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Sample records for peroxisomal fatty acyl-coa

  1. Increased Long Chain acyl-Coa Synthetase Activity and Fatty Acid Import Is Linked to Membrane Synthesis for Development of Picornavirus Replication Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Alison J.; Ford, Lauren A.; Pei, Zhengtong; Watkins, Paul A.; Ernst, Robert K.; Belov, George A.

    2013-01-01

    All positive strand (+RNA) viruses of eukaryotes replicate their genomes in association with membranes. The mechanisms of membrane remodeling in infected cells represent attractive targets for designing future therapeutics, but our understanding of this process is very limited. Elements of autophagy and/or the secretory pathway were proposed to be hijacked for building of picornavirus replication organelles. However, even closely related viruses differ significantly in their requirements for components of these pathways. We demonstrate here that infection with diverse picornaviruses rapidly activates import of long chain fatty acids. While in non-infected cells the imported fatty acids are channeled to lipid droplets, in infected cells the synthesis of neutral lipids is shut down and the fatty acids are utilized in highly up-regulated phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Thus the replication organelles are likely built from de novo synthesized membrane material, rather than from the remodeled pre-existing membranes. We show that activation of fatty acid import is linked to the up-regulation of cellular long chain acyl-CoA synthetase activity and identify the long chain acyl-CoA syntheatse3 (Acsl3) as a novel host factor required for polio replication. Poliovirus protein 2A is required to trigger the activation of import of fatty acids independent of its protease activity. Shift in fatty acid import preferences by infected cells results in synthesis of phosphatidylcholines different from those in uninfected cells, arguing that the viral replication organelles possess unique properties compared to the pre-existing membranes. Our data show how poliovirus can change the overall cellular membrane homeostasis by targeting one critical process. They explain earlier observations of increased phospholipid synthesis in infected cells and suggest a simple model of the structural development of the membranous scaffold of replication complexes of picorna-like viruses, that may be

  2. Increased long chain acyl-Coa synthetase activity and fatty acid import is linked to membrane synthesis for development of picornavirus replication organelles.

    PubMed

    Nchoutmboube, Jules A; Viktorova, Ekaterina G; Scott, Alison J; Ford, Lauren A; Pei, Zhengtong; Watkins, Paul A; Ernst, Robert K; Belov, George A

    2013-01-01

    All positive strand (+RNA) viruses of eukaryotes replicate their genomes in association with membranes. The mechanisms of membrane remodeling in infected cells represent attractive targets for designing future therapeutics, but our understanding of this process is very limited. Elements of autophagy and/or the secretory pathway were proposed to be hijacked for building of picornavirus replication organelles. However, even closely related viruses differ significantly in their requirements for components of these pathways. We demonstrate here that infection with diverse picornaviruses rapidly activates import of long chain fatty acids. While in non-infected cells the imported fatty acids are channeled to lipid droplets, in infected cells the synthesis of neutral lipids is shut down and the fatty acids are utilized in highly up-regulated phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Thus the replication organelles are likely built from de novo synthesized membrane material, rather than from the remodeled pre-existing membranes. We show that activation of fatty acid import is linked to the up-regulation of cellular long chain acyl-CoA synthetase activity and identify the long chain acyl-CoA syntheatse3 (Acsl3) as a novel host factor required for polio replication. Poliovirus protein 2A is required to trigger the activation of import of fatty acids independent of its protease activity. Shift in fatty acid import preferences by infected cells results in synthesis of phosphatidylcholines different from those in uninfected cells, arguing that the viral replication organelles possess unique properties compared to the pre-existing membranes. Our data show how poliovirus can change the overall cellular membrane homeostasis by targeting one critical process. They explain earlier observations of increased phospholipid synthesis in infected cells and suggest a simple model of the structural development of the membranous scaffold of replication complexes of picorna-like viruses, that may be

  3. Short-term exposures of fish to perfluorooctane sulfonate: acute effects on fatty acyl-coa oxidase activity, oxidative stress, and circulating sex steroids.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Ken D; Sibley, Paul K; Martin, Jon W; MacLean, Dan D; Solomon, Keith R; Mabury, Scott A; Van Der Kraak, Glen J

    2005-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to waterborne perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on oxidative stress and reproductive endpoints in fish. Exposures utilized species commonly used in toxicological testing, including the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), as well as relatively insensitive taxa such as creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). In all fish species, short-term (14-28 d) exposure to PFOS produced only modest mortality at concentrations consistent with environmental spill scenarios. However, PFOS consistently increased hepatic fatty acyl-CoA oxidase activity and increased oxidative damage, as quantified using the 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assay. Plasma testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 17beta-estradiol titers were often elevated with PFOS exposure. Vitellogenin, the egg yolk precursor protein, was occasionally altered in the plasma with PFOS exposure, but responses varied with maturity. Oviposition frequency and egg deposition in fathead minnow were not significantly impaired with PFOS exposure, despite a trend toward progressive impairment with increasing exposure concentrations. Although short-term PFOS exposure produced significant impacts on biochemical and reproductive endpoints in fish at concentrations consistent with environmental spills, the impact of long-term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PFOS is unclear.

  4. Peroxisomal fatty acid uptake mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    van Roermund, Carlo W T; Ijlst, Lodewijk; Majczak, Wiktor; Waterham, Hans R; Folkerts, Hendrik; Wanders, Ronald J A; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    2012-06-08

    Peroxisomes play a major role in human cellular lipid metabolism, including fatty acid β-oxidation. The most frequent peroxisomal disorder is X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, which is caused by mutations in ABCD1. The biochemical hallmark of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) due to impaired peroxisomal β-oxidation. Although this suggests a role of ABCD1 in VLCFA import into peroxisomes, no direct experimental evidence is available to substantiate this. To unravel the mechanism of peroxisomal VLCFA transport, we use Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. Here we provide evidence that in this organism very long chain acyl-CoA esters are hydrolyzed by the Pxa1p-Pxa2p complex prior to the actual transport of their fatty acid moiety into the peroxisomes with the CoA presumably being released into the cytoplasm. The Pxa1p-Pxa2p complex functionally interacts with the acyl-CoA synthetases Faa2p and/or Fat1p on the inner surface of the peroxisomal membrane for subsequent re-esterification of the VLCFAs. Importantly, the Pxa1p-Pxa2p complex shares this molecular mechanism with HsABCD1 and HsABCD2.

  5. Peroxisomal Fatty Acid Uptake Mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    van Roermund, Carlo W. T.; IJlst, Lodewijk; Majczak, Wiktor; Waterham, Hans R.; Folkerts, Hendrik; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Hellingwerf, Klaas J.

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes play a major role in human cellular lipid metabolism, including fatty acid β-oxidation. The most frequent peroxisomal disorder is X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, which is caused by mutations in ABCD1. The biochemical hallmark of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) due to impaired peroxisomal β-oxidation. Although this suggests a role of ABCD1 in VLCFA import into peroxisomes, no direct experimental evidence is available to substantiate this. To unravel the mechanism of peroxisomal VLCFA transport, we use Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. Here we provide evidence that in this organism very long chain acyl-CoA esters are hydrolyzed by the Pxa1p-Pxa2p complex prior to the actual transport of their fatty acid moiety into the peroxisomes with the CoA presumably being released into the cytoplasm. The Pxa1p-Pxa2p complex functionally interacts with the acyl-CoA synthetases Faa2p and/or Fat1p on the inner surface of the peroxisomal membrane for subsequent re-esterification of the VLCFAs. Importantly, the Pxa1p-Pxa2p complex shares this molecular mechanism with HsABCD1 and HsABCD2. PMID:22493507

  6. Peroxisomes compensate hepatic lipid overflow in mice with fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Knebel, Birgit; Hartwig, Sonja; Haas, Jutta; Lehr, Stefan; Goeddeke, Simon; Susanto, Franciscus; Bohne, Lothar; Jacob, Sylvia; Koellmer, Cornelia; Nitzgen, Ulrike; Müller-Wieland, Dirk; Kotzka, Jorg

    2015-07-01

    Major causes of lipid accumulation in liver are increased import or synthesis or decreased catabolism of fatty acids. The latter is caused by dysfunction of cellular organelles controlling energy homeostasis, i.e., mitochondria. Peroxisomes also appear to be an important organelle in lipid metabolism of hepatocytes, but little is known about their role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To investigate the role of peroxisomes alongside mitochondria in excessive hepatic lipid accumulation, we used leptin-resistant db/db mice on C57BLKS background, a mouse model that develops hyperphagia-induced diabetes with obesity and NAFLD. Proteome and gene expression analyses along with lipid analyses in the liver revealed differential expression of genes related to lipid metabolism and β-oxidation, whereas genes for peroxisomal proteins were predominantly regulated. Our investigations show that in fatty liver disease in combination with obesity and diabetes, the hepatocyte-protecting organelle peroxisome is altered. Hence, peroxisomes might indicate a stage of pre-NAFLD, play a role in the early development of NAFLD and appear to be a potential target for treatment and prevention of NAFLD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High fat fed heart failure animals have enhanced mitochondrial function and acyl-coa dehydrogenase activities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have previously shown that administration of high fat in heart failure (HF) increased mitochondrial respiration and did not alter left ventricular (LV) function. PPARalpha is a nuclear transcription factor that activates expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and utilization. We hypoth...

  8. Overexpression of PGC-1α Increases Peroxisomal and Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation in Human Primary Myotubes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tai-Yu; Zheng, Donghai; Houmard, Joseph A; Brault, Jeffrey J; Hickner, Robert C; Cortright, Ronald N

    2017-01-10

    Peroxisomes are indispensable organelles for lipid metabolism in humans and their biogenesis has been assumed to be under regulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). However, recent studies in hepatocytes suggest that the mitochondrial proliferator PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha) also acts as an upstream transcriptional regulator for enhancing peroxisomal abundance and associated activity. It is unknown whether the regulatory mechanism(s) for enhancing peroxisomal function is through the same node as mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle (HSkM) and whether fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is affected. Primary myotubes from vastus lateralis biopsies from lean donors (BMI =24.0 ± 0.6 kg/m(2), N = 6) were exposed to adenovirus encoding human PGC-1α or GFP control. Peroxisomal biogenesis proteins (Peroxins) and genes (PEXs) responsible for proliferation and functions were assessed by western blotting and real-time qRT-PCR respectively. 1-(14)C palmitic acid and 1-(14)C lignoceric acid (exclusive peroxisomal specific substrate) were used to assess mitochondrial oxidation of peroxisomal derived metabolites. Following overexpression of PGC-1α, 1) Peroxisomal membrane protein 70kD (PMP70), PEX19, and mitochondrial citrate synthetase protein content were significantly elevated (P<0.05) 2) PGC-1α, PMP70, key PEXs, and peroxisomal β-oxidation mRNA expression levels were significantly upregulated (P<0.05) and 3) A concomitant increase in lignoceric acid oxidation by both peroxisomal and mitochondrial activity was observed (P<0.05). These novel findings demonstrate that, in addition to the proliferative effect on mitochondria, PGC-1α can induce peroxisomes and accompanying elevations in long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acid oxidation by a peroxisomal-mitochondrial functional cooperation as observed in HSkM cells.

  9. Involvement of carnitine acyltransferases in peroxisomal fatty acid metabolism by the yeast Pichia guilliermondii.

    PubMed Central

    Pagot, Y; Belin, J M

    1996-01-01

    This article provides information about peroxisomal fatty acid metabolism in the yeast Pichia guilliermondii. The existence of inducible mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase and peroxisomal carnitine octanoyl-transferase activities was demonstrated after culture of this yeast in a medium containing methyl oleate. The subcellular sites and induction patterns were studied. The inhibition of carnitine octanoyl- and palmitoyl-transferases by chlorpromazine to a large extent prevented the otherwise observed metabolism-dependent inactivation of thiolase by 2-bromofatty acids in vivo. We concluded that the metabolism of long- and medium-chain fatty acids in the peroxisome of this yeast involved carnitine intermediates. PMID:8837442

  10. Identification of a new fatty acid synthesis-transport machinery at the peroxisomal membrane.

    PubMed

    Hillebrand, Merle; Gersting, Søren W; Lotz-Havla, Amelie S; Schäfer, Annika; Rosewich, Hendrik; Valerius, Oliver; Muntau, Ania C; Gärtner, Jutta

    2012-01-02

    The neurodegenerative disease X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is characterized by the abnormal accumulation of very long chain fatty acids. Mutations in the gene encoding the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette half-transporter, adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), are the primary cause of X-ALD. To gain a better understanding of ALDP dysfunction, we searched for interaction partners of ALDP and identified binary interactions to proteins with functions in fatty acid synthesis (ACLY, FASN, and ACC) and activation (FATP4), constituting a thus far unknown fatty acid synthesis-transport machinery at the cytoplasmic side of the peroxisomal membrane. This machinery adds to the knowledge of the complex mechanisms of peroxisomal fatty acid metabolism at a molecular level and elucidates potential epigenetic mechanisms as regulatory processes in the pathogenesis and thus the clinical course of X-ALD.

  11. Identification of a New Fatty Acid Synthesis-Transport Machinery at the Peroxisomal Membrane*

    PubMed Central

    Hillebrand, Merle; Gersting, Søren W.; Lotz-Havla, Amelie S.; Schäfer, Annika; Rosewich, Hendrik; Valerius, Oliver; Muntau, Ania C.; Gärtner, Jutta

    2012-01-01

    The neurodegenerative disease X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is characterized by the abnormal accumulation of very long chain fatty acids. Mutations in the gene encoding the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette half-transporter, adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), are the primary cause of X-ALD. To gain a better understanding of ALDP dysfunction, we searched for interaction partners of ALDP and identified binary interactions to proteins with functions in fatty acid synthesis (ACLY, FASN, and ACC) and activation (FATP4), constituting a thus far unknown fatty acid synthesis-transport machinery at the cytoplasmic side of the peroxisomal membrane. This machinery adds to the knowledge of the complex mechanisms of peroxisomal fatty acid metabolism at a molecular level and elucidates potential epigenetic mechanisms as regulatory processes in the pathogenesis and thus the clinical course of X-ALD. PMID:22045812

  12. Pathway Compartmentalization in Peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Produce Versatile Medium Chain Fatty Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Stevens, Joseph; Feng, Xueyang

    2016-05-27

    Fatty alcohols are value-added chemicals and important components of a variety of industries, which have a >3 billion-dollar global market annually. Long chain fatty alcohols (>C12) are mainly used in surfactants, lubricants, detergents, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics while medium chain fatty alcohols (C6-C12) could be used as diesel-like biofuels. Microbial production of fatty alcohols from renewable feedstock stands as a promising strategy to enable sustainable supply of fatty alcohols. In this study, we report, for the first time, that medium chain fatty alcohols could be produced in yeast via targeted expression of a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (TaFAR) in the peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By tagging TaFAR enzyme with peroxisomal targeting signal peptides, the TaFAR could be compartmentalized into the matrix of the peroxisome to hijack the medium chain fatty acyl-CoA generated from the beta-oxidation pathway and convert them to versatile medium chain fatty alcohols (C10 &C12). The overexpression of genes encoding PEX7 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase further improved fatty alcohol production by 1.4-fold. After medium optimization in fed-batch fermentation using glucose as the sole carbon source, fatty alcohols were produced at 1.3 g/L, including 6.9% 1-decanol, 27.5% 1-dodecanol, 2.9% 1-tetradecanol and 62.7% 1-hexadecanol. This work revealed that peroxisome could be engineered as a compartmentalized organelle for producing fatty acid-derived chemicals in S. cerevisiae.

  13. Pathway Compartmentalization in Peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Produce Versatile Medium Chain Fatty Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Stevens, Joseph; Feng, Xueyang

    2016-01-01

    Fatty alcohols are value-added chemicals and important components of a variety of industries, which have a >3 billion-dollar global market annually. Long chain fatty alcohols (>C12) are mainly used in surfactants, lubricants, detergents, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics while medium chain fatty alcohols (C6–C12) could be used as diesel-like biofuels. Microbial production of fatty alcohols from renewable feedstock stands as a promising strategy to enable sustainable supply of fatty alcohols. In this study, we report, for the first time, that medium chain fatty alcohols could be produced in yeast via targeted expression of a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (TaFAR) in the peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By tagging TaFAR enzyme with peroxisomal targeting signal peptides, the TaFAR could be compartmentalized into the matrix of the peroxisome to hijack the medium chain fatty acyl-CoA generated from the beta-oxidation pathway and convert them to versatile medium chain fatty alcohols (C10 & C12). The overexpression of genes encoding PEX7 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase further improved fatty alcohol production by 1.4-fold. After medium optimization in fed-batch fermentation using glucose as the sole carbon source, fatty alcohols were produced at 1.3 g/L, including 6.9% 1-decanol, 27.5% 1-dodecanol, 2.9% 1-tetradecanol and 62.7% 1-hexadecanol. This work revealed that peroxisome could be engineered as a compartmentalized organelle for producing fatty acid-derived chemicals in S. cerevisiae. PMID:27230732

  14. Arabidopsis peroxisomal citrate synthase is required for fatty acid respiration and seed germination.

    PubMed

    Pracharoenwattana, Itsara; Cornah, Johanna E; Smith, Steven M

    2005-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that peroxisomal citrate synthase (CSY) is required for carbon transfer from peroxisomes to mitochondria during respiration of triacylglycerol in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Two genes encoding peroxisomal CSY are expressed in Arabidopsis seedlings, and seeds from plants with both CSY genes disrupted were dormant and did not metabolize triacylglycerol. Germination was achieved by removing the seed coat and supplying sucrose, but the seedlings still did not use triacylglycerol. The mutant seedlings were resistant to 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid, indicating a block in peroxisomal beta-oxidation, and were unable to develop further after transfer to soil. The mutant phenotype was complemented with a cDNA encoding CSY with either its native peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS2) or a heterologous PTS1 sequence from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) malate synthase. These results suggest that peroxisomal CSY in Arabidopsis is not only a key enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle but also catalyzes an essential step in the respiration of fatty acids. We conclude that citrate is exported from the peroxisome during fatty acid respiration, whereas in yeast, acetylcarnitine is exported.

  15. The role of peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA beta-oxidation in bile acid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, H.; Miwa, A. )

    1989-11-01

    The physiological role of the peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA beta-oxidizing system (FAOS) is not yet established. We speculated that there might be a relationship between peroxisomal degradation of long-chain fatty acids in the liver and the biosynthesis of bile acids. This was investigated using (1-{sup 14}C)butyric acid and (1-{sup 14}C)lignoceric acid as substrates of FAOS in mitochondria and peroxisomes, respectively. The incorporation of ({sup 14}C)lignoceric acid into primary bile acids was approximately four times higher than that of ({sup 14}C)butyric acid (in terms of C-2 units). The pools of these two fatty acids in the liver were exceedingly small. The incorporations of radioactivity into the primary bile acids were strongly inhibited by administration of aminotriazole, which is a specific inhibitor of peroxisomal FAOS in vivo. Aminotriazole inhibited preferentially the formation of cholate, the major primary bile acid, from both ({sup 14}C)lignoceric acid and ({sup 14}C)butyric acid, rather than the formation of chenodeoxycholate. The former inhibition was about 70% and the latter was approximately 40-50%. In view of reports that cholate is biosynthesized from endogenous cholesterol, the above results indicate that peroxisomal FAOS may have an anabolic function, supplying acetyl CoA for bile acid biosynthesis.

  16. Mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation in liver homogenates and isolated hepatocytes from control and clofibrate-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Mannaerts, G P; Debeer, L J; Thomas, J; De Schepper, P J

    1979-06-10

    Mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation were compared in whole liver homogenates. Oxidation of 0.2 mM palmitoyl-CoA or oleate by mitochondria increased rapidly with increasing molar substrate:albumin ratios and became saturated at ratios below 3, while peroxisomal oxidation increased more slowly and continued to rise to reach maximal activity in the absence of albumin. Under the latter condition mitochondrial oxidation was severely depressed. In homogenates from normal liver peroxisomal oxidation was lower than mitochondrial oxidation at all ratios tested except when albumin was absent. In contrast with mitochondrial oxidation, peroxisomal oxidation did not produce ketones, was cyanide-insensitive, was not dependent on carnitine, and was not inhibited by (+)-octanoylcarnitine, malonyl-CoA and 4-pentenoate. Mitochondrial oxidation was inhibited by CoASH concentrations that were optimal for peroxisomal oxidation. In the presence of albumin, peroxisomal oxidation was stimulated by Triton X-100 but unaffected by freeze-thawing; both treatments suppressed mitochondrial oxidation. Clofibrate treatment increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal oxidation 2- and 6- to 8-fold, respectively. Peroxisomal oxidation remained unchanged in starvation and diabetes. Fatty acid oxidation was severely depressed by cyanide and (+)-octanoylcarnitine in hepatocytes from normal rats. Hepatocytes from clofibrate-treated rats, which displayed a 3- to 4-fold increase in fatty acid oxidation, were less inhibited by (+)-octanoylcarnitine. Hydrogen peroxide production was severalfold higher in hepatocytes from treated animals oxidizing fatty acids than in control hepatocytes. Assuming that all H2O2 produced during fatty acid oxidation was due to peroxisomal oxidation, it was calculated that the contribution of the peroxisomes to fatty acid oxidation was less than 10% both in cells from control and clofibrate-treated animals.

  17. Harnessing Yeast Peroxisomes for Biosynthesis of Fatty-Acid-Derived Biofuels and Chemicals with Relieved Side-Pathway Competition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongjin J; Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhu, Zhiwei; Gómez, Diego Orol; Boonsombuti, Akarin; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-11-30

    Establishing efficient synthetic pathways for microbial production of biochemicals is often hampered by competing pathways and/or insufficient precursor supply. Compartmentalization in cellular organelles can isolate synthetic pathways from competing pathways, and provide a compact and suitable environment for biosynthesis. Peroxisomes are cellular organelles where fatty acids are degraded, a process that is inhibited under typical fermentation conditions making them an interesting workhouse for production of fatty-acid-derived molecules. Here, we show that targeting synthetic pathways to peroxisomes can increase the production of fatty-acid-derived fatty alcohols, alkanes and olefins up to 700%. In addition, we demonstrate that biosynthesis of these chemicals in the peroxisomes results in significantly decreased accumulation of byproducts formed by competing enzymes. We further demonstrate that production can be enhanced up to 3-fold by increasing the peroxisome population. The strategies described here could be used for production of other chemicals, especially acyl-CoA-derived molecules.

  18. Regulatory Genes Controlling Fatty Acid Catabolism and Peroxisomal Functions in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus nidulans†

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Michael J.; Murray, Sandra L.; Duncan, Anna; Khew, Gillian S.; Davis, Meryl A.

    2006-01-01

    The catabolism of fatty acids is important in the lifestyle of many fungi, including plant and animal pathogens. This has been investigated in Aspergillus nidulans, which can grow on acetate and fatty acids as sources of carbon, resulting in the production of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA). Acetyl-CoA is metabolized via the glyoxalate bypass, located in peroxisomes, enabling gluconeogenesis. Acetate induction of enzymes specific for acetate utilization as well as glyoxalate bypass enzymes is via the Zn2-Cys6 binuclear cluster activator FacB. However, enzymes of the glyoxalate bypass as well as fatty acid beta-oxidation and peroxisomal proteins are also inducible by fatty acids. We have isolated mutants that cannot grow on fatty acids. Two of the corresponding genes, farA and farB, encode two highly conserved families of related Zn2-Cys6 binuclear proteins present in filamentous ascomycetes, including plant pathogens. A single ortholog is found in the yeasts Candida albicans, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Yarrowia lipolytica, but not in the Ashbya, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces lineage. Northern blot analysis has shown that deletion of the farA gene eliminates induction of a number of genes by both short- and long-chain fatty acids, while deletion of the farB gene eliminates short-chain induction. An identical core 6-bp in vitro binding site for each protein has been identified in genes encoding glyoxalate bypass, beta-oxidation, and peroxisomal functions. This sequence is overrepresented in the 5′ region of genes predicted to be fatty acid induced in other filamentous ascomycetes, C. albicans, D. hansenii, and Y. lipolytica, but not in the corresponding genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:16682457

  19. Pex11α deficiency impairs peroxisome elongation and division and contributes to nonalcoholic fatty liver in mice.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huachun; Ji, Xu; Naito, Yukiko; Endo, Kosuke; Ma, Xiao; Takahashi, Rie; Shen, Chunshen; Hirokawa, Go; Fukushima, Yasue; Iwai, Naoharu

    2013-01-15

    Hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation is considered to be a prerequisite for developing nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL). Peroxisomes have many important functions in lipid metabolism, including fatty acid β-oxidization. However, the pathogenic link between NAFL and peroxisome biogenesis remains unclear. To examine the molecular and physiological functions of the Pex11α gene, we disrupted this gene in mice. Body weights and hepatic TG concentrations in Pex11α(-/-) mice were significantly higher than those in wild-type (WT) mice fed a normal or a high-fat diet. Hepatic TG concentrations in fasted Pex11α(-/-) mice were significantly higher than those in fasted WT mice. Plasma TG levels increased at lower rates in Pex11α(-/-) mice than in WT mice after treatment with the lipoprotein lipase inhibitor tyloxapol. The number of peroxisomes was lower in the livers of Pex11α(-/-) mice than in those of WT mice. Ultrastructural analysis showed that small and regular spherically shaped peroxisomes were more prevalent in Pex11α(-/-) mice fed normal chow supplemented without or with fenofibrate. We observed a significantly higher ratio of empty peroxisomes containing only PMP70, a peroxisome membrane protein, but not catalase, a peroxisome matrix protein, in Pex11α(-/-) mice. The mRNA expression levels of peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation-related genes (ATP-binding cassette, subfamily D, member 2, and acyl-CoA thioesterase 3) were significantly higher in WT mice than those in Pex11α(-/-) mice under fed conditions. Our results demonstrate that Pex11α deficiency impairs peroxisome elongation and abundance and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, which contributes to increased lipid accumulation in the liver.

  20. The ABC transporter proteins Pat1 and Pat2 are required for import of long-chain fatty acids into peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Hettema, E H; van Roermund, C W; Distel, B; van den Berg, M; Vilela, C; Rodrigues-Pousada, C; Wanders, R J; Tabak, H F

    1996-01-01

    Peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the exclusive site of fatty acid beta-oxidation. We have found that fatty acids reach the peroxisomal matrix via two independent pathways. The subcellular site of fatty acid activation varies with chain length of the substrate and dictates the pathway of substrate entry into peroxisomes. Medium-chain fatty acids are activated inside peroxisomes hby the acyl-CoA synthetase Faa2p. On the other hand, long-chain fatty acids are imported from the cytosolic pool of activated long-chain fatty acids via Pat1p and Pat2p, peroxisomal membrane proteins belonging to the ATP binding cassette transporter superfamily. Pat1p and Pat2p are the first examples of membrane proteins involved in metabolite transport across the peroxisomal membrane. Images PMID:8670886

  1. Caenorhabditis elegans utilizes dauer pheromone biosynthesis to dispose of toxic peroxisomal fatty acids for cellular homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hyoe-Jin; Yim, Yong-Hyeon; Jeong, Pan-Young; Jin, You-Xun; Lee, Jeong-Eui; Kim, Heekyeong; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Chitwood, David J; Paik, Young-Ki

    2009-07-29

    Caenorhabditis elegans excretes a dauer pheromone or daumone composed of ascarylose and a fatty acid side chain, the perception of which enables worms to enter the dauer state for long-term survival in an adverse environment. During the course of elucidation of the daumone biosynthetic pathway in which DHS-28 and DAF-22 are involved in peroxisomal beta-oxidation of VLCFAs (very long-chain fatty acids), we sought to investigate the physiological consequences of a deficiency in daumone biosynthesis in C. elegans. Our results revealed that two mutants, dhs-28(tm2581) and daf-22(ok693), lacked daumones and thus were dauer defective; this coincided with massive accumulation of fatty acyl-CoAs (up to 100-fold) inside worm bodies compared with levels in wild-type N2 worms. Furthermore, the deficiency in daumone biosynthesis and the massive accumulation of fatty acids and their acyl-CoAs caused severe developmental defects with reduced life spans (up to 30%), suggesting that daumone biosynthesis is be an essential part of C. elegans homoeostasis, affecting survival and maintenance of optimal physiological conditions by metabolizing some of the toxic non-permissible peroxisomal VLCFAs from the worm body in the form of readily excretable daumones.

  2. Peroxisomal disorders.

    PubMed

    Raymond, G V

    2001-12-01

    Peroxisomes are membrane-bound subcellular organelles that are involved in a variety of cellular functions. Disorders of peroxisomes, either in their assembly or single enzyme deficiencies, manifest themselves in the nervous system both in development and later in life. Most peroxisomal matrix proteins are targeted using one of the targeting sequences, whereas integral peroxisomal membrane proteins employ a different method. Peroxisomal importation is unique, allowing the importation of oligomerized proteins, and uses a specific extended shuttle system of receptor and cargo. The understanding of peroxisomal assembly is important because peroxisomal biogenesis disorders such as Zellweger syndrome result from these defects, and the resulting failure causes widespread deficiencies in peroxisomal biochemical function. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, representing the other group of peroxisomal disorders, is caused by the lack of the adrenoleukodystrophy protein, with an accumulation of very long chain fatty acids. New information on clinical incidence, phenotypic variability, and pathogenesis is becoming available and will have implications for possible therapies.

  3. Peroxisomal very long chain fatty acid beta-oxidation activity is determined by the level of adrenodeukodystrophy protein (ALDP) expression.

    PubMed

    Braiterman, L T; Watkins, P A; Moser, A B; Smith, K D

    1999-02-01

    Impaired peroxisomal beta-oxidation of saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA, >/=C22:0) results in increased VLCFA levels in the tissues and body fluids of patients with disorders of peroxisomal biogenesis (i.e., Zellweger syndrome and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy) and single peroxisomal protein defects (i.e., X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) and acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency). We show that SV40T transformation also results in impaired peroxisomal beta-oxidation and VLCFA accumulation despite the presence of abundant peroxisomes. To explore the mechanism responsible for this observation, we have examined expression of key components of peroxisomal VLCFA beta-oxidation. We found that expression of both acyl-CoA oxidase, the rate limiting enzyme of peroxisomal VLCFA beta-oxidation and the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), the defective gene product in X-ALD, are reduced after SV40T transformation. Surprisingly, ALDP overexpression by itself restores peroxisomal VLCFA beta-oxidation in SV40T-transformed control and X-ALD cells. These results demonstrate that ALDP is a fundamental component in VLCFA peroxisomal beta-oxidation and may serve as a "gatekeeper" for VLCFA homeostasis. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. A fatty acyl-CoA oxidizing system in rat liver peroxisomes; enhancement by clofibrate, a hypolipidemic drug.

    PubMed Central

    Lazarow, P B; De Duve, C

    1976-01-01

    Purified rat liver peroxisomes contain a cyanide-insensitive fatty acyl-CoA oxidizing system that uses O2 and NAD as electron acceptors. The system was detected by the ability of added palmitoyl-CoA to elicit O2 consumption, H2O2 production, and O2-dependent NAD reduction. The activity of this system is increased approximately one order of magnitude in rats treated with clofibrate, a hypolipidemic drug known to cause peroxisomal proliferation. Images PMID:180535

  5. Pseudo infantile Refsum's disease: catalase-deficient peroxisomal particles with partial deficiency of plasmalogen synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Aubourg, P; Kremser, K; Roland, M O; Rocchiccioli, F; Singh, I

    1993-09-01

    Zellweger syndrome, neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, and infantile Refsum's disease are genetic disorders characterized by the virtual absence of catalase-positive peroxisomes and a general impairment of peroxisomal functions. Recent studies in these three disorders have provided morphologic evidence of peroxisomal "ghosts" of density 1.10 g/cm3 that contain membrane proteins but lack a majority of the matrix enzyme activities. We report here the biochemical studies in a female infant with clinical features of infantile Refsum's disease whose liver and fibroblasts contained cytosolic catalase but no catalase-positive peroxisomes. Oxidation of phytanic and pipecolic acids was severely impaired, whereas oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids and dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity were only partially decreased. Immunoblot analysis showed that the three peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes (acyl-CoA oxidase, enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase) were detectable in liver tissues. The 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase was of the mature form (41 kD), in contrast with other peroxisomal disorders with multiple enzyme deficiencies. The majority of these peroxisomal enzyme activities were associated with two subcellular membrane vesicle fractions lacking catalase: one had the density of normal peroxisomes (1.17 g/cm3), the other, yet undescribed, a lower density (1.137 g/cm3). This suggests that peroxisomes (density = 1.17 g/cm3) and structures with lower density (density = 1.137 g/cm3) found in this patient's cultured skin fibroblasts, although lacking catalase, contained functional peroxisomal enzymes. This distinguishes this disorder from other disorders of peroxisome biogenesis.

  6. Positive regulation of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway by fatty acids through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR).

    PubMed

    Dreyer, C; Keller, H; Mahfoudi, A; Laudet, V; Krey, G; Wahli, W

    1993-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators regulate the transcription of genes by activating ligand-dependent transcription factors, which, due to their structure and function, can be assigned to the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors. Three such peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR alpha, beta, and gamma) have been cloned in Xenopus laevis. Their mRNAs are expressed differentially; xPPAR alpha and beta but not xPPAR gamma are expressed in oocytes and embryos. In the adult, expression of xPPAR alpha and beta appears to be ubiquitous, and xPPAR gamma is mainly observed in adipose tissue and kidney. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that PPARs are nuclear proteins, and that their cytoplasmic-nuclear translocation is independent of exogenous activators. A target gene of PPARs is the gene encoding acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. A peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE), to which PPARs bind, has been identified within the promoter of the ACO gene. Besides the known xenobiotic activators of PPARs, such as hypolipidemic drugs, natural activators have been identified. Polyunsaturated fatty acids at physiological concentrations are efficient activators of PPARs, and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA), which is the alkyne homolog of arachidonic acid, is the most potent activator of xPPAR alpha described to date. Taken together, our data suggest that PPARs have an important role in lipid metabolism.

  7. Redox regulated peroxisome homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Shuo; Liu, Yu; Ma, Changle

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles present in nearly all eukaryotic cells. Conserved functions of peroxisomes encompass beta-oxidation of fatty acids and scavenging of reactive oxygen species generated from diverse peroxisomal metabolic pathways. Peroxisome content, number, and size can change quickly in response to environmental and/or developmental cues. To achieve efficient peroxisome homeostasis, peroxisome biogenesis and degradation must be orchestrated. We review the current knowledge on redox regulated peroxisome biogenesis and degradation with an emphasis on yeasts and plants. PMID:25545794

  8. Brain uptake and utilization of fatty acids: applications to peroxisomal biogenesis diseases.

    PubMed

    Watkins, P A; Hamilton, J A; Leaf, A; Spector, A A; Moore, S A; Anderson, R E; Moser, H W; Noetzel, M J; Katz, R

    2001-01-01

    The brain is rich in diverse fatty acids saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids with chain lengths ranging from less than 16 to more than 24 carbons that make up the complex lipids present in this organ. While some fatty acids are derived from endogenous synthesis, others must come from exogenous sources. The mechanism(s) by which fatty acids enter cells has been the subject of much debate. While some investigators argue for a protein-mediated process, others suggest that simple diffusion is sufficient. In the brain, uptake is further complicated by the presence of the blood-brain barrier. Brain fatty acid homeostasis is disturbed in many human disorders, as typified by the peroxisomal biogenesis diseases. A workshop designed to bring together researchers from varied backgrounds to discuss these issues in an open forum was held in March, 2000. In addition to assessing the current state of knowledge, areas requiring additional investigation were identified and recommendations for future research were made. A brief overview of the invited talks is presented here.

  9. A peroxisomal carrier delivers NAD⁺ and contributes to optimal fatty acid degradation during storage oil mobilization.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Kristin; Wilkinson, Sabrina; Weber, Andreas P M; Linka, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a transport protein that imports cytosolic NAD(+) into peroxisomes has been controversially discussed for decades. Nevertheless, the biosynthesis of NAD(+) in the cytosol necessitates the import of NAD(+) into peroxisomes for numerous reduction/oxidation (redox) reactions. However, a gene encoding such a transport system has not yet been identified in any eukaryotic organism. Here, we describe the peroxisomal NAD(+) carrier in Arabidopsis. Our candidate gene At2g39970 encodes for a member of the mitochondrial carrier family. We confirmed its peroxisomal localization using fluorescence microscopy. For a long time At2g39970 was assumed to represent the peroxisomal ATP transporter. In this study, we could show that the recombinant protein mediated the transport of NAD(+) . Hence, At2g39970 was named PXN for peroxisomal NAD(+) carrier. The loss of PXN in Arabidopsis causes defects in NAD(+) -dependent β-oxidation during seedling establishment. The breakdown of fatty acid released from storage oil was delayed, which led to the retention of oil bodies in pxn mutant seedlings. Based on our results, we propose that PXN delivers NAD(+) for optimal fatty acid degradation during storage oil mobilization. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Cyclin D1 represses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and inhibits fatty acid oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Hanse, Eric A.; Mashek, Douglas G.; Mashek, Mara T.; Hendrickson, Anna M.; Mullany, Lisa K.; Albrecht, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin D1 is a cell cycle protein that promotes proliferation by mediating progression through key checkpoints in G1 phase. It is also a proto-oncogene that is commonly overexpressed in human cancers. In addition to its canonical role in controlling cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 affects other aspects of cell physiology, in part through transcriptional regulation. In this study, we find that cyclin D1 inhibits the activity of a key metabolic transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a member of nuclear receptor family that induces fatty acid oxidation and may play an anti-neoplastic role. In primary hepatocytes, cyclin D1 inhibits PPARα transcriptional activity and target gene expression in a cdk4-independent manner. In liver and breast cancer cells, knockdown of cyclin D1 leads to increased PPARα transcriptional activity, expression of PPARα target genes, and fatty acid oxidation. Similarly, cyclin D1 depletion enhances binding of PPARα to target sequences by chromatin immunoprecipitation. In proliferating hepatocytes and regenerating liver in vivo, induction of endogenous cyclin D1 is associated with diminished PPARα activity. Cyclin D1 expression is both necessary and sufficient for growth factor-mediated repression of fatty acid oxidation in proliferating hepatocytes. These studies indicate that in addition to playing a pivotal role in cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 represses PPARα activity and inhibits fatty acid oxidation. Our findings establish a new link between cyclin D1 and metabolism in both tumor cells and physiologic hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:27351284

  11. Cyclin D1 represses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and inhibits fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kamarajugadda, Sushama; Becker, Jennifer R; Hanse, Eric A; Mashek, Douglas G; Mashek, Mara T; Hendrickson, Anna M; Mullany, Lisa K; Albrecht, Jeffrey H

    2016-07-26

    Cyclin D1 is a cell cycle protein that promotes proliferation by mediating progression through key checkpoints in G1 phase. It is also a proto-oncogene that is commonly overexpressed in human cancers. In addition to its canonical role in controlling cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 affects other aspects of cell physiology, in part through transcriptional regulation. In this study, we find that cyclin D1 inhibits the activity of a key metabolic transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a member of nuclear receptor family that induces fatty acid oxidation and may play an anti-neoplastic role. In primary hepatocytes, cyclin D1 inhibits PPARα transcriptional activity and target gene expression in a cdk4-independent manner. In liver and breast cancer cells, knockdown of cyclin D1 leads to increased PPARα transcriptional activity, expression of PPARα target genes, and fatty acid oxidation. Similarly, cyclin D1 depletion enhances binding of PPARα to target sequences by chromatin immunoprecipitation. In proliferating hepatocytes and regenerating liver in vivo, induction of endogenous cyclin D1 is associated with diminished PPARα activity. Cyclin D1 expression is both necessary and sufficient for growth factor-mediated repression of fatty acid oxidation in proliferating hepatocytes. These studies indicate that in addition to playing a pivotal role in cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 represses PPARα activity and inhibits fatty acid oxidation. Our findings establish a new link between cyclin D1 and metabolism in both tumor cells and physiologic hepatocyte proliferation.

  12. Role of adipokines and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Giby, Vettickattuparambil George; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan

    2014-08-27

    Intrahepatic fat deposition has been demonstrated in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Genetic and environmental factors are important for the development of NAFLD. Diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension have been found to be closely associated with the incidence of NAFLD. Evidence suggests that obesity and insulin resistance are the major factors that contribute to the development of NAFLD. In comparing the factors that contribute to the buildup of excess calories in obesity, an imbalance of energy homeostasis can be considered as the basis. Among the peripheral signals that are generated to regulate the uptake of food, signals from adipose tissue are of major relevance and involve the maintenance of energy homeostasis through processes such as lipogenesis, lipolysis, and oxidation of fatty acids. Advances in research on adipose tissue suggest an integral role played by adipokines in NAFLD. Cytokines secreted by adipocytes, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β, and interleukin-6, are implicated in NAFLD. Other adipokines, such as leptin and adiponectin and, to a lesser extent, resistin and retinol binding protein-4 are also involved. Leptin and adiponectin can augment the oxidation of fatty acid in liver by activating the nuclear receptor super-family of transcription factors, namely peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α. Recent studies have proposed downregulation of PPAR-α in cases of hepatic steatosis. This review discusses the role of adipokines and PPARs with regard to hepatic energy metabolism and progression of NAFLD.

  13. Role of adipokines and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Giby, Vettickattuparambil George; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan

    2014-01-01

    Intrahepatic fat deposition has been demonstrated in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Genetic and environmental factors are important for the development of NAFLD. Diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension have been found to be closely associated with the incidence of NAFLD. Evidence suggests that obesity and insulin resistance are the major factors that contribute to the development of NAFLD. In comparing the factors that contribute to the buildup of excess calories in obesity, an imbalance of energy homeostasis can be considered as the basis. Among the peripheral signals that are generated to regulate the uptake of food, signals from adipose tissue are of major relevance and involve the maintenance of energy homeostasis through processes such as lipogenesis, lipolysis, and oxidation of fatty acids. Advances in research on adipose tissue suggest an integral role played by adipokines in NAFLD. Cytokines secreted by adipocytes, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β, and interleukin-6, are implicated in NAFLD. Other adipokines, such as leptin and adiponectin and, to a lesser extent, resistin and retinol binding protein-4 are also involved. Leptin and adiponectin can augment the oxidation of fatty acid in liver by activating the nuclear receptor super-family of transcription factors, namely peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α. Recent studies have proposed downregulation of PPAR-α in cases of hepatic steatosis. This review discusses the role of adipokines and PPARs with regard to hepatic energy metabolism and progression of NAFLD. PMID:25232450

  14. Glucose regulates fatty acid binding protein interaction with lipids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α

    PubMed Central

    Hostetler, Heather A.; Balanarasimha, Madhumitha; Huang, Huan; Kelzer, Matthew S.; Kaliappan, Alagammai; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2010-01-01

    Although the pathophysiology of diabetes is characterized by elevated levels of glucose and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), nuclear mechanisms linking glucose and LCFA metabolism are poorly understood. As the liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) shuttles LCFA to the nucleus, where L-FABP directly interacts with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), the effect of glucose on these processes was examined. In vitro studies showed that L-FABP strongly bound glucose and glucose-1-phosphate (Kd = 103 ± 19 nM and Kd = 20 ± 3 nM, respectively), resulting in altered L-FABP conformation, increased affinity for lipid ligands, and enhanced interaction with PPARα. In living cells, glucose stimulated cellular uptake and nuclear localization of a nonmetabolizable fluorescent fatty acid analog (BODIPY C-16), particularly in the presence of L-FABP. These data suggest for the first time a direct role of glucose in facilitating L-FABP-mediated uptake and distribution of lipidic ligands to the nucleus for regulation of PPARα transcriptional activity. PMID:20628144

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as targets to treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Souza-Mello, Vanessa

    2015-05-18

    Lately, the world has faced tremendous progress in the understanding of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis due to rising obesity rates. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors that modulate the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, energy homeostasis and inflammation, being altered in diet-induced obesity. Experimental evidences show that PPAR-alpha is the master regulator of hepatic beta-oxidation (mitochondrial and peroxisomal) and microsomal omega-oxidation, being markedly decreased by high-fat (HF) intake. PPAR-beta/delta is crucial to the regulation of forkhead box-containing protein O subfamily-1 expression and, hence, the modulation of enzymes that trigger hepatic gluconeogenesis. In addition, PPAR-beta/delta can activate hepatic stellate cells aiming to the hepatic recovery from chronic insult. On the contrary, PPAR-gamma upregulation by HF diets maximizes NAFLD through the induction of lipogenic factors, which are implicated in the fatty acid synthesis. Excessive dietary sugars also upregulate PPAR-gamma, triggering de novo lipogenesis and the consequent lipid droplets deposition within hepatocytes. Targeting PPARs to treat NAFLD seems a fruitful approach as PPAR-alpha agonist elicits expressive decrease in hepatic steatosis by increasing mitochondrial beta-oxidation, besides reduced lipogenesis. PPAR-beta/delta ameliorates hepatic insulin resistance by decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis at postprandial stage. Total PPAR-gamma activation can exert noxious effects by stimulating hepatic lipogenesis. However, partial PPAR-gamma activation leads to benefits, mainly mediated by increased adiponectin expression and decreased insulin resistance. Further studies are necessary aiming at translational approaches useful to treat NAFLD in humans worldwide by targeting PPARs.

  16. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as targets to treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Mello, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Lately, the world has faced tremendous progress in the understanding of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis due to rising obesity rates. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors that modulate the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, energy homeostasis and inflammation, being altered in diet-induced obesity. Experimental evidences show that PPAR-alpha is the master regulator of hepatic beta-oxidation (mitochondrial and peroxisomal) and microsomal omega-oxidation, being markedly decreased by high-fat (HF) intake. PPAR-beta/delta is crucial to the regulation of forkhead box-containing protein O subfamily-1 expression and, hence, the modulation of enzymes that trigger hepatic gluconeogenesis. In addition, PPAR-beta/delta can activate hepatic stellate cells aiming to the hepatic recovery from chronic insult. On the contrary, PPAR-gamma upregulation by HF diets maximizes NAFLD through the induction of lipogenic factors, which are implicated in the fatty acid synthesis. Excessive dietary sugars also upregulate PPAR-gamma, triggering de novo lipogenesis and the consequent lipid droplets deposition within hepatocytes. Targeting PPARs to treat NAFLD seems a fruitful approach as PPAR-alpha agonist elicits expressive decrease in hepatic steatosis by increasing mitochondrial beta-oxidation, besides reduced lipogenesis. PPAR-beta/delta ameliorates hepatic insulin resistance by decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis at postprandial stage. Total PPAR-gamma activation can exert noxious effects by stimulating hepatic lipogenesis. However, partial PPAR-gamma activation leads to benefits, mainly mediated by increased adiponectin expression and decreased insulin resistance. Further studies are necessary aiming at translational approaches useful to treat NAFLD in humans worldwide by targeting PPARs. PMID:26052390

  17. Statins Increase Mitochondrial and Peroxisomal Fatty Acid Oxidation in the Liver and Prevent Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Han-Sol; Jang, Jung Eun; Ko, Myoung Seok; Woo, Sung Hoon; Kim, Bum Joong; Kim, Hyun Sik; Park, Hye Sun; Park, In-Sun; Koh, Eun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. Recent studies have highlighted the association between peroxisomal dysfunction and hepatic steatosis. Peroxisomes are intracellular organelles that contribute to several crucial metabolic processes, such as facilitation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and removal of reactive oxygen species through catalase or plasmalogen synthesis. Statins are known to prevent hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but underlying mechanisms of this prevention are largely unknown. Methods Seven-week-old C57BL/6J mice were given normal chow or a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCDD) with or without various statins, fluvastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, and rosuvastatin (15 mg/kg/day), for 6 weeks. Histological lesions were analyzed by grading and staging systems of NASH. We also measured mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO in the liver. Results Statin treatment prevented the development of MCDD-induced NASH. Both steatosis and inflammation or fibrosis grades were significantly improved by statins compared with MCDD-fed mice. Gene expression levels of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) were decreased by MCDD and recovered by statin treatment. MCDD-induced suppression of mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO was restored by statins. Each statin's effect on increasing FAO and improving NASH was independent on its effect of decreasing cholesterol levels. Conclusion Statins prevented NASH and increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO via induction of PPARα. The ability to increase hepatic FAO is likely the major determinant of NASH prevention by statins. Improvement of peroxisomal function by statins may contribute to the prevention of NASH. PMID:27098507

  18. A Rare Case of Short-Chain Acyl-COA Dehydrogenase Deficiency: The Apparent Rarity of the Disorder Results in Under Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G Shilpa; Sujatha, M

    2011-07-01

    Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD) deficiency is an extremely rare inherited mitochondrial disorder of fat metabolism. This belongs to a group of diseases known as fatty acid oxidation disorders. Screening programmes have provided evidence that all the fatty acid oxidation disorders combined are among the most common inborn errors of metabolism. Mitochondrial beta oxidation of fatty acids is an essential energy producing pathway. It is a particularly important pathway during prolonged periods of starvation and during periods of reduced caloric intake due to gastrointestinal illness or increased energy expenditure during febrile illness. The most common presentation is an acute episode of life threatening coma and hypoglycemia induced by a period of fasting due to defective hepatic ketogenesis. Here, the case of a 4 month old female patient who had seizures since the third day of her birth and persistent hypoglycemia is described. She was born to parents of second degree consanguinity after 10 years of infertility treatment. There was history of delayed cry after birth. Metabolic screening for TSH, galactosemia, 17-OHP, G6PD, cystic fibrosis, biotinidase were normal. Tandem mass spectrometric (TMS) screening for blood amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids showed elevated butyryl carnitine (C4) as 3.40 μmol/L (normal <2.00 μmol/L), hexanoyl carnitine (C6) as 0.92 μmol/L (normal <0.72 μmol/L), C4/C3 as 2.93 μmol/L (normal <1.18 μmol/L). The child was started immediately on carnitor syrup (carnitine) 1/2 ml twice daily. Limitation of fasting stress and dietary fat was advised. Baby responded well by gaining weight and seizures were controlled. Until now, less than 25 patients have been reported worldwide. The limited number of patients diagnosed until now is due to the rarity of the disorder resulting in under diagnosis.

  19. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR{alpha} in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR{alpha} using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR{alpha} by GW7647, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR{gamma}, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR{gamma} is activated. On the other hand, PPAR{alpha} activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR{alpha} activation increased the production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR{alpha} stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected

  20. Differential substrate specificities of human ABCD1 and ABCD2 in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation.

    PubMed

    van Roermund, Carlo W T; Visser, Wouter F; Ijlst, Lodewijk; Waterham, Hans R; Wanders, Ronald J A

    2011-03-01

    The gene mutated in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) codes for the HsABCD1 protein, also named ALDP, which is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and required for fatty acid transport across the peroxisomal membrane. Although a defective HsABCD1 results in the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids in plasma of X-ALD patients, there is still no direct biochemical evidence that HsABCD1 actually transports very long-chain fatty acids. We used the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to study the transport of fatty acids across the peroxisomal membrane. Our earlier work showed that in yeast the uptake of fatty acids into peroxisomes may occur via two routes, either as (1.) free fatty acid or as (2.) acyl-CoA ester. The latter route involves the two peroxisomal half-ABC transporters, Pxa1p and Pxa2p, which form a heterodimeric complex in the peroxisomal membrane. We here report that the phenotype of the pxa1/pxa2Δ yeast mutant, i.e. impaired growth on oleate containing medium and deficient oxidation of oleic acid, cannot only be partially rescued by human ABCD1, but also by human ABCD2 (ALDRP), which indicates that HsABCD1 and HsABCD2 can both function as homodimers. Fatty acid oxidation studies in the pxa1/pxa2Δ mutant transformed with either HsABCD1 or HsABCD2 revealed clear differences suggesting that HsABCD1 and HsABCD2 have distinct substrate specificities. Indeed, full rescue of beta-oxidation activity in cells expressing human ABCD2 was observed with C22:0 and different unsaturated very long-chain fatty acids including C24:6 and especially C22:6 whereas in cells expressing HsABCD1 rescue of beta-oxidation activity was best with C24:0 and C26:0 as substrates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Baicalein 5,6,7-trimethyl ether activates peroxisomal but not mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Morita, M; Kanai, M; Mizuno, S; Iwashima, M; Hayashi, T; Shimozawa, N; Suzuki, Y; Imanaka, T

    2008-06-01

    Recently, we reported that baicalein 5,6,7-trimethyl ether (BTM), a flavonoid, is capable of activating fatty acid beta-oxidation in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) fibroblasts (FEBS Lett. 2005; 579: 409-414). The objective of this study was to clarify whether BTM activates peroxisomal and/or mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. We first analysed the effect of BTM on fatty acid beta-oxidation in fibroblasts derived from healthy controls as well as patients with X-ALD, mitochondrial carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) deficiency, and peroxisome biogenesis disorder, Zellweger syndrome. Lignoceric acid (C(24:0)) beta-oxidation in the fibroblasts was stimulated by treatment with BTM, except for Zellweger fibroblasts. In contrasts, palmitic acid (C(16:0)) beta-oxidation was increased (2.8-fold) only in CACT-deficient fibroblasts. In U87 glioblastoma cells, C(24:0) beta-oxidation was also activated by treatment with BTM but C(16:0) beta-oxidation was not. The C(16:0) beta-oxidation was, however, significantly increased in the presence of 2-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)pentyl]oxirane-2-carboxylate (POCA), a carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibitor. These results indicate that BTM activates peroxisomal but not mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. In addition, we found that BTM did not upregulate the expression of ABCD2/ALDR, ABCD3/PMP70, ACOX1 and FATP4 genes but slightly increased ACSVL1 gene expression.

  2. Arabidopsis CER8 encodes LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE 1 (LACS1) that has overlapping functions with LACS2 in plant wax and cutin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lü, Shiyou; Song, Tao; Kosma, Dylan K; Parsons, Eugene P; Rowland, Owen; Jenks, Matthew A

    2009-08-01

    Plant cuticle is an extracellular lipid-based matrix of cutin and waxes, which covers aerial organs and protects them from many forms of environmental stress. We report here the characterization of CER8/LACS1, one of nine Arabidopsis long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases thought to activate acyl chains. Mutations in LACS1 reduced the amount of wax in all chemical classes on the stem and leaf, except in the very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) class wherein acids longer than 24 carbons (C(24)) were elevated more than 155%. The C(16) cutin monomers on lacs1 were reduced by 37% and 22%, whereas the C(18) monomers were increased by 28% and 20% on stem and leaf, respectively. Amounts of wax and cutin on a lacs1-1 lacs2-3 double mutant were much lower than on either parent, and lacs1-1 lacs2-3 had much higher cuticular permeability than either parent. These additive effects indicate that LACS1 and LACS2 have overlapping functions in both wax and cutin synthesis. We demonstrated that LACS1 has synthetase activity for VLCFAs C(20)-C(30), with highest activity for C(30) acids. LACS1 thus appears to function as a very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase in wax metabolism. Since C(16) but not C(18) cutin monomers are reduced in lacs1, and C(16) acids are the next most preferred acid (behind C(30)) by LACS1 in our assays, LACS1 also appears to be important for the incorporation of C(16) monomers into cutin polyester. As such, LACS1 defines a functionally novel acyl-CoA synthetase that preferentially modifies both VLCFAs for wax synthesis and long-chain (C(16)) fatty acids for cutin synthesis.

  3. Peroxisome Protein Transportation Affects Metabolism of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids That Critically Impact Growth and Development of C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rencheng; Kniazeva, Marina; Han, Min

    2013-01-01

    The impact of specific lipid molecules, including fatty acid variants, on cellular and developmental regulation is an important research subject that remains under studied. Monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs) are commonly present in multiple organisms including mammals, however our understanding of mmBCFA functions is very limited. C. elegans has been the premier model system to study the functions of mmBCFAs and their derived lipids, as mmBCFAs have been shown to play essential roles in post-embryonic development in this organism. To understand more about the metabolism of mmBCFAs in C. elegans, we performed a genetic screen for suppressors of the L1 developmental arrest phenotype caused by mmBCFA depletion. Extensive characterization of one suppressor mutation identified prx-5, which encodes an ortholog of the human receptor for the type-1 peroxisomal targeting signal protein. Our study showed that inactivating prx-5 function compromised the peroxisome protein import, resulting in an increased level of branched-chain fatty acid C17ISO in animals lacking normal mmBCFA synthesis, thereby restoring wild-type growth and development. This work reveals a novel connection between peroxisomal functions and mmBCFA metabolism. PMID:24086720

  4. Synthesis of Polyhydroxyalkanoate in the Peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Using Intermediates of Fatty Acid β-Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Yves; Erard, Nadine; Petétot, Jean MacDonald-Comber

    2001-01-01

    Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyesters having properties of biodegradable thermoplastics and elastomers that are naturally produced by a variety of pseudomonads. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was transformed with the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PHAC1 synthase modified for peroxisome targeting by the addition of the carboxyl 34 amino acids from the Brassica napus isocitrate lyase. The PHAC1 gene was put under the control of the promoter of the catalase A gene. PHA synthase expression and PHA accumulation were found in recombinant S. cerevisiae growing in media containing fatty acids. PHA containing even-chain monomers from 6 to 14 carbons was found in recombinant yeast grown on oleic acid, while odd-chain monomers from 5 to 15 carbons were found in PHA from yeast grown on heptadecenoic acid. The maximum amount of PHA accumulated was 0.45% of the dry weight. Transmission electron microscopy of recombinant yeast grown on oleic acid revealed the presence of numerous PHA inclusions found within membrane-bound organelles. Together, these data show that S. cerevisiae expressing a peroxisomal PHA synthase produces PHA in the peroxisome using the 3-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A intermediates of the β-oxidation of fatty acids present in the media. S. cerevisiae can thus be used as a powerful model system to learn how fatty acid metabolism can be modified in order to synthesize high amounts of PHA in eukaryotes, including plants. PMID:11679353

  5. Peroxisome protein transportation affects metabolism of branched-chain fatty acids that critically impact growth and development of C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rencheng; Kniazeva, Marina; Han, Min

    2013-01-01

    The impact of specific lipid molecules, including fatty acid variants, on cellular and developmental regulation is an important research subject that remains under studied. Monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs) are commonly present in multiple organisms including mammals, however our understanding of mmBCFA functions is very limited. C. elegans has been the premier model system to study the functions of mmBCFAs and their derived lipids, as mmBCFAs have been shown to play essential roles in post-embryonic development in this organism. To understand more about the metabolism of mmBCFAs in C. elegans, we performed a genetic screen for suppressors of the L1 developmental arrest phenotype caused by mmBCFA depletion. Extensive characterization of one suppressor mutation identified prx-5, which encodes an ortholog of the human receptor for the type-1 peroxisomal targeting signal protein. Our study showed that inactivating prx-5 function compromised the peroxisome protein import, resulting in an increased level of branched-chain fatty acid C17ISO in animals lacking normal mmBCFA synthesis, thereby restoring wild-type growth and development. This work reveals a novel connection between peroxisomal functions and mmBCFA metabolism.

  6. [Role of the fatty acids in ovarian functions: involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and adipokines].

    PubMed

    Dupont, J; Froment, P; Ramé, C; Pierre, P; Coyral-Castel, S; Chabrolle, C

    2008-12-01

    The impact of nutrition and energy reserves on the reproductive functions is known for a very long time. However, the metabolic factors involved in the interactions between nutrition and reproduction are still poorly understood. These factors may be hormones or nutrients (glucose, protein and fatty acids). However, it remains to determine whether these factors act directly or indirectly on the reproductive tissues. In this issue, we briefly summarize the impact of fatty acids on the development of ovarian follicles, oocyte and embryo. We then discuss the current hypotheses about the mechanisms of action of these fatty acids on the ovarian functions. We describe more particularly the role of some receptors of fatty acids, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPAR) and Liver X Receptors (LXR) and two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin on ovarian cells.

  7. Hydroxy monounsaturated fatty acids as agonists for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Hiroshi; Mizukami, Hajime; Nagatsu, Akito; Tanabe, Hiroki; Inoue, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The physiological and pathological role of oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been extensively studied, whereas those of hydroxy monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are not well understood. This study demonstrated that 11-hydroxy-(9Z)-octadecenoic acid ((9Z)-11-HOE), which was isolated from adlay seeds (Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen STAF.), can activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha, delta and gamma in luciferase reporter assays more efficiently than (9Z)-octadecenoic acid (oleic acid), and to the same degree as linoleic acid. (9Z)-11-HOE increased the mRNA levels of UCP2 and CD36 in C2C12 myotubes and THP- 1 cells, respectively, and these effects were blocked by the PPARdelta- and gamma-specific antagonists GSK0660 and T0070907, respectively. Evaluation of the structure.activity relationship between hydroxy MUFAs and PPAR activation revealed that (9E)-11-HOE, the geometrical isomer of (9Z)-11-HOE, activated PPARs more potently than (9Z)-11-HOE, and that PPAR activation by hydroxyl MUFAs was not markedly influenced by the position of the hydroxy group or the double bond, although PPARdelta seemed to possess ligand specificity different to that of PPARalpha or gamma . Additionally, the finding that 11-hydroxy octadecanoic acid, the hydrogenated product of (9E)-11- HOE, was also capable of activating PPARs to a similar extent as (9E)-11-HOE indicates that the double bond in hydroxy MUFAs is not essential for PPAR activation. In conclusion, (9Z)-11-HOE derived from alday seeds and hydroxy MUFAs with a chain length of 16 or 18 acted as PPAR agonists. Hydroxylation of MUFAs may change these compounds from silent PPAR ligands to active PPAR agonists.

  8. POTENTIAL OF MEAN FORCE CALCULATION FOR THE PROTON AND HYDRIDE TRANSFER REACTIONS CATALYZED BY MEDIUM CHAIN ACYL-COA DEHYDROGENASE: THE EFFECT OF MUTATIONS ON ENZYME CATALYSISa

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sudeep; Ma, Shuhua; Stankovich, Marian T.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Gao, Jiali

    2008-01-01

    Potential of mean force calculations have been performed on the wild-type medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) and two of its mutant forms. Initial simulation and analysis of the active site of the enzyme reveals that an arginine residue (Arg256), conserved in the substrate binding domain of this group of enzymes, exists in two alternate conformations, only one of which makes the enzyme active. This active conformation was used in subsequent computations of the enzymatic reactions. It is known that the catalytic α,β-dehydrogenation of fatty acyl-CoAs consists of two C-H bond dissociation processes: a proton abstraction and a hydride transfer. Energy profiles of the two reaction steps in the wild-type MCAD demonstrate that the reaction proceeds by a stepwise mechanism with a transient species. The activation barriers of the two steps differ by only ∼2 kcal/mol, indicating that both may contribute to the rate-limiting process. Thus this may be a stepwise dissociation mechanism whose relative barriers can be tuned by suitable alterations of the substrate and/or enzyme. Analysis of the structures along the reaction path reveals that Arg256 plays a key role in maintaining the reaction-center hydrogen-bonding network involving the thioester carbonyl group, which stabilizes transition states as well as the intervening transient species. Mutation of this arginine residue to glutamine increases the activation barrier of the hydride transfer reaction by ∼5 kcal/mol, and the present simulations predict a substantial loss of catalytic activity for this mutant. Structural analysis of this mutant reveals that the orientation of the thioester moiety of the substrate has been changed significantly as compared to that in the wild-type enzyme. In contrast, simulation of the active site of the Thr168Ala mutant shows no significant change in the relative orientation of the substrate and the cofactor in the active site; as a result, this mutation has very little effect on

  9. A Fox2-Dependent Fatty Acid ß-Oxidation Pathway Coexists Both in Peroxisomes and Mitochondria of the Ascomycete Yeast Candida lusitaniae

    PubMed Central

    Bessoule, Jean-Jacques; Salin, Bénédicte; Lucas-Guérin, Marine; Manon, Stephen; Dementhon, Karine; Noël, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    It is generally admitted that the ascomycete yeasts of the subphylum Saccharomycotina possess a single fatty acid ß-oxidation pathway located exclusively in peroxisomes, and that they lost mitochondrial ß-oxidation early during evolution. In this work, we showed that mutants of the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida lusitaniae which lack the multifunctional enzyme Fox2p, a key enzyme of the ß-oxidation pathway, were still able to grow on fatty acids as the sole carbon source, suggesting that C. lusitaniae harbored an alternative pathway for fatty acid catabolism. By assaying 14Cα-palmitoyl-CoA consumption, we demonstrated that fatty acid catabolism takes place in both peroxisomal and mitochondrial subcellular fractions. We then observed that a fox2Δ null mutant was unable to catabolize fatty acids in the mitochondrial fraction, thus indicating that the mitochondrial pathway was Fox2p-dependent. This finding was confirmed by the immunodetection of Fox2p in protein extracts obtained from purified peroxisomal and mitochondrial fractions. Finally, immunoelectron microscopy provided evidence that Fox2p was localized in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. This work constitutes the first demonstration of the existence of a Fox2p-dependent mitochondrial β-oxidation pathway in an ascomycetous yeast, C. lusitaniae. It also points to the existence of an alternative fatty acid catabolism pathway, probably located in peroxisomes, and functioning in a Fox2p-independent manner. PMID:25486052

  10. Investigations into tumor accumulation and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor binding by F-18 and C-11 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Jonson, Stephanie D; Welch, Michael J

    2002-02-01

    [11C]Acetate, a myocardial PET imaging agent for analysis of oxidative metabolism, has potential use in tumor imaging. Aromatic fatty acids display antitumor effects with phenylacetate currently in clinical trial. Tumor differentiation and cytostasis resulting from phenylacetate treatment may involve the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). To examine whether aromatic fatty acids are potential imaging agents for PPARalpha or tumors in general, [11C]phenylacetic acid (PAA) and [18F]fluorophenyl-acetic acid (FPAA) were synthesized and evaluated in EMT-6 tumor bearing mice and 9L-Glioma tumor bearing rats and compared to [11C]acetate. [11C]Acetate showed better tumor accumulation than PAA or FPAA. The aromatic fatty acids did not directly bind PPARalpha as confirmed by a biodistribution study of PAA in PPARalpha -/- mice.

  11. PEX11 promotes peroxisome division independently of peroxisome metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoling; Gould, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    The PEX11 peroxisomal membrane proteins are the only factors known to promote peroxisome division in multiple species. It has been proposed that PEX11 proteins have a direct role in peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, and that they only affect peroxisome abundance indirectly. Here we show that PEX11 proteins are unique in their ability to promote peroxisome division, and that PEX11 overexpression promotes peroxisome division in the absence of peroxisomal metabolic activity. We also observed that mouse cells lacking PEX11β display reduced peroxisome abundance, even in the absence of peroxisomal metabolic substrates, and that PEX11β−/− mice are partially deficient in two distinct peroxisomal metabolic pathways, ether lipid synthesis and very long chain fatty acid oxidation. Based on these and other observations, we propose that PEX11 proteins act directly in peroxisome division, and that their loss has indirect effects on peroxisome metabolism. PMID:11839773

  12. CD36-dependent fatty acid uptake regulates expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Drover, V A; Abumrad, N A

    2005-02-01

    CD36 is an important regulator of lipid metabolism in vivo due to its role in the facilitated uptake of long-chain FAs (fatty acids). CD36-deficient mice display reduced TAG (triacylglycerol) in muscle, but elevated hepatic TAG. Also, insulin sensitivity is enhanced peripherally, while it appears impaired in the liver. Tissues such as muscle, which normally express high levels of CD36, shift to high glucose utilization in CD36 deficiency, so we hypothesized that this shift must involve adaptive changes in the PPAR (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor) transcription factors which regulate FA metabolism. To test this, we examined mRNA levels for the three PPAR isoforms in tissues of WT (wild-type) and CD36-deficient mice following the administration of saline, glucose or olive oil by intragastric gavage. Compared with WT mice, CD36-null mice had 5-10-fold increased PPAR mRNA in adipose tissue in the basal state, and did not exhibit diet-induced changes. Correlations between adipose PPAR mRNA abundance and plasma lipids were observed in WT mice, but not in CD36-null mice. The opposite was true for hepatic PPAR mRNA levels, which correlated with plasma FA, TAG and/or glucose only in CD36-null mice. No significant differences were observed in PPAR mRNA levels in the intestine, where CD36 does not impact on FA uptake. The data suggest that CD36 and the PPARs are components of the FA-sensing machinery to respond to changes in FA flux in a tissue-specific manner.

  13. Properties of a fluorescent bezafibrate derivative (DNS-X). A new tool to study peroxisome proliferation and fatty acid beta-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Berlot, J P; Lutz, T; Cherkaoui Malki, M; Nicolas-Frances, V; Jannin, B; Latruffe, N

    2000-12-01

    The first peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) was cloned in 1990 by Issemann and Green. Many studies have reported the importance of this receptor in the control of gene expression of enzymes involved in lipid metabolic pathways including mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation, lipoprotein structure [apolipoprotein (apo) A2, apo CIII], and fatty acid synthase. By using radiolabeled molecules, it was shown that peroxisome proliferators bind and activate PPAR. As an alternative method, we developed a fluorescent dansyl (1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonyl) derivative peroxisome proliferator from bezafibrate (DNS-X), a hypolipidemic agent that exhibits an in vitro peroxisome proliferative activity on rat Fao-hepatic derived cultured cells. However, until now, the effect of this new compound on the liver of animals and subcellular localization was unknown. In addition to in vivo rat studies, we present a more efficient large-scale technique of DNS-X purification. Treating rats (DNS-X in the diet at 0.3% w/w) for 6 d leads to a hepatomegaly and a marked increase in liver peroxisomal palmitoyl-CoA oxidase activity. We also developed a method to localize and quantify DNS-X in tissues or cell compartment organelles. The primarily cytosolic distribution of DNS-X was confirmed by direct visualization using fluorescence microscopy of cultured Fao cells. Finally, transfection assay demonstrated that DNS-X enhanced the PPAR alpha activity as well as other peroxisome proliferators do.

  14. Biochemistry and genetics of inherited disorders of peroxisomal fatty acid metabolism[S

    PubMed Central

    Van Veldhoven, Paul P.

    2010-01-01

    In humans, peroxisomes harbor a complex set of enzymes acting on various lipophilic carboxylic acids, organized in two basic pathways, α-oxidation and β-oxidation; the latter pathway can also handle ω-oxidized compounds. Some oxidation products are crucial to human health (primary bile acids and polyunsaturated FAs), whereas other substrates have to be degraded in order to avoid neuropathology at a later age (very long-chain FAs and xenobiotic phytanic acid and pristanic acid). Whereas total absence of peroxisomes is lethal, single peroxisomal protein deficiencies can present with a mild or severe phenotype and are more informative to understand the pathogenic factors. The currently known single protein deficiencies equal about one-fourth of the number of proteins involved in peroxisomal FA metabolism. The biochemical properties of these proteins are highlighted, followed by an overview of the known diseases. PMID:20558530

  15. The Arabidopsis pxa1 Mutant Is Defective in an ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter-Like Protein Required for Peroxisomal Fatty Acid β-Oxidation1

    PubMed Central

    Zolman, Bethany K.; Silva, Illeana D.; Bartel, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    Peroxisomes are important organelles in plant metabolism, containing all the enzymes required for fatty acid β-oxidation. More than 20 proteins are required for peroxisomal biogenesis and maintenance. The Arabidopsis pxa1 mutant, originally isolated because it is resistant to the auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), developmentally arrests when germinated without supplemental sucrose, suggesting defects in fatty acid β-oxidation. Because IBA is converted to the more abundant auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), in a mechanism that parallels β-oxidation, the mutant is likely to be IBA resistant because it cannot convert IBA to IAA. Adult pxa1 plants grow slowly compared with wild type, with smaller rosettes, fewer leaves, and shorter inflorescence stems, indicating that PXA1 is important throughout development. We identified the molecular defect in pxa1 using a map-based positional approach. PXA1 encodes a predicted peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter that is 42% identical to the human adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) protein, which is defective in patients with the demyelinating disorder X-linked ALD. Homology to ALD protein and other human and yeast peroxisomal transporters suggests that PXA1 imports coenzyme A esters of fatty acids and IBA into the peroxisome for β-oxidation. The pxa1 mutant makes fewer lateral roots than wild type, both in response to IBA and without exogenous hormones, suggesting that the IAA derived from IBA during seedling development promotes lateral root formation. PMID:11706205

  16. Selective modification of rat hepatic microsomal fatty acid chain elongation and desaturation by fibrates: relationship with peroxisome proliferation.

    PubMed

    Alegret, M; Cerqueda, E; Ferrando, R; Vázquez, M; Sánchez, R M; Adzet, T; Merlos, M; Laguna, J C

    1995-04-01

    1. The time-course of the effect of clofibrate (CFB), bezafibrate (BFB) and gemfibrozil (GFB) on lipid plasma levels and palmitoyl-, palmitoleoyl- and gamma-linolenoyl-CoA elongase, delta-9, delta-6 and delta-5 desaturase activities, and microsomal electron transport chains, as well as the correlation with the peroxisomal proliferation phenomenon have been studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats. 2. As reported in our previous work, the three drugs behave as peroxisomal proliferators (the order of potency was BFB > CFB > or = GFB) and induced a clear reduction in both plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. 3. Palmitoyl-CoA elongation activity was increased by the three drugs (BFB = GFB > CFB), whereas palmitoleoyl-CoA elongation activity was only enhanced by GFB. Elongation activity was not modified by fibrates when gamma-linolenoyl-CoA was used as substrate. These results are in accordance with the existence of three different elongation systems for saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. 4. delta-9, delta-6 and delta-5 desaturase activities were increased by the three fibrates, with an order of potency BFB > CFB = GFB for delta-9 and delta-5, and GFB > BFB = CFB for delta-6. 5. Of the enzyme activities integrated in the microsomal electron transport chains, NADH cytochrome b5 reductase was not affected by fibrate treatment, NADPH cytochrome c reductase activity was enhanced (BFB = GFB > CFB), whereas NADH cytochrome c reductase activity was reduced by CFB and BFB. 6. The increase in Delta-9 and Delta-5 desaturase activities was highly dependent on the peroxisomal proliferation phenomena, whereas the increase in Delta-6 desaturase activity and the decrease in NADH cytochromec reductase was mainly independent. The modifications of palmitoyl-CoA elongase and NADPH cytochrome c reductase activities, as well as plasma lipid levels, were partially correlated with peroxisomal beta-oxidation, but the r2 values obtained point to the existence of additional

  17. Peroxisomal oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) by human hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, P.A.; Ferrell, E.V. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    Beta-oxidation of VLCFA was studied in a human hepatoma cell line (HEP-G2). These cells, disrupted by exposure to low concentrations of digitonin, oxidize (1-/sup 14/C)palmitate (C16:0) and (1-/sup 14/C)lignocerate (C24:0) to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and water-soluble products. It was recently reported that in rat liver the beta-oxidation of VLCFA takes place primarily in the peroxisome rather than the mitochondrion. The precise site of VLCFA oxidation in human tissues has not been clearly elucidated. The peroxisome has been implicated since there is impaired VLCFA oxidation in fibroblasts from Zellweger syndrome patients, in which this organelle is deficient. In order to define the subcellular localization of human VLCFA oxidation, homogenates of HEP-G2 cells were fractionated on a discontinuous sucrose gradient. Fractions enriched in the peroxisomal marker catalase oxidized C24:0 at significantly greater rates than fractions enriched in the mitochondrial marker succinate:cytochrome c reductase. C16:0 oxidation was catalyzed by both peroxisomal and mitochondrial fractions. These results suggest that the subcellular site of VLCFA oxidation in human hepatoma cells and rat liver is similar.

  18. Oxygen radicals shaping evolution: why fatty acid catabolism leads to peroxisomes while neurons do without it: FADH₂/NADH flux ratios determining mitochondrial radical formation were crucial for the eukaryotic invention of peroxisomes and catabolic tissue differentiation.

    PubMed

    Speijer, Dave

    2011-02-01

    Oxygen radical formation in mitochondria is a highly important, but incompletely understood, attribute of eukaryotic cells. I propose a kinetic model in which the ratio between electrons entering the respiratory chain via FADH₂ or NADH is a major determinant in radical formation. During the breakdown of glucose, this ratio is low; during fatty acid breakdown, this ratio is much higher. The longer the fatty acid, the higher the ratio and the higher the level of radical formation. This means that very long chain fatty acids should be broken down without generation of FADH₂ for mitochondria. This is accomplished in peroxisomes, thus explaining their role and evolution. The model explains many recent observations regarding radical formation by the respiratory chain. It also sheds light on the reasons for the lack of neuronal fatty acid (beta-) oxidation and for beneficial aspects of unsaturated fatty acids. Last but not least, it has very important implications for all models describing eukaryotic origins.

  19. Identification and Mechanism of 10-Carbon Fatty Acid as Modulating Ligand of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Malapaka, Raghu R. V.; Khoo, SokKean; Zhang, Jifeng; Choi, Jang H.; Zhou, X. Edward; Xu, Yong; Gong, Yinhan; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Chang, Lin; Resau, James H.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, -β/δ, and -γ) are a subfamily of nuclear receptors that plays key roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. PPARγ is the molecular target of the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs that has many side effects. PPARγ is also activated by long chain unsaturated or oxidized/nitrated fatty acids, but its relationship with the medium chain fatty acids remains unclear even though the medium chain triglyceride oils have been used to control weight gain and glycemic index. Here, we show that decanoic acid (DA), a 10-carbon fatty acid and a major component of medium chain triglyceride oils, is a direct ligand of PPARγ. DA binds and partially activates PPARγ without leading to adipogenesis. Crystal structure reveals that DA occupies a novel binding site and only partially stabilizes the AF-2 helix. DA also binds weakly to PPARα and PPARβ/δ. Treatments with DA and its triglyceride form improve glucose sensitivity and lipid profiles without weight gain in diabetic mice. Together, these results suggest that DA is a modulating ligand for PPARs, and the structure can aid in designing better and safer PPARγ-based drugs. PMID:22039047

  20. Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 in patients with fatty liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Johannes W; Noetel, Andrea; Hardt, Aline; Canbay, Ali; Alakus, Hakan; zur Hausen, Axel; Dienes, Hans Peter; Drebber, Uta; Odenthal, Margarete

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To test the occurrence of the Pro12Ala mutation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)2-gene in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD). METHODS: DNA from a total of 622 specimens including 259 blood samples of healthy blood donors and 363 histologically categorized liver biopsies of patients with NAFLD (n = 263) and AFLD (n = 100) were analyzed by Real-time polymerase chain reaction using allele-specific probes. RESULTS: In the NAFLD and the AFLD collective, 3% of the patients showed homozygous occurrence of the Ala12 PPARγ2-allele, differing from only 1.5% cases in the healthy population. In NAFLD patients, a high incidence of the Ala12 mutant was not associated with the progression of fatty liver disease. However, we observed a significantly higher risk (odds ratio = 2.50, CI: 1.05-5.90, P = 0.028) in AFLD patients carrying the mutated Ala12 allele to develop inflammatory alterations. The linkage of the malfunctioning Ala12-positive PPARγ2 isoform to an increased risk in patients with AFLD to develop severe steatohepatitis and fibrosis indicates a more prominent anti-inflammatory impact of PPARγ2 in progression of AFLD than of NAFLD. CONCLUSION: In AFLD patients, the Pro12Ala single nuclear polymorphism should be studied more extensively in order to serve as a novel candidate in biomarker screening for improved prognosis. PMID:21155004

  1. Identification and mechanism of 10-carbon fatty acid as modulating ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Malapaka, Raghu R V; Khoo, Sokkean; Zhang, Jifeng; Choi, Jang H; Zhou, X Edward; Xu, Yong; Gong, Yinhan; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Chalmers, Michael J; Chang, Lin; Resau, James H; Griffin, Patrick R; Chen, Y Eugene; Xu, H Eric

    2012-01-02

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, -β/δ, and -γ) are a subfamily of nuclear receptors that plays key roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. PPARγ is the molecular target of the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs that has many side effects. PPARγ is also activated by long chain unsaturated or oxidized/nitrated fatty acids, but its relationship with the medium chain fatty acids remains unclear even though the medium chain triglyceride oils have been used to control weight gain and glycemic index. Here, we show that decanoic acid (DA), a 10-carbon fatty acid and a major component of medium chain triglyceride oils, is a direct ligand of PPARγ. DA binds and partially activates PPARγ without leading to adipogenesis. Crystal structure reveals that DA occupies a novel binding site and only partially stabilizes the AF-2 helix. DA also binds weakly to PPARα and PPARβ/δ. Treatments with DA and its triglyceride form improve glucose sensitivity and lipid profiles without weight gain in diabetic mice. Together, these results suggest that DA is a modulating ligand for PPARs, and the structure can aid in designing better and safer PPARγ-based drugs.

  2. Selective modification of rat hepatic microsomal fatty acid chain elongation and desaturation by fibrates: relationship with peroxisome proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Alegret, M; Cerqueda, E; Ferrando, R; Vázquez, M; Sánchez, R M; Adzet, T; Merlos, M; Laguna, J C

    1995-01-01

    1. The time-course of the effect of clofibrate (CFB), bezafibrate (BFB) and gemfibrozil (GFB) on lipid plasma levels and palmitoyl-, palmitoleoyl- and gamma-linolenoyl-CoA elongase, delta-9, delta-6 and delta-5 desaturase activities, and microsomal electron transport chains, as well as the correlation with the peroxisomal proliferation phenomenon have been studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats. 2. As reported in our previous work, the three drugs behave as peroxisomal proliferators (the order of potency was BFB > CFB > or = GFB) and induced a clear reduction in both plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. 3. Palmitoyl-CoA elongation activity was increased by the three drugs (BFB = GFB > CFB), whereas palmitoleoyl-CoA elongation activity was only enhanced by GFB. Elongation activity was not modified by fibrates when gamma-linolenoyl-CoA was used as substrate. These results are in accordance with the existence of three different elongation systems for saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. 4. delta-9, delta-6 and delta-5 desaturase activities were increased by the three fibrates, with an order of potency BFB > CFB = GFB for delta-9 and delta-5, and GFB > BFB = CFB for delta-6. 5. Of the enzyme activities integrated in the microsomal electron transport chains, NADH cytochrome b5 reductase was not affected by fibrate treatment, NADPH cytochrome c reductase activity was enhanced (BFB = GFB > CFB), whereas NADH cytochrome c reductase activity was reduced by CFB and BFB.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7606338

  3. Formic acid is a product of the alpha-oxidation of fatty acids by human skin fibroblasts: deficiency of formic acid production in peroxisome-deficient fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Poulos, A; Sharp, P; Singh, H; Johnson, D W; Carey, W F; Easton, C

    1993-01-01

    Human skin fibroblasts in culture can oxidize beta-methyl fatty acids, such as phytanic acid and 3-methylhexadecanoic acid, to CO2 and water-soluble products. The latter are released largely into the culture medium. The major water-soluble product formed from [1-14C]phytanic and [1-14C]3-methylhexadecanoic acids is [14C]formic acid. As phytanic acid and 3-methylhexadecanoic acids contain beta-methyl groups and theoretically cannot be degraded by beta-oxidation, we postulate that formic acid is formed from fatty acids by alpha-oxidation. The marked reduction in formic acid production from beta-methyl fatty acids in peroxisome-deficient skin fibroblasts suggests that peroxisomes are involved in the generation of C1 units. PMID:8503880

  4. FRET microscopy demonstrates molecular association of non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsL-TP) with fatty acid oxidation enzymes in peroxisomes.

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, F S; Bastiaens, P I; Wirtz, K W; Jovin, T M

    1998-01-01

    The fate of fluorescently labeled pre-nsL-TP (Cy3-pre-nsL-TP) microinjected into BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The protein exhibited a distinct punctate fluorescence pattern and colocalized to a high degree with the immunofluorescence pattern for the peroxisomal enzyme acyl-CoA oxidase. Proteolytic removal of the C-terminal leucine of the putative peroxisomal targeting sequence (AKL) resulted in a diffuse cytosolic fluorescence. These results indicate that microinjected Cy3-pre-nsL-TP is targeted to peroxisomes. The association of nsL-TP with peroxisomal enzymes was investigated in cells by measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the microinjected Cy3-pre-nsL-TP and Cy5-labeled antibodies against the peroxisomal enzymes acyl-CoA oxidase, 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, bifunctional enzyme, PMP70 and catalase. The technique of photobleaching digital imaging microscopy (pbDIM), used to quantitate the FRET efficiency on a pixel-by-pixel basis, revealed a specific association of nsL-TP with acyl-CoA oxidase, 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase and bifunctional enzyme in the peroxisomes. These observations were corroborated by subjecting a peroxisomal matrix protein fraction to affinity chromatography on Sepharose-immobilized pre-nsL-TP. Acyl-CoA oxidase was retained. These studies provide strong evidence for a role of nsL-TP in the regulation of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation, e.g. by facilitating the presentation of substrates and/or stabilization of the enzymes. PMID:9857175

  5. Inhibition of c-Jun-N-terminal Kinase Increases Cardiac Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor α Expression and Fatty Acid Oxidation and Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-induced Heart Dysfunction*

    PubMed Central

    Drosatos, Konstantinos; Drosatos-Tampakaki, Zoi; Khan, Raffay; Homma, Shunichi; Schulze, P. Christian; Zannis, Vassilis I.; Goldberg, Ira J.

    2011-01-01

    Septic shock results from bacterial infection and is associated with multi-organ failure, high mortality, and cardiac dysfunction. Sepsis causes both myocardial inflammation and energy depletion. We hypothesized that reduced cardiac energy production is a primary cause of ventricular dysfunction in sepsis. The JNK pathway is activated in sepsis and has also been implicated in impaired fatty acid oxidation in several tissues. Therefore, we tested whether JNK activation inhibits cardiac fatty acid oxidation and whether blocking JNK would restore fatty acid oxidation during LPS treatment. LPS treatment of C57BL/6 mice and adenovirus-mediated activation of the JNK pathway in cardiomyocytes inhibited peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α expression and fatty acid oxidation. Surprisingly, none of the adaptive responses that have been described in other types of heart failure, such as increased glucose utilization, reduced αMHC:βMHC ratio or induction of certain microRNAs, occurred in LPS-treated mice. Treatment of C57BL/6 mice with a general JNK inhibitor (SP600125) increased fatty acid oxidation in mice and a cardiomyocyte-derived cell line. JNK inhibition also prevented LPS-mediated reduction in fatty acid oxidation and cardiac dysfunction. Inflammation was not alleviated in LPS-treated mice that received the JNK inhibitor. We conclude that activation of JNK signaling reduces fatty acid oxidation and prevents the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α down-regulation that occurs with LPS. PMID:21873422

  6. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Decouples Fatty Acid Uptake from Lipid Inhibition of Insulin Signaling in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shanming; Yao, Jianrong; Howe, Alexander A.; Menke, Brandon M.; Sivitz, William I.; Spector, Arthur A.

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is expressed at low levels in skeletal muscle, where it protects against adiposity and insulin resistance via unclear mechanisms. To test the hypothesis that PPARγ directly modulates skeletal muscle metabolism, we created two models that isolate direct PPARγ actions on skeletal myocytes. PPARγ was overexpressed in murine myotubes by adenotransfection and in mouse skeletal muscle by plasmid electroporation. In cultured myotubes, PPARγ action increased fatty acid uptake and incorporation into myocellular lipids, dependent upon a 154 ± 20-fold up-regulation of CD36 expression. PPARγ overexpression more than doubled insulin-stimulated thymoma viral proto-oncogene (AKT) phosphorylation during low lipid availability. Furthermore, in myotubes exposed to palmitate levels that inhibit insulin signaling, PPARγ overexpression increased insulin-stimulated AKT phosphorylation and glycogen synthesis over 3-fold despite simultaneously increasing myocellular palmitate uptake. The insulin signaling enhancement was associated with an increase in activating phosphorylation of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 and a normalized expression of palmitate-induced genes that antagonize AKT phosphorylation. In vivo, PPARγ overexpression more than doubled insulin-dependent AKT phosphorylation in lipid-treated mice but did not augment insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. We conclude that direct PPARγ action promotes myocellular storage of energy by increasing fatty acid uptake and esterification while simultaneously enhancing insulin signaling and glycogen formation. However, direct PPARγ action in skeletal muscle is not sufficient to account for the hypoglycemic actions of PPARγ agonists during lipotoxicity. PMID:22474127

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ decouples fatty acid uptake from lipid inhibition of insulin signaling in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shanming; Yao, Jianrong; Howe, Alexander A; Menke, Brandon M; Sivitz, William I; Spector, Arthur A; Norris, Andrew W

    2012-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is expressed at low levels in skeletal muscle, where it protects against adiposity and insulin resistance via unclear mechanisms. To test the hypothesis that PPARγ directly modulates skeletal muscle metabolism, we created two models that isolate direct PPARγ actions on skeletal myocytes. PPARγ was overexpressed in murine myotubes by adenotransfection and in mouse skeletal muscle by plasmid electroporation. In cultured myotubes, PPARγ action increased fatty acid uptake and incorporation into myocellular lipids, dependent upon a 154 ± 20-fold up-regulation of CD36 expression. PPARγ overexpression more than doubled insulin-stimulated thymoma viral proto-oncogene (AKT) phosphorylation during low lipid availability. Furthermore, in myotubes exposed to palmitate levels that inhibit insulin signaling, PPARγ overexpression increased insulin-stimulated AKT phosphorylation and glycogen synthesis over 3-fold despite simultaneously increasing myocellular palmitate uptake. The insulin signaling enhancement was associated with an increase in activating phosphorylation of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 and a normalized expression of palmitate-induced genes that antagonize AKT phosphorylation. In vivo, PPARγ overexpression more than doubled insulin-dependent AKT phosphorylation in lipid-treated mice but did not augment insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. We conclude that direct PPARγ action promotes myocellular storage of energy by increasing fatty acid uptake and esterification while simultaneously enhancing insulin signaling and glycogen formation. However, direct PPARγ action in skeletal muscle is not sufficient to account for the hypoglycemic actions of PPARγ agonists during lipotoxicity.

  8. Peroxisomes and Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Vasko, Radovan

    2016-08-01

    Peroxisomes are organelles present in most eukaryotic cells. The organs with the highest density of peroxisomes are the liver and kidneys. Peroxisomes possess more than fifty enzymes and fulfill a multitude of biological tasks. They actively participate in apoptosis, innate immunity, and inflammation. In recent years, a considerable amount of evidence has been collected to support the involvement of peroxisomes in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. The nature of the two most important peroxisomal tasks, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and hydrogen peroxide turnover, functionally relates peroxisomes to mitochondria. Further support for their communication and cooperation is furnished by the evidence that both organelles share the components of their division machinery. Until recently, the majority of studies on the molecular mechanisms of kidney injury focused primarily on mitochondria and neglected peroxisomes. The aim of this concise review is to introduce the reader to the field of peroxisome biology and to provide an overview of the evidence about the contribution of peroxisomes to the development and progression of kidney injury. The topics of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, endotoxin-induced kidney injury, diabetic nephropathy, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as well as the potential therapeutic implications of peroxisome activation, are addressed in this review. Despite recent progress, further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms induced by dysfunctional peroxisomes and the role of the dysregulated mitochondria-peroxisome axis in the pathogenesis of renal injury. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 217-231.

  9. Peroxisomes and Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Peroxisomes are organelles present in most eukaryotic cells. The organs with the highest density of peroxisomes are the liver and kidneys. Peroxisomes possess more than fifty enzymes and fulfill a multitude of biological tasks. They actively participate in apoptosis, innate immunity, and inflammation. In recent years, a considerable amount of evidence has been collected to support the involvement of peroxisomes in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. Recent Advances: The nature of the two most important peroxisomal tasks, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and hydrogen peroxide turnover, functionally relates peroxisomes to mitochondria. Further support for their communication and cooperation is furnished by the evidence that both organelles share the components of their division machinery. Until recently, the majority of studies on the molecular mechanisms of kidney injury focused primarily on mitochondria and neglected peroxisomes. Critical Issues: The aim of this concise review is to introduce the reader to the field of peroxisome biology and to provide an overview of the evidence about the contribution of peroxisomes to the development and progression of kidney injury. The topics of renal ischemia–reperfusion injury, endotoxin-induced kidney injury, diabetic nephropathy, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as well as the potential therapeutic implications of peroxisome activation, are addressed in this review. Future Directions: Despite recent progress, further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms induced by dysfunctional peroxisomes and the role of the dysregulated mitochondria–peroxisome axis in the pathogenesis of renal injury. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 217–231. PMID:26972522

  10. Defective peroxisomal catabolism of branched fatty acyl coenzyme A in mice lacking the sterol carrier protein-2/sterol carrier protein-x gene function

    PubMed Central

    Seedorf, Udo; Raabe, Martin; Ellinghaus, Peter; Kannenberg, Frank; Fobker, Manfred; Engel, Thomas; Denis, Simone; Wouters, Fred; Wirtz, Karel W.A.; Wanders, Ronald J.A.; Maeda, Nobuyo; Assmann, Gerd

    1998-01-01

    Gene targeting in mice was used to investigate the unknown function of Scp2, encoding sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP2; a peroxisomal lipid carrier) and sterol carrier protein-x (SCPx; a fusion protein between SCP2 and a peroxisomal thiolase). Complete deficiency of SCP2 and SCPx was associated with marked alterations in gene expression, peroxisome proliferation, hypolipidemia, impaired body weight control, and neuropathy. Along with these abnormalities, catabolism of methyl-branched fatty acyl CoAs was impaired. The defect became evident from up to 10-fold accumulation of the tetramethyl-branched fatty acid phytanic acid in Scp2(−/−) mice. Further characterization supported that the gene disruption led to inefficient import of phytanoyl-CoA into peroxisomes and to defective thiolytic cleavage of 3-ketopristanoyl-CoA. These results corresponded to high-affinity binding of phytanoyl-CoA to the recombinant rat SCP2 protein, as well as high 3-ketopristanoyl-CoA thiolase activity of the recombinant rat SCPx protein. PMID:9553048

  11. Caenorhabditis elegans utilizes dauer pheromone biosynthesis to dispose of toxic peroxisomal fatty acids for cellular homoeostasis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Caenorhabditis elegans secretes a dauer pheromone or daumone composed of ascarylose and a fatty acid side chain, perception of which enables worms to gauge depletion of food or a high worm population density. As a result, worms enter the dauer state, a specific developmental stage capable of surviv...

  12. Studies of Human 2,4-Dienoyl CoA Reductase Shed New Light on Peroxisomal β-Oxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids*

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Tian; Wu, Dong; Ding, Wei; Wang, Jiangyun; Shaw, Neil; Liu, Zhi-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes play an essential role in maintaining fatty acid homeostasis. Although mitochondria are also known to participate in the catabolism of fatty acids via β-oxidation, differences exist between the peroxisomal and mitochondrial β-oxidation. Only peroxisomes, but not mitochondrion, can shorten very long chain fatty acids. Here, we describe the crystal structure of a ternary complex of peroxisomal 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductases (pDCR) with hexadienoyl CoA and NADP, as a prototype for comparison with the mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase (mDCR) to shed light on the differences between the enzymes from the two organelles at the molecular level. Unexpectedly, the structure of pDCR refined to 1.84 Å resolution reveals the absence of the tyrosine-serine pair seen in the active site of mDCR, which together with a lysine and an asparagine have been deemed a hallmark of the SDR family of enzymes. Instead, aspartate hydrogen-bonded to the Cα hydroxyl via a water molecule seems to perturb the water molecule for protonation of the substrate. Our studies provide the first structural evidence for participation of water in the DCR-catalyzed reactions. Biochemical studies and structural analysis suggest that pDCRs can catalyze the shortening of six-carbon-long substrates in vitro. However, the Km values of pDCR for short chain acyl CoAs are at least 6-fold higher than those for substrates with 10 or more aliphatic carbons. Unlike mDCR, hinge movements permit pDCR to process very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:22745130

  13. Studies of Human 2,4-Dienoyl CoA Reductase Shed New Light on Peroxisomal β-Oxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Tian; Wu, Dong; Ding, Wei; Wang, Jiangyun; Shaw, Neil; Liu, Zhi-Jie

    2012-10-15

    Peroxisomes play an essential role in maintaining fatty acid homeostasis. Although mitochondria are also known to participate in the catabolism of fatty acids via β-oxidation, differences exist between the peroxisomal and mitochondrial β-oxidation. Only peroxisomes, but not mitochondrion, can shorten very long chain fatty acids. Here, we describe the crystal structure of a ternary complex of peroxisomal 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductases (pDCR) with hexadienoyl CoA and NADP, as a prototype for comparison with the mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase (mDCR) to shed light on the differences between the enzymes from the two organelles at the molecular level. Unexpectedly, the structure of pDCR refined to 1.84 Å resolution reveals the absence of the tyrosine-serine pair seen in the active site of mDCR, which together with a lysine and an asparagine have been deemed a hallmark of the SDR family of enzymes. Instead, aspartate hydrogen-bonded to the Cα hydroxyl via a water molecule seems to perturb the water molecule for protonation of the substrate. Our studies provide the first structural evidence for participation of water in the DCR-catalyzed reactions. Biochemical studies and structural analysis suggest that pDCRs can catalyze the shortening of six-carbon-long substrates in vitro. However, the Km values of pDCR for short chain acyl CoAs are at least 6-fold higher than those for substrates with 10 or more aliphatic carbons. Unlike mDCR, hinge movements permit pDCR to process very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  14. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma2 polymorphisms in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a study in Brazilian patients.

    PubMed

    Domenici, Fernanda Aparecida; Brochado, Maria José Franco; Martinelli, Ana de Lourdes Candolo; Zucoloto, Sergio; da Cunha, Selma Freire de Carvalho; Vannucchi, Helio

    2013-10-25

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to the accumulation of hepatic steatosis in the absence of excess alcohol consumption. The pathogenesis of fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis (NASH) is not fully elucidated, but the common association with visceral obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) suggests that it is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARα and PPARγ are members of a family of nuclear receptors involved in the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates, adipogenesis and sensitivity to insulin. The objective of this study was to analyze the polymorphisms Leu162Val of PPARα and Pro12Ala of PPARγ as genetic risk factors for the development and progression of NAFLD. One hundred and three NAFLD patients (89 NASH, 14 pure steatosis) and 103 healthy volunteers were included. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) Leu162Val and Pro12Ala were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). NASH patients presented higher BMI, AST and prevalence of T2DM than patients with pure steatosis. A higher prevalence of 12Ala allele was observed in the NASH Subgroup when compared to Control Group. When we grouped NASH and Steatosis Subgroups (NAFLD), we found lower serum glucose and more advanced fibrosis in the Leu162Val SNP. On the other hand, there was no statistical difference in clinical, laboratorial and histological parameters according to the Pro12Ala SNP. We documented a lower prevalence of 12Ala allele of gene PPARγ in the NASH Subgroup when compared to Control Group. In NAFLD patients, there were no associations among the occurrence of Pro12Ala SNP with clinical, laboratorial and histological parameters. We also documented more advanced fibrosis in the Leu162Val SNP. The obtained data suggest that Pro12Ala SNP may result in protection against liver injury and that Leu162Val SNP may be involved in the

  15. Medium Chain Fatty Acids Are Selective Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR) γ Activators and Pan-PPAR Partial Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Steven D.; Lin, Jean Z.; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Silveira, Rodrigo L.; Martínez, Leandro; Souza, Paulo C. T.; Saidemberg, Daniel; Deng, Tuo; Amato, Angela Angelica; Togashi, Marie; Hsueh, Willa A.; Phillips, Kevin; Palma, Mário Sérgio; Neves, Francisco A. R.; Skaf, Munir S.; Webb, Paul; Polikarpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) and found that the ligand binding pocket (LBP) is occupied by bacterial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). We verified that MCFAs (C8–C10) bind the PPARγ LBD in vitro and showed that they are low-potency partial agonists that display assay-specific actions relative to TZDs; they act as very weak partial agonists in transfections with PPARγ LBD, stronger partial agonists with full length PPARγ and exhibit full blockade of PPARγ phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5), linked to reversal of adipose tissue insulin resistance. MCFAs that bind PPARγ also antagonize TZD-dependent adipogenesis in vitro. X-ray structure B-factor analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that MCFAs weakly stabilize C-terminal activation helix (H) 12 relative to TZDs and this effect is highly dependent on chain length. By contrast, MCFAs preferentially stabilize the H2-H3/β-sheet region and the helix (H) 11-H12 loop relative to TZDs and we propose that MCFA assay-specific actions are linked to their unique binding mode and suggest that it may be possible to identify selective PPARγ modulators with useful clinical profiles among natural products. PMID:22649490

  16. Medium chain fatty acids are selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ activators and pan-PPAR partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Liberato, Marcelo Vizoná; Nascimento, Alessandro S; Ayers, Steven D; Lin, Jean Z; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Silveira, Rodrigo L; Martínez, Leandro; Souza, Paulo C T; Saidemberg, Daniel; Deng, Tuo; Amato, Angela Angelica; Togashi, Marie; Hsueh, Willa A; Phillips, Kevin; Palma, Mário Sérgio; Neves, Francisco A R; Skaf, Munir S; Webb, Paul; Polikarpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) and found that the ligand binding pocket (LBP) is occupied by bacterial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). We verified that MCFAs (C8-C10) bind the PPARγ LBD in vitro and showed that they are low-potency partial agonists that display assay-specific actions relative to TZDs; they act as very weak partial agonists in transfections with PPARγ LBD, stronger partial agonists with full length PPARγ and exhibit full blockade of PPARγ phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5), linked to reversal of adipose tissue insulin resistance. MCFAs that bind PPARγ also antagonize TZD-dependent adipogenesis in vitro. X-ray structure B-factor analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that MCFAs weakly stabilize C-terminal activation helix (H) 12 relative to TZDs and this effect is highly dependent on chain length. By contrast, MCFAs preferentially stabilize the H2-H3/β-sheet region and the helix (H) 11-H12 loop relative to TZDs and we propose that MCFA assay-specific actions are linked to their unique binding mode and suggest that it may be possible to identify selective PPARγ modulators with useful clinical profiles among natural products.

  17. Trans fatty acids affect cellular viability of human intestinal Caco-2 cells and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Kloetzel, Marianne; Ehlers, Anke; Niemann, Birgit; Buhrke, Thorsten; Lampen, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are hypothesized to have an impact not only on coronary heart diseases but also on the development of colon cancer. To analyze if TFA exhibit cellular and molecular effects which could be involved in colon tumor progression, cells of the human colorectal adenocarcinoma-derived cell line Caco-2 were treated with various TFA isomers differing in the number and position of trans double bonds. The TFA tested in this study did not increase cellular proliferation but displayed growth-inhibitory effects at concentrations higher than 500 μM. In case of the TFA isomer C18:3 t9, t11, t13, an IC50 value of 23 μM was estimated for cytotoxicity indicating a high cytotoxic potential of this compound. In addition to the cytotoxicity studies, the TFA isomers were tested for their ability to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) by taking advantage of a PPAR-dependent reporter gene assay. In contrast to PPARγ that was not activated by the TFA isomers tested in this study, the substances were shown to moderately activate PPARα, and strong activation was observed for PPARδ. The putative impact of TFA on colon cancer development with respect to PPARδ activation is being discussed.

  18. New peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists: potential treatments for atherogenic dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Chew, Gerard T; Watts, Gerald F

    2014-03-01

    Novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) modulators (selective PPAR modulators [SPPARMs]) and dual PPAR agonists may have an important role in the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders owing to lipid-modifying, insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory effects. This review summarizes the efficacy of new PPAR agonists and SPPARMs that are under development for the treatment of atherogenic dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). ABT-335 is a new formulation of fenofibrate that has been approved for concomitant use with statins. K-877, a SPPARM-α with encouraging preliminary results in modulating atherogenic dyslipidemia, and INT131, a SPPARM-γ with predominantly insulin-sensitizing actions, may also have favorable lipid-modifying effects. Although the development of dual PPAR-α/γ agonists (glitazars) and the SPPARM-δ GW501516 has been abandoned because of safety issues, another SPPARM-δ (MBX-8025) and a dual PPAR-α/δ agonist (GFT-505) have shown promising efficacy in decreasing plasma triglyceride and increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, as well as improving insulin sensitivity and liver function. The beneficial effects of GFT-505 are complemented by preclinical findings that indicate reduction of hepatic fat accumulation, inflammation and fibrosis, making it a promising candidate for the treatment of NAFLD/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Long-term trials are required to test the efficacy and safety of these new PPAR agonists in reducing cardiovascular outcomes and treating NAFLD/NASH.

  19. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Genetic Polymorphisms and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Any Role in Disease Susceptibility?

    PubMed Central

    Dongiovanni, Paola; Valenti, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) defines a wide spectrum of liver diseases that extend from simple steatosis, that is, increased hepatic lipid content, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a condition that may progress to cirrhosis with its associated complications. Nuclear hormone receptors act as intracellular lipid sensors that coordinate genetic networks regulating lipid metabolism and energy utilization. This family of transcription factors, in particular peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), represents attractive drug targets for the management of NAFLD and NASH, as well as related conditions such as type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. The impact on the regulation of lipid metabolism observed for PPARs has led to the hypothesis that genetic variants within the human PPARs genes may be associated with human disease such as NAFLD, the metabolic syndrome, and/or coronary heart disease. Here we review the available evidence on the association between PPARs genetic polymorphism and the susceptibility to NAFLD and NASH, and we provide a meta-analysis of the available evidence. The impact of PPAR variants on the susceptibility to NASH in specific subgroup of patients, and in particular on the response to therapies, especially those targeting PPARs, represents promising new areas of investigation. PMID:23431284

  20. [Selective regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors on fatty acid binding protein-4 in human syncytiotrophoblast cells].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Gu, Hang

    2012-10-01

    To observe the selective regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) on fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4) in human syncytiotrophoblasts. Cultivate normal human syncytiotrophoblast cells, and put in the specific antagonists and agonists of PPAR each subtypes receptors, then observe the different expression of FABP4 mRNA and protein. Pretreated the human syncytiotrophoblast cells with the agonists (GW7647, GW0742) and antagonists (GW6471, GSK0660) of PPARα and PPARβ receptors, the expression of the FABP4 was not significantly change (P > 0.05). However pretreated with PPAR γ agonists (rosiglitazone, 1×10(-9), 1×10(-8), 1×10(-7) and 1×10(-6) mol/L), the expression of FABP4 mRNA and protein could be dose dependent-promoted significantly (mRNA: 1.27 ± 0.12, 1.45 ± 0.14, 1.57 ± 0.14, 1.72 ± 0.12, protein:1.10 ± 0.08, 1.37 ± 0.09, 1.60 ± 0.13, 1.79 ± 0.14; P < 0.05), furthermore, the promotion can be dose dependent-reversed by specific antagonists GW9662 (mRNA:0.92 ± 0.06, 0.77 ± 0.06, 0.64 ± 0.05, 0.55 ± 0.05, protein:0.91 ± 0.03, 0.78 ± 0.06, 0.70 ± 0.07, 0.55 ± 0.06; P < 0.05). In normal human syncytiotrophoblast cells, FABP4 is a target factor of PPARγ. PPARγ regulated the expression of FABP4 mRNA and protein selectively. And the regulation will not be influenced by the other two PPAR subtypes.

  1. Intrinsic acyl-CoA thioesterase activity of a peroxisomal ATP binding cassette transporter is required for transport and metabolism of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    De Marcos Lousa, Carine; van Roermund, Carlo W T; Postis, Vincent L G; Dietrich, Daniela; Kerr, Ian D; Wanders, Ronald J A; Baldwin, Stephen A; Baker, Alison; Theodoulou, Frederica L

    2013-01-22

    Peroxisomes are organelles that perform diverse metabolic functions in different organisms, but a common function is β-oxidation of a variety of long chain aliphatic, branched, and aromatic carboxylic acids. Import of substrates into peroxisomes for β-oxidation is mediated by ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins of subfamily D, which includes the human adrenoleukodystropy protein (ALDP) defective in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). Whether substrates are transported as CoA esters or free acids has been a matter of debate. Using COMATOSE (CTS), a plant representative of the ABCD family, we demonstrate that there is a functional and physical interaction between the ABC transporter and the peroxisomal long chain acyl-CoA synthetases (LACS)6 and -7. We expressed recombinant CTS in insect cells and showed that membranes from infected cells possess fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase activity, which is stimulated by ATP. A mutant, in which Serine 810 is replaced by asparagine (S810N) is defective in fatty acid degradation in vivo, retains ATPase activity but has strongly reduced thioesterase activity, providing strong evidence for the biological relevance of this activity. Thus, CTS, and most likely the other ABCD family members, represent rare examples of polytopic membrane proteins with an intrinsic additional enzymatic function that may regulate the entry of substrates into the β-oxidation pathway. The cleavage of CoA raises questions about the side of the membrane where this occurs and this is discussed in the context of the peroxisomal coenzyme A (CoA) budget.

  2. Intrinsic acyl-CoA thioesterase activity of a peroxisomal ATP binding cassette transporter is required for transport and metabolism of fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    De Marcos Lousa, Carine; van Roermund, Carlo W. T.; Postis, Vincent L. G.; Dietrich, Daniela; Kerr, Ian D.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Baldwin, Stephen A.; Baker, Alison; Theodoulou, Frederica L.

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes are organelles that perform diverse metabolic functions in different organisms, but a common function is β-oxidation of a variety of long chain aliphatic, branched, and aromatic carboxylic acids. Import of substrates into peroxisomes for β-oxidation is mediated by ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins of subfamily D, which includes the human adrenoleukodystropy protein (ALDP) defective in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). Whether substrates are transported as CoA esters or free acids has been a matter of debate. Using COMATOSE (CTS), a plant representative of the ABCD family, we demonstrate that there is a functional and physical interaction between the ABC transporter and the peroxisomal long chain acyl-CoA synthetases (LACS)6 and -7. We expressed recombinant CTS in insect cells and showed that membranes from infected cells possess fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase activity, which is stimulated by ATP. A mutant, in which Serine 810 is replaced by asparagine (S810N) is defective in fatty acid degradation in vivo, retains ATPase activity but has strongly reduced thioesterase activity, providing strong evidence for the biological relevance of this activity. Thus, CTS, and most likely the other ABCD family members, represent rare examples of polytopic membrane proteins with an intrinsic additional enzymatic function that may regulate the entry of substrates into the β-oxidation pathway. The cleavage of CoA raises questions about the side of the membrane where this occurs and this is discussed in the context of the peroxisomal coenzyme A (CoA) budget. PMID:23288899

  3. Mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation capacities increase in the skeletal muscles of young pigs during early postnatal development but are not affected by cold stress.

    PubMed

    Herpin, Patrick; Vincent, Annie; Fillaut, Martine; Bonito, Bruno Piteira; Hocquette, Jean-François

    2003-01-01

    In pigs, the optimal utilization of energy substrates within muscle fibers is a prerequisite of the utmost importance for successful adaptation to extra-uterine life. In the present work we demonstrate that fatty acid (FA) oxidative capacities increased within the first five days of life in piglet skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial FA oxidation capacities increased more in the rhomboideus oxidative than in the longissimus lumborum glycolytic muscle (+114% vs. +62%, P < 0.001). The apparent rate of fatty acid degradation by peroxisomes represents 30 to 40% of total FA oxidation capacities and increased by about 170% (P < 0.001) with age in both muscles. The postnatal enhancement of skeletal muscle oxidative capacities was further supported by a rise in acid-soluble and long-chain acylcamitine tissue levels (+67%, P < 0.01), and plasma levels of albumin (+160%, P < 0.001). Cold stress had no effect on mitochondrial and peroxisomal FA oxidation but greatly enhanced (+61%, P < 0.05) the circulating levels of non-esterified fatty acids at five days of life.

  4. Human disorders of peroxisome metabolism and biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Waterham, Hans R; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Wanders, Ronald J A

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes are dynamic organelles that play an essential role in a variety of cellular catabolic and anabolic metabolic pathways, including fatty acid alpha- and beta-oxidation, and plasmalogen and bile acid synthesis. Defects in genes encoding peroxisomal proteins can result in a large variety of peroxisomal disorders either affecting specific metabolic pathways, i.e., the single peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies, or causing a generalized defect in function and assembly of peroxisomes, i.e., peroxisome biogenesis disorders. In this review, we discuss the clinical, biochemical, and genetic aspects of all human peroxisomal disorders currently known.

  5. [Two siblings of Leber's congenital amaurosis with an increase in very long chain fatty acid in blood: relationship between peroxisomal disorders and Leber's congenital amaurosis].

    PubMed

    Haginoya, K; Aikawa, J; Noro, T; Watanabe, M; Iinuma, K; Narisawa, K; Tada, K

    1989-07-01

    We reported two siblings of Leber's congenital amaurosis associated with increased level of very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) in blood. Case 1, a 3 1/2-year-old boy had congenital blindness, severe psychomotor retardation, hepatomegaly, profound hypotonia, loss of deep tendon reflexes, muscular atrophy and weakness, and non-convulsive status epilepticus characterized by a sudden respiratory failure, and also showed a flat electroretinogram, non-pigmentary retinal degeneration, severe atrophy of the brain stem and cerebellum, hepatic fibrosis, decreased motor and sensory conduction velocities and atlanto-axial instability. Sural nerve biopsy revealed severely decreased number of total myelinated fibers without remarkable demyelination or remyelination. Case 2, an elder sister of case 1, with pigmentary retinal degeneration, hepatomegaly and pericarditis had died at 3 months. Autopsy revealed hypomyelination and heterotopy of the cerebral white matter, hepatic fibrosis, renal microcysts and normal adrenal cytoarchitecture. In case 1, the level of VLCFA was increased twofold and sevenfold of controls in serum and in red cell membrane, respectively. Phytanic or trihydroxycholestanoic acid was not detected in the serum and bile. Normal shaped peroxisomes were definitely recognized in biopsied liver by means of electronmicroscopic histochemistry. From the above findings, these patients was thought to be a new variant of peroxisomal disorders relating to degradation of VLCFA, other than Zellweger syndrome, infantile Refsum disease and infantile adrenoleukodystrophy. It was concluded that peroxisomal functions should be studied in cases of Leber's congenital amaurosis.

  6. Relationship between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Gene and Fatty Acid Composition in Korean Native Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jea-young; Ha, Jae-jung; Park, Yong-soo; Yi, Jun-koo; Lee, Seunguk; Mun, Seyoung; Han, Kyudong; Kim, J.-J.; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Oh, Dong-yep

    2016-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) gene plays an important role in the biosynthesis process controlled by a number of fatty acid transcription factors. This study investigates the relationships between 130 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PPARγ gene and the fatty acid composition of muscle fat in the commercial population of Korean native cattle. We identified 38 SNPs and verified relationships between 3 SNPs (g.1159-71208 A>G, g.42555-29812 G>A, and g.72362 G>T) and the fatty acid composition of commercial Korean native cattle (n = 513). Cattle with the AA genotype of g.1159-71208 A>G and the GG genotype of g.42555-29812 G>A and g.72362 G>T had higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and carcass traits (p<0.05). The results revealed that the 3 identified SNPs in the PPARγ gene affected fatty acid composition and carcass traits, suggesting that these 3 SNPs may improve the flavor and quality of beef in commercial Korean native cattle. PMID:26732443

  7. Bezafibrate induces acyl-CoA oxidase mRNA levels and fatty acid peroxisomal beta-oxidation in rat white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, M; Roglans, N; Cabrero, A; Rodríguez, C; Adzet, T; Alegret, M; Sánchez, R M; Laguna, J C

    2001-01-01

    Rats treated with bezafibrate, a PPAR activator, gain less body weight and increase daily food intake. Previously, we have related these changes to a shift of thermogenesis from brown adipose tissue to white adipose tissue attributable to bezafibrate, which induces uncoupling proteins (UCP), UCP-1 and UCP-3, in rat white adipocytes. Nevertheless, UCP induction was weak, implying additional mechanisms in the change of energy homeostasis produced by bezafibrate. Here we show that bezafibrate, in addition to inducing UCPs, modifies energy homeostasis by directly inducing aco gene expression and peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation in white adipose tissue. Further, bezafibrate significantly reduced plasma triglyceride and leptin concentrations, without modifying the levels of PPARgamma or ob gene in white adipose tissue. These results indicate that bezafibrate reduces the amount of fatty acids available for triglyceride synthesis in white adipose tissue.

  8. Investigational methods for peroxisomal disorders.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Steven; Jones, Richard; Tiffany, Carol; Moser, Ann

    2008-07-01

    Peroxisomes play an important role in cellular metabolism. Defects in peroxisome assembly or of a single peroxisomal pathway are associated with a wide variety of inherited disorders, including X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, Zellweger spectrum disorders, rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata, and Refsum disease. A group of peroxisome-specific biomarkers has been shown to be characteristic of specific defects. Patients with defects in peroxisome fatty acid beta-oxidation accumulate very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA), patients with defects in plasmalogen synthesis are deficient in erythrocyte membrane plasmalogens, and patients with mislocalized pipecolic acid oxidase accumulate pipecolic acid in body fluids. This unit describes three protocols that can be used to measure plasma VLCFA, erythrocyte plasmalogens, and plasma or urine pipecolic acid by capillary gas chromatography (GC) or GC-mass spectrometry. These techniques can be used to identify the majority of patients with known neurogenetic peroxisome disorders. Copyright 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Conjugated linoleic acid isomers and their precursor fatty acids regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor subtypes and major peroxisome proliferator responsive element-bearing target genes in HepG2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sailas; Flotho, Silke; Börchers, Torsten; Spener, Friedrich

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the induction profiles (as judged by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)) of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, β, γ subtypes and major PPAR-target genes bearing a functional peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE) in HepG2 cell model upon feeding with cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid (9-CLA) or trans-10,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid (10-CLA) or their precursor fatty acids (FAs). HepG2 cells were treated with 100 μmol/L 9-CLA or 10-CLA or their precursor FAs, viz., oleic, linoleic, and trans-11-vaccenic acids against bezafibrate control to evaluate the induction/expression profiles of PPAR α, β, γ subtypes and major PPAR-target genes bearing a functional PPRE, i.e., fatty acid transporter (FAT), glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2), liver-type FA binding protein (L-FABP), acyl CoA oxidase-1 (ACOX-1), and peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme (PBE) with reference to β-actin as house keeping gene. Of the three housekeeping genes (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β-actin, and ubiquitin), β-actin was found to be stable. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the common solubilizer of agonists, showed a significantly higher induction of genes analyzed. qRT-PCR profiles of CLAs and their precursor FAs clearly showed upregulation of FAT, GLUT-2, and L-FABP (~0.5-2.0-fold). Compared to 10-CLA, 9-CLA decreased the induction of the FA metabolizing gene ACOX-1 less than did PBE, while 10-CLA decreased the induction of PBE less than did ACOX-1. Both CLAs and precursor FAs upregulated PPRE-bearing genes, but with comparatively less or marginal activation of PPAR subtypes. This indicates that the binding of CLAs and their precursor FAs to PPAR subtypes results in PPAR activation, thereby induction of the target transporter genes coupled with downstream lipid metabolising genes such as ACOX-1 and PBE. To sum up, the expression profiles of these candidate genes showed that

  10. Dietary β-conglycinin prevents fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet by a decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 protein.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Kishimoto, Kyoko; Miura, Shinji; Ezaki, Osamu

    2012-02-01

    Diets high in sucrose/fructose or fat can result in hepatic steatosis (fatty liver). Mice fed a high-fat diet, especially that of saturated-fat-rich oil, develop fatty liver with an increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ2 protein in liver. The fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet is improved by knockdown of liver PPARγ2. In this study, we investigated whether β-conglycinin (a major protein of soy protein) could reduce PPARγ2 protein and prevent high-fat-diet-induced fatty liver in ddY mice. Mice were fed a high-starch diet (70 energy% [en%] starch) plus 20% (wt/wt) sucrose in their drinking water or a high-safflower-oil diet (60 en%) or a high-butter diet (60 en%) for 11 weeks, by which fatty liver is developed. As a control, mice were fed a high-starch diet with drinking water. Either β-conglycinin or casein (control) was given as dietary protein. β-Conglycinin supplementation completely prevented fatty liver induced by each type of diet, along with a reduction in adipose tissue weight. β-Conglycinin decreased sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c and carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in sucrose-supplemented mice, whereas it decreased PPARγ2 mRNA (and its target genes CD36 and FSP27), but did not decrease SREBP-1c and ChREBP mRNAs, in mice fed a high-fat diet. β-Conglycinin decreased PPARγ2 protein and liver triglyceride (TG) concentration in a dose-dependent manner in mice fed a high-butter diet; a significant decrease in liver TG concentration was observed at a concentration of 15 en%. In conclusion, β-conglycinin effectively prevents fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet through a decrease in liver PPARγ2 protein.

  11. The peroxisome: still a mysterious organelle

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, H. Dariush

    2008-01-01

    More than half a century of research on peroxisomes has revealed unique features of this ubiquitous subcellular organelle, which have often been in disagreement with existing dogmas in cell biology. About 50 peroxisomal enzymes have so far been identified, which contribute to several crucial metabolic processes such as β-oxidation of fatty acids, biosynthesis of ether phospholipids and metabolism of reactive oxygen species, and render peroxisomes indispensable for human health and development. It became obvious that peroxisomes are highly dynamic organelles that rapidly assemble, multiply and degrade in response to metabolic needs. However, many aspects of peroxisome biology are still mysterious. This review addresses recent exciting discoveries on the biogenesis, formation and degradation of peroxisomes, on peroxisomal dynamics and division, as well as on the interaction and cross talk of peroxisomes with other subcellular compartments. Furthermore, recent advances on the role of peroxisomes in medicine and in the identification of novel peroxisomal proteins are discussed. PMID:18274771

  12. Boiogito Increases the Metabolism of Fatty Acids in Proximal Tubular Cells through Peroxisome Proliferators-Activated Receptor (PPAR) α Agonistic Activity.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kyoko; Matsuyama, Wakana; Arai, Yuhei; Koizumi, Saho; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Tomioka, Rie; Sasaki, Kenroh

    2016-01-01

    The promotion of fatty acid metabolism, to which peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) α contributes, has been suggested to participate in maintaining the function of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs). The loading of fatty acids to PTECs could result in cell inflammation and cell death. A "Kampo" medicine, Boiogito (BO), is used to treat overweight women exhibiting chronic fatigue and edema in the lower extremities or knees. BO improves renal function by reducing the portion of fatty acids, thereby preventing damage to PTECs. In this study, BO and Astragalus Root (AsR), a constituent crude drug of BO, were administered orally to intravenously bovine serum albumin (BSA)-administered mice to evaluate the PPARα-cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CBP) complex binding activity and/or mRNA expression of PPARα, as quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increases in PPARα-CBP complex binding activity and the expression of PPARα mRNA were observed not only in BO-administered mice but also in AsR-administered mice, accompanied by a decrease in the amount of renal fatty acid.

  13. Peroxisomes in parasitic protists.

    PubMed

    Gabaldón, Toni; Ginger, Michael L; Michels, Paul A M

    Representatives of all major lineages of eukaryotes contain peroxisomes with similar morphology and mode of biogenesis, indicating a monophyletic origin of the organelles within the common ancestor of all eukaryotes. Peroxisomes originated from the endoplasmic reticulum, but despite a common origin and shared morphological features, peroxisomes from different organisms show a remarkable diversity of enzyme content and the metabolic processes present can vary dependent on nutritional or developmental conditions. A common characteristic and probable evolutionary driver for the origin of the organelle is an involvement in lipid metabolism, notably H2O2-dependent fatty-acid oxidation. Subsequent evolution of the organelle in different lineages involved multiple acquisitions of metabolic processes-often involving retargeting enzymes from other cell compartments-and losses. Information about peroxisomes in protists is still scarce, but available evidence, including new bioinformatics data reported here, indicate striking diversity amongst free-living and parasitic protists from different phylogenetic supergroups. Peroxisomes in only some protists show major involvement in H2O2-dependent metabolism, as in peroxisomes of mammalian, plant and fungal cells. Compartmentalization of glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes inside peroxisomes is characteristic of kinetoplastids and diplonemids, where the organelles are hence called glycosomes, whereas several other excavate parasites (Giardia, Trichomonas) have lost peroxisomes. Amongst alveolates and amoebozoans patterns of peroxisome loss are more complicated. Often, a link is apparent between the niches occupied by the parasitic protists, nutrient availability, and the absence of the organelles or their presence with a specific enzymatic content. In trypanosomatids, essentiality of peroxisomes may be considered for use in anti-parasite drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fatty acid transduction of nitric oxide signaling: multiple nitrated unsaturated fatty acid derivatives exist in human blood and urine and serve as endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Baker, Paul R S; Lin, Yiming; Schopfer, Francisco J; Woodcock, Steven R; Groeger, Alison L; Batthyany, Carlos; Sweeney, Scott; Long, Marshall H; Iles, Karen E; Baker, Laura M S; Branchaud, Bruce P; Chen, Yuqing E; Freeman, Bruce A

    2005-12-23

    Mass spectrometric analysis of human plasma and urine revealed abundant nitrated derivatives of all principal unsaturated fatty acids. Nitrated palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids were detected in concert with their nitrohydroxy derivatives. Two nitroalkene derivatives of the most prevalent fatty acid, oleic acid, were synthesized (9- and 10-nitro-9-cis-octadecenoic acid; OA-NO2), structurally characterized and determined to be identical to OA-NO2 found in plasma, red cells, and urine of healthy humans. These regioisomers of OA-NO2 were quantified in clinical samples using 13C isotope dilution. Plasma free and esterified OA-NO2 concentrations were 619 +/- 52 and 302 +/- 369 nm, respectively, and packed red blood cell free and esterified OA-NO2 was 59 +/- 11 and 155 +/- 65 nm. The OA-NO2 concentration of blood is approximately 50% greater than that of nitrated linoleic acid, with the combined free and esterified blood levels of these two fatty acid derivatives exceeding 1 microm. OA-NO2 is a potent ligand for peroxisome proliferator activated receptors at physiological concentrations. CV-1 cells co-transfected with the luciferase gene under peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) response element regulation, in concert with PPARgamma, PPARalpha, or PPARdelta expression plasmids, showed dose-dependent activation of all PPARs by OA-NO2. PPARgamma showed the greatest response, with significant activation at 100 nm, while PPARalpha and PPARdelta were activated at approximately 300 nm OA-NO2. OA-NO2 also induced PPAR gamma-dependent adipogenesis and deoxyglucose uptake in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at a potency exceeding nitrolinoleic acid and rivaling synthetic thiazo-lidinediones. These data reveal that nitrated fatty acids comprise a class of nitric oxide-derived, receptor-dependent, cell signaling mediators that act within physiological concentration ranges.

  15. Characterization of Madin-Darby bovine kidney cell line for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: temporal response and sensitivity to fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bionaz, M; Baumrucker, C R; Shirk, E; Vanden Heuvel, J P; Block, E; Varga, G A

    2008-07-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are critical for lipid metabolism, and many fatty acids are PPAR agonists. Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells were tested as an in vitro bovine model for PPAR activation, and preliminary evaluation of the effect of fatty acids on bovine PPAR was performed. Cells were treated with Wy-14643 (WY, specific PPARalpha agonist) and rosiglitazone (ROSI, specific PPARgamma agonist). The gene expression of specific PPARalpha-responsive genes such as carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT1A) and acetyl coenzyme A oxidase (ACOX1) and of PPARgamma-responsive gene lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were analyzed using real-time reverse transcription PCR. It was found that CPT1A exhibited a significant increase in cells treated with WY, whereas the ACOX1 gene expression was not altered. The LPL gene expression showed an increase in response to ROSI. Interestingly, LPL was almost undetectable in MDBK cells not treated with ROSI. The potency of different fatty acids in activating PPARalpha as assessed by CPT1A mRNA abundance in MDBK cells was also tested. The mRNA of CPT1A (2.5- to 1.4-fold) was significantly increased by fatty acids in the order of palmitate > linolenate > linoleate > conjugated linoleate, and oleate. The results demonstrated MDBK cells to be responsive to PPAR agonists and thus a promising model to evaluate the role of PPAR in bovine cells. In addition, fatty acids were proven to have a different potency in modulating expression of CPT1A through PPARalpha.

  16. Atorvastatin treatment induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha expression and decreased plasma nonesterified fatty acids and liver triglyceride in fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Roglans, Núria; Sanguino, Elena; Peris, Cristina; Alegret, Marta; Vázquez, Manuel; Adzet, Tomás; Díaz, Cristina; Hernández, Gonzalo; Laguna, Juan C; Sánchez, Rosa M

    2002-07-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of atorvastatin (5 and 30 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks) on hepatic lipid metabolism in a well established model of dietary hypertriglyceridemia, the fructose-fed rat. Fructose feeding (10% fructose in drinking water for 2 weeks) induced hepatic lipogenesis and reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) expression and fatty acid oxidation. As a result, plasma and liver triglyceride and plasma apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels were increased. Atorvastatin, 5 and 30 mg/kg during 2 weeks, markedly reduced plasma triglyceride, but decreased apoB levels only at the highest dose tested (50%). Triglyceride biosynthetic enzymes and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein were unchanged, whereas liver PPARalpha, acyl-CoA oxidase, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I mRNA levels (1.9-, 1.25-, and 3.4-fold, respectively) and hepatic fatty acid beta-oxidation activity (1.25-fold) were increased by atorvastatin at 30 mg/kg. Furthermore, hepatic triglyceride content (45%) and plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (49%) were reduced. These results show for the first time that liver triglyceride increase in fructose-fed rats is linked to decreased expression of PPARalpha, which is prevented by atorvastatin treatment. The increase in PPARalpha expression caused by atorvastatin was associated with reduced liver triglyceride and plasma NEFA levels.

  17. Peroxisomes in cardiomyocytes and the peroxisome / peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-loop.

    PubMed

    Colasante, Claudia; Chen, Jiangping; Ahlemeyer, Barbara; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2015-03-01

    It is well established that the heart is strongly dependent on fatty acid metabolism. In cardiomyocytes there are two distinct sites for the β-oxidisation of fatty acids: the mitochondrion and the peroxisome. Although the metabolism of these two organelles is believed to be tightly coupled, the nature of this relationship has not been fully investigated. Recent research has established the significant contribution of mitochondrial function to cardiac ATP production under normal and pathological conditions. In contrast, limited information is available on peroxisomal function in the heart. This is despite these organelles harbouring metabolic pathways that are potentially cardio-protective, and findings that patients with peroxisomal diseases, such as adult Refsum´s disease, can develop heart failure. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview on the current knowledge of peroxisomes and the regulation of lipid metabolism by PPARs in cardiomyocytes. We also present new experimental evidence on the differential expression of peroxisome-related genes in the heart chambers and demonstrate that even a mild peroxisomal biogenesis defect (Pex11α-/-) can induce profound alterations in the cardiomyocyte´s peroxisomal compartment and related gene expression, including the concomitant deregulation of specific PPARs. The possible impact of peroxisomal dysfunction in the heart is discussed and a model for the modulation of myocardial metabolism via a peroxisome/PPAR-loop is proposed.

  18. Yeast peroxisomes: structure, functions and biotechnological opportunities.

    PubMed

    Sibirny, Andriy A

    2016-06-01

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles found in most eukaryotic cells. In yeasts, peroxisomes play important roles in cell metabolism, especially in different catabolic processes including fatty acid β-oxidation, the glyoxylic shunt and methanol metabolism, as well as some biosynthetic processes. In addition, peroxisomes are the compartment in which oxidases and catalase are localized. New peroxisomes mainly arise by fission of pre-existing ones, although they can also be formed from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Peroxisomes consist of matrix-soluble proteins and membrane proteins known as peroxins. A total of 34 PEX peroxin genes and proteins have been identified to date. and their functions have been elucidated. Protein import into peroxisomes depends on peroxins and requires specific signals in the structure of transported proteins: PTS1, PTS2 and mPTS. The mechanisms of metabolite penetration into peroxisomes are still poorly understood. Peroxisome number and the volume occupied by these organelles are tightly regulated. Methanol, fatty acids and methylamine act as efficient peroxisome proliferators, whereas glucose and ethanol induce peroxisome autophagic degradation (pexophagy). To date, 42 Atg proteins involved in pexophagy are known. Catabolism and alcoholic fermentation of the major pentose sugar, xylose, depend on peroxisomal enzymes. Overexpression of peroxisomal transketolase and transaldolase activates xylose fermentation. Peroxisomes could be useful as target organelles for overexpression of foreign toxic proteins. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Statin induction of liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) gene expression is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha-dependent.

    PubMed

    Landrier, Jean-François; Thomas, Charles; Grober, Jacques; Duez, Hélène; Percevault, Frédéric; Souidi, Maâmar; Linard, Christine; Staels, Bart; Besnard, Philippe

    2004-10-29

    Statins are drugs widely used in humans to treat hypercholesterolemia. Statins act by inhibiting cholesterol synthesis resulting in the activation of the transcription factor sterol-responsive element-binding protein-2 that controls the expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Statin therapy also decreases plasma triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid levels, but the mechanism behind this effect remains more elusive. Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) plays a role in the influx of long-chain fatty acids into hepatocytes. Here we show that L-FABP is a target for statins. In rat hepatocytes, simvastatin treatment induced L-FABP mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, L-FABP promoter activity was induced by statin treatment. Progressive 5'-deletion analysis revealed that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-responsive element located at position -67/-55 was responsible for the statin-mediated transactivation of the rat L-FABP promoter. Moreover, treatment with simvastatin and the PPARalpha agonist Wy14,649 resulted in a synergistic induction of L-FABP expression (mRNA and protein) in rat Fao hepatoma cells. This effect was also observed in vivo in wild-type mice but not in PPARalpha-null animals demonstrating the direct implication of PPARalpha in L-FABP regulation by statin treatment. Statin treatment resulted in a rise in PPARalpha mRNA levels both in vitro and in vivo and activated the mouse PPARalpha promoter in a reporter assay. Altogether, these data demonstrate that L-FABP expression is up-regulated by statins through a mechanism involving PPARalpha. Moreover, PPARalpha might be a statin target gene. These effects might contribute to the triglyceride/non-esterified fatty acid-lowering properties of statins.

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-mediated up-regulation of syndecan-1 by n-3 fatty acids promotes apoptosis of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiguo; Berquin, Isabelle M; Owens, Rick T; O'Flaherty, Joseph T; Edwards, Iris J

    2008-04-15

    Diets enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may protect against breast cancer but biochemical mechanisms are unclear. Our studies showed that the n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) up-regulated syndecan-1 (SDC-1) in human breast cancer cells, and we tested the hypothesis that DHA-mediated up-regulation of SDC-1 induces apoptosis. DHA was delivered to MCF-7 cells by n-3 PUFA-enriched low-density lipoproteins (LDL) or by albumin in the presence or absence of SDC-1 small interfering RNA. The n-3 PUFA induced apoptosis, which was blocked by SDC-1 silencing. We also confirmed that SDC-1 up-regulation and apoptosis promotion by n-3 PUFA was mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma). Using a luciferase gene driven by either a PPAR response element or a DR-1 site present in the SDC-1 promoter, reporter activities were enhanced by n-3 LDL, DHA, and PPAR gamma agonist, whereas activity of a luciferase gene placed downstream of a mutant DR-1 site was unresponsive. Cotransfection with dominant-negative PPAR gamma DNA eliminated the increase in luciferase activity. These data provide strong evidence that SDC-1 is a molecular target of n-3 PUFA in human breast cancer cells through activation of PPAR gamma and that n-3 PUFA-induced apoptosis is mediated by SDC-1. This provides a novel mechanism for the chemopreventive effects of n-3 PUFA in breast cancer.

  1. Phytanic acid and pristanic acid, branched-chain fatty acids associated with Refsum disease and other inherited peroxisomal disorders, mediate intracellular Ca2+ signaling through activation of free fatty acid receptor GPR40.

    PubMed

    Kruska, Nicol; Reiser, Georg

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of the two branched-chain fatty acids phytanic acid and pristanic acid is known to play an important role in several diseases with peroxisomal impairment, like Refsum disease, Zellweger syndrome and α-methylacyl-CoA racemase deficiency. Recent studies elucidated that the toxic activity of phytanic acid and pristanic acid is mediated by multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions, generation of reactive oxygen species and Ca2+ deregulation via the InsP3-Ca2+ signaling pathway in glial cells. However, the exact signaling mechanism through which both fatty acids mediate toxicity is still under debate. Here, we studied the ability of phytanic acid and pristanic acid to activate the free fatty acid receptor GPR40, a G-protein-coupled receptor, which was described to be involved in the Ca2+ signaling of fatty acids. We treated HEK 293 cells expressing the GPR40 receptor with phytanic acid or pristanic acid. This resulted in a significant increase in the intracellular Ca2+ level, similar to the effect seen after treatment with the synthetic GPR40 agonist GW9508. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the GPR40 activation might be due to an interaction of the carboxylate moiety of fatty acids with the receptor. Our findings indicate that the phytanic acid- and pristanic acid-mediated Ca2+ deregulation can involve the activation of GPR40. Therefore, we suppose that activation of GPR40 might be part of the signaling cascade of the toxicity of phytanic and pristanic acids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Rino; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Murota, Kaeko; Yamada, Yuko; Niiya, Saori; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Murakami, Yoko; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased oxygen consumption rate and CO{sub 2} production and decreased secretion of triglyceride and ApoB from Caco-2 cells. {yields} Orally administration of bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and CO{sub 2} production in small intestinal epithelial cells. {yields} Treatment with bezafibrate decreased postprandial serum concentration of triglyceride after oral injection of olive oil in mice. {yields} It suggested that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPAR{alpha} activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia. -- Abstract: Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} which regulates lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle, decreases circulating lipid levels, thus improving hyperlipidemia under fasting conditions. Recently, postprandial serum lipid levels have been found to correlate more closely to cardiovascular diseases than fasting levels, although fasting hyperlipidemia is considered an important risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PPAR{alpha} activation on postprandial lipidemia has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of PPAR{alpha} activation in enterocytes on lipid secretion and postprandial lipidemia. In Caco-2 enterocytes, bezafibrate, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acyl-CoA synthase, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and suppressed secretion levels of both triglycerides and apolipoprotein B into the basolateral side. In vivo experiments revealed that feeding high-fat-diet containing bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and

  3. Peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, P A; Chen, W W; Harris, C J; Hoefler, G; Hoefler, S; Blake, D C; Balfe, A; Kelley, R I; Moser, A B; Beard, M E

    1989-01-01

    Peroxisomal function was evaluated in a male infant with clinical features of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. Very long chain fatty acid levels were elevated in both plasma and fibroblasts, and beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids in cultured fibroblasts was significantly impaired. Although the level of the bile acid intermediate trihydroxycoprostanoic acid was slightly elevated in plasma, phytanic acid and L-pipecolic acid levels were normal, as was plasmalogen synthesis in cultured fibroblasts. The latter three parameters distinguish this case from classical neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. In addition, electron microscopy and catalase subcellular distribution studies revealed that, in contrast to neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, peroxisomes were present in the patient's tissues. Immunoblot studies of peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes revealed that the bifunctional enzyme (enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) was deficient in postmortem liver samples, whereas acyl-CoA oxidase and the mature form of beta-ketothiolase were present. Density gradient centrifugation of fibroblast homogenates confirmed that intact peroxisomes were present. Immunoblots of fibroblasts peroxisomal fractions showed that they contained acyl-CoA oxidase and beta-ketothiolase, but bifunctional enzyme was not detected. Northern analysis, however, revealed that mRNA coding for the bifunctional enzyme was present in the patient's fibroblasts. These results indicate that the primary biochemical defect in this patient is a deficiency of peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme. It is of interest that the phenotype of this patient resembled neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy and would not have been distinguished from this disorder by clinical study alone. Images PMID:2921319

  4. Peroxisome Metabolism and Cellular Aging

    PubMed Central

    Titorenko, Vladimir I.; Terlecky, Stanley R.

    2010-01-01

    The essential role of peroxisomes in fatty acid oxidation, anaplerotic metabolism, and hydrogen peroxide turnover is well established. Recent findings suggest these and other related biochemical processes governed by the organelle may also play a critical role in regulating cellular aging. The goal of this review is to summarize and integrate into a model, the evidence that peroxisome metabolism actually helps define the replicative and chronological age of a eukaryotic cell. In this model, peroxisomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) are seen as altering organelle biogenesis and function, and eliciting changes in the dynamic communication networks that exist between peroxisomes and other cellular compartments. At low levels, peroxisomal ROS activate an anti-aging program in the cell; at concentrations beyond a specific threshold, a pro-aging course is triggered. PMID:21083858

  5. [Hereditary peroxisomal diseases].

    PubMed

    Astudillo, Leonardo; Sabourdy, Frédérique; Touati, Guy; Levade, Thierry

    2016-03-01

    Peroxisomes are small intracellular organelles that catalyse key metabolic reactions such as the beta-oxidation of some straight-chain or branched-chain fatty acids and the alpha-oxidation of phytanic acid. These enzyme reactions produce hydrogen peroxide, which is subsequently neutralized by the peroxisomal catalase. Peroxisomes also metabolize glyoxylate to glycine, and catalyze the first steps of plasmalogen biosynthesis. There are more than a dozen inherited peroxisomal disorders in humans. These metabolic diseases are due to monogenic defects that affect either a single function (such as enzyme or a transporter) or more than two distinct functions because of the impairment of several aspects of peroxisome biogenesis. With the notable exception of X-linked adrenoleucodystrophy, these inborn disorders are transmitted as autosomal recessive traits. Their clinical presentation can be very heterogeneous, and include neonatal, infantile or adult forms. The present review describes the symptomatology of these genetic diseases, the underlying genetic and biochemical alterations, and summarizes their diagnostic approach. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. A Peroxisomal Disorder of Severe Intellectual Disability, Epilepsy, and Cataracts Due to Fatty Acyl-CoA Reductase 1 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Buchert, Rebecca; Tawamie, Hasan; Smith, Christopher; Uebe, Steffen; Innes, A. Micheil; Al Hallak, Bassam; Ekici, Arif B.; Sticht, Heinrich; Schwarze, Bernd; Lamont, Ryan E.; Parboosingh, Jillian S.; Bernier, Francois P.; Abou Jamra, Rami

    2014-01-01

    Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP) is a group of disorders with overlapping clinical features including rhizomelia, chondrodysplasia punctata, coronal clefts, cervical dysplasia, congenital cataracts, profound postnatal growth retardation, severe intellectual disability, and seizures. Mutations in PEX7, GNPAT, and AGPS, all involved in the plasmalogen-biosynthesis pathway, have been described in individuals with RCDP. Here, we report the identification of mutations in another gene in plasmalogen biosynthesis, fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 (FAR1), in two families affected by severe intellectual disability, early-onset epilepsy, microcephaly, congenital cataracts, growth retardation, and spasticity. Exome analyses revealed a homozygous in-frame indel mutation (c.495_507delinsT [p.Glu165_Pro169delinsAsp]) in two siblings from a consanguineous family and compound-heterozygous mutations (c.[787C>T];[1094A>G], p.[Arg263∗];[Asp365Gly]) in a third unrelated individual. FAR1 reduces fatty acids to their respective fatty alcohols for the plasmalogen-biosynthesis pathway. To assess the pathogenicity of the identified mutations, we transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells with plasmids encoding FAR1 with either wild-type or mutated constructs and extracted the lipids from the cells. We screened the lipids with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and found that all three mutations abolished the reductase activity of FAR1, given that no fatty alcohols could be detected. We also observed reduced plasmalogens in red blood cells in one individual to a range similar to that seen in individuals with RCDP, further supporting abolished FAR1 activity. We thus expand the spectrum of clinical features associated with defects in plasmalogen biosynthesis to include FAR1 deficiency as a cause of syndromic severe intellectual disability with cataracts, epilepsy, and growth retardation but without rhizomelia. PMID:25439727

  7. Epigenetic regulation of insulin resistance in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: impact of liver methylation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α promoter.

    PubMed

    Sookoian, Silvia; Rosselli, Maria Soledad; Gemma, Carolina; Burgueño, Adriana L; Fernández Gianotti, Tomas; Castaño, Gustavo O; Pirola, Carlos J

    2010-12-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) and mitochondrial dysfunction play a central role in the pathophysiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that genetic factors and epigenetic modifications occurring in the liver contribute to the IR phenotype. We specifically examined whether fatty liver and IR are modified by hepatic DNA methylation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PPARGC1A) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) promoters, and also evaluated whether liver mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content is associated with NAFLD and IR. We studied liver biopsies obtained from NAFLD patients in a case-control design. After bisulfite treatment of DNA, we used methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess the putative methylation of three CpG in the PPARGC1A and TFAM promoters. Liver mtDNA quantification using nuclear DNA (nDNA) as a reference was evaluated by way of real-time PCR. Liver PPARGC1A methylated DNA/unmethylated DNA ratio correlated with plasma fasting insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR); TFAM methylated DNA/unmethylated DNA ratio was inversely correlated with insulin levels. PPARGC1A promoter methylation was inversely correlated with the abundance of liver PPARGC1A messenger RNA. The liver mtDNA/nDNA ratio was significantly higher in control livers compared with NAFLD livers. mtDNA/nDNA ratio was inversely correlated with HOMA-IR, fasting glucose, and insulin and was inversely correlated with PPARGC1A promoter methylation. Our data suggest that the IR phenotype and the liver transcriptional activity of PPARGC1A show a tight interaction, probably through epigenetic modifications. Decreased liver mtDNA content concomitantly contributes to peripheral IR. Copyright © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in capillary endothelia promotes fatty acid uptake by heart during long-term fasting.

    PubMed

    Goto, Kosaku; Iso, Tatsuya; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Suga, Toshihiro; Hattori, Akinari; Irie, Yasunori; Shinagawa, Yuji; Matsui, Hiroki; Syamsunarno, Mas Rizky A A; Matsui, Miki; Haque, Anwarul; Arai, Masashi; Kunimoto, Fumio; Yokoyama, Tomoyuki; Endo, Keigo; Gonzalez, Frank J; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2013-01-18

    Endothelium is a crucial blood-tissue interface controlling energy supply according to organ needs. We investigated whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) induces expression of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) and fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36 in capillary endothelial cells (ECs) to promote FA transport into the heart. Expression of FABP4 and CD36 was induced by the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone in human cardiac microvessel ECs (HCMECs), but not in human umbilical vein ECs. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry of the heart tissue of control (Pparg(fl/null)) mice showed an increase in expression of FABP4 and CD36 in capillary ECs by either pioglitazone treatment or 48 hours of fasting, and these effects were not found in mice deficient in endothelial PPARγ (Pparg(▵)(EC)(/null)). Luciferase reporter constructs of the Fabp4 and CD36 promoters were markedly activated by pioglitazone in HCMECs through canonical PPAR-responsive elements. Activation of PPARγ facilitated FA uptake by HCMECs, which was partially inhibited by knockdown of either FABP4 or CD36. Uptake of an FA analogue, (125)I-BMIPP, was significantly reduced in heart, red skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue in Pparg(▵)(EC)(/null) mice as compared with Pparg(fl/null) mice after olive oil loading, whereas those values were comparable between Pparg(fl/null) and Pparg(▵)(EC)(/null) null mice on standard chow and a high-fat diet. Furthermore, Pparg(▵)(EC)(/null) mice displayed slower triglyceride clearance after olive oil loading. These findings identified a novel role for capillary endothelial PPARγ as a regulator of FA handing in FA-metabolizing organs including the heart in the postprandial state after long-term fasting.

  9. Peroxisome Proliferator‐Activated Receptor‐γ in Capillary Endothelia Promotes Fatty Acid Uptake by Heart During Long‐Term Fasting

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Kosaku; Iso, Tatsuya; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Suga, Toshihiro; Hattori, Akinari; Irie, Yasunori; Shinagawa, Yuji; Matsui, Hiroki; Syamsunarno, Mas Rizky A. A.; Matsui, Miki; Haque, Anwarul; Arai, Masashi; Kunimoto, Fumio; Yokoyama, Tomoyuki; Endo, Keigo; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Background Endothelium is a crucial blood–tissue interface controlling energy supply according to organ needs. We investigated whether peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor‐γ (PPARγ) induces expression of fatty acid–binding protein 4 (FABP4) and fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36 in capillary endothelial cells (ECs) to promote FA transport into the heart. Methods and Results Expression of FABP4 and CD36 was induced by the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone in human cardiac microvessel ECs (HCMECs), but not in human umbilical vein ECs. Real‐time PCR and immunohistochemistry of the heart tissue of control (Ppargfl/null) mice showed an increase in expression of FABP4 and CD36 in capillary ECs by either pioglitazone treatment or 48 hours of fasting, and these effects were not found in mice deficient in endothelial PPARγ (Pparg∆EC/null). Luciferase reporter constructs of the Fabp4 and CD36 promoters were markedly activated by pioglitazone in HCMECs through canonical PPAR‐responsive elements. Activation of PPARγ facilitated FA uptake by HCMECs, which was partially inhibited by knockdown of either FABP4 or CD36. Uptake of an FA analogue, 125I‐BMIPP, was significantly reduced in heart, red skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue in Pparg∆EC/null mice as compared with Ppargfl/null mice after olive oil loading, whereas those values were comparable between Ppargfl/null and Pparg∆EC/null null mice on standard chow and a high‐fat diet. Furthermore, Pparg∆EC/null mice displayed slower triglyceride clearance after olive oil loading. Conclusions These findings identified a novel role for capillary endothelial PPARγ as a regulator of FA handing in FA‐metabolizing organs including the heart in the postprandial state after long‐term fasting. PMID:23525438

  10. A novel N-aryl tyrosine activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma reverses the diabetic phenotype of the Zucker diabetic fatty rat.

    PubMed

    Brown, K K; Henke, B R; Blanchard, S G; Cobb, J E; Mook, R; Kaldor, I; Kliewer, S A; Lehmann, J M; Lenhard, J M; Harrington, W W; Novak, P J; Faison, W; Binz, J G; Hashim, M A; Oliver, W O; Brown, H R; Parks, D J; Plunket, K D; Tong, W Q; Menius, J A; Adkison, K; Noble, S A; Willson, T M

    1999-07-01

    The discovery that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma was the molecular target of the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic agents suggested a key role for PPAR-gamma in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Through the use of high-throughput biochemical assays, GW1929, a novel N-aryl tyrosine activator of human PPAR-gamma, was identified. Chronic oral administration of GW1929 or troglitazone to Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats resulted in dose-dependent decreases in daily glucose, free fatty acid, and triglyceride exposure compared with pretreatment values, as well as significant decreases in glycosylated hemoglobin. Whole body insulin sensitivity, as determined by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique, was significantly increased in treated animals. Comparison of the magnitude of glucose lowering as a function of serum drug concentrations showed that GW1929 was 2 orders of magnitude more potent than troglitazone in vivo. These data were consistent with the relative in vitro potencies of GW1929 and troglitazone. Isolated perfused pancreas studies performed at the end of the study confirmed that pancreata from vehicle-treated rats showed no increase in insulin secretion in response to a step change in glucose from 3 to 10 mmol/l. In contrast, pancreata from animals treated with GW1929 showed a first- and second-phase insulin secretion pattern. Consistent with the functional data from the perfusion experiments, animals treated with the PPAR-gamma agonist had more normal islet architecture with preserved insulin staining compared with vehicle-treated ZDF rats. This is the first demonstration of in vivo efficacy of a novel nonthiazolidinedione identified as a high-affinity ligand for human PPAR-gamma. The increased potency of GW1929 compared with troglitazone both in vitro and in vivo may translate into improved clinical efficacy when used as monotherapy in type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, the significant

  11. A single amino acid change humanizes long-chain fatty acid binding and activation of mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α

    PubMed Central

    Oswal, Dhawal P.; Alter, Gerald M.; Rider, S. Dean; Hostetler, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is an important regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism which functions through ligand binding. Despite high amino acid sequence identity (>90%), marked differences in PPARα ligand binding, activation and gene regulation have been noted across species. Similar to previous observations with synthetic agonists, we have recently reported differences in ligand affinities and extent of activation between human PPARα (hPPARα) and mouse PPARα (mPPARα) in response to long chain fatty acids (LCFA). The present study was aimed to determine if structural alterations could account for these differences. The binding of PPARα to LCFA was examined through in silico molecular modeling and docking simulations. Modeling suggested that variances at amino acid position 272 are likely to be responsible for differences in saturated LCFA binding to hPPARα and mPPARα. To confirm these results experimentally, LCFA binding, circular dichroism, and transactivation studies were performed using a F272I mutant form of mPPARα. Experimental data correlated with in silico docking simulations, further confirming the importance of amino acid 272 in LCFA binding. Although the driving force for evolution of species differences at this position are yet unidentified, this study enhances our understanding of ligand-induced regulation by PPARα and demonstrates the efficacy of molecular modeling and docking simulations. PMID:24858253

  12. Fatty Acids of CLA-Enriched Egg Yolks Can Induce Transcriptional Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Paula; Master, Adam; Domagała, Dominik; Piasna-Słupecka, Ewelina; Drozdowska, Mariola; Sikora, Elżbieta; Laidler, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    In our previous study, we showed that fatty acids from CLA-enriched egg yolks (EFA-CLA) reduced the proliferation of breast cancer cells; however, the molecular mechanisms of their action remain unknown. In the current study, we used MCF-7 breast cancer cell line to determine the effect of EFA-CLA, as potential ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), on identified in silico PPAR-responsive genes: BCAR3, TCF20, WT1, ZNF621, and THRB (transcript TRβ2). Our results showed that EFA-CLA act as PPAR ligands with agonistic activity for all PPAR isoforms, with the highest specificity towards PPARγ. In conclusion, we propose that EFA-CLA-mediated regulation of PPAR-responsive genes is most likely facilitated by cis9,trans11CLA isomer incorporated in egg yolk. Notably, EFA-CLA activated PPAR more efficiently than nonenriched FA as well as synthetic CLA isomers. We also propose that this regulation, at least in part, can be responsible for the observed reduction in the proliferation of MCF-7 cells treated with EFA-CLA. PMID:28458685

  13. Fatty Acids of CLA-Enriched Egg Yolks Can Induce Transcriptional Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Koronowicz, Aneta A; Banks, Paula; Master, Adam; Domagała, Dominik; Piasna-Słupecka, Ewelina; Drozdowska, Mariola; Sikora, Elżbieta; Laidler, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    In our previous study, we showed that fatty acids from CLA-enriched egg yolks (EFA-CLA) reduced the proliferation of breast cancer cells; however, the molecular mechanisms of their action remain unknown. In the current study, we used MCF-7 breast cancer cell line to determine the effect of EFA-CLA, as potential ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), on identified in silico PPAR-responsive genes: BCAR3, TCF20, WT1, ZNF621, and THRB (transcript TRβ2). Our results showed that EFA-CLA act as PPAR ligands with agonistic activity for all PPAR isoforms, with the highest specificity towards PPARγ. In conclusion, we propose that EFA-CLA-mediated regulation of PPAR-responsive genes is most likely facilitated by cis9,trans11CLA isomer incorporated in egg yolk. Notably, EFA-CLA activated PPAR more efficiently than nonenriched FA as well as synthetic CLA isomers. We also propose that this regulation, at least in part, can be responsible for the observed reduction in the proliferation of MCF-7 cells treated with EFA-CLA.

  14. Two Isomeric C16 Oxo-Fatty Acids from the Diatom Chaetoceros karianus Show Dual Agonist Activity towards Human Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) α/γ

    PubMed Central

    Moldes-Anaya, Angel; Sæther, Thomas; Uhlig, Silvio; Nebb, Hilde I.; Larsen, Terje; Eilertsen, Hans C.; Paulsen, Steinar M.

    2017-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) function as ligand-activated transcription factors that convert signals in the form of lipids to physiological responses through the activation of metabolic target genes. Due to their key roles in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, the PPARs are important drug targets. However, for several of the PPAR drugs currently in use, adverse side effects have been reported. In an effort to identify compounds from marine organisms that may serve as molecular scaffolds for the development of novel and safer PPAR-targeting drugs, we performed a bioassay-guided screening of organic extracts made from organisms supplied by the Norwegian Biobank of Arctic Marine Organisms (Marbank). Among several interesting hits, we identified two poorly described isomeric oxo-fatty acids from the microalgae Chaetoceros karianus for which we provide the first evidence that they might display dual specificity towards human PPARα and PPARγ. Principal component analysis showed that C. karianus stood out from other Chaetoceros species, both with respect to the metabolic profile and the PPAR activity. The isolation of these compounds holds the potential of uncovering a PPAR pharmacophore with tunable activity and specificity. PMID:28587091

  15. Two Isomeric C16 Oxo-Fatty Acids from the Diatom Chaetoceros karianus Show Dual Agonist Activity towards Human Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) α/γ.

    PubMed

    Moldes-Anaya, Angel; Sæther, Thomas; Uhlig, Silvio; Nebb, Hilde I; Larsen, Terje; Eilertsen, Hans C; Paulsen, Steinar M

    2017-05-25

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) function as ligand-activated transcription factors that convert signals in the form of lipids to physiological responses through the activation of metabolic target genes. Due to their key roles in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, the PPARs are important drug targets. However, for several of the PPAR drugs currently in use, adverse side effects have been reported. In an effort to identify compounds from marine organisms that may serve as molecular scaffolds for the development of novel and safer PPAR-targeting drugs, we performed a bioassay-guided screening of organic extracts made from organisms supplied by the Norwegian Biobank of Arctic Marine Organisms (Marbank). Among several interesting hits, we identified two poorly described isomeric oxo-fatty acids from the microalgae Chaetoceros karianus for which we provide the first evidence that they might display dual specificity towards human PPARα and PPARγ. Principal component analysis showed that C. karianus stood out from other Chaetoceros species, both with respect to the metabolic profile and the PPAR activity. The isolation of these compounds holds the potential of uncovering a PPAR pharmacophore with tunable activity and specificity.

  16. Covalent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma adduction by nitro-fatty acids: selective ligand activity and anti-diabetic signaling actions.

    PubMed

    Schopfer, Francisco J; Cole, Marsha P; Groeger, Alison L; Chen, Chen-Shan; Khoo, Nicholas K H; Woodcock, Steven R; Golin-Bisello, Franca; Motanya, U Nkiru; Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T; Rudolph, Tanja K; Rudolph, Volker; Bonacci, Gustavo; Baker, Paul R S; Xu, H Eric; Batthyany, Carlos I; Chen, Y Eugene; Hallis, Tina M; Freeman, Bruce A

    2010-04-16

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) binds diverse ligands to transcriptionally regulate metabolism and inflammation. Activators of PPARgamma include lipids and anti-hyperglycemic drugs such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs). Recently, TZDs have raised concern after being linked with increased risk of peripheral edema, weight gain, and adverse cardiovascular events. Most reported endogenous PPARgamma ligands are intermediates of lipid metabolism and oxidation that bind PPARgamma with very low affinity. In contrast, nitro derivatives of unsaturated fatty acids (NO(2)-FA) are endogenous products of nitric oxide ((*)NO) and nitrite (NO(2)(-))-mediated redox reactions that activate PPARgamma at nanomolar concentrations. We report that NO(2)-FA act as partial agonists of PPARgamma and covalently bind PPARgamma at Cys-285 via Michael addition. NO(2)-FA show selective PPARgamma modulator characteristics by inducing coregulator protein interactions, PPARgamma-dependent expression of key target genes, and lipid accumulation is distinctively different from responses induced by the TZD rosiglitazone. Administration of this class of signaling mediators to ob/ob mice revealed that NO(2)-FA lower insulin and glucose levels without inducing adverse side effects such as the increased weight gain induced by TZDs.

  17. Peroxisomes and sexual development in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Peraza-Reyes, Leonardo; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes are versatile and dynamic organelles that are essential for the development of most eukaryotic organisms. In fungi, many developmental processes, such as sexual development, require the activity of peroxisomes. Sexual reproduction in fungi involves the formation of meiotic-derived sexual spores, often takes place inside multicellular fruiting bodies and requires precise coordination between the differentiation of multiple cell types and the progression of karyogamy and meiosis. Different peroxisomal functions contribute to the orchestration of this complex developmental process. Peroxisomes are required to sustain the formation of fruiting bodies and the maturation and germination of sexual spores. They facilitate the mobilization of reserve compounds via fatty acid β-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle, allowing the generation of energy and biosynthetic precursors. Additionally, peroxisomes are implicated in the progression of meiotic development. During meiotic development in Podospora anserina, there is a precise modulation of peroxisome assembly and dynamics. This modulation includes changes in peroxisome size, number and localization, and involves a differential activity of the protein-machinery that drives the import of proteins into peroxisomes. Furthermore, karyogamy, entry into meiosis and sorting of meiotic-derived nuclei into sexual spores all require the activity of peroxisomes. These processes rely on different peroxisomal functions and likely depend on different pathways for peroxisome assembly. Indeed, emerging studies support the existence of distinct import channels for peroxisomal proteins that contribute to different developmental stages. PMID:24046747

  18. Modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) by conjugated fatty acid in obesity and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Gaofeng; Chen, Xiaoe; Li, Duo

    2015-02-25

    Conjugated fatty acids including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) have drawn significant attention for their variety of biologically beneficial effects. Evidence suggested that CLA and CLNA could play physiological roles by regulating the expression and activity of PPAR γ. This review summarizes the current understanding of evidence of the role of CLA (cis-9,trans-11 CLA and trans-10,cis-12 CLA) and CLNA (punicic acid and α-eleostearic acid) in modulating the expression or activity of PPAR γ that could in turn be employed as complementary treatment for obesity and inflammatory bowel disease.

  19. Tissue-specific transcriptional modulation of fatty acid-binding protein genes, fabp2, fabp3 and fabp6, by fatty acids and the peroxisome proliferator, clofibrate, in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, Ananda B; Sawler, Daniel L; Wright, Jonathan M

    2013-05-10

    All fabp genes, except fabp2, fabp3 and fabp6, exist as duplicates in the zebrafish genome owing to a whole genome duplication event ~230-400 million years ago. Transcription of some duplicated fabp genes is modulated by fatty acids (FAs) and/or clofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist. We had also shown previously that the steady-state level of acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (acox1) mRNA, a marker of PPARα activation, was elevated in liver, intestine, heart and muscle of fish fed clofibrate demonstrating that zebrafish, unlike some fishes, is responsive to this drug. acox1 transcripts were not induced in the brain of fish fed clofibrate, which suggests this drug may not cross the blood brain barrier. Here, we investigated the effect of dietary FAs and clofibrate on the transcription of single copy fabp genes, fabp2, fabp3 and fabp6, in five tissues of inbred zebrafish. The steady-state level of fabp2 transcripts increased in intestine, while fabp3 mRNA increased in liver of fish fed diets differing in FA content. In fish fed clofibrate, fabp3 mRNA in intestine, and fabp6 mRNA in intestine and heart, were elevated. Based on these findings, modulation of fabp2, fabp3 and fabp6 transcription by FAs and/or clofibrate in zebrafish implicates control of these genes by PPAR interaction with peroxisome proliferator response elements (PPRE) most likely in fabp promoters. Moreover, transcriptional induction of these fabp genes by dietary FAs and/or clofibrate is over-ridden by a tissue-specific mechanism(s), e.g., transcriptional activator or repressor proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Peroxisome biogenesis and human peroxisome-deficiency disorders

    PubMed Central

    FUJIKI, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome is a single-membrane-bounded ubiquitous organelle containing a hundred different enzymes that catalyze various metabolic pathways such as β-oxidation of very long-chain fatty acids and synthesis of plasmalogens. To investigate peroxisome biogenesis and human peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) including Zellweger syndrome, more than a dozen different complementation groups of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants impaired in peroxisome biogenesis are isolated as a model experimental system. By taking advantage of rapid functional complementation assay of the CHO cell mutants, successful cloning of PEX genes encoding peroxins required for peroxisome assembly invaluably contributed to the accomplishment of cloning of pathogenic genes responsible for PBDs. Peroxins are divided into three groups: 1) peroxins including Pex3p, Pex16p and Pex19p, are responsible for peroxisome membrane biogenesis via Pex19p- and Pex3p-dependent class I and Pex19p- and Pex16p-dependent class II pathways; 2) peroxins that function in matrix protein import; 3) those such as Pex11pβ are involved in peroxisome division where DLP1, Mff, and Fis1 coordinately function. PMID:27941306

  1. Tissue-specific differential induction of duplicated fatty acid-binding protein genes by the peroxisome proliferator, clofibrate, in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Force, Lynch and Conery proposed the duplication-degeneration-complementation (DDC) model in which partitioning of ancestral functions (subfunctionalization) and acquisition of novel functions (neofunctionalization) were the two primary mechanisms for the retention of duplicated genes. The DDC model was tested by analyzing the transcriptional induction of the duplicated fatty acid-binding protein (fabp) genes by clofibrate in zebrafish. Clofibrate is a specific ligand of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR); it activates PPAR which then binds to a peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) to induce the transcriptional initiation of genes primarily involved in lipid homeostasis. Zebrafish was chosen as our model organism as it has many duplicated genes owing to a whole genome duplication (WGD) event that occurred ~230-400 million years ago in the teleost fish lineage. We assayed the steady-state levels of fabp mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) transcripts in liver, intestine, muscle, brain and heart for four sets of duplicated fabp genes, fabp1a/fabp1b.1/fabp1b.2, fabp7a/fabp7b, fabp10a/fabp10b and fabp11a/fabp11b in zebrafish fed different concentrations of clofibrate. Result Electron microscopy showed an increase in the number of peroxisomes and mitochondria in liver and heart, respectively, in zebrafish fed clofibrate. Clofibrate also increased the steady-state level of acox1 mRNA and hnRNA transcripts in different tissues, a gene with a functional PPRE. These results demonstrate that zebrafish is responsive to clofibrate, unlike some other fishes. The levels of fabp mRNA and hnRNA transcripts for the four sets of duplicated fabp genes was determined by reverse transcription, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The level of hnRNA coded by a gene is an indirect estimate of the rate of transcriptional initiation of that gene. Clofibrate increased the steady-state level of fabp mRNAs and hnRNAs for both the

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) modulates free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1) dependent insulin secretion in humans

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Robert; Hieronimus, Anja; Lamprinou, Apostolia; Heni, Martin; Hatziagelaki, Erifili; Ullrich, Susanne; Stefan, Norbert; Staiger, Harald; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variation in FFAR1 modulates insulin secretion dependent on non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. We previously demonstrated lower insulin secretion in minor allele carriers of PPARG Pro12Ala in high-NEFA environment, but the mode of action could not been revealed. We tested if this effect is mediated by FFAR1 in humans. Subjects with increased risk of diabetes who underwent oral glucose tolerance tests were genotyped for 7 tagging SNPs in FFAR1 and PPARG Pro12Ala. The FFAR1 SNPs rs12462800 and rs10422744 demonstrated interactions with PPARG on insulin secretion. FFAR1 rs12462800 (p = 0.0006) and rs10422744 (p = 0.001) were associated with reduced insulin secretion in participants concomitantly carrying the PPARG minor allele and having high fasting FFA. These results suggest that the minor allele of the PPARG SNP exposes its carriers to modulatory effects of FFAR1 on insulin secretion. This subphenotype may define altered responsiveness to FFAR1-agonists, and should be investigated in further studies. PMID:25161890

  3. IL-6 cooperates with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α-ligands to induce liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Vida, Margarita; Serrano, Antonia; Romero-Cuevas, Miguel; Pavón, Francisco J; González-Rodriguez, Agueda; Gavito, Ana L; Cuesta, Antonio L; Valverde, Angela M; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Baixeras, Elena

    2013-08-01

    LFABP plays a critical role in the uptake and intracellular transport of fatty acids (FA) and other peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) ligands. PPARα activation by PPARα ligands bound to LFABP results in gene expression of FA oxidation enzymes and de novo LFABP. The cytokine IL-6 is involved in regulating liver lipid oxidation. To study the ability of IL-6 to modulate the expression of the LFABP in hepatocytes. HepG2 and mouse primary hepatocytes were used to test LFABP mRNA and protein expression after IL-6 and PPARα-ligand treatments. Mice lacking IL-6 and wild-type C57Bl/6 were subjected to a fasting/re-feeding cycle to monitor hepatic LFABP mRNA kinetics after food intake. In hepatocyte cultures, IL-6 treatment stimulated a LFABP mRNA sustained expression. Combined treatment of IL-6 plus PPARα ligands further enhanced LFABP gene and protein expression. In contrast, pretreatment with the PPARα-antagonist GW-6471 prevented the up-regulation of LFABP mRNA induced by IL-6 in the late phase of LFABP kinetics. Furthermore, the up-regulation of LFABP mRNA observed in the liver of wild-type mice 8 h after re-feeding was absent in mice lacking IL-6. IL-6 induces LFABP kinetics in hepatocytes and is partially dependent on PPARα. The maximum increase in LFABP expression occurs when the stimulation with IL-6 and PPARα-ligands takes place simultaneously. The in vivo results indicate a postprandial regulation of LFABP that correlates with the presence of IL-6. These effects may have important implications in the postprandial increase in FA uptake and intracellular trafficking in the liver. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A peroxisomally localized acyl-activating enzyme is required for volatile benzenoid formation in a Petuniaxhybrida cv. 'Mitchell Diploid' flower.

    PubMed

    Colquhoun, Thomas A; Marciniak, Danielle M; Wedde, Ashlyn E; Kim, Joo Young; Schwieterman, Michael L; Levin, Laura A; Van Moerkercke, Alex; Schuurink, Robert C; Clark, David G

    2012-08-01

    Floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid (FVBP) biosynthesis is a complex and coordinate cellular process executed by petal limb cells of a Petunia×hybrida cv. 'Mitchell Diploid' (MD) plant. In MD flowers, the majority of benzenoid volatile compounds are derived from a core phenylpropanoid pathway intermediate by a coenzyme A (CoA) dependent, β-oxidative scheme. Metabolic flux analysis, reverse genetics, and biochemical characterizations of key enzymes in this pathway have supported this putative concept. However, the theoretical first enzymatic reaction, which leads to the production of cinnamoyl-CoA, has only been physically demonstrated in a select number of bacteria like Streptomyces maritimus through mutagenesis and recombinant protein production. A transcript has been cloned and characterized from MD flowers that shares high homology with an Arabidopsis thaliana transcript ACYL-ACTIVATING ENZYME11 (AtAAE11) and the S. maritimus ACYL-COA:LIGASE (SmEncH). In MD, the PhAAE transcript accumulates in a very similar manner as bona fide FVBP network genes, i.e. high levels in an open flower petal and ethylene regulated. In planta, PhAAE is localized to the peroxisome. Upon reduction of PhAAE transcript through a stable RNAi approach, transgenic flowers emitted a reduced level of all benzenoid volatile compounds. Together, the data suggest that PhAAE may be responsible for the activation of t-cinnamic acid, which would be required for floral volatile benzenoid production in MD.

  5. Rosiglitazone Inhibits Acyl-CoA Synthetase Activity and Fatty Acid Partitioning to Diacylglycerol and Triacylglycerol via a Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor-γ–Independent Mechanism in Human Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Askari, Bardia; Kanter, Jenny E.; Sherrid, Ashley M.; Golej, Deidre L.; Bender, Andrew T.; Liu, Joey; Hsueh, Willa A.; Beavo, Joseph A.; Coleman, Rosalind A.; Bornfeldt, Karin E.

    2010-01-01

    Rosiglitazone is an insulin-sensitizing agent that has recently been shown to exert beneficial effects on atherosclerosis. In addition to peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, rosiglitazone can affect other targets, such as directly inhibiting recombinant long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL)-4 activity. Because it is unknown if ACSL4 is expressed in vascular cells involved in atherosclerosis, we investigated the ability of rosiglitazone to inhibit ACSL activity and fatty acid partitioning in human and murine arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and macrophages. Human and murine SMCs and human macrophages expressed Acsl4, and rosiglitazone inhibited Acsl activity in these cells. Furthermore, rosiglitazone acutely inhibited partitioning of fatty acids into phospholipids in human SMCs and inhibited fatty acid partitioning into diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol in human SMCs and macrophages through a PPAR-γ–independent mechanism. Conversely, murine macrophages did not express ACSL4, and rosiglitazone did not inhibit ACSL activity in these cells, nor did it affect acute fatty acid partitioning into cellular lipids. Thus, rosiglitazone inhibits ACSL activity and fatty acid partitioning in human and murine SMCs and in human macrophages through a PPAR-γ–independent mechanism likely to be mediated by ACSL4 inhibition. Therefore, rosiglitazone might alter the biological effects of fatty acids in these cells and in atherosclerosis. PMID:17259370

  6. Newly born peroxisomes are a hybrid of mitochondrial and ER-derived pre-peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Ayumu; Mattie, Sevan; Prudent, Julien; McBride, Heidi M

    2017-02-09

    Peroxisomes function together with mitochondria in a number of essential biochemical pathways, from bile acid synthesis to fatty acid oxidation. Peroxisomes grow and divide from pre-existing organelles, but can also emerge de novo in the cell. The physiological regulation of de novo peroxisome biogenesis remains unclear, and it is thought that peroxisomes emerge from the endoplasmic reticulum in both mammalian and yeast cells. However, in contrast to the yeast system, a number of integral peroxisomal membrane proteins are imported into mitochondria in mammalian cells in the absence of peroxisomes, including Pex3, Pex12, Pex13, Pex14, Pex26, PMP34 and ALDP. Overall, the mitochondrial localization of peroxisomal membrane proteins in mammalian cells has largely been considered a mis-targeting artefact in which de novo biogenesis occurs exclusively from endoplasmic reticulum-targeted peroxins. Here, in following the generation of new peroxisomes within human patient fibroblasts lacking peroxisomes, we show that the essential import receptors Pex3 and Pex14 target mitochondria, where they are selectively released into vesicular pre-peroxisomal structures. Maturation of pre-peroxisomes containing Pex3 and Pex14 requires fusion with endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles carrying Pex16, thereby providing full import competence. These findings demonstrate the hybrid nature of newly born peroxisomes, expanding their functional links to mitochondria.

  7. Fasting plasma free fatty acid concentrations and Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma2 gene in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, O; Mancini, F P; Ruffa, G; Sabatino, L; Iovine, C; Masulli, M; Colantuoni, V; Riccardi, G

    2002-10-01

    The Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma gene has been associated in some, but not all, studies with lower body mass index (BMI) and improved insulin sensitivity; how an altered transcriptional activity of PPARgamma2 could influence insulin sensitivity is currently unclear. The free fatty acids (FFAs) released from adipose tissue triglycerides via lipolysis are key mediators of impaired insulin sensitivity; however, no study has described the relationship of the Pro12Ala mutation with circulating levels of FFAs under physiological conditions. To investigate in a population-based sample of Caucasians the relation of the Pro12Ala polymorphism with plasma concentrations of FFAs and other markers of lipid and glucose metabolism described as components of the insulin resistance syndrome. Four hundred and thirty-eight nondiabetic employees of the Italian Telephone Company, aged 35-65 years, randomly selected from a total population of 3900 participants in a company-sponsored health screening. The Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARgamma was studied together with plasma FFAs, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, blood pressure and anthropometry. The Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) index was calculated as a measure of insulin resistance. Carriers and noncarriers of the Pro12Ala polymorphism showed very similar circulating levels of FFA (0.46 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.47 +/- 0.2, NS); plasma glucose, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and blood pressure were also similar in the two groups with or without the polymorphism. To allow for the possible confounding effect of obesity, a separate analysis was conducted in overweight (BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2)) and normal-weight people (BMI < 25 kg/m(2)). Circulating plasma FFA concentrations, as well as triglycerides, blood pressure and HOMA, were significantly higher in overweight than normal-weight, as expected, but no significant differences were detected

  8. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ2 Pro12Ala variant is associated with body mass index in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A C; Chaudhory, A K; Sukriti; Pande, C; Sakhuja, P; Singh, Y; Basir, S F; Sarin, S K

    2010-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease globally and commonly associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a transcription factor abundantly expressed in adipocytes and plays a key role in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation, lipid and glucose homeostasis. Pro12Ala variant has been earlier associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and MS. The present study aimed to determine the genotype frequencies of the Pro12Ala variant in NAFLD patients and any further association with other phenotype in the patients. Ninety-eight NAFLD patients and 280 matched controls were genotyped for presence of the Pro12Ala variant. Genomic DNA was extracted and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism using Bst-UI was performed for the detection of C-G change at codon 12 position of PPAR γ2 gene. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared between patients and controls. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested by comparing expected/observed genotype frequencies by χ(2) test. The frequencies of Pro/Ala genotype were comparable between NAFLD patients and controls. In the controls, 213 (75.7%) were homozygous for the wild-type (Pro/Pro) genotype and 67 (23.9%) were heterozygous (Pro/Ala). In NAFLD patients, genotypic distribution of wild type, heterozygous and homozygous were 63 (64.3%), 34 (34.7%) and 1 (1%), respectively. Heterozygous genotype was found to be significantly higher in the patients (P = 0.01). We also analyzed related phenotypic association of the patients with Pro12Ala genotype. We observed that the Pro12Ala (heterozygous) genotype was significantly higher in the patients who had body mass index >25 kg/m(2) (P = 0.025). Pro12Ala variation of the PPAR γ2 gene is associated with NAFLD and might play a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD.

  9. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ2 Pro12Ala variant is associated with body mass index in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A. C.; Chaudhory, A. K.; Sukriti; Pande, C.; Sakhuja, P.; Singh, Y.; Basir, S. F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease globally and commonly associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a transcription factor abundantly expressed in adipocytes and plays a key role in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation, lipid and glucose homeostasis. Pro12Ala variant has been earlier associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and MS. Aim The present study aimed to determine the genotype frequencies of the Pro12Ala variant in NAFLD patients and any further association with other phenotype in the patients. Patients and methods Ninety-eight NAFLD patients and 280 matched controls were genotyped for presence of the Pro12Ala variant. Genomic DNA was extracted and polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism using Bst-UI was performed for the detection of C–G change at codon 12 position of PPAR γ2 gene. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared between patients and controls. The Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was tested by comparing expected/observed genotype frequencies by χ2 test. Results The frequencies of Pro/Ala genotype were comparable between NAFLD patients and controls. In the controls, 213 (75.7%) were homozygous for the wild-type (Pro/Pro) genotype and 67 (23.9%) were heterozygous (Pro/Ala). In NAFLD patients, genotypic distribution of wild type, heterozygous and homozygous were 63 (64.3%), 34 (34.7%) and 1 (1%), respectively. Heterozygous genotype was found to be significantly higher in the patients (P = 0.01). We also analyzed related phenotypic association of the patients with Pro12Ala genotype. We observed that the Pro12Ala (heterozygous) genotype was significantly higher in the patients who had body mass index >25 kg/m2 (P = 0.025). Conclusions Pro12Ala variation of the PPAR γ2 gene is associated with NAFLD and might play a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMID:21442055

  10. Evidence of oxidative stress in very long chain fatty acid--treated oligodendrocytes and potentialization of ROS production using RNA interference-directed knockdown of ABCD1 and ACOX1 peroxisomal proteins.

    PubMed

    Baarine, M; Andréoletti, P; Athias, A; Nury, T; Zarrouk, A; Ragot, K; Vejux, A; Riedinger, J-M; Kattan, Z; Bessede, G; Trompier, D; Savary, S; Cherkaoui-Malki, M; Lizard, G

    2012-06-28

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) and pseudo neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (P-NALD) are neurodegenerative demyelinating diseases resulting from the functional loss of the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter D (ABCD1) and from single peroxisomal enzyme deficiency (Acyl-CoA oxidase1: ACOX1), respectively. As these proteins are involved in the catabolism of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA: C24:0, C26:0), X-ALD and P-NALD patients are characterized by the accumulation of VLCFA in plasma and tissues. Since peroxisomes are involved in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS), we examined the impact of VLCFA on the oxidative status of 158N murine oligodendrocytes expressing or not Abcd1 or Acox1. VLCFA triggers an oxidative stress characterized by an overproduction of ROS and RNS associated with lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, decreased catalase activity and glutathione level. SiRNA knockdown of Abcd1 or Acox1 increased ROS and RNS production even in the absence of VLCFA, and especially potentialized VLCFA-induced ROS overproduction. Moreover, mainly in cells with reduced Acox1 level, the levels of VLCFA and neutral lipids were strongly enhanced both in untreated and VLCFA - treated cells. Our data obtained on 158N murine oligodendrocytes highlight that VLCFA induce an oxidative stress, and demonstrate that Abcd1 or Acox1 knockdown contributes to disrupt RedOx equilibrium supporting a link between oxidative stress and the deficiency of Abcd1 or Acox1 peroxisomal proteins. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Improve Liver Lipid Oxidation-Related Enzyme Levels and Increased the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Expression Level in Mice Subjected to Hemorrhagic Shock/Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Tian, Feng; Gao, Xuejin; Wang, Xinying; Wu, Chao; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2016-04-22

    Appropriate metabolic interventions after hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation injury have not yet been identified. We aimed to examine the effects of fish oil on lipid metabolic intervention after hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation. Firstly, 48 C57BL/6 mice were assigned to six groups (n = 8 per group). The sham group did not undergo surgery, while mice in the remaining groups were sacrificed 1-5 days after hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation. In the second part, mice were treated with saline or fish oil (n = 8 per group) five days after injury. We determined serum triglyceride levels and liver tissues were collected and prepared for qRT-PCR or Western blot analysis. We found that triglyceride levels were increased five days after hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation, but decreased after addition of fish oil. After injury, the protein and gene expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A, fatty acid transport protein 1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α decreased significantly in liver tissue. In contrast, after treatment with fish oil, the expression levels of these targets increased compared with those in the saline group. The present results suggest n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids could improve lipid oxidation-related enzymes in liver subjected to hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation. This function is possibly accomplished through activating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α pathway.

  12. Peroxin Puzzles and Folded Freight: Peroxisomal Protein Import in Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crookes, Wendy J.; Olsen, Laura J.

    Peroxisomes are organelles that perform a variety of functions, including the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide and the oxidation of fatty acids. Peroxisomes do not possess organellar DNA; all peroxisomal matrix proteins are posttranslationally translocated into the organelle. The mechanism of peroxisomal protein translocation has been the subject of vigorous research in the past decade. Many of the proteins (peroxins, abbreviated Pex) that play critical roles in peroxisome biogenesis have been identified through functional complementation of yeast strains and of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines that are defective in peroxisome biogenesis. Researchers are now turning towards biochemical and genetic analyses of these peroxins to define their roles in peroxisome biogenesis and to discover interacting protein partners. Evidence suggests that some of the interacting partners include molecular chaperones. Several current models for peroxisomal protein import are presented.

  13. The proteome of human liver peroxisomes: identification of five new peroxisomal constituents by a label-free quantitative proteomics survey.

    PubMed

    Gronemeyer, Thomas; Wiese, Sebastian; Ofman, Rob; Bunse, Christian; Pawlas, Magdalena; Hayen, Heiko; Eisenacher, Martin; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E; Waterham, Hans R; Erdmann, Ralf; Wanders, Ronald J; Warscheid, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    The peroxisome is a key organelle of low abundance that fulfils various functions essential for human cell metabolism. Severe genetic diseases in humans are caused by defects in peroxisome biogenesis or deficiencies in the function of single peroxisomal proteins. To improve our knowledge of this important cellular structure, we studied for the first time human liver peroxisomes by quantitative proteomics. Peroxisomes were isolated by differential and Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation. A label-free quantitative study of 314 proteins across the density gradient was accomplished using high resolution mass spectrometry. By pairing statistical data evaluation, cDNA cloning and in vivo colocalization studies, we report the association of five new proteins with human liver peroxisomes. Among these, isochorismatase domain containing 1 protein points to the existence of a new metabolic pathway and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase like 2 protein is likely involved in the transport or β-oxidation of fatty acids in human peroxisomes. The detection of alcohol dehydrogenase 1A suggests the presence of an alternative alcohol-oxidizing system in hepatic peroxisomes. In addition, lactate dehydrogenase A and malate dehydrogenase 1 partially associate with human liver peroxisomes and enzyme activity profiles support the idea that NAD(+) becomes regenerated during fatty acid β-oxidation by alternative shuttling processes in human peroxisomes involving lactate dehydrogenase and/or malate dehydrogenase. Taken together, our data represent a valuable resource for future studies of peroxisome biochemistry that will advance research of human peroxisomes in health and disease.

  14. The Proteome of Human Liver Peroxisomes: Identification of Five New Peroxisomal Constituents by a Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ofman, Rob; Bunse, Christian; Pawlas, Magdalena; Hayen, Heiko; Eisenacher, Martin; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E.; Waterham, Hans R.; Erdmann, Ralf; Wanders, Ronald J.; Warscheid, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    The peroxisome is a key organelle of low abundance that fulfils various functions essential for human cell metabolism. Severe genetic diseases in humans are caused by defects in peroxisome biogenesis or deficiencies in the function of single peroxisomal proteins. To improve our knowledge of this important cellular structure, we studied for the first time human liver peroxisomes by quantitative proteomics. Peroxisomes were isolated by differential and Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation. A label-free quantitative study of 314 proteins across the density gradient was accomplished using high resolution mass spectrometry. By pairing statistical data evaluation, cDNA cloning and in vivo colocalization studies, we report the association of five new proteins with human liver peroxisomes. Among these, isochorismatase domain containing 1 protein points to the existence of a new metabolic pathway and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase like 2 protein is likely involved in the transport or β-oxidation of fatty acids in human peroxisomes. The detection of alcohol dehydrogenase 1A suggests the presence of an alternative alcohol-oxidizing system in hepatic peroxisomes. In addition, lactate dehydrogenase A and malate dehydrogenase 1 partially associate with human liver peroxisomes and enzyme activity profiles support the idea that NAD+ becomes regenerated during fatty acid β-oxidation by alternative shuttling processes in human peroxisomes involving lactate dehydrogenase and/or malate dehydrogenase. Taken together, our data represent a valuable resource for future studies of peroxisome biochemistry that will advance research of human peroxisomes in health and disease. PMID:23460848

  15. Crosstalk between mitochondria and peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    Demarquoy, Jean; Le Borgne, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria and peroxisomes are small ubiquitous organelles. They both play major roles in cell metabolism, especially in terms of fatty acid metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and ROS scavenging, and it is now clear that they metabolically interact with each other. These two organelles share some properties, such as great plasticity and high potency to adapt their form and number according to cell requirements. Their functions are connected, and any alteration in the function of mitochondria may induce changes in peroxisomal physiology. The objective of this paper was to highlight the interconnection and the crosstalk existing between mitochondria and peroxisomes. Special emphasis was placed on the best known connections between these organelles: origin, structure, and metabolic interconnections. PMID:26629313

  16. A peroxisomally localized acyl-activating enzyme is required for volatile benzenoid formation in a Petunia×hybrida cv. ‘Mitchell Diploid’ flower

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid (FVBP) biosynthesis is a complex and coordinate cellular process executed by petal limb cells of a Petunia×hybrida cv. ‘Mitchell Diploid’ (MD) plant. In MD flowers, the majority of benzenoid volatile compounds are derived from a core phenylpropanoid pathway intermediate by a coenzyme A (CoA) dependent, β-oxidative scheme. Metabolic flux analysis, reverse genetics, and biochemical characterizations of key enzymes in this pathway have supported this putative concept. However, the theoretical first enzymatic reaction, which leads to the production of cinnamoyl-CoA, has only been physically demonstrated in a select number of bacteria like Streptomyces maritimus through mutagenesis and recombinant protein production. A transcript hasbeen cloned and characterized from MD flowers that shares high homology with an Arabidopsis thaliana transcript ACYL-ACTIVATING ENZYME11 (AtAAE11) and the S. maritimus ACYL-COA:LIGASE (SmEncH). In MD, the PhAAE transcript accumulates in a very similar manner as bona fide FVBP network genes, i.e. high levels in an open flower petal and ethylene regulated. In planta, PhAAE is localized to the peroxisome. Upon reduction of PhAAE transcript through a stable RNAi approach, transgenic flowers emitted a reduced level of all benzenoid volatile compounds. Together, the data suggest that PhAAE may be responsible for the activation of t-cinnamic acid, which would be required for floral volatile benzenoid production in MD. PMID:22771854

  17. New insights into the peroxisomal protein inventory: Acyl-CoA oxidases and -dehydrogenases are an ancient feature of peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Camões, Fátima; Islinger, Markus; Guimarães, Sofia C; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Schuster, Martin; Godinho, Luis F; Steinberg, Gero; Schrader, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles which participate in a variety of essential biochemical pathways. An intimate interrelationship between peroxisomes and mitochondria is emerging in mammals, where both organelles cooperate in fatty acid β-oxidation and cellular lipid homeostasis. As mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation is lacking in yeast and plants, suitable genetically accessible model systems to study this interrelationship are scarce. Here, we propose the filamentous fungus Ustilago maydis as a suitable model for those studies. We combined molecular cell biology, bioinformatics and phylogenetic analyses and provide the first comprehensive inventory of U. maydis peroxisomal proteins and pathways. Studies with a peroxisome-deficient Δpex3 mutant revealed the existence of parallel and complex, cooperative β-oxidation pathways in peroxisomes and mitochondria, mimicking the situation in mammals. Furthermore, we provide evidence that acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs) are bona fide peroxisomal proteins in fungi and mammals and together with acyl-CoA oxidases (ACOX) belong to the basic enzymatic repertoire of peroxisomes. A genome comparison with baker's yeast and human gained new insights into the basic peroxisomal protein inventory shared by humans and fungi and revealed novel peroxisomal proteins and functions in U. maydis. The importance of our findings for the evolution and function of the complex interrelationship between peroxisomes and mitochondria in fatty acid β-oxidation is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Peroxisome morphology in pathology.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, D; Castro, I; Fahimi, H D; Schrader, M

    2012-06-01

    Peroxisomes are remarkably dynamic and versatile organelles that are essential for human health and development. They respond to physiological changes in the cellular environment by adapting their morphology, number, enzyme content and metabolic functions accordingly. With the discovery of the first key peroxisomal morphology proteins, the investigation of peroxisomal shape, distribution and dynamics has become an exciting new field in cell biology and biomedical sciences because of its relation to organelle functionality and its impact on developmental and physiological processes. In this review, we summarize recent findings on peroxisome biology, dynamics and the modulation of peroxisome morphology, especially in mammals. Furthermore, we discuss the roles of peroxisome dynamics and morphology in cell pathology and present recent examples for alterations in peroxisome morphology under disease conditions. Besides defects in the peroxisomal morphology machinery, we also address peroxisome biogenesis disorders, alterations of peroxisome number during carcinogenesis and liver cirrhosis, and morphological alterations of peroxisomes during viral infection.

  19. [Effects of Electroacupunctrue Combined with Dietary Control on Peroxisome Proliferator-activa- ted Receptor-α, and Liver Fatty Acid-binding Protein Levels in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Rats].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Tang, Cheng-lin; Tian, Yuan; Yuan, Hai-zhou; Yang, Hui; Tang, Nian-zhen; Gao, Rui-qi; Cao, Jing

    2015-10-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupunctrue (EA) intervention or EA combined with dietary control on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) levels in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rats, so as to reveal its mechanism underlying improvement of NAFLD. Sixty SD male rats were randomly divided into common diet (control) group (n = 10) and high-fat diet group (n = 45). The NAFLD model was established by feeding the animals with high-fat forage (HFF, including cholesterol, sodium cholate, propylthiouracil, sucrose, lard and common forage) for 5 weeks. Forty NAFLD rats were then randomized into model, EA + HFF, low-fat forage (LFF) and EA+ LFF groups (n = 10 rats in each group). EA (4 Hz/20 Hz, 3 mA) was applied to ipsilateral "Zusanli" (ST 36),"Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) and "Taichong" (LR 3) for 20 min, once daily for 4 weeks. The pathologic changes of the hepatic tissue were detected by H. E. staining. Serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents were determined by using enzymatic methods, serum free fat acids (FFA) content was detected by colorimetry. The expression levels of PPAR-α and L-FABP protein and gene of the liver tissue were determined by Western blot and RT-PCR, respectively. H. E. staining showed that the hepatocytes presented moderate or severe bullous adipose degeneration in rats of the model group, vesicular steatosis in the EA + HFF and LFF groups, turned to almost normal but with small amount of lipid droplets in the EA + LFF group. The contents of serum TC, TG and FFA were significantly higher in the model group than in the control group (P < 0.05), and were obviously decreased in the EA + HFF, LFF and EA + LFF groups in comparison with the model group (P < 0.05). Compared to the control group, hepatic PPAR-α protein and mRNA were markedly down-regulated in the model group, and hepatic L-FABP protein and mRNA considerably up-regulated in the model group (P < 0

  20. The Roles of β-Oxidation and Cofactor Homeostasis in Peroxisome Distribution and Function in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Mauro A; Patel, Ashish B; Park, Jaeseok; Lee, Koeun; Strader, Lucia C; Bartel, Bonnie

    2016-11-01

    Key steps of essential metabolic pathways are housed in plant peroxisomes. We conducted a microscopy-based screen for anomalous distribution of peroxisomally targeted fluorescence in Arabidopsis thaliana This screen uncovered 34 novel alleles in 15 genes affecting oil body mobilization, fatty acid β-oxidation, the glyoxylate cycle, peroxisome fission, and pexophagy. Partial loss-of-function of lipid-mobilization enzymes conferred peroxisomes clustered around retained oil bodies without other notable defects, suggesting that this microscopy-based approach was sensitive to minor perturbations, and that fatty acid β-oxidation rates in wild type are higher than required for normal growth. We recovered three mutants defective in PECTIN METHYLESTERASE31, revealing an unanticipated role in lipid mobilization for this cytosolic enzyme. Whereas mutations reducing fatty acid import had peroxisomes of wild-type size, mutations impairing fatty acid β-oxidation displayed enlarged peroxisomes, possibly caused by excess fatty acid β-oxidation intermediates in the peroxisome. Several fatty acid β-oxidation mutants also displayed defects in peroxisomal matrix protein import. Impairing fatty acid import reduced the large size of peroxisomes in a mutant defective in the PEROXISOMAL NAD(+) TRANSPORTER (PXN), supporting the hypothesis that fatty acid accumulation causes pxn peroxisome enlargement. The diverse mutants isolated in this screen will aid future investigations of the roles of β-oxidation and peroxisomal cofactor homeostasis in plant development.

  1. Divergent evolution of cis-acting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor elements that differentially control the tandemly duplicated fatty acid-binding protein genes, fabp1b.1 and fabp1b.2, in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Laprairie, Robert B; Denovan-Wright, Eileen M; Wright, Jonathan M

    2016-06-01

    Gene duplication is thought to facilitate increasing complexity in the evolution of life. The fate of most duplicated genes is nonfunctionalization: functional decay resulting from the accumulation of mutations. According to the duplication-degeneration-complementation (DDC) model, duplicated genes are retained by subfunctionalization, where the functions of the ancestral gene are sub-divided between duplicate genes, or by neofunctionalization, where one of the duplicates acquires a new function. Here, we report the differential regulation of the zebrafish tandemly duplicated fatty acid-binding protein genes, fabp1b.1 and fabp1b.2, by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). fabp1b.1 mRNA levels were induced in tissue explants of liver, but not intestine, by PPAR agonists. fabp1b.1 promoter activity was induced to a greater extent by rosiglitazone (PPARγ-selective agonist) compared to WY 14,643 (PPARα-selective agonist) in HEK293A cells. Mutation of a peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) at -1232 bp in the fabp1b.1 promoter reduced PPAR-dependent activation. fabp1b.2 promoter activity was not affected by PPAR agonists. Differential regulation of the duplicated fabp1b promoters may be the result of PPRE loss in fabp1b.2 during a meiotic crossing-over event. Retention of PPAR inducibility in fabp1b.1 and not fabp1b.2 suggests unique regulation and function of the fabp1b duplicates.

  2. [Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, fatty acid binding protein-4 in placenta and their correlations with the prognosis of pre-eclampsia].

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Chen, W L; Liu, L; Gu, H

    2017-07-25

    Objective: To examine the mRNA and protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP-4) in placenta, and to investigate their correlation with the prognosis of pre-eclampsia. Methods: The data of 177 women who delivered from January 2013 to December 2015 in Chinese People's Liberation Army No.94 Hospital were collected. Among them, 60 cases were term pregnancy and not in labor (TN); 46 cases were term pregnancy with preeclampsia and not in labor (TPE); 42 cases were preterm pregnancy and not in labor (PN); 29 cases were preterm pregnancy with pre-eclampsia and not in labor (PPE). Real-time PCR and western blot were used to examine the PPAR and FABP-4 mRNA expression and protein expression in placentas. And linear correlation was used to analyze the relationship between PPAR and FABP-4 protein expression and the prognosis of pre-eclampsia. Results: (1) Real-time PCR showed that: ① PPAR-α, PPAR-β mRNA expression were not statistically different between placentas from TN and TPE (P>0.05), but PPAR-γ mRNA level in TPE (0.59±0.17) was significantly lower than that in TN (0.81±0.19, P<0.01). However, FABP-4 mRNA level in TPE (0.70±0.23) was significantly higher than that in TN (0.43±0.18, P<0.01). ②There were no statistical differences in PPAR-α, PPAR-β mRNA expression level between PN and PPE (P>0.05) . However, PPAR-γ mRNA in the PPE group (0.33±0.14) was significantly lower than that in PN (0.52±0.16, P<0.01), and FABP-4 mRNA level in the PPE group (0.80±0.29) was significantly higher than in the PN group (0.63±0.22, P<0.01). (2) Western-blot showed the same tendency as the mRNA results. ①There were no statistical differences in the protein expression of PPAR-α, PPAR-β, not in term groups (TN and TPE) , nor in premature groups (PN and PPE) . PPAR-γ protein level in the TPE group (0.46±0.17) was significantly lower than that in TN (0.65±0.20, P<0.01) and FABP-4 protein level in the

  3. Reduced peroxisomal citrate synthase activity increases substrate availability for polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis in plant peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Tilbrook, Kimberley; Poirier, Yves; Gebbie, Leigh; Schenk, Peer M; McQualter, Richard B; Brumbley, Stevens M

    2014-10-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bacterial carbon storage polymers used as renewable, biodegradable plastics. PHA production in plants may be a way to reduce industrial PHA production costs. We recently demonstrated a promising level of peroxisomal PHA production in the high biomass crop species sugarcane. However, further production strategies are needed to boost PHA accumulation closer to commercial targets. Through exogenous fatty acid feeding of Arabidopsis thaliana plants that contain peroxisome-targeted PhaA, PhaB and PhaC enzymes from Cupriavidus necator, we show here that the availability of substrates derived from the β-oxidation cycle limits peroxisomal polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis. Knockdown of peroxisomal citrate synthase activity using artificial microRNA increased PHB production levels approximately threefold. This work demonstrates that reduction of peroxisomal citrate synthase activity may be a valid metabolic engineering strategy for increasing PHA production in other plant species.

  4. Induction of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 by unsaturated fatty acids, retinoic acid, and carotenoids in preadipocytes obtained from bovine white adipose tissue1,2.

    PubMed

    García-Rojas, P; Antaramian, A; González-Dávalos, L; Villarroya, F; Shimada, A; Varela-Echavarría, A; Mora, O

    2010-05-01

    The importance of dietary fat components, such as fatty acids, in the expression of multiple genes is clear. In the case of beef cattle, fat in the form of fatty acids (saturated or unsaturated), vitamin A (mainly retinoic acid), or carotenoids (beta-carotene and lutein) is obtained from dietary feed or pasture. The aim of this work was to study the effect of fatty acids (phytanic and pristanic acids), vitamin A (all-trans and 9-cis retinoic acid), and carotenoids (beta-carotene and lutein) on the expression of PPARgamma and its coactivator PGC-1alpha during differentiation of bovine white adipose tissue. Samples were collected at slaughter from subcutaneous adipose tissue and processed in a solution containing type II collagenase for 2 h at 37 degrees C. Cells were resuspended in basal medium, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 5% fetal bovine serum, plated on 24-well culture plates at a density of 1 x 10(4) cells/cm(2), and incubated at 37 degrees C in a 5% CO(2) atmosphere. Preadipocyte differentiation after reaching confluence was induced by various treatments: rosiglitazone (20 microM); unsaturated fatty acids: phytanic acid (25, 50, 100 microM) and pristanic acid (25, 50, 100 microM); retinoids: 9-cis retinoic acid (0.5, 0.75, 1 microM) and all-trans retinoic acid (0.5, 0.75, 1 microM); and carotenoids: beta-carotene (10, 20, 30 microM) and lutein (10, 20, 30 microM). Expression of PPARgamma and PGC-1alpha was measured in differentiated cells. Phytanic acid, all-trans retinoic acid, and 9-cis retinoic acid were the best activators of PPARgamma expression, and the combination of 9-cis and all-trans retinoic acid was the best activator of PGC-1alpha expression (P < 0.05). Therefore, these are powerful agents for the promotion of bovine adipogenesis and constitute promising compounds to be used in bovine fattening.

  5. A critical role for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) in the cellular fasting response: the PPARalpha-null mouse as a model of fatty acid oxidation disorders.

    PubMed

    Leone, T C; Weinheimer, C J; Kelly, D P

    1999-06-22

    We hypothesized that the lipid-activated transcription factor, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), plays a pivotal role in the cellular metabolic response to fasting. Short-term starvation caused hepatic steatosis, myocardial lipid accumulation, and hypoglycemia, with an inadequate ketogenic response in adult mice lacking PPARalpha (PPARalpha-/-), a phenotype that bears remarkable similarity to that of humans with genetic defects in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzymes. In PPARalpha+/+ mice, fasting induced the hepatic and cardiac expression of PPARalpha target genes encoding key mitochondrial (medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I) and extramitochondrial (acyl-CoA oxidase, cytochrome P450 4A3) enzymes. In striking contrast, the hepatic and cardiac expression of most PPARalpha target genes was not induced by fasting in PPARalpha-/- mice. These results define a critical role for PPARalpha in a transcriptional regulatory response to fasting and identify the PPARalpha-/- mouse as a potentially useful murine model of inborn and acquired abnormalities of human fatty acid utilization.

  6. Peroxisomes, peroxisomal diseases, and the hepatotoxicity induced by peroxisomal metabolites.

    PubMed

    Wanders, Ronald J A; Ferdinandusse, Sacha

    2012-12-01

    The group of peroxisomal disorders represents a growing number of genetically determined diseases in humans in which there is an impairment in one or more peroxisomal functions. The peroxisomal disorders are usually subdivided in two major subgroups including (1) the peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) and (2) the single peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies. Liver pathology is a frequent finding in patients affected by a peroxisomal disorder. This is not only true for patients affected by a PBD, but also for patients with a single enzyme defect in one of the metabolic pathways in which peroxisomes are involved. By comparing the different peroxisomal disorders, we provide evidence suggesting that the main hepatotoxic metabolites responsible for the liver pathology found in patients, are the bile acid synthesis intermediates di- and trihydroxycholestanoic acid (DHCA and THCA). Studies in different experimental systems have shown that DHCA and THCA, especially in the unconjugated form, interfere with different physiological processes including mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The implications of these findings will be discussed with special emphasis on patients with di- and trihydroxycholestanoic acidaemia.

  7. Structural Basis for Ligand Regulation of the Fatty Acid-binding Protein 5, Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor β/δ (FABP5-PPARβ/δ) Signaling Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Eric H.; Goswami, Devrishi; Griffin, Patrick R.; Noy, Noa; Ortlund, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are a widely expressed group of calycins that play a well established role in solubilizing cellular fatty acids. Recent studies, however, have recast FABPs as active participants in vital lipid-signaling pathways. FABP5, like its family members, displays a promiscuous ligand binding profile, capable of interacting with numerous long chain fatty acids of varying degrees of saturation. Certain “activating” fatty acids induce the protein's cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation, stimulating PPARβ/δ transactivation; however, the rules that govern this process remain unknown. Using a range of structural and biochemical techniques, we show that both linoleic and arachidonic acid elicit FABP5's translocation by permitting allosteric communication between the ligand-sensing β2 loop and a tertiary nuclear localization signal within the α-helical cap of the protein. Furthermore, we show that more saturated, nonactivating fatty acids inhibit nuclear localization signal formation by destabilizing this activation loop, thus implicating FABP5 specifically in cis-bonded, polyunsaturated fatty acid signaling. PMID:24692551

  8. The Impact of Peroxisomes on Cellular Aging and Death

    PubMed Central

    Manivannan, Selvambigai; Scheckhuber, Christian Quintus; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous eukaryotic organelles, which perform a plethora of functions including hydrogen peroxide metabolism and β-oxidation of fatty acids. Reactive oxygen species produced by peroxisomes are a major contributing factor to cellular oxidative stress, which is supposed to significantly accelerate aging and cell death according to the free radical theory of aging. However, relative to mitochondria, the role of the other oxidative organelles, the peroxisomes, in these degenerative pathways has not been extensively investigated. In this contribution we discuss our current knowledge on the role of peroxisomes in aging and cell death, with focus on studies performed in yeast. PMID:22662318

  9. A role for mRNA trafficking and localized translation in peroxisome biogenesis and function?

    PubMed

    Haimovich, Gal; Cohen-Zontag, Osnat; Gerst, Jeffrey E

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes are distinct membrane-enclosed organelles involved in the β-oxidation of fatty acids and synthesis of ether phospholipids (e.g. plasmalogens), as well as cholesterol and its derivatives (e.g. bile acids). Peroxisomes comprise a distinct and highly segregated subset of cellular proteins, including those of the peroxisome membrane and the interior matrix, and while the mechanisms of protein import into peroxisomes have been extensively studied, they are not fully understood. Here we will examine the potential role of RNA trafficking and localized translation on protein import into peroxisomes and its role in peroxisome biogenesis and function. Given that RNAs encoding peroxisome biogenesis (PEX) and matrix proteins have been found in association with the endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes, it suggests that localized translation may play a significant role in the import pathways of these different peroxisomal constituents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. ATM functions at the peroxisome to induce pexophagy in response to ROS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangwei; Tripathi, Durga Nand; Jing, Ji; Alexander, Angela; Kim, Jinhee; Powell, Reid T; Dere, Ruhee; Tait-Mulder, Jacqueline; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Paull, Tanya T; Pandita, Raj K; Charaka, Vijaya K; Pandita, Tej K; Kastan, Michael B; Walker, Cheryl Lyn

    2015-10-01

    Peroxisomes are highly metabolic, autonomously replicating organelles that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a by-product of fatty acid β-oxidation. Consequently, cells must maintain peroxisome homeostasis, or risk pathologies associated with too few peroxisomes, such as peroxisome biogenesis disorders, or too many peroxisomes, inducing oxidative damage and promoting diseases such as cancer. We report that the PEX5 peroxisome import receptor binds ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and localizes this kinase to the peroxisome. In response to ROS, ATM signalling activates ULK1 and inhibits mTORC1 to induce autophagy. Specificity for autophagy of peroxisomes (pexophagy) is provided by ATM phosphorylation of PEX5 at Ser 141, which promotes PEX5 monoubiquitylation at Lys 209, and recognition of ubiquitylated PEX5 by the autophagy adaptor protein p62, directing the autophagosome to peroxisomes to induce pexophagy. These data reveal an important new role for ATM in metabolism as a sensor of ROS that regulates pexophagy.

  11. Acyl-coenzyme A oxidases 1 and 3 in brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario): Can peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation be regulated by estrogen signaling?

    PubMed

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Castro, L Filipe C; Rocha, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A oxidases 1 (Acox1) and 3 (Acox3) are key enzymes in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Endogenous and exogenous factors can disrupt their normal expression/activity. This study presents for the first time the isolation and characterization of Acox1 and Acox3 in brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario). Additionally, as previous data point to the existence of a cross-talk between two nuclear receptors, namely peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and estrogen receptors, it was here evaluated after in vitro exposures of trout hepatocytes the interference caused by ethynylestradiol in the mRNA levels of an inducible (by peroxisome proliferators) and a non-inducible oxidase. The isolated Acox1 and Acox3 show high levels of sequence conservation compared to those of other teleosts. Additionally, it was found that Acox1 has two alternative splicing isoforms, corresponding to 3I and 3II isoforms of exon 3 splicing variants. Both isoforms display tissue specificity, with Acox1-3II presenting a more ubiquitous expression in comparison with Acox1-3I. Acox3 was expressed in almost all brown trout tissues. According to real-time PCR data, the highest estrogenic stimulus was able to cause a down-regulation of Acox1 and an up-regulation of Acox3. So, for Acox1 we found a negative association between an estrogenic input and a directly activated PPARα target gene. In conclusion, changes in hormonal estrogenic stimulus may impact the mobilization of hepatic lipids to the gonads, with ultimate consequences in reproduction. Further studies using in vivo assays will be fundamental to clarify these issues.

  12. Peroxisomes: membrane events accompanying peroxisome proliferation.

    PubMed

    Opaliński, Łukasz; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2011-06-01

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles surrounded by a single membrane that display a variety of metabolic functions. These vary with the organism in which they occur and with environmental conditions. Peroxisomes multiply by division of existing organelles and can be formed from ER. The peroxisomal membrane, akin to the organelle itself, is a very dynamic structure that obtains building blocks from the ER. It can form diverse organized structures - lipid domains - that can be involved in regulation of various vesicle fusion processes. Additionally, this membrane may undergo extensive changes in lipid composition. We recently showed that upon proliferation the peroxisomal membrane changes its curvature in response to the activity of the peroxisomal membrane protein Pex11. Tubulation of the organelle may be important for efficient recruitment of GTPases from the dynamin protein family that is involved in organelle fission. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) by nitroalkene fatty acids: importance of nitration position and degree of unsaturation.

    PubMed

    Gorczynski, Michael J; Smitherman, Pamela K; Akiyama, Taro E; Wood, Harold B; Berger, Joel P; King, S Bruce; Morrow, Charles S

    2009-08-13

    Nitroalkene fatty acids are potent endogenous ligand activators of PPARgamma-dependent transcription. Previous studies with the naturally occurring regioisomers of nitrolinoleic acid revealed that the isomers are not equivalent with respect to PPARgamma activation. To gain further insight into the structure-activity relationships between nitroalkenes and PPARgamma, we examined additional naturally occurring nitroalkenes derived from oleic acid, 9-nitrooleic acid (E-9-NO2-18:1 [1]) and 10-nitrooleic acid (E-10-NO2-18:1 [2]), and several synthetic nitrated enoic fatty acids of variable carbon chain length, double bonds, and nitration site. At submicromolar concentrations, E-12-NO2 derivatives were considerably more potent than isomers nitrated at carbons 5, 6, 9, 10, and 13, and chain length (16 versus 18) or number of double bonds (1 versus 2) was of little consequence for PPARgamma activation. Interestingly, at higher concentrations (>2 microM) the nitrated enoic fatty acids (E-9-NO2-18:1 [1], E-9-NO2-16:1 [3], E-10-NO2-18:1 [2], and E-12-NO2-18:1 [7]) deviated significantly from the saturable pattern of PPARgamma activation observed for nitrated 1,4-dienoic fatty acids (E-9-NO2-18:2, E-10-NO2-18:2, E-12-NO2-18:2, and E-13-NO2-18:2).

  14. Versatility of peroxisomes: An evolving concept.

    PubMed

    Deb, Rachayeeta; Nagotu, Shirisha

    2017-04-01

    Research spanning almost 50 years has highlighted unique characteristics and irreplaceable list of diverse functions performed by peroxisomes in various model systems. Peroxisomes are single membrane bound highly dynamic organelles ubiquitous to most eukaryotic cells. Proliferation by division of pre-existing organelles and the role of endoplasmic reticulum in the biogenesis of these organelles is now well established. The earliest identified conserved functions of peroxisomes are β-oxidation of fatty acids and reactive oxygen species metabolism. Several studies over the last few decades have reported the importance of this organelle and its numerous cell type, tissue and environment-dependent functions. Their role in several aspects of human health and disease is now under investigation. Studies related to peroxisome biology and functions are now also extended to diverse model systems like Drosophila melanogaster, trypanosomatids, etc. Peroxisomes also intricately collaborate and carry out these functions together with several other organelles in a cell. In this review, we aim to present an overview of our current knowledge of the repertoire of functions of peroxisomes in various model systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pexophagy: The Selective Degradation of Peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    Till, Andreas; Lakhani, Ronak; Burnett, Sarah F.; Subramani, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes are single-membrane-bounded organelles present in the majority of eukaryotic cells. Despite the existence of great diversity among different species, cell types, and under different environmental conditions, peroxisomes contain enzymes involved in β-oxidation of fatty acids and the generation, as well as detoxification, of hydrogen peroxide. The exigency of all eukaryotic cells to quickly adapt to different environmental factors requires the ability to precisely and efficiently control peroxisome number and functionality. Peroxisome homeostasis is achieved by the counterbalance between organelle biogenesis and degradation. The selective degradation of superfluous or damaged peroxisomes is facilitated by several tightly regulated pathways. The most prominent peroxisome degradation system uses components of the general autophagy core machinery and is therefore referred to as “pexophagy.” In this paper we focus on recent developments in pexophagy and provide an overview of current knowledge and future challenges in the field. We compare different modes of pexophagy and mention shared and distinct features of pexophagy in yeast model systems, mammalian cells, and other organisms. PMID:22536249

  16. Signaling dynamics and peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Mast, Fred D; Rachubinski, Richard A; Aitchison, John D

    2015-08-01

    Peroxisomes are remarkably responsive organelles. Their composition, abundance and even their mechanism of biogenesis are influenced strongly by cell type and the environment. This plasticity underlies peroxisomal functions in metabolism and the detoxification of dangerous reactive oxygen species. However, peroxisomes are integrated into the cellular system as a whole such that they communicate intimately with other organelles, control signaling dynamics as in the case of innate immune responses to infectious disease, and contribute to processes as fundamental as longevity. The increasing evidence for peroxisomes having roles in various cellular and organismal functions, combined with their malleability, suggests complex mechanisms operate to control cellular dynamics and the specificity of cellular responses and functions extending well beyond the peroxisome itself. A deeper understanding of the functions of peroxisomes and the mechanisms that control their plasticity could offer opportunities for exploiting changes in peroxisome abundance to control cellular function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of dietary vitamin E supplementation on growth performance, fatty acid composition, lipid peroxidation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) expressions in juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Li, Yang; Liang, Xiao; Gao, Jian

    2017-08-01

    A 9-week feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (VE) supplementation on growth performance, liver fatty acid composition, lipid peroxidation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) genes expressions in blunt snout bream juveniles. Fish (average initial weight: 0.59 g) were fed diet supplemented with 0, 50, 100, 300 and 500 mg α-tocopherol acetate/kg in triplicates, which were found to, respectively, contain 11.2, 56.3, 114.6, 306.5 and 588.4 mg α-tocopherol/kg diet. Results showed that final weight, body weight gain and specific growth rate significantly increased with increasing dietary VE supplemented level from 11.2 to 56.3 mg/kg. When the broken-line model was employed to estimate the adequate requirement of vitamin E based on body weight gain, the optimal level was 55.5 mg/kg in diet. Hepatosomatic index value significantly decreased with incremental dietary VE levels. However, liver VE concentration showed a direct relationship with the dietary VE level. The percentages of 20:5n-3, 22:6n-3 and total n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in liver increased with increasing dietary VE supplementation. Meanwhile, the expressions of PPAR-α, PPAR-β and PPAR-γ in liver were down-regulated by supplementation of dietary VE level from 56.3 to 588.4 mg/kg. In conclusion, supplementation of more than 55.5 mg/kg vitamin E may improve growth and increase n-3 LC-PUFA content in blunt snout bream, which is beneficial to human consumer.

  18. Peroxisome degradation in mammals.

    PubMed

    Ezaki, Junji; Kominami, Eiki; Ueno, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    This review summarizes the historical aspects of the study of peroxisome degradation in mammalian cells. Peroxisomes have diverse metabolic roles in response to environmental changes and are degraded in a preferential manner, by comparison with cytosolic proteins. This review introduces three hypotheses on the degradation mechanisms: (a) the action of the peroxisome-specific Lon protease; (b) the membrane disruption effect of 15-lipoxygenase; and (c) autophagy that sequesters and degrades the organelles by lysosomal enzymes. Among these hypotheses, autophagy is now recognized as the most important mechanism for excess peroxisome degradation. One of the most striking characteristics of peroxisomes is that they are markedly proliferated in the liver by the administration of hypolipidemic drugs and industrial plasticizers. The effects of these substances were fully reversed after withdrawal of the substances, and most of the excess peroxisomes were selectively degraded and recovered to a normal number and size. Autophagic degradation of peroxisomes has been examined using this characteristic phenomenon. Excessive peroxisome degradation that occurs after cessation of hypolipidemic drugs has been extensively investigated biochemically and morphologically. The evidence shows that the degradation of excess peroxisomes and peroxisomal enzymes is inhibited by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), a specific inhibitor of autophagy. Furthermore, in liver-specific autophagy-deficient mice, rapid removal of peroxisomes was exclusively impaired, and degradation of peroxisomal enzymes was not detected. Thus, the significant contribution of autophagic machinery to peroxisomal degradation in mammals was confirmed. However, the important question of the mechanism for the selective recognition of peroxisomes by autophagosomes remains to be fully elucidated. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. OCTN3 is a mammalian peroxisomal membrane carnitine transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Lamhonwah, Anne-Marie; Ackerley, Cameron A.; Tilups, Aina; Edwards, Vernon D.; Wanders, Ronald J.; Tein, Ingrid . E-mail: ingrid.tein@sickkids.ca

    2005-12-30

    Carnitine is a zwitterion essential for the {beta}-oxidation of fatty acids. The role of the carnitine system is to maintain homeostasis in the acyl-CoA pools of the cell, keeping the acyl-CoA/CoA pool constant even under conditions of very high acyl-CoA turnover, thereby providing cells with a critical source of free CoA. Carnitine derivatives can be moved across intracellular barriers providing a shuttle mechanism between mitochondria, peroxisomes, and microsomes. We now demonstrate expression and colocalization of mOctn3, the intermediate-affinity carnitine transporter (K {sub m} 20 {mu}M), and catalase in murine liver peroxisomes by TEM using immunogold labelled anti-mOctn3 and anti-catalase antibodies. We further demonstrate expression of hOCTN3 in control human cultured skin fibroblasts both by Western blotting and immunostaining analysis using our specific anti-mOctn3 antibody. In contrast with two peroxisomal biogenesis disorders, we show reduced expression of hOCTN3 in human PEX 1 deficient Zellweger fibroblasts in which the uptake of peroxisomal matrix enzymes is impaired but the biosynthesis of peroxisomal membrane proteins is normal, versus a complete absence of hOCTN3 in human PEX 19 deficient Zellweger fibroblasts in which both the uptake of peroxisomal matrix enzymes as well as peroxisomal membranes are deficient. This supports the localization of hOCTN3 to the peroxisomal membrane. Given the impermeability of the peroxisomal membrane and the key role of carnitine in the transport of different chain-shortened products out of peroxisomes, there appears to be a critical need for the intermediate-affinity carnitine/organic cation transporter, OCTN3, on peroxisomal membranes now shown to be expressed in both human and murine peroxisomes. This Octn3 localization is in keeping with the essential role of carnitine in peroxisomal lipid metabolism.

  20. Lack of association between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma2 polymorphisms and progressive liver damage in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Dongiovanni, Paola; Rametta, Raffaela; Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica; Benedan, Luca; Borroni, Vittorio; Maggioni, Paolo; Maggioni, Marco; Fargion, Silvia; Valenti, Luca

    2010-09-08

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play key roles in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). to assess the effect of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PPARα and PPARγ2, previously associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, on liver damage in NAFLD, whose progression is influenced by metabolic abnormalities and inherited factors. The Leu162Val PPARα and Pro12Ala PPARγ2 SNPs were evaluated by restriction analysis. We considered 202 Italian patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. The frequency of the evaluated SNPs did not differ between patients and 346 healthy controls. The presence of the PPARα 162Val allele (prevalence 57%), but not of the PPARγ2 12Ala allele (prevalence 18%), was associated with higher insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index 4.71 ± 3.8 vs. 3.58 ± 2.7, p = 0.026), but not with hyperglycemia. The PPARα 162Val and PPARγ2 12Ala alleles were not associated with the severity of steatosis, necroinflammation, or fibrosis. The presence of the PPARα 162Val allele was associated with insulin resistance, but not with liver damage in NAFLD. Because of the limited power of the present sample, larger studies are needed to exclude a minor effect of the PPARγ2 12Ala allele on necroinflammation/fibrosis in NAFLD.

  1. Protection against the Metabolic Syndrome by Guar Gum-Derived Short-Chain Fatty Acids Depends on Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1

    PubMed Central

    den Besten, Gijs; Gerding, Albert; van Dijk, Theo H.; Ciapaite, Jolita; Bleeker, Aycha; van Eunen, Karen; Havinga, Rick; Groen, Albert K.; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Bakker, Barbara M.

    2015-01-01

    The dietary fiber guar gum has beneficial effects on obesity, hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia in both humans and rodents. The major products of colonic fermentation of dietary fiber, the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), have been suggested to play an important role. Recently, we showed that SCFAs protect against the metabolic syndrome via a signaling cascade that involves peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ repression and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanism via which the dietary fiber guar gum protects against the metabolic syndrome. C57Bl/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with 0% or 10% of the fiber guar gum for 12 weeks and effects on lipid and glucose metabolism were studied. We demonstrate that, like SCFAs, also guar gum protects against high-fat diet-induced metabolic abnormalities by PPARγ repression, subsequently increasing mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 expression and AMP/ATP ratio, leading to the activation of AMPK and culminating in enhanced oxidative metabolism in both liver and adipose tissue. Moreover, guar gum markedly increased peripheral glucose clearance, possibly mediated by the SCFA-induced colonic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1. Overall, this study provides novel molecular insights into the beneficial effects of guar gum on the metabolic syndrome and strengthens the potential role of guar gum as a dietary-fiber intervention. PMID:26292284

  2. The peroxisomal ABC transporter family.

    PubMed

    Wanders, Ronald J A; Visser, Wouter F; van Roermund, Carlo W T; Kemp, Stephan; Waterham, Hans R

    2007-02-01

    This review describes the current state of knowledge about the ABCD family of peroxisomal half adenosine-triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABCDs are predicted to be present in a variety of eukaryotic organisms, although at present, only ABCDs in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and different mammalian species have been identified and characterized to any significant extent. The functional role of none of these ABCDs has been established definitively and awaits successful reconstitution of ABCDs, either as homo- or heterodimers into liposomes, followed by transport studies. Data obtained in S. cerevisiae suggest that the two ABCDs, which have been identified in this organism, form a heterodimer, which actually transports acyl coenzyme A esters across the peroxisomal membrane. In mammals, four ABCDs have been identified, of which one [adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP)] has been implicated in the transport of the coenzyme A esters of very-long-chain fatty acids. Mutations in the gene (ABCD1) encoding ALDP are the cause of a severe X-linked disease, called X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. The availability of mutant mice in which Abcd1, Abcd2, or Abcd3 have been disrupted will help to resolve the true role of the peroxisomal half-ABC transporters.

  3. Induction of peroxisomes by butyrate-producing probiotics.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huachun; Endo, Kosuke; Li, Jiawei; Kito, Naoko; Iwai, Naoharu

    2015-01-01

    We previously found that peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11a (Pex11a) deficiency is associated with a reduction in peroxisome abundance and impaired fatty acid metabolism in hepatocytes, and results in steatosis. In the present study, we investigated whether butyrate induces Pex11a expression and peroxisome proliferation, and studied its effect on lipid metabolism. C57BL/6 mice fed standard chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with tributyrin, 4-phelybutyrate acid (4-PBA), or the butyrate-producing probiotics (Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 [CBM]) plus inulin (dietary fiber), and the body weight, white adipose tissue, serum triglycerides, mRNA expression, and peroxisome abundance were evaluated. Tributyrin or 4-PBA treatment significantly decreased body weight and increased hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) and Pex11a. In addition, 4-PBA treatment increased peroxisome abundance and the expression of genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 and hydroxysteroid [17-beta] dehydrogenase 4). CBM and inulin administration reduced adipose tissue mass and serum triglycerides, induced Pex11a, acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, and hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 4 genes, and increased peroxisome abundance in mice fed standard chow or an HFD. In conclusion, elevation of butyrate availability (directly through administration of butyrate or indirectly via administration of butyrate-producing probiotics plus fiber) induces PPARα and Pex11a and the genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation, increases peroxisome abundance, and improves lipid metabolism. These results may provide a new therapeutic strategy against hyperlipidemia and obesity.

  4. How Peroxisomes Affect Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus Flavus

    PubMed Central

    Reverberi, Massimo; Punelli, Marta; Smith, Carrie A.; Zjalic, Slaven; Scarpari, Marzia; Scala, Valeria; Cardinali, Giorgia; Aspite, Nicaela; Pinzari, Flavia; Payne, Gary A.; Fabbri, Anna A.; Fanelli, Corrado

    2012-01-01

    In filamentous fungi, peroxisomes are crucial for the primary metabolism and play a pivotal role in the formation of some secondary metabolites. Further, peroxisomes are important site for fatty acids β-oxidation, the formation of reactive oxygen species and for their scavenging through a complex of antioxidant activities. Oxidative stress is involved in different metabolic events in all organisms and it occurs during oxidative processes within the cell, including peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids. In Aspergillus flavus, an unbalance towards an hyper-oxidant status into the cell is a prerequisite for the onset of aflatoxin biosynthesis. In our preliminary results, the use of bezafibrate, inducer of both peroxisomal β-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation in mammals, significantly enhanced the expression of pex11 and foxA and stimulated aflatoxin synthesis in A. flavus. This suggests the existence of a correlation among peroxisome proliferation, fatty acids β-oxidation and aflatoxin biosynthesis. To investigate this correlation, A. flavus was transformed with a vector containing P33, a gene from Cymbidium ringspot virus able to induce peroxisome proliferation, under the control of the promoter of the Cu,Zn-sod gene of A. flavus. This transcriptional control closely relates the onset of the antioxidant response to ROS increase, with the proliferation of peroxisomes in A. flavus. The AfP33 transformant strain show an up-regulation of lipid metabolism and an higher content of both intracellular ROS and some oxylipins. The combined presence of a higher amount of substrates (fatty acids-derived), an hyper-oxidant cell environment and of hormone-like signals (oxylipins) enhances the synthesis of aflatoxins in the AfP33 strain. The results obtained demonstrated a close link between peroxisome metabolism and aflatoxin synthesis. PMID:23094106

  5. Fatty liver and anti-oxidant enzyme activities along with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ and α expressions in the liver of Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Hironori; Miida, Takashi; Inui, Ayano; Inoue, Ikuo; Tsukahara, Hirokazu; Komatsu, Haruki; Hiejima, Eitaro; Fujisawa, Tomoo; Yorifuji, Tohru; Hiranao, Ken-ichi; Okajima, Hideaki; Inomata, Yukihiro

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms of liver damage and steatosis in Wilson's disease (WD) presenting accumulation of copper generating oxidants remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), in particular PPARs α and γ, regulate fat content of the liver together with the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation systems. However, such PPARs have never been studied in WD. We examined PPARs along with the liver damage and steatosis of WD using liver specimens from affected patients exhibiting mild liver damage (group I, n = 5), moderate or greater liver damage (group II, n = 10) and fulminant hepatic failure (group III, n = 5), and from asymptomatic carriers (group H, n = 4). PPAR α expression was increased over the control levels in groups H and I but was decreased in groups II and III in parallel with the progression of liver damage (group H = I>II>III). PPAR γ expression was inversely increased (group H

  6. Multilayered control of peroxisomal activity upon salt stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Manzanares-Estreder, Sara; Espí-Bardisa, Joan; Alarcón, Benito; Pascual-Ahuir, Amparo; Proft, Markus

    2017-06-01

    Peroxisomes are dynamic organelles and the sole location for fatty acid β-oxidation in yeast cells. Here, we report that peroxisomal function is crucial for the adaptation to salt stress, especially upon sugar limitation. Upon stress, multiple layers of control regulate the activity and the number of peroxisomes. Activated Hog1 MAP kinase triggers the induction of genes encoding enzymes for fatty acid activation, peroxisomal import and β-oxidation through the Adr1 transcriptional activator, which transiently associates with genes encoding fatty acid metabolic enzymes in a stress- and Hog1-dependent manner. Moreover, Na(+) and Li(+) stress increases the number of peroxisomes per cell in a Hog1-independent manner, which depends instead of the retrograde pathway and the dynamin related GTPases Dnm1 and Vps1. The strong activation of the Faa1 fatty acyl-CoA synthetase, which specifically localizes to lipid particles and peroxisomes, indicates that adaptation to salt stress requires the enhanced mobilization of fatty acids from internal lipid stores. Furthermore, the activation of mitochondrial respiration during stress depends on peroxisomes, mitochondrial acetyl-carnitine uptake is essential for salt resistance and the number of peroxisomes attached to the mitochondrial network increases during salt adaptation, which altogether indicates that stress-induced peroxisomal β-oxidation triggers enhanced respiration upon salt shock. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Arabidopsis ABERRANT PEROXISOME MORPHOLOGY9 is a peroxin that recruits the PEX1-PEX6 complex to peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shino; Mano, Shoji; Nakamori, Chihiro; Nishimura, Mikio

    2011-04-01

    Peroxisomes have pivotal roles in several metabolic processes, such as the detoxification of H₂O₂ and β-oxidation of fatty acids, and their functions are tightly regulated by multiple factors involved in peroxisome biogenesis, including protein transport. This study describes the isolation of an embryonic lethal Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, aberrant peroxisome morphology9 (apem9), which is compromised in protein transport into peroxisomes. The APEM9 gene was found to encode an unknown protein. Compared with apem9 having the nucleotide substitution, the knockdown mutants showed severe defects in peroxisomal functions and plant growth. We showed that expression of APEM9 altered PEROXIN6 (PEX6) subcellular localization from the cytosol to peroxisomes. In addition, we showed that PEX1 and PEX6 comprise a heterooligomer and that this complex was recruited to peroxisomal membranes via protein-protein interactions of APEM9 with PEX6. These findings show that APEM9 functions as an anchoring protein, similar to Pex26 in mammals and Pex15p in yeast. Interestingly, however, the identities of amino acids among these anchoring proteins are quite low. These results indicate that although the association of the PEX1-PEX6 complex with peroxisomal membranes is essential for peroxisomal functions, the protein that anchors this complex evolved uniquely in plants.

  8. Peroxisome Biogenesis and Function

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Navneet; Reumann, Sigrun; Hu, Jianping

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisomes are small and single membrane-delimited organelles that execute numerous metabolic reactions and have pivotal roles in plant growth and development. In recent years, forward and reverse genetic studies along with biochemical and cell biological analyses in Arabidopsis have enabled researchers to identify many peroxisome proteins and elucidate their functions. This review focuses on the advances in our understanding of peroxisome biogenesis and metabolism, and further explores the contribution of large-scale analysis, such as in sillco predictions and proteomics, in augmenting our knowledge of peroxisome function In Arabidopsis. PMID:22303249

  9. An engineered plant peroxisome and its application in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kessel-Vigelius, Sarah K; Wiese, Jan; Schroers, Martin G; Wrobel, Thomas J; Hahn, Florian; Linka, Nicole

    2013-09-01

    Plant metabolic engineering is a promising tool for biotechnological applications. Major goals include enhancing plant fitness for an increased product yield and improving or introducing novel pathways to synthesize industrially relevant products. Plant peroxisomes are favorable targets for metabolic engineering, because they are involved in diverse functions, including primary and secondary metabolism, development, abiotic stress response, and pathogen defense. This review discusses targets for manipulating endogenous peroxisomal pathways, such as fatty acid β-oxidation, or introducing novel pathways, such as the synthesis of biodegradable polymers. Furthermore, strategies to bypass peroxisomal pathways for improved energy efficiency and detoxification of environmental pollutants are discussed. In sum, we highlight the biotechnological potential of plant peroxisomes and indicate future perspectives to exploit peroxisomes as biofactories.

  10. Peroxisomes: a Nexus for Lipid Metabolism and Cellular Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lodhi, Irfan J.; Semenkovich, Clay F.

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisomes are often dismissed as the cellular hoi polloi, relegated to cleaning up reactive oxygen chemical debris discarded by other organelles. However, their functions extend far beyond hydrogen peroxide metabolism. Peroxisomes are intimately associated with lipid droplets and mitochondria, and their ability to carry out fatty acid oxidation and lipid synthesis, especially the production of ether lipids, may be critical for generating cellular signals required for normal physiology. Here we review the biology of peroxisomes and their potential relevance to human disorders including cancer, obesity-related diabetes, and degenerative neurologic disease. PMID:24508507

  11. Effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma and co-activator-1alpha genetic polymorphisms on plasma adiponectin levels and susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese people.

    PubMed

    Hui, Yang; Yu-Yuan, Li; Yu-Qiang, Nie; Wei-Hong, Sha; Yan-Lei, Du; Xiao-Bo, Lai; Yong-Jian, Zhou

    2008-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma (PPAR-gamma) and its co-activator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) are involved in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolisms. This study aimed to investigate the genetic polymorphisms of PPAR-gamma and PGC-1alpha in Chinese people and their influence on plasma adiponectin levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) susceptibility. Ninety-six patients with NAFLD and 96 healthy controls were included. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of C161T PPAR-gammaand Gly482Ser PGC-1alpha genes were analysed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The CC, CT and TT genotypic distributions of the NAFLD group were significantly different from those of controls (55.2, 39.6, 5.2 vs. 74.0, 25.0, 1.0%; P=0.015). The allelic frequencies of C and T were also different between the two groups (P=0.004). As for the PGC-1alpha gene, there was no difference of the genotypic and allelic frequencies between the two groups (P>0.05). In NAFLD patients, the plasma adiponectin concentrations were lower in the PPAR-gamma CT/TT genotypes compared with those in the CC genotype group (3.0+/-0.6 vs. 4.3+/-0.9, P=0.02). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that CT/TT genotypes of PPAR-gamma, TG, waist hip ratio, hypoadiponectinaemia and homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-IR were the risk factors for NAFLD. SNPs in the PPAR-gamma, but not PGC-1alpha, gene are associated with NAFLD susceptibility possibly through the adiponectin pathway.

  12. Nimesulide, a cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor, suppresses obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic insulin resistance through the regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Shunsuke; Kishina, Manabu; Koda, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Yasutaka; Tanaka, Kohei; Harada, Yusuke; Yoshida, Akio; Hisatome, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 selective inhibitors suppress non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the precise mechanism of action remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine how the COX-2 selective inhibitor nimesulide suppresses NAFLD in a murine model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Mice were fed either a normal chow diet (NC), an HFD, or HFD plus nimesulide (HFD-nime) for 12 weeks. Body weight, hepatic COX-2 mRNA expression and triglyceride accumulation were significantly increased in the HFD group. Triglyceride accumulation was suppressed in the HFD-nime group. The mRNA expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and the natural PPARγ agonist 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) were significantly increased in the HFD group and significantly suppressed in the HFD-nime group. Glucose metabolism was impaired in the HFD group compared with the NC group, and it was significantly improved in the HFD-nime group. In addition, the plasma insulin levels in the HFD group were increased compared with those in the NC group, and were decreased in the HFD-nime group. These results indicate that HFD-induced NAFLD is mediated by the increased hepatic expression of COX-2. We suggest that the production of 15d-PGJ2, which is mediated by COX-2, induces NAFLD and hepatic insulin resistance by activating PPARγ. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), procollagen-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), as well as the number of F4/80-positive hepatic (Kupffer) cells, were significantly increased in the HFD group compared with the NC group, and they were reduced by nimesulide. In conclusion, COX-2 may emerge as a molecular target for preventing the development of NAFLD and insulin resistance in diet-related obesity. PMID:27431935

  13. Disparate peroxisome-related defects in Arabidopsis pex6 and pex26 mutants link peroxisomal retrotranslocation and oil body utilization.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Kim L; Fleming, Wendell A; Kao, Yun-Ting; Wright, Zachary J; Venkova, Savina V; Ventura, Meredith J; Bartel, Bonnie

    2017-10-01

    Catabolism of fatty acids stored in oil bodies is essential for seed germination and seedling development in Arabidopsis. This fatty acid breakdown occurs in peroxisomes, organelles that sequester oxidative reactions. Import of peroxisomal enzymes is facilitated by peroxins including PEX5, a receptor that delivers cargo proteins from the cytosol to the peroxisomal matrix. After cargo delivery, a complex of the PEX1 and PEX6 ATPases and the PEX26 tail-anchored membrane protein removes ubiquitinated PEX5 from the peroxisomal membrane. We identified Arabidopsis pex6 and pex26 mutants by screening for inefficient seedling β-oxidation phenotypes. The mutants displayed distinct defects in growth, response to a peroxisomally metabolized auxin precursor, and peroxisomal protein import. The low PEX5 levels in these mutants were increased by treatment with a proteasome inhibitor or by combining pex26 with peroxisome-associated ubiquitination machinery mutants, suggesting that ubiquitinated PEX5 is degraded by the proteasome when the function of PEX6 or PEX26 is reduced. Combining pex26 with mutations that increase PEX5 levels either worsened or improved pex26 physiological and molecular defects, depending on the introduced lesion. Moreover, elevating PEX5 levels via a 35S:PEX5 transgene exacerbated pex26 defects and ameliorated the defects of only a subset of pex6 alleles, implying that decreased PEX5 is not the sole molecular deficiency in these mutants. We found peroxisomes clustered around persisting oil bodies in pex6 and pex26 seedlings, suggesting a role for peroxisomal retrotranslocation machinery in oil body utilization. The disparate phenotypes of these pex alleles may reflect unanticipated functions of the peroxisomal ATPase complex. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Macromitophagy, neutral lipids synthesis, and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation protect yeast from "liponecrosis", a previously unknown form of programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Sheibani, Sara; Richard, Vincent R; Beach, Adam; Leonov, Anna; Feldman, Rachel; Mattie, Sevan; Khelghatybana, Leila; Piano, Amanda; Greenwood, Michael; Vali, Hojatollah; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2014-01-01

    We identified a form of cell death called "liponecrosis." It can be elicited by an exposure of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to exogenous palmitoleic acid (POA). Our data imply that liponecrosis is: (1) a programmed, regulated form of cell death rather than an accidental, unregulated cellular process and (2) an age-related form of cell death. Cells committed to liponecrotic death: (1) do not exhibit features characteristic of apoptotic cell death; (2) do not display plasma membrane rupture, a hallmark of programmed necrotic cell death; (3) akin to cells committed to necrotic cell death, exhibit an increased permeability of the plasma membrane for propidium iodide; (4) do not display excessive cytoplasmic vacuolization, a hallmark of autophagic cell death; (5) akin to cells committed to autophagic death, exhibit a non-selective en masse degradation of cellular organelles and require the cytosolic serine/threonine protein kinase Atg1p for executing the death program; and (6) display a hallmark feature that has not been reported for any of the currently known cell death modalities-namely, an excessive accumulation of lipid droplets where non-esterified fatty acids (including POA) are deposited in the form of neutral lipids. We therefore concluded that liponecrotic cell death subroutine differs from the currently known subroutines of programmed cell death. Our data suggest a hypothesis that liponecrosis is a cell death module dynamically integrated into a so-called programmed cell death network, which also includes the apoptotic, necrotic, and autophagic modules of programmed cell death. Based on our findings, we propose a mechanism underlying liponecrosis.

  15. Water- and solute-accessible spaces of purified peroxisomes. Evidence that peroxisomes are permeable to NAD+.

    PubMed Central

    Van Veldhoven, P; Debeer, L J; Mannaerts, G P

    1983-01-01

    Peroxisomes were purified from liver homogenates from rats, treated with the peroxisome proliferator clofibrate, by a combination of differential centrifugation and isopycnic centrifugation in iso-osmotic self-generating Percoll gradients. Structural integrity of the peroxisomes appeared to be preserved as evidenced by a high degree of catalase latency, the absence of catalase release during purification and the exclusion of inulin (mol.wt. +/- 5000). Spaces for water and solutes were measured after incubation of the peroxisomes in iso-osmotic sucrose with radioactive water or solutes and separation of the organelles from their media by centrifugation through an organic layer. Extraperoxisomal water was corrected for by the use of radioactive dextran or inulin. The sucrose, glucose, urea, methanol and acetate-accessible spaces were identical, suggesting that these spaces represent the volume in which molecules that can cross the membrane distribute. This volume equalled 50-65% of the water space. Urate and NAD+, a cofactor of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids, also distributed in this volume, but were also partly bound. Urate and NAD+ binding was not abolished by sonication, which released the bulk of matrix catalase activity, but NAD+ binding was seriously diminished. The peroxisomal water and sucrose spaces were estimated to be 107 microliters and 55 microliters per g of liver tissue from a clofibrate-treated rat. From quantitative morphometric data [Anthony, Schmucker, Mooney & Jones (1978) J. Lipid Res. 19, 154-165] and our marker enzyme analyses, as well as from our experimentally determined water spaces of mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, it could be calculated that the volume contamination by lysosomes, mitochondria and microsomes did not exceed 1, 8 and 6% respectively. Our data indicate that apparently intact peroxisomes are permeable to a number of small molecules, including NAD+. Whether the NAD+-binding sites in sonicated peroxisomes

  16. Absence of the peroxiredoxin Pmp20 causes peroxisomal protein leakage and necrotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Bener Aksam, Eda; Jungwirth, Helmut; Kohlwein, Sepp D; Ring, Julia; Madeo, Frank; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2008-10-15

    We analyzed the role of the peroxisomal peroxiredoxin Pmp20 of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha. Cells of a PMP20 disruption strain (pmp20) grew normally on substrates that are not metabolized by peroxisomal enzymes, but showed a severe growth defect on methanol, the metabolism of which involves a hydrogen peroxide producing peroxisomal oxidase. This growth defect was paralleled by leakage of peroxisomal matrix proteins into the cytosol. Methanol-induced pmp20 cells accumulated enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation products. Moreover, the fatty acid composition of methanol-induced pmp20 cells differed relative to WT controls, suggesting an effect on fatty acid homeostasis. Plating assays and FACS-based analysis of cell death markers revealed that pmp20 cells show loss of clonogenic efficiency and membrane integrity, when cultured on methanol. We conclude that the absence of the peroxisomal peroxiredoxin leads to loss of peroxisome membrane integrity and necrotic cell death.

  17. Peroxisome Synthesis in the Absence of Preexisting Peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    South, Sarah T.; Gould, Stephen J.

    1999-01-01

    Zellweger syndrome and related diseases are caused by defective import of peroxisomal matrix proteins. In all previously reported Zellweger syndrome cell lines the defect could be assigned to the matrix protein import pathway since peroxisome membranes were present, and import of integral peroxisomal membrane proteins was normal. However, we report here a Zellweger syndrome patient (PBD061) with an unusual cellular phenotype, an inability to import peroxisomal membrane proteins. We also identified human PEX16, a novel integral peroxisomal membrane protein, and found that PBD061 had inactivating mutations in the PEX16 gene. Previous studies have suggested that peroxisomes arise from preexisting peroxisomes but we find that expression of PEX16 restores the formation of new peroxisomes in PBD061 cells. Peroxisome synthesis and peroxisomal membrane protein import could be detected within 2–3 h of PEX16 injection and was followed by matrix protein import. These results demonstrate that peroxisomes do not necessarily arise from division of preexisting peroxisomes. We propose that peroxisomes may form by either of two pathways: one that involves PEX11-mediated division of preexisting peroxisomes, and another that involves PEX16-mediated formation of peroxisomes in the absence of preexisting peroxisomes. PMID:9922452

  18. Metabolic Interplay between Peroxisomes and Other Subcellular Organelles Including Mitochondria and the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Waterham, Hans R.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are unique subcellular organelles which play an indispensable role in several key metabolic pathways which include: (1.) etherphospholipid biosynthesis; (2.) fatty acid beta-oxidation; (3.) bile acid synthesis; (4.) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) synthesis; (5.) fatty acid alpha-oxidation; (6.) glyoxylate metabolism; (7.) amino acid degradation, and (8.) ROS/RNS metabolism. The importance of peroxisomes for human health and development is exemplified by the existence of a large number of inborn errors of peroxisome metabolism in which there is an impairment in one or more of the metabolic functions of peroxisomes. Although the clinical signs and symptoms of affected patients differ depending upon the enzyme which is deficient and the extent of the deficiency, the disorders involved are usually (very) severe diseases with neurological dysfunction and early death in many of them. With respect to the role of peroxisomes in metabolism it is clear that peroxisomes are dependent on the functional interplay with other subcellular organelles to sustain their role in metabolism. Indeed, whereas mitochondria can oxidize fatty acids all the way to CO2 and H2O, peroxisomes are only able to chain-shorten fatty acids and the end products of peroxisomal beta-oxidation need to be shuttled to mitochondria for full oxidation to CO2 and H2O. Furthermore, NADH is generated during beta-oxidation in peroxisomes and beta-oxidation can only continue if peroxisomes are equipped with a mechanism to reoxidize NADH back to NAD+, which is now known to be mediated by specific NAD(H)-redox shuttles. In this paper we describe the current state of knowledge about the functional interplay between peroxisomes and other subcellular compartments notably the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum for each of the metabolic pathways in which peroxisomes are involved. PMID:26858947

  19. Partial disassembly of peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Rat liver peroxisomes were subjected to a variety of procedures intended to partially disassemble or damage them; the effects were analyzed by recentrifugation into sucrose gradients, enzyme analyses, electron microscopy, and SDS PAGE. Freezing and thawing or mild sonication released some matrix proteins and produced apparently intact peroxisomal "ghosts" with crystalloid cores and some fuzzy fibrillar content. Vigorous sonication broke open the peroxisomes but the membranes remained associated with cores and fibrillar and amorphous matrix material. The density of both ghosts and more severely damaged peroxisomes was approximately 1.23. Pyrophosphate (pH 9) treatment solubilized the fibrillar content, yielding ghosts that were empty except for cores. Some matrix proteins such as catalase and thiolase readily leak from peroxisomes. Other proteins were identified that remain in mechanically damaged peroxisomes but are neither core nor membrane proteins because they can be released by pyrophosphate treatment. These constitute a class of poorly soluble matrix proteins that appear to correspond to the fibrillar material observed morphologically. All of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes are located in the matrix, but they vary greatly in how easily they leak out. Palmitoyl coenzyme A synthetase is in the membrane, based on its co-distribution with the 22-kilodalton integral membrane polypeptide. PMID:2989301

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α signaling in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Parimal; Viswakarma, Navin; Reddy, Janardan K

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles that are found in the cytoplasm of most animal cells. They perform diverse metabolic functions, including H2O2-derived respiration, β-oxidation of fatty acids, and cholesterol metabolism. Peroxisome proliferators are a large class of structurally dissimilar industrial and pharmaceutical chemicals that were originally identified as inducers of both the size and the number of peroxisomes in rat and mouse livers or hepatocytes in vitro. Exposure to peroxisome proliferators leads to a stereotypical orchestration of adaptations consisting of hepatocellular hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and transcriptional induction of fatty acid metabolizing enzymes regulated in parallel with peroxisome proliferation. Chronic exposure to peroxisome proliferators causes liver tumors in both male and female mice and rats. Evidence indicates a pivotal role for a subset of nuclear receptor superfamily members, called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), in mediating energy metabolism. Upon activation, PPARs regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and peroxisome proliferation, as well as genes involved in cell growth. In this review, we describe the molecular mode of action of PPAR transcription factors, including ligand binding, interaction with specific DNA response elements, transcriptional activation, and cross talk with other signaling pathways. We discuss the evidence that suggests that PPARα and transcriptional coactivator Med1/PBP, a key subunit of the Mediator complex play a central role in mediating hepatic steatosis to hepatocarcinogenesis. Disproportionate increases in H2O2-generating enzymes generates excess reactive oxygen species resulting in sustained oxidative stress and progressive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with activation of unfolded protein response signaling. Thus, these major contributors coupled with hepatocellular proliferation are the key players of peroxisome proliferators

  1. Peroxisomes take shape

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jennifer J.; Aitchison, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisomes carry out various oxidative reactions that are tightly regulated to adapt to the changing needs of the cell and varying external environments. Accordingly, they are remarkably fluid and can change dramatically in abundance, size, shape and content in response to numerous cues. These dynamics are controlled by multiple aspects of peroxisome biogenesis that are coordinately regulated with each other and with other cellular processes. Ongoing studies are deciphering the diverse molecular mechanisms that underlie biogenesis and how they cooperate to dynamically control peroxisome utility. These important challenges should lead to an understanding of peroxisome dynamics that can be capitalized upon for bioengineering and the development of therapies to improve human health. PMID:24263361

  2. Nimesulide, a cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor, suppresses obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic insulin resistance through the regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Shunsuke; Kishina, Manabu; Koda, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Yasutaka; Tanaka, Kohei; Harada, Yusuke; Yoshida, Akio; Hisatome, Ichiro

    2016-09-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 selective inhibitors suppress non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the precise mechanism of action remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine how the COX-2 selective inhibitor nimesulide suppresses NAFLD in a murine model of high-fat diet (HFD)‑induced obesity. Mice were fed either a normal chow diet (NC), an HFD, or HFD plus nimesulide (HFD-nime) for 12 weeks. Body weight, hepatic COX-2 mRNA expression and triglyceride accumulation were significantly increased in the HFD group. Triglyceride accumulation was suppressed in the HFD-nime group. The mRNA expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and the natural PPARγ agonist 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d‑PGJ2) were significantly increased in the HFD group and significantly suppressed in the HFD-nime group. Glucose metabolism was impaired in the HFD group compared with the NC group, and it was significantly improved in the HFD-nime group. In addition, the plasma insulin levels in the HFD group were increased compared with those in the NC group, and were decreased in the HFD-nime group. These results indicate that HFD-induced NAFLD is mediated by the increased hepatic expression of COX-2. We suggest that the production of 15d-PGJ2, which is mediated by COX-2, induces NAFLD and hepatic insulin resistance by activating PPARγ. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP‑1), procollagen-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), as well as the number of F4/80-positive hepatic (Kupffer) cells, were significantly increased in the HFD group compared with the NC group, and they were reduced by nimesulide. In conclusion, COX-2 may emerge as a molecular target for preventing the development of NAFLD and insulin resistance in diet-related obesity.

  3. Meta-Analysis of Associations Between the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Pro12Ala Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Psoriatic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sang-Cheol; Song, Gwan Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine whether a Proline (Pro)-to-Alanine (Ala) exchange at codon 12 (Pro12Ala) polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) is associated with susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted on the association between the PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism and NAFLD, RA, and PsA. Results: Nine studies, including five on NAFLD, two on RA, and two on PsA, were available for the meta-analysis consisting of 8082 cases and 3790 controls. The meta-analysis revealed no association between the Ala allele of the PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism and NAFLD (odds ratios [OR]=0.936, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.672–1.302, p=0.693). However, stratification by ethnicity indicated an association between the Ala allele and NAFLD in East Asians (OR=0.700, 95% CI=0.496–0.987, p=0.042), but not in Europeans (OR=1.128, 95% CI=0.863–1.475, p=0.378). Analysis using the dominant model showed the same Ala allele pattern in East Asians and Europeans (OR=0.688, 95% CI=0.484–0.978, p=0.037; OR=1.051, 95% CI=0.782–1.413, p=0.742), demonstrating a significant association between the Ala allele and NAFLD in East Asians. The meta-analysis revealed no association between the Ala allele and RA in East Asians (OR=0.467, 95% CI=0.188–1.161, p=0.101), and no association was found between the Ala allele and PsA in Europeans (OR=0.869, 95% CI=0.465–1.627, p=0.662). Conclusions: Our meta-analysis demonstrates that the PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to NAFLD in East Asians, but not in European populations. PMID:24697566

  4. Meta-analysis of associations between the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ Pro12Ala polymorphism and susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Ho; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Song, Gwan Gyu

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a Proline (Pro)-to-Alanine (Ala) exchange at codon 12 (Pro12Ala) polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) is associated with susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). A meta-analysis was conducted on the association between the PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism and NAFLD, RA, and PsA. Nine studies, including five on NAFLD, two on RA, and two on PsA, were available for the meta-analysis consisting of 8082 cases and 3790 controls. The meta-analysis revealed no association between the Ala allele of the PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism and NAFLD (odds ratios [OR]=0.936, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.672-1.302, p=0.693). However, stratification by ethnicity indicated an association between the Ala allele and NAFLD in East Asians (OR=0.700, 95% CI=0.496-0.987, p=0.042), but not in Europeans (OR=1.128, 95% CI=0.863-1.475, p=0.378). Analysis using the dominant model showed the same Ala allele pattern in East Asians and Europeans (OR=0.688, 95% CI=0.484-0.978, p=0.037; OR=1.051, 95% CI=0.782-1.413, p=0.742), demonstrating a significant association between the Ala allele and NAFLD in East Asians. The meta-analysis revealed no association between the Ala allele and RA in East Asians (OR=0.467, 95% CI=0.188-1.161, p=0.101), and no association was found between the Ala allele and PsA in Europeans (OR=0.869, 95% CI=0.465-1.627, p=0.662). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that the PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to NAFLD in East Asians, but not in European populations.

  5. The Multifunctional Protein in Peroxisomal β-Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Arent, Susan; Christensen, Caspar E.; Pye, Valerie E.; Nørgaard, Allan; Henriksen, Anette

    2010-01-01

    Plant fatty acids can be completely degraded within the peroxisomes. Fatty acid degradation plays a role in several plant processes including plant hormone synthesis and seed germination. Two multifunctional peroxisomal isozymes, MFP2 and AIM1, both with 2-trans-enoyl-CoA hydratase and l-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities, function in mouse ear cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) peroxisomal β-oxidation, where fatty acids are degraded by the sequential removal of two carbon units. A deficiency in either of the two isozymes gives rise to a different phenotype; the biochemical and molecular background for these differences is not known. Structure determination of Arabidopsis MFP2 revealed that plant peroxisomal MFPs can be grouped into two families, as defined by a specific pattern of amino acid residues in the flexible loop of the acyl-binding pocket of the 2-trans-enoyl-CoA hydratase domain. This could explain the differences in substrate preferences and specific biological functions of the two isozymes. The in vitro substrate preference profiles illustrate that the Arabidopsis AIM1 hydratase has a preference for short chain acyl-CoAs compared with the Arabidopsis MFP2 hydratase. Remarkably, neither of the two was able to catabolize enoyl-CoA substrates longer than 14 carbon atoms efficiently, suggesting the existence of an uncharacterized long chain enoyl-CoA hydratase in Arabidopsis peroxisomes. PMID:20463021

  6. Plant Peroxisomes: Biogenesis and Function

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianping; Baker, Alison; Bartel, Bonnie; Linka, Nicole; Mullen, Robert T.; Reumann, Sigrun; Zolman, Bethany K.

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes are eukaryotic organelles that are highly dynamic both in morphology and metabolism. Plant peroxisomes are involved in numerous processes, including primary and secondary metabolism, development, and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Considerable progress has been made in the identification of factors involved in peroxisomal biogenesis, revealing mechanisms that are both shared with and diverged from non-plant systems. Furthermore, recent advances have begun to reveal an unexpectedly large plant peroxisomal proteome and have increased our understanding of metabolic pathways in peroxisomes. Coordination of the biosynthesis, import, biochemical activity, and degradation of peroxisomal proteins allows for highly dynamic responses of peroxisomal metabolism to meet the needs of a plant. Knowledge gained from plant peroxisomal research will be instrumental to fully understanding the organelle’s dynamic behavior and defining peroxisomal metabolic networks, thus allowing the development of molecular strategies for rational engineering of plant metabolism, biomass production, stress tolerance, and pathogen defense. PMID:22669882

  7. Peroxisomal organization in normal and cerebrohepatorenal (Zellweger) syndrome fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Santos, M J; Ojeda, J M; Garrido, J; Leighton, F

    1985-01-01

    The reported absence of morphologically detectable peroxisomes in liver and kidney tissue cells from patients affected by the autosomic recessive, inherited metabolic disease known as cerebrohepatorenal, or Zellweger, syndrome was studied in fibroblasts, assuming it to be a generalized defect. Normal cultured fibroblasts were shown to contain peroxisomes according to morphological, biochemical, and subcellular fractionation criteria: particle-bound catalase and fatty acyl-CoA oxidase copurify in subcellular fractionation by differential centrifugation or isopycnic equilibrium in continuous density gradients and peroxidase-positive organelles of approximately equal to 0.1 micron in diameter are detected in the cytoplasm. In Zellweger cultured fibroblasts, these peroxisomal enzymes are present; however, they behave as cytosolic enzymes in the different subcellular fractionation procedures employed and peroxisomes are not detected cytochemically. These findings support the hypothesis that the lack of peroxisomes in this genetic disease is the consequence of a defect in the assembly of the peroxisomal constituents. Furthermore, the value of fibroblasts for subcellular analysis of peroxisomal defects is illustrated. Images PMID:2995971

  8. A viable Arabidopsis pex13 missense allele confers severe peroxisomal defects and decreases PEX5 association with peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Andrew W.; Fleming, Wendell A.; Burkhart, Sarah E.; Ratzel, Sarah E.; Bjornson, Marta; Bartel, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisomes are organelles that catabolize fatty acids and compartmentalize other oxidative metabolic processes in eukaryotes. Using a forward-genetic screen designed to recover severe peroxisome-defective mutants, we isolated a viable allele of the peroxisome biogenesis gene PEX13 with striking peroxisomal defects. The pex13-4 mutant requires an exogenous source of fixed carbon for pre-photosynthetic development and is resistant to the protoauxin indole-3-butyric acid. Delivery of peroxisome-targeted matrix proteins depends on the PEX5 receptor docking with PEX13 at the peroxisomal membrane, and we found severely reduced import of matrix proteins and less organelle-associated PEX5 in pex13-4 seedlings. Moreover, pex13-4 physiological and molecular defects were partially ameliorated when PEX5 was overexpressed, suggesting that PEX5 docking is partially compromised in this mutant and can be improved by increasing PEX5 levels. Because previously described Arabidopsis pex13 alleles either are lethal or confer only subtle defects, the pex13-4 mutant provides valuable insight into plant peroxisome receptor docking and matrix protein import. PMID:25008153

  9. A viable Arabidopsis pex13 missense allele confers severe peroxisomal defects and decreases PEX5 association with peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Andrew W; Fleming, Wendell A; Burkhart, Sarah E; Ratzel, Sarah E; Bjornson, Marta; Bartel, Bonnie

    2014-09-01

    Peroxisomes are organelles that catabolize fatty acids and compartmentalize other oxidative metabolic processes in eukaryotes. Using a forward-genetic screen designed to recover severe peroxisome-defective mutants, we isolated a viable allele of the peroxisome biogenesis gene PEX13 with striking peroxisomal defects. The pex13-4 mutant requires an exogenous source of fixed carbon for pre-photosynthetic development and is resistant to the protoauxin indole-3-butyric acid. Delivery of peroxisome-targeted matrix proteins depends on the PEX5 receptor docking with PEX13 at the peroxisomal membrane, and we found severely reduced import of matrix proteins and less organelle-associated PEX5 in pex13-4 seedlings. Moreover, pex13-4 physiological and molecular defects were partially ameliorated when PEX5 was overexpressed, suggesting that PEX5 docking is partially compromised in this mutant and can be improved by increasing PEX5 levels. Because previously described Arabidopsis pex13 alleles either are lethal or confer only subtle defects, the pex13-4 mutant provides valuable insight into plant peroxisome receptor docking and matrix protein import.

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiuguo; Tanaka, Naoki . E-mail: naopi@hsp.md.shinshu-u.ac.jp; Nakajima, Takero; Kamijo, Yuji; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2006-08-11

    Hepatic peroxisome proliferation, increases in the numerical and volume density of peroxisomes, is believed to be closely related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) activation; however, it remains unknown whether peroxisome proliferation depends absolutely on this activation. To verify occurrence of PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation, fenofibrate treatment was used, which was expected to significantly enhance PPAR{alpha} dependence in the assay system. Surprisingly, a novel type of PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation and enlargement was uncovered in PPAR{alpha}-null mice. The increased expression of dynamin-like protein 1, but not peroxisome biogenesis factor 11{alpha}, might be associated with the PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation at least in part.

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Cullingford, Tim

    2008-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a drug/fatty acid-activated trans cription factor involved in the starvation response, and is thus relevant to the ketogenic diet (KD). This article summarizes research indicating the role of PPARalpha in central and peripheral nervous system function with particular reference to downstream targets relevant to anticonvulsant action.

  12. [The subcellular organelles of peroxisome, realization of biologic functions of trophology, homeostasis, endoecology and functional bond with mitochondrion: the lecture].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Shiriaeva, Iu K; Kaba, S I

    2012-06-01

    The biologic role of peroxisomes in cells is that the organelles in respect to fatty acids, lipids and substrates synthesized from acetate implement the same fimnctions as the lysosomes exercise to proteins and polypeptides. The biologic role of peroxisomes is to optimize in vivo the exogenous fatty acids in hepatocytes under the realization of biologic functions of trophology, homeostasis, endoecology. About 800 individual fatty acids can penetrate into organism with food. At that, no more than thirty of them undergo the metabolic transformation in vivo. The rest hundreds of fatty acids are aphysiologic and have to be oxidized into peroxisomes under isochronic activation of alpha-, beta- and omega-oxydases without ATP formation. If in peroxisomes are formed fatty acids that can oxidize mitochondrions by beta-oxidation then the proteins of cytosol transfer fatty acids from peroxisomes to mitochondrions. The mitochondrions oxidize fatty acids in the Krebs cycle to form ATP. The oxidation in peroxisomes concerns the fatty acids with odd numbers of carbon atoms, the transforms of unsaturated fatty acids, the very long chain fatty acids, the fatty acids with carbon atoms side-chains, the dicarboxylic fatty acids, the fatty acids with benzene or indole rings in carbon atoms chains. The peroxisomes oxidize the surplus amount of exogenous palmitic saturated fatty acid too. The peroxisomes implement the biologic.function of endoecology on autocrine level supporting the "purity" of cells cytosol and interact functionally with mitochondrions. In the intercellular medium of paracrine cells coens the fimctions of endoecology are realized by the Toll-similar receptors by the "our-not our" principle concerning phospholipids, positional aphysiologic triglycerides and proteolipids. In the peroxisomes, under the simultaneous oxidation of very long chain fatty acids, the synthesis by primate cells is possible of some amount of essential unsaturated and polyene fatty acids. The

  13. The evolutionary origin of peroxisomes: an ER-peroxisome connection.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, Agatha; Fourcade, Stéphane; Ripp, Raymond; Mandel, Jean Louis; Poch, Olivier; Pujol, Aurora

    2006-04-01

    The peroxisome is an essential eukaryotic organelle, crucial for lipid metabolism and free radical detoxification, development, differentiation, and morphogenesis from yeasts to humans. Loss of peroxisomes invariably leads to fatal peroxisome biogenesis disorders in man. The evolutionary origin of peroxisomes remains unsolved; proposals for either a symbiogenetic or cellular membrane invagination event are unconclusive. To address this question, we have probed with a peroxisomal proteome, an "ensemble" of 19 representative eukaryotic complete genomes. Molecular phylogenetic and sequence comparison tools allowed us to identify four proteins as peroxisomal markers for unequivocal in silico peroxisome detection. We have then detected the Apicomplexa phylum as the first group of organisms devoid of peroxisomes, in the presence of mitochondria. Finally, we deliver evidence against a prokaryotic ancestor of peroxisomes: (1) the peroxisomal membrane is composed of purely eukaryotic bricks and is thus useful to trace the eukaryotes in their evolutionary paths and (2) the peroxisomal matrix protein import system shares mechanistic similarities with the endoplasmic reticulum/proteasome degradation process, indicating a common evolutionary history.

  14. Catalase Deficiency Accelerates Diabetic Renal Injury Through Peroxisomal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Inah; Lee, Jiyoun; Huh, Joo Young; Park, Jehyun; Lee, Hi Bahl; Ho, Ye-Shih; Ha, Hunjoo

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in diabetes complications, including diabetic nephropathy (DN). Plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) as well as glucose are increased in diabetes, and peroxisomes and mitochondria participate in FFA oxidation in an interconnected fashion. Therefore, we investigated whether deficiency of catalase, a major peroxisomal antioxidant, accelerates DN through peroxisomal dysfunction and abnormal renal FFA metabolism. Diabetes was induced by multiple injections of low-dose streptozotocin into catalase knock-out (CKO) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. Murine mesangial cells (MMCs) transfected with catalase small interfering RNA followed by catalase overexpression were used to further elucidate the role of endogenous catalase. Despite equivalent hyperglycemia, parameters of DN, along with markers of oxidative stress, were more accelerated in diabetic CKO mice than in diabetic WT mice up to 10 weeks of diabetes. CKO mice and MMCs showed impaired peroxisomal/mitochondrial biogenesis and FFA oxidation. Catalase deficiency increased mitochondrial ROS and fibronectin expression in response to FFAs, which were effectively restored by catalase overexpression or N-acetylcysteine. These data provide unprecedented evidence that FFA-induced peroxisomal dysfunction exacerbates DN and that endogenous catalase plays an important role in protecting the kidney from diabetic stress through maintaining peroxisomal and mitochondrial fitness. PMID:22315314

  15. Peroxisomes as a source of auxin signaling molecules.

    PubMed

    Spiess, Gretchen M; Zolman, Bethany K

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes house many metabolic processes that allow organisms to safely sequester reactions with potentially damaging byproducts. Peroxisomes also produce signaling molecules; in plants, these include the hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA). Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is a chain-elongated form of the active auxin IAA and is a key tool for horticulturists and plant breeders for inducing rooting in plant cultures and callus. IBA is both made from and converted to IAA, providing a mechanism to maintain optimal IAA levels. Based on genetic analysis and studies of IBA metabolism, IBA conversion to IAA occurs in peroxisomes, and the timing and activity of peroxisomal import and metabolism thereby contribute to the IAA pool in a plant. Four enzymes have been hypothesized to act specifically in peroxisomal IBA conversion to IAA. Loss of these enzymes results in decreased IAA levels, a reduction in auxin-induced gene expression, and strong disruptions in cell elongation resulting in developmental abnormalities. Additional activity by known fatty acid β-oxidation enzymes also may contribute to IBA β-oxidation via direct activity or indirect effects. This review will discuss the peroxisomal enzymes that have been implicated in auxin homeostasis and the importance of IBA-derived IAA in plant growth and development.

  16. Autophagy-Related Proteins Are Required for Degradation of Peroxisomes in Arabidopsis Hypocotyls during Seedling Growth[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jimi; Lee, Heeeun; Lee, Han Nim; Kim, Soon-Hee; Shin, Kwang Deok; Chung, Taijoon

    2013-01-01

    Plant peroxisomes play a pivotal role during postgerminative growth by breaking down fatty acids to provide fixed carbons for seedlings before the onset of photosynthesis. The enzyme composition of peroxisomes changes during the transition of the seedling from a heterotrophic to an autotrophic state; however, the mechanisms for the degradation of obsolete peroxisomal proteins remain elusive. One candidate mechanism is autophagy, a bulk degradation pathway targeting cytoplasmic constituents to the lytic vacuole. We present evidence supporting the autophagy of peroxisomes in Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls during seedling growth. Mutants defective in autophagy appeared to accumulate excess peroxisomes in hypocotyl cells. When degradation in the vacuole was pharmacologically compromised, both autophagic bodies and peroxisomal markers were detected in the wild-type vacuole but not in that of the autophagy-incompetent mutants. On the basis of the genetic and cell biological data we obtained, we propose that autophagy is important for the maintenance of peroxisome number and cell remodeling in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. PMID:24368791

  17. Peroxisomal D-bifunctional protein deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lines, Matthew A.; Jobling, Rebekah; Brady, Lauren; Marshall, Christian R.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Rodriguez, Amadeo R.; Lee, Liesly; Lang, Anthony E.; Mestre, Tiago A.; Wanders, Ronald J.A.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the causative genetic lesion in 3 adult siblings with a slowly progressive, juvenile-onset phenotype comprising cerebellar atrophy and ataxia, intellectual decline, hearing loss, hypogonadism, hyperreflexia, a demyelinating sensorimotor neuropathy, and (in 2 of 3 probands) supratentorial white matter changes, in whom numerous prior investigations were nondiagnostic. Methods: The patients’ initial clinical assessment included history and physical examination, cranial MRI, and nerve conduction studies. We performed whole-exome sequencing of all 3 probands, followed by variant annotation and selection of rare, shared, recessive coding changes to identify the gene responsible. We next performed a panel of peroxisomal investigations in blood and cultured fibroblasts, including assessment of D-bifunctional protein (DBP) stability and activity by immunoblot and enzymologic methods, respectively. Results: Exome sequencing identified compound heterozygous mutations in HSD17B4, encoding peroxisomal DBP, in all 3 probands. Both identified mutations alter a conserved residue within the active site of DBP’s enoyl-CoA hydratase domain. Routine peroxisomal screening tests, including very long-chain fatty acids and phytanic acid, were normal. DBP enzymatic activity was markedly reduced. Conclusion: Exome sequencing provides a powerful and elegant tool in the specific diagnosis of “mild” or “atypical” neurometabolic disorders. Given the broad differential diagnosis and the absence of detectable biochemical abnormalities in blood, molecular testing of HSD17B4 should be considered as a first-line investigation in patients with compatible features. PMID:24553428

  18. Integration of peroxisomes into an endomembrane system that governs cellular aging

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Adam; Burstein, Michelle T.; Richard, Vincent R.; Leonov, Anna; Levy, Sean; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2012-01-01

    The peroxisome is an organelle that has long been known for its essential roles in oxidation of fatty acids, maintenance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and anaplerotic replenishment of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates destined for mitochondria. Growing evidence supports the view that these peroxisome-confined metabolic processes play an essential role in defining the replicative and chronological age of a eukaryotic cell. Much progress has recently been made in defining molecular mechanisms that link cellular aging to fatty acid oxidation, ROS turnover, and anaplerotic metabolism in peroxisomes. Emergent studies have revealed that these organelles not only house longevity-defining metabolic reactions but can also regulate cellular aging via their dynamic communication with other cellular compartments. Peroxisomes communicate with other organelles by establishing extensive physical contact with lipid bodies, maintaining an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to peroxisome connectivity system, exchanging certain metabolites, and being involved in the bidirectional flow of some of their protein and lipid constituents. The scope of this review is to summarize the evidence that peroxisomes are dynamically integrated into an endomembrane system that governs cellular aging. We discuss recent progress in understanding how communications between peroxisomes and other cellular compartments within this system influence the development of a pro- or anti-aging cellular pattern. We also propose a model for the integration of peroxisomes into the endomembrane system governing cellular aging and critically evaluate several molecular mechanisms underlying such integration. PMID:22936916

  19. Multiple paths to peroxisomes: Mechanism of peroxisome maintenance in mammals.

    PubMed

    Hua, Rong; Kim, Peter K

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes are dynamic organelles that can adjust their size and number in response to cellular demand and environmental stimuli. They can propagate from pre-existing peroxisomes through growth and division, as well as de novo from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, to what extend that these two distinct peroxisome biogenesis pathways are involved in maintaining peroxisome numbers in cycling cells is unclear. Recent studies in yeast suggest that the ER plays a direct role in the maintenance of peroxisomes. However, the role of the ER in mammalian system is under debate. In this review, we outline the recent progress in understanding the biogenesis of mammalian peroxisomes. We herein discuss some of the discrepancies in the literature and the outstanding questions in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pmp27 promotes peroxisomal proliferation

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Peroxisomes perform many essential functions in eukaryotic cells. The weight of evidence indicates that these organelles divide by budding from preexisting peroxisomes. This process is not understood at the molecular level. Peroxisomal proliferation can be induced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by oleate. This growth substrate is metabolized by peroxisomal enzymes. We have identified a protein, Pmp27, that promotes peroxisomal proliferation. This protein, previously termed Pmp24, was purified from peroxisomal membranes, and the corresponding gene, PMP27, was isolated and sequenced. Pmp27 shares sequence similarity with the Pmp30 family in Candida boidinii. Pmp27 is a hydrophobic peroxisomal membrane protein but it can be extracted by high pH, suggesting that it does not fully span the bilayer. Its expression is regulated by oleate. The function of Pmp27 was probed by observing the phenotype of strains in which the protein was eliminated by gene disruption or overproduced by expression from a multicopy plasmid. The strain containing the disruption (3B) was able to grow on all carbon sources tested, including oleate, although growth on oleate, glycerol, and acetate was slower than wild type. Strain 3B contained peroxisomes with all of the enzymes of beta-oxidation. However, in addition to the presence of a few modestly sized peroxisomes seen in a typical thin section of a cell growing on oleate-containing medium, cells of strain 3B also contained one or two very large peroxisomes. In contrast, cells in a strain in which Pmp27 was overexpressed contained an increased number of normal-sized peroxisomes. We suggest that Pmp27 promotes peroxisomal proliferation by participating in peroxisomal elongation or fission. PMID:7721939

  1. ATM Functions at the Peroxisome to Induce Pexophagy in Response to ROS

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Angela; Kim, Jinhee; Powell, Reid T.; Dere, Ruhee; Tait-Mulder, Jacqueline; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Paull, Tanya T.; Pandita, Raj K.; Charaka, Vijaya K.; Pandita, Tej K.; Kastan, Michael B.; Walker, Cheryl Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisomes are highly metabolic, autonomously replicating organelles that generate ROS as a by product of fatty acid β-oxidation. Consequently, cells must maintain peroxisome homeostasis, or risk pathologies associated with too few peroxisomes, such as peroxisome biogenesis disorders, or too many peroxisomes, inducing oxidative damage and promoting diseases such as cancer. We report that the PEX5 peroxisome import receptor binds ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and localizes this kinase to the peroxisome. In response to reactive oxygen species (ROS), ATM signaling activates ULK1 and inhibits mTORC1 to induce autophagy. Specificity for autophagy of peroxisomes (pexophagy) is provided by ATM phosphorylation of PEX5 at Ser141, which promotes PEX5 mono-ubiquitination at K209, and recognition of ubiquitinated PEX5 by the autophagy adapter protein p62, directing the autophagosome to peroxisomes to induce pexophagy. These data reveal an important new role for ATM in metabolism as a sensor of ROS that regulates pexophagy. PMID:26344566

  2. Peroxisomal fission is induced during appressorium formation and is required for full virulence of the rice blast fungus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Lin; Shen, Mi; Yang, Jun; Xing, Yunfei; Chen, Deng; Li, Zhigang; Zhao, Wensheng; Zhang, Yan

    2017-02-01

    Peroxisomes are involved in various metabolic processes and are important for virulence in different pathogenic fungi. How peroxisomes rapidly emerge in the appressorium during fungal infection is poorly understood. Here, we describe a gene, PEF1, which can regulate peroxisome formation in the appressorium by controlling peroxisomal fission, and is required for plant infection in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Targeted deletion of PEF1 resulted in a reduction in virulence and a delay in penetration and invasive growth in host cells. PEF1 was particularly expressed during appressorial development, and its encoding protein was co-localized with peroxisomes during appressorial development. Compared with the massive vesicle-shaped peroxisomes formed in the wild-type appressorium, the Δpef1 mutant could only form stringy linked immature peroxisomes, suggesting that PEF1 was involved in peroxisomal fission during appressorium formation. We also found that the Δpef1 mutant could not utilize fatty acids efficiently, which can improve significantly the expression level of PEF1 and induce peroxisomal fission. As expected, the Δpef1 mutant showed reduced intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during appressorium formation and induced ROS accumulation in host cells during infection. Taken together, PEF1-mediated peroxisomal fission is important for fungal infection by controlling the number of peroxisomes in the appressorium.

  3. Novel proteins, putative membrane transporters, and an integrated metabolic network are revealed by quantitative proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis cell culture peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Eubel, Holger; Meyer, Etienne H; Taylor, Nicolas L; Bussell, John D; O'Toole, Nicholas; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Castleden, Ian; Small, Ian D; Smith, Steven M; Millar, A Harvey

    2008-12-01

    Peroxisomes play key roles in energy metabolism, cell signaling, and plant development. A better understanding of these important functions will be achieved with a more complete definition of the peroxisome proteome. The isolation of peroxisomes and their separation from mitochondria and other major membrane systems have been significant challenges in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) model system. In this study, we present new data on the Arabidopsis peroxisome proteome obtained using two new technical advances that have not previously been applied to studies of plant peroxisomes. First, we followed density gradient centrifugation with free-flow electrophoresis to improve the separation of peroxisomes from mitochondria. Second, we used quantitative proteomics to identify proteins enriched in the peroxisome fractions relative to mitochondrial fractions. We provide evidence for peroxisomal localization of 89 proteins, 36 of which have not previously been identified in other analyses of Arabidopsis peroxisomes. Chimeric green fluorescent protein constructs of 35 proteins have been used to confirm their localization in peroxisomes or to identify endoplasmic reticulum contaminants. The distribution of many of these peroxisomal proteins between soluble, membrane-associated, and integral membrane locations has also been determined. This core peroxisomal proteome from nonphotosynthetic cultured cells contains a proportion of proteins that cannot be predicted to be peroxisomal due to the lack of recognizable peroxisomal targeting sequence 1 (PTS1) or PTS2 signals. Proteins identified are likely to be components in peroxisome biogenesis, beta-oxidation for fatty acid degradation and hormone biosynthesis, photorespiration, and metabolite transport. A considerable number of the proteins found in peroxisomes have no known function, and potential roles of these proteins in peroxisomal metabolism are discussed. This is aided by a metabolic network analysis that reveals a

  4. Optical Control of Peroxisomal Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The blue-light-responsive LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin1 (AsLOV2) has been used to regulate activity and binding of diverse protein targets with light. Here, we used AsLOV2 to photocage a peroxisomal targeting sequence, allowing light regulation of peroxisomal protein import. We generated a protein tag, LOV-PTS1, that can be appended to proteins of interest to direct their import to the peroxisome with light. This method provides a means to inducibly trigger peroxisomal protein trafficking in specific cells at user-defined times. PMID:26513473

  5. The birth of yeast peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2016-05-01

    This contribution describes the phenotypic differences of yeast peroxisome-deficient mutants (pex mutants). In some cases different phenotypes were reported for yeast mutants deleted in the same PEX gene. These differences are most likely related to the marker proteins and methods used to detect peroxisomal remnants. This is especially evident for pex3 and pex19 mutants, where the localization of receptor docking proteins (Pex13, Pex14) resulted in the identification of peroxisomal membrane remnants, which do not contain other peroxisomal membrane proteins, such as the ring proteins Pex2, Pex10 and Pex12. These structures in pex3 and pex19 cells are the template for peroxisome formation upon introduction of the missing gene. Taken together, these data suggest that in all yeast pex mutants analyzed so far peroxisomes are not formed de novo but use membrane remnant structures as a template for peroxisome formation upon reintroduction of the missing gene. The relevance of this model for peroxisomal membrane protein and lipid sorting to peroxisomes is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of salt stress, cell death, and autophagy on peroxisomes: quantitative and morphological analyses using small fluorescent probe N-BODIPY

    PubMed Central

    Fahy, Deirdre; Sanad, Marwa N. M. E.; Duscha, Kerstin; Lyons, Madison; Liu, Fuquan; Bozhkov, Peter; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Hu, Jianping; Neuhaus, H. Ekkehard; Steel, Patrick G.; Smertenko, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Plant peroxisomes maintain a plethora of key life processes including fatty acid β-oxidation, photorespiration, synthesis of hormones, and homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Abundance of peroxisomes in cells is dynamic; however mechanisms controlling peroxisome proliferation remain poorly understood because measuring peroxisome abundance is technically challenging. Counting peroxisomes in individual cells of complex organs by electron or fluorescence microscopy is expensive and time consuming. Here we present a simple technique for quantifying peroxisome abundance using the small probe Nitro-BODIPY, which in vivo fluoresces selectively inside peroxisomes. The physiological relevance of our technique was demonstrated using salinity as a known inducer of peroxisome proliferation. While significant peroxisome proliferation was observed in wild-type Arabidopsis leaves following 5-hour exposure to NaCl, no proliferation was detected in the salt-susceptible mutants fry1-6, sos1-14, and sos1-15. We also found that N-BODIPY detects aggregation of peroxisomes during final stages of programmed cell death and can be used as a marker of this stage. Furthermore, accumulation of peroxisomes in an autophagy-deficient Arabidopsis mutant atg5 correlated with N-BODIPY labeling. In conclusion, the technique reported here enables quantification of peroxisomes in plant material at various physiological settings. Its potential applications encompass identification of genes controlling peroxisome homeostasis and capturing stress-tolerant genotypes. PMID:28145408

  7. Impact of salt stress, cell death, and autophagy on peroxisomes: quantitative and morphological analyses using small fluorescent probe N-BODIPY.

    PubMed

    Fahy, Deirdre; Sanad, Marwa N M E; Duscha, Kerstin; Lyons, Madison; Liu, Fuquan; Bozhkov, Peter; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Hu, Jianping; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Steel, Patrick G; Smertenko, Andrei

    2017-02-01

    Plant peroxisomes maintain a plethora of key life processes including fatty acid β-oxidation, photorespiration, synthesis of hormones, and homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Abundance of peroxisomes in cells is dynamic; however mechanisms controlling peroxisome proliferation remain poorly understood because measuring peroxisome abundance is technically challenging. Counting peroxisomes in individual cells of complex organs by electron or fluorescence microscopy is expensive and time consuming. Here we present a simple technique for quantifying peroxisome abundance using the small probe Nitro-BODIPY, which in vivo fluoresces selectively inside peroxisomes. The physiological relevance of our technique was demonstrated using salinity as a known inducer of peroxisome proliferation. While significant peroxisome proliferation was observed in wild-type Arabidopsis leaves following 5-hour exposure to NaCl, no proliferation was detected in the salt-susceptible mutants fry1-6, sos1-14, and sos1-15. We also found that N-BODIPY detects aggregation of peroxisomes during final stages of programmed cell death and can be used as a marker of this stage. Furthermore, accumulation of peroxisomes in an autophagy-deficient Arabidopsis mutant atg5 correlated with N-BODIPY labeling. In conclusion, the technique reported here enables quantification of peroxisomes in plant material at various physiological settings. Its potential applications encompass identification of genes controlling peroxisome homeostasis and capturing stress-tolerant genotypes.

  8. Peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporters form mainly tetramers.

    PubMed

    Geillon, Flore; Gondcaille, Catherine; Raas, Quentin; Dias, Alexandre M M; Pecqueur, Delphine; Truntzer, Caroline; Lucchi, Géraldine; Ducoroy, Patrick; Falson, Pierre; Savary, Stéphane; Trompier, Doriane

    2017-04-28

    ABCD1 and its homolog ABCD2 are peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) half-transporters of fatty acyl-CoAs with both distinct and overlapping substrate specificities. Although it is established that ABC half-transporters have at least to dimerize to generate a functional unit, functional equivalents of tetramers (i.e. dimers of full-length transporters) have also been reported. However, oligomerization of peroxisomal ABCD transporters is incompletely understood but is of potential significance because more complex oligomerization might lead to differences in substrate specificity. In this work, we have characterized the quaternary structure of the ABCD1 and ABCD2 proteins in the peroxisomal membrane. Using various biochemical approaches, we clearly demonstrate that both transporters exist as both homo- and heterotetramers, with a predominance of homotetramers. In addition to tetramers, some larger molecular ABCD assemblies were also found but represented only a minor fraction. By using quantitative co-immunoprecipitation assays coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, we identified potential binding partners of ABCD2 involved in polyunsaturated fatty-acid metabolism. Interestingly, we identified calcium ATPases as ABCD2-binding partners, suggesting a role of ABCD2 in calcium signaling. In conclusion, we have shown here that ABCD1 and its homolog ABCD2 exist mainly as homotetramers in the peroxisomal membrane. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Involvement of glutathione peroxidase 1 in growth and peroxisome formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in oleic acid medium.

    PubMed

    Ohdate, Takumi; Inoue, Yoshiharu

    2012-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to use some fatty acids, such as oleic acid, as a sole source of carbon. β-oxidation, which occurs in a single membrane-enveloped organelle or peroxisome, is responsible for the assimilation of fatty acids. In S. cerevisiae, β-oxidation occurs only in peroxisomes, and H(2)O(2) is generated during this fatty acid-metabolizing pathway. S. cerevisiae has three GPX genes (GPX1, GPX2, and GPX3) encoding atypical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins. Here we show that expression of GPX1 was induced in medium containing oleic acid as a carbon source in an Msn2/Msn4-dependent manner. We found that Gpx1 was located in the peroxisomal matrix. The peroxisomal Gpx1 showed peroxidase activity using thioredoxin or glutathione as a reducing power. Peroxisome biogenesis was induced when cells were cultured with oleic acid. Peroxisome biogenesis was impaired in gpx1∆ cells, and subsequently, the growth of gpx1∆ cells was lowered in oleic acid-containing medium. Gpx1 contains six cysteine residues. Of the cysteine-substituted mutants of Gpx1, Gpx1(C36S) was not able to restore growth and peroxisome formation in oleic acid-containing medium, therefore, redox regulation of Gpx1 seems to be involved in the mechanism of peroxisome formation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Peroxisomal ABC transporters: structure, function and role in disease.

    PubMed

    Morita, Masashi; Imanaka, Tsuneo

    2012-09-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters belong to one of the largest families of membrane proteins, and are present in almost all living organisms from eubacteria to mammals. They exist on plasma membranes and intracellular compartments such as the mitochondria, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and lysosomes, and mediate the active transport of a wide variety of substrates in a variety of different cellular processes. These include the transport of amino acids, polysaccharides, peptides, lipids and xenobiotics, including drugs and toxins. Three ABC transporters belonging to subfamily D have been identified in mammalian peroxisomes. The ABC transporters are half-size and assemble mostly as a homodimer after posttranslational transport to peroxisomal membranes. ABCD1/ALDP and ABCD2/ALDRP are suggested to be involved in the transport of very long chain acyl-CoA with differences in substrate specificity, and ABCD3/PMP70 is involved in the transport of long and branched chain acyl-CoA. ABCD1 is known to be responsible for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), an inborn error of peroxisomal β-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids. Here, we summarize recent advances and important points in our advancing understanding of how these ABC transporters target and assemble to peroxisomal membranes and perform their functions in physiological and pathological processes, including the neurodegenerative disease, X-ALD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of the Hepatotoxic and Immunotoxic Effects of the Peroxisome Proliferator Perfluorodecanoic Acid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-30

    perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorodecanoic acid in male rats and the effects on tissue fatty acids . Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 70, 362-372. Reddy, J.K...np. A #127 6Investigation of the Hepatotoxic and OHIO Immunotoxic Effects of the Peroxisome AJE Proliferator Perfluorodecanoic Acid Donald E. Frazier...Investigation of the Hepatotoxic and Immunotoxic Effects G-AFOSR 90-0371 of the Peroxisome Proliferator Perfluorodecanoic Acid TA - 2312/A5 L AUTMOS) Donald E

  12. No peroxisome is an island — Peroxisome contact sites☆

    PubMed Central

    Shai, Nadav; Schuldiner, Maya; Zalckvar, Einat

    2016-01-01

    In order to optimize their multiple cellular functions, peroxisomes must collaborate and communicate with the surrounding organelles. A common way of communication between organelles is through physical membrane contact sites where membranes of two organelles are tethered, facilitating exchange of small molecules and intracellular signaling. In addition contact sites are important for controlling processes such as metabolism, organelle trafficking, inheritance and division. How peroxisomes rely on contact sites for their various cellular activities is only recently starting to be appreciated and explored and the extent of peroxisomal communication, their contact sites and their functions are less characterized. In this review we summarize the identified peroxisomal contact sites, their tethering complexes and their potential physiological roles. Additionally, we highlight some of the preliminary evidence that exists in the field for unexplored peroxisomal contact sites. PMID:26384874

  13. Mammalian peroxisomal ABC transporters: from endogenous substrates to pathology and clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Stephan; Theodoulou, Frederica L; Wanders, Ronald JA

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisomes are indispensable organelles in higher eukaryotes. They are essential for a number of important metabolic pathways, including fatty acid α- and β-oxidation, and biosynthesis of etherphospholipids and bile acids. However, the peroxisomal membrane forms an impermeable barrier to these metabolites. Therefore, peroxisomes need specific transporter proteins to transfer these metabolites across their membranes. The mammalian peroxisomal membrane harbours three ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. In recent years, significant progress has been made in unravelling the functions of these ABC transporters. There is ample evidence that they are involved in the transport of very long-chain fatty acids, pristanic acid, di- and trihydroxycholestanoic acid, dicarboxylic acids and tetracosahexaenoic acid (C24:6ω3). Surprisingly, only one disease is associated with a deficiency of a peroxisomal ABC transporter. Mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding the peroxisomal ABC transporter adrenoleukodystrophy protein are the cause for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, an inherited metabolic storage disorder. This review describes the current state of knowledge on the mammalian peroxisomal ABC transporters with a particular focus on their function in metabolite transport. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Transporters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-7 PMID:21488864

  14. Existence of catalase-less peroxisomes in Sf21 insect cells.

    PubMed

    Kurisu, Mikinori; Morita, Masashi; Kashiwayama, Yoshinori; Yokota, Sadaki; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Ohkuma, Shoji; Nishimura, Mikio; Imanaka, Tsuneo

    2003-06-20

    Catalase activity, a peroxisomal marker enzyme, was not detectable in any of the subcellular fractions of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf) 21 insect cells, although marker enzymes in other organelles were distributed in the fractions in a manner similar to that seen in mammalian cells. When a green fluorescent protein fused with peroxisome targeting signal 1 at the C-terminal (GFP-SKL) was expressed in Sf21 cells, punctate fluorescent dots were observed in the cytoplasm. The fraction where GFP-SKL was concentrated exhibited long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation activities in the presence of KCN and the density of this fraction was slightly higher than that of mitochondria. Immunoelectron microscopy studies with anti-SKL antibody demonstrated that Sf21 cells have immunoreactive peroxisome-like organelles which are structurally distinct from mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and lysosomes. In contrast to peroxisomal matrix proteins, adrenoleukodystrophy protein, a peroxisomal membrane protein, was not located to peroxisomes. This suggests that the targeting signal for PMP in insect cells is distinct from that in mammalian cells. These results demonstrate that Sf21 insect cells have unique catalase-less peroxisomes capable of beta-oxidation of fatty acids.

  15. Mammalian peroxisomal ABC transporters: from endogenous substrates to pathology and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Stephan; Theodoulou, Frederica L; Wanders, Ronald J A

    2011-12-01

    Peroxisomes are indispensable organelles in higher eukaryotes. They are essential for a number of important metabolic pathways, including fatty acid α- and β-oxidation, and biosynthesis of etherphospholipids and bile acids. However, the peroxisomal membrane forms an impermeable barrier to these metabolites. Therefore, peroxisomes need specific transporter proteins to transfer these metabolites across their membranes. The mammalian peroxisomal membrane harbours three ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. In recent years, significant progress has been made in unravelling the functions of these ABC transporters. There is ample evidence that they are involved in the transport of very long-chain fatty acids, pristanic acid, di- and trihydroxycholestanoic acid, dicarboxylic acids and tetracosahexaenoic acid (C24:6ω3). Surprisingly, only one disease is associated with a deficiency of a peroxisomal ABC transporter. Mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding the peroxisomal ABC transporter adrenoleukodystrophy protein are the cause for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, an inherited metabolic storage disorder. This review describes the current state of knowledge on the mammalian peroxisomal ABC transporters with a particular focus on their function in metabolite transport. © 2011 Academic Medical Center & Rothamsted Research Ltd. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Peroxisome function is required for virulence and survival of Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyunghun; Son, Hokyoung; Lee, Jungkwan; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

    2012-12-01

    Peroxisomes are organelles that are involved in a number of important cellular metabolic processes, including the β-oxidation of fatty acids, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, the role of peroxisomes was examined in Fusarium graminearum by targeted deletion of three genes (PEX5, PEX6, and PEX7) encoding peroxin (PEX) proteins required for peroxisomal protein import. PEX5 and PEX7 deletion mutants were unable to localize the fluorescently tagged peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1)- and PTS2-containing proteins to peroxisomes, respectively, whereas the PEX6 mutant failed to localize both fluorescent proteins. Deletion of PEX5 and PEX6 resulted in retarded growth on long-chain fatty acids and butyrate, while the PEX7 deletion mutants utilized fatty acids other than butyrate. Virulence on wheat heads was greatly reduced in the PEX5 and PEX6 deletion mutants, and they were defective in spreading from inoculated florets to the adjacent spikelets through rachis. Deletion of PEX5 and PEX6 dropped survivability of aged cells in planta and in vitro due to the accumulation of ROS followed by necrotic cell death. These results demonstrate that PTS1-dependent peroxisomal protein import mediated by PEX5 and PEX6 are critical to virulence and survival of F. graminearum.

  17. The human peroxisomal ABC half transporter ALDP functions as a homodimer and accepts acyl-CoA esters.

    PubMed

    van Roermund, Carlo W T; Visser, Wouter F; Ijlst, Lodewijk; van Cruchten, Arno; Boek, Maxim; Kulik, Wim; Waterham, Hans R; Wanders, Ronald J A

    2008-12-01

    Peroxisomes play a major role in human cellular lipid metabolism, including the beta-oxidation of fatty acids. The most frequent peroxisomal disorder is X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), which is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene. The protein involved, called ABCD1, or alternatively ALDP, is a member of the ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporter family and is located in the peroxisomal membrane. The biochemical hallmark of X-ALD is the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), due to an impaired peroxisomal beta-oxidation. Although this suggests a role of ALDP in VLCFA import, no experimental evidence is available to substantiate this. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, peroxisomes are the exclusive site of fatty acid beta-oxidation. Earlier work has shown that uptake of fatty acids into peroxisomes may occur via two routes, either as free fatty acids thus requiring intraperoxisomal activation into acyl-CoA esters or as long-chain acyl-CoA esters. The latter route involves the two peroxisomal half ABC transporters Pxa1p and Pxa2p that form a heterodimeric complex in the peroxisomal membrane. Using different strategies, including the analysis of intracellular acyl-CoA esters by tandem-MS, we show that the Pxa1p/Pxa2p heterodimer is involved in the transport of a spectrum of acyl-CoA esters. Interestingly, we found that the mutant phenotype of the pxa1/pxa2Delta mutant can be rescued, at least partially, by the sole expression of the human ABCD1 cDNA coding for ALDP, the protein that is defective in the human disease X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Our data indicate that ALDP can function as a homodimer and is involved in the transport of acyl-CoA esters across the peroxisomal membrane.

  18. A new role for ATM in selective autophagy of peroxisomes (pexophagy).

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Durga Nand; Zhang, Jiangwei; Jing, Ji; Dere, Ruhee; Walker, Cheryl Lyn

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are autonomously replicating and highly metabolic organelles necessary for β-oxidation of fatty acids, a process that generates large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Maintaining a balance between biogenesis and degradation of peroxisomes is essential to maintain cellular redox balance, but how cells do this has remained somewhat of a mystery. While it is known that peroxisomes can be degraded via selective autophagy (pexophagy), little is known about how mammalian cells regulate pexophagy to maintain peroxisome homeostasis. We have uncovered a mechanism for regulating pexophagy in mammalian cells that defines a new role for ATM (ATM serine/threonine kinase) kinase as a "first responder" to peroxisomal ROS. ATM is delivered to the peroxisome by the PEX5 import receptor, which recognizes an SRL sequence located at the C terminus of ATM to localize this kinase to peroxisomes. In response to ROS, the ATM kinase is activated and performs 2 functions: i) it signals to AMPK, which activates TSC2 to suppresses MTORC1 and phosphorylates ULK1 to induce autophagy, and ii) targets specific peroxisomes for pexophagy by phosphorylating PEX5 at Ser141, which triggers ubiquitination of PEX5 at Lys209 and binding of the autophagy receptor protein SQSTM1/p62 to induce pexophagy.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of mRNAs associated with mouse peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Yarmishyn, Aliaksandr A; Kremenskoy, Maksym; Batagov, Arsen O; Preuss, Axel; Wong, Jin Huei; Kurochkin, Igor V

    2016-12-22

    RNA is often targeted to be localized to the specific subcellular compartments. Specific localization of mRNA is believed to be an important mechanism for targeting their protein products to the locations, where their function is required. In this study we performed the genome wide transcriptome analysis of peroxisome preparations from the mouse liver using microarrays. We demonstrate that RNA is absent inside peroxisomes, however it is associated at their exterior via the noncovalent contacts with the membrane proteins. We detect enrichment of specific sets of transcripts in two preparations of peroxisomes, purified with different degrees of stringency. Importantly, among these were mRNAs encoding bona fide peroxisomal proteins, such as peroxins and peroxisomal matrix enzymes involved in beta-oxidation of fatty acids and bile acid biosynthesis. The top-most enriched mRNA, whose association with peroxisomes we confirm microscopically was Hmgcs1, encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase, a crucial enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. We observed significant representation of mRNAs encoding mitochondrial and secreted proteins in the peroxisomal fractions. This is a pioneer genome-wide study of localization of mRNAs to peroxisomes that provides foundation for more detailed dissection of mechanisms of RNA targeting to subcellular compartments.

  20. In situ measurements of the pH of mammalian peroxisomes using the fluorescent protein pHluorin.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, A; Kim, J H; Collins, R F; Daneman, R; Walton, P; Grinstein, S

    2001-12-28

    Peroxisomes are metabolically active organelles that participate in the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids and in the biosynthesis of bile acids, cholesterol, and ether phospholipids. Even though maintenance of a stable acid-base milieu is essential for proper peroxisomal function, the determination of the peroxisomal pH (pH(p)) remains inconclusive, and little is known about its regulation. To measure the pH of intact peroxisomes in situ, we used the peroxisome-specific carboxyl-terminal targeting sequence, SKL, to deliver a pH-sensitive mutant of the green fluorescent protein (pHluorin-SKL) selectively into peroxisomes. Proper targeting was verified by colocalization with the peroxisomal marker catalase. Peroxisomes were visualized by imaging fluorescence microscopy, and ratiometric measurements were combined with calibration using ionophores or a null-point method to estimate pH(p). The pH(p) was between 6.9 and 7.1, resembling the cytosolic pH. Manipulation of the cytosolic pH in intact cells or after permeabilization of the plasmalemma with streptolysin O revealed that pH(p) changed in parallel, suggesting that the peroxisomal membrane is highly permeable to H(+) (equivalents). We conclude that peroxisomes do not regulate their pH independently, but instead their large H(+) permeability effectively connects them with the buffer reservoir of the cytoplasm and with the homeostatic mechanisms that control cytosolic pH.

  1. Contrasting effects of fish oil and safflower oil on hepatic peroxisomal and tissue lipid content.

    PubMed

    Neschen, Susanne; Moore, Irene; Regittnig, Werner; Yu, Chun Li; Wang, Yanlin; Pypaert, Marc; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Shulman, Gerald I

    2002-02-01

    To examine the mechanism by which fish oil protects against fat-induced insulin resistance, we studied the effects of control, fish oil, and safflower oil diets on peroxisomal content, fatty acyl-CoA, diacylglycerol, and ceramide content in rat liver and muscle. We found that, in contrast to control and safflower oil-fed rats, fish oil feeding induced a 150% increase in the abundance of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase in liver but lacked similar effects in muscle. This was paralleled by an almost twofold increase in hepatic peroxisome content (both P < 0.002 vs. control and safflower). These changes in the fish oil-fed rats were associated with a more than twofold lower hepatic triglyceride/diacylglycerol, as well as intramuscular triglyceride/fatty acyl-CoA, content. In conclusion, these data strongly support the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids protect against fat-induced insulin resistance by serving as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha ligands and thereby induce hepatic, but not intramuscular, peroxisome proliferation. In turn, an increased hepatic beta-oxidative capacity results in lower hepatic triglyceride/diacylglycerol and intramyocellular triglyceride/fatty acyl-CoA content.

  2. Peroxisomes as dynamic organelles: peroxisome abundance in yeast.

    PubMed

    Saraya, Ruchi; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2010-08-01

    Peroxisomes are cell organelles that are present in almost all eukaryotic cells and involved in a large range of metabolic pathways. The organelles are highly dynamic in nature: their number and enzyme content is highly variable and continuously adapts to prevailing environmental conditions. This review summarizes recent relevant developments in research on processes that are involved in the regulation of peroxisome abundance and maintenance. These processes include fission of the organelles, formation of new peroxisomes from the endoplasmic reticulum, autophagic degradation and segregation/inheritance during cell division.

  3. Pharmacological Regulation of Peroxisome Number in Glia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    possibility of new therapies for treating disorders in peroxisome biogenesis and metabolism. We have also provided a new line of evidence to...Expression Analysis of Peroxisome Biogenesis Pathways FIGURE 2. The Gene Expression of RAR-related Orphan Receptor Alpha FIGURE 3. Nuclear Receptors... biogenesis disorder PTS peroxisome targeting sequence PPAR peroxisome proliferators activated receptor Pex peroxin PXR pregnane X

  4. Small GTPases in peroxisome dynamics.

    PubMed

    Just, Wilhelm W; Peränen, Johan

    2016-05-01

    In this review article, we summarize current knowledge on peroxisome biogenesis/functions and the role that small GTPases may play in these processes. Precise intracellular distribution of cell organelles requires their regulated association to microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton. In this respect, RhoGDP/RhoGTP favor binding of peroxisomes to microtubules and actin filaments. In its GTP-bound form, RhoA activates a regulatory cascade involving Rho kinaseII and non-muscle myosinIIA. Such interactions frequently depend on phosphoinositides (PIs) of which PI4P, PI(4,5)P2, and PI(3,5)P2 were found to be present in the peroxisomal membrane. PIs are pivotal determinants of intracellular signaling and known to regulate a wide range of cellular functions. In many of these functions, small GTPases are implicated. The small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1), for example, is known to stimulate synthesis of PI4P and PI(4,5)P2 on the Golgi to regulate protein and lipid sorting. In vitro binding assays localized Arf1 and the COPI complex to peroxisomes. In light of the recent discussion of pre-peroxisomal vesicle generation at the ER, peroxisomal Arf1-COPI vesicles may serve retrograde transport of ER-resident components. A mass spectrometric screen localized various Rab proteins to peroxisomes. Overexpression of these proteins in combination with laser-scanning fluorescence microscopy co-localized Rab6, Rab8, Rab10, Rab14, and Rab18 with peroxisomal structures. By analogy to the role these proteins play in other organelle dynamics, we may envisage what the function of these proteins may be in relation to the peroxisomal compartment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor mRNA levels are modified by dietary n-3 fatty acid restriction and energy restriction in the brain and liver of growing rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Without dietary sources of long chain (LC) n-3 fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA;18:3n-3) is the precursor for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). It is not known how energy restriction (ER) impacts ALA conversion to DHA. We tested the hypothesis that ER reduces LCn-3 content in growing rats ...

  6. Pex11a deficiency is associated with a reduced abundance of functional peroxisomes and aggravated renal interstitial lesions.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huachun; Ji, Xu; Endo, Kosuke; Iwai, Naoharu

    2014-11-01

    Although proteinuria is known to be associated with the deterioration of chronic kidney disease, the molecular basis of this mechanism is not fully understood. We previously found that Pex11a deficiency was associated with a reduction of functional peroxisomes and impaired fatty acid metabolism in hepatocytes and resulted in steatosis. Proximal tubule cells are rich in peroxisomes. We assessed whether Pex11a deficiency might result in the derangement of peroxisome systems in proximal tubule cells and the aggravation of tubulointerstitial lesions in chronic kidney disease. Histological analyses showed that the number of functional peroxisomes in proximal tubule cells was reduced in Pex11a knockout (Pex11a(-/-)) mice. To clarify whether a decrease in the number of tubular peroxisomes might aggravate interstitial lesions, we assessed 2 models in which proximal tubule cells are overloaded with fatty acids (ie, deoxycorticosterone acetate and salt hypertension and the overload of fatty acid-bound albumin). Deoxycorticosterone acetate -salt-treated Pex11a(-/-) mice exhibited greater interstitial lesions than deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-treated wild-type mice in terms of tubular lipid accumulation, blood pressure, urinary albumin, urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, urinary 8-iso-prostane, and the histological evaluation of fibrosis and inflammation. An overload of fatty acid-bound albumin also resulted in more severe tubulointerstitial lesions in Pex11a(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonist, restored the abundance of peroxisomes and reduced the tubulointerstitial lesions induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension. In conclusion, our results indicate that proximal tubule peroxisomes play an important role in proteinuria-induced interstitial lesions. The activation of tubular peroxisomes might be an excellent therapeutic strategy against chronic kidney disease. © 2014 American Heart

  7. Factors influencing palmitoyl-CoA oxidation by rat liver peroxisomal fractions. Substrate concentration, organelle integrity and ATP.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J; Debeer, L J; De Schepper, P J; Mannaerts, G P

    1980-01-01

    1. The first dehydrogenation step of peroxisomal beta-oxidation involves the reduction of O2 to H2O2. Production rates of H2O2 and acetyl units by purified rat liver peroxisomes oxidizing palmitoyl-CoA were equal, indicating that H2O2 production is a reliable index for the release of acetyl units during peroxisomal fatty-acid oxidation. 2. Measurements of H2O2 and acid-soluble oxidation products during [1-14C]palmitoyl-CoA oxidation by purified peroxisomes revealed that the number of acetyl units released per molecule of palmitoyl-CoA oxidized rapidly decreased with increasing unbound palmitoyl-CoA concentrations. Structural damage to the peroxisomes caused by detergents or other treatments also decreased the number of acetyl units released. Under conditions where oxidation proceeded linearly with time the theoretical maximum of 5 acetyl units released per molecule of palmitoyl-CoA oxidized [Lazarow (1978) J. Biol. Chem. 253, 1522--1528] was never reached. 3. Expressed in terms of acetyl units produced and measured at low unbound-palmitoyl-CoA concentrations, mitochondrial oxidation was 10--20-fold higher than peroxisomal oxidation. 4. ATP stimulated peroxisomal palmitoyl-CoA oxidation approx. 2-fold. The ATP effect required the presence of Mg2+ and was lost when peroxisomal membranes were disrupted by Triton X-100 or high concentrations of unbound palmitoyl-CoA. 5. Disruption of peroxisomes by detergents, freeze--thawing, osmotic or mechanical treatment did not stimulate palmitoyl-CoA oxidation in the presence of ATP, indicating that peroxisomal fatty-acid-CoA oxidation was not latent. In the absence of ATP, Triton X-100 stimulated peroxisomal palmitoyl-CoA oxidation approx. 2-fold. PMID:7470063

  8. PEROXISOME-PROLIFERATOR ACTIVATED RECEPTORS AS A MACROMOLECULAR TARGET FOR CHEMICAL TOXICITY: MODELS OF THE INTERACTIONS OF PPARS WITH PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors (PPARs), a class of nuclear receptors that modulate both transcription and metabolic processes, are implicated in a variety of metabolic disorders linked to lipidogenesis, adipose tissue accumulation, fatty-acid oxidation pathways, ...

  9. PEROXISOME-PROLIFERATOR ACTIVATED RECEPTORS AS A MACROMOLECULAR TARGET FOR CHEMICAL TOXICITY: MODELS OF THE INTERACTIONS OF PPARS WITH PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors (PPARs), a class of nuclear receptors that modulate both transcription and metabolic processes, are implicated in a variety of metabolic disorders linked to lipidogenesis, adipose tissue accumulation, fatty-acid oxidation pathways, ...

  10. Yeast peroxisomes multiply by growth and division

    PubMed Central

    Motley, Alison M.; Hettema, Ewald H.

    2007-01-01

    Peroxisomes can arise de novo from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via a maturation process. Peroxisomes can also multiply by fission. We have investigated how these modes of multiplication contribute to peroxisome numbers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the role of the dynamin-related proteins (Drps) in these processes. We have developed pulse-chase and mating assays to follow the fate of existing peroxisomes, de novo–formed peroxisomes, and ER-derived preperoxisomal structures. We find that in wild-type (WT) cells, peroxisomes multiply by fission and do not form de novo. A marker for the maturation pathway, Pex3-GFP, is delivered from the ER to existing peroxisomes. Strikingly, cells lacking peroxisomes as a result of a segregation defect do form peroxisomes de novo. This process is slower than peroxisome multiplication in WT cells and is Drp independent. In contrast, peroxisome fission is Drp dependent. Our results show that peroxisomes multiply by growth and division under our assay conditions. We conclude that the ER to peroxisome pathway functions to supply existing peroxisomes with essential membrane constituents. PMID:17646399

  11. Yeast peroxisomes multiply by growth and division.

    PubMed

    Motley, Alison M; Hettema, Ewald H

    2007-07-30

    Peroxisomes can arise de novo from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via a maturation process. Peroxisomes can also multiply by fission. We have investigated how these modes of multiplication contribute to peroxisome numbers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the role of the dynamin-related proteins (Drps) in these processes. We have developed pulse-chase and mating assays to follow the fate of existing peroxisomes, de novo-formed peroxisomes, and ER-derived preperoxisomal structures. We find that in wild-type (WT) cells, peroxisomes multiply by fission and do not form de novo. A marker for the maturation pathway, Pex3-GFP, is delivered from the ER to existing peroxisomes. Strikingly, cells lacking peroxisomes as a result of a segregation defect do form peroxisomes de novo. This process is slower than peroxisome multiplication in WT cells and is Drp independent. In contrast, peroxisome fission is Drp dependent. Our results show that peroxisomes multiply by growth and division under our assay conditions. We conclude that the ER to peroxisome pathway functions to supply existing peroxisomes with essential membrane constituents.

  12. ABCD2 identifies a subclass of peroxisomes in mouse adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxi; Liu, Jingjing; Lester, Joshua D; Pijut, Sonja S; Graf, Gregory A

    2015-01-02

    ATP-binding cassette transporter D2 (D2) is an ABC half transporter that is thought to promote the transport of very long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs into peroxisomes. Both D2 and peroxisomes increase during adipogenesis. Although peroxisomes are essential to both catabolic and anabolic lipid metabolism, their function, and that of D2, in adipose tissues remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the D2 localization and the proteome of D2-containing organelles, in adipose tissue. Centrifugation of mouse adipose homogenates generated a fraction enriched with D2, but deficient in peroxisome markers including catalase, PEX19, and ABCD3 (D3). Electron microscopic imaging of this fraction confirmed the presence of D2 protein on an organelle with a dense matrix and a diameter of ∼ 200 nm, the typical structure and size of a microperoxisome. D2 and PEX19 antibodies recognized distinct structures in mouse adipose. Immunoisolation of the D2-containing compartment confirmed the scarcity of PEX19 and proteomic profiling revealed the presence of proteins associated with peroxisome, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and mitochondria. D2 is localized to a distinct class of peroxisomes that lack many peroxisome proteins, and may associate physically with mitochondria and the ER. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Emerging roles of mitochondria in the evolution, biogenesis, and function of peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Abhishek; McBride, Heidi M.

    2013-01-01

    In the last century peroxisomes were thought to have an endosymbiotic origin. Along with mitochondria and chloroplasts, peroxisomes primarily regulate their numbers through the growth and division of pre-existing organelles, and they house specific machinery for protein import. These features were considered unique to endosymbiotic organelles, prompting the idea that peroxisomes were key cellular elements that helped facilitate the evolution of multicellular organisms. The functional similarities to mitochondria within mammalian systems expanded these ideas, as both organelles scavenge peroxide and reactive oxygen species, both organelles oxidize fatty acids, and at least in higher eukaryotes, the biogenesis of both organelles is controlled by common nuclear transcription factors of the PPAR family. Over the last decade it has been demonstrated that the fission machinery of both organelles is also shared, and that both organelles act as critical signaling platforms for innate immunity and other pathways. Taken together it is clear that the mitochondria and peroxisomes are functionally coupled, regulating cellular metabolism and signaling through a number of common mechanisms. However, recent work has focused primarily on the role of the ER in the biogenesis of peroxisomes, potentially overshadowing the critical importance of the mitochondria as a functional partner. In this review, we explore the mechanisms of functional coupling of the peroxisomes to the mitochondria/ER networks, providing some new perspectives on the potential contribution of the mitochondria to peroxisomal biogenesis. PMID:24133452

  14. Emerging roles of mitochondria in the evolution, biogenesis, and function of peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Abhishek; McBride, Heidi M

    2013-09-26

    In the last century peroxisomes were thought to have an endosymbiotic origin. Along with mitochondria and chloroplasts, peroxisomes primarily regulate their numbers through the growth and division of pre-existing organelles, and they house specific machinery for protein import. These features were considered unique to endosymbiotic organelles, prompting the idea that peroxisomes were key cellular elements that helped facilitate the evolution of multicellular organisms. The functional similarities to mitochondria within mammalian systems expanded these ideas, as both organelles scavenge peroxide and reactive oxygen species, both organelles oxidize fatty acids, and at least in higher eukaryotes, the biogenesis of both organelles is controlled by common nuclear transcription factors of the PPAR family. Over the last decade it has been demonstrated that the fission machinery of both organelles is also shared, and that both organelles act as critical signaling platforms for innate immunity and other pathways. Taken together it is clear that the mitochondria and peroxisomes are functionally coupled, regulating cellular metabolism and signaling through a number of common mechanisms. However, recent work has focused primarily on the role of the ER in the biogenesis of peroxisomes, potentially overshadowing the critical importance of the mitochondria as a functional partner. In this review, we explore the mechanisms of functional coupling of the peroxisomes to the mitochondria/ER networks, providing some new perspectives on the potential contribution of the mitochondria to peroxisomal biogenesis.

  15. Pex13 Inactivation in the Mouse Disrupts Peroxisome Biogenesis and Leads to a Zellweger Syndrome Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Megan; Bjorkman, Jonas; Nguyen, Tam; Sharp, Peter; Finnie, John; Paterson, Carol; Tonks, Ian; Paton, Barbara C.; Kay, Graham F.; Crane, Denis I.

    2003-01-01

    Zellweger syndrome is the archetypical peroxisome biogenesis disorder and is characterized by defective import of proteins into the peroxisome, leading to peroxisomal metabolic dysfunction and widespread tissue pathology. In humans, mutations in the PEX13 gene, which encodes a peroxisomal membrane protein necessary for peroxisomal protein import, can lead to a Zellweger phenotype. To develop mouse models for this disorder, we have generated a targeted mouse with a loxP-modified Pex13 gene to enable conditional Cre recombinase-mediated inactivation of Pex13. In the studies reported here, we crossed these mice with transgenic mice that express Cre recombinase in all cells to generate progeny with ubiquitous disruption of Pex13. The mutant pups exhibited many of the clinical features of Zellweger syndrome patients, including intrauterine growth retardation, severe hypotonia, failure to feed, and neonatal death. These animals lacked morphologically intact peroxisomes and showed deficient import of matrix proteins containing either type 1 or type 2 targeting signals. Biochemical analyses of tissue and cultured skin fibroblasts from these animals indicated severe impairment of peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and plasmalogen synthesis. The brains of these animals showed disordered lamination in the cerebral cortex, consistent with a neuronal migration defect. Thus, Pex13−/− mice reproduce many of the features of Zellweger syndrome and PEX13 deficiency in humans. PMID:12897163

  16. Peroxisome homeostasis: Mechanisms of division and selective degradation of peroxisomes in mammals.

    PubMed

    Honsho, Masanori; Yamashita, Shun-ichi; Fujiki, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisome number and quality are maintained by its biogenesis and turnover and are important for the homeostasis of peroxisomes. Peroxisomes are increased in number by division with dynamic morphological changes including elongation, constriction, and fission. In the course of peroxisomal division, peroxisomal morphogenesis is orchestrated by Pex11β, dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1), and mitochondrial fission factor (Mff). Conversely, peroxisome number is reduced by its degradation. Peroxisomes are mainly degraded by pexophagy, a type of autophagy specific for peroxisomes. Upon pexophagy, an adaptor protein translocates on peroxisomal membrane and connects peroxisomes to autophagic machineries. Molecular mechanisms of pexophagy are well studied in yeast systems where several specific adaptor proteins are identified. Pexophagy in mammals also proceeds in a manner dependent on adaptor proteins. In this review, we address the recent progress in studies on peroxisome morphogenesis and pexophagy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple pathways for protein transport to peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, P K; Hettema, E H

    2015-03-27

    Peroxisomes are unique among the organelles of the endomembrane system. Unlike other organelles that derive most if not all of their proteins from the ER (endoplasmic reticulum), peroxisomes contain dedicated machineries for import of matrix proteins and insertion of membrane proteins. However, peroxisomes are also able to import a subset of their membrane proteins from the ER. One aspect of peroxisome biology that has remained ill defined is the role the various import pathways play in peroxisome maintenance. In this review, we discuss the available data on matrix and membrane protein import into peroxisomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Multiple Pathways for Protein Transport to Peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, P.K.; Hettema, E.H.

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisomes are unique among the organelles of the endomembrane system. Unlike other organelles that derive most if not all of their proteins from the ER (endoplasmic reticulum), peroxisomes contain dedicated machineries for import of matrix proteins and insertion of membrane proteins. However, peroxisomes are also able to import a subset of their membrane proteins from the ER. One aspect of peroxisome biology that has remained ill defined is the role the various import pathways play in peroxisome maintenance. In this review, we discuss the available data on matrix and membrane protein import into peroxisomes. PMID:25681696

  19. A protective association between catalase and isocitrate lyase in peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Tulin; Donaldson, Robert Paul

    2005-03-15

    Glyoxysomes are specialized peroxisomes in germinating seeds, which catalyze many reactions that convert fatty acids into carbohydrates thus generating H(2)O(2). They are characterized by the presence of catalase (CAT, E.C. 1.11.1.6) in their matrix which protects cells from oxidative stress. Here, we investigated the possibility that a protein can be protected from oxidative damage by its association with CAT. We purified peroxisomal CAT from germinating castor beans by ion exchange, gel filtration, and hydroxylapatite chromatography. Gel filtration of the matrix proteins, cross-linking, and co-immunoprecipitation studies indicate that CAT associates with a glyoxysomal matrix protein, isocitrate lyase (ICL, E.C. 4.1.3.1). In addition, we found that H(2)O(2) inactivates ICL and degrades its product, glyoxylate, when CAT is inactive. ICL and its product appear to be sensitive to oxidative damage; thus, association of CAT with ICL would afford protection from H(2)O(2).

  20. A new peroxisomal disorder with enlarged peroxisomes and a specific deficiency of Acyl-CoA oxidase (pseudo–Neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy)

    PubMed Central

    Poll-The, Bwee Tien; Roels, Frank; Ogier, Hélène; Scotto, Jacques; Vamecq, Joseph; Schutgens, Ruud B. H.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; van Roermund, Carlo W. T.; van Wijland, Michil J. A.; Schram, Adre W.; Tager, Joseph M.; Saudubray, Jean-Marie

    1988-01-01

    In the present paper two siblings are presented with clinical manifestations very similar to those of patients affected by neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. In contrast to neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy patients, hepatic peroxisomes in these siblings were enlarged in size and not decreased in number. Accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) was associated with an isolated deficiency of the fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the peroxisomal β-oxidation. Plasma levels of di- and trihydroxy-coprostanoic acid, phytanic acid, and pipecolic acid were normal; furthermore, acyl-CoA:dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity in cultured fibroblasts was also found to be normal. The clinical, biochemical, and cytochemical features found in these two siblings are compared with those seen in two other disorders characterized by the absence of a decreased number of hepatic peroxisomes and the presence of VLCFA: (1) pseudo–Zellweger syndrome (deficiency of peroxisomal thiolase activity) and (2) X-linked childhood adrenoleukodystrophy (deficiency of activation of lignoceric acid). Review of the different biochemical defects possible in very-long-chain fatty-acid oxidation reveals different clinical pictures of varying severity, depending on the level at which the biochemical defect occurs. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:2894756

  1. Regulation of peroxisome dynamics by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Oeljeklaus, Silke; Schummer, Andreas; Mastalski, Thomas; Platta, Harald W; Warscheid, Bettina

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes are highly dynamic organelles that can rapidly change in size, abundance, and protein content in response to alterations in nutritional and other environmental conditions. These dynamic changes in peroxisome features, referred to as peroxisome dynamics, rely on the coordinated action of several processes of peroxisome biogenesis. Revealing the regulatory mechanisms of peroxisome dynamics is an emerging theme in cell biology. These mechanisms are inevitably linked to and synchronized with the biogenesis and degradation of peroxisomes. To date, the key players and basic principles of virtually all steps in the peroxisomal life cycle are known, but regulatory mechanisms remained largely elusive. A number of recent studies put the spotlight on reversible protein phosphorylation for the control of peroxisome dynamics and highlighted peroxisomes as hubs for cellular signal integration and regulation. Here, we will present and discuss the results of several studies performed using yeast and mammalian cells that convey a sense of the impact protein phosphorylation may have on the modulation of peroxisome dynamics by regulating peroxisomal matrix and membrane protein import, proliferation, inheritance, and degradation. We further put forward the idea to make use of current data on phosphorylation sites of peroxisomal and peroxisome-associated proteins reported in advanced large-scale phosphoproteomic studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lipid rafts are essential for peroxisome biogenesis in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Woudenberg, Jannes; Rembacz, Krzysztof P; Hoekstra, Mark; Pellicoro, Antonella; van den Heuvel, Fiona A J; Heegsma, Janette; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C D; Holzinger, Andreas; Imanaka, Tsuneo; Moshage, Han; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2010-08-01

    Peroxisomes are particularly abundant in the liver and are involved in bile salt synthesis and fatty acid metabolism. Peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) are required for peroxisome biogenesis [e.g., the interacting peroxisomal biogenesis factors Pex13p and Pex14p] and its metabolic function [e.g., the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP) and PMP70]. Impaired function of PMPs is the underlying cause of Zellweger syndrome and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Here we studied for the first time the putative association of PMPs with cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts and their function in peroxisome biogenesis. Lipid rafts were isolated from Triton X-100-lysed or Lubrol WX-lysed HepG2 cells and analyzed for the presence of various PMPs by western blotting. Lovastatin and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin were used to deplete cholesterol and disrupt lipid rafts in HepG2 cells, and this was followed by immunofluorescence microscopy to determine the subcellular location of catalase and PMPs. Cycloheximide was used to inhibit protein synthesis. Green fluorescent protein-tagged fragments of PMP70 and ALDP were analyzed for their lipid raft association. PMP70 and Pex14p were associated with Triton X-100-resistant rafts, ALDP was associated with Lubrol WX-resistant rafts, and Pex13p was not lipid raft-associated in HepG2 cells. The minimal peroxisomal targeting signals in ALDP and PMP70 were not sufficient for lipid raft association. Cholesterol depletion led to dissociation of PMPs from lipid rafts and impaired sorting of newly synthesized catalase and ALDP but not Pex14p and PMP70. Repletion of cholesterol to these cells efficiently reestablished the peroxisomal sorting of catalase but not ALDP. Human PMPs are differentially associated with lipid rafts independently of the protein homology and/or their functional interaction. Cholesterol is required for peroxisomal lipid raft assembly and peroxisome biogenesis.

  3. ABCD2 identifies a subclass of peroxisomes in mouse adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaoxi Liu, Jingjing Lester, Joshua D. Pijut, Sonja S. Graf, Gregory A.

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • We examined the D2 localization and the proteome of D2-containing compartment in mouse adipose tissue. • We confirmed the presence of D2 on a subcellular compartment that has typical structure as a microperoxisome. • We demonstrated the scarcity of peroxisome markers on D2-containing compartment. • The D2-containing compartment may be a subpopulation of peroxisome in mouse adipose tissue. • Proteomic data suggests potential association between D2-containing compartment and mitochondria and ER. - Abstract: ATP-binding cassette transporter D2 (D2) is an ABC half transporter that is thought to promote the transport of very long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs into peroxisomes. Both D2 and peroxisomes increase during adipogenesis. Although peroxisomes are essential to both catabolic and anabolic lipid metabolism, their function, and that of D2, in adipose tissues remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the D2 localization and the proteome of D2-containing organelles, in adipose tissue. Centrifugation of mouse adipose homogenates generated a fraction enriched with D2, but deficient in peroxisome markers including catalase, PEX19, and ABCD3 (D3). Electron microscopic imaging of this fraction confirmed the presence of D2 protein on an organelle with a dense matrix and a diameter of ∼200 nm, the typical structure and size of a microperoxisome. D2 and PEX19 antibodies recognized distinct structures in mouse adipose. Immunoisolation of the D2-containing compartment confirmed the scarcity of PEX19 and proteomic profiling revealed the presence of proteins associated with peroxisome, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and mitochondria. D2 is localized to a distinct class of peroxisomes that lack many peroxisome proteins, and may associate physically with mitochondria and the ER.

  4. Genetic Interactions between PEROXIN12 and Other Peroxisome-Associated Ubiquitination Components1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Yun-Ting; Fleming, Wendell A.; Ventura, Meredith J.

    2016-01-01

    Most eukaryotic cells require peroxisomes, organelles housing fatty acid β-oxidation and other critical metabolic reactions. Peroxisomal matrix proteins carry peroxisome-targeting signals that are recognized by one of two receptors, PEX5 or PEX7, in the cytosol. After delivering the matrix proteins to the organelle, these receptors are removed from the peroxisomal membrane or matrix. Receptor retrotranslocation not only facilitates further rounds of matrix protein import but also prevents deleterious PEX5 retention in the membrane. Three peroxisome-associated ubiquitin-protein ligases in the Really Interesting New Gene (RING) family, PEX2, PEX10, and PEX12, facilitate PEX5 retrotranslocation. However, the detailed mechanism of receptor retrotranslocation remains unclear in plants. We identified an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) pex12 Glu-to-Lys missense allele that conferred severe peroxisomal defects, including impaired β-oxidation, inefficient matrix protein import, and decreased growth. We compared this pex12-1 mutant to other peroxisome-associated ubiquitination-related mutants and found that RING peroxin mutants displayed elevated PEX5 and PEX7 levels, supporting the involvement of RING peroxins in receptor ubiquitination in Arabidopsis. Also, we observed that disruption of any Arabidopsis RING peroxin led to decreased PEX10 levels, as seen in yeast and mammals. Peroxisomal defects were exacerbated in RING peroxin double mutants, suggesting distinct roles of individual RING peroxins. Finally, reducing function of the peroxisome-associated ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme PEX4 restored PEX10 levels and partially ameliorated the other molecular and physiological defects of the pex12-1 mutant. Future biochemical analyses will be needed to determine whether destabilization of the RING peroxin complex observed in pex12-1 stems from PEX4-dependent ubiquitination on the pex12-1 ectopic Lys residue. PMID:27650450

  5. A role for the human peroxisomal half-transporter ABCD3 in the oxidation of dicarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    van Roermund, Carlo W T; Ijlst, Lodewijk; Wagemans, Tom; Wanders, Ronald J A; Waterham, Hans R

    2014-04-04

    Peroxisomes play a major role in human cellular lipid metabolism, including fatty acid β-oxidation. Free fatty acids (FFAs) can enter peroxisomes through passive diffusion or by means of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including HsABCD1 (ALDP, adrenoleukodystrophy protein), HsABCD2 (ALDRP) and HsABCD3 (PMP70). The physiological functions of the different peroxisomal half-ABCD transporters have not been fully determined yet, but there are clear indications that both HsABCD1 and HsABCD2 are required for the breakdown of fatty acids in peroxisomes. Here we report that the phenotype of the pxa1/pxa2Δ yeast mutant, i.e. impaired oxidation of oleic acid, cannot only be partially rescued by HsABCD1, HsABCD2, but also by HsABCD3, which indicates that each peroxisomal half-transporter can function as homodimer. Fatty acid oxidation measurements using various fatty acids revealed that although the substrate specificities of HsABCD1, HsABCD2 and HsABCD3 are overlapping, they have distinctive preferences. Indeed, most hydrophobic C24:0 and C26:0 fatty acids are preferentially transported by HsABCD1, C22:0 and C22:6 by HsABCD2 and most hydrophilic substrates like long-chain unsaturated-, long branched-chain- and long-chain dicarboxylic fatty acids by HsABCD3. All these fatty acids are most likely transported as CoA esters. We postulate a role for human ABCD3 in the oxidation of dicarboxylic acids and a role in buffering fatty acids that are overflowing from the mitochondrial β-oxidation system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The peroxisome as a cell signaling organelle.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Durga Nand; Walker, Cheryl Lyn

    2016-04-01

    Peroxisomes participate in lipid metabolism, and are a major source of ROS in the cell. Their importance in cellular energy balance and redox homeostasis is well-established, as is the need to maintain peroxisome homeostasis to prevent pathologies associated with too few, or too many, of these organelles. How cells regulate peroxisome number has remained somewhat elusive. Recently, the tumor suppressors ATM and TSC, which regulate mTORC1 signaling, have been localized to peroxisomes. When activated by peroxisomal ROS, ATM signals to TSC to repress mTORC1 signaling and increase autophagic flux in cells, and also phosphorylates the peroxisomal protein PEX 5 to target peroxisomes for selective autophagy (pexophagy), providing a mechanism for regulation of peroxisomal homeostasis using ROS as a rheostat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cross-interference of two model peroxisome proliferators in peroxisomal and estrogenic pathways in brown trout hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Pinheiro, Ivone; Malhão, Fernanda; Lopes, Célia; Urbatzka, Ralph; Castro, L Filipe C; Rocha, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferators cause species-specific effects, which seem to be primarily transduced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Interestingly, PPARα has a close interrelationship with estrogenic signaling, and this latter has already been promptly activated in brown trout primary hepatocytes. Thus, and further exploring this model, we assess here the reactivity of two PPARα agonists in direct peroxisomal routes and, in parallel the cross-interferences in estrogen receptor (ER) mediated paths. To achieve these goals, three independent in vitro studies were performed using single exposures to clofibrate - CLF (50, 500 and 1000μM), Wy-14,643 - Wy (50 and 150μM), GW6471 - GW (1 and 10μM), and mixtures, including PPARα agonist or antagonist plus an ER agonist or antagonist. Endpoints included gene expression analysis of peroxisome/lipidic related genes (encoding apolipoprotein AI - ApoAI, fatty acid binding protein 1 - Fabp1, catalase - Cat, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 - 17β-HSD4, peroxin 11 alpha - Pex11α, PPARαBb, PPARαBa and urate oxidase - Uox) and those encoding estrogenic targets (ERα, ERβ-1 and vitellogenin A - VtgA). A quantitative morphological approach by using a pre-validated catalase immunofluorescence technique allowed checking possible changes in peroxisomes. Our results show a low responsiveness of trout hepatocytes to model PPARα agonists in direct target receptor pathways. Additionally, we unveiled interferences in estrogenic signaling caused by Wy, leading to an up-regulation VtgA and ERα at 150μM; these effects seem counteracted with a co-exposure to an ER antagonist. The present data stress the potential of this in vitro model for further exploring the physiological/toxicological implications related with this nuclear receptor cross-regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Peroxisomes, oxidative stress, and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Terlecky, Stanley R; Terlecky, Laura J; Giordano, Courtney R

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes are intracellular organelles mediating a wide variety of biosynthetic and biodegradative reactions. Included among these are the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide and other reactive species, molecules whose levels help define the oxidative state of cells. Loss of oxidative equilibrium in cells of tissues and organs potentiates inflammatory responses which can ultimately trigger human disease. The goal of this article is to review evidence for connections between peroxisome function, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the context of human health and degenerative disease. Dysregulated points in this nexus are identified and potential remedial approaches are presented. PMID:22649571

  9. Peroxisomal proliferation in heart and liver of mice receiving chlorpromazine, ethyl 2(5(4-chlorophenyl)pentyl) oxiran-2-carboxylic acid or high fat diet: a biochemical and morphometrical comparative study.

    PubMed

    Vamecq, J; Roels, F; Van den Branden, C; Draye, J P

    1987-12-01

    Chlorpromazine and related drugs including trifluoperazine, clopenthixol, and fluphenazine are in vitro inhibitors of mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase and cytochrome c oxidase and of peroxisomal carnitine octanoyltransferase from mouse heart and liver. By contrast with 0.1% ethyl 2(5(4-chlorophenyl)pentyl) oxiran-2-carboxylic acid or 0.1% clofibrate-containing diets, the treatment of mice with 0.1% chlorpromazine-containing diet fails to induce peroxisomal proliferation in liver and heart. An 0.5% chlorpromazine-containing diet did induce peroxisomal proliferation. Inhibition of peroxisomal beta-oxidation presumably via the reduction of carnitine octanoyltransferase by chlorpromazine elicits the appearance in liver of lamellar structures resembling those seen in human peroxisomal disorders and induces accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids in plasma. The peroxisomal proliferation induced by administration of high dose chlorpromazine is ascribed to its ability to depress mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation by impairing cytochrome c oxidase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities.

  10. Targeted deletion of the PEX2 peroxisome assembly gene in mice provides a model for Zellweger syndrome, a human neuronal migration disorder.

    PubMed

    Faust, P L; Hatten, M E

    1997-12-01

    Zellweger syndrome is a peroxisomal biogenesis disorder that results in abnormal neuronal migration in the central nervous system and severe neurologic dysfunction. The pathogenesis of the multiple severe anomalies associated with the disorders of peroxisome biogenesis remains unknown. To study the relationship between lack of peroxisomal function and organ dysfunction, the PEX2 peroxisome assembly gene (formerly peroxisome assembly factor-1) was disrupted by gene targeting. Homozygous PEX2-deficient mice survive in utero but die several hours after birth. The mutant animals do not feed and are hypoactive and markedly hypotonic. The PEX2-deficient mice lack normal peroxisomes but do assemble empty peroxisome membrane ghosts. They display abnormal peroxisomal biochemical parameters, including accumulations of very long chain fatty acids in plasma and deficient erythrocyte plasmalogens. Abnormal lipid storage is evident in the adrenal cortex, with characteristic lamellar-lipid inclusions. In the central nervous system of newborn mutant mice there is disordered lamination in the cerebral cortex and an increased cell density in the underlying white matter, indicating an abnormality of neuronal migration. These findings demonstrate that mice with a PEX2 gene deletion have a peroxisomal disorder and provide an important model to study the role of peroxisomal function in the pathogenesis of this human disease.

  11. The consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids differentially modulates gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Barradas, César M; Del-Río-Navarro, Blanca E; Domínguez-López, Aarón; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Martínez-Godínez, María de-Los-Á; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Miliar-García, Ángel

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation on metabolic state and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese adolescents. Obese adolescents (n = 26, 10 girls and 16 boys) aged 12.4 ± 2.1 years were assigned to a 12-week regimen of n-3 PUFA intake. Five times per day, subjects received a food supplement consisting of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (3 g per day, 944 mg EPA, and 2,088 mg DHA). Blood parameters were measured, and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were analyzed to determine gene expression at baseline and after 12 weeks. Student's t test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to estimate differences in arithmetic means of pre- and post-dietary supplementation for various anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and gene expression parameters. After 12 weeks, n-3 PUFA consumption was associated with decreased body mass index (29.7 ± 4.6 vs. 27.8 ± 4.4 kg/m(2); P < 0.001), waist circumference (93.2 ± 9.9 vs. 90.5 ± 10.0 cm; P < 0.003), hip circumference (102.9 ± 10.9 vs. 101.1 ± 10.9 cm; P < 0.014), and blood triglyceride levels (220.8 ± 27.4 vs. 99.7 ± 32.7 mg/dL; P < 0.001). Fatty acid supplementation/n3 PUFA supplementation was associated with a downregulated expression of the genes encoding PPARγ and PGC-1α (P < 0.001), and an upregulated expression of the genes encoding PPARα (P < 0.007) and SREBP1 (P < 0.021). The expressions of SOD2 (P < 0.04), CAT (P < 0.001), GPX3 (P < 0.032) and HIF-1α protein also decreased. Our study demonstrated that n-3 PUFA consumption and dietary restriction improved the anthropometric parameters and decreased the triglycerides levels of the adolescents, suggesting a reduction in hypoxia in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  12. Fatty Acid-binding Protein 5 (FABP5) Regulates Cognitive Function Both by Decreasing Anandamide Levels and by Activating the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) in the Brain*♦

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuiliang; Levi, Liraz; Casadesus, Gemma; Kunos, George; Noy, Noa

    2014-01-01

    Endocannabinoids modulate multiple behaviors, including learning and memory. We show that the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) can alter neuronal cell function both through its established role in activation of the G-protein-coupled receptor CB1, and by serving as a precursor for a potent agonist of the nuclear receptor PPARβ/δ, in turn up-regulating multiple cognition-associated genes. We show further that the fatty acid-binding protein FABP5 controls both of these functions in vivo. FABP5 both promotes the hydrolysis of AEA into arachidonic acid and thus reduces brain endocannabinoid levels, and directly shuttles arachidonic acid to the nucleus where it delivers it to PPARβ/δ, enabling its activation. In accordance, ablation of FABP5 in mice results in excess accumulation of AEA, abolishes PPARβ/δ activation in the brain, and markedly impairs hippocampus-based learning and memory. The data indicate that, by controlling anandamide disposition and activities, FABP5 plays a key role in regulating hippocampal cognitive function. PMID:24644281

  13. Peroxisomes sense and respond to environmental cues by regulating ROS and RNS signalling networks

    PubMed Central

    Sandalio, L. M.; Romero-Puertas, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Peroxisomes are highly dynamic, metabolically active organelles that used to be regarded as a sink for H2O2 generated in different organelles. However, peroxisomes are now considered to have a more complex function, containing different metabolic pathways, and they are an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Over-accumulation of ROS and RNS can give rise oxidative and nitrosative stress, but when produced at low concentrations they can act as signalling molecules. Scope This review focuses on the production of ROS and RNS in peroxisomes and their regulation by antioxidants. ROS production is associated with metabolic pathways such as photorespiration and fatty acid β-oxidation, and disturbances in any of these processes can be perceived by the cell as an alarm that triggers defence responses. Genetic and pharmacological studies have shown that photorespiratory H2O2 can affect nuclear gene expression, regulating the response to pathogen infection and light intensity. Proteomic studies have shown that peroxisomal proteins are targets for oxidative modification, S-nitrosylation and nitration and have highlighted the importance of these modifications in regulating peroxisomal metabolism and signalling networks. The morphology, size, number and speed of movement of peroxisomes can also change in response to oxidative stress, meaning that an ROS/redox receptor is required. Information available on the production and detection of NO/RNS in peroxisomes is more limited. Peroxisomal homeostasis is critical for maintaining the cellular redox balance and is regulated by ROS, peroxisomal proteases and autophagic processes. Conclusions Peroxisomes play a key role in many aspects of plant development and acclimation to stress conditions. These organelles can sense ROS/redox changes in the cell and thus trigger rapid and specific responses to environmental cues involving changes in peroxisomal

  14. A novel bile acid biosynthesis defect due to a deficiency of peroxisomal ABCD3.

    PubMed

    Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Koster, Janet; Denis, Simone; Van Roermund, Carlo W; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Moser, Ann B; Visser, Wouter F; Gulluoglu, Mine; Durmaz, Ozlem; Demirkol, Mubeccel; Waterham, Hans R; Gökcay, Gülden; Wanders, Ronald J A; Valle, David

    2015-01-15

    ABCD3 is one of three ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters present in the peroxisomal membrane catalyzing ATP-dependent transport of substrates for metabolic pathways localized in peroxisomes. So far, the precise function of ABCD3 is not known. Here, we report the identification of the first patient with a defect of ABCD3. The patient presented with hepatosplenomegaly and severe liver disease and showed a striking accumulation of peroxisomal C27-bile acid intermediates in plasma. Investigation of peroxisomal parameters in skin fibroblasts revealed a reduced number of enlarged import-competent peroxisomes. Peroxisomal beta-oxidation of C26:0 was normal, but beta-oxidation of pristanic acid was reduced. Genetic analysis revealed a homozygous deletion at the DNA level of 1758bp, predicted to result in a truncated ABCD3 protein lacking the C-terminal 24 amino acids (p.Y635NfsX1). Liver disease progressed and the patient required liver transplantation at 4 years of age but expired shortly after transplantation. To corroborate our findings in the patient, we studied a previously generated Abcd3 knockout mouse model. Abcd3-/- mice accumulated the branched chain fatty acid phytanic acid after phytol loading. In addition, analysis of bile acids revealed a reduction of C24 bile acids, whereas C27-bile acid intermediates were significantly increased in liver, bile and intestine of Abcd3-/- mice. Thus, both in the patient and in Abcd3-/- mice, there was evidence of a bile acid biosynthesis defect. In conclusion, our studies show that ABCD3 is involved in transport of branched-chain fatty acids and C27 bile acids into the peroxisome and that this is a crucial step in bile acid biosynthesis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Peroxisomal. beta. -oxidation enzyme proteins in adrenoleukodystrophy: distinction between x-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.W.; Watkins, P.A.; Osumi, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Moser, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    Very long chain fatty acids, which accumulate in plasma and tissues in x-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), neonatal ALD, and the Zellweger cerebrohepatorenal syndrome, are degraded by the peroxisomal ..beta..-oxidation pathway, consisting of acyl-CoA oxidase, the bifunctional enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and ..beta..-ketothiolase. A marked deficiency of all three enzyme proteins was reported in livers from patients with the Zellweger syndrome, a disorder in which peroxisomes are decreased or absent. Peroxisomes are not as markedly decreased in neonatal ALD and appear normal in x-linked ALD. Immunoblot analysis of the peroxisomal ..beta..-oxidation enzymes revealed an almost complete lack of the bifunctional enzymes in neonatal ALD liver, similar to the finding in Zellweger tissues. In contrast, acyl-CoA oxidase and ..beta..-ketothiolase were present in neonatal ALD liver, although the thiolase appeared to be in precursor form (2-3 kDa larger than the mature enzyme) in neonatal ALD. Unlike either neonatal ALD or Zellweger syndrome, all three peroxisomal ..beta..-oxidation enzymes were present in x-linked ALD liver. Despite the absence in neonatal ALD liver of bifunctional enzyme protein, its mRNA was detected by RNA blot analysis in fibroblasts from these patients. These observations suggest that lack of bifunctional enzyme protein in neonatal ALD results from either abnormal translation of the mRNA or degradation of the enzyme prior to its entry into peroxisomes.

  16. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha (PPARα), a Key Regulator of Lipid Metabolism in Avians.

    PubMed

    Navidshad, Bahman; Royan, M

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids have various effects on cellular metabolism, and many of these effects are carried out through the alteration of the gene expression. Fatty acids upregulate or downregulate the expression of different genes by acting both as agonists or antagonists for nuclear hormone receptors. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. To date, three PPAR subtypes, α, β, and γ, have been recognized. PPARs regulate various target genes with a role in intracellular and extracellular lipid metabolism, mainly those involved in peroxisomal β-oxidation. PPAR controls several genes involved in lipid metabolism, including Δ-5, Δ-6, and Δ-9 desaturases, acyl-coenzyme A oxidase, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase. The activation of PPARα might thus decrease fat deposits indirectly by raising hepatic fatty acid β-oxidation. PPARα is likely part of the regulating system of energy metabolism in peripheral tissues such as adipose tissue and skeletal muscles.

  17. Clinical and Laboratory Diagnosis of Peroxisomal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wanders, Ronald J A; Klouwer, Femke C C; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Waterham, Hans R; Poll-Thé, Bwee Tien

    2017-01-01

    The peroxisomal disorders (PDs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases in man caused by an impairment in peroxisome biogenesis or one of the metabolic functions of peroxisomes. Thanks to the revolutionary technical developments in gene sequencing methods and their increased use in patient diagnosis, the field of genetic diseases in general and peroxisomal disorders in particular has dramatically changed in the last few years. Indeed, several novel peroxisomal disorders have been identified recently and in addition it has been realized that the phenotypic spectrum of patients affected by a PD keeps widening, which makes clinical recognition of peroxisomal patients increasingly difficult. Here, we describe these new developments and provide guidelines for the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of peroxisomal patients.

  18. Detection and Immunolabeling of Peroxisomal Proteins.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Tina A; Islinger, Markus; Schrader, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Peroxisomes are essential organelles in mammals which contribute to cellular lipid metabolism and redox homeostasis. The spectrum of their functions in human health and disease is far from being complete, and unexpected and novel roles of peroxisomes are being discovered. To date, those include novel biological roles in antiviral defence, as intracellular signaling platforms and as protective organelles in sensory cells. Furthermore, peroxisomes are part of a complex network of interacting subcellular compartments which involves metabolic cooperation, cross-talk and membrane contacts. As potentially novel peroxisomal proteins are continuously discovered, there is great interest in the verification of their peroxisomal localization. Here, we present protocols used successfully in our laboratory for the detection and immunolabeling of peroxisomal proteins in cultured mammalian cells. We present immunofluorescence and fluorescence-based techniques as well as reagents to determine peroxisome-specific targeting and localization of candidate proteins.

  19. Localization of peroxisomal matrix proteins by photobleaching

    SciTech Connect

    Buch, Charlotta; Hunt, Mary C.; Alexson, Stefan E.H.; Hallberg, Einar

    2009-10-16

    The distribution of some enzymes between peroxisomes and cytosol, or a dual localization in both these compartments, can be difficult to reconcile. We have used photobleaching in live cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion proteins to show that imported bona fide peroxisomal matrix proteins are retained in the peroxisome. The high mobility of the GFP-fusion proteins in the cytosol and absence of peroxisomal escape makes it possible to eliminate the cytosolic fluorescence by photobleaching, to distinguish between exclusively cytosolic proteins and proteins that are also present at low levels in peroxisomes. Using this technique we found that GFP tagged bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT) was exclusively localized in the cytosol in HeLa cells. We conclude that the cytosolic localization was due to its carboxyterminal non-consensus peroxisomal targeting signal (-SQL) since mutation of the -SQL to -SKL resulted in BAAT being efficiently imported into peroxisomes.

  20. Age-related subproteomic analysis of mouse liver and kidney peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Jia; Garcia-Arcos, Itsaso; Alvarez, Ruben; Cristobal, Susana

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite major recent advances in the understanding of peroxisomal functions and how peroxisomes arise, only scant information is available regarding this organelle in cellular aging. The aim of this study was to characterize the changes in the protein expression profile of aged versus young liver and kidney peroxisome-enriched fractions from mouse and to suggest possible mechanisms underlying peroxisomal aging. Peroxisome-enriched fractions from 10 weeks, 18 months and 24 months C57bl/6J mice were analyzed by quantitative proteomics. Results Peroxisomal proteins were enriched by differential and density gradient centrifugation and proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), quantified and identified by mass spectrometry (MS). In total, sixty-five proteins were identified in both tissues. Among them, 14 proteins were differentially expressed in liver and 21 proteins in kidney. The eight proteins differentially expressed in both tissues were involved in β-oxidation, α-oxidation, isoprenoid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism, and stress response. Quantitative proteomics, clustering methods, and prediction of transcription factors, all indicated that there is a decline in protein expression at 18 months and a recovery at 24 months. Conclusion These results indicate that some peroxisomal proteins show a tissue-specific functional response to aging. This response is probably dependent on their differential regeneration capacity. The differentially expressed proteins could lead several cellular effects: such as alteration of fatty acid metabolism that could alert membrane protein functions, increase of the oxidative stress and contribute to decline in bile salt synthesis. The ability to detect age-related variations in the peroxisomal proteome can help in the search for reliable and valid aging biomarkers. PMID:18042274

  1. The evolution of eukaryotic cells from the perspective of peroxisomes: phylogenetic analyses of peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes support mitochondria-first models of eukaryotic cell evolution.

    PubMed

    Bolte, Kathrin; Rensing, Stefan A; Maier, Uwe-G

    2015-02-01

    Beta-oxidation of fatty acids and detoxification of reactive oxygen species are generally accepted as being fundamental functions of peroxisomes. Additionally, these pathways might have been the driving force favoring the selection of this compartment during eukaryotic evolution. Here we performed phylogenetic analyses of enzymes involved in beta-oxidation of fatty acids in Bacteria, Eukaryota, and Archaea. These imply an alpha-proteobacterial origin for three out of four enzymes. By integrating the enzymes' history into the contrasting models on the origin of eukaryotic cells, we conclude that peroxisomes most likely evolved non-symbiotically and subsequent to the acquisition of mitochondria in an archaeal host cell. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The peroxisomal Lon protease LonP2 in aging and disease: functions and comparisons with mitochondrial Lon protease LonP1

    PubMed Central

    Pomatto, Laura C. D.; Raynes, Rachel; Davies, Kelvin J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous eukaryotic organelles with the primary role of breaking down very long- and branched-chain fatty acids for subsequent β-oxidation in the mitochondrion. Like mitochondria, peroxisomes are major sites for oxygen utilization and potential contributors to cellular oxidative stress. The accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins, which often develop into inclusion bodies (of oxidized, aggregated, and cross-linked proteins) within both mitochondria and peroxisomes, results in loss of organelle function that may contribute to the aging process. Both organelles possess an isoform of the Lon protease that is responsible for degrading proteins damaged by oxidation. While the importance of mitochondrial Lon (LonP1) in relation to oxidative stress and aging has been established, little is known regarding the role of LonP2 and aging-related changes in the peroxisome. Recently, peroxisome dysfunction has been associated with aging-related diseases indicating that peroxisome maintenance is a critical component of ‘healthy aging’. Although mitochondria and peroxisomes are both needed for fatty acid metabolism, little work has focused on understanding the relationship between these two organelles including how age-dependent changes in one organelle may be detrimental for the other. Herein, we summarize findings that establish proteolytic degradation of damaged proteins by the Lon protease as a vital mechanism to maintain protein homeostasis within the peroxisome. Due to the metabolic coordination between peroxisomes and mitochondria, understanding the role of Lon in the aging peroxisome may help to elucidate cellular causes for both peroxisome and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26852705

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha target genes.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Knoch, Bianca; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPARα serves as a molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrates drugs which bind the receptor with high affinity. Furthermore, PPARα binds and is activated by numerous fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compounds. PPARα governs biological processes by altering the expression of a large number of target genes. Accordingly, the specific role of PPARα is directly related to the biological function of its target genes. Here, we present an overview of the involvement of PPARα in lipid metabolism and other pathways through a detailed analysis of the different known or putative PPARα target genes. The emphasis is on gene regulation by PPARα in liver although many of the results likely apply to other organs and tissues as well.

  4. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Target Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Knoch, Bianca; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPARα serves as a molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrates drugs which bind the receptor with high affinity. Furthermore, PPARα binds and is activated by numerous fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compounds. PPARα governs biological processes by altering the expression of a large number of target genes. Accordingly, the specific role of PPARα is directly related to the biological function of its target genes. Here, we present an overview of the involvement of PPARα in lipid metabolism and other pathways through a detailed analysis of the different known or putative PPARα target genes. The emphasis is on gene regulation by PPARα in liver although many of the results likely apply to other organs and tissues as well. PMID:20936127

  5. Dietary modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Marion-Letellier, R; Déchelotte, P; Iacucci, M; Ghosh, S

    2009-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is a nuclear receptor that regulates intestinal inflammation. PPAR gamma is highly expressed in the colon and can be activated by various dietary ligands. A number of fatty acids such as polyunsaturated fatty acids or eicosanoids are considered as endogenous PPAR gamma activators. Nevertheless, other nutrients such as glutamine, spicy food or flavonoids are also able to activate PPAR gamma. As PPAR gamma plays a key role in bacterial induced inflammation, anti-inflammatory properties of probiotics may be mediated through PPAR gamma. The aims of the present review are to discuss of the potential roles of dietary compounds in modulating intestinal inflammation through PPAR gamma.

  6. The exportomer: the peroxisomal receptor export machinery.

    PubMed

    Platta, Harald W; Hagen, Stefanie; Erdmann, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    Peroxisomes constitute a dynamic compartment of almost all eukaryotic cells. Depending on environmental changes and cellular demands peroxisomes can acquire diverse metabolic roles. The compartmentalization of peroxisomal matrix enzymes is a prerequisite to carry out their physiologic function. The matrix proteins are synthesized on free ribosomes in the cytosol and are ferried to the peroxisomal membrane by specific soluble receptors. Subsequent to cargo release into the peroxisomal matrix, the receptors are exported back to the cytosol to facilitate further rounds of matrix protein import. This dislocation step is accomplished by a remarkable machinery, which comprises enzymes required for the ubiquitination as well as the ATP-dependent extraction of the receptor from the membrane. Interestingly, receptor ubiquitination and dislocation are the only known energy-dependent steps in the peroxisomal matrix protein import process. The current view is that the export machinery of the receptors might function as molecular motor not only in the dislocation of the receptors but also in the import step of peroxisomal matrix protein by coupling ATP-dependent removal of the peroxisomal import receptor with cargo translocation into the organelle. In this review we will focus on the architecture and function of the peroxisomal receptor export machinery, the peroxisomal exportomer.

  7. Autophagic degradation of peroxisomes in mammals.

    PubMed

    Zientara-Rytter, Katarzyna; Subramani, Suresh

    2016-04-15

    Peroxisomes are essential organelles required for proper cell function in all eukaryotic organisms. They participate in a wide range of cellular processes including the metabolism of lipids and generation, as well as detoxification, of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Therefore, peroxisome homoeostasis, manifested by the precise and efficient control of peroxisome number and functionality, must be tightly regulated in response to environmental changes. Due to the existence of many physiological disorders and diseases associated with peroxisome homoeostasis imbalance, the dynamics of peroxisomes have been widely examined. The increasing volume of reports demonstrating significant involvement of the autophagy machinery in peroxisome removal leads us to summarize current knowledge of peroxisome degradation in mammalian cells. In this review we present current models of peroxisome degradation. We particularly focus on pexophagy-the selective clearance of peroxisomes through autophagy. We also critically discuss concepts of peroxisome recognition for pexophagy, including signalling and selectivity factors. Finally, we present examples of the pathological effects of pexophagy dysfunction and suggest promising future directions. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  8. Autophagic degradation of peroxisomes in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Katarzyna, Zientara-Rytter; Suresh, Subramani

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are essential organelles required for proper cell function in all eukaryotic organisms. They participate in a wide range of cellular processes including the metabolism of lipids and generation, as well as detoxification, of hydrogen peroxide. Therefore, peroxisome homeostasis, manifested by the precise and efficient control of peroxisome number and functionality, must be tightly regulated in response to environmental changes. Due to the existence of many physiological disorders and diseases associated with peroxisome homeostasis imbalance, the dynamics of peroxisomes have been widely examined. The increasing volume of reports demonstrating significant involvement of the autophagy machinery in peroxisome removal leads us to summarize current knowledge of peroxisome degradation in mammalian cells. In this review we present current models of peroxisome degradation. We particularly focus on pexophagy - the selective clearance of peroxisomes through autophagy. We also critically discuss concepts of peroxisome recognition for pexophagy, including signaling and selectivity factors. Finally, we present examples of the pathological effects of pexophagy dysfunction and suggest promising future directions. PMID:27068951

  9. Role of thiamine pyrophosphate in oligomerisation, functioning and import of peroxisomal 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase.

    PubMed

    Fraccascia, Patrizia; Casteels, Minne; De Schryver, Evelyn; Van Veldhoven, Paul P

    2011-10-01

    During peroxisomal α-oxidation, the CoA-esters of phytanic acid and 2-hydroxylated straight chain fatty acids are cleaved into a (n-1) fatty aldehyde and formyl-CoA by 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase (HACL1). HACL1 is imported into peroxisomes via the PEX5/PTS1 pathway, and so far, it is the only known peroxisomal TPP-dependent enzyme in mammals. In this study, the effect of mutations in the TPP-binding domain of HACL1 on enzyme activity, subcellular localisation and oligomerisation was investigated. Mutations of the aspartate 455 and serine 456 residues within the TPP binding domain of the human HACL1 did not affect the targeting upon expression in transfected CHO cells, although enzyme activity was abolished. Gel filtration of native and mutated N-His(6)-fusions, expressed in yeast, revealed that the mutations did not influence the oligomerisation of the (apo)enzyme. Subcellular fractionation of yeast cells expressing HACL1 showed that the lyase activity sedimented at high density in a Nycodenz gradient. In these fractions TPP could be measured, but not when mutated HACL1 was expressed, although the recombinant enzyme was still targeted to peroxisomes. These findings indicate that the binding of TPP is not required for peroxisomal targeting and correct folding of HACL1, in contrast to other TPP-dependent enzymes, and suggest that transport of TPP into peroxisomes is dependent on HACL1 import, without requirement of a specific solute transporter.

  10. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors and Lipoprotein Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kersten, Sander

    2008-01-01

    Plasma lipoproteins are responsible for carrying triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood and ensuring their delivery to target organs. Regulation of lipoprotein metabolism takes place at numerous levels including via changes in gene transcription. An important group of transcription factors that mediates the effect of dietary fatty acids and certain drugs on plasma lipoproteins are the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). Three PPAR isotypes can be distinguished, all of which have a major role in regulating lipoprotein metabolism. PPARα is the molecular target for the fibrate class of drugs. Activation of PPARα in mice and humans markedly reduces hepatic triglyceride production and promotes plasma triglyceride clearance, leading to a clinically significant reduction in plasma triglyceride levels. In addition, plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels are increased upon PPARα activation in humans. PPARγ is the molecular target for the thiazolidinedione class of drugs. Activation of PPARγ in mice and human is generally associated with a modest increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol and a decrease in plasma triglycerides. The latter effect is caused by an increase in lipoprotein lipase-dependent plasma triglyceride clearance. Analogous to PPARα, activation of PPARβ/δ leads to increased plasma HDL-cholesterol and decreased plasma triglyceride levels. In this paper, a fresh perspective on the relation between PPARs and lipoprotein metabolism is presented. The emphasis is on the physiological role of PPARs and the mechanisms underlying the effect of synthetic PPAR agonists on plasma lipoprotein levels. PMID:18288277

  11. PeroxisomeDB: a database for the peroxisomal proteome, functional genomics and disease

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Agatha; Fourcade, Stéphane; Domènech-Estévez, Enric; Gabaldón, Toni; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Berthommier, Guillaume; Ripp, Raymond; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Poch, Olivier; Pujol, Aurora

    2007-01-01

    Peroxisomes are essential organelles of eukaryotic origin, ubiquitously distributed in cells and organisms, playing key roles in lipid and antioxidant metabolism. Loss or malfunction of peroxisomes causes more than 20 fatal inherited conditions. We have created a peroxisomal database () that includes the complete peroxisomal proteome of Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, by gathering, updating and integrating the available genetic and functional information on peroxisomal genes. PeroxisomeDB is structured in interrelated sections ‘Genes’, ‘Functions’, ‘Metabolic pathways’ and ‘Diseases’, that include hyperlinks to selected features of NCBI, ENSEMBL and UCSC databases. We have designed graphical depictions of the main peroxisomal metabolic routes and have included updated flow charts for diagnosis. Precomputed BLAST, PSI-BLAST, multiple sequence alignment (MUSCLE) and phylogenetic trees are provided to assist in direct multispecies comparison to study evolutionary conserved functions and pathways. Highlights of the PeroxisomeDB include new tools developed for facilitating (i) identification of novel peroxisomal proteins, by means of identifying proteins carrying peroxisome targeting signal (PTS) motifs, (ii) detection of peroxisomes in silico, particularly useful for screening the deluge of newly sequenced genomes. PeroxisomeDB should contribute to the systematic characterization of the peroxisomal proteome and facilitate system biology approaches on the organelle. PMID:17135190

  12. PeroxisomeDB 2.0: an integrative view of the global peroxisomal metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Agatha; Real-Chicharro, Alejandro; Gabaldón, Toni; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Pujol, Aurora

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisomes are essential organelles that play a key role in redox signalling and lipid homeostasis. They contain a highly diverse enzymatic network among different species, mirroring the varied metabolic needs of the organisms. The previous PeroxisomeDB version organized the peroxisomal proteome of humans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on genetic and functional information into metabolic categories with a special focus on peroxisomal disease. The new release (http://www.peroxisomeDB.org) adds peroxisomal proteins from 35 newly sequenced eukaryotic genomes including fungi, yeasts, plants and lower eukaryotes. We searched these genomes for a core ensemble of 139 peroxisomal protein families and identified 2706 putative peroxisomal protein homologs. Approximately 37% of the identified homologs contained putative peroxisome targeting signals (PTS). To help develop understanding of the evolutionary relationships among peroxisomal proteins, the new database includes phylogenetic trees for 2386 of the peroxisomal proteins. Additional new features are provided, such as a tool to capture kinetic information from Brenda, CheBI and Sabio-RK databases and more than 1400 selected bibliographic references. PeroxisomeDB 2.0 is a freely available, highly interactive functional genomics platform that offers an extensive view on the peroxisomal metabolome across lineages, thus facilitating comparative genomics and systems analysis of the organelle. PMID:19892824

  13. The peroxisomal AAA ATPase complex prevents pexophagy and development of peroxisome biogenesis disorders

    PubMed Central

    Law, Kelsey B.; Bronte-Tinkew, Dana; Di Pietro, Erminia; Snowden, Ann; Jones, Richard O.; Moser, Ann; Brumell, John H.; Braverman, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) are metabolic disorders caused by the loss of peroxisomes. The majority of PBDs result from mutation in one of 3 genes that encode for the peroxisomal AAA ATPase complex (AAA-complex) required for cycling PEX5 for peroxisomal matrix protein import. Mutations in these genes are thought to result in a defect in peroxisome assembly by preventing the import of matrix proteins. However, we show here that loss of the AAA-complex does not prevent matrix protein import, but instead causes an upregulation of peroxisome degradation by macroautophagy, or pexophagy. The loss of AAA-complex function in cells results in the accumulation of ubiquitinated PEX5 on the peroxisomal membrane that signals pexophagy. Inhibiting autophagy by genetic or pharmacological approaches rescues peroxisome number, protein import and function. Our findings suggest that the peroxisomal AAA-complex is required for peroxisome quality control, whereas its absence results in the selective degradation of the peroxisome. Thus the loss of peroxisomes in PBD patients with mutations in their peroxisomal AAA-complex is a result of increased pexophagy. Our study also provides a framework for the development of novel therapeutic treatments for PBDs. PMID:28521612

  14. Peroxisome function regulates growth on glucose in the basidiomycete fungus Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Idnurm, Alexander; Giles, Steven S; Perfect, John R; Heitman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The function of the peroxisomes was examined in the pathogenic basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans. Recent studies reveal the glyoxylate pathway is required for virulence of diverse microbial pathogens of plants and animals. One exception is C. neoformans, in which isocitrate lyase (encoded by ICL1) was previously shown not to be required for virulence, and here this was extended to exclude also a role for malate synthase (encoded by MLS1). The role of peroxisomes, in which the glyoxylate pathway enzymes are localized in many organisms, was examined by mutation of two genes (PEX1 and PEX6) encoding AAA (ATPases associated with various cellular activities)-type proteins required for peroxisome formation. The pex1 and pex6 deletion mutants were unable to localize the fluorescent DsRED-SKL protein to peroxisomal punctate structures, in contrast to wild-type cells. pex1 and pex6 single mutants and a pex1 pex6 double mutant exhibit identical phenotypes, including abolished growth on fatty acids but no growth difference on acetate. Because both icl1 and mls1 mutants are unable to grow on acetate as the sole carbon source, these findings demonstrate that the glyoxylate pathway can function efficiently outside the peroxisome in C. neoformans. The pex1 mutant exhibits wild-type virulence in a murine inhalation model and in an insect host, demonstrating that peroxisomes are not required for virulence under these conditions. An unusual phenotype of the pex1 and pex6 mutants was that they grew poorly with glucose as the carbon source, but nearly wild type with galactose, which suggested impaired hexokinase function and that C. neoformans peroxisomes might function analogously to the glycosomes of the trypanosomid parasites. Deletion of the hexokinase HXK2 gene reduced growth in the presence of glucose and suppressed the growth defect of the pex1 mutant on glucose. The hexokinase 2 protein of C. neoformans contains a predicted peroxisome targeting signal (type 2) motif

  15. Peroxisome Function Regulates Growth on Glucose in the Basidiomycete Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans▿

    PubMed Central

    Idnurm, Alexander; Giles, Steven S.; Perfect, John R.; Heitman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The function of the peroxisomes was examined in the pathogenic basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans. Recent studies reveal the glyoxylate pathway is required for virulence of diverse microbial pathogens of plants and animals. One exception is C. neoformans, in which isocitrate lyase (encoded by ICL1) was previously shown not to be required for virulence, and here this was extended to exclude also a role for malate synthase (encoded by MLS1). The role of peroxisomes, in which the glyoxylate pathway enzymes are localized in many organisms, was examined by mutation of two genes (PEX1 and PEX6) encoding AAA (ATPases associated with various cellular activities)-type proteins required for peroxisome formation. The pex1 and pex6 deletion mutants were unable to localize the fluorescent DsRED-SKL protein to peroxisomal punctate structures, in contrast to wild-type cells. pex1 and pex6 single mutants and a pex1 pex6 double mutant exhibit identical phenotypes, including abolished growth on fatty acids but no growth difference on acetate. Because both icl1 and mls1 mutants are unable to grow on acetate as the sole carbon source, these findings demonstrate that the glyoxylate pathway can function efficiently outside the peroxisome in C. neoformans. The pex1 mutant exhibits wild-type virulence in a murine inhalation model and in an insect host, demonstrating that peroxisomes are not required for virulence under these conditions. An unusual phenotype of the pex1 and pex6 mutants was that they grew poorly with glucose as the carbon source, but nearly wild type with galactose, which suggested impaired hexokinase function and that C. neoformans peroxisomes might function analogously to the glycosomes of the trypanosomid parasites. Deletion of the hexokinase HXK2 gene reduced growth in the presence of glucose and suppressed the growth defect of the pex1 mutant on glucose. The hexokinase 2 protein of C. neoformans contains a predicted peroxisome targeting signal (type 2) motif

  16. Adrenoleukodystrophy protein enhances association of very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase with the peroxisome.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Taniwaki, T; Shinnoh, N; Uchiyama, A; Shimozawa, N; Ohyagi, Y; Asahara, H; Kira, J

    1999-02-01

    To clarify the function of adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP) using our ALDP-deficient mice established by gene targeting. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is characterized biochemically by the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in tissues and body fluids, and is caused by impairment of peroxisomal beta-oxidation. In ALD, very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase (VLACS), which is necessary for peroxisomal beta-oxidation, does not function. The ALDP-deficient mice and C57BL/6J mice were used. VLACS or ALDP were transiently expressed by lipofection in murine fibroblasts, and VLCFA beta-oxidation was assayed. Liver peroxisomes were purified by sequential centrifugations and a Nycodenz gradient centrifugation. The peroxisomal localization of VLACS was compared between the mutant and control mice using a Western blot analysis. Impairment of VLCFA beta-oxidation in ALDP-deficient fibroblasts was not corrected by the additional expression of VLACS alone but was by the coexpression of VLACS and ALDP. Although the tissue-specific expression of VLACS was similar in ALDP-deficient and normal mice, peroxisomal VLACS was clearly lower in ALDP-deficient than in normal mice. ALDP plays a role in the peroxisomal localization of VLACS, and VLACS does not function unless localized in the peroxisome.

  17. In Vivo Quantification of Peroxisome Tethering to Chloroplasts in Tobacco Epidermal Cells Using Optical Tweezers1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hongbo; Teanby, Nick A.; Ward, Andy D.; Coles, Benjamin; Pollard, Mark R.; Sparkes, Imogen

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are highly motile organelles that display a range of motions within a short time frame. In static snapshots, they can be juxtaposed to chloroplasts, which has led to the hypothesis that they are physically interacting. Here, using optical tweezers, we tested the dynamic physical interaction in vivo. Using near-infrared optical tweezers combined with TIRF microscopy, we were able to trap peroxisomes and approximate the forces involved in chloroplast association in vivo in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and observed weaker tethering to additional unknown structures within the cell. We show that chloroplasts and peroxisomes are physically tethered through peroxules, a poorly described structure in plant cells. We suggest that peroxules have a novel role in maintaining peroxisome-organelle interactions in the dynamic environment. This could be important for fatty acid mobilization and photorespiration through the interaction with oil bodies and chloroplasts, highlighting a fundamentally important role for organelle interactions for essential biochemistry and physiological processes. PMID:26518344

  18. The role and regulation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha in human liver.

    PubMed

    Kersten, Sander; Stienstra, Rinke

    2017-05-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is abundantly expressed in liver. PPARα is activated by fatty acids and various other lipid species, as well as by a class of chemicals referred to as peroxisome proliferators. Studies in mice have shown that PPARα serves as the master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism during fasting. In addition, PPARα suppresses inflammation and the acute phase response. Comparatively little is known about PPARα in human liver. Here, an overview is provided of the role and regulation of PPARα in human liver. The main outcomes are: 1) the level of PPARA mRNA expression in human and mouse liver is similar. 2) Expression of PPARA in human liver is reduced in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or infected with the hepatitis C virus. 3) PPARα in human liver is able to effectively induce the expression of numerous genes involved in numerous lipid metabolic pathways, including microsomal, peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, fatty acid binding and activation, fatty acid elongation and desaturation, synthesis and breakdown of triglycerides and lipid droplets, lipoprotein metabolism, gluconeogenesis, bile acid metabolism, and various other metabolic pathways and genes. 4) PPARα activation in human liver causes the down-regulation of a large number of genes involved in various immunity-related pathways. 5) Peroxisome proliferators do not promote tumour formation in human liver as opposed to mouse liver because of structural and functional differences between human and mouse PPARα. 6) In addition to helping to correct dyslipidemia, PPARα agonists may hold promise as a therapy for patients with cholestatic liver diseases, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and/or type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  19. An ER-peroxisome tether exerts peroxisome population control in yeast.

    PubMed

    Knoblach, Barbara; Sun, Xuejun; Coquelle, Nicolas; Fagarasanu, Andrei; Poirier, Richard L; Rachubinski, Richard A

    2013-09-11

    Eukaryotic cells compartmentalize biochemical reactions into membrane-enclosed organelles that must be faithfully propagated from one cell generation to the next. Transport and retention processes balance the partitioning of organelles between mother and daughter cells. Here we report the identification of an ER-peroxisome tether that links peroxisomes to the ER and ensures peroxisome population control in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The tether consists of the peroxisome biogenic protein, Pex3p, and the peroxisome inheritance factor, Inp1p. Inp1p bridges the two compartments by acting as a molecular hinge between ER-bound Pex3p and peroxisomal Pex3p. Asymmetric peroxisome division leads to the formation of Inp1p-containing anchored peroxisomes and Inp1p-deficient mobile peroxisomes that segregate to the bud. While peroxisomes in mother cells are not released from tethering, de novo formation of tethers in the bud assists in the directionality of peroxisome transfer. Peroxisomes are thus stably maintained over generations of cells through their continued interaction with tethers.

  20. An ER-peroxisome tether exerts peroxisome population control in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Knoblach, Barbara; Sun, Xuejun; Coquelle, Nicolas; Fagarasanu, Andrei; Poirier, Richard L; Rachubinski, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells compartmentalize biochemical reactions into membrane-enclosed organelles that must be faithfully propagated from one cell generation to the next. Transport and retention processes balance the partitioning of organelles between mother and daughter cells. Here we report the identification of an ER-peroxisome tether that links peroxisomes to the ER and ensures peroxisome population control in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The tether consists of the peroxisome biogenic protein, Pex3p, and the peroxisome inheritance factor, Inp1p. Inp1p bridges the two compartments by acting as a molecular hinge between ER-bound Pex3p and peroxisomal Pex3p. Asymmetric peroxisome division leads to the formation of Inp1p-containing anchored peroxisomes and Inp1p-deficient mobile peroxisomes that segregate to the bud. While peroxisomes in mother cells are not released from tethering, de novo formation of tethers in the bud assists in the directionality of peroxisome transfer. Peroxisomes are thus stably maintained over generations of cells through their continued interaction with tethers. PMID:23900285

  1. Molecular mechanisms of alcoholic fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Vishnudutt; Gao, Bin; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2009-02-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver is a potentially pathologic condition which can progress to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis if alcohol consumption is continued. Alcohol exposure may induce fatty liver by increasing NADH/NAD(+) ratio, increasing sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) activity, decreasing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) activity, and increasing complement C3 hepatic levels. Alcohol may increase SREBP-1 activity by decreasing the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase and sirtuin-1. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) produced in response to alcohol exposure may cause fatty liver by up-regulating SREBP-1 activity, whereas betaine and pioglitazone may attenuate fatty liver by down-regulating SREBP-1 activity. PPAR-alpha agonists have potentials to attenuate alcoholic fatty liver. Adiponectin and interleukin-6 may attenuate alcoholic fatty liver by up-regulating PPAR-alpha and insulin signaling pathways while down-regulating SREBP-1 activity and suppressing TNF-alpha production. Recent studies show that paracrine activation of hepatic cannabinoid receptor 1 by hepatic stellate cell-derived endocannabinoids also contributes to the development of alcoholic fatty liver. Furthermore, oxidative modifications and inactivation of the enzymes involved in the mitochondrial and/or peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids could contribute to fat accumulation in the liver.

  2. Identification of the pathway of alpha-oxidation of cerebronic acid in peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Sandhir, R; Khan, M; Singh, I

    2000-10-01

    Cerebronic acid (2-hydroxytetracosanoic acid), an alpha-hydroxy very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) and a component of cerebrosides and sulfatides, is unique to nervous tissues. Studies were carried out to identify the pathway and the subcellular site involved in the oxidation of cerebronic acid. The results from these studies revealed that cerebronic acid was catabolized by alpha-oxidation to CO2 and tricosanoic acid (23:0). Studies with subcellular fractions indicated that cerebronic acid was alpha-oxidized in fractions having particulate bound catalase and enzyme systems for the beta-oxidation of VLCFA (e.g., lignoceric acid), suggesting peroxisomes as the subcellular organelle responsible for alpha-oxidation of cerebronic acid. Etomoxir, an inhibitor of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, had no effect on cerebronic acid alpha-oxidation. Further, cerebronic acid oxidation was found to be dependent on the presence of NAD+ but not FAD, NADPH, ATP, Mg2+, or CoASH. Intraorganellar localization studies indicated that the enzyme system for the alpha-oxidation of cerebronic acid was associated with the peroxisomal limiting membranes. Studies on cultured fibroblasts from normal subjects and patients with peroxisomal disorders indicated an impairment of alpha-oxidation of cerebronic acid in cell lines that lack peroxisomes [e.g., Zellweger syndrome (ZS)]. On the other hand, alpha-oxidation of cerebronic acid was found to be normal in cell lines from X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, adult Refsum disease, and rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata. Our results clearly demonstrate that alpha-oxidation of alpha-hydroxy VLCFA (cerebronic acid) is a peroxisomal function and that this oxidation is impaired in ZS. Furthermore, this alpha-oxidation enzyme system is distinct from the one for the alpha-oxidation of beta-carbon branched-chain fatty acids (e.g., phytanic acid).

  3. Beta-oxidation in hepatocyte cultures from mice with peroxisomal gene knockouts.

    PubMed

    Dirkx, Ruud; Meyhi, Els; Asselberghs, Stanny; Reddy, Janardan; Baes, Myriam; Van Veldhoven, Paul P

    2007-06-08

    Beta-oxidation of carboxylates takes place both in mitochondria and peroxisomes and in each pathway parallel enzymes exist for each conversion step. In order to better define the substrate specificities of these enzymes and in particular the elusive role of peroxisomal MFP-1, hepatocyte cultures from mice with peroxisomal gene knockouts were used to assess the consequences on substrate degradation. Hepatocytes from mice with liver selective elimination of peroxisomes displayed severely impaired oxidation of 2-methylhexadecanoic acid, the bile acid intermediate trihydroxycholestanoic acid (THCA), and tetradecanedioic acid. In contrast, mitochondrial beta-oxidation rates of palmitate were doubled, despite the severely affected inner mitochondrial membrane. As expected, beta-oxidation of the branched chain compounds 2-methylhexadecanoic acid and THCA was reduced in hepatocytes from mice with inactivation of MFP-2. More surprisingly, dicarboxylic fatty acid oxidation was impaired in MFP-1 but not in MFP-2 knockout hepatocytes, indicating that MFP-1 might play more than an obsolete role in peroxisomal beta-oxidation.

  4. Expression of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gene (xPPARalpha) from Xenopus laevis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants.

    PubMed

    Nila, Alejandro G; Sandalio, Luisa M; López, Mercedes G; Gómez, Manuel; del Rio, Luis A; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

    2006-08-01

    In this work, we have genetically transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor cDNA (xPPARalpha) from Xenopus laevis, which is a transcriptional factor involved in the peroxisomal proliferation and induction of fatty acid beta-oxidation in animal cells. Several transgenic lines were generated and one representative line (T) from the R2 generation was selected for further studies. Analysis of free fatty acids revealed that unsaturated fatty acids such as C16:2 and C16:3 were deficient in line T, whereas saturated fatty acids like C16:0, C18:0, and C20:0 were more abundant than in non-transformed plants. Acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX) activity was assayed as a marker enzyme of beta-oxidation in crude leaf extracts and it was found that in line T there was a threefold increase in enzyme activity. We also found that the peroxisome population was increased and that catalase (CAT) activity was induced by clofibrate, a known activator of xPPARalpha protein, in leaves from line T. Taken together, these findings suggest that xPPARalpha is functional in plants and that its expression in tobacco leads to changes in general lipid metabolism and peroxisomal proliferation as reported in animal cells. Furthermore, it indicates that there is an endogenous ligand in tobacco cells able to activate xPPARalpha.

  5. Peroxisome division and proliferation in plants.

    PubMed

    Aung, Kyaw; Zhang, Xinchun; Hu, Jianping

    2010-06-01

    Peroxisomes are eukaryotic organelles with crucial functions in development. Plant peroxisomes participate in various metabolic processes, some of which are co-operated by peroxisomes and other organelles, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. Defining the complete picture of how these essential organelles divide and proliferate will be instrumental in understanding how the dynamics of peroxisome abundance contribute to changes in plant physiology and development. Research in Arabidopsis thaliana has identified several evolutionarily conserved major components of the peroxisome division machinery, including five isoforms of PEROXIN11 proteins (PEX11), two dynamin-related proteins (DRP3A and DRP3B) and two FISSION1 proteins (FIS1A/BIGYIN and FIS1B). Recent studies in our laboratory have also begun to uncover plant-specific factors. DRP5B is a dual-localized protein that is involved in the division of both chloroplasts and peroxisomes, representing an invention of the plant/algal lineage in organelle division. In addition, PMD1 (peroxisomal and mitochondrial division 1) is a plant-specific protein tail anchored to the outer surface of peroxisomes and mitochondria, mediating the division and/or positioning of these organelles. Lastly, light induces peroxisome proliferation in dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings, at least in part, through activating the PEX11b gene. The far-red light receptor phyA (phytochrome A) and the transcription factor HYH (HY5 homologue) are key components in this signalling pathway. In summary, pathways for the division and proliferation of plant peroxisomes are composed of conserved and plant-specific factors. The sharing of division proteins by peroxisomes, mitochondria and chloroplasts is also suggesting possible co-ordination in the division of these metabolically associated plant organelles.

  6. PPARs: fatty acid sensors controlling metabolism.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Lars la Cour; Siersbæk, Majken; Mandrup, Susanne

    2012-08-01

    The peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors that play key roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism, inflammation, cellular growth, and differentiation. The receptors bind and are activated by a broad range of fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives and they thereby serve as major transcriptional sensors of fatty acids. Here we review the function, regulation, and mechanism of the different PPAR subtypes with special emphasis on their role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of a novel component of the peroxisomal protein import apparatus using fluorescent peroxisomal proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Kalish, J E; Keller, G A; Morrell, J C; Mihalik, S J; Smith, B; Cregg, J M; Gould, S J

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescent peroxisomal probes were developed by fusing green fluorescent protein (GFP) to the matrix peroxisomal targeting signals PTS1 and PTS2, as well as to an integral peroxisomal membrane protein (IPMP). These proteins were used to identify and characterize novel peroxisome assembly (pas) mutants in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Mutant cells lacking the PAS10 gene mislocalized both PTS1-GFP and PTS2-GFP to the cytoplasm but did incorporate IPMP-GFP into peroxisome membranes. Similar distributions were observed for endogenous peroxisomal matrix and membrane proteins. While peroxisomes from translocation-competent pas mutants sediment in sucrose gradients at the density of normal peroxisomes, >98% of peroxisomes from pas10 cells migrated to a much lower density and had an extremely low ratio of matrix:membrane protein. These data indicate that Pas10p plays an important role in protein translocation across the peroxisome membrane. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that Pas10p is an integral protein of the peroxisome membrane. In addition, Pas10p contains a cytoplasmically-oriented C3HC4 zinc binding domain that is essential for its biological activity. Images PMID:8670828

  8. Inp1p is a peroxisomal membrane protein required for peroxisome inheritance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fagarasanu, Monica; Fagarasanu, Andrei; Tam, Yuen Yi C; Aitchison, John D; Rachubinski, Richard A

    2005-06-06

    Cells have evolved molecular mechanisms for the efficient transmission of organelles during cell division. Little is known about how peroxisomes are inherited. Inp1p is a peripheral membrane protein of peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that affects both the morphology of peroxisomes and their partitioning during cell division. In vivo 4-dimensional video microscopy showed an inability of mother cells to retain a subset of peroxisomes in dividing cells lacking the INP1 gene, whereas cells overexpressing INP1 exhibited immobilized peroxisomes that failed to be partitioned to the bud. Overproduced Inp1p localized to both peroxisomes and the cell cortex, supporting an interaction of Inp1p with specific structures lining the cell periphery. The levels of Inp1p vary with the cell cycle. Inp1p binds Pex25p, Pex30p, and Vps1p, which have been implicated in controlling peroxisome division. Our findings are consistent with Inp1p acting as a factor that retains peroxisomes in cells and controls peroxisome division. Inp1p is the first peroxisomal protein directly implicated in peroxisome inheritance.

  9. Peroxisomes in brain development and function☆

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Johannes; Dorninger, Fabian; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Kunze, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes contain numerous enzymatic activities that are important for mammalian physiology. Patients lacking either all peroxisomal functions or a single enzyme or transporter function typically develop severe neurological deficits, which originate from aberrant development of the brain, demyelination and loss of axonal integrity, neuroinflammation or other neurodegenerative processes. Whilst correlating peroxisomal properties with a compilation of pathologies observed in human patients and mouse models lacking all or individual peroxisomal functions, we discuss the importance of peroxisomal metabolites and tissue- and cell type-specific contributions to the observed brain pathologies. This enables us to deconstruct the local and systemic contribution of individual metabolic pathways to specific brain functions. We also review the recently discovered variability of pathological symptoms in cases with unexpectedly mild presentation of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. Finally, we explore the emerging evidence linking peroxisomes to more common neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, autism and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Peroxisomes edited by Ralf Erdmann. PMID:26686055

  10. Proliferation and fission of peroxisomes - An update.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Michael; Costello, Joseph L; Godinho, Luis F; Azadi, Afsoon S; Islinger, Markus

    2016-05-01

    In mammals, peroxisomes perform crucial functions in cellular metabolism, signalling and viral defense which are essential to the health and viability of the organism. In order to achieve this functional versatility peroxisomes dynamically respond to molecular cues triggered by changes in the cellular environment. Such changes elicit a corresponding response in peroxisomes, which manifests itself as a change in peroxisome number, altered enzyme levels and adaptations to the peroxisomal structure. In mammals the generation of new peroxisomes is a complex process which has clear analogies to mitochondria, with both sharing the same division machinery and undergoing a similar division process. How the regulation of this division process is integrated into the cell's response to different stimuli, the signalling pathways and factors involved, remains somewhat unclear. Here, we discuss the mechanism of peroxisomal fission, the contributions of the various division factors and examine the potential impact of post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, on the proliferation process. We also summarize the signalling process and highlight the most recent data linking signalling pathways with peroxisome proliferation.

  11. Gene expression for peroxisome-associated enzymes in hepatocellular carcinomas induced by ciprofibrate, a hypolipidemic compound

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.S.; Nemali, M.R.; Reddy, J.K.

    1986-03-05

    Administration of hypolipidemic compounds leads to marked proliferation of peroxisomes and peroxisome-associated enzymes (PAE) in the livers of rodents and non-rodent species. The increase peroxisome-associated enzymes such as fatty acid ..beta..-oxidation system and catalase is shown to be due to an increase in the levels of mRNA. In this experiment they have examined hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), induced in male F-344 rats by ciprofibrate (0.025%, w/w for 60 weeks), for gene expression of PAE. Total RNA was purified from HCC as well as from control and ciprofibrate (0.025% for 2 weeks) fed rat livers. Northern blot analysis was performed using (32/sub p/)cDNA probes for albumin, fatty acetyl-CoA oxidase, enoyl-CoA hydratase 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme and catalase. mRNA levels in HCC for albumin, fatty acid ..beta..-oxidation enzymes and catalase were comparable with those levels observed in the livers of rats given ciprofibrate for 2 weeks. In control livers the mRNAs for ..beta..-oxidation enzymes were low. Albumin mRNA levels in all the 3 groups were comparable. Additional studies are necessary to determine whether the increased level of mRNAs for the ..beta..-oxidation enzymes in HCC is due to the effect of ciprofibrate or to the gene amplification.

  12. Targeting and insertion of peroxisomal membrane proteins: ER trafficking versus direct delivery to peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Mayerhofer, Peter U

    2016-05-01

    The importance of peroxisomes is highlighted by severe inherited human disorders linked to impaired peroxisomal biogenesis. Besides the simple architecture of these ubiquitous and dynamic organelles, their biogenesis is surprisingly complex and involves specialized proteins, termed peroxins, which mediate targeting and insertion of peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) into the peroxisomal bilayer, and the import of soluble proteins into the protein-dense matrix of the organelle. The long-standing paradigm that all peroxisomal proteins are imported directly into preexisting peroxisomes has been challenged by the detection of PMPs inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). New models propose that the ER originates peroxisomal biogenesis by mediating PMP trafficking to the peroxisomes via budding vesicles. However, the relative contribution of this ER-derived pathway to the total peroxisome population in vivo, and the detailed mechanisms of ER entry and exit of PMPs are controversially discussed. This review aims to summarize present knowledge about how PMPs are targeted to the ER, instead of being inserted directly into preexisting peroxisomes. Moreover, molecular mechanisms that facilitate bilayer insertion of PMPs among different species are discussed.

  13. Identification of peroxisomal targeting signals located at the carboxy terminus of four peroxisomal proteins

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    As part of an effort to understand how proteins are imported into the peroxisome, we have sought to identify the peroxisomal targeting signals in four unrelated peroxisomal proteins: human catalase, rat hydratase:dehydrogenase, pig D-amino acid oxidase, and rat acyl-CoA oxidase. Using gene fusion experiments, we have identified a region of each protein that can direct heterologous proteins to peroxisomes. In each case, the peroxisomal targeting signal is contained at or near the carboxy terminus of the protein. For catalase, the peroxisomal targeting signal is located within the COOH-terminal 27 amino acids of the protein. For hydratase:dehydrogenase, D-amino acid oxidase, and acyl-CoA oxidase, the targeting signals are located within the carboxy- terminal 15, 14, and 15 amino acids, respectively. A tripeptide of the sequence Ser-Lys/His-Leu is present in each of these targeting signals as well as in the peroxisomal targeting signal identified in firefly luciferase (Gould, S.J., G.-A. Keller, and S. Subramani. 1987. J. Cell Biol. 105:2923-2931). When the peroxisomal targeting signal of the hydratase:dehydrogenase is mutated so that the Ser-Lys-Leu tripeptide is converted to Ser-Asn-Leu, it can no longer direct proteins to peroxisomes. We suggest that this tripeptide is an essential element of at least one class of peroxisomal targeting signals. PMID:2901422

  14. International Union of Pharmacology. LXI. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Michalik, Liliane; Auwerx, Johan; Berger, Joel P; Chatterjee, V Krishna; Glass, Christopher K; Gonzalez, Frank J; Grimaldi, Paul A; Kadowaki, Takashi; Lazar, Mitchell A; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Palmer, Colin N A; Plutzky, Jorge; Reddy, Janardan K; Spiegelman, Bruce M; Staels, Bart; Wahli, Walter

    2006-12-01

    The three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. They share a high degree of structural homology with all members of the superfamily, particularly in the DNA-binding domain and ligand- and cofactor-binding domain. Many cellular and systemic roles have been attributed to these receptors, reaching far beyond the stimulation of peroxisome proliferation in rodents after which they were initially named. PPARs exhibit broad, isotype-specific tissue expression patterns. PPARalpha is expressed at high levels in organs with significant catabolism of fatty acids. PPARbeta/delta has the broadest expression pattern, and the levels of expression in certain tissues depend on the extent of cell proliferation and differentiation. PPARgamma is expressed as two isoforms, of which PPARgamma2 is found at high levels in the adipose tissues, whereas PPARgamma1 has a broader expression pattern. Transcriptional regulation by PPARs requires heterodimerization with the retinoid X receptor (RXR). When activated by a ligand, the dimer modulates transcription via binding to a specific DNA sequence element called a peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) in the promoter region of target genes. A wide variety of natural or synthetic compounds was identified as PPAR ligands. Among the synthetic ligands, the lipid-lowering drugs, fibrates, and the insulin sensitizers, thiazolidinediones, are PPARalpha and PPARgamma agonists, respectively, which underscores the important role of PPARs as therapeutic targets. Transcriptional control by PPAR/RXR heterodimers also requires interaction with coregulator complexes. Thus, selective action of PPARs in vivo results from the interplay at a given time point between expression levels of each of the three PPAR and RXR isotypes, affinity for a specific promoter PPRE, and ligand and cofactor availabilities.

  15. Contribution of Peroxisomes to Secondary Metabolism and Pathogenicity in the Fungal Plant Pathogen Alternaria alternata ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Imazaki, Ai; Tanaka, Aiko; Harimoto, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Mikihiro; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Park, Pyoyun; Tsuge, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata includes seven pathogenic variants (pathotypes) which produce different host-selective toxins and cause diseases on different plants. The Japanese pear pathotype produces the host-selective AK-toxin, an epoxy-decatrienoic acid ester, and causes black spot of Japanese pear. Previously, we identified four genes, AKT1, AKT2, AKT3, and AKTR, involved in AK toxin biosynthesis. AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3 encode enzyme proteins with peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1)-like tripeptides, SKI, SKL, and PKL, respectively, at the C-terminal ends. In this study, we verified the peroxisome localization of Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3 by using strains expressing N-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged versions of the proteins. To assess the role of peroxisome function in AK-toxin production, we isolated AaPEX6, which encodes a peroxin protein essential for peroxisome biogenesis, from the Japanese pear pathotype and made AaPEX6 disruption-containing transformants from a GFP-Akt1-expressing strain. The ΔAaPEX6 mutant strains did not grow on fatty acid media because of a defect in fatty acid β oxidation. The import of GFP-Akt1 into peroxisomes was impaired in the ΔAaPEX6 mutant strains. These strains completely lost AK toxin production and pathogenicity on susceptible pear leaves. These data show that peroxisomes are essential for AK-toxin biosynthesis. The ΔAaPEX6 mutant strains showed a marked reduction in the ability to cause lesions on leaves of a resistant pear cultivar with defense responses compromised by heat shock. This result suggests that peroxisome function is also required for plant invasion and tissue colonization in A. alternata. We also observed that mutation of AaPEX6 caused a marked reduction of conidiation. PMID:20348386

  16. The intracellular bacteria Chlamydia hijack peroxisomes and utilize their enzymatic capacity to produce bacteria-specific phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Boncompain, Gaelle; Müller, Constanze; Meas-Yedid, Vannary; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Lazarow, Paul B; Subtil, Agathe

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen responsible for loss of eyesight through trachoma and for millions of cases annually of sexually transmitted diseases. The bacteria develop within a membrane-bounded inclusion. They lack enzymes for several biosynthetic pathways, including those to make some phospholipids, and exploit their host to compensate. Three-dimensional fluorescence microscopy demonstrates that small organelles of the host, peroxisomes, are translocated into the Chlamydia inclusion and are found adjacent to the bacteria. In cells deficient for peroxisome biogenesis the bacteria are able to multiply and give rise to infectious progeny, demonstrating that peroxisomes are not essential for bacterial development in vitro. Mass spectrometry-based lipidomics reveal the presence in C. trachomatis of plasmalogens, ether phospholipids whose synthesis begins in peroxisomes and have never been described in aerobic bacteria before. Some of the bacterial plasmalogens are novel structures containing bacteria-specific odd-chain fatty acids; they are not made in uninfected cells nor in peroxisome-deficient cells. Their biosynthesis is thus accomplished by the metabolic collaboration of peroxisomes and bacteria.

  17. Gemfibrozil modifies acyl composition of liver microsomal phospholipids from guinea-pigs without promoting peroxisomal proliferation.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, M; Alegret, M; Adzet, T; Merlos, M; Laguna, J C

    1993-10-19

    Treatment with gemfibrozil modifies acyl composition of hepatic microsomal phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in guinea-pigs. Palmitic (16:0) and palmitoleic (16:1) fatty acids are increased, and stearic (18:0) and oleic (18:1) are decreased; further, while linoleic acid [18:2 (n-6)] is increased by gemfibrozil treatment, the other constituents of the n-6 fatty acids family, including arachidonic acid [20:4 (n-6)], are decreased. As gemfibrozil is a potent inhibitor of fatty acid elongation in vitro (Sánchez et al., FEBS Lett 300: 89-92, 1992), the inhibition of this enzyme system by gemfibrozil treatment could be responsible for the observed results in vivo. These changes in fatty acid composition are accompanied by a decrease in serum lipids and, more important, are independent of peroxisomal proliferation.

  18. Highly oxidized peroxisomes are selectively degraded via autophagy in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Michitaro; Oikawa, Kazusato; Yoshimoto, Kohki; Kondo, Maki; Mano, Shoji; Yamada, Kenji; Hayashi, Makoto; Sakamoto, Wataru; Ohsumi, Yoshinori; Nishimura, Mikio

    2013-12-01

    The positioning of peroxisomes in a cell is a regulated process that is closely associated with their functions. Using this feature of the peroxisomal positioning as a criterion, we identified three Arabidopsis thaliana mutants (peroxisome unusual positioning1 [peup1], peup2, and peup4) that contain aggregated peroxisomes. We found that the PEUP1, PEUP2, and PEUP4 were identical to Autophagy-related2 (ATG2), ATG18a, and ATG7, respectively, which are involved in the autophagic system. The number of peroxisomes was increased and the peroxisomal proteins were highly accumulated in the peup1 mutant, suggesting that peroxisome degradation by autophagy (pexophagy) is deficient in the peup1 mutant. These aggregated peroxisomes contained high levels of inactive catalase and were more oxidative than those of the wild type, indicating that peroxisome aggregates comprise damaged peroxisomes. In addition, peroxisome aggregation was induced in wild-type plants by exogenous application of hydrogen peroxide. The cat2 mutant also contained peroxisome aggregates. These findings demonstrate that hydrogen peroxide as a result of catalase inactivation is the inducer of peroxisome aggregation. Furthermore, an autophagosome marker, ATG8, frequently colocalized with peroxisome aggregates, indicating that peroxisomes damaged by hydrogen peroxide are selectively degraded by autophagy in the wild type. Our data provide evidence that autophagy is crucial for quality control mechanisms for peroxisomes in Arabidopsis.

  19. Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorders: Biological, Clinical and Pathophysiological Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Nancy E.; D'Agostino, Maria Daniela; MacLean, Gillian E.

    2013-01-01

    The peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders in which peroxisome assembly is impaired, leading to multiple peroxisome enzyme deficiencies, complex developmental sequelae and progressive disabilities. Mammalian peroxisome assembly involves the protein products of 16 "PEX" genes;…

  20. Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorders: Biological, Clinical and Pathophysiological Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Nancy E.; D'Agostino, Maria Daniela; MacLean, Gillian E.

    2013-01-01

    The peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders in which peroxisome assembly is impaired, leading to multiple peroxisome enzyme deficiencies, complex developmental sequelae and progressive disabilities. Mammalian peroxisome assembly involves the protein products of 16 "PEX" genes;…

  1. Peroxisomes in brain development and function.

    PubMed

    Berger, Johannes; Dorninger, Fabian; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Kunze, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes contain numerous enzymatic activities that are important for mammalian physiology. Patients lacking either all peroxisomal functions or a single enzyme or transporter function typically develop severe neurological deficits, which originate from aberrant development of the brain, demyelination and loss of axonal integrity, neuroinflammation or other neurodegenerative processes. Whilst correlating peroxisomal properties with a compilation of pathologies observed in human patients and mouse models lacking all or individual peroxisomal functions, we discuss the importance of peroxisomal metabolites and tissue- and cell type-specific contributions to the observed brain pathologies. This enables us to deconstruct the local and systemic contribution of individual metabolic pathways to specific brain functions. We also review the recently discovered variability of pathological symptoms in cases with unexpectedly mild presentation of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. Finally, we explore the emerging evidence linking peroxisomes to more common neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, autism and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular organization of peroxisomal enzymes: protein-protein interactions in the membrane and in the matrix.

    PubMed

    Makkar, Randhir S; Contreras, Miguel A; Paintlia, Ajaib S; Smith, Brian T; Haq, Ehtishamul; Singh, Inderjit

    2006-07-15

    The beta-oxidation of fatty acids in peroxisomes produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a toxic metabolite, as a bi-product. Fatty acids beta-oxidation activity is deficient in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) because of mutation in ALD-gene resulting in loss of very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (VLCS) activity. It is also affected in disease with catalase negative peroxisomes as a result of inactivation by H2O2. Therefore, the following studies were undertaken to delineate the molecular interactions between both the ALD-gene product (adrenoleukodystrophy protein, ALDP) and VLCS as well as H2O2 degrading enzyme catalase and proteins of peroxisomal beta-oxidation. Studies using a yeast two hybrid system and surface plasmon resonance techniques indicate that ALDP, a peroxisomal membrane protein, physically interacts with VLCS. Loss of these interactions in X-ALD cells may result in a deficiency in VLCS activity. The yeast two-hybrid system studies also indicated that catalase physically interacts with L-bifunctional enzyme (L-BFE). Interactions between catalase and L-BFE were further supported by affinity purification, using a catalase-linked resin. The affinity bound 74-kDa protein, was identified as L-BFE by Western blot with specific antibodies and by proteomic analysis. Additional support for their interaction comes from immunoprecipitation of L-BFE with antibodies against catalase as a catalase- L-BFE complex. siRNA for L-BFE decreased the specific activity and protein levels of catalase without changing its subcellular distribution. These observations indicate that L-BFE might help in oligomerization and possibly in the localization of catalase at the site of H2O2 production in the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway.

  3. Carbohydrate Metabolism Is Perturbed in Peroxisome-deficient Hepatocytes Due to Mitochondrial Dysfunction, AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation, and Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ Coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) Suppression*

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Annelies; Fraisl, Peter; van den Berg, Sjoerd; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Van Kampen, Antoine; Rider, Mark H.; Takemori, Hiroshi; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; Carmeliet, Peter; Baes, Myriam

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic peroxisomes are essential for lipid conversions that include the formation of mature conjugated bile acids, the degradation of branched chain fatty acids, and the synthesis of docosahexaenoic acid. Through unresolved mechanisms, deletion of functional peroxisomes from mouse hepatocytes (L-Pex5−/− mice) causes severe structural and functional abnormalities at the inner mitochondrial membrane. We now demonstrate that the peroxisomal and mitochondrial anomalies trigger energy deficits, as shown by increased AMP/ATP and decreased NAD+/NADH ratios. This causes suppression of gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis and up-regulation of glycolysis. As a consequence, L-Pex5−/− mice combust more carbohydrates resulting in lower body weights despite increased food intake. The perturbation of carbohydrate metabolism does not require a long term adaptation to the absence of functional peroxisomes as similar metabolic changes were also rapidly induced by acute elimination of Pex5 via adenoviral administration of Cre. Despite its marked activation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) was not causally involved in these metabolic perturbations, because all abnormalities still manifested when peroxisomes were eliminated in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α null background. Instead, AMP-activated kinase activation was responsible for the down-regulation of glycogen synthesis and induction of glycolysis. Remarkably, PGC-1α was suppressed despite AMP-activated kinase activation, a paradigm not previously reported, and they jointly contributed to impaired gluconeogenesis. In conclusion, lack of functional peroxisomes from hepatocytes results in marked disturbances of carbohydrate homeostasis, which are consistent with adaptations to an energy deficit. Because this is primarily due to impaired mitochondrial ATP production, these L-Pex5-deficient livers can also be considered as a model for secondary mitochondrial hepatopathies. PMID

  4. [Peroxisomal disorder, rhizomelyc chondrodysplasia punctata type 1: case report].

    PubMed

    González-Ortiz, Cesar Leonardo; Jaimes Leguizamón, Sandra Bibiana; Contreras-García, Gustavo Adolfo

    2017-01-01

    Peroxisomal diseases are a group of monogenic disorders that include defects in peroxisome biogenesis or enzyme dificiencies. Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 1 (RCDP1) belongs to the first group, caused by autosomal recessive mutations on PEX7 gene, encoding for PTS2 receptor. The aims of this report are to describe a genetic disease of low prevalence, explaining its main characteristics and the importance of the diagnostic approach and genetic counseling. 13-month-old male infant with no medical history, family or consanguinity, demonstrate at birth upper limbs shortening. Surgery intervention at seven months old for bilateral cataract. Growth retardation, psychomotor retardation, minor craniofacial anomalies, rhyzomelic shortened upper limbs and lower limbs lesser degree. Punctata calcifications in patella cartilage. Also fatty acid phytanic and pristanic increased levels. Patient dead at age of 3 years. RCDP1 is a rare disease, with a prevalence of 1/100,000. Different mutations of PEX7 gene have been described, with variations in phenotype. The treatment is basically symptomatic and depends on the severity of clinical manifestations. The rhizomelic type has poor prognosis, most patients do not survive before the first decade of live. Genetic counseling is essential because it is consider a 25% risk of recurrence.

  5. Mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation capacities of organs from a non-oilseed plant.

    PubMed

    Masterson, C; Wood, C

    2001-09-22

    Until recently, beta-oxidation was believed to be exclusively located in the peroxisomes of all higher plants. Whilst this is true for germinating oilseeds undergoing gluconeogenesis, evidence demonstrating mitochondrial beta-oxidation in other plant systems has refuted this central dogma of plant lipid metabolism. This report describes a comparative study of the dual mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation capacities of plant organs. Oxidation of [1-(14)C] palmitate was measured in the cotyledons, plumules and radicles of Pisum sativum L., which is a starchy seed, over a 14 day period from the commencement of imbibition. Respiratory chain inhibitors were used for differentiating between mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation. Peroxisomal beta-oxidation gave a steady, baseline rate and, in the early stages of seedling development, accounted for 70-100% of the beta-oxidation observed. Mitochondrial beta-oxidation gave peaks of activity at days 7 and 10-11, accounting for up to 82% of the total beta-oxidation activity at these times. These peaks coincide with key stages of seedling development and were not observed when normal development was disrupted by growth in the dark. Peroxisomal beta-oxidation was unaffected by etiolation. Since mitochondrial beta-oxidation was overt only during times of intense biosynthetic activity it might be switched on or off during seedling development. In contrast, peroxisomes maintained a continuous, low beta-oxidation activity that could be essential in removing harmful free fatty acids, e.g. those produced by protein and lipid turnover.

  6. [Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). Antiproliferative properties].

    PubMed

    Hojka, Anna; Rapak, Andrzej

    2011-06-21

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are transcription factors that belong to the hormone nuclear receptor superfamily. Their main role is control of fatty acid metabolism and to maintain glucose homeostasis. Isotype γ of PPAR can also be implicated in proliferation and cellular differentiation of both normal and cancer cells. Compounds that are PPARγ ligands have a negative influence on cancer cells and can induce apoptosis, inhibit proliferation or induce cellular differentiation of these cells. This review summarizes general information about PPAR and focuses on anticancer activities of PPARγ ligands and their use in combined therapy. Combination treatment using PPARγ ligands and other agents, especially retinoids and specific kinase inhibitors, may be an effective strategy for chemoprevention and treatment of some cancers.

  7. [Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) and insulin sensitivity: experimental studies].

    PubMed

    Haluzík, M M; Haluzík, M

    2006-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily, which act as transcription factors. PPARs affect expression of many genes, which products are involved in lipid and carbohydrates metabolism, cell proliferation and differentiation and numerous other processes. Three different subtypes (isoforms) of PPARs have been identified: PPAR-alpha, PPAR-gamma, PPAR-delta. PPAR-alpha receptors play an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism: they decrease circulating fatty acids and triglyceride levels. Recently, the ability of PPAR-alpha receptors to improve insulin sensitivity in rodent model of insulin resistance have been documented and numerous studies have focused on this topic. One of the possible mechanisms of its action on the insulin sensitivity is lowering of ectopic lipids in liver and muscle tissues with subsequent heightening of insulin signalling cascade. Here we summarize the experimental studies focusing on the role of PPAR-alpha in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and discuss possible mechanisms involved.

  8. A defect of peroxisomal membrane protein 38 causes enlargement of peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Mano, Shoji; Nakamori, Chihiro; Fukao, Yoichiro; Araki, Masami; Matsuda, Azusa; Kondo, Maki; Nishimura, Mikio

    2011-12-01

    Peroxisome proliferation occurs through enlargement, elongation and division of pre-existing peroxisomes. In the Arabidopsis apem mutant, apem3, peroxisomes are dramatically enlarged and reduced in number, revealing a defect in peroxisome proliferation. The APEM3 gene was found to encode peroxisomal membrane protein 38 (PMP38). To examine the relative role of PMP38 during proliferation, a double mutant was constructed consisting of apem3 and the peroxisome division mutant, apem1, in which a defect in dynamin-related protein 3A (DRP3A) results in elongation of peroxisomes. In the double mutant, almost all peroxisomes were predominantly enlarged but not elongated. DRP3A is still able to localize at the peroxisomal membrane on enlarged peroxisomes in the apem3 mutants. PMP38 is revealed to be capable of interacting with itself, but not with DRP3A. These results indicate that PMP38 has a role at a different step that requires APEM1/DRP3A. PMP38 is expressed in various tissues throughout the plant, indicating that PMP38 may participate in multiple unidentified functions in these tissues. PMP38 belongs to a mitochondrial carrier family (MCF) protein. However, unlike Arabidopsis nucleotide carrier protein 1 (AtPNC1) and AtPNC2, two other peroxisome-resident MCF proteins that function as adenine nucleotide transporters, PMP38 has no ATP or ADP transport activity. In addition, unlike AtPNC1 and AtPNC2 knock-down plants, apem3 mutants do not exhibit any gross morphological abnormalities. These results demonstrate that APEM3/PMP38 plays a role distinct from that of AtPNC1 and AtPNC2. We discuss possible mechanism of enlargement of peroxisomes in the apem3 mutants.

  9. The peroxisomes strike BAK: Regulation of peroxisome integrity by the Bcl-2 family.

    PubMed

    Chipuk, Jerry Edward; Luna-Vargas, Mark P A

    2017-03-06

    Within the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, VDAC2 controls both the localization and proapoptotic activity of BAK. In this issue, Hosoi et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201605002) find that loss of VDAC2 diverts BAK into peroxisome membranes, revealing the ability of BAK to control peroxisome membrane integrity and the release of soluble peroxisomal matrix proteins. © 2017 Chipuk and Luna-Vargas.

  10. Giant peroxisomes in a moss (Physcomitrella patens) peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 mutant.

    PubMed

    Kamisugi, Yasuko; Mitsuya, Shiro; El-Shami, Mahmoud; Knight, Celia D; Cuming, Andrew C; Baker, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 (PEX11) proteins are found in yeasts, mammals and plants, and play a role in peroxisome morphology and regulation of peroxisome division. The moss Physcomitrella patens has six PEX11 isoforms which fall into two subfamilies, similar to those found in monocots and dicots. We carried out targeted gene disruption of the Phypa_PEX11-1 gene and compared the morphological and cellular phenotypes of the wild-type and mutant strains. The mutant grew more slowly and the development of gametophores was retarded. Mutant chloronemal filaments contained large cellular structures which excluded all other cellular organelles. Expression of fluorescent reporter proteins revealed that the mutant strain had greatly enlarged peroxisomes up to 10 μm in diameter. Expression of a vacuolar membrane marker confirmed that the enlarged structures were not vacuoles, or peroxisomes sequestered within vacuoles as a result of pexophagy. Phypa_PEX11 targeted to peroxisome membranes could rescue the knock out phenotype and interacted with Fission1 on the peroxisome membrane. Moss PEX11 functions in peroxisome division similar to PEX11 in other organisms but the mutant phenotype is more extreme and environmentally determined, making P. patens a powerful system in which to address mechanisms of peroxisome proliferation and division. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E; Bharathi, Sivakama S; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B; Goetzman, Eric S

    2017-01-08

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders.

  12. Why do peroxisomes associate with the cytoskeleton?

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Alexander; Eggeling, Christian; Erdmann, Ralf; Schliebs, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Attachment of peroxisomes to cytoskeleton and movement along microtubular filaments and actin cables are essential and highly regulated processes enabling metabolic efficiency, biogenesis, maintenance and inheritance of this dynamic cellular compartment. Several peroxisome-associated proteins have been identified, which mediate interaction with motor proteins, adaptor proteins or other constituents of the cytoskeleton. It appears that there is a species-specific complexity of protein-protein interactions required to control directional movement and arresting. An open question is why some proteins with a specific role in peroxisomal protein import have an additional function in the regulation of cytoskeleton binding and motility of peroxisomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Acyl-CoA synthetase and the peroxisomal enzymes of beta-oxidation in human liver. Quantitative analysis of their subcellular localization.

    PubMed Central

    Bronfman, M; Inestrosa, N C; Nervi, F O; Leighton, F

    1984-01-01

    The presence of acyl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.3) in peroxisomes and the subcellular distribution of beta-oxidation enzymes in human liver were investigated by using a single-step fractionation method of whole liver homogenates in metrizamide continuous density gradients and a novel procedure of computer analysis of results. Peroxisomes were found to contain 16% of the liver palmitoyl-CoA synthetase activity, and 21% and 60% of the enzyme activity was localized in mitochondria and microsomal fractions respectively. Fatty acyl-CoA oxidase was localized exclusively in peroxisomes, confirming previous results. Human liver peroxisomes were found to contribute 13%, 17% and 11% of the liver activities of crotonase, beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and thiolase respectively. The absolute activities found in peroxisomes for the enzymes investigated suggest that in human liver fatty acyl-CoA oxidase is the rate-limiting enzyme of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway, when palmitic acid is the substrate. PMID:6240978

  14. Homo- and heterodimerization of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette half-transporters.

    PubMed

    Liu, L X; Janvier, K; Berteaux-Lecellier, V; Cartier, N; Benarous, R; Aubourg, P

    1999-11-12

    Mammalian peroxisomal proteins adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), adrenoleukodystrophy-related protein (ALDRP), and 70-kDa peroxisomal protein (PMP70) belong to the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Unlike many ABC transporters that are single functional proteins with two related halves, ALDP, ALDRP, and PMP70 have the structure of ABC half-transporters. The dysfunction of ALDP is responsible for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), a neurodegenerative disorder in which saturated very long-chain fatty acids accumulate because of their impaired peroxisomal beta-oxidation. No disease has so far been associated with mutations of adrenoleukodystrophy-related or PMP70 genes. It has been proposed that peroxisomal ABC transporters need to dimerize to exert import functions. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we show that homo- as well as heterodimerization occur between the carboxyl-terminal halves of ALDP, ALDRP, and PMP70. Two X-ALD disease mutations located in the carboxyl-terminal half of ALDP affect both homo- and heterodimerization of ALDP. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated the homodimerization of ALDP, the heterodimerization of ALDP with PMP70 or ALDRP, and the heterodimerization of ALDRP with PMP70. These results provide the first evidence of both homo- and heterodimerization of mammalian ABC half-transporters and suggest that the loss of ALDP dimerization plays a role in X-ALD pathogenesis.

  15. Molecular Structure of a Peroxisomal Matrix Protein Transport Factor, Pex14p

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jian-Rong; Takeda, Kazuki; Tamura, Shigehiko; Fujiki, Yukio; Miki, Kunio

    Peroxisome is an organelle in eukaryotic cells, which functions in various metabolisms such as β-oxidation of very long fatty acids. Peroxisomal matrix proteins synthesized in cytosol are imported into the peroxisome by a dynamic system consisting of over a dozen peroxins, Pex1p to Pex26p. Pex14p is a central component of the peroxisomal matrix protein import machinery. Until now, any structural information of Pex14p has not been elucidated at all. We describe here the crystal structure of the conserved domain of mammalian Pex14p at 1.8 Å resolution. A hydrophobic surface is composed of the conserved residues, of which two phenylalanine residues (Phe35 and Phe52) protrude to the solvent. Consequently, two putative binding pockets suitable for recognizing the helical WxxxF/Y motif of Pex5p are formed on the surface by the two phenylalanine residues accompanying with positively charged residues. Other structural studies for peroxins are also reviewed in this report.

  16. In Vivo Quantification of Peroxisome Tethering to Chloroplasts in Tobacco Epidermal Cells Using Optical Tweezers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongbo; Metz, Jeremy; Teanby, Nick A; Ward, Andy D; Botchway, Stanley W; Coles, Benjamin; Pollard, Mark R; Sparkes, Imogen

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are highly motile organelles that display a range of motions within a short time frame. In static snapshots, they can be juxtaposed to chloroplasts, which has led to the hypothesis that they are physically interacting. Here, using optical tweezers, we tested the dynamic physical interaction in vivo. Using near-infrared optical tweezers combined with TIRF microscopy, we were able to trap peroxisomes and approximate the forces involved in chloroplast association in vivo in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and observed weaker tethering to additional unknown structures within the cell. We show that chloroplasts and peroxisomes are physically tethered through peroxules, a poorly described structure in plant cells. We suggest that peroxules have a novel role in maintaining peroxisome-organelle interactions in the dynamic environment. This could be important for fatty acid mobilization and photorespiration through the interaction with oil bodies and chloroplasts, highlighting a fundamentally important role for organelle interactions for essential biochemistry and physiological processes. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Peroxisomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: immunofluorescence analysis and import of catalase A into isolated peroxisomes.

    PubMed Central

    Thieringer, R; Shio, H; Han, Y S; Cohen, G; Lazarow, P B

    1991-01-01

    To isolate peroxisomes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a quality sufficient for in vitro import studies, we optimized the conditions for cell growth and for cell fractionation. Stability of the isolated peroxisomes was monitored by catalase latency and sedimentability of marker enzymes. It was improved by (i) using cells that were shifted to oleic acid medium after growth to stationary phase in glucose precultures, (ii) shifting the pH from 7.2 to 6.0 during cell fractionation, and (iii) carrying out equilibrium density centrifugation with Nycodenz containing 0.25 M sucrose throughout the gradient. A concentrated peroxisomal fraction was used for in vitro import of catalase A. After 2 h of incubation, 62% of the catalase was associated with, and 16% was imported into, the organelle in a protease-resistant fashion. We introduced immunofluorescence microscopy for S. cerevisiae peroxisomes, using antibodies against thiolase, which allowed us to identify even the extremely small organelles in glucose-grown cells. Peroxisomes from media containing oleic acid were larger in size, were greater in number, and had a more intense fluorescence signal. The peroxisomes were located, sometimes in clusters, in the cell periphery, often immediately adjacent to the plasma membrane. Systematic immunofluorescence observations of glucose-grown S. cerevisiae demonstrated that all such cells contained at least one and usually several very small peroxisomes despite the glucose repression. This finding fits a central prediction of our model of peroxisome biogenesis: peroxisomes form by division of preexisting peroxisomes; therefore, every cell must have at least one peroxisome if additional organelles are to be induced in that cell. Images PMID:1986244

  18. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α ligands as anticancer drugs targeting mitochondrial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Grabacka, Maja; Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Tumor cells show metabolic features distinctive from normal tissues, with characteristically enhanced aerobic glycolysis, glutaminolysis and lipid synthesis. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPAR α) is activated by nutrients (fatty acids and their derivatives) and influences these metabolic pathways acting antagonistically to oncogenic Akt and c-Myc. Therefore PPAR α can be regarded as a candidate target molecule in supplementary anticancer pharmacotherapy as well as dietary therapeutic approach. This idea is based on hitting the cancer cell metabolic weak points through PPAR α mediated stimulation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis with simultaneous reduction of glucose and glutamine consumption. PPAR α activity is induced by fasting and its molecular consequences overlap with the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet (CRKD). CRKD induces increase of NAD+/NADH ratio and drop in ATP/AMP ratio. The first one is the main stimulus for enhanced protein deacetylase SIRT1 activity; the second one activates AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). Both SIRT1 and AMPK exert their major metabolic activities such as fatty acid oxidation and block of glycolysis and protein, nucleotide and fatty acid synthesis through the effector protein peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma 1 α coactivator (PGC-1α). PGC-1α cooperates with PPAR α and their activities might contribute to potential anticancer effects of CRKD, which were reported for various brain tumors. Therefore, PPAR α activation can engage molecular interplay among SIRT1, AMPK, and PGC-1α that provides a new, low toxicity dietary approach supplementing traditional anticancer regimen.

  19. Lipid Droplets and Peroxisomes: Key Players in Cellular Lipid Homeostasis or A Matter of Fat—Store ’em Up or Burn ’em Down

    PubMed Central

    Kohlwein, Sepp D.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) and peroxisomes are central players in cellular lipid homeostasis: some of their main functions are to control the metabolic flux and availability of fatty acids (LDs and peroxisomes) as well as of sterols (LDs). Both fatty acids and sterols serve multiple functions in the cell—as membrane stabilizers affecting membrane fluidity, as crucial structural elements of membrane-forming phospholipids and sphingolipids, as protein modifiers and signaling molecules, and last but not least, as a rich carbon and energy source. In addition, peroxisomes harbor enzymes of the malic acid shunt, which is indispensable to regenerate oxaloacetate for gluconeogenesis, thus allowing yeast cells to generate sugars from fatty acids or nonfermentable carbon sources. Therefore, failure of LD and peroxisome biogenesis and function are likely to lead to deregulated lipid fluxes and disrupted energy homeostasis with detrimental consequences for the cell. These pathological consequences of LD and peroxisome failure have indeed sparked great biomedical interest in understanding the biogenesis of these organelles, their functional roles in lipid homeostasis, interaction with cellular metabolism and other organelles, as well as their regulation, turnover, and inheritance. These questions are particularly burning in view of the pandemic development of lipid-associated disorders worldwide. PMID:23275493

  20. Molecular recognition of nitrated fatty acids by PPAR[gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Martynowski, Dariusz; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Baker, Paul R.S.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-03-08

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation, and it is activated by oxidized and nitrated fatty acids. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR{gamma} ligand binding domain bound to nitrated linoleic acid, a potent endogenous ligand of PPAR{gamma}. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis of PPAR{gamma} discrimination of various naturally occurring fatty acid derivatives.

  1. Hepatocyte proliferation induced by a single dose of a peroxisome proliferator.

    PubMed Central

    Ohmura, T.; Ledda-Columbano, G. M.; Piga, R.; Columbano, A.; Glemba, J.; Katyal, S. L.; Locker, J.; Shinozuka, H.

    1996-01-01

    In compensatory hyperplasia after partial hepatectomy or liver cell injury, hepatocyte proliferation is triggered by coordinated actions of growth factor such as hepatocyte growth factor and transforming growth factor-alpha and -beta. Initiation of hepatocyte DNA synthesis is preceded by the activation of the set of early growth response genes mediated by enhanced nuclear factor-kappa B binding to DNA. Using an experimental model to induce hepatocyte DNA synthesis in vivo by a single dose of a peroxisome proliferator, which does not induce liver cell necrosis (direct hyperplasia), we investigated whether peroxisome proliferator-induced hepatocyte proliferation involved an induction of known growth factors, an activation of early growth response genes, and nuclear factor-kappa B. A single intragastric administration of 250 mg/kg BR931 (4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthio-(N-beta-hydroxyethyl) acetamide) to male wistar rats induced a wave of hepatocyte DNA synthesis starting after 12 hours and peaking at approximately 24 to 36 hours. The response was dose dependent. The treatment also induced the expression of the mRNA for the peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme, one of the peroxisome-related fatty acid beta-oxidation enzymes. Pretreatment of rats with dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) inhibited both hepatocyte DNA synthesis and the induction of the peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme gene. Northern blot analyses of liver RNA during a period preceding the onset of DNA synthesis revealed no induction of hepatocyte growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha, or tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNAs. No induction of early growth response genes, liver regeneration factor-1, or c-myc was detected. Furthermore, gel mobility shift assays showed no enhanced nuclear factor-kappa B binding to its DNA consensus sequence after BR931 treatment, whereas control studies demonstrated a distinct increase in binding after partial hepatectomy or lead nitrate treatment. The results suggest that

  2. Peroxisomal lignoceroyl-CoA ligase deficiency in childhood adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenomyeloneuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Lazo, O.; Contreras, M.; Hashmi, M.; Stanley, W.; Irazu, C.; Singh, I. )

    1988-10-01

    The authors previously reported that in childhood adrenoleukodystrophy (C-ALD) and adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), the peroxisomal {beta}-oxidation system for very long chain fatty acids is defective. To further define the defect in these two forms of X chromosome-linked ALD, they examined the oxidation of (1-{sup 14}C)lignoceric acid (n-tetracosanoic acid, C24:0) and (1-{sup 14}C)lignoceroyl-CoA (substrates for the first and second steps of {beta}-oxidation, respectively). The oxidation rates of lignoceric acid in C-ALD and AMN were 43% and 36% of control values, respectively, whereas the oxidation rate of lignoceroyl-CoA was 109% (C-ALD) and 106% (AMN) of control values, respectively. These results suggest that lignoceroyl-CoA ligase activity may be impaired in C-ALD and AMN. To identify the specific enzymatic deficiency and its subcellular localization in C-ALD and AMN, they established a modified procedure for the subcellular fractionation of cultured skin fibroblasts. Determination of acyl-CoA ligase activities provided direct evidence that lignoceroyl-CoA ligase is deficient in peroxisomes while it is normal in mitochondria and microsomes. These data clearly demonstrate that the pathognomonic accumulation of very long chain fatty acids in C-ALD and AMN is due to a deficiency of peroxisomal very long chain (lignoceric acid) acyl-CoA ligase.

  3. Dynein light chain interaction with the peroxisomal import docking complex modulates peroxisome biogenesis in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jinlan; Tower, Robert J.; Lancaster, David L.; Rachubinski, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Dynein is a large macromolecular motor complex that moves cargo along microtubules. A motor-independent role for the light chain of dynein, Dyn2p, in peroxisome biology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was suggested from its interaction with Pex14p, a component of the peroxisomal matrix protein import docking complex. Here we show that cells of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica deleted for the gene encoding the homologue of Dyn2p are impaired in peroxisome function and biogenesis. These cells exhibit compromised growth on medium containing oleic acid as the carbon source, the metabolism of which requires functional peroxisomes. Their peroxisomes have abnormal morphology, atypical matrix protein localization, and an absence of proteolytic processing of the matrix enzyme thiolase, which normally occurs upon its import into the peroxisome. We also show physical and genetic interactions between Dyn2p and members of the docking complex, particularly Pex17p. Together, our results demonstrate a role for Dyn2p in the assembly of functional peroxisomes and provide evidence that Dyn2p acts in cooperation with the peroxisomal matrix protein import docking complex to effect optimal matrix protein import. PMID:23943868

  4. Contribution of peroxisome-specific isoform of Lon protease in sorting PTS1 proteins to peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Omi, Sizue; Nakata, Rie; Okamura-Ikeda, Kazuko; Konishi, Hiroaki; Taniguchi, Hisaaki

    2008-05-01

    Using an organelle proteomics approach, we previously studied the rat peroxisome in order to characterize the proteins participating in its biogenesis. A peroxisome-specific isoform of Lon (pLon) protein was accordingly identified. However, the precise role of pLon in peroxisomes remains to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that pLon plays a role in processing and activating a specific regulatory protein belonging to the peroxisome targeting signal (PTS) 1-containing proteins. Proteomic analysis of proteins co-immunoprecipitated with Lon suggested that Lon interacts with PMP70 and several enzymes involved in beta-oxidation, including acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX). The processing of AOX for its activation in peroxisomes was strongly inhibited in cells expressing a dominant negative form of pLon. Furthermore, a catalase possessing a modified PTS1 sequence was misdistributed in this cell line. pLon exhibits little, if any, in vitro AOX processing activity, and does not process PTS2-containing 3-ketoacyl-coenzyme A thiolase (PTL). Therefore, pLon may specifically control, sort and process PTS1 proteins. Based on the relationship between pLon and the beta-oxidation enzymes that regulate peroxisomal morphology, the observation of enlarged peroxisomes in cells expressing recombinant pLon suggests that pLon is a critical factor determining peroxisome morphology.

  5. VAPs and ACBD5 tether peroxisomes to the ER for peroxisome maintenance and lipid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Rong; Cheng, Derrick; Freeman, Spencer; Di Pietro, Erminia; Wang, Yuqing; Vissa, Adriano; Braverman, Nancy; Brumell, John H.; Trimble, William S.; Raught, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Lipid exchange between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and peroxisomes is necessary for the synthesis and catabolism of lipids, the trafficking of cholesterol, and peroxisome biogenesis in mammalian cells. However, how lipids are exchanged between these two organelles is not understood. In this study, we report that the ER-resident VAMP-associated proteins A and B (VAPA and VAPB) interact with the peroxisomal membrane protein acyl-CoA binding domain containing 5 (ACBD5) and that this interaction is required to tether the two organelles together, thereby facilitating the lipid exchange between them. Depletion of either ACBD5 or VAP expression results in increased peroxisome mobility, suggesting that VAP–ACBD5 complex acts as the primary ER–peroxisome tether. We also demonstrate that tethering of peroxisomes to the ER is necessary for peroxisome growth, the synthesis of plasmalogen phospholipids, and the maintenance of cellular cholesterol levels. Collectively, our data highlight the importance of VAP–ACBD5–mediated contact between the ER and peroxisomes for organelle maintenance and lipid homeostasis. PMID:28108526

  6. Dynein light chain interaction with the peroxisomal import docking complex modulates peroxisome biogenesis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jinlan; Tower, Robert J; Lancaster, David L; Rachubinski, Richard A

    2013-10-15

    Dynein is a large macromolecular motor complex that moves cargo along microtubules. A motor-independent role for the light chain of dynein, Dyn2p, in peroxisome biology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was suggested from its interaction with Pex14p, a component of the peroxisomal matrix protein import docking complex. Here we show that cells of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica deleted for the gene encoding the homologue of Dyn2p are impaired in peroxisome function and biogenesis. These cells exhibit compromised growth on medium containing oleic acid as the carbon source, the metabolism of which requires functional peroxisomes. Their peroxisomes have abnormal morphology, atypical matrix protein localization, and an absence of proteolytic processing of the matrix enzyme thiolase, which normally occurs upon its import into the peroxisome. We also show physical and genetic interactions between Dyn2p and members of the docking complex, particularly Pex17p. Together, our results demonstrate a role for Dyn2p in the assembly of functional peroxisomes and provide evidence that Dyn2p acts in cooperation with the peroxisomal matrix protein import docking complex to effect optimal matrix protein import.

  7. VAPs and ACBD5 tether peroxisomes to the ER for peroxisome maintenance and lipid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hua, Rong; Cheng, Derrick; Coyaud, Étienne; Freeman, Spencer; Di Pietro, Erminia; Wang, Yuqing; Vissa, Adriano; Yip, Christopher M; Fairn, Gregory D; Braverman, Nancy; Brumell, John H; Trimble, William S; Raught, Brian; Kim, Peter K

    2017-02-01

    Lipid exchange between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and peroxisomes is necessary for the synthesis and catabolism of lipids, the trafficking of cholesterol, and peroxisome biogenesis in mammalian cells. However, how lipids are exchanged between these two organelles is not understood. In this study, we report that the ER-resident VAMP-associated proteins A and B (VAPA and VAPB) interact with the peroxisomal membrane protein acyl-CoA binding domain containing 5 (ACBD5) and that this interaction is required to tether the two organelles together, thereby facilitating the lipid exchange between them. Depletion of either ACBD5 or VAP expression results in increased peroxisome mobility, suggesting that VAP-ACBD5 complex acts as the primary ER-peroxisome tether. We also demonstrate that tethering of peroxisomes to the ER is necessary for peroxisome growth, the synthesis of plasmalogen phospholipids, and the maintenance of cellular cholesterol levels. Collectively, our data highlight the importance of VAP-ACBD5-mediated contact between the ER and peroxisomes for organelle maintenance and lipid homeostasis. © 2017 Hua et al.

  8. ABC subfamily D proteins and very long chain fatty acid metabolism as novel targets in adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Morita, M; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Kashiwayama, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Imanaka, Tsuneo

    2011-05-01

    Peroxisomes are involved in a variety of metabolic processes, including β-oxidation of fatty acids, especially very long chain fatty acids. Three peroxisomal ABC proteins belonging to subfamily D have been identified in mammalian peroxisomes that have an important role in fatty acid metabolism. ABCD1/ALDP and ABCD2/ALDRP are suggested to be involved in the transport of very long chain acyl-CoA, and ABCD3/PMP70 is involved in the transport of long chain acyl-CoA. ABCD1 is known to be responsible for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD); an inborn error of peroxisomal β-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids. X-ALD is characterized biochemically by the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids in all tissues, including the brain white matter. Progressive demyelination of the central nervous system and adrenal dysfunction have been observed. The pharmacological up-regulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids and the suppression of fatty acid elongation are important aspects of an optimal therapeutic approach. Attractive targets for the treatment of X-ALD patients include the ABCD2 as well as elongase that is involved in the elongation of very long chain fatty acids. In addition, stabilization of mutant ABCD1 that has retained some of its function might be another approach, since most of the mutant ABCD1s with a missense mutation are degraded rapidly by proteasomes before or after targeting to peroxisomes. Protection of the central nervous system against oxidative damage is also important in order to delay the progress of disease. We summarize recent pharmaceutical studies and consider the potential for future X-ALD therapies.

  9. Structure-function analysis of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporters using chimeric dimers.

    PubMed

    Geillon, Flore; Gondcaille, Catherine; Charbonnier, Soëli; Van Roermund, Carlo W; Lopez, Tatiana E; Dias, Alexandre M M; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Arnould, Christine; Wanders, Ronald J; Trompier, Doriane; Savary, Stéphane

    2014-08-29

    ABCD1 and ABCD2 are two closely related ATP-binding cassette half-transporters predicted to homodimerize and form peroxisomal importers for fatty acyl-CoAs. Available evidence has shown that ABCD1 and ABCD2 display a distinct but overlapping substrate specificity, although much remains to be learned in this respect as well as in their capability to form functional heterodimers. Using a cell model expressing an ABCD2-EGFP fusion protein, we first demonstrated by proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation assay that ABCD1 interacts with ABCD2. Next, we tested in the pxa1/pxa2Δ yeast mutant the functionality of ABCD1/ABCD2 dimers by expressing chimeric proteins mimicking homo- or heterodimers. For further structure-function analysis of ABCD1/ABCD2 dimers, we expressed chimeric dimers fused to enhanced GFP in human skin fibroblasts of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients. These cells are devoid of ABCD1 and accumulate very long-chain fatty acids (C26:0 and C26:1). We checked that the chimeric proteins were correctly expressed and targeted to the peroxisomes. Very long-chain fatty acid levels were partially restored in transfected X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy fibroblasts regardless of the chimeric construct used, thus demonstrating functionality of both homo- and heterodimers. Interestingly, the level of C24:6 n-3, the immediate precursor of docosahexaenoic acid, was decreased in cells expressing chimeric proteins containing at least one ABCD2 moiety. Our data demonstrate for the first time that both homo- and heterodimers of ABCD1 and ABCD2 are functionally active. Interestingly, the role of ABCD2 (in homo- and heterodimeric forms) in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids is clearly evidenced, and the chimeric dimers provide a novel tool to study substrate specificity of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporters. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Structure-Function Analysis of Peroxisomal ATP-binding Cassette Transporters Using Chimeric Dimers*

    PubMed Central

    Geillon, Flore; Gondcaille, Catherine; Charbonnier, Soëli; Van Roermund, Carlo W.; Lopez, Tatiana E.; Dias, Alexandre M. M.; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Arnould, Christine; Wanders, Ronald J.; Trompier, Doriane; Savary, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    ABCD1 and ABCD2 are two closely related ATP-binding cassette half-transporters predicted to homodimerize and form peroxisomal importers for fatty acyl-CoAs. Available evidence has shown that ABCD1 and ABCD2 display a distinct but overlapping substrate specificity, although much remains to be learned in this respect as well as in their capability to form functional heterodimers. Using a cell model expressing an ABCD2-EGFP fusion protein, we first demonstrated by proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation assay that ABCD1 interacts with ABCD2. Next, we tested in the pxa1/pxa2Δ yeast mutant the functionality of ABCD1/ABCD2 dimers by expressing chimeric proteins mimicking homo- or heterodimers. For further structure-function analysis of ABCD1/ABCD2 dimers, we expressed chimeric dimers fused to enhanced GFP in human skin fibroblasts of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients. These cells are devoid of ABCD1 and accumulate very long-chain fatty acids (C26:0 and C26:1). We checked that the chimeric proteins were correctly expressed and targeted to the peroxisomes. Very long-chain fatty acid levels were partially restored in transfected X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy fibroblasts regardless of the chimeric construct used, thus demonstrating functionality of both homo- and heterodimers. Interestingly, the level of C24:6 n-3, the immediate precursor of docosahexaenoic acid, was decreased in cells expressing chimeric proteins containing at least one ABCD2 moiety. Our data demonstrate for the first time that both homo- and heterodimers of ABCD1 and ABCD2 are functionally active. Interestingly, the role of ABCD2 (in homo- and heterodimeric forms) in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids is clearly evidenced, and the chimeric dimers provide a novel tool to study substrate specificity of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporters. PMID:25043761

  11. Roles of Peroxisomes in the Rice Blast Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Caiyun

    2016-01-01

    The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is a model plant pathogenic fungus and is a severe threat to global rice production. Over the past two decades, it has been found that the peroxisomes play indispensable roles during M. oryzae infection. Given the importance of the peroxisomes for virulence, we review recent advances of the peroxisomes roles during M. oryzae infection processes. We firstly introduce the molecular mechanisms and life cycles of the peroxisomes. And then, metabolic functions related to the peroxisomes are also discussed. Finally, we provide an overview of the relationship between peroxisomes and pathogenicity. PMID:27610388

  12. Proteome analysis of peroxisomes from etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings identifies a peroxisomal protease involved in β-oxidation and development.

    PubMed

    Quan, Sheng; Yang, Pingfang; Cassin-Ross, Gaëlle; Kaur, Navneet; Switzenberg, Robert; Aung, Kyaw; Li, Jiying; Hu, Jianping

    2013-12-01

    Plant peroxisomes are highly dynamic organelles that mediate a suite of metabolic processes crucial to development. Peroxisomes in seeds/dark-grown seedlings and in photosynthetic tissues constitute two major subtypes of plant peroxisomes, which had been postulated to contain distinct primary biochemical properties. Multiple in-depth proteomic analyses had been performed on leaf peroxisomes, yet the major makeup of peroxisomes in seeds or dark-grown seedlings remained unclear. To compare the metabolic pathways of the two dominant plant peroxisomal subtypes and discover new peroxisomal proteins that function specifically during seed germination, we performed proteomic analysis of peroxisomes from etiolated Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. The detection of 77 peroxisomal proteins allowed us to perform comparative analysis with the peroxisomal proteome of green leaves, which revealed a large overlap between these two primary peroxisomal variants. Subcellular targeting analysis by fluorescence microscopy validated around 10 new peroxisomal proteins in Arabidopsis. Mutant analysis suggested the role of the cysteine protease RESPONSE TO DROUGHT21A-LIKE1 in β-oxidation, seed germination, and growth. This work provides a much-needed road map of a major type of plant peroxisome and has established a basis for future investigations of peroxisomal proteolytic processes to understand their roles in development and in plant interaction with the environment.

  13. Redox interplay between mitochondria and peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    Lismont, Celien; Nordgren, Marcus; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; Fransen, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Reduction-oxidation or “redox” reactions are an integral part of a broad range of cellular processes such as gene expression, energy metabolism, protein import and folding, and autophagy. As many of these processes are intimately linked with cell fate decisions, transient or chronic changes in cellular redox equilibrium are likely to contribute to the initiation and progression of a plethora of human diseases. Since a long time, it is known that mitochondria are major players in redox regulation and signaling. More recently, it has become clear that also peroxisomes have the capacity to impact redox-linked physiological processes. To serve this function, peroxisomes cooperate with other organelles, including mitochondria. This review provides a comprehensive picture of what is currently known about the redox interplay between mitochondria and peroxisomes in mammals. We first outline the pro- and antioxidant systems of both organelles and how they may function as redox signaling nodes. Next, we critically review and discuss emerging evidence that peroxisomes and mitochondria share an intricate redox-sensitive relationship and cooperate in cell fate decisions. Key issues include possible physiological roles, messengers, and mechanisms. We also provide examples of how data mining of publicly-available datasets from “omics” technologies can be a powerful means to gain additional insights into potential redox signaling pathways between peroxisomes and mitochondria. Finally, we highlight the need for more studies that seek to clarify the mechanisms of how mitochondria may act as dynamic receivers, integrators, and transmitters of peroxisome-derived mediators of oxidative stress. The outcome of such studies may open up exciting new avenues for the community of researchers working on cellular responses to organelle-derived oxidative stress, a research field in which the role of peroxisomes is currently highly underestimated and an issue of discussion. PMID:26075204

  14. Characterization of endoproteases from plant peroxisomes.

    PubMed Central

    Distefano, S; Palma, J M; Gómez, M; Río, L A

    1997-01-01

    In this work, the characterization of endoprotease (EP) isoenzymes in peroxisomes is reported for the first time in cell organelles purified from pea leaves (Pisum sativum L.). A comparative analysis of the endo-proteolytic activity in peroxisomes purified from young (15-day-old) and senescent (50-day-old) leaves was carried out. Peroxisomes purified from senescent leaves showed a much higher endo-proteolytic activity than organelles from young plants. A 16 h incubation with exogenous substrates was the threshold time for the detection of a linear increase in the endo-proteolytic activity of peroxisomes from senescent leaves. Three EP isoenzymes (EP2, EP4 and EP5), having molecular masses of 88, 64 and 50 kDa respectively, were found in young plants by using SDS/polyacrylamide-gradient gels co-polymerized with gelatin. However, four additional isoenzymes (EP1, EP3, EP6 and EP7), with molecular masses of 220, 76, 46 and 34 kDa respectively, were detected in senescent plants. All the isoenzymes detected in peroxisomes from both young and senescent leaves were neutral proteases. By using different class-specific inhibitors, the electrophoretically separated EP isoenzymes were characterized as three serine-proteinases (EP1, EP3 and EP4), two cysteine-proteinases (EP2 and EP6) and a metallo-proteinase (EP7), and EP5 might be a metal-dependent serine-proteinase. Moreover, a peroxisomal polypeptide of 64 kDa was recognized by an antibody against a thiol-protease. The serine-proteinase isoenzymes (EP1, EP3 and EP4), which represent approx. 70% of the total EP activity of peroxisomes, showed a notable thermal stability, not being inhibited by incubation at 50 degrees C for 1 h. PMID:9359407

  15. Lipid homeostasis and inflammatory activation are disturbed in classically activated macrophages with peroxisomal β-oxidation deficiency.

    PubMed

    Geric, Ivana; Tyurina, Yulia Y; Krysko, Olga; Krysko, Dmitri V; De Schryver, Evelyn; Kagan, Valerian E; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Baes, Myriam; Verheijden, Simon

    2017-09-22

    Macrophage activation is characterized by pronounced metabolic adaptation. Classically activated macrophages show decreased rates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation and acquire a glycolytic state together with their pro-inflammatory phenotype. In contrast, alternatively activated macrophages require oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for their anti-inflammatory function. Although it is evident that mitochondrial metabolism is regulated during macrophage polarization and essential for macrophage function, little is known on the regulation and role of peroxisomal β-oxidation during macrophage activation. In this study, we show that peroxisomal β-oxidation is strongly decreased in classically activated bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) and mildly induced in alternatively activated BMDM. To examine the role of peroxisomal β-oxidation in macrophages, we used Mfp2(-/-) BMDM lacking the key enzyme of this pathway. Impairment of peroxisomal β-oxidation in Mfp2(-/-) BMDM did not cause lipid accumulation but rather an altered distribution of lipid species with very long chain fatty acids accumulating in the triglyceride and phospholipid fraction. These lipid alterations in Mfp2(-/-) macrophages led to decreased inflammatory activation of Mfp2(-/-) BMDM and peritoneal macrophages evidenced by impaired production of several inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, but did not affect anti-inflammatory polarization. The disturbed inflammatory responses of Mfp2(-/-) macrophages did not affect immune cell infiltration, as mice with selective elimination of MFP2 from myeloid cells showed normal monocyte and neutrophil influx upon challenge with zymosan. Together, these data demonstrate that peroxisomal β-oxidation is involved in fine-tuning the phenotype of macrophages, likely by influencing the dynamic lipid profile during macrophage polarization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

  16. Cytochemical Detection of Peroxisomes in Light and Electron Microscopy with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine.

    PubMed

    Fahimi, H Dariush

    2017-01-01

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous dynamic and multifunctional organelles that contribute to numerous anabolic and catabolic pathways, being essential for human health and development. Their best known functions include the oxidation of fatty acids and metabolism of hydrogen peroxide with catalase as a marker enzyme. Indeed, historically, it was the cytochemical staining of catalase in many different cells and tissues that revealed the ubiquitous presence of peroxisomes in almost all animal and plant cells. In this chapter, the method for cytochemical staining of catalase with the alkaline 3, 3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) is described. Since aldehyde fixation is a prerequisite for staining of catalase with DAB, a method for perfusion fixation of rat liver with glutaraldehyde is presented prior to the cytochemical staining method and the subsequent tissue processing for light and electron microscopy.

  17. Uridine Prevents Fenofibrate-Induced Fatty Liver

    PubMed Central

    Le, Thuc T.; Urasaki, Yasuyo; Pizzorno, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Uridine, a pyrimidine nucleoside, can modulate liver lipid metabolism although its specific acting targets have not been identified. Using mice with fenofibrate-induced fatty liver as a model system, the effects of uridine on liver lipid metabolism are examined. At a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg, fenofibrate treatment causes reduction of liver NAD+/NADH ratio, induces hyper-acetylation of peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme (ECHD) and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1), and induces excessive accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA). Uridine co-administration at a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg raises NAD+/NADH ratio, inhibits fenofibrate-induced hyper-acetylation of ECHD, ACOX1, and reduces accumulation of LCFA and VLCFA. Our data indicates a therapeutic potential for uridine co-administration to prevent fenofibrate-induced fatty liver. PMID:24475249

  18. A comparison of liver protein changes in mice and hamsters treated with the peroxisome proliferator Wy-14,643.

    SciTech Connect

    Giometti, C. S.; Tollaksen, S. L.; Cunningham, M. L.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences

    1998-01-01

    Interspecies differences in the liver response to Wy-14,643, a potent peroxisome proliferator in rats and mice, have been demonstrated. While both rats and mice show dramatic increases in the number of peroxisomes, the activity of peroxisomal enzymes involved in the {beta}-oxidation of fatty acids, and heptocyte replication, Syrian hamsters have a more moderate peroxisome proliferation response and no sustained increase in cell replication. Rats and mice, but not hamsters, develop hepatocellular carcinoma after prolonged exposure to Wy-14,643. To further characterize this species difference, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) has been used to compare the effect of 14-day exposure to various dietary concentrations of Wy-14,643 on liver protein expression in male mice and hamsters. Digitized images of the 2-DE protein maps were searched for significant changes. The peroxisome bifunctional enzyme (PBE) enoyl CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl dehydrogenase, which migrates to the same position in mouse and hamster liver protein 2-DE patterns, increased in abundance by more than three times the control level in both mice and hamsters. In addition to the quantitative change in PBE, significant quantitative changes (P < 0.001) were found in 49 mouse liver proteins (47 decreasing and 2 increasing) and in 35 hamster liver proteins (27 decreasing and 8 increasing). There was little overlap in the mouse and hamster proteins showing quantitative changes in response to Wy-14,643, with the exception of PBE and one unidentified liver protein with an approximate molecular weight of 50 000. These results show that although peroxisome proliferation occurs in the livers of both mice and hamsters exposed to Wy-14,643, other species-specific changes in proteins occur that are independent of the peroxisome proliferation response and that could be related to species-specific susceptibility or resistance to liver tumor induction.

  19. Evolutionary loss of peroxisomes--not limited to parasites.

    PubMed

    Žárský, Vojtěch; Tachezy, Jan

    2015-12-23

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous eukaryotic organelles that compartmentalize a variety of metabolic pathways that are primarily related to the oxidative metabolism of lipids and the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. The importance of peroxisomes is underscored by serious human diseases, which are caused by disorders in peroxisomal functions. Some eukaryotic lineages, however, lost peroxisomes. These organisms are mainly anaerobic protists and some parasitic lineages including Plasmodium and parasitic platyhelminths. Here we performed a systematic in-silico analysis of peroxisomal markers among metazoans to assess presence of peroxisomes and peroxisomal enzymes. Our analyses reveal an obvious loss of peroxisomes in all tested flukes, tapeworms, and parasitic roundworms of the order Trichocephalida. Intriguingly, peroxisomal markers are absent from the genome of the free-living tunicate Oikopleura dioica, which inhabits oxygen-containing niches of sea waters. We further map the presence and predicted subcellular localization of putative peroxisomal enzymes, showing that in organisms without the peroxisomal markers the set of these enzymes is highly reduced and none of them contains a predicted peroxisomal targeting signal. We have shown that several lineages of metazoans independently lost peroxisomes and that the loss of peroxisomes was not exclusively associated with adaptation to anaerobic habitats and a parasitic lifestyle. Although the reason for the loss of peroxisomes from O. dioica is unclear, organisms lacking peroxisomes, including the free-living O. dioica, share certain typical r-selected traits: high fecundity, limited ontogenesis and relatively low complexity of the gene content. We hypothesize that peroxisomes are generally the first compartment to be lost during evolutionary reductions of the eukaryotic cell.

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and the control of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cabrero, A; Laguna, J C; Vázquez, M

    2002-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors which form a subfamily of the nuclear receptor gene family. This subfamily consists of three isotypes, alpha (NR1C1), gamma (NR1C3), and beta/delta (NRC1C2) with a differential tissue distribution. PPARalpha is expressed primarily in tissues with a high level of fatty acid catabolism such as liver, brown fat, kidney, heart and skeletal muscle. PPARbeta is ubiquitously expressed, and PPARgamma has a restricted pattern of expression, mainly in white and brown adipose tissues, whereas other tissues such as skeletal muscle and heart contain limited amounts. Furthermore, PPARalpha and gamma isotypes are expressed in vascular cells including endothelial and smooth muscle cells and macrophages/foam cells. PPARs are activated by ligands, such as naturally occurring fatty acids, which are activators of all three PPAR isotypes. In addition to fatty acids, several synthetic compounds, such as fibrates and thiazolidinediones, bind and activate PPARalpha and PPARgamma, respectively. In order to be transcriptionally active, PPARs need to heterodimerize with the retinoid-X-receptor (RXR). Upon activation, PPAR-RXR heterodimers bind to DNA specific sequences called peroxisome proliferator-response elements (PPRE) and stimulate transcription of target genes. PPARs play a critical role in lipid and glucose homeostasis, but lately they have been implicated as regulators of inflammatory responses. The first evidence of the involvement of PPARs in the control of inflammation came from the PPARalpha null mice, which showed a prolonged inflammatory response. PPARalpha activation results in the repression of NF-kappaB signaling and inflammatory cytokine production in different cell-types. A role for PPARgamma in inflammation has also been reported in monocyte/macrophages, where ligands of this receptor inhibited the activation of macrophages and the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha

  1. The Role of the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Peroxisome Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Lazar; Lam, Sheung Kwan; Schekman, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes are essential cellular organelles involved in lipid metabolism. Patients affected by severe peroxisome biogenesis disorders rarely survive their first year. Genetic screens in several model organisms have identified more than 30 PEX genes that are required for the formation of functional peroxisomes. Despite significant work on the PEX genes, the biogenic origin of peroxisomes remains controversial. For at least two decades, the prevailing model postulated that peroxisomes propagate by growth and fission of preexisting peroxisomes. In this review, we focus on the recent evidence supporting a new, semiautonomous model of peroxisomal biogenesis. According to this model, peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the peroxisome by a vesicular budding, targeting, and fusion process while peroxisomal matrix proteins are imported into the organelle by an autonomous, posttranslational mechanism. We highlight the contradictory conclusions reached to answer the question of how PMPs are inserted into the ER. We then review what we know and what still remains to be elucidated about the mechanism of PMP exit from the ER and the contribution of preperoxisomal vesicles to mature peroxisomes. Finally, we discuss discrepancies in our understanding of de novo peroxisome biogenesis in wild-type cells. We anticipate that resolving these key issues will lead to a more complete picture of peroxisome biogenesis. PMID:23637287

  2. The role of the endoplasmic reticulum in peroxisome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Lazar; Lam, Sheung Kwan; Schekman, Randy

    2013-05-01

    Peroxisomes are essential cellular organelles involved in lipid metabolism. Patients affected by severe peroxisome biogenesis disorders rarely survive their first year. Genetic screens in several model organisms have identified more than 30 PEX genes that are required for the formation of functional peroxisomes. Despite significant work on the PEX genes, the biogenic origin of peroxisomes remains controversial. For at least two decades, the prevailing model postulated that peroxisomes propagate by growth and fission of preexisting peroxisomes. In this review, we focus on the recent evidence supporting a new, semiautonomous model of peroxisomal biogenesis. According to this model, peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the peroxisome by a vesicular budding, targeting, and fusion process while peroxisomal matrix proteins are imported into the organelle by an autonomous, posttranslational mechanism. We highlight the contradictory conclusions reached to answer the question of how PMPs are inserted into the ER. We then review what we know and what still remains to be elucidated about the mechanism of PMP exit from the ER and the contribution of preperoxisomal vesicles to mature peroxisomes. Finally, we discuss discrepancies in our understanding of de novo peroxisome biogenesis in wild-type cells. We anticipate that resolving these key issues will lead to a more complete picture of peroxisome biogenesis.

  3. Nonsense suppressor therapies rescue peroxisome lipid metabolism and assembly in cells from patients with specific PEX gene mutations

    PubMed Central

    Dranchak, Patricia K.; Di Pietro, Erminia; Snowden, Ann; Oesch, Nathan; Braverman, Nancy E.; Steinberg, Steven J.; Hacia, Joseph G.

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) are multisystemic autosomal recessive disorders resulting from mutations in PEX genes required for normal peroxisome assembly and metabolic activities. Here, we evaluated the potential effectiveness of aminoglycoside G418 (geneticin) and PTC124 (ataluren) nonsense suppression therapies for the treatment of PBD patients with disease-causing nonsense mutations. PBD patient skin fibroblasts producing stable PEX2 or PEX12 nonsense transcripts and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with a Pex2 nonsense allele all showed dramatic improvements in peroxisomal very long chain fatty acid catabolism and plasmalogen biosynthesis in response to G418 treatments. Cell imaging assays provided complementary confirmatory evidence of improved peroxisome assembly in G418-treated patient fibroblasts. In contrast, we observed no appreciable rescue of peroxisome lipid metabolism or assembly for any patient fibroblast or CHO cell culture treated with various doses of PTC124. Additionally, PTC124 did not show measurable nonsense suppression in immunoblot assays that directly evaluated the read-through of PEX7 nonsense alleles found in PBD patients with rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 1 (RCDP1). Overall, our results support the continued development of safe and effective nonsense suppressor therapies that could benefit a significant subset of individuals with PBDs. Furthermore, we suggest that the described cell culture assay systems could be useful for evaluating and screening for novel nonsense suppressor therapies. PMID:21465523

  4. The Cytoskeleton and the Peroxisomal-Targeted SNOWY COTYLEDON3 Protein Are Required for Chloroplast Development in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Verónica; Šimková, Klára; Carrie, Chris; Delannoy, Etienne; Giraud, Estelle; Whelan, Jim; Small, Ian David; Apel, Klaus; Badger, Murray R.; Pogson, Barry James

    2010-01-01

    Here, we describe the snowy cotyledon3 (sco3-1) mutation, which impairs chloroplast and etioplast development in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. SCO3 is a member of a largely uncharacterized protein family unique to the plant kingdom. The sco3-1 mutation alters chloroplast morphology and development, reduces chlorophyll accumulation, impairs thylakoid formation and photosynthesis in seedlings, and results in photoinhibition under extreme CO2 concentrations in mature leaves. There are no readily apparent changes to chloroplast biology, such as transcription or assembly that explain the disruption to chloroplast biogenesis. Indeed, SCO3 is actually targeted to another organelle, specifically to the periphery of peroxisomes. However, impaired chloroplast development cannot be attributed to perturbed peroxisomal metabolic processes involving germination, fatty acid β-oxidation or photorespiration, though there are so far undescribed changes in low and high CO2 sensitivity in seedlings and young true leaves. Many of the chloroplasts are bilobed, and some have persistent membranous extensions that encircle other cellular components. Significantly, there are changes to the cytoskeleton in sco3-1, and microtubule inhibitors have similar effects on chloroplast biogenesis as sco3-1 does. The localization of SCO3 to the periphery of the peroxisomes was shown to be dependent on a functional microtubule cytoskeleton. Therefore, the microtubule and peroxisome-associated SCO3 protein is required for chloroplast development, and sco3-1, along with microtubule inhibitors, demonstrates an unexpected role for the cytoskeleton and peroxisomes in chloroplast biogenesis. PMID:20978221

  5. Localization of nervonic acid beta-oxidation in human and rodent peroxisomes: impaired oxidation in Zellweger syndrome and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Sandhir, R; Khan, M; Chahal, A; Singh, I

    1998-11-01

    Studies with purified subcellular organelles from rat liver indicate that nervonic acid (C24:1) is beta-oxidized preferentially in peroxisomes. Lack of effect by etomoxir, inhibitor of mitochondrial beta-oxidation, on beta-oxidation of lignoceric acid (C24:0), a peroxisomal function, and that of nervonic acid (24:1) compared to the inhibition of palmitic acid (16:0) oxidation, a mitochondrial function, supports the conclusion that nervonic acid is oxidized in peroxisomes. Moreover, the oxidation of nervonic and lignoceric acids was deficient in fibroblasts from patients with defects in peroxisomal beta-oxidation [Zellweger syndrome (ZS) and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD)]. Similar to lignoceric acid, the activation and beta-oxidation of nervonic acid was deficient in peroxisomes isolated from X-ALD fibroblasts. Transfection of X-ALD fibroblasts with human cDNA encoding for ALDP (X-ALD gene product) restored the oxidation of both nervonic and lignoceric acids, demonstrating that the same molecular defect may be responsible for the abnormality in the oxidation of nervonic as well as lignoceric acid. Moreover, immunoprecipitation of activities for acyl-CoA ligase for both lignoceric acid and nervonic acid indicate that saturated and monoenoic very long chain (VLC) fatty acids may be activated by the same enzyme. These results clearly demonstrate that similar to saturated VLC fatty acids (e.g., lignoceric acid), VLC monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., nervonic acid) are oxidized preferentially in peroxisomes and that this activity is impaired in X-ALD. In view of the fact that the oxidation of unsaturated VLC fatty acids is defective in X-ALD patients, the efficacy of dietary monoene therapy, "Lorenzo's oil," in X-ALD needs to be evaluated.

  6. Effect of fenofibrate and LF 2151 on hepatic peroxisomes in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Pourbaix, S; Heller, F; Harvengt, C

    1984-11-15

    Hamsters were given a diet containing fenofibrate (0.5% or 0.05%) or its metabolite, LF 2151 (0.15% or 0.015%) or a standard diet for a 3-week period. At the end of this period, the analysis of plasma lipids showed that the mean plasma triglyceride concentrations were not significantly different in the five groups of animals. The mean plasma cholesterol concentrations were significantly reduced in animals treated with both drugs but only when given at the high dosage. No consistent changes were noted in the liver weight/body weight ratio and the DNA content of the liver; the number of peroxisomes was increased in the hepatocytes of animals given fenofibrate at the high dosage. Liver homogenates were fractionated and the fractions rich in peroxisomes were used for assays of several enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. Compared with the control animals, activity of cyanide-insensitive fatty acyl-CoA (FA-CoA) oxidizing system was significantly increased by fenofibrate at the high dosage, carnitine acetyltransferase activity was markedly increased by both drugs at the high dosage and catalase activity remained unmodified. As there was a significant inverse correlation between the peroxisomal activity of FA-CoA oxidizing system and the plasma cholesterol concentrations, it is suggested that the increase of peroxisomal beta-oxidation activity can be involved in the hypocholesterolemic action of fenofibrate and LF 2151. This is further substantiated by the finding that fenofibrate and LF 2151 were present in the peroxisomal fraction only in hamsters displaying hypocholesterolemia and high activity of FA-CoA oxidizing system. The presence of fenofibric acid in the plasma of hamsters given LF 2151 suggested that hepatocytes are able to generate the parent drug from this metabolite, underlining that the pharmacokinetics of fenofibrate are rather complex in hamsters.

  7. Prepartum maternal diets supplemented with oilseeds alter the fatty acid profile in bovine neonatal plasma possibly through reduced placental expression of fatty acid transporter protein 4 and fatty acid translocase.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Reza; Ambrose, Divakar J

    2016-12-12

    In the present study, we determined the effects of maternal dietary fat and the type of fat on plasma fatty acids and the expression of placental fatty acid transporter genes. In Experiment 1, Holstein cows in the last 35 days of gestation received diets containing sunflower seed (n=8; high in linoleic acid (LA)), canola seed (n=7; high in oleic acid (OLA)) or no oilseed (n=7; control). Fatty acids were quantified in dam and neonate plasma at calving. In Experiment 2, placental cotyledons were collected (LA: n=4; OLA: n=4; control: n=5) to quantify gene expression. Maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, neonatal total n-3 fatty acids and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) declined, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and total fat tended to decline following fat supplementation prepartum. Feeding of LA versus OLA prepartum tended to increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARA) expression, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARD) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) expression tended to be higher in OLA- than LA-fed cows. Expression of fatty acid transporter protein 4 (FATP4) and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) expression was lower in placental tissue of cows fed fat compared with control cows. Reduced total n-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA in neonates born of dams fed fat prepartum is likely due to changes in PPARs and reduced expression of placental FATP4 and FAT/CD36.

  8. Peroxisomes induced in Candida boidinii by methanol, oleic acid and D-alanine vary in metabolic function but share common integral membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Goodman, J M; Trapp, S B; Hwang, H; Veenhuis, M

    1990-09-01

    Peroxisomes massively proliferate in the methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii when cultured on methanol as the only carbon and energy source. These organelles contain enzymes that catalyze the initial reactions of methanol utilization. The membranes contain abundant proteins of unknown function; their apparent molecular masses are 20, 31, 32 and 47 x 10(3) Mr and are termed PMP20, PMPs31-32 and PMP47. Recently, we reported that peroxisomes in this yeast are also induced by oleic acid and D-alanine as carbon sources, and that these peroxisomes contain increased concentrations of the enzymes of fatty acid beta-oxidation or D-amino acid oxidase, respectively. This report extends these findings and further compares the enzyme composition from peroxisomes induced by methanol, oleic acid and D-alanine. the patterns of matrix proteins represented on SDS-polyacrylamide gels from peroxisomes induced by oleic acid or D-alanine were found to be very different from those of peroxisomes induced by methanol. In order to differentiate between membrane proteins that have specific functions in pathways of substrate utilization from those with more generalized functions, peroxisomal membranes from cultures grown on methanol, oleic acid or D-alanine were purified. Analysis of these fractions demonstrated that while PMP20 is found only in peroxisomes induced by methanol, the PMPs31-32 and PMP47 were the abundant peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMP) regardless of inducing substrate. The data strongly suggest that the function of PMP20 is related to methanol metabolism. In contrast, the functions of PMPs31-32 and PMP47 are 'substrate-nonspecific'. We speculate that they may relate to the structure, assembly or general function of the organelle.

  9. Pex14/17, a filamentous fungus-specific peroxin, is required for the import of peroxisomal matrix proteins and full virulence of Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Wang, Jiaoyu; Chen, Haili; Chai, Rongyao; Zhang, Zhen; Mao, Xueqin; Qiu, Haiping; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Guochang

    2016-08-29

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles in eukaryotic cells that fulfil a variety of biochemical functions. The biogenesis of peroxisomes requires a variety of proteins, named peroxins, which are encoded by PEX genes. Pex14/17 is a putative recently identified peroxin, specifically present in filamentous fungal species. Its function in peroxisomal biogenesis is still obscure and its roles in fungal pathogenicity have not yet been documented. Here, we demonstrate the contributions of Pex14/17 in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (Mopex14/17) to peroxisomal biogenesis and fungal pathogenicity by targeting gene replacement strategies. Mopex14/17 has properties of both Pex14 and Pex17 with regard to its protein sequence. Mopex14/17 is distributed at the peroxisomal membrane and is essential for efficient peroxisomal targeting of proteins containing peroxisomal targeting signal 1. MoPEX19 deletion leads to the cytoplasmic distribution of Mopex14/17, indicating that the peroxisomal import of Pex14/17 is dependent on Pex19. The knockout mutants of MoPEX14/17 show reduced fatty acid utilization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) degradation and cell wall integrity. Moreover, Δmopex14/17 mutants show delayed conidial generation and appressorial formation, and a reduction in appressorial turgor accumulation and penetration ability in host plants. These defects result in a significant reduction in the virulence of the mutant. These data indicate that MoPEX14/17 plays a crucial role in peroxisome biogenesis and contributes to fungal development and pathogenicity.

  10. De novo peroxisome biogenesis: evolving concepts and conundrums

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Gaurav; Subramani, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisomes proliferate by growth and division of pre-existing peroxisomes or could arise de novo. Though the de novo pathway of peroxisome biogenesis is a more recent discovery, several recent studies have highlighted key mechanistic details of the pathway. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the primary source of lipids and proteins for the newly-formed peroxisomes. More recently, an intricate sorting process functioning at the ER has been proposed, that segregates specific set of PMPs first to peroxisome-specific ER domains (pER) and then assembles PMPs selectively into distinct pre-peroxisomal vesicles (ppVs) that later fuse to form import-competent peroxisomes. In addition, plausible roles of the three key peroxins Pex3, Pex16 and Pex19, which are also central to the growth and division pathway, have been suggested in the de novo process. In this review, we discuss key developments and highlight the unexplored avenues in de novo peroxisome biogenesis. PMID:26381541

  11. Peroxisome Ca(2+) homeostasis in animal and plant cells.

    PubMed

    Costa, Alex; Drago, Ilaria; Zottini, Michela; Pizzo, Paola; Pozzan, Tullio

    2013-01-01

    Ca(2+) homeostasis in peroxisomes has been an unsolved problem for many years. Recently novel probes to monitor Ca(2+) levels in the lumen of peroxisomes in living cells of both animal and plant cells have been developed. Here we discuss the contrasting results obtained in mammalian cells with chemiluminecsent (aequorin) and fluorescent (cameleon) probes targeted to peroxisomes. We briefly discuss the different characteristics of these probes and the possible pitfalls of the two approaches. We conclude that the contrasting results obtained with the two probes may reflect a heterogeneity among peroxisomes in mammalian cells. We also discuss the results obtained in plant peroxisomes. In particular we demonstrate that Ca(2+) increases in the cytoplasm are mirrored by similar rises of Ca(2+) concentration the lumen of peroxisomes. The increases in peroxisome Ca(2+) level results in the activation of a catalase isoform, CAT3. Other functional roles of peroxisomal Ca(2+) changes in plant physiology are briefly discussed.

  12. Pex19p contributes to peroxisome inheritance in the association of peroxisomes to Myo2p.

    PubMed

    Otzen, Marleen; Rucktäschel, Robert; Thoms, Sven; Emmrich, Kerstin; Krikken, Arjen M; Erdmann, Ralf; van der Klei, Ida J

    2012-07-01

    During budding of yeast cells peroxisomes are distributed over mother cell and bud, a process that involves the myosin motor protein Myo2p and the peroxisomal membrane protein Inp2p. Here, we show that Pex19p, a peroxin implicated in targeting and complex formation of peroxisomal membrane proteins, also plays a role in peroxisome partitioning. Binding studies revealed that Pex19p interacts with the cargo-binding domain of Myo2p. We identified mutations in Myo2p that specifically reduced binding to Pex19p, but not to Inp2p. The interaction between Myo2p and Pex19p was also reduced by a mutation that blocked Pex19p farnesylation. Microscopy revealed that the Pex19p-Myo2p interaction is important for peroxisome inheritance, because mutations that affect this interaction hamper peroxisome inheritance in vivo. Together these data suggest that both Inp2p and Pex19p are required for proper association of peroxisomes to Myo2p. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Ubiquitin in the peroxisomal protein import pathway.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Tânia; Rodrigues, Tony A; Pinto, Manuel P; Carvalho, Andreia F; Azevedo, Jorge E; Grou, Cláudia P

    2014-03-01

    PEX5 is the shuttling receptor for newly synthesized peroxisomal matrix proteins. Alone, or with the help of an adaptor protein, this receptor binds peroxisomal matrix proteins in the cytosol and transports them to the peroxisomal membrane docking/translocation module (DTM). The interaction between cargo-loaded PEX5 and the DTM ultimately results in its insertion into the DTM with the concomitant translocation of the cargo protein across the organelle membrane. PEX5 is not consumed in this event; rather it is dislocated back into the cytosol so that it can promote additional rounds of protein transportation. Remarkably, the data collected in recent years indicate that dislocation is preceded by monoubiquitination of PEX5 at a conserved cysteine residue. This mandatory modification is not the only type of ubiquitination occurring at the DTM. Indeed, several findings suggest that defective receptors jamming the DTM are polyubiquitinated and targeted to the proteasome for degradation.

  14. Peroxisome protein import: a complex journey

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Alison; Hogg, Thomas Lanyon; Warriner, Stuart L.

    2016-01-01

    The import of proteins into peroxisomes possesses many unusual features such as the ability to import folded proteins, and a surprising diversity of targeting signals with differing affinities that can be recognized by the same receptor. As understanding of the structure and function of many components of the protein import machinery has grown, an increasingly complex network of factors affecting each step of the import pathway has emerged. Structural studies have revealed the presence of additional interactions between cargo proteins and the PEX5 receptor that affect import potential, with a subtle network of cargo-induced conformational changes in PEX5 being involved in the import process. Biochemical studies have also indicated an interdependence of receptor–cargo import with release of unloaded receptor from the peroxisome. Here, we provide an update on recent literature concerning mechanisms of protein import into peroxisomes. PMID:27284042

  15. Incredibly close-A newly identified peroxisome-ER contact site in humans.

    PubMed

    Schuldiner, Maya; Zalckvar, Einat

    2017-02-01

    Peroxisomes are tiny organelles that control important and diverse metabolic processes via their interplay with other organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this issue, Costello et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201607055) and Hua et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201608128) identify a peroxisome-ER contact site in human cells held together by a tethering complex of VAPA/B (vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated proteins A/B) and ACBD5 (acyl Co-A binding protein 5).

  16. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  17. Topology of ATP-binding domain of adrenoleukodystrophy gene product in peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Contreras, M; Sengupta, T K; Sheikh, F; Aubourg, P; Singh, I

    1996-10-15

    Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a demyelinating disorder characterized by the accumulation of saturated very-long-chain fatty acids (> C22:0) due to the impaired activity of lignoceroyl-CoA ligase. The gene responsible for the disease was found to code for a 84-kDa peroxisomal integral membrane protein. Its amino acid sequence has high homology with the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of transporters and it is predicted to have six membrane-spanning segments and a putative ATP-binding domain. To define the function of ALDP, we studied the topology of its ATP-binding domain by using antibodies (1D6) against a hydrophobic domain (amino acid residues 279 to 482) and antibodies (Abct) against the C-terminal 15-amino-acid hydrophilic domain (amino acid residues 731 to 745) of ALDP. The observation of punctate fluorescence in permeabilized ALD fibroblasts, using Abct antibodies but not with antibodies against catalase, suggests that the C-terminal segment of ALDP is projected toward the cytoplasm from the peroxisomal membrane. Trypsinization of intact peroxisomes under isotonic conditions abolishes the Abct antibody recognition site, whereas the 1D6 antibodies identify a degradation product of 43-kDa protein that has been protected and retained by the membrane. This again suggests that the C-terminal portion of the ALDP protein is located on the outside (cytoplasmic) face of the peroxisomal membrane. Additional support for this conclusion was obtained by purification of the ALDP C-terminal domain, released from purified rat liver peroxisomes incubated with the cytosolic fraction, using blue-Sepharose affinity chromatography. A 47-kDa peptide retained by the column was recognized by Western blot analysis with Abct antibodies against the C-terminal sequence of ALDP and this polypeptide on polyvinylidene difluoride membrane was able to bind [gamma-32P]ATP in vitro in the presence of Mg2+. These results demonstrate that the C-terminal peptide containing the ATP

  18. Special delivery from mitochondria to peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Uwe; Subramani, Suresh

    2008-06-01

    Inter-organellar communication and interactions are necessary and accepted consequences of the segregation of biochemical functions into subcellular organelles. Recently, Heidi McBride and her collaborators found a novel link between mitochondria and peroxisomes in their discovery of mitochondria-derived vesicles (MDVs), which appear to fuse with a fraction of pre-existing peroxisomes in mammalian cells. We discuss the potential role of this vesicle population in the context of pathways for the exchange of metabolites and/or macromolecules between these compartments.

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α activation and excess energy burning in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Parimal; Reddy, Janardan K

    2014-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) modulates the activities of all three interlinked hepatic fatty acid oxidation systems, namely mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation and microsomal ω-oxidation pathways. Hyperactivation of PPARα, by both exogenous and endogenous activators up-regulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation resulting in excess energy burning in liver contributing to the development of liver cancer in rodents. Sustained PPARα signaling disproportionately increases H2O2-generating fatty acid metabolizing enzymes as compared to H2O2-degrading enzymes in liver leading to enhanced generation of DNA damaging reactive oxygen species, progressive endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation. These alterations also contribute to increased liver cell proliferation with changes in apoptosis. Thus, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and hepatocellular proliferation are likely the main contributing factors in the pathogenesis of hepatocarcinogenesis, mediated by sustained PPARα activation-related energy burning in liver. Furthermore, the transcriptional co-activator Med1, a key subunit of the Mediator complex, is essential for PPARα signaling in that both PPARα-null and Med1-null hepatocytes are unresponsive to PPARα activators and fail to give rise to liver tumors when chronically exposed to PPARα activators.

  20. Mechanisms of Gene Regulation by Fatty Acids12

    PubMed Central

    Georgiadi, Anastasia; Kersten, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of specific dietary fatty acids has been shown to influence risk and progression of several chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, cancer, and arthritis. In recent years, insights into the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of fatty acids have improved considerably and have provided the foundation for the emerging concept of fatty acid sensing, which can be interpreted as the property of fatty acids to influence biological processes by serving as signaling molecules. An important mechanism of fatty acid sensing is via stimulation or inhibition of DNA transcription. Here, we focus on fatty acid sensing via regulation of gene transcription and address the role of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1, Toll-like receptor 4, G protein–coupled receptors, and other putative mediators. PMID:22516720

  1. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α ligand, prevents abnormal liver function induced by a fasting–refeeding process

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon No; Dutta, Raghbendra Kumar; Kim, Seul-Gi; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Se-Jin; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Yoo, Kyeong-Won; Song, Seung Ryel; Park, Do-Sim; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •A fasting–refeeding high fat diet (HDF) model mimics irregular eating habit. •A fasting–refeeding HFD induces liver ballooning injury. •A fasting–refeeding HDF process elicits hepatic triglyceride accumulation. •Fenofibrate, PPARα ligand, prevents liver damage induced by refeeding HFD. -- Abstract: Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist, is an anti-hyperlipidemic agent that has been widely used in the treatment of dyslipidemia. In this study, we examined the effect of fenofibrate on liver damage caused by refeeding a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice after 24 h fasting. Here, we showed that refeeding HFD after fasting causes liver damage in mice determined by liver morphology and liver cell death. A detailed analysis revealed that hepatic lipid droplet formation is enhanced and triglyceride levels in liver are increased by refeeding HFD after starvation for 24 h. Also, NF-κB is activated and consequently induces the expression of TNF-α, IL1-β, COX-2, and NOS2. However, treating with fenofibrate attenuates the liver damage and triglyceride accumulation caused by the fasting–refeeding HFD process. Fenofibrate reduces the expression of NF-κB target genes but induces genes for peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, peroxisome biogenesis and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. These results strongly suggest that the treatment of fenofibrate ameliorates the liver damage induced by fasting–refeeding HFD, possibly through the activation of fatty acid oxidation.

  2. Biogenesis of peroxisomes: immunocytochemical investigation of peroxisomal membrane proteins in proliferating rat liver peroxisomes and in catalase-negative membrane loops

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of rats with a new hypocholesterolemic drug BM 15766 induces proliferation of peroxisomes in pericentral regions of the liver lobule with distinct alterations of the peroxisomal membrane (Baumgart, E., K. Stegmeier, F. H. Schmidt, and H. D. Fahimi. 1987. Lab. Invest. 56:554- 564). We have used ultrastructural cytochemistry in conjunction with immunoblotting and immunoelectron microscopy to investigate the effects of this drug on peroxisomal membranes. Highly purified peroxisomal fractions were obtained by Metrizamide gradient centrifugation from control and treated rats. Immunoblots prepared from such peroxisomal fractions incubated with antibodies to 22-, 26-, and 70-kD peroxisomal membrane proteins revealed that the treatment with BM 15766 induced only the 70-kD protein. In sections of normal liver embedded in Lowicryl K4M, all three membrane proteins of peroxisomes could be localized by the postembedding technique. The strongest labeling was obtained with the 22-kD antibody followed by the 70-kD and 26-kD antibodies. In treated animals, double-membraned loops with negative catalase reaction in their lumen, resembling smooth endoplasmic reticulum segments as well as myelin-like figures, were noted in the proximity of some peroxisomes. Serial sectioning revealed that the loops seen at some distance from peroxisomes in the cytoplasm were always continuous with the peroxisomal membranes. The double-membraned loops were consistently negative for glucose-6-phosphatase, a marker for endoplasmic reticulum, but were distinctly labeled with antibodies to peroxisomal membrane proteins. Our observations indicate that these membranous structures are part of the peroxisomal membrane system. They could provide a membrane reservoir for the proliferation of peroxisomes and the expansion of this intracellular compartment. PMID:2544605

  3. Modulation of Receptor Phosphorylation Contributes to Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor α by Dehydroepiandrosterone and Other Peroxisome Proliferators

    PubMed Central

    Tamasi, Viola; Miller, Kristy K. Michael; Ripp, Sharon L.; Vila, Ermin; Geoghagen, Thomas E.; Prough, Russell A.

    2008-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a C19 human adrenal steroid, activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in vivo but does not ligand-activate PPARα in transient transfection experiments. We demonstrate that DHEA regulates PPARα action by altering both the levels and phosphorylation status of the receptor. Human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were transiently transfected with the expression plasmid encoding PPARα and a plasmid containing two copies of fatty acyl coenzyme oxidase (FACO) peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor responsive element consensus oligonucleotide in a luciferase reporter gene. Nafenopin treatment increased reporter gene activity in this system, whereas DHEA treatment did not. Okadaic acid significantly decreased nafenopin-induced reporter activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Okadaic acid treatment of primary rat hepatocytes decreased both DHEA- and nafenopin-induced FACO activity in primary rat hepatocytes. DHEA induced both PPARα mRNA and protein levels, as well as PP2A message in primary rat hepatocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the serines at positions 12 and 21 were rapidly dephosphorylated upon treatment with DHEA and nafenopin. Results using specific protein phosphatase inhibitors suggested that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is responsible for DHEA action, and protein phosphatase 1 might be involved in nafenopin induction. Mutation of serines at position 6, 12, and 21 to an uncharged alanine residue significantly increased transcriptional activity, whereas mutation to negative charged aspartate residues (mimicking receptor phosphorylation) decreased transcriptional activity. DHEA action involves induction of PPARα mRNA and protein levels as well as increased PPARα transcriptional activity through decreasing receptor phosphorylation at serines in the AF1 region. PMID:18079279

  4. Intraperoxisomal localization of very-long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase: implication in X-adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Smith, B T; Sengupta, T K; Singh, I

    2000-02-01

    X-adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a demyelinating disorder characterized by the accumulation of saturated very-long-chain (VLC) fatty acids (>C(22:0)) due to the impaired activity of VLC acyl-CoA synthetase (VLCAS). The gene responsible for X-ALD was found to code for a peroxisomal integral membrane protein (ALDP) that belongs to the ATP binding cassette superfamily of transporters. To understand the function of ALDP and how ALDP and VLCAS interrelate in the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of VLC fatty acids we investigated the peroxisomal topology of VLCAS protein. Antibodies raised against a peptide toward the C-terminus of VLCAS as well as against the N-terminus were used to define the intraperoxisomal localization and orientation of VLCAS in peroxisomes. Indirect immunofluorescent and electron microscopic studies show that peroxisomal VLCAS is localized on the matrix side. This finding was supported by protease protection assays and Western blot analysis of isolated peroxisomes. To further address the membrane topology of VLCAS, Western blot analysis of total membranes or integral membranes prepared from microsomes and peroxisomes indicates that VLCAS is a peripheral membrane-associated protein in peroxisomes, but an integral membrane in microsomes. Moreover, peroxisomes isolated from cultured skin fibroblasts from X-ALD patients with a mutation as well as a deletion in ALDP showed a normal amount of VLCAS. The consequence of VLCAS being localized to the luminal side of peroxisomes suggests that ALDP may be involved in stabilizing VLCAS activity, possibly through protein-protein interactions, and that loss or alterations in these interactions may account for the observed loss of peroxisomal VLCAS activity in X-ALD. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  5. Plasmalogens participate in very-long-chain fatty acid-induced pathology.

    PubMed

    Brites, Pedro; Mooyer, Petra A W; El Mrabet, Leila; Waterham, Hans R; Wanders, Ronald J A

    2009-02-01

    Peroxisomes are organelles responsible for multiple metabolic pathways including, the biosynthesis of plasmalogens, a class of phospholipids, and the beta-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA). Lack of peroxisomes or dysfunction in any of their normal functions is the cellular basis for human peroxisomal disorders. Here we used mouse models to understand and define the biochemical and cellular determinants that mediate the pathophysiological consequences caused by peroxisomal dysfunctions. We investigated the role and effects of cellular plasmalogens and VLCFA accumulation in liver, testis and nervous tissue using Pex7 and Abcd1 knockout (KO) mice. In addition, we also generated a Pex7:Abcd1 double KO mouse to investigate how different peroxisomal dysfunctions modulate cellular function and pathology. We found that plasmalogens function as fundamental structural phospholipids and protect cells from damage caused by VLCFA accumulation. In testis, plasmalogens protect spermatocytes from VLCFA-induced degeneration and apoptosis. In nervous tissue, we found that gliosis, inflammatory demyelination and axonopathy caused by accumulation of VLCFA are modulated by plasmalogens. Our findings demonstrate the importance of normal peroxisomal functioning and allow the understanding of the pathological causality of peroxisomal dysfunctions. Nervous tissue deficient in plasmalogens is more prone to damage, illustrating the importance of plasmalogens in peroxisomal disorders including Zellweger syndrome and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

  6. Peroxisome dynamics during development of the fungus Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Takano-Rojas, Harumi; Zickler, Denise; Peraza-Reyes, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are versatile and dynamic organelles that are required for the development of diverse eukaryotic organisms. We demonstrated previously that in the fungus Podospora anserina different peroxisomal functions are required at distinct stages of sexual development, including the initiation and progression of meiocyte (ascus) development and the differentiation and germination of sexual spores (ascospores). Peroxisome assembly during these processes relies on the differential activity of the protein machinery that drives the import of proteins into the organelle, indicating a complex developmental regulation of peroxisome formation and activity. Here we demonstrate that peroxisome dynamics is also highly regulated during development. We show that peroxisomes in P. anserina are highly dynamic and respond to metabolic and environmental cues by undergoing changes in size, morphology and number. In addition, peroxisomes of vegetative and sexual cell types are structurally different. During sexual development peroxisome number increases at two stages: at early ascus differentiation and during ascospore formation. These processes are accompanied by changes in peroxisome structure and distribution, which include a cell-polarized concentration of peroxisomes at the beginning of ascus development, as well as a morphological transition from predominantly spherical to elongated shapes at the end of the first meiotic division. Further, the mostly tubular peroxisomes present from second meiotic division to early ascospore formation again become rounded during ascospore differentiation. Ultimately the number of peroxisomes dramatically decreases upon ascospore maturation. Our results reveal a precise regulation of peroxisome dynamics during sexual development and suggest that peroxisome constitution and function during development is defined by the coordinated regulation of the proteins that control peroxisome assembly and dynamics.

  7. ATP binding/hydrolysis by and phosphorylation of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette proteins PMP70 (ABCD3) and adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ABCD1).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Arowu R; Tanabe, Kouichi; Morita, Masashi; Kurisu, Mikinori; Kasiwayama, Yoshinori; Matsuo, Michinori; Kioka, Noriyuki; Amachi, Teruo; Imanaka, Tsuneo; Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2002-10-18

    The 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70) and adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), half-size ATP-binding cassette transporters, are involved in metabolic transport of long and very long chain fatty acids into peroxisomes. We examined the interaction of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporters with ATP using rat liver peroxisomes. PMP70 was photoaffinity-labeled at similar efficiencies with 8-azido-[alpha-32P]ATP and 8-azido-[gamma-32P]ATP when peroxisomes were incubated with these nucleotides at 37 degrees C in the absence Mg2+ and exposed to UV light without removing unbound nucleotides. The photoaffinity-labeled PMP70 and ALDP were co-immunoprecipitated together with other peroxisomal proteins, which also showed tight ATP binding properties. Addition of Mg2+ reduced the photoaffinity labeling of PMP70 with 8-azido-[gamma-32P]ATP by 70%, whereas it reduced photoaffinity labeling with 8-azido-[alpha-32P]ATP by only 20%. However, two-thirds of nucleotide (probably ADP) was dissociated during removal of unbound nucleotides. These results suggest that ATP binds to PMP70 tightly in the absence of Mg2+, the bound ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP in the presence of Mg2+, and the produced ADP is dissociated from PMP70, which allows ATP hydrolysis turnover. Properties of photoaffinity labeling of ALDP were essentially similar to those of PMP70. Vanadate-induced nucleotide trapping in PMP70 and ALDP was not observed. PMP70 and ALDP were also phosphorylated at a tyrosine residue(s). ATP binding/hydrolysis by and phosphorylation of PMP70 and ALDP are involved in the regulation of fatty acid transport into peroxisomes.

  8. Catalase degradation in sunflower cotyledons during peroxisome transition from glyoxysomal to leaf peroxisomal function. [Helianthus annuus

    SciTech Connect

    Eising, R.; Gerhardt, B.

    1987-06-01

    First order rate constant for the degradation (degradation constants) of catalase in the cotyledons of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were determined by measuring the loss of catalase containing /sup 14/C-labeled heme. During greening of the cotyledons, a period when peroxisomes change from glyoxysomal to leaf peroxisomal function, the degradation of glyoxysomal catalase is significantly slower than during all other stages of cotyledon development in light or darkness. The degradation constant during the transition stage of peroxisome function amounts to 0.205 day/sup -1/ in contrast to the constants ranging from 0.304 day/sup -1/ to 0.515 day/sup -1/ during the other developmental stages. Density labeling experiments comprising labeling of catalase with /sup 2/H/sub 2/O and its isopycnic centrifugation on CsCl gradients demonstrated that the determinations of the degradation constants were not substantially affected by reutilization of /sup 14/C-labeled compounds for catalase synthesis. The degradation constants for both glyoxysomal catalase and catalase synthesized during the transition of peroxisome function do not differ. This was shown by labeling the catalases with different isotopes and measuring the isotope ratio during the development of the cotyledons. The results are inconsistent with the concept that an accelerated and selective degradation of glyoxysomes underlies the change in peroxisome function. The data suggest that catalase degradation is at least partially due to an individual turnover of catalase and does not only result from a turnover of the whole peroxisomes.

  9. Peroxisomal Pex3 activates selective autophagy of peroxisomes via interaction with the pexophagy receptor Atg30.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Sarah F; Farré, Jean-Claude; Nazarko, Taras Y; Subramani, Suresh

    2015-03-27

    Pexophagy is a process that selectively degrades peroxisomes by autophagy. The Pichia pastoris pexophagy receptor Atg30 is recruited to peroxisomes under peroxisome proliferation conditions. During pexophagy, Atg30 undergoes phosphorylation, a prerequisite for its interactions with the autophagy scaffold protein Atg11 and the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8. Atg30 is subsequently shuttled to the vacuole along with the targeted peroxisome for degradation. Here, we defined the binding site for Atg30 on the peroxisomal membrane protein Pex3 and uncovered a role for Pex3 in the activation of Atg30 via phosphorylation and in the recruitment of Atg11 to the receptor protein complex. Pex3 is classically a docking protein for other proteins that affect peroxisome biogenesis, division, and segregation. We conclude that Pex3 has a role beyond simple docking of Atg30 and that its interaction with Atg30 regulates pexophagy in the yeast P. pastoris. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. The origin of peroxisomes: The possibility of an actinobacterial symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Duhita, Narendra; Le, Huyen Ai Thuy; Satoshi, Saruhashi; Kazuo, Hamada; Daisuke, Miyata; Takao, Shinozawa

    2010-01-15

    The peroxisome is an organelle found in most eukaryotes that is crucial for lipid metabolism. The ability of peroxisomes to divide themselves and transport post-translational proteins suggests that the peroxisome may have had an endosymbiotic origin. However, the localization of peroxisomal proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the similarity of some peroxisomal proteins to those localized in the ER suggest an alternative hypothesis: that the peroxisome was developed from the ER. To study the evolutionary distance between the peroxisome, the ER and prokaryotes, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of cell division control 48 (CDC48) and its homologs, including the ER-localized CDC48, the CDC48 homologs in prokaryotes and the peroxisome-localized PEX1 and PEX6. We also conducted a similarity search of peroxisomal protein sequences against prokaryotic protein sequences using BLAST at several E-value thresholds. We provide several lines of evidence supporting an actinobacteria symbiotic origin for the peroxisome: (1) PEX1 and PEX6 are more closely related to the CDC48 homologs in actinobacteria than to the ER-localized CDC48; (2) actinobacterial proteins show higher levels of similarity to those of the peroxisome than to those of other prokaryotes.

  11. Pex35 is a regulator of peroxisome abundance.

    PubMed

    Yofe, Ido; Soliman, Kareem; Chuartzman, Silvia G; Morgan, Bruce; Weill, Uri; Yifrach, Eden; Dick, Tobias P; Cooper, Sara J; Ejsing, Christer S; Schuldiner, Maya; Zalckvar, Einat; Thoms, Sven

    2017-02-15

    Peroxisomes are cellular organelles with vital functions in lipid, amino acid and redox metabolism. The cellular formation and dynamics of peroxisomes are governed by PEX genes; however, the regulation of peroxisome abundance is still poorly understood. Here, we use a high-content microscopy screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify new regulators of peroxisome size and abundance. Our screen led to the identification of a previously uncharacterized gene, which we term PEX35, which affects peroxisome abundance. PEX35 encodes a peroxisomal membrane protein, a remote homolog to several curvature-generating human proteins. We systematically characterized the genetic and physical interactome as well as the metabolome of mutants in PEX35, and we found that Pex35 functionally interacts with the vesicle-budding-inducer Arf1. Our results highlight the functional interaction between peroxisomes and the secretory pathway. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Peroxisomal D-bifunctional protein deficiency: three adults diagnosed by whole-exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lines, Matthew A; Jobling, Rebekah; Brady, Lauren; Marshall, Christian R; Scherer, Stephen W; Rodriguez, Amadeo R; Lee, Liesly; Lang, Anthony E; Mestre, Tiago A; Wanders, Ronald J A; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2014-03-18

    To determine the causative genetic lesion in 3 adult siblings with a slowly progressive, juvenile-onset phenotype comprising cerebellar atrophy and ataxia, intellectual decline, hearing loss, hypogonadism, hyperreflexia, a demyelinating sensorimotor neuropathy, and (in 2 of 3 probands) supratentorial white matter changes, in whom numerous prior investigations were nondiagnostic. The patients' initial clinical assessment included history and physical examination, cranial MRI, and nerve conduction studies. We performed whole-exome sequencing of all 3 probands, followed by variant annotation and selection of rare, shared, recessive coding changes to identify the gene responsible. We next performed a panel of peroxisomal investigations in blood and cultured fibroblasts, including assessment of D-bifunctional protein (DBP) stability and activity by immunoblot and enzymologic methods, respectively. Exome sequencing identified compound heterozygous mutations in HSD17B4, encoding peroxisomal DBP, in all 3 probands. Both identified mutations alter a conserved residue within the active site of DBP's enoyl-CoA hydratase domain. Routine peroxisomal screening tests, including very long-chain fatty acids and phytanic acid, were normal. DBP enzymatic activity was markedly reduced. Exome sequencing provides a powerful and elegant tool in the specific diagnosis of "mild" or "atypical" neurometabolic disorders. Given the broad differential diagnosis and the absence of detectable biochemical abnormalities in blood, molecular testing of HSD17B4 should be considered as a first-line investigation in patients with compatible features.

  13. Elevated growth temperature decreases levels of the PEX5 peroxisome-targeting signal receptor and ameliorates defects of Arabidopsis mutants with an impaired PEX4 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yun-Ting; Bartel, Bonnie

    2015-09-16

    Peroxisomes house critical metabolic reactions. For example, fatty acid β-oxidation enzymes, which are essential during early seedling development, are peroxisomal. Peroxins (PEX proteins) are needed to bring proteins into peroxisomes. Most matrix proteins are delivered to peroxisomes by PEX5, a receptor that forms transient pores to escort proteins across the peroxisomal membrane. After cargo delivery, a peroxisome-tethered ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (PEX4) and peroxisomal ubiquitin-protein ligases mono- or polyubiquitinate PEX5 for recycling back to the cytosol or for degradation, respectively. Arabidopsis pex mutants β-oxidize fatty acids inefficiently and therefore fail to germinate or grow less vigorously. These defects can be partially alleviated by providing a fixed carbon source, such as sucrose, in the growth medium. Despite extensive characterization of peroxisome biogenesis in Arabidopsis grown in non-challenged conditions, the effects of environmental stressors on peroxisome function and pex mutant dysfunction are largely unexplored. We surveyed the impact of growth temperature on a panel of pex mutants and found that elevated temperature ameliorated dependence on external sucrose and reduced PEX5 levels in the pex4-1 mutant. Conversely, growth at low temperature exacerbated pex4-1 physiological defects and increased PEX5 levels. Overexpressing PEX5 also worsened pex4-1 defects, implying that PEX5 lingering on the peroxisomal membrane when recycling is impaired impedes peroxisome function. Growth at elevated temperature did not reduce the fraction of membrane-associated PEX5 in pex4-1, suggesting that elevated temperature did not restore PEX4 enzymatic function in the mutant. Moreover, preventing autophagy in pex4-1 did not restore PEX5 levels at high temperature. In contrast, MG132 treatment increased PEX5 levels, implicating the proteasome in degrading PEX5, especially at high temperature. We conclude that growth at elevated temperature increases

  14. Pex19 Binds Multiple Peroxisomal Membrane Proteins, Is Predominantly Cytoplasmic, and Is Required for Peroxisome Membrane Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sacksteder, Katherine A.; Jones, Jacob M.; South, Sarah T.; Li, Xiaoling; Liu, Yifei; Gould, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    Peroxisomes are components of virtually all eukaryotic cells. While much is known about peroxisomal matrix protein import, our understanding of how peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) are targeted and inserted into the peroxisome membrane is extremely limited. Here, we show that PEX19 binds a broad spectrum of PMPs, displays saturable PMP binding, and interacts with regions of PMPs required for their targeting to peroxisomes. Furthermore, mislocalization of PEX19 to the nucleus leads to nuclear accumulation of newly synthesized PMPs. At steady state, PEX19 is bimodally distributed between the cytoplasm and peroxisome, with most of the protein in the cytoplasm. We propose that PEX19 may bind newly synthesized PMPs and facilitate their insertion into the peroxisome membrane. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that the loss of PEX19 results in degradation of PMPs and/or mislocalization of PMPs to the mitochondrion. PMID:10704444

  15. Rapid peroxisomal responses to ROS suggest an alternative mechanistic model for post-biogenesis peroxisomal life cycle in plants

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Plants adapt to and survive in some of the harshest environments. Their success can be ascribed to an ability to maintain an optimal subcellular redox environment. Peroxisomes, ubiquitous ROS producing and scavenging organelles in eukaryotes play an important role in cellular homeostasis. Recently the formation of thin membrane extensions called peroxules has provided further evidence for peroxisomal role in rapidly sensing and responding to alterations in subcellular ROS. Within a cell the transient extension and retraction of peroxules is asynchronous but takes place within seconds. Peroxules follow tracks defined by tubules of the endoplasmic reticulum and their formation does not appear to involve an elaborate transcriptional-translational machinery. Rather the rapidity of peroxisomal responses suggests ROS instigated membrane modifications aimed at local ROS scavenging or leading to peroxisome elongation prior to their fission for increasing peroxisome numbers within a cell. A model on post-biogenesis peroxisomal life-cycle taking cognizance of rapid peroxisomal responses is presented. PMID:19820326

  16. Adrenoleukodystrophy: the restoration of peroxisomal beta-oxidation by transfection of normal cDNA.

    PubMed

    Shinnoh, N; Yamada, T; Yoshimura, T; Furuya, H; Yoshida, Y; Suzuki, Y; Shimozawa, N; Orii, T; Kobayashi, T

    1995-05-25

    In order to elucidate the function of ALDP [a protein encoded by the gene responsible for adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD)], normal ALDP cDNA, inserted in an expression vector driven by chicken beta-actin promotor, was transfected into ALD fibroblasts. In a transient expression system, the fatty acid composition did not change even though the ALDP was newly synthesized based on the findings of a western blot analysis. In a stable expression system, 3 cell lines were strongly positive for ALDP. In these cells the level of very long chain fatty acid (C26:0) turned out to be as low as those of the control, while the activities of C24 beta-oxidation, as checked by two different methods, became normal. From these results, it is concluded that ALDP is indispensable for the function of peroxisomal beta-oxidation, and thus the treatment of ALD may be possible by the supplementation of ALDP.

  17. Peroxisome biogenesis disorders: molecular basis for impaired peroxisomal membrane assembly: in metabolic functions and biogenesis of peroxisomes in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Yukio; Yagita, Yuichi; Matsuzaki, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Peroxisome is a single-membrane organelle in eukaryotes. The functional importance of peroxisomes in humans is highlighted by peroxisome-deficient peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) such as Zellweger syndrome (ZS). Gene defects of peroxins required for both membrane assembly and matrix protein import are identified: ten mammalian pathogenic peroxins for ten complementation groups of PBDs, are required for matrix protein import; three, Pex3p, Pex16p and Pex19p, are shown to be essential for peroxisome membrane assembly and responsible for the most severe ZS in PBDs of three complementation groups 12, 9, and 14, respectively. Patients with severe ZS with defects of PEX3, PEX16, and PEX19 tend to carry severe mutation such as nonsense mutations, frameshifts and deletions. With respect to the function of these three peroxins in membrane biogenesis, two distinct pathways have been proposed for the import of peroxisomal membrane proteins in mammalian cells: a Pex19p- and Pex3p-dependent class I pathway and a Pex19p- and Pex16p-dependent class II pathway. In class II pathway, Pex19p also forms a soluble complex with newly synthesized Pex3p as the chaperone for Pex3p in the cytosol and directly translocates it to peroxisomes. Pex16p functions as the peroxisomal membrane receptor that is specific to the Pex3p-Pex19p complexes. A model for the import of peroxisomal membrane proteins is suggested, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the biogenesis of peroxisomes and its regulation involving Pex3p, Pex19p, and Pex16p. Another model suggests that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisomes likely emerge from the endoplasmic reticulum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Super-resolution Microscopy Reveals Compartmentalization of Peroxisomal Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Galiani, Silvia; Waithe, Dominic; Reglinski, Katharina; Cruz-Zaragoza, Luis Daniel; Garcia, Esther; Clausen, Mathias P; Schliebs, Wolfgang; Erdmann, Ralf; Eggeling, Christian

    2016-08-12

    Membrane-associated events during peroxisomal protein import processes play an essential role in peroxisome functionality. Many details of these processes are not known due to missing spatial resolution of technologies capable of investigating peroxisomes directly in the cell. Here, we present the use of super-resolution optical stimulated emission depletion microscopy to investigate with sub-60-nm resolution the heterogeneous spatial organization of the peroxisomal proteins PEX5, PEX14, and PEX11 around actively importing peroxisomes, showing distinct differences between these peroxins. Moreover, imported protein sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP2) occupies only a subregion of larger peroxisomes, highlighting the heterogeneous distribution of proteins even within the peroxisome. Finally, our data reveal subpopulations of peroxisomes showing only weak colocalization between PEX14 and PEX5 or PEX11 but at the same time a clear compartmentalized organization. This compartmentalization, which was less evident in cases of strong colocalization, indicates dynamic protein reorganization linked to changes occurring in the peroxisomes. Through the use of multicolor stimulated emission depletion microscopy, we have been able to characterize peroxisomes and their constituents to a yet unseen level of detail while maintaining a highly statistical approach, paving the way for equally complex biological studies in the future.

  19. Super-resolution Microscopy Reveals Compartmentalization of Peroxisomal Membrane Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Galiani, Silvia; Waithe, Dominic; Reglinski, Katharina; Cruz-Zaragoza, Luis Daniel; Garcia, Esther; Clausen, Mathias P.; Schliebs, Wolfgang; Erdmann, Ralf; Eggeling, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-associated events during peroxisomal protein import processes play an essential role in peroxisome functionality. Many details of these processes are not known due to missing spatial resolution of technologies capable of investigating peroxisomes directly in the cell. Here, we present the use of super-resolution optical stimulated emission depletion microscopy to investigate with sub-60-nm resolution the heterogeneous spatial organization of the peroxisomal proteins PEX5, PEX14, and PEX11 around actively importing peroxisomes, showing distinct differences between these peroxins. Moreover, imported protein sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP2) occupies only a subregion of larger peroxisomes, highlighting the heterogeneous distribution of proteins even within the peroxisome. Finally, our data reveal subpopulations of peroxisomes showing only weak colocalization between PEX14 and PEX5 or PEX11 but at the same time a clear compartmentalized organization. This compartmentalization, which was less evident in cases of strong colocalization, indicates dynamic protein reorganization linked to changes occurring in the peroxisomes. Through the use of multicolor stimulated emission depletion microscopy, we have been able to characterize peroxisomes and their constituents to a yet unseen level of detail while maintaining a highly statistical approach, paving the way for equally complex biological studies in the future. PMID:27311714

  20. Barley has two peroxisomal ABC transporters with multiple functions in β-oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Mendiondo, Guillermina M.; Medhurst, Anne; van Roermund, Carlo W.; Zhang, Xuebin; Devonshire, Jean; Scholefield, Duncan; Fernández, José; Axcell, Barry; Ramsay, Luke; Waterham, Hans R.; Waugh, Robbie; Theodoulou, Frederica L.; Holdsworth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    In oilseed plants, peroxisomal β-oxidation functions not only in lipid catabolism but also in jasmonate biosynthesis and metabolism of pro-auxins. Subfamily D ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate import of β-oxidation substrates into the peroxisome, and the Arabidopsis ABCD protein, COMATOSE (CTS), is essential for this function. Here, the roles of peroxisomal ABCD transporters were investigated in barley, where the main storage compound is starch. Barley has two CTS homologues, designated HvABCD1 and HvABCD2, which are widely expressed and present in embryo and aleurone tissues during germination. Suppression of both genes in barley RNA interference (RNAi) lines indicated roles in metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyrate (2,4-DB) and indole butyric acid (IBA), jasmonate biosynthesis, and determination of grain size. Transformation of the Arabidopsis cts-1 null mutant with HvABCD1 and HvABCD2 confirmed these findings. HvABCD2 partially or completely complemented all tested phenotypes of cts-1. In contrast, HvABCD1 failed to complement the germination and establishment phenotypes of cts-1 but increased the sensitivity of hypocotyls to 100 μM IBA and partially complemented the seed size phenotype. HvABCD1 also partially complemented the yeast pxa1/pxa2Δ mutant for fatty acid β-oxidation. It is concluded that the core biochemical functions of peroxisomal ABC transporters are largely conserved between oilseeds and cereals but that their physiological roles and importance may differ. PMID:24913629

  1. The role of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Everett, L; Galli, A; Crabb, D

    2000-06-01

    The liver has long been known to respond to exposure to certain chemicals with hyperplasia and proliferation of the peroxisomal compartment. This response is now known to be mediated by specific receptors. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) were cloned 10 years ago, and in that interval, have been found to serve as receptors for a number of endogenous lipid compounds, in addition to the peroxisome proliferators that originally led to their study. Three receptors, designated the alpha, delta, and gamma receptors, have been found in mammals. PPARalpha: is the most abundant form found in the liver, with smaller amounts of the delta and gamma forms also expressed there. Kupffer cells, like other macrophages, appear to express the alpha and gamma isoforms. Hepatic stellate cells are reported to express the gamma isoform. PPARalpha knock-out mice fail to undergo peroxisome proliferation when challenged with the proliferators. Moreover, they have severe derangements of lipid metabolism, particularly during fasting, indicating that normal function of the alpha receptors is needed for lipid homeostasis. This in turn suggests that inadequate PPAR-mediated responses may contribute to abnormal fatty acid metabolism in alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Recent information suggests that PPARgamma receptors may be important in control of the activation state of the stellate cells, and their repression or inactivation may predispose to hepatic fibrosis. The first approved drug that specifically activates PPARgamma, troglitazone, has rarely been found to cause serious liver injury. Although this is likely to represent an idiosyncratic reaction, the medical community will need to be alert to the possibility that activation or blockade of these receptors may cause hepatic dysfunction.

  2. Biology and therapeutic applications of peroxisome proliferator- activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Menendez-Gutierrez, Maria P; Roszer, Tamas; Ricote, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand dependent transcription factors. The three mammalian PPARs are key regulators of fatty acid and lipoprotein metabolism, glucose homeostasis, cellular proliferation/ differentiation and the immune response. PPARs are therefore important targets in the treatment of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and are also of interest in relation to chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, chronic pulmonary inflammation, pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis. Recent advances have attributed novel functions to PPARs in blood pressure regulation, neuroinflammation, nerve-cell protection, inflammatory pain reduction, and the hypothalamic control of metabolism. The abundant pleiotropic actions of PPARs suggest that PPAR agonists have enormous therapeutic potential. However, current PPAR-based therapies often have undesired side effects due to the concomitant activation of PPARs in non-target cells. There is therefore growing interest in the development of cell-specific PPAR agonists and improvement of the clinical use of PPAR ligands. This review gives an overview of PPAR functions and discusses the current and potential medical implications of PPAR ligands in various pathologies, ranging from metabolic disorders to cardiovascular disease, chronic inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and cardiovascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2005-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors that heterodimerize with the retinoid X receptor and then modulate the function of many target genes. Three PPARs are known: alpha, beta/delta, and gamma. The better known are PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma, which may be activated by different synthetic agonists, although the endogenous ligands are unknown. PPAR-alpha is involved in fatty acid oxidation and expressed in the liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle, whereas PPAR-gamma is involved in fat cell differentiation, lipid storage, and insulin sensitivity. However, both have been shown to be present in variable amounts in cardiovascular tissues, including endothelium, smooth muscle cells, macrophages, and the heart. The activators of PPAR-alpha (fibrates) and PPAR-gamma (thiazolidinediones or glitazones) antagonized the actions of angiotensin II in vivo and in vitro and exerted cardiovascular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. PPAR activators lowered blood pressure, induced favorable effects on the heart, and corrected vascular structure and endothelial dysfunction in several rodent models of hypertension. Activators of PPARs may become therapeutic agents useful in the prevention of cardiovascular disease beyond their effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Some side effects, such as weight gain, as well as documented aggravation of advanced heart failure through fluid retention by glitazones, may, however, limit their therapeutic application in prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as attractive antiobesity targets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Lavan, Brian; Gregoire, Francine M

    2004-12-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alpha, delta and gamma are a group of ligand-activated transcription factors that function as lipid sensors and govern numerous biological processes, including energy metabolism, cell proliferation, differentiation and inflammation. It has been known for some time that both PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma play a role in lipid metabolism. Antidiabetic drugs of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class are potent and selective activators of PPAR gamma known to promote adipocyte differentiation and lipid storage. Lipid-lowering agents of the fibrate class activate PPAR alpha. Until recently, the function of PPAR delta remained elusive, but recent progress has shown that PPAR delta plays a key role in lipid metabolism, as it regulates serum lipid profiles and fatty acid beta oxidation in muscle and adipose tissue. This suggests that PPAR delta agonists may play a beneficial role in the treatment of lipid disorders, in particular obesity. This review will highlight key new findings in PPAR delta biology and discuss the recent evidence linking PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma to adipose tissue biology and the development of obesity.

  5. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor A Ligands as Anticancer Drugs Targeting Mitochondrial Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Grabacka, Maja; Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Tumor cells show metabolic features distinctive from normal tissues, with characteristically enhanced aerobic glycolysis, glutaminolysis and lipid synthesis. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPAR α) is activated by nutrients (fatty acids and their derivatives) and influences these metabolic pathways acting antagonistically to oncogenic Akt and c-Myc. Therefore PPAR α can be regarded as a candidate target molecule in supplementary anticancer pharmacotherapy as well as dietary therapeutic approach. This idea is based on hitting the cancer cell metabolic weak points through PPAR α mediated stimulation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis with simultaneous reduction of glucose and glutamine consumption. PPAR α activity is induced by fasting and its molecular consequences overlap with the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet (CRKD). CRKD induces increase of NAD+/NADH ratio and drop in ATP/AMP ratio. The first one is the main stimulus for enhanced protein deacetylase SIRT1 activity; the second one activates AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). Both SIRT1 and AMPK exert their major metabolic activities such as fatty acid oxidation and block of glycolysis and protein, nucleotide and fatty acid synthesis through the effector protein peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma 1 α coactivator (PGC-1α). PGC-1α cooperates with PPAR α and their activities might contribute to potential anticancer effects of CRKD, which were reported for various brain tumors. Therefore, PPAR α activation can engage molecular interplay among SIRT1, AMPK, and PGC-1α that provides a new, low toxicity dietary approach supplementing traditional anticancer regimen. PMID:21133850

  6. Integrated systems biology analysis of KSHV latent infection reveals viral induction and reliance on peroxisome mediated lipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sychev, Zoi E.; Hu, Alex; Lagunoff, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Kaposi’s Sarcoma associated Herpesvirus (KSHV), an oncogenic, human gamma-herpesvirus, is the etiological agent of Kaposi’s Sarcoma the most common tumor of AIDS patients world-wide. KSHV is predominantly latent in the main KS tumor cell, the spindle cell, a cell of endothelial origin. KSHV modulates numerous host cell-signaling pathways to activate endothelial cells including major metabolic pathways involved in lipid metabolism. To identify the underlying cellular mechanisms of KSHV alteration of host signaling and endothelial cell activation, we identified changes in the host proteome, phosphoproteome and transcriptome landscape following KSHV infection of endothelial cells. A Steiner forest algorithm was used to integrate the global data sets and, together with transcriptome based predicted transcription factor activity, cellular networks altered by latent KSHV were predicted. Several interesting pathways were identified, including peroxisome biogenesis. To validate the predictions, we showed that KSHV latent infection increases the number of peroxisomes per cell. Additionally, proteins involved in peroxisomal lipid metabolism of very long chain fatty acids, including ABCD3 and ACOX1, are required for the survival of latently infected cells. In summary, novel cellular pathways altered during herpesvirus latency that could not be predicted by a single systems biology platform, were identified by integrated proteomics and transcriptomics data analysis and when correlated with our metabolomics data revealed that peroxisome lipid metabolism is essential for KSHV latent infection of endothelial cells. PMID:28257516

  7. Peroxisome Deficiency Causes a Complex Phenotype because of Hepatic SREBP/Insig Dysregulation Associated with Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Werner J.; Tape, Khanichi N.; Shackelford, Janis E.; Wikander, Thomas M.; Richards, Michael J.; Fliesler, Steven J.; Krisans, Skaidrite K.; Faust, Phyllis L.

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis, lipogenesis, and insulin signaling intersect at the transcriptional level by control of SREBP and Insig genes. We previously demonstrated that peroxisome-deficient PEX2-/- mice activate SREBP-2 pathways but are unable to maintain normal cholesterol homeostasis. In this study, we demonstrate that oral bile acid treatment normalized hepatic and plasma cholesterol levels and hepatic cholesterol synthesis in early postnatal PEX2 mutants, but SREBP-2 and its target gene expressions remained increased. SREBP-2 pathway induction was also observed in neonatal and longer surviving PEX2 mutants, where hepatic cholesterol levels were normal. Abnormal expression patterns for SREBP-1c and Insig-2a, and novel regulation of Insig-2b, further demonstrate that peroxisome deficiency widely affects the regulation of related metabolic pathways. We have provided the first demonstration that peroxisome deficiency activates hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways, especially the integrated stress response mediated by PERK and ATF4 signaling. Our studies suggest a mechanism whereby ER stress leads to dysregulation of the endogenous sterol response mechanism and concordantly activates oxidative stress pathways. Several metabolic derangements in peroxisome-deficient PEX2-/- liver are likely to trigger ER stress, including perturbed flux of mevalonate metabolites, altered bile acid homeostasis, changes in fatty acid levels and composition, and oxidative stress. PMID:19110480

  8. Integrated systems biology analysis of KSHV latent infection reveals viral induction and reliance on peroxisome mediated lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sychev, Zoi E; Hu, Alex; DiMaio, Terri A; Gitter, Anthony; Camp, Nathan D; Noble, William S; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Lagunoff, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Kaposi's Sarcoma associated Herpesvirus (KSHV), an oncogenic, human gamma-herpesvirus, is the etiological agent of Kaposi's Sarcoma the most common tumor of AIDS patients world-wide. KSHV is predominantly latent in the main KS tumor cell, the spindle cell, a cell of endothelial origin. KSHV modulates numerous host cell-signaling pathways to activate endothelial cells including major metabolic pathways involved in lipid metabolism. To identify the underlying cellular mechanisms of KSHV alteration of host signaling and endothelial cell activation, we identified changes in the host proteome, phosphoproteome and transcriptome landscape following KSHV infection of endothelial cells. A Steiner forest algorithm was used to integrate the global data sets and, together with transcriptome based predicted transcription factor activity, cellular networks altered by latent KSHV were predicted. Several interesting pathways were identified, including peroxisome biogenesis. To validate the predictions, we showed that KSHV latent infection increases the number of peroxisomes per cell. Additionally, proteins involved in peroxisomal lipid metabolism of very long chain fatty acids, including ABCD3 and ACOX1, are required for the survival of latently infected cells. In summary, novel cellular pathways altered during herpesvirus latency that could not be predicted by a single systems biology platform, were identified by integrated proteomics and transcriptomics data analysis and when correlated with our metabolomics data revealed that peroxisome lipid metabolism is essential for KSHV latent infection of endothelial cells.

  9. Regulation of hepatic gene expression by saturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Vallim, T.; Salter, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Diets rich in saturated fatty acids have long been associated with increased plasma cholesterol concentrations and hence increased risk of cardiovascular disease. More recently, they have also been suggested to promote the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. While there is now considerable evidence to suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids exert many of their effects through regulating the activity of transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, sterol regulatory binding proteins (SREBPs) and liver X receptor, our understanding of how saturated fatty acids act is still limited. Here we review the potential mechanisms whereby saturated fatty acids modulate hepatic lipid metabolism thereby impacting on the synthesis, storage and secretion of lipids. Evidence is presented that their effects are, at least partly, mediated through modulation of the activity of the SREBP family of transcription factors. PMID:20227267

  10. Regulation of hepatic gene expression by saturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Vallim, T; Salter, A M

    2010-01-01

    Diets rich in saturated fatty acids have long been associated with increased plasma cholesterol concentrations and hence increased risk of cardiovascular disease. More recently, they have also been suggested to promote the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. While there is now considerable evidence to suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids exert many of their effects through regulating the activity of transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, sterol regulatory binding proteins (SREBPs) and liver X receptor, our understanding of how saturated fatty acids act is still limited. Here we review the potential mechanisms whereby saturated fatty acids modulate hepatic lipid metabolism thereby impacting on the synthesis, storage and secretion of lipids. Evidence is presented that their effects are, at least partly, mediated through modulation of the activity of the SREBP family of transcription factors.

  11. Protein transport into peroxisomes: Knowns and unknowns.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Tânia; Rodrigues, Tony A; Dias, Ana F; Barros-Barbosa, Aurora; Bicho, Diana; Azevedo, Jorge E

    2017-10-01

    Peroxisomal matrix proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and rapidly transported into the organelle by a complex machinery. The data gathered in recent years suggest that this machinery operates through a syringe-like mechanism, in which the shuttling receptor PEX5 - the "plunger" - pushes a newly synthesized protein all the way through a peroxisomal transmembrane protein complex - the "barrel" - into the matrix of the organelle. Notably, insertion of cargo-loaded receptor into the "barrel" is an ATP-independent process, whereas extraction of the receptor back into the cytosol requires its monoubiquitination and the action of ATP-dependent mechanoenzymes. Here, we review the main data behind this model. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Altered expression of fatty acid–metabolizing enzymes in aromatase-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Nemoto, Yoshihisa; Toda, Katsumi; Ono, Masafumi; Fujikawa-Adachi, Kiyomi; Saibara, Toshiji; Onishi, Saburo; Enzan, Hideaki; Okada, Teruhiko; Shizuta, Yutaka

    2000-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is a frequent complication in nonobese patients with breast cancer treated with tamoxifen, a potent antagonist of estrogen. In addition, hepatic steatosis became evident spontaneously in the aromatase-deficient (ArKO) mouse, which lacks intrinsic estrogen production. These clinical and laboratory observations suggest that estrogen helps to maintain constitutive lipid metabolism. To clarify this hypothesis, we characterized the expression and activity in ArKO mouse liver of enzymes involved in peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation. Northern analysis showed reduced expression of mRNAs for very long fatty acyl-CoA synthetase, peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, enzymes required in fatty acid β-oxidation. In vitro assays of fatty acid β-oxidation activity using very long (C24:0), long (C16:0), or medium (C12:0) chain fatty acids as the substrates confirmed that the corresponding activities are also diminished. Impaired gene expression and enzyme activities of fatty acid β-oxidation were restored to the wild-type levels, and hepatic steatosis was substantially diminished in animals treated with 17β-estradiol. Wild-type and ArKO mice showed no difference in the binding activities of the hepatic nuclear extracts to a peroxisome proliferator response element. These findings demonstrate the pivotal role of estrogen in supporting constitutive hepatic expression of genes involved in lipid β-oxidation and in maintaining hepatic lipid homeostasis. PMID:10862797

  13. Induced pluripotent stem cell models of Zellweger spectrum disorder show impaired peroxisome assembly and cell type-specific lipid abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ming; Yik, Wing Yan; Zhang, Peilin; Lu, Wange; Huang, Ning; Kim, Bo Ram; Shibata, Darryl; Zitting, Madison; Chow, Robert H; Moser, Ann B; Steinberg, Steven J; Hacia, Joseph G

    2015-08-29

    Zellweger spectrum disorder (PBD-ZSD) is a disease continuum caused by mutations in a subset of PEX genes required for normal peroxisome assembly and function. They highlight the importance of peroxisomes in the development and functions of the central nervous system, liver, and other organs. To date, the underlying bases for the cell-type specificity of disease are not fully elucidated. Primary skin fibroblasts from seven PBD-ZSD patients with biallelic PEX1, PEX10, PEX12, or PEX26 mutations and three healthy donors were transduced with retroviral vectors expressing Yamanaka reprogramming factors. Candidate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were subject to global gene expression, DNA methylation, copy number variation, genotyping, in vitro differentiation and teratoma formation assays. Confirmed iPSCs were differentiated into neural progenitor cells (NPCs), neurons, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and hepatocyte-like cell cultures with peroxisome assembly evaluated by microscopy. Saturated very long chain fatty acid (sVLCFA) and plasmalogen levels were determined in primary fibroblasts and their derivatives. iPSCs were derived from seven PBD-ZSD patient-derived fibroblasts with mild to severe peroxisome assembly defects. Although patient and control skin fibroblasts had similar gene expression profiles, genes related to mitochondrial functions and organelle cross-talk were differentially expressed among corresponding iPSCs. Mitochondrial DNA levels were consistent among patient and control fibroblasts, but varied among all iPSCs. Relative to matching controls, sVLCFA levels were elevated in patient-derived fibroblasts, reduced in patient-derived iPSCs, and not significantly different in patient-derived NPCs. All cell types derived from donors with biallelic null mutations in a PEX gene showed plasmalogen deficiencies. Reporter gene assays compatible with high content screening (HCS) indicated patient-derived OPC and hepatocyte-like cell cultures had

  14. Towards repurposing the yeast peroxisome for compartmentalizing heterologous metabolic pathways

    DOE PAGES

    DeLoache, William C.; Russ, Zachary N.; Dueber, John E.

    2016-03-30

    Compartmentalization of enzymes into organelles is a promising strategy for limiting metabolic crosstalk and improving pathway efficiency, but improved tools and design rules are needed to make this strategy available to more engineered pathways. Here we focus on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisome and develop a sensitive high-throughput assay for peroxisomal cargo import. We identify an enhanced peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) for rapidly sequestering non-native cargo proteins. Additionally, we perform the first systematic in vivo measurements of nonspecific metabolite permeability across the peroxisomal membrane using a polymer exclusion assay. Finally, we apply these new insights to compartmentalize a two-enzymemore » pathway in the peroxisome and characterize the expression regimes where compartmentalization leads to improved product titre. Lastly, this work builds a foundation for using the peroxisome as a synthetic organelle, highlighting both promise and future challenges on the way to realizing this goal.« less

  15. Towards repurposing the yeast peroxisome for compartmentalizing heterologous metabolic pathways

    SciTech Connect

    DeLoache, William C.; Russ, Zachary N.; Dueber, John E.

    2016-03-30

    Compartmentalization of enzymes into organelles is a promising strategy for limiting metabolic crosstalk and improving pathway efficiency, but improved tools and design rules are needed to make this strategy available to more engineered pathways. Here we focus on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisome and develop a sensitive high-throughput assay for peroxisomal cargo import. We identify an enhanced peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) for rapidly sequestering non-native cargo proteins. Additionally, we perform the first systematic in vivo measurements of nonspecific metabolite permeability across the peroxisomal membrane using a polymer exclusion assay. Finally, we apply these new insights to compartmentalize a two-enzyme pathway in the peroxisome and characterize the expression regimes where compartmentalization leads to improved product titre. Lastly, this work builds a foundation for using the peroxisome as a synthetic organelle, highlighting both promise and future challenges on the way to realizing this goal.

  16. Towards repurposing the yeast peroxisome for compartmentalizing heterologous metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    DeLoache, William C; Russ, Zachary N; Dueber, John E

    2016-03-30

    Compartmentalization of enzymes into organelles is a promising strategy for limiting metabolic crosstalk and improving pathway efficiency, but improved tools and design rules are needed to make this strategy available to more engineered pathways. Here we focus on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisome and develop a sensitive high-throughput assay for peroxisomal cargo import. We identify an enhanced peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) for rapidly sequestering non-native cargo proteins. Additionally, we perform the first systematic in vivo measurements of nonspecific metabolite permeability across the peroxisomal membrane using a polymer exclusion assay. Finally, we apply these new insights to compartmentalize a two-enzyme pathway in the peroxisome and characterize the expression regimes where compartmentalization leads to improved product titre. This work builds a foundation for using the peroxisome as a synthetic organelle, highlighting both promise and future challenges on the way to realizing this goal.

  17. Firefly luciferase is targeted to peroxisomes in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Keller, G A; Gould, S; Deluca, M; Subramani, S

    1987-01-01

    Although several enzymes known to reside in peroxisomes have been studied extensively, no cis-acting amino acid sequences involved in the transport of these proteins to peroxisomes have been described. As a first step towards the determination of a putative peroxisomal targeting sequence, we have expressed the cDNA encoding the firefly luciferase [Photinus-luciferin:oxygen 4-oxidoreductase (decarboxylating, ATP-hydrolyzing), EC 1.13.12.7] in monkey kidney cells and found that the product of the gene is transported to peroxisomes. Luciferase is derived from the firefly (Photinus pyralis) and is synthesized and stored in the cells of the firefly's lantern organ, where it is also found in peroxisomes. The fact that this protein is similarly targeted in cells from such different organisms suggests that the process of protein transport to peroxisomes has been highly conserved through evolution. Images PMID:3554235

  18. [Possible participation of mitochondria in formation of peroxisomes in yeasts].

    PubMed

    Kozlova, T M; Meĭsel', M N

    1976-01-01

    The origin of peroxisomes in yeast organisms is still unknown. These organelles are believed to be formed, similar to animal cells, from the endoplasmatic reticulum. However, this has not been confirmed directly. Peroxisomes are often found to be in contact with channels of the endoplasmatic reticulum and, in our experiments, with mitochondria of yeast organisms, especially those which utilize oleic acid, n-alkanes and methanol as a sole source of carbon. In Rhodotorula, peroxisomes are characterized by the same "bean" configuration and paired arrangement imitating "copulation" as mitocondria. In Kloeckera boidinii, a mitochondrion was transformed into a peroxisome and cristae were lost. A part of the peroxisome still possessed a double membrane typical of mitochondria while another part had a single membrane characteristic of peroxisomes. Further studies are being carried out in order to find if this is a general relationship or one of possibilities.

  19. Direct comparison of fatty acid ratios in single cellular lipid droplets as determined by comparative Raman spectroscopy and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schie, Iwan W; Nolte, Lena; Pedersen, Theresa L; Smith, Zach; Wu, Jian; Yahiatène, Idir; Newman, John W; Huser, Thomas

    2013-11-07

    Cellular lipid droplets are the least studied and least understood cellular organelles in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Despite a significant body of research studying the physiology of lipid droplets it has not yet been possible to fully determine the composition of individual cellular lipid droplets. In this paper we use Raman spectroscopy on single cellular lipid droplets and least-squares fitting of pure fatty acid spectra to determine the composition of individual lipid droplets in cells after treatment with different ratios of oleic and palmitic acid. We validate the results of the Raman spectroscopy-based single lipid droplet analysis with results obtained by gas chromatography analysis of millions of cells, and find that our approach can accurately predict the relative amount of a specific fatty acid in the lipid droplet. Based on these results we show that the fatty acid composition in individual lipid droplets is on average similar to that of all lipid droplets found in the sample. Furthermore, we expand this approach to the investigation of the lipid composition in single cellular peroxisomes. We determine the location of cellular peroxisomes based on two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) imaging of peroxisomes labeled with the green fluorescent protein, and successive Raman spectroscopy of peroxisomes. We find that in some cases peroxisomes can produce a detectable CARS signal, and that the peroxisomal Raman spectra exhibit an oleic acid-like signature.

  20. Catalposide is a natural agonistic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ji Hae; Jun, Hee-jin; Hoang, Minh-Hien; Jia, Yaoyao; Han, Xiang Hua; Lee, Dong-Ho; Lee, Hak-Ju; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposide is a novel ligand for PPAR{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell stimulated with catalposide improved fatty acid uptake, regulated target genes in fatty acid {beta}-oxidation and synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposdie reduces hepatic triacylglycerides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theses demonstrate catalposide could ameliorate hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of genes related to cellular lipid uptake and oxidation. Thus, PPAR{alpha} agonists may be important in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis. In this study, we demonstrated that catalposide is a novel natural PPAR{alpha} agonist, identified from reporter gene assay-based activity screening with approximately 900 natural plant and seaweed extracts. Results of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses suggested that the compound interacted directly with the ligand-binding domain of PPAR{alpha}. Cultured hepatocytes stimulated with catalposide exhibited significantly reduced cellular triglyceride concentrations, by 21%, while cellular uptake of fatty acids was increased, by 70% (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the increase in cellular fatty acid uptake was due to upregulation of fatty acid transporter protein-4 (+19% vs. the control) in cells stimulated with catalposide. Additionally, expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation and high-density lipoprotein metabolism were upregulated, while that of genes related to fatty acid synthesis were suppressed. In conclusion, catalposide is hypolipidemic by activation of PPAR{alpha} via a ligand-mediated mechanism that modulates the expression of in lipid metabolism genes in hepatocytes.

  1. The peroxisomal receptor dislocation pathway: to the exportomer and beyond.

    PubMed

    Platta, Harald W; Hagen, Stefanie; Reidick, Christina; Erdmann, Ralf

    2014-03-01

    The biogenesis of peroxisomes is an ubiquitin-dependent process. In particular, the import of matrix proteins into the peroxisomal lumen requires the modification of import receptors with ubiquitin. The matrix proteins are synthesized on free polyribosomes in the cytosol and are recognized by import receptors via a peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS). Subsequent to the transport of the receptor/cargo-complex to the peroxisomal membrane and the release of the cargo into the peroxisomal lumen, the PTS-receptors are exported back to the cytosol for further rounds of matrix protein import. The exportomer represents the molecular machinery required for the retrotranslocation of the PTS-receptors. It comprises enzymes for the ubiquitination as well as for the ATP-dependent extraction of the PTS-receptors from the peroxisomal membrane. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates a mechanistic interconnection of the ATP-dependent removal of the PTS-receptors with the translocation of the matrix protein into the organellar lumen. Interestingly, the components of the peroxisomal exportomer seem also to be involved in cellular tasks that are distinct from the ubiquitination and dislocation of the peroxisomal PTS-receptors. This includes work that indicates a central function of this machinery in the export of peroxisomal matrix proteins in plants, while a subset of exportomer components is involved in the meiocyte formation in some fungi, the peroxisome-chloroplast contact during photorespiration in plants and possibly even the selective degradation of peroxisomes via pexophagy. In this review, we want to discuss the central role of the exportomer during matrix protein import, but also highlight distinct roles of exportomer constituents in additional cellular processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Peroxisomes: biogenesis, functions and diseases.

  2. Dynamics of the Light-Dependent Transition of Plant Peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Goto-Yamada, Shino; Mano, Shoji; Yamada, Kenji; Oikawa, Kazusato; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Nishimura, Mikio

    2015-07-01

    Peroxisomes are present in almost all plant cells. These organelles are involved in various metabolic processes, such as lipid catabolism and photorespiration. A notable feature of plant peroxisomes is their flexible adaptive responses to environmental conditions such as light. When plants shift from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth during the post-germinative stage, peroxisomes undergo a dynamic response, i.e. enzymes involved in lipid catabolism are replaced with photorespiratory enzymes. Although the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the functional transition of peroxisomes have previously been unclear, recent analyses at the cellular level have enabled this detailed machinery to be characterized. During the functional transition, obsolete enzymes are degraded inside peroxisomes by Lon protease, while newly synthesized enzymes are transported into peroxisomes. In parallel, mature and oxidized peroxisomes are eliminated via autophagy; this functional transition occurs in an efficient manner. Moreover, it has become clear that quality control mechanisms are important for the peroxisomal response to environmental stimuli. In this review, we highlight recent advances in elucidating the molecular mechanisms required for the regulation of peroxisomal roles in response to changes in environmental conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Hepatic triacylglycerol hydrolysis regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Sapiro, Jessica M; Mashek, Mara T; Greenberg, Andrew S; Mashek, Douglas G

    2009-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that fatty acids generated from intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis may have important roles in intracellular signaling. This study was conducted to determine if fatty acids liberated from TAG hydrolysis regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Primary rat hepatocyte cultures were treated with adenoviruses overexpressing adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) or adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) or treated with short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted against ADRP. Subsequent effects on TAG metabolism and PPARalpha activity and target gene expression were determined. Overexpressing ADRP attenuated TAG hydrolysis, whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of ADRP or ATGL overexpression resulted in enhanced TAG hydrolysis. Results from PPARalpha reporter activity assays demonstrated that decreasing TAG hydrolysis by ADRP overexpression resulted in a 35-60% reduction in reporter activity under basal conditions or in the presence of fatty acids. As expected, PPARalpha target genes were also decreased in response to ADRP overexpression. However, the PPARalpha ligand, WY-14643, was able to restore PPARalpha activity following ADRP overexpression. Despite its effects on PPARalpha, overexpressing ADRP did not affect PPARgamma activity. Enhancing TAG hydrolysis through ADRP knockdown or ATGL overexpression increased PPARalpha activity. These results indicate that TAG hydrolysis and the consequential release of fatty acids regulate PPARalpha activity.

  4. Chronic activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha with fenofibrate prevents alterations in cardiac metabolic phenotype without changing the onset of decompensation in pacing-induced heart failure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Severe heart failure (HF) is characterized by profound alterations in cardiac metabolic phenotype, with down-regulation of the free fatty acid (FFA) oxidative pathway and marked increase in glucose oxidation. We tested whether fenofibrate, a pharmacological agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activat...

  5. ROS Generation in Peroxisomes and its Role in Cell Signaling.

    PubMed

    Del Río, Luis A; López-Huertas, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    In plant cells, as in most eukaryotic organisms, peroxisomes are probably the major sites of intracellular H2O2 production, as a result of their essentially oxidative type of metabolism. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that peroxisomes carry out essential functions in eukaryotic cells. The generation of the important messenger molecule hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by animal and plant peroxisomes and the presence of catalase in these organelles has been known for many years, but the generation of superoxide radicals (O2(·(-)) ) and the occurrence of the metalloenzyme superoxide dismutase was reported for the first time in peroxisomes from plant origin. Further research showed the presence in plant peroxisomes of a complex battery of antioxidant systems apart from catalase. The evidence available of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in peroxisomes is presented, and the different antioxidant systems characterized in these organelles and their possible functions are described. Peroxisomes appear to have a ROS-mediated role in abiotic stress situations induced by the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) and the xenobiotic 2,4-D, and also in the oxidative reactions of leaf senescence. The toxicity of Cd and 2,4-D has an effect on the ROS metabolism and speed of movement (dynamics) of peroxisomes. The regulation of ROS production in peroxisomes can take place by post-translational modifications of those proteins involved in their production and/or scavenging. In recent years, different studies have been carried out on the proteome of ROS metabolism in peroxisomes. Diverse evidence obtained indicates that peroxisomes are an important cellular source of different signaling molecules, including ROS, involved in distinct processes of high physiological importance, and might play an important role in the maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights

  6. Mitochondria in peroxisome-deficient hepatocytes exhibit impaired respiration, depleted DNA, and PGC-1α independent proliferation.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Annelies; Shinde, Abhijit Babaji; Dirkx, Ruud; Smet, Joél; De Bock, Katrien; Espeel, Marc; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Vanlander, Arnaud; Van Coster, Rudy; Carmeliet, Peter; Fransen, Marc; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Baes, Myriam

    2015-02-01

    The tight interrelationship between peroxisomes and mitochondria is illustrated by their cooperation in lipid metabolism, antiviral innate immunity and shared use of proteins executing organellar fission. In addition, we previously reported that disruption of peroxisome biogenesis in hepatocytes severely impacts on mitochondrial integrity, primarily damaging the inner membrane. Here we investigated the molecular impairments of the dysfunctional mitochondria in hepatocyte selective Pex5 knockout mice. First, by using blue native electrophoresis and in-gel activity stainings we showed that the respiratory complexes were differentially affected with reduction of complexes I and III and incomplete assembly of complex V, whereas complexes II and IV were normally active. This resulted in impaired oxygen consumption in cultured Pex5(-/-) hepatocytes. Second, mitochondrial DNA was depleted causing an imbalance in the expression of mitochondrial- and nuclear-encoded subunits of the respiratory chain complexes. Third, mitochondrial membranes showed increased permeability and fluidity despite reduced content of the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid. Fourth, the affected mitochondria in peroxisome deficient hepatocytes displayed increased oxidative stress. Acute deletion of PEX5 in vivo using adeno-Cre virus phenocopied these effects, indicating that mitochondrial perturbations closely follow the loss of functional peroxisomes in time. Likely to compensate for the functional impairments, the volume of the mitochondrial compartment was increased several folds. This was not driven by PGC-1α but mediated by activation of PPARα, possibly through c-myc overexpression. In conclusion, loss of peroxisomal metabolism in hepatocytes perturbs the mitochondrial inner membrane, depletes mitochondrial DNA and causes mitochondrial biogenesis independent of PGC-1α. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Peroxisomal Alanine: Glyoxylate Aminotransferase AGT1 Is Indispensable for Appressorium Function of the Rice Blast Pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Bhadauria, Vijai; Banniza, Sabine; Vandenberg, Albert; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Wei, Yangdou

    2012-01-01

    The role of β-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle in fungal pathogenesis is well documented. However, an ambiguity still remains over their interaction in peroxisomes to facilitate fungal pathogenicity and virulence. In this report, we characterize a gene encoding an alanine, glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) in Magnaporthe oryzae, the causative agent of rice blast disease, and demonstrate that AGT1 is required for pathogenicity of M. oryzae. Targeted deletion of AGT1 resulted in the failure of penetration via appressoria; therefore, mutants lacking the gene were unable to induce blast symptoms on the hosts rice and barley. This penetration failure may be associated with a disruption in lipid mobilization during conidial germination as turgor generation in the appressorium requires mobilization of lipid reserves from the conidium. Analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein expression using the transcriptional and translational fusion with the AGT1 promoter and open reading frame, respectively, revealed that AGT1 expressed constitutively in all in vitro grown cell types and during in planta colonization, and localized in peroxisomes. Peroxisomal localization was further confirmed by colocalization with red fluorescent protein fused with the peroxisomal targeting signal 1. Surprisingly, conidia produced by the Δagt1 mutant were unable to form appressoria on artificial inductive surfaces, even after prolonged incubation. When supplemented with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)+pyruvate, appressorium formation was restored on an artificial inductive surface. Taken together, our data indicate that AGT1-dependent pyruvate formation by transferring an amino group of alanine to glyoxylate, an intermediate of the glyoxylate cycle is required for lipid mobilization and utilization. This pyruvate can be converted to non-fermentable carbon sources, which may require reoxidation of NADH generated by the β-oxidation of fatty acids to NAD+ in peroxisomes

  8. Peroxisome Mini-Libraries: Systematic Approaches to Study Peroxisomes Made Easy.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Noa; Schuldiner, Maya; Zalckvar, Einat

    2017-01-01

    High-throughput methodologies have been extensively used in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to uncover fundamental principles of cell biology. Over the years, several collections of yeast strains (libraries) were built to enable systematic exploration of cellular functions. However, using these libraries experimentally is often labor intensive and restricted to laboratories that hold high throughput platforms. Utilizing the available full genome libraries we handpicked a subset of strains that represent all known and predicted peroxisomal proteins as well as proteins that have central roles in peroxisome biology. These smaller collections of strains, mini-libraries, can be rapidly and easily used for complicated screens by any lab. Since one of the libraries is built such that it can be easily modified in the tag, promoter and selection, we also discuss how these collections form the basis for creating a diversity of new peroxisomal libraries for future studies. Using manual tools, available in any yeast lab, coupled with few simple genetic approaches, we will show how these libraries can be "mixed and matched" to create tailor made libraries for screening. These yeast collections may now be exploited to study uncharted territories in the biology of peroxisomes by anyone, anywhere.

  9. Fatty Acid Transfer from Yarrowia lipolytica Sterol Carrier Protein 2 to Phospholipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Falomir Lockhart, Lisandro J.; Burgardt, Noelia I.; Ferreyra, Raúl G.; Ceolin, Marcelo; Ermácora, Mario R.; Córsico, Betina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP2) is an intracellular protein domain found in all forms of life. It was originally identified as a sterol transfer protein, but was recently shown to also bind phospholipids, fatty acids, and fatty-acyl-CoA with high affinity. Based on studies carried out in higher eukaryotes, it is believed that SCP2 targets its ligands to compartmentalized intracellular pools and participates in lipid traffic, signaling, and metabolism. However, the biological functions of SCP2 are incompletely characterized and may be different in microorganisms. Herein, we demonstrate the preferential localization of SCP2 of Yarrowia lipolytica (YLSCP2) in peroxisome-enriched fractions and examine the rate and mechanism of transfer of anthroyloxy fatty acid from YLSCP2 to a variety of phospholipid membranes using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay. The results show that fatty acids are transferred by a collision-mediated mechanism, and that negative charges on the membrane surface are important for establishing a “collisional complex”. Phospholipids, which are major constituents of peroxisome and mitochondria, induce special effects on the rates of transfer. In conclusion, YLSCP2 may function as a fatty acid transporter with some degree of specificity, and probably diverts fatty acids to the peroxisomal metabolism. PMID:19580762

  10. Intraorganellar Distribution of Superoxide Dismutase in Plant Peroxisomes (Glyoxysomes and Leaf Peroxisomes) 1

    PubMed Central

    Sandalio, Luisa M.; Del Río, Luis A.

    1988-01-01

    The intraorganellar distribution of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (EC 1.15.1.1) in two types of plant peroxisomes (glyoxysomes and leaf peroxisomes) was studied by determinations of SOD latency in intact organelles and by solubilization assays with 0.2 molar KCl. Glyoxysomes were purified from watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) cotyledons, and their integrity, calculated on the basis of glyoxysomal marker enzymes, was about 60%. Under the same conditions, the latency of SOD activity determined in glyoxysomes was 40%. The difference between glyoxysomal intactness and SOD latency was very close to the percentage of isozyme Mn-SOD previously determined in glyoxysomes (LM Sandalio, LA Del Río 1987 J Plant Physiol 127: 395-409). In matrix and membrane fractions of glyoxysomes, SOD exhibited a solubilization pattern very similar to catalase, a typical soluble enzyme of glyoxysomes. The analysis of the distribution of individual SOD isozymes in glyoxysomal fractions treated with KCl showed that Cu,Zn-SOD II, the major SOD isozyme in glyoxysomes, was present in the soluble fraction of these organelles, whereas Mn-SOD was bound to the glyoxysomal membrane. These data in conjunction with those of latency of SOD activity in intact glyoxysomes suggest that Mn-SOD is bound to the external side of the membrane of glyoxysomes. On the other hand, in intact leaf peroxisomes where only a Mn-containing SOD is present (LM Sandalio, JM Palma, LA Del Río 1987 Plant Sci 51: 1-8), this isozyme was found in the peroxisomal matrix. The physiological meaning of SOD localization in matrix and membrane fractions of glyoxysomes and the possibility of new roles for plant peroxisomes in cellular metabolism related to activated oxygen species is discussed. PMID:16666446

  11. Multiple Distinct Targeting Signals in Integral Peroxisomal Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jacob M.; Morrell, James C.; Gould, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    Peroxisomal proteins are synthesized on free polysomes and then transported from the cytoplasm to peroxisomes. This process is mediated by two short well-defined targeting signals in peroxisomal matrix proteins, but a well-defined targeting signal has not yet been described for peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs). One assumption in virtually all prior studies of PMP targeting is that a given protein contains one, and only one, distinct targeting signal. Here, we show that the metabolite transporter PMP34, an integral PMP, contains at least two nonoverlapping sets of targeting information, either of which is sufficient for insertion into the peroxisome membrane. We also show that another integral PMP, the peroxin PEX13, also contains two independent sets of peroxisomal targeting information. These results challenge a major assumption of most PMP targeting studies. In addition, we demonstrate that PEX19, a factor required for peroxisomal membrane biogenesis, interacts with the two minimal targeting regions of PMP34. Together, these results raise the interesting possibility that PMP import may require novel mechanisms to ensure the solubility of integral PMPs before their insertion in the peroxisome membrane, and that PEX19 may play a central role in this process. PMID:11402059

  12. De novo peroxisome biogenesis: Evolving concepts and conundrums.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Gaurav; Subramani, Suresh

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes proliferate by growth and division of pre-existing peroxisomes or could arise de novo. Though the de novo pathway of peroxisome biogenesis is a more recent discovery, several studies have highlighted key mechanistic details of the pathway. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the primary source of lipids and proteins for the newly-formed peroxisomes. More recently, an intricate sorting process functioning at the ER has been proposed, that segregates specific PMPs first to peroxisome-specific ER domains (pER) and then assembles PMPs selectively into distinct pre-peroxisomal vesicles (ppVs) that later fuse to form import-competent peroxisomes. In addition, plausible roles of the three key peroxins Pex3, Pex16 and Pex19, which are also central to the growth and division pathway, have been suggested in the de novo process. In this review, we discuss key developments and highlight the unexplored avenues in de novo peroxisome biogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Disrupting Dimerization Translocates Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase to Peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jonathan W; Das, Anjali J; Barnes, Anthony P; Alkayed, Nabil J

    2016-01-01

    The epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) neutralizing enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a neuronal enzyme, which has been localized in both the cytosol and peroxisomes. The molecular basis for its dual localization remains unclear as sEH contains a functional peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS). Recently, a missense polymorphism was identified in human sEH (R287Q) that enhances its peroxisomal localization. This same polymorphism has also been shown to generate weaker sEH homo-dimers. Taken together, these observations suggest that dimerization may mask the sEH PTS and prevent peroxisome translocation. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that dimerization is a key regulator of sEH subcellular localization. Specifically, we altered the dimerization state of sEH by introducing substitutions in amino acids responsible for the dimer-stabilizing salt-bridge. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) fusions of each of mutants were co-transfected into mouse primary cultured cortical neurons together with a PTS-linked red fluorescent protein to constitutively label peroxisomes. Labeled neurons were analyzed using confocal microscopy and co-localization of sEH with peroxisomes was quantified using Pearson's correlation coefficient. We find that dimer-competent sEH constructs preferentially localize to the cytosol, whereas constructs with weakened or disrupted dimerization were preferentially targeted to peroxisomes. We conclude that the sEH dimerization status is a key regulator of its peroxisomal localization.

  14. Molecular basis of peroxisome division and proliferation in plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianping

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisomes are multifunctional organelles whose abundance varies depending on the cell type, organism, developmental stage, and environmental and metabolic conditions in which the organism lives. Plant peroxisomes are essential to embryo viability and are involved in numerous biochemical processes in development and in plant interaction with the environment. In the past few years, several classes of peroxisomal proteins required for various steps in peroxisome division and proliferation and a signaling pathway underlying the light induction of peroxisome proliferation have been identified from the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Some of the major components of the peroxisome division apparatus have been conserved from plants to yeasts and animals, whereas plant-specific components are also being revealed. Environmental factors and nuclear events that control the process appear to be highly unique in different evolutionary lineages. Future research needs to identify additional members of the peroxisome division/proliferation pathways and to dissect signaling pathways by which various environmental and metabolic cues regulate the abundance of peroxisomes in plants. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Ascaridia galli: characterization of peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Paget, T A; Fry, M; Lloyd, D

    1990-08-01

    A method is described for the isolation of peroxisomes from mitochondria-enriched fractions obtained from both species of nematodes. The distributions of these organelles are characterized after density gradient centrifugation in sucrose or Percoll by urate oxidase and catalase activities. The possession of peroxisomes may be part of an important defence mechanism in parasites.

  16. Demonstration and characterization of phosphate transport in mammalian peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    It is now well established that the peroxisomal membrane is not freely permeable to small molecules in vivo, which implies the existence of metabolite transporters in the peroxisomal membrane. A few putative peroxisomal metabolite transporters have indeed been identified, but the function of these proteins has remained largely unresolved so far. The only peroxisomal transporter characterized to a significant extent is the adenine nucleotide transporter, which is presumably required to sustain the activity of the intraperoxisomal very-long-chain-acyl-CoA synthetase. In addition to AMP, this acyl-CoA synthetase also produces pyrophosphate, which must be exported from the peroxisome. In the present study, we demonstrate that the peroxisomal membrane contains a transporter activity that facilitates the passage of phosphate and possibly pyrophosphate across the peroxisomal membrane. By reconstitution of peroxisomal membrane proteins in proteoliposomes, some kinetic parameters of the transporter could be established in vitro. The transporter can be distinguished from the mitochondrial phosphate transporter by its different sensitivity to inhibitors. PMID:15727560

  17. Bezafibrate lowers very long-chain fatty acids in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy fibroblasts by inhibiting fatty acid elongation.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Marc; Schackmann, Martin J A; Ofman, Rob; Sanders, Robert-Jan; Dijkstra, Inge M E; Houten, Sander M; Fourcade, Stéphane; Pujol, Aurora; Poll-The, Bwee Tien; Wanders, Ronald J A; Kemp, Stephan

    2012-11-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding ALDP, an ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporter located in the peroxisomal membrane. ALDP deficiency results in impaired peroxisomal β-oxidation and the subsequent accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA; > C22:0) in plasma and tissues. VLCFA are primarily derived from endogenous synthesis by ELOVL1. Therefore inhibiting this enzyme might constitute a feasible therapeutic approach. In this paper we demonstrate that bezafibrate, a PPAR pan agonist used for the treatment of patients with hyperlipidaemia reduces VLCFA levels in X-ALD fibroblasts. Surprisingly, the VLCFA-lowering effect was independent of PPAR activation and not caused by the increase in either mitochondrial or peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation capacity. In fact, our results show that bezafibrate reduces VLCFA synthesis by decreasing the synthesis of C26:0 through a direct inhibition of fatty acid elongation activity. Taken together, our data indicate bezafibrate as a potential pharmacotherapeutic treatment for X-ALD. A clinical trial is currently ongoing to evaluate the effect in patients with X-ALD.

  18. Peroxisome proliferation as a biomarker in environmental pollution assessment.

    PubMed

    Cajaraville, Miren P; Cancio, Ibon; Ibabe, Arantza; Orbea, Amaia

    2003-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferators comprise a heterogeneous group of compounds known for their ability to cause massive proliferation of peroxisomes and liver carcinogenesis in rodents. In recent years it has become evident that other animals may be threatened by peroxisome proliferators, in particular aquatic organisms living in coastal and estuarine areas. These animals are exposed to a variety of pollutants of industrial, agricultural and urban origin which are potential peroxisome proliferators. Both laboratory and field studies have shown that phthalate ester plasticizers, PAHs and oil derivatives, PCBs, certain pesticides, bleached kraft pulp and paper mill effluents, alkylphenols and estrogens provoke peroxisome proliferation in different fish or bivalve mollusc species. The response appears to be mediated by peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors, members of the nuclear receptor family, recently cloned in fish. Based on these results it is proposed that peroxisome proliferation could be used as a biomarker of exposure to a variety of pollutants in environmental pollution assessment. This is illustrated by a case study in which mussels, used worldwide as sentinels of environmental pollution, were transplanted from reference to contaminated areas and vice versa. In mussels native to an area polluted with PAHs and PCBs, peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity and peroxisomal volume density were 2-3 fold and 5-fold higher, respectively, compared to the reference site. When animals were transplanted to the polluted station, with increased concentration of organic xenobiotics, a concomitant significant increase of AOX was recorded. Conversely, in animals transplanted to the cleaner station, AOX activity and peroxisomal volume density decreased significantly. These results indicate that peroxisome proliferation is a rapid (i.e., two days) and reversible response to pollution in mussels. Before peroxisome proliferation can be implemented as a biomarker in

  19. Suppression of Peroxisomal Enzyme Activities and Cytochrome P450 4A Isozyme Expression by Congeneric Polybrominated and Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Larry W.; Berberian, Isabelle; Borges, Tim; Chen, Li-Chuan; Chow, Ching K.; Glauert, Howard P.; Filser, Johannes G.; Thomas, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of PCBs and PBBs on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α-(PPARα-) associated enzyme activities or protein levels. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single IP injection (150 μ mol/kg) of either 3,3′,4,4′-tetrabromobiphenyl, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 3,3′,5,5′-tetrabromobiphenyl, 2′,3,3′,4,5-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl, 2,2′,3,3′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl, or 3,3′,4,4′,5,5′-hexabromobiphenyl in corn oil (10 ml/kg). One week later, the activities of catalase, peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, and peroxisomal beta-oxidation as well as cytochrome P450 4A (CYP4A) protein content were determined in subcellular liver fractions. None of the peroxisomal enzyme activities were significantly increased by any of the halogenated biphenyl congeners tested. Except for minor (approx. 25%) increases in the total CYP4A content following treatment with 2,2′,3,3′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl and 3,3′,5,5′-tetrabromobiphenyl, CYP4A protein contents were not increased by any treatment. The two Ah receptor agonists, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrabromobiphenyl and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl, significantly diminished the liver content of CYP4A proteins and activities of the peroxisomal enzymes studied. Since a range of congeners with different biologic and toxicologic activities were selected for this study, it may be concluded that the polyhalogenated biphenyls do not induce peroxisome proliferation in the male rat, but rather certain members of this class of compounds down regulate peroxisome-associated enzymes. Since PCBs and PBBs do not increase enzyme activities and expression of proteins associated with PPARα, these agents are therefore exerting their carcinogenic and promoting activities by some other mechanism. PMID:18274624

  20. Generation of Peroxisome-Deficient Somatic Animal Cell Mutants.

    PubMed

    Okumoto, Kanji; Fujiki, Yukio

    2017-01-01

    Cell mutants with a genetic defect affecting various cellular phenotypes are widely utilized as a powerful tool in genetic, biochemical, and cell biological research. More than a dozen complementation groups of animal somatic mutant cells defective in peroxisome biogenesis have been successfully isolated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and used as a model system reflecting fatal human severe genetic disorders named peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD). Isolation and characterization of peroxisome-deficient CHO cell mutants has allowed the identification of PEX genes and the gene products peroxins, which directly leads to the accomplishment of isolation of pathogenic genes responsible for human PBDs, as well as elucidation of their functional roles in peroxisome biogenesis. Here, we describe the procedure to isolate peroxisome-deficient mammalian cell mutants from CHO cells, by making use of an effective, photo-sensitized selection method.

  1. Properties of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Segovia, J L; Zafra, M F; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1982-09-01

    Adenine nucleotides were tested as effectors of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana leaves in the presence of different concentrations of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate substrates. ATP inhibited both enzyme activities but with a different inhibition profile. 1.0-7.5 mM ADP did not inhibit the peroxisomal citrate synthase in the presence of high substrate concentrations, while the mitochondrial enzyme was strongly inhibited by 1.0 mM ADP in the same conditions. Likewise, a different pattern was obtained with AMP on both peroxisomal and mitochondrial activities. The rate of citrate formation as function of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate concentration was also studied in both fractions. Maximal velocity was highest in the peroxisomal fraction, whether acetyl-CoA or oxalacetate were the variable substrates. These differences indicate that peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthases seem to be two different isoenzymes.

  2. Proteome Analysis of Peroxisomes from Etiolated Arabidopsis Seedlings Identifies a Peroxisomal Protease Involved in β-Oxidation and Development1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Sheng; Yang, Pingfang; Cassin-Ross, Gaëlle; Kaur, Navneet; Switzenberg, Robert; Aung, Kyaw; Li, Jiying; Hu, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Plant peroxisomes are highly dynamic organelles that mediate a suite of metabolic processes crucial to development. Peroxisomes in seeds/dark-grown seedlings and in photosynthetic tissues constitute two major subtypes of plant peroxisomes, which had been postulated to contain distinct primary biochemical properties. Multiple in-depth proteomic analyses had been performed on leaf peroxisomes, yet the major makeup of peroxisomes in seeds or dark-grown seedlings remained unclear. To compare the metabolic pathways of the two dominant plant peroxisomal subtypes and discover new peroxisomal proteins that function specifically during seed germination, we performed proteomic analysis of peroxisomes from etiolated Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. The detection of 77 peroxisomal proteins allowed us to perform comparative analysis with the peroxisomal proteome of green leaves, which revealed a large overlap between these two primary peroxisomal variants. Subcellular targeting analysis by fluorescence microscopy validated around 10 new peroxisomal proteins in Arabidopsis. Mutant analysis suggested the role of the cysteine protease RESPONSE TO DROUGHT21A-LIKE1 in β-oxidation, seed germination, and growth. This work provides a much-needed road map of a major type of plant peroxisome and has established a basis for future investigations of peroxisomal proteolytic processes to understand their roles in development and in plant interaction with the environment. PMID:24130194

  3. Very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids accumulate in phosphatidylcholine of fibroblasts from patients with Zellweger syndrome and acyl-CoA oxidase1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yuichi; Honsho, Masanori; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Taguchi, Ryo; Fujiki, Yukio

    2014-04-04

    Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles that function in multiple anabolic and catabolic processes, including β-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and biosynthesis of ether phospholipids. Peroxisomal disorders caused by defects in peroxisome biogenesis or peroxisomal β-oxidation manifest as severe neural disorders of the central nervous system. Abnormal peroxisomal metabolism is thought to be responsible for the clinical symptoms of these diseases, but their molecular pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. We performed lipidomic analysis to identify aberrant metabolites in fibroblasts from patients with Zellweger syndrome (ZS), acyl-CoA oxidase1 (AOx) deficiency, D-bifunctional protein (D-BP) and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), as well as in peroxisome-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants. In cells deficient in peroxisomal biogenesis, plasmenylethanolamine was remarkably reduced and phosphatidylethanolamine was increased. Marked accumulation of very-long-chain saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acids in phosphatidylcholine was observed in all mutant cells. Very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLC-PUFA) levels were significantly elevated, whilst phospholipids containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) were reduced in fibroblasts from patients with ZS, AOx deficiency, and D-BP deficiency, but not in fibroblasts from an X-ALD patient. Because patients with AOx deficiency suffer from more severe symptoms than those with X-ALD, accumulation of VLC-PUFA and/or reduction of DHA may be associated with the severity of peroxisomal diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Squalene isolated from Schizochytrium mangrovei is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonist that regulates lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thi Minh Hien; Nguyen, Cam Ha; Le, Thi Thom; Hoang, Thi Huong Quynh; Ngo, Thi Hoai Thu; Hoang, Thi Lan Anh; Dang, Diem Hong

    2016-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) is a nuclear receptor that has critical roles in the treatment of atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. Squalene is a novel nature PPARα agonist, identified from reporter gene assay and qPCR analysis. Cultured hepatocytes stimulated with squalene exhibited significantly decreased cellular triacylglycerols and cholesterol concentrations, while cellular uptake of fatty acids was increased. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that expression of genes related to fatty acid uptake, fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis and reverse cholesterol transport metabolism were upregulated, while that of genes related to fatty acid synthesis were suppressed in cell treated with squalene. Squalene is hypolipidemic by activation of PPARα via a ligand-mediated mechanism that regulates the expression of lipid metabolism genes in hepatocytes.

  5. Highly Oxidized Peroxisomes Are Selectively Degraded via Autophagy in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Michitaro; Oikawa, Kazusato; Yoshimoto, Kohki; Kondo, Maki; Mano, Shoji; Yamada, Kenji; Hayashi, Makoto; Sakamoto, Wataru; Ohsumi, Yoshinori; Nishimura, Mikio

    2013-01-01

    The positioning of peroxisomes in a cell is a regulated process that is closely associated with their functions. Using this feature of the peroxisomal positioning as a criterion, we identified three Arabidopsis thaliana mutants (peroxisome unusual positioning1 [peup1], peup2, and peup4) that contain aggregated peroxisomes. We found that the PEUP1, PEUP2, and PEUP4 were identical to Autophagy-related2 (ATG2), ATG18a, and ATG7, respectively, which are involved in the autophagic system. The number of peroxisomes was increased and the peroxisomal proteins were highly accumulated in the peup1 mutant, suggesting that peroxisome degradation by autophagy (pexophagy) is deficient in the peup1 mutant. These aggregated peroxisomes contained high levels of inactive catalase and were more oxidative than those of the wild type, indicating that peroxisome aggregates comprise damaged peroxisomes. In addition, peroxisome aggregation was induced in wild-type plants by exogenous application of hydrogen peroxide. The cat2 mutant also contained peroxisome aggregates. These findings demonstrate that hydrogen peroxide as a result of catalase inactivation is the inducer of peroxisome aggregation. Furthermore, an autophagosome marker, ATG8, frequently colocalized with peroxisome aggregates, indicating that peroxisomes damaged by hydrogen peroxide are selectively degraded by autophagy in the wild type. Our data provide evidence that autophagy is crucial for quality control mechanisms for peroxisomes in Arabidopsis. PMID:24368788

  6. Phosphatidylcholine Supply to Peroxisomes of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Flis, Vid V; Fankl, Ariane; Ramprecht, Claudia; Zellnig, Günther; Leitner, Erich; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid (PL) of all organelle membranes, is synthesized via two different pathways. Methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) catalyzed by the methyl transferases Cho2p/Pem1p and Opi3p/Pem2p as well as incorporation of choline through the CDP (cytidine diphosphate)-choline branch of the Kennedy pathway lead to PC formation. To determine the contribution of these two pathways to the supply of PC to peroxisomes (PX), yeast mutants bearing defects in the two pathways were cultivated under peroxisome inducing conditions, i.e. in the presence of oleic acid, and subjected to biochemical and cell biological analyses. Phenotype studies revealed compromised growth of both the cho20Δopi3Δ (mutations in the methylation pathway) and the cki1Δdpl1Δeki1Δ (mutations in the CDP-choline pathway) mutant when grown on oleic acid. Analysis of peroxisomes from the two mutant strains showed that both pathways produce PC for the supply to peroxisomes, although the CDP-choline pathway seemed to contribute with higher efficiency than the methylation pathway. Changes in the peroxisomal lipid pattern of mutants caused by defects in the PC biosynthetic pathways resulted in changes of membrane properties as shown by anisotropy measurements with fluorescent probes. In summary, our data define the origin of peroxisomal PC and demonstrate the importance of PC for peroxisome membrane formation and integrity.

  7. Phosphatidylcholine Supply to Peroxisomes of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ramprecht, Claudia; Zellnig, Günther; Leitner, Erich; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid (PL) of all organelle membranes, is synthesized via two different pathways. Methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) catalyzed by the methyl transferases Cho2p/Pem1p and Opi3p/Pem2p as well as incorporation of choline through the CDP (cytidine diphosphate)-choline branch of the Kennedy pathway lead to PC formation. To determine the contribution of these two pathways to the supply of PC to peroxisomes (PX), yeast mutants bearing defects in the two pathways were cultivated under peroxisome inducing conditions, i.e. in the presence of oleic acid, and subjected to biochemical and cell biological analyses. Phenotype studies revealed compromised growth of both the cho20Δopi3Δ (mutations in the methylation pathway) and the cki1Δdpl1Δeki1Δ (mutations in the CDP-choline pathway) mutant when grown on oleic acid. Analysis of peroxisomes from the two mutant strains showed that both pathways produce PC for the supply to peroxisomes, although the CDP-choline pathway seemed to contribute with higher efficiency than the methylation pathway. Changes in the peroxisomal lipid pattern of mutants caused by defects in the PC biosynthetic pathways resulted in changes of membrane properties as shown by anisotropy measurements with fluorescent probes. In summary, our data define the origin of peroxisomal PC and demonstrate the importance of PC for peroxisome membrane formation and integrity. PMID:26241051

  8. Probing peroxisome dynamics and biogenesis by fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Miluska; Kim, Peter K

    2014-03-03

    Peroxisomes are the most recently discovered classical organelles, and only lately have their diverse functions been truly recognized. Peroxisomes are highly dynamic structures, changing both morphologically and in number in response to both extracellular and intracellular signals. This metabolic organelle came to prominence due to the many genetic disorders caused by defects in its biogenesis or enzymatic functions. There is now growing evidence that suggests peroxisomes are involved in lipid biosynthesis, innate immunity, redox homeostasis, and metabolite scavenging, among other functions. Therefore, it is important to have available suitable methods and techniques to visualize and quantify peroxisomes in response to various cellular signals. This unit includes a number of protocols that will enable researchers to image, qualify, and quantify peroxisome numbers and morphology-with both steady-state and time-lapse imaging using mammalian cells. The use of photoactivatable fluorescent proteins to detect and measure peroxisome biogenesis is also described. Altogether, the protocols described here will facilitate understanding of the dynamic changes that peroxisomes undergo in response to various cellular signals.

  9. Peroxisomes are required for efficient penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Wiebe H; Gidijala, Loknath; Fekken, Susan; Kiel, Jan A K W; van den Berg, Marco A; Lascaris, Romeo; Bovenberg, Roel A L; van der Klei, Ida J

    2010-09-01

    In the fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, penicillin (PEN) production is compartmentalized in the cytosol and in peroxisomes. Here we show that intact peroxisomes that contain the two final enzymes of PEN biosynthesis, acyl coenzyme A (CoA):6-amino penicillanic acid acyltransferase (AT) as well as the side-chain precursor activation enzyme phenylacetyl CoA ligase (PCL), are crucial for efficient PEN synthesis. Moreover, increasing PEN titers are associated with increasing peroxisome numbers. However, not all conditions that result in enhanced peroxisome numbers simultaneously stimulate PEN production. We find that conditions that lead to peroxisome proliferation but simultaneously interfere with the normal physiology of the cell may be detrimental to antibiotic production. We furthermore show that peroxisomes develop in germinating conidiospores from reticule-like structures. During subsequent hyphal growth, peroxisome proliferation occurs at the tip of the growing hyphae, after which the organelles are distributed over newly formed subapical cells. We observed that the organelle proliferation machinery requires the dynamin-like protein Dnm1.

  10. Cholesterol transport through lysosome-peroxisome membrane contacts.

    PubMed

    Chu, Bei-Bei; Liao, Ya-Cheng; Qi, Wei; Xie, Chang; Du, Ximing; Wang, Jiang; Yang, Hongyuan; Miao, Hong-Hua; Li, Bo-Liang; Song, Bao-Liang

    2015-04-09

    Cholesterol is dynamically transported among organelles, which is essential for multiple cellular functions. However, the mechanism underlying intracellular cholesterol transport has remained largely unknown. We established an amphotericin B-based assay enabling a genome-wide shRNA screen for delayed LDL-cholesterol transport and identified 341 hits with particular enrichment of peroxisome genes, suggesting a previously unappreciated pathway for cholesterol transport. We show dynamic membrane contacts between peroxisome and lysosome, which are mediated by lysosomal Synaptotagmin VII binding to the lipid PI(4,5)P2 on peroxisomal membrane. LDL-cholesterol enhances such contacts, and cholesterol is transported from lysosome to peroxisome. Disruption of critical peroxisome genes leads to cholesterol accumulation in lysosome. Together, these findings reveal an unexpected role of peroxisome in intracellular cholesterol transport. We further demonstrate massive cholesterol accumulation in human patient cells and mouse model of peroxisomal disorders, suggesting a contribution of abnormal cholesterol accumulation to these diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in obesity and insulin resistance development].

    PubMed

    Alemán, Gabriela; Torres, Nimbe; Tovar, Armando R

    2004-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of nuclear transcription factors that belong to the steroid receptor superfamily. PPARs family includes PPARalpha, PPARbeta/delta, PPARgamma1 and PPARgamma2. PPARs form an heterodimer with the 9-cis retinoic acid receptor (RXR) and bind to response elements present in target genes activated by these transcription factors. PPARs control the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, oxidation and storage. PPARs are present in most tissues, where PPARalpha is most abundant in liver and skeletal muscle, whereas PPARgamma is found mainly in adipose tissue. Natural ligands for PPARs are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and some eicosanoids, however they are also activated by compounds such as fibrates and thiazolidinediones (TZDs). In this review is shown the different PPARs isoforms, identification, and regulation of their expression and activity. Also shows which are the natural ligands, and the chemical compounds that activate PPARs. Finally, it shows the target genes activated by the different isoforms of PPARs, the metabolic integration between the different PPAR isoforms to maintain a balance between fatty acid synthesis and oxidation and the association with the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Also shows information about the nutritional requirements of PUFAs that are the main natural ligands of PPARs.

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene: a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation in chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Mu, Y; Li, H; Ding, N; Wang, Q; Wang, Y; Wang, S; Wang, N

    2008-02-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma is regarded as a "master regulator" of adipocyte differentiation in mammals. The current study was designed to investigate the function and regulatory mechanism of PPARgamma in chicken adipogenesis by RNA interference. Preadipocytes were isolated from the abdominal fat tissue of 12-d-old chickens and cultured. Small-interference PPARgamma RNA (siPPARgamma) was synthesized by in vitro transcription and transfected into chicken preadipocytes by using liposomes. The suppressive effect of siPPARgamma was detected by real-time reverse-transcription PCR and reverse-transcription PCR. The results showed that transient transfection with siPPARgamma significantly inhibited differentiation and enhanced proliferation of chicken preadipocytes (P < 0.05). The adipogenesis-associated adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein gene was down-regulated when PPARgamma was silenced. The current work indicates that PPARgamma is a key regulator of chicken preadipocyte differentiation.

  13. Predictive Structure and Topology of Peroxisomal ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters.

    PubMed

    Andreoletti, Pierre; Raas, Quentin; Gondcaille, Catherine; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha; Trompier, Doriane; Savary, Stéphane

    2017-07-22

    The peroxisomal ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) transporters, which are called ABCD1, ABCD2 and ABCD3, are transmembrane proteins involved in the transport of various lipids that allow their degradation inside the organelle. Defective ABCD1 leads to the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids and is associated with a complex and severe neurodegenerative disorder called X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). Although the nucleotide-binding domain is highly conserved and characterized within the ABC transporters family, solid data are missing for the transmembrane domain (TMD) of ABCD proteins. The lack of a clear consensus on the secondary and tertiary structure of the TMDs weakens any structure-function hypothesis based on the very diverse ABCD1 mutations found in X-ALD patients. Therefore, we first reinvestigated thoroughly the structure-function data available and performed refined alignments of ABCD protein sequences. Based on the 2.85  Å resolution crystal structure of the mitochondrial ABC transporter ABCB10, here we propose a structural model of peroxisomal ABCD proteins that specifies the position of the transmembrane and coupling helices, and highlight functional motifs and putative important amino acid residues.

  14. Multiple expression control mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and their target genes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Nguan Soon; Michalik, Liliane; Desvergne, Beatrice; Wahli, Walter

    2005-02-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) alpha, beta/delta and gamma belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. As ligand-activated receptors, they form a functional transcriptional unit upon heterodimerization with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). PPARs are activated by fatty acids and their derivatives, whereas RXR is activated by 9-cis retinoic acid. This heterodimer binds to peroxisome proliferator response elements (PPRE) residing in target genes and stimulates their expression. Recent reports now indicate that PPARs and RXRs can function independently, in the absence of a hetero-partner, to modulate gene expression. Of importance, these non-canonical mechanisms underscore the impact of both cofactors and DNA on gene expression. Furthermore, these different mechanisms reveal the increasing repertoire of PPAR 'target' genes that now encompasses non-PPREs containing genes. It is also becoming apparent that understanding the regulation of PPAR expression and activity, can itself have a significant influence on how the expression of subgroups of target genes is studied and integrated in current knowledge.

  15. Statins enhance peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha activity to regulate energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxian; Wong, Chi-Wai

    2010-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) serves as an inducible coactivator for a number of transcription factors to control energy metabolism. Insulin signaling through Akt kinase has been demonstrated to phosphorylate PGC-1alpha at serine 571 and downregulate its activity in the liver. Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors that reduce cholesterol synthesis in the liver. In this study, we found that statins reduced the active form of Akt and enhanced PGC-1alpha activity. Specifically, statins failed to activate an S571A mutant of PGC-1alpha. The activation of PGC-1alpha by statins selectively enhanced the expression of energy metabolizing enzymes and regulators including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1A, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4. Importantly, a constitutively active form of Akt partially reduced the statin-enhanced gene expression. Our study thus provides a plausible mechanistic explanation for the hypolipidemic effect of statin through elevating the rate of beta-oxidation and mitochondrial Kreb's cycle capacity to enhance fatty acid utilization while reducing the rate of glycolysis.

  16. Defects in Mitochondrial and Peroxisomal β-Oxidation Influence Virulence in the Maize Pathogen Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer, Matthias; Klose, Jana

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of metabolic adaptation during the colonization of plants by phytopathogenic fungi is critical for developing strategies to protect crops. Lipids are abundant in plant tissues, and fungal phytopathogens in the phylum basidiomycota possess both peroxisomal and mitochondrial β-oxidation pathways to utilize this potential carbon source. Previously, we demonstrated a role for the peroxisomal β-oxidation enzyme Mfe2 in the filamentous growth, virulence, and sporulation of the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis. However, mfe2 mutants still caused disease symptoms, thus prompting a more detailed investigation of β-oxidation. We now demonstrate that a defect in the had1 gene encoding hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase for mitochondrial β-oxidation also influences virulence, although its paralog, had2, makes only a minor contribution. Additionally, we identified a gene encoding a polypeptide with similarity to the C terminus of Mfe2 and designated it Mfe2b; this gene makes a contribution to virulence only in the background of an mfe2Δ mutant. We also show that short-chain fatty acids induce cell death in U. maydis and that a block in β-oxidation leads to toxicity, likely because of the accumulation of toxic intermediates. Overall, this study reveals that β-oxidation has a complex influence on the formation of disease symptoms by U. maydis that includes potential metabolic contributions to proliferation in planta and an effect on virulence-related morphogenesis. PMID:22707484

  17. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ, an integrator of transcriptional repression and nuclear receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yanhong; Hon, Michelle; Evans, Ronald M.

    2002-01-01

    The three PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) isoforms are critical regulators of lipid homeostasis by controlling the balance between the burning and storage of long chain fatty acids. Whereas PPARα and PPARγ have been studied extensively, the function of PPARδ remains the most elusive. Intriguingly, in cotransfection experiments, PPARδ is a potent inhibitor of ligand-induced transcriptional activity of PPARα and PPARγ. This inhibition is achieved, in part, by binding of PPARδ to a peroxisome proliferator response element and the association of nonliganded PPARδ with corepressors SMRT (silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors), SHARP (SMRT and histone deacetylase-associated repressor protein), and class I histone deacetylases. Stable expression of PPARδ inhibits the expression of endogenous PPARα target gene expression in 3T3-PPARα cells, whereas a PPARδ mutant that does not int