroxide, the rate constant, and the energy of activation are determined. The integrated rate law is used to determine the time required to decompose the hydrogen peroxide to a concentration that is safe for eyes.

  3. Hydrogen peroxide mechanosynthesis in siloxane-hydrogel contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Tavazzi, Silvia; Ferraro, Lorenzo; Cozza, Federica; Pastori, Valentina; Lecchi, Marzia; Farris, Stefano; Borghesi, Alessandro

    2014-11-26

    Drug-loaded contact lenses are emerging as the preferred treatment method for several ocular diseases, and efforts are being directed to promote extended and controlled delivery. One strategy is based on delivery induced by environmental triggers. One of these triggers can be hydrogen peroxide, since many platforms based on drug-loaded nanoparticles were demonstrated to be hydrogen-peroxide responsive. This is particularly interesting when hydrogen peroxide is the result of a specific pathophysiological condition. Otherwise, an alternative route to induce drug delivery is here proposed, namely the mechano-synthesis. The present work represents the proof-of-concept of the mechanosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide in siloxane-hydrogel contact lenses as a consequence of the cleavage of siloxane bonds at the interface between the polymer and water in aqueous phase. Their spongy morphology makes contact lenses promising systems for mechanical-to-chemical energy conversion, since the amount of hydrogen peroxide is expected to scale with the interfacial area between the polymer and water. The eyelid pressure during wear is sufficient to induce the hydrogen peroxide synthesis with concentrations which are biocompatible and suitable to trigger the drug release through hydrogen-peroxide-responsive platforms. For possible delivery on demand, the integration of piezoelectric polymers in the siloxane-hydrogel contact lenses could be designed, whose mechanical deformation could be induced by an applied wireless-controlled voltage.

  4. On-site applicability of hydrogen peroxide producing microbial electrochemical cells (MECs) coupled with UV in wastewater disinfection study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: There is an increased interest in the application of microbial electrochemical cell (MEC) for the recovery of value-added products such as hydrogen gas and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from wastewater. H2O2 has strong oxidation capability and produces hydroxyl radicals wh...

  5. ON-SITE APPLICABILITY OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE PRODUCING MICROBIAL ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS COUPLED WITH UV IN WASTEWATER DISINFECTION STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an increased interest in the application of microbial electrochemical cell (MEC) for the recovery of value-added products such as hydrogen gas and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from wastewater. H2O2 has strong oxidation capability and produces hydroxyl radicals when coupled w...

  6. Uranyl peroxide enhanced nuclear fuel corrosion in seawater.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Christopher R; Nyman, May; Shvareva, Tatiana; Sigmon, Ginger E; Burns, Peter C; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2012-02-07

    The Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident brought together compromised irradiated fuel and large amounts of seawater in a high radiation field. Based on newly acquired thermochemical data for a series of uranyl peroxide compounds containing charge-balancing alkali cations, here we show that nanoscale cage clusters containing as many as 60 uranyl ions, bonded through peroxide and hydroxide bridges, are likely to form in solution or as precipitates under such conditions. These species will enhance the corrosion of the damaged fuel and, being thermodynamically stable and kinetically persistent in the absence of peroxide, they can potentially transport uranium over long distances.

  7. Simulated afterburner performance with hydrogen peroxide injection for thrust augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzler, Allen J; Grobman, Jack S

    1956-01-01

    Combustion performance of three afterburner configurations was evaluated at simulated altitude flight conditions with liquid augmentation to the primary combustor. Afterburner combustion efficiency and stability were better with injection of high-strength hydrogen peroxide than with no injection or with water injection. Improvements were observed in afterburner configurations with and without flameholders and in a short-length afterburner. At a peroxide-air ratio of 0.3, combustion was stable and 85 to 90 percent efficient in all configurations tested. Calculated augmented net-thrust ratios for peroxide injection with afterburning were approximately 60 percent greater than those for water injection.

  8. Uranyl peroxide enhanced nuclear fuel corrosion in seawater

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Christopher R.; Nyman, May; Shvareva, Tatiana; Sigmon, Ginger E.; Burns, Peter C.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident brought together compromised irradiated fuel and large amounts of seawater in a high radiation field. Based on newly acquired thermochemical data for a series of uranyl peroxide compounds containing charge-balancing alkali cations, here we show that nanoscale cage clusters containing as many as 60 uranyl ions, bonded through peroxide and hydroxide bridges, are likely to form in solution or as precipitates under such conditions. These species will enhance the corrosion of the damaged fuel and, being thermodynamically stable and kinetically persistent in the absence of peroxide, they can potentially transport uranium over long distances. PMID:22308442

  9. Locating bomb factories by detecting hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Connell, Samantha; Ferrari, Carlotta; Suarez, Guillaume; Sauvain, Jean-Jacques; Hopf, Nancy B

    2016-11-01

    The analytical capability to detect hydrogen peroxide vapour can play a key role in localizing a site where a H2O2 based Improvised Explosive (IE) is manufactured. In security activities it is very important to obtain information in a short time. For this reason, an analytical method to be used in security activity needs portable devices. The authors have developed the first analytical method based on a portable luminometer, specifically designed and validated to locate IE manufacturing sites using quantitative on-site vapour analysis for H2O2. The method was tested both indoor and outdoor. The results demonstrate that the detection of H2O2 vapours could allow police forces to locate the site, while terrorists are preparing an attack. The collected data are also very important in developing new sensors, able to give an early alarm if located at a proper distance from a site where an H2O2 based IE is prepared. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Materials Compatibility Testing in Concentrated Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, R.; Bromley, G.; Mason, D.; Crockett, D.; Martinez, L.; McNeal, C.; Lyles, G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Materials test methods from the 1960's have been used as a starting point in evaluating materials for today's space launch vehicles. These established test methods have been modified to incorporate today's analytical laboratory equipment. The Orbital test objective was to test a wide range of materials to incorporate the revolution in polymer and composite materials that has occurred since the 1960's. Testing is accomplished in 3 stages from rough screening to detailed analytical tests. Several interesting test observations have been made during this testing and are included in the paper. A summary of the set-up, test and evaluation of long-term storage sub-scale tanks is also included. This sub-scale tank test lasted for a 7-month duration prior to being stopped due to a polar boss material breakdown. Chemical evaluations of the hydrogen peroxide and residue left on the polar boss surface identify the material breakdown quite clearly. The paper concludes with recommendations for future testing and a specific effort underway within the industry to standardize the test methods used in evaluating materials.

  11. Protein degradation following treatment with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed Central

    Fligiel, S. E.; Lee, E. C.; McCoy, J. P.; Johnson, K. J.; Varani, J.

    1984-01-01

    Pretreatment of hemoglobin with 50-5000 nmol hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) increased its susceptibility to proteolysis by a number of purified enzymes, including trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and plasmin, and by the neutral protease of rat peritoneal leukocytes. Pretreatment of the protein substrate with catalase-inactivated H2O2 had no effect. Separation of the proteolytic fragments by G-75 Sephadex gel filtration indicated no apparent differences in the size distribution of the fragments produced by treatment with the H2O2/proteolytic enzyme combination as compared with enzyme treatment alone. A partially purified preparation of rat glomerular basement membrane was also treated with proteolytic enzyme alone or in combination with H2O2. As with the hemoglobin, pretreatment of the glomerular basement membrane with H2O2 increased its susceptibility to subsequent proteolytic attack. In addition, treatment of a basement membrane glycoprotein, fibronectin, with H2O2 also increased its sensitivity to subsequent proteolysis. These results suggest that in addition to their other proinflammatory activities, oxygen-derived metabolites may contribute to tissue destruction by altering the susceptibility of proteins to hydrolytic enzymes. Images Figure 1 PMID:6375392

  12. Effect of water and common salts on the vibrational spectra of high energy cyclic organic peroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Quevedo, Alvaro J.; Figueroa, Javier; Rodríguez, Nelmarie; Nieves, Deborah; Hernández, Neiza; Rivera, Rosangela; Mina, Nairmen; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2006-05-01

    Cyclic organic peroxides are sensitive to the presence of water and other contaminants that can deactivate the substance or make it less sensitive to chock, spark or other detonating mechanism. In the case of radiation such as laser action the opposite seems to happen, making the peroxides more sensitive to laser breakdown and local burning. In recent studies, TATP has been induced to sublimate faster during Raman analysis when it had contaminants or water, however, some studies have shown that TATP does not reacts when it is wet. This study is focused on determining if the presence of water and other contaminants affects peroxide stability and the detection by current technologies, such as IMS and vibrational spectroscopy. During the study, TATP and HMTD have been synthesized by different methods using certified chemicals and common household products. The research also focused on the effect of metal salts in the syntheses and the effect of temperature in the composition of the products. Differences in the location, shape, relative intensity, and in some cases appearance of new bands possibly due to Redox and complex formation reactions were evident. Bands corresponding to ν(O-O), ν(C-O), δ(CH 3-C) and δ(C-O) were located and assigned for Raman and IR spectroscopies.

  13. Endogenous Intoxication and Saliva Lipid Peroxidation in Patients with Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bel'skaya, Lyudmila V; Kosenok, Victor K; Massard, Gilbert

    2016-11-16

    This research was aimed at a search for regularities in changes to parameters of endogenous intoxication and saliva lipid peroxidation in patients with lung cancer, non-malignant lung diseases, and apparently healthy people. All patients went through saliva sampling at an amount of 1 mL. A concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured according to a reaction with thiobarbituric acid, and a level of middle molecules (MM) was measured with UV spectroscopy at 254 and 280 nm, while the content of lipid peroxidation products was measured according to a degree of heptane extract light absorption at wavelengths of 220, 232, 278, and 400 nm. It has been revealed that in the context of lung cancer, the level of diene conjugates decreases, increasing the level of triene conjugates, Schiff's bases, and MM. As a tumor grows, there is a decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation primary products and an increase in endotoxemia phenomena. The process is more apparent when going from local to locally advanced disease states. The nature of the MDA change is nonlinearly associated with tumor progression. The findings might be used to optimize traditional aids of diagnostics, in disease state forecasting, in treatment monitoring, etc.

  14. [Indicators of lipid peroxidation in the blood in hereditary predisposition to arteriosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Davidenkova, E F; Shafran, M G; Veksler, B M

    1990-02-01

    In members of the families whose parents had atherosclerosis complicated by macrofocal myocardial infarction or stroke, the serum level of lipid peroxidation products was correlated to enzymatic activity of neutrophil and red blood cells oxidation-antioxidation. In persons with hereditary predisposition to atherosclerosis both with clinical signs of atherosclerosis and phenotypically healthy against the control group there was elevated content of plasma acylhydroperoxides and hypoactivity of neutrophil myeloperoxidase. Determination of lipid peroxidation products by malonic dealdehyde showed this parameter to be higher in members of the families of the study group and in those with cardiovascular disorders. For those whose parents had atherosclerosis versus control subjects there were no differences in the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutation peroxidase and catalase in the blood red cells. Shifts in lipid peroxidation and activity of blood myeloperoxidase are identical in type and may represent a pathogenetic ling in formation of hereditary predisposition to cardiovascular disorders of atherosclerotic origin, the detection of which becomes feasible in a subclinical period.

  15. Antioxidant lactobacilli could protect gingival fibroblasts against hydrogen peroxide: a preliminary in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mendi, Ayşegül; Aslım, Belma

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress and tissue destruction are at the heart of periodontal diseases. The dental research area is geared toward the prevention of free radicals by nutrient antioxidants. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have recently attracted attention in alternative dental therapies. We aimed at highlighting the antioxidative property of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium strains and at determining their protective effect on gingival fibroblasts (GFs). Two Lactobacilli and 2 Bifidobacterium strains were screened for their exopolysaccharide (EPSs) production. Antioxidative assays were conducted by spectrophotometer analysis. Resistance to different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was determined by the serial dilution technique. The protective effect of strains on GFs on hydrogen peroxide exposure was also examined by a new trypan blue exclusion assay method. Bifidobacterium breve A28 showed the highest EPS production (122 mg/l) and remarkable antioxidant activity, which were demonstrated by its ability to scavenge 72% α,α-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical and chelate 88% of iron ion, respectively. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation was determined as 71% for the A28 strain. We suggest that LAB with antioxidative activity could be a good natural therapy agent for periodontal disorders.

  16. Bioconversion of paper mill sludge to bioethanol in the presence of accelerants or hydrogen peroxide pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Gurram, Raghu Nandan; Al-Shannag, Mohammad; Lecher, Nicholas Joshua; Duncan, Shona M; Singsaas, Eric Lawrence; Alkasrawi, Malek

    2015-09-01

    In this study we investigated the technical feasibility of convert paper mill sludge into fuel ethanol. This involved the removal of mineral fillers by using either chemical pretreatment or mechanical fractionation to determine their effects on cellulose hydrolysis and fermentation to ethanol. In addition, we studied the effect of cationic polyelectrolyte (as accelerant) addition and hydrogen peroxide pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. We present results showing that removing the fillers content (ash and calcium carbonate) from the paper mill sludge increases the enzymatic hydrolysis performance dramatically with higher cellulose conversion at faster rates. The addition of accelerant and hydrogen peroxide pretreatment further improved the hydrolysis yields by 16% and 25% (g glucose / g cellulose), respectively with the de-ashed sludge. The fermentation process of produced sugars achieved up to 95% of the maximum theoretical ethanol yield and higher ethanol productivities within 9h of fermentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by extracts/subfractions of Chickrassy ( Chukrasia tabularis A. Juss.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rajbir; Thind, Tarunpreet Singh; Singh, Bikram; Arora, Saroj

    2009-01-01

    Polyphenols and polyphenol-rich fractions of plants have been reported to have protective effects against lipid peroxidation, most probably by serving as scavengers of free radicals and/or by chelating metal ions. In the present study, the effect of different extracts/subfractions of Chickrassy ( Chukrasia tabularis) on peroxyl radical mediated damage to the polyunsaturated fatty acids was investigated. Liver homogenate was used as experimental material. The production of malondialdehyde served as a marker of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. It was observed that polyphenol-rich fractions, particularly the ethyl acetate fractions of bark and leaves, showed the highest protective activity of 83.02% and 88.62% inhibition, respectively. This study will help in knowing the scientific validation of this plant, for its use in ayurvedic formulations.

  18. Comparison of chemiluminescence methods for analysis of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehrman, R.; Amme, M.; Cachoir, C.

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of alpha radiolysis influence on the chemistry of geologically disposed spent fuel demands analytical methods for radiolytic product determination at trace levels. Several chemiluminescence methods for the detection of radiolytic oxidants hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals are tested. Two of hydrogen peroxide methods use luminol, catalyzed by either μ-peroxidase or hemin, one uses 10-methyl-9-(p-formylphenyl)-acridinium carboxylate trifluoromethanesulfonate and one potassium periodate. All recipes are tested as batch systems in basic conditions. For hydroxyl radical detection luminophores selected are 3-hydroxyphthalic hydrazide and rutin. Both methods are tested as batch systems. The results are compared and the applicability of the methods for near-field dissolution studies is discussed.

  19. Protective effects of nicergoline against hydrogen peroxide toxicity in rat neuronal cell line.

    PubMed

    Iwata, E; Miyazaki, I; Asanuma, M; Iida, A; Ogawa, N

    1998-07-17

    We examined the effects of nicergoline on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat neuronal cell line (B50). H2O2 induced death of B50 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The H2O2-induced neuronal cell death was significantly decreased in B50 cells maintained in the presence of nicergoline. We compared the levels of antioxidants (glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase) in nicergoline-treated and untreated B50 cells. Lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) levels were also measured. Cultures treated with nicergoline had higher levels of catalase activity. TBARS level was significantly lower in nicergoline-treated cells than in untreated cells. Our results suggest that nicergoline may induce the up-regulation of intracellular antioxidant defences and protect the neuronal cells against oxidative stress.

  20. [Cerebral vasospasm and lipid peroxidation--lipid peroxides in the cerebrospinal fluid after subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, T; Asano, T; Takakura, K; Sano, K; Nakamura, T; Suzuki, N; Imabayashi, S; Ishikawa, Y

    1982-12-01

    The relationship between lipid peroxides in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the occurrence of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was evaluated by analyzing CSF with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydroperoxy eicosatetraenoic acids (HPETEs) and hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) were synthesized by the treatment of arachidonic acid with hydrogen peroxide and cupric chloride. The retention time of these HPETEs and HETEs were determined on HPLC. The position of oxydation occurred was determined after methylation, reduction and trimethyl silylation using GC-MS. Thus the elucidation of positional isomers of HPETEs and HETEs was made possible by the retention time on HPLC. The supernant of CSF after SAH was adjusted to pH 3.0 and then absorbed to octadecyl silyl silica column. The eluted fraction with 15% ethanol-water from octadecyl silyl silica column was analyzed by HPLC detecting at 238 nm. No peak was observed on HPLC at the region of HPETEs and HETEs in the CSF obtained from healthy person. In SAH patients, several peaks were recognized in accordance with the occurrence of cerebral vasospasm. One of the peaks was identified as 5-HETE by HPLC and GC-MS. In 10 SAH patients, semi-quantitative analysis of 5-HETE in the CSF was performed by measuring the height of the peak identified as 5-HETE on HPLC. The close correlation was recognized between the occurrence of cerebral vasospasm and the appearance of 5-HETE in the CSF. The results of the present study suggest that lipid peroxidation is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic vasospasm after SAH.

  1. Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of corn stover: effects of biomass, peroxide, and enzyme loading and composition on yields of glucose and xylose

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pretreatment is a critical step in the conversion of lignocellulose to fermentable sugars. Although many pretreatment processes are currently under investigation, none of them are entirely satisfactory in regard to effectiveness, cost, or environmental impact. The use of hydrogen peroxide at pH 11.5 (alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP)) was shown by Gould and coworkers to be an effective pretreatment of grass stovers and other plant materials in the context of animal nutrition and ethanol production. Our earlier experiments indicated that AHP performed well when compared against two other alkaline pretreatments. Here, we explored several key parameters to test the potential of AHP for further improvement relevant to lignocellulosic ethanol production. Results The effects of biomass loading, hydrogen peroxide loading, residence time, and pH control were tested in combination with subsequent digestion with a commercial enzyme preparation, optimized mixtures of four commercial enzymes, or optimized synthetic mixtures of pure enzymes. AHP pretreatment was performed at room temperature (23°C) and atmospheric pressure, and after AHP pretreatment the biomass was neutralized with HCl but not washed before enzyme digestion. Standard enzyme digestion conditions were 0.2% glucan loading, 15 mg protein/g glucan, and 48 h digestion at 50°C. Higher pretreatment biomass loadings (10% to 20%) gave higher monomeric glucose (Glc) and xylose (Xyl) yields than the 2% loading used in earlier studies. An H2O2 loading of 0.25 g/g biomass was almost as effective as 0.5 g/g, but 0.125 g/g was significantly less effective. Optimized mixtures of four commercial enzymes substantially increased post-AHP-pretreatment enzymatic hydrolysis yields at all H2O2 concentrations compared to any single commercial enzyme. At a pretreatment biomass loading of 10% and an H2O2 loading of 0.5 g/g biomass, an optimized commercial mixture at total protein loadings of 8 or 15 mg/g glucan gave

  2. The effect of hydrogen peroxide on uranium oxide films on 316L stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilbraham, Richard J.; Boxall, Colin; Goddard, David T.; Taylor, Robin J.; Woodbury, Simon E.

    2015-09-01

    For the first time the effect of hydrogen peroxide on the dissolution of electrodeposited uranium oxide films on 316L stainless steel planchets (acting as simulant uranium-contaminated metal surfaces) has been studied. Analysis of the H2O2-mediated film dissolution processes via open circuit potentiometry, alpha counting and SEM/EDX imaging has shown that in near-neutral solutions of pH 6.1 and at [H2O2] ⩽ 100 μmol dm-3 the electrodeposited uranium oxide layer is freely dissolving, the associated rate of film dissolution being significantly increased over leaching of similar films in pH 6.1 peroxide-free water. At H2O2 concentrations between 1 mmol dm-3 and 0.1 mol dm-3, formation of an insoluble studtite product layer occurs at the surface of the uranium oxide film. In analogy to corrosion processes on common metal substrates such as steel, the studtite layer effectively passivates the underlying uranium oxide layer against subsequent dissolution. Finally, at [H2O2] > 0.1 mol dm-3 the uranium oxide film, again in analogy to common corrosion processes, behaves as if in a transpassive state and begins to dissolve. This transition from passive to transpassive behaviour in the effect of peroxide concentration on UO2 films has not hitherto been observed or explored, either in terms of corrosion processes or otherwise. Through consideration of thermodynamic solubility product and complex formation constant data, we attribute the transition to the formation of soluble uranyl-peroxide complexes under mildly alkaline, high [H2O2] conditions - a conclusion that has implications for the design of both acid minimal, metal ion oxidant-free decontamination strategies with low secondary waste arisings, and single step processes for spent nuclear fuel dissolution such as the Carbonate-based Oxidative Leaching (COL) process.

  3. Lipid peroxidation, occupational stress and aging in workers of a prehospital emergency service.

    PubMed

    Casado, Angela; De Lucas, Nieves; López-Fernández, Encarnación; Sánchez, Alberto; Jimenez, José-Antonio

    2006-06-01

    Stressful conditions lead to formation of excessive free radicals, and lipid peroxidation is one of the major outcomes of free radical-mediated injury that directly damages membranes and generates a number of secondary products. To determine the levels of malondialdehyde, an end product of lipid peroxidation, according to demographic and occupational variables in workers of a prehospital emergency service and to analyse the relationship between malondialdehyde levels and burnout. One hundred and eleven healthy workers of a prehospital emergency service and eighty aged-matched healthy individuals of both sexes as a control group were surveyed. Malondialdehyde levels were measured by the Bull and Marnett method. To measure burnout, the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used. Professional category is associated with lipid peroxidation and burnout levels (Malondialdehyde levels were: physicians 338.10+/-14.47, nurses 329.17+/-12.62 and technicians 296.74+/-14.28; burnout levels were: physicians 41.29+/-3.59, nurses 37.38+/-6.05 and technicians 35.33+/-5.87). Working at night and in the evening increased malondialdehyde and burnout levels. Malondialdehyde levels increase with age. No significant variations with respect to sex were detected. Significant variations in malondialdehyde levels were detected between singles (303.13+/-12.74) and married people (344.43+/-13.43) but not with respect to divorcees (326.44+/-11.74). Significant differences were detected in erythrocyte malondialdehyde levels between smokers (341.37+/-17.09) and nonsmokers (302.21+/-12.38), but not for alcohol consumption. These findings suggest a positive correlation between malondialdehyde, a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and occupational stress, as estimated by elements of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and oxidative stress.

  4. Discoloration of titanium alloy in acidic saline solutions with peroxide.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Shinji; Hattori, Masayuki; Yoshinari, Masao; Kawada, Eiji; Oda, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare corrosion behavior in several titanium alloys with immersion in acidulated saline solutions containing hydrogen peroxide. Seven types of titanium alloy were immersed in saline solutions with varying levels of pH and hydrogen peroxide content, and resulting differences in color and release of metallic elements determined in each alloy. Some alloys were characterized using Auger electron spectroscopy. Ti-55Ni alloy showed a high level of dissolution and difference in color. With immersion in solution containing hydrogen peroxide at pH 4, the other alloys showed a marked difference in color but a low level of dissolution. The formation of a thick oxide film was observed in commercially pure titanium showing discoloration. The results suggest that discoloration in titanium alloys immersed in hydrogen peroxide-containing acidulated solutions is caused by an increase in the thickness of this oxide film, whereas discoloration of Ti-55Ni is caused by corrosion.

  5. Electrochemical Visualization of Intracellular Hydrogen Peroxide at Single Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Ruiqin; Tang, Huifen; Jiang, Dechen; Chen, Hong-yuan

    2016-02-16

    In this Letter, the electrochemical visualization of hydrogen peroxide inside one cell was achieved first using a comprehensive Au-luminol-microelectrode and electrochemiluminescence. The capillary with a tip opening of 1-2 μm was filled with the mixture of chitosan and luminol, which was coated with the thin layers of polyvinyl chloride/nitrophenyloctyl ether (PVC/NPOE) and gold as the microelectrode. Upon contact with the aqueous hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen peroxide and luminol in contact with the gold layer were oxidized under the positive potential resulting in luminescence for the imaging. Due to the small diameter of the electrode, the microelectrode tip was inserted into one cell and the bright luminescence observed at the tip confirmed the visualization of intracellular hydrogen peroxide. The further coupling of oxidase on the electrode surface could open the field in the electrochemical imaging of intracellular biomolecules at single cells, which benefited the single cell electrochemical detection.

  6. Quantifying intracellular hydrogen peroxide perturbations in terms of concentration

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Beijing K.; Sikes, Hadley D.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular level, mechanistic understanding of the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a variety of pathological conditions is hindered by the difficulties associated with determining the concentration of various ROS species. Here, we present an approach that converts fold-change in the signal from an intracellular sensor of hydrogen peroxide into changes in absolute concentration. The method uses extracellular additions of peroxide and an improved biochemical measurement of the gradient between extracellular and intracellular peroxide concentrations to calibrate the intracellular sensor. By measuring peroxiredoxin activity, we found that this gradient is 650-fold rather than the 7–10-fold that is widely cited. The resulting calibration is important for understanding the mass-action kinetics of complex networks of redox reactions, and it enables meaningful characterization and comparison of outputs from endogenous peroxide generating tools and therapeutics across studies. PMID:25460730

  7. Free standing graphene oxide film for hydrogen peroxide sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Pranay; Balakrishnan, Jayakumar; Thakur, Ajay D.

    2018-05-01

    We report hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)sensing using free standing graphene oxide thin films prepared using a cost effective scalable approach. Such sensors may find application in pharmaceutical and food processing industries.

  8. Volatilization of iodine from nitric acid using peroxide

    DOEpatents

    Cathers, G.I.; Shipman, C.J.

    1975-10-21

    A method for removing radioactive iodine from nitric acid solution by adding hydrogen peroxide to the solution while concurrently holding the solution at the boiling point and distilling hydrogen iodide from the solution is reported.

  9. Oxidative and reductive metabolism of lipid-peroxidation derived carbonyls

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mahavir; Kapoor, Aniruddh; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) results in tissue injury under a variety of pathological conditions and chronic degenerative diseases. While ROS are highly reactive and can incite significant injury, polyunsaturated lipids in membranes and lipoproteins are their main targets. ROS-triggered lipid peroxidation reactions generate a range of reactive carbonyl species (RCS), and these RCS spread and amplify ROS-related injury. Several RCS generated in oxidizing lipids, such as 4-hydroxy trans-2-nonenal (HNE), 4-oxo-2-(E)-nonenal (ONE), acrolein, malondialdehyde (MDA) and phospholipid aldehydes have been shown to be produced under conditions of oxidative stress and contribute to tissue injury and dysfunction by depleting glutathione and other reductants leading to the modification of proteins, lipids, and DNA. To prevent tissue injury, these RCS are metabolized by several oxidoreductases, including members of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily, aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), and alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs). Metabolism via these enzymes results in RCS inactivation and detoxification, although under some conditions, it can also lead to the generation of signaling molecules that trigger adaptive responses. Metabolic transformation and detoxification of RCS by oxidoreductases prevent indiscriminate ROS toxicity, while at the same time, preserving ROS signaling. A better understanding of RCS metabolism by oxidoreductases could lead to the development of novel therapeutic interventions to decrease oxidative injury in several disease states and to enhance resistance to ROS-induced toxicity. PMID:25559856

  10. Hydrogen peroxide photocycling in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Shaked, Yeala; Harris, Raviv; Klein-Kedem, Nir

    2010-05-01

    The dynamics of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was investigated from December 2007 to October 2008 in the Gulf of Aqaba, which in the absence of H(2)O(2) contribution from biological production, rain and runoff, turned out to be a unique natural photochemical laboratory. A distinct seasonal pattern emerged, with highest midday surface H(2)O(2) concentrations in spring-summer (30-90 nM) as compared to winter (10-30 nM). Similarly, irradiation normalized net H(2)O(2) formation rates obtained in concurrent ship-board experiments were faster in spring-summer than in winter. These seasonal patterns were attributed to changes in water characteristics, namely elevated spring-summer chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The role of trace elements in H(2)O(2) photoformation was studied by simultaneously measuring superoxide (O(2)(-)), Fe(II), and H(2)O(2) formation and loss in ambient seawater and in the presence of superoxide dismutase, iron and copper. O(2)(-) was found to decay fast in the Gulf water, with a half-life of 15-28 s, primarily due to catalytic reactions with trace metals (predominantly copper). Hence, H(2)O(2) formation in the Gulf involves metal-catalyzed O(2)(-) disproptionation. Added iron moderately lowered net H(2)O(2) photoformation, probably due to its participation in Fe(II) oxidation, a process that may also modify H(2)O(2) formation in situ.

  11. Sodium Borohydride/Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells For Space Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, T. I.; Deelo, M. E.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation examines Sodium Borohydride and Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells as they are applied to space applications. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) The Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell; 3) Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell Test Stands; 4) Fuel Cell Comparisons; 5) MEA Performance; 6) Anode Polarization; and 7) Electrode Analysis. The benefits of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant and benefits of sodium borohydride as a fuel are also addressed.

  12. Material Demand Studies: Materials Sorption of Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    SORPTION OF VAPORIZED HYDROGEN PEROXIDE Lawrence R. Procell Zoe A. Hess David G. Gehring Joseph T. Lynn Philip W. Bartram Teri Lalain RESEARCH AND...2010 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Nov 2003 - Jul 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Material Demand Studies: Materials Sorption of...of office surfaces 33 \\i MATERIAL DEMAND STUDIES: MATERIALS SORPTION OF VAPORIZED HYDROGEN PEROXIDE 1. BACKGROUND The Material Demand effort was

  13. Atmospheric hydrogen peroxide and Eoarchean iron formations.

    PubMed

    Pecoits, E; Smith, M L; Catling, D C; Philippot, P; Kappler, A; Konhauser, K O

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that photosynthetic bacteria played a crucial role in Fe(II) oxidation and the precipitation of iron formations (IF) during the Late Archean-Early Paleoproterozoic (2.7-2.4 Ga). It is less clear whether microbes similarly caused the deposition of the oldest IF at ca. 3.8 Ga, which would imply photosynthesis having already evolved by that time. Abiological alternatives, such as the direct oxidation of dissolved Fe(II) by ultraviolet radiation may have occurred, but its importance has been discounted in environments where the injection of high concentrations of dissolved iron directly into the photic zone led to chemical precipitation reactions that overwhelmed photooxidation rates. However, an outstanding possibility remains with respect to photochemical reactions occurring in the atmosphere that might generate hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), a recognized strong oxidant for ferrous iron. Here, we modeled the amount of H2 O2 that could be produced in an Eoarchean atmosphere using updated solar fluxes and plausible CO2 , O2 , and CH4 mixing ratios. Irrespective of the atmospheric simulations, the upper limit of H2 O2 rainout was calculated to be <10(6) molecules cm(-2) s(-1) . Using conservative Fe(III) sedimentation rates predicted for submarine hydrothermal settings in the Eoarchean, we demonstrate that the flux of H2 O2 was insufficient by several orders of magnitude to account for IF deposition (requiring ~10(11) H2 O2 molecules cm(-2) s(-1) ). This finding further constrains the plausible Fe(II) oxidation mechanisms in Eoarchean seawater, leaving, in our opinion, anoxygenic phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing micro-organisms the most likely mechanism responsible for Earth's oldest IF. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Mitochondria-Enriched Fraction Isolated from the Frontal Cortex and Hippocampus of Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice Treated with Alda-1, an Activator of Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH2).

    PubMed

    Stachowicz, Aneta; Olszanecki, Rafał; Suski, Maciej; Głombik, Katarzyna; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Adamek, Dariusz; Korbut, Ryszard

    2017-02-17

    The role of different genotypes of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease is widely recognized. It has been shown that altered functioning of apoE may promote 4-hydroxynonenal modification of mitochondrial proteins, which may result in mitochondrial dysfunction, aggravation of oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is an enzyme considered to perform protective function in mitochondria by the detoxification of the end products of lipid peroxidation, such as 4-hydroxynonenal and other reactive aldehydes. The goal of our study was to apply a differential proteomics approach in concert with molecular and morphological techniques to elucidate the changes in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE -/- ) mice upon treatment with Alda-1-a small molecular weight activator of ALDH2. Despite the lack of significant morphological changes in the brain of apoE -/- mice as compared to age-matched wild type animals, the proteomic and molecular approach revealed many changes in the expression of genes and proteins, indicating the impairment of energy metabolism, neuroplasticity, and neurogenesis in brains of apoE -/- mice. Importantly, prolonged treatment of apoE -/- mice with Alda-1 led to the beneficial changes in the expression of genes and proteins related to neuroplasticity and mitochondrial function. The pattern of alterations implies mitoprotective action of Alda-1, however, the accurate functional consequences of the revealed changes require further research.

  15. Hydrogen peroxide contributes to the ultraviolet-B (280-315 nm) induced oxidative stress of plant leaves through multiple pathways.

    PubMed

    Czégény, Gyula; Wu, Min; Dér, András; Eriksson, Leif A; Strid, Åke; Hideg, Éva

    2014-06-27

    Solar UV-B (280-315 nm) radiation is a developmental signal in plants but may also cause oxidative stress when combined with other environmental factors. Using computer modeling and in solution experiments we show that UV-B is capable of photosensitizing hydroxyl radical production from hydrogen peroxide. We present evidence that the oxidative effect of UV-B in leaves is at least twofold: (i) it increases cellular hydrogen peroxide concentrations, to a larger extent in pyridoxine antioxidant mutant pdx1.3-1 Arabidopsis and; (ii) is capable of a partial photo-conversion of both 'natural' and 'extra' hydrogen peroxide to hydroxyl radicals. As stress conditions other than UV can increase cellular hydrogen peroxide levels, synergistic deleterious effects of various stresses may be expected already under ambient solar UV-B. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Protein adducts of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal contribute to trichloroethene-mediated autoimmunity via activating Th17 cells: Dose- and time-response studies in female MRL+/+ mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gangduo; Wang, Jianling; Fan, Xiuzhen; Ansari, G. A. S.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2011-01-01

    Trichloroethene (TCE), a common occupational and environmental toxicant, is known to induce autoimmunity. Previous studies in our laboratory showed increased oxidative stress in TCE-mediated autoimmunity. To further establish the role of oxidative stress and to investigate the mechanisms of TCE-mediated autoimmunity, dose- and time- response studies were conducted in MRL+/+ mice by treating them with TCE via drinking water at doses of 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/ml for 12, 24 or 36 weeks. TCE exposure led to dose-related increases in malondialdehyde (MDA)-/hydroxynonenal (HNE)-protein adducts and their corresponding antibodies in the sera and decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in the kidneys at 24 and 36 weeks, with greater changes at 36 weeks. The increases in these protein adducts and decreases in GSH/GSSG ratio were associated with significant elevation in serum anti-nuclear- and anti-ssDNA-antibodies, suggesting an association between TCE-induced oxidative stress and autoimmune response. Interestingly, splenocytes from mice treated with TCE for 24 weeks secreted significantly higher levels of IL-17 and IL-21 than did splenocytes from controls after stimulation with MDA-mouse serum albumin (MSA) or HNE-MSA adducts. The increased release of these cytokines showed a dose-related response and was more pronounced in mice treated with TCE for 36 weeks. These studies provide evidence that MDA- and or HNE-protein adducts contribute to TCE-mediated autoimmunity, which may be via activation of Th17 cells. PMID:22178267

  17. ONTOGENIC DIFFERENCES IN HUMAN LIVER 4-HYDROXYNONENAL DETOXIFICATION ARE ASSOCIATED WITH IN VITRO INJURY TO FETAL HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS. (R827441)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. Linoleic Acid-Induced Ultra-Weak Photon Emission from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a Tool for Monitoring of Lipid Peroxidation in the Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Ankush; Pospíšil, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species formed as a response to various abiotic and biotic stresses cause an oxidative damage of cellular component such are lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Lipid peroxidation is considered as one of the major processes responsible for the oxidative damage of the polyunsaturated fatty acid in the cell membranes. Various methods such as a loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids, amount of the primary and the secondary products are used to monitor the level of lipid peroxidation. To investigate the use of ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation, the involvement of lipid peroxidation in ultra-weak photon emission was studied in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Lipid peroxidation initiated by addition of exogenous linoleic acid to the cells was monitored by ultra-weak photon emission measured with the employment of highly sensitive charged couple device camera and photomultiplier tube. It was found that the addition of linoleic acid to the cells significantly increased the ultra-weak photon emission that correlates with the accumulation of lipid peroxidation product as measured using thiobarbituric acid assay. Scavenging of hydroxyl radical by mannitol, inhibition of intrinsic lipoxygenase by catechol and removal of molecular oxygen considerably suppressed ultra-weak photon emission measured after the addition of linoleic acid. The photon emission dominated at the red region of the spectrum with emission maximum at 680 nm. These observations reveal that the oxidation of linoleic acid by hydroxyl radical and intrinsic lipoxygenase results in the ultra-weak photon emission. Electronically excited species such as excited triplet carbonyls are the likely candidates for the primary excited species formed during the lipid peroxidation, whereas chlorophylls are the final emitters of photons. We propose here that the ultra-weak photon emission can be used as a non-invasive tool for the

  19. In-situ synthesis of hydrogen peroxide in a novel Zn-CNTs-O2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiao-bo; Yang, Zhao; Peng, Lin; Zhou, An-lan; Liu, Yan-lan; Liu, Yong

    2018-02-01

    A novel strategy of in-situ synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was formulated and evaluated. Oxygen was selectively reduced to H2O2 combined with electrochemical corrosion of zinc in the Zn-CNTs-O2 system. The ratio of zinc and CNTs, heat treatment temperature, and operational parameters such as composite dosage, initial pH, solution temperature, oxygen flow rate were systematically investigated to improve the efficiency of H2O2 generation. The Zn-CNTs composite (weight ratio of 2.5:1) prepared at 500 °C showed the maximum H2O2 accumulation concentration of 293.51 mg L-1 within 60 min at the initial pH value of 3.0, Zn-CNTs dosage of 0.4 g and oxygen flow rate of 400 mL min-1. The oxygen was reduced through two-electron pathway to hydrogen peroxide on CNTs while the zinc was oxidized in the system and the dissolved zinc ions convert to zinc hydroxide and depositing on the surface of CNTs. It was proposed that the increment of direct H2O2 production was caused by the improvement of the formed Zn/CNTs corrosion cell. This provides promising strategy for in-situ synthesis and utilization of hydrogen peroxide in the novel Zn-CNTs-O2 system, which enhances the environmental and economic attractiveness of the use of H2O2 as green oxidant for wastewater treatments.

  20. The effects of metal ions on the DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Ueda, K; Komano, T

    1990-01-01

    The effects of metal ions on DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide were investigated using two methods, agarose-gel electrophoretic analysis of supercoiled DNA and sequencing-gel analysis of single end-labeled DNA fragments of defined sequences. Hydrogen peroxide induced DNA damage when iron or copper ion was present. At least two classes of DNA damage were induced, one being direct DNA-strand cleavage, and the other being base modification labile to hot piperidine. The investigation of the damaged sites and the inhibitory effects of radical scavengers revealed that hydroxyl radical was the species which attacked DNA in the reaction of H2O2/Fe(II). On the other hand, two types of DNA damage were induced by H2O2/Cu(II). Type I damage was predominant and inhibited by potassium iodide, but type II was not. The sites of the base-modification induced by type I damage were similar to those by lipid peroxidation products and by ascorbate in the presence of Cu(II), suggesting the involvement of radical species other than free hydroxyl radical in the damaging reactions.

  1. Implications of oxidative stress and cell membrane lipid peroxidation in human cancer (Spain).

    PubMed

    Cejas, Paloma; Casado, Enrique; Belda-Iniesta, Cristobal; De Castro, Javier; Espinosa, Enrique; Redondo, Andrés; Sereno, María; García-Cabezas, Miguel A; Vara, Juan A F; Domínguez-Cáceres, Aurora; Perona, Rosario; González-Barón, Manuel

    2004-09-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) result from cell metabolism as well as from extracellular processes. ROS exert some functions necessary for cell homeostasis maintenance. When produced in excess they play a role in the causation of cancer. ROS mediated lipid peroxides are of critical importance because they participate in chain reactions that amplify damage to biomolecules including DNA. DNA attack gives rise to mutations that may involve tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes, and this is an oncogenic mechanism. On the other hand, ROS production is a mechanism shared by many chemotherapeutic drugs due to their implication in apoptosis control. The ROS mediated cell responses depend on the duration and intensity of the cells exposing to the increased ROS environment. Thus the status redox is of great importance for oncogenetic process activation and it is also implicated in tumor susceptibility to specific chemotherapeutic drugs. Phospholipid Hydroperoxide Glutathione Peroxidase (PH-GPx) is an antioxidant enzyme that is able to directly reduce lipid peroxides even when they are bound to cellular membranes. This article will review the relevance of oxidative stress, particularly of lipid peroxidation, in cell response with special focus in carcinogenesis and cancer therapy that suggests PH-GPx as a potentially important enzyme involved in the control of this processes.

  2. Sonochemical and hydrodynamic cavitation reactors for laccase/hydrogen peroxide cotton bleaching.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Idalina; Martins, Madalena; Loureiro, Ana; Gomes, Andreia; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur; Silva, Carla

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work is to develop a novel and environmental-friendly technology for cotton bleaching with reduced processing costs. This work exploits a combined laccase-hydrogen peroxide process assisted by ultrasound. For this purpose, specific reactors were studied, namely ultrasonic power generator type K8 (850 kHz) and ultrasonic bath equipment Ultrasonic cleaner USC600TH (45 kHz). The optimal operating conditions for bleaching were chosen considering the highest levels of hydroxyl radical production and the lowest energy input. The capacity to produce hydroxyl radicals by hydrodynamic cavitation was also assessed in two homogenizers, EmulsiFlex®-C3 and APV-2000. Laccase nanoemulsions were produced by high pressure homogenization using BSA (bovine serum albumin) as emulsifier. The bleaching efficiency of these formulations was tested and the results showed higher whiteness values when compared to free laccase. The combination of laccase-hydrogen peroxide process with ultrasound energy produced higher whiteness levels than those obtained by conventional methods. The amount of hydrogen peroxide was reduced 50% as well as the energy consumption in terms of temperature (reduction of 40 °C) and operating time (reduction of 90 min). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tissue Trace Elements and Lipid Peroxidation in Breeding Female Bank Voles Myodes glareolus.

    PubMed

    Bonda-Ostaszewska, Elżbieta; Włostowski, Tadeusz; Łaszkiewicz-Tiszczenko, Barbara

    2018-04-27

    Recent studies have demonstrated that reproduction reduces oxidative damage in various tissues of small mammal females. The present work was designed to determine whether the reduction of oxidative stress in reproductive bank vole females was associated with changes in tissue trace elements (iron, copper, zinc) that play an essential role in the production of reactive oxygen species. Lipid peroxidation (a marker of oxidative stress) and iron concentration in liver, kidneys, and skeletal muscles of reproducing bank vole females that weaned one litter were significantly lower than in non-reproducing females; linear regression analysis confirmed a positive relation between the tissue iron and lipid peroxidation. The concentrations of copper were significantly lower only in skeletal muscles of reproductive females and correlated positively with lipid peroxidation. No changes in tissue zinc were found in breeding females when compared with non-breeding animals. These data indicate that decreases in tissue iron and copper concentrations may be responsible for the reduction of oxidative stress in reproductive bank vole females.

  4. Construction of a horseradish peroxidase resistant toward hydrogen peroxide by saturation mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Asad, Sedigheh; Dastgheib, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Khajeh, Khosro

    2016-11-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with a variety of potential biotechnological applications is still isolated from the horseradish root as a mixture of different isoenzymes with different biochemical properties. There is an increasing demand for preparations of high amounts of pure enzyme but its recombinant production is limited because of the lack of glycosylation in Escherichia coli and different glycosylation patterns in yeasts which affects its stability parameters. The goal of this study was to increase the stability of non-glycosylated enzyme, which is produced in E. coli, toward hydrogen peroxide via mutagenesis. Asparagine 268, one of the N-glycosylation sites of the enzyme, has been mutated via saturation mutagenesis using the megaprimer method. Modification and miniaturization of previously described protocols enabled screening of a library propagated in E. coli XJb (DE3). The library of mutants was screened for stability toward hydrogen peroxide with azinobis (ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonate) as a reducing substrate. Asn268Gly mutant, the top variant from the screening, exhibited 18-fold increased stability toward hydrogen peroxide and twice improved thermal stability compared with the recombinant HRP. Moreover, the substitution led to 2.5-fold improvement in the catalytic efficiency with phenol/4-aminoantipyrine. Constructed mutant represents a stable biocatalyst, which may find use in medical diagnostics, biosensing, and bioprocesses. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. The Amoebicidal Effect of Ergosterol Peroxide Isolated from Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Meza-Menchaca, Thuluz; Suárez-Medellín, Jorge; Del Ángel-Piña, Christian; Trigos, Ángel

    2015-12-01

    Dysentery is an inflammation of the intestine caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica and is a recurrent health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. Because of the magnitude of this disease, finding novel strategies for treatment that does not affect human cells is necessary. Ergosterol peroxide is a sterol particularly known as a major cytotoxic agent with a wide spectrum of biological activities produced by edible and medicinal mushrooms. The aim of this report is to evaluate the amoebicidal activity of ergosterol peroxide (5α, 8α-epidioxy-22E-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol isolated from 5α, 8α-epidioxy-22E-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol) (Jacq.) P. Kumm. f. sp. Florida. Our results show that ergosterol peroxide produced a strong cytotoxic effect against amoebic growth. The inhibitory concentration IC50 of ergosterol peroxide was evaluated. The interaction between E. histolytica and ergosterol peroxide in vitro resulted in strong amoebicidal activity (IC50  = 4.23 nM) that may be due to the oxidatory effect on the parasitic membrane. We also tested selective toxicity of ergosterol peroxide using a cell line CCL-241, a human epithelial cell line isolated from normal human fetal intestinal tissue. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the cytotoxicity of ergosterol peroxide against E. histolytica, which uncovers a new biological property of the lipidic compound isolated from Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. f. sp. Florida. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A Uranyl Peroxide Dimer in the Gas Phase

    DOE PAGES

    Dau, Phuong D.; Dau, Phuong V.; Rao, Linfeng; ...

    2017-03-14

    For this study, the gas-phase uranyl peroxide dimer, [(UO 2) 2(O2)(L) 2] 2+ where L = 2,2'-trifluoroethylazanediyl)bis(N,N'-dimethylacetamide), was synthesized by electrospray ionization of a solution of UO 2 2+ and L. Collision-induced dissociation of this dimer resulted in endothermic O atom elimination to give [(UO 2) 2(O)(L) 2] 2+, which was found to spontaneously react with water via exothermic hydrolytic chemisorption to yield [(UO 2) 2(OH) 2(L) 2] 2+. Density functional theory computations of the energies for the gas-phase reactions are in accord with observations. The structures of the observed uranyl dimer were computed, with that of the peroxide ofmore » particular interest, as a basis to evaluate the formation of condensed phase uranyl peroxides with bent structures. The computed dihedral angle in [(UO 2) 2(O 2)(L) 2] 2+ is 145°, indicating a substantial deviation from the planar structure with a dihedral angle of 180°. Energies needed to induce bending in the most elementary gas-phase uranyl peroxide complex, [(UO 2) 2(O 2)] 2+, were computed. It was found that bending from the lowest-energy planar structure to dihedral angles up to 140° required energies of <10 kJ/mol. The gas-phase results demonstrate the inherent stability of the uranyl peroxide moiety and support the notion that the uranyl-peroxide-uranyl structural unit is intrinsically planar, with only minor energy perturbations needed to form the bent structures found in studtite and uranyl peroxide nanostructures.« less

  7. Lipid Peroxidation Is an Early Symptom Triggered by Aluminum, But Not the Primary Cause of Elongation Inhibition in Pea Roots1

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yoko; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2001-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) roots were treated with aluminum in a calcium solution, and lipid peroxidation was investigated histochemically and biochemically, as well as other events caused by aluminum exposure. Histochemical stainings were observed to distribute similarly on the entire surface of the root apex for three events (aluminum accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and callose production), but the loss of plasma membrane integrity (detected by Evans blue uptake) was localized exclusively at the periphery of the cracks on the surface of root apex. The enhancement of four events (aluminum accumulation, lipid peroxidation, callose production, and root elongation inhibition) displayed similar aluminum dose dependencies and occurred by 4 h. The loss of membrane integrity, however, was enhanced at lower aluminum concentrations and after longer aluminum exposure (8 h). The addition of butylated hydroxyanisole (a lipophilic antioxidant) during aluminum treatment completely prevented lipid peroxidation and callose production by 40%, but did not prevent or slow the other events. Thus lipid peroxidation is a relatively early symptom induced by the accumulation of aluminum and appears to cause, in part, callose production, but not the root elongation inhibition; by comparison, the loss of plasma membrane integrity is a relatively late symptom caused by cracks in the root due to the inhibition of root elongation. PMID:11154329

  8. Peroxiredoxin 2 and peroxide metabolism in the erythrocyte.

    PubMed

    Low, Felicia M; Hampton, Mark B; Winterbourn, Christine C

    2008-09-01

    Peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2) is an antioxidant enzyme that uses cysteine residues to decompose peroxides. Prx2 is the third most abundant protein in erythrocytes, and competes effectively with catalase and glutathione peroxidase to scavenge low levels of hydrogen peroxide, including that derived from hemoglobin autoxidation. Low thioredoxin reductase activity in the erythrocyte is able to keep up with this basal oxidation and maintain the Prx2 in its reduced form, but exposure to exogenous hydrogen peroxide causes accumulation of the disulfide-linked dimer. The high cellular concentration means that although turnover is slow, erythrocyte Prx2 can act as a noncatalytic scavenger of hydrogen peroxide and a sink for hydrogen peroxide before turnover becomes limiting. The consequences of Prx2 oxidation for the erythrocyte are not well characterized, but mice deficient in this protein develop severe hemolytic anemia associated with Heinz body formation. Prx2, also known as calpromotin, regulates ion transport by associating with the membrane and activating the Gárdos channel. How Prx2 redox transformations are linked to membrane association and channel activation is yet to be established. In this review, we discuss the functional properties of Prx2 and its role as a major component of the erythrocyte antioxidant system.

  9. Tyrosine-lipid peroxide adducts from radical termination: para coupling and intramolecular Diels-Alder cyclization.

    PubMed

    Shchepin, Roman; Möller, Matias N; Kim, Hye-young H; Hatch, Duane M; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Radi, Rafael; Porter, Ned A

    2010-12-15

    Free radical co-oxidation of polyunsaturated lipids with tyrosine or phenolic analogues of tyrosine gave rise to lipid peroxide-tyrosine (phenol) adducts in both aqueous micellar and organic solutions. The novel adducts were isolated and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as by mass spectrometry (MS). The spectral data suggest that the polyunsaturated lipid peroxyl radicals give stable peroxide coupling products exclusively at the para position of the tyrosyl (phenoxy) radicals. These adducts have characteristic (13)C chemical shifts at 185 ppm due to the cross-conjugated carbonyl of the phenol-derived cyclohexadienone. The primary peroxide adducts subsequently undergo intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) cyclization, affording a number of diastereomeric tricyclic adducts that have characteristic carbonyl (13)C chemical shifts at ~198 ppm. All of the NMR HMBC and HSQC correlations support the structure assignments of the primary and Diels-Alder adducts, as does MS collision-induced dissociation data. Kinetic rate constants and activation parameters for the IMDA reaction were determined, and the primary adducts were reduced with cuprous ion to give a phenol-derived 4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dienone. No products from adduction of peroxyls at the phenolic ortho position were found in either the primary or cuprous reduction product mixtures. These studies provide a framework for understanding the nature of lipid-protein adducts formed by peroxyl-tyrosyl radical-radical termination processes. Coupling of lipid peroxyl radicals with tyrosyl radicals leads to cyclohexenone and cyclohexadienone adducts, which are of interest in and of themselves since, as electrophiles, they are likely targets for protein nucleophiles. One consequence of lipid peroxyl reactions with tyrosyls may therefore be protein-protein cross-links via interprotein Michael adducts.

  10. Redox modulation of thimet oligopeptidase activity by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Icimoto, Marcelo Y; Ferreira, Juliana C; Yokomizo, César H; Bim, Larissa V; Marem, Alyne; Gilio, Joyce M; Oliveira, Vitor; Nantes, Iseli L

    2017-07-01

    Thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15, TOP) is a cytosolic mammalian zinc protease that can process a diversity of bioactive peptides. TOP has been pointed out as one of the main postproteasomal enzymes that process peptide antigens in the MHC class I presentation route. In the present study, we describe a fine regulation of TOP activity by hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Cells from a human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293) underwent an ischemia/reoxygenation-like condition known to increase H 2 O 2 production. Immediately after reoxygenation, HEK293 cells exhibited a 32% increase in TOP activity, but no TOP activity was observed 2 h after reoxygenation. In another model, recombinant rat TOP (rTOP) was challenged by H 2 O 2 produced by rat liver mitoplasts (RLMt) alone, and in combination with antimycin A, succinate, and antimycin A plus succinate. In these conditions, rTOP activity increased 17, 30, 32 and 38%, respectively. Determination of H 2 O 2 concentration generated in reoxygenated cells and mitoplasts suggested a possible modulation of rTOP activity dependent on the concentration of H 2 O 2 . The measure of pure rTOP activity as a function of H 2 O 2 concentration corroborated this hypothesis. The data fitted to an asymmetrical bell-shaped curve in which the optimal activating H 2 O 2 concentration was 1.2 nM, and the maximal inhibition (75% about the control) was 1 μm. Contrary to the oxidation produced by aging associated with enzyme oligomerization and inhibition, H 2 O 2 oxidation produced sulfenic acid and maintained rTOP in the monomeric form. Consistent with the involvement of rTOP in a signaling redox cascade, the H 2 O 2 -oxidized rTOP reacted with dimeric thioredoxin-1 (TRx-1) and remained covalently bound to one subunit of TRx-1.

  11. Low-molecular-weight model study of peroxide cross-linking of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry II. Addition and combination reactions.

    PubMed

    Peters, R; van Duin, M; Tonoli, D; Kwakkenbos, G; Mengerink, Y; van Benthem, R A T M; de Koster, C G; Schoenmakers, P J; van der Wal, Sj

    2008-08-08

    The dicumyl-peroxide-initiated addition and combination reactions of mixtures of alkanes (n-octane, n-decane) and alkenes [5,6-dihydrodicyclopentadiene (DCPDH), 5-ethylidene-2-norbornane (ENBH) and 5-vinylidene-2-norbornane (VNBH)] were studied to mimic the peroxide cross-linking reactions of terpolymerised ethylene, propylene and a diene monomer (EPDM). The reaction products of the mixtures were separated by both gas chromatography (GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC). The separated compounds were identified from their mass spectra and their GC and GCxGC elution pattern. Quantification of the various alkyl/alkyl, alkyl/allyl and allyl/allyl combination products shows that allylic-radicals comprise approximately 60% of the substrate radicals formed. The total concentration of the products formed by combination is found to be independent of the concentration and the type of alkene. The total concentration of the products formed by addition to the alkene increases with increasing concentration of alkene. In addition, the total concentration of the formed addition products depends strongly on the type of the alkene used, viz. VNBH>ENBH approximately DCPDH, which is a consequence of differences in steric hindrance of the unsaturation. The peroxide curing efficiency, defined as the number of moles of cross-linked products formed per mol of peroxide, is 173% using 9% (w/w) 5-vinylidene-2-norbornane (VNBH). This indicates that the addition reaction is recurrent. All these findings are consistent with experimental studies on peroxide curing of EPDM rubber. In addition, the present results provide more-detailed structural information, increasing the understanding of the mechanism of peroxide curing of EPDM. The described approach to use low-molecular-weight model compounds followed by GC-mass spectrometry (MS) and GCxGC-MS analysis is proven to be a very powerful tool to study the cross-linking of EPDM.

  12. Reproducing Phenomenology of Peroxidation Kinetics via Model Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruslanov, Anatole D.; Bashylau, Anton V.

    2010-06-01

    We studied mathematical modeling of lipid peroxidation using a biochemical model system of iron (II)-ascorbate-dependent lipid peroxidation of rat hepatocyte mitochondrial fractions. We found that antioxidants extracted from plants demonstrate a high intensity of peroxidation inhibition. We simplified the system of differential equations that describes the kinetics of the mathematical model to a first order equation, which can be solved analytically. Moreover, we endeavor to algorithmically and heuristically recreate the processes and construct an environment that closely resembles the corresponding natural system. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to theoretically predict both the kinetics of oxidation and the intensity of inhibition without resorting to analytical and biochemical research, which is important for cost-effective discovery and development of medical agents with antioxidant action from the medicinal plants.

  13. Frost-weathering on Mars - Experimental evidence for peroxide formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huguenin, R. L.; Miller, K. J.; Harwood, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    The weathering of silicates by frost is investigated in relation to the formation of surface peroxides to which Viking biology experiment results have been attributed. Samples of the minerals olivine and pyroxene were exposed to water vapor at -11 to -22 C and resultant gas evolution and pH were monitored. Experiments reveal the formation of an acidic oxidant upon interaction of the mineral and H2O frost at subfreezing temperatures, which chemical indicators have suggested to be chemisorbed hydrogen peroxide. A model for the formation of chemisorbed peroxide based on the chemical reduction of the mineral by surface frost is proposed, and it is predicted that the perioxide would decay at high temperatures to H2O and adsorbed O, consistent with the long-term storage and sterilization behavior of the soil oxidants observed in the Viking Gas Exchange and Labeled Release experiments.

  14. Hydrogenation of liquid natural rubber via diimide reduction in hydrazine hydrate/hydrogen peroxide system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Muhammad Jefri Mohd; Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2015-09-01

    Liquid natural rubber (LNR) with molecular weight of lower than 105 and shorter polymeric chain than natural rubber was prepared. LNR was then hydrogenated via diimide reduction by oxidation of hydrazine hydrate with hydrogen peroxide. The unsaturated units of the rubber were converted into saturated hydrocarbon to strengthen the backbone of the polymer so it was able to resist thermal degradation. The results indicated that hydrogenation degree of the product (HLNR) could be extended to 91.2% conversion under appropriate conditions. The hydrogenated LNR (HLNR) was characterized using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The physical characteristics of HLNR were analyzed with Termogravimetric Analysis (TGA).

  15. Antioxidant protective effect of flavonoids on linoleic acid peroxidation induced by copper(II)/ascorbic acid system.

    PubMed

    Beker, Bilge Yıldoğan; Bakır, Temelkan; Sönmezoğlu, Inci; Imer, Filiz; Apak, Reşat

    2011-11-01

    Antioxidants are compounds that can delay or inhibit lipid oxidation. The peroxidation of linoleic acid (LA) in the absence and presence of Cu(II) ion-ascorbate combinations was investigated in aerated and incubated emulsions at 37°C and pH 7. LA peroxidation induced by copper(II)-ascorbic acid system followed first order kinetics with respect to hydroperoxides concentration. The extent of copper-initiated peroxide production in a LA system assayed by ferric thiocyanate method was used to determine possible antioxidant and prooxidant activities of the added flavonoids. The effects of three different flavonoids of similar structure, i.e. quercetin (QR), morin (MR) and catechin (CT), as potential antioxidant protectors were studied in the selected peroxidation system. The inhibitive order of flavonoids in the protection of LA peroxidation was: morin>catechin≥quercetin, i.e. agreeing with that of formal reduction potentials versus NHE at pH 7, i.e. 0.60, 0.57 and 0.33V for MR, CT, and QR, respectively. Morin showed antioxidant effect at all concentrations whereas catechin and quercetin showed both antioxidant and prooxidant effects depending on their concentrations. The structural requirements for antioxidant activity in flavonoids interestingly coincide with those for Cu(II)-induced prooxidant activity, because as the reducing power of a flavonoid increases, Cu(II)-Cu(I) reduction is facilitated that may end up with the production of reactive species. The findings of this study were evaluated in the light of structure-activity relationships of flavonoids, and the results are believed to be useful to better understand the actual conditions where flavonoids may act as prooxidants in the preservation of heterogeneous food samples containing traces of transition metal ions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of hydrogen-peroxide-based mouthwash in altering enamel color.

    PubMed

    Jaime, Ivone Maria de Lima; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the efficacy of Colgate Plax Whitening mouthwash containing 1.5% hydrogen peroxide. 30 enamel fragments, obtained from the proximal surfaces of human third molars were darkened with Orange II methyl orange. The fragments were divided into three groups according to the type of bleaching agent applied (n = 10): (1) 10% carbamide peroxide gel (positive control, PC) was applied for 2 hours/day for 28 days; (2) a solution containing 1.5% hydrogen peroxide (Plax) was applied for 4 minutes once a day for 28 days, and (3) no bleaching agent, kept in artificial saliva (negative control, AS). The specimens were kept in artificial saliva between treatment intervals. The specimens were photographed before darkening (baseline), after darkening and before lightening and on the 28th day of whitening. Afterwards, they were analyzed with color measurement software using the CIELab system. The data for the L*, a* and b* parameters were submitted to two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. The values of deltaL *, deltaa *, deltab * and deltaE* were calculated using two procedures: (1) darkened versus original, and (2) bleached versus darkened. This data was submitted to the one-way ANOVA test. Multiple comparisons were conducted using the Tukey test (alpha = 0.05). When the specimens were subjected to bleaching agents, there was a significant increase in the brightness (L* parameter) of the enamel exposed to the gel and also to the bleaching solution. However, higher brightness was observed for the PC (gel) group. As for the axis a* parameters, there were no significant differences between the bleaching products. Regarding the axis b* parameters, the PC group underwent major changes (indicating a color change toward blue chroma), statistically greater than those of the Plax group. After bleaching, there was a significantly greater color change (deltaE*) in the PC group. Although the Plax solution caused a color change, it was less than that produced by the gel. The slightest

  17. Passive micromixer for luminol-peroxide chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Lok, Khoi Seng; Kwok, Yien Chian; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2011-06-21

    This paper reports a microchip with an integrated passive micromixer based on chaotic advection. The micromixer with staggered herringbone structures was used for luminol-peroxide chemiluminescence detection. The micromixer was examined to assess its suitability for chemiluminescence reaction. The relationship between the flow rate and the location of maximum chemiluminescence intensity was investigated. The light intensity was detected using an optical fiber attached along the mixing channel and a photon detector. A linear correlation between chemiluminescence intensity and the concentration of cobalt(ii) ions or hydrogen peroxide was observed. This microchip has a potential application in environmental monitoring for industries involved in heavy metals and in medical diagnostics.

  18. Hydrogen peroxide modified sodium titanates with improved sorption capabilities

    DOEpatents

    Nyman, May D [Albuquerque, NM; Hobbs, David T [North Augusta, SC

    2009-02-24

    The sorption capabilities (e.g., kinetics, selectivity, capacity) of the baseline monosodium titanate (MST) sorbent material currently being used to sequester Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radioisotopes at the Savannah River Site are significantly improved when treated with hydrogen peroxide; either during the original synthesis of MST, or, as a post-treatment step after the MST has been synthesized. It is expected that these peroxide-modified MST sorbent materials will have significantly improved sorption capabilities for non-radioactive cations found in industrial processes and waste streams.

  19. Formation of formaldehyde and peroxides by air oxidation of high purity polyoxyethylene surfactants.

    PubMed

    Bergh, M; Magnusson, K; Nilsson, J L; Karlberg, A T

    1998-07-01

    Ethoxylated alcohols are non-ionic surfactants. The majority are used in household cleaners, laundry products, toiletries and in industrial and institutional cleaners. In previous studies, an ethoxylated non-ionic surfactant of technical quality showed allergenic activity in guinea pig experiments. Chemical analysis revealed a content of formaldehyde, a well-known contact allergen, and peroxides in the surfactant. Most cases of occupational contact dermatitis are considered to be of irritant origin, caused by contact with water and surfactants, but if allergenic autoxidation products can be formed, allergic contact dermatitis cannot be excluded. The sensitizing potential of a chemically defined high purity ethoxylated alcohol was investigated and oxidation under various storage and handling conditions was studied for this and a homologous product. The pure surfactant showed no significant allergenic activity on predictive testing in guinea pigs. When ethoxylated alcohols were stored in the refrigerator, their deterioration was limited. At room temperature, their content of peroxides and formaldehyde increased with time. Levels of formaldehyde above those capable of causing positive patch test reactions were found. Since such surfactants have wide applications, resulting exposure to formaldehyde could be more frequent than is generally realized, contributing to persistence of dermatitis in individuals allergic to formaldehyde.

  20. Evaluation of a 6% hydrogen peroxide tooth-whitening gel on enamel microhardness after extended use.

    PubMed

    Toteda, Mariarosaria; Philpotts, Carole J; Cox, Trevor F; Joiner, Andrew

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of a 6% hydrogen peroxide tooth whitener, Xtra White, on sound human enamel microhardness in vitro after an extended and exaggerated simulated 8 weeks of product use. Polished human enamel specimens were prepared and baseline microhardness and color measurements determined. The enamel specimens were exposed to a fluoride-containing toothpaste for 30 seconds and then exposed to water, Xtra White, a control carbopol gel containing no hydrogen peroxide, or a carbonated beverage (each group, n = 8) for 20 minutes. Specimens were exposed to whole saliva at all other times. In order to simulate 8 weeks of extended product use, quadruple the length of the manufacturer's instructions, 112 treatments, were conducted. Microhardness measurements were taken after 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of simulated treatments, and color was measured after 2 and 8 weeks. The Xtra White-treated specimens showed a statistically significant (P < .0001) increase in L* and decrease in b* compared to the water-treated specimens after 2 weeks simulated use, indicating bleaching had occurred. The carbonated beverage-treated specimens were significantly softened (P = .0009) compared to baseline after only 1 treatment. The carbopol gel-treated specimens were significantly softened (P = .0028) after 2 weeks of simulated treatments compared to baseline. There were no statistically significant differences in enamel microhardness between baseline and all treatment times for XW and water groups. Xtra White does not have any deleterious effects on sound human enamel microhardness after an extended and exaggerated simulated 8 weeks of product use.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1157 - Benzoyl peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....181), Romano cheese (§ 133.183), and Swiss and emmentaler cheese (§ 133.195) in part 133 of this...; milk used for production of Asiago fresh and Asiago soft cheese (§ 133.102), Asiago medium cheese (§ 133.103), Asiago old cheese (§ 133.104), Blue cheese (§ 133.106), Caciocavallo siciliano chesse (§ 133...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1157 - Benzoyl peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....181), Romano cheese (§ 133.183), and Swiss and emmentaler cheese (§ 133.195) in part 133 of this...; milk used for production of Asiago fresh and Asiago soft cheese (§ 133.102), Asiago medium cheese (§ 133.103), Asiago old cheese (§ 133.104), Blue cheese (§ 133.106), Caciocavallo siciliano chesse (§ 133...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1157 - Benzoyl peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....181), Romano cheese (§ 133.183), and Swiss and emmentaler cheese (§ 133.195) in part 133 of this...; milk used for production of Asiago fresh and Asiago soft cheese (§ 133.102), Asiago medium cheese (§ 133.103), Asiago old cheese (§ 133.104), Blue cheese (§ 133.106), Caciocavallo siciliano chesse (§ 133...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1157 - Benzoyl peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....181), Romano cheese (§ 133.183), and Swiss and emmentaler cheese (§ 133.195) in part 133 of this...; milk used for production of Asiago fresh and Asiago soft cheese (§ 133.102), Asiago medium cheese (§ 133.103), Asiago old cheese (§ 133.104), Blue cheese (§ 133.106), Caciocavallo siciliano chesse (§ 133...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1157 - Benzoyl peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....181), Romano cheese (§ 133.183), and Swiss and emmentaler cheese (§ 133.195) in part 133 of this...; milk used for production of Asiago fresh and Asiago soft cheese (§ 133.102), Asiago medium cheese (§ 133.103), Asiago old cheese (§ 133.104), Blue cheese (§ 133.106), Caciocavallo siciliano chesse (§ 133...

  6. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shodehinde, Sidiqat Adamson; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe(2+) chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress.

  7. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shodehinde, Sidiqat Adamson; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Methods Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. Results The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe2+ chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Conclusions Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress. PMID:23730557

  8. Distillation Kinetics of Solid Mixtures of Hydrogen Peroxide and Water and the Isolation of Pure Hydrogen Peroxide in Ultrahigh Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teolis, B. D.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    We present results of the growth of thin films of crystalline H2O2 and H2O2.2H2O (dihydrate) in ultrahigh vacuum by distilling an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide. We traced the process using infrared reflectance spectroscopy, mass loss on a quartz crystal microbalance, and in a few cases ultraviolet-visible reflectance. We find that the different crystalline phases-water, dihydrate, and hydrogen peroxide-have very different sublimation rates, making distillation efficient to isolate the less volatile component, crystalline H2O2.

  9. Photochemical water oxidation and origin of nonaqueous uranyl peroxide complexes.

    PubMed

    McGrail, Brendan T; Pianowski, Laura S; Burns, Peter C

    2014-04-02

    Sunlight photolysis of uranyl nitrate and uranyl acetate solutions in pyridine produces uranyl peroxide complexes. To answer longstanding questions about the origin of these complexes, we conducted a series of mechanistic studies and demonstrate that these complexes arise from photochemical oxidation of water. The peroxo ligands are easily removed by protonolysis, allowing regeneration of the initial uranyl complexes for potential use in catalysis.

  10. Methyltrioxorhenium-catalyzed epoxidation of homoallylic alcohols with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shigekazu

    2012-11-02

    Homoallylic alcohols were efficiently converted to the corresponding 3,4-epoxy alcohols in excellent yields by methyltrioxorhenium (MTO)-catalyzed epoxidation with aqueous hydrogen peroxide as the terminal oxidant and 3-methylpyrazole (10 mol %) as an additive. The epoxidations of homoallylic alcohols proceeded under organic solvent-free conditions faster than those in dichloromethane.

  11. Crankshaft motion in a highly congested bis(triarylmethyl)peroxide.

    PubMed

    Khuong, Tinh-Alfredo V; Zepeda, Gerardo; Sanrame, Carlos N; Dang, Hung; Bartberger, Michael D; Houk, K N; Garcia-Garibay, Miguel A

    2004-11-17

    Crankshaft motion has been proposed in the solid state for molecular fragments consisting of three or more rotors linked by single bonds, whereby the two terminal rotors are static and the internal rotors experience circular motion. Bis-[tri-(3,5-di-tert-butyl)phenylmethyl]-peroxide 2 was tested as a model in search of crankshaft motion at the molecular level. In the case of peroxide 2, the bulky trityl groups may be viewed as the external static rotors, while the two peroxide oxygens can undergo the sought after internal rotation. Evidence for this process in the case of peroxide 2 was obtained from conformational dynamics determined by variable-temperature (13)C and (1)H NMR between 190 and 375 K in toluene-d(8). Detailed spectral assignments for the interpretation of two coalescence processes were based on a correlation between NMR spectra obtained in solution at low temperature, in the solid state by (13)C CPMAS NMR, and by GIAO calculations based on a B3LYP/6-31G structure of 2 obtained from its X-ray coordinates as the input. Evidence supporting crankshaft rotation rather than slippage of the trityl groups was obtained from molecular mechanics calculations.

  12. Myoglobin microplate assay to evaluate prevention of protein peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Marques, Sara S; Magalhães, Luís M; Mota, Ana I P; Soares, Tânia R P; Korsak, Barbara; Reis, Salette; Segundo, Marcela A

    2015-10-10

    The current therapeutic strategies are based on the design of multifunctional drug candidates able to interact with various disease related targets. Drugs that have the ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), beyond their main therapeutic action, may prevent the oxidative damage of biomolecules. Therefore, analytical approaches that monitor in a continuous mode the ability of drugs to counteract peroxidation of physiologically relevant biotargets are required. In the present work, a microplate spectrophotometric assay is proposed to evaluate the ability of selected cardiovascular drugs, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, β -blockers and statins to prevent protein peroxidation. Myoglobin, which is a heme protein, and peroxyl radicals generated from thermolysis of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride at 37 °C, pH 7.4 were selected as protein model and oxidative species, respectively. Myoglobin peroxidation was continuously monitored by the absorbance decrease at 409 nm and the ability of drugs to counteract protein oxidation was determined by the calculation of the area under the curve upon the myoglobin oxidation. Fluvastatin (AUC₅₀=12.5 ± 1.2 μM) and enalapril (AUC₅₀=15.2 ± 1.8 μM) showed high ability to prevent myoglobin peroxidation, providing even better efficiency than endogenous antioxidants such as reduced glutathione. Moreover, labetalol, enalapril and fluvastatin prevent the autoxidation of myoglobin, while glutathione showed a pro-oxidant effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Selective electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide from water oxidation

    DOE PAGES

    Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Hansen, Heine A.; Norskov, Jens K.

    2015-10-08

    Water is a life-giving source, fundamental to human existence, yet over a billion people lack access to clean drinking water. The present techniques for water treatment such as piped, treated water rely on time and resource intensive centralized solutions. In this work, we propose a decentralized device concept that can utilize sunlight to split water into hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide can oxidize organics while the hydrogen bubbles out. In enabling this device, we require an electrocatalyst that can oxidize water while suppressing the thermodynamically favored oxygen evolution and form hydrogen peroxide. Using density functional theory calculations, wemore » show that the free energy of adsorbed OH* can be used to determine selectivity trends between the 2e– water oxidation to H 2O 2 and the 4e– oxidation to O 2. We show that materials which bind oxygen intermediates sufficiently weakly, such as SnO 2, can activate hydrogen peroxide evolution. Furthermore, we present a rational design principle for the selectivity in electrochemical water oxidation and identify new material candidates that could perform H 2O 2 evolution selectively.« less

  14. A PORTABLE MICROREACTOR SYSTEM TO SYNTHESIZE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the event that vehicles of buildings become contaminated by hazardous chemical or biological materials, a well-studied and effective decontaminant is hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV).  Unfortunately, the current technology for generating HPV requires 35 weight percent hydro...

  15. Peroxide Propulsion at the Turn of the Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, William E.; Butler, Kathy; Crocket, Dave; Lewis, Tim; McNeal, Curtis

    2000-01-01

    A resurgence of interest in peroxide propulsion has occurred in the last years of the 21st Century. This interest is driven by the need for lower cost propulsion systems and the need for storable reusable propulsion systems to meet future space transportation system architectures. NASA and the Air Force are jointly developing two propulsion systems for flight demonstration early in the 21st Century. One system will be a development of Boeing's AR2-3 engine, which was successfully fielded in the 1960s. The other is a new pressure-fed design by Orbital Sciences Corporation for expendable mission requirements. Concurrently NASA and industry are pursuing the key peroxide technologies needed to design, fabricate, and test advanced peroxide engines to meet the mission needs beyond 2005. This paper will present a description of the AR2-3, report the status of its current test program, and describe its intended flight demonstration. This paper will then describe the Orbital 10K engine, the status of its test program, and describe its planned flight demonstration. Finally the paper will present a plan, or technology roadmap, for the development of an advanced peroxide engine for the 21st Century.

  16. The oxygenase-peroxidase theory of Bach and Chodat and its modern equivalents: change and permanence in scientific thinking as shown by our understanding of the roles of water, peroxide, and oxygen in the functioning of redox enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, P

    2007-10-01

    Alexander Bach was both revolutionary politician and biochemist. His earliest significant publication, "Tsar-golod" ("The Tsar of Hunger"), introduced Marxist thought to Russian workers. In exile for 30 years, he moved to study the dialectic of the oxidases. When his theory of oxidases as combinations of oxygenases and peroxidases was developed (circa 1900) the enzyme concept was not fully formulated, and the enzyme/substrate distinction not yet made. Peroxides however were then and remain now significant intermediates, when either free or bound, in oxidase catalyses. The aerobic dehydrogenase/peroxidase/catalase coupled systems which were studied slightly later clarified the Bach model and briefly became an oxidase paradigm. Identification of peroxidase as a metalloprotein, a key step in understanding oxidase and peroxidase mechanisms, postdated Bach's major work. Currently we recognize catalytic organic peroxides in flavoprotein oxygenases; such organic peroxides are also involved in lipid oxidation and tryptophan radical decay. But most physiologically important peroxides are now known to be bound to transition metals (either Fe or Cu) and formed both directly and indirectly (from oxygen). The typical stable metalloprotein peroxide product is the ferryl state. When both peroxide oxidizing equivalents are retained the second equivalent is held as a protein or porphyrin radical. True metal peroxide complexes are unstable. But often water molecules mark the spot where the original peroxide decayed. The cytochrome c oxidase Fe-Cu center can react with either peroxide or oxygen to form the intermediate higher oxidation states P and F. In its resting state water molecules and hydroxyl ions can be seen marking the original location of the oxygen or peroxide molecule.

  17. Oxalomalate, a competitive inhibitor of NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, enhances lipid peroxidation-mediated oxidative damage in U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Joon-Hyuck; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2003-08-01

    Membrane lipid peroxidation processes yield products that may react with DNA and proteins to cause oxidative modifications. Cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) in U937 cells produces NADPH, an essential reducing equivalent for the antioxidant system. The protective role of ICDH against lipid peroxidation-mediated oxidative damage in U937 cells was investigated in control cells pre-treated with oxalomalate, a competitive inhibitor of ICDH. Upon exposure to 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH) to U937 cells, which induces lipid peroxidation in membranes, the viability was lower and the protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative DNA damage, reflected by an increase in 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, were higher in oxalomalate-treated cells as compared to control cells. We also observed the significant increase in the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species, as measured by the oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin, as well as the significant decrease in the intracellular GSH level in oxalomalate-treated U937 cells upon exposure to AAPH. These results suggest that ICDH plays an important role as an antioxidant enzyme in cellular defense against lipid peroxidation-mediated oxidative damage through the removal of reactive oxygen species.

  18. Breathing 100% Oxygen After Global Brain Ischemia in Mongolian Gerbils Results in Increased Lipid Peroxidation and Increased Mortality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    fatty during ischemic injury,- possibly related to the pres- acids such as linolenic or eicosapentaenoic acids . ence of endogenous iron.’ In...is elevated. Instead, concern is carbon chain of polyunsaturated fatty acids . Among focused on whether hypoxia is occurring as a conse- these products... acids such as linoleic or arachidonic acids . ischemia. I Lipid peroxidation also occurs in the brain Ethane is produced in a similar manner from w-3

  19. Constitutive ω-3 fatty acid production in fat-1 transgenic mice and docosahexaenoic acid administration to wild type mice protect against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Yum, Hye-Won; Kang, Jing X; Hahm, Ki Baik; Surh, Young-Joon

    2017-06-10

    Omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are known to have strong anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of ω-3 PUFAs on experimentally induced murine colitis. Intrarectal administration of 2.5% 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) caused inflammation in the colon of wild type mice, but this was less severe in fat-1 transgenic mice that constitutively produce ω-3 PUFAs from ω-6 PUFAs. The intraperitoneal administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a representative ω-3 PUFA, was also protective against TNBS-induced murine colitis. In addition, endogenously formed and exogenously introduced ω-3 PUFAs attenuated the production of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal in the colon of TNBS-treated mice. The effective protection against inflammatory and oxidative colonic tissue damages in fat-1 and DHA-treated mice was associated with suppression of NF-κB activation and cyclooxygenase-2 expression and with elevated activation of Nrf2 and upregulation of its target gene, heme oxygenase-1. Taken together, these results provide mechanistic basis of protective action of ω-3 fatty PUFAs against experimental colitis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Hydrogen peroxide oxidant fuel cell systems for ultra-portable applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will address the issues of using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant fuel in a miniature DMFC system. Cell performance for DMFC based fuel cells operating on hydrogen peroxide will be presented and discussed.

  1. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection in girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus during reproductive system development.

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, Lubov I; Darenskaya, Marina A; Semenova, Natalia V; Grebenkina, Lyudmila A; Suturina, Larisa V; Dolgikh, Marya I; Gnusina, Svetlana V

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is found worldwide and is regarded as one of the main risks to human health. The objective of this study was to determine the state of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant protection in girls with T1D type considering the stages of reproductive system development. This study enrolled 56 young girls with T1D and 60 healthy girls (control) matched by age. The study population was divided into 3 age groups: prepubertal, adolescent, and juvenile. The state of LPO and antioxidant system was assessed using the coefficient of oxidative stress that represented the ratio of LPO products to general antioxidative blood activity. Spectrophotometric and fluorometric methods were applied. The results of our study showed increased conjugated diene (CD) and thiobarbituric acid reactant (TBAR) concentrations as well as a decreased reduced glutathione level in prepubertal girls with T1D. Adolescent girls with T1D had a significantly greater CD level and juvenile girls with T1D had a significantly greater TBAR level and lower α-tocopherol concentration than girls in the control group. The greatest coefficient of oxidative stress (1.16) was observed in the prepubertal period. The prepubertal period is characterized by the most severe state of lipid peroxidation process-antioxidant protection. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of cotton-fabric bleaching using hydrogen peroxide and Blue LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Bruno P.; Moriyama, Lilian T.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2015-06-01

    The raw cotton production requires multiple steps being one of them the removal of impurities acquired during previous processes. This procedure is widely used by textile industries around the world and is called bleaching. The raw cotton is composed by cellulosic and non-cellulosic materials like waxes, pectins and oils, which are responsible for its characteristic yellowish color. The bleaching process aims to remove the non-cellulosic materials concentration in the fabric, increasing its whiteness degree. The most used bleaching method utilizes a bath in an alkali solution of hydrogen peroxide, stabilizers and buffer solutions under high temperature. In the present study we evaluated the possibility of using a blue illumination for the bleaching process. We used blue LEDs (450 nm) to illuminate an acid hydrogen peroxide solution at room temperature. The samples treated by this method were compared with the conventional bleaching process through a colorimetric analysis and by a multiple comparison visual inspection by volunteers. The samples were also studied by a tensile test in order to verify the integrity of the cloth after bleaching. The results of fabric visual inspection and colorimetric analysis showed a small advantage for the sample treated by the standard method. The tensile test showed an increasing on the yield strength of the cloth after blue light bleaching. The presented method has great applicability potential due to the similar results compared to the standard method, with relative low cost and reduced production of chemical waste.

  3. On the cleavage of the peroxide O---O bond in methyl hydroperoxide and dimethyl peroxide upon protonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schalley, Christoph A.; Dieterle, Martin; Schröder, Detlef; Schwarz, Helmut; Uggerud, Einar

    1997-04-01

    The unimolecular decays of protonated methyl hydroperoxide and dimethyl peroxide have been studied by tandem mass spectrometric techniques in combination with isotopic labeling as well as computational methods. The potential-energy surfaces calculated at the BECKE3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory are in good agreement with the experimental findings. The decomposition of the protonated peroxides can be described by a general mechanistic scheme which involves rearrangement to proton-bridged complexes, i.e. [CH2O-H-OH2]+ and [CH2O-H-O(H)CH3]+, respectively. When formed unimolecularly via rearrangement of the protonated peroxides, these complexes are rovibrationally highly excited; consequently, their fragmentations are affected remarkably as compared to proton-bound complexes of lower internal energy which are independently generated from the corresponding alcohol and carbonyl compounds in a chemical ionization plasma. For methyl hydroperoxide, both oxygen atoms can be protonated, giving rise to two isomeric cations with rather similar heats of formation but entirely different fragmentation behaviors. Cleavage of the O---O bond in dimethyl peroxide upon protonation results in proton- as well as methyl-cation-bridged intermediates, e.g. [CH2O-H-O(H)CH3]+ and [CH2O-CH3-OH2]+.

  4. ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE STUDIES ON PEROXIDE RADICALS IN IRRADIATED POLYPROPYLENE (in German)

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, H.; Hellwege, K.-H.; Neudoerfl, P.

    1963-06-01

    Peroxide radicals are formed by oxidation of carbon radicals in irradiated isotactic polypropylene. An interpretation of their ESR spectra is given. The recombination of the peroxide radicals follows a chain reaction mechanism, which is derived from the reversibility of formation of peroxide radicals, the time dependence of their concentration, and from the oxygen consumption of samples containing peroxide radicals. The reactions are discussed in view of the radiation induced oxidative degradation of polypropylene. (auth)

  5. Using minced horseradish roots and peroxides for the deodorization of swine manure: a pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Govere, Ephraim M; Tonegawa, Masami; Bruns, Mary Ann; Wheeler, Eileen F; Kephart, Kenneth B; Voigt, Jean W; Dec, Jerzy

    2007-04-01

    Enzymes that have proven to be capable of removing toxic compounds from water and soil may also be useful in the deodorization of animal manures. Considering that pork production in the US is a $40-billion industry with over half a million workers, odor control to protect air quality in the neighboring communities must be considered an essential part of managing livestock facilities. This pilot scale (20-120 L) study tested the use of minced horseradish (Armoracia rusticana L.) roots (1:10 roots to swine slurry ratio), with calcium peroxide (CaO(2) at 34 mM) or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2) at 68 mM), to deodorize swine slurry taken from a 40,000-gallon storage pit at the Pennsylvania State University's Swine Center. Horseradish is known to contain large amounts of peroxidase, an enzyme that, in the presence of peroxides, can polymerize phenolic odorants and thus reduce the malodor. Twelve compounds commonly associated with malodor (seven volatile fatty acids or VFAs, three phenolic compounds and two indolic compounds) were used as odor indicators. Their concentration in swine slurry before and after treatment was determined by gas chromatography (GC) to assess the deodorization effect. The pilot scale testing demonstrated a complete removal of phenolic odorants (with a detection limit of 0.5 mg L(-1)) from the swine slurry, which was consistent with our previous laboratory experiments using 30-mL swine slurry samples. Horseradish could be recycled (reused) five times while retaining significant reduction in the concentration of phenolic odorants. In view of these findings, inexpensive plant materials, such as horseradish, represent a promising tool for eliminating phenolic odorants from swine slurry.

  6. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on the three-dimensional polymer network in composites.

    PubMed

    Durner, Jürgen; Stojanovic, Marija; Urcan, Ebru; Spahl, Werner; Haertel, Ursula; Hickel, Reinhard; Reichl, Franx-Xaver

    2011-06-01

    Less data are available about the effects of hydrogen peroxide on the three-dimensional polymer network of polymerized composites. Therefore the study was performed to test the effects of hydrogen peroxide on the three-dimensional polymer network in composites. Polymerized specimens from Tetric Flow®, Tetric Ceram® and Filtek™ Supreme XT were bleached with Opalescence® PF 15% for 5h or PF 35% for 0.5h, respectively, and then stored in methanol for 1d and 7d. Controls were unbleached specimens. The eluates were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. More methacrylic acid (MAA), bisphenol-A (BPA), ethoxylated bisphenol-A-dimethacrylate (BisEMA), hydroquinone monomethyl ether (HQME), 1,10-decanediol dimethacrylate (DDDMA) and/or triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) were eluted from bleached specimens compared with non bleached controls (1d). The highest DDDMA amount of 419.8 μmol/l was found in the eluates after 7d in Tetric Flow® specimens treated with PF 15. The highest HQME amount of 159.6 μmol/l was found in eluates from Tetric Ceram® specimens treated with PF after 7d. The highest TEGDMA amount of 178.7 μmol/l was found in eluates from Filtek™ Supreme XT specimens treated with PF 35 after 7d. Bleaching with hydrogen peroxide has an effect on the three-dimensional polymer network in polymerized composites leading to an increase in the release of unpolymerized monomers, additives and unspecific oxidative products. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 40 CFR 180.1197 - Hydrogen peroxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrogen peroxide; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1197 Hydrogen peroxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of hydrogen peroxide in or on all...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1197 - Hydrogen peroxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrogen peroxide; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1197 Hydrogen peroxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of hydrogen peroxide in or on all...

  9. 21 CFR 172.167 - Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.167 Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution. An aqueous solution containing a mixture of silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide may be safely used...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1197 - Hydrogen peroxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrogen peroxide; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1197 Hydrogen peroxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of hydrogen peroxide in or on all...

  11. 21 CFR 172.167 - Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.167 Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution. An aqueous solution containing a mixture of silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide may be safely used...

  12. 21 CFR 172.167 - Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution. 172... Preservatives § 172.167 Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution. An aqueous solution containing a mixture of silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide may be safely used in accordance with the following...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1197 - Hydrogen peroxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen peroxide; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1197 Hydrogen peroxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of hydrogen peroxide in or on all...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1197 - Hydrogen peroxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrogen peroxide; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1197 Hydrogen peroxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of hydrogen peroxide in or on all...

  15. 21 CFR 172.167 - Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.167 Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution. An aqueous solution containing a mixture of silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide may be safely used...

  16. Agent neutralization study IV. VX-caustic peroxide reactions. Final report, August 1993-February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hovanec, J.W.; Albizo, J.M.; Henderson, V.D.

    1994-08-01

    The use of concentrated mixtures of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydroxide for the chemical neutralization (detoxification) of VX has been examined. The reaction of VX in 4 N sodium hydroxide/11% hydrogen peroxide is rapid and exothermic. Care must be taken to avoid temperature increases which can induce peroxide decomposition. This can be done by controlling the addition of VX to the reaction. (Author).

  17. Alkaline peroxide treatment of ECF bleached softwood kraft pulps. Part 1. characterizing the effect of alkaline peroxide treatment on carboxyl groups of fibers

    Treesearch

    Zheng Dang; Thomas Elder; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2007-01-01

    The influence of alkaline peroxide treatment has been characterized on elementally chlorine-free (ECF) bleached softwood (SW) kraft pulp. The results indicate that fiber charge increased with an increase in peroxide charge: a maximum fiber charge increment of 16.6% was obtained with 8.0% more peroxide charge on oven-dried (0.d.) pulp at 60.0°C. Two primary bleaching...

  18. Comparing the efficacy of four immersion flush and static hydorgen peroxide and copper sulfate treatments on channel catfish eggs infected with water molds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water mold infestations on channel catfish eggs lower the hatch rate (egg survival) and ultimately the number of catfish fry available for stocking in production ponds. This study compared the potential of two hydrogen peroxide (HP) and two copper sulfate pentahydrate (CSP) treatments to increase c...

  19. Effects of combination of ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, native microbial loads, and quality of button mushrooms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mushrooms are prone to microbial spoilage and browning during growing and processing. Ultraviolet light (UV-C) has been used as an alternative technology to chemical sanitizers for food products. Hydrogen peroxide is classified as generally recognized as safe for use in foods as a bleaching and ant...

  20. Resveratrol protects rats from Aβ-induced neurotoxicity by the reduction of iNOS expression and lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tai-Chun; Lu, Kwok-Tung; Wo, Yu-Yuan Peter; Wu, Yao-Ju; Yang, Yi-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disease characterized by the formation of β-amyloid (Aβ)-containing senile plaque. The disease could be induced by the administration of Aβ peptide, which was also known to upregulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and stimulate neuronal apoptosis. The present study is aimed to elucidate the cellular effect of resveratrol, a natural phytoestrogen with neuroprotective activities, on Aβ-induced hippocampal neuron loss and memory impairment. On adult Sprague-Dawley rats, we found the injection of Aβ could result in a significant impairment in spatial memory, a marked increase in the cellular level of iNOS and lipid peroxidation, and an apparent decrease in the exp