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Sample records for peroxisomal fatty acyl-coa

  1. Increased long chain acyl-Coa synthetase activity and fatty acid import is linked to membrane synthesis for development of picornavirus replication organelles.

    PubMed

    Nchoutmboube, Jules A; Viktorova, Ekaterina G; Scott, Alison J; Ford, Lauren A; Pei, Zhengtong; Watkins, Paul A; Ernst, Robert K; Belov, George A

    2013-01-01

    All positive strand (+RNA) viruses of eukaryotes replicate their genomes in association with membranes. The mechanisms of membrane remodeling in infected cells represent attractive targets for designing future therapeutics, but our understanding of this process is very limited. Elements of autophagy and/or the secretory pathway were proposed to be hijacked for building of picornavirus replication organelles. However, even closely related viruses differ significantly in their requirements for components of these pathways. We demonstrate here that infection with diverse picornaviruses rapidly activates import of long chain fatty acids. While in non-infected cells the imported fatty acids are channeled to lipid droplets, in infected cells the synthesis of neutral lipids is shut down and the fatty acids are utilized in highly up-regulated phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Thus the replication organelles are likely built from de novo synthesized membrane material, rather than from the remodeled pre-existing membranes. We show that activation of fatty acid import is linked to the up-regulation of cellular long chain acyl-CoA synthetase activity and identify the long chain acyl-CoA syntheatse3 (Acsl3) as a novel host factor required for polio replication. Poliovirus protein 2A is required to trigger the activation of import of fatty acids independent of its protease activity. Shift in fatty acid import preferences by infected cells results in synthesis of phosphatidylcholines different from those in uninfected cells, arguing that the viral replication organelles possess unique properties compared to the pre-existing membranes. Our data show how poliovirus can change the overall cellular membrane homeostasis by targeting one critical process. They explain earlier observations of increased phospholipid synthesis in infected cells and suggest a simple model of the structural development of the membranous scaffold of replication complexes of picorna-like viruses, that may be

  2. Short-term exposures of fish to perfluorooctane sulfonate: acute effects on fatty acyl-coa oxidase activity, oxidative stress, and circulating sex steroids.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Ken D; Sibley, Paul K; Martin, Jon W; MacLean, Dan D; Solomon, Keith R; Mabury, Scott A; Van Der Kraak, Glen J

    2005-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to waterborne perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on oxidative stress and reproductive endpoints in fish. Exposures utilized species commonly used in toxicological testing, including the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), as well as relatively insensitive taxa such as creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). In all fish species, short-term (14-28 d) exposure to PFOS produced only modest mortality at concentrations consistent with environmental spill scenarios. However, PFOS consistently increased hepatic fatty acyl-CoA oxidase activity and increased oxidative damage, as quantified using the 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assay. Plasma testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 17beta-estradiol titers were often elevated with PFOS exposure. Vitellogenin, the egg yolk precursor protein, was occasionally altered in the plasma with PFOS exposure, but responses varied with maturity. Oviposition frequency and egg deposition in fathead minnow were not significantly impaired with PFOS exposure, despite a trend toward progressive impairment with increasing exposure concentrations. Although short-term PFOS exposure produced significant impacts on biochemical and reproductive endpoints in fish at concentrations consistent with environmental spills, the impact of long-term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PFOS is unclear.

  3. High fat fed heart failure animals have enhanced mitochondrial function and acyl-coa dehydrogenase activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously shown that administration of high fat in heart failure (HF) increased mitochondrial respiration and did not alter left ventricular (LV) function. PPARalpha is a nuclear transcription factor that activates expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and utilization. We hypoth...

  4. Overexpression of PGC-1α Increases Peroxisomal and Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation in Human Primary Myotubes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tai-Yu; Zheng, Donghai; Houmard, Joseph A; Brault, Jeffrey J; Hickner, Robert C; Cortright, Ronald N

    2017-01-10

    Peroxisomes are indispensable organelles for lipid metabolism in humans and their biogenesis has been assumed to be under regulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). However, recent studies in hepatocytes suggest that the mitochondrial proliferator PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha) also acts as an upstream transcriptional regulator for enhancing peroxisomal abundance and associated activity. It is unknown whether the regulatory mechanism(s) for enhancing peroxisomal function is through the same node as mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle (HSkM) and whether fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is affected. Primary myotubes from vastus lateralis biopsies from lean donors (BMI =24.0 ± 0.6 kg/m(2), N = 6) were exposed to adenovirus encoding human PGC-1α or GFP control. Peroxisomal biogenesis proteins (Peroxins) and genes (PEXs) responsible for proliferation and functions were assessed by western blotting and real-time qRT-PCR respectively. 1-(14)C palmitic acid and 1-(14)C lignoceric acid (exclusive peroxisomal specific substrate) were used to assess mitochondrial oxidation of peroxisomal derived metabolites. Following overexpression of PGC-1α, 1) Peroxisomal membrane protein 70kD (PMP70), PEX19, and mitochondrial citrate synthetase protein content were significantly elevated (P<0.05) 2) PGC-1α, PMP70, key PEXs, and peroxisomal β-oxidation mRNA expression levels were significantly upregulated (P<0.05) and 3) A concomitant increase in lignoceric acid oxidation by both peroxisomal and mitochondrial activity was observed (P<0.05). These novel findings demonstrate that, in addition to the proliferative effect on mitochondria, PGC-1α can induce peroxisomes and accompanying elevations in long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acid oxidation by a peroxisomal-mitochondrial functional cooperation as observed in HSkM cells.

  5. Involvement of carnitine acyltransferases in peroxisomal fatty acid metabolism by the yeast Pichia guilliermondii.

    PubMed Central

    Pagot, Y; Belin, J M

    1996-01-01

    This article provides information about peroxisomal fatty acid metabolism in the yeast Pichia guilliermondii. The existence of inducible mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase and peroxisomal carnitine octanoyl-transferase activities was demonstrated after culture of this yeast in a medium containing methyl oleate. The subcellular sites and induction patterns were studied. The inhibition of carnitine octanoyl- and palmitoyl-transferases by chlorpromazine to a large extent prevented the otherwise observed metabolism-dependent inactivation of thiolase by 2-bromofatty acids in vivo. We concluded that the metabolism of long- and medium-chain fatty acids in the peroxisome of this yeast involved carnitine intermediates. PMID:8837442

  6. Pathway Compartmentalization in Peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Produce Versatile Medium Chain Fatty Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Stevens, Joseph; Feng, Xueyang

    2016-05-27

    Fatty alcohols are value-added chemicals and important components of a variety of industries, which have a >3 billion-dollar global market annually. Long chain fatty alcohols (>C12) are mainly used in surfactants, lubricants, detergents, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics while medium chain fatty alcohols (C6-C12) could be used as diesel-like biofuels. Microbial production of fatty alcohols from renewable feedstock stands as a promising strategy to enable sustainable supply of fatty alcohols. In this study, we report, for the first time, that medium chain fatty alcohols could be produced in yeast via targeted expression of a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (TaFAR) in the peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By tagging TaFAR enzyme with peroxisomal targeting signal peptides, the TaFAR could be compartmentalized into the matrix of the peroxisome to hijack the medium chain fatty acyl-CoA generated from the beta-oxidation pathway and convert them to versatile medium chain fatty alcohols (C10 &C12). The overexpression of genes encoding PEX7 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase further improved fatty alcohol production by 1.4-fold. After medium optimization in fed-batch fermentation using glucose as the sole carbon source, fatty alcohols were produced at 1.3 g/L, including 6.9% 1-decanol, 27.5% 1-dodecanol, 2.9% 1-tetradecanol and 62.7% 1-hexadecanol. This work revealed that peroxisome could be engineered as a compartmentalized organelle for producing fatty acid-derived chemicals in S. cerevisiae.

  7. Pathway Compartmentalization in Peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Produce Versatile Medium Chain Fatty Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Stevens, Joseph; Feng, Xueyang

    2016-01-01

    Fatty alcohols are value-added chemicals and important components of a variety of industries, which have a >3 billion-dollar global market annually. Long chain fatty alcohols (>C12) are mainly used in surfactants, lubricants, detergents, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics while medium chain fatty alcohols (C6–C12) could be used as diesel-like biofuels. Microbial production of fatty alcohols from renewable feedstock stands as a promising strategy to enable sustainable supply of fatty alcohols. In this study, we report, for the first time, that medium chain fatty alcohols could be produced in yeast via targeted expression of a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (TaFAR) in the peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By tagging TaFAR enzyme with peroxisomal targeting signal peptides, the TaFAR could be compartmentalized into the matrix of the peroxisome to hijack the medium chain fatty acyl-CoA generated from the beta-oxidation pathway and convert them to versatile medium chain fatty alcohols (C10 & C12). The overexpression of genes encoding PEX7 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase further improved fatty alcohol production by 1.4-fold. After medium optimization in fed-batch fermentation using glucose as the sole carbon source, fatty alcohols were produced at 1.3 g/L, including 6.9% 1-decanol, 27.5% 1-dodecanol, 2.9% 1-tetradecanol and 62.7% 1-hexadecanol. This work revealed that peroxisome could be engineered as a compartmentalized organelle for producing fatty acid-derived chemicals in S. cerevisiae. PMID:27230732

  8. The role of peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA beta-oxidation in bile acid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, H.; Miwa, A. )

    1989-11-01

    The physiological role of the peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA beta-oxidizing system (FAOS) is not yet established. We speculated that there might be a relationship between peroxisomal degradation of long-chain fatty acids in the liver and the biosynthesis of bile acids. This was investigated using (1-{sup 14}C)butyric acid and (1-{sup 14}C)lignoceric acid as substrates of FAOS in mitochondria and peroxisomes, respectively. The incorporation of ({sup 14}C)lignoceric acid into primary bile acids was approximately four times higher than that of ({sup 14}C)butyric acid (in terms of C-2 units). The pools of these two fatty acids in the liver were exceedingly small. The incorporations of radioactivity into the primary bile acids were strongly inhibited by administration of aminotriazole, which is a specific inhibitor of peroxisomal FAOS in vivo. Aminotriazole inhibited preferentially the formation of cholate, the major primary bile acid, from both ({sup 14}C)lignoceric acid and ({sup 14}C)butyric acid, rather than the formation of chenodeoxycholate. The former inhibition was about 70% and the latter was approximately 40-50%. In view of reports that cholate is biosynthesized from endogenous cholesterol, the above results indicate that peroxisomal FAOS may have an anabolic function, supplying acetyl CoA for bile acid biosynthesis.

  9. Mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation in liver homogenates and isolated hepatocytes from control and clofibrate-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Mannaerts, G P; Debeer, L J; Thomas, J; De Schepper, P J

    1979-06-10

    Mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation were compared in whole liver homogenates. Oxidation of 0.2 mM palmitoyl-CoA or oleate by mitochondria increased rapidly with increasing molar substrate:albumin ratios and became saturated at ratios below 3, while peroxisomal oxidation increased more slowly and continued to rise to reach maximal activity in the absence of albumin. Under the latter condition mitochondrial oxidation was severely depressed. In homogenates from normal liver peroxisomal oxidation was lower than mitochondrial oxidation at all ratios tested except when albumin was absent. In contrast with mitochondrial oxidation, peroxisomal oxidation did not produce ketones, was cyanide-insensitive, was not dependent on carnitine, and was not inhibited by (+)-octanoylcarnitine, malonyl-CoA and 4-pentenoate. Mitochondrial oxidation was inhibited by CoASH concentrations that were optimal for peroxisomal oxidation. In the presence of albumin, peroxisomal oxidation was stimulated by Triton X-100 but unaffected by freeze-thawing; both treatments suppressed mitochondrial oxidation. Clofibrate treatment increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal oxidation 2- and 6- to 8-fold, respectively. Peroxisomal oxidation remained unchanged in starvation and diabetes. Fatty acid oxidation was severely depressed by cyanide and (+)-octanoylcarnitine in hepatocytes from normal rats. Hepatocytes from clofibrate-treated rats, which displayed a 3- to 4-fold increase in fatty acid oxidation, were less inhibited by (+)-octanoylcarnitine. Hydrogen peroxide production was severalfold higher in hepatocytes from treated animals oxidizing fatty acids than in control hepatocytes. Assuming that all H2O2 produced during fatty acid oxidation was due to peroxisomal oxidation, it was calculated that the contribution of the peroxisomes to fatty acid oxidation was less than 10% both in cells from control and clofibrate-treated animals.

  10. Regulatory Genes Controlling Fatty Acid Catabolism and Peroxisomal Functions in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus nidulans†

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Michael J.; Murray, Sandra L.; Duncan, Anna; Khew, Gillian S.; Davis, Meryl A.

    2006-01-01

    The catabolism of fatty acids is important in the lifestyle of many fungi, including plant and animal pathogens. This has been investigated in Aspergillus nidulans, which can grow on acetate and fatty acids as sources of carbon, resulting in the production of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA). Acetyl-CoA is metabolized via the glyoxalate bypass, located in peroxisomes, enabling gluconeogenesis. Acetate induction of enzymes specific for acetate utilization as well as glyoxalate bypass enzymes is via the Zn2-Cys6 binuclear cluster activator FacB. However, enzymes of the glyoxalate bypass as well as fatty acid beta-oxidation and peroxisomal proteins are also inducible by fatty acids. We have isolated mutants that cannot grow on fatty acids. Two of the corresponding genes, farA and farB, encode two highly conserved families of related Zn2-Cys6 binuclear proteins present in filamentous ascomycetes, including plant pathogens. A single ortholog is found in the yeasts Candida albicans, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Yarrowia lipolytica, but not in the Ashbya, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces lineage. Northern blot analysis has shown that deletion of the farA gene eliminates induction of a number of genes by both short- and long-chain fatty acids, while deletion of the farB gene eliminates short-chain induction. An identical core 6-bp in vitro binding site for each protein has been identified in genes encoding glyoxalate bypass, beta-oxidation, and peroxisomal functions. This sequence is overrepresented in the 5′ region of genes predicted to be fatty acid induced in other filamentous ascomycetes, C. albicans, D. hansenii, and Y. lipolytica, but not in the corresponding genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:16682457

  11. Harnessing Yeast Peroxisomes for Biosynthesis of Fatty-Acid-Derived Biofuels and Chemicals with Relieved Side-Pathway Competition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongjin J; Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhu, Zhiwei; Gómez, Diego Orol; Boonsombuti, Akarin; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-11-30

    Establishing efficient synthetic pathways for microbial production of biochemicals is often hampered by competing pathways and/or insufficient precursor supply. Compartmentalization in cellular organelles can isolate synthetic pathways from competing pathways, and provide a compact and suitable environment for biosynthesis. Peroxisomes are cellular organelles where fatty acids are degraded, a process that is inhibited under typical fermentation conditions making them an interesting workhouse for production of fatty-acid-derived molecules. Here, we show that targeting synthetic pathways to peroxisomes can increase the production of fatty-acid-derived fatty alcohols, alkanes and olefins up to 700%. In addition, we demonstrate that biosynthesis of these chemicals in the peroxisomes results in significantly decreased accumulation of byproducts formed by competing enzymes. We further demonstrate that production can be enhanced up to 3-fold by increasing the peroxisome population. The strategies described here could be used for production of other chemicals, especially acyl-CoA-derived molecules.

  12. Caenorhabditis elegans utilizes dauer pheromone biosynthesis to dispose of toxic peroxisomal fatty acids for cellular homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hyoe-Jin; Yim, Yong-Hyeon; Jeong, Pan-Young; Jin, You-Xun; Lee, Jeong-Eui; Kim, Heekyeong; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Chitwood, David J; Paik, Young-Ki

    2009-07-29

    Caenorhabditis elegans excretes a dauer pheromone or daumone composed of ascarylose and a fatty acid side chain, the perception of which enables worms to enter the dauer state for long-term survival in an adverse environment. During the course of elucidation of the daumone biosynthetic pathway in which DHS-28 and DAF-22 are involved in peroxisomal beta-oxidation of VLCFAs (very long-chain fatty acids), we sought to investigate the physiological consequences of a deficiency in daumone biosynthesis in C. elegans. Our results revealed that two mutants, dhs-28(tm2581) and daf-22(ok693), lacked daumones and thus were dauer defective; this coincided with massive accumulation of fatty acyl-CoAs (up to 100-fold) inside worm bodies compared with levels in wild-type N2 worms. Furthermore, the deficiency in daumone biosynthesis and the massive accumulation of fatty acids and their acyl-CoAs caused severe developmental defects with reduced life spans (up to 30%), suggesting that daumone biosynthesis is be an essential part of C. elegans homoeostasis, affecting survival and maintenance of optimal physiological conditions by metabolizing some of the toxic non-permissible peroxisomal VLCFAs from the worm body in the form of readily excretable daumones.

  13. Positive regulation of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway by fatty acids through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR).

    PubMed

    Dreyer, C; Keller, H; Mahfoudi, A; Laudet, V; Krey, G; Wahli, W

    1993-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators regulate the transcription of genes by activating ligand-dependent transcription factors, which, due to their structure and function, can be assigned to the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors. Three such peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR alpha, beta, and gamma) have been cloned in Xenopus laevis. Their mRNAs are expressed differentially; xPPAR alpha and beta but not xPPAR gamma are expressed in oocytes and embryos. In the adult, expression of xPPAR alpha and beta appears to be ubiquitous, and xPPAR gamma is mainly observed in adipose tissue and kidney. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that PPARs are nuclear proteins, and that their cytoplasmic-nuclear translocation is independent of exogenous activators. A target gene of PPARs is the gene encoding acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. A peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE), to which PPARs bind, has been identified within the promoter of the ACO gene. Besides the known xenobiotic activators of PPARs, such as hypolipidemic drugs, natural activators have been identified. Polyunsaturated fatty acids at physiological concentrations are efficient activators of PPARs, and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA), which is the alkyne homolog of arachidonic acid, is the most potent activator of xPPAR alpha described to date. Taken together, our data suggest that PPARs have an important role in lipid metabolism.

  14. Brain uptake and utilization of fatty acids: applications to peroxisomal biogenesis diseases.

    PubMed

    Watkins, P A; Hamilton, J A; Leaf, A; Spector, A A; Moore, S A; Anderson, R E; Moser, H W; Noetzel, M J; Katz, R

    2001-01-01

    The brain is rich in diverse fatty acids saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids with chain lengths ranging from less than 16 to more than 24 carbons that make up the complex lipids present in this organ. While some fatty acids are derived from endogenous synthesis, others must come from exogenous sources. The mechanism(s) by which fatty acids enter cells has been the subject of much debate. While some investigators argue for a protein-mediated process, others suggest that simple diffusion is sufficient. In the brain, uptake is further complicated by the presence of the blood-brain barrier. Brain fatty acid homeostasis is disturbed in many human disorders, as typified by the peroxisomal biogenesis diseases. A workshop designed to bring together researchers from varied backgrounds to discuss these issues in an open forum was held in March, 2000. In addition to assessing the current state of knowledge, areas requiring additional investigation were identified and recommendations for future research were made. A brief overview of the invited talks is presented here.

  15. Cyclin D1 represses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and inhibits fatty acid oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Hanse, Eric A.; Mashek, Douglas G.; Mashek, Mara T.; Hendrickson, Anna M.; Mullany, Lisa K.; Albrecht, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin D1 is a cell cycle protein that promotes proliferation by mediating progression through key checkpoints in G1 phase. It is also a proto-oncogene that is commonly overexpressed in human cancers. In addition to its canonical role in controlling cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 affects other aspects of cell physiology, in part through transcriptional regulation. In this study, we find that cyclin D1 inhibits the activity of a key metabolic transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a member of nuclear receptor family that induces fatty acid oxidation and may play an anti-neoplastic role. In primary hepatocytes, cyclin D1 inhibits PPARα transcriptional activity and target gene expression in a cdk4-independent manner. In liver and breast cancer cells, knockdown of cyclin D1 leads to increased PPARα transcriptional activity, expression of PPARα target genes, and fatty acid oxidation. Similarly, cyclin D1 depletion enhances binding of PPARα to target sequences by chromatin immunoprecipitation. In proliferating hepatocytes and regenerating liver in vivo, induction of endogenous cyclin D1 is associated with diminished PPARα activity. Cyclin D1 expression is both necessary and sufficient for growth factor-mediated repression of fatty acid oxidation in proliferating hepatocytes. These studies indicate that in addition to playing a pivotal role in cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 represses PPARα activity and inhibits fatty acid oxidation. Our findings establish a new link between cyclin D1 and metabolism in both tumor cells and physiologic hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:27351284

  16. Cyclin D1 represses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and inhibits fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kamarajugadda, Sushama; Becker, Jennifer R; Hanse, Eric A; Mashek, Douglas G; Mashek, Mara T; Hendrickson, Anna M; Mullany, Lisa K; Albrecht, Jeffrey H

    2016-07-26

    Cyclin D1 is a cell cycle protein that promotes proliferation by mediating progression through key checkpoints in G1 phase. It is also a proto-oncogene that is commonly overexpressed in human cancers. In addition to its canonical role in controlling cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 affects other aspects of cell physiology, in part through transcriptional regulation. In this study, we find that cyclin D1 inhibits the activity of a key metabolic transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a member of nuclear receptor family that induces fatty acid oxidation and may play an anti-neoplastic role. In primary hepatocytes, cyclin D1 inhibits PPARα transcriptional activity and target gene expression in a cdk4-independent manner. In liver and breast cancer cells, knockdown of cyclin D1 leads to increased PPARα transcriptional activity, expression of PPARα target genes, and fatty acid oxidation. Similarly, cyclin D1 depletion enhances binding of PPARα to target sequences by chromatin immunoprecipitation. In proliferating hepatocytes and regenerating liver in vivo, induction of endogenous cyclin D1 is associated with diminished PPARα activity. Cyclin D1 expression is both necessary and sufficient for growth factor-mediated repression of fatty acid oxidation in proliferating hepatocytes. These studies indicate that in addition to playing a pivotal role in cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 represses PPARα activity and inhibits fatty acid oxidation. Our findings establish a new link between cyclin D1 and metabolism in both tumor cells and physiologic hepatocyte proliferation.

  17. Role of adipokines and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Giby, Vettickattuparambil George; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan

    2014-01-01

    Intrahepatic fat deposition has been demonstrated in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Genetic and environmental factors are important for the development of NAFLD. Diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension have been found to be closely associated with the incidence of NAFLD. Evidence suggests that obesity and insulin resistance are the major factors that contribute to the development of NAFLD. In comparing the factors that contribute to the buildup of excess calories in obesity, an imbalance of energy homeostasis can be considered as the basis. Among the peripheral signals that are generated to regulate the uptake of food, signals from adipose tissue are of major relevance and involve the maintenance of energy homeostasis through processes such as lipogenesis, lipolysis, and oxidation of fatty acids. Advances in research on adipose tissue suggest an integral role played by adipokines in NAFLD. Cytokines secreted by adipocytes, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β, and interleukin-6, are implicated in NAFLD. Other adipokines, such as leptin and adiponectin and, to a lesser extent, resistin and retinol binding protein-4 are also involved. Leptin and adiponectin can augment the oxidation of fatty acid in liver by activating the nuclear receptor super-family of transcription factors, namely peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α. Recent studies have proposed downregulation of PPAR-α in cases of hepatic steatosis. This review discusses the role of adipokines and PPARs with regard to hepatic energy metabolism and progression of NAFLD. PMID:25232450

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as targets to treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Mello, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Lately, the world has faced tremendous progress in the understanding of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis due to rising obesity rates. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors that modulate the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, energy homeostasis and inflammation, being altered in diet-induced obesity. Experimental evidences show that PPAR-alpha is the master regulator of hepatic beta-oxidation (mitochondrial and peroxisomal) and microsomal omega-oxidation, being markedly decreased by high-fat (HF) intake. PPAR-beta/delta is crucial to the regulation of forkhead box-containing protein O subfamily-1 expression and, hence, the modulation of enzymes that trigger hepatic gluconeogenesis. In addition, PPAR-beta/delta can activate hepatic stellate cells aiming to the hepatic recovery from chronic insult. On the contrary, PPAR-gamma upregulation by HF diets maximizes NAFLD through the induction of lipogenic factors, which are implicated in the fatty acid synthesis. Excessive dietary sugars also upregulate PPAR-gamma, triggering de novo lipogenesis and the consequent lipid droplets deposition within hepatocytes. Targeting PPARs to treat NAFLD seems a fruitful approach as PPAR-alpha agonist elicits expressive decrease in hepatic steatosis by increasing mitochondrial beta-oxidation, besides reduced lipogenesis. PPAR-beta/delta ameliorates hepatic insulin resistance by decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis at postprandial stage. Total PPAR-gamma activation can exert noxious effects by stimulating hepatic lipogenesis. However, partial PPAR-gamma activation leads to benefits, mainly mediated by increased adiponectin expression and decreased insulin resistance. Further studies are necessary aiming at translational approaches useful to treat NAFLD in humans worldwide by targeting PPARs. PMID:26052390

  19. Statins Increase Mitochondrial and Peroxisomal Fatty Acid Oxidation in the Liver and Prevent Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Han-Sol; Jang, Jung Eun; Ko, Myoung Seok; Woo, Sung Hoon; Kim, Bum Joong; Kim, Hyun Sik; Park, Hye Sun; Park, In-Sun; Koh, Eun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. Recent studies have highlighted the association between peroxisomal dysfunction and hepatic steatosis. Peroxisomes are intracellular organelles that contribute to several crucial metabolic processes, such as facilitation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and removal of reactive oxygen species through catalase or plasmalogen synthesis. Statins are known to prevent hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but underlying mechanisms of this prevention are largely unknown. Methods Seven-week-old C57BL/6J mice were given normal chow or a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCDD) with or without various statins, fluvastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, and rosuvastatin (15 mg/kg/day), for 6 weeks. Histological lesions were analyzed by grading and staging systems of NASH. We also measured mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO in the liver. Results Statin treatment prevented the development of MCDD-induced NASH. Both steatosis and inflammation or fibrosis grades were significantly improved by statins compared with MCDD-fed mice. Gene expression levels of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) were decreased by MCDD and recovered by statin treatment. MCDD-induced suppression of mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO was restored by statins. Each statin's effect on increasing FAO and improving NASH was independent on its effect of decreasing cholesterol levels. Conclusion Statins prevented NASH and increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO via induction of PPARα. The ability to increase hepatic FAO is likely the major determinant of NASH prevention by statins. Improvement of peroxisomal function by statins may contribute to the prevention of NASH. PMID:27098507

  20. Fatty acids and retinoids control lipid metabolism through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-retinoid X receptor heterodimers.

    PubMed Central

    Keller, H; Dreyer, C; Medin, J; Mahfoudi, A; Ozato, K; Wahli, W

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear hormone receptors called PPARs (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha, beta, and gamma) regulate the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids by induction of the acyl-CoA oxidase gene that encodes the rate-limiting enzyme of the pathway. Gel retardation and cotransfection assays revealed that PPAR alpha heterodimerizes with retinoid X receptor beta (RXR beta; RXR is the receptor for 9-cis-retinoic acid) and that the two receptors cooperate for the activation of the acyl-CoA oxidase gene promoter. The strongest stimulation of this promoter was obtained when both receptors were exposed simultaneously to their cognate activators. Furthermore, we show that natural fatty acids, and especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, activate PPARs as potently as does the hypolipidemic drug Wy 14,643, the most effective activator known so far. Moreover, we discovered that the synthetic arachidonic acid analogue 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid is 100 times more effective than Wy 14,643 in the activation of PPAR alpha. In conclusion, our data demonstrate a convergence of the PPAR and RXR signaling pathways in the regulation of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids by fatty acids and retinoids. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8384714

  1. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR{alpha} in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR{alpha} using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR{alpha} by GW7647, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR{gamma}, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR{gamma} is activated. On the other hand, PPAR{alpha} activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR{alpha} activation increased the production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR{alpha} stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected

  2. Peroxisome protein transportation affects metabolism of branched-chain fatty acids that critically impact growth and development of C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rencheng; Kniazeva, Marina; Han, Min

    2013-01-01

    The impact of specific lipid molecules, including fatty acid variants, on cellular and developmental regulation is an important research subject that remains under studied. Monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs) are commonly present in multiple organisms including mammals, however our understanding of mmBCFA functions is very limited. C. elegans has been the premier model system to study the functions of mmBCFAs and their derived lipids, as mmBCFAs have been shown to play essential roles in post-embryonic development in this organism. To understand more about the metabolism of mmBCFAs in C. elegans, we performed a genetic screen for suppressors of the L1 developmental arrest phenotype caused by mmBCFA depletion. Extensive characterization of one suppressor mutation identified prx-5, which encodes an ortholog of the human receptor for the type-1 peroxisomal targeting signal protein. Our study showed that inactivating prx-5 function compromised the peroxisome protein import, resulting in an increased level of branched-chain fatty acid C17ISO in animals lacking normal mmBCFA synthesis, thereby restoring wild-type growth and development. This work reveals a novel connection between peroxisomal functions and mmBCFA metabolism.

  3. Hydroxy monounsaturated fatty acids as agonists for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Hiroshi; Mizukami, Hajime; Nagatsu, Akito; Tanabe, Hiroki; Inoue, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The physiological and pathological role of oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been extensively studied, whereas those of hydroxy monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are not well understood. This study demonstrated that 11-hydroxy-(9Z)-octadecenoic acid ((9Z)-11-HOE), which was isolated from adlay seeds (Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen STAF.), can activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha, delta and gamma in luciferase reporter assays more efficiently than (9Z)-octadecenoic acid (oleic acid), and to the same degree as linoleic acid. (9Z)-11-HOE increased the mRNA levels of UCP2 and CD36 in C2C12 myotubes and THP- 1 cells, respectively, and these effects were blocked by the PPARdelta- and gamma-specific antagonists GSK0660 and T0070907, respectively. Evaluation of the structure.activity relationship between hydroxy MUFAs and PPAR activation revealed that (9E)-11-HOE, the geometrical isomer of (9Z)-11-HOE, activated PPARs more potently than (9Z)-11-HOE, and that PPAR activation by hydroxyl MUFAs was not markedly influenced by the position of the hydroxy group or the double bond, although PPARdelta seemed to possess ligand specificity different to that of PPARalpha or gamma . Additionally, the finding that 11-hydroxy octadecanoic acid, the hydrogenated product of (9E)-11- HOE, was also capable of activating PPARs to a similar extent as (9E)-11-HOE indicates that the double bond in hydroxy MUFAs is not essential for PPAR activation. In conclusion, (9Z)-11-HOE derived from alday seeds and hydroxy MUFAs with a chain length of 16 or 18 acted as PPAR agonists. Hydroxylation of MUFAs may change these compounds from silent PPAR ligands to active PPAR agonists.

  4. A Fox2-Dependent Fatty Acid ß-Oxidation Pathway Coexists Both in Peroxisomes and Mitochondria of the Ascomycete Yeast Candida lusitaniae

    PubMed Central

    Bessoule, Jean-Jacques; Salin, Bénédicte; Lucas-Guérin, Marine; Manon, Stephen; Dementhon, Karine; Noël, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    It is generally admitted that the ascomycete yeasts of the subphylum Saccharomycotina possess a single fatty acid ß-oxidation pathway located exclusively in peroxisomes, and that they lost mitochondrial ß-oxidation early during evolution. In this work, we showed that mutants of the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida lusitaniae which lack the multifunctional enzyme Fox2p, a key enzyme of the ß-oxidation pathway, were still able to grow on fatty acids as the sole carbon source, suggesting that C. lusitaniae harbored an alternative pathway for fatty acid catabolism. By assaying 14Cα-palmitoyl-CoA consumption, we demonstrated that fatty acid catabolism takes place in both peroxisomal and mitochondrial subcellular fractions. We then observed that a fox2Δ null mutant was unable to catabolize fatty acids in the mitochondrial fraction, thus indicating that the mitochondrial pathway was Fox2p-dependent. This finding was confirmed by the immunodetection of Fox2p in protein extracts obtained from purified peroxisomal and mitochondrial fractions. Finally, immunoelectron microscopy provided evidence that Fox2p was localized in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. This work constitutes the first demonstration of the existence of a Fox2p-dependent mitochondrial β-oxidation pathway in an ascomycetous yeast, C. lusitaniae. It also points to the existence of an alternative fatty acid catabolism pathway, probably located in peroxisomes, and functioning in a Fox2p-independent manner. PMID:25486052

  5. A Rare Case of Short-Chain Acyl-COA Dehydrogenase Deficiency: The Apparent Rarity of the Disorder Results in Under Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G Shilpa; Sujatha, M

    2011-07-01

    Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD) deficiency is an extremely rare inherited mitochondrial disorder of fat metabolism. This belongs to a group of diseases known as fatty acid oxidation disorders. Screening programmes have provided evidence that all the fatty acid oxidation disorders combined are among the most common inborn errors of metabolism. Mitochondrial beta oxidation of fatty acids is an essential energy producing pathway. It is a particularly important pathway during prolonged periods of starvation and during periods of reduced caloric intake due to gastrointestinal illness or increased energy expenditure during febrile illness. The most common presentation is an acute episode of life threatening coma and hypoglycemia induced by a period of fasting due to defective hepatic ketogenesis. Here, the case of a 4 month old female patient who had seizures since the third day of her birth and persistent hypoglycemia is described. She was born to parents of second degree consanguinity after 10 years of infertility treatment. There was history of delayed cry after birth. Metabolic screening for TSH, galactosemia, 17-OHP, G6PD, cystic fibrosis, biotinidase were normal. Tandem mass spectrometric (TMS) screening for blood amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids showed elevated butyryl carnitine (C4) as 3.40 μmol/L (normal <2.00 μmol/L), hexanoyl carnitine (C6) as 0.92 μmol/L (normal <0.72 μmol/L), C4/C3 as 2.93 μmol/L (normal <1.18 μmol/L). The child was started immediately on carnitor syrup (carnitine) 1/2 ml twice daily. Limitation of fasting stress and dietary fat was advised. Baby responded well by gaining weight and seizures were controlled. Until now, less than 25 patients have been reported worldwide. The limited number of patients diagnosed until now is due to the rarity of the disorder resulting in under diagnosis.

  6. Properties of a fluorescent bezafibrate derivative (DNS-X). A new tool to study peroxisome proliferation and fatty acid beta-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Berlot, J P; Lutz, T; Cherkaoui Malki, M; Nicolas-Frances, V; Jannin, B; Latruffe, N

    2000-12-01

    The first peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) was cloned in 1990 by Issemann and Green. Many studies have reported the importance of this receptor in the control of gene expression of enzymes involved in lipid metabolic pathways including mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation, lipoprotein structure [apolipoprotein (apo) A2, apo CIII], and fatty acid synthase. By using radiolabeled molecules, it was shown that peroxisome proliferators bind and activate PPAR. As an alternative method, we developed a fluorescent dansyl (1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonyl) derivative peroxisome proliferator from bezafibrate (DNS-X), a hypolipidemic agent that exhibits an in vitro peroxisome proliferative activity on rat Fao-hepatic derived cultured cells. However, until now, the effect of this new compound on the liver of animals and subcellular localization was unknown. In addition to in vivo rat studies, we present a more efficient large-scale technique of DNS-X purification. Treating rats (DNS-X in the diet at 0.3% w/w) for 6 d leads to a hepatomegaly and a marked increase in liver peroxisomal palmitoyl-CoA oxidase activity. We also developed a method to localize and quantify DNS-X in tissues or cell compartment organelles. The primarily cytosolic distribution of DNS-X was confirmed by direct visualization using fluorescence microscopy of cultured Fao cells. Finally, transfection assay demonstrated that DNS-X enhanced the PPAR alpha activity as well as other peroxisome proliferators do.

  7. Arabidopsis CER8 encodes LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE 1 (LACS1) that has overlapping functions with LACS2 in plant wax and cutin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lü, Shiyou; Song, Tao; Kosma, Dylan K; Parsons, Eugene P; Rowland, Owen; Jenks, Matthew A

    2009-08-01

    Plant cuticle is an extracellular lipid-based matrix of cutin and waxes, which covers aerial organs and protects them from many forms of environmental stress. We report here the characterization of CER8/LACS1, one of nine Arabidopsis long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases thought to activate acyl chains. Mutations in LACS1 reduced the amount of wax in all chemical classes on the stem and leaf, except in the very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) class wherein acids longer than 24 carbons (C(24)) were elevated more than 155%. The C(16) cutin monomers on lacs1 were reduced by 37% and 22%, whereas the C(18) monomers were increased by 28% and 20% on stem and leaf, respectively. Amounts of wax and cutin on a lacs1-1 lacs2-3 double mutant were much lower than on either parent, and lacs1-1 lacs2-3 had much higher cuticular permeability than either parent. These additive effects indicate that LACS1 and LACS2 have overlapping functions in both wax and cutin synthesis. We demonstrated that LACS1 has synthetase activity for VLCFAs C(20)-C(30), with highest activity for C(30) acids. LACS1 thus appears to function as a very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase in wax metabolism. Since C(16) but not C(18) cutin monomers are reduced in lacs1, and C(16) acids are the next most preferred acid (behind C(30)) by LACS1 in our assays, LACS1 also appears to be important for the incorporation of C(16) monomers into cutin polyester. As such, LACS1 defines a functionally novel acyl-CoA synthetase that preferentially modifies both VLCFAs for wax synthesis and long-chain (C(16)) fatty acids for cutin synthesis.

  8. The Arabidopsis pxa1 Mutant Is Defective in an ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter-Like Protein Required for Peroxisomal Fatty Acid β-Oxidation1

    PubMed Central

    Zolman, Bethany K.; Silva, Illeana D.; Bartel, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    Peroxisomes are important organelles in plant metabolism, containing all the enzymes required for fatty acid β-oxidation. More than 20 proteins are required for peroxisomal biogenesis and maintenance. The Arabidopsis pxa1 mutant, originally isolated because it is resistant to the auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), developmentally arrests when germinated without supplemental sucrose, suggesting defects in fatty acid β-oxidation. Because IBA is converted to the more abundant auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), in a mechanism that parallels β-oxidation, the mutant is likely to be IBA resistant because it cannot convert IBA to IAA. Adult pxa1 plants grow slowly compared with wild type, with smaller rosettes, fewer leaves, and shorter inflorescence stems, indicating that PXA1 is important throughout development. We identified the molecular defect in pxa1 using a map-based positional approach. PXA1 encodes a predicted peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter that is 42% identical to the human adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) protein, which is defective in patients with the demyelinating disorder X-linked ALD. Homology to ALD protein and other human and yeast peroxisomal transporters suggests that PXA1 imports coenzyme A esters of fatty acids and IBA into the peroxisome for β-oxidation. The pxa1 mutant makes fewer lateral roots than wild type, both in response to IBA and without exogenous hormones, suggesting that the IAA derived from IBA during seedling development promotes lateral root formation. PMID:11706205

  9. Peroxisomal oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) by human hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, P.A.; Ferrell, E.V. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    Beta-oxidation of VLCFA was studied in a human hepatoma cell line (HEP-G2). These cells, disrupted by exposure to low concentrations of digitonin, oxidize (1-/sup 14/C)palmitate (C16:0) and (1-/sup 14/C)lignocerate (C24:0) to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and water-soluble products. It was recently reported that in rat liver the beta-oxidation of VLCFA takes place primarily in the peroxisome rather than the mitochondrion. The precise site of VLCFA oxidation in human tissues has not been clearly elucidated. The peroxisome has been implicated since there is impaired VLCFA oxidation in fibroblasts from Zellweger syndrome patients, in which this organelle is deficient. In order to define the subcellular localization of human VLCFA oxidation, homogenates of HEP-G2 cells were fractionated on a discontinuous sucrose gradient. Fractions enriched in the peroxisomal marker catalase oxidized C24:0 at significantly greater rates than fractions enriched in the mitochondrial marker succinate:cytochrome c reductase. C16:0 oxidation was catalyzed by both peroxisomal and mitochondrial fractions. These results suggest that the subcellular site of VLCFA oxidation in human hepatoma cells and rat liver is similar.

  10. Selective modification of rat hepatic microsomal fatty acid chain elongation and desaturation by fibrates: relationship with peroxisome proliferation.

    PubMed

    Alegret, M; Cerqueda, E; Ferrando, R; Vázquez, M; Sánchez, R M; Adzet, T; Merlos, M; Laguna, J C

    1995-04-01

    1. The time-course of the effect of clofibrate (CFB), bezafibrate (BFB) and gemfibrozil (GFB) on lipid plasma levels and palmitoyl-, palmitoleoyl- and gamma-linolenoyl-CoA elongase, delta-9, delta-6 and delta-5 desaturase activities, and microsomal electron transport chains, as well as the correlation with the peroxisomal proliferation phenomenon have been studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats. 2. As reported in our previous work, the three drugs behave as peroxisomal proliferators (the order of potency was BFB > CFB > or = GFB) and induced a clear reduction in both plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. 3. Palmitoyl-CoA elongation activity was increased by the three drugs (BFB = GFB > CFB), whereas palmitoleoyl-CoA elongation activity was only enhanced by GFB. Elongation activity was not modified by fibrates when gamma-linolenoyl-CoA was used as substrate. These results are in accordance with the existence of three different elongation systems for saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. 4. delta-9, delta-6 and delta-5 desaturase activities were increased by the three fibrates, with an order of potency BFB > CFB = GFB for delta-9 and delta-5, and GFB > BFB = CFB for delta-6. 5. Of the enzyme activities integrated in the microsomal electron transport chains, NADH cytochrome b5 reductase was not affected by fibrate treatment, NADPH cytochrome c reductase activity was enhanced (BFB = GFB > CFB), whereas NADH cytochrome c reductase activity was reduced by CFB and BFB. 6. The increase in Delta-9 and Delta-5 desaturase activities was highly dependent on the peroxisomal proliferation phenomena, whereas the increase in Delta-6 desaturase activity and the decrease in NADH cytochromec reductase was mainly independent. The modifications of palmitoyl-CoA elongase and NADPH cytochrome c reductase activities, as well as plasma lipid levels, were partially correlated with peroxisomal beta-oxidation, but the r2 values obtained point to the existence of additional

  11. Oxygen radicals shaping evolution: why fatty acid catabolism leads to peroxisomes while neurons do without it: FADH₂/NADH flux ratios determining mitochondrial radical formation were crucial for the eukaryotic invention of peroxisomes and catabolic tissue differentiation.

    PubMed

    Speijer, Dave

    2011-02-01

    Oxygen radical formation in mitochondria is a highly important, but incompletely understood, attribute of eukaryotic cells. I propose a kinetic model in which the ratio between electrons entering the respiratory chain via FADH₂ or NADH is a major determinant in radical formation. During the breakdown of glucose, this ratio is low; during fatty acid breakdown, this ratio is much higher. The longer the fatty acid, the higher the ratio and the higher the level of radical formation. This means that very long chain fatty acids should be broken down without generation of FADH₂ for mitochondria. This is accomplished in peroxisomes, thus explaining their role and evolution. The model explains many recent observations regarding radical formation by the respiratory chain. It also sheds light on the reasons for the lack of neuronal fatty acid (beta-) oxidation and for beneficial aspects of unsaturated fatty acids. Last but not least, it has very important implications for all models describing eukaryotic origins.

  12. Selective modification of rat hepatic microsomal fatty acid chain elongation and desaturation by fibrates: relationship with peroxisome proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Alegret, M; Cerqueda, E; Ferrando, R; Vázquez, M; Sánchez, R M; Adzet, T; Merlos, M; Laguna, J C

    1995-01-01

    1. The time-course of the effect of clofibrate (CFB), bezafibrate (BFB) and gemfibrozil (GFB) on lipid plasma levels and palmitoyl-, palmitoleoyl- and gamma-linolenoyl-CoA elongase, delta-9, delta-6 and delta-5 desaturase activities, and microsomal electron transport chains, as well as the correlation with the peroxisomal proliferation phenomenon have been studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats. 2. As reported in our previous work, the three drugs behave as peroxisomal proliferators (the order of potency was BFB > CFB > or = GFB) and induced a clear reduction in both plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. 3. Palmitoyl-CoA elongation activity was increased by the three drugs (BFB = GFB > CFB), whereas palmitoleoyl-CoA elongation activity was only enhanced by GFB. Elongation activity was not modified by fibrates when gamma-linolenoyl-CoA was used as substrate. These results are in accordance with the existence of three different elongation systems for saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. 4. delta-9, delta-6 and delta-5 desaturase activities were increased by the three fibrates, with an order of potency BFB > CFB = GFB for delta-9 and delta-5, and GFB > BFB = CFB for delta-6. 5. Of the enzyme activities integrated in the microsomal electron transport chains, NADH cytochrome b5 reductase was not affected by fibrate treatment, NADPH cytochrome c reductase activity was enhanced (BFB = GFB > CFB), whereas NADH cytochrome c reductase activity was reduced by CFB and BFB.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7606338

  13. Identification and Mechanism of 10-Carbon Fatty Acid as Modulating Ligand of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Malapaka, Raghu R. V.; Khoo, SokKean; Zhang, Jifeng; Choi, Jang H.; Zhou, X. Edward; Xu, Yong; Gong, Yinhan; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Chang, Lin; Resau, James H.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, -β/δ, and -γ) are a subfamily of nuclear receptors that plays key roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. PPARγ is the molecular target of the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs that has many side effects. PPARγ is also activated by long chain unsaturated or oxidized/nitrated fatty acids, but its relationship with the medium chain fatty acids remains unclear even though the medium chain triglyceride oils have been used to control weight gain and glycemic index. Here, we show that decanoic acid (DA), a 10-carbon fatty acid and a major component of medium chain triglyceride oils, is a direct ligand of PPARγ. DA binds and partially activates PPARγ without leading to adipogenesis. Crystal structure reveals that DA occupies a novel binding site and only partially stabilizes the AF-2 helix. DA also binds weakly to PPARα and PPARβ/δ. Treatments with DA and its triglyceride form improve glucose sensitivity and lipid profiles without weight gain in diabetic mice. Together, these results suggest that DA is a modulating ligand for PPARs, and the structure can aid in designing better and safer PPARγ-based drugs. PMID:22039047

  14. Identification and mechanism of 10-carbon fatty acid as modulating ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Malapaka, Raghu R V; Khoo, Sokkean; Zhang, Jifeng; Choi, Jang H; Zhou, X Edward; Xu, Yong; Gong, Yinhan; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Chalmers, Michael J; Chang, Lin; Resau, James H; Griffin, Patrick R; Chen, Y Eugene; Xu, H Eric

    2012-01-02

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, -β/δ, and -γ) are a subfamily of nuclear receptors that plays key roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. PPARγ is the molecular target of the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs that has many side effects. PPARγ is also activated by long chain unsaturated or oxidized/nitrated fatty acids, but its relationship with the medium chain fatty acids remains unclear even though the medium chain triglyceride oils have been used to control weight gain and glycemic index. Here, we show that decanoic acid (DA), a 10-carbon fatty acid and a major component of medium chain triglyceride oils, is a direct ligand of PPARγ. DA binds and partially activates PPARγ without leading to adipogenesis. Crystal structure reveals that DA occupies a novel binding site and only partially stabilizes the AF-2 helix. DA also binds weakly to PPARα and PPARβ/δ. Treatments with DA and its triglyceride form improve glucose sensitivity and lipid profiles without weight gain in diabetic mice. Together, these results suggest that DA is a modulating ligand for PPARs, and the structure can aid in designing better and safer PPARγ-based drugs.

  15. Peroxisomes and Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Peroxisomes are organelles present in most eukaryotic cells. The organs with the highest density of peroxisomes are the liver and kidneys. Peroxisomes possess more than fifty enzymes and fulfill a multitude of biological tasks. They actively participate in apoptosis, innate immunity, and inflammation. In recent years, a considerable amount of evidence has been collected to support the involvement of peroxisomes in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. Recent Advances: The nature of the two most important peroxisomal tasks, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and hydrogen peroxide turnover, functionally relates peroxisomes to mitochondria. Further support for their communication and cooperation is furnished by the evidence that both organelles share the components of their division machinery. Until recently, the majority of studies on the molecular mechanisms of kidney injury focused primarily on mitochondria and neglected peroxisomes. Critical Issues: The aim of this concise review is to introduce the reader to the field of peroxisome biology and to provide an overview of the evidence about the contribution of peroxisomes to the development and progression of kidney injury. The topics of renal ischemia–reperfusion injury, endotoxin-induced kidney injury, diabetic nephropathy, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as well as the potential therapeutic implications of peroxisome activation, are addressed in this review. Future Directions: Despite recent progress, further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms induced by dysfunctional peroxisomes and the role of the dysregulated mitochondria–peroxisome axis in the pathogenesis of renal injury. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 217–231. PMID:26972522

  16. FRET microscopy demonstrates molecular association of non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsL-TP) with fatty acid oxidation enzymes in peroxisomes.

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, F S; Bastiaens, P I; Wirtz, K W; Jovin, T M

    1998-01-01

    The fate of fluorescently labeled pre-nsL-TP (Cy3-pre-nsL-TP) microinjected into BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The protein exhibited a distinct punctate fluorescence pattern and colocalized to a high degree with the immunofluorescence pattern for the peroxisomal enzyme acyl-CoA oxidase. Proteolytic removal of the C-terminal leucine of the putative peroxisomal targeting sequence (AKL) resulted in a diffuse cytosolic fluorescence. These results indicate that microinjected Cy3-pre-nsL-TP is targeted to peroxisomes. The association of nsL-TP with peroxisomal enzymes was investigated in cells by measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the microinjected Cy3-pre-nsL-TP and Cy5-labeled antibodies against the peroxisomal enzymes acyl-CoA oxidase, 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, bifunctional enzyme, PMP70 and catalase. The technique of photobleaching digital imaging microscopy (pbDIM), used to quantitate the FRET efficiency on a pixel-by-pixel basis, revealed a specific association of nsL-TP with acyl-CoA oxidase, 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase and bifunctional enzyme in the peroxisomes. These observations were corroborated by subjecting a peroxisomal matrix protein fraction to affinity chromatography on Sepharose-immobilized pre-nsL-TP. Acyl-CoA oxidase was retained. These studies provide strong evidence for a role of nsL-TP in the regulation of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation, e.g. by facilitating the presentation of substrates and/or stabilization of the enzymes. PMID:9857175

  17. Defective peroxisomal catabolism of branched fatty acyl coenzyme A in mice lacking the sterol carrier protein-2/sterol carrier protein-x gene function

    PubMed Central

    Seedorf, Udo; Raabe, Martin; Ellinghaus, Peter; Kannenberg, Frank; Fobker, Manfred; Engel, Thomas; Denis, Simone; Wouters, Fred; Wirtz, Karel W.A.; Wanders, Ronald J.A.; Maeda, Nobuyo; Assmann, Gerd

    1998-01-01

    Gene targeting in mice was used to investigate the unknown function of Scp2, encoding sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP2; a peroxisomal lipid carrier) and sterol carrier protein-x (SCPx; a fusion protein between SCP2 and a peroxisomal thiolase). Complete deficiency of SCP2 and SCPx was associated with marked alterations in gene expression, peroxisome proliferation, hypolipidemia, impaired body weight control, and neuropathy. Along with these abnormalities, catabolism of methyl-branched fatty acyl CoAs was impaired. The defect became evident from up to 10-fold accumulation of the tetramethyl-branched fatty acid phytanic acid in Scp2(−/−) mice. Further characterization supported that the gene disruption led to inefficient import of phytanoyl-CoA into peroxisomes and to defective thiolytic cleavage of 3-ketopristanoyl-CoA. These results corresponded to high-affinity binding of phytanoyl-CoA to the recombinant rat SCP2 protein, as well as high 3-ketopristanoyl-CoA thiolase activity of the recombinant rat SCPx protein. PMID:9553048

  18. Caenorhabditis elegans utilizes dauer pheromone biosynthesis to dispose of toxic peroxisomal fatty acids for cellular homoeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caenorhabditis elegans secretes a dauer pheromone or daumone composed of ascarylose and a fatty acid side chain, perception of which enables worms to gauge depletion of food or a high worm population density. As a result, worms enter the dauer state, a specific developmental stage capable of surviv...

  19. Studies of Human 2,4-Dienoyl CoA Reductase Shed New Light on Peroxisomal β-Oxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Tian; Wu, Dong; Ding, Wei; Wang, Jiangyun; Shaw, Neil; Liu, Zhi-Jie

    2012-10-15

    Peroxisomes play an essential role in maintaining fatty acid homeostasis. Although mitochondria are also known to participate in the catabolism of fatty acids via β-oxidation, differences exist between the peroxisomal and mitochondrial β-oxidation. Only peroxisomes, but not mitochondrion, can shorten very long chain fatty acids. Here, we describe the crystal structure of a ternary complex of peroxisomal 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductases (pDCR) with hexadienoyl CoA and NADP, as a prototype for comparison with the mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase (mDCR) to shed light on the differences between the enzymes from the two organelles at the molecular level. Unexpectedly, the structure of pDCR refined to 1.84 Å resolution reveals the absence of the tyrosine-serine pair seen in the active site of mDCR, which together with a lysine and an asparagine have been deemed a hallmark of the SDR family of enzymes. Instead, aspartate hydrogen-bonded to the Cα hydroxyl via a water molecule seems to perturb the water molecule for protonation of the substrate. Our studies provide the first structural evidence for participation of water in the DCR-catalyzed reactions. Biochemical studies and structural analysis suggest that pDCRs can catalyze the shortening of six-carbon-long substrates in vitro. However, the Km values of pDCR for short chain acyl CoAs are at least 6-fold higher than those for substrates with 10 or more aliphatic carbons. Unlike mDCR, hinge movements permit pDCR to process very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  20. Medium Chain Fatty Acids Are Selective Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR) γ Activators and Pan-PPAR Partial Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Steven D.; Lin, Jean Z.; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Silveira, Rodrigo L.; Martínez, Leandro; Souza, Paulo C. T.; Saidemberg, Daniel; Deng, Tuo; Amato, Angela Angelica; Togashi, Marie; Hsueh, Willa A.; Phillips, Kevin; Palma, Mário Sérgio; Neves, Francisco A. R.; Skaf, Munir S.; Webb, Paul; Polikarpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) and found that the ligand binding pocket (LBP) is occupied by bacterial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). We verified that MCFAs (C8–C10) bind the PPARγ LBD in vitro and showed that they are low-potency partial agonists that display assay-specific actions relative to TZDs; they act as very weak partial agonists in transfections with PPARγ LBD, stronger partial agonists with full length PPARγ and exhibit full blockade of PPARγ phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5), linked to reversal of adipose tissue insulin resistance. MCFAs that bind PPARγ also antagonize TZD-dependent adipogenesis in vitro. X-ray structure B-factor analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that MCFAs weakly stabilize C-terminal activation helix (H) 12 relative to TZDs and this effect is highly dependent on chain length. By contrast, MCFAs preferentially stabilize the H2-H3/β-sheet region and the helix (H) 11-H12 loop relative to TZDs and we propose that MCFA assay-specific actions are linked to their unique binding mode and suggest that it may be possible to identify selective PPARγ modulators with useful clinical profiles among natural products. PMID:22649490

  1. Medium chain fatty acids are selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ activators and pan-PPAR partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Liberato, Marcelo Vizoná; Nascimento, Alessandro S; Ayers, Steven D; Lin, Jean Z; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Silveira, Rodrigo L; Martínez, Leandro; Souza, Paulo C T; Saidemberg, Daniel; Deng, Tuo; Amato, Angela Angelica; Togashi, Marie; Hsueh, Willa A; Phillips, Kevin; Palma, Mário Sérgio; Neves, Francisco A R; Skaf, Munir S; Webb, Paul; Polikarpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) and found that the ligand binding pocket (LBP) is occupied by bacterial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). We verified that MCFAs (C8-C10) bind the PPARγ LBD in vitro and showed that they are low-potency partial agonists that display assay-specific actions relative to TZDs; they act as very weak partial agonists in transfections with PPARγ LBD, stronger partial agonists with full length PPARγ and exhibit full blockade of PPARγ phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5), linked to reversal of adipose tissue insulin resistance. MCFAs that bind PPARγ also antagonize TZD-dependent adipogenesis in vitro. X-ray structure B-factor analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that MCFAs weakly stabilize C-terminal activation helix (H) 12 relative to TZDs and this effect is highly dependent on chain length. By contrast, MCFAs preferentially stabilize the H2-H3/β-sheet region and the helix (H) 11-H12 loop relative to TZDs and we propose that MCFA assay-specific actions are linked to their unique binding mode and suggest that it may be possible to identify selective PPARγ modulators with useful clinical profiles among natural products.

  2. Human disorders of peroxisome metabolism and biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Waterham, Hans R; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Wanders, Ronald J A

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes are dynamic organelles that play an essential role in a variety of cellular catabolic and anabolic metabolic pathways, including fatty acid alpha- and beta-oxidation, and plasmalogen and bile acid synthesis. Defects in genes encoding peroxisomal proteins can result in a large variety of peroxisomal disorders either affecting specific metabolic pathways, i.e., the single peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies, or causing a generalized defect in function and assembly of peroxisomes, i.e., peroxisome biogenesis disorders. In this review, we discuss the clinical, biochemical, and genetic aspects of all human peroxisomal disorders currently known.

  3. [Two siblings of Leber's congenital amaurosis with an increase in very long chain fatty acid in blood: relationship between peroxisomal disorders and Leber's congenital amaurosis].

    PubMed

    Haginoya, K; Aikawa, J; Noro, T; Watanabe, M; Iinuma, K; Narisawa, K; Tada, K

    1989-07-01

    We reported two siblings of Leber's congenital amaurosis associated with increased level of very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) in blood. Case 1, a 3 1/2-year-old boy had congenital blindness, severe psychomotor retardation, hepatomegaly, profound hypotonia, loss of deep tendon reflexes, muscular atrophy and weakness, and non-convulsive status epilepticus characterized by a sudden respiratory failure, and also showed a flat electroretinogram, non-pigmentary retinal degeneration, severe atrophy of the brain stem and cerebellum, hepatic fibrosis, decreased motor and sensory conduction velocities and atlanto-axial instability. Sural nerve biopsy revealed severely decreased number of total myelinated fibers without remarkable demyelination or remyelination. Case 2, an elder sister of case 1, with pigmentary retinal degeneration, hepatomegaly and pericarditis had died at 3 months. Autopsy revealed hypomyelination and heterotopy of the cerebral white matter, hepatic fibrosis, renal microcysts and normal adrenal cytoarchitecture. In case 1, the level of VLCFA was increased twofold and sevenfold of controls in serum and in red cell membrane, respectively. Phytanic or trihydroxycholestanoic acid was not detected in the serum and bile. Normal shaped peroxisomes were definitely recognized in biopsied liver by means of electronmicroscopic histochemistry. From the above findings, these patients was thought to be a new variant of peroxisomal disorders relating to degradation of VLCFA, other than Zellweger syndrome, infantile Refsum disease and infantile adrenoleukodystrophy. It was concluded that peroxisomal functions should be studied in cases of Leber's congenital amaurosis.

  4. Relationship between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Gene and Fatty Acid Composition in Korean Native Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jea-young; Ha, Jae-jung; Park, Yong-soo; Yi, Jun-koo; Lee, Seunguk; Mun, Seyoung; Han, Kyudong; Kim, J.-J.; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Oh, Dong-yep

    2016-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) gene plays an important role in the biosynthesis process controlled by a number of fatty acid transcription factors. This study investigates the relationships between 130 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PPARγ gene and the fatty acid composition of muscle fat in the commercial population of Korean native cattle. We identified 38 SNPs and verified relationships between 3 SNPs (g.1159-71208 A>G, g.42555-29812 G>A, and g.72362 G>T) and the fatty acid composition of commercial Korean native cattle (n = 513). Cattle with the AA genotype of g.1159-71208 A>G and the GG genotype of g.42555-29812 G>A and g.72362 G>T had higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and carcass traits (p<0.05). The results revealed that the 3 identified SNPs in the PPARγ gene affected fatty acid composition and carcass traits, suggesting that these 3 SNPs may improve the flavor and quality of beef in commercial Korean native cattle. PMID:26732443

  5. Conjugated linoleic acid isomers and their precursor fatty acids regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor subtypes and major peroxisome proliferator responsive element-bearing target genes in HepG2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sailas; Flotho, Silke; Börchers, Torsten; Spener, Friedrich

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the induction profiles (as judged by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)) of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, β, γ subtypes and major PPAR-target genes bearing a functional peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE) in HepG2 cell model upon feeding with cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid (9-CLA) or trans-10,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid (10-CLA) or their precursor fatty acids (FAs). HepG2 cells were treated with 100 μmol/L 9-CLA or 10-CLA or their precursor FAs, viz., oleic, linoleic, and trans-11-vaccenic acids against bezafibrate control to evaluate the induction/expression profiles of PPAR α, β, γ subtypes and major PPAR-target genes bearing a functional PPRE, i.e., fatty acid transporter (FAT), glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2), liver-type FA binding protein (L-FABP), acyl CoA oxidase-1 (ACOX-1), and peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme (PBE) with reference to β-actin as house keeping gene. Of the three housekeeping genes (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β-actin, and ubiquitin), β-actin was found to be stable. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the common solubilizer of agonists, showed a significantly higher induction of genes analyzed. qRT-PCR profiles of CLAs and their precursor FAs clearly showed upregulation of FAT, GLUT-2, and L-FABP (~0.5-2.0-fold). Compared to 10-CLA, 9-CLA decreased the induction of the FA metabolizing gene ACOX-1 less than did PBE, while 10-CLA decreased the induction of PBE less than did ACOX-1. Both CLAs and precursor FAs upregulated PPRE-bearing genes, but with comparatively less or marginal activation of PPAR subtypes. This indicates that the binding of CLAs and their precursor FAs to PPAR subtypes results in PPAR activation, thereby induction of the target transporter genes coupled with downstream lipid metabolising genes such as ACOX-1 and PBE. To sum up, the expression profiles of these candidate genes showed that

  6. Bezafibrate induces acyl-CoA oxidase mRNA levels and fatty acid peroxisomal beta-oxidation in rat white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, M; Roglans, N; Cabrero, A; Rodríguez, C; Adzet, T; Alegret, M; Sánchez, R M; Laguna, J C

    2001-01-01

    Rats treated with bezafibrate, a PPAR activator, gain less body weight and increase daily food intake. Previously, we have related these changes to a shift of thermogenesis from brown adipose tissue to white adipose tissue attributable to bezafibrate, which induces uncoupling proteins (UCP), UCP-1 and UCP-3, in rat white adipocytes. Nevertheless, UCP induction was weak, implying additional mechanisms in the change of energy homeostasis produced by bezafibrate. Here we show that bezafibrate, in addition to inducing UCPs, modifies energy homeostasis by directly inducing aco gene expression and peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation in white adipose tissue. Further, bezafibrate significantly reduced plasma triglyceride and leptin concentrations, without modifying the levels of PPARgamma or ob gene in white adipose tissue. These results indicate that bezafibrate reduces the amount of fatty acids available for triglyceride synthesis in white adipose tissue.

  7. Dietary β-conglycinin prevents fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet by a decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 protein.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Kishimoto, Kyoko; Miura, Shinji; Ezaki, Osamu

    2012-02-01

    Diets high in sucrose/fructose or fat can result in hepatic steatosis (fatty liver). Mice fed a high-fat diet, especially that of saturated-fat-rich oil, develop fatty liver with an increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ2 protein in liver. The fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet is improved by knockdown of liver PPARγ2. In this study, we investigated whether β-conglycinin (a major protein of soy protein) could reduce PPARγ2 protein and prevent high-fat-diet-induced fatty liver in ddY mice. Mice were fed a high-starch diet (70 energy% [en%] starch) plus 20% (wt/wt) sucrose in their drinking water or a high-safflower-oil diet (60 en%) or a high-butter diet (60 en%) for 11 weeks, by which fatty liver is developed. As a control, mice were fed a high-starch diet with drinking water. Either β-conglycinin or casein (control) was given as dietary protein. β-Conglycinin supplementation completely prevented fatty liver induced by each type of diet, along with a reduction in adipose tissue weight. β-Conglycinin decreased sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c and carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in sucrose-supplemented mice, whereas it decreased PPARγ2 mRNA (and its target genes CD36 and FSP27), but did not decrease SREBP-1c and ChREBP mRNAs, in mice fed a high-fat diet. β-Conglycinin decreased PPARγ2 protein and liver triglyceride (TG) concentration in a dose-dependent manner in mice fed a high-butter diet; a significant decrease in liver TG concentration was observed at a concentration of 15 en%. In conclusion, β-conglycinin effectively prevents fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet through a decrease in liver PPARγ2 protein.

  8. Boiogito Increases the Metabolism of Fatty Acids in Proximal Tubular Cells through Peroxisome Proliferators-Activated Receptor (PPAR) α Agonistic Activity.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kyoko; Matsuyama, Wakana; Arai, Yuhei; Koizumi, Saho; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Tomioka, Rie; Sasaki, Kenroh

    2016-01-01

    The promotion of fatty acid metabolism, to which peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) α contributes, has been suggested to participate in maintaining the function of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs). The loading of fatty acids to PTECs could result in cell inflammation and cell death. A "Kampo" medicine, Boiogito (BO), is used to treat overweight women exhibiting chronic fatigue and edema in the lower extremities or knees. BO improves renal function by reducing the portion of fatty acids, thereby preventing damage to PTECs. In this study, BO and Astragalus Root (AsR), a constituent crude drug of BO, were administered orally to intravenously bovine serum albumin (BSA)-administered mice to evaluate the PPARα-cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CBP) complex binding activity and/or mRNA expression of PPARα, as quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increases in PPARα-CBP complex binding activity and the expression of PPARα mRNA were observed not only in BO-administered mice but also in AsR-administered mice, accompanied by a decrease in the amount of renal fatty acid.

  9. Yeast peroxisomes: structure, functions and biotechnological opportunities.

    PubMed

    Sibirny, Andriy A

    2016-06-01

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles found in most eukaryotic cells. In yeasts, peroxisomes play important roles in cell metabolism, especially in different catabolic processes including fatty acid β-oxidation, the glyoxylic shunt and methanol metabolism, as well as some biosynthetic processes. In addition, peroxisomes are the compartment in which oxidases and catalase are localized. New peroxisomes mainly arise by fission of pre-existing ones, although they can also be formed from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Peroxisomes consist of matrix-soluble proteins and membrane proteins known as peroxins. A total of 34 PEX peroxin genes and proteins have been identified to date. and their functions have been elucidated. Protein import into peroxisomes depends on peroxins and requires specific signals in the structure of transported proteins: PTS1, PTS2 and mPTS. The mechanisms of metabolite penetration into peroxisomes are still poorly understood. Peroxisome number and the volume occupied by these organelles are tightly regulated. Methanol, fatty acids and methylamine act as efficient peroxisome proliferators, whereas glucose and ethanol induce peroxisome autophagic degradation (pexophagy). To date, 42 Atg proteins involved in pexophagy are known. Catabolism and alcoholic fermentation of the major pentose sugar, xylose, depend on peroxisomal enzymes. Overexpression of peroxisomal transketolase and transaldolase activates xylose fermentation. Peroxisomes could be useful as target organelles for overexpression of foreign toxic proteins.

  10. Atorvastatin treatment induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha expression and decreased plasma nonesterified fatty acids and liver triglyceride in fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Roglans, Núria; Sanguino, Elena; Peris, Cristina; Alegret, Marta; Vázquez, Manuel; Adzet, Tomás; Díaz, Cristina; Hernández, Gonzalo; Laguna, Juan C; Sánchez, Rosa M

    2002-07-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of atorvastatin (5 and 30 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks) on hepatic lipid metabolism in a well established model of dietary hypertriglyceridemia, the fructose-fed rat. Fructose feeding (10% fructose in drinking water for 2 weeks) induced hepatic lipogenesis and reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) expression and fatty acid oxidation. As a result, plasma and liver triglyceride and plasma apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels were increased. Atorvastatin, 5 and 30 mg/kg during 2 weeks, markedly reduced plasma triglyceride, but decreased apoB levels only at the highest dose tested (50%). Triglyceride biosynthetic enzymes and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein were unchanged, whereas liver PPARalpha, acyl-CoA oxidase, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I mRNA levels (1.9-, 1.25-, and 3.4-fold, respectively) and hepatic fatty acid beta-oxidation activity (1.25-fold) were increased by atorvastatin at 30 mg/kg. Furthermore, hepatic triglyceride content (45%) and plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (49%) were reduced. These results show for the first time that liver triglyceride increase in fructose-fed rats is linked to decreased expression of PPARalpha, which is prevented by atorvastatin treatment. The increase in PPARalpha expression caused by atorvastatin was associated with reduced liver triglyceride and plasma NEFA levels.

  11. Statin induction of liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) gene expression is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha-dependent.

    PubMed

    Landrier, Jean-François; Thomas, Charles; Grober, Jacques; Duez, Hélène; Percevault, Frédéric; Souidi, Maâmar; Linard, Christine; Staels, Bart; Besnard, Philippe

    2004-10-29

    Statins are drugs widely used in humans to treat hypercholesterolemia. Statins act by inhibiting cholesterol synthesis resulting in the activation of the transcription factor sterol-responsive element-binding protein-2 that controls the expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Statin therapy also decreases plasma triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid levels, but the mechanism behind this effect remains more elusive. Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) plays a role in the influx of long-chain fatty acids into hepatocytes. Here we show that L-FABP is a target for statins. In rat hepatocytes, simvastatin treatment induced L-FABP mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, L-FABP promoter activity was induced by statin treatment. Progressive 5'-deletion analysis revealed that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-responsive element located at position -67/-55 was responsible for the statin-mediated transactivation of the rat L-FABP promoter. Moreover, treatment with simvastatin and the PPARalpha agonist Wy14,649 resulted in a synergistic induction of L-FABP expression (mRNA and protein) in rat Fao hepatoma cells. This effect was also observed in vivo in wild-type mice but not in PPARalpha-null animals demonstrating the direct implication of PPARalpha in L-FABP regulation by statin treatment. Statin treatment resulted in a rise in PPARalpha mRNA levels both in vitro and in vivo and activated the mouse PPARalpha promoter in a reporter assay. Altogether, these data demonstrate that L-FABP expression is up-regulated by statins through a mechanism involving PPARalpha. Moreover, PPARalpha might be a statin target gene. These effects might contribute to the triglyceride/non-esterified fatty acid-lowering properties of statins.

  12. Peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, P A; Chen, W W; Harris, C J; Hoefler, G; Hoefler, S; Blake, D C; Balfe, A; Kelley, R I; Moser, A B; Beard, M E

    1989-01-01

    Peroxisomal function was evaluated in a male infant with clinical features of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. Very long chain fatty acid levels were elevated in both plasma and fibroblasts, and beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids in cultured fibroblasts was significantly impaired. Although the level of the bile acid intermediate trihydroxycoprostanoic acid was slightly elevated in plasma, phytanic acid and L-pipecolic acid levels were normal, as was plasmalogen synthesis in cultured fibroblasts. The latter three parameters distinguish this case from classical neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. In addition, electron microscopy and catalase subcellular distribution studies revealed that, in contrast to neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, peroxisomes were present in the patient's tissues. Immunoblot studies of peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes revealed that the bifunctional enzyme (enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) was deficient in postmortem liver samples, whereas acyl-CoA oxidase and the mature form of beta-ketothiolase were present. Density gradient centrifugation of fibroblast homogenates confirmed that intact peroxisomes were present. Immunoblots of fibroblasts peroxisomal fractions showed that they contained acyl-CoA oxidase and beta-ketothiolase, but bifunctional enzyme was not detected. Northern analysis, however, revealed that mRNA coding for the bifunctional enzyme was present in the patient's fibroblasts. These results indicate that the primary biochemical defect in this patient is a deficiency of peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme. It is of interest that the phenotype of this patient resembled neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy and would not have been distinguished from this disorder by clinical study alone. Images PMID:2921319

  13. Peroxisome Metabolism and Cellular Aging

    PubMed Central

    Titorenko, Vladimir I.; Terlecky, Stanley R.

    2010-01-01

    The essential role of peroxisomes in fatty acid oxidation, anaplerotic metabolism, and hydrogen peroxide turnover is well established. Recent findings suggest these and other related biochemical processes governed by the organelle may also play a critical role in regulating cellular aging. The goal of this review is to summarize and integrate into a model, the evidence that peroxisome metabolism actually helps define the replicative and chronological age of a eukaryotic cell. In this model, peroxisomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) are seen as altering organelle biogenesis and function, and eliciting changes in the dynamic communication networks that exist between peroxisomes and other cellular compartments. At low levels, peroxisomal ROS activate an anti-aging program in the cell; at concentrations beyond a specific threshold, a pro-aging course is triggered. PMID:21083858

  14. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Rino; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Murota, Kaeko; Yamada, Yuko; Niiya, Saori; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Murakami, Yoko; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased oxygen consumption rate and CO{sub 2} production and decreased secretion of triglyceride and ApoB from Caco-2 cells. {yields} Orally administration of bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and CO{sub 2} production in small intestinal epithelial cells. {yields} Treatment with bezafibrate decreased postprandial serum concentration of triglyceride after oral injection of olive oil in mice. {yields} It suggested that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPAR{alpha} activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia. -- Abstract: Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} which regulates lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle, decreases circulating lipid levels, thus improving hyperlipidemia under fasting conditions. Recently, postprandial serum lipid levels have been found to correlate more closely to cardiovascular diseases than fasting levels, although fasting hyperlipidemia is considered an important risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PPAR{alpha} activation on postprandial lipidemia has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of PPAR{alpha} activation in enterocytes on lipid secretion and postprandial lipidemia. In Caco-2 enterocytes, bezafibrate, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acyl-CoA synthase, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and suppressed secretion levels of both triglycerides and apolipoprotein B into the basolateral side. In vivo experiments revealed that feeding high-fat-diet containing bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and

  15. A Peroxisomal Disorder of Severe Intellectual Disability, Epilepsy, and Cataracts Due to Fatty Acyl-CoA Reductase 1 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Buchert, Rebecca; Tawamie, Hasan; Smith, Christopher; Uebe, Steffen; Innes, A. Micheil; Al Hallak, Bassam; Ekici, Arif B.; Sticht, Heinrich; Schwarze, Bernd; Lamont, Ryan E.; Parboosingh, Jillian S.; Bernier, Francois P.; Abou Jamra, Rami

    2014-01-01

    Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP) is a group of disorders with overlapping clinical features including rhizomelia, chondrodysplasia punctata, coronal clefts, cervical dysplasia, congenital cataracts, profound postnatal growth retardation, severe intellectual disability, and seizures. Mutations in PEX7, GNPAT, and AGPS, all involved in the plasmalogen-biosynthesis pathway, have been described in individuals with RCDP. Here, we report the identification of mutations in another gene in plasmalogen biosynthesis, fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 (FAR1), in two families affected by severe intellectual disability, early-onset epilepsy, microcephaly, congenital cataracts, growth retardation, and spasticity. Exome analyses revealed a homozygous in-frame indel mutation (c.495_507delinsT [p.Glu165_Pro169delinsAsp]) in two siblings from a consanguineous family and compound-heterozygous mutations (c.[787C>T];[1094A>G], p.[Arg263∗];[Asp365Gly]) in a third unrelated individual. FAR1 reduces fatty acids to their respective fatty alcohols for the plasmalogen-biosynthesis pathway. To assess the pathogenicity of the identified mutations, we transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells with plasmids encoding FAR1 with either wild-type or mutated constructs and extracted the lipids from the cells. We screened the lipids with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and found that all three mutations abolished the reductase activity of FAR1, given that no fatty alcohols could be detected. We also observed reduced plasmalogens in red blood cells in one individual to a range similar to that seen in individuals with RCDP, further supporting abolished FAR1 activity. We thus expand the spectrum of clinical features associated with defects in plasmalogen biosynthesis to include FAR1 deficiency as a cause of syndromic severe intellectual disability with cataracts, epilepsy, and growth retardation but without rhizomelia. PMID:25439727

  16. Peroxisome biogenesis and human peroxisome-deficiency disorders

    PubMed Central

    FUJIKI, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome is a single-membrane-bounded ubiquitous organelle containing a hundred different enzymes that catalyze various metabolic pathways such as β-oxidation of very long-chain fatty acids and synthesis of plasmalogens. To investigate peroxisome biogenesis and human peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) including Zellweger syndrome, more than a dozen different complementation groups of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants impaired in peroxisome biogenesis are isolated as a model experimental system. By taking advantage of rapid functional complementation assay of the CHO cell mutants, successful cloning of PEX genes encoding peroxins required for peroxisome assembly invaluably contributed to the accomplishment of cloning of pathogenic genes responsible for PBDs. Peroxins are divided into three groups: 1) peroxins including Pex3p, Pex16p and Pex19p, are responsible for peroxisome membrane biogenesis via Pex19p- and Pex3p-dependent class I and Pex19p- and Pex16p-dependent class II pathways; 2) peroxins that function in matrix protein import; 3) those such as Pex11pβ are involved in peroxisome division where DLP1, Mff, and Fis1 coordinately function. PMID:27941306

  17. A novel N-aryl tyrosine activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma reverses the diabetic phenotype of the Zucker diabetic fatty rat.

    PubMed

    Brown, K K; Henke, B R; Blanchard, S G; Cobb, J E; Mook, R; Kaldor, I; Kliewer, S A; Lehmann, J M; Lenhard, J M; Harrington, W W; Novak, P J; Faison, W; Binz, J G; Hashim, M A; Oliver, W O; Brown, H R; Parks, D J; Plunket, K D; Tong, W Q; Menius, J A; Adkison, K; Noble, S A; Willson, T M

    1999-07-01

    The discovery that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma was the molecular target of the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic agents suggested a key role for PPAR-gamma in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Through the use of high-throughput biochemical assays, GW1929, a novel N-aryl tyrosine activator of human PPAR-gamma, was identified. Chronic oral administration of GW1929 or troglitazone to Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats resulted in dose-dependent decreases in daily glucose, free fatty acid, and triglyceride exposure compared with pretreatment values, as well as significant decreases in glycosylated hemoglobin. Whole body insulin sensitivity, as determined by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique, was significantly increased in treated animals. Comparison of the magnitude of glucose lowering as a function of serum drug concentrations showed that GW1929 was 2 orders of magnitude more potent than troglitazone in vivo. These data were consistent with the relative in vitro potencies of GW1929 and troglitazone. Isolated perfused pancreas studies performed at the end of the study confirmed that pancreata from vehicle-treated rats showed no increase in insulin secretion in response to a step change in glucose from 3 to 10 mmol/l. In contrast, pancreata from animals treated with GW1929 showed a first- and second-phase insulin secretion pattern. Consistent with the functional data from the perfusion experiments, animals treated with the PPAR-gamma agonist had more normal islet architecture with preserved insulin staining compared with vehicle-treated ZDF rats. This is the first demonstration of in vivo efficacy of a novel nonthiazolidinedione identified as a high-affinity ligand for human PPAR-gamma. The increased potency of GW1929 compared with troglitazone both in vitro and in vivo may translate into improved clinical efficacy when used as monotherapy in type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, the significant

  18. Covalent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma adduction by nitro-fatty acids: selective ligand activity and anti-diabetic signaling actions.

    PubMed

    Schopfer, Francisco J; Cole, Marsha P; Groeger, Alison L; Chen, Chen-Shan; Khoo, Nicholas K H; Woodcock, Steven R; Golin-Bisello, Franca; Motanya, U Nkiru; Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T; Rudolph, Tanja K; Rudolph, Volker; Bonacci, Gustavo; Baker, Paul R S; Xu, H Eric; Batthyany, Carlos I; Chen, Y Eugene; Hallis, Tina M; Freeman, Bruce A

    2010-04-16

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) binds diverse ligands to transcriptionally regulate metabolism and inflammation. Activators of PPARgamma include lipids and anti-hyperglycemic drugs such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs). Recently, TZDs have raised concern after being linked with increased risk of peripheral edema, weight gain, and adverse cardiovascular events. Most reported endogenous PPARgamma ligands are intermediates of lipid metabolism and oxidation that bind PPARgamma with very low affinity. In contrast, nitro derivatives of unsaturated fatty acids (NO(2)-FA) are endogenous products of nitric oxide ((*)NO) and nitrite (NO(2)(-))-mediated redox reactions that activate PPARgamma at nanomolar concentrations. We report that NO(2)-FA act as partial agonists of PPARgamma and covalently bind PPARgamma at Cys-285 via Michael addition. NO(2)-FA show selective PPARgamma modulator characteristics by inducing coregulator protein interactions, PPARgamma-dependent expression of key target genes, and lipid accumulation is distinctively different from responses induced by the TZD rosiglitazone. Administration of this class of signaling mediators to ob/ob mice revealed that NO(2)-FA lower insulin and glucose levels without inducing adverse side effects such as the increased weight gain induced by TZDs.

  19. A single amino acid change humanizes long-chain fatty acid binding and activation of mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α

    PubMed Central

    Oswal, Dhawal P.; Alter, Gerald M.; Rider, S. Dean; Hostetler, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is an important regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism which functions through ligand binding. Despite high amino acid sequence identity (>90%), marked differences in PPARα ligand binding, activation and gene regulation have been noted across species. Similar to previous observations with synthetic agonists, we have recently reported differences in ligand affinities and extent of activation between human PPARα (hPPARα) and mouse PPARα (mPPARα) in response to long chain fatty acids (LCFA). The present study was aimed to determine if structural alterations could account for these differences. The binding of PPARα to LCFA was examined through in silico molecular modeling and docking simulations. Modeling suggested that variances at amino acid position 272 are likely to be responsible for differences in saturated LCFA binding to hPPARα and mPPARα. To confirm these results experimentally, LCFA binding, circular dichroism, and transactivation studies were performed using a F272I mutant form of mPPARα. Experimental data correlated with in silico docking simulations, further confirming the importance of amino acid 272 in LCFA binding. Although the driving force for evolution of species differences at this position are yet unidentified, this study enhances our understanding of ligand-induced regulation by PPARα and demonstrates the efficacy of molecular modeling and docking simulations. PMID:24858253

  20. Modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) by conjugated fatty acid in obesity and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Gaofeng; Chen, Xiaoe; Li, Duo

    2015-02-25

    Conjugated fatty acids including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) have drawn significant attention for their variety of biologically beneficial effects. Evidence suggested that CLA and CLNA could play physiological roles by regulating the expression and activity of PPAR γ. This review summarizes the current understanding of evidence of the role of CLA (cis-9,trans-11 CLA and trans-10,cis-12 CLA) and CLNA (punicic acid and α-eleostearic acid) in modulating the expression or activity of PPAR γ that could in turn be employed as complementary treatment for obesity and inflammatory bowel disease.

  1. Tissue-specific differential induction of duplicated fatty acid-binding protein genes by the peroxisome proliferator, clofibrate, in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Force, Lynch and Conery proposed the duplication-degeneration-complementation (DDC) model in which partitioning of ancestral functions (subfunctionalization) and acquisition of novel functions (neofunctionalization) were the two primary mechanisms for the retention of duplicated genes. The DDC model was tested by analyzing the transcriptional induction of the duplicated fatty acid-binding protein (fabp) genes by clofibrate in zebrafish. Clofibrate is a specific ligand of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR); it activates PPAR which then binds to a peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) to induce the transcriptional initiation of genes primarily involved in lipid homeostasis. Zebrafish was chosen as our model organism as it has many duplicated genes owing to a whole genome duplication (WGD) event that occurred ~230-400 million years ago in the teleost fish lineage. We assayed the steady-state levels of fabp mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) transcripts in liver, intestine, muscle, brain and heart for four sets of duplicated fabp genes, fabp1a/fabp1b.1/fabp1b.2, fabp7a/fabp7b, fabp10a/fabp10b and fabp11a/fabp11b in zebrafish fed different concentrations of clofibrate. Result Electron microscopy showed an increase in the number of peroxisomes and mitochondria in liver and heart, respectively, in zebrafish fed clofibrate. Clofibrate also increased the steady-state level of acox1 mRNA and hnRNA transcripts in different tissues, a gene with a functional PPRE. These results demonstrate that zebrafish is responsive to clofibrate, unlike some other fishes. The levels of fabp mRNA and hnRNA transcripts for the four sets of duplicated fabp genes was determined by reverse transcription, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The level of hnRNA coded by a gene is an indirect estimate of the rate of transcriptional initiation of that gene. Clofibrate increased the steady-state level of fabp mRNAs and hnRNAs for both the

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) modulates free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1) dependent insulin secretion in humans

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Robert; Hieronimus, Anja; Lamprinou, Apostolia; Heni, Martin; Hatziagelaki, Erifili; Ullrich, Susanne; Stefan, Norbert; Staiger, Harald; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variation in FFAR1 modulates insulin secretion dependent on non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. We previously demonstrated lower insulin secretion in minor allele carriers of PPARG Pro12Ala in high-NEFA environment, but the mode of action could not been revealed. We tested if this effect is mediated by FFAR1 in humans. Subjects with increased risk of diabetes who underwent oral glucose tolerance tests were genotyped for 7 tagging SNPs in FFAR1 and PPARG Pro12Ala. The FFAR1 SNPs rs12462800 and rs10422744 demonstrated interactions with PPARG on insulin secretion. FFAR1 rs12462800 (p = 0.0006) and rs10422744 (p = 0.001) were associated with reduced insulin secretion in participants concomitantly carrying the PPARG minor allele and having high fasting FFA. These results suggest that the minor allele of the PPARG SNP exposes its carriers to modulatory effects of FFAR1 on insulin secretion. This subphenotype may define altered responsiveness to FFAR1-agonists, and should be investigated in further studies. PMID:25161890

  3. Rosiglitazone Inhibits Acyl-CoA Synthetase Activity and Fatty Acid Partitioning to Diacylglycerol and Triacylglycerol via a Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor-γ–Independent Mechanism in Human Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Askari, Bardia; Kanter, Jenny E.; Sherrid, Ashley M.; Golej, Deidre L.; Bender, Andrew T.; Liu, Joey; Hsueh, Willa A.; Beavo, Joseph A.; Coleman, Rosalind A.; Bornfeldt, Karin E.

    2010-01-01

    Rosiglitazone is an insulin-sensitizing agent that has recently been shown to exert beneficial effects on atherosclerosis. In addition to peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, rosiglitazone can affect other targets, such as directly inhibiting recombinant long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL)-4 activity. Because it is unknown if ACSL4 is expressed in vascular cells involved in atherosclerosis, we investigated the ability of rosiglitazone to inhibit ACSL activity and fatty acid partitioning in human and murine arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and macrophages. Human and murine SMCs and human macrophages expressed Acsl4, and rosiglitazone inhibited Acsl activity in these cells. Furthermore, rosiglitazone acutely inhibited partitioning of fatty acids into phospholipids in human SMCs and inhibited fatty acid partitioning into diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol in human SMCs and macrophages through a PPAR-γ–independent mechanism. Conversely, murine macrophages did not express ACSL4, and rosiglitazone did not inhibit ACSL activity in these cells, nor did it affect acute fatty acid partitioning into cellular lipids. Thus, rosiglitazone inhibits ACSL activity and fatty acid partitioning in human and murine SMCs and in human macrophages through a PPAR-γ–independent mechanism likely to be mediated by ACSL4 inhibition. Therefore, rosiglitazone might alter the biological effects of fatty acids in these cells and in atherosclerosis. PMID:17259370

  4. Crosstalk between mitochondria and peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    Demarquoy, Jean; Le Borgne, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria and peroxisomes are small ubiquitous organelles. They both play major roles in cell metabolism, especially in terms of fatty acid metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and ROS scavenging, and it is now clear that they metabolically interact with each other. These two organelles share some properties, such as great plasticity and high potency to adapt their form and number according to cell requirements. Their functions are connected, and any alteration in the function of mitochondria may induce changes in peroxisomal physiology. The objective of this paper was to highlight the interconnection and the crosstalk existing between mitochondria and peroxisomes. Special emphasis was placed on the best known connections between these organelles: origin, structure, and metabolic interconnections. PMID:26629313

  5. Peroxin Puzzles and Folded Freight: Peroxisomal Protein Import in Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crookes, Wendy J.; Olsen, Laura J.

    Peroxisomes are organelles that perform a variety of functions, including the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide and the oxidation of fatty acids. Peroxisomes do not possess organellar DNA; all peroxisomal matrix proteins are posttranslationally translocated into the organelle. The mechanism of peroxisomal protein translocation has been the subject of vigorous research in the past decade. Many of the proteins (peroxins, abbreviated Pex) that play critical roles in peroxisome biogenesis have been identified through functional complementation of yeast strains and of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines that are defective in peroxisome biogenesis. Researchers are now turning towards biochemical and genetic analyses of these peroxins to define their roles in peroxisome biogenesis and to discover interacting protein partners. Evidence suggests that some of the interacting partners include molecular chaperones. Several current models for peroxisomal protein import are presented.

  6. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Improve Liver Lipid Oxidation-Related Enzyme Levels and Increased the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Expression Level in Mice Subjected to Hemorrhagic Shock/Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Tian, Feng; Gao, Xuejin; Wang, Xinying; Wu, Chao; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2016-04-22

    Appropriate metabolic interventions after hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation injury have not yet been identified. We aimed to examine the effects of fish oil on lipid metabolic intervention after hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation. Firstly, 48 C57BL/6 mice were assigned to six groups (n = 8 per group). The sham group did not undergo surgery, while mice in the remaining groups were sacrificed 1-5 days after hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation. In the second part, mice were treated with saline or fish oil (n = 8 per group) five days after injury. We determined serum triglyceride levels and liver tissues were collected and prepared for qRT-PCR or Western blot analysis. We found that triglyceride levels were increased five days after hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation, but decreased after addition of fish oil. After injury, the protein and gene expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A, fatty acid transport protein 1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α decreased significantly in liver tissue. In contrast, after treatment with fish oil, the expression levels of these targets increased compared with those in the saline group. The present results suggest n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids could improve lipid oxidation-related enzymes in liver subjected to hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation. This function is possibly accomplished through activating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α pathway.

  7. The Roles of β-Oxidation and Cofactor Homeostasis in Peroxisome Distribution and Function in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Mauro A; Patel, Ashish B; Park, Jaeseok; Lee, Koeun; Strader, Lucia C; Bartel, Bonnie

    2016-11-01

    Key steps of essential metabolic pathways are housed in plant peroxisomes. We conducted a microscopy-based screen for anomalous distribution of peroxisomally targeted fluorescence in Arabidopsis thaliana This screen uncovered 34 novel alleles in 15 genes affecting oil body mobilization, fatty acid β-oxidation, the glyoxylate cycle, peroxisome fission, and pexophagy. Partial loss-of-function of lipid-mobilization enzymes conferred peroxisomes clustered around retained oil bodies without other notable defects, suggesting that this microscopy-based approach was sensitive to minor perturbations, and that fatty acid β-oxidation rates in wild type are higher than required for normal growth. We recovered three mutants defective in PECTIN METHYLESTERASE31, revealing an unanticipated role in lipid mobilization for this cytosolic enzyme. Whereas mutations reducing fatty acid import had peroxisomes of wild-type size, mutations impairing fatty acid β-oxidation displayed enlarged peroxisomes, possibly caused by excess fatty acid β-oxidation intermediates in the peroxisome. Several fatty acid β-oxidation mutants also displayed defects in peroxisomal matrix protein import. Impairing fatty acid import reduced the large size of peroxisomes in a mutant defective in the PEROXISOMAL NAD(+) TRANSPORTER (PXN), supporting the hypothesis that fatty acid accumulation causes pxn peroxisome enlargement. The diverse mutants isolated in this screen will aid future investigations of the roles of β-oxidation and peroxisomal cofactor homeostasis in plant development.

  8. Peroxisomes, peroxisomal diseases, and the hepatotoxicity induced by peroxisomal metabolites.

    PubMed

    Wanders, Ronald J A; Ferdinandusse, Sacha

    2012-12-01

    The group of peroxisomal disorders represents a growing number of genetically determined diseases in humans in which there is an impairment in one or more peroxisomal functions. The peroxisomal disorders are usually subdivided in two major subgroups including (1) the peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) and (2) the single peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies. Liver pathology is a frequent finding in patients affected by a peroxisomal disorder. This is not only true for patients affected by a PBD, but also for patients with a single enzyme defect in one of the metabolic pathways in which peroxisomes are involved. By comparing the different peroxisomal disorders, we provide evidence suggesting that the main hepatotoxic metabolites responsible for the liver pathology found in patients, are the bile acid synthesis intermediates di- and trihydroxycholestanoic acid (DHCA and THCA). Studies in different experimental systems have shown that DHCA and THCA, especially in the unconjugated form, interfere with different physiological processes including mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The implications of these findings will be discussed with special emphasis on patients with di- and trihydroxycholestanoic acidaemia.

  9. Reduced peroxisomal citrate synthase activity increases substrate availability for polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis in plant peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Tilbrook, Kimberley; Poirier, Yves; Gebbie, Leigh; Schenk, Peer M; McQualter, Richard B; Brumbley, Stevens M

    2014-10-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bacterial carbon storage polymers used as renewable, biodegradable plastics. PHA production in plants may be a way to reduce industrial PHA production costs. We recently demonstrated a promising level of peroxisomal PHA production in the high biomass crop species sugarcane. However, further production strategies are needed to boost PHA accumulation closer to commercial targets. Through exogenous fatty acid feeding of Arabidopsis thaliana plants that contain peroxisome-targeted PhaA, PhaB and PhaC enzymes from Cupriavidus necator, we show here that the availability of substrates derived from the β-oxidation cycle limits peroxisomal polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis. Knockdown of peroxisomal citrate synthase activity using artificial microRNA increased PHB production levels approximately threefold. This work demonstrates that reduction of peroxisomal citrate synthase activity may be a valid metabolic engineering strategy for increasing PHA production in other plant species.

  10. Induction of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 by unsaturated fatty acids, retinoic acid, and carotenoids in preadipocytes obtained from bovine white adipose tissue1,2.

    PubMed

    García-Rojas, P; Antaramian, A; González-Dávalos, L; Villarroya, F; Shimada, A; Varela-Echavarría, A; Mora, O

    2010-05-01

    The importance of dietary fat components, such as fatty acids, in the expression of multiple genes is clear. In the case of beef cattle, fat in the form of fatty acids (saturated or unsaturated), vitamin A (mainly retinoic acid), or carotenoids (beta-carotene and lutein) is obtained from dietary feed or pasture. The aim of this work was to study the effect of fatty acids (phytanic and pristanic acids), vitamin A (all-trans and 9-cis retinoic acid), and carotenoids (beta-carotene and lutein) on the expression of PPARgamma and its coactivator PGC-1alpha during differentiation of bovine white adipose tissue. Samples were collected at slaughter from subcutaneous adipose tissue and processed in a solution containing type II collagenase for 2 h at 37 degrees C. Cells were resuspended in basal medium, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 5% fetal bovine serum, plated on 24-well culture plates at a density of 1 x 10(4) cells/cm(2), and incubated at 37 degrees C in a 5% CO(2) atmosphere. Preadipocyte differentiation after reaching confluence was induced by various treatments: rosiglitazone (20 microM); unsaturated fatty acids: phytanic acid (25, 50, 100 microM) and pristanic acid (25, 50, 100 microM); retinoids: 9-cis retinoic acid (0.5, 0.75, 1 microM) and all-trans retinoic acid (0.5, 0.75, 1 microM); and carotenoids: beta-carotene (10, 20, 30 microM) and lutein (10, 20, 30 microM). Expression of PPARgamma and PGC-1alpha was measured in differentiated cells. Phytanic acid, all-trans retinoic acid, and 9-cis retinoic acid were the best activators of PPARgamma expression, and the combination of 9-cis and all-trans retinoic acid was the best activator of PGC-1alpha expression (P < 0.05). Therefore, these are powerful agents for the promotion of bovine adipogenesis and constitute promising compounds to be used in bovine fattening.

  11. A critical role for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) in the cellular fasting response: the PPARalpha-null mouse as a model of fatty acid oxidation disorders.

    PubMed

    Leone, T C; Weinheimer, C J; Kelly, D P

    1999-06-22

    We hypothesized that the lipid-activated transcription factor, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), plays a pivotal role in the cellular metabolic response to fasting. Short-term starvation caused hepatic steatosis, myocardial lipid accumulation, and hypoglycemia, with an inadequate ketogenic response in adult mice lacking PPARalpha (PPARalpha-/-), a phenotype that bears remarkable similarity to that of humans with genetic defects in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzymes. In PPARalpha+/+ mice, fasting induced the hepatic and cardiac expression of PPARalpha target genes encoding key mitochondrial (medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I) and extramitochondrial (acyl-CoA oxidase, cytochrome P450 4A3) enzymes. In striking contrast, the hepatic and cardiac expression of most PPARalpha target genes was not induced by fasting in PPARalpha-/- mice. These results define a critical role for PPARalpha in a transcriptional regulatory response to fasting and identify the PPARalpha-/- mouse as a potentially useful murine model of inborn and acquired abnormalities of human fatty acid utilization.

  12. Structural Basis for Ligand Regulation of the Fatty Acid-binding Protein 5, Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor β/δ (FABP5-PPARβ/δ) Signaling Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Eric H.; Goswami, Devrishi; Griffin, Patrick R.; Noy, Noa; Ortlund, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are a widely expressed group of calycins that play a well established role in solubilizing cellular fatty acids. Recent studies, however, have recast FABPs as active participants in vital lipid-signaling pathways. FABP5, like its family members, displays a promiscuous ligand binding profile, capable of interacting with numerous long chain fatty acids of varying degrees of saturation. Certain “activating” fatty acids induce the protein's cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation, stimulating PPARβ/δ transactivation; however, the rules that govern this process remain unknown. Using a range of structural and biochemical techniques, we show that both linoleic and arachidonic acid elicit FABP5's translocation by permitting allosteric communication between the ligand-sensing β2 loop and a tertiary nuclear localization signal within the α-helical cap of the protein. Furthermore, we show that more saturated, nonactivating fatty acids inhibit nuclear localization signal formation by destabilizing this activation loop, thus implicating FABP5 specifically in cis-bonded, polyunsaturated fatty acid signaling. PMID:24692551

  13. OCTN3 is a mammalian peroxisomal membrane carnitine transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Lamhonwah, Anne-Marie; Ackerley, Cameron A.; Tilups, Aina; Edwards, Vernon D.; Wanders, Ronald J.; Tein, Ingrid . E-mail: ingrid.tein@sickkids.ca

    2005-12-30

    Carnitine is a zwitterion essential for the {beta}-oxidation of fatty acids. The role of the carnitine system is to maintain homeostasis in the acyl-CoA pools of the cell, keeping the acyl-CoA/CoA pool constant even under conditions of very high acyl-CoA turnover, thereby providing cells with a critical source of free CoA. Carnitine derivatives can be moved across intracellular barriers providing a shuttle mechanism between mitochondria, peroxisomes, and microsomes. We now demonstrate expression and colocalization of mOctn3, the intermediate-affinity carnitine transporter (K {sub m} 20 {mu}M), and catalase in murine liver peroxisomes by TEM using immunogold labelled anti-mOctn3 and anti-catalase antibodies. We further demonstrate expression of hOCTN3 in control human cultured skin fibroblasts both by Western blotting and immunostaining analysis using our specific anti-mOctn3 antibody. In contrast with two peroxisomal biogenesis disorders, we show reduced expression of hOCTN3 in human PEX 1 deficient Zellweger fibroblasts in which the uptake of peroxisomal matrix enzymes is impaired but the biosynthesis of peroxisomal membrane proteins is normal, versus a complete absence of hOCTN3 in human PEX 19 deficient Zellweger fibroblasts in which both the uptake of peroxisomal matrix enzymes as well as peroxisomal membranes are deficient. This supports the localization of hOCTN3 to the peroxisomal membrane. Given the impermeability of the peroxisomal membrane and the key role of carnitine in the transport of different chain-shortened products out of peroxisomes, there appears to be a critical need for the intermediate-affinity carnitine/organic cation transporter, OCTN3, on peroxisomal membranes now shown to be expressed in both human and murine peroxisomes. This Octn3 localization is in keeping with the essential role of carnitine in peroxisomal lipid metabolism.

  14. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) by nitroalkene fatty acids: importance of nitration position and degree of unsaturation

    PubMed Central

    Gorczynski, Michael J.; Smitherman, Pamela K.; Akiyama, Taro E.; Wood, Harold B.; Berger, Joel P.; King, S. Bruce; Morrow, Charles S.

    2009-01-01

    Nitroalkene fatty acids are potent endogenous ligand activators of PPARγ-dependent transcription. Previous studies with the naturally occurring regioisomers of nitrolinoleic acid revealed that the isomers are not equivalent with respect to PPARγ activation. To gain further insight into the structure-activity relationships between nitroalkenes and PPARγ, we examined additional naturally occurring nitroalkenes derived from oleic acid, 9-nitrooleic acid (E-9-NO2-18:1 [1]) and 10-nitrooleic acid (E-10-NO2-18:1 [2]), and several synthetic nitrated enoic fatty acids of variable carbon chain length, double bonds, and nitration site. At submicromolar concentrations, E-12-NO2 derivatives were considerably more potent than isomers nitrated at carbons 5, 6, 9, 10 or 13; and, chain length (16 versus 18) or number of double bonds (one versus two) was of little consequence for PPARγ activation. Interestingly, at higher concentrations (> 2 μM) the nitrated enoic fatty acids (E-9-NO2-18:1 [1], E-9-NO2-16:1 [3], E-10-NO2-18:1 [2], and E-12-NO2-18:1 [7]) deviated significantly from the saturable pattern of PPARγ activation observed for nitrated 1,4-dienoic fatty acids (E-9-NO2-18:2, E-10-NO2-18:2, E-12-NO2-18:2, and E-13-NO2-18:2). PMID:19719236

  15. Induction of peroxisomes by butyrate-producing probiotics.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huachun; Endo, Kosuke; Li, Jiawei; Kito, Naoko; Iwai, Naoharu

    2015-01-01

    We previously found that peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11a (Pex11a) deficiency is associated with a reduction in peroxisome abundance and impaired fatty acid metabolism in hepatocytes, and results in steatosis. In the present study, we investigated whether butyrate induces Pex11a expression and peroxisome proliferation, and studied its effect on lipid metabolism. C57BL/6 mice fed standard chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with tributyrin, 4-phelybutyrate acid (4-PBA), or the butyrate-producing probiotics (Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 [CBM]) plus inulin (dietary fiber), and the body weight, white adipose tissue, serum triglycerides, mRNA expression, and peroxisome abundance were evaluated. Tributyrin or 4-PBA treatment significantly decreased body weight and increased hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) and Pex11a. In addition, 4-PBA treatment increased peroxisome abundance and the expression of genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 and hydroxysteroid [17-beta] dehydrogenase 4). CBM and inulin administration reduced adipose tissue mass and serum triglycerides, induced Pex11a, acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, and hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 4 genes, and increased peroxisome abundance in mice fed standard chow or an HFD. In conclusion, elevation of butyrate availability (directly through administration of butyrate or indirectly via administration of butyrate-producing probiotics plus fiber) induces PPARα and Pex11a and the genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation, increases peroxisome abundance, and improves lipid metabolism. These results may provide a new therapeutic strategy against hyperlipidemia and obesity.

  16. How Peroxisomes Affect Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus Flavus

    PubMed Central

    Reverberi, Massimo; Punelli, Marta; Smith, Carrie A.; Zjalic, Slaven; Scarpari, Marzia; Scala, Valeria; Cardinali, Giorgia; Aspite, Nicaela; Pinzari, Flavia; Payne, Gary A.; Fabbri, Anna A.; Fanelli, Corrado

    2012-01-01

    In filamentous fungi, peroxisomes are crucial for the primary metabolism and play a pivotal role in the formation of some secondary metabolites. Further, peroxisomes are important site for fatty acids β-oxidation, the formation of reactive oxygen species and for their scavenging through a complex of antioxidant activities. Oxidative stress is involved in different metabolic events in all organisms and it occurs during oxidative processes within the cell, including peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids. In Aspergillus flavus, an unbalance towards an hyper-oxidant status into the cell is a prerequisite for the onset of aflatoxin biosynthesis. In our preliminary results, the use of bezafibrate, inducer of both peroxisomal β-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation in mammals, significantly enhanced the expression of pex11 and foxA and stimulated aflatoxin synthesis in A. flavus. This suggests the existence of a correlation among peroxisome proliferation, fatty acids β-oxidation and aflatoxin biosynthesis. To investigate this correlation, A. flavus was transformed with a vector containing P33, a gene from Cymbidium ringspot virus able to induce peroxisome proliferation, under the control of the promoter of the Cu,Zn-sod gene of A. flavus. This transcriptional control closely relates the onset of the antioxidant response to ROS increase, with the proliferation of peroxisomes in A. flavus. The AfP33 transformant strain show an up-regulation of lipid metabolism and an higher content of both intracellular ROS and some oxylipins. The combined presence of a higher amount of substrates (fatty acids-derived), an hyper-oxidant cell environment and of hormone-like signals (oxylipins) enhances the synthesis of aflatoxins in the AfP33 strain. The results obtained demonstrated a close link between peroxisome metabolism and aflatoxin synthesis. PMID:23094106

  17. Peroxisome Biogenesis and Function

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Navneet; Reumann, Sigrun; Hu, Jianping

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisomes are small and single membrane-delimited organelles that execute numerous metabolic reactions and have pivotal roles in plant growth and development. In recent years, forward and reverse genetic studies along with biochemical and cell biological analyses in Arabidopsis have enabled researchers to identify many peroxisome proteins and elucidate their functions. This review focuses on the advances in our understanding of peroxisome biogenesis and metabolism, and further explores the contribution of large-scale analysis, such as in sillco predictions and proteomics, in augmenting our knowledge of peroxisome function In Arabidopsis. PMID:22303249

  18. Multi-layered control of peroxisomal activity upon salt stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Manzanares-Estreder, Sara; Espí-Bardisa, Joan; Alarcón, Benito; Pascual-Ahuir, Amparo; Proft, Markus

    2017-03-21

    Peroxisomes are dynamic organelles and the sole location for fatty acid β-oxidation in yeast cells. Here we report that peroxisomal function is crucial for the adaptation to salt stress, especially upon sugar limitation. Upon stress, multiple layers of control regulate the activity and the number of peroxisomes. Activated Hog1 MAP kinase triggers the induction of genes encoding enzymes for fatty acid activation, peroxisomal import and β-oxidation through the Adr1 transcriptional activator, which transiently associates with genes encoding fatty acid metabolic enzymes in a stress- and Hog1-dependent manner. Moreover, Na(+) and Li(+) stress increases the number of peroxisomes per cell in a Hog1-independent manner, which depends instead of the retrograde pathway and the dynamin related GTPases Dnm1 and Vps1. The strong activation of the Faa1 fatty acyl-CoA synthetase, which specifically localizes to lipid particles and peroxisomes, indicates that adaptation to salt stress requires the enhanced mobilization of fatty acids from internal lipid stores. Furthermore, the activation of mitochondrial respiration during stress depends on peroxisomes, mitochondrial acetyl-carnitine uptake is essential for salt resistance, and the number of peroxisomes attached to the mitochondrial network increases during salt adaptation, which altogether indicates that stress-induced peroxisomal β-oxidation triggers enhanced respiration upon salt shock. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. An engineered plant peroxisome and its application in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kessel-Vigelius, Sarah K; Wiese, Jan; Schroers, Martin G; Wrobel, Thomas J; Hahn, Florian; Linka, Nicole

    2013-09-01

    Plant metabolic engineering is a promising tool for biotechnological applications. Major goals include enhancing plant fitness for an increased product yield and improving or introducing novel pathways to synthesize industrially relevant products. Plant peroxisomes are favorable targets for metabolic engineering, because they are involved in diverse functions, including primary and secondary metabolism, development, abiotic stress response, and pathogen defense. This review discusses targets for manipulating endogenous peroxisomal pathways, such as fatty acid β-oxidation, or introducing novel pathways, such as the synthesis of biodegradable polymers. Furthermore, strategies to bypass peroxisomal pathways for improved energy efficiency and detoxification of environmental pollutants are discussed. In sum, we highlight the biotechnological potential of plant peroxisomes and indicate future perspectives to exploit peroxisomes as biofactories.

  20. Partial disassembly of peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Rat liver peroxisomes were subjected to a variety of procedures intended to partially disassemble or damage them; the effects were analyzed by recentrifugation into sucrose gradients, enzyme analyses, electron microscopy, and SDS PAGE. Freezing and thawing or mild sonication released some matrix proteins and produced apparently intact peroxisomal "ghosts" with crystalloid cores and some fuzzy fibrillar content. Vigorous sonication broke open the peroxisomes but the membranes remained associated with cores and fibrillar and amorphous matrix material. The density of both ghosts and more severely damaged peroxisomes was approximately 1.23. Pyrophosphate (pH 9) treatment solubilized the fibrillar content, yielding ghosts that were empty except for cores. Some matrix proteins such as catalase and thiolase readily leak from peroxisomes. Other proteins were identified that remain in mechanically damaged peroxisomes but are neither core nor membrane proteins because they can be released by pyrophosphate treatment. These constitute a class of poorly soluble matrix proteins that appear to correspond to the fibrillar material observed morphologically. All of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes are located in the matrix, but they vary greatly in how easily they leak out. Palmitoyl coenzyme A synthetase is in the membrane, based on its co-distribution with the 22-kilodalton integral membrane polypeptide. PMID:2989301

  1. Nimesulide, a cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor, suppresses obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic insulin resistance through the regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Shunsuke; Kishina, Manabu; Koda, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Yasutaka; Tanaka, Kohei; Harada, Yusuke; Yoshida, Akio; Hisatome, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 selective inhibitors suppress non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the precise mechanism of action remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine how the COX-2 selective inhibitor nimesulide suppresses NAFLD in a murine model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Mice were fed either a normal chow diet (NC), an HFD, or HFD plus nimesulide (HFD-nime) for 12 weeks. Body weight, hepatic COX-2 mRNA expression and triglyceride accumulation were significantly increased in the HFD group. Triglyceride accumulation was suppressed in the HFD-nime group. The mRNA expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and the natural PPARγ agonist 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) were significantly increased in the HFD group and significantly suppressed in the HFD-nime group. Glucose metabolism was impaired in the HFD group compared with the NC group, and it was significantly improved in the HFD-nime group. In addition, the plasma insulin levels in the HFD group were increased compared with those in the NC group, and were decreased in the HFD-nime group. These results indicate that HFD-induced NAFLD is mediated by the increased hepatic expression of COX-2. We suggest that the production of 15d-PGJ2, which is mediated by COX-2, induces NAFLD and hepatic insulin resistance by activating PPARγ. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), procollagen-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), as well as the number of F4/80-positive hepatic (Kupffer) cells, were significantly increased in the HFD group compared with the NC group, and they were reduced by nimesulide. In conclusion, COX-2 may emerge as a molecular target for preventing the development of NAFLD and insulin resistance in diet-related obesity. PMID:27431935

  2. Metabolic Interplay between Peroxisomes and Other Subcellular Organelles Including Mitochondria and the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Waterham, Hans R.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are unique subcellular organelles which play an indispensable role in several key metabolic pathways which include: (1.) etherphospholipid biosynthesis; (2.) fatty acid beta-oxidation; (3.) bile acid synthesis; (4.) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) synthesis; (5.) fatty acid alpha-oxidation; (6.) glyoxylate metabolism; (7.) amino acid degradation, and (8.) ROS/RNS metabolism. The importance of peroxisomes for human health and development is exemplified by the existence of a large number of inborn errors of peroxisome metabolism in which there is an impairment in one or more of the metabolic functions of peroxisomes. Although the clinical signs and symptoms of affected patients differ depending upon the enzyme which is deficient and the extent of the deficiency, the disorders involved are usually (very) severe diseases with neurological dysfunction and early death in many of them. With respect to the role of peroxisomes in metabolism it is clear that peroxisomes are dependent on the functional interplay with other subcellular organelles to sustain their role in metabolism. Indeed, whereas mitochondria can oxidize fatty acids all the way to CO2 and H2O, peroxisomes are only able to chain-shorten fatty acids and the end products of peroxisomal beta-oxidation need to be shuttled to mitochondria for full oxidation to CO2 and H2O. Furthermore, NADH is generated during beta-oxidation in peroxisomes and beta-oxidation can only continue if peroxisomes are equipped with a mechanism to reoxidize NADH back to NAD+, which is now known to be mediated by specific NAD(H)-redox shuttles. In this paper we describe the current state of knowledge about the functional interplay between peroxisomes and other subcellular compartments notably the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum for each of the metabolic pathways in which peroxisomes are involved. PMID:26858947

  3. Peroxisomal organization in normal and cerebrohepatorenal (Zellweger) syndrome fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Santos, M J; Ojeda, J M; Garrido, J; Leighton, F

    1985-01-01

    The reported absence of morphologically detectable peroxisomes in liver and kidney tissue cells from patients affected by the autosomic recessive, inherited metabolic disease known as cerebrohepatorenal, or Zellweger, syndrome was studied in fibroblasts, assuming it to be a generalized defect. Normal cultured fibroblasts were shown to contain peroxisomes according to morphological, biochemical, and subcellular fractionation criteria: particle-bound catalase and fatty acyl-CoA oxidase copurify in subcellular fractionation by differential centrifugation or isopycnic equilibrium in continuous density gradients and peroxidase-positive organelles of approximately equal to 0.1 micron in diameter are detected in the cytoplasm. In Zellweger cultured fibroblasts, these peroxisomal enzymes are present; however, they behave as cytosolic enzymes in the different subcellular fractionation procedures employed and peroxisomes are not detected cytochemically. These findings support the hypothesis that the lack of peroxisomes in this genetic disease is the consequence of a defect in the assembly of the peroxisomal constituents. Furthermore, the value of fibroblasts for subcellular analysis of peroxisomal defects is illustrated. Images PMID:2995971

  4. A viable Arabidopsis pex13 missense allele confers severe peroxisomal defects and decreases PEX5 association with peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Andrew W.; Fleming, Wendell A.; Burkhart, Sarah E.; Ratzel, Sarah E.; Bjornson, Marta; Bartel, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisomes are organelles that catabolize fatty acids and compartmentalize other oxidative metabolic processes in eukaryotes. Using a forward-genetic screen designed to recover severe peroxisome-defective mutants, we isolated a viable allele of the peroxisome biogenesis gene PEX13 with striking peroxisomal defects. The pex13-4 mutant requires an exogenous source of fixed carbon for pre-photosynthetic development and is resistant to the protoauxin indole-3-butyric acid. Delivery of peroxisome-targeted matrix proteins depends on the PEX5 receptor docking with PEX13 at the peroxisomal membrane, and we found severely reduced import of matrix proteins and less organelle-associated PEX5 in pex13-4 seedlings. Moreover, pex13-4 physiological and molecular defects were partially ameliorated when PEX5 was overexpressed, suggesting that PEX5 docking is partially compromised in this mutant and can be improved by increasing PEX5 levels. Because previously described Arabidopsis pex13 alleles either are lethal or confer only subtle defects, the pex13-4 mutant provides valuable insight into plant peroxisome receptor docking and matrix protein import. PMID:25008153

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Cullingford, Tim

    2008-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a drug/fatty acid-activated trans cription factor involved in the starvation response, and is thus relevant to the ketogenic diet (KD). This article summarizes research indicating the role of PPARalpha in central and peripheral nervous system function with particular reference to downstream targets relevant to anticonvulsant action.

  6. [The subcellular organelles of peroxisome, realization of biologic functions of trophology, homeostasis, endoecology and functional bond with mitochondrion: the lecture].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Shiriaeva, Iu K; Kaba, S I

    2012-06-01

    The biologic role of peroxisomes in cells is that the organelles in respect to fatty acids, lipids and substrates synthesized from acetate implement the same fimnctions as the lysosomes exercise to proteins and polypeptides. The biologic role of peroxisomes is to optimize in vivo the exogenous fatty acids in hepatocytes under the realization of biologic functions of trophology, homeostasis, endoecology. About 800 individual fatty acids can penetrate into organism with food. At that, no more than thirty of them undergo the metabolic transformation in vivo. The rest hundreds of fatty acids are aphysiologic and have to be oxidized into peroxisomes under isochronic activation of alpha-, beta- and omega-oxydases without ATP formation. If in peroxisomes are formed fatty acids that can oxidize mitochondrions by beta-oxidation then the proteins of cytosol transfer fatty acids from peroxisomes to mitochondrions. The mitochondrions oxidize fatty acids in the Krebs cycle to form ATP. The oxidation in peroxisomes concerns the fatty acids with odd numbers of carbon atoms, the transforms of unsaturated fatty acids, the very long chain fatty acids, the fatty acids with carbon atoms side-chains, the dicarboxylic fatty acids, the fatty acids with benzene or indole rings in carbon atoms chains. The peroxisomes oxidize the surplus amount of exogenous palmitic saturated fatty acid too. The peroxisomes implement the biologic.function of endoecology on autocrine level supporting the "purity" of cells cytosol and interact functionally with mitochondrions. In the intercellular medium of paracrine cells coens the fimctions of endoecology are realized by the Toll-similar receptors by the "our-not our" principle concerning phospholipids, positional aphysiologic triglycerides and proteolipids. In the peroxisomes, under the simultaneous oxidation of very long chain fatty acids, the synthesis by primate cells is possible of some amount of essential unsaturated and polyene fatty acids. The

  7. Catalase Deficiency Accelerates Diabetic Renal Injury Through Peroxisomal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Inah; Lee, Jiyoun; Huh, Joo Young; Park, Jehyun; Lee, Hi Bahl; Ho, Ye-Shih; Ha, Hunjoo

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in diabetes complications, including diabetic nephropathy (DN). Plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) as well as glucose are increased in diabetes, and peroxisomes and mitochondria participate in FFA oxidation in an interconnected fashion. Therefore, we investigated whether deficiency of catalase, a major peroxisomal antioxidant, accelerates DN through peroxisomal dysfunction and abnormal renal FFA metabolism. Diabetes was induced by multiple injections of low-dose streptozotocin into catalase knock-out (CKO) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. Murine mesangial cells (MMCs) transfected with catalase small interfering RNA followed by catalase overexpression were used to further elucidate the role of endogenous catalase. Despite equivalent hyperglycemia, parameters of DN, along with markers of oxidative stress, were more accelerated in diabetic CKO mice than in diabetic WT mice up to 10 weeks of diabetes. CKO mice and MMCs showed impaired peroxisomal/mitochondrial biogenesis and FFA oxidation. Catalase deficiency increased mitochondrial ROS and fibronectin expression in response to FFAs, which were effectively restored by catalase overexpression or N-acetylcysteine. These data provide unprecedented evidence that FFA-induced peroxisomal dysfunction exacerbates DN and that endogenous catalase plays an important role in protecting the kidney from diabetic stress through maintaining peroxisomal and mitochondrial fitness. PMID:22315314

  8. Pmp27 promotes peroxisomal proliferation

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Peroxisomes perform many essential functions in eukaryotic cells. The weight of evidence indicates that these organelles divide by budding from preexisting peroxisomes. This process is not understood at the molecular level. Peroxisomal proliferation can be induced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by oleate. This growth substrate is metabolized by peroxisomal enzymes. We have identified a protein, Pmp27, that promotes peroxisomal proliferation. This protein, previously termed Pmp24, was purified from peroxisomal membranes, and the corresponding gene, PMP27, was isolated and sequenced. Pmp27 shares sequence similarity with the Pmp30 family in Candida boidinii. Pmp27 is a hydrophobic peroxisomal membrane protein but it can be extracted by high pH, suggesting that it does not fully span the bilayer. Its expression is regulated by oleate. The function of Pmp27 was probed by observing the phenotype of strains in which the protein was eliminated by gene disruption or overproduced by expression from a multicopy plasmid. The strain containing the disruption (3B) was able to grow on all carbon sources tested, including oleate, although growth on oleate, glycerol, and acetate was slower than wild type. Strain 3B contained peroxisomes with all of the enzymes of beta-oxidation. However, in addition to the presence of a few modestly sized peroxisomes seen in a typical thin section of a cell growing on oleate-containing medium, cells of strain 3B also contained one or two very large peroxisomes. In contrast, cells in a strain in which Pmp27 was overexpressed contained an increased number of normal-sized peroxisomes. We suggest that Pmp27 promotes peroxisomal proliferation by participating in peroxisomal elongation or fission. PMID:7721939

  9. Integration of peroxisomes into an endomembrane system that governs cellular aging

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Adam; Burstein, Michelle T.; Richard, Vincent R.; Leonov, Anna; Levy, Sean; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2012-01-01

    The peroxisome is an organelle that has long been known for its essential roles in oxidation of fatty acids, maintenance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and anaplerotic replenishment of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates destined for mitochondria. Growing evidence supports the view that these peroxisome-confined metabolic processes play an essential role in defining the replicative and chronological age of a eukaryotic cell. Much progress has recently been made in defining molecular mechanisms that link cellular aging to fatty acid oxidation, ROS turnover, and anaplerotic metabolism in peroxisomes. Emergent studies have revealed that these organelles not only house longevity-defining metabolic reactions but can also regulate cellular aging via their dynamic communication with other cellular compartments. Peroxisomes communicate with other organelles by establishing extensive physical contact with lipid bodies, maintaining an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to peroxisome connectivity system, exchanging certain metabolites, and being involved in the bidirectional flow of some of their protein and lipid constituents. The scope of this review is to summarize the evidence that peroxisomes are dynamically integrated into an endomembrane system that governs cellular aging. We discuss recent progress in understanding how communications between peroxisomes and other cellular compartments within this system influence the development of a pro- or anti-aging cellular pattern. We also propose a model for the integration of peroxisomes into the endomembrane system governing cellular aging and critically evaluate several molecular mechanisms underlying such integration. PMID:22936916

  10. Optical Control of Peroxisomal Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The blue-light-responsive LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin1 (AsLOV2) has been used to regulate activity and binding of diverse protein targets with light. Here, we used AsLOV2 to photocage a peroxisomal targeting sequence, allowing light regulation of peroxisomal protein import. We generated a protein tag, LOV-PTS1, that can be appended to proteins of interest to direct their import to the peroxisome with light. This method provides a means to inducibly trigger peroxisomal protein trafficking in specific cells at user-defined times. PMID:26513473

  11. Peroxisomal fission is induced during appressorium formation and is required for full virulence of the rice blast fungus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Lin; Shen, Mi; Yang, Jun; Xing, Yunfei; Chen, Deng; Li, Zhigang; Zhao, Wensheng; Zhang, Yan

    2017-02-01

    Peroxisomes are involved in various metabolic processes and are important for virulence in different pathogenic fungi. How peroxisomes rapidly emerge in the appressorium during fungal infection is poorly understood. Here, we describe a gene, PEF1, which can regulate peroxisome formation in the appressorium by controlling peroxisomal fission, and is required for plant infection in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Targeted deletion of PEF1 resulted in a reduction in virulence and a delay in penetration and invasive growth in host cells. PEF1 was particularly expressed during appressorial development, and its encoding protein was co-localized with peroxisomes during appressorial development. Compared with the massive vesicle-shaped peroxisomes formed in the wild-type appressorium, the Δpef1 mutant could only form stringy linked immature peroxisomes, suggesting that PEF1 was involved in peroxisomal fission during appressorium formation. We also found that the Δpef1 mutant could not utilize fatty acids efficiently, which can improve significantly the expression level of PEF1 and induce peroxisomal fission. As expected, the Δpef1 mutant showed reduced intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during appressorium formation and induced ROS accumulation in host cells during infection. Taken together, PEF1-mediated peroxisomal fission is important for fungal infection by controlling the number of peroxisomes in the appressorium.

  12. Novel proteins, putative membrane transporters, and an integrated metabolic network are revealed by quantitative proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis cell culture peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Eubel, Holger; Meyer, Etienne H; Taylor, Nicolas L; Bussell, John D; O'Toole, Nicholas; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Castleden, Ian; Small, Ian D; Smith, Steven M; Millar, A Harvey

    2008-12-01

    Peroxisomes play key roles in energy metabolism, cell signaling, and plant development. A better understanding of these important functions will be achieved with a more complete definition of the peroxisome proteome. The isolation of peroxisomes and their separation from mitochondria and other major membrane systems have been significant challenges in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) model system. In this study, we present new data on the Arabidopsis peroxisome proteome obtained using two new technical advances that have not previously been applied to studies of plant peroxisomes. First, we followed density gradient centrifugation with free-flow electrophoresis to improve the separation of peroxisomes from mitochondria. Second, we used quantitative proteomics to identify proteins enriched in the peroxisome fractions relative to mitochondrial fractions. We provide evidence for peroxisomal localization of 89 proteins, 36 of which have not previously been identified in other analyses of Arabidopsis peroxisomes. Chimeric green fluorescent protein constructs of 35 proteins have been used to confirm their localization in peroxisomes or to identify endoplasmic reticulum contaminants. The distribution of many of these peroxisomal proteins between soluble, membrane-associated, and integral membrane locations has also been determined. This core peroxisomal proteome from nonphotosynthetic cultured cells contains a proportion of proteins that cannot be predicted to be peroxisomal due to the lack of recognizable peroxisomal targeting sequence 1 (PTS1) or PTS2 signals. Proteins identified are likely to be components in peroxisome biogenesis, beta-oxidation for fatty acid degradation and hormone biosynthesis, photorespiration, and metabolite transport. A considerable number of the proteins found in peroxisomes have no known function, and potential roles of these proteins in peroxisomal metabolism are discussed. This is aided by a metabolic network analysis that reveals a

  13. Impact of salt stress, cell death, and autophagy on peroxisomes: quantitative and morphological analyses using small fluorescent probe N-BODIPY

    PubMed Central

    Fahy, Deirdre; Sanad, Marwa N. M. E.; Duscha, Kerstin; Lyons, Madison; Liu, Fuquan; Bozhkov, Peter; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Hu, Jianping; Neuhaus, H. Ekkehard; Steel, Patrick G.; Smertenko, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Plant peroxisomes maintain a plethora of key life processes including fatty acid β-oxidation, photorespiration, synthesis of hormones, and homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Abundance of peroxisomes in cells is dynamic; however mechanisms controlling peroxisome proliferation remain poorly understood because measuring peroxisome abundance is technically challenging. Counting peroxisomes in individual cells of complex organs by electron or fluorescence microscopy is expensive and time consuming. Here we present a simple technique for quantifying peroxisome abundance using the small probe Nitro-BODIPY, which in vivo fluoresces selectively inside peroxisomes. The physiological relevance of our technique was demonstrated using salinity as a known inducer of peroxisome proliferation. While significant peroxisome proliferation was observed in wild-type Arabidopsis leaves following 5-hour exposure to NaCl, no proliferation was detected in the salt-susceptible mutants fry1-6, sos1-14, and sos1-15. We also found that N-BODIPY detects aggregation of peroxisomes during final stages of programmed cell death and can be used as a marker of this stage. Furthermore, accumulation of peroxisomes in an autophagy-deficient Arabidopsis mutant atg5 correlated with N-BODIPY labeling. In conclusion, the technique reported here enables quantification of peroxisomes in plant material at various physiological settings. Its potential applications encompass identification of genes controlling peroxisome homeostasis and capturing stress-tolerant genotypes. PMID:28145408

  14. Involvement of glutathione peroxidase 1 in growth and peroxisome formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in oleic acid medium.

    PubMed

    Ohdate, Takumi; Inoue, Yoshiharu

    2012-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to use some fatty acids, such as oleic acid, as a sole source of carbon. β-oxidation, which occurs in a single membrane-enveloped organelle or peroxisome, is responsible for the assimilation of fatty acids. In S. cerevisiae, β-oxidation occurs only in peroxisomes, and H(2)O(2) is generated during this fatty acid-metabolizing pathway. S. cerevisiae has three GPX genes (GPX1, GPX2, and GPX3) encoding atypical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins. Here we show that expression of GPX1 was induced in medium containing oleic acid as a carbon source in an Msn2/Msn4-dependent manner. We found that Gpx1 was located in the peroxisomal matrix. The peroxisomal Gpx1 showed peroxidase activity using thioredoxin or glutathione as a reducing power. Peroxisome biogenesis was induced when cells were cultured with oleic acid. Peroxisome biogenesis was impaired in gpx1∆ cells, and subsequently, the growth of gpx1∆ cells was lowered in oleic acid-containing medium. Gpx1 contains six cysteine residues. Of the cysteine-substituted mutants of Gpx1, Gpx1(C36S) was not able to restore growth and peroxisome formation in oleic acid-containing medium, therefore, redox regulation of Gpx1 seems to be involved in the mechanism of peroxisome formation.

  15. Peroxisome function is required for virulence and survival of Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyunghun; Son, Hokyoung; Lee, Jungkwan; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

    2012-12-01

    Peroxisomes are organelles that are involved in a number of important cellular metabolic processes, including the β-oxidation of fatty acids, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, the role of peroxisomes was examined in Fusarium graminearum by targeted deletion of three genes (PEX5, PEX6, and PEX7) encoding peroxin (PEX) proteins required for peroxisomal protein import. PEX5 and PEX7 deletion mutants were unable to localize the fluorescently tagged peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1)- and PTS2-containing proteins to peroxisomes, respectively, whereas the PEX6 mutant failed to localize both fluorescent proteins. Deletion of PEX5 and PEX6 resulted in retarded growth on long-chain fatty acids and butyrate, while the PEX7 deletion mutants utilized fatty acids other than butyrate. Virulence on wheat heads was greatly reduced in the PEX5 and PEX6 deletion mutants, and they were defective in spreading from inoculated florets to the adjacent spikelets through rachis. Deletion of PEX5 and PEX6 dropped survivability of aged cells in planta and in vitro due to the accumulation of ROS followed by necrotic cell death. These results demonstrate that PTS1-dependent peroxisomal protein import mediated by PEX5 and PEX6 are critical to virulence and survival of F. graminearum.

  16. In situ measurements of the pH of mammalian peroxisomes using the fluorescent protein pHluorin.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, A; Kim, J H; Collins, R F; Daneman, R; Walton, P; Grinstein, S

    2001-12-28

    Peroxisomes are metabolically active organelles that participate in the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids and in the biosynthesis of bile acids, cholesterol, and ether phospholipids. Even though maintenance of a stable acid-base milieu is essential for proper peroxisomal function, the determination of the peroxisomal pH (pH(p)) remains inconclusive, and little is known about its regulation. To measure the pH of intact peroxisomes in situ, we used the peroxisome-specific carboxyl-terminal targeting sequence, SKL, to deliver a pH-sensitive mutant of the green fluorescent protein (pHluorin-SKL) selectively into peroxisomes. Proper targeting was verified by colocalization with the peroxisomal marker catalase. Peroxisomes were visualized by imaging fluorescence microscopy, and ratiometric measurements were combined with calibration using ionophores or a null-point method to estimate pH(p). The pH(p) was between 6.9 and 7.1, resembling the cytosolic pH. Manipulation of the cytosolic pH in intact cells or after permeabilization of the plasmalemma with streptolysin O revealed that pH(p) changed in parallel, suggesting that the peroxisomal membrane is highly permeable to H(+) (equivalents). We conclude that peroxisomes do not regulate their pH independently, but instead their large H(+) permeability effectively connects them with the buffer reservoir of the cytoplasm and with the homeostatic mechanisms that control cytosolic pH.

  17. Contrasting effects of fish oil and safflower oil on hepatic peroxisomal and tissue lipid content.

    PubMed

    Neschen, Susanne; Moore, Irene; Regittnig, Werner; Yu, Chun Li; Wang, Yanlin; Pypaert, Marc; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Shulman, Gerald I

    2002-02-01

    To examine the mechanism by which fish oil protects against fat-induced insulin resistance, we studied the effects of control, fish oil, and safflower oil diets on peroxisomal content, fatty acyl-CoA, diacylglycerol, and ceramide content in rat liver and muscle. We found that, in contrast to control and safflower oil-fed rats, fish oil feeding induced a 150% increase in the abundance of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase in liver but lacked similar effects in muscle. This was paralleled by an almost twofold increase in hepatic peroxisome content (both P < 0.002 vs. control and safflower). These changes in the fish oil-fed rats were associated with a more than twofold lower hepatic triglyceride/diacylglycerol, as well as intramuscular triglyceride/fatty acyl-CoA, content. In conclusion, these data strongly support the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids protect against fat-induced insulin resistance by serving as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha ligands and thereby induce hepatic, but not intramuscular, peroxisome proliferation. In turn, an increased hepatic beta-oxidative capacity results in lower hepatic triglyceride/diacylglycerol and intramyocellular triglyceride/fatty acyl-CoA content.

  18. Yeast peroxisomes multiply by growth and division.

    PubMed

    Motley, Alison M; Hettema, Ewald H

    2007-07-30

    Peroxisomes can arise de novo from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via a maturation process. Peroxisomes can also multiply by fission. We have investigated how these modes of multiplication contribute to peroxisome numbers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the role of the dynamin-related proteins (Drps) in these processes. We have developed pulse-chase and mating assays to follow the fate of existing peroxisomes, de novo-formed peroxisomes, and ER-derived preperoxisomal structures. We find that in wild-type (WT) cells, peroxisomes multiply by fission and do not form de novo. A marker for the maturation pathway, Pex3-GFP, is delivered from the ER to existing peroxisomes. Strikingly, cells lacking peroxisomes as a result of a segregation defect do form peroxisomes de novo. This process is slower than peroxisome multiplication in WT cells and is Drp independent. In contrast, peroxisome fission is Drp dependent. Our results show that peroxisomes multiply by growth and division under our assay conditions. We conclude that the ER to peroxisome pathway functions to supply existing peroxisomes with essential membrane constituents.

  19. Factors influencing palmitoyl-CoA oxidation by rat liver peroxisomal fractions. Substrate concentration, organelle integrity and ATP.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J; Debeer, L J; De Schepper, P J; Mannaerts, G P

    1980-01-01

    1. The first dehydrogenation step of peroxisomal beta-oxidation involves the reduction of O2 to H2O2. Production rates of H2O2 and acetyl units by purified rat liver peroxisomes oxidizing palmitoyl-CoA were equal, indicating that H2O2 production is a reliable index for the release of acetyl units during peroxisomal fatty-acid oxidation. 2. Measurements of H2O2 and acid-soluble oxidation products during [1-14C]palmitoyl-CoA oxidation by purified peroxisomes revealed that the number of acetyl units released per molecule of palmitoyl-CoA oxidized rapidly decreased with increasing unbound palmitoyl-CoA concentrations. Structural damage to the peroxisomes caused by detergents or other treatments also decreased the number of acetyl units released. Under conditions where oxidation proceeded linearly with time the theoretical maximum of 5 acetyl units released per molecule of palmitoyl-CoA oxidized [Lazarow (1978) J. Biol. Chem. 253, 1522--1528] was never reached. 3. Expressed in terms of acetyl units produced and measured at low unbound-palmitoyl-CoA concentrations, mitochondrial oxidation was 10--20-fold higher than peroxisomal oxidation. 4. ATP stimulated peroxisomal palmitoyl-CoA oxidation approx. 2-fold. The ATP effect required the presence of Mg2+ and was lost when peroxisomal membranes were disrupted by Triton X-100 or high concentrations of unbound palmitoyl-CoA. 5. Disruption of peroxisomes by detergents, freeze--thawing, osmotic or mechanical treatment did not stimulate palmitoyl-CoA oxidation in the presence of ATP, indicating that peroxisomal fatty-acid-CoA oxidation was not latent. In the absence of ATP, Triton X-100 stimulated peroxisomal palmitoyl-CoA oxidation approx. 2-fold. PMID:7470063

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor mRNA levels are modified by dietary n-3 fatty acid restriction and energy restriction in the brain and liver of growing rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Without dietary sources of long chain (LC) n-3 fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA;18:3n-3) is the precursor for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). It is not known how energy restriction (ER) impacts ALA conversion to DHA. We tested the hypothesis that ER reduces LCn-3 content in growing rats ...

  1. Emerging roles of mitochondria in the evolution, biogenesis, and function of peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Abhishek; McBride, Heidi M.

    2013-01-01

    In the last century peroxisomes were thought to have an endosymbiotic origin. Along with mitochondria and chloroplasts, peroxisomes primarily regulate their numbers through the growth and division of pre-existing organelles, and they house specific machinery for protein import. These features were considered unique to endosymbiotic organelles, prompting the idea that peroxisomes were key cellular elements that helped facilitate the evolution of multicellular organisms. The functional similarities to mitochondria within mammalian systems expanded these ideas, as both organelles scavenge peroxide and reactive oxygen species, both organelles oxidize fatty acids, and at least in higher eukaryotes, the biogenesis of both organelles is controlled by common nuclear transcription factors of the PPAR family. Over the last decade it has been demonstrated that the fission machinery of both organelles is also shared, and that both organelles act as critical signaling platforms for innate immunity and other pathways. Taken together it is clear that the mitochondria and peroxisomes are functionally coupled, regulating cellular metabolism and signaling through a number of common mechanisms. However, recent work has focused primarily on the role of the ER in the biogenesis of peroxisomes, potentially overshadowing the critical importance of the mitochondria as a functional partner. In this review, we explore the mechanisms of functional coupling of the peroxisomes to the mitochondria/ER networks, providing some new perspectives on the potential contribution of the mitochondria to peroxisomal biogenesis. PMID:24133452

  2. PEROXISOME-PROLIFERATOR ACTIVATED RECEPTORS AS A MACROMOLECULAR TARGET FOR CHEMICAL TOXICITY: MODELS OF THE INTERACTIONS OF PPARS WITH PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors (PPARs), a class of nuclear receptors that modulate both transcription and metabolic processes, are implicated in a variety of metabolic disorders linked to lipidogenesis, adipose tissue accumulation, fatty-acid oxidation pathways, ...

  3. Peroxisomes, oxidative stress, and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Terlecky, Stanley R; Terlecky, Laura J; Giordano, Courtney R

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes are intracellular organelles mediating a wide variety of biosynthetic and biodegradative reactions. Included among these are the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide and other reactive species, molecules whose levels help define the oxidative state of cells. Loss of oxidative equilibrium in cells of tissues and organs potentiates inflammatory responses which can ultimately trigger human disease. The goal of this article is to review evidence for connections between peroxisome function, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the context of human health and degenerative disease. Dysregulated points in this nexus are identified and potential remedial approaches are presented. PMID:22649571

  4. Genetic Interactions between PEROXIN12 and Other Peroxisome-Associated Ubiquitination Components1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Yun-Ting; Fleming, Wendell A.; Ventura, Meredith J.

    2016-01-01

    Most eukaryotic cells require peroxisomes, organelles housing fatty acid β-oxidation and other critical metabolic reactions. Peroxisomal matrix proteins carry peroxisome-targeting signals that are recognized by one of two receptors, PEX5 or PEX7, in the cytosol. After delivering the matrix proteins to the organelle, these receptors are removed from the peroxisomal membrane or matrix. Receptor retrotranslocation not only facilitates further rounds of matrix protein import but also prevents deleterious PEX5 retention in the membrane. Three peroxisome-associated ubiquitin-protein ligases in the Really Interesting New Gene (RING) family, PEX2, PEX10, and PEX12, facilitate PEX5 retrotranslocation. However, the detailed mechanism of receptor retrotranslocation remains unclear in plants. We identified an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) pex12 Glu-to-Lys missense allele that conferred severe peroxisomal defects, including impaired β-oxidation, inefficient matrix protein import, and decreased growth. We compared this pex12-1 mutant to other peroxisome-associated ubiquitination-related mutants and found that RING peroxin mutants displayed elevated PEX5 and PEX7 levels, supporting the involvement of RING peroxins in receptor ubiquitination in Arabidopsis. Also, we observed that disruption of any Arabidopsis RING peroxin led to decreased PEX10 levels, as seen in yeast and mammals. Peroxisomal defects were exacerbated in RING peroxin double mutants, suggesting distinct roles of individual RING peroxins. Finally, reducing function of the peroxisome-associated ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme PEX4 restored PEX10 levels and partially ameliorated the other molecular and physiological defects of the pex12-1 mutant. Future biochemical analyses will be needed to determine whether destabilization of the RING peroxin complex observed in pex12-1 stems from PEX4-dependent ubiquitination on the pex12-1 ectopic Lys residue. PMID:27650450

  5. ABCD2 identifies a subclass of peroxisomes in mouse adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaoxi Liu, Jingjing Lester, Joshua D. Pijut, Sonja S. Graf, Gregory A.

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • We examined the D2 localization and the proteome of D2-containing compartment in mouse adipose tissue. • We confirmed the presence of D2 on a subcellular compartment that has typical structure as a microperoxisome. • We demonstrated the scarcity of peroxisome markers on D2-containing compartment. • The D2-containing compartment may be a subpopulation of peroxisome in mouse adipose tissue. • Proteomic data suggests potential association between D2-containing compartment and mitochondria and ER. - Abstract: ATP-binding cassette transporter D2 (D2) is an ABC half transporter that is thought to promote the transport of very long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs into peroxisomes. Both D2 and peroxisomes increase during adipogenesis. Although peroxisomes are essential to both catabolic and anabolic lipid metabolism, their function, and that of D2, in adipose tissues remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the D2 localization and the proteome of D2-containing organelles, in adipose tissue. Centrifugation of mouse adipose homogenates generated a fraction enriched with D2, but deficient in peroxisome markers including catalase, PEX19, and ABCD3 (D3). Electron microscopic imaging of this fraction confirmed the presence of D2 protein on an organelle with a dense matrix and a diameter of ∼200 nm, the typical structure and size of a microperoxisome. D2 and PEX19 antibodies recognized distinct structures in mouse adipose. Immunoisolation of the D2-containing compartment confirmed the scarcity of PEX19 and proteomic profiling revealed the presence of proteins associated with peroxisome, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and mitochondria. D2 is localized to a distinct class of peroxisomes that lack many peroxisome proteins, and may associate physically with mitochondria and the ER.

  6. Localization of peroxisomal matrix proteins by photobleaching

    SciTech Connect

    Buch, Charlotta; Hunt, Mary C.; Alexson, Stefan E.H.; Hallberg, Einar

    2009-10-16

    The distribution of some enzymes between peroxisomes and cytosol, or a dual localization in both these compartments, can be difficult to reconcile. We have used photobleaching in live cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion proteins to show that imported bona fide peroxisomal matrix proteins are retained in the peroxisome. The high mobility of the GFP-fusion proteins in the cytosol and absence of peroxisomal escape makes it possible to eliminate the cytosolic fluorescence by photobleaching, to distinguish between exclusively cytosolic proteins and proteins that are also present at low levels in peroxisomes. Using this technique we found that GFP tagged bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT) was exclusively localized in the cytosol in HeLa cells. We conclude that the cytosolic localization was due to its carboxyterminal non-consensus peroxisomal targeting signal (-SQL) since mutation of the -SQL to -SKL resulted in BAAT being efficiently imported into peroxisomes.

  7. Targeted deletion of the PEX2 peroxisome assembly gene in mice provides a model for Zellweger syndrome, a human neuronal migration disorder.

    PubMed

    Faust, P L; Hatten, M E

    1997-12-01

    Zellweger syndrome is a peroxisomal biogenesis disorder that results in abnormal neuronal migration in the central nervous system and severe neurologic dysfunction. The pathogenesis of the multiple severe anomalies associated with the disorders of peroxisome biogenesis remains unknown. To study the relationship between lack of peroxisomal function and organ dysfunction, the PEX2 peroxisome assembly gene (formerly peroxisome assembly factor-1) was disrupted by gene targeting. Homozygous PEX2-deficient mice survive in utero but die several hours after birth. The mutant animals do not feed and are hypoactive and markedly hypotonic. The PEX2-deficient mice lack normal peroxisomes but do assemble empty peroxisome membrane ghosts. They display abnormal peroxisomal biochemical parameters, including accumulations of very long chain fatty acids in plasma and deficient erythrocyte plasmalogens. Abnormal lipid storage is evident in the adrenal cortex, with characteristic lamellar-lipid inclusions. In the central nervous system of newborn mutant mice there is disordered lamination in the cerebral cortex and an increased cell density in the underlying white matter, indicating an abnormality of neuronal migration. These findings demonstrate that mice with a PEX2 gene deletion have a peroxisomal disorder and provide an important model to study the role of peroxisomal function in the pathogenesis of this human disease.

  8. Peroxisomes sense and respond to environmental cues by regulating ROS and RNS signalling networks

    PubMed Central

    Sandalio, L. M.; Romero-Puertas, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Peroxisomes are highly dynamic, metabolically active organelles that used to be regarded as a sink for H2O2 generated in different organelles. However, peroxisomes are now considered to have a more complex function, containing different metabolic pathways, and they are an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Over-accumulation of ROS and RNS can give rise oxidative and nitrosative stress, but when produced at low concentrations they can act as signalling molecules. Scope This review focuses on the production of ROS and RNS in peroxisomes and their regulation by antioxidants. ROS production is associated with metabolic pathways such as photorespiration and fatty acid β-oxidation, and disturbances in any of these processes can be perceived by the cell as an alarm that triggers defence responses. Genetic and pharmacological studies have shown that photorespiratory H2O2 can affect nuclear gene expression, regulating the response to pathogen infection and light intensity. Proteomic studies have shown that peroxisomal proteins are targets for oxidative modification, S-nitrosylation and nitration and have highlighted the importance of these modifications in regulating peroxisomal metabolism and signalling networks. The morphology, size, number and speed of movement of peroxisomes can also change in response to oxidative stress, meaning that an ROS/redox receptor is required. Information available on the production and detection of NO/RNS in peroxisomes is more limited. Peroxisomal homeostasis is critical for maintaining the cellular redox balance and is regulated by ROS, peroxisomal proteases and autophagic processes. Conclusions Peroxisomes play a key role in many aspects of plant development and acclimation to stress conditions. These organelles can sense ROS/redox changes in the cell and thus trigger rapid and specific responses to environmental cues involving changes in peroxisomal

  9. Contribution of peroxisomes to secondary metabolism and pathogenicity in the fungal plant pathogen Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Imazaki, Ai; Tanaka, Aiko; Harimoto, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Mikihiro; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Park, Pyoyun; Tsuge, Takashi

    2010-05-01

    The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata includes seven pathogenic variants (pathotypes) which produce different host-selective toxins and cause diseases on different plants. The Japanese pear pathotype produces the host-selective AK-toxin, an epoxy-decatrienoic acid ester, and causes black spot of Japanese pear. Previously, we identified four genes, AKT1, AKT2, AKT3, and AKTR, involved in AK toxin biosynthesis. AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3 encode enzyme proteins with peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1)-like tripeptides, SKI, SKL, and PKL, respectively, at the C-terminal ends. In this study, we verified the peroxisome localization of Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3 by using strains expressing N-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged versions of the proteins. To assess the role of peroxisome function in AK-toxin production, we isolated AaPEX6, which encodes a peroxin protein essential for peroxisome biogenesis, from the Japanese pear pathotype and made AaPEX6 disruption-containing transformants from a GFP-Akt1-expressing strain. The DeltaAaPEX6 mutant strains did not grow on fatty acid media because of a defect in fatty acid beta oxidation. The import of GFP-Akt1 into peroxisomes was impaired in the DeltaAaPEX6 mutant strains. These strains completely lost AK toxin production and pathogenicity on susceptible pear leaves. These data show that peroxisomes are essential for AK-toxin biosynthesis. The DeltaAaPEX6 mutant strains showed a marked reduction in the ability to cause lesions on leaves of a resistant pear cultivar with defense responses compromised by heat shock. This result suggests that peroxisome function is also required for plant invasion and tissue colonization in A. alternata. We also observed that mutation of AaPEX6 caused a marked reduction of conidiation.

  10. Peroxisomal proliferation in heart and liver of mice receiving chlorpromazine, ethyl 2(5(4-chlorophenyl)pentyl) oxiran-2-carboxylic acid or high fat diet: a biochemical and morphometrical comparative study.

    PubMed

    Vamecq, J; Roels, F; Van den Branden, C; Draye, J P

    1987-12-01

    Chlorpromazine and related drugs including trifluoperazine, clopenthixol, and fluphenazine are in vitro inhibitors of mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase and cytochrome c oxidase and of peroxisomal carnitine octanoyltransferase from mouse heart and liver. By contrast with 0.1% ethyl 2(5(4-chlorophenyl)pentyl) oxiran-2-carboxylic acid or 0.1% clofibrate-containing diets, the treatment of mice with 0.1% chlorpromazine-containing diet fails to induce peroxisomal proliferation in liver and heart. An 0.5% chlorpromazine-containing diet did induce peroxisomal proliferation. Inhibition of peroxisomal beta-oxidation presumably via the reduction of carnitine octanoyltransferase by chlorpromazine elicits the appearance in liver of lamellar structures resembling those seen in human peroxisomal disorders and induces accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids in plasma. The peroxisomal proliferation induced by administration of high dose chlorpromazine is ascribed to its ability to depress mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation by impairing cytochrome c oxidase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities.

  11. Autophagic degradation of peroxisomes in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Katarzyna, Zientara-Rytter; Suresh, Subramani

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are essential organelles required for proper cell function in all eukaryotic organisms. They participate in a wide range of cellular processes including the metabolism of lipids and generation, as well as detoxification, of hydrogen peroxide. Therefore, peroxisome homeostasis, manifested by the precise and efficient control of peroxisome number and functionality, must be tightly regulated in response to environmental changes. Due to the existence of many physiological disorders and diseases associated with peroxisome homeostasis imbalance, the dynamics of peroxisomes have been widely examined. The increasing volume of reports demonstrating significant involvement of the autophagy machinery in peroxisome removal leads us to summarize current knowledge of peroxisome degradation in mammalian cells. In this review we present current models of peroxisome degradation. We particularly focus on pexophagy - the selective clearance of peroxisomes through autophagy. We also critically discuss concepts of peroxisome recognition for pexophagy, including signaling and selectivity factors. Finally, we present examples of the pathological effects of pexophagy dysfunction and suggest promising future directions. PMID:27068951

  12. The exportomer: the peroxisomal receptor export machinery.

    PubMed

    Platta, Harald W; Hagen, Stefanie; Erdmann, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    Peroxisomes constitute a dynamic compartment of almost all eukaryotic cells. Depending on environmental changes and cellular demands peroxisomes can acquire diverse metabolic roles. The compartmentalization of peroxisomal matrix enzymes is a prerequisite to carry out their physiologic function. The matrix proteins are synthesized on free ribosomes in the cytosol and are ferried to the peroxisomal membrane by specific soluble receptors. Subsequent to cargo release into the peroxisomal matrix, the receptors are exported back to the cytosol to facilitate further rounds of matrix protein import. This dislocation step is accomplished by a remarkable machinery, which comprises enzymes required for the ubiquitination as well as the ATP-dependent extraction of the receptor from the membrane. Interestingly, receptor ubiquitination and dislocation are the only known energy-dependent steps in the peroxisomal matrix protein import process. The current view is that the export machinery of the receptors might function as molecular motor not only in the dislocation of the receptors but also in the import step of peroxisomal matrix protein by coupling ATP-dependent removal of the peroxisomal import receptor with cargo translocation into the organelle. In this review we will focus on the architecture and function of the peroxisomal receptor export machinery, the peroxisomal exportomer.

  13. The consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids differentially modulates gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Barradas, César M; Del-Río-Navarro, Blanca E; Domínguez-López, Aarón; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Martínez-Godínez, María de-Los-Á; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Miliar-García, Ángel

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation on metabolic state and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese adolescents. Obese adolescents (n = 26, 10 girls and 16 boys) aged 12.4 ± 2.1 years were assigned to a 12-week regimen of n-3 PUFA intake. Five times per day, subjects received a food supplement consisting of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (3 g per day, 944 mg EPA, and 2,088 mg DHA). Blood parameters were measured, and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were analyzed to determine gene expression at baseline and after 12 weeks. Student's t test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to estimate differences in arithmetic means of pre- and post-dietary supplementation for various anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and gene expression parameters. After 12 weeks, n-3 PUFA consumption was associated with decreased body mass index (29.7 ± 4.6 vs. 27.8 ± 4.4 kg/m(2); P < 0.001), waist circumference (93.2 ± 9.9 vs. 90.5 ± 10.0 cm; P < 0.003), hip circumference (102.9 ± 10.9 vs. 101.1 ± 10.9 cm; P < 0.014), and blood triglyceride levels (220.8 ± 27.4 vs. 99.7 ± 32.7 mg/dL; P < 0.001). Fatty acid supplementation/n3 PUFA supplementation was associated with a downregulated expression of the genes encoding PPARγ and PGC-1α (P < 0.001), and an upregulated expression of the genes encoding PPARα (P < 0.007) and SREBP1 (P < 0.021). The expressions of SOD2 (P < 0.04), CAT (P < 0.001), GPX3 (P < 0.032) and HIF-1α protein also decreased. Our study demonstrated that n-3 PUFA consumption and dietary restriction improved the anthropometric parameters and decreased the triglycerides levels of the adolescents, suggesting a reduction in hypoxia in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  14. Age-related subproteomic analysis of mouse liver and kidney peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Jia; Garcia-Arcos, Itsaso; Alvarez, Ruben; Cristobal, Susana

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite major recent advances in the understanding of peroxisomal functions and how peroxisomes arise, only scant information is available regarding this organelle in cellular aging. The aim of this study was to characterize the changes in the protein expression profile of aged versus young liver and kidney peroxisome-enriched fractions from mouse and to suggest possible mechanisms underlying peroxisomal aging. Peroxisome-enriched fractions from 10 weeks, 18 months and 24 months C57bl/6J mice were analyzed by quantitative proteomics. Results Peroxisomal proteins were enriched by differential and density gradient centrifugation and proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), quantified and identified by mass spectrometry (MS). In total, sixty-five proteins were identified in both tissues. Among them, 14 proteins were differentially expressed in liver and 21 proteins in kidney. The eight proteins differentially expressed in both tissues were involved in β-oxidation, α-oxidation, isoprenoid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism, and stress response. Quantitative proteomics, clustering methods, and prediction of transcription factors, all indicated that there is a decline in protein expression at 18 months and a recovery at 24 months. Conclusion These results indicate that some peroxisomal proteins show a tissue-specific functional response to aging. This response is probably dependent on their differential regeneration capacity. The differentially expressed proteins could lead several cellular effects: such as alteration of fatty acid metabolism that could alert membrane protein functions, increase of the oxidative stress and contribute to decline in bile salt synthesis. The ability to detect age-related variations in the peroxisomal proteome can help in the search for reliable and valid aging biomarkers. PMID:18042274

  15. PeroxisomeDB: a database for the peroxisomal proteome, functional genomics and disease

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Agatha; Fourcade, Stéphane; Domènech-Estévez, Enric; Gabaldón, Toni; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Berthommier, Guillaume; Ripp, Raymond; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Poch, Olivier; Pujol, Aurora

    2007-01-01

    Peroxisomes are essential organelles of eukaryotic origin, ubiquitously distributed in cells and organisms, playing key roles in lipid and antioxidant metabolism. Loss or malfunction of peroxisomes causes more than 20 fatal inherited conditions. We have created a peroxisomal database () that includes the complete peroxisomal proteome of Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, by gathering, updating and integrating the available genetic and functional information on peroxisomal genes. PeroxisomeDB is structured in interrelated sections ‘Genes’, ‘Functions’, ‘Metabolic pathways’ and ‘Diseases’, that include hyperlinks to selected features of NCBI, ENSEMBL and UCSC databases. We have designed graphical depictions of the main peroxisomal metabolic routes and have included updated flow charts for diagnosis. Precomputed BLAST, PSI-BLAST, multiple sequence alignment (MUSCLE) and phylogenetic trees are provided to assist in direct multispecies comparison to study evolutionary conserved functions and pathways. Highlights of the PeroxisomeDB include new tools developed for facilitating (i) identification of novel peroxisomal proteins, by means of identifying proteins carrying peroxisome targeting signal (PTS) motifs, (ii) detection of peroxisomes in silico, particularly useful for screening the deluge of newly sequenced genomes. PeroxisomeDB should contribute to the systematic characterization of the peroxisomal proteome and facilitate system biology approaches on the organelle. PMID:17135190

  16. PeroxisomeDB 2.0: an integrative view of the global peroxisomal metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Agatha; Real-Chicharro, Alejandro; Gabaldón, Toni; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Pujol, Aurora

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisomes are essential organelles that play a key role in redox signalling and lipid homeostasis. They contain a highly diverse enzymatic network among different species, mirroring the varied metabolic needs of the organisms. The previous PeroxisomeDB version organized the peroxisomal proteome of humans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on genetic and functional information into metabolic categories with a special focus on peroxisomal disease. The new release (http://www.peroxisomeDB.org) adds peroxisomal proteins from 35 newly sequenced eukaryotic genomes including fungi, yeasts, plants and lower eukaryotes. We searched these genomes for a core ensemble of 139 peroxisomal protein families and identified 2706 putative peroxisomal protein homologs. Approximately 37% of the identified homologs contained putative peroxisome targeting signals (PTS). To help develop understanding of the evolutionary relationships among peroxisomal proteins, the new database includes phylogenetic trees for 2386 of the peroxisomal proteins. Additional new features are provided, such as a tool to capture kinetic information from Brenda, CheBI and Sabio-RK databases and more than 1400 selected bibliographic references. PeroxisomeDB 2.0 is a freely available, highly interactive functional genomics platform that offers an extensive view on the peroxisomal metabolome across lineages, thus facilitating comparative genomics and systems analysis of the organelle. PMID:19892824

  17. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors and Lipoprotein Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kersten, Sander

    2008-01-01

    Plasma lipoproteins are responsible for carrying triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood and ensuring their delivery to target organs. Regulation of lipoprotein metabolism takes place at numerous levels including via changes in gene transcription. An important group of transcription factors that mediates the effect of dietary fatty acids and certain drugs on plasma lipoproteins are the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). Three PPAR isotypes can be distinguished, all of which have a major role in regulating lipoprotein metabolism. PPARα is the molecular target for the fibrate class of drugs. Activation of PPARα in mice and humans markedly reduces hepatic triglyceride production and promotes plasma triglyceride clearance, leading to a clinically significant reduction in plasma triglyceride levels. In addition, plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels are increased upon PPARα activation in humans. PPARγ is the molecular target for the thiazolidinedione class of drugs. Activation of PPARγ in mice and human is generally associated with a modest increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol and a decrease in plasma triglycerides. The latter effect is caused by an increase in lipoprotein lipase-dependent plasma triglyceride clearance. Analogous to PPARα, activation of PPARβ/δ leads to increased plasma HDL-cholesterol and decreased plasma triglyceride levels. In this paper, a fresh perspective on the relation between PPARs and lipoprotein metabolism is presented. The emphasis is on the physiological role of PPARs and the mechanisms underlying the effect of synthetic PPAR agonists on plasma lipoprotein levels. PMID:18288277

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha target genes.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Knoch, Bianca; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPARα serves as a molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrates drugs which bind the receptor with high affinity. Furthermore, PPARα binds and is activated by numerous fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compounds. PPARα governs biological processes by altering the expression of a large number of target genes. Accordingly, the specific role of PPARα is directly related to the biological function of its target genes. Here, we present an overview of the involvement of PPARα in lipid metabolism and other pathways through a detailed analysis of the different known or putative PPARα target genes. The emphasis is on gene regulation by PPARα in liver although many of the results likely apply to other organs and tissues as well.

  19. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Target Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Knoch, Bianca; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPARα serves as a molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrates drugs which bind the receptor with high affinity. Furthermore, PPARα binds and is activated by numerous fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compounds. PPARα governs biological processes by altering the expression of a large number of target genes. Accordingly, the specific role of PPARα is directly related to the biological function of its target genes. Here, we present an overview of the involvement of PPARα in lipid metabolism and other pathways through a detailed analysis of the different known or putative PPARα target genes. The emphasis is on gene regulation by PPARα in liver although many of the results likely apply to other organs and tissues as well. PMID:20936127

  20. Dietary modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Marion-Letellier, R; Déchelotte, P; Iacucci, M; Ghosh, S

    2009-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is a nuclear receptor that regulates intestinal inflammation. PPAR gamma is highly expressed in the colon and can be activated by various dietary ligands. A number of fatty acids such as polyunsaturated fatty acids or eicosanoids are considered as endogenous PPAR gamma activators. Nevertheless, other nutrients such as glutamine, spicy food or flavonoids are also able to activate PPAR gamma. As PPAR gamma plays a key role in bacterial induced inflammation, anti-inflammatory properties of probiotics may be mediated through PPAR gamma. The aims of the present review are to discuss of the potential roles of dietary compounds in modulating intestinal inflammation through PPAR gamma.

  1. Peroxisome function regulates growth on glucose in the basidiomycete fungus Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Idnurm, Alexander; Giles, Steven S; Perfect, John R; Heitman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The function of the peroxisomes was examined in the pathogenic basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans. Recent studies reveal the glyoxylate pathway is required for virulence of diverse microbial pathogens of plants and animals. One exception is C. neoformans, in which isocitrate lyase (encoded by ICL1) was previously shown not to be required for virulence, and here this was extended to exclude also a role for malate synthase (encoded by MLS1). The role of peroxisomes, in which the glyoxylate pathway enzymes are localized in many organisms, was examined by mutation of two genes (PEX1 and PEX6) encoding AAA (ATPases associated with various cellular activities)-type proteins required for peroxisome formation. The pex1 and pex6 deletion mutants were unable to localize the fluorescent DsRED-SKL protein to peroxisomal punctate structures, in contrast to wild-type cells. pex1 and pex6 single mutants and a pex1 pex6 double mutant exhibit identical phenotypes, including abolished growth on fatty acids but no growth difference on acetate. Because both icl1 and mls1 mutants are unable to grow on acetate as the sole carbon source, these findings demonstrate that the glyoxylate pathway can function efficiently outside the peroxisome in C. neoformans. The pex1 mutant exhibits wild-type virulence in a murine inhalation model and in an insect host, demonstrating that peroxisomes are not required for virulence under these conditions. An unusual phenotype of the pex1 and pex6 mutants was that they grew poorly with glucose as the carbon source, but nearly wild type with galactose, which suggested impaired hexokinase function and that C. neoformans peroxisomes might function analogously to the glycosomes of the trypanosomid parasites. Deletion of the hexokinase HXK2 gene reduced growth in the presence of glucose and suppressed the growth defect of the pex1 mutant on glucose. The hexokinase 2 protein of C. neoformans contains a predicted peroxisome targeting signal (type 2) motif

  2. Peroxisome Function Regulates Growth on Glucose in the Basidiomycete Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans▿

    PubMed Central

    Idnurm, Alexander; Giles, Steven S.; Perfect, John R.; Heitman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The function of the peroxisomes was examined in the pathogenic basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans. Recent studies reveal the glyoxylate pathway is required for virulence of diverse microbial pathogens of plants and animals. One exception is C. neoformans, in which isocitrate lyase (encoded by ICL1) was previously shown not to be required for virulence, and here this was extended to exclude also a role for malate synthase (encoded by MLS1). The role of peroxisomes, in which the glyoxylate pathway enzymes are localized in many organisms, was examined by mutation of two genes (PEX1 and PEX6) encoding AAA (ATPases associated with various cellular activities)-type proteins required for peroxisome formation. The pex1 and pex6 deletion mutants were unable to localize the fluorescent DsRED-SKL protein to peroxisomal punctate structures, in contrast to wild-type cells. pex1 and pex6 single mutants and a pex1 pex6 double mutant exhibit identical phenotypes, including abolished growth on fatty acids but no growth difference on acetate. Because both icl1 and mls1 mutants are unable to grow on acetate as the sole carbon source, these findings demonstrate that the glyoxylate pathway can function efficiently outside the peroxisome in C. neoformans. The pex1 mutant exhibits wild-type virulence in a murine inhalation model and in an insect host, demonstrating that peroxisomes are not required for virulence under these conditions. An unusual phenotype of the pex1 and pex6 mutants was that they grew poorly with glucose as the carbon source, but nearly wild type with galactose, which suggested impaired hexokinase function and that C. neoformans peroxisomes might function analogously to the glycosomes of the trypanosomid parasites. Deletion of the hexokinase HXK2 gene reduced growth in the presence of glucose and suppressed the growth defect of the pex1 mutant on glucose. The hexokinase 2 protein of C. neoformans contains a predicted peroxisome targeting signal (type 2) motif

  3. Role of thiamine pyrophosphate in oligomerisation, functioning and import of peroxisomal 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase.

    PubMed

    Fraccascia, Patrizia; Casteels, Minne; De Schryver, Evelyn; Van Veldhoven, Paul P

    2011-10-01

    During peroxisomal α-oxidation, the CoA-esters of phytanic acid and 2-hydroxylated straight chain fatty acids are cleaved into a (n-1) fatty aldehyde and formyl-CoA by 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase (HACL1). HACL1 is imported into peroxisomes via the PEX5/PTS1 pathway, and so far, it is the only known peroxisomal TPP-dependent enzyme in mammals. In this study, the effect of mutations in the TPP-binding domain of HACL1 on enzyme activity, subcellular localisation and oligomerisation was investigated. Mutations of the aspartate 455 and serine 456 residues within the TPP binding domain of the human HACL1 did not affect the targeting upon expression in transfected CHO cells, although enzyme activity was abolished. Gel filtration of native and mutated N-His(6)-fusions, expressed in yeast, revealed that the mutations did not influence the oligomerisation of the (apo)enzyme. Subcellular fractionation of yeast cells expressing HACL1 showed that the lyase activity sedimented at high density in a Nycodenz gradient. In these fractions TPP could be measured, but not when mutated HACL1 was expressed, although the recombinant enzyme was still targeted to peroxisomes. These findings indicate that the binding of TPP is not required for peroxisomal targeting and correct folding of HACL1, in contrast to other TPP-dependent enzymes, and suggest that transport of TPP into peroxisomes is dependent on HACL1 import, without requirement of a specific solute transporter.

  4. Peroxisome division and proliferation in plants.

    PubMed

    Aung, Kyaw; Zhang, Xinchun; Hu, Jianping

    2010-06-01

    Peroxisomes are eukaryotic organelles with crucial functions in development. Plant peroxisomes participate in various metabolic processes, some of which are co-operated by peroxisomes and other organelles, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. Defining the complete picture of how these essential organelles divide and proliferate will be instrumental in understanding how the dynamics of peroxisome abundance contribute to changes in plant physiology and development. Research in Arabidopsis thaliana has identified several evolutionarily conserved major components of the peroxisome division machinery, including five isoforms of PEROXIN11 proteins (PEX11), two dynamin-related proteins (DRP3A and DRP3B) and two FISSION1 proteins (FIS1A/BIGYIN and FIS1B). Recent studies in our laboratory have also begun to uncover plant-specific factors. DRP5B is a dual-localized protein that is involved in the division of both chloroplasts and peroxisomes, representing an invention of the plant/algal lineage in organelle division. In addition, PMD1 (peroxisomal and mitochondrial division 1) is a plant-specific protein tail anchored to the outer surface of peroxisomes and mitochondria, mediating the division and/or positioning of these organelles. Lastly, light induces peroxisome proliferation in dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings, at least in part, through activating the PEX11b gene. The far-red light receptor phyA (phytochrome A) and the transcription factor HYH (HY5 homologue) are key components in this signalling pathway. In summary, pathways for the division and proliferation of plant peroxisomes are composed of conserved and plant-specific factors. The sharing of division proteins by peroxisomes, mitochondria and chloroplasts is also suggesting possible co-ordination in the division of these metabolically associated plant organelles.

  5. Characterization of a novel component of the peroxisomal protein import apparatus using fluorescent peroxisomal proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Kalish, J E; Keller, G A; Morrell, J C; Mihalik, S J; Smith, B; Cregg, J M; Gould, S J

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescent peroxisomal probes were developed by fusing green fluorescent protein (GFP) to the matrix peroxisomal targeting signals PTS1 and PTS2, as well as to an integral peroxisomal membrane protein (IPMP). These proteins were used to identify and characterize novel peroxisome assembly (pas) mutants in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Mutant cells lacking the PAS10 gene mislocalized both PTS1-GFP and PTS2-GFP to the cytoplasm but did incorporate IPMP-GFP into peroxisome membranes. Similar distributions were observed for endogenous peroxisomal matrix and membrane proteins. While peroxisomes from translocation-competent pas mutants sediment in sucrose gradients at the density of normal peroxisomes, >98% of peroxisomes from pas10 cells migrated to a much lower density and had an extremely low ratio of matrix:membrane protein. These data indicate that Pas10p plays an important role in protein translocation across the peroxisome membrane. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that Pas10p is an integral protein of the peroxisome membrane. In addition, Pas10p contains a cytoplasmically-oriented C3HC4 zinc binding domain that is essential for its biological activity. Images PMID:8670828

  6. Inp1p is a peroxisomal membrane protein required for peroxisome inheritance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fagarasanu, Monica; Fagarasanu, Andrei; Tam, Yuen Yi C; Aitchison, John D; Rachubinski, Richard A

    2005-06-06

    Cells have evolved molecular mechanisms for the efficient transmission of organelles during cell division. Little is known about how peroxisomes are inherited. Inp1p is a peripheral membrane protein of peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that affects both the morphology of peroxisomes and their partitioning during cell division. In vivo 4-dimensional video microscopy showed an inability of mother cells to retain a subset of peroxisomes in dividing cells lacking the INP1 gene, whereas cells overexpressing INP1 exhibited immobilized peroxisomes that failed to be partitioned to the bud. Overproduced Inp1p localized to both peroxisomes and the cell cortex, supporting an interaction of Inp1p with specific structures lining the cell periphery. The levels of Inp1p vary with the cell cycle. Inp1p binds Pex25p, Pex30p, and Vps1p, which have been implicated in controlling peroxisome division. Our findings are consistent with Inp1p acting as a factor that retains peroxisomes in cells and controls peroxisome division. Inp1p is the first peroxisomal protein directly implicated in peroxisome inheritance.

  7. Peroxisomes in brain development and function☆

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Johannes; Dorninger, Fabian; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Kunze, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes contain numerous enzymatic activities that are important for mammalian physiology. Patients lacking either all peroxisomal functions or a single enzyme or transporter function typically develop severe neurological deficits, which originate from aberrant development of the brain, demyelination and loss of axonal integrity, neuroinflammation or other neurodegenerative processes. Whilst correlating peroxisomal properties with a compilation of pathologies observed in human patients and mouse models lacking all or individual peroxisomal functions, we discuss the importance of peroxisomal metabolites and tissue- and cell type-specific contributions to the observed brain pathologies. This enables us to deconstruct the local and systemic contribution of individual metabolic pathways to specific brain functions. We also review the recently discovered variability of pathological symptoms in cases with unexpectedly mild presentation of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. Finally, we explore the emerging evidence linking peroxisomes to more common neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, autism and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Peroxisomes edited by Ralf Erdmann. PMID:26686055

  8. Beta-oxidation in hepatocyte cultures from mice with peroxisomal gene knockouts.

    PubMed

    Dirkx, Ruud; Meyhi, Els; Asselberghs, Stanny; Reddy, Janardan; Baes, Myriam; Van Veldhoven, Paul P

    2007-06-08

    Beta-oxidation of carboxylates takes place both in mitochondria and peroxisomes and in each pathway parallel enzymes exist for each conversion step. In order to better define the substrate specificities of these enzymes and in particular the elusive role of peroxisomal MFP-1, hepatocyte cultures from mice with peroxisomal gene knockouts were used to assess the consequences on substrate degradation. Hepatocytes from mice with liver selective elimination of peroxisomes displayed severely impaired oxidation of 2-methylhexadecanoic acid, the bile acid intermediate trihydroxycholestanoic acid (THCA), and tetradecanedioic acid. In contrast, mitochondrial beta-oxidation rates of palmitate were doubled, despite the severely affected inner mitochondrial membrane. As expected, beta-oxidation of the branched chain compounds 2-methylhexadecanoic acid and THCA was reduced in hepatocytes from mice with inactivation of MFP-2. More surprisingly, dicarboxylic fatty acid oxidation was impaired in MFP-1 but not in MFP-2 knockout hepatocytes, indicating that MFP-1 might play more than an obsolete role in peroxisomal beta-oxidation.

  9. Identification of peroxisomal targeting signals located at the carboxy terminus of four peroxisomal proteins

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    As part of an effort to understand how proteins are imported into the peroxisome, we have sought to identify the peroxisomal targeting signals in four unrelated peroxisomal proteins: human catalase, rat hydratase:dehydrogenase, pig D-amino acid oxidase, and rat acyl-CoA oxidase. Using gene fusion experiments, we have identified a region of each protein that can direct heterologous proteins to peroxisomes. In each case, the peroxisomal targeting signal is contained at or near the carboxy terminus of the protein. For catalase, the peroxisomal targeting signal is located within the COOH-terminal 27 amino acids of the protein. For hydratase:dehydrogenase, D-amino acid oxidase, and acyl-CoA oxidase, the targeting signals are located within the carboxy- terminal 15, 14, and 15 amino acids, respectively. A tripeptide of the sequence Ser-Lys/His-Leu is present in each of these targeting signals as well as in the peroxisomal targeting signal identified in firefly luciferase (Gould, S.J., G.-A. Keller, and S. Subramani. 1987. J. Cell Biol. 105:2923-2931). When the peroxisomal targeting signal of the hydratase:dehydrogenase is mutated so that the Ser-Lys-Leu tripeptide is converted to Ser-Asn-Leu, it can no longer direct proteins to peroxisomes. We suggest that this tripeptide is an essential element of at least one class of peroxisomal targeting signals. PMID:2901422

  10. Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorders: Biological, Clinical and Pathophysiological Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Nancy E.; D'Agostino, Maria Daniela; MacLean, Gillian E.

    2013-01-01

    The peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders in which peroxisome assembly is impaired, leading to multiple peroxisome enzyme deficiencies, complex developmental sequelae and progressive disabilities. Mammalian peroxisome assembly involves the protein products of 16 "PEX" genes;…

  11. Gene expression for peroxisome-associated enzymes in hepatocellular carcinomas induced by ciprofibrate, a hypolipidemic compound

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.S.; Nemali, M.R.; Reddy, J.K.

    1986-03-05

    Administration of hypolipidemic compounds leads to marked proliferation of peroxisomes and peroxisome-associated enzymes (PAE) in the livers of rodents and non-rodent species. The increase peroxisome-associated enzymes such as fatty acid ..beta..-oxidation system and catalase is shown to be due to an increase in the levels of mRNA. In this experiment they have examined hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), induced in male F-344 rats by ciprofibrate (0.025%, w/w for 60 weeks), for gene expression of PAE. Total RNA was purified from HCC as well as from control and ciprofibrate (0.025% for 2 weeks) fed rat livers. Northern blot analysis was performed using (32/sub p/)cDNA probes for albumin, fatty acetyl-CoA oxidase, enoyl-CoA hydratase 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme and catalase. mRNA levels in HCC for albumin, fatty acid ..beta..-oxidation enzymes and catalase were comparable with those levels observed in the livers of rats given ciprofibrate for 2 weeks. In control livers the mRNAs for ..beta..-oxidation enzymes were low. Albumin mRNA levels in all the 3 groups were comparable. Additional studies are necessary to determine whether the increased level of mRNAs for the ..beta..-oxidation enzymes in HCC is due to the effect of ciprofibrate or to the gene amplification.

  12. Giant peroxisomes in a moss (Physcomitrella patens) peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 mutant.

    PubMed

    Kamisugi, Yasuko; Mitsuya, Shiro; El-Shami, Mahmoud; Knight, Celia D; Cuming, Andrew C; Baker, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 (PEX11) proteins are found in yeasts, mammals and plants, and play a role in peroxisome morphology and regulation of peroxisome division. The moss Physcomitrella patens has six PEX11 isoforms which fall into two subfamilies, similar to those found in monocots and dicots. We carried out targeted gene disruption of the Phypa_PEX11-1 gene and compared the morphological and cellular phenotypes of the wild-type and mutant strains. The mutant grew more slowly and the development of gametophores was retarded. Mutant chloronemal filaments contained large cellular structures which excluded all other cellular organelles. Expression of fluorescent reporter proteins revealed that the mutant strain had greatly enlarged peroxisomes up to 10 μm in diameter. Expression of a vacuolar membrane marker confirmed that the enlarged structures were not vacuoles, or peroxisomes sequestered within vacuoles as a result of pexophagy. Phypa_PEX11 targeted to peroxisome membranes could rescue the knock out phenotype and interacted with Fission1 on the peroxisome membrane. Moss PEX11 functions in peroxisome division similar to PEX11 in other organisms but the mutant phenotype is more extreme and environmentally determined, making P. patens a powerful system in which to address mechanisms of peroxisome proliferation and division.

  13. Pharmacological Regulation of Peroxisome Number in Glia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    suggest a relationship between cholesterol homeostasis peroxisome abundance that may have relevance to therapies for Alzheimer’s disease and Neimann- Pick...FIGURE 4. Specialized Cholesterol Handling in the Brain FIGURE 5. LXR Control of Cholesterol Metabolism Chapter 2 FIGURE 1 . Differential Effects...Not Affect Levels of 4 Different Proteins That Potentially Could Participate in the Control of Peroxisome Number vi Chapter 3 FIGURE 1

  14. Gemfibrozil modifies acyl composition of liver microsomal phospholipids from guinea-pigs without promoting peroxisomal proliferation.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, M; Alegret, M; Adzet, T; Merlos, M; Laguna, J C

    1993-10-19

    Treatment with gemfibrozil modifies acyl composition of hepatic microsomal phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in guinea-pigs. Palmitic (16:0) and palmitoleic (16:1) fatty acids are increased, and stearic (18:0) and oleic (18:1) are decreased; further, while linoleic acid [18:2 (n-6)] is increased by gemfibrozil treatment, the other constituents of the n-6 fatty acids family, including arachidonic acid [20:4 (n-6)], are decreased. As gemfibrozil is a potent inhibitor of fatty acid elongation in vitro (Sánchez et al., FEBS Lett 300: 89-92, 1992), the inhibition of this enzyme system by gemfibrozil treatment could be responsible for the observed results in vivo. These changes in fatty acid composition are accompanied by a decrease in serum lipids and, more important, are independent of peroxisomal proliferation.

  15. Mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation capacities of organs from a non-oilseed plant.

    PubMed

    Masterson, C; Wood, C

    2001-09-22

    Until recently, beta-oxidation was believed to be exclusively located in the peroxisomes of all higher plants. Whilst this is true for germinating oilseeds undergoing gluconeogenesis, evidence demonstrating mitochondrial beta-oxidation in other plant systems has refuted this central dogma of plant lipid metabolism. This report describes a comparative study of the dual mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation capacities of plant organs. Oxidation of [1-(14)C] palmitate was measured in the cotyledons, plumules and radicles of Pisum sativum L., which is a starchy seed, over a 14 day period from the commencement of imbibition. Respiratory chain inhibitors were used for differentiating between mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation. Peroxisomal beta-oxidation gave a steady, baseline rate and, in the early stages of seedling development, accounted for 70-100% of the beta-oxidation observed. Mitochondrial beta-oxidation gave peaks of activity at days 7 and 10-11, accounting for up to 82% of the total beta-oxidation activity at these times. These peaks coincide with key stages of seedling development and were not observed when normal development was disrupted by growth in the dark. Peroxisomal beta-oxidation was unaffected by etiolation. Since mitochondrial beta-oxidation was overt only during times of intense biosynthetic activity it might be switched on or off during seedling development. In contrast, peroxisomes maintained a continuous, low beta-oxidation activity that could be essential in removing harmful free fatty acids, e.g. those produced by protein and lipid turnover.

  16. Peroxisomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: immunofluorescence analysis and import of catalase A into isolated peroxisomes.

    PubMed Central

    Thieringer, R; Shio, H; Han, Y S; Cohen, G; Lazarow, P B

    1991-01-01

    To isolate peroxisomes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a quality sufficient for in vitro import studies, we optimized the conditions for cell growth and for cell fractionation. Stability of the isolated peroxisomes was monitored by catalase latency and sedimentability of marker enzymes. It was improved by (i) using cells that were shifted to oleic acid medium after growth to stationary phase in glucose precultures, (ii) shifting the pH from 7.2 to 6.0 during cell fractionation, and (iii) carrying out equilibrium density centrifugation with Nycodenz containing 0.25 M sucrose throughout the gradient. A concentrated peroxisomal fraction was used for in vitro import of catalase A. After 2 h of incubation, 62% of the catalase was associated with, and 16% was imported into, the organelle in a protease-resistant fashion. We introduced immunofluorescence microscopy for S. cerevisiae peroxisomes, using antibodies against thiolase, which allowed us to identify even the extremely small organelles in glucose-grown cells. Peroxisomes from media containing oleic acid were larger in size, were greater in number, and had a more intense fluorescence signal. The peroxisomes were located, sometimes in clusters, in the cell periphery, often immediately adjacent to the plasma membrane. Systematic immunofluorescence observations of glucose-grown S. cerevisiae demonstrated that all such cells contained at least one and usually several very small peroxisomes despite the glucose repression. This finding fits a central prediction of our model of peroxisome biogenesis: peroxisomes form by division of preexisting peroxisomes; therefore, every cell must have at least one peroxisome if additional organelles are to be induced in that cell. Images PMID:1986244

  17. Redox interplay between mitochondria and peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    Lismont, Celien; Nordgren, Marcus; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; Fransen, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Reduction-oxidation or “redox” reactions are an integral part of a broad range of cellular processes such as gene expression, energy metabolism, protein import and folding, and autophagy. As many of these processes are intimately linked with cell fate decisions, transient or chronic changes in cellular redox equilibrium are likely to contribute to the initiation and progression of a plethora of human diseases. Since a long time, it is known that mitochondria are major players in redox regulation and signaling. More recently, it has become clear that also peroxisomes have the capacity to impact redox-linked physiological processes. To serve this function, peroxisomes cooperate with other organelles, including mitochondria. This review provides a comprehensive picture of what is currently known about the redox interplay between mitochondria and peroxisomes in mammals. We first outline the pro- and antioxidant systems of both organelles and how they may function as redox signaling nodes. Next, we critically review and discuss emerging evidence that peroxisomes and mitochondria share an intricate redox-sensitive relationship and cooperate in cell fate decisions. Key issues include possible physiological roles, messengers, and mechanisms. We also provide examples of how data mining of publicly-available datasets from “omics” technologies can be a powerful means to gain additional insights into potential redox signaling pathways between peroxisomes and mitochondria. Finally, we highlight the need for more studies that seek to clarify the mechanisms of how mitochondria may act as dynamic receivers, integrators, and transmitters of peroxisome-derived mediators of oxidative stress. The outcome of such studies may open up exciting new avenues for the community of researchers working on cellular responses to organelle-derived oxidative stress, a research field in which the role of peroxisomes is currently highly underestimated and an issue of discussion. PMID:26075204

  18. Differential contribution of two peroxisomal protein receptors to the maintenance of peroxisomal functions in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Makoto; Yagi, Mina; Nito, Kazumasa; Kamada, Tomoe; Nishimura, Mikio

    2005-04-15

    Peroxisomes in higher plant cells are known to differentiate in function depending on the cell type. Because of the functional differentiation, plant peroxisomes are subdivided into several classes, such as glyoxysomes and leaf peroxisomes. These peroxisomal functions are maintained by import of newly synthesized proteins containing one of two peroxisomal targeting signals known as PTS1 and PTS2. These targeting signals are known to be recognized by the cytosolic receptors, Pex5p and Pex7p, respectively. To demonstrate the contribution of Pex5p and Pex7p to the maintenance of peroxisomal functions in plants, double-stranded RNA constructs were introduced into the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of the PEX5 and PEX7 genes was efficiently reduced by the double-stranded RNA-mediated interference in the transgenic Arabidopsis. The Pex5p-deficient Arabidopsis showed reduced activities for both glyoxysomal and leaf peroxisomal functions. An identical phenotype was observed in a transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing functionally defective Pex5p. In contrast, the Pex7p-deficient Arabidopsis showed reduced activity for glyoxysomal function but not for leaf peroxisomal function. Analyses of peroxisomal protein import in the transgenic Arabidopsis revealed that Pex5p was involved in import of both PTS1-containing proteins and PTS2-containing proteins, whereas Pex7p contributed to the import of only PTS2-containing proteins. Overall, the results indicated that Pex5p and Pex7p play different roles in the maintenance of glyoxysomal and leaf peroxisomal functions in plants.

  19. Hepatocyte proliferation induced by a single dose of a peroxisome proliferator.

    PubMed Central

    Ohmura, T.; Ledda-Columbano, G. M.; Piga, R.; Columbano, A.; Glemba, J.; Katyal, S. L.; Locker, J.; Shinozuka, H.

    1996-01-01

    In compensatory hyperplasia after partial hepatectomy or liver cell injury, hepatocyte proliferation is triggered by coordinated actions of growth factor such as hepatocyte growth factor and transforming growth factor-alpha and -beta. Initiation of hepatocyte DNA synthesis is preceded by the activation of the set of early growth response genes mediated by enhanced nuclear factor-kappa B binding to DNA. Using an experimental model to induce hepatocyte DNA synthesis in vivo by a single dose of a peroxisome proliferator, which does not induce liver cell necrosis (direct hyperplasia), we investigated whether peroxisome proliferator-induced hepatocyte proliferation involved an induction of known growth factors, an activation of early growth response genes, and nuclear factor-kappa B. A single intragastric administration of 250 mg/kg BR931 (4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthio-(N-beta-hydroxyethyl) acetamide) to male wistar rats induced a wave of hepatocyte DNA synthesis starting after 12 hours and peaking at approximately 24 to 36 hours. The response was dose dependent. The treatment also induced the expression of the mRNA for the peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme, one of the peroxisome-related fatty acid beta-oxidation enzymes. Pretreatment of rats with dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) inhibited both hepatocyte DNA synthesis and the induction of the peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme gene. Northern blot analyses of liver RNA during a period preceding the onset of DNA synthesis revealed no induction of hepatocyte growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha, or tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNAs. No induction of early growth response genes, liver regeneration factor-1, or c-myc was detected. Furthermore, gel mobility shift assays showed no enhanced nuclear factor-kappa B binding to its DNA consensus sequence after BR931 treatment, whereas control studies demonstrated a distinct increase in binding after partial hepatectomy or lead nitrate treatment. The results suggest that

  20. Roles of Peroxisomes in the Rice Blast Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Caiyun

    2016-01-01

    The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is a model plant pathogenic fungus and is a severe threat to global rice production. Over the past two decades, it has been found that the peroxisomes play indispensable roles during M. oryzae infection. Given the importance of the peroxisomes for virulence, we review recent advances of the peroxisomes roles during M. oryzae infection processes. We firstly introduce the molecular mechanisms and life cycles of the peroxisomes. And then, metabolic functions related to the peroxisomes are also discussed. Finally, we provide an overview of the relationship between peroxisomes and pathogenicity. PMID:27610388

  1. The Role of the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Peroxisome Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Lazar; Lam, Sheung Kwan; Schekman, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes are essential cellular organelles involved in lipid metabolism. Patients affected by severe peroxisome biogenesis disorders rarely survive their first year. Genetic screens in several model organisms have identified more than 30 PEX genes that are required for the formation of functional peroxisomes. Despite significant work on the PEX genes, the biogenic origin of peroxisomes remains controversial. For at least two decades, the prevailing model postulated that peroxisomes propagate by growth and fission of preexisting peroxisomes. In this review, we focus on the recent evidence supporting a new, semiautonomous model of peroxisomal biogenesis. According to this model, peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the peroxisome by a vesicular budding, targeting, and fusion process while peroxisomal matrix proteins are imported into the organelle by an autonomous, posttranslational mechanism. We highlight the contradictory conclusions reached to answer the question of how PMPs are inserted into the ER. We then review what we know and what still remains to be elucidated about the mechanism of PMP exit from the ER and the contribution of preperoxisomal vesicles to mature peroxisomes. Finally, we discuss discrepancies in our understanding of de novo peroxisome biogenesis in wild-type cells. We anticipate that resolving these key issues will lead to a more complete picture of peroxisome biogenesis. PMID:23637287

  2. Structure-Function Analysis of Peroxisomal ATP-binding Cassette Transporters Using Chimeric Dimers*

    PubMed Central

    Geillon, Flore; Gondcaille, Catherine; Charbonnier, Soëli; Van Roermund, Carlo W.; Lopez, Tatiana E.; Dias, Alexandre M. M.; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Arnould, Christine; Wanders, Ronald J.; Trompier, Doriane; Savary, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    ABCD1 and ABCD2 are two closely related ATP-binding cassette half-transporters predicted to homodimerize and form peroxisomal importers for fatty acyl-CoAs. Available evidence has shown that ABCD1 and ABCD2 display a distinct but overlapping substrate specificity, although much remains to be learned in this respect as well as in their capability to form functional heterodimers. Using a cell model expressing an ABCD2-EGFP fusion protein, we first demonstrated by proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation assay that ABCD1 interacts with ABCD2. Next, we tested in the pxa1/pxa2Δ yeast mutant the functionality of ABCD1/ABCD2 dimers by expressing chimeric proteins mimicking homo- or heterodimers. For further structure-function analysis of ABCD1/ABCD2 dimers, we expressed chimeric dimers fused to enhanced GFP in human skin fibroblasts of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients. These cells are devoid of ABCD1 and accumulate very long-chain fatty acids (C26:0 and C26:1). We checked that the chimeric proteins were correctly expressed and targeted to the peroxisomes. Very long-chain fatty acid levels were partially restored in transfected X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy fibroblasts regardless of the chimeric construct used, thus demonstrating functionality of both homo- and heterodimers. Interestingly, the level of C24:6 n-3, the immediate precursor of docosahexaenoic acid, was decreased in cells expressing chimeric proteins containing at least one ABCD2 moiety. Our data demonstrate for the first time that both homo- and heterodimers of ABCD1 and ABCD2 are functionally active. Interestingly, the role of ABCD2 (in homo- and heterodimeric forms) in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids is clearly evidenced, and the chimeric dimers provide a novel tool to study substrate specificity of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporters. PMID:25043761

  3. Peroxisome protein import: a complex journey

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Alison; Hogg, Thomas Lanyon; Warriner, Stuart L.

    2016-01-01

    The import of proteins into peroxisomes possesses many unusual features such as the ability to import folded proteins, and a surprising diversity of targeting signals with differing affinities that can be recognized by the same receptor. As understanding of the structure and function of many components of the protein import machinery has grown, an increasingly complex network of factors affecting each step of the import pathway has emerged. Structural studies have revealed the presence of additional interactions between cargo proteins and the PEX5 receptor that affect import potential, with a subtle network of cargo-induced conformational changes in PEX5 being involved in the import process. Biochemical studies have also indicated an interdependence of receptor–cargo import with release of unloaded receptor from the peroxisome. Here, we provide an update on recent literature concerning mechanisms of protein import into peroxisomes. PMID:27284042

  4. Ubiquitin in the peroxisomal protein import pathway.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Tânia; Rodrigues, Tony A; Pinto, Manuel P; Carvalho, Andreia F; Azevedo, Jorge E; Grou, Cláudia P

    2014-03-01

    PEX5 is the shuttling receptor for newly synthesized peroxisomal matrix proteins. Alone, or with the help of an adaptor protein, this receptor binds peroxisomal matrix proteins in the cytosol and transports them to the peroxisomal membrane docking/translocation module (DTM). The interaction between cargo-loaded PEX5 and the DTM ultimately results in its insertion into the DTM with the concomitant translocation of the cargo protein across the organelle membrane. PEX5 is not consumed in this event; rather it is dislocated back into the cytosol so that it can promote additional rounds of protein transportation. Remarkably, the data collected in recent years indicate that dislocation is preceded by monoubiquitination of PEX5 at a conserved cysteine residue. This mandatory modification is not the only type of ubiquitination occurring at the DTM. Indeed, several findings suggest that defective receptors jamming the DTM are polyubiquitinated and targeted to the proteasome for degradation.

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and the control of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cabrero, A; Laguna, J C; Vázquez, M

    2002-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors which form a subfamily of the nuclear receptor gene family. This subfamily consists of three isotypes, alpha (NR1C1), gamma (NR1C3), and beta/delta (NRC1C2) with a differential tissue distribution. PPARalpha is expressed primarily in tissues with a high level of fatty acid catabolism such as liver, brown fat, kidney, heart and skeletal muscle. PPARbeta is ubiquitously expressed, and PPARgamma has a restricted pattern of expression, mainly in white and brown adipose tissues, whereas other tissues such as skeletal muscle and heart contain limited amounts. Furthermore, PPARalpha and gamma isotypes are expressed in vascular cells including endothelial and smooth muscle cells and macrophages/foam cells. PPARs are activated by ligands, such as naturally occurring fatty acids, which are activators of all three PPAR isotypes. In addition to fatty acids, several synthetic compounds, such as fibrates and thiazolidinediones, bind and activate PPARalpha and PPARgamma, respectively. In order to be transcriptionally active, PPARs need to heterodimerize with the retinoid-X-receptor (RXR). Upon activation, PPAR-RXR heterodimers bind to DNA specific sequences called peroxisome proliferator-response elements (PPRE) and stimulate transcription of target genes. PPARs play a critical role in lipid and glucose homeostasis, but lately they have been implicated as regulators of inflammatory responses. The first evidence of the involvement of PPARs in the control of inflammation came from the PPARalpha null mice, which showed a prolonged inflammatory response. PPARalpha activation results in the repression of NF-kappaB signaling and inflammatory cytokine production in different cell-types. A role for PPARgamma in inflammation has also been reported in monocyte/macrophages, where ligands of this receptor inhibited the activation of macrophages and the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha

  6. Peroxisome Ca(2+) homeostasis in animal and plant cells.

    PubMed

    Costa, Alex; Drago, Ilaria; Zottini, Michela; Pizzo, Paola; Pozzan, Tullio

    2013-01-01

    Ca(2+) homeostasis in peroxisomes has been an unsolved problem for many years. Recently novel probes to monitor Ca(2+) levels in the lumen of peroxisomes in living cells of both animal and plant cells have been developed. Here we discuss the contrasting results obtained in mammalian cells with chemiluminecsent (aequorin) and fluorescent (cameleon) probes targeted to peroxisomes. We briefly discuss the different characteristics of these probes and the possible pitfalls of the two approaches. We conclude that the contrasting results obtained with the two probes may reflect a heterogeneity among peroxisomes in mammalian cells. We also discuss the results obtained in plant peroxisomes. In particular we demonstrate that Ca(2+) increases in the cytoplasm are mirrored by similar rises of Ca(2+) concentration the lumen of peroxisomes. The increases in peroxisome Ca(2+) level results in the activation of a catalase isoform, CAT3. Other functional roles of peroxisomal Ca(2+) changes in plant physiology are briefly discussed.

  7. Special delivery from mitochondria to peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Uwe; Subramani, Suresh

    2008-06-01

    Inter-organellar communication and interactions are necessary and accepted consequences of the segregation of biochemical functions into subcellular organelles. Recently, Heidi McBride and her collaborators found a novel link between mitochondria and peroxisomes in their discovery of mitochondria-derived vesicles (MDVs), which appear to fuse with a fraction of pre-existing peroxisomes in mammalian cells. We discuss the potential role of this vesicle population in the context of pathways for the exchange of metabolites and/or macromolecules between these compartments.

  8. Incredibly close-A newly identified peroxisome-ER contact site in humans.

    PubMed

    Schuldiner, Maya; Zalckvar, Einat

    2017-02-01

    Peroxisomes are tiny organelles that control important and diverse metabolic processes via their interplay with other organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this issue, Costello et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201607055) and Hua et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201608128) identify a peroxisome-ER contact site in human cells held together by a tethering complex of VAPA/B (vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated proteins A/B) and ACBD5 (acyl Co-A binding protein 5).

  9. A comparison of liver protein changes in mice and hamsters treated with the peroxisome proliferator Wy-14,643.

    SciTech Connect

    Giometti, C. S.; Tollaksen, S. L.; Cunningham, M. L.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences

    1998-01-01

    Interspecies differences in the liver response to Wy-14,643, a potent peroxisome proliferator in rats and mice, have been demonstrated. While both rats and mice show dramatic increases in the number of peroxisomes, the activity of peroxisomal enzymes involved in the {beta}-oxidation of fatty acids, and heptocyte replication, Syrian hamsters have a more moderate peroxisome proliferation response and no sustained increase in cell replication. Rats and mice, but not hamsters, develop hepatocellular carcinoma after prolonged exposure to Wy-14,643. To further characterize this species difference, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) has been used to compare the effect of 14-day exposure to various dietary concentrations of Wy-14,643 on liver protein expression in male mice and hamsters. Digitized images of the 2-DE protein maps were searched for significant changes. The peroxisome bifunctional enzyme (PBE) enoyl CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl dehydrogenase, which migrates to the same position in mouse and hamster liver protein 2-DE patterns, increased in abundance by more than three times the control level in both mice and hamsters. In addition to the quantitative change in PBE, significant quantitative changes (P < 0.001) were found in 49 mouse liver proteins (47 decreasing and 2 increasing) and in 35 hamster liver proteins (27 decreasing and 8 increasing). There was little overlap in the mouse and hamster proteins showing quantitative changes in response to Wy-14,643, with the exception of PBE and one unidentified liver protein with an approximate molecular weight of 50 000. These results show that although peroxisome proliferation occurs in the livers of both mice and hamsters exposed to Wy-14,643, other species-specific changes in proteins occur that are independent of the peroxisome proliferation response and that could be related to species-specific susceptibility or resistance to liver tumor induction.

  10. Nonsense suppressor therapies rescue peroxisome lipid metabolism and assembly in cells from patients with specific PEX gene mutations

    PubMed Central

    Dranchak, Patricia K.; Di Pietro, Erminia; Snowden, Ann; Oesch, Nathan; Braverman, Nancy E.; Steinberg, Steven J.; Hacia, Joseph G.

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) are multisystemic autosomal recessive disorders resulting from mutations in PEX genes required for normal peroxisome assembly and metabolic activities. Here, we evaluated the potential effectiveness of aminoglycoside G418 (geneticin) and PTC124 (ataluren) nonsense suppression therapies for the treatment of PBD patients with disease-causing nonsense mutations. PBD patient skin fibroblasts producing stable PEX2 or PEX12 nonsense transcripts and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with a Pex2 nonsense allele all showed dramatic improvements in peroxisomal very long chain fatty acid catabolism and plasmalogen biosynthesis in response to G418 treatments. Cell imaging assays provided complementary confirmatory evidence of improved peroxisome assembly in G418-treated patient fibroblasts. In contrast, we observed no appreciable rescue of peroxisome lipid metabolism or assembly for any patient fibroblast or CHO cell culture treated with various doses of PTC124. Additionally, PTC124 did not show measurable nonsense suppression in immunoblot assays that directly evaluated the read-through of PEX7 nonsense alleles found in PBD patients with rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 1 (RCDP1). Overall, our results support the continued development of safe and effective nonsense suppressor therapies that could benefit a significant subset of individuals with PBDs. Furthermore, we suggest that the described cell culture assay systems could be useful for evaluating and screening for novel nonsense suppressor therapies. PMID:21465523

  11. Pex14/17, a filamentous fungus-specific peroxin, is required for the import of peroxisomal matrix proteins and full virulence of Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Wang, Jiaoyu; Chen, Haili; Chai, Rongyao; Zhang, Zhen; Mao, Xueqin; Qiu, Haiping; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Guochang

    2016-08-29

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles in eukaryotic cells that fulfil a variety of biochemical functions. The biogenesis of peroxisomes requires a variety of proteins, named peroxins, which are encoded by PEX genes. Pex14/17 is a putative recently identified peroxin, specifically present in filamentous fungal species. Its function in peroxisomal biogenesis is still obscure and its roles in fungal pathogenicity have not yet been documented. Here, we demonstrate the contributions of Pex14/17 in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (Mopex14/17) to peroxisomal biogenesis and fungal pathogenicity by targeting gene replacement strategies. Mopex14/17 has properties of both Pex14 and Pex17 with regard to its protein sequence. Mopex14/17 is distributed at the peroxisomal membrane and is essential for efficient peroxisomal targeting of proteins containing peroxisomal targeting signal 1. MoPEX19 deletion leads to the cytoplasmic distribution of Mopex14/17, indicating that the peroxisomal import of Pex14/17 is dependent on Pex19. The knockout mutants of MoPEX14/17 show reduced fatty acid utilization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) degradation and cell wall integrity. Moreover, Δmopex14/17 mutants show delayed conidial generation and appressorial formation, and a reduction in appressorial turgor accumulation and penetration ability in host plants. These defects result in a significant reduction in the virulence of the mutant. These data indicate that MoPEX14/17 plays a crucial role in peroxisome biogenesis and contributes to fungal development and pathogenicity.

  12. Biogenesis of peroxisomes: immunocytochemical investigation of peroxisomal membrane proteins in proliferating rat liver peroxisomes and in catalase-negative membrane loops

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of rats with a new hypocholesterolemic drug BM 15766 induces proliferation of peroxisomes in pericentral regions of the liver lobule with distinct alterations of the peroxisomal membrane (Baumgart, E., K. Stegmeier, F. H. Schmidt, and H. D. Fahimi. 1987. Lab. Invest. 56:554- 564). We have used ultrastructural cytochemistry in conjunction with immunoblotting and immunoelectron microscopy to investigate the effects of this drug on peroxisomal membranes. Highly purified peroxisomal fractions were obtained by Metrizamide gradient centrifugation from control and treated rats. Immunoblots prepared from such peroxisomal fractions incubated with antibodies to 22-, 26-, and 70-kD peroxisomal membrane proteins revealed that the treatment with BM 15766 induced only the 70-kD protein. In sections of normal liver embedded in Lowicryl K4M, all three membrane proteins of peroxisomes could be localized by the postembedding technique. The strongest labeling was obtained with the 22-kD antibody followed by the 70-kD and 26-kD antibodies. In treated animals, double-membraned loops with negative catalase reaction in their lumen, resembling smooth endoplasmic reticulum segments as well as myelin-like figures, were noted in the proximity of some peroxisomes. Serial sectioning revealed that the loops seen at some distance from peroxisomes in the cytoplasm were always continuous with the peroxisomal membranes. The double-membraned loops were consistently negative for glucose-6-phosphatase, a marker for endoplasmic reticulum, but were distinctly labeled with antibodies to peroxisomal membrane proteins. Our observations indicate that these membranous structures are part of the peroxisomal membrane system. They could provide a membrane reservoir for the proliferation of peroxisomes and the expansion of this intracellular compartment. PMID:2544605

  13. Peroxisome dynamics during development of the fungus Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Takano-Rojas, Harumi; Zickler, Denise; Peraza-Reyes, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are versatile and dynamic organelles that are required for the development of diverse eukaryotic organisms. We demonstrated previously that in the fungus Podospora anserina different peroxisomal functions are required at distinct stages of sexual development, including the initiation and progression of meiocyte (ascus) development and the differentiation and germination of sexual spores (ascospores). Peroxisome assembly during these processes relies on the differential activity of the protein machinery that drives the import of proteins into the organelle, indicating a complex developmental regulation of peroxisome formation and activity. Here we demonstrate that peroxisome dynamics is also highly regulated during development. We show that peroxisomes in P. anserina are highly dynamic and respond to metabolic and environmental cues by undergoing changes in size, morphology and number. In addition, peroxisomes of vegetative and sexual cell types are structurally different. During sexual development peroxisome number increases at two stages: at early ascus differentiation and during ascospore formation. These processes are accompanied by changes in peroxisome structure and distribution, which include a cell-polarized concentration of peroxisomes at the beginning of ascus development, as well as a morphological transition from predominantly spherical to elongated shapes at the end of the first meiotic division. Further, the mostly tubular peroxisomes present from second meiotic division to early ascospore formation again become rounded during ascospore differentiation. Ultimately the number of peroxisomes dramatically decreases upon ascospore maturation. Our results reveal a precise regulation of peroxisome dynamics during sexual development and suggest that peroxisome constitution and function during development is defined by the coordinated regulation of the proteins that control peroxisome assembly and dynamics.

  14. Modulation of Receptor Phosphorylation Contributes to Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor α by Dehydroepiandrosterone and Other Peroxisome Proliferators

    PubMed Central

    Tamasi, Viola; Miller, Kristy K. Michael; Ripp, Sharon L.; Vila, Ermin; Geoghagen, Thomas E.; Prough, Russell A.

    2008-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a C19 human adrenal steroid, activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in vivo but does not ligand-activate PPARα in transient transfection experiments. We demonstrate that DHEA regulates PPARα action by altering both the levels and phosphorylation status of the receptor. Human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were transiently transfected with the expression plasmid encoding PPARα and a plasmid containing two copies of fatty acyl coenzyme oxidase (FACO) peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor responsive element consensus oligonucleotide in a luciferase reporter gene. Nafenopin treatment increased reporter gene activity in this system, whereas DHEA treatment did not. Okadaic acid significantly decreased nafenopin-induced reporter activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Okadaic acid treatment of primary rat hepatocytes decreased both DHEA- and nafenopin-induced FACO activity in primary rat hepatocytes. DHEA induced both PPARα mRNA and protein levels, as well as PP2A message in primary rat hepatocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the serines at positions 12 and 21 were rapidly dephosphorylated upon treatment with DHEA and nafenopin. Results using specific protein phosphatase inhibitors suggested that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is responsible for DHEA action, and protein phosphatase 1 might be involved in nafenopin induction. Mutation of serines at position 6, 12, and 21 to an uncharged alanine residue significantly increased transcriptional activity, whereas mutation to negative charged aspartate residues (mimicking receptor phosphorylation) decreased transcriptional activity. DHEA action involves induction of PPARα mRNA and protein levels as well as increased PPARα transcriptional activity through decreasing receptor phosphorylation at serines in the AF1 region. PMID:18079279

  15. Catalase degradation in sunflower cotyledons during peroxisome transition from glyoxysomal to leaf peroxisomal function. [Helianthus annuus

    SciTech Connect

    Eising, R.; Gerhardt, B.

    1987-06-01

    First order rate constant for the degradation (degradation constants) of catalase in the cotyledons of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were determined by measuring the loss of catalase containing /sup 14/C-labeled heme. During greening of the cotyledons, a period when peroxisomes change from glyoxysomal to leaf peroxisomal function, the degradation of glyoxysomal catalase is significantly slower than during all other stages of cotyledon development in light or darkness. The degradation constant during the transition stage of peroxisome function amounts to 0.205 day/sup -1/ in contrast to the constants ranging from 0.304 day/sup -1/ to 0.515 day/sup -1/ during the other developmental stages. Density labeling experiments comprising labeling of catalase with /sup 2/H/sub 2/O and its isopycnic centrifugation on CsCl gradients demonstrated that the determinations of the degradation constants were not substantially affected by reutilization of /sup 14/C-labeled compounds for catalase synthesis. The degradation constants for both glyoxysomal catalase and catalase synthesized during the transition of peroxisome function do not differ. This was shown by labeling the catalases with different isotopes and measuring the isotope ratio during the development of the cotyledons. The results are inconsistent with the concept that an accelerated and selective degradation of glyoxysomes underlies the change in peroxisome function. The data suggest that catalase degradation is at least partially due to an individual turnover of catalase and does not only result from a turnover of the whole peroxisomes.

  16. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α activation and excess energy burning in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Parimal; Reddy, Janardan K

    2014-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) modulates the activities of all three interlinked hepatic fatty acid oxidation systems, namely mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation and microsomal ω-oxidation pathways. Hyperactivation of PPARα, by both exogenous and endogenous activators up-regulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation resulting in excess energy burning in liver contributing to the development of liver cancer in rodents. Sustained PPARα signaling disproportionately increases H2O2-generating fatty acid metabolizing enzymes as compared to H2O2-degrading enzymes in liver leading to enhanced generation of DNA damaging reactive oxygen species, progressive endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation. These alterations also contribute to increased liver cell proliferation with changes in apoptosis. Thus, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and hepatocellular proliferation are likely the main contributing factors in the pathogenesis of hepatocarcinogenesis, mediated by sustained PPARα activation-related energy burning in liver. Furthermore, the transcriptional co-activator Med1, a key subunit of the Mediator complex, is essential for PPARα signaling in that both PPARα-null and Med1-null hepatocytes are unresponsive to PPARα activators and fail to give rise to liver tumors when chronically exposed to PPARα activators.

  17. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E; Bharathi, Sivakama S; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B; Goetzman, Eric S

    2017-01-08

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders.

  18. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α ligand, prevents abnormal liver function induced by a fasting–refeeding process

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon No; Dutta, Raghbendra Kumar; Kim, Seul-Gi; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Se-Jin; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Yoo, Kyeong-Won; Song, Seung Ryel; Park, Do-Sim; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •A fasting–refeeding high fat diet (HDF) model mimics irregular eating habit. •A fasting–refeeding HFD induces liver ballooning injury. •A fasting–refeeding HDF process elicits hepatic triglyceride accumulation. •Fenofibrate, PPARα ligand, prevents liver damage induced by refeeding HFD. -- Abstract: Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist, is an anti-hyperlipidemic agent that has been widely used in the treatment of dyslipidemia. In this study, we examined the effect of fenofibrate on liver damage caused by refeeding a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice after 24 h fasting. Here, we showed that refeeding HFD after fasting causes liver damage in mice determined by liver morphology and liver cell death. A detailed analysis revealed that hepatic lipid droplet formation is enhanced and triglyceride levels in liver are increased by refeeding HFD after starvation for 24 h. Also, NF-κB is activated and consequently induces the expression of TNF-α, IL1-β, COX-2, and NOS2. However, treating with fenofibrate attenuates the liver damage and triglyceride accumulation caused by the fasting–refeeding HFD process. Fenofibrate reduces the expression of NF-κB target genes but induces genes for peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, peroxisome biogenesis and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. These results strongly suggest that the treatment of fenofibrate ameliorates the liver damage induced by fasting–refeeding HFD, possibly through the activation of fatty acid oxidation.

  19. Molecular recognition of nitrated fatty acids by PPAR[gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Martynowski, Dariusz; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Baker, Paul R.S.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-03-08

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation, and it is activated by oxidized and nitrated fatty acids. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR{gamma} ligand binding domain bound to nitrated linoleic acid, a potent endogenous ligand of PPAR{gamma}. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis of PPAR{gamma} discrimination of various naturally occurring fatty acid derivatives.

  20. Super-resolution Microscopy Reveals Compartmentalization of Peroxisomal Membrane Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Galiani, Silvia; Waithe, Dominic; Reglinski, Katharina; Cruz-Zaragoza, Luis Daniel; Garcia, Esther; Clausen, Mathias P.; Schliebs, Wolfgang; Erdmann, Ralf; Eggeling, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-associated events during peroxisomal protein import processes play an essential role in peroxisome functionality. Many details of these processes are not known due to missing spatial resolution of technologies capable of investigating peroxisomes directly in the cell. Here, we present the use of super-resolution optical stimulated emission depletion microscopy to investigate with sub-60-nm resolution the heterogeneous spatial organization of the peroxisomal proteins PEX5, PEX14, and PEX11 around actively importing peroxisomes, showing distinct differences between these peroxins. Moreover, imported protein sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP2) occupies only a subregion of larger peroxisomes, highlighting the heterogeneous distribution of proteins even within the peroxisome. Finally, our data reveal subpopulations of peroxisomes showing only weak colocalization between PEX14 and PEX5 or PEX11 but at the same time a clear compartmentalized organization. This compartmentalization, which was less evident in cases of strong colocalization, indicates dynamic protein reorganization linked to changes occurring in the peroxisomes. Through the use of multicolor stimulated emission depletion microscopy, we have been able to characterize peroxisomes and their constituents to a yet unseen level of detail while maintaining a highly statistical approach, paving the way for equally complex biological studies in the future. PMID:27311714

  1. Super-resolution Microscopy Reveals Compartmentalization of Peroxisomal Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Galiani, Silvia; Waithe, Dominic; Reglinski, Katharina; Cruz-Zaragoza, Luis Daniel; Garcia, Esther; Clausen, Mathias P; Schliebs, Wolfgang; Erdmann, Ralf; Eggeling, Christian

    2016-08-12

    Membrane-associated events during peroxisomal protein import processes play an essential role in peroxisome functionality. Many details of these processes are not known due to missing spatial resolution of technologies capable of investigating peroxisomes directly in the cell. Here, we present the use of super-resolution optical stimulated emission depletion microscopy to investigate with sub-60-nm resolution the heterogeneous spatial organization of the peroxisomal proteins PEX5, PEX14, and PEX11 around actively importing peroxisomes, showing distinct differences between these peroxins. Moreover, imported protein sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP2) occupies only a subregion of larger peroxisomes, highlighting the heterogeneous distribution of proteins even within the peroxisome. Finally, our data reveal subpopulations of peroxisomes showing only weak colocalization between PEX14 and PEX5 or PEX11 but at the same time a clear compartmentalized organization. This compartmentalization, which was less evident in cases of strong colocalization, indicates dynamic protein reorganization linked to changes occurring in the peroxisomes. Through the use of multicolor stimulated emission depletion microscopy, we have been able to characterize peroxisomes and their constituents to a yet unseen level of detail while maintaining a highly statistical approach, paving the way for equally complex biological studies in the future.

  2. Barley has two peroxisomal ABC transporters with multiple functions in β-oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Mendiondo, Guillermina M.; Medhurst, Anne; van Roermund, Carlo W.; Zhang, Xuebin; Devonshire, Jean; Scholefield, Duncan; Fernández, José; Axcell, Barry; Ramsay, Luke; Waterham, Hans R.; Waugh, Robbie; Theodoulou, Frederica L.; Holdsworth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    In oilseed plants, peroxisomal β-oxidation functions not only in lipid catabolism but also in jasmonate biosynthesis and metabolism of pro-auxins. Subfamily D ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate import of β-oxidation substrates into the peroxisome, and the Arabidopsis ABCD protein, COMATOSE (CTS), is essential for this function. Here, the roles of peroxisomal ABCD transporters were investigated in barley, where the main storage compound is starch. Barley has two CTS homologues, designated HvABCD1 and HvABCD2, which are widely expressed and present in embryo and aleurone tissues during germination. Suppression of both genes in barley RNA interference (RNAi) lines indicated roles in metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyrate (2,4-DB) and indole butyric acid (IBA), jasmonate biosynthesis, and determination of grain size. Transformation of the Arabidopsis cts-1 null mutant with HvABCD1 and HvABCD2 confirmed these findings. HvABCD2 partially or completely complemented all tested phenotypes of cts-1. In contrast, HvABCD1 failed to complement the germination and establishment phenotypes of cts-1 but increased the sensitivity of hypocotyls to 100 μM IBA and partially complemented the seed size phenotype. HvABCD1 also partially complemented the yeast pxa1/pxa2Δ mutant for fatty acid β-oxidation. It is concluded that the core biochemical functions of peroxisomal ABC transporters are largely conserved between oilseeds and cereals but that their physiological roles and importance may differ. PMID:24913629

  3. Prepartum maternal diets supplemented with oilseeds alter the fatty acid profile in bovine neonatal plasma possibly through reduced placental expression of fatty acid transporter protein 4 and fatty acid translocase.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Reza; Ambrose, Divakar J

    2016-12-12

    In the present study, we determined the effects of maternal dietary fat and the type of fat on plasma fatty acids and the expression of placental fatty acid transporter genes. In Experiment 1, Holstein cows in the last 35 days of gestation received diets containing sunflower seed (n=8; high in linoleic acid (LA)), canola seed (n=7; high in oleic acid (OLA)) or no oilseed (n=7; control). Fatty acids were quantified in dam and neonate plasma at calving. In Experiment 2, placental cotyledons were collected (LA: n=4; OLA: n=4; control: n=5) to quantify gene expression. Maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, neonatal total n-3 fatty acids and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) declined, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and total fat tended to decline following fat supplementation prepartum. Feeding of LA versus OLA prepartum tended to increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARA) expression, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARD) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) expression tended to be higher in OLA- than LA-fed cows. Expression of fatty acid transporter protein 4 (FATP4) and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) expression was lower in placental tissue of cows fed fat compared with control cows. Reduced total n-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA in neonates born of dams fed fat prepartum is likely due to changes in PPARs and reduced expression of placental FATP4 and FAT/CD36.

  4. Towards repurposing the yeast peroxisome for compartmentalizing heterologous metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    DeLoache, William C; Russ, Zachary N; Dueber, John E

    2016-03-30

    Compartmentalization of enzymes into organelles is a promising strategy for limiting metabolic crosstalk and improving pathway efficiency, but improved tools and design rules are needed to make this strategy available to more engineered pathways. Here we focus on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisome and develop a sensitive high-throughput assay for peroxisomal cargo import. We identify an enhanced peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) for rapidly sequestering non-native cargo proteins. Additionally, we perform the first systematic in vivo measurements of nonspecific metabolite permeability across the peroxisomal membrane using a polymer exclusion assay. Finally, we apply these new insights to compartmentalize a two-enzyme pathway in the peroxisome and characterize the expression regimes where compartmentalization leads to improved product titre. This work builds a foundation for using the peroxisome as a synthetic organelle, highlighting both promise and future challenges on the way to realizing this goal.

  5. Towards repurposing the yeast peroxisome for compartmentalizing heterologous metabolic pathways

    SciTech Connect

    DeLoache, William C.; Russ, Zachary N.; Dueber, John E.

    2016-03-30

    Compartmentalization of enzymes into organelles is a promising strategy for limiting metabolic crosstalk and improving pathway efficiency, but improved tools and design rules are needed to make this strategy available to more engineered pathways. Here we focus on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisome and develop a sensitive high-throughput assay for peroxisomal cargo import. We identify an enhanced peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) for rapidly sequestering non-native cargo proteins. Additionally, we perform the first systematic in vivo measurements of nonspecific metabolite permeability across the peroxisomal membrane using a polymer exclusion assay. Finally, we apply these new insights to compartmentalize a two-enzyme pathway in the peroxisome and characterize the expression regimes where compartmentalization leads to improved product titre. Lastly, this work builds a foundation for using the peroxisome as a synthetic organelle, highlighting both promise and future challenges on the way to realizing this goal.

  6. Towards repurposing the yeast peroxisome for compartmentalizing heterologous metabolic pathways

    DOE PAGES

    DeLoache, William C.; Russ, Zachary N.; Dueber, John E.

    2016-03-30

    Compartmentalization of enzymes into organelles is a promising strategy for limiting metabolic crosstalk and improving pathway efficiency, but improved tools and design rules are needed to make this strategy available to more engineered pathways. Here we focus on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisome and develop a sensitive high-throughput assay for peroxisomal cargo import. We identify an enhanced peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) for rapidly sequestering non-native cargo proteins. Additionally, we perform the first systematic in vivo measurements of nonspecific metabolite permeability across the peroxisomal membrane using a polymer exclusion assay. Finally, we apply these new insights to compartmentalize a two-enzymemore » pathway in the peroxisome and characterize the expression regimes where compartmentalization leads to improved product titre. Lastly, this work builds a foundation for using the peroxisome as a synthetic organelle, highlighting both promise and future challenges on the way to realizing this goal.« less

  7. The peroxisomal receptor dislocation pathway: to the exportomer and beyond.

    PubMed

    Platta, Harald W; Hagen, Stefanie; Reidick, Christina; Erdmann, Ralf

    2014-03-01

    The biogenesis of peroxisomes is an ubiquitin-dependent process. In particular, the import of matrix proteins into the peroxisomal lumen requires the modification of import receptors with ubiquitin. The matrix proteins are synthesized on free polyribosomes in the cytosol and are recognized by import receptors via a peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS). Subsequent to the transport of the receptor/cargo-complex to the peroxisomal membrane and the release of the cargo into the peroxisomal lumen, the PTS-receptors are exported back to the cytosol for further rounds of matrix protein import. The exportomer represents the molecular machinery required for the retrotranslocation of the PTS-receptors. It comprises enzymes for the ubiquitination as well as for the ATP-dependent extraction of the PTS-receptors from the peroxisomal membrane. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates a mechanistic interconnection of the ATP-dependent removal of the PTS-receptors with the translocation of the matrix protein into the organellar lumen. Interestingly, the components of the peroxisomal exportomer seem also to be involved in cellular tasks that are distinct from the ubiquitination and dislocation of the peroxisomal PTS-receptors. This includes work that indicates a central function of this machinery in the export of peroxisomal matrix proteins in plants, while a subset of exportomer components is involved in the meiocyte formation in some fungi, the peroxisome-chloroplast contact during photorespiration in plants and possibly even the selective degradation of peroxisomes via pexophagy. In this review, we want to discuss the central role of the exportomer during matrix protein import, but also highlight distinct roles of exportomer constituents in additional cellular processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Peroxisomes: biogenesis, functions and diseases.

  8. Integrated systems biology analysis of KSHV latent infection reveals viral induction and reliance on peroxisome mediated lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sychev, Zoi E; Hu, Alex; DiMaio, Terri A; Gitter, Anthony; Camp, Nathan D; Noble, William S; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Lagunoff, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Kaposi's Sarcoma associated Herpesvirus (KSHV), an oncogenic, human gamma-herpesvirus, is the etiological agent of Kaposi's Sarcoma the most common tumor of AIDS patients world-wide. KSHV is predominantly latent in the main KS tumor cell, the spindle cell, a cell of endothelial origin. KSHV modulates numerous host cell-signaling pathways to activate endothelial cells including major metabolic pathways involved in lipid metabolism. To identify the underlying cellular mechanisms of KSHV alteration of host signaling and endothelial cell activation, we identified changes in the host proteome, phosphoproteome and transcriptome landscape following KSHV infection of endothelial cells. A Steiner forest algorithm was used to integrate the global data sets and, together with transcriptome based predicted transcription factor activity, cellular networks altered by latent KSHV were predicted. Several interesting pathways were identified, including peroxisome biogenesis. To validate the predictions, we showed that KSHV latent infection increases the number of peroxisomes per cell. Additionally, proteins involved in peroxisomal lipid metabolism of very long chain fatty acids, including ABCD3 and ACOX1, are required for the survival of latently infected cells. In summary, novel cellular pathways altered during herpesvirus latency that could not be predicted by a single systems biology platform, were identified by integrated proteomics and transcriptomics data analysis and when correlated with our metabolomics data revealed that peroxisome lipid metabolism is essential for KSHV latent infection of endothelial cells.

  9. Integrated systems biology analysis of KSHV latent infection reveals viral induction and reliance on peroxisome mediated lipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sychev, Zoi E.; Hu, Alex; Lagunoff, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Kaposi’s Sarcoma associated Herpesvirus (KSHV), an oncogenic, human gamma-herpesvirus, is the etiological agent of Kaposi’s Sarcoma the most common tumor of AIDS patients world-wide. KSHV is predominantly latent in the main KS tumor cell, the spindle cell, a cell of endothelial origin. KSHV modulates numerous host cell-signaling pathways to activate endothelial cells including major metabolic pathways involved in lipid metabolism. To identify the underlying cellular mechanisms of KSHV alteration of host signaling and endothelial cell activation, we identified changes in the host proteome, phosphoproteome and transcriptome landscape following KSHV infection of endothelial cells. A Steiner forest algorithm was used to integrate the global data sets and, together with transcriptome based predicted transcription factor activity, cellular networks altered by latent KSHV were predicted. Several interesting pathways were identified, including peroxisome biogenesis. To validate the predictions, we showed that KSHV latent infection increases the number of peroxisomes per cell. Additionally, proteins involved in peroxisomal lipid metabolism of very long chain fatty acids, including ABCD3 and ACOX1, are required for the survival of latently infected cells. In summary, novel cellular pathways altered during herpesvirus latency that could not be predicted by a single systems biology platform, were identified by integrated proteomics and transcriptomics data analysis and when correlated with our metabolomics data revealed that peroxisome lipid metabolism is essential for KSHV latent infection of endothelial cells. PMID:28257516

  10. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor A Ligands as Anticancer Drugs Targeting Mitochondrial Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Grabacka, Maja; Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Tumor cells show metabolic features distinctive from normal tissues, with characteristically enhanced aerobic glycolysis, glutaminolysis and lipid synthesis. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPAR α) is activated by nutrients (fatty acids and their derivatives) and influences these metabolic pathways acting antagonistically to oncogenic Akt and c-Myc. Therefore PPAR α can be regarded as a candidate target molecule in supplementary anticancer pharmacotherapy as well as dietary therapeutic approach. This idea is based on hitting the cancer cell metabolic weak points through PPAR α mediated stimulation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis with simultaneous reduction of glucose and glutamine consumption. PPAR α activity is induced by fasting and its molecular consequences overlap with the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet (CRKD). CRKD induces increase of NAD+/NADH ratio and drop in ATP/AMP ratio. The first one is the main stimulus for enhanced protein deacetylase SIRT1 activity; the second one activates AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). Both SIRT1 and AMPK exert their major metabolic activities such as fatty acid oxidation and block of glycolysis and protein, nucleotide and fatty acid synthesis through the effector protein peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma 1 α coactivator (PGC-1α). PGC-1α cooperates with PPAR α and their activities might contribute to potential anticancer effects of CRKD, which were reported for various brain tumors. Therefore, PPAR α activation can engage molecular interplay among SIRT1, AMPK, and PGC-1α that provides a new, low toxicity dietary approach supplementing traditional anticancer regimen. PMID:21133850

  11. Catalposide is a natural agonistic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ji Hae; Jun, Hee-jin; Hoang, Minh-Hien; Jia, Yaoyao; Han, Xiang Hua; Lee, Dong-Ho; Lee, Hak-Ju; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposide is a novel ligand for PPAR{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell stimulated with catalposide improved fatty acid uptake, regulated target genes in fatty acid {beta}-oxidation and synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposdie reduces hepatic triacylglycerides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theses demonstrate catalposide could ameliorate hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of genes related to cellular lipid uptake and oxidation. Thus, PPAR{alpha} agonists may be important in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis. In this study, we demonstrated that catalposide is a novel natural PPAR{alpha} agonist, identified from reporter gene assay-based activity screening with approximately 900 natural plant and seaweed extracts. Results of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses suggested that the compound interacted directly with the ligand-binding domain of PPAR{alpha}. Cultured hepatocytes stimulated with catalposide exhibited significantly reduced cellular triglyceride concentrations, by 21%, while cellular uptake of fatty acids was increased, by 70% (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the increase in cellular fatty acid uptake was due to upregulation of fatty acid transporter protein-4 (+19% vs. the control) in cells stimulated with catalposide. Additionally, expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation and high-density lipoprotein metabolism were upregulated, while that of genes related to fatty acid synthesis were suppressed. In conclusion, catalposide is hypolipidemic by activation of PPAR{alpha} via a ligand-mediated mechanism that modulates the expression of in lipid metabolism genes in hepatocytes.

  12. ROS Generation in Peroxisomes and its Role in Cell Signaling.

    PubMed

    Del Río, Luis A; López-Huertas, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    In plant cells, as in most eukaryotic organisms, peroxisomes are probably the major sites of intracellular H2O2 production, as a result of their essentially oxidative type of metabolism. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that peroxisomes carry out essential functions in eukaryotic cells. The generation of the important messenger molecule hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by animal and plant peroxisomes and the presence of catalase in these organelles has been known for many years, but the generation of superoxide radicals (O2(·(-)) ) and the occurrence of the metalloenzyme superoxide dismutase was reported for the first time in peroxisomes from plant origin. Further research showed the presence in plant peroxisomes of a complex battery of antioxidant systems apart from catalase. The evidence available of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in peroxisomes is presented, and the different antioxidant systems characterized in these organelles and their possible functions are described. Peroxisomes appear to have a ROS-mediated role in abiotic stress situations induced by the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) and the xenobiotic 2,4-D, and also in the oxidative reactions of leaf senescence. The toxicity of Cd and 2,4-D has an effect on the ROS metabolism and speed of movement (dynamics) of peroxisomes. The regulation of ROS production in peroxisomes can take place by post-translational modifications of those proteins involved in their production and/or scavenging. In recent years, different studies have been carried out on the proteome of ROS metabolism in peroxisomes. Diverse evidence obtained indicates that peroxisomes are an important cellular source of different signaling molecules, including ROS, involved in distinct processes of high physiological importance, and might play an important role in the maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis.

  13. Hepatic triacylglycerol hydrolysis regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Sapiro, Jessica M; Mashek, Mara T; Greenberg, Andrew S; Mashek, Douglas G

    2009-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that fatty acids generated from intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis may have important roles in intracellular signaling. This study was conducted to determine if fatty acids liberated from TAG hydrolysis regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Primary rat hepatocyte cultures were treated with adenoviruses overexpressing adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) or adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) or treated with short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted against ADRP. Subsequent effects on TAG metabolism and PPARalpha activity and target gene expression were determined. Overexpressing ADRP attenuated TAG hydrolysis, whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of ADRP or ATGL overexpression resulted in enhanced TAG hydrolysis. Results from PPARalpha reporter activity assays demonstrated that decreasing TAG hydrolysis by ADRP overexpression resulted in a 35-60% reduction in reporter activity under basal conditions or in the presence of fatty acids. As expected, PPARalpha target genes were also decreased in response to ADRP overexpression. However, the PPARalpha ligand, WY-14643, was able to restore PPARalpha activity following ADRP overexpression. Despite its effects on PPARalpha, overexpressing ADRP did not affect PPARgamma activity. Enhancing TAG hydrolysis through ADRP knockdown or ATGL overexpression increased PPARalpha activity. These results indicate that TAG hydrolysis and the consequential release of fatty acids regulate PPARalpha activity.

  14. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  15. Properties of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Segovia, J L; Zafra, M F; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1982-09-01

    Adenine nucleotides were tested as effectors of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana leaves in the presence of different concentrations of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate substrates. ATP inhibited both enzyme activities but with a different inhibition profile. 1.0-7.5 mM ADP did not inhibit the peroxisomal citrate synthase in the presence of high substrate concentrations, while the mitochondrial enzyme was strongly inhibited by 1.0 mM ADP in the same conditions. Likewise, a different pattern was obtained with AMP on both peroxisomal and mitochondrial activities. The rate of citrate formation as function of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate concentration was also studied in both fractions. Maximal velocity was highest in the peroxisomal fraction, whether acetyl-CoA or oxalacetate were the variable substrates. These differences indicate that peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthases seem to be two different isoenzymes.

  16. Chronic activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha with fenofibrate prevents alterations in cardiac metabolic phenotype without changing the onset of decompensation in pacing-induced heart failure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Severe heart failure (HF) is characterized by profound alterations in cardiac metabolic phenotype, with down-regulation of the free fatty acid (FFA) oxidative pathway and marked increase in glucose oxidation. We tested whether fenofibrate, a pharmacological agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activat...

  17. Suppression of Peroxisomal Enzyme Activities and Cytochrome P450 4A Isozyme Expression by Congeneric Polybrominated and Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Larry W.; Berberian, Isabelle; Borges, Tim; Chen, Li-Chuan; Chow, Ching K.; Glauert, Howard P.; Filser, Johannes G.; Thomas, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of PCBs and PBBs on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α-(PPARα-) associated enzyme activities or protein levels. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single IP injection (150 μ mol/kg) of either 3,3′,4,4′-tetrabromobiphenyl, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 3,3′,5,5′-tetrabromobiphenyl, 2′,3,3′,4,5-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl, 2,2′,3,3′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl, or 3,3′,4,4′,5,5′-hexabromobiphenyl in corn oil (10 ml/kg). One week later, the activities of catalase, peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, and peroxisomal beta-oxidation as well as cytochrome P450 4A (CYP4A) protein content were determined in subcellular liver fractions. None of the peroxisomal enzyme activities were significantly increased by any of the halogenated biphenyl congeners tested. Except for minor (approx. 25%) increases in the total CYP4A content following treatment with 2,2′,3,3′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl and 3,3′,5,5′-tetrabromobiphenyl, CYP4A protein contents were not increased by any treatment. The two Ah receptor agonists, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrabromobiphenyl and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl, significantly diminished the liver content of CYP4A proteins and activities of the peroxisomal enzymes studied. Since a range of congeners with different biologic and toxicologic activities were selected for this study, it may be concluded that the polyhalogenated biphenyls do not induce peroxisome proliferation in the male rat, but rather certain members of this class of compounds down regulate peroxisome-associated enzymes. Since PCBs and PBBs do not increase enzyme activities and expression of proteins associated with PPARα, these agents are therefore exerting their carcinogenic and promoting activities by some other mechanism. PMID:18274624

  18. Proteome Analysis of Peroxisomes from Etiolated Arabidopsis Seedlings Identifies a Peroxisomal Protease Involved in β-Oxidation and Development1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Sheng; Yang, Pingfang; Cassin-Ross, Gaëlle; Kaur, Navneet; Switzenberg, Robert; Aung, Kyaw; Li, Jiying; Hu, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Plant peroxisomes are highly dynamic organelles that mediate a suite of metabolic processes crucial to development. Peroxisomes in seeds/dark-grown seedlings and in photosynthetic tissues constitute two major subtypes of plant peroxisomes, which had been postulated to contain distinct primary biochemical properties. Multiple in-depth proteomic analyses had been performed on leaf peroxisomes, yet the major makeup of peroxisomes in seeds or dark-grown seedlings remained unclear. To compare the metabolic pathways of the two dominant plant peroxisomal subtypes and discover new peroxisomal proteins that function specifically during seed germination, we performed proteomic analysis of peroxisomes from etiolated Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. The detection of 77 peroxisomal proteins allowed us to perform comparative analysis with the peroxisomal proteome of green leaves, which revealed a large overlap between these two primary peroxisomal variants. Subcellular targeting analysis by fluorescence microscopy validated around 10 new peroxisomal proteins in Arabidopsis. Mutant analysis suggested the role of the cysteine protease RESPONSE TO DROUGHT21A-LIKE1 in β-oxidation, seed germination, and growth. This work provides a much-needed road map of a major type of plant peroxisome and has established a basis for future investigations of peroxisomal proteolytic processes to understand their roles in development and in plant interaction with the environment. PMID:24130194

  19. Peroxisomes are required for efficient penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Wiebe H; Gidijala, Loknath; Fekken, Susan; Kiel, Jan A K W; van den Berg, Marco A; Lascaris, Romeo; Bovenberg, Roel A L; van der Klei, Ida J

    2010-09-01

    In the fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, penicillin (PEN) production is compartmentalized in the cytosol and in peroxisomes. Here we show that intact peroxisomes that contain the two final enzymes of PEN biosynthesis, acyl coenzyme A (CoA):6-amino penicillanic acid acyltransferase (AT) as well as the side-chain precursor activation enzyme phenylacetyl CoA ligase (PCL), are crucial for efficient PEN synthesis. Moreover, increasing PEN titers are associated with increasing peroxisome numbers. However, not all conditions that result in enhanced peroxisome numbers simultaneously stimulate PEN production. We find that conditions that lead to peroxisome proliferation but simultaneously interfere with the normal physiology of the cell may be detrimental to antibiotic production. We furthermore show that peroxisomes develop in germinating conidiospores from reticule-like structures. During subsequent hyphal growth, peroxisome proliferation occurs at the tip of the growing hyphae, after which the organelles are distributed over newly formed subapical cells. We observed that the organelle proliferation machinery requires the dynamin-like protein Dnm1.

  20. Phosphatidylcholine Supply to Peroxisomes of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ramprecht, Claudia; Zellnig, Günther; Leitner, Erich; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid (PL) of all organelle membranes, is synthesized via two different pathways. Methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) catalyzed by the methyl transferases Cho2p/Pem1p and Opi3p/Pem2p as well as incorporation of choline through the CDP (cytidine diphosphate)-choline branch of the Kennedy pathway lead to PC formation. To determine the contribution of these two pathways to the supply of PC to peroxisomes (PX), yeast mutants bearing defects in the two pathways were cultivated under peroxisome inducing conditions, i.e. in the presence of oleic acid, and subjected to biochemical and cell biological analyses. Phenotype studies revealed compromised growth of both the cho20Δopi3Δ (mutations in the methylation pathway) and the cki1Δdpl1Δeki1Δ (mutations in the CDP-choline pathway) mutant when grown on oleic acid. Analysis of peroxisomes from the two mutant strains showed that both pathways produce PC for the supply to peroxisomes, although the CDP-choline pathway seemed to contribute with higher efficiency than the methylation pathway. Changes in the peroxisomal lipid pattern of mutants caused by defects in the PC biosynthetic pathways resulted in changes of membrane properties as shown by anisotropy measurements with fluorescent probes. In summary, our data define the origin of peroxisomal PC and demonstrate the importance of PC for peroxisome membrane formation and integrity. PMID:26241051

  1. Probing peroxisome dynamics and biogenesis by fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Miluska; Kim, Peter K

    2014-03-03

    Peroxisomes are the most recently discovered classical organelles, and only lately have their diverse functions been truly recognized. Peroxisomes are highly dynamic structures, changing both morphologically and in number in response to both extracellular and intracellular signals. This metabolic organelle came to prominence due to the many genetic disorders caused by defects in its biogenesis or enzymatic functions. There is now growing evidence that suggests peroxisomes are involved in lipid biosynthesis, innate immunity, redox homeostasis, and metabolite scavenging, among other functions. Therefore, it is important to have available suitable methods and techniques to visualize and quantify peroxisomes in response to various cellular signals. This unit includes a number of protocols that will enable researchers to image, qualify, and quantify peroxisome numbers and morphology-with both steady-state and time-lapse imaging using mammalian cells. The use of photoactivatable fluorescent proteins to detect and measure peroxisome biogenesis is also described. Altogether, the protocols described here will facilitate understanding of the dynamic changes that peroxisomes undergo in response to various cellular signals.

  2. Direct comparison of fatty acid ratios in single cellular lipid droplets as determined by comparative Raman spectroscopy and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schie, Iwan W; Nolte, Lena; Pedersen, Theresa L; Smith, Zach; Wu, Jian; Yahiatène, Idir; Newman, John W; Huser, Thomas

    2013-11-07

    Cellular lipid droplets are the least studied and least understood cellular organelles in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Despite a significant body of research studying the physiology of lipid droplets it has not yet been possible to fully determine the composition of individual cellular lipid droplets. In this paper we use Raman spectroscopy on single cellular lipid droplets and least-squares fitting of pure fatty acid spectra to determine the composition of individual lipid droplets in cells after treatment with different ratios of oleic and palmitic acid. We validate the results of the Raman spectroscopy-based single lipid droplet analysis with results obtained by gas chromatography analysis of millions of cells, and find that our approach can accurately predict the relative amount of a specific fatty acid in the lipid droplet. Based on these results we show that the fatty acid composition in individual lipid droplets is on average similar to that of all lipid droplets found in the sample. Furthermore, we expand this approach to the investigation of the lipid composition in single cellular peroxisomes. We determine the location of cellular peroxisomes based on two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) imaging of peroxisomes labeled with the green fluorescent protein, and successive Raman spectroscopy of peroxisomes. We find that in some cases peroxisomes can produce a detectable CARS signal, and that the peroxisomal Raman spectra exhibit an oleic acid-like signature.

  3. Altered expression of fatty acid–metabolizing enzymes in aromatase-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Nemoto, Yoshihisa; Toda, Katsumi; Ono, Masafumi; Fujikawa-Adachi, Kiyomi; Saibara, Toshiji; Onishi, Saburo; Enzan, Hideaki; Okada, Teruhiko; Shizuta, Yutaka

    2000-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is a frequent complication in nonobese patients with breast cancer treated with tamoxifen, a potent antagonist of estrogen. In addition, hepatic steatosis became evident spontaneously in the aromatase-deficient (ArKO) mouse, which lacks intrinsic estrogen production. These clinical and laboratory observations suggest that estrogen helps to maintain constitutive lipid metabolism. To clarify this hypothesis, we characterized the expression and activity in ArKO mouse liver of enzymes involved in peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation. Northern analysis showed reduced expression of mRNAs for very long fatty acyl-CoA synthetase, peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, enzymes required in fatty acid β-oxidation. In vitro assays of fatty acid β-oxidation activity using very long (C24:0), long (C16:0), or medium (C12:0) chain fatty acids as the substrates confirmed that the corresponding activities are also diminished. Impaired gene expression and enzyme activities of fatty acid β-oxidation were restored to the wild-type levels, and hepatic steatosis was substantially diminished in animals treated with 17β-estradiol. Wild-type and ArKO mice showed no difference in the binding activities of the hepatic nuclear extracts to a peroxisome proliferator response element. These findings demonstrate the pivotal role of estrogen in supporting constitutive hepatic expression of genes involved in lipid β-oxidation and in maintaining hepatic lipid homeostasis. PMID:10862797

  4. Regulation of hepatic gene expression by saturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Vallim, T; Salter, A M

    2010-01-01

    Diets rich in saturated fatty acids have long been associated with increased plasma cholesterol concentrations and hence increased risk of cardiovascular disease. More recently, they have also been suggested to promote the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. While there is now considerable evidence to suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids exert many of their effects through regulating the activity of transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, sterol regulatory binding proteins (SREBPs) and liver X receptor, our understanding of how saturated fatty acids act is still limited. Here we review the potential mechanisms whereby saturated fatty acids modulate hepatic lipid metabolism thereby impacting on the synthesis, storage and secretion of lipids. Evidence is presented that their effects are, at least partly, mediated through modulation of the activity of the SREBP family of transcription factors.

  5. Simultaneous Visualization of Peroxisomes and Cytoskeletal Elements Reveals Actin and Not Microtubule-Based Peroxisome Motility in Plants1[w

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Jaideep; Mathur, Neeta; Hülskamp, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Peroxisomes were visualized in living plant cells using a yellow fluorescent protein tagged with a peroxisomal targeting signal consisting of the SKL motif. Simultaneous visualization of peroxisomes and microfilaments/microtubules was accomplished in onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells transiently expressing the yellow fluorescent protein-peroxi construct, a green fluorescent protein-mTalin construct that labels filamentous-actin filaments, and a green fluorescent protein-microtubule-binding domain construct that labels microtubules. The covisualization of peroxisomes and cytoskeletal elements revealed that, contrary to the reports from animal cells, peroxisomes in plants appear to associate with actin filaments and not microtubules. That peroxisome movement is actin based was shown by pharmacological studies. For this analysis we used onion epidermal cells and various cell types of Arabidopsis including trichomes, root hairs, and root cortex cells exhibiting different modes of growth. In transient onion epidermis assay and in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, an interference with the actin cytoskeleton resulted in progressive loss of saltatory movement followed by the aggregation and a complete cessation of peroxisome motility within 30 min of drug application. Microtubule depolymerization or stabilization had no effect. PMID:11891258

  6. The dynamin-like GTPase DLP1 is essential for peroxisome division and is recruited to peroxisomes in part by PEX11.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoling; Gould, Stephen J

    2003-05-09

    Peroxisome division involves the conserved PEX11 peroxisomal membrane proteins and in yeast has been shown to require Vps1p, a dynamin-like protein. We show here that DLP1, the human homolog of the yeast DNM1 and VPS1 genes, plays an important role in peroxisome division in human cells. Disruption of DLP1 function by either RNA interference or overexpressing dominant negative DLP1 mutants causes a dramatic reduction in peroxisome abundance, although overexpression of functional DLP1 has no effect on peroxisome abundance. Overexpression of PEX11 induces peroxisome division in a multistep process involving elongation of preexisting peroxisomes followed by their division. We find that DLP1 is dispensable for the first phase of this process but essential for the second. Furthermore, we show that DLP1 associates with peroxisomes and that PEX11 overexpression recruits DLP1 to peroxisome membranes. However, we were unable to detect physical interaction between PEX11 and DLP1, and the stoichiometry of PEX11 and peroxisome-associated DLP1 was far less than 1:1. Based on these and other aspects, we propose that DLP1 performs an essential but transient role in peroxisome division and that PEX11 promotes peroxisome division by recruiting DLP1 to peroxisome membranes through an indirect mechanism.

  7. Statins enhance peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha activity to regulate energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxian; Wong, Chi-Wai

    2010-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) serves as an inducible coactivator for a number of transcription factors to control energy metabolism. Insulin signaling through Akt kinase has been demonstrated to phosphorylate PGC-1alpha at serine 571 and downregulate its activity in the liver. Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors that reduce cholesterol synthesis in the liver. In this study, we found that statins reduced the active form of Akt and enhanced PGC-1alpha activity. Specifically, statins failed to activate an S571A mutant of PGC-1alpha. The activation of PGC-1alpha by statins selectively enhanced the expression of energy metabolizing enzymes and regulators including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1A, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4. Importantly, a constitutively active form of Akt partially reduced the statin-enhanced gene expression. Our study thus provides a plausible mechanistic explanation for the hypolipidemic effect of statin through elevating the rate of beta-oxidation and mitochondrial Kreb's cycle capacity to enhance fatty acid utilization while reducing the rate of glycolysis.

  8. [Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in obesity and insulin resistance development].

    PubMed

    Alemán, Gabriela; Torres, Nimbe; Tovar, Armando R

    2004-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of nuclear transcription factors that belong to the steroid receptor superfamily. PPARs family includes PPARalpha, PPARbeta/delta, PPARgamma1 and PPARgamma2. PPARs form an heterodimer with the 9-cis retinoic acid receptor (RXR) and bind to response elements present in target genes activated by these transcription factors. PPARs control the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, oxidation and storage. PPARs are present in most tissues, where PPARalpha is most abundant in liver and skeletal muscle, whereas PPARgamma is found mainly in adipose tissue. Natural ligands for PPARs are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and some eicosanoids, however they are also activated by compounds such as fibrates and thiazolidinediones (TZDs). In this review is shown the different PPARs isoforms, identification, and regulation of their expression and activity. Also shows which are the natural ligands, and the chemical compounds that activate PPARs. Finally, it shows the target genes activated by the different isoforms of PPARs, the metabolic integration between the different PPAR isoforms to maintain a balance between fatty acid synthesis and oxidation and the association with the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Also shows information about the nutritional requirements of PUFAs that are the main natural ligands of PPARs.

  9. Evaluation of Whether Gemfibrozil is a Peroxisome Proliferator in Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gemfibrozil is a pharmaceutical that indirectly modulates cholesterol biosynthesis through effects on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), which are transcriptional cofactors that regulate expression of genes related to lipid metabolism. An enzyme found in the pero...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... including widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism), a low nasal bridge, and low-set ears. Extra fingers or toes ( ... This enzyme is found in sac-like cell structures (organelles) called peroxisomes, which contain a variety of ...

  11. Pex19p, a Farnesylated Protein Essential for Peroxisome Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Götte, Klaudia; Girzalsky, Wolfgang; Linkert, Michael; Baumgart, Evelyn; Kammerer, Stefan; Kunau, Wolf-Hubert; Erdmann, Ralf

    1998-01-01

    We report the identification and molecular characterization of Pex19p, an oleic acid-inducible, farnesylated protein of 39.7 kDa that is essential for peroxisome biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells lacking Pex19p are characterized by the absence of morphologically detectable peroxisomes and mislocalization of peroxisomal matrix proteins to the cytosol. The human HK33 gene product was identified as the putative human ortholog of Pex19p. Evidence is provided that farnesylation of Pex19p takes place at the cysteine of the C-terminal CKQQ amino acid sequence. Farnesylation of Pex19p was shown to be essential for the proper function of the protein in peroxisome biogenesis. Pex19p was shown to interact with Pex3p in vivo, and this interaction required farnesylation of Pex19p. PMID:9418908

  12. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Unoda, Kiichi; Doi, Yoshimitsu; Nakajima, Hideto; Yamane, Kazushi; Hosokawa, Takafumi; Ishida, Shimon; Kimura, Fumiharu; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2013-03-15

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), one of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, is a neuroprotective lipid with anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the possible therapeutic effect of EPA on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE mice were fed a diet with or without EPA. The clinical EAE scores of the EPA-fed mice were significantly lower than those of the non-EPA mice. In the EPA-treated mice, IFN-γ and IL-17 productions were remarkably inhibited and the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors were significantly enhanced in the CNS-infiltrating CD4T cells. Thus EPA shows promise as a potential new therapeutic agent against multiple sclerosis.

  13. SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED DECLINE IN HEPATIC PEROXISOMAL ENZYME ACTIVITIES CORRESPONDS WITH DIMINISHED LEVELS OF RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA, BUT NOT PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR ALPHA1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Aging is associated with alterations in hepatic peroxisomal metabolism and susceptibility to hepatocarcinogenecity produced by agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa). Mechanisms involved in these effects are not well understood. Howev...

  14. Differential protein import deficiencies in human peroxisome assembly disorders

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Two peroxisome targeting signals (PTSs) for matrix proteins have been well defined to date. PTS1 comprises a COOH-terminal tripeptide, SKL, and has been found in several matrix proteins, whereas PTS2 has been found only in peroxisomal thiolase and is contained within an NH2- terminal cleavable presequence. We have investigated the functional integrity of the import routes for PTS1 and PTS2 in fibroblasts from patients suffering from peroxisome assembly disorders. Three of the five complementation groups tested showed a general loss of PTS1 and PTS2 import. Two complementation groups showed a differential loss of peroxisomal protein import: group I cells were able to import a PTS1- but not a PTS2- containing reporter protein into their peroxisomes, and group IV cells were able to import the PTS2 but not the PTS1 reporter into aberrant, peroxisomal ghostlike structures. The observation that the PTS2 import pathway is intact only in group IV cells is supported by the protection of endogenous thiolase from protease degradation in group IV cells and its sensitivity in the remaining complementation groups, including the partialized disorder of group I. The functionality of the PTS2 import pathway and colocalization of endogenous thiolase with the peroxisomal membranes in group IV cells was substantiated further using immunofluorescence, subcellular fractionation, and immunoelectron microscopy. The phenotypes of group I and IV cells provide the first evidence for differential import deficiencies in higher eukaryotes. These phenotypes are analogous to those found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisome assembly mutants. PMID:7910611

  15. Peroxisomal cholesterol biosynthesis and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Weinhofer, Isabelle; Kunze, Markus; Stangl, Herbert; Porter, Forbes D.; Berger, Johannes . E-mail: johannes.berger@meduniwien.ac.at

    2006-06-23

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), caused by 7-dehydrocholesterol-reductase (DHCR7) deficiency, shows variable severity independent of DHCR7 genotype. To test whether peroxisomes are involved in alternative cholesterol synthesis, we used [1-{sup 14}C]C24:0 for peroxisomal {beta}-oxidation to generate [1-{sup 14}C]acetyl-CoA as cholesterol precursor inside peroxisomes. The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor lovastatin suppressed cholesterol synthesis from [2-{sup 14}C]acetate and [1-{sup 14}C]C8:0 but not from [1-{sup 14}C]C24:0, implicating a peroxisomal, lovastatin-resistant HMG-CoA reductase. In SLOS fibroblasts lacking DHCR7 activity, no cholesterol was formed from [1-{sup 14}C]C24:0-derived [1-{sup 14}C]acetyl-CoA, indicating that the alternative peroxisomal pathway also requires this enzyme. Our results implicate peroxisomes in cholesterol biosynthesis but provide no link to phenotypic variation in SLOS.

  16. Induction of peroxisome proliferation in rainbow trout exposed to ciprofibrate.

    PubMed

    Yang, J H; Kostecki, P T; Calabrese, E J; Baldwin, L A

    1990-07-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), average body weight of 450 g, were treated with 15, 25, or 35 mg/kg of ciprofibrate via intraperitoneal injection every other day for 2 to 3 weeks. The effects on hepatic peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase, polypeptide PPA-80, catalase, and liver weight were measured. The treatment of trout with ciprofibrate showed significant dose-related increases in peroxisomal acyl-CoA activity, polypeptide PPA-80, and catalase after 3 weeks of exposure. Peroxisomal oxidase activity showed a significant (p = 0.0008) increase (78%) at 35 mg/kg and a marginal (p = 0.1) increase (27%) at 25 mg/kg after 3 weeks of exposure. Densitometric analysis of polypeptide PPA-80 and catalase showed increases up to 48 and 236% at 35 mg/kg, respectively. Morphometric analysis on livers of trout administered 35 mg/kg for 3 weeks showed a 2.3-fold increase of peroxisomal volume density, as compared to control. This study demonstrates the induction of peroxisome proliferation in rainbow trout administered ciprofibrate, a known peroxisome proliferator in rodents.

  17. Impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in the peroxisomal disease X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    López-Erauskin, J; Galino, J; Ruiz, M; Cuezva, J M; Fabregat, I; Cacabelos, D; Boada, J; Martínez, J; Ferrer, I; Pamplona, R; Villarroya, F; Portero-Otín, M; Fourcade, S; Pujol, A

    2013-08-15

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited metabolic disorder of the nervous system characterized by axonopathy in spinal cords and/or cerebral demyelination, adrenal insufficiency and accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in plasma and tissues. The disease is caused by malfunction of the ABCD1 gene, which encodes a peroxisomal transporter of VLCFAs or VLCFA-CoA. In the mouse, Abcd1 loss causes late onset axonal degeneration in the spinal cord, associated with locomotor disability resembling the most common phenotype in patients, adrenomyeloneuropathy. We have formerly shown that an excess of the VLCFA C26:0 induces oxidative damage, which underlies the axonal degeneration exhibited by the Abcd1(-) mice. In the present study, we sought to investigate the noxious effects of C26:0 on mitochondria function. Our data indicate that in X-ALD patients' fibroblasts, excess of C26:0 generates mtDNA oxidation and specifically impairs oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) triggering mitochondrial ROS production from electron transport chain complexes. This correlates with impaired complex V phosphorylative activity, as visualized by high-resolution respirometry on spinal cord slices of Abcd1(-) mice. Further, we identified a marked oxidation of key OXPHOS system subunits in Abcd1(-) mouse spinal cords at presymptomatic stages. Altogether, our results illustrate some of the mechanistic intricacies by which the excess of a fatty acid targeted to peroxisomes activates a deleterious process of oxidative damage to mitochondria, leading to a multifaceted dysfunction of this organelle. These findings may be of relevance for patient management while unveiling novel therapeutic targets for X-ALD.

  18. Yeast pex1 cells contain peroxisomal ghosts that import matrix proteins upon reintroduction of Pex1

    PubMed Central

    Knoops, Kèvin; de Boer, Rinse; Kram, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Pex1 and Pex6 are two AAA-ATPases that play a crucial role in peroxisome biogenesis. We have characterized the ultrastructure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisome-deficient mutants pex1 and pex6 by various high-resolution electron microscopy techniques. We observed that the cells contained peroxisomal membrane remnants, which in ultrathin cross sections generally appeared as double membrane rings. Electron tomography revealed that these structures consisted of one continuous membrane, representing an empty, flattened vesicle, which folds into a cup shape. Immunocytochemistry revealed that these structures lack peroxisomal matrix proteins but are the sole sites of the major peroxisomal membrane proteins Pex2, Pex10, Pex11, Pex13, and Pex14. Upon reintroduction of Pex1 in Pex1-deficient cells, these peroxisomal membrane remnants (ghosts) rapidly incorporated peroxisomal matrix proteins and developed into peroxisomes. Our data support earlier views that Pex1 and Pex6 play a role in peroxisomal matrix protein import. PMID:26644511

  19. Dynamin-related proteins and Pex11 proteins in peroxisome division and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Thoms, Sven; Erdmann, Ralf

    2005-10-01

    The abundance and size of cellular organelles vary depending on the cell type and metabolic needs. Peroxisomes constitute a class of cellular organelles renowned for their ability to adapt to cellular and environmental conditions. Together with transcriptional regulators, two groups of peroxisomal proteins have a pronounced influence on peroxisome size and abundance. Pex11-type peroxisome proliferators are involved in the proliferation of peroxisomes, defined here as an increase in size and/or number of peroxisomes. Dynamin-related proteins have recently been suggested to be required for the scission of peroxisomal membranes. This review surveys the function of Pex11-type peroxisome proliferators and dynamin-related proteins in peroxisomal proliferation and division.

  20. RhoA Regulates Peroxisome Association to Microtubules and the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Lay, Dorothee; Wiese, Sebastian; Meyer, Helmut E.; Warscheid, Bettina; Saffrich, Rainer; Peränen, Johan; Gorgas, Karin; Just, Wilhelm W.

    2010-01-01

    The current view of peroxisome inheritance provides for the formation of new peroxisomes by both budding from the endoplasmic reticulum and autonomous division. Here we investigate peroxisome-cytoskeleton interactions and show by proteomics, biochemical and immunofluorescence analyses that actin, non-muscle myosin IIA (NMM IIA), RhoA, Rho kinase II (ROCKII) and Rab8 associate with peroxisomes. Our data provide evidence that (i) RhoA in its inactive state, maintained for example by C. botulinum toxin exoenzyme C3, dissociates from peroxisomes enabling microtubule-based peroxisomal movements and (ii) dominant-active RhoA targets to peroxisomes, uncouples the organelles from microtubules and favors Rho kinase recruitment to peroxisomes. We suggest that ROCKII activates NMM IIA mediating local peroxisomal constrictions. Although our understanding of peroxisome-cytoskeleton interactions is still incomplete, a picture is emerging demonstrating alternate RhoA-dependent association of peroxisomes to the microtubular and actin cytoskeleton. Whereas association of peroxisomes to microtubules clearly serves bidirectional, long-range saltatory movements, peroxisome-acto-myosin interactions may support biogenetic functions balancing peroxisome size, shape, number, and clustering. PMID:21079737

  1. Allosteric modulation of peroxisomal membrane protein recognition by farnesylation of the peroxisomal import receptor PEX19

    PubMed Central

    Emmanouilidis, Leonidas; Schütz, Ulrike; Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Madl, Tobias; Radke, Juliane; Rucktäschel, Robert; Wilmanns, Matthias; Schliebs, Wolfgang; Erdmann, Ralf; Sattler, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The transport of peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) requires the soluble PEX19 protein as chaperone and import receptor. Recognition of cargo PMPs by the C-terminal domain (CTD) of PEX19 is required for peroxisome biogenesis in vivo. Farnesylation at a C-terminal CaaX motif in PEX19 enhances the PMP interaction, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here, we report the NMR-derived structure of the farnesylated human PEX19 CTD, which reveals that the farnesyl moiety is buried in an internal hydrophobic cavity. This induces substantial conformational changes that allosterically reshape the PEX19 surface to form two hydrophobic pockets for the recognition of conserved aromatic/aliphatic side chains in PMPs. Mutations of PEX19 residues that either mediate farnesyl contacts or are directly involved in PMP recognition abolish cargo binding and cannot complement a ΔPEX19 phenotype in human Zellweger patient fibroblasts. Our results demonstrate an allosteric mechanism for the modulation of protein function by farnesylation. PMID:28281558

  2. Immunocytochemical localization of peroxisomal enzymes in human liver biopsies.

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, J. A.; Völkl, A.; Müller-Höcker, J.; Hashimoto, T.; Fahimi, H. D.

    1987-01-01

    The immunocytochemical localization of catalase and three enzymes of the peroxisomal lipid beta-oxidation system--acyl-CoA oxidase, the bifunctional protein enoyl-CoA hydratase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase--in human liver biopsies was investigated by means of light and electron microscopy. The antisera raised against all four enzymes from rat liver cross-reacted with the corresponding proteins in homogenates of human liver as revealed by immunoblotting. For light-microscopic localization in glutaraldehyde-fixed Epon-embedded material, the removal of resin and controlled digestion with trypsin was necessary. At the ultrastructural level specific labeling for all four antigens was found by the protein A-gold technique in peroxisomes of liver parenchymal cells fixed with formaldehyde-low glutaraldehyde concentrations and embedded in Lowicryl K4M. In biopsies fixed with glutaraldehyde and embedded in Epon, treatment with metaperiodate or etching with sodium ethoxide improved the immunolabeling. After such treatment catalase showed the most intense labeling and acyl-CoA oxidase the weakest, the two other proteins exhibiting an intermediate immunoreaction. In material postfixed with osmium only catalase could be visualized in peroxisomes. The immunocytochemical investigation of peroxisomal proteins in human liver biopsies provides a simple and highly promising approach for further elucidation of the pathophysiology of peroxisomal disorders. Images Figures 2 and 3 Figure 4-7 Figures 9-12 Figure 1 Figure 8 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:2886050

  3. The peroxin Pex34p functions with the Pex11 family of peroxisomal divisional proteins to regulate the peroxisome population in yeast.

    PubMed

    Tower, Robert J; Fagarasanu, Andrei; Aitchison, John D; Rachubinski, Richard A

    2011-05-15

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles involved in diverse metabolic processes, most notably the metabolism of lipids and the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Peroxisomes are highly dynamic and change in size and number in response to both intra- and extracellular cues. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, peroxisome growth and division are controlled by both the differential import of soluble matrix proteins and a specialized divisional machinery that includes peroxisome-specific factors, such as members of the Pex11 protein family, and general organelle divisional factors, such as the dynamin-related protein Vps1p. Global yeast two-hybrid analyses have demonstrated interactions between the product of the S. cerevisiae gene of unknown function, YCL056c, and Pex proteins involved in peroxisome biogenesis. Here we show that the protein encoded by YCL056c, renamed Pex34p, is a peroxisomal integral membrane protein that acts independently and also in concert with the Pex11 protein family members Pex11p, Pex25p, and Pex27p to control the peroxisome populations of cells under conditions of both peroxisome proliferation and constitutive peroxisome division. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that Pex34p interacts physically with itself and with Pex11p, Pex25p, and Pex27p but not with Vps1p. Pex34p can act as a positive effector of peroxisome division as its overexpression leads to increased numbers of peroxisomes in wild type and pex34Δ cells. Pex34p requires the Pex11 family proteins to promote peroxisome division. Our discovery of Pex34p as a protein involved in the already complex control of peroxisome populations emphasizes the necessity of cells to strictly regulate their peroxisome populations to be able to respond appropriately to changing environmental conditions.

  4. Protein profiling of mouse livers with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ruiyin; Lim, Hanjo; Brumfield, Laura; Liu, Hong; Herring, Chris; Ulintz, Peter; Reddy, Janardan K; Davison, Matthew

    2004-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is important in the induction of cell-specific pleiotropic responses, including the development of liver tumors, when it is chronically activated by structurally diverse synthetic ligands such as Wy-14,643 or by unmetabolized endogenous ligands resulting from the disruption of the gene encoding acyl coenzyme A (CoA) oxidase (AOX). Alterations in gene expression patterns in livers with PPARalpha activation were delineated by using a proteomic approach to analyze liver proteins of Wy-14,643-treated and AOX(-/-) mice. We identified 46 differentially expressed proteins in mouse livers with PPARalpha activation. Up-regulated proteins, including acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, and carnitine O-octanoyltransferase, are involved in fatty acid metabolism, whereas down-regulated proteins, including ketohexokinase, formiminotransferase-cyclodeaminase, fructose-bisphosphatase aldolase B, sarcosine dehydrogenase, and cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase, are involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Among stress response and xenobiotic metabolism proteins, selenium-binding protein 2 and catalase showed a dramatic approximately 18-fold decrease in expression and a modest approximately 6-fold increase in expression, respectively. In addition, glycine N-methyltransferase, pyrophosphate phosphohydrolase, and protein phosphatase 1D were down-regulated with PPARalpha activation. These observations establish proteomic profiles reflecting a common and predictable pattern of differential protein expression in livers with PPARalpha activation. We conclude that livers with PPARalpha activation are transcriptionally geared towards fatty acid combustion.

  5. Roles of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor β/δ in skeletal muscle physiology.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Ravikumar; Wahli, Walter

    2017-05-01

    More than two decades of studying Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) has led to an understanding of their implications in various physiological processes that are key for health and disease. All three PPAR isotypes, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, are activated by a variety of molecules, including fatty acids, eicosanoids and phospholipids, and regulate a spectrum of genes involved in development, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, inflammation, and proliferation and differentiation of many cell types in different tissues. The hypolipidemic and antidiabetic functions of PPARα and PPARγ in response to fibrate and thiazolidinedione treatment, respectively, are well documented. However, until more recently the functions of PPARβ/δ were less well defined, but are now becoming more recognized in fatty acid metabolism, energy expenditure, and tissue repair. Skeletal muscle is an active metabolic organ with high plasticity for adaptive responses to varying conditions such as fasting or physical exercise. It is the major site of energy expenditure resulting from lipid and glucose catabolism. Here, we review the multifaceted roles of PPARβ/δ in skeletal muscle physiology.

  6. A role for Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Beta in T cell development

    PubMed Central

    Mothe-Satney, Isabelle; Murdaca, Joseph; Sibille, Brigitte; Rousseau, Anne-Sophie; Squillace, Raphaëlle; Le Menn, Gwenaëlle; Rekima, Akila; Larbret, Frederic; Pelé, Juline; Verhasselt, Valérie; Grimaldi, Paul A.; Neels, Jaap G.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolism plays an important role in T cell biology and changes in metabolism drive T cell differentiation and fate. Most research on the role of metabolism in T lymphocytes focuses on mature T cells while only few studies have investigated the role of metabolism in T cell development. In this study, we report that activation or overexpression of the transcription factor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor β (PPARβ) increases fatty acid oxidation in T cells. Furthermore, using both in vivo and in vitro models, we demonstrate that PPARβ activation/overexpression inhibits thymic T cell development by decreasing proliferation of CD4−CD8− double-negative stage 4 (DN4) thymocytes. These results support a model where PPARβ activation/overexpression favours fatty acid- instead of glucose-oxidation in developing T cells, thereby hampering the proliferative burst normally occurring at the DN4 stage of T cell development. As a consequence, the αβ T cells that are derived from DN4 thymocytes are dramatically decreased in peripheral lymphoid tissues, while the γδ T cell population remains untouched. This is the first report of a direct role for a member of the PPAR family of nuclear receptors in the development of T cells. PMID:27680392

  7. Peroxisomes are present in murine spermatogonia and disappear during the course of spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lüers, Georg H; Thiele, Samuel; Schad, Arno; Völkl, Alfred; Yokota, Sadaki; Seitz, Jürgen

    2006-06-01

    Peroxisomes are organelles that are almost ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells. They have, however, never been described in germ cells within the testis. Since some peroxisomal diseases like Adrenoleukodystrophy are associated with reduced fertility, we have re-investigated the peroxisomal compartment of the germinal epithelium of mice using in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and immunoelectron microscopy. Within the seminiferous tubules, peroxisomes are present in Sertoli cells and in germ cells. We could show that small-sized peroxisomes of typical ultrastructure are concentrated in spermatogonia and disappear during the course of spermatogenesis. Peroxisomes of spermatogonia differ in their relative protein composition from previously described peroxisomes of interstitial cells of Leydig. Since germ cells differentiate in mouse testis in a synchronized fashion, the disappearence of peroxisomes could be a suitable model system to investigate the degradation of an organelle as part of a physiological differentiation process in higher eukaryotes.

  8. Peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase in CAM plants.

    PubMed

    Zafra, M F; Segovia, J L; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1981-12-01

    Citrate synthase wa studied for the first time in peroxisomes and mitochondria of crassulacean acid metabolism plants. Cellular organelles were isolated from Agave americana leaves by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and characterized by the use of catalase and cytochrome oxidase as marker enzymes, respectively. 48,000 X g centrifugation caused the breakdown of the cellular organelles. The presence of a glyoxylate cycle enzyme (citrate synthase) and a glycollate pathway enzyme (catalase) in the same organelles, besides the absence of another glyoxalate cycle enzyme (malate synthase) is reported for the first time, suggesting that peroxisomal and glyoxysomal proteins are synthesized at the same time and housed in he same organelle.

  9. Peroxisystem: harnessing systems cell biology to study peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Schuldiner, Maya; Zalckvar, Einat

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modelling of cells, recently dubbed systems cell biology, has been harnessed to study the organisation and dynamics of simple biological systems. Here, we suggest that the peroxisome, a fascinating dynamic organelle, can be used as a good candidate for studying a complete biological system. We discuss several aspects of peroxisomes that can be studied using high-throughput systematic approaches and be integrated into a predictive model. Such approaches can be used in the future to study and understand how a more complex biological system, like a cell and maybe even ultimately a whole organism, works.

  10. Genetic dissection of peroxisome-associated matrix protein degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Sarah E; Lingard, Matthew J; Bartel, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes are organelles that sequester certain metabolic pathways; many of these pathways generate H(2)O(2), which can damage proteins. However, little is known about how damaged or obsolete peroxisomal proteins are degraded. We exploit developmentally timed peroxisomal content remodeling in Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate peroxisome-associated protein degradation. Isocitrate lyase (ICL) is a peroxisomal glyoxylate cycle enzyme necessary for early seedling development. A few days after germination, photosynthesis begins and ICL is degraded. We previously found that ICL is stabilized when a peroxisome-associated ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and its membrane anchor are both mutated, suggesting that matrix proteins might exit the peroxisome for ubiquitin-dependent cytosolic degradation. To identify additional components needed for peroxisome-associated matrix protein degradation, we mutagenized a line expressing GFP-ICL, which is degraded similarly to endogenous ICL, and identified persistent GFP-ICL fluorescence (pfl) mutants. We found three pfl mutants that were defective in PEROXIN14 (PEX14/At5g62810), which encodes a peroxisomal membrane protein that assists in importing proteins into the peroxisome matrix, indicating that proteins must enter the peroxisome for efficient degradation. One pfl mutant was missing the peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase encoded by the PEROXISOME DEFECTIVE1 (PED1/At2g33150) gene, suggesting that peroxisomal metabolism influences the rate of matrix protein degradation. Finally, one pfl mutant that displayed normal matrix protein import carried a novel lesion in PEROXIN6 (PEX6/At1g03000), which encodes a peroxisome-tethered ATPase that is involved in recycling matrix protein receptors back to the cytosol. The isolation of pex6-2 as a pfl mutant supports the hypothesis that matrix proteins can exit the peroxisome for cytosolic degradation.

  11. Peroxisomal Delta(3),Delta(2)-enoyl CoA isomerases and evolution of cytosolic paralogues in embryophytes.

    PubMed

    Goepfert, Simon; Vidoudez, Charles; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Delessert, Syndie; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Poirier, Yves

    2008-12-01

    Delta(3),Delta(2)-enoyl CoA isomerase (ECI) is an enzyme that participates in the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids through the beta-oxidation cycle. Three genes encoding Delta(3),Delta(2)-enoyl CoA isomerases and named AtECI1, AtECI2 and AtECI3 have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. When expressed heterologously in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, all three ECI proteins were targeted to the peroxisomes and enabled the yeast Deltaeci1 mutant to degrade 10Z-heptadecenoic acid, demonstrating Delta(3),Delta(2)-enoyl CoA isomerase activity in vivo. Fusion proteins between yellow fluorescent protein and AtECI1 or AtECI2 were targeted to the peroxisomes in onion epidermal cells and Arabidopsis root cells, but a similar fusion protein with AtECI3 remained in the cytosol for both tissues. AtECI3 targeting to peroxisomes in S. cerevisiae was dependent on yeast PEX5, while expression of Arabidopsis PEX5 in yeast failed to target AtECI3 to peroxisomes. AtECI2 and AtECI3 are tandem duplicated genes and show a high level of amino acid conservation, except at the C-terminus; AtECI2 ends with the well conserved peroxisome targeting signal 1 (PTS1) terminal tripeptide PKL, while AtECI3 possesses a divergent HNL terminal tripeptide. Evolutionary analysis of ECI genes in plants revealed several independent duplication events, with duplications occurring in rice and Medicago truncatula, generating homologues with divergent C-termini and no recognizable PTS1. All plant ECI genes analyzed, including AtECI3, are under negative purifying selection, implying functionality of the cytosolic AtECI3. Analysis of the mammalian and fungal genomes failed to identify cytosolic variants of the Delta(3),Delta(2)-enoyl CoA isomerase, indicating that evolution of cytosolic Delta(3),Delta(2)-enoyl CoA isomerases is restricted to the plant kingdom.

  12. Increased hepatic oxidative metabolism distinguishes the action of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ from Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in the ob/ob mouse

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors and members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The PPAR family consists of three members: PPARα, PPARγ, and PPARδ. PPARδ controls the transcription of genes involved in multiple physiological pathways, including cellular differentiation, lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis. The receptor is expressed almost ubiquitously, with high expression in liver and skeletal muscle. Although the physiological ligands of PPARδ remain undefined, a number of high affinity synthetic ligands have been developed for the receptor as a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and the metabolic syndrome. Methods In this study, the metabolic role of PPARδ activation has been investigated in liver, skeletal muscle, blood serum and white adipose tissue from ob/ob mice using a high affinity synthetic ligand and contrasted with PPARγ activation. To maximize the analytical coverage of the metabolome, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) were used to examine metabolites from tissue extracts. Results Analysis by multivariate statistics demonstrated that PPARδ activation profoundly affected glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the TCA cycle and linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid essential fatty acid pathways. Conclusions Although activation of both PPARδ and PPARγ lead to increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, PPARδ activation was functionally distinct from PPARγ activation, and was characterized by increased hepatic and peripheral fatty acid oxidative metabolism, demonstrating the distinctive catabolic role of this receptor compared with PPARγ. PMID:19968882

  13. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma in gastric ulcer: An overview of experimental evidences

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Lekha

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Three subtypes, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, have been identified so far. PPARα is expressed in the liver, kidney, small intestine, heart, and muscle, where it activates the fatty acid catabolism and control lipoprotein assembly in response to long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, eicosanoids, and hypolipidemic drugs (e.g., fenofibrate). PPARβ/δ is more broadly expressed and is implicated in fatty acid oxidation, keratinocyte differentiation, wound healing, and macrophage response to very low density lipoprotein metabolism. This isoform has been implicated in transcriptional-repression functions and has been shown to repress the activity of PPARα or PPARγ target genes. PPARγ1 and γ2 are generated from a single-gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma by differential promoter usage and alternative splicing. PPARγ1 is expressed in colon, immune system (e.g., monocytes and macrophages), and other tissues where it participates in the modulation of inflammation, cell proliferation, and differentiation. PPARs regulate gene expression through distinct mechanisms: Ligand-dependent transactivation, ligand-independent repression, and ligand-dependent transrepression. Studies in animals have demonstrated the gastric antisecretory activity of PPARα agonists like ciprofibrate, bezafibrate and clofibrate. Study by Pathak et al also demonstrated the effect of PPARα agonist, bezafibrate, on gastric secretion and gastric cytoprotection in various gastric ulcer models in rats. The majority of the experimental studies is on pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, which are PPARγ activators. In all the studies, both the PPARγ activators showed protection against the gastric ulcer and also accelerate the ulcer healing in gastric ulcer model in rats. Therefore, PPARα and PPARγ may be a target for gastric ulcer therapy

  14. Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibition Enhances Memory Acquisition through Activation of PPAR-alpha Nuclear Receptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Carmen; Medalie, Julie; Scherma, Maria; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Solinas, Marcello; Tanda, Gianluigi; Drago, Filippo; Cadet, Jean Lud; Goldberg, Steven R.; Yasar, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of anandamide (a cannabinoid CB[subscript 1]-receptor ligand) and oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide (OEA and PEA, ligands for alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors, PPAR-alpha) when and where they are naturally released in the brain.…

  15. The cardiovascular effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Friedland, Sayuri N; Leong, Aaron; Filion, Kristian B; Genest, Jacques; Lega, Iliana C; Mottillo, Salvatore; Poirier, Paul; Reoch, Jennifer; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists are prescribed to improve cardiovascular risk factors, their cardiovascular safety is controversial. We therefore reviewed the literature to identify landmark randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone), alpha agonists (fenofibrate and gemfibrozil), and pan agonists (bezafibrate, muraglitazar, ragaglitazar, tesaglitazar, and aleglitazar) on cardiovascular outcomes. Pioglitazone may modestly reduce cardiovascular events but also may increase the risk of bladder cancer. Rosiglitazone increases the risk of myocardial infarction and has been withdrawn in European and restricted in the United States. Fibrates improve cardiovascular outcomes only in select subgroups: fenofibrate in diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome, gemfibrozil in patients with dyslipidemia, and bezafibrate in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. The cardiovascular safety of the new pan agonist aleglitazar, currently in phase II trials, remains to be determined. The heterogenous effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists to date highlight the importance of postmarketing surveillance. The critical question of why peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists seem to improve cardiovascular risk factors without significantly improving cardiovascular outcomes requires further investigation.

  16. Effect of structurally diverse peroxisome proliferators on rat hepatic sulfotransferase.

    PubMed

    Witzmann, F; Coughtrie, M; Fultz, C; Lipscomb, J

    1996-01-05

    Exposure to perfluorocarboxylic acids, pthalate esters, and some hypolipidemic agents results in the proliferation of peroxisomes in the rodent liver. The structural diversity of these compounds suggests mechanistic diversity in their toxicity as well. To establish reliable biomarkers of peroxisome proliferation (PP) in compounds with distinct chemical toxicities, this study investigated the effect of in vivo exposure to perfluoro-n-octanoic acid, perfluoro-n-decanoic acid, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and clofibrate on two-dimensional electrophoretic protein patterns of rat hepatic sulfotransferases, ST1A1, ST1C1 and ST2A1. After exposure to peroxisome proliferative doses, both ST1A1 and ST1C1 abundance in whole liver homogenates was significantly reduced, but only as a result of perfluorocarboxylic and exposure. The well-established PPs, DEHP and clofibrate had no effect on sulfotransferase expression whatsoever. The observed down-regulation of these STs is significant with respect to their normal detoxication activities and its potential correlation to carcinogenesis warrants further study. The present investigation supports previous studies that demonstrate the unique features of perfluorocarboxylic acid toxicity, relative to classic peroxisome proliferators and endorses the continued use of 2D protein-mapping of Sts and other proteins as biomarkers of chemical toxicity.

  17. Structural and functional interaction of fatty acids with human liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) T94A variant.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huan; McIntosh, Avery L; Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Kerstin K; Landrock, Danilo; Gupta, Shipra; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2014-05-01

    The human liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) T94A variant, the most common in the FABP family, has been associated with elevated liver triglyceride levels. How this amino acid substitution elicits these effects is not known. This issue was addressed using human recombinant wild-type (WT) and T94A variant L-FABP proteins as well as cultured primary human hepatocytes expressing the respective proteins (genotyped as TT, TC and CC). The T94A substitution did not alter or only slightly altered L-FABP binding affinities for saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids, nor did it change the affinity for intermediates of triglyceride synthesis. Nevertheless, the T94A substitution markedly altered the secondary structural response of L-FABP induced by binding long chain fatty acids or intermediates of triglyceride synthesis. Finally, the T94A substitution markedly decreased the levels of induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-regulated proteins such as L-FABP, fatty acid transport protein 5 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α itself meditated by the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in cultured primary human hepatocytes. Thus, although the T94A substitution did not alter the affinity of human L-FABP for long chain fatty acids, it significantly altered human L-FABP structure and stability, as well as the conformational and functional response to these ligands.

  18. A Systematic Cell-Based Analysis of Localization of Predicted Drosophila Peroxisomal Proteins.

    PubMed

    Baron, Matthew N; Klinger, Christen M; Rachubinski, Richard A; Simmonds, Andrew J

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes are membrane-bound organelles found in almost all eukaryotic cells. They perform specialized biochemical functions that vary with organism, tissue or cell type. Mutations in human genes required for the assembly of peroxisomes result in a spectrum of diseases called the peroxisome biogenesis disorders. A previous sequence-based comparison of the predicted proteome of Drosophila melanogaster (the fruit fly) to human proteins identified 82 potential homologues of proteins involved in peroxisomal biogenesis, homeostasis or metabolism. However, the subcellular localization of these proteins relative to the peroxisome was not determined. Accordingly, we tested systematically the localization and selected functions of epitope-tagged proteins in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells to determine the subcellular localization of 82 potential Drosophila peroxisomal protein homologues. Excluding the Pex proteins, 34 proteins localized primarily to the peroxisome, 8 showed dual localization to the peroxisome and other structures, and 26 localized exclusively to organelles other than the peroxisome. Drosophila is a well-developed laboratory animal often used for discovery of gene pathways, including those linked to human disease. Our work establishes a basic understanding of peroxisome protein localization in Drosophila. This will facilitate use of Drosophila as a genetically tractable, multicellular model system for studying key aspects of human peroxisome disease.

  19. A Drosophila model for the Zellweger spectrum of peroxisome biogenesis disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Fred D.; Li, Jing; Virk, Maninder K.; Hughes, Sarah C.; Simmonds, Andrew J.; Rachubinski, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Human peroxisome biogenesis disorders are lethal genetic diseases in which abnormal peroxisome assembly compromises overall peroxisome and cellular function. Peroxisomes are ubiquitous membrane-bound organelles involved in several important biochemical processes, notably lipid metabolism and the use of reactive oxygen species for detoxification. Using cultured cells, we systematically characterized the peroxisome assembly phenotypes associated with dsRNA-mediated knockdown of 14 predicted Drosophila homologs of PEX genes (encoding peroxins; required for peroxisome assembly and linked to peroxisome biogenesis disorders), and confirmed that at least 13 of them are required for normal peroxisome assembly. We also demonstrate the relevance of Drosophila as a genetic model for the early developmental defects associated with the human peroxisome biogenesis disorders. Mutation of the PEX1 gene is the most common cause of peroxisome biogenesis disorders and is one of the causes of the most severe form of the disease, Zellweger syndrome. Inherited mutations in Drosophila Pex1 correlate with reproducible defects during early development. Notably, Pex1 mutant larvae exhibit abnormalities that are analogous to those exhibited by Zellweger syndrome patients, including developmental delay, poor feeding, severe structural abnormalities in the peripheral and central nervous systems, and early death. Finally, microarray analysis defined several clusters of genes whose expression varied significantly between wild-type and mutant larvae, implicating peroxisomal function in neuronal development, innate immunity, lipid and protein metabolism, gamete formation, and meiosis. PMID:21669930

  20. Inhibition of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha by MK886.

    PubMed Central

    Kehrer, J P; Biswal, S S; La, E; Thuillier, P; Datta, K; Fischer, S M; Vanden Heuvel, J P

    2001-01-01

    Although MK886 was originally identified as an inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), recent data demonstrate that this activity does not underlie its ability to induce apoptosis [Datta, Biswal and Kehrer (1999) Biochem. J. 340, 371--375]. Since FLAP is a fatty-acid binding protein, it is conceivable that MK886 may affect other such proteins. A family of nuclear receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their metabolites, the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), have been implicated in apoptosis and may represent a target for MK886. The ability of MK886 to inhibit PPAR-alpha, -beta and -gamma activity was assessed using reporter assay systems (peroxisome-proliferator response element--luciferase). Using a transient transfection system in monkey kidney fibroblast CV-1 cells, mouse keratinocyte 308 cells and human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, 10--20 microM MK886 inhibited Wy14,643 activation of PPAR alpha by approximately 80%. Similar inhibition of PPAR alpha by MK886 was observed with a stable transfection reporter system in CV-1 cells. Only minimal inhibitory effects were seen on PPAR beta and PPAR gamma. MK886 inhibited PPAR alpha by a non-competitive mechanism as shown by its effects on the binding of arachidonic acid to PPAR alpha protein, and a dose-response study using a transient transfection reporter assay in COS-1 cells. An assay assessing PPAR ligand-receptor interactions showed that MK886 prevents the conformational change necessary for active-complex formation. The expression of keratin-1, a protein encoded by a PPAR alpha-responsive gene, was reduced by MK886 in a culture of mouse primary keratinocytes, suggesting that PPAR inhibition has functional consequences in normal cells. Although Jurkat cells express all PPAR isoforms, various PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma agonists were unable to prevent MK886-induced apoptosis. This is consistent with MK886 functioning as a non-competitive inhibitor of PPAR alpha, but may

  1. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPAR gamma coactivator (PGC-1α) induce carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT-1A) via independent gene elements

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shulan; Attia, Ramy R.; Connaughton, Sara; Niesen, Melissa I.; Ness, Gene C.; Elam, Marshall B.; Hori, Roderick T.; Cook, George A.; Park, Edwards A.

    2010-01-01

    Long chain fatty acids and pharmacologic ligands for the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα) activate expression of genes involved in fatty acid and glucose oxidation including carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (CPT-1A) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4). CPT-1A catalyzes the transfer of long chain fatty acids from acyl-CoA to carnitine for translocation across the mitochondrial membranes and is an initiating step in the mitochondrial oxidation of long chain fatty acids. PDK4 phosphorylates and inhibits the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) which catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA in the glucose oxidation pathway. The activity of CPT-1A is modulated both by transcriptional changes as well as by malonyl-CoA inhibition. In the liver, CPT-1A and PDK4 gene expression are induced by starvation, high fat diets and PPARα ligands. Here, we characterized a binding site for PPARα in the second intron of the rat CPT-1A gene. Our studies indicated that WY14643 and long chain fatty acids induce CPT-1A gene expression through this element. In addition, we found that mutation of the PPARα binding site reduced the expression of CPT-1A-luciferase vectors in the liver of fasted rats. We had demonstrated previously that CPT-1A was stimulated by the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC-1α) via sequences in the first intron of the rat CPT-1A gene. Surprisingly, PGC-1α did not enhance CPT-1A transcription through the PPARα binding site in the second intron. Following knockdown of PGC-1α with short hairpin RNA, the CPT-1A and PDK4 genes remained responsive to WY14643. Overall, our studies indicated that PPARα and PGC-1α stimulate transcription of the CPT-1A gene through different regions of the CPT-1A gene. PMID:20638986

  2. A novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha/gamma dual agonist demonstrates favorable effects on lipid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiu; Sahoo, Soumya P; Wang, Pei-Ran; Milot, Denise P; Ippolito, Marc C; Wu, Margaret S; Baffic, Joanne; Biswas, Chhabi; Hernandez, Melba; Lam, My-Hanh; Sharma, Neelam; Han, Wei; Kelly, Linda J; MacNaul, Karen L; Zhou, Gaochao; Desai, Ranjit; Heck, James V; Doebber, Thomas W; Berger, Joel P; Moller, David E; Sparrow, Carl P; Chao, Yu-Sheng; Wright, Samuel D

    2004-04-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus exhibit hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia as well as a markedly increased incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Here we report the characterization of a novel arylthiazolidinedione capable of lowering both glucose and lipid levels in animal models. This compound, designated TZD18, is a potent agonist with dual human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha/gamma activities. In keeping with its PPARgamma activity, TZD18 caused complete normalization of the elevated glucose in db/db mice and Zucker diabetic fatty rats. TZD18 lowered both cholesterol and triglycerides in hamsters and dogs. TZD18 inhibited cholesterol biosynthesis at steps before mevalonate and reduced hepatic levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity. Moreover, TZD18 significantly suppressed gene expression of fatty acid synthesis and induced expression of genes for fatty acid degradation and triglyceride clearance. Studies on 17 additional PPARalpha or PPARalpha/gamma agonists showed that lipid lowering in hamsters correlated with the magnitude of hepatic gene expression changes. Importantly, the presence of PPARgamma agonism did not affect the relationship between hepatic gene expression and lipid lowering. Taken together, these data suggest that PPARalpha/gamma agonists, such as TZD18, affect lipid homeostasis, leading to an antiatherogenic plasma lipid profile. Agents with these properties may provide favorable means for treatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  3. Identification of six loci in which mutations partially restore peroxisome biogenesis and/or alleviate the metabolic defect of pex2 mutants in podospora.

    PubMed Central

    Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Zickler, Denise; Panvier-Adoutte, Arlette; Picard, Marguerite

    2002-01-01

    Peroxins (PEX) are proteins required for peroxisome biogenesis. Mutations in PEX genes cause lethal diseases in humans, metabolic defects in yeasts, and developmental disfunctions in plants and filamentous fungi. Here we describe the first large-scale screening for suppressors of a pex mutation. In Podospora anserina, pex2 mutants exhibit a metabolic defect [inability to grow on medium containing oleic acid (OA medium) as sole carbon source] and a developmental defect (inability to differentiate asci in homozygous crosses). Sixty-three mutations able to restore growth of pex2 mutants on OA medium have been analyzed. They fall in six loci (suo1 to suo6) and act as dominant, allele-nonspecific suppressors. Most suo mutations have pleiotropic effects in a pex2(+) background: formation of unripe ascospores (all loci except suo5 and suo6), impaired growth on OA medium (all loci except suo4 and suo6), or sexual defects (suo4). Using immunofluorescence and GFP staining, we show that peroxisome biogenesis is partially restored along with a low level of ascus differentiation in pex2 mutant strains carrying either the suo5 or the suo6 mutations. The data are discussed with respect to beta-oxidation of fatty acids, peroxisome biogenesis, and cell differentiation. PMID:12136013

  4. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... other health conditions > Fatty acid oxidation disorders Fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... these disorders, go to genetests.org . What fatty acid oxidation disorders are tested for in newborn screening? ...

  5. The Pichia pastoris PER6 gene product is a peroxisomal integral membrane protein essential for peroxisome biogenesis and has sequence similarity to the Zellweger syndrome protein PAF-1.

    PubMed Central

    Waterham, H R; de Vries, Y; Russel, K A; Xie, W; Veenhuis, M; Cregg, J M

    1996-01-01

    We report the cloning of PER6, a gene essential for peroxisome biogenesis in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The PER6 sequence predicts that its product Per6p is a 52-kDa polypeptide with the cysteine-rich C3HC4 motif. Per6p has significant overall sequence similarity with the human peroxisome assembly factor PAF-1, a protein that is defective in certain patients suffering from the peroxisomal disorder Zellweger syndrome, and with car1, a protein required for peroxisome biogenesis and caryogamy in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. In addition, the C3HC4 motif and two of the three membrane-spanning segments predicted for Per6p align with the C3HC4 motifs and the two membrane-spanning segments predicted for PAF-1 and car1. Like PAF-1, Per6p is a peroxisomal integral membrane protein. In methanol- or oleic acid-induced cells of per6 mutants, morphologically recognizable peroxisomes are absent. Instead, peroxisomal remnants are observed. In addition, peroxisomal matrix proteins are synthesized but located in the cytosol. The similarities between Per6p and PAF-1 in amino acid sequence and biochemical properties, and between mutants defective in their respective genes, suggest that Per6p is the putative yeast homolog of PAF-1. PMID:8628321

  6. Dynamin-dependent biogenesis, cell cycle regulation and mitochondrial association of peroxisomes in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, Isabelle; Sontam, Dharani; Johnson, Chad; Dillies, Clément; Hyams, Jeremy S

    2008-03-01

    Peroxisomes were visualized for the first time in living fission yeast cells. In small, newly divided cells, the number of peroxisomes was low but increased in parallel with the increase in cell length/volume that accompanies cell cycle progression. In cells grown in oleic acid, both the size and the number of peroxisomes increased. The peroxisomal inventory of cells lacking the dynamin-related proteins Dnm1 or Vps1 was similar to that in wild type. By contrast, cells of the double mutant dnm1Delta vps1Delta contained either no peroxisomes at all or a small number of morphologically aberrant organelles. Peroxisomes exhibited either local Brownian movement or longer-range linear displacements, which continued in the absence of either microtubules or actin filaments. On the contrary, directed peroxisome motility appeared to occur in association with mitochondria and may be an indirect function of intrinsic mitochondrial dynamics. We conclude that peroxisomes are present in fission yeast and that Dnm1 and Vps1 act redundantly in peroxisome biogenesis, which is under cell cycle control. Peroxisome movement is independent of the cytoskeleton but is coupled to mitochondrial dynamics.

  7. Peroxisomes Are Required for Lipid Metabolism and Muscle Function in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Faust, Joseph E.; Manisundaram, Arvind; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Milne, Stephen B.; Summerville, James B.; Brown, H. Alex; Wangler, Michael; Stern, Michael; McNew, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles that perform lipid and reactive oxygen species metabolism. Defects in peroxisome biogenesis cause peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs). The most severe PBD, Zellweger syndrome, is characterized in part by neuronal dysfunction, craniofacial malformations, and low muscle tone (hypotonia). These devastating diseases lack effective therapies and the development of animal models may reveal new drug targets. We have generated Drosophila mutants with impaired peroxisome biogenesis by disrupting the early peroxin gene pex3, which participates in budding of pre-peroxisomes from the ER and peroxisomal membrane protein localization. pex3 deletion mutants lack detectible peroxisomes and die before or during pupariation. At earlier stages of development, larvae lacking Pex3 display reduced size and impaired lipid metabolism. Selective loss of peroxisomes in muscles impairs muscle function and results in flightless animals. Although, hypotonia in PBD patients is thought to be a secondary effect of neuronal dysfunction, our results suggest that peroxisome loss directly affects muscle physiology, possibly by disrupting energy metabolism. Understanding the role of peroxisomes in Drosophila physiology, specifically in muscle cells may reveal novel aspects of PBD etiology. PMID:24945818

  8. Be different--the diversity of peroxisomes in the animal kingdom.

    PubMed

    Islinger, M; Cardoso, M J R; Schrader, M

    2010-08-01

    Peroxisomes represent so-called "multipurpose organelles" as they contribute to various anabolic as well as catabolic pathways. Thus, with respect to the physiological specialization of an individual organ or animal species, peroxisomes exhibit a functional diversity, which is documented by significant variations in their proteome. These differences are usually regarded as an adaptational response to the nutritional and environmental life conditions of a specific organism. Thus, human peroxisomes can be regarded as an in part physiologically unique organellar entity fulfilling metabolic functions that differ from our animal model systems. In line with this, a profound understanding on how peroxisomes acquired functional heterogeneity in terms of an evolutionary and mechanistic background is required. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the heterogeneity of peroxisomal physiology, providing insights into the genetic and cell biological mechanisms, which lead to the differential localization or expression of peroxisomal proteins and further gives an overview on peroxisomal biochemical pathways, which are specialized in different animal species and organs. Moreover, it addresses the impact of proteome studies on our understanding of differential peroxisome function describing the utility of mass spectrometry and computer-assisted algorithms to identify peroxisomal target sequences for the detection of new organ- or species-specific peroxisomal proteins.

  9. Diverse intracellular pathogens activate type III interferon expression from peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Odendall, Charlotte; Dixit, Evelyn; Stavru, Fabrizia; Bierne, Helene; Franz, Kate M; Durbin, Ann Fiegen; Boulant, Steeve; Gehrke, Lee; Cossart, Pascale; Kagan, Jonathan C

    2014-08-01

    Type I interferon responses are considered the primary means by which viral infections are controlled in mammals. Despite this view, several pathogens activate antiviral responses in the absence of type I interferons. The mechanisms controlling type I interferon-independent responses are undefined. We found that RIG-I like receptors (RLRs) induce type III interferon expression in a variety of human cell types, and identified factors that differentially regulate expression of type I and type III interferons. We identified peroxisomes as a primary site of initiation of type III interferon expression, and revealed that the process of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation upregulates peroxisome biogenesis and promotes robust type III interferon responses in human cells. These findings highlight the importance of different intracellular organelles in specific innate immune responses.

  10. Polyunsaturated fatty acid inhibition of fatty acid synthase transcription is independent of PPAR activation.

    PubMed

    Clarke, S D; Turini, M; Jump, D B; Abraham, S; Reedy, M

    1998-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the (n-6) and (n-3) families inhibit the rate of gene transcription for a number of hepatic lipogenic and glycolytic genes, e.g., fatty acid synthase (FAS). In contrast, saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids have no inhibitory capability. The suppression of gene transcription resulting from the addition of PUFA to a high carbohydrate diet: occurs quickly (< 3 h) after its addition to a high glucose diet; can be recreated with hepatocytes cultured in a serum-free medium containing insulin and glucocorticoids; can be demonstrated in diabetic rats fed fructose; and is independent of glucagon. While the nature of the intracellular PUFA inhibitor is unclear, it appears that delta-6 desaturation is a required step in the process. Recently, the fatty acid activated nuclear factor, peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) was suggested to be the PUFA-response factor. However, the potent PPAR activators ETYA and Wy-14643 did not suppress hepatic expression of FAS, but did induce the PPAR-responsive gene, acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX). Similarly, treating rat hepatocytes with 20:4 (n-6) suppressed FAS expression but had no effect on AOX. Thus, it appears that the PUFA regulation of gene transcription involves a PUFA-response factor that is independent from PPAR.

  11. Significance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the cardiovascular system in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Emma; Grieve, David J

    2009-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors that belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Three isoforms of PPAR have been identified, alpha, delta and gamma, which play distinct roles in the regulation of key metabolic processes, such as glucose and lipid redistribution. PPARalpha is expressed predominantly in the liver, kidney and heart, and is primarily involved in fatty acid oxidation. PPARgamma is mainly associated with adipose tissue, where it controls adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity. PPARdelta is abundantly and ubiquitously expressed, but as yet its function has not been clearly defined. Activators of PPARalpha (fibrates) and gamma (thiazolidinediones) have been used clinically for a number of years in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia and to improve insulin sensitivity in diabetes. More recently, PPAR activation has been found to confer additional benefits on endothelial function, inflammation and thrombosis, suggesting that PPAR agonists may be good candidates for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. In this regard, it has been demonstrated that PPAR activators are capable of reducing blood pressure and attenuating the development of atherosclerosis and cardiac hypertrophy. This review will provide a detailed discussion of the current understanding of basic PPAR physiology, with particular reference to the cardiovascular system. It will also examine the evidence supporting the involvement of the different PPAR isoforms in cardiovascular disease and discuss the current and potential future clinical applications of PPAR activators.

  12. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Targets for the Treatment of Metabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Monsalve, Francisco A.; Pyarasani, Radha D.; Delgado-Lopez, Fernando; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is estimated to affect more than one in five adults, and its prevalence is growing in the adult and pediatric populations. The most widely recognized metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics commonly manifest a prothrombotic state and a proinflammatory state as well. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) may serve as potential therapeutic targets for treating the metabolic syndrome and its related risk factors. The PPARs are transcriptional factors belonging to the ligand-activated nuclear receptor superfamily. So far, three isoforms of PPARs have been identified, namely, PPAR-α, PPAR-β/δ, and PPAR-γ. Various endogenous and exogenous ligands of PPARs have been identified. PPAR-α and PPAR-γ are mainly involved in regulating lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis, and their agonists are used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and T2DM. Whereas PPAR-β/δ function is to regulate lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, anti-inflammation, and fatty acid oxidation and its agonists are used in the treatment of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. This review mainly focuses on the biological role of PPARs in gene regulation and metabolic diseases, with particular focus on the therapeutic potential of PPAR modulators in the treatment of thrombosis. PMID:23781121

  13. Modulation Effect of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonists on Lipid Droplet Proteins in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yun-Xia; Zhang, Ming-Liang; Zhong, Yuan; Wang, Chen; Jia, Wei-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists are used for treating hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism of action of these agonists is still under investigation. The lipid droplet-associated proteins FSP27/CIDEC and LSDP5, regulated directly by PPARγ and PPARα, are associated with hepatic steatosis and insulin sensitivity. Here, we evaluated the expression levels of FSP27/CIDEC and LSDP5 and the regulation of these proteins by consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) or administration of PPAR agonists. Mice with diet-induced obesity were treated with the PPARγ or PPARα agonist, pioglitazone or fenofibrate, respectively. Liver tissues from db/db diabetic mice and human were also collected. Interestingly, FSP27/CIEDC was expressed in mouse and human livers and was upregulated in obese C57BL/6J mice. Fenofibrate treatment decreased hepatic triglyceride (TG) content and FSP27/CIDEC protein expression in mice fed an HFD diet. In mice, LSDP5 was not detected, even in the context of insulin resistance or treatment with PPAR agonists. However, LSDP5 was highly expressed in humans, with elevated expression observed in the fatty liver. We concluded that fenofibrate greatly decreased hepatic TG content and FSP27/CIDEC protein expression in mice fed an HFD, suggesting a potential regulatory role for fenofibrate in the amelioration of hepatic steatosis. PMID:26770990

  14. Dehydroepiandrosterone down-regulates the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Kazuo; Ishizuka, Tatsuo; Mune, Tomoatsu; Miura, Atsushi; Ishizawa, Masayoshi; Kanoh, Yoshinori; Kawai, Yasunori; Natsume, Yoshiyuki; Yasuda, Keigo

    2003-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is expected to have a weight-reducing effect. In this study, we evaluated the effect of DHEA on genetically obese Otsuka Long Evans Fatty rats (OLETF) compared with Long-Evans Tokushima rats (LETO) as control. Feeding with 0.4% DHEA-containing food for 2 wk reduced the weight of sc, epididymal, and perirenal adipose tissue in association with decreased plasma leptin levels in OLETF. Adipose tissue from OLETF showed increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) protein, which was prevented by DHEA treatment. Further, we examined the effect of DHEA on PPARgamma in primary cultured adipocytes and monolayer adipocytes differentiated from rat preadipocytes. PPARgamma protein level was decreased in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and DHEA significantly reduced mRNA levels of PPARgamma, adipocyte lipid-binding protein, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein, but not CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha. DHEA-sulfate also reduced the PPARgamma protein, but dexamethasone, testosterone, or androstenedione did not alter its expression. In addition, treatment with DHEA for 5 d reduced the triglyceride content in monolayer adipocytes. These results suggest that DHEA down-regulates adiposity through the reduction of PPARgamma in adipocytes.

  15. Effect of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonists on prostaglandins cascade in joint cells.

    PubMed

    Moulin, David; Poleni, Paul-Emile; Kirchmeyer, Mélanie; Sebillaud, Sylvie; Koufany, Meriem; Netter, Patrick; Terlain, Bernard; Bianchi, Arnaud; Jouzeau, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    In response to inflammatory cytokines, chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts produce high amounts of prostaglandins (PG) which self-perpetuate locally the inflammatory reaction. Prostaglandins act primarily through membrane receptors coupled to G proteins but also bind to nuclear Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs). Amongst fatty acids, the cyclopentenone metabolite of PGD2, 15-deoxy-Delta12,14PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2), was shown to be a potent ligand of the PPARgamma isotype prone to inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators. As the stimulated synthesis of PGE2 originates from the preferential coupling of inducible enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and membrane PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1), we investigated the potency of 15d-PGJ2 to regulate prostaglandins synthesis in rat chondrocytes stimulated with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). We demonstrated that 15d-PGJ2, but not the high-affinity PPARgamma ligand rosiglitazone, decreased almost completely PGE2 synthesis and mPGES-1 expression. The inhibitory potency of 15d-PGJ2 was unaffected by changes in PPARgamma expression and resulted from inhibition of NF-kappaB nuclear binding and IkappaBalpha sparing, secondary to reduced phosphorylation of IKKbeta. Consistently with 15d-PGJ2 being a putative endogenous regulator of the inflammatory reaction if synthesized in sufficient amounts, the present data confirm the variable PPARgamma-dependency of its effects in joint cells while underlining possible species and cell types specificities.

  16. Reevaluation of the role of Pex1 and dynamin-related proteins in peroxisome membrane biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Motley, Alison M.; Galvin, Paul C.; Ekal, Lakhan; Nuttall, James M.

    2015-01-01

    A recent model for peroxisome biogenesis postulates that peroxisomes form de novo continuously in wild-type cells by heterotypic fusion of endoplasmic reticulum–derived vesicles containing distinct sets of peroxisomal membrane proteins. This model proposes a role in vesicle fusion for the Pex1/Pex6 complex, which has an established role in matrix protein import. The growth and division model proposes that peroxisomes derive from existing peroxisomes. We tested these models by reexamining the role of Pex1/Pex6 and dynamin-related proteins in peroxisome biogenesis. We found that induced depletion of Pex1 blocks the import of matrix proteins but does not affect membrane protein delivery to peroxisomes; markers for the previously reported distinct vesicles colocalize in pex1 and pex6 cells; peroxisomes undergo continued growth if fission is blocked. Our data are compatible with the established primary role of the Pex1/Pex6 complex in matrix protein import and show that peroxisomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae multiply mainly by growth and division. PMID:26644516

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands regulate lipid content, metabolism, and composition in fetal lungs of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, M; Capobianco, E; Careaga, V; Martinez, N; Mazzucco, M B; Maier, M; Jawerbaum, A

    2014-03-01

    Maternal diabetes impairs fetal lung development. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors relevant in lipid homeostasis and lung development. This study aims to evaluate the effect of in vivo activation of PPARs on lipid homeostasis in fetal lungs of diabetic rats. To this end, we studied lipid concentrations, expression of lipid metabolizing enzymes and fatty acid composition in fetal lungs of control and diabetic rats i) after injections of the fetuses with Leukotriene B4 (LTB4, PPARα ligand) or 15deoxyΔ(12,14)prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2, PPARγ ligand) and ii) fed during pregnancy with 6% olive oil- or 6% safflower oil-supplemented diets, enriched with PPAR ligands were studied. Maternal diabetes increased triglyceride concentrations and decreased expression of lipid-oxidizing enzymes in fetal lungs of diabetic rats, an expression further decreased by LTB4 and partially restored by 15dPGJ2 in lungs of male fetuses in the diabetic group. In lungs of female fetuses in the diabetic group, maternal diets enriched with olive oil increased triglyceride concentrations and fatty acid synthase expression, while those enriched with safflower oil increased triglyceride concentrations and fatty acid transporter expression. Both olive oil- and safflower oil-supplemented diets decreased cholesterol and cholesteryl ester concentrations and increased the expression of the reverse cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette A1 in fetal lungs of female fetuses of diabetic rats. In fetal lungs of control and diabetic rats, the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids increased with the maternal diets enriched with olive and safflower oils. Our results revealed important changes in lipid metabolism in fetal lungs of diabetic rats, and in the ability of PPAR ligands to modulate the composition of lipid species relevant in the lung during the perinatal period.

  18. YHR150w and YDR479c encode peroxisomal integral membrane proteins involved in the regulation of peroxisome number, size, and distribution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Vizeacoumar, Franco J; Torres-Guzman, Juan C; Tam, Yuen Yi C; Aitchison, John D; Rachubinski, Richard A

    2003-04-28

    The peroxin Pex24p of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica exhibits high sequence similarity to two hypothetical proteins, Yhr150p and Ydr479p, encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. Like YlPex24p, both Yhr150p and Ydr479p have been shown to be integral to the peroxisomal membrane, but unlike YlPex24p, their levels of synthesis are not increased upon a shift of cells from glucose- to oleic acid-containing medium. Peroxisomes of cells deleted for either or both of the YHR150w and YDR479c genes are increased in number, exhibit extensive clustering, are smaller in area than peroxisomes of wild-type cells, and often exhibit membrane thickening between adjacent peroxisomes in a cluster. Peroxisomes isolated from cells deleted for both genes have a decreased buoyant density compared with peroxisomes isolated from wild-type cells and still exhibit clustering and peroxisomal membrane thickening. Overexpression of the genes PEX25 or VPS1, but not the gene PEX11, restored the wild-type phenotype to cells deleted for one or both of the YHR150w and YDR479c genes. Together, our data suggest a role for Yhr150p and Ydr479p, together with Pex25p and Vps1p, in regulating peroxisome number, size, and distribution in S. cerevisiae. Because of their role in peroxisome dynamics, YHR150w and YDR479c have been designated as PEX28 and PEX29, respectively, and their encoded peroxins as Pex28p and Pex29p.

  19. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  20. Peroxisomes in Different Skeletal Cell Types during Intramembranous and Endochondral Ossification and Their Regulation during Osteoblast Differentiation by Distinct Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Guofeng; Karnati, Srikanth; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2015-01-01

    Ossification defects leading to craniofacial dysmorphism or rhizomelia are typical phenotypes in patients and corresponding knockout mouse models with distinct peroxisomal disorders. Despite these obvious skeletal pathologies, to date no careful analysis exists on the distribution and function of peroxisomes in skeletal tissues and their alterations during ossification. Therefore, we analyzed the peroxisomal compartment in different cell types of mouse cartilage and bone as well as in primary cultures of calvarial osteoblasts. The peroxisome number and metabolism strongly increased in chondrocytes during endochondral ossification from the reserve to the hypertrophic zone, whereas in bone, metabolically active osteoblasts contained a higher numerical abundance of this organelle than osteocytes. The high abundance of peroxisomes in these skeletal cell types is reflected by high levels of Pex11β gene expression. During culture, calvarial pre-osteoblasts differentiated into secretory osteoblasts accompanied by peroxisome proliferation and increased levels of peroxisomal genes and proteins. Since many peroxisomal genes contain a PPAR-responsive element, we analyzed the gene expression of PPARɑ/ß/ɣ in calvarial osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1 cells, revealing higher levels for PPARß than for PPARɑ and PPARɣ. Treatment with different PPAR agonists and antagonists not only changed the peroxisomal compartment and associated gene expression, but also induced complex alterations of the gene expression patterns of the other PPAR family members. Studies in M3CT3-E1 cells showed that the PPARß agonist GW0742 activated the PPRE-mediated luciferase expression and up-regulated peroxisomal gene transcription (Pex11, Pex13, Pex14, Acox1 and Cat), whereas the PPARß antagonist GSK0660 led to repression of the PPRE and a decrease of the corresponding mRNA levels. In the same way, treatment of calvarial osteoblasts with GW0742 increased in peroxisome number and related gene expression

  1. Fimasartan Ameliorates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease through PPARδ Regulation in Hyperlipidemic and Hypertensive Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yoo-Na; Han, Yoon-Mi; Kim, Hyun-Min; Jeong, Jong-Min

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of fimasartan on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in hyperlipidemic and hypertensive conditions, the levels of biomarkers related to fatty acid metabolism were determined in HepG2 and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells treated by high fatty acid and liver and visceral fat tissue samples of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) given high-fat diet. In HepG2 cells and liver tissues, fimasartan was shown to increase the protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ), phosphorylated 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (p-ACC), malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD), medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and it led to a decrease in the protein levels of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSDH1), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Fimasartan decreased lipid contents in HepG2 and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells and liver tissues. In addition, fimasartan increased the adiponectin level in visceral fat tissues. The antiadipogenic effects of fimasartan were offset by PPARδ antagonist (GSK0660). Consequently, fimasartan ameliorates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease mainly through the activation of oxidative metabolism represented by PPARδ-AMPK-PGC-1α pathway. PMID:28386270

  2. Fis1, DLP1, and Pex11p coordinately regulate peroxisome morphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Shinta; Tanaka, Atsushi; Fujiki, Yukio . E-mail: yfujiscb@mbox.nc.kyushu-u.ac.jp

    2007-05-01

    Dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1) and Pex11p{beta} function in morphogenesis of peroxisomes. In the present work, we investigated whether Fis1 is involved in fission of peroxisomes. Endogenous Fis1 was morphologically detected in peroxisomes as well as mitochondria in wild-type CHO-K1 and DLP1-defective ZP121 cells. Subcellular fractionation studies also revealed the presence of Fis1 in peroxisomes. Peroxisomal Fis1 showed the same topology, i.e., C-tail anchored membrane protein, as the mitochondrial one. Furthermore, ectopic expression of FIS1 induced peroxisome proliferation in CHO-K1 cells, while the interference of FIS1 RNA resulted in tubulation of peroxisomes, hence reducing the number of peroxisomes. Fis1 interacted with Pex11p{beta}, by direct binding apparently involving the C-terminal region of Pex11p{beta} in the interaction. Pex11p{beta} also interacted with each other, whereas the binding of Pex11p{beta} to DLP1 was not detectable. Moreover, ternary complexes comprising Fis1, Pex11p{beta}, and DLP1 were detected by chemical cross-linking. We also showed that the highly conserved N-terminal domain of Pex11p{beta} was required for the homo-oligomerization of Pex11p{beta} and indispensable for the peroxisome-proliferating activity. Taken together, these findings indicate that Fis1 plays important roles in peroxisome division and maintenance of peroxisome morphology in mammalian cells, possibly in a concerted manner with Pex11p{beta} and DLP1.

  3. Maternal micronutrients, omega-3 fatty acids, and placental PPARγ expression.

    PubMed

    Meher, Akshaya P; Joshi, Asmita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2014-07-01

    An altered one-carbon cycle is known to influence placental and fetal development. We hypothesize that deficiency of maternal micronutrients such as folic acid and vitamin B12 will lead to increased oxidative stress, reduced long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and altered expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPARγ) in the placenta, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to these diets will increase the expression of PPARγ. Female rats were divided into 5 groups: control, folic acid deficient, vitamin B12 deficient, folic acid deficient + omega-3 fatty acid supplemented, and vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid supplemented. Dams were dissected on gestational day 20. Maternal micronutrient deficiency leads to lower (p < 0.05) levels of placental docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, PPARγ expression and higher (p < 0.05) levels of plasma malonidialdehyde, placental IL-6, and TNF-α. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to a vitamin B12 deficient diet normalized the expression of PPARγ and lowered the levels of placental TNF-α. In the case of supplementation to a folic acid deficient diet it lowered the levels of malonidialdehyde and placental IL-6 and TNF-α. This study has implications for fetal growth as oxidative stress, inflammation, and PPARγ are known to play a key role in the placental development.

  4. Chemoproteomic Profiling of Acetanilide Herbicides Reveals Their Role in Inhibiting Fatty Acid Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Counihan, Jessica L; Duckering, Megan; Dalvie, Esha; Ku, Wan-Min; Bateman, Leslie A; Fisher, Karl J; Nomura, Daniel K

    2017-03-17

    Acetanilide herbicides are among the most widely used pesticides in the United States, but their toxicological potential and mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we have used chemoproteomic platforms to map proteome-wide cysteine reactivity of acetochlor (AC), the most widely used acetanilide herbicide, in vivo in mice. We show that AC directly reacts with >20 protein targets in vivo in mouse liver, including the catalytic cysteines of several thiolase enzymes involved in mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. We show that the fatty acids that are not oxidized, due to impaired fatty acid oxidation, are instead diverted into other lipid pathways, resulting in heightened free fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, and other lipid species in the liver. Our findings show the utility of chemoproteomic approaches for identifying novel mechanisms of toxicity associated with environmental chemicals like acetanilide herbicides.

  5. Low-ω3 Fatty Acid and Soy Protein Attenuate Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver and Injury by Regulating the Opposing Lipid Oxidation and Lipogenic Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Gordillo, Karina; Shah, Ruchi; Varatharajalu, Ravi; Garige, Mamatha; Leckey, Leslie C.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic ethanol-induced downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α) and upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-beta (PGC1β) affect hepatic lipid oxidation and lipogenesis, respectively, leading to fatty liver injury. Low-ω3 fatty acid (Low-ω3FA) that primarily regulates PGC1α and soy protein (SP) that seems to have its major regulatory effect on PGC1β were evaluated for their protective effects against ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis in rats fed with Lieber-deCarli control or ethanol liquid diets with high or low ω3FA fish oil and soy protein. Low-ω3FA and SP opposed the actions of chronic ethanol by reducing serum and liver lipids with concomitant decreased fatty liver. They also prevented the downregulation of hepatic Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and PGC1α and their target fatty acid oxidation pathway genes and attenuated the upregulation of hepatic PGC1β and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and their target lipogenic pathway genes via the phosphorylation of 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Thus, these two novel modulators attenuate ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis and consequent liver injury potentially by regulating the two opposing lipid oxidation and lipogenic pathways. PMID:28074114

  6. Low-ω3 Fatty Acid and Soy Protein Attenuate Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver and Injury by Regulating the Opposing Lipid Oxidation and Lipogenic Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Gordillo, Karina; Shah, Ruchi; Varatharajalu, Ravi; Garige, Mamatha; Leckey, Leslie C; Lakshman, M Raj

    2016-01-01

    Chronic ethanol-induced downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α) and upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-beta (PGC1β) affect hepatic lipid oxidation and lipogenesis, respectively, leading to fatty liver injury. Low-ω3 fatty acid (Low-ω3FA) that primarily regulates PGC1α and soy protein (SP) that seems to have its major regulatory effect on PGC1β were evaluated for their protective effects against ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis in rats fed with Lieber-deCarli control or ethanol liquid diets with high or low ω3FA fish oil and soy protein. Low-ω3FA and SP opposed the actions of chronic ethanol by reducing serum and liver lipids with concomitant decreased fatty liver. They also prevented the downregulation of hepatic Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and PGC1α and their target fatty acid oxidation pathway genes and attenuated the upregulation of hepatic PGC1β and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and their target lipogenic pathway genes via the phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Thus, these two novel modulators attenuate ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis and consequent liver injury potentially by regulating the two opposing lipid oxidation and lipogenic pathways.

  7. Peroxisomes are platforms for cytomegalovirus’ evasion from the cellular immune response

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana Cristina; Ferreira, Ana Rita; Gomes, Sílvia; Vieira, Marta; Gouveia, Ana; Valença, Isabel; Islinger, Markus; Nascimento, Rute; Schrader, Michael; Kagan, Jonathan C.; Ribeiro, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus developed distinct evasion mechanisms from the cellular antiviral response involving vMIA, a virally-encoded protein that is not only able to prevent cellular apoptosis but also to inhibit signalling downstream from mitochondrial MAVS. vMIA has been shown to localize at mitochondria and to trigger their fragmentation, a phenomenon proven to be essential for the signalling inhibition. Here, we demonstrate that vMIA is also localized at peroxisomes, induces their fragmentation and inhibits the peroxisomal-dependent antiviral signalling pathway. Importantly, we demonstrate that peroxisomal fragmentation is not essential for vMIA to specifically inhibit signalling downstream the peroxisomal MAVS. We also show that vMIA interacts with the cytoplasmic chaperone Pex19, suggesting that the virus has developed a strategy to highjack the peroxisomal membrane proteins’ transport machinery. Furthermore, we show that vMIA is able to specifically interact with the peroxisomal MAVS. Our results demonstrate that peroxisomes constitute a platform for evasion of the cellular antiviral response and that the human cytomegalovirus has developed a mechanism by which it is able to specifically evade the peroxisomal MAVS-dependent antiviral signalling. PMID:27181750

  8. A Role for Fis1 in Both Mitochondrial and Peroxisomal Fission in Mammalian CellsD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Annett; Yoon, Yisang; Bonekamp, Nina A.; McNiven, Mark A.; Schrader, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian dynamin-like protein DLP1/Drp1 has been shown to mediate both mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission. In this study, we have examined whether hFis1, a mammalian homologue of yeast Fis1, which has been shown to participate in mitochondrial fission by an interaction with DLP1/Drp1, is also involved in peroxisomal growth and division. We show that hFis1 localizes to peroxisomes in addition to mitochondria. Through differential tagging and deletion experiments, we demonstrate that the transmembrane domain and the short C-terminal tail of hFis1 is both necessary and sufficient for its targeting to peroxisomes and mitochondria, whereas the N-terminal region is required for organelle fission. hFis1 promotes peroxisome division upon ectopic expression, whereas silencing of Fis1 by small interfering RNA inhibited fission and caused tubulation of peroxisomes. These findings provide the first evidence for a role of Fis1 in peroxisomal fission and suggest that the fission machinery of mitochondria and peroxisomes shares common components. PMID:16107562

  9. Regulation of Proteome Maintenance Gene Expression by Activators of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor a (PPARa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) is activated by a large number of xenobiotic and hypolipidemic compounds called peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC). One agonist of PPARa (WY-14,643) regulates responses in the mouse liver to chemic...

  10. ATP-dependent transport of bile acid intermediates across rat liver peroxisomal membranes.

    PubMed

    Une, Mizuho; Iguchi, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Tomoko; Tomita, Takashi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masashi; Imanaka, Tsuneo

    2003-08-01

    The bile acid intermediate 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoic acid (THCA) is converted to cholic acid exclusively in peroxisomes by the oxidative cleavage of the side chain. To investigate the mechanism by which the biosynthetic intermediates of bile acids are transported into peroxisomes, we incubated THCA or its CoA ester (THC-CoA) with isolated intact rat liver peroxisomes and analyzed their oxidation products, cholic acid and 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholest-24-enoic acid. The oxidation of both THCA and THC-CoA was dependent on incubation time and peroxisomal proteins, and was stimulated by ATP. THC-CoA was efficiently oxidized to cholic acid and 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholest-24-enoic acid as compared with THCA, suggesting that THC-CoA is the preferred substrate for transport into peroxisomes. The oxidation of THC-CoA was significantly inhibited by sodium azide, verapamile, and N-ethylmaleimide. Furthermore, the stimulatory effect of ATP on the oxidation was not replaced by GTP or AMP. In addition, the ATP-dependent oxidation of THC-CoA was markedly inhibited by pretreatment of peroxisomes with proteinase K when peroxisomal matrix proteins were not degraded. These results suggest that an ATP-dependent transport system for THC-CoA exists on peroxisomal membranes.

  11. PEX7 and EBP50 Target iNOS to the Peroxisome in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Loughran, Patricia A.; Stolz, Donna B.; Barrick, Stacey R.; Wheeler, David S.; Friedman, Peter A.; Rachubinski, Richard A.; Watkins, Simon C.; Billiar, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    iNOS localizes to both the cytosol and peroxisomes in hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. The structural determinants for iNOS localization are not known. One plausible mechanism for iNOS localization to the peroxisome is through the interaction with peroxisomal import proteins PEX5 or PEX7. siRNA knockdown of PEX7 reduced iNOS colocalization with the peroxisomal protein PMP70. Proteomic studies using MALDI-MS identified iNOS association with the 50-kD ezrin binding PDZ protein (EBP50). Confocal microscopy studies and immunoelectron microscopy confirmed iNOS association with EBP50, with greatest colocalization occurring at 8 hours of cytokine exposure. EBP50 associated with peroxisomes in a PEX5 and PEX7-dependent manner. iNOS localization to peroxisomes was contingent on EBP50 expression in LPS-treated mice. Thus, iNOS targeting to peroxisomes in hepatocytes involves interaction with PEX7 and EBP50. The targeting of iNOS protein to the peroxisome may shift the balance of metabolic processes that rely on heme proteins susceptible to modification by radical oxygen and nitrogen radicals. PMID:23474170

  12. Detection and Quantification of Free Radicals in Peroxisomal Disorders: A Comparative Study with Oxidative Stress Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Elmaksoud, Sohair Abd-El Mawgood; El-Bassyouni, Hala; Afifi, Hanan; Thomas, Manal Micheal; Shalaby, Aliaa; Hamid, Tamer Ahmed Abdel; Hamid, Nehal Abdel; El-Ghobary, Hany

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Free radicals have been thought to participate in pathogenesis of peroxisomal disorders. Objective The aim of the work is to detect free oxide radicals in blood of patients with peroxisomal disorders and to study their relation with various oxidative stress parameters. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with peroxisomal disorders and 14 age and sex matched healthy subjects were included in the study. Patients with peroxisomal disorders were subdivided according to diagnosis into peroxisomal biogenesis disorders and single enzyme deficiency. Oxidative stress was evaluated in both patients and control subjects by assessment of free radicals, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide metabolites and superoxide dismutase. Results There was increase in free radicals, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide metabolites in patients compared with control subjects. However, there was decrease in superoxide dismutase levels in patients compared with control subjects. Conclusion We concluded that there is excess free radicals production accompanied with decrease in antioxidant defenses in patients with peroxisomal disorders. These results strongly support a role of free radicals in the pathophysiology of peroxisomal disorders and strengthen the importance of oxidative stress phenomenon in peroxisomal disorders pathogenesis. PMID:26674249

  13. The ketogenic diet; fatty acids, fatty acid-activated receptors and neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Cullingford, Tim E

    2004-03-01

    This review outlines the molecular sensors that reprogram cellular metabolism in response to the ketogenic diet (KD). Special emphasis is placed on the fasting-, fatty acid- and drug-activated transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). The KD causes a switch to ketogenesis that is coordinated with an array of changes in cellular lipid, amino acid, carbohydrate and inflammatory pathways. The role of both liver and brain PPARalpha in mediating such changes will be examined, with special reference to the anti-epileptic effects not only of the KD but a range of synthetic anti-epileptic drugs such as valproate. Finally, the implications of the KD and activated brain PPARalpha will be discussed in the context of their potential involvement in a range of disorders of neuro-degeneration and neuro-inflammation.

  14. Ubiquitination of the peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 receptor, Pex5p, suggests the presence of a quality control mechanism during peroxisomal matrix protein import.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Jan A K W; Emmrich, Kerstin; Meyer, Helmut E; Kunau, Wolf-H

    2005-01-21

    PEX genes encode proteins (peroxins) that are required for the biogenesis of peroxisomes. One of these peroxins, Pex5p, is the receptor for matrix proteins with a type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1), which shuttles newly synthesized proteins from the cytosol into the peroxisome matrix. We observed that in various Saccharomyces cerevisiae pex mutants disturbed in the early stages of PTS1 import, the steady-state levels of Pex5p are enhanced relative to wild type controls. Furthermore, we identified ubiquitinated forms of Pex5p in deletion mutants of those PEX genes that have been implicated in recycling of Pex5p from the peroxisomal membrane into the cytosol. Pex5p ubiquitination required the presence of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc4p and the peroxins that are required during early stages of PTS1 protein import. Finally, we provide evidence that the proteasome is involved in the turnover of Pex5p in wild type yeast cells, a process that requires Ubc4p and occurs at the peroxisomal membrane. Our data suggest that during receptor recycling a portion of Pex5p becomes ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome. We propose that this process represents a conserved quality control mechanism in peroxisome biogenesis.

  15. Castor bean isocitrate lyase lacking the putative peroxisomal targeting signal 1 ARM is imported into plant peroxisomes both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, X; Marrison, J L; Pool, M R; Leech, R M; Baker, A

    1996-01-01

    To understand and manipulate plant peroxisomal protein targeting, it is important to establish the universality or otherwise of targeting signals. Contradictory results have been published concerning the nature and location of the glyoxysomal/peroxisomal targeting signal of isocitrate lyase (ICL). L.J. Olsen, W.F. Ettinger, B. Damsz, K. Matsudaira, A. Webb, and J.J. Harada ([1993] Plant Cell 5: 941-952) concluded that the last 5 amino acids (AKSRM) of Brassica napus ICL were sufficient and the last 37 amino acids were necessary for targeting to Arabidopsis leaf peroxisomes. In contrast, R. Behari and A. Baker ([1993]) J Biol Chem 268: 7315-7322) could find no requirement for the almost identical carboxy-terminal sequence AKARM for import of Ricinus communis ICL into isolated sunflower cotyledon glyoxysomes. To resolve this discrepancy, the import characteristics of a mutant R. communis ICL lacking the last 19 amino acids of the carboxy terminus was studied. ICL delta 19 was able to be imported by isolated sunflower glyoxysomes and by tobacco leaf peroxisomes when expressed transgenically. These results demonstrate that the in vitro import system faithfully reflects targeting in vivo, and that the source of the organelles (Arabidopsis versus sunflower, leaf peroxisomes versus seed glyoxysomes) is not responsible for observed differences between B. napus and R. communis ICL. The R. communis enzyme would therefore appear to possess an additional glyoxysome/peroxisome targeting signal that is lacking in the B. napus protein. PMID:8972594

  16. Toward a definition of the complete proteome of plant peroxisomes: Where experimental proteomics must be complemented by bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Reumann, Sigrun

    2011-05-01

    In the past few years, proteome analysis of Arabidopsis peroxisomes has been established by the complementary efforts of four research groups and has emerged as the major unbiased approach to identify new peroxisomal proteins on a large scale. Collectively, more than 100 new candidate proteins from plant peroxisomes have been identified, including long-awaited low-abundance proteins. More than 50 proteins have been validated as peroxisome targeted, nearly doubling the number of established plant peroxisomal proteins. Sequence homologies of the new proteins predict unexpected enzyme activities, novel metabolic pathways and unknown non-metabolic peroxisome functions. Despite this remarkable success, proteome analyses of plant peroxisomes remain highly material intensive and require major preparative efforts. Characterization of the membrane proteome or post-translational protein modifications poses major technical challenges. New strategies, including quantitative mass spectrometry methods, need to be applied to allow further identifications of plant peroxisomal proteins, such as of stress-inducible proteins. In the long process of defining the complete proteome of plant peroxisomes, the prediction of peroxisome-targeted proteins from plant genome sequences emerges as an essential complementary approach to identify additional peroxisomal proteins that are, for instance, specific to peroxisome variants from minor tissues and organs or to abiotically stressed model and crop plants.

  17. De novo peroxisome biogenesis in Penicillium chrysogenum is not dependent on the Pex11 family members or Pex16.

    PubMed

    Opaliński, Łukasz; Bartoszewska, Magdalena; Fekken, Susan; Liu, Haiyin; de Boer, Rinse; van der Klei, Ida; Veenhuis, Marten; Kiel, Jan A K W

    2012-01-01

    We have analyzed the role of the three members of the Pex11 protein family in peroxisome formation in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. Two of these, Pex11 and Pex11C, are components of the peroxisomal membrane, while Pex11B is present at the endoplasmic reticulum. We show that Pex11 is a major factor involved in peroxisome proliferation. We also demonstrate that P. chrysogenum cells deleted for known peroxisome fission factors (all Pex11 family proteins and Vps1) still contain peroxisomes. Interestingly, we find that, unlike in mammals, Pex16 is not essential for peroxisome biogenesis in P. chrysogenum, as partially functional peroxisomes are present in a pex16 deletion strain. We also show that Pex16 is not involved in de novo biogenesis of peroxisomes, as peroxisomes were still present in quadruple Δpex11 Δpex11B Δpex11C Δpex16 mutant cells. By contrast, pex3 deletion in P. chrysogenum led to cells devoid of peroxisomes, suggesting that Pex3 may function independently of Pex16. Finally, we demonstrate that the presence of intact peroxisomes is important for the efficiency of ß-lactam antibiotics production by P. chrysogenum. Remarkably, distinct from earlier results with low penicillin producing laboratory strains, upregulation of peroxisome numbers in a high producing P. chrysogenum strain had no significant effect on penicillin production.

  18. Environmental response of yeast peroxisomes. Aspects of organelle assembly and degradation.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Y; Subramani, S

    2000-01-01

    Nutritional changes can affect either the assembly or disassembly of yeast peroxisomes. In the past decade, insights regarding the molecular mechanisms of peroxisome assembly have been gained chiefly through the cloning of the PEX genes obtained by complementation of corresponding pex mutants in several yeast strains and Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. Depletion of these peroxins (proteins encoded by PEX genes) by deletion of the corresponding genes affects peroxisomal protein import, biogenesis, or proliferation. To complement these studies in the field, the authors undertook an investigation of the functions of a subset of Candida boidinii peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs), Pex11, Pmp47, and Pmp20, by analyzing strains of C. boidinii in which the genes encoding these proteins were deleted. The authors' studies show that Pex11p is involved in peroxisome proliferation; Pmp47 plays a role in the translocation, folding, or assembly of dihydroxyacetone synthase; and Pmp20 is probably involved in methanol metabolism. In contrast to the studies on peroxisome assembly, the molecular mechanisms of peroxisome degradation remain poorly understood. To shed light on this problem, the authors isolated Pichia pastoris mutants defective in peroxisome autophagy (pag mutants). A novel, double-fluorescence method used for the characterization of wild-type cells and of pag mutants enabled us to dissect the microautophagic degradation of peroxisomes into several distinct stages. These studies show that specific PAG gene products are involved in multiple steps of the process. Future cloning and characterization of the functions of PAG genes will reveal the molecular basis of peroxisome degradation.

  19. A dehydrogenase-mediated recycling system of NADPH in plant peroxisomes.

    PubMed Central

    Corpas, F J; Barroso, J B; Sandalio, L M; Distefano, S; Palma, J M; Lupiáñez, J A; Del Río, L A

    1998-01-01

    The presence of the two NADP-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway has been investigated in plant peroxisomes from pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves. Both enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH; EC 1.1.1.49) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH; EC 1.1.1.44), were present in the matrix of leaf peroxisomes, and their kinetic properties were studied. G6PDH and 6PGDH showed a typical Michaelis-Menten kinetic saturation curve, and had specific activities of 12.4 and 29.6 mU/mg protein, respectively. The Km values of G6PDH and 6PGDH for glucose 6-phosphate and for 6-phosphogluconate were 107.3 and 10.2 microM, respectively. Dithiothreitol did not inhibit G6PDH activity. By isoelectric focusing of peroxisomal matrices, the G6PDH activity was resolved into three isoforms with isoelectric points of 5.55, 5.30 and 4.85. The isoelectric point of peroxisomal 6PGDH was 5.10. Immunoblot analyses of peroxisomal matrix with an antibody against yeast G6PDH revealed a single cross-reactive band of 56 kDa. Post-embedment, EM immunogold labelling of G6PDH confirmed that this enzyme was localized in the peroxisomal matrices, the thylakoid membrane and matrix of chloroplasts, and the cytosol. The presence of the two oxidative enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway in plant peroxisomes implies that these organelles have the capacity to reduce NADP+ to NADPH for its re-utilization in the peroxisomal metabolism. NADPH is particularly required for the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, which has been recently demonstrated in plant peroxisomes [Jiménez, Hernández, del Río and Sevilla (1997) Plant Physiol. 114, 275-284] and represents an important antioxidant protection system against H2O2 generated in peroxisomes. PMID:9480890

  20. Sphingosine 1-phosphate is a ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ that regulates neoangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Parham, Kate A; Zebol, Julia R; Tooley, Katie L; Sun, Wai Y; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M; Cockshell, Michaelia P; Gliddon, Briony L; Moretti, Paul A; Tigyi, Gabor; Pitson, Stuart M; Bonder, Claudine S

    2015-09-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that can function both extracellularly and intracellularly to mediate a variety of cellular processes. Using lipid affinity matrices and a radiolabeled lipid binding assay, we reveal that S1P directly interacts with the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ. Herein, we show that S1P treatment of human endothelial cells (ECs) activated a luciferase-tagged PPARγ-specific gene reporter by ∼12-fold, independent of the S1P receptors. More specifically, in silico docking, gene reporter, and binding assays revealed that His323 of the PPARγ ligand binding domain is important for binding to S1P. PPARγ functions when associated with coregulatory proteins, and herein we identify that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1 (PGC1)β binds to PPARγ in ECs and their progenitors (nonadherent endothelial forming cells) and that the formation of this PPARγ:PGC1β complex is increased in response to S1P. ECs treated with S1P selectively regulated known PPARγ target genes with PGC1β and plasminogen-activated inhibitor-1 being increased, no change to adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 2 and suppression of CD36. S1P-induced in vitro tube formation was significantly attenuated in the presence of the PPARγ antagonist GW9662, and in vivo application of GW9662 also reduced vascular development in Matrigel plugs. Interestingly, activation of PPARγ by the synthetic ligand troglitazone also reduced tube formation in vitro and in vivo. To support this, Sphk1(-/-)Sphk2(+/-) mice, with low circulating S1P levels, demonstrated a similar reduction in vascular development. Taken together, our data reveal that the transcription factor, PPARγ, is a bona fide intracellular target for S1P and thus suggest that the S1P:PPARγ:PGC1β complex may be a useful target to manipulate neovascularization.

  1. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine evidence for the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE PubMed was searched for articles on the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. Level I and II evidence indicates that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in improving cardiovascular outcomes. MAIN MESSAGE Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids has declined by 80% during the last 100 years, while intake of omega-6 fatty acids has greatly increased. Omega-3 fatty acids are cardioprotective mainly due to beneficial effects on arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and thrombosis. There is also evidence that they improve endothelial function, lower blood pressure, and significantly lower triglycerides. CONCLUSION There is good evidence in the literature that increasing intake of omega-3 fatty acids improves cardiac outcomes. Physicians need to integrate dietary recommendations for consumption of omega-3 fatty acids into their usual cardiovascular care. PMID:16812965

  3. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  4. Inflammation in Response to n3 Fatty Acids in a Porcine Obesity Model

    PubMed Central

    Faris, Richard J; Boddicker, Rebecca L; Walker-Daniels, Jennifer; Li, Jenny; Jones, Douglas E; Spurlock, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acids have distinct cellular effects related to inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Dietary saturated fat activates toll-like receptor 4, which in turn can lead to chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue macrophage infiltration. Conversely, n3 fatty acids are generally antiinflammatory and promote insulin sensitivity, in part via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Ossabaw swine are a useful biomedical model of obesity. We fed Ossabaw pigs either a low-fat control diet or a diet containing high-fat palm oil with or without additional n3 fatty acids for 30 wk to investigate the effect of saturated fats and n3 fatty acids on obesity-linked inflammatory markers. The diet did not influence the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, TNFα, IL6, or IL12. In addition, n3 fatty acids attenuated the increase in inflammatory adipose tissue CD16–CD14+ macrophages induced by high palm oil. High-fat diets with and without n3 fatty acids both induced hyperglycemia without hyperinsulinemia. The high-fat only group but not the high-fat group with n3 fatty acids showed reduced insulin sensitivity in response to insulin challenge. This effect was not mediated by decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase B. Therefore, in obese Ossabaw swine, n3 fatty acids partially attenuate insulin resistance but only marginally change inflammatory status and macrophage phenotype in adipose tissue. PMID:23561883

  5. ChREBP mediates glucose repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha expression in pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Boergesen, Michael; Poulsen, Lars la Cour; Schmidt, Søren Fisker; Frigerio, Francesca; Maechler, Pierre; Mandrup, Susanne

    2011-04-15

    Chronic exposure to elevated levels of glucose and fatty acids leads to dysfunction of pancreatic β-cells by mechanisms that are only partly understood. The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is an important regulator of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and has been shown to protect against lipid-induced β-cell dysfunction. We and others have previously shown that expression of the PPARα gene in β-cells is rapidly repressed by glucose. Here we show that the PPARα gene is transcribed from five alternative transcription start sites, resulting in three alternative first exons that are spliced to exon 2. Expression of all PPARα transcripts is repressed by glucose both in insulinoma cells and in isolated pancreatic islets. The observation that the dynamics of glucose repression of PPARα transcription are very similar to those of glucose activation of target genes by the carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) prompted us to investigate the potential role of ChREBP in the regulation of PPARα expression. We show that a constitutively active ChREBP lacking the N-terminal domain efficiently represses PPARα expression in insulinoma cells and in rodent and human islets. In addition, we demonstrate that siRNA-mediated knockdown of ChREBP abrogates glucose repression of PPARα expression as well as induction of well established ChREBP target genes in insulinoma cells. In conclusion, this work shows that ChREBP is a critical and direct mediator of glucose repression of PPARα gene expression in pancreatic β-cells, suggesting that ChREBP may be important for glucose suppression of the fatty acid oxidation capacity of β-cells.

  6. Identification of 6-octadecynoic acid from a methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtera, Anna; Miyamae, Yusaku; Nakai, Naomi; Kawachi, Atsushi; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko; Neffati, Mohamed; Akita, Toru; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Seiji; Kambe, Taiho; Mori, Naoki; Irie, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Masaya

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •6-ODA, a rare fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified from Marrubium vulgare. •6-ODA was synthesized from petroselinic acid as a starting material. •6-ODA stimulated lipid accumulation in HSC-T6 and 3T3-L1 cells. •The first report of a fatty acid with a triple bond functioning as a PPARγ agonist. •This study sheds light on novel functions of a fatty acid with a triple bond. -- Abstract: 6-Octadecynoic acid (6-ODA), a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified in the methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Fibrogenesis caused by hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by PPARγ whose ligands are clinically used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant extracts of Marrubium vulgare L., were screened for activity to inhibit fibrosis in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 using Oil Red-O staining, which detects lipids that typically accumulate in quiescent hepatic stellate cells. A methanol extract with activity to stimulate accumulation of lipids was obtained. This extract was found to have PPARγ agonist activity using a luciferase reporter assay. After purification using several chromatographic methods, 6-ODA, a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified as a candidate of PPARγ agonist. Synthesized 6-ODA and its derivative 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA), which both have a triple bond but in different positions, activated PPARγ in a luciferase reporter assay and increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a PPARγ-dependent manner. There is little information about the biological activity of fatty acids with a triple bond, and to our knowledge, this is the first report that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as PPARγ agonists.

  7. Carbonic anhydrase III regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}2

    SciTech Connect

    Mitterberger, Maria C.; Kim, Geumsoo; Rostek, Ursula; Levine, Rodney L.; Zwerschke, Werner

    2012-05-01

    Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is an isoenzyme of the CA family. Because of its low specific anhydrase activity, physiological functions in addition to hydrating CO{sub 2} have been proposed. CAIII expression is highly induced in adipogenesis and CAIII is the most abundant protein in adipose tissues. The function of CAIII in both preadipocytes and adipocytes is however unknown. In the present study we demonstrate that adipogenesis is greatly increased in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from CAIII knockout (KO) mice, as demonstrated by a greater than 10-fold increase in the induction of fatty acid-binding protein-4 (FABP4) and increased triglyceride formation in CAIII{sup -/-} MEFs compared with CAIII{sup +/+} cells. To address the underlying mechanism, we investigated the expression of the two adipogenic key regulators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}2 (PPAR{gamma}2) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-{alpha}. We found a considerable (approximately 1000-fold) increase in the PPAR{gamma}2 expression in the CAIII{sup -/-} MEFs. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated knockdown of endogenous CAIII in NIH 3T3-L1 preadipocytes resulted in a significant increase in the induction of PPAR{gamma}2 and FABP4. When both CAIII and PPAR{gamma}2 were knocked down, FABP4 was not induced. We conclude that down-regulation of CAIII in preadipocytes enhances adipogenesis and that CAIII is a regulator of adipogenic differentiation which acts at the level of PPAR{gamma}2 gene expression. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We discover a novel function of Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that CAIII is a regulator of adipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate that CAIII acts at the level of PPAR{gamma}2 gene expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our data contribute to a better understanding of the role of CAIII in fat tissue.

  8. The impact of a ketogenic diet and liver dysfunction on serum very long-chain fatty acids levels.

    PubMed

    Stradomska, T J; Bachański, M; Pawłowska, J; Syczewska, M; Stolarczyk, A; Tylki-Szymańska, A

    2013-04-01

    Peroxisomes play an essential role in mammalian cellular metabolism, particularly in oxidation fatty acid pathways. Serum very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA), the main biochemical diagnostic parameters for peroxisomal disorders, were examined in 25 neurological patients with epilepsy on a ketogenic diet and 27 patients with liver dysfunction. The data show that patients on a ketogenic diet have increased levels of C22:0 and C24:0, but not C26:0, and normal C24:0/C22:0 and C26:0/C22:0. Patients with liver insufficiency showed a slightly elevated level of C26:0, a normal level of C24:0 and a decreased level of C22:0; thus in 21/27 the ratio of C24:0/C22:0 was increased and 15/27 the ratio of C26:0/C22:0 was increased.

  9. Using co-expression analysis and stress-based screens to uncover Arabidopsis peroxisomal proteins involved in drought response

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Jiying; Hu, Jianping; Bassham, Diane

    2015-09-14

    Peroxisomes are essential organelles that house a wide array of metabolic reactions important for plant growth and development. However, our knowledge regarding the role of peroxisomal proteins in various biological processes, including plant stress response, is still incomplete. Recent proteomic studies of plant peroxisomes significantly increased the number of known peroxisomal proteins and greatly facilitated the study of peroxisomes at the systems level. The objectives of this study were to determine whether genes that encode peroxisomal proteins with related functions are co-expressed in Arabidopsis and identify peroxisomal proteins involved in stress response using in silico analysis and mutant screens. Usingmore » microarray data from online databases, we performed hierarchical clustering analysis to generate a comprehensive view of transcript level changes for Arabidopsis peroxisomal genes during development and under abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Many genes involved in the same metabolic pathways exhibited co-expression, some genes known to be involved in stress response are regulated by the corresponding stress conditions, and function of some peroxisomal proteins could be predicted based on their coexpression pattern. Since drought caused expression changes to the highest number of genes that encode peroxisomal proteins, we subjected a subset of Arabidopsis peroxisomal mutants to a drought stress assay. Mutants of the LON2 protease and the photorespiratory enzyme hydroxypyruvate reductase 1 (HPR1) showed enhanced susceptibility to drought, suggesting the involvement of peroxisomal quality control and photorespiration in drought resistance. Lastly, our study provided a global view of how genes that encode peroxisomal proteins respond to developmental and environmental cues and began to reveal additional peroxisomal proteins involved in stress response, thus opening up new avenues to investigate the role of peroxisomes in plant adaptation to

  10. Using co-expression analysis and stress-based screens to uncover Arabidopsis peroxisomal proteins involved in drought response

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jiying; Hu, Jianping; Bassham, Diane

    2015-09-14

    Peroxisomes are essential organelles that house a wide array of metabolic reactions important for plant growth and development. However, our knowledge regarding the role of peroxisomal proteins in various biological processes, including plant stress response, is still incomplete. Recent proteomic studies of plant peroxisomes significantly increased the number of known peroxisomal proteins and greatly facilitated the study of peroxisomes at the systems level. The objectives of this study were to determine whether genes that encode peroxisomal proteins with related functions are co-expressed in Arabidopsis and identify peroxisomal proteins involved in stress response using in silico analysis and mutant screens. Using microarray data from online databases, we performed hierarchical clustering analysis to generate a comprehensive view of transcript level changes for Arabidopsis peroxisomal genes during development and under abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Many genes involved in the same metabolic pathways exhibited co-expression, some genes known to be involved in stress response are regulated by the corresponding stress conditions, and function of some peroxisomal proteins could be predicted based on their coexpression pattern. Since drought caused expression changes to the highest number of genes that encode peroxisomal proteins, we subjected a subset of Arabidopsis peroxisomal mutants to a drought stress assay. Mutants of the LON2 protease and the photorespiratory enzyme hydroxypyruvate reductase 1 (HPR1) showed enhanced susceptibility to drought, suggesting the involvement of peroxisomal quality control and photorespiration in drought resistance. Lastly, our study provided a global view of how genes that encode peroxisomal proteins respond to developmental and environmental cues and began to reveal additional peroxisomal proteins involved in stress response, thus opening up new avenues to investigate the role of peroxisomes in plant adaptation to

  11. PPARα Activation Induces Nε-Lys-Acetylation of Rat Liver Peroxisomal Multifunctional Enzyme Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Miguel A.; Alzate, Oscar; Singh, Avtar K.

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous subcellular organelles that participate in metabolic and disease processes, with few of its proteins undergoing posttranslational modifications. As the role of lysine-acetylation has expanded into the cellular intermediary metabolism, we used a combination of differential centrifugation, organelle isolation by linear density gradient centrifugation, western blot analysis, and peptide fingerprinting and amino acid sequencing by mass spectrometry to investigate protein acetylation in control and ciprofibrate-treated rat liver peroxisomes. Organelle protein samples isolated by density gradient centrifugation from PPARα-agonist treated rat liver screened with an anti-Nε-acetyl lysine antibody revealed a single protein band of 75 kDa. Immunoprecipitation with this antibody resulted in the precipitation of a protein from the protein pool of ciprofibrate-induced peroxisomes, but not from the protein pool of non-induced peroxisomes. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis identified the protein as the peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 1. In addition, mass spectrometry-based amino acid sequencing resulted in the identification of unique peptides containing 4 acetylated-Lys residues (K155, K173, K190, and K583). This is the first report that demonstrates posttranslational acetylation of a peroxisomal enzyme in PPARα-dependent proliferation of peroxisomes in rat liver. PMID:24092543

  12. A novel mutation in the PEX12 gene causing a peroxisomal biogenesis disorder.

    PubMed

    Konkoľová, Jana; Petrovič, Robert; Chandoga, Ján; Halasová, Edita; Jungová, Petra; Böhmer, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    The peroxisomal biogenesis disorders are autosomal recessive diseases morphologically characterised by lacking peroxisomes, biochemically by generalised deficiency of peroxisomal constituent and clinically manifested by serious health problems. Genes involved in the peroxisomal biogenesis are defined as the PEX genes encoding proteins called the peroxins. These peroxins are required for function in assembly of the peroxisomal membrane or in import of the enzymes into the peroxisomes. In this study we present a full overview of the clinical presentation, biochemical and molecular data of patient with Zellweger syndrome from Slovakia. We investigated biochemical metabolites using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The presence of causal ins/del mutations we identified by a Sanger sequencing and RFLP. We reported that the patient was a compound heterozygote for mutations in the gene PEX12: a 2-bp insertion (c.767_768dupAT) and a 2-bp deletion (c.887_888delTC). The first one mentioned is a novel mutation, which has not been reported before. Both mutations create a frameshift of the open reading frame which result a premature STOP codon and generate a complete loss of the C-terminal RING finger domain that is crucial for the correct import of proteins into peroxisomes. We found causal mutations responsible for a severe phenotype, and moreover we noted a novel mutation c.767_768dupAT that has not been reported before. The presence of mutations was studied in all family members, and the resulting data were successfully utilized for prenatal diagnosis.

  13. Nucleotide triphosphates are required for the transport of glycolate oxidase into peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Brickner, D G; Olsen, L J

    1998-01-01

    All peroxisomal proteins are nuclear encoded, synthesized on free cytosolic ribosomes, and posttranslationally targeted to the organelle. We have used an in vitro assay to reconstitute protein import into pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) glyoxysomes, a class of peroxisome found in the cotyledons of oilseed plants, to study the mechanisms involved in protein transport across peroxisome membranes. Results indicate that ATP hydrolysis is required for protein import into peroxisomes; nonhydrolyzable analogs of ATP could not substitute for this requirement. Nucleotide competition studies suggest that there may be a nucleotide binding site on a component of the translocation machinery. Peroxisomal protein import also was supported by GTP hydrolysis. Nonhydrolyzable analogs of GTP did not substitute in this process. Experiments to determine the cation specificity of the nucleotide requirement show that the Mg2+ salt was preferred over other divalent and monovalent cations. The role of a putative protonmotive force across the peroxisomal membrane was also examined. Although low concentrations of ionophores had no effect on protein import, relatively high concentrations of all ionophores tested consistently reduced the level of protein import by approximately 50%. This result suggests that a protonmotive force is not absolutely required for peroxisomal protein import.

  14. NADH Induces the Generation of Superoxide Radicals in Leaf Peroxisomes 1

    PubMed Central

    del Río, Luis A.; Fernández, Víctor M.; Rupérez, Francisco L.; Sandalio, Luisa M.; Palma, José M.

    1989-01-01

    In peroxisomes isolated from pea leaves (Pisum sativum L.) the production of superoxide free radicals (O2−) by xanthine and NADH was investigated. In peroxisomal membranes, 100 micromolar NADH induced the production of O2− radicals. In the soluble fractions of peroxisomes, no generation of O2− radicals was observed by incubation with either NADH or xanthine, although xanthine oxidase was found located predominantly in the matrix of peroxisomes. The failure of xanthine to induce superoxide generation was probably due to the inability to fully suppress the endogenous Mn-superoxide dismutase activity by inhibitors which were inactive against xanthine oxidase. The generation of superoxide radicals in leaf peroxisomes together with the recently described production of these oxygen radicals in glyoxysomes (LM Sandalio, VM Fernández, FL Rupérez, LA del Río [1988] Plant Physiol 87: 1-4) suggests that O2− generation could be a common metabolic property of peroxisomes and further supports the existence of active oxygen-related rôles for peroxisomes in cellular metabolism. PMID:16666612

  15. Peroxisomal polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis is a promising strategy for bioplastic production in high biomass crops.

    PubMed

    Tilbrook, Kimberley; Gebbie, Leigh; Schenk, Peer M; Poirier, Yves; Brumbley, Stevens M

    2011-12-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bacterial carbon storage polymers with diverse plastic-like properties. PHA biosynthesis in transgenic plants is being developed as a way to reduce the cost and increase the sustainability of industrial PHA production. The homopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the simplest form of these biodegradable polyesters. Plant peroxisomes contain the substrate molecules and necessary reducing power for PHB biosynthesis, but peroxisomal PHB production has not been explored in whole soil-grown transgenic plants to date. We generated transgenic sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) with the three-enzyme Ralstonia eutropha PHA biosynthetic pathway targeted to peroxisomes. We also introduced the pathway into Arabidopsis thaliana, as a model system for studying and manipulating peroxisomal PHB production. PHB, at levels up to 1.6%-1.8% dry weight, accumulated in sugarcane leaves and A. thaliana seedlings, respectively. In sugarcane, PHB accumulated throughout most leaf cell types in both peroxisomes and vacuoles. A small percentage of total polymer was also identified as the copolymer poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) in both plant species. No obvious deleterious effect was observed on plant growth because of peroxisomal PHA biosynthesis at these levels. This study highlights how using peroxisomal metabolism for PHA biosynthesis could significantly contribute to reaching commercial production levels of PHAs in crop plants.

  16. NADH induces the generation of superoxide radicals in leaf peroxisomes. [Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    del Rio, L.A.; Sandalio, L.M.; Palma, J.M. ); Fernandez, V.M.; Ruperez, F.L. )

    1989-03-01

    In peroxisomes isolated from pea leaves (Pisum sativum L.) the production of superoxide free radicals (O{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) by xanthine and NADH was investigated. In peroxisomal membranes, 100 micromolar NADH induced the production of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} radicals. In the soluble fractions of peroxisomes, no generation of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} radicals was observed by incubation with either NADH or xanthine, although xanthine oxidase was found located predominantly in the matrix of peroxisomes. The failure of xanthine to induce superoxide generation was probably due to the inability to fully suppress the endogenous Mn-superoxide dismutase activity by inhibitors which were inactive against xanthine oxidase. The generation of superoxide radicals in leaf peroxisomes together with the recently described production of these oxygen radicals in glyoxysomes suggests that O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} generation could be a common metabolic property of peroxisomes and further supports the existence of active oxygen-related roles for peroxisomes in cellular metabolism.

  17. Biology of senescent liver peroxisomes: role in hepatocellular aging and disease.

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, J; Badr, M

    1999-01-01

    Despite rising interest in the health problems of the elderly, information on senescence-related alterations in essential metabolic pathways and their responses to various chemicals is scarce. Although peroxisomal pathways are involved in a multitude of cellular functions, little attention has been given to the potential relationship between senescence of these organelles and the process of aging and disease. Although the prevailing experimental evidence points to a decline in liver peroxisomal enzyme activities and a muted response to peroxisome-proliferating chemicals in aged animals, it is also evident that aged animals are more susceptible, in comparison to their young counterparts, to the hepatocarcinogenic effects of these chemicals. Furthermore, little is known about extraperoxisomal effects of peroxisome proliferators in aged animals. This review evaluates published studies on the impact of aging on basal hepatic peroxisomal metabolism, response to peroxisome proliferators, and changes in signal transduction pathways involved in these processes, with the aim of stimulating research efforts in this important area. The potential intricate relationship among senescent peroxisomes, aged hepatocytes, and health are also discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10504144

  18. Citrate synthase encoded by the CIT2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is peroxisomal.

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, A S; Hines, V; Small, G M

    1990-01-01

    The product of the CIT2 gene has the tripeptide SKL at its carboxyl terminus. This amino acid sequence has been shown to act as a peroxisomal targeting signal in mammalian cells. We examined the subcellular site of this extramitochondrial citrate synthase. Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were grown on oleate medium to induce peroxisome proliferation. A fraction containing membrane-enclosed vesicles and organelles was analyzed by sedimentation on density gradients. In wild-type cells, the major peak of citrate synthase activity was recovered in the mitochondrial fraction, but a second peak of activity cosedimented with peroxisomes. The peroxisomal activity, but not the mitochondrial activity, was inhibited by incubation at pH 8.1, a characteristic of the extramitochondrial citrate synthase encoded by the CIT2 gene. In a strain in which the CIT1 gene encoding mitochondrial citrate synthase had been disrupted, the major peak of citrate synthase activity was peroxisomal, and all of the activity was sensitive to incubation at pH 8.1. Yeast cells bearing a cit2 disruption were unable to mobilize stored lipids and did not form stable peroxisomes in oleate. We conclude that citrate synthase encoded by CIT2 is peroxisomal and participates in the glyoxylate cycle. Images PMID:2181273

  19. Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase multigene family involved in the assimilation of n-alkanes in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Iwama, Ryo; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Ohta, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi

    2014-11-28

    In the n-alkane assimilating yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, n-alkanes are oxidized to fatty acids via fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes, after which they are utilized as carbon sources. Here, we show that four genes (HFD1-HFD4) encoding fatty aldehyde dehydrogenases (FALDHs) are involved in the metabolism of n-alkanes in Y. lipolytica. A mutant, in which all of four HFD genes are deleted (Δhfd1-4 strain), could not grow on n-alkanes of 12-18 carbons; however, the expression of one of those HFD genes restored its growth on n-alkanes. Production of Hfd2Ap or Hfd2Bp, translation products of transcript variants generated from HFD2 by the absence or presence of splicing, also supported the growth of the Δhfd1-4 strain on n-alkanes. The FALDH activity in the extract of the wild-type strain was increased when cells were incubated in the presence of n-decane, whereas this elevation in FALDH activity by n-decane was not observed in Δhfd1-4 strain extract. Substantial FALDH activities were detected in the extracts of Escherichia coli cells expressing the HFD genes. Fluorescent microscopic observation suggests that Hfd3p and Hfd2Bp are localized predominantly in the peroxisome, whereas Hfd1p and Hfd2Ap are localized in both the endoplasmic reticulum and the peroxisome. These results suggest that the HFD multigene family is responsible for the oxidation of fatty aldehydes to fatty acids in the metabolism of n-alkanes, and raise the possibility that Hfd proteins have diversified by gene multiplication and RNA splicing to efficiently assimilate or detoxify fatty aldehydes in Y. lipolytica.

  20. Pexophagy is responsible for 65% of cases of peroxisome biogenesis disorders.

    PubMed

    Nazarko, Taras Y

    2017-02-28

    Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) is a group of diseases caused by mutations in one of the peroxins, proteins responsible for biogenesis of the peroxisomes. In recent years, it became clear that many peroxins (e.g., PEX3 and PEX14) play additional roles in peroxisome homeostasis (such as promoting autophagic degradation of peroxisomes or pexophagy), which are often opposite to their originally established functions in peroxisome formation and maintenance. Even more interesting, the peroxins that make up the peroxisomal AAA ATPase complex (AAA-complex) in yeast (Pex1, Pex6 and Pex15) or mammals (PEX1, PEX6, PEX26) are responsible for the downregulation of pexophagy. Moreover, this might be even their primary role in human: to prevent pexophagy by removing from the peroxisomal membrane the ubiquitinated peroxisomal matrix protein import receptor, Ub-PEX5, which is also a signal for the Ub-binding pexophagy receptor, NBR1. Remarkably, the peroxisomes rescued from pexophagy by autophagic inhibitors in PEX1(G843D) (the most common PBD mutation) cells are able to import matrix proteins and improve their biochemical function suggesting that the AAA-complex per se is not essential for the protein import function in human. This paradigm-shifting discovery published in the current issue of Autophagy has raised hope for up to 65% of all PBD patients with various deficiencies in the AAA-complex. Recognizing PEX1, PEX6 and PEX26 as pexophagy suppressors will allow treating these patients with a new range of tools designed to target mammalian pexophagy.

  1. Peroxisome Biogenesis Occurs in an Unsynchronized Manner in Close Association with the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Temperature-sensitive Yarrowia lipolytica Pex3p Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Bascom, Roger A.; Chan, Honey; Rachubinski, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Pex3p is a peroxisomal integral membrane protein required early in peroxisome biogenesis, and Pex3p-deficient cells lack identifiable peroxisomes. Two temperature-sensitive pex3 mutant strains of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica were made to investigate the role of Pex3p in the early stages of peroxisome biogenesis. In glucose medium at 16°C, these mutants underwent de novo peroxisome biogenesis and exhibited early matrix protein sequestration into peroxisome-like structures found at the endoplasmic reticulum-rich periphery of cells or sometimes associated with nuclei. The de novo peroxisome biogenesis seemed unsynchronized, with peroxisomes occurring at different stages of development both within cells and between cells. Cells with peripheral nascent peroxisomes and cells with structures morphologically distinct from peroxisomes, such as semi/circular tubular structures that immunostained with antibodies to peroxisomal matrix proteins and to the endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein Kar2p, and that surrounded lipid droplets, were observed during up-regulation of peroxisome biogenesis in cells incubated in oleic acid medium at 16°C. These structures were not detected in wild-type or Pex3p-deficient cells. Their role in peroxisome biogenesis remains unclear. Targeting of peroxisomal matrix proteins to these structures suggests that Pex3p directly or indirectly sequesters components of the peroxisome biogenesis machinery. Such a role is consistent with Pex3p overexpression producing cells with fewer, larger, and clustered peroxisomes. PMID:12631715

  2. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice supplemented with odd or even medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Behringer, Sidney; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-11-01

    An even medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet is the mainstay of treatment in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (VLCADD). Previous studies with magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown an impact of MCT on the average fatty acid chain length in abdominal fat. We therefore assume that medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are elongated and accumulate in tissue as long-chain fatty acids. In this study, we explored the hepatic effects of long-term supplementation with MCT or triheptanoin, an odd-chain C7-based triglyceride, in wild-type and VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-) ) mice after 1 year of supplementation as compared with a control diet. The de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids, and peroxisomal β-oxidation, were quantified by RT-PCR. This was followed by a comprehensive analysis of hepatic and cardiac fatty acid profiles by GC-MS. Long-term application of even and odd MCFAs strongly induced de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids in both wild-type and VLCAD(-/-) mice, leading to an alteration of the hepatic fatty acid profiles. We detected de novo-synthesized and elongated fatty acids, such as heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n9), eicosanoic acid (C20:1n9), erucic acid (C22:1n9), and mead acid (C20:3n9), that were otherwise completely absent in mice under control conditions. In parallel, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids was massively increased. Furthermore, we observed strong upregulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation in VLCAD(-/-) mice, especially when they were fed an MCT diet. Our data raise the question of whether long-term MCFA supplementation represents the most efficient treatment in the long term. Studies on the hepatic toxicity of triheptanoin are still ongoing.

  3. Cdc2-like kinase 2 suppresses hepatic fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis through disruption of the PGC-1α and MED1 complex.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Mitsuhisa; Rodgers, Joseph T; Hall, Jessica A; Lee, Yoonjin; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Gygi, Steven P; Puigserver, Pere

    2014-05-01

    Hepatic ketogenesis plays an important role in catabolism of fatty acids during fasting along with dietary lipid overload, but the mechanisms regulating this process remain poorly understood. Here, we show that Cdc2-like kinase 2 (Clk2) suppresses fatty acid oxidation and ketone body production during diet-induced obesity. In lean mice, hepatic Clk2 protein is very low during fasting and strongly increased during feeding; however, in diet-induced obese mice, Clk2 protein remains elevated through both fed and fasted states. Liver-specific Clk2 knockout mice fed a high-fat diet exhibit increased fasting levels of blood ketone bodies, reduced respiratory exchange ratio, and increased gene expression of fatty acid oxidation and ketogenic pathways. This effect of Clk2 is cell-autonomous, because manipulation of Clk2 in hepatocytes controls genes and rates of fatty acid utilization. Clk2 phosphorylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC-1α) disrupts its interaction with Mediator subunit 1, which leads to a suppression of PGC-1α activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α target genes in fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. These data demonstrate the importance of Clk2 in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in vivo and suggest that inhibition of hepatic Clk2 could provide new therapies in the treatment of fatty liver disease.

  4. Pemafibrate, a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha modulator, improves the pathogenesis in a rodent model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yasushi; Kessoku, Takaomi; Ogawa, Yuji; Tomeno, Wataru; Imajo, Kento; Fujita, Koji; Yoneda, Masato; Takizawa, Toshiaki; Saito, Satoru; Nagashima, Yoji; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2017-02-14

    The efficacy of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-agonists (e.g., fibrates) against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in humans is not known. Pemafibrate is a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator that can maximize the beneficial effects and minimize the adverse effects of fibrates used currently. In a phase-2 study, pemafibrate was shown to improve liver dysfunction in patients with dyslipidaemia. In the present study, we first investigated the effect of pemafibrate on rodent models of NASH. Pemafibrate efficacy was assessed in a diet-induced rodent model of NASH compared with fenofibrate. Pemafibrate and fenofibrate improved obesity, dyslipidaemia, liver dysfunction, and the pathological condition of NASH. Pemafibrate improved insulin resistance and increased energy expenditure significantly. To investigate the effects of pemafibrate, we analysed the gene expressions and protein levels involved in lipid metabolism. We also analysed uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) expression. Pemafibrate stimulated lipid turnover and upregulated UCP3 expression in the liver. Levels of acyl-CoA oxidase 1 and UCP3 protein were increased by pemafibrate significantly. Pemafibrate can improve the pathogenesis of NASH by modulation of lipid turnover and energy metabolism in the liver. Pemafibrate is a promising therapeutic agent for NAFLD/NASH.

  5. Pemafibrate, a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha modulator, improves the pathogenesis in a rodent model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Yasushi; Kessoku, Takaomi; Ogawa, Yuji; Tomeno, Wataru; Imajo, Kento; Fujita, Koji; Yoneda, Masato; Takizawa, Toshiaki; Saito, Satoru; Nagashima, Yoji; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-agonists (e.g., fibrates) against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in humans is not known. Pemafibrate is a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator that can maximize the beneficial effects and minimize the adverse effects of fibrates used currently. In a phase-2 study, pemafibrate was shown to improve liver dysfunction in patients with dyslipidaemia. In the present study, we first investigated the effect of pemafibrate on rodent models of NASH. Pemafibrate efficacy was assessed in a diet-induced rodent model of NASH compared with fenofibrate. Pemafibrate and fenofibrate improved obesity, dyslipidaemia, liver dysfunction, and the pathological condition of NASH. Pemafibrate improved insulin resistance and increased energy expenditure significantly. To investigate the effects of pemafibrate, we analysed the gene expressions and protein levels involved in lipid metabolism. We also analysed uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) expression. Pemafibrate stimulated lipid turnover and upregulated UCP3 expression in the liver. Levels of acyl-CoA oxidase 1 and UCP3 protein were increased by pemafibrate significantly. Pemafibrate can improve the pathogenesis of NASH by modulation of lipid turnover and energy metabolism in the liver. Pemafibrate is a promising therapeutic agent for NAFLD/NASH. PMID:28195199

  6. Identification of transcriptional networks involved in peroxisome proliferator chemical-induced hepatocyte proliferation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator chemical (PPC) exposure leads to increases in rodent liver tumors through a non-genotoxic mode of action (MOA). The PPC MOA includes increased oxidative stress, hepatocyte proliferation and decreased apoptosis. We investigated the putative genetic regulato...

  7. Cell organelles from crassulacean-acid-metabolism (CAM) plants : I. Enzymes in isolated peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Herbert, M; Burkhard, C; Schnarrenberger, C

    1978-01-01

    Cell organelles were isolated from the CAM plants Crassula lycopodioides Lam., Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. and Sedum rubrotinctum R.T. Clausen by isopycnic centrifugation in sucrose gradients. The inclusion of 2.5% Ficoll in the grinding medium proved to be essential for a satisfactory separation of cell organelles during the subsequent centrifugation. Peroxisomes, mitochondria, and whole and broken chloroplasts were at least partially resolved as judged by marker-enzyme-activity profiles. The isolated peroxisomes contained activities of glycollate oxidase, catalase, hydroxypyruvate reductase, glycine aminotransferase, serine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase, comparable to activities found in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaf peroxisomes. In contrast to spinach, however, only little, if any, particulate malate dehydrogenase activity could be attributed to isolated peroxisomes of the three CAM plants.

  8. Human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor mRNA and protein expression during development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis and are important in reproduction and development. PPARs are targets ofpharmaceuticals and are also activated by environmental contaminants, including ...

  9. Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase is a Peroxisomal Enzyme in Human Fibroblast and Hepatoma Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Gilbert-Andre; Warner, Thomas G.; Steimer, Kathelyn S.; Hallewell, Robert A.

    1991-08-01

    The intracellular localization of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1) has been examined by immunofluorescence using four monoclonal anti-Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase antibodies raised against a recombinant human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase derivative produced and purified from Escherichia coli. Colocalization with catalase, a peroxisomal matrix enzyme, was used to demonstrate the peroxisomal localization of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase in human fibroblasts and hepatoma cells. In the fibroblasts of Zellweger syndrome patients, the enzyme is not transported to the peroxisomal ghosts but, like catalase, remains in the cytoplasm. In addition, immunocryoelectron microscopy of yeast cells expressing human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase showed that the enzyme is translocated to the peroxisomes.

  10. Inhibition of peroxisome fission, but not mitochondrial fission, increases yeast chronological lifespan.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Sophie D; Kumar, Sanjeev; van der Klei, Ida J

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are key players in aging and cell death. It has been suggested that mitochondrial fragmentation, mediated by the Dnm1/Fis1 organelle fission machinery, stimulates aging and cell death. This was based on the observation that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Δdnm1 and Δfis1 mutants show an enhanced lifespan and increased resistance to cell death inducers. However, the Dnm1/Fis1 fission machinery is also required for peroxisome division. Here we analyzed the significance of peroxisome fission in yeast chronological lifespan, using yeast strains in which fission of mitochondria was selectively blocked. Our data indicate that the lifespan extension caused by deletion of FIS1 is mainly due to a defect in peroxisome fission and not caused by a block in mitochondrial fragmentation. These observations are underlined by our observation that deletion of FIS1 does not lead to lifespan extension in yeast peroxisome deficient mutant cells.

  11. Mechanistically-based human hazard assessment of peroxisome proliferator-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ashby, J; Brady, A; Elcombe, C R; Elliott, B M; Ishmael, J; Odum, J; Tugwood, J D; Kettle, S; Purchase, I F

    1994-11-01

    In this review we have evaluated the relationship between peroxisome proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis. To do so, we identified all chemicals known to produce peroxisome proliferation and selected those for which there are data (on peroxisome proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis) which meet certain criteria chosen to facilitate comparison of these phenomena. The summarised data and definition of the methodology used has been collected in appendices. These comparisons enabled us to evaluate the relationship between these phenomena using reliable data. As there is a good correlation between them, we further explored the mechanisms of action that have been proposed (direct genotoxic activity, production of hydrogen peroxide, cell proliferation and receptor activation). The relationship between these events in other species, including humans, was also reviewed and finally an overview of the assessment of human hazard is presented in section IX. Some of the first chemicals which were shown to produce peroxisome proliferation were also hepatocarcinogens whose carcinogenicity could not be readily explained by genotoxic activity. This raised the suggestion that the unusual phenomenon of peroxisome proliferation was intricately linked to the carcinogenic activity of these agents. Three questions have exercised the attention of regulatory, industrial and academic toxicology since then; are chemicals which elicit peroxisome proliferation in the liver actually a coherent class of chemical carcinogens?; does the early biological phenomenon of peroxisome proliferation have real predictive value for and mechanistic association with rodent carcinogenesis?; and what hazard/risk do these agents pose to humans that may be exposed to them? Whether peroxisome proliferators are indeed a discrete class of rodent carcinogens would appear to be the single, most important question. If so, then the assumptions and procedures relevant to human hazard and risk assessment should be

  12. PCB126-Induced Disruption in Gluconeogenesis and Fatty Acid Oxidation Precedes Fatty Liver in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gadupudi, Gopi S.; Klaren, William D.; Olivier, Alicia K.; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.; Robertson, Larry W.

    2016-01-01

    3,3′,4,4′,5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), a dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and a potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, is implicated in the disruption of both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which ultimately leads to wasting disorders, metabolic disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the mechanisms are unclear. Because liver is the target organ for PCB toxicity and responsible for metabolic homeostasis, we hypothesized that early disruption of glucose and lipid homeostasis contributes to later manifestations such as hepatic steatosis. To test this hypothesis, groups of male Sprague Dawley rats, fed on AIN-93G diet, were injected (intraperitoneal.) with a single bolus of PCB126 (5 µmol/kg) at various time intervals between 9 h and 12 days prior to euthanasia. An early decrease in serum glucose and a gradual decrease in serum triglycerides were observed over time. Liver lipid accumulation was most severe at 6 and 12 days of exposure. Transcript levels of cytosolic phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck-c/Pck1) and glucose transporter (Glut2/Slc2a2) involved in gluconeogenesis and hepatic glucose transport were time-dependently downregulated between 9 h and 12 days of PCB126 exposure. Additionally, transcript levels of Pparα, and its targets acyl-CoA oxidase (Acox1) and hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (Hmgcs2), were also downregulated, indicating changes in peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. In a separate animal study, we found that the measured changes in the transcript levels of Pepck-c, Glut2, Pparα, Acox1, and Hmgcs2 were also dose dependent. Furthermore, PCB126-induced effects on Pepck-c were demonstrated to be AhR dependent in rat H4IIE hepatocytes. These results indicate that PCB126-induced wasting and steatosis are preceded initially by (1) decreased serum glucose caused by decreased hepatic glucose production, followed by (2) decreased peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. PMID

  13. S-Nitrosylated proteins in pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaf peroxisomes: changes under abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Galisteo, Ana P.; Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Pazmiño, Diana M.; Gupta, Dharmendra K.; Sandalio, Luisa M.; Romero-Puertas, María C.

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes, single-membrane-bounded organelles with essentially oxidative metabolism, are key in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Recently, the presence of nitric oxide (NO) described in peroxisomes opened the possibility of new cellular functions, as NO regulates diverse biological processes by directly modifying proteins. However, this mechanism has not yet been analysed in peroxisomes. This study assessed the presence of S-nitrosylation in pea-leaf peroxisomes, purified S-nitrosylated peroxisome proteins by immunoprecipitation, and identified the purified proteins by two different mass-spectrometry techniques (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight and two-dimensional nano-liquid chromatography coupled to ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry). Six peroxisomal proteins were identified as putative targets of S-nitrosylation involved in photorespiration, β-oxidation, and reactive oxygen species detoxification. The activity of three of these proteins (catalase, glycolate oxidase, and malate dehydrogenase) is inhibited by NO donors. NO metabolism/S-nitrosylation and peroxisomes were analysed under two different types of abiotic stress, i.e. cadmium and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). Both types of stress reduced NO production in pea plants, and an increase in S-nitrosylation was observed in pea extracts under 2,4-D treatment while no total changes were observed in peroxisomes. However, the S-nitrosylation levels of catalase and glycolate oxidase changed under cadmium and 2,4-D treatments, suggesting that this post-translational modification could be involved in the regulation of H2O2 level under abiotic stress. PMID:22213812

  14. Species and strain sensitivity to the induction of peroxisome proliferation by chloroacetic acids.

    PubMed

    DeAngelo, A B; Daniel, F B; McMillan, L; Wernsing, P; Savage, R E

    1989-11-01

    B6C3F1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were provided drinking water containing 6-31 mM (1-5 g/liter) trichloroacetic acid (TCA), 8-39 mM (1-5 g/liter) dichloroacetic acid (DCA), or 11-32 mM (1-3 g/liter) monochloroacetic acid (MCA) for 14 days. TCA and DCA, but not MCA, increased the mouse relative liver weight in a dose-dependent manner. Rat liver weights were not altered by TCA or DCA treatment, but were depressed by MCA. Hepatic peroxisome proliferation was demonstrated by (1) increased palmitoyl-CoA oxidase and carnitine acetyl transferase activities, (2) appearance of a peroxisome proliferation-associated protein, and (3) morphometric analysis of electron micrographs. Mouse peroxisome proliferation was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner by both TCA and DCA, but only the high DCA concentration (39 mM) increased rat liver peroxisome proliferation. MCA was ineffective in both species. Three other mouse strains (Swiss-Webster, C3H, and C57BL/6) and two strains of rat (F344 and Osborne-Mendel) were examined for sensitivity to TCA. TCA (12 and 31 mM) effectively enhanced peroxisome proliferation in all mouse strains, especially the C57BL/6. A more modest enhancement in the Osborne-Mendel (288%) and F344 rat (167%) was seen. Dosing F344 rats with 200 mg/kg TCA in water or corn oil for 10 days increased peroxisome proliferation 179 and 278%, respectively, above the vehicle controls. These studies demonstrate that the mouse is more sensitive than the rat with respect to the enhancement of liver peroxisome proliferation by TCA and DCA and suggest that if peroxisome proliferation is critical for the induction of hepatic cancer by TCA and DCA, then the rat should be less sensitive or refractory to tumor induction.

  15. Oxaliplatin neurotoxicity involves peroxisome alterations. PPARγ agonism as preventive pharmacological approach.

    PubMed

    Zanardelli, Matteo; Micheli, Laura; Cinci, Lorenzo; Failli, Paola; Ghelardini, Carla; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The development of neuropathic syndromes is an important, dose limiting side effect of anticancer agents like platinum derivates, taxanes and vinca alkaloids. The causes of neurotoxicity are still unclear but the impairment of the oxidative equilibrium is strictly related to pain. Two intracellular organelles, mitochondria and peroxisomes cooperate to the maintaining of the redox cellular state. Whereas a relationship between chemotherapy-dependent mitochondrial alteration and neuropathy has been established, the role of peroxisome is poor explored. In order to study the mechanisms of oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity, peroxisomal involvement was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In primary rat astrocyte cell culture, oxaliplatin (10 µM for 48 h or 1 µM for 5 days) increased the number of peroxisomes, nevertheless expression and functionality of catalase, the most important antioxidant defense enzyme in mammalian peroxisomes, were significantly reduced. Five day incubation with the selective Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) antagonist G3335 (30 µM) induced a similar peroxisomal impairment suggesting a relationship between PPARγ signaling and oxaliplatin neurotoxicity. The PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (10 µM) reduced the harmful effects induced both by G3335 and oxaliplatin. In vivo, in a rat model of oxaliplatin induced neuropathy, a repeated treatment with rosiglitazone (3 and 10 mg kg(-1) per os) significantly reduced neuropathic pain evoked by noxious (Paw pressure test) and non-noxious (Cold plate test) stimuli. The behavioral effect paralleled with the prevention of catalase impairment induced by oxaliplatin in dorsal root ganglia. In the spinal cord, catalase protection was showed by the lower rosiglitazone dosage without effect on the astrocyte density increase induced by oxaliplatin. Rosiglitazone did not alter the oxaliplatin-induced mortality of the human colon cancer cell line HT-29. These results highlight the role of

  16. Covalent Label Transfer between Peroxisomal Importomer Components Reveals Export-driven Import Interactions*

    PubMed Central

    Bhogal, Moninder S.; Lanyon-Hogg, Thomas; Johnston, Katherine A.; Warriner, Stuart L.; Baker, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are vital metabolic organelles found in almost all eukaryotic organisms, and they rely exclusively on import of their matrix protein content from the cytosol. In vitro import of proteins into isolated peroxisomal fractions has provided a wealth of knowledge on the import process. However, the common method of protease protection garnered no information on the import of an N-terminally truncated PEX5 (PEX5C) receptor construct or peroxisomal malate dehydrogenase 1 (pMDH1) cargo protein into sunflower peroxisomes because of high degrees of protease susceptibility or resistance, respectively. Here we present a means for analysis of in vitro import through a covalent biotin label transfer and employ this method to the import of PEX5C. Label transfer demonstrates that the PEX5C construct is monomeric under the conditions of the import assay. This technique was capable of identifying the PEX5-PEX14 interaction as the first interaction of the import process through competition experiments. Labeling of the peroxisomal protein import machinery by PEX5C demonstrated that this interaction was independent of added cargo protein, and, strikingly, the interaction between PEX5C and the import machinery was shown to be ATP-dependent. These important mechanistic insights highlight the power of label transfer in studying interactions, rather than proteins, of interest and demonstrate that this technique should be applied to future studies of peroxisomal in vitro import. PMID:26567336

  17. PEX11 family members are membrane elongation factors that coordinate peroxisome proliferation and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Koch, Johannes; Pranjic, Kornelija; Huber, Anja; Ellinger, Adolf; Hartig, Andreas; Kragler, Friedrich; Brocard, Cécile

    2010-10-01

    Dynamic changes of membrane structure are intrinsic to organelle morphogenesis and homeostasis. Ectopic expression of proteins of the PEX11 family from yeast, plant or human lead to the formation of juxtaposed elongated peroxisomes (JEPs),which is evocative of an evolutionary conserved function of these proteins in membrane tubulation. Microscopic examinations reveal that JEPs are composed of independent elongated peroxisomes with heterogeneous distribution of matrix proteins. We established the homo- and heterodimerization properties of the human PEX11 proteins and their interaction with the fission factor hFis1, which is known to recruit the GTPase DRP1 to the peroxisomal membrane. We show that excess of hFis1 but not of DRP1 is sufficient to fragment JEPs into normal round-shaped organelles, and illustrate the requirement of microtubules for JEP formation. Our results demonstrate that PEX11-induced JEPs represent intermediates in the process of peroxisome membrane proliferation and that hFis1 is the limiting factor for progression. Hence, we propose a model for a conserved role of PEX11 proteins in peroxisome maintenance through peroxisome polarization, membrane elongation and segregation.

  18. E3 ubiquitin ligase SP1 regulates peroxisome biogenesis in Arabidopsis

    DOE PAGES

    Pan, Ronghui; Satkovich, John; Hu, Jianping

    2016-10-31

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous eukaryotic organelles that play pivotal roles in a suite of metabolic processes and often act coordinately with other organelles, such as chloroplasts and mitochondria. Peroxisomes import proteins to the peroxisome matrix by peroxins (PEX proteins), but how the function of the PEX proteins is regulated is poorly understood. In this study, we identified the Arabidopsis RING (really interesting new gene) type E3 ubiquitin ligase SP1 [suppressor of plastid protein import locus 1 (ppi1) 1] as a peroxisome membrane protein with a regulatory role in peroxisome protein import. SP1 interacts physically with the two components of the peroxisomemore » protein docking complex PEX13–PEX14 and the (RING)-finger peroxin PEX2. Loss of SP1 function suppresses defects of the pex14-2 and pex13-1 mutants, and SP1 is involved in the degradation of PEX13 and possibly PEX14 and all three RING peroxins. An in vivo ubiquitination assay showed that SP1 has the ability to promote PEX13 ubiquitination. Our study has revealed that, in addition to its previously reported function in chloroplast biogenesis, SP1 plays a role in peroxisome biogenesis. The same E3 ubiquitin ligase promotes the destabilization of components of two distinct protein-import machineries, indicating that degradation of organelle biogenesis factors by the ubiquitin–proteasome system may constitute an important regulatory mechanism in coordinating the biogenesis of metabolically linked organelles in eukaryotes.« less

  19. Pxmp2 Is a Channel-Forming Protein in Mammalian Peroxisomal Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Rokka, Aare; Soininen, Raija; Immonen, Hanna L.; Pirilä, Päivi L.; Bergmann, Ulrich; Sormunen, Raija T.; Weckström, Matti; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo

    2009-01-01

    Background Peroxisomal metabolic machinery requires a continuous flow of organic and inorganic solutes across peroxisomal membrane. Concerning small solutes, the molecular nature of their traffic has remained an enigma. Methods/Principal Findings In this study, we show that disruption in mice of the Pxmp2 gene encoding Pxmp2, which belongs to a family of integral membrane proteins with unknown function, leads to partial restriction of peroxisomal membrane permeability to solutes in vitro and in vivo. Multiple-channel recording of liver peroxisomal preparations reveals that the channel-forming components with a conductance of 1.3 nS in 1.0 M KCl were lost in Pxmp2−/− mice. The channel-forming properties of Pxmp2 were confirmed with recombinant protein expressed in insect cells and with native Pxmp2 purified from mouse liver. The Pxmp2 channel, with an estimated diameter of 1.4 nm, shows weak cation selectivity and no voltage dependence. The long-lasting open states of the channel indicate its functional role as a protein forming a general diffusion pore in the membrane. Conclusions/Significance Pxmp2 is the first peroxisomal channel identified, and its existence leads to prediction that the mammalian peroxisomal membrane is permeable to small solutes while transfer of “bulky” metabolites, e.g., cofactors (NAD/H, NADP/H, and CoA) and ATP, requires specific transporters. PMID:19352492

  20. Ubp15p, a ubiquitin hydrolase associated with the peroxisomal export machinery.

    PubMed

    Debelyy, Mykhaylo O; Platta, Harald W; Saffian, Delia; Hensel, Astrid; Thoms, Sven; Meyer, Helmut E; Warscheid, Bettina; Girzalsky, Wolfgang; Erdmann, Ralf

    2011-08-12

    Peroxisomal matrix protein import is facilitated by cycling receptors shuttling between the cytosol and the peroxisomal membrane. One crucial step in this cycle is the ATP-dependent release of the receptors from the peroxisomal membrane. This step is facilitated by the peroxisomal AAA (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) proteins Pex1p and Pex6p with ubiquitination of the receptor being the main signal for its export. Here we report that the AAA complex contains dislocase as well as deubiquitinating activity. Ubp15p, a ubiquitin hydrolase, was identified as a novel constituent of the complex. Ubp15p partially localizes to peroxisomes and is capable of cleaving off ubiquitin moieties from the type I peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS1) receptor Pex5p. Furthermore, Ubp15p-deficient cells are characterized by a stress-related PTS1 import defect. The results merge into a picture in which removal of ubiquitin from the PTS1 receptor Pex5p is a specific event and might represent a vital step in receptor recycling.

  1. Increased levels of peroxisomal active oxygen-related enzymes in copper-tolerant pea plants

    SciTech Connect

    Palma, J.M.; Gomez, M.; Yanez, J.; Del Rio, L.A.

    1987-10-01

    The effect in vivo of high nutrient levels of copper (240 micromolar) on the activity of different metalloenzymes containing Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn, distributed in chloroplasts, peroxisomes, and mitochondria, was studied in leaves of two varieties of Pisum sativum L. plants with different sensitivity to copper. The metalloenzymes studied were: cytochrome c oxidase, Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase I (Cu,Zn-SOD I), for mitochondria; catalase and Mn-SOD, for peroxisomes; and isozyme Cu,Zn-SOD II for chloroplasts. The activity of mitochondrial SOD isozymes (Mn-SOD and Cu,Zn-SOD I) was very similar in Cu-tolerant and Cu-sensitive plants, whereas cytochrome c oxidase was lower in Cu-sensitive plants. Chloroplastid Cu,Zn-SOD activity was the same in the two plant varieties. In contrast, the peroxisomal Mn-SOD activity was considerably higher in Cu-tolerant than in Cu-sensitive plants, and the activity of catalase was also increased in peroxisomes of Cu-tolerant plants. The higher activities of these peroxisomal active oxygen-related enzymes in Cu-tolerant plants suggest the involvement of reactive oxygen intermediates (O/sub 2//sup -/, OH) in the mechanism of Cu lethality, and also imply a function for peroxisomal Mn-SOD in the molecular mechanisms of plant tolerance to Cu in Pisum sativum L.

  2. Fatty liver - nonalcoholic

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight Eat a healthy diet Exercise regularly Limit alcohol consumption Use medicines properly Alternative Names Fatty liver; Steatosis; Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; NASH Images Liver References ...

  3. Altered hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in rats with intake of tart cherry.

    PubMed

    Seymour, E Mitchell; Singer, Andrew A M; Kirakosyan, Ara; Urcuyo-Llanes, Daniel E; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2008-06-01

    Elevated plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, and fatty liver are among components of metabolic syndrome, a phenotypic pattern that typically precedes the development of Type 2 diabetes. Animal studies show that intake of anthocyanins reduces hyperlipidemia, obesity, and atherosclerosis and that anthocyanin-rich extracts may exert these effects in association with altered activity of tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). However, studies are lacking to test this correlation using physiologically relevant, whole food sources of anthocyanins. Tart cherries are a rich source of anthocyanins, and whole cherry fruit intake may also affect hyperlipidemia and/or affect tissue PPARs. This hypothesis was tested in the Dahl Salt-Sensitive rat having insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. For 90 days, Dahl rats were pair-fed AIN-76a-based diets supplemented with either 1% (wt:wt) freeze-dried whole tart cherry or with 0.85% additional carbohydrate to match macronutrient and calorie provision. After 90 days, the cherry-enriched diet was associated with reduced fasting blood glucose, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and reduced fatty liver. The cherry diet was also associated with significantly enhanced hepatic PPAR-alpha mRNA, enhanced hepatic PPAR-alpha target acyl-coenzyme A oxidase mRNA and activity, and increased plasma antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, physiologically relevant tart cherry consumption reduced several phenotypic risk factors that are associated with risk for metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. Tart cherries may represent a whole food research model of the health effects of anthocyanin-rich foods and may possess nutraceutical value against risk factors for metabolic syndrome and its clinical sequelae.

  4. Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, Adiposity, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) γ Methylation in Offspring, Grand-Offspring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhonghai; Zhang, Hanjie; Maher, Christina; Arteaga-Solis, Emilio; Champagne, Frances A.; Wu, Licheng; McDonald, Jacob D.; Yan, Beizhan; Schwartz, Gary J.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Greater levels of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) have been associated with childhood obesity in epidemiological studies. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Objectives We hypothesized that prenatal PAH over-exposure during gestation would lead to weight gain and increased fat mass in offspring and grand-offspring mice. Further, we hypothesized that altered adipose gene expression and DNA methylation in genes important to adipocyte differentiation would be affected. Materials and Methods Pregnant dams were exposed to a nebulized PAH mixture versus negative control aerosol 5 days a week, for 3 weeks. Body weight was recorded from postnatal day (PND) 21 through PND60. Body composition, adipose cell size, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) α, cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and adiponectin, and DNA methylation of PPAR γ, were assayed in both the offspring and grand-offspring adipose tissue. Findings Offspring of dams exposed to greater PAH during gestation had increased weight, fat mass, as well as higher gene expression of PPAR γ, C/EBP α, Cox2, FAS and adiponectin and lower DNA methylation of PPAR γ. Similar differences in phenotype and DNA methylation extended through the grand-offspring mice. Conclusions Greater prenatal PAH exposure was associated with increased weight, fat mass, adipose gene expression and epigenetic changes in progeny. PMID:25347678

  5. Environmental Chemicals Modulate Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARG) and Adipogenesis in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Routti, Heli; Lille-Langøy, Roger; Berg, Mari K; Fink, Trine; Harju, Mikael; Kristiansen, Kurt; Rostkowski, Pawel; Rusten, Marte; Sylte, Ingebrigt; Øygarden, Lene; Goksøyr, Anders

    2016-10-04

    We studied interactions between polar bear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (pbPPARG) and selected compounds using a luciferase reporter assay and predictions through molecular docking. Furthermore, we studied adipogenesis by liver and adipose tissue extracts from a polar bear and three synthetic mixtures of contaminants in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and polar bear adipose tissue-derived stem cells (pbASCs). PCB153 and p,p'-DDE antagonized pbPPARG, although their predicted receptor-ligand affinity was weak. PBDEs, tetrabromobisphenol A, and PCB170 had a weak agonistic effect on pbPPARG, while hexabromocyclododecane, bisphenol A, oxychlordane, and endosulfan were weak antagonists. pbPPARG-mediated luciferase activity was suppressed by synthetic contaminant mixtures reflecting levels measured in polar bear adipose tissue, as were transcript levels of PPARG and the PPARG target gene fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) in pbASCs. Contaminant extracts from polar bear tissues enhanced triglyceride accumulation in murine 3T3-L1 cells and pbASCs, whereas triglyceride accumulation was not affected by the synthetic mixtures. Chemical characterization of extracts using nontarget methods revealed presence of exogenous compounds that have previously been reported to induce adipogenesis. These compounds included phthalates, tonalide, and nonylphenol. In conclusion, major legacy contaminants in polar bear adipose tissue exert antagonistic effects on PPARG, but adipogenesis by a mixture containing emerging compounds may be enhanced through PPARG or other pathways.

  6. Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Improves Aged and UV-Irradiated Skin by Catalase Induction

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mi Hee; Lee, Se-Rah; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Shin, Chang-Yup

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a nuclear hormone receptor involved in the transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, and glucose homeostasis. Its activation stimulates antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, whose expression is decreased in aged human skin. Here we investigated the expression of PPARα in aged and ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated skin, and whether PPARα activation can modulate expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and procollagen through catalase regulation. We found that PPARα mRNA level was significantly decreased in intrinsically aged and photoaged human skin as well as in UV-irradiated skin. A PPARα activator, Wy14643, inhibited UV-induced increase of MMP-1 and decrease of procollagen expression and caused marked increase in catalase expression. Furthermore, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was suppressed by Wy14643 in UV-irradiated and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the PPARα activation-induced upregulation of catalase leads to scavenging of ROS produced due to UV irradiation or aging. PPARα knockdown decreased catalase expression and abolished the beneficial effects of Wy14643. Topical application of Wy14643 on hairless mice restored catalase activity and prevented MMP-13 and inflammatory responses in skin. Our findings indicate that PPARα activation triggers catalase expression and ROS scavenging, thereby protecting skin from UV-induced damage and intrinsic aging. PMID:27611371

  7. Myricetin Increases Hepatic Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Protein Expression and Decreases Plasma Lipids and Adiposity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia Ju; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Liu, I-Min

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and antihyperlipidaemic effects of myricetin. Myricetin exhibited a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the intracellular accumulation of triglyceride in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats were dosed orally with myricetin or fenofibrate, once daily for eight weeks. Myricetin (300 mg kg−1 per day) displayed similar characteristics to fenofibrate (100 mg kg−1 per day) in reducing lowered body weight (BW) gain, visceral fat-pad weights and plasma lipid levels of HFD-fed rats. Myricetin also reduced the hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol contents, as well as lowered hepatic lipid droplets accumulation and epididymal adipocyte size in HFD-fed rats. Myricetin and fenofibrate reversed the HFD-induced down-regulation of the hepatic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)α. HFD-induced decreases of the hepatic protein level of acyl-CoA oxidase and cytochrome P450 isoform 4A1 were up-regulated by myricetin and fenofibrate. The elevated expressions of hepatic sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) of HFD-fed rats were lowered by myricetin and fenofibrate. These results suggest that myricetin suppressed BW gain and body fat accumulation by increasing the fatty acid oxidation, which was likely mediated via up-regulation of PPARα and down-regulation of SREBP expressions in the liver of HFD-fed rats. PMID:22474525

  8. Adiponectin, a downstream target gene of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}, controls hepatitis B virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sarah; Jung, Jaesung; Kim, Taeyeung; Park, Sun; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Shin, Ho-Joon; Kim, Kyongmin

    2011-01-20

    In this study, HepG2-hepatitis B virus (HBV)-stable cells that did not overexpress HBx and HBx-deficient mutant-transfected cells were analyzed for their expression of HBV-induced, upregulated adipogenic and lipogenic genes. The mRNAs of CCAAT enhancer binding protein {alpha} (C/EBP{alpha}), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), adiponectin, liver X receptor {alpha} (LXR{alpha}), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were expressed at higher levels in HepG2-HBV and lamivudine-treated stable cells and HBx-deficient mutant-transfected cells than in the HepG2 cells. Lamivudine treatment reduced the mRNA levels of PPAR{gamma} and C/EBP{alpha}. Conversely, HBV replication was upregulated by adiponectin and PPAR{gamma} agonist rosiglitazone treatments and was downregulated by adiponectin siRNAs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that HBV replication and/or protein expression, even in the absence of HBx, upregulated adipogenic or lipogenic genes, and that the control of adiponectin might prove useful as a therapeutic modality for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B.

  9. Berberine regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and positive transcription elongation factor b expression in diabetic adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiyin; Zhou, Shiwen

    2010-12-15

    Berberine has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects on diabetic rats. This study investigated the relationship between hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of berberine and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) (including cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) and cyclin T1) in white adipose tissue of diabetic rats and RNA interference-treated 3T3-L1 cells. Berberine promoted differentiation and inhibited lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 cells, further decreased PPARα/δ/γ, CDK9 and cyclin T1 mRNA and protein expression and decreased tumor necrosis factor α content in supernatants of both control and RNA interference-treated 3T3-L1 cells. After a 16-week induction with 35 mg/kg streptozotocin (i.p.) and high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet, diabetic rats were treated with 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg berberine and 100 mg/kg fenofibrate or 4 mg/kg rosiglitazone for another 16 weeks. Berberine decreased white adipose tissue to body weight ratio and adipocyte size and increased adipocyte number. Berberine upregulated PPARα/δ/γ, CDK9 and cyclin T1 mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissue, decreased tumor necrosis factor α and free fatty acid content and increased lipoprotein lipase activity in serum and adipose tissue. Berberine modulated metabolic related PPARs expression and differentiation related P-TEFb expression in adipocytes, which are associated with its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects.

  10. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist influenced daily profile of energy expenditure in genetically obese diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuki; Ichikawa, Mineko; Ohta, Minoru; Kanai, Setsuko; Kobayash, Mikako; Ichimaru, Yuhei; Shimazoe, Takao; Watanabe, Shigenori; Funakoshi, Akihiro; Miyasak, Kyoko

    2002-03-01

    Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were developed as a model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) with mild obesity. We reported that the daily profiles of energy expenditure associated with two peaks (one between 05:00 and 08:00 and the other between 20:00 and 22:00) were observed at 8 weeks of age (without NIDDM), while these two peaks disappeared at 24 weeks of age with NIDDM. As a new anti-diabetic drug, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor y agonist pioglitazone hydrochloride has been developed, we examined whether pioglitazone normalized daily profiles of energy expenditure at 24 weeks of age. A control diet and pioglitazone (0.1%)-containing diet were fed from 6 weeks of age. The two peaks of daily profiles of energy expenditure, which disappeared in OLETF rats with the control diet at 24 weeks of age, were reproduced by administration of pioglitazone. The respiratory quotient was lower and fat derived energy used for combustion was increased by pioglitazone at both ages. The body weight, daily food intake, plasma levels of fat, insulin, leptin and the wet weight of visceral fat were not influenced, but the levels of blood hemoglobin Alc and plasma tumor necrosis factor a were decreased by pioglitazone. Administration of pioglitazone improved daily profiles of energy expenditure via affecting glucose and fat metabolisms.

  11. [The unity of pathogenesis of insulin resistance syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty disease of liver. The metabolic disorder of fatty acids and triglycerides].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Ivanova, K V; Malyshev, P P; Kaba, S I; Shiriaeva, Iu K

    2012-11-01

    palmitic triglycerides. So, hepatocytes, overloaded by them, are destroyed in a way similar to apoptosis. The formed corpuscles of apoptosis disorder the biologic function of endoecology and trigger biologic reaction of inflammation. At that, steatosis changes into steato-hepatitis. The prevention of steatosis consists in dramatic restriction of concentration of palmitic saturated fatty acid in food. The treatment effect is targeted to: decreasing the formation of palmitine triglycerides by force of concurrent etherification of palmitic saturated fatty acid not into triglycerides but into phosphatidylcholine (symmetric phospholipids of soya); intensification of oxidation of palmitic saturated fatty acid in peroxisomes (glytazones and fibrates); decrease of insulin resistance (binuanide metformine).

  12. Peroxisome Proliferators-Activated Receptor (PPAR) Modulators and Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min-Chul; Lee, Kyoung; Paik, Sang-Gi; Yoon, Do-Young

    2008-01-01

    Overweight and obesity lead to an increased risk for metabolic disorders such as impaired glucose regulation/insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Several molecular drug targets with potential to prevent or treat metabolic disorders have been revealed. Interestingly, the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, has many beneficial clinical effects. PPAR directly modulates gene expression by binding to a specific ligand. All PPAR subtypes (α, γ, and σ) are involved in glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy balance. PPAR agonists play an important role in therapeutic aspects of metabolic disorders. However, undesired effects of the existing PPAR agonists have been reported. A great deal of recent research has focused on the discovery of new PPAR modulators with more beneficial effects and more safety without producing undesired side effects. Herein, we briefly review the roles of PPAR in metabolic disorders, the effects of PPAR modulators in metabolic disorders, and the technologies with which to discover new PPAR modulators. PMID:18566691

  13. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Female Reproduction and Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Carta, Gaspare; Artini, Paolo Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive functions may be altered by the exposure to a multitude of endogenous and exogenous agents, drug or environmental pollutants, which are known to affect gene transcription through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activation. PPARs act as ligand activated transcription factors and regulate metabolic processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and cell proliferation and differentiation. All PPARs isotypes are expressed along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are strictly involved in reproductive functions. Since female fertility and energy metabolism are tightly interconnected, the research on female infertility points towards the exploration of potential PPARs activating/antagonizing compounds, mainly belonging to the class of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and fibrates, as useful agents for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in women with ovarian dysfunctions. In the present review, we discuss the recent evidence about PPARs expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and their involvement in female reproduction. Finally, the therapeutic potential of their manipulation through several drugs is also discussed. PMID:27559343

  14. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Vita, Roberto; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) γ expression has been shown in thyroid tissue from patients with thyroiditis or Graves' disease and furthermore in the orbital tissue of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), such as in extraocular muscle cells. An increasing body of evidence shows the importance of the (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3) and cognate chemokines (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, in the T helper 1 immune response and in inflammatory diseases such as thyroid autoimmune disorders. PPAR-γ agonists show a strong inhibitory effect on the expression and release of CXCR3 chemokines, in vitro, in various kinds of cells, such as thyrocytes, and in orbital fibroblasts, preadipocytes, and myoblasts from patients with GO. Recently, it has been demonstrated that rosiglitazone is involved in a higher risk of heart failure, stroke, and all-cause mortality in old patients. On the contrary, pioglitazone has not shown these effects until now; this favors pioglitazone for a possible use in patients with thyroid autoimmunity. However, further studies are ongoing to explore the use of new PPAR-γ agonists in the treatment of thyroid autoimmune disorders. PMID:25722716

  15. Activation of human peroxisome-activated receptor-gamma ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Obesity in children has become an epidemic and recent research suggests a possible contribution from exposure to environmental chemicals. Several chemicals, such as phthalates, brominated flame retardants, and perfluorinated chemicals, are common in house dust on floors where children play and are suspected obesogens. Obesogens can act via a mechanism that involves activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARy). A previous study found that dust collected from children’s homes binds to PPARy. Here, we investigated the ability of house dust to activate PPARy in a transiently transfected cell assay. Dust samples were collected in 2012 from carpeted and hardwood floors in children’s homes using thimbles fitted into a vacuum cleaner hose (“TEO” samples), or from homes in an adult cohort NIEHS study. Dust was extracted with 50:50 hexane:acetone, sonicated, centrifuged, and the organic layer collected. This was repeated 2X. The extracts were filtered to remove particulates, dried with purified nitrogen, and reconstituted in DMS0 at 200 ug/ul. COS-1 cells were transfected for 24 hrs with a human PPARy vector containing a luciferase reporter, and exposed for 24 hrs to negative controls water or DMSO (0.1%), positive controls Troglitazone (3 uM in water) or Rosiglitazone (100 nM in DMSO), or dust extracts serially diluted in DMEM at 50, 100, and 200 ug/ml in 0.1% DMSO. Cells were lysed and luciferase activity was measured. Data were log-tra

  16. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Salman

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of risk factors including insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension that markedly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) isotypes, PPARα, PPARδ/β and PPARγ are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors, which modulate the expression of an array of genes that play a central role in regulating glucose, lipid and cholesterol metabolism, where imbalance can lead to obesity, T2DM and CVD. They are also drug targets, and currently, PPARα (fibrates) and PPARγ (thiazolodinediones) agonists are in clinical use for treating dyslipidemia and T2DM, respectively. These metabolic characteristics of the PPARs, coupled with their involvement in metabolic diseases, mean extensive efforts are underway worldwide to develop new and efficacious PPAR-based therapies for the treatment of additional maladies associated with the MetS. This article presents an overview of the functional characteristics of three PPAR isotypes, discusses recent advances in our understanding of the diverse biological actions of PPARs, particularly in the vascular system, and summarizes the developmental status of new single, dual, pan (multiple) and partial PPAR agonists for the clinical management of key components of MetS, T2DM and CVD. It also summarizes the clinical outcomes from various clinical trials aimed at evaluating the atheroprotective actions of currently used fibrates and thiazolodinediones. PMID:20932114

  17. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 mediates hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte lipid accumulation by reducing the DNA binding activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}/retinoid X receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, Adam J.; Luo Zhengyu; Vincent, Karen A.; Akita, Geoffrey Y.; Cheng, Seng H.; Gregory, Richard J.; Jiang Canwen

    2007-12-21

    In response to cellular hypoxia, cardiomyocytes adapt to consume less oxygen by shifting ATP production from mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation to glycolysis. The transcriptional activation of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes by hypoxia is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). In this study, we examined whether HIF-1 was involved in the suppression of mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. We showed that either hypoxia or adenovirus-mediated expression of a constitutively stable hybrid form (HIF-1{alpha}/VP16) suppressed mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism, as indicated by an accumulation of intracellular neutral lipid. Both treatments also reduced the mRNA levels of muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase I which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the mitochondrial import of fatty acids for {beta}-oxidation. Furthermore, adenovirus-mediated expression of HIF-1{alpha}/VP16 in cardiomyocytes under normoxic conditions also mimicked the reduction in the DNA binding activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha})/retinoid X receptor (RXR), in the presence or absence of a PPAR{alpha} ligand. These results suggest that HIF-1 may be involved in hypoxia-induced suppression of fatty acid metabolism in cardiomyocytes by reducing the DNA binding activity of PPAR{alpha}/RXR.

  18. Assembly of alcohol oxidase in peroxisomes of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha requires the cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide.

    PubMed Central

    Evers, M E; Titorenko, V I; van der Klei, I J; Harder, W; Veenhuis, M

    1994-01-01

    The peroxisomal flavoprotein alcohol oxidase (AO) is an octamer (600 kDa) consisting of eight identical subunits, each of which contains one flavin adenine dinucleotide molecule as a cofactor. Studies on a riboflavin (Rf) auxotrophic mutant of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha revealed that limitation of the cofactor led to drastic effects on AO import and assembly as well as peroxisome proliferation. Compared to wild-type control cells Rf-limitation led to 1) reduced levels of AO protein, 2) reduced levels of correctly assembled and activated AO inside peroxisomes, 3) a partial inhibition of peroxisomal protein import, leading to the accumulation of precursors of matrix proteins in the cytosol, and 4) a significant increase in peroxisome number. We argue that the inhibition of import may result from the saturation of a peroxisomal molecular chaperone under conditions that normal assembly of a major matrix protein inside the target organelle is prevented. Images PMID:7803851

  19. Enhancement of free fatty acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by control of fatty acyl-CoA metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liwei; Zhang, Jianhua; Lee, Jaslyn; Chen, Wei Ning

    2014-08-01

    Production of biofuels derived from microbial fatty acids has attracted great attention in recent years owing to their potential to replace petroleum-derived fuels. To be cost competitive with current petroleum fuel, flux toward the direct precursor fatty acids needs to be enhanced to approach high yields. Herein, fatty acyl-CoA metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered to accumulate more free fatty acids (FFA). For this purpose, firstly, haploid S. cerevisiae double deletion strain △faa1△faa4 was constructed, in which the genes FAA1 and FAA4 encoding two acyl-CoA synthetases were deleted. Then the truncated version of acyl-CoA thioesterase ACOT5 (Acot5s) encoding Mus musculus peroxisomal acyl-CoA thioesterase 5 was expressed in the cytoplasm of the strain △faa1△faa4. The resulting strain △faa1△faa4 [Acot5s] accumulated more extracellular FFA with higher unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) ratio as compared to the wild-type strain and double deletion strain △faa1△faa4. The extracellular total fatty acids (TFA) in the strain △faa1△faa4 [Acot5s] increased to 6.43-fold as compared to the wild-type strain during the stationary phase. UFA accounted for 42 % of TFA in the strain △faa1△faa4 [Acot5s], while no UFA was detected in the wild-type strain. In addition, the expression of Acot5s in △faa1△faa4 restored the growth, which indicates that FFA may not be the reason for growth inhibition in the strain △faa1△faa4. RT-PCR results demonstrated that the de-repression of fatty acid synthesis genes led to the increase of extracellular fatty acids. The study presented here showed that through control of the acyl-CoA metabolism by deleting acyl-CoA synthetase and expressing thioesterase, more FFA could be produced in S. cerevisiae, demonstrating great potential for exploitation in the platform of microbial fatty acid-derived biofuels.

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  1. Alcohol dehydrogenases and an alcohol oxidase involved in the assimilation of exogenous fatty alcohols in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Iwama, Ryo; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Ohta, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi

    2015-05-01

    The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica can assimilate hydrophobic substrates, including n-alkanes and fatty alcohols. Here, eight alcohol dehydrogenase genes, ADH1-ADH7 and FADH, and a fatty alcohol oxidase gene, FAO1, were analyzed to determine their roles in the metabolism of hydrophobic substrates. A mutant deleted for all of these genes (ALCY02 strain) showed severely defective growth on fatty alcohols, and enhanced sensitivity to fatty alcohols in glucose-containing media. The ALCY02 strain grew normally on n-tetradecane or n-hexadecane, but exhibited slightly defective growth on n-decane or n-dodecane. It accumulated more 1-dodecanol and less dodecanoic acid than the wild-type strain when n-dodecane was fed. Expression of ADH1, ADH3 or FAO1, but not that of other ADH genes or FADH, in the ALCY02 strain restored its growth on fatty alcohols. In addition, a triple deletion mutant of ADH1, ADH3 and FAO1 showed similarly defective growth on fatty alcohols and on n-dodecane to the ALCY02 strain. Microscopic observation suggests that Adh1p and Adh3p are localized in the cytosol and Fao1p is in the peroxisome. These results suggest that Adh1p, Adh3p and Fao1p are responsible for the oxidation of exogenous fatty alcohols but play less prominent roles in the oxidation of fatty alcohols derived from n-alkanes.

  2. Palmitoylethanolamide protects dentate gyrus granule cells via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α.

    PubMed

    Koch, Marco; Kreutz, Susanne; Böttger, Charlotte; Benz, Alexander; Maronde, Erik; Ghadban, Chalid; Korf, Horst-Werner; Dehghani, Faramarz

    2011-02-01

    Endocannabinoids like 2-arachidonoylglycerol strongly modulate the complex machinery of secondary neuronal damage and are shown to improve neuronal survival after excitotoxic lesion. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), the naturally occurring fatty acid amide of ethanolamine and palmitic acid, is an endogenous lipid known to mimic several effects of endocannabinoids even without binding to cannabinoid receptors. Here we show that PEA (0.001-1 μM) and the synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha agonist 4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthio acetic acid (Wy-14,643; 0.1-1 μM) reduced the number of microglial cells and protected dentate gyrus granule cells in excitotoxically lesioned organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs). Treatment with the PPAR-alpha antagonist N-((2S)-2-(((1Z)-1-Methyl-3-oxo-3-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)prop-1-enyl)amino)-3-(4-(2-(5-methyl-2-phenyl-1,3-oxazol-4-yl)ethoxy)phenyl)propyl)propanamide (GW6471; 0.05-5 μM) blocked PEA-mediated neuroprotection and reduction of microglial cell numbers whereas the PPAR-gamma antagonist 2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenyl-benzamide (GW9662; 0.01-1 μM) showed no effects. Immunocytochemistry and Western blot analyses revealed a strong PPAR-alpha immunoreaction in BV-2 microglial cells and in HT22 hippocampal cells. Intensity and location of PPAR-alpha immunoreaction remained constant during stimulation with PEA (0.01 μM; 1-36 h). In conclusion our data provide evidence that (1) PEA counteracted excitotoxically induced secondary neuronal damage of dentate gyrus granule cells, (2) PPAR-alpha but not PPAR-gamma is the endogenous binding site for PEA-mediated neuroprotection, and (3) PEA may activate PPAR-alpha in microglial cells and hippocampal neurons to exert its neuroprotective effects. In addition to classical endocannabinoids, PEA-mediated PPAR-alpha activation represents a possible target for therapeutic interventions to mitigate symptoms of secondary neuronal damage.

  3. PredPlantPTS1: A Web Server for the Prediction of Plant Peroxisomal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Reumann, Sigrun; Buchwald, Daniela; Lingner, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Prediction of subcellular protein localization is essential to correctly assign unknown proteins to cell organelle-specific protein networks and to ultimately determine protein function. For metazoa, several computational approaches have been developed in the past decade to predict peroxisomal proteins carrying the peroxisome targeting signal type 1 (PTS1). However, plant-specific PTS1 protein prediction methods have been lacking up to now, and pre-existing methods generally were incapable of correctly predicting low-abundance plant proteins possessing non-canonical PTS1 patterns. Recently, we presented a machine learning approach that is able to predict PTS1 proteins for higher plants (spermatophytes) with high accuracy and which can correctly identify unknown targeting patterns, i.e., novel PTS1 tripeptides and tripeptide residues. Here we describe the first plant-specific web server PredPlantPTS1 for the prediction of plant PTS1 proteins using the above-mentioned underlying models. The server allows the submission of protein sequences from diverse spermatophytes and also performs well for mosses and algae. The easy-to-use web interface provides detailed output in terms of (i) the peroxisomal targeting probability of the given sequence, (ii) information whether a particular non-canonical PTS1 tripeptide has already been experimentally verified, and (iii) the prediction scores for the single C-terminal 14 amino acid residues. The latter allows identification of predicted residues that inhibit peroxisome targeting and which can be optimized using site-directed mutagenesis to raise the peroxisome targeting efficiency. The prediction server will be instrumental in identifying low-abundance and stress-inducible peroxisomal proteins and defining the entire peroxisomal proteome of Arabidopsis and agronomically important crop plants. PredPlantPTS1 is freely accessible at ppp.gobics.de. PMID:22969783

  4. Improvement of Aspergillus nidulans penicillin production by targeting AcvA to peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Herr, Andreas; Fischer, Reinhard

    2014-09-01

    Aspergillus nidulans is able to synthesize penicillin and serves as a model to study the regulation of its biosynthesis. Only three enzymes are required to form the beta lactam ring tripeptide, which is comprised of l-cysteine, l-valine and l-aminoadipic acid. Whereas two enzymes, AcvA and IpnA localize to the cytoplasm, AatA resides in peroxisomes. Here, we tested a novel strategy to improve penicillin production, namely the change of the residence of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis. We tested if targeting of AcvA or IpnA (or both) to peroxisomes would increase the penicillin yield. Indeed, AcvA peroxisomal targeting led to a 3.2-fold increase. In contrast, targeting IpnA to peroxisomes caused a complete loss of penicillin production. Overexpression of acvA, ipnA or aatA resulted in 1.4, 2.8 and 3.1-fold more penicillin, respectively in comparison to wildtype. Simultaneous overexpression of all three enzymes resulted even in 6-fold more penicillin. Combination of acvA peroxisomal targeting and overexpression of the gene led to 5-fold increase of the penicillin titer. At last, the number of peroxisomes was increased through overexpression of pexK. A strain with the double number of peroxisomes produced 2.3 times more penicillin. These results show that penicillin production can be triggered at several levels of regulation, one of which is the subcellular localization of the enzymes.

  5. Peroxisomal copper, zinc superoxide dismutase. Characterization of the isoenzyme from watermelon cotyledons.

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, P; Varela, J; Gimeénez-Gallego, G; del Río, L A

    1995-01-01

    The biochemical and immunochemical characterization of a superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) from peroxisomal origin has been carried out. The enzyme is a Cu,Zn-containing SOD (CuZn-SOD) located in the matrix of peroxisomes from watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) cotyledons (L.M. Sandalio and L.A. del Río [1988] Plant Physiol 88: 1215-1218). The amino acid composition of the enzyme was determined. Analysis by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of the peroxisomal CuZn-SOD incubated with 6 M guanidine-HCl indicated that this enzyme contained a noncovalently bound chromophore group that was responsible for the absorbance peak of the native enzyme at 260 nm. The amino acid sequence of the peroxisomal CuZn-SOD was determined by Edman degradation. Comparison of its sequence with those reported for other plant SODs revealed homologies of about 70% with cytosolic CuZn-SODs and of 90% with chloroplastic CuZn-SODs. The peroxisomal SOD has a high thermal stability and resistance to inactivation by hydrogen peroxide. A polyclonal antibody was raised against peroxisomal CuZn-SOD, and by western blotting the antibody cross-reacted with plant CuZn-SODs but did not recognize either plant Mn-SOD or bacterial Fe-SOD. The antiSOD-immunoglobulin G showed a weak cross-reaction with bovine erythrocytes and liver CuZn-SODs, and also with cell-free extracts from trout liver. The possible function of this CuZn-SOD in the oxidative metabolism of peroxisomes is discussed. PMID:7630940

  6. Peroxisome fission in Hansenula polymorpha requires Mdv1 and Fis1, two proteins also involved in mitochondrial fission.

    PubMed

    Nagotu, Shirisha; Krikken, Arjen M; Otzen, Marleen; Kiel, Jan A K W; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2008-09-01

    We show that Mdv1 and Caf4, two components of the mitochondrial fission machinery in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also function in peroxisome proliferation. Deletion of MDV1, CAF4 or both, however, had only a minor effect on peroxisome numbers at peroxisome-inducing growth conditions, most likely related to the fact that Vps1--and not Dnm1--is the key player in peroxisome fission in this organism. In contrast, in Hansenula polymorpha, which has only a Dnm1-dependent peroxisome fission machinery, deletion of MDV1 led to a drastic reduction of peroxisome numbers. This phenotype was accompanied by a strong defect in mitochondrial fission. The MDV1 paralog CAF4 is absent in H. polymorpha. In wild-type H. polymorpha, cells Dnm1-mCherry and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-Mdv1 colocalize in spots that associate with both peroxisomes and mitochondria. Furthermore, Fis1 is essential to recruit Mdv1 to the peroxisomal and mitochondrial membrane. However, formation of GFP-Mdv1 spots--and related to this normal organelle fission--is strictly dependent on the presence of Dnm1. In dnm1 cells, GFP-Mdv1 is dispersed over the surface of peroxisomes and mitochondria. Also, in H. polymorpha mdv1 or fis1 cells, the number of Dnm1-GFP spots is strongly reduced. These spots still associate to organelles but are functionally inactive.

  7. Polypeptide and phospholipid composition of the membrane of rat liver peroxisomes: comparison with endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial membranes

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Membranes were isolated from highly purified peroxisomes, mitochondria, and rough and smooth microsomes of rat liver by the one-step Na2CO3 procedure described in the accompanying paper (1982, J. Cell Biol. 93:97-102). The polypeptide compositions of these membranes were determined by SDS PAGE and found to be greatly dissimilar. The peroxisomal membrane contains 12% of the peroxisomal protein and consists of three major polypeptides (21,700, 67,700 and 69,700 daltons) as well as some minor polypeptides. The major peroxisomal membrane proteins as well as most of the minor ones are absent from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Conversely, most ER proteins are absent from peroxisomes. By electron microscopy, purified peroxisomal membranes are approximately 6.8 nm thick and have a typical trilaminar appearance. The phospholipid/protein ratio of peroxisomal membranes is approximately 200 nmol/mg; the principal phospholipids are phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine as in ER and mitochondrial membranes. In contrast to the mitochondria, peroxisomal membranes contain no cardiolipin. All the membranes investigated contain a polypeptide band with a molecular mass of approximately 15,000 daltons. Whether this represents an exceptional common membrane protein or a coincidence is unknown. The implications of these results for the biogenesis of peroxisomes are discussed. PMID:7068748

  8. Endothelium as a gatekeeper of fatty acid transport

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Devi; Wu, Jingxia; Papangeli, Irinna; Chun, Hyung J.

    2013-01-01

    The endothelium transcends all clinical disciplines and is key to the function of every organ system. A crucial, but poorly understood role of the endothelium is its ability to control the transport of energy supply according to organ needs. Fatty acids (FAs) in particular represent a key energy source that is utilized by a number of tissues, but whose utilization must be tightly regulated to avoid potentially deleterious consequences of excess accumulation, including insulin resistance. Recent studies have identified key endothelial signaling mechanisms involving vascular endothelial growth factor B, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, and the peptide ligand apelin, that are critical to endothelial regulation of FA transport. Here we discuss the mechanisms by which these signaling pathways regulate this key endothelial function. PMID:24315207

  9. Liver fatty acid binding protein is required for high rates of hepatic fatty acid oxidation but not for the action of PPARalpha in fasting mice.

    PubMed

    Erol, Erdal; Kumar, Leena S; Cline, Gary W; Shulman, Gerald I; Kelly, Daniel P; Binas, Bert

    2004-02-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) has been proposed to limit the availability of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) for oxidation and for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha), a fatty acid binding transcription factor that determines the capacity of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Here, we used L-FABP null mice to test this hypothesis. Under fasting conditions, this mutation reduced beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) plasma levels as well as BHB release and palmitic acid oxidation by isolated hepatocytes. However, the capacity for ketogenesis was not reduced: BHB plasma levels were restored by octanoate injection; BHB production and palmitic acid oxidation were normal in liver homogenates; and hepatic expression of key PPAR-alpha target (MCAD, mitochondrial HMG CoA synthase, ACO, CYP4A3) and other (CPT1, LCAD) genes of mitochondrial and extramitochondrial LCFA oxidation and ketogenesis remained at wild-type levels. During standard diet, mitochondrial HMG CoA synthase mRNA was selectively reduced in L-FABP null liver. These results suggest that under fasting conditions, hepatic L-FABP contributes to hepatic LCFA oxidation and ketogenesis by a nontranscriptional mechanism, whereas L-FABP can activate ketogenic gene expression in fed mice. Thus, the mechanisms whereby L-FABP affects fatty acid oxidation may vary with physiological condition.

  10. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  11. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  12. Physiological effects of γ-linolenic acid and sesamin on hepatic fatty acid synthesis and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ide, Takashi; Iwase, Haruka; Amano, Saaya; Sunahara, Saki; Tachihara, Ayuka; Yagi, Minako; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Interrelated effects of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and sesamin, a sesame lignan, on hepatic fatty acid synthesis and oxidation were examined. Rats were fed experimental diets supplemented with 0 or 2 g/kg sesamin (1:1 mixture of sesamin and episesamin) and containing 100 g/kg of palm oil (saturated fat), safflower oil rich in linoleic acid, or oil of evening primrose origin containing 43% GLA (GLA oil) for 18 days. In rats fed sesamin-free diets, GLA oil, compared with other oils, increased the activity and mRNA levels of various enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation, except for some instances. Sesamin greatly increased these parameters, and the enhancing effects of sesamin on peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation rate and acyl-CoA oxidase, enoyl-CoA hydratase and acyl-CoA thioesterase activities were more exaggerated in rats fed GLA oil than in the animals fed other oils. The combination of sesamin and GLA oil also synergistically increased the mRNA levels of some peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation enzymes and of several enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism located in other cell organelles. In the groups fed sesamin-free diets, GLA oil, compared with other oils, markedly reduced the activity and mRNA levels of various lipogenic enzymes. Sesamin reduced all these parameters, except for malic enzyme, in rats fed palm and safflower oils, but the effects were attenuated in the animals fed GLA oil. These changes by sesamin and fat type accompanied profound alterations in serum lipid levels. This may be ascribable to the changes in apolipoprotein-B-containing lipoproteins.

  13. Peroxisomes move by hitchhiking on early endosomes using the novel linker protein PxdA

    PubMed Central

    Salogiannis, John; Egan, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells use microtubule-based intracellular transport for the delivery of many subcellular cargos, including organelles. The canonical view of organelle transport is that organelles directly recruit molecular motors via cargo-specific adaptors. In contrast with this view, we show here that peroxisomes move by hitchhiking on early endosomes, an organelle that directly recruits the transport machinery. Using the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans we found that hitchhiking is mediated by a novel endosome-associated linker protein, PxdA. PxdA is required for normal distribution and long-range movement of peroxisomes, but not early endosomes or nuclei. Using simultaneous time-lapse imaging, we find that early endosome-associated PxdA localizes to the leading edge of moving peroxisomes. We identify a coiled-coil region within PxdA that is necessary and sufficient for early endosome localization and peroxisome distribution and motility. These results present a new mechanism of microtubule-based organelle transport in which peroxisomes hitchhike on early endosomes and identify PxdA as the novel linker protein required for this coupling. PMID:26811422

  14. The Hansenula polymorpha PER8 gene encodes a novel peroxisomal integral membrane protein involved in proliferation

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    We previously described the isolation of mutants of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha that are defective in peroxisome biogenesis. Here, we describe the characterization of one of these mutants, per8, and the cloning of the PER8 gene. In either methanol or methylamine medium, conditions that normally induce the organelles, per8 cells contain no peroxisome-like structures and peroxisomal enzymes are located in the cytosol. The sequence of PER8 predicts that its product (Per8p) is a novel polypeptide of 34 kD, and antibodies against Per8p recognize a protein of 31 kD. Analysis of the primary sequence of Per8p revealed a 39-amino-acid cysteine-rich segment with similarity to the C3HC4 family of zinc-finger motifs. Overexpression of PER8 results in a markedly enhanced increase in peroxisome numbers. We show that Per8p is an integral membrane protein of the peroxisome and that it is concentrated in the membranes of newly formed organelles. We propose that Per8p is a component of the molecular machinery that controls the proliferation of this organelle. PMID:7844145

  15. Synthesis of a major integral membrane polypeptide of rat liver peroxisomes on free polysomes.

    PubMed Central

    Fujiki, Y; Rachubinski, R A; Lazarow, P B

    1984-01-01

    The manner of synthesis and assembly of the peroxisomal membrane proteins is unknown. Understanding these processes is essential to an understanding of the formation of the organelle. We have investigated the biogenesis of the previously identified major 21.7-kDa integral peroxisomal membrane polypeptide [Fujiki, Y., Fowler, S., Shio, H., Hubbard, A. L. & Lazarow, P. B. (1982) J. Cell Biol. 93, 103-110]. This protein was purified to apparent homogeneity and used to elicit a rabbit antiserum. In immunoblotting analysis, antibody bound only to the 22-kDa membrane polypeptide present exclusively in peroxisomal membranes. Total rat liver RNA was translated in a nuclease-treated rabbit reticulocyte cell-free protein-synthesizing system. The in vitro translation product, isolated by means of the antibody and Staphylococcus aureus cells, comigrated with the mature 22-kDa polypeptide in NaDodSO4/PAGE. Analysis of the translation products of RNAs from free and membrane-bound polysomes indicated that the mRNA for the 22-kDa membrane polypeptide is found predominantly in free polysomes. The results imply post-translational insertion of the membrane polypeptide into the peroxisomal membrane without proteolytic processing and suggest that peroxisomes, like mitochondria and chloroplasts, form by fission from preexisting organelles. Images PMID:6594687

  16. PPero, a Computational Model for Plant PTS1 Type Peroxisomal Protein Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Caiji; Jiang, Liwen; Guo, Dianjing

    2017-01-01

    Well-defined motifs often make it easy to investigate protein function and localization. In plants, peroxisomal proteins are guided to peroxisomes mainly by a conserved type 1 (PTS1) or type 2 (PTS2) targeting signal, and the PTS1 motif is commonly used for peroxisome targeting protein prediction. Currently computational prediction of peroxisome targeted PTS1-type proteins are mostly based on the 3 amino acids PTS1 motif and the adjacent sequence which is less than 14 amino acid residue in length. The potential contribution of the adjacent sequences beyond this short region has never been well investigated in plants. In this work, we develop a bi-profile Bayesian SVM method to extract and learn position-based amino acid features for both PTS1 motifs and their extended adjacent sequences in plants. Our proposed model outperformed other implementations with similar applications and achieved the highest accuracy of 93.6% and 92.6% for Arabidosis and other plant species respectively. A large scale analysis for Arabidopsis, Rice, Maize, Potato, Wheat, and Soybean proteome was conducted using the proposed model and a batch of candidate PTS1 proteins were predicted. The DNA segments corresponding to the C-terminal sequences of 9 selected candidates were cloned and transformed into Arabidopsis for experimental validation, and 5 of them demonstrated peroxisome targeting. PMID:28045983

  17. Color reduction of melanin by lysosomal and peroxisomal enzymes isolated from mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Jun; Sekhon, Simranjeet Singh; Yoon, Jihee; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Min, Jiho

    2016-02-01

    Lysosomes and peroxisomes are organelles with many functions in all eukaryotic cells. Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes (lysozyme) that degrade molecules, whereas peroxisomes contain enzymes such as catalase that convert hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to water and oxygen and neutralize toxicity. In contrast, melanin is known as a helpful element to protect the skin against harmful ultraviolet rays. However, a high quantity of melanin leads to hyperpigmentation or skin cancer in human. New materials have already been discovered to inhibit tyrosinase in melanogenesis; however, melanin reduction does not suggest their preparation. In this study, we report that the color intensity because of melanin decreased by the cellular activation of lysosomes and peroxisomes. An increase in the superficial intensity of lysosome and peroxisome activities of HeLa cells was observed. In addition, a decrease in the amount of melanin has also been observed in mammalian cells without using any other chemical, showing that the process can work in vivo for treating melanin. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that the amount of melanin decreases by the lysosome and peroxisome activity after entering the cells, and functional organelles are effective in color reduction. This mechanism can be used in vivo for treating melanin.

  18. Evolutionary conservation of a microbody targeting signal that targets proteins to peroxisomes, glyoxysomes, and glycosomes

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Peroxisomes, glyoxysomes, glycosomes, and hydrogenosomes have each been classified as microbodies, i.e., subcellular organelles with an electron-dense matrix that is bound by a single membrane. We investigated whether these organelles might share a common evolutionary origin by asking if targeting signals used for translocation of proteins into these microbodies are related. A peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS) consisting of the COOH-terminal tripeptide serine-lysine- leucine-COOH has been identified in a number of peroxisomal proteins (Gould, S.J., G.-A. Keller, N. Hosken, J. Wilkinson, and S. Subramani. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 108:1657-1664). Antibodies raised to a peptide ending in this sequence (SKL-COOH) recognize a number of peroxisomal proteins. Immunocryoelectron microscopy experiments using this anti-SKL antibody revealed the presence of proteins containing the PTS within glyoxysomes of cells from Pichia pastoris, germinating castor bean seeds, and Neurospora crassa, as well as within the glycosomes of Trypanosoma brucei. Western blot analysis of purified organelle fractions revealed the presence of many proteins containing this PTS in both glyoxysomes and glycosomes. These results indicate that at least one of the signals, and therefore the mechanism, for protein translocation into peroxisomes, glyoxysomes, and glycosomes has been conserved, lending support to a common evolutionary origin for these microbodies. Hydrogenosomes, the fourth type of microbody, did not contain proteins that cross-reacted with the anti-PTS antibody, suggesting that this organelle is unrelated to microbodies. PMID:1831458

  19. Evidence for the Presence of the Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle in Mitochondria and Peroxisomes of Pea Leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, A.; Hernandez, J. A.; Del Rio, L. A.; Sevilla, F.

    1997-01-01

    The presence of the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle was investigated in mitochondria and peroxisomes purified from pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves. All four enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11), monodehydroascorbate reductase (EC 1.6.5.4), dehydroascorbate reductase (EC 1.8.5.1), and glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2), were present in mitochondria and peroxisomes, as well as in the antioxidants ascorbate and glutathione. The activity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes was higher in mitochondria than in peroxisomes, except for APX, which was more active in peroxisomes than in mitochondria. Intact mitochondria and peroxisomes had no latent APX activity, and this remained in the membrane fraction after solubilization assays with 0.2 M KCl. Monodehydroascorbate reductase was highly latent in intact mitochondria and peroxisomes and was membrane-bound, suggesting that the electron acceptor and donor sites of this redox protein are not on the external side of the mitochondrial and peroxisomal membranes. Dehydroascorbate reductase was found mainly in the soluble peroxisomal and mitochondrial fractions. Glutathione reductase had a high latency in mitochondria and peroxisomes and was present in the soluble fractions of both organelles. In intact peroxisomes and mitochondria, the presence of reduced ascorbate and glutathione and the oxidized forms of ascorbate and glutathione were demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The ascorbate-glutathione cycle of mitochondria and peroxisomes could represent an important antioxidant protection system against H2O2 generated in both plant organelles. PMID:12223704

  20. [The clinical biochemistry of hyperlipemia and hyperglycemia. Insulin and metabolism of fatty acids. Hypoglycemic effect of hyperlipemicpharmaceuticals].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Rozhkova, T A; Ameliushkina, V A

    2014-03-01

    The regulation of metabolism of glucose is billions years older than system of insulin and biological function of locomotion (function of motion). Hence hypoglycemic effect of hormone is mediated by alteration of metabolism of fatty acids. The insulin in physiological way deprives mitochondrions a possibility to metabolize ketone bodies, short chain, medium chain and long chain fatty acids and 'forces" them to oxidize glucose which phylogenetically is not an optimal substrate. The relationships between fatty acids and glucose in the Rendle cycle have an effect only on autocrine level (in cell) determining alternation of biological reactions of exotrophia (after food intake) and endotrophia (beyond food intake) in biological function of alimentation (trophology). The most anti-diabetic pharmaceuticals are as insulin hyperlipemic by their mechanism of action. The decrease content of lipid substrates of oxidation in cytosol of cells and mitochondrions "are forced" to oxidize glucose. In these conditions, insulin enhances absorption of glucose by cells through glucose carriers--GLUT4. The derivatives of sulfonil-urea increase secretion of insulin by beta-cells of islets. The biguanidines bond in cytosol covalently and irreversibly ketone bodies taking them away from oxidation in mitochondrions. The fibrates, glitazones, flavonoids and flavones, lipoic tio-fatty acids. The endogenous eicosanoids, derivatives omega-3 and omega-6 of essential polyolefinic fatty acids and conjugated unsaturated fatty acids are the antagonists of receptors of activation of proliferation of peroxisomes. In peroxisomes, they enhance alpha-, beta- and omega-oxidation of all exogenous a physiological fatty acids and excess of palmitic saturated fatty acid forming hypolipidemia in cytozol. The hypolipidemic pharmaceuticals with effect of beta-blocker of oxidation stop absorption of fatty acids by mitochondrions. The omega-3 essential polvolefinic fatty acids, simultaneously with hypolipidemic

  1. A fish protein hydrolysate alters fatty acid composition in liver and adipose tissue and increases plasma carnitine levels in a mouse model of chronic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) diets affect mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism in animals. The aim of the study was to determine if FPH could influence fatty acid metabolism and inflammation in transgene mice expressing human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNFα). Methods hTNFα mice (C57BL/6 hTNFα) were given a high-fat (23%, w/w) diet containing 20% casein (control group) or 15% FPH and 5% casein (FPH group) for two weeks. After an overnight fast, blood, adipose tissue, and liver samples were collected. Gene expression and enzyme activity was analysed in liver, fatty acid composition was analyzed in liver and ovarian white adipose tissue, and inflammatory parameters, carnitine, and acylcarnitines were analyzed in plasma. Results The n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio was higher in mice fed the FPH diet than in mice fed the control diet in both adipose tissue and liver, and the FPH diet affected the gene expression of ∆6 and ∆9 desaturases. Mice fed this diet also demonstrated lower hepatic activity of fatty acid synthase. Concomitantly, a lower plasma INF-γ level was observed. Plasma carnitine and the carnitine precursor γ-butyrobetaine was higher in the FPH-group compared to control, as was plasma short-chained and medium-chained acylcarnitine esters. The higher level of plasma acetylcarnitine may reflect a stimulated mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids, as the hepatic activities of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1 and mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II were higher in the FPH-fed mice. Conclusions The FPH diet was shown to influence hepatic fatty acid metabolism and fatty acid composition. This indicates that effects on fatty acid metabolism are important for the bioactivity of protein hydrolysates of marine origin. PMID:24098955

  2. MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN THE ENHANCED SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SENESCENT RATS TO THE HEPATOCARCINOGENIC EFFECT OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATORS: ROLE OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR ALPHA (PPARA), CELL PROLIFERATION AND OXIDATIVE STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mechanisms involved in the ENHANCED SUSCEPTIBILITY of SENESCENT Rats TO THE HEPATOCARCINOGENIC EFFECT OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATORS: Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa), cell proliferation and oxidative stress

    Jihan A. Youssef1, Pierre Ammann2, B...

  3. On the role of catalase in the oxidation of tissue fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, D.; Masters, C.

    1984-02-15

    The role of catalase in lipid metabolism has been studied by means of a comparison of the turnover characteristics of the major lipid classes in the normal mouse with those of animals in which the catalase activity had been inhibited and blocked by aminotriazole and allylisopropylacetamide. Double isotope ratios were determined in the lipid fractions of several tissues following the injection of labeled glycerol, and a number of significant differences were identified between these treatments. Since catalase is recognized as an integral component of the peroxisomal pathway of fatty acid oxidation, these results may be taken as indicating that interruption of the process of peroxisomal beta-oxidation in this manner cause extensive perturbations of lipid metabolism in the living animal, and these perturbations extend well beyond those tissues where the predominant localization of these organelles occurs. The concept which derives from these data--that of a significant regulatory role of peroxisomes in relation to the overall balance of lipid metabolism in the animal body--is described and discussed.

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands isolated from adlay seed (Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen STAPF.).

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Hiroshi; Mizukami, Hajime; Nagatsu, Akito; Ohno, Takamasa; Tanabe, Hiroki; Inoue, Makoto

    2009-04-01

    Through screening for natural ligands against peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) using the PPARgamma luciferase reporter assay, 6 hydroxy unsaturated fatty acids were isolated from adlay seed (Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen STAPF.) extracts with acetone and 70% ethanol. The structures of these compounds were determined via spectral analysis as 13-hydroxy-(9E,11E)-octadecadienoic acid (13-E,E-HODE) (1), 9-hydroxy-(10E,12E)-octadecadienoic acid (9-E,E-HODE) (2), 9-hydroxy-(10E)-octadecenoic acid (3), 10-hydroxy-(8E)-octadecenoic acid (4), 8-hydroxy-(9E)-octadecenoic acid (5), 11-hydroxy-(9Z)-octadecenoic acid (6). 9-E,E-HODE (2) exhibited the most potent PPARgamma agonist activity of the isolated hydroxy unsaturated fatty acids. 9-E,E-HODE (2) and 13-E,E-HODE (1) are the respective geometrical isomers of 9-hydroxy-(10E,12Z)-octadecadienoic acid and 13-hydroxy-(9Z,11E)-octadecadienoic acid, both of which are likely to be natural PPARgamma agonists produced in various mammalian cells, suggesting that 9-E,E-HODE may also act as PPARgamma agonist.

  5. Adipose-specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma knockout causes insulin resistance in fat and liver but not in muscle.

    PubMed

    He, Weimin; Barak, Yaacov; Hevener, Andrea; Olson, Peter; Liao, Debbie; Le, Jamie; Nelson, Michael; Ong, Estelita; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Evans, Ronald M

    2003-12-23

    Syndrome X, typified by obesity, insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia, and other metabolic abnormalities, is responsive to antidiabetic thiazolidinediones (TZDs). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma, a target of TZDs, is expressed abundantly in adipocytes, suggesting an important role for this tissue in the etiology and treatment of IR. Targeted deletion of PPARgamma in adipose tissue resulted in marked adipocyte hypocellularity and hypertrophy, elevated levels of plasma free fatty acids and triglyceride, and decreased levels of plasma leptin and ACRP30. In addition, increased hepatic glucogenesis and IR were observed. Despite these defects, blood glucose, glucose and insulin tolerance, and insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake were all comparable to those of control mice. However, targeted mice were significantly more susceptible to high-fat diet-induced steatosis, hyperinsulinemia, and IR. Surprisingly, TZD treatment effectively reversed liver IR, whereas it failed to lower plasma free fatty acids. These results suggest that syndrome X may be comprised of separable PPARgamma-dependent components whose origins and therapeutic sites may reside in distinct tissues.

  6. Dual modulation of both lipid oxidation and synthesis by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha and -1beta in cultured myotubes.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Daniel O; Boros, Laszlo G; Crunkhorn, Sarah; Gami, Hiral; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1) family is a key regulator of mitochondrial function, and reduced mRNA expression may contribute to muscle lipid accumulation in obesity and type 2 diabetes. To characterize the effects of PGC-1 on lipid metabolism, we overexpressed PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta in C2C12 myotubes using adenoviral vectors. Both PGC-1alpha and -1beta increased palmitate oxidation [31% (P<0.01) and 26% (P<0.05), respectively] despite reductions in cellular uptake [by 6% (P<0.05) and 21% (P<0.001)]. Moreover, PGC-1alpha and -1beta increased mRNA expression of genes regulating both lipid oxidation (e.g., CPT1b and ACADL/M) and synthesis (FAS, CS, ACC1/2, and DGAT1). To determine the net effect, we assessed lipid composition in PGC-1-expressing cells. Total lipid content decreased by 42% in palmitate-loaded serum-starved cells overexpressing PGC-1alpha (P<0.05). In contrast, in serum-replete cells, total lipid content was not significantly altered, but fatty acids C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, and C18:1 were increased 2- to 4-fold for PGC-1alpha/beta (P<0.05). Stable isotope-based dynamic metabolic profiling in serum-replete cells labeled with (13)C substrates revealed both increased de novo fatty acid synthesis from glucose and increased fatty acid synthesis by chain elongation with either PGC-1alpha or -1beta expression. These results indicate that PGC-1 can promote both lipid oxidation and synthesis, with net balance determined by the nutrient/hormonal environment.-Espinoza, D. O., Boros, L. G., Crunkhorn, S., Gami, H., Patti, M.-E. Dual Modulation of both lipid oxidation and synthesis by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha and -1beta in cultured myotubes.

  7. Characterization of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor a (PPARa) -Independent Effects of PPARa Activators in the Rodent Liver: Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate Also Activates the Constitutive Activated Receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) are thought to mediate their effects in rodents on hepatocyte growth and liver cancer through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor alpha (PPARa). Recent studies indicate that one such PPC, the plasticizer di2- et...

  8. Characterization of peroxisome proliferator-activiated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-independent effects of PPARalpha activators in the rodent liver: Di(2-ethylehexyl) phthalate activates the constitutive activated receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) are thought to mediate their effects in rodents on hepatocyte growth and liver cancer through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Recent studies indicate that the plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl ph...

  9. Mode of action framework analysis for receptor-mediated toxicity: the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα) as a case study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Therapeutic hypolipidemic agents and industrial chemicals that cause peroxisome proliferation and induce liver tumors in rodents activate the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Research has elucidated the cellular and molecular events by w...

  10. Pex13p is an SH3 protein of the peroxisome membrane and a docking factor for the predominantly cytoplasmic PTs1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Gould, S J; Kalish, J E; Morrell, J C; Bjorkman, J; Urquhart, A J; Crane, D I

    1996-10-01

    Import of newly synthesized PTS1 proteins into the peroxisome requires the PTS1 receptor (Pex5p), a predominantly cytoplasmic protein that cycles between the cytoplasm and peroxisome. We have identified Pex13p, a novel integral peroxisomal membrane from both yeast and humans that binds the PTS1 receptor via a cytoplasmically oriented SH3 domain. Although only a small amount of Pex5p is bound to peroxisomes at steady state (< 5%), loss of Pex13p further reduces the amount of peroxisome-associated Pex5p by approximately 40-fold. Furthermore, loss of Pex13p eliminates import of peroxisomal matrix proteins that contain either the type-1 or type-2 peroxisomal targeting signal but does not affect targeting and insertion of integral peroxisomal membrane proteins. We conclude that Pex13p functions as a docking factor for the predominantly cytoplasmic PTS1 receptor.

  11. Peroxisome determination in optical microscopy: a useful tool derived by a simplification of an old ultrastructural technique.

    PubMed

    Cinci, Lorenzo; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Zanardelli, Matteo; Micheli, Laura; Guasti, Daniele; Ghelardini, Carla

    2014-06-01

    Peroxisomes are able to respond to changes in the cellular environment by adapting their number, morphology and metabolic functions. Recently interest in peroxisomes and their possible roles in physiological and pathological processes have significantly increased. In order to identify peroxisomes, several cytochemical techniques have been developed that require fairly complex procedures or are too expensive to be used for screening. In this paper we show that it is possible to label peroxisomes in several cell lines and in tissues by a simple and cheap technique based on 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) reactivity. The number of peroxisomes detected with this technique in each cell line was similar to that shown by catalase immunoreaction. The technique appears specific because it was able to detect increased number of peroxisomes after treatment with the specific PPARγ antagonist G3335. Gomori's technique for acid phosphatase activity was used to demonstrate that the DAB positive organelles were not lysosomes. The DAB technique has also been applied to transmission electron microscopy, where it labels round structures that are identified as peroxisomes on the basis of morphology, size and localization. The DAB technique has proved to be specific, simple, fast and cheap, which make it ideal to screen possible peroxisome changes in physiological and pathological conditions.

  12. The association of peroxisomes with the developing cell plate in dividing onion root cells depends on actin microfilaments and myosin.

    PubMed

    Collings, David A; Harper, John D I; Vaughn, Kevin C

    2003-12-01

    We have investigated changes in the distribution of peroxisomes through the cell cycle in onion ( Allium cepa L.) root meristem cells with immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, and in leek ( Allium porrum L.) epidermal cells with immunofluorescence and peroxisomal-targeted green fluorescent protein. During interphase and mitosis, peroxisomes distribute randomly throughout the cytoplasm, but beginning late in anaphase, they accumulate at the division plane. Initially, peroxisomes occur within the microtubule phragmoplast in two zones on either side of the developing cell plate. However, as the phragmoplast expands outwards to form an annulus, peroxisomes redistribute into a ring immediately inside the location of the microtubules. Peroxisome aggregation depends on actin microfilaments and myosin. Peroxisomes first accumulate in the division plane prior to the formation of the microtubule phragmoplast, and throughout cytokinesis, always co-localise with microfilaments. Microfilament-disrupting drugs (cytochalasin and latrunculin), and a putative inhibitor of myosin (2,3-butanedione monoxime), inhibit aggregation. We propose that aggregated peroxisomes function in the formation of the cell plate, either by regulating hydrogen peroxide production within the developing cell plate, or by their involvement in recycling of excess membranes from secretory vesicles via the beta-oxidation pathway. Differences in aggregation, a phenomenon which occurs in onion, some other monocots and to a lesser extent in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells, but which is not obvious in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., may reflect differences within the primary cell walls of these plants.

  13. Dynamin-related proteins Vps1p and Dnm1p control peroxisome abundance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kuravi, Kasinath; Nagotu, Shirisha; Krikken, Arjen M; Sjollema, Klaas; Deckers, Markus; Erdmann, Ralf; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2006-10-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains three dynamin-related-proteins, Vps1p, Dnm1p and Mgm1p. Previous data from glucose-grown VPS1 and DNM1 null mutants suggested that Vps1p, but not Dnm1p, plays a role in regulating peroxisome abundance. Here we show that deletion of DNM1 also results in reduction of peroxisome numbers. This was not observed in glucose-grown dnm1 cells, but was evident in cells grown in the presence of oleate. Similar observations were made in cells lacking Fis1p, a protein involved in Dnm1p function. Fluorescence microscopy of cells producing Dnm1-GFP or GFP-Fis1p demonstrated that both proteins had a dual localization on mitochondria and peroxisomes. Quantitative analysis revealed a greater reduction in peroxisome number in oleate-induced vps1 cells relative to dnm1 or fis1 cells. A significant fraction of oleate-induced vps1 cells still contained two or more peroxisomes. Conversely, almost all cells of a dnm1 vps1 double-deletion strain contained only one, enlarged peroxisome. This suggests that deletion of DNM1 reinforces the vps1 peroxisome phenotype. Time-lapse imaging indicated that during budding of dnm1 vps1 cells, the single peroxisome present in the mother cell formed long protrusions into the developing bud. This organelle divided at a very late stage of the budding process, possibly during cytokinesis.

  14. Dnm1p-dependent peroxisome fission requires Caf4p, Mdv1p and Fis1p.

    PubMed

    Motley, Alison M; Ward, Gemma P; Hettema, Ewald H

    2008-05-15

    Yeast peroxisomes multiply by fission. Fission requires two dynamin-related proteins, Dnm1p and Vps1p. Using an in vivo fission assay, we show that Dnm1p-dependent peroxisome fission requires Fis1p, Caf4p and Mdv1p. Fluorescence microscopy of cells expressing GFP-tagged Caf4p and Mdv1p revealed that their association with peroxisomes relies on Fis1p. Vps1p-dependent peroxisome fission occurs independently of these factors. Vps1p contributes most to fission of peroxisomes when cells are grown on glucose. Overexpression of Dnm1p suppresses the fission defect as long as Fis1p and either Mdv1p or Caf4p are present. Conversely, overexpression of Dnm1p does not restore the vacuolar fusion defect of vps1 cells and Vps1p overexpression does not restore the mitochondrial fission defect of dnm1 cells. These data show that Vps1p and Dnm1p are part of independent fission machineries. Because the contribution of Dnm1p to peroxisome fission appears to be more pronounced in cells that proliferate peroxisomes in response to mitochondrial dysfunction, Dnm1p might be part of the mechanism that coordinates mitochondrial and peroxisomal biogenesis.

  15. PEROXISOMES IN INNER ADRENOCORTICAL CELLS OF FETAL AND ADULT GUINEA PIGS

    PubMed Central

    Black, Virginia H.; Bogart, Bruce I.

    1973-01-01

    Abundant membrane-bounded granules, 0.1–0.45 µm in diameter, occur among the elements of the smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum in zona fasciculata and zona reticularis adrenocortical cells of guinea pigs. Acid phosphatase cannot be cytochemically demonstrated in them, and they are therefore distinct from lysosomes. Incubation in medium containing 3,3'-diaminobenzidine results in dense staining of the granules, identifying them as peroxisomes. These small peroxisomes increase in number as fetal adrenocortical cells differentiate, and they appear to arise from dilated regions of endoplasmic reticulum. They maintain interconnections with the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and with one another. PMID:4633170

  16. Role of bioactive fatty acids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Hernández, Eva; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Uribe, Misael; Barbero-Becerra, Varenka J

    2016-08-02

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat deposition in hepatocytes, and a strong association with nutritional factors. Dietary fatty acids are classified according to their biochemical properties, which confer their bioactive roles. Monounsaturated fatty acids have a dual role in various human and murine models. In contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids exhibit antiobesity, anti steatosic and anti-inflammatory effects. The combination of these forms of fatty acids-according to dietary type, daily intake and the proportion of n-6 to n-3 fats-can compromise hepatic lipid metabolism. A chemosensory rather than a nutritional role makes bioactive fatty acids possible biomarkers for NAFLD. Bioactive fatty acids provide health benefits through modification of fatty acid composition and modulating the activity of liver cells during liver fibrosis. More and better evidence is necessary to elucidate the role of bioactive fatty acids in nutritional and clinical treatment strategies for patients with NAFLD.

  17. Plasmalogens and fatty alcohols in rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata and Sjögren-Larsson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Malheiro, Ana R; da Silva, Tiago Ferreira; Brites, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Plasmalogens are a special class of ether-phospholipids, best recognized by their vinyl-ether bond at the sn-1 position of the glycerobackbone and by the observation that their deficiency causes rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP). The complex plasmalogen biosynthetic pathway involves multiple enzymatic steps carried-out in peroxisomes and in the endoplasmic reticulum. The rate limiting step in the biosynthesis of plasmalogens resides in the formation of the fatty alcohol responsible for the formation of an intermediate with an alkyl-linked moiety. The regulation in the biosynthesis of plasmalogens also takes place at this step using a feedback mechanism to stimulate or inhibit the biosynthesis. As such, fatty alcohols play a relevant role in the formation of ether-phospholipids. These advances in our understanding of complex lipid biosynthesis brought two seemingly distinct disorders into the spotlight. Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is caused by defects in the microsomal fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) leading to the accumulation of fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes. In RCDP cells, the defect in plasmalogens is thought to generate a feedback signal to increase their biosynthesis, through the activity of fatty acid reductases to produce fatty alcohols. However, the enzymatic defects in either glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase (GNPAT) or alkylglycerone phosphate synthase (AGPS) disrupt the biosynthesis and result in the accumulation of the fatty alcohols. A detailed characterization on the processes and enzymes that govern these intricate biosynthetic pathways, as well as, the metabolic characterization of defects along the pathway should increase our understanding of the causes and mechanisms behind these disorders.

  18. Defining the Molecular Actions of Dietary Fatty Acids in Breast Cancer: Selective Modulation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    genomic database were used to asses PPARy and RXRa mRNA levels. Quantitation of mRNA was performed using an ABI Prism 7700 Sequence Detection System and...distribution. If the average absolute difference ing the Celera genomic database were used to asses PPAR-y between any two groups was greater than the LSD...and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of

  19. Defining the Molecular Actions of Dietary Fatty Acids in Breast Cancer: Selective Modulation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    itself a ligand of PPARγ rather than an upstream metabolic precursor of the ligand, we co-treated MCF-7 cells with LAA and salicylic acid (SA... Salicylic acid has been shown to effectively inhibit COX activity (37, 38). In these studies, cells treated with SA alone, at an optimal dose for...data not shown). For the EPA studies, asprin (acetyl salicylic acid ) which has also been shown to inhibit COX activity was used to inhibit the

  20. A role for Vps1p, actin, and the Myo2p motor in peroxisome abundance and inheritance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hoepfner, D; van den Berg, M; Philippsen, P; Tabak, H F; Hettema, E H

    2001-12-10

    In vivo time-lapse microscopy reveals that the number of peroxisomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells is fairly constant and that a subset of the organelles are targeted and segregated to the bud in a highly ordered, vectorial process. The dynamin-like protein Vps1p controls the number of peroxisomes, since in a vps1Delta mutant only one or two giant peroxisomes remain. Analogous to the function of other dynamin-related proteins, Vps1p may be involved in a membrane fission event that is required for the regulation of peroxisome abundance. We found that efficient segregation of peroxisomes from mother to bud is dependent on the actin cytoskeleton, and active movement of peroxisomes along actin filaments is driven by the class V myosin motor protein, Myo2p: (a) peroxisomal dynamics always paralleled the polarity of the actin cytoskeleton, (b) double labeling of peroxisomes and actin cables revealed a close association between both, (c) depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton abolished all peroxisomal movements, and (d) in cells containing thermosensitive alleles of MYO2, all peroxisome movement immediately stopped at the nonpermissive temperature. In addition, time-lapse videos showing peroxisome movement in wild-type and vps1Delta cells suggest the existence of various levels of control involved in the partitioning of peroxisomes.

  1. Increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activity reduces imatinib uptake and efficacy in chronic myeloid leukemia mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jueqiong; Lu, Liu; Kok, Chung H; Saunders, Verity A; Goyne, Jarrad M; Dang, Phuong; Leclercq, Tamara M; Hughes, Timothy P; White, Deborah L

    2017-02-02

    Imatinib is actively transported by OCT-1 influx transporter, and low OCT-1 activity in diagnostic chronic myeloid leukemia blood mononuclear cells is significantly associated with poor molecular response to imatinib. Here we report that, in diagnostic chronic myeloid leukemia mononuclear cells and BCR-ABL1+ cell lines, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists (GW1929, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone) significantly decrease OCT-1 activity; conversely, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma antagonists (GW9662, T0070907) increase OCT-1 activity. Importantly, these effects can lead to corresponding changes in sensitivity to Bcr-Abl kinase inhibition. Results were confirmed in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-transduced K562 cells. Furthermore, we identified a strong negative correlation between OCT-1 activity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma transcriptional activity in diagnostic chronic myeloid leukemia patients (n=84; p<0.0001), suggesting that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation has a negative impact on the intracellular uptake of imatinib and consequent Bcr-Abl kinase inhibition. The inter-patient variability of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation likely accounts for the heterogeneity observed in patient OCT-1 activity at diagnosis. Recently, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist pioglitazone was reported to act synergistically with imatinib targeting the residual chronic myeloid leukemia stem cell pool. Our findings suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands have differential effects on circulating mononuclear cells compared to stem cells. Since the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation on imatinib uptake in mononuclear cells may counteract the clinical benefit of this activation in stem cells, caution should be applied when combining these therapies, especially in patients

  2. Fish oil at low dietary levels enhances physiological activity of sesamin to increase hepatic fatty acid oxidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Ide, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    We previously demonstrated that a diet containing fish oil at a level of 80 g/kg strongly stimulated the physiological activity of a sesame sesamin preparation containing sesamin and episesamin at equal amounts to increase hepatic fatty acid oxidation. This study was conducted to clarify whether fish oil at lower dietary levels enhances the physiological activity of sesamin to increase hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Rats were fed experimental diets supplemented with 0 or 2 g sesamin/kg, and containing 0, 15 or 30 g fish oil/kg for 15 days. Among rats fed sesamin-free diets, diets containing 15 and 30 g fish oil/kg slightly increased the activity of enzymes involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Sesamin increased these values irrespective of the presence or absence of fish oil in diets; however, the extent of the increase of many parameters was much greater in rats given fish oil-containing diets than in those fed a fish oil-free diet. Diets simultaneously containing sesamin and fish oil increased the gene expression of various peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation enzymes in a synergistic manner; but they were ineffective in causing a synergistic increase in mRNA levels of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzymes. The extent of the synergistic increase in the activity of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes and mRNA levels of the peroxisomal enzymes was indistinguishable between diets containing 15 and 30 g fish oil/kg and appeared comparable to that observed previously with a diet containing 80 g fish oil/kg.

  3. Blueberry intake alters skeletal muscle and adipose tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activity and reduces insulin resistance in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Seymour, E Mitchell; Tanone, Ignasia I; Urcuyo-Llanes, Daniel E; Lewis, Sarah K; Kirakosyan, Ara; Kondoleon, Michael G; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2011-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome can precede the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and includes phenotypes such as obesity, systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia. A recent epidemiological study indicated that blueberry intake reduced cardiovascular mortality in humans, but the possible genetic mechanisms of this effect are unknown. Blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins, and anthocyanins can alter the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which affect energy substrate metabolism. The effect of blueberry intake was assessed in obesity-prone rats. Zucker Fatty and Zucker Lean rats were fed a higher-fat diet (45% of kcal) or a lower-fat diet (10% of kcal) containing 2% (wt/wt) freeze-dried whole highbush blueberry powder or added sugars to match macronutrient and calorie content. In Zucker Fatty rats fed a high-fat diet, the addition of blueberry reduced triglycerides, fasting insulin, homeostasis model index of insulin resistance, and glucose area under the curve. Blueberry intake also reduced abdominal fat mass, increased adipose and skeletal muscle PPAR activity, and affected PPAR transcripts involved in fat oxidation and glucose uptake/oxidation. In Zucker Fatty rats fed a low-fat diet, the addition of blueberry also significantly reduced liver weight, body weight, and total fat mass. Finally, Zucker Lean rats fed blueberry had higher body weight and reduced triglycerides, but all other measures were unaffected. In conclusion, whole blueberry intake reduced phenotypes of metabolic syndrome in obesity-prone rats and affected PPAR gene transcripts in adipose and muscle tissue involved in fat and glucose metabolism.

  4. Monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in human hepatocytes and increases lipid accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Jung Hwan; Lee, Yoo Jeong; Kim, Hyo Jung; Choi, Hyeonjin; Choi, Yoonjeong; Seok, Jo Woon; Kim, Jae-woo

    2015-05-08

    Monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (MGAT) is an enzyme that is involved in triglyceride synthesis by catalyzing the formation of diacylglycerol from monoacylglycerol and fatty acyl CoAs. Recently, we reported that MGAT1 has a critical role in hepatic TG accumulation and that its suppression ameliorates hepatic steatosis in a mouse model. However, the function of MGAT enzymes in hepatic lipid accumulation has not been investigated in humans. Unlike in rodents, MGAT3 as well as MGAT1 and MGAT2 are present in humans. In this study, we evaluated the differences between MGAT subtypes and their association with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a regulator of mouse MGAT1 expression. In human primary hepatocytes, basal expression of MGAT1 was lower than that of MGAT2 or MGAT3, but was strongly induced by PPARγ overexpression. A luciferase assay as well as an electromobility shift assay revealed that human MGAT1 promoter activity is driven by PPARγ by direct binding to at least two regions of the promoter in 293T and HepG2 cells. Moreover, siRNA-mediated suppression of MGAT1 expression significantly attenuated lipid accumulation by PPARγ overexpression in HepG2 cells, as evidenced by oil-red-O staining. These results suggest that human MGAT1 has an important role in fatty liver formation as a target gene of PPARγ, and blocking MGAT1 activity could be an efficient therapeutic way to reduce nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases in humans. - Highlights: • PPARγ promotes MGAT1 expression in human primary hepatocytes. • PPARγ directly regulates MGAT1 promoter activity. • Human MGAT1 promoter has at least two PPARγ-binding elements. • Inhibition of MGAT1 expression attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation in humans.

  5. Pnc1 piggy-back import into peroxisomes relies on Gpd1 homodimerisation

    PubMed Central

    Saryi, Nadal A. Al; Hutchinson, John D.; Al-hejjaj, Murtakab Y.; Sedelnikova, Svetlana; Baker, Patrick; Hettema, Ewald H.

    2017-01-01

    Peroxisomes are eukaryotic organelles that posttranslationally import proteins via one of two conserved peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1 or 2) mediated pathways. Oligomeric proteins can be imported via these pathways but evidence is accumulating that at least some PTS1-containing monomers enter peroxisomes before they assemble into oligomers. Some proteins lacking a PTS are imported by piggy-backing onto PTS-containing proteins. One of these proteins is the nicotinamidase Pnc1, that is co-imported with the PTS2-containing enzyme Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1, Gpd1. Here we show that Pnc1 co-import requires Gpd1 to form homodimers. A mutation that interferes with Gpd1 homodimerisation does not prevent Gpd1 import but prevents Pnc1 co-import. A suppressor mutation that restores Gpd1 homodimerisation also restores Pnc1 co-import. In line with this, Pnc1 interacts with Gpd1 in vivo only when Gpd1 can form dimers. Redirection of Gpd1 from the PTS2 import pathway to the PTS1 import pathway supports Gpd1 monomer import but not Gpd1 homodimer import and Pnc1 co-import. Our results support a model whereby Gpd1 may be imported as a monomer or a dimer but only the Gpd1 dimer facilitates co-transport of Pnc1 into peroxisomes. PMID:28209961

  6. PPARÁ-DEPENDENT GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE MOUSE LIVER AFTER EXPOSURE TO PEROXISOME PROLIFERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferators (PP) are a large class of structurally diverse chemicals that mediate their effects in the liver mainly through the PP-activated receptor ¿ (PPARα). Development of PP induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mouse liver is known to be dependent on PPAR&#...

  7. Diabetes or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist increases mitochondrial thioesterase I activity in heart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) is a transcriptional regulator of the expression of mitochondrial thioesterase I (MTE-I) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), which are induced in the heart at the mRNA level in response to diabetes. Little is known about the regulation of pr...

  8. An oxidative and salinity stress induced peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase from Avicennia marina: molecular and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Kumaresan; Venkataraman, Gayatri; Parida, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    APX (EC, 1.11.1.11) has a key role in scavenging ROS and in protecting cells against their toxic effects in algae and higher plants. A cDNA encoding a peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase, Am-pAPX1, was isolated from salt stressed leaves of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. by EST library screening and its expression in the context of various environmental stresses was investigated. Am-pAPX1 contains an ORF of 286 amino acids coding for a 31.4 kDa protein. The C-terminal region of the Am-pAPX1 ORF has a putative transmembrane domain and a peroxisomal targeting signal (RKKMK), suggesting peroxisomal localization. The peroxisomal localization of Am-pAPX1 was confirmed by stable transformation of the GFP-(Ala)(10)-Am-pAPX1 fusion in tobacco. RNA blot analysis revealed that Am-pAPX1 is expressed in response to salinity (NaCl) and oxidative stress (high intensity light, hydrogen peroxide application and excess iron). The isolated genomic clone of Am-pAPX1 was found to contain nine exons. A fragment of 1616bp corresponding to the 5' upstream region of Am-pAPX1 was isolated by TAIL-PCR. In silico analysis of this sequence reveals the presence of putative light and abiotic stress regulatory elements.

  9. The emerging role of photorespiration and non-photorespiratory peroxisomal metabolism in pathogen defence.

    PubMed

    Sørhagen, K; Laxa, M; Peterhänsel, C; Reumann, S

    2013-07-01

    Photorespiration represents one of the major highways of primary plant metabolism and is the most prominent example of metabolic cell organelle integration, since the pathway requires the concerted action of plastidial, peroxisomal, mitochondrial and cytosolic enzymes and organellar transport proteins. Oxygenation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate by Rubisco leads to the formation of large amounts of 2-phosphoglycolate, which are recycled to 3-phosphoglycerate by the photorespiratory C2 cycle, concomitant with stoichiometric production rates of H2 O2 in peroxisomes. Apart from its significance for agricultural productivity, a secondary function of photorespiration in pathogen defence has emerged only recently. Here, we summarise literature data supporting the crosstalk between photorespiration and pathogen defence and perform a meta-expression analysis of photorespiratory genes during pathogen attack. Moreover, we screened Arabidopsis proteins newly predicted using machine learning methods to be targeted to peroxisomes, the central H2 O2 -producing organelle of photorespiration, for homologues of known pathogen defence proteins and analysed their expression during pathogen infection. The analyses further support the idea that photorespiration and non-photorespiratory peroxisomal metabolism play multi-faceted roles in pathogen defence beyond metabolism of reactive oxygen species.

  10. The membrane remodeling protein Pex11p activates the GTPase Dnm1p during peroxisomal fission

    PubMed Central

    Opalinski, Lukasz; Landgraf, Christiane; Costello, Joseph; Schrader, Michael; Krikken, Arjen M.; Knoops, Kèvin; Kram, Anita M.; Volkmer, Rudolf; van der Klei, Ida J.

    2015-01-01

    The initial phase of peroxisomal fission requires the peroxisomal membrane protein Peroxin 11 (Pex11p), which remodels the membrane, resulting in organelle elongation. Here, we identify an additional function for Pex11p, demonstrating that Pex11p also plays a crucial role in the final step of peroxisomal fission: dynamin-like protein (DLP)-mediated membrane scission. First, we demonstrate that yeast Pex11p is necessary for the function of the GTPase Dynamin-related 1 (Dnm1p) in vivo. In addition, our data indicate that Pex11p physically interacts with Dnm1p and that inhibiting this interaction compromises peroxisomal fission. Finally, we demonstrate that Pex11p functions as a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for Dnm1p in vitro. Similar observations were made for mammalian Pex11β and the corresponding DLP Drp1, indicating that DLP activation by Pex11p is conserved. Our work identifies a previously unknown requirement for a GAP in DLP function. PMID:25941407

  11. Characterization of antioxidant enzymes and peroxisomes of olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo; del Río, Luis A

    2014-10-15

    The presence of peroxisomes in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits and different antioxidant enzymes occurring in this plant tissue is reported for the first time. Ultrastructural analysis showed that olive cells were characterized by the presence of large vacuoles and lipid drops. Plastids, mitochondria and peroxisomes were placed near the cell wall, showing some type of association with it. Olive fruit peroxisomes were purified by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation, and catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were found in peroxisomes. In olive fruit tissue the presence of a battery of antioxidant enzymes was demonstrated, including catalase, four superoxide dismutase isozymes (mainly an Fe-SOD plus 2 Cu,Zn-SOD and a Mn-SOD), all the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, reduced and oxidized glutathione, ascorbate, and four NADPH-recycling dehydrogenases. The knowledge of the full composition of antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) in olive fruits is crucial to be able to understand the processes regulating the antioxidant composition of olive oil.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF EARLY MOLECULAR EVENTS AFTER PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR EXPOSURE IN THE RODENT LIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferators (PP) are a large class of structurally diverse chemicals that mediate their effects in the liver mainly through the PP-activated receptor α(PPARα). Development of PP induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mouse liver is known to be dependent on PPARα but do...

  13. Developmental toxicity of perfluorononanoic acid is dependent on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is one of the predominant perfluoroalkyl acids in the environment and in tissues of humans and wildlife. PFNA strongly activates the mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) in vitro and negatively impacts development ...

  14. UK114, a YjgF/Yer057p/UK114 family protein highly conserved from bacteria to mammals, is localized in rat liver peroxisomes

    SciTech Connect

    Antonenkov, Vasily D. . E-mail: vasily.antonenkov@oulu.fi; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Sormunen, Raija T.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo

    2007-05-25

    Mammalian UK114 belongs to a highly conserved family of proteins with unknown functions. Although it is believed that UK114 is a cytosolic or mitochondrial protein there is no detailed study of its intracellular localization. Using analytical subcellular fractionation, electron microscopic colloidal gold technique, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of peroxisomal matrix proteins combined with mass spectrometric analysis we show here that a large portion of UK114 is present in rat liver peroxisomes. The peroxisomal UK114 is a soluble matrix protein and it is not inducible by the peroxisomal proliferator clofibrate. The data predict involvement of UK114 in peroxisomal metabolism.

  15. Cysteine-specific ubiquitination protects the peroxisomal import receptor Pex5p against proteasomal degradation

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzkopff, Benjamin; Platta, Harald W.; Hasan, Sohel; Girzalsky, Wolfgang; Erdmann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisomal matrix protein import is mediated by dynamic import receptors, which cycle between the peroxisomal membrane and the cytosol. Proteins with a type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1) are bound by the import receptor Pex5p in the cytosol and guided to the peroxisomal membrane. After cargo translocation into the peroxisomal matrix, the receptor is released from the membrane back to the cytosol in an ATP-dependent manner by the AAA-type ATPases Pex1p and Pex6p. These mechanoenzymes recognize ubiquitinated Pex5p-species as substrates for membrane extraction. The PTS1-receptor is either polyubiquitinated via peptide bonds at two certain lysines and results in proteasomal degradation or monoubiquitinated via a thioester-bond at a conserved cysteine, which enables the recycling of Pex5p and further rounds of matrix protein import. To investigate the physiological relevance of the conserved N-terminal cysteine of Pex5p, the known target amino acids for ubiquitination were substituted by site-directed mutagenesis. In contrast with Pex5pC6A, Pex5pC6K turned out to be functional in PTS1 import and utilization of oleic acid, independent of the lysines at position 18 and 24. In contrast with wild-type Pex5p, Pex5pC6K displays an ubiquitination pattern, similar to the polyubiquitination pattern of Pex4p or Pex22p mutant strains. Moreover, Pex5pC6K displays a significantly reduced steady-state level when the deubiquitinating enzyme Ubp15p is missing. Thus, our results indicate that not the cysteine residue but the position of ubiquitination is important for Pex5p function. The presence of the cysteine prevents polyubiquitination and rapid degradation of Pex5p. PMID:26182377

  16. Cystein-specific ubiquitination protects the peroxisomal import receptor Pex5p against proteasomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Schwartzkopff, Benjamin; Platta, Harald W; Girzalsky, Wolfgang; Erdmann, Ralf

    2015-05-14

    Peroxisomal matrix protein import is mediated by dynamic import receptors, which cycle between the peroxisomal membrane and the cytosol. Proteins with a type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1) are bound by the import receptor Pex5p in the cytosol and guided to the peroxisomal membrane. After cargo translocation into the peroxisomal matrix, the receptor is released from the membrane back to the cytosol in an ATP-dependent manner by the AAA-type ATPases Pex1p and Pex6p. These mechanoenzymes recognize ubiquitinated Pex5p-species as substrates for membrane extraction. The PTS1-receptor is either polyubiquitinated via peptide-bonds at two certain lysines and results in proteasomal degradation, or monoubiquitinated via a thioester-bond at a conserved cysteine, which enables the recycling of Pex5p and further rounds of matrix protein import. To investigate the physiological relevance of the conserved N-terminal cysteine of Pex5p, the known target amino acids for ubiquitination were substituted by site-directed mutagenesis. In contrast to Pex5pC6A, Pex5pC6K turned out to be functional in PTS1 import and utilization of oleic acid, independent of the lysines at position 18 and 24. In contrast to wild-type Pex5p, Pex5pC6K displays an ubiquitination pattern, similar to the polyubiquitination pattern of Pex4p or Pex22p mutant strains. Moreover, Pex5pC6K displays a significantly reduced steady-state level when the deubiquitination enzyme Ubp15p is missing. Thus, our results indicate that not the cysteine residue but the position of ubiquitination is important for Pex5p function. The presence of the cysteine prevents polyubiquitination and rapid degradation of Pex5p.

  17. Contributions of the Peroxisome and β-Oxidation Cycle to Biotin Synthesis in Fungi*

    PubMed Central

    Magliano, Pasqualina; Flipphi, Michel; Arpat, Bulak A.; Delessert, Syndie; Poirier, Yves

    2011-01-01

    The first step in the synthesis of the bicyclic rings of d-biotin is mediated by 8-amino-7-oxononanoate (AON) synthase, which catalyzes the decarboxylative condensation of l-alanine and pimelate thioester. We found that the Aspergillus nidulans AON synthase, encoded by the bioF gene, is a peroxisomal enzyme with a type 1 peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS1). Localization of AON to the peroxisome was essential for biotin synthesis because expression of a cytosolic AON variant or deletion of pexE, encoding the PTS1 receptor, rendered A. nidulans a biotin auxotroph. AON synthases with PTS1 are found throughout the fungal kingdom, in ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, and members of basal fungal lineages but not in representatives of the Saccharomyces species complex, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A. nidulans mutants defective in the peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase AoxA or the multifunctional protein FoxA showed a strong decrease in colonial growth rate in biotin-deficient medium, whereas partial growth recovery occurred with pimelic acid supplementation. These results indicate that pimeloyl-CoA is the in vivo substrate of AON synthase and that it is generated in the peroxisome via the β-oxidation cycle in A. nidulans and probably in a broad range of fungi. However, the β-oxidation cycle is not essential for biotin synthesis in S. cerevisiae or Escherichia coli. These results suggest that alternative pathways for synthesis of the pimelate intermediate exist in bacteria and eukaryotes and that Saccharomyces species use a pathway different from that used by the majority of fungi. PMID:21998305

  18. Export-deficient monoubiquitinated PEX5 triggers peroxisome removal in SV40 large T antigen-transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Nordgren, Marcus; Francisco, Tânia; Lismont, Celien; Hennebel, Lore; Brees, Chantal; Wang, Bo; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Azevedo, Jorge E; Fransen, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous cell organelles essential for human health. To maintain a healthy cellular environment, dysfunctional and superfluous peroxisomes need to be selectively removed. Although emerging evidence suggests that peroxisomes are mainly degraded by pexophagy, little is known about the triggers and molecular mechanisms underlying this process in mammalian cells. In this study, we show that PEX5 proteins fused to a bulky C-terminal tag trigger peroxisome degradation in SV40 large T antigen-transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts. In addition, we provide evidence that this process is autophagy-dependent and requires monoubiquitination of the N-terminal cysteine residue that marks PEX5 for recycling. As our findings also demonstrate that the addition of a bulky tag to the C terminus of PEX5 does not interfere with PEX5 monoubiquitination but strongly inhibits its export from the peroxisomal membrane, we hypothesize that such a tag mimics a cargo protein that cannot be released from PEX5, thus keeping monoubiquitinated PEX5 at the membrane for a sufficiently long time to be recognized by the autophagic machinery. This in turn suggests that monoubiquitination of the N-terminal cysteine of peroxisome-associated PEX5 not only functions to recycle the peroxin back to the cytosol, but also serves as a quality control mechanism to eliminate peroxisomes with a defective protein import machinery. PMID:26086376

  19. Peroxisomes are required for in vivo nitric oxide accumulation in the cytosol following salinity stress of Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Corpas, Francisco J; Hayashi, Makoto; Mano, Shoji; Nishimura, Mikio; Barroso, Juan B

    2009-12-01

    Peroxisomes are unique organelles involved in multiple cellular metabolic pathways. Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical active in many physiological functions under normal and stress conditions. Using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) wild type and mutants expressing green fluorescent protein through the addition of peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (PTS1), which enables peroxisomes to be visualized in vivo, this study analyzes the temporal and cell distribution of NO during the development of 3-, 5-, 8-, and 11-d-old Arabidopsis seedlings and shows that Arabidopsis peroxisomes accumulate NO in vivo. Pharmacological analyses using nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors detected the presence of putative calcium-dependent NOS activity. Furthermore, peroxins Pex12 and Pex13 appear to be involved in transporting the putative NOS protein to peroxisomes, since pex12 and pex13 mutants, which are defective in PTS1- and PTS2-dependent protein transport to peroxisomes, registered lower NO content. Additionally, we show that under salinity stress (100 mM NaCl), peroxisomes are required for NO accumulation in the cytosol, thereby participating in the generation of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and in increasing protein tyrosine nitration, which is a marker of nitrosative stress.

  20. Identification of PEX10, the gene defective in complementation group 7 of the peroxisome-biogenesis disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, D S; Morrell, J C; Moser, H W; Valle, D; Gould, S J

    1998-01-01

    The peroxisome-biogenesis disorders (PBDs) are a group of genetically heterogeneous, lethal diseases that are characterized by neuronal, hepatic, and renal abnormalities; severe mental retardation; and, in their most severe form, death within the 1st year of life. Cells from all PBD patients exhibit decreased import of one or more classes of peroxisome matrix proteins, a phenotype shared by yeast pex mutants. We identified the human orthologue of yeast PEX10 and observed that its expression rescues peroxisomal matrix-protein import in PBD patients' fibroblasts from complementation group 7 (CG7). In addition, we detected mutations on both copies of PEX10 in two unrelated CG7 patients. A Zellweger syndrome patient, PBD100, was homozygous for a splice donor-site mutation that results in exon skipping and loss of 407 bp from the PEX10 open reading frame. A more mildly affected neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy patient was a compound heterozygote for a missense mutation in the PEX10 zinc-binding domain, H290Q, and for a nonsense mutation, R125ter. Although all three mutations attenuate PEX10 activity, the two alleles detected in the mildly affected patient, PBD052, encode partially functional PEX10 proteins. PEX10-deficient PBD100 cells contain many peroxisomes and import peroxisomal membrane proteins but do not import peroxisomal matrix proteins, indicating that loss of PEX10 has its most pronounced effect on peroxisomal matrix-protein import. PMID:9683594

  1. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  3. An ortholog of farA of Aspergillus nidulans is implicated in the transcriptional activation of genes involved in fatty acid utilization in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Poopanitpan, Napapol; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Akinori

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} POR1 is a Yarrowia lipolytica ortholog of farA involved in fatty acid response in A. nidulans. {yields} Deletion of POR1 caused growth defects on fatty acids. {yields} {Delta}por1 strain exhibited defects in the induction of genes involved in fatty acid utilization. -- Abstract: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica effectively utilizes hydrophobic substrates such as fatty acids and n-alkanes. To identify a gene(s) regulating fatty acid utilization in Y. lipolytica, we first studied homologous genes to OAF1 and PIP2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their disruption did not change growth on oleic acid at all. We next characterized a Y. lipolytica gene, POR1 (primary oleate regulator 1), an ortholog of farA encoding a transcriptional activator that regulates fatty acid utilization in Aspergillus nidulans. The deletion mutant of POR1 was defective in the growth on various fatty acids, but not on glucose, glycerol, or n-hexadecane. It exhibited slight defect on n-decane. The transcriptional induction of genes involved in {beta}-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation by oleate was distinctly diminished in the {Delta}por1 strains. These data suggest that POR1 encodes a transcriptional activator widely regulating fatty acid metabolism in Y. lipolytica.

  4. Oleic acid stimulates complete oxidation of fatty acids through protein kinase A-dependent activation of SIRT1-PGC1α complex.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji-Hong; Gerhart-Hines, Zachary; Dominy, John E; Lee, Yoonjin; Kim, Sungjin; Tabata, Mitsuhisa; Xiang, Yang K; Puigserver, Pere

    2013-03-08

    Fatty acids are essential components of the dynamic lipid metabolism in cells. Fatty acids can also signal to intracellular pathways to trigger a broad range of cellular responses. Oleic acid is an abundant monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid that impinges on different biological processes, but the mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Here, we report that oleic acid stimulates the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway and activates the SIRT1-PGC1α transcriptional complex to modulate rates of fatty acid oxidation. In skeletal muscle cells, oleic acid treatment increased intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) that turned on protein kinase A activity. This resulted in SIRT1 phosphorylation at Ser-434 and elevation of its catalytic deacetylase activity. A direct SIRT1 substrate is the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC1α), which became deacetylated and hyperactive after oleic acid treatment. Importantly, oleic acid, but not other long chain fatty acids such as palmitate, increased the expression of genes linked to fatty acid oxidation pathway in a SIRT1-PGC1α-dependent mechanism. As a result, oleic acid potently accelerated rates of complete fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle cells. These results illustrate how a single long chain fatty acid specifically controls lipid oxidation through a signaling/transcriptional pathway. Pharmacological manipulation of this lipid signaling pathway might provide therapeutic possibilities to treat metabolic diseases associated with lipid dysregulation.

  5. Enlarged Peroxisomes Are Present in Oleic Acid–grown Yarrowia lipolytica Overexpressing the PEX16 Gene Encoding an Intraperoxisomal Peripheral Membrane Peroxin

    PubMed Central

    Eitzen, Gary A.; Szilard, Rachel K.; Rachubinski, Richard A.

    1997-01-01

    Pex mutants of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica are defective in peroxisome assembly. The mutant strain pex16-1 lacks morphologically recognizable peroxisomes. Most peroxisomal proteins are mislocalized to a subcellular fraction enriched for cytosol in pex16 strains, but a subset of peroxisomal proteins is localized at, or near, wild-type levels to a fraction typically enriched for peroxisomes. The PEX16 gene was isolated by functional complementation of the pex16-1 strain and encodes a protein, Pex16p, of 391 amino acids (44,479 D). Pex16p has no known homologues. Pex16p is a peripheral protein located at the matrix face of the peroxisomal membrane. Substitution of the carboxylterminal tripeptide Ser-Thr-Leu, which is similar to the consensus sequence of peroxisomal targeting signal 1, does not affect targeting of Pex16p to peroxisomes. Pex16p is synthesized in wild-type cells grown in glucose-containing media, and its levels are modestly increased by growth of cells in oleic acid–containing medium. Overexpression of the PEX16 gene in oleic acid– grown Y. lipolytica leads to the appearance of a small number of enlarged peroxisomes, which contain the normal complement of peroxisomal proteins at levels approaching those of wild-type peroxisomes. PMID:9182661

  6. Nuclear receptors and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Cave, Matthew C; Clair, Heather B; Hardesty, Josiah E; Falkner, K Cameron; Feng, Wenke; Clark, Barbara J; Sidey, Jennifer; Shi, Hongxue; Aqel, Bashar A; McClain, Craig J; Prough, Russell A

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear receptors are transcription factors which sense changing environmental or hormonal signals and effect transcriptional changes to regulate core life functions including growth, development, and reproduction. To support this function, following ligand-activation by xenobiotics, members of subfamily 1 nuclear receptors (NR1s) may heterodimerize with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) to regulate transcription of genes involved in energy and xenobiotic metabolism and inflammation. Several of these receptors including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), the pregnane and xenobiotic receptor (PXR), the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), the liver X receptor (LXR) and the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) are key regulators of the gut:liver:adipose axis and serve to coordinate metabolic responses across organ systems between the fed and fasting states. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease and may progress to cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is associated with inappropriate nuclear receptor function and perturbations along the gut:liver:adipose axis including obesity, increased intestinal permeability with systemic inflammation, abnormal hepatic lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Environmental chemicals may compound the problem by directly interacting with nuclear receptors leading to metabolic confusion and the inability to differentiate fed from fasting conditions. This review focuses on the impact of nuclear receptors in the pathogenesis and treatment of NAFLD. Clinical trials including PIVENS and FLINT demonstrate that nuclear receptor targeted therapies may lead to the paradoxical dissociation of steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and obesity. Novel strategies currently under development (including tissue-specific ligands and dual receptor agonists) may be required to separate the beneficial effects of nuclear receptor activation from unwanted metabolic

  7. Regulation of the Omega-3 Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway in Atlantic Salmon Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ruyter, Bente; Berge, Gerd Marit; Sun, Yajing; Østbye, Tone-Kari Knutsdatter

    2016-01-01

    Limited availability of the n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA have led to an interest in better understanding of the n-3 biosynthetic pathway and its regulation. The biosynthesis of alpha-linolenic acid to EPA and DHA involves several complex reaction steps including desaturation-, elongation- and peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes. The aims of the present experiments were to gain more knowledge on how this biosynthesis is regulated over time by different doses and fatty acid combinations. Hepatocytes isolated from salmon were incubated with various levels and combinations of oleic acid, EPA and DHA. Oleic acid led to a higher expression of the Δ6 fatty acid desaturase (fad) genes Δ6fad_a, Δ6fad_b, Δ6fad_c and the elongase genes elovl2 compared with cells cultured in medium enriched with DHA. Further, the study showed rhythmic variations in expression over time. Levels were reached where a further increase in specific fatty acids given to the cells not stimulated the conversion further. The gene expression of Δ6fad_a_and Δ6fad_b responded similar to fatty acid treatment, suggesting a co-regulation of these genes, whereas Δ5fad and Δ6fad_c showed a different regulation pattern. EPA and DHA induced different gene expression patterns, especially of Δ6fad_a. Addition of radiolabelled alpha-linolenic acid to the hepatocytes confirmed a higher degree of elongation and desaturation in cells treated with oleic acid compared to cells treated with DHA. This study suggests a complex regulation of the conversion process of n-3 fatty acids. Several factors, such as that the various gene copies are differently regulated, the gene expression show rhythmic variations and gene expression only affected to a certain level, determines when you get the maximum conversion of the beneficial n-3 fatty acids. PMID:27973547

  8. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  9. New bioactive fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  10. Agonist-induced activation releases peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta from its inhibition by palmitate-induced nuclear factor-kappaB in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mireia; Laguna, Juan C; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel

    2005-05-01

    The mechanisms by which elevated levels of free fatty acids cause insulin resistance are not well understood, but there is a strong correlation between insulin resistance and intramyocellular lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests a link between inflammation and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this work was to study whether the exposure of skeletal muscle cells to palmitate affected peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) beta/delta activity. Here, we report that exposure of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells to 0.75 mM palmitate reduced (74%, P<0.01) the mRNA levels of the PPARbeta/delta-target gene pyruvatedehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK-4), which is involved in fatty acid utilization. This reduction was not observed in the presence of the PPARbeta/delta agonist L-165041. This drug prevented palmitate-induced nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation. Increased NF-kappaB activity after palmitate exposure was associated with enhanced protein-protein interaction between PPARbeta/delta and p65. Interestingly, treatment with the PPARbeta/delta agonist L-165041 completely abolished this interaction. These results indicate that palmitate may reduce fatty acid utilization in skeletal muscle cells by reducing PPARbeta/delta signaling through increased NF-kappaB activity.

  11. Microbial production of fatty alcohols.

    PubMed

    Fillet, Sandy; Adrio, José L

    2016-09-01

    Fatty alcohols have numerous commercial applications, including their use as lubricants, surfactants, solvents, emulsifiers, plasticizers, emollients, thickeners, and even fuels. Fatty alcohols are currently produced by catalytic hydrogenation of fatty acids from plant oils or animal fats. Microbial production of fatty alcohols may be a more direct and environmentally-friendly strategy since production is carried out by heterologous enzymes, called fatty acyl-CoA reductases, able to reduce different acyl-CoA molecules to their corresponding primary alcohols. Successful examples of metabolic engineering have been reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli in which the production of fatty alcohols ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 g/L, respectively. Due to their metabolic advantages, oleaginous yeasts are considered the best hosts for production of fatty acid-derived chemicals. Some of these species can naturally produce, under specific growth conditions, lipids at high titers (>50 g/L) and therefore provide large amounts of fatty acyl-CoAs or fatty acids as precursors. Very recently, taking advantage of such features, over 8 g/L of C16-C18 fatty alcohols have been produced in Rhodosporidium toruloides. In this review we summarize the different metabolic engineering strategies, hosts and cultivation conditions used to date. We also point out some future trends and challenges for the microbial production of fatty alcohols.

  12. Maternal omega-3 fatty acids and micronutrients modulate fetal lipid metabolism: A review.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-07-01

    It is well established that alterations in the mother's diet or metabolism during pregnancy has long-term adverse effects on the lipid metabolism in the offspring. There is growing interest in the role of specific nutrients especially omega-3 fatty acids in the pathophysiology of lipid disorders. A series of studies carried out in humans and rodents in our department have consistently suggested a link between omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid and micronutrients (vitamin B12 and folic acid) in the one carbon metabolic cycle and its effect on the fatty acid metabolism, hepatic transcription factors and DNA methylation patterns. However the association of maternal intake or metabolism of these nutrients with fetal lipid metabolism is relatively less explored. In this review, we provide insights into the role of maternal omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12 and their influence on fetal lipid metabolism through various mechanisms which influence phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase activity, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor, adiponectin signaling pathway and epigenetic process like chromatin methylation. This will help understand the possible mechanisms involved in fetal lipid metabolism and may provide important clues for the prevention of lipid disorders in the offspring.

  13. Novel insights into the mechanisms whereby isoflavones protect against fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Long-Xin; Chen, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Fatty liver disease (FLD) is a growing public health problem worldwide. There is an urgent requirement for alternative and natural medicine to treat this disease. As phytochemicals, isoflavones have attracted considerable attention for the prevention of FLD. Numerous studies have revealed that isoflavones protect against FLD through various pathways which modulate fatty acid β-oxidation, lipid synthesis, and oxidative stress. Recently, the aldose reductase (AR)/polyol pathway has been reported to be involved in the development of FLD by modulating hepatic fructose production, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α activity, cytochrome P450 (CYP)2E1 expression, and gut bacterial endotoxin-induced cytokine release. It has been reported that some isoflavones are potent AR inhibitors. Here, we review the anti-FLD actions of isoflavones and the proposed mechanism whereby isoflavones protect against FLD, with regard to the AR/polyol pathway. We propose that isoflavones block the AR/polyol pathway and in turn reduce fructose production and subsequent fat accumulation in the liver in diabetic or high-glucose-diet mice. In addition, in rodents with alcoholic liver disease or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, inhibition of AR by isoflavones may improve PPARα-mediated fatty acid oxidation, reduce hepatic steatosis, and attenuate CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress or AR/gut bacterial endotoxin-mediated cytokine overproduction, to alleviate progression of FLD. PMID:25632182

  14. Basic Aspects of Tumor Cell Fatty Acid-Regulated Signaling and Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Comba, Andrea; Lin, Yi-Hui; Eynard, Aldo Renato; Valentich, Mirta Ana; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin Ernesto; Pasqualini, Marìa Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the current knowledge and experimental research about the mechanisms by which fatty acids and their derivatives control specific gene expression involved during carcinogenesis. Changes in dietary fatty acids, specifically the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the ω-3 and ω-6 families and some derived eicosanoids from lipoxygenases (LOXs), cyclooxygenases (COXs), and cytochrome P-450 (CYP-450), seem to control the activity of transcription factor families involved in cancer cell proliferation or cell death. Their regulation may be carried out either through direct binding to DNA as peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors (PPARs) or via modulation in an indirect manner of signaling pathway molecules (e.g., protein kinase C [PKC]) and other transcription factors (nuclear factor kappa B [NFκB] and sterol regulatory element binding protein [SREBP]). Knowledge of the mechanisms by which fatty acids control specific gene expression may identify important risk factors for cancer, and provide insight into the development of new therapeutic strategies for a better management of whole-body lipid metabolism. PMID:22048864

  15. Novel insights into the mechanisms whereby isoflavones protect against fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Long-Xin; Chen, Tong

    2015-01-28

    Fatty liver disease (FLD) is a growing public health problem worldwide. There is an urgent requirement for alternative and natural medicine to treat this disease. As phytochemicals, isoflavones have attracted considerable attention for the prevention of FLD. Numerous studies have revealed that isoflavones protect against FLD through various pathways which modulate fatty acid β-oxidation, lipid synthesis, and oxidative stress. Recently, the aldose reductase (AR)/polyol pathway has been reported to be involved in the development of FLD by modulating hepatic fructose production, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α activity, cytochrome P450 (CYP)2E1 expression, and gut bacterial endotoxin-induced cytokine release. It has been reported that some isoflavones are potent AR inhibitors. Here, we review the anti-FLD actions of isoflavones and the proposed mechanism whereby isoflavones protect against FLD, with regard to the AR/polyol pathway. We propose that isoflavones block the AR/polyol pathway and in turn reduce fructose production and subsequent fat accumulation in the liver in diabetic or high-glucose-diet mice. In addition, in rodents with alcoholic liver disease or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, inhibition of AR by isoflavones may improve PPARα-mediated fatty acid oxidation, reduce hepatic steatosis, and attenuate CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress or AR/gut bacterial endotoxin-mediated cytokine overproduction, to alleviate progression of FLD.

  16. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha (PPARa), Beta (PPARI3), and Gamma (PPARy) Expression in Human Fetal Tissues.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis, are targets of pharmaceuticals, and are also activated by environmental contaminants. Almost nothing is known about expression of PPARs during human fetal development. This study uses qPCR...

  17. Immunotoxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferators, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are environmentally widespread and persistent and multiple toxicities have been reported in experimental animals and humans. These compounds trigger biological activity via activation of the alpha isotype of pero...

  18. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors Alpha, Beta, and Gamma mRNA and protein expression in human fetal tissues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis, are targets of pharmaceuticals, and are also activated by environmental contaminants. Almost nothing is known about expression of PPARs during human fetal development. This study examine...

  19. The dipeptide H-Trp-Glu-OH (WE) shows agonistic activity to peroxisome proliferator-activated protein-α and reduces hepatic lipid accumulation in lipid-loaded H4IIE cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yaoyao; Kim, Jong-Ho; Nam, Bora; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Ji Hae; Hwang, Kwang-Yeon; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2014-07-01

    Dipeptides digested from dietary proteins can be directly absorbed by the intestine and delivered to the circulatory system. However, the dipeptides' metabolic roles and biological activities are largely unknown. Lipid-loaded HII4E cells stimulated with H-Trp-Glu-OH (WE) exhibited reduced lipid accumulation, of which the effect was abolished by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α gene knock down. A luciferase assay showed that the WE dipeptide induced PPARα transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. Surface plasmon resonance and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses demonstrated that WE interacts directly with the PPARα ligand binding domain (KD, 120 μM; EC50, 83 μM). Cells stimulated with WE induced PPARα and its responsive genes and increased cellular fatty acid uptake. In conclusion, WE reduces hepatic lipid accumulation in lipid-loaded hepatocytes via the activation of PPARα by a direct interaction.

  20. Stabilization of methionine-rich protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: targeting of BZN protein into the peroxisome.

    PubMed

    Nicaud, J M; Raynal, A; Beyou, A; Merkamm, M; Ito, H; Labat, N

    1994-01-01

    We have constructed a gene coding for the 12-kDa intermediate form of the 2s methionine-rich protein from Bertholletia excelsa seeds. This protein, expressed intracellularly in yeast, is characterised by a 20-min half-life. By adding 11 amino acids corresponding to the peroxisome-targeting sequence (PTSc) of luciferase, we have significantly increased its half-life. This stabilization allowed accumulation of the BZN protein into the peroxisome as judged by cell fractionation. Accumulation of the 12-kDa protein results in a significant increase of the total methionine content in yeast cells (30%) indicating that such a microorganism could represent a practicable protected shuttle for an animal-feed additive.

  1. Peroxisomes as cell generators of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) signal molecules.

    PubMed

    Corpas, Francisco J; Barroso, Juan B; Palma, José M; del Río, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a gaseous free radical with a wide range of direct and indirect actions in plant cells. However, the enzymatic sources of NO and its subcellular localization in plants are still under debate. Among the different subcellular compartments where NO has been found to be produced, peroxisomes are the best characterized since in these organelles it has been demonstrated the presence of NO and it has been biochemically characterized a L-arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase activity. This chapter summarizes the present knowledge of the NO metabolism and its derived reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in plant peroxisomes and how this gaseous free radical is involved in natural senescence, and is released to the cytosol under salinity stress conditions acting as a signal molecule.

  2. The dynamin-like protein Vps1p of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae associates with peroxisomes in a Pex19p-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Vizeacoumar, Franco J; Vreden, Wanda N; Fagarasanu, Monica; Eitzen, Gary A; Aitchison, John D; Rachubinski, Richard A

    2006-05-05

    Dynamins and dynamin-like proteins play important roles in organelle division. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the dynamin-like protein Vps1p (vacuolar protein sorting protein 1) is involved in peroxisome fission, as cells deleted for the VPS1 gene contain reduced numbers of enlarged peroxisomes. What relationship Vps1p has with peroxisomes remains unclear. Here we show that Vps1p interacts with Pex19p, a peroxin that acts as a shuttling receptor for peroxisomal membrane proteins or as a chaperone assisting the assembly/stabilization of proteins at the peroxisome membrane. Vps1p contains two putative Pex19p recognition sequences at amino acids 509-523 and 633-647. Deletion of the first (but not the second) sequence results in reduced numbers of enlarged peroxisomes in cells, as in vps1delta cells. Deletion of either sequence has no effect on vacuolar morphology or vacuolar protein sorting, suggesting that the peroxisome and vacuole biogenic functions of Vps1p are separate and separable. Substitution of proline for valine at position 516 of Vps1p abrogates Pex19p binding and gives the peroxisome phenotype of vps1delta cells. Microscopic analysis showed that overexpression of Pex19p or redirection of Pex19p to the nucleus does not affect the normal cellular distribution of Vps1p in the cytosol and in punctate structures that are not peroxisomes, suggesting that Pex19p does not function in targeting Vps1p to peroxisomes. Subcellular fractionation showed that a fraction of Vps1p is associated with peroxisomes and that deletion or mutation of the first Pex19p recognition sequence abrogates this association. Our results are consistent with Pex19p acting as a chaperone to stabilize the association of Vps1p with peroxisomes and not as a receptor involved in targeting Vps1p to peroxisomes.

  3. Immunocytochemical localization of L-alpha-hydroxyacid oxidase in dense bar of dumb-bell-shaped peroxisomes of monkey kidney.

    PubMed

    Yokota, S; Hashimoto, T

    1995-07-01

    Localization of the B of L-alpha hydroxyacid oxidase (HOX-B) in monkey kidney peroxisomes was investigated by immunoelectron microscopic techniques. Kidneys of Japanese monkeys, Macaca fuscata, were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde + 0.25% glutaraldehyde and embedded in LR White resin. Thin sections were stained for HOX-B and catalase by the immunogold technique. HOX-B was localized in the marginal plates of normal peroxisomes and the dense bar of dumb-bell-shaped peroxisomes. Catalase was detected in the matrix of normal peroxisomes and in the terminal dilatations of dumb-bell-shaped peroxisomes. There were no gold particles indicating presence of catalase associated with the marginal plates or with the dense bars. Immunoblot analysis of monkey kidney homogenate showed that HOX-B has a molecular mass of 42 kDa that was slightly larger than that of rat kidney HOX-B (39 kDa). The results show that the dense bar of dumb-bell-shaped peroxisomes in monkey kidney is composed of at least HOX-B and is a variation of the marginal plates.

  4. Identification of novel plant peroxisomal targeting signals by a combination of machine learning methods and in vivo subcellular targeting analyses.

    PubMed

    Lingner, Thomas; Kataya, Amr R; Antonicelli, Gerardo E; Benichou, Aline; Nilssen, Kjersti; Chen, Xiong-Yan; Siemsen, Tanja; Morgenstern, Burkhard; Meinicke, Peter; Reumann, Sigrun

    2011-04-01

    In the postgenomic era, accurate prediction tools are essential for identification of the proteomes of cell organelles. Prediction methods have been developed for peroxisome-targeted proteins in animals and fungi but are missing specifically for plants. For development of a predictor for plant proteins carrying peroxisome targeting signals type 1 (PTS1), we assembled more than 2500 homologous plant sequences, mainly from EST databases. We applied a discriminative machine learning approach to derive two different prediction methods, both of which showed high prediction accuracy and recognized specific targeting-enhancing patterns in the regions upstream of the PTS1 tripeptides. Upon application of these methods to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, 392 gene models were predicted to be peroxisome targeted. These predictions were extensively tested in vivo, resulting in a high experimental verification rate of Arabidopsis proteins previously not known to be peroxisomal. The prediction methods were able to correctly infer novel PTS1 tripeptides, which even included novel residues. Twenty-three newly predicted PTS1 tripeptides were experimentally confirmed, and a high variability of the plant PTS1 motif was discovered. These prediction methods will be instrumental in identifying low-abundance and stress-inducible peroxisomal proteins and defining the entire peroxisomal proteome of Arabidopsis and agronomically important crop plants.

  5. Cytochemical studies on the localization of methanol oxidase and other oxidases in peroxisomes of methanol-grown Hansenula polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Veenhuis, M; van Dijken, J P; Harder, W

    1976-12-01

    The localization of methanol oxidase activity in cells of methanol-limited chemostat cultures of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha has been studied with different cytochemical staining techniques. The methods were based on enzymatic or chemical trapping of the hydrogen peroxide produced by the enzyme during aerobic incubations of whole cells in methanol-containing media. The results showed that methanol-dependent hydrogen peroxide production in either fixed or unfixed cells exclusively occurred in peroxisomes, which characteristically develop during growth of this yeast on methanol. Apart from methanol oxidase and catalase, the typical peroxisomal enzymes D-aminoacid oxidase and L-alpha-hydroxyacid oxidase were also found to be located in the peroxisomes. Urate oxidase was not detected in these organelles. Phase-contrast microscopy of living cells revealed the occurrence of peroxisomes which were cubic of form. This unusual shape was also observed in thin sections examined by electron microscopy. The contents of the peroxisomes showed, after various fixation procedures, a completely crystalline or striated substructure. It is suggested that this substructure might represent the in vivo organization structure of the peroxisomal enzymes.

  6. Diaphragmatic function is enhanced in fatty and diabetic fatty rats

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Serge; Na, Na; Carillion, Aude; Jiang, Cheng; Beuvin, Maud; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Riou, Bruno; Coirault, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with a decrease in mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) (the "obesity paradox"). We hypothesized that obesity may paradoxically improve diaphragmatic function. Methods Diaphragm contractility was prospectively recorded in vitro in adult male Zucker lean (control), fatty, and diabetic fatty rats, at rest, after 12h mechanical ventilation and after fatigue. We analyzed diaphragm morphology, cytokines, and protein expression of the protein kinase signaling pathways. Results Diaphragm active-force (AF) was higher in fatty (96±7mN.mm-2,P = 0.02) but not in diabetic fatty rats (90±17mN.mm-2) when compared with controls (84±8mN.mm-2). Recovery from fatigue was improved in fatty and diabetic fatty groups compared with controls. Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction was observed in each group, but AF remained higher in fatty (82±8mN.mm-2,P = 0.03) compared with controls (70±8mN.mm-2). There was neutral lipid droplet accumulation in fatty and diabetic fatty. There were shifts towards a higher cross-sectional-area (CSA) of myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC)-2A fibers in fatty and diabetic fatty compared with control rats (P = 0.002 and P<0.001, respectively) and a smaller CSA of MyHC-2X in fatty compared with diabetic fatty and control rats (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). The phosphorylated total-protein-kinase-B (pAKT)/AKT ratio was higher in fatty (182±58%,P = 0.03), but not in diabetic fatty when compared with controls and monocarboxylate-transporter-1 was higher in diabetic fatty (147±36%,P = 0.04), but not in fatty. Conclusions Diaphragmatic force is increased in Zucker obese rats before and after mechanical ventilation, and is associated with activation of AKT pathway signaling and complex changes in morphology. PMID:28328996

  7. Interaction between Calpain 5, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta genes: a polygenic approach to obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sáez, María E; Grilo, Antonio; Morón, Francisco J; Manzano, Luis; Martínez-Larrad, María T; González-Pérez, Antonio; Serrano-Hernando, Javier; Ruiz, Agustín; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Context Obesity is a multifactorial disorder, that is, a disease determined by the combined effect of genes and environment. In this context, polygenic approaches are needed. Objective To investigate the possibility of the existence of a crosstalk between the CALPAIN 10 homologue CALPAIN 5 and nuclear receptors of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors family. Design Cross-sectional, genetic association study and gene-gene interaction analysis. Subjects The study sample comprise 1953 individuals, 725 obese (defined as body mass index ≥ 30) and 1228 non obese subjects. Results In the monogenic analysis, only the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) gene was associated with obesity (OR = 1.43 [1.04–1.97], p = 0.027). In addition, we have found a significant interaction between CAPN5 and PPARD genes (p = 0.038) that reduces the risk for obesity in a 55%. Conclusion Our results suggest that CAPN5 and PPARD gene products may also interact in vivo. PMID:18657264

  8. Diverse amino acid residues function within the type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal. Implications for the role of accessory residues upstream of the type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal.

    PubMed

    Mullen, R T; Lee, M S; Flynn, C R; Trelease, R N

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the plant type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1) utilizes amino acid residues that do not strictly adhere to the serine-lysine-leucine (SKL) motif (small-basic-hydrophobic residues). Selected residues were appended to the C terminus of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and were tested for their ability to target CAT fusion proteins to glyoxysomes in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cv Bright Yellow 2 suspension-cultured cells. CAT was redirected from the cytosol into glyoxysomes by a wide range of residues, i.e. A/C/G/S/T-H/K/ L/N/R-I/L/M/Y. Although L and N at the -2 position (-SLL, -ANL) do not conform to the SKL motif, both functioned, but in a temporally less-efficient manner. Other SKL divergent residues, however, did not target CAT to glyoxysomes, i.e. F or P at the -3 position (-FKL, -PKL), S or T at the -2 position (-SSI, STL), or D at the -1 position (-SKD). The targeting inefficiency of CAT-ANL could be ameliorated when K was included at the -4 position (-KANL). In summary, the plant PTS1 mostly conforms to the SKL motif. For those PTS1s that possess nonconforming residue(s), other residues upstream of the PTS1 appear to function as accessory sequences that enhance the temporal efficiency of peroxisomal targeting.

  9. Mouse liver selenium-binding protein decreased in aboundance by peroxisome proliferators.

    SciTech Connect

    Giometti, C. S.; Liang, X.; Tollaksen, S. L.; Wall, D. B.; Lubman, D. M.; Subbarao, V.; Sambasiva Rao, M.

    2000-06-01

    Several studies with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) have shown that the abundance of numerous mouse liver proteins is altered in response to treatment with chemicals known to cause peroxisome proliferation. The peptide masses from tryptic digests of two liver proteins showing dramatic decreases in abundance in response to numerous peroxisome proliferators were used to search sequence databases. The selenium-binding protein 2 (SBP2 formerly 56 kDa acetaminophen-binding protein, AP 56) and selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1 formerly 56 kDa selenium-binding protein, SP 56) in mouse liver, proteins with a high degree of sequence similarity, were the highest ranked identities obtained. Identity with SBP2 was subsequently confirmed by immunodetection with specific antiserum. Treatment of mice with 0.025% ciprofibrate resulted in the more basic of this pair of proteins being decreased to 30% of control abundance while the acidic protein was decreased to 7% of the control amount. Dexamethasone treatment, in contrast, caused increases of 80% and 20% in the abundance of the acidic and basic forms, respectively. Administration of dexamethasone to mice in combination with ciprofibrate produced expression of the acidic SBP2 at 23% of the control level and the basic SBP2 at 36%, a slightly moderated reduction compared with the decrease that occurred with ciprofibrate alone. These data suggest that peroxisome proliferators such as ciprofibrate cause a decrease in the abundance of the SBP2, which leads to increased cell proliferation, even in the presence of an inhibitor such as dexamethasone. Such a decrease in SBP, thought to serve as cell growth regulation factors, could be central to the nongenotoxic carcinogenicity of the peroxisome proliferators observed in rodents.

  10. Physiology of pepper fruit and the metabolism of antioxidants: chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    Palma, José M.; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana; del Río, Luis A.; Corpas, Francisco J.; Álvarez de Morales, Paz; Camejo, Daymi M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Pepper (Capsicum annuum) contains high levels of antioxidants, such as vitamins A and C and flavonoids. However, information on the role of these beneficial compounds in the physiology of pepper fruit remains scarce. Recent studies have shown that antioxidants in ripe pepper fruit play a key role in responses to temperature changes, and the redox state at the time of harvest affects the nutritional value for human consumption. In this paper, the role of antioxidant metabolism of pepper fruit during ripening and in the response to low temperature is addressed, paying particular attention to ascorbate, NADPH and the superoxide dismutase enzymatic system. The participation of chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes in the ripening process is also investigated. Scope and Results Important changes occur at a subcellular level during ripening of pepper fruit. Chloroplasts turn into chromoplasts, with drastic conversion of their metabolism, and the role of the ascorbate–glutathione cycle is essential. In mitochondria from red fruits, higher ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and Mn-SOD activities are involved in avoiding the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in these organelles during ripening. Peroxisomes, whose antioxidant capacity at fruit ripening is substantially affected, display an atypical metabolic pattern during this physiological stage. In spite of these differences observed in the antioxidative metabolism of mitochondria and peroxisomes, proteomic analysis of these organelles, carried out by 2-D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF and provided here for the first time, reveals no changes between the antioxidant metabolism from immature (green) and ripe (red) fruits. Conclusions Taken together, the results show that investigation of molecular and enzymatic antioxidants from cell compartments, especially chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes, is a useful tool to study the physiology of pepper fruit, particularly in the context of

  11. Involvement of acyl-CoA synthetase genes in n-alkane assimilation and fatty acid utilization in yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Tenagy; Park, Jun Seok; Iwama, Ryo; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Ohta, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi

    2015-06-01

    Here, we investigated the roles of YAL1 (FAA1) and FAT1 encoding acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs) and three additional orthologs of ACS genes FAT2-FAT4 of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica in the assimilation or utilization of n-alkanes and fatty acids. ACS deletion mutants were generated to characterize their function. The FAT1 deletion mutant exhibited decreased growth on n-alkanes of 10-18 carbons, whereas the FAA1 mutant showed growth reduction on n-alkane of 16 carbons. However, FAT2-FAT4 deletion mutants did not show any growth defects, suggesting that FAT1 and FAA1 are involved in the activation of fatty acids produced during the metabolism of n-alkanes. In contrast, deletions of FAA1 and FAT1-FAT4 conferred no defect in growth on fatty acids. The wild-type strain grew in the presence of cerulenin, an inhibitor of fatty acid synthesis, by utilizing exogenously added fatty acid or fatty acid derived from n-alkane when oleic acid or n-alkane of 18 carbons was supplemented. However, the FAA1 deletion mutant did not grow, indicating a critical role for FAA1 in the utilization of fatty acids. Fluorescent microscopic observation and biochemical analyses suggested that Fat1p is present in the peroxisome and Faa1p is localized in the cytosol and to membranes.

  12. Expanding the spectrum of PEX10-related peroxisomal biogenesis disorders: slowly progressive recessive ataxia.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Mathilde; Guissart, Claire; Mallaret, Martial; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Cheillan, David; Drouot, Nathalie; Muller, Jean; Claustres, Mireille; Tranchant, Christine; Anheim, Mathieu; Koenig, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (PBDs) consist of a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive diseases, in which peroxisome assembly and proliferation are impaired leading to severe multisystem disease and early death. PBDs include Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs) with a relatively mild clinical phenotype caused by PEX1, (MIM# 602136), PEX2 (MIM# 170993), PEX6 (MIM# 601498), PEX10 (MIM# 602859), PEX12 (MIM# 601758), and PEX16 (MIM# 603360) mutations. Three adult patients are reported belonging to a non-consanguineous French family affected with slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, axonal neuropathy, and pyramidal signs. Mental retardation and diabetes mellitus were optional. The age at onset was in childhood or in adolescence (3-15 years). Brain MRI showed marked cerebellar atrophy. Biochemical blood analyses suggested a mild peroxisomal defect. With whole exome sequencing, two mutations in PEX10 were found in the three patients: c.827G>T (novel) causing the missense change p.Cys276Phe and c.932G>A causing the missense change p.Arg311Gln. The phenotypic spectrum related to PEX10 mutations includes slowly progressive, syndromic recessive ataxia.

  13. Mutations affecting the expression of the MOX gene encoding peroxisomal methanol oxidase in Hansenula polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Vallini, V; Berardi, E; Strabbioli, R

    2000-11-01

    In this study, aimed at identifying genetic factors acting positively upon the MOX gene, we report the isolation and characterisation of several methanol utilisation-defective (Mut-) mutants of Hansenula polymorpha. These fall into 12 complementation groups, eight of which show significant reductions in alcohol (methanol) oxidase activity in methanol. Three of these groups, identifying the MUT3, MUT5 and MUT10 loci, exhibit extremely low levels of MOX promoter activity, not only in methanol medium, but also during growth in glycerol or methylamine. We suggest that these loci play a significant role in the derepression of the MOX gene expression. One of these genes (MUT10) also seems to be involved in the utilisation of carbon sources other than methanol, and it is apparent that the same gene plays some role in the biogenesis or in the enlargement of the peroxisome. Three other genes (MUT7, MUT8 and MUT9) appear to be involved in peroxisome biogenesis, whereas most other mutants harbour lesions that leave the peroxisome biogenesis and proliferation unaffected.

  14. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: nutrition or pharmacology?

    PubMed

    Calder, Philip C

    2013-03-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are n-3 fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. These fatty acids are able to inhibit partly a number of aspects of inflammation including leucocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and leucocyte-endothelial adhesive interactions, production of eicosanoids like prostaglandins and leukotrienes from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, production of inflammatory cytokines and T cell reactivity. In parallel, EPA gives rise to eicosanoids that often have lower biological potency than those produced from arachidonioc acid and EPA and DHA give rise to anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving resolvins and protectins. Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of n-3 fatty acids include altered cell membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, disruption of lipid rafts, inhibition of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B so reducing expression of inflammatory genes, activation of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor NR1C3 (i.e. peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ) and binding to the G protein coupled receptor GPR120. These mechanisms are interlinked. In adult humans, an EPA plus DHA intake greater than 2 g day⁻¹ seems to be required to elicit anti-inflammatory actions, but few dose finding studies have been performed. Animal models demonstrate benefit from n-3 fatty acids in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and asthma. Clinical trials of fish oil in patients with RA demonstrate benefit supported by meta-analyses of the data. Clinical trails of fish oil in patients with IBD and asthma are inconsistent with no overall clear evidence of efficacy.

  15. Marine omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: Effects, mechanisms and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Calder, Philip C

    2015-04-01

    Inflammation is a condition which contributes to a range of human diseases. It involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators, and interactions. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. These fatty acids are able to partly inhibit a number of aspects of inflammation including leukocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and leukocyte-endothelial adhesive interactions, production of eicosanoids like prostaglandins and leukotrienes from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, production of inflammatory cytokines, and T-helper 1 lymphocyte reactivity. In addition, EPA gives rise to eicosanoids that often have lower biological potency than those produced from arachidonic acid and EPA and DHA give rise to anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving mediators called resolvins, protectins and maresins. Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of marine n-3 fatty acids include altered cell membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, disruption of lipid rafts, inhibition of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B so reducing expression of inflammatory genes, activation of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ and binding to the G protein coupled receptor GPR120. These mechanisms are interlinked, although the full extent of this is not yet elucidated. Animal experiments demonstrate benefit from marine n-3 fatty acids in models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and asthma. Clinical trials of fish oil in RA demonstrate benefit, but clinical trials of fish oil in IBD and asthma are inconsistent with no overall clear evidence of efficacy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance".

  16. Increased reactive oxygen species production down-regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated alpha pathway in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Cabrero, Agatha; Alegret, Marta; Sanchez, Rosa M; Adzet, Tomas; Laguna, Juan C; Carrera, Manuel Vazquez

    2002-03-22

    Generation of reactive oxygen species may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases involving intracellular lipid accumulation. To explore the mechanisms leading to these pathologies we tested the effects of etomoxir, an inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I which contains a fatty acid-derived structure, in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Etomoxir treatment for 24 h resulted in a down-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) mRNA expression, achieving an 87% reduction at 80 microm etomoxir. The mRNA levels of most of the PPARalpha target genes studied were reduced at 100 microm etomoxir. By using several inhibitors of de novo ceramide synthesis and C(2)-ceramide we showed that they were not involved in the effects of etomoxir. Interestingly, the addition of triacsin C, a potent inhibitor of acyl-CoA synthetase, to etomoxir-treated C2C12 skeletal muscle cells did not prevent the down-regulation in PPARalpha mRNA levels, suggesting that the active form of the drug, etomoxir-CoA, was not involved. Given that saturated fatty acids may generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), we determined whether the addition of etomoxir resulted in ROS generation. Etomoxir increased ROS production and the activity of the well known redox transcription factor NF-kappaB. In the presence of the pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of NF-kappaB activity, etomoxir did not down-regulate PPARalpha mRNA in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. These results indicate that ROS generation and NF-kappaB activation are responsible for the down-regulation of PPARalpha and may provide a new mechanism by which intracellular lipid accumulation occurs in skeletal muscle cells.

  17. Antidiabetic effects of chamomile flowers extract in obese mice through transcriptional stimulation of nutrient sensors of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Christopher; Wowro, Sylvia J; Rousseau, Morten; Freiwald, Anja; Kodelja, Vitam; Abdel-Aziz, Heba; Kelber, Olaf; Sauer, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Given the significant increases in the incidence of metabolic diseases, efficient strategies for preventing and treating of these common disorders are urgently needed. This includes the development of phytopharmaceutical products or functional foods to prevent or cure metabolic diseases. Plant extracts from edible biomaterial provide a potential resource of structurally diverse molecules that can synergistically interfere with complex disorders. In this study we describe the safe application of ethanolic chamomile (Matricaria recutita) flowers extract (CFE) for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes and associated disorders. We show in vitro that this extract activates in particular nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and its isotypes. In a cellular context, in human primary adipocytes CFE administration (300 µg/ml) led to specific expression of target genes of PPARγ, whereas in human hepatocytes CFE-induced we detected expression changes of genes that were regulated by PPARα. In vivo treatment of insulin-resistant high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6 mice with CFE (200 mg/kg/d) for 6 weeks considerably reduced insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and LDL/VLDL cholesterol. Co-feeding of lean C57BL/6 mice a HFD with 200 mg/kg/d CFE for 20 weeks showed effective prevention of fatty liver formation and hepatic inflammation, indicating additionally hepatoprotective effects of the extract. Moreover, CFE treatment did not reveal side effects, which have otherwise been associated with strong synthetic PPAR-targeting molecules, such as weight gain, liver disorders, hemodilution or bone cell turnover. Taken together, modulation of PPARs and other factors by chamomile flowers extract has the potential to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes and related disorders.

  18. Antidiabetic Effects of Chamomile Flowers Extract in Obese Mice through Transcriptional Stimulation of Nutrient Sensors of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) Family

    PubMed Central

    Weidner, Christopher; Wowro, Sylvia J.; Rousseau, Morten; Freiwald, Anja; Kodelja, Vitam; Abdel-Aziz, Heba; Kelber, Olaf; Sauer, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Given the significant increases in the incidence of metabolic diseases, efficient strategies for preventing and treating of these common disorders are urgently needed. This includes the development of phytopharmaceutical products or functional foods to prevent or cure metabolic diseases. Plant extracts from edible biomaterial provide a potential resource of structurally diverse molecules that can synergistically interfere with complex disorders. In this study we describe the safe application of ethanolic chamomile (Matricaria recutita) flowers extract (CFE) for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes and associated disorders. We show in vitro that this extract activates in particular nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and its isotypes. In a cellular context, in human primary adipocytes CFE administration (300 µg/ml) led to specific expression of target genes of PPARγ, whereas in human hepatocytes CFE-induced we detected expression changes of genes that were regulated by PPARα. In vivo treatment of insulin-resistant high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6 mice with CFE (200 mg/kg/d) for 6 weeks considerably reduced insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and LDL/VLDL cholesterol. Co-feeding of lean C57BL/6 mice a HFD with 200 mg/kg/d CFE for 20 weeks showed effective prevention of fatty liver formation and hepatic inflammation, indicating additionally hepatoprotective effects of the extract. Moreover, CFE treatment did not reveal side effects, which have otherwise been associated with strong synthetic PPAR-targeting molecules, such as weight gain, liver disorders, hemodilution or bone cell turnover. Taken together, modulation of PPARs and other factors by chamomile flowers extract has the potential to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes and related disorders. PMID:24265809

  19. Regulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-Iα) gene expression by the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC-1) isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Sadana, Prabodh; Zhang, Yi; Song, Shulan; Cook, George A.; Elam, Marshall B.; Park, Edwards A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivators (PGC-1) have important roles in mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolic control in a variety of tissues. There are multiple isoforms of PGC-1 including PGC-1α and PGC-1β. Both the PGC-1α and β isoforms promote mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation, but only PGC-1α stimulates gluconeogenesis in the liver. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) is a key enzyme regulating mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. In these studies, we determined that PGC-1β stimulated expression of the “liver” isoform of CPT-I (CPT-Iα) but that PGC-1β did not induce pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) which is a regulator of pyruvate metabolism. The CPT-Iα gene is induced by thyroid hormone. We found that T3 increased the expression of PGC-1β and that PGC-1β enhanced the T3 induction of CPT-Iα. The thyroid hormone receptor interacts with PGC-1β in a ligand dependent manner. Unlike PGC-1α, the interaction of PGC-1β and the T3 receptor does not occur exclusively through the leucine-X-X-leucine-leucine motif in PGC-1β. We have found that PGC-1β is associated with the CPT-Iα gene in vivo. Overall, our results demonstrate that PGC-1β is a coactivator in the T3 induction of CPT-Iα and that PGC-1β has similarities and differences with the PGC-1α isoform. PMID:17239528

  20. Metabolites related to gut bacterial metabolism, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activation, and insulin sensitivity are associated with physical function in functionally-limited older adults

    PubMed Central

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori L; Chalé, Angela; Fielding, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    Identification of mechanisms underlying physical function will be important for addressing the growing challenge that health care will face with physical disablement in the expanding aging population. Therefore, the goals of the current study were to use metabolic profiling to provide insight into biologic mechanisms that may underlie physical function by examining the association between baseline and the 6-month change in serum mass spectrometry-obtained amino acids, fatty acids, and acylcarnitines with baseline and the 6-month change in muscle strength (leg press one repetition maximum divided by total lean mass, LP/Lean), lower extremity function [short physical performance battery (SPPB)], and mobility (400 m gait speed, 400-m), in response to 6 months of a combined resistance exercise and nutritional supplementation (whey protein or placebo) intervention in functionally-limited older adults (SPPB ≤ 10; 70–85 years, N = 73). Metabolites related to gut bacterial metabolism (cinnamoylglycine, phenol sulfate, p-cresol sulfate, 3-indoxyl sulfate, serotonin, N-methylproline, hydrocinnamate, dimethylglycine, trans-urocanate, valerate) that are altered in response to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) activation (α-hydroxyisocaproate, α-hydroxyisovalerate, 2-hydroxy-3-methylvalerate, indolelactate, serotonin, 2-hydroxypalmitate, glutarylcarnitine, isobutyrylcarnitine, cinnamoylglycine) and that are related to insulin sensitivity (monounsaturated fatty acids: 5-dodecenoate, myristoleate, palmitoleate; γ-glutamylamino acids: γ-glutamylglutamine, γ-glutamylalanine, γ-glutamylmethionine, γ-glutamyltyrosine; branched-chain amino acids: leucine, isoleucine, valine) were associated with function at baseline, with the 6-month change in function or were identified in backward elimination regression predictive models. Collectively, these data suggest that gut microbial metabolism, PPAR-α activation, and insulin sensitivity may be involved in

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α expression induces alterations in cardiac myofilaments in a pressure-overload model of hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Karam, Chehade N; Warren, Chad M; Henze, Marcus; Banke, Natasha H; Lewandowski, E Douglas; Solaro, R John

    2017-04-01

    Although alterations in fatty acid (FA) metabolism have been shown to have a negative impact on contractility of the hypertrophied heart, the targets of action remain elusive. In this study we compared the function of skinned fiber bundles from transgenic (Tg) mice that overexpress a relatively low level of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), and nontransgenic (NTg) littermates. The mice (NTg-T and Tg-T) were stressed by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and compared with shams (NTg-S and Tg-S). There was an approximate 4-fold increase in PPARα expression in Tg-S compared with NTg-S, but Tg-T hearts showed the same PPARα expression as NTg-T. Expression of PPARα did not alter the hypertrophic response to TAC but did reduce ejection fraction (EF) in Tg-T hearts compared with other groups. The rate of actomyosin ATP hydrolysis was significantly higher in Tg-S skinned fiber bundles compared with all other groups. Tg-T hearts showed an increase in phosphorylation of specific sites on cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) and β-myosin heavy chain isoform. These results advance our understanding of potential signaling to the myofilaments induced by altered FA metabolism under normal and pathological states. We demonstrate that chronic and transient PPARα activation during pathological stress alters myofilament response to Ca(2+) through a mechanism that is possibly mediated by MyBP-C phosphorylation and myosin heavy chain isoforms.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Data presented here demonstrate novel signaling to sarcomeric proteins by chronic alterations in fatty acid metabolism induced by PPARα. The mechanism involves modifications of key myofilament regulatory proteins modifying cross-bridge dynamics with differential effects in controls and hearts stressed by pressure overload.

  2. Ginger extract prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ pathway.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Koichi; Hashizume, Kojiro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Hase, Tadashi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2015-10-01

    The initiation of obesity entails an imbalance wherein energy intake exceeds expenditure. Obesity is increasing in prevalence and is now a worldwide health problem. Food-derived peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) stimulators represent potential treatment options for obesity. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) was previously shown to regulate the PPARγ signaling pathway in adipocytes. In this study, we investigated the antiobesity effects of ginger in vivo and the mechanism of action in vitro. Energy expenditure was increased, and diet-induced obesity was attenuated in C57BL/6J mice treated with dietary ginger extract (GE). GE also increased the number of Type I muscle fibers, improved running endurance capacity and upregulated PPARδ-targeted gene expression in skeletal muscle and the liver. 6-Shogaol and 6-gingerol acted as specific PPARδ ligands and stimulated PPARδ-dependent gene expression in cultured human skeletal muscle myotubes. An analysis of cellular respiration revealed that pretreating cultured skeletal muscle myotubes with GE increased palmitate-induced oxygen consumption rate, which suggested an increase in cellular fatty acid catabolism. These results demonstrated that sustained activation of the PPARδ pathway with GE attenuated diet-induced obesity and improved exercise endurance capacity by increasing skeletal muscle fat catabolism. 6-Shogaol and 6-gingerol may be responsible for the regulatory effects of dietary ginger on PPARδ signaling.

  3. Eicosapentaenoic acid increases cytochrome P-450 2J2 gene expression and epoxyeicosatrienoic acid production via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dahai; Hirase, Tetsuaki; Nitto, Takeaki; Soma, Masaaki; Node, Koichi

    2009-12-01

    ω-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2J2 that is expressed in endothelial cells metabolizes arachidonic acids to biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) that possess anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects. We studied the effects of EPA and DHA on the expression of CYP 2J2 mRNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells and found that EPA, but not DHA, increased the expression of CYP 2J2 mRNA in a dose-dependent and a time-dependent manner. EPA-induced CYP 2J2 expression was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ antagonist, GW9662. EPA, but not DHA, caused a significant increase in cellular levels of 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid that is a stable metabolite of 11,12-EET, which was blocked by pretreatment with GW9662. These data demonstrate that EPA increases CYP 2J2 mRNA expression and 11,12-EET production via PPARγ in endothelial cells and indicate a novel protective role of EPA and PPARγ against vascular inflammation.

  4. Dill seed extract improves abnormalities in lipid metabolism through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) activation in diabetic obese mice.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yao, Lan; Kim, Minji; Sasako, Hiroshi; Aoyagi, Morihiro; Shono, Jinji; Tsuge, Nobuaki; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo

    2013-07-01

    Dill, a small annual herb, is widely used as a flavoring agent in dishes including salads. It has been demonstrated that dill extract and its essential oil show hypolipidemic effects in rats. However, the mechanism of these effects has not been elucidated yet. We found that dill seed extract (DSE) activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), an indispensable regulator for hepatic lipid metabolism, by luciferase assay. Thus, we performed DSE feeding experiments using diabetic obese model KK-Ay mice to examine the effects of DSE on PPAR-α activation in vivo. A 4-week feeding of DSE contained in a high-fat diet decreased plasma triacylglyceride and glucose levels and increased the mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in the liver. In addition, the DSE feeding as well as bezafibrate (a PPAR-α potent agonist) feeding increased oxygen consumption rate and rectal temperature. These results indicate that DSE suppresses high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia through hepatic PPAR-α activation.

  5. The Pro12Ala Polymorphism of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Gene Modifies the Association of Physical Activity and Body Mass Changes in Polish Women.

    PubMed

    Zarebska, Aleksandra; Jastrzebski, Zbigniew; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Leonska-Duniec, Agata; Kotarska, Katarzyna; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Sawczuk, Marek; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ is a key regulator of adipogenesis, responsible for fatty acid storage and maintaining energy balance in the human body. Studies on the functional importance of the PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphic variants indicated that the observed alleles may influence body mass measurements; however, obtained results were inconsistent. We have decided to check if body mass changes observed in physically active participants will be modulated by the PPARG Pro12Ala genotype. The genotype distribution of the PPARG Pro12Ala allele was examined in a group of 201 Polish women measured for selected body mass variables before and after the completion of a 12-week training program. The results of our experiment suggest that PPARG genotype can modulate training-induced body mass measurements changes: after completion of the training program, Pro12/Pro12 homozygotes were characterised by a greater decrease of body fat mass measurements in comparison with 12Ala allele carriers. These results indicate that the PPARG 12Ala variant may impair the training-induced positive effects on body mass measurements; however, the detailed mechanism of such interaction remained unclear and observed correlation between PPARG genotype and body mass differential effects should be interpreted with caution.

  6. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Activation is Associated with Altered Plasma One-Carbon Metabolites and B-Vitamin Status in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lysne, Vegard; Strand, Elin; Svingen, Gard F T; Bjørndal, Bodil; Pedersen, Eva R; Midttun, Øivind; Olsen, Thomas; Ueland, Per M; Berge, Rolf K; Nygård, Ottar

    2016-01-05

    Plasma concentrations of metabolites along the choline oxidation pathway have been linked to increased risk of major lifestyle diseases, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been suggested to be involved in the regulation of key enzymes along this pathway. In this study, we investigated the effect of PPAR activation on circulating and urinary one-carbon metabolites as well as markers of B-vitamin status. Male Wistar rats (n = 20) received for 50 weeks either a high-fat control diet or a high-fat diet with tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA), a modified fatty acid and pan-PPAR agonist with high affinity towards PPARα. Hepatic gene expression of PPARα, PPARβ/δ and the enzymes involved in the choline oxidation pathway were analyzed and concentrations of metabolites were analyzed in plasma and urine. TTA treatment altered most biomarkers, and the largest effect sizes were observed for plasma concentrations of dimethylglycine, nicotinamide, methylnicotinamide, methylmalonic acid and pyridoxal, which were all higher in the TTA group (all p < 0.01). Hepatic Pparα mRNA was increased after TTA treatment, but genes of the choline oxidation pathway were not affected. Long-term TTA treatment was associated with pronounced alterations on the plasma and urinary concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats.

  7. Ameliorative effects of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves on hyperlipidemia in rats fed a high-fat diet: induction of fatty acid oxidation, inhibition of lipogenesis, and suppression of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Miyazawa, Maki; Kamei, Asuka; Abe, Keiko; Kojima, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effects of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves on hyperlipidemia, we performed gene expression profiling of the liver. Rats were fed a high-fat diet and administered mulberry leaves for 7 weeks. Plasma triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid levels were significantly lower in the rats treated with mulberry leaves as compared with the untreated rats. DNA microarray analysis revealed that mulberry leaves upregulated expression of the genes involved in α-, β- and ω-oxidation of fatty acids, mainly related to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway, and downregulated the genes involved in lipogenesis. Furthermore, treatment with mulberry leaves upregulated expression of the genes involved in the response to oxidative stress. These results indicate that consumption of fatty acids and inhibition of lipogenesis are responsible for the reduction in plasma lipids caused by mulberry administration. In addition, mulberry treatment maintains the body's oxidative state at a low level despite enhancing fatty acid oxidation.

  8. Structure, composition, physical properties, and turnover of proliferated peroxisomes. A study of the trophic effects of Su-13437 on rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Leighton, F.; Coloma, L.; Koenig, C.

    1975-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferation has been induced with 2-methyl-2-(p-[1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthyl]-phenoxy)-propionic acid (Su-13437). DNA, protein, cytochrome oxidase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and acid phosphatase concentrations remain almost constant. Peroxisomal enzyme activities change to approximately 165%, 50%, 30%, and 0% of the controls for catalase, urate oxidase, L-alpha-hydroxy acid oxidase, and D-amino acid oxidase, respectively. For catalase the change results from a decrease in particle-bound activity and a fivefold increase in soluble activity. The average diameter of peroxisome sections is 0.58 +/- 0.15 mum in controls and 0.73 +/- 0.25 mum after treatment. Therefore, the measured peroxisomal enzymes are highly diluted in proliferated particles. After tissue fractionation, approximately one-half of the normal peroxisomes and all proliferated peroxisomes show matric extraction with ghost formation, but no change in size. In homogenates submitted to mechanical stress, proliferated peroxisomes do not reveal increased fragility; unexpectedly, Su-13437 stabilizes lysosomes. Our results suggest that matrix extraction and increased soluble enzyme activities result from transmembrane passage of peroxisomal proteins. The changes in concentration of peroxisomal oxidases and soluble catalase after Su-13437 allow the calculation of their half-lives. These are the same as those found for total catalase, in normal and treated rats, after allyl isopropyl acetamide: about 1.3 days, a result compatible with peroxisome degradation by autophagy. A sequential increase in liver RNA concentration, [14C]leucine incorporation into DOC-soluble proteins and into immunoprecipitable catalase, and an increase in liver size and peroxisomal volume per gram liver, characterize the trophic effect of the drug used. In males, Su-13437 is more active than CPIB, another peroxisome proliferation-inducing drug; in females, only Su-13437 is active. PMID:406

  9. Four distinct secretory pathways serve protein secretion, cell surface growth, and peroxisome biogenesis in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Titorenko, V I; Ogrydziak, D M; Rachubinski, R A

    1997-01-01

    We have identified and characterized mutants of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica that are deficient in protein secretion, in the ability to undergo dimorphic transition from the yeast to the mycelial form, and in peroxisome biogenesis. Mutations in the SEC238, SRP54, PEX1, PEX2, PEX6, and PEX9 genes affect protein secretion, prevent the exit of the precursor form of alkaline extracellular protease from the endoplasmic reticulum, and compromise peroxisome biogenesis. The mutants sec238A, srp54KO, pex2KO, pex6KO, and pex9KO are also deficient in the dimorphic transition from the yeast to the mycelial form and are affected in the export of only plasma membrane and cell wall-associated proteins specific for the mycelial form. Mutations in the SEC238, SRP54, PEX1, and PEX6 genes prevent or significantly delay the exit of two peroxisomal membrane proteins, Pex2p and Pex16p, from the endoplasmic reticulum en route to the peroxisomal membrane. Mutations in the PEX5, PEX16, and PEX17 genes, which have previously been shown to be essential for peroxisome biogenesis, affect the export of plasma membrane and cell wall-associated proteins specific for the mycelial form but do not impair exit from the endoplasmic reticulum of either Pex2p and Pex16p or of proteins destined for secretion. Biochemical analyses of these mutants provide evidence for the existence of four distinct secretory pathways that serve to deliver proteins for secretion, plasma membrane and cell wall synthesis during yeast and mycelial modes of growth, and peroxisome biogenesis. At least two of these secretory pathways, which are involved in the export of proteins to the external medium and in the delivery of proteins for assembly of the peroxisomal membrane, diverge at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:9271399

  10. Defects in Peroxisomal 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase Isoform PGD2 Prevent Gametophytic Interaction in Arabidopsis thaliana1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hölscher, Christian; Meyer, Tanja; Fischer, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    We studied the localization of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD) isoforms of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Similar polypeptide lengths of PGD1, PGD2, and PGD3 obscured which isoform may represent the cytosolic and/or plastidic enzyme plus whether PGD2 with a peroxisomal targeting motif also might target plastids. Reporter-fusion analyses in protoplasts revealed that, with a free N terminus, PGD1 and PGD3 accumulate in the cytosol and chloroplasts, whereas PGD2 remains in the cytosol. Mutagenesis of a conserved second ATG enhanced the plastidic localization of PGD1 and PGD3 but not PGD2. Amino-terminal deletions of PGD2 fusions with a free C terminus resulted in peroxisomal import after dimerization, and PGD2 could be immunodetected in purified peroxisomes. Repeated selfing of pgd2 transfer (T-)DNA alleles yielded no homozygous mutants, although siliques and seeds of heterozygous plants developed normally. Detailed analyses of the C-terminally truncated PGD2-1 protein showed that peroxisomal import and catalytic activity are abolished. Reciprocal backcrosses of pgd2-1 suggested that missing PGD activity in peroxisomes primarily affects the male gametophyte. Tetrad analyses in the quartet1-2 background revealed that pgd2-1 pollen is vital and in vitro germination normal, but pollen tube growth inside stylar tissues appeared less directed. Mutual gametophytic sterility was overcome by complementation with a genomic construct but not with a version lacking the first ATG. These analyses showed that peroxisomal PGD2 activity is required for guided growth of the male gametophytes and pollen tube-ovule interaction. Our report finally demonstrates an essential role of oxidative pentose-phosphate pathway reactions in peroxisomes, likely needed to sustain critical levels of nitric oxide and/or jasmonic acid, whose biosynthesis both depend on NADPH provision. PMID:26941195

  11. Uniqueness of the mechanism of protein import into the peroxisome matrix: transport of folded, co-factor-bound and oligomeric proteins by shuttling receptors.

    PubMed

    Léon, Sébastien; Goodman, Joel M; Subramani, Suresh

    2006-12-01

    Based on earlier suggestions that peroxisomes may have arisen from endosymbionts that later lost their DNA, it was expected that protein transport into this organelle would have parallels to systems found in other organelles of endosymbiont origin, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. This review highlights three features of peroxisomal matrix protein import that make it unique in comparison with these other subcellular compartments - the ability of this organelle to transport folded, co-factor-bound and oligomeric proteins, the dynamics of the import receptors during the matrix protein import cycle and the existence of a peroxisomal quality-control pathway, which insures that the peroxisome membrane is cleared of cargo-free receptors.

  12. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  13. Disturbances in cholesterol, bile acid and glucose metabolism in peroxisomal 3-ketoacylCoA thiolase B deficient mice fed diets containing high or low fat contents.

    PubMed

    Nicolas-Francès, Valérie; Arnauld, Ségolène; Kaminski, Jacques; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Clémencet, Marie-Claude; Chamouton, Julie; Athias, Anne; Grober, Jacques; Gresti, Joseph; Degrace, Pascal; Lagrost, Laurent; Latruffe, Norbert; Mandard, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    observed in Thb(-/-) mice. In parallel, the elevation of the lathosterol to cholesterol ratio as well as the increased expression of cholesterol synthesizing genes were observed in the kidney of Thb(-/-) mice fed the LFD and the HFD. Overall, the data indicate that ThB is not fully interchangeable with the thiolase A isoform. The present study also reveals that modulating the expression of the peroxisomal ThB enzyme can largely reverberate not only throughout fatty acid metabolism but also cholesterol, bile acid and glucose metabolism.

  14. The PAL1 gene product is a peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The PAL1 gene was isolated using PCR and degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to highly conserved amino acid sequence motifs diagnostic of the ATP-binding cassette domain of the superfamily of membrane-bound transport proteins typified by mammalian multidrug resistance transporter 1 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ste6. The deduced PAL1 gene product is similar in length to, has the same predicted topology as, and shares the highest degree of amino acid sequence identity with two human proteins, adrenoleukodystrophy protein and peroxisomal membrane protein (70 kD), which are both presumptive ATP- binding cassette transporters thought to be constituents of the peroxisomal membrane. As judged by hybridization of a PAL1 probe to isolated RNA and by expression of a PAL1-lacZ fusion, a PAL1 transcript was only detectable when cells were grown on oleic acid, a carbon source which requires the biogenesis of functional peroxisomes for its metabolism. A pal1delta mutant grew normally on either glucose- or glycerol-containing media; however, unlike PAL1+ cells (or the pal1delta mutant carrying the PAL1 gene on a plasmid), pal1delta cells were unable to grow on either a solid medium or a liquid medium containing oleic acid as the sole carbon source. Antibodies raised against a chimeric protein in which the COOH-terminal domain of Pal1 was fused to glutathione S-transferase specifically recognized a protein in extracts from wild-type cells only when grown on oleic acid; this species represents the PAL1 gene product because it was missing in pal1delta cells and more abundant in pal1delta cells expressing PAL1 from a multicopy plasmid. The Pal1 polypeptide was highly enriched in the organellar pellet fraction prepared from wild-type cells by differential centrifugation and comigrated upon velocity sedimentation in a Nycodenz gradient with a known component of the peroxisomal matrix, e-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase. As judged by both subcellular fractionation and indirect

  15. Peroxisome-targeted and tandem repeat multimer expressions of human antimicrobial peptide LL37 in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Siwei; Gao, Yanyun; Wang, Xiaolong; Shen, Wei; Wang, Jinjia; Zhou, Xiangshan; Cai, Menghao; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2017-03-16

    Although the human antimicrobial peptide LL37 has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities, it easily damages host cells following heterologous expressions. This study attempted two strategies to alleviate its damage to host cells when expressed in Pichia pastoris using the AOX1 promoter. Tandem repeat multimers of LL37 were first designed, and secretion expression strains GS115-9K-(DPLL37DP)n (n = 2, 4, 6 and 8) containing different copies of the LL37 gene were constructed. However, LL37 tandems still killed the cells after 96 hr of induction. Subsequently, peroxisome-targeted expression was performed by adding a peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (SKL) at the C-terminus of LL37. The LL37 expression strain GS115-3.5K-LL37-SKL showed no significant inhibition in the cells after induction. Antibacterial activity assays showed that the recombinant LL37 expressed in peroxisomes had good antimicrobial activities. Then, a strain GS115-3.5K-LL37-GFP-SKL producing LL37, green fluorescent protein, and SKL fusion proteins was constructed, and the fusion protein was confirmed to be targeting the peroxisomes. However, protein extraction analysis indicated that most of the fusion proteins were still located in the cell debris after cell disruption, and further studies are required to extract more proteins from the peroxisome membrane.

  16. Structural basis for docking of peroxisomal membrane protein carrier Pex19p onto its receptor Pex3p

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yasuhiko; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Nakatsu, Toru; Nakano, Hiroaki; Kashiwayama, Yoshinori; Imanaka, Tsuneo; Kato, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisomes require peroxin (Pex) proteins for their biogenesis. The interaction between Pex3p, which resides on the peroxisomal membrane, and Pex19p, which resides in the cytosol, is crucial for peroxisome formation and the post-translational targeting of peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs). It is not known how Pex3p promotes the specific interaction with Pex19p for the purpose of PMP translocation. Here, we present the three-dimensional structure of the complex between a cytosolic domain of Pex3p and the binding-region peptide of Pex19p. The overall shape of Pex3p is a prolate spheroid with a novel fold, the ‘twisted six-helix bundle.' The Pex19p-binding site is at an apex of the Pex3p spheroid. A 16-residue region of the Pex19p peptide forms an α-helix and makes a contact with Pex3p; this helix is disordered in the unbound state. The Pex19p peptide contains a characteristic motif, consisting of the leucine triad (Leu18, Leu21, Leu22), and Phe29, which are critical for the Pex3p binding and peroxisome biogenesis. PMID:21102411

  17. Role of the Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle of Mitochondria and Peroxisomes in the Senescence of Pea Leaves1

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Ana; Hernández, José A.; Pastori, Gabriela; del Río, Luis A.; Sevilla, Francisca

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between H2O2 metabolism and the senescence process using soluble fractions, mitochondria, and peroxisomes from senescent pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves. After 11 d of senescence the activities of Mn-superoxide dismutase, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR) present in the matrix, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) activities localized in the mitochondrial membrane, were all substantially decreased in mitochondria. The mitochondrial ascorbate and dehydroascorbate pools were reduced, whereas the oxidized glutathione levels were maintained. In senescent leaves the H2O2 content in isolated mitochondria and the NADH- and succinate-dependent production of superoxide (O2·−) radicals by submitochondrial particles increased significantly. However, in peroxisomes from senescent leaves both membrane-bound APX and MDHAR activities were reduced. In the matrix the DHAR activity was enhanced and the GR activity remained unchanged. As a result of senescence, the reduced and the oxidized glutathione pools were considerably increased in peroxisomes. A large increase in the glutathione pool and DHAR activity were also found in soluble fractions of senescent pea leaves, together with a decrease in GR, APX, and MDHAR activities. The differential response to senescence of the mitochondrial and peroxisomal ascorbate-glutathione cycle suggests that mitochondria could be affected by oxidative damage earlier than peroxisomes, which may participate in the cellular oxidative mechanism of leaf senescence longer than mitochondria. PMID:9847106

  18. The human gene SLC25A17 encodes a peroxisomal transporter of coenzyme A, FAD and NAD+.

    PubMed

    Agrimi, Gennaro; Russo, Annamaria; Scarcia, Pasquale; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2012-04-01

    The essential cofactors CoA, FAD and NAD+ are synthesized outside the peroxisomes and therefore must be transported into the peroxisomal matrix where they are required for important processes. In the present study we have functionally identified and characterized SLC25A17 (solute carrier family 25 member 17), which is the only member of the mitochondrial carrier family that has previously been shown to be localized in the peroxisomal membrane. Recombinant and purified SLC25A17 was reconstituted into liposomes. Its transport properties and kinetic parameters demonstrate that SLC25A17 is a transporter of CoA, FAD, FMN and AMP, and to a lesser extent of NAD+, PAP (adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate) and ADP. SLC25A17 functioned almost exclusively by a counter-exchange mechanism, was saturable and was inhibited by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and other mitochondrial carrier inhibitors. It was expressed to various degrees in all of the human tissues examined. Its main function is probably to transport free CoA, FAD and NAD+ into peroxisomes in exchange for intraperoxisomally generated PAP, FMN and AMP. The present paper is the first report describing the identification and characterization of a transporter for multiple free cofactors in peroxisomes.

  19. The nuclear receptor PPARγ individually responds to serotonin- and fatty acid-metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Waku, Tsuyoshi; Shiraki, Takuma; Oyama, Takuji; Maebara, Kanako; Nakamori, Rinna; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), recognizes various synthetic and endogenous ligands by the ligand-binding domain. Fatty-acid metabolites reportedly activate PPARγ through conformational changes of the Ω loop. Here, we report that serotonin metabolites act as endogenous agonists for PPARγ to regulate macrophage function and adipogenesis by directly binding to helix H12. A cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, is a mimetic agonist of these metabolites. Crystallographic analyses revealed that an indole acetate functions as a common moiety for the recognition by the sub-pocket near helix H12. Intriguingly, a serotonin metabolite and a fatty-acid metabolite each bind to distinct sub-pockets, and the PPARγ antagonist, T0070907, blocked the fatty-acid agonism, but not that of the serotonin metabolites. Mutational analyses on receptor-mediated transcription and coactivator binding revealed that each metabolite individually uses coregulator and/or heterodimer interfaces in a ligand-type-specific manner. Furthermore, the inhibition of the serotonin metabolism reduced the expression of the endogenous PPARγ-target gene. Collectively, these results suggest a novel agonism, in which PPARγ functions as a multiple sensor in response to distinct metabolites. PMID:20717101

  20. Methodologies for investigating natural medicines for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon Sun; Kung, Sidney; Grewal, Thomas; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2012-02-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a prominent condition in Western countries. In this review we describe the characteristics and current treatments of NAFLD and discuss opportunities for developing new therapeutic management approaches, with a particular emphasis on development of animal studies and in vitro assays for identification of components of natural product medicines. The main manifestation of NAFLD is hepatic lipid accumulation in the form of lipid droplets (LDs), known as hepatic steatosis (fatty liver). Current treatments for NAFLD generally aim to reduce triglyceride (TG) accumulation, often utilizing thiazolidinedines (TZDs) and fibrates, which are known to lower TG levels in hyperlipidemia, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Both of these compounds act through activation of nuclear receptors of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) family, thereby activating genes involved in triglyceride metabolism. Thus treatment using natural PPAR α and PPAR γ ligands, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), has also been considered. Alternatively, natural medicines for the treatment of NAFLD have a long and successful history of controlling disease without prominent side effects. However, active compounds in natural medicine responsible for lowering hepatic TG levels are yet poorly characterized. This points to the need for medium-high throughput screening assays to identify active components within natural herbs. As outlined in this review, the quantification of the size and number of lipid droplets could provide an opportunity to screen compound libraries derived from natural medicine for their potential to reduce NAFLD.

  1. Gene-metabolite network analysis in different nonalcoholic fatty liver disease phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Lin; Ming, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Jing-Yi; Chen, Xiao-Yu; Zeng, Min-De; Mao, Yi-Min

    2017-01-01

    We sought to identify common key regulators and build a gene-metabolite network in different nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) phenotypes. We used a high-fat diet (HFD), a methionine-choline-deficient diet (MCDD) and streptozocin (STZ) to establish nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and NAFL+type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in rat models, respectively. Transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses were performed in rat livers and serum. A functional network-based regulation model was constructed using Cytoscape with information derived from transcriptomics and metabolomics. The results revealed that 96 genes, 17 liver metabolites and 4 serum metabolites consistently changed in different NAFLD phenotypes (>2-fold, P<0.05). Gene-metabolite network analysis identified ccl2 and jun as hubs with the largest connections to other genes, which were mainly involved in tumor necrosis factor, P53, nuclear factor-kappa B, chemokine, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. The specifically regulated genes and metabolites in different NAFLD phenotypes constructed their own networks, which were mainly involved in the lipid and fatty acid metabolism in HFD models, the inflammatory and immune response in MCDD models, and the AMPK signaling pathway and response to insulin in HFD+STZ models. Our study identified networks showing the general and specific characteristics in different NAFLD phenotypes, complementing the genetic and metabolic features in NAFLD with hepatic and extra-hepatic manifestations. PMID:28082742

  2. Citrus Flavanones Affect Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation in Rats by Acting as Prooxidant Agents

    PubMed Central

    Constantin, Rodrigo Polimeni; do Nascimento, Gilson Soares; Constantin, Renato Polimeni; Salgueiro, Clairce Luzia; Bracht, Adelar; Ishii-Iwamoto, Emy Luiza; Yamamoto, Nair Seiko

    2013-01-01

    Citrus flavonoids have a wide range of biological activities and positive health effects on mammalian cells because of their antioxidant properties. However, they also act as prooxidants and thus may interfere with metabolic pathways. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of three citrus flavanones, hesperidin, hesperetin, and naringenin, on several parameters linked to fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria, peroxisomes, and perfused livers of rats. When exogenous octanoate was used as substrate, hesperetin and naringenin reduced the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ ratio and stimulated the citric acid cycle without significant changes on oxygen uptake or ketogenesis. When fatty acid oxidation from endogenous sources was evaluated, hesperetin and naringenin strongly reduced the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ ratio. They also inhibited both oxygen uptake and ketogenesis and stimulated the citric acid cycle. Hesperidin, on the other hand, had little to no effect on these parameters. These results confirm the hypothesis that citrus flavanones are able to induce a more oxidised state in liver cells, altering parameters related to hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The prooxidant effect is most likely a consequence of the ability of these substances to oxidise NADH upon production of phenoxyl radicals in the presence of peroxidases and hydrogen peroxide. PMID:24288675

  3. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor induces hepatic steatosis via the upregulation of fatty acid transport.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yuki; Nishiumi, Shin; Tanaka, Shinwa; Nobutani, Kentaro; Miki, Akira; Yano, Yoshihiko; Seo, Yasushi; Kutsumi, Hiromu; Ashida, Hitoshi; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2010-12-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a basic helix-loop-helix/Per-ARNT-Sim domain transcription factor, which is activated by various xenobiotic ligands. AHR is known to be abundant in liver tissue and to be associated with hepatic steatosis. However, it has not yet been elucidated how the activation of AHR promotes hepatic steatosis. The aim of this study is to clarify the role of AHR in hepatic steatosis. The intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), a potent AHR ligand, into C57BL/6J mice significantly increased the levels of triglycerides and six long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids in the livers of mice, resulting in hepatic microvesicular steatosis. 3MC significantly enhanced the expression level of fatty acid translocase (FAT), a factor regulating the uptake of long-chain fatty acids into hepatocytes, in the liver. In an in vitro experiment using human hepatoma HepG2 cells, 3MC increased the expression level of FAT, and the downregulation of AHR by AHR siRNA led to the suppression of 3MC-induced FAT expression. In addition, the mRNA level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, an upstream factor of FAT, was increased in the livers of 3MC-treated mice. Taking together, AHR activation induces hepatic microvesicular steatosis by increasing the expression level of FAT.

  4. Drosophila TRF2 and TAF9 regulate lipid droplet size and phospholipid fatty acid composition.