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Sample records for persian gulf suffield

  1. South Persian Gulf Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This oblique view of the south Persian Gulf region (26.0N, 54.0E) was taken over Iran looking west across the south Persian Gulf into the Trucial Coast of the United Arab Emirates and the prominent Qatar peninsula. Rich in petroleum resources, this region supplies much of the world's oil needs from its many ports and off shore loading facilities.

  2. Central Saudi Arabia, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This panoramic view of Central Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf (28.0N, 47.0E) dramatically illustrates the stark beauty of the deserts. Riyadh, the capital city, lies in the foreground, with the Persian Gulf in the middle and Iran in the background. The coastal oil terminals of Al Hufuf and Ad Dammam are also visible. Black smudges of soot from the oil fires set during the Gulf War can be seen on the sands to the north and south of Kuwait City.

  3. Academics in the Persian Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The job market on North American campuses may be heading for the deep freeze, but hundreds of positions are opening up in the Persian Gulf as American universities scramble to set down roots in those petrodollar-rich states. The combination of money and opportunity on offer may seem hard to resist. But academics who trade the rich intellectual…

  4. Phytoplankton bloom in Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is a large amount of sediment clearly visible in the true-color image of the Persian Gulf, acquired on November 1, 2001, by MODIS. Carried by the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (at center), the sediment-laden waters appear light brown where they enter the northern end of the Persian Gulf and then gradually dissipate into turquoise swirls as they drift southward. The nutrients these sediments carry are helping to support a phytoplankton bloom in the region, which adds some darker green hues in the rich kaleidoscope of colors on the surface (see the high resolution image). The confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers marks the southernmost boundary between Iran (upper right) and Iraq (upper left). South of Iraq are the countries of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. The red dots indicate the probable locations of fires burning at oil refineries. Thin black plumes of smoke can be seen streaming away from several of these.

  5. Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.

  6. Survey to assess Persian Gulf spill effects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-10

    This paper reports that an international group is poised for an extensive survey of the Persian Gulf, including an assessment of the long term effects of last year's oil spill, a legacy of the Persian Gulf war. Saudi Arabia plans a $450 million cleanup program on beaches fouled by the massive spill. Plans for the survey were disclosed by the United National Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco). It is to be carried out under the auspices of the Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (Ropme), Unesco's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Ropme member countries are Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

  7. Sediment Sources in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoutian, Mehrab

    2014-05-01

    Sediment Constituent Analysis is an effective tool for identifying sediment sources. Based on several sediment samples taken from different sites all over the Iranian coastlines, we have been able to show that an important portion of sediment on the beaches in the Persian Gulf is bio-clastic; that is, biologically created from the coral environment as well as other marine habitats. Unlike mineral (clastic) sediments, carbonate sediments are born not made. Furthermore, carbonate sand constituents are generally less durable than their quartz and mineral counterparts, and break down relatively quickly. Therefore, destruction of reefs and degradation of marine habitat are certain to reduce the sand supply to the shoreline in the Persian Gulf that is necessary to maintain beaches. Carbonate sands are also found on the coastline of the Oman Sea. One of the striking things about the sediments along the coastline of Iran is the high percentage of carbonate material. Molluscan debris is common, even ubiquitous. This reflects the populations living in the offshore waters. Some molluscs thrive in high-energy sandy environments, others like finer sediments. Some live at the surface, while some burrow down as much as a half-metre. A great deal of information can be gained from the study of the species of mollusk and their distribution in the sediments. This paper introduces a few case studies done in different parts of the Persian Gulf by using this method as a general assessment toolbox.

  8. Beef allergy and the Persian Gulf syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hollander, D H

    1995-09-01

    It is suggested that the Persian Gulf Syndrome (PGS) is caused by beef allergy. In the first symptomless phase, as a result of an energetic US Army immunizing program, using sera with adjuvants to produce detectable antibody levels, the subjects not only developed immunity to the targeted substances, but also became sensitized to one or more of the other substances in the immunizing sera, and specifically to beef protein. The subjects remained healthy while in the war zone on a restricted diet essentially free from beef, but developed PGS after they came home, and were again able to obtain steaks and hamburgers.

  9. Reaction of Vietnam veterans to the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Kobrick, F R

    1993-08-01

    The notion that veterans' war experiences can be reawakened on exposure to subsequent wars has not received the attention it merits by mental health professionals. A current or recent war can significantly affect veterans; in particular, some Vietnam veterans have had intense reactions to the Persian Gulf War. This article reviews the evolution of the concept of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder and analyzes reports of Vietnam veterans' reactions to the Persian Gulf War. A case study of a Vietnam veteran whose traumatic memories were reawakened with the onset of the Persian Gulf War is presented, and implications for social work practice are discussed.

  10. Oil Production Capacity Expansion Costs for the Persian Gulf

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    Provides estimates of development and operating costs for various size fields in countries surrounding the Persian Gulf. In addition, a forecast of the required reserve development and associated costs to meet the expected demand through the year 2010 is presented.

  11. Paraoxonase in Persian Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    Hotopf, Matthew; Mackness, Michael Ian; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Collier, David A; Curtis, Charles; David, Anthony; Durrington, Paul; Hull, Lisa; Ismail, Khalida; Peakman, Mark; Unwin, Catherine; Wessely, Simon; Mackness, Bharti

    2003-07-01

    Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is responsible for the metabolism of organophosphates in serum, and PON1 activity is a major determinant of their toxicity in humans. There have been reports linking lowered PON1 activity to physical symptoms after deployment to the Persian Gulf War (PGW) of 1990 to 1991. Therefore, the object of this study was to determine (1) whether PON1 activity was decreased among symptomatic PGW veterans compared with asymptomatic PGW veterans and (2) to determine whether PGW veterans as a whole had lower PON1 activity compared with other military control groups. This was a case control study nested in occupational cohort study of military personnel. Four groups of military personnel were identified from a large epidemiological study of health effects of deployment to the PGW and Bosnia: (1) symptomatic PGW veterans, n = 115; (2) healthy PGW veterans, n = 95; (3) symptomatic Bosnia peacekeeping veterans, n = 52; and (4) symptomatic nondeployed military controls, n = 85. The main outcome measures were PON1 activity and genotype for PON1-55 and -192. We found significant differences in PON1 activity among these four groups, and although the two Gulf groups did not differ in PON1 activity, those deployed to the Gulf had significantly lower PON1 activity compared with the non-PGW groups (median difference = 70.9; 95% CI: 20.2, 121.5, P = 0.012). These differences were not explained by a range of potential confounders, or differences in PON1 coding region polymorphisms. PON1 activity is reduced in PGW veterans compared with military control groups. The effect is independent of ill health in PGW veterans. PMID:12855907

  12. Deep water current velocity data in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi Arab, Azadeh; Haghshenas, S. Abbas; Zaker, Homayoun

    2015-04-01

    Establishment of a nowcasting/forecasting system is a perquisite for the development of coastal and marine areas. This research is performed in order to offer a sophisticated response for the arisen needs via providing a better understanding of coastal and gulf-scale hydrodynamic processes in the Persian Gulf. A comprehensive measurement program is designed whose main objective is to collect sufficient and reliable input data for current forecast simulations in the Persian Gulf which in turn would provide reliable and realistic current parameters, by employing 3D hydrodynamic modeling. Survey parameters are mainly focused on 1) vertical profiling of current speed and direction, 2) mid-depth current speed and direction measurements, 3) tidal (water level) measurements, and 4) wind speed and direction measurements. Moreover, other required data which were collected according to necessities of the studies are meteorological data, including temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, rain fall, and sea water temperature. A quasi-three-dimensional hydrodynamic model is applied to the Persian Gulf and the current field for a 1-year period is simulated. The results are finally compared to a unique set of field data including depth profiles of current velocity and direction collected inside the Persian Gulf, where the depth varies between 30 and 80 m. Through this field experience, the collected velocity data which clarifies the vertical profile of the velocity in the middle part of the Persian Gulf were analyzed to obtain a better understanding of the general circulation pattern in the deep parts of the water body. Moreover, the variation of the horizontal velocity in vertical direction was sophisticatedly reproduced by the numerical model. The results of this research are of help to understand the gulf-scale processes of the Persian Gulf.

  13. Astronaut observations of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf during STS-45

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackleson, Steven G.; Pitts, David E.; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Reynolds, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    As a result of the 1991 Persian Gulf war, between mid-January and June 1991, the Persian Gulf was contaminated with an estimated 4 to 6 million barrels of crude oil, released directly into the Gulf from refinement facilities, transhipment terminals, and moored tankers along the coast of Kuwait, and precipitated from oil fire smoke plumes. To assess the environmental impact of the oil, an international team of marine scientists representing 14 nations was assembled under the auspices of the United Nations International Oceanic Commission and the Regional Organization for Protection of the Marine Environment to conduct detailed surveys of the Persian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Gulf of Oman, including hydrographic, chemical, and biological measurements. To supplement the field surveys and to serve as an aid in data interpretation, astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis photographed water features and coastal habitats in the Persian Gulf during mission STS-45 (24 March to 02 April 1992). The astronauts collected 111 hand-held, color photographs of the Gulf (72 70-mm photographs and 39 5-inch photographs) from an altitude of 296 km (160 n.mi.). The photographs reveal distributions in water turbidity associated with outflow from the Shatt-al-Arab and water circulation along the entire coast of Iran and the Strait of Hormuz, coastal wetlands and shallow-water habitats, and sticks appearing in the sunglint pattern, which appear to be oil.

  14. 78 FR 6404 - Agency Information Collection (Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf Veterans....'' SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION: Titles: a. Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf Veterans, VA... of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf Veterans, VA Form 10-21092c--3,000...

  15. Gulf Cooperation Council: search for security in the Persian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Kechichian, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This study purports to analyze the conservative Arab monarchies' search for regional security in the Persian Gulf. It speculates on the GCC's future prospects as a vehicle of cooperation in the field of security. Threats to the member states of the GCC stem from the policies pursued by revolutionary Iran, Israel, the Soviet Union and its proxies, and a regime in Iraq. The proposition is developed that these sources of threat present an overwhelming challenge to the security and stability of GCC states. Second, it examines the capabilities of the GCC member states for coping with threats. Conceived broadly, both military and non-military capabilities are examined. Security relations of the GCC states with external powers as a means of enhancing their abilities to cope more effectively with both internal and external threats are examined. Particular attention is devoted to the domestic consequences of these special relations. Third, it discusses the GCC's reactions to perceived regional threats. These include the Iran-Iraq War, the Arab-Israeli conflict, the Soviet threat, and potential political sources of dissidence in member states. It is argued that although GCC states have adopted a number of joint policies, they did not respond to or initiate action on either the Iranian Revolution, the Palestine conflict, the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, the Gulf war or the recent Israeli invasion of Lebanon.

  16. Oil slicks off the coast of Qatar, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A detailed view the port facility of Musay'id on the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf (25.0N, 52.5E). Part of a large oil spill seen as a dark toned mass in the water, covering much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf, has moved offshore in this scene. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment commonly occur in oil tanker operations.

  17. Protecting steel in concrete in the Persian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Matta, Z.G. )

    1994-06-01

    The climate and geomorphology of the Persian Gulf make it one of the world's most severe environments for reinforced concrete. The concrete mix ingredients are usually contaminated with chloride, and the environment around reinforced concrete structures also contains salts, both under- and above-ground. Prevailing high temperatures also promote rapid rates of corrosion. Fusion-bonded epoxy-coated rebar, polyvinyl butyral-based coated rebar, calcium nitrile corrosion-inhibiting admixture, and microsilica are reviewed as corrosion prevention measures for steel in concrete for Persian Gulf service. Detrimental effects and user-friendliness are discussed.

  18. Failure of George Mason University's Persian Gulf Campus Sparks Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Late last month, when George Mason University's campus in the Persian Gulf emirate of Ras al Khaymah became the first American educational venture in the region to collapse, its administrators immediately blamed the international economic meltdown. In a region whose higher-education scene is quickly gaining a reputation for being as hazardous as…

  19. U.S. Policy in the Persian Gulf: New Beginnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husbands, Jo

    For 40 years the primary objectives of U.S. policy in the Persian Gulf have been to assure access by the industrialized nations to the region's oil and to prevent those resources from falling under the control of the Soviet Union or any other hostile power. The recent events in Iran, the Iran-Iraq War and its aftermath, the maneuvering of a…

  20. How Selected High School Newspapers Covered the Persian Gulf War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jane W.; Maronn, Michelle

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the many ways in which high school newspapers covered the Persian Gulf War, ranging from a serious analysis to satire in the form of a Cliff Notes summary. Compares two editorials from "The Little Hawk" (Iowa City, Iowa), one supporting the war and the other against. (PA)

  1. 77 FR 64597 - Proposed Information Collection (Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf... Form (Control), VA Form 10-2109b. c. Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf... (Control), VA Form 10-2109b--10 minutes. c. Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian...

  2. Ranking of Stress in Military Personnel in Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad Marzabadi, Es.; Tarkhorani, H.

    In respect of the geographic features of the Persian Gulf (warmth, humidity) and the sensitivity of the region we performed this study to determine the stress of the personnel that works there. This is a cross sectional-descriptive study. The samples of this study are 766 personnel in Persian Gulf. The sampling method was clustering. The instruments of the study were stress self made questionnaire and the Holmes and Rahe questionnaire. The mean score of samples in stress was 204. While the accepted score of Holmes and Rahe questionnaire is 100. Also 34% of samples had scores higher than 250 and 38% had scores from 100 to 250. The mean score of samples was at least double than normal range and in respect to predict of questionnaire norm the persons that have scores between 100-250, have 50% more vulnerability to Psycho-Physiological disorders.

  3. Madonnas, Whores, and the Persian Gulf War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Maria F.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses reactions and attitudes of students in a women's studies course during the Gulf War. Contends that the imagery of war as a sexual, phallic event was a major topic of class discussion. Presents excerpts from teacher and student conversations. (CFR)

  4. 38 CFR 21.5053 - Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contributions (Persian Gulf War). 21.5053 Section 21.5053 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5053 Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf...

  5. 38 CFR 21.5053 - Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contributions (Persian Gulf War). 21.5053 Section 21.5053 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5053 Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf...

  6. 38 CFR 21.5053 - Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contributions (Persian Gulf War). 21.5053 Section 21.5053 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5053 Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf...

  7. Late Quaternary sea-level changes of the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokier, Stephen W.; Bateman, Mark D.; Larkin, Nigel R.; Rye, Philip; Stewart, John R.

    2015-07-01

    Late Quaternary reflooding of the Persian Gulf climaxed with the mid-Holocene highstand previously variously dated between 6 and 3.4 ka. Examination of the stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental context of a mid-Holocene whale beaching allows us to accurately constrain the timing of the transgressive, highstand and regressive phases of the mid- to late Holocene sea-level highstand in the Persian Gulf. Mid-Holocene transgression of the Gulf surpassed today's sea level by 7100-6890 cal yr BP, attaining a highstand of > 1 m above current sea level shortly after 5290-4570 cal yr BP before falling back to current levels by 1440-1170 cal yr BP. The cetacean beached into an intertidal hardground pond during the transgressive phase (5300-4960 cal yr BP) with continued transgression interring the skeleton in shallow-subtidal sediments. Subsequent relative sea-level fall produced a forced regression with consequent progradation of the coastal system. These new ages refine previously reported timings for the mid- to late Holocene sea-level highstand published for other regions. By so doing, they allow us to constrain the timing of this correlatable global eustatic event more accurately.

  8. Climate change impact on wave energy in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamranzad, Bahareh; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir; Chegini, Vahid; Yeganeh-Bakhtiary, Abbas

    2015-06-01

    Excessive usage of fossil fuels and high emission of greenhouse gases have increased the earth's temperature, and consequently have changed the patterns of natural phenomena such as wind speed, wave height, etc. Renewable energy resources are ideal alternatives to reduce the negative effects of increasing greenhouse gases emission and climate change. However, these energy sources are also sensitive to changing climate. In this study, the effect of climate change on wave energy in the Persian Gulf is investigated. For this purpose, future wind data obtained from CGCM3.1 model were downscaled using a hybrid approach and modification factors were computed based on local wind data (ECMWF) and applied to control and future CGCM3.1 wind data. Downscaled wind data was used to generate the wave characteristics in the future based on A2, B1, and A1B scenarios, while ECMWF wind field was used to generate the wave characteristics in the control period. The results of these two 30-yearly wave modelings using SWAN model showed that the average wave power changes slightly in the future. Assessment of wave power spatial distribution showed that the reduction of the average wave power is more in the middle parts of the Persian Gulf. Investigation of wave power distribution in two coastal stations (Boushehr and Assalouyeh ports) indicated that the annual wave energy will decrease in both stations while the wave power distribution for different intervals of significant wave height and peak period will also change in Assalouyeh according to all scenarios.

  9. Persian Gulf and the national interest. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.P.

    1982-02-01

    With gasoline lines a fading memory, it is easy for Americans to misinterpret the energy crisis as overinflated, and even easier to underestimate the importance of the Persian Gulf. Yet, it was just two years ago that former President Carter designated the Persian Gulf as a region of vital national interest. His purpose, in what came to be known as the Carter Doctrine, was to help ensure the steady flow of petroleum to the world market. President Reagan has subsequently confirmed that policy by increasing the U.S. military presence in the Inidan Ocean, strengthening the Rapid Deployment Force (RDF), and selling AWACS and other advanced military equipment to Saudi Arabia. What seemed to be a sensible policy direction with the turmoil in Iran, skyrocketing oil prices, and the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, has come under increasing criticism in the light of today's plentiful supplies of oil. A growing chorus of optimists argues that reliance on the unfettered market will give us a future of abundant energy and freedom from dependence on oil imports.

  10. Persian Gulf response to a wintertime shamal wind event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoppil, Prasad G.; Hogan, Patrick J.

    2010-08-01

    The results from a˜1 km resolution HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), forced by 1/2° Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) atmospheric data, were used in order to study the dynamic response of the Persian Gulf to wintertime shamal forcing. Shamal winds are strong northwesterly winds that occur in the Persian Gulf area behind southeast moving cold fronts. The period from 20 November to 5 December 2004 included a well defined shamal event that lasted 4-5 days. In addition to strong winds (16 m s -1) the winter shamal also brought cold dry air ( Ta=20 °C, qa=10 g kg -1) which led to a net heat loss in excess of 1000 W m -2 by increasing the latent heat flux. This resulted in SST cooling of up to 10 °C most notably in the northern and shallower shelf regions. A sensitivity experiment with a constant specific humidity of qa=15 g kg -1 confirmed that about 38% of net heat loss was due to the air-sea humidity differences. The time integral of SST cooling closely followed the air-sea heat loss, indicating an approximate one-dimensional vertical heat balance. It was found that the shamal induced convective vertical mixing provided a direct mechanism for the erosion of stratification and deepening of the mixed layer by 30 m. The strong wind not only strengthened the circulation in the entire Persian Gulf but also established a northwestward flowing Iranian Coastal Current (ICC, 25-30 cm s -1) from the Strait of Hormuz to about 52°E, where it veered offshore. The strongest negative sea level of 25-40 cm was generated in the northernmost portion of the Gulf while the wind setup against the coast of the United Arab Emirates established a positive sea level of 15-30 cm. The transport through the Strait of Hormuz at 56.2°E indicated an enhanced outflow of 0.25 Sv (Sv≡10 6 m 3 s -1) during 24 November followed by an equivalent inflow on the next day.

  11. Environmental health concerns of the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed Central

    Young, R. C.; Rachal, R. E.; Huguley, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental health concerns in the Persian Gulf are peculiar to the geography of the region. Prevention of heat and solar injury deserves primary consideration, but cold injury also may occur in the desert. Immunizations are recommended against a number of diseases, while malarial chemoprophylaxis is necessary in Iraq and Kuwait. In addition to malaria, other parasitic diseases deserve consideration. Diarrheal diseases, diseases from the desert dust, and products of infected desert animals are of concern. Additional natural hazards are venomous bites from scorpions and desert snakes. Finally, threats of enemy action necessitated protection from nuclear biological and chemical weapons and LASER eye/skin injury. Unexploded ordinance will constitute a continuing hazard into the future. Images Figure 2 PMID:1495114

  12. Environmental health concerns of the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Young, R C; Rachal, R E; Huguley, J W

    1992-05-01

    Environmental health concerns in the Persian Gulf are peculiar to the geography of the region. Prevention of heat and solar injury deserves primary consideration, but cold injury also may occur in the desert. Immunizations are recommended against a number of diseases, while malarial chemoprophylaxis is necessary in Iraq and Kuwait. In addition to malaria, other parasitic diseases deserve consideration. Diarrheal diseases, diseases from the desert dust, and products of infected desert animals are of concern. Additional natural hazards are venomous bites from scorpions and desert snakes. Finally, threats of enemy action necessitated protection from nuclear biological and chemical weapons and LASER eye/skin injury. Unexploded ordinance will constitute a continuing hazard into the future. PMID:1495114

  13. Observations of a pediatric surgeon in the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Reyna, T M

    1993-02-01

    In Third-World countries, infectious disease is the principal cause of childhood death and disability. During the Persian Gulf War trauma became the leading cause of death in children, prompting this review of experience with the delivery of pediatric trauma care to noncombatant children at a military hospital. Eight hundred seventy-seven patients were admitted to the 410th Evacuation Hospital from January to April 1991. Fifty of the patients (6%) were children, and 40 of the 50 were admitted for trauma. The mean age of the children was 9 years. Sixty-five percent of pediatric patients sustained penetrating injuries; mechanisms of injury included shrapnel wounds, gunshot wounds, burns, motor vehicle accidents, crush injuries, and falls. The overall mortality rate for children admitted to the hospital was 12%, but no injured child died as a result of trauma. Complications of dehydration or malnutrition in infants accounted for all the deaths.

  14. Environmental health concerns of the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Young, R C; Rachal, R E; Huguley, J W

    1992-05-01

    Environmental health concerns in the Persian Gulf are peculiar to the geography of the region. Prevention of heat and solar injury deserves primary consideration, but cold injury also may occur in the desert. Immunizations are recommended against a number of diseases, while malarial chemoprophylaxis is necessary in Iraq and Kuwait. In addition to malaria, other parasitic diseases deserve consideration. Diarrheal diseases, diseases from the desert dust, and products of infected desert animals are of concern. Additional natural hazards are venomous bites from scorpions and desert snakes. Finally, threats of enemy action necessitated protection from nuclear biological and chemical weapons and LASER eye/skin injury. Unexploded ordinance will constitute a continuing hazard into the future.

  15. STS-35 Earth observation of the Persian Gulf area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of the Persian Gulf area. Major cities and oilfields of the countries of Saudi Arabia (foreground), Iraq (top left), Iran (top center and top right), Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and a portion of the United Arab Emirates are visible in this scene. The cities are the large whitish areas of city lights. Flares characteristic of the Mid-East oil field practices are visible both onshore and offshore throughout the scene. Major cities identifiable are in Iraq - Baghdad, Basra, and Faw; in Qatar - Ab Dawhah; in Kuwait - Kuwait City; in Saudi Arabia - Riyadh, Al Jubayl, Dharan, Al Huf, Ad Dilam and Al Hariq; and Bahrain and its associated causeway to the mainland.

  16. The Role of the Persian Gulf in Shaping Southwest Asian Surface Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, J. S.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2015-12-01

    Summer surface climate of the Persian Gulf region is characterized by hot and humid conditions. Despite such conditions - which in other regions tends to trigger moist convection - typically this region experiences clear sky conditions and very little rainfall in the summer. In this study, we customize the MIT Regional Climate Model specifically for the Southwest Asia region and apply it at a 25-km grid spacing using reanalysis boundary conditions for present-day climate (1975-2005). Specific customizations include accurate representations of surface albedo and emissivity as well as mineral dust processes, all of which improve model bias. To assess the role of the Persian Gulf in shaping the region's climate, a 30-year experiment is performed without the Persian Gulf characterized. Results suggest that observed conditions over the Persian Gulf are due to a combination of physical processes involving adiabatic and diabatic descent. First, virtually clear sky conditions, due to subsidence during summer associated with the rising air motion over the monsoon region to the east, suppress upward motion and deep convection and increase incoming solar radiation. Second, the low surface albedo of the Persian Gulf results in enhanced absorption of solar radiation and total heat flux. Third, high evaporation rates increase water vapor, and therefore trap heat at the surface via the greenhouse effect for water vapor. Fourth, the relatively shallow boundary layer over the Persian Gulf concentrates water vapor and heat close to the surface. These combined factors maximize the total flux of heat in the boundary layer and hence moist static energy over the Persian Gulf.

  17. Middle Adolescents' Views of War and American Military Involvement in the Persian Gulf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Daniel F.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Surveyed 189 eleventh graders to assess attitudes toward war in general and attitudes toward Persian Gulf War. Reactions to war were associated with gender, race, and school setting. Students in study were slightly less supportive of war, in general, but more supportive of Gulf War than were past subjects on conflicts of their day (Vietnam and…

  18. Corrosion of reinforced concrete in the Persian Gulf region

    SciTech Connect

    Novokshchenov, V.

    1995-01-01

    The Kuwait liquefied gas/sulfur (LGS) plant is located on a small island in the southern part of the Persian Gulf. The plant was built in phases between 1973 and 1977. Designed to manufacture liquefied natural and petroleum gas and to extract sulfur, the LGS plant consists of two similar process unit trains served by a common boiler and utility plant. The major reinforced-concrete structures at the plant include the cooling water outfall, the cooling water intake, the operations building, structures supporting elevated pipe and equipment, boiler stack foundations, bridge over the flume, the loading jetty, sulfur plant structures, substations, and storage tank foundations. The first signs of distress in the plant structures were reported in 1980: cracking, spalling, and delamination of concrete cover and corrosion of reinforcing steel. In some cases, deterioration had progressed to the extent that safety and life expectancy of the structures were at risk. Subsequently, several investigations were conducted on various structures from 1980 to 1987 to identify the causes of the deterioration. The principal cause of the deterioration was corrosion of reinforcing steel caused by the presence of chlorides; marine salts were the main source. Construction-related contributing factors included insufficient concrete cover, use of sulfate-resistant (ASTM Type V) portland cement, and an elevated water-to-cement ratio.

  19. Coral reef recovery in Florida and the Persian Gulf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinn, Eugene A.

    1976-01-01

    Long-term observations and study of coral reef destruction by hurricanes in the Florida Keys show, surprisingly, that although corals are devastated on a grand scale during storms, recovery is rapid. Recovery occurs because of the widespread scattering of live fragments, many of which become growth sites of new colonies. Reef recovery from death by chilling in the Persian Gulf was well under way when last observed, but it is not yet known if the recovery rate was as rapid as recovery from the storm destruction in Florida. Recovery from death by chilling requires settlement of transported coral larvae and a substrate suitable for larval attachment. Such resettlement is subject to the effects of currents, predators, pollution, and competition for substrate. A growth rate of 10 cm per year combined with geometrical progression of branch formation accounts for rapid recovery. Although calculated coral proliferation seems unusually high, it has been confirmed by serial underwater photographs spanning ten years. More precise measurements of growth and branching are needed, along with growth data for other common reef-building corals. Such data would be useful for predicting standing crop of a restocked or transplanted reef.

  20. Simulation of oil pollution in the Persian Gulf near Assaluyeh oil terminal.

    PubMed

    Faghihifard, M; Badri, M A

    2016-04-15

    Numerical simulation of oil slick movement with respect to tidal factors and wind effects was performed in order to counteract oil pollution in the Persian Gulf. First, a flow model was invoked with respect to water level fluctuations. The main tidal constituents were applied to the model using the initial conditions of water level variations in the Hormuz Strait near the Hangam Island. The movement of oil pollution was determined due to wind, tide and temperature effects and confirmed by applying a verified field results. Simulations were focused near an important terminal in the Persian Gulf, Assaluyeh Port. The results were led to preparing a risk-taking map in a parallel research for the Persian Gulf. PMID:26906497

  1. Simulation of oil pollution in the Persian Gulf near Assaluyeh oil terminal.

    PubMed

    Faghihifard, M; Badri, M A

    2016-04-15

    Numerical simulation of oil slick movement with respect to tidal factors and wind effects was performed in order to counteract oil pollution in the Persian Gulf. First, a flow model was invoked with respect to water level fluctuations. The main tidal constituents were applied to the model using the initial conditions of water level variations in the Hormuz Strait near the Hangam Island. The movement of oil pollution was determined due to wind, tide and temperature effects and confirmed by applying a verified field results. Simulations were focused near an important terminal in the Persian Gulf, Assaluyeh Port. The results were led to preparing a risk-taking map in a parallel research for the Persian Gulf.

  2. Coral reproduction in the world's warmest reefs: southern Persian Gulf (Dubai, United Arab Emirates)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, A. G.; Baird, A. H.; Cavalcante, G. H.

    2011-06-01

    Despite extensive research on coral reproduction from numerous geographic locations, there remains limited knowledge within the Persian Gulf. Given that corals in the Persian Gulf exist in one of the most stressful environments for reef corals, with annual variations in sea surface temperature (SST) of 12°C and maximum summer mean SSTs of 36°C, understanding coral reproductive biology in the Gulf may provide clues as to how corals may cope with global warming. In this study, we examined six locally common coral species on two shallow reef sites in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE), in 2008 and 2009 to investigate the patterns of reproduction, in particular the timing and synchrony of spawning. In total, 71% colonies in April 2008 and 63% colonies in April 2009 contained mature oocytes. However, the presence of mature gametes in May indicated that spawning was potentially split between April and May in all species. These results demonstrate that coral reproduction patterns within this region are highly seasonal and that multi-species spawning synchrony is highly probable. Acropora downingi, Cyphastrea microphthalma and Platygyra daedalea were all hermaphroditic broadcast spawners with a single annual gametogenic cycle. Furthermore, fecundity and mature oocyte sizes were comparable to those in other regions. We conclude that the reproductive biology of corals in the southern Persian Gulf is similar to other regions, indicating that these species have adapted to the extreme environmental conditions in the southern Persian Gulf.

  3. Parhyale darvishi, a new widely distributed amphipod species, in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Hyalidae).

    PubMed

    Momtazi, Farzaneh; Maghsoudlou, Abdolvahab

    2016-01-01

    Parhyale darvishi sp. nov., is described. The new species is characterized by a naked posterior margin on the propodus of pereopods 5-7, a special arrangement of robust setae on the first male gnathopod and a lack of dense fine setae on the second antennae. Parhyale darvishi sp. nov. is distributed from the western coasts of the Persian Gulf to the eastern coasts of Gulf of Oman. PMID:27395677

  4. Mortality among US veterans of the Persian Gulf War: 7-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kang, H K; Bullman, T A

    2001-09-01

    To assess the long-term health consequences of the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the authors compared cause-specific mortality rates of 621,902 Gulf War veterans with those of 746,248 non-Gulf veterans, by gender, with adjustment for age, race, marital status, branch of service, and type of unit. Vital status follow-up began with the date of exit from the Persian Gulf theater (Gulf veterans) or May 1, 1991 (control veterans). Follow-up for both groups ended on the date of death or December 31, 1997, whichever came first. Cox proportional hazards models were used for the multivariate analysis. For Gulf veterans, mortality risk was also assessed relative to the likelihood of exposure to nerve gas at Khamisiyah, Iraq. Among Gulf veterans, the significant excess of deaths due to motor vehicle accidents that was observed during the earlier postwar years had decreased steadily to levels found in non-Gulf veterans. The risk of death from natural causes remained lower among Gulf veterans compared with non-Gulf veterans. This was mainly accounted for by the relatively higher number of deaths related to human immunodeficiency virus infection among non-Gulf veterans. There was no statistically significant difference in cause-specific mortality among Gulf veterans relative to potential nerve gas exposure. The risk of death for both Gulf veterans and non-Gulf veterans stayed less than half of that expected in their civilian counterparts. The authors conclude that the excess risk of mortality from motor vehicle accidents that was associated with Gulf War service has dissipated after 7 years of follow-up. PMID:11532780

  5. 38 CFR 21.5053 - Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restoration of... Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5053 Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War). (a) Restoration of contributions when no entitlement is charged. If the provisions of §...

  6. 38 CFR 21.5053 - Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Restoration of... Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5053 Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War). (a) Restoration of contributions when no entitlement is charged. If the provisions of §...

  7. Sand Trap: The Military and the Media during the Persian Gulf War. Symposium Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Steven L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Five articles discuss the military-media relationship during the Persian Gulf War. Highlights include the development and implementation of the Pentagon's press policy; concerns of the media and military public affairs officers; first person accounts by journalists and a public affairs officer; and First Amendment principles. (29 references) (LRW)

  8. A checklist of the barnacles (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Thoracica) of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman with nine new records.

    PubMed

    Shahdadi, Adnan; Sari, Alireza; Naderloo, Reza

    2014-03-28

    The present annotated checklist contains 43 species of thoracican barnacles known to date from the area, 33 and 26 from the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, respectively. Nine species are new records for the area including Amphibalunus subalbidus (Henry, 1973), Armatobalanus allium (Darwin, 1854), Chelonibia patula (Ranzani, 1818), Conchoderma hunteri (Owen, 1830), Lepas anserifera Linnaeus, 1767, Lithotrya valentiana Reinhardt, 1850, Megabalanus coccopoma (Darwin, 1854), Megabalanus occator (Darwin, 1854) and Platylepas hexastylos (Fabricius, 1798), of which A. subalbidus and M. coccopoma are reported as alien species from the region.

  9. Vitamin D in the Persian Gulf: integrative physiology and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Fields, Jessica; Trivedi, Nishant J; Horton, Edward; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2011-12-01

    Countries of the Persian Gulf region--Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates--have become increasingly modernized, resulting in a transformation of lifestyle based on technology, sedentary activity, lack of sunlight, and unhealthy dietary patterns. These factors have led to a higher prevalence not only of vitamin D undernutrition, but also chronic obesity, insulin resistance, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes. This review explores the integrative physiologic effects of vitamin D with socioeconomic factors and propose a hypothesis-driven model for their contributions to obesity and diabetes in the Persian Gulf. Further research into these interactions may ultimately lead to novel preventive strategies and therapies for metabolic disorders in this geographic region.

  10. Enrichment and isolation of crude oil degrading bacteria from some mussels collected from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2015-12-15

    To date, little is known about existing relationships between mussels and bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated marine environments. The aim of this study is to find crude oil degrading bacteria in some mussels at the Persian Gulf. Twenty eight crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from three mussels species collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth and degradation of crude oil four strains were selected between 28 isolated strains for more study. Determination the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Shewanella algae isolate BHA1, Micrococcus luteus isolate BHA7, Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolate BHA8 and Shewanella haliotis isolate BHA35. The residual crude oil in culture medium was analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC). The results confirmed that these strains can degrade: 47.24%, 66.08%, 27.13% and 69.17% of crude oil respectively. These strains had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production. Also, the effects of some factors on crude oil degradation by isolated strains were studied. The results show that the optimum concentration of crude oil was 2.5% and the best degradation take place at 12% of salinity. This research is the first reports on characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from mussels at Persian Gulf and by using of these bacteria in the field the effect of oil pollution can be reduce on this marine environment. PMID:26581816

  11. Enrichment and isolation of crude oil degrading bacteria from some mussels collected from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2015-12-15

    To date, little is known about existing relationships between mussels and bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated marine environments. The aim of this study is to find crude oil degrading bacteria in some mussels at the Persian Gulf. Twenty eight crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from three mussels species collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth and degradation of crude oil four strains were selected between 28 isolated strains for more study. Determination the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Shewanella algae isolate BHA1, Micrococcus luteus isolate BHA7, Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolate BHA8 and Shewanella haliotis isolate BHA35. The residual crude oil in culture medium was analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC). The results confirmed that these strains can degrade: 47.24%, 66.08%, 27.13% and 69.17% of crude oil respectively. These strains had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production. Also, the effects of some factors on crude oil degradation by isolated strains were studied. The results show that the optimum concentration of crude oil was 2.5% and the best degradation take place at 12% of salinity. This research is the first reports on characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from mussels at Persian Gulf and by using of these bacteria in the field the effect of oil pollution can be reduce on this marine environment.

  12. Hospitalizations for unexplained illnesses among U.S. veterans of the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed Central

    Knoke, J. D.; Gray, G. C.

    1998-01-01

    Persian Gulf War veterans have reported a variety of symptoms, many of which have not led to conventional diagnoses. We ascertained all active-duty U.S. military personnel deployed to the Persian Gulf War (552,111) and all Gulf War era military personnel not deployed (1,479,751) and compared their postwar hospitalization records (until 1 April 1996) for one or more of 77 diagnoses under the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) system. The diagnoses were assembled by the Emerging Infections Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and are here termed "unexplained illnesses." Deployed veterans were found to have a slightly higher risk of hospitalization for unexplained illness than the nondeployed. Most of the excess hospitalizations for the deployed were due to the diagnosis "illness of unknown cause" (ICD-9 code 799.9), and most occurred in participants of the Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program who were admitted for evaluation only. When the effect of participation in this program was removed, the deployed had a slightly lower risk than the nondeployed. These findings suggest that active-duty Gulf War veterans did not have excess unexplained illnesses resulting in hospitalization in the 4.67-year period following deployment. PMID:9621191

  13. Variation in the size structure of corals is related to environmental extremes in the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Andrew G; Pratchett, Morgan S; Baird, Andrew H; Riegl, Bernhard; Heron, Scott F; Feary, David A

    2013-03-01

    The size structure of coral populations is the culmination of key demographic events, including recruitment, mortality and growth, thereby providing important insights to recent ecological dynamics. Importantly, the size structure of corals reflects both intrinsic (inherent life-history characteristics) and extrinsic (enhanced mortality due to chronic or acute disturbances) forcing on local populations, enabling post-hoc assessment of spatial and taxonomic differences in susceptibility to disturbance. This study examined the size structure of four locally abundant corals (Acropora downingi, Favia pallida, Platygyra daedalea, and massive Porites spp.) in two regions of the Persian Gulf: the southern Gulf (Dubai and Abu Dhabi) and eastern Gulf (western Musandam). Significant and consistent differences were apparent in mean colony sizes and size-distributions between regions. All corals in the southern Gulf were significantly smaller, and their size structure positively skewed and relatively more leptokurtic (i.e., peaky) compared to corals in the eastern Gulf. Sea surface temperatures, salinity, and the recent frequency of mass bleaching are all higher, in the southern Gulf, suggesting higher mortality rates and/or slower growth in these populations. Differences in size structure between locations were more pronounced than differences between species at each location, suggesting that extreme differences in environmental conditions and disturbance events have a greater influence on population dynamics in the Gulf than inherent differences in their life-history characteristics.

  14. Evaluation of ecotourism potential in the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Jafar; Danehkar, Afshin; Sharifipour, Rozita

    2008-08-01

    This research has identified areas located in the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf in the south of Iran, as strategic and ecological sites, based on tourism potential assessing criteria. To this end coastal limits were identified by satellite imagery in terms of shorelines and the maximum extent of water approach into the land and taking into consideration the characteristics of the nearby coastal villages. The studied region was then compared to similar international criteria and experiences. The original criteria were then divided into three main and four sub criteria. The Kangan region was found to have a potential for tourism industry according to the mentioned criteria. Naiband Gulf with a score of 20 was ranked first followed by Asalouyeh with a score of 18 and finally Taheri and Kangan Ports with scores of 16 and 15, respectively. With a high tourism industry potential in the studied region the necessity of ecotourism quality enhancement and environmental management planning for the northern shoreline of the Persian Gulf becomes of vital importance.

  15. Cheramus iranicus, a new species of ghost shrimp (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) from the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sepahvand, Vahid; Momtazi, Farzaneh; Tudge, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A new species of callianassid ghost shrimp is described from the Persian Gulf, Iran. Cheramus iranicus sp. nov. is the first member of Cheramus described from Iranian subtidal waters and can be differentiated by a large cheliped with a ventroproximal spine on the merus and 7 spines on the ventral margin of the ischium, the endopod of the uropod has 4 movable spines on the distal margin and the posterior margin of the telson is strongly bilobed with a prominent medial tooth and two pairs of lateral movable spines. It is compared to other described Cheramus-like species showing a high degree of morphological similarity.

  16. Neurobehavioral deficits in Persian Gulf veterans: evidence from a population-based study. Portland Environmental Hazards Research Center.

    PubMed

    Anger, W K; Storzbach, D; Binder, L M; Campbell, K A; Rohlman, D S; McCauley, L; Kovera, C A; Davis, K L

    1999-03-01

    Reports of low-concentration nerve gas exposures during the Persian Gulf War have spurred concern about possible health consequences and refocused interest on the symptoms reported by many returning military veterans. The Portland Environmental Hazards Research Center is studying veterans from the Northwest USA who report persistent, unexplained "Persian Gulf" symptoms (cases) or who do not report those symptoms (controls). Of the first 101 veterans studied, cases differed substantially from controls on a broad range of psychological tests indicative of increased distress. A subgroup of cases was identified with objective deficits on neurobehavioral tests of memory, attention, and response speed. PMID:10217920

  17. Mesoscale eddies and submesoscale structures of Persian Gulf Water off the Omani coast in Spring 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Hégaret, P.; Carton, X.; Louazel, S.; Boutin, G.

    2015-11-01

    The Persian Gulf produces a high salinity water (Persian Gulf Water, PGW hereafter) flowing into the Sea of Oman, in the northwestern Indian Ocean. Past the Strait of Hormuz, the PGW cascades down the continental slope and spreads in the Sea of Oman under the influence of the energetic mesoscale eddies with different thermohaline signatures and pathways depending of the season. In spring 2011, the Phys-Indien experiment was carried out in the Arabian Sea an in the Sea of Oman. This study uses the results from the measurements to characterize the water masses, their thermohaline and dynamical signatures. During the spring intermonsoon, an anticyclonic eddy is often observed at the mouth of the Sea of Oman. This structure was present in 2011 and created a front between the eastern and western part of the basin. As well two energetic gyres were present along the Omani coast in the Arabian Sea. At their peripheries, injections of fresh and cold water are found in relation with the stirring of the eddies. The PGW observed below or between these eddies have a different dilution depending of the position and formation periods of the gyres. Furthermore, in the western Sea of Oman, the PGW is fragmented in filaments and submesoscale eddies. As well, recirculation of the PGW is observed, thus having the presence of salty nearby patches with two densities. Offshore, in the Arabian Sea, a submesoscale lens was recorded. The different mechanisms leading to its formation and presence are assessed here.

  18. First record of sponge distribution in the Persian Gulf, (Hengam Island, Iran).

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, P; Savari, A; Yavari, V; Devin, M Loghmani

    2008-11-01

    The present study is a first attempt to examine sponge distribution in the Persian Gulf (Iranian costs) and suggests that physical and biological factors influence the sponge distribution patterns in Hengam Island. The purpose of this study is to provide patterns of sponges distribution and depth influence on sponge abundance and biomass on the Hengam Island. Surveys of sponge distribution were conducted June 2006 and February 2007 at 5, 10, 15 and 20 m depths sites in two locations: East and West of the Hengam island. Abundance and biomass of sponges species were surveyed at different depths on the Hengam Island in the Persian Gulf. All data on sponges species number and abundance and biomass in each region of Island were taken by SCUBA diving. Transect sampling in this area revealed distribution of sponges species. The sponges species in this area consist of Callyspongia clavata, Callyspongia vasselli, Hyrtios erectus, Haliclona sp., Leucetta sp., Ircinia echinata and Dysidea cinerea. Abundance and biomass of sponges in Hengam Island increased at 15-20 m depths.

  19. Enrichment and identification of naphthalene-degrading bacteria from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Boroujeni, Negar Amini

    2016-06-15

    Naphthalene is a ubiquitous pollutant of the marine environment, and naphthalene biodegradation has been receiving constant scientific consideration. For cleanup of aromatic contaminated sites, bioremediation methods are considered as economical and safe approaches for the marine environment. The aims of this research are isolation and characterization of naphthalene-degrading bacteria from some marine samples of the Persian Gulf. Fifty four naphthalene-degrading bacteria were isolated from marine samples (sediment and seawater) that are enriched in ONR7a medium with naphthalene as the only carbon source. Some screening tests such as growth at high concentration of naphthalene, bioemulsifier production and surface hydrophobicity were done to select the best and prevalent strains for naphthalene degradation. Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA shows that these isolated strains belong to these genera: Shewanella, Salegentibacter, Halomonas, Marinobacter, Oceanicola, Idiomarina and Thalassospira. These strains can degrade half of the percentage of naphthalene in 10days of incubation. This research is the first report on isolation of these genera from the Persian Gulf as naphthalene-degrader. PMID:27114087

  20. Sea-level response to atmospheric forcing along the north coast of Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, S.; Kiasatpour, A.; Hosseinibalam, F.

    2007-02-01

    Data from tide gauges (1990-1999) at Bandar Abbas and Bushehr combined with atmospheric data at both stations are utilized to investigate the mean sea-level (MSL) response to meteorological forcing functions along the north coast of the Persian Gulf. The relations between MSL and forces due to air pressure, air temperature and local wind are examined. The characteristics of variability of each field are analyzed using the spectral analysis method. The annual cycle is dominant in the sea-level, atmospheric pressure, air temperature and wind spectra. The influence of local meteorological functions are quantified using forward stepwise regression techniques. The results suggest that 71.5% and 71.2% variations in the MSL of Bandar Abbas and Bushehr stations are due to meteorological forces at each stations. The model indicates that the most significant influence on the observed variation of MSL at Bandar Abbas is air pressure, while at Bushehr is air temperature. The results of multivariate and simple regression show that these parameters are highly intercorrelated. The sea-level is not significantly correlated with the monthly and winter NAO and Monsoon in the Persian Gulf. The remaining variations are due to density of sea water (steric effect), which has considerable influence on the sea-level variations, and coastal upwelling.

  1. The stinging Apidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera: Apocrita) in Iranian islands, Qeshm, Abu-Musa, Great Tunb and Lesser Tunb on the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Khoobdel, Mehdi; Tavassoli, Maryam; Salari, Mehdi; Firozi, Fateme

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the stinging flying Hymenoptera (Apidae and Vespidae) fauna in four Iranian Islands, Qeshm, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and Abu-Musa on the Persian Gulf. Methods The flies were captured by used of Malaise trap, fly trap, bottle trap and insect net-hashing from March 2011 to July 2012. Results In this study, 11 species of stinging Hymenoptera were reported for the first time in Persian Gulf region. Conclusions Some of this species such as Vespa orientalis and Polistes olivaceus are more common in the Persian Gulf islands and can cause clinical problem to islands resident and travelers. PMID:25183092

  2. Visceral and cutaneous hypersensitivity in Persian Gulf war veterans with chronic gastrointestinal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Rebecca C; Bridgewater, Lee; Price, Donald D; Robinson, Michael E; Zeilman, Charles J; Verne, G Nicholas

    2003-03-01

    Approximately 697000 United States military personnel participated in the Persian Gulf War (PGW) between August 1990 and March 1991. By April 1997, over 25% of veterans reported chronic health complaints of underdetermined etiology. Gastrointestinal symptoms were among the most frequently reported symptoms including abdominal pain and diarrhea. The objectives of this study were (1). to determine if PGW veterans chronic abdominal pain and diarrhea exhibit visceral and cutaneous hypersensitivity, (2). to determine if these differences in pain sensitivity are significantly associated with psychological stress. A total of 12 veterans (ten males, two females) (39+/-9 years) who were deployed to the Persian Gulf were enrolled. Seven civilians without prior military experience (five males, two females) and five veterans (five males) who had previously been deployed for active combat were enrolled as controls (35+/-9 years). All 12 PGW veterans reported chronic abdominal pain and diarrhea (negative diagnostic workup) that developed during their tour of duty in the Persian Gulf region. All patients completed a battery of psychological assessments and then randomly received experimental visceral (rectal distension of 35 and 55 mmHg for 30s) and cutaneous (immersion of right foot in 45 and 47 degrees C water for 30s) pain stimuli after which they rated their pain intensity and pain unpleasantness on a continuous visual analogue scale (M-VAS) scale. The trials were repeated and the mean M-VAS scores for the two trials were recorded for each subject. In comparison to controls, PGW subjects reported statistically significant higher mean ratings of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness in response to 35 and 55 mmHg rectal distention (P<0.001) and in response to 45 and 47 degrees C water immersion (P<0.001) of the hand and foot. Results of the hierarchical regressions indicated that the psychological measures (i.e. anxiety, somatic focus) accounted for a significant amount of

  3. Energy investment advisory series No. 3: Investment opportunities in the Persian Gulf energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Hadgen, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    Sometimes the greatest investment opportunities are in those areas where the least progress seems to be taking place. This report describes energy-based developments taking place in the Persian/Arabian Gulf. The 8 Gulf states are building their nations; each has large minority groups and swelling populations; their economies are built on one product (hydrocarbons). Large expatriate populations, being integrated into local societies and economies, have led to hostility and guarded access to contacts with the outside world. Gulf nations cannot benefit from any oil price rise as they did in the past, as their populations have grown too rapidly. Policies change daily and can be changed back to original ones as well as into new ones. Since the oil and gas industries are the primary source of government revenue, oil and gas are likely to remain longest under government control. A breakdown of energy-base investment potentials in the Middle East is tabulated: upstream oil, refining, domestic oil marketing, upstream gas, LNG, electricity, petrochemical.

  4. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in edible marine biota from Northern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Nozar, Seyedeh Laili Mohebbi; Pauzi, Mohamad Zakaria; Salarpouri, Ali; Daghooghi, Behnam; Salimizadeh, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    To provide a baseline information for consumer's health, distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons in 18 edible marine biota species from northern Persian Gulf was evaluated. The samples were purchased from fish market of Hormozgan Province, South of Iran. Marine biota samples included different species with various feeding habits and were analyzed based on ultraviolet florescence spectroscopy. Petroleum hydrocarbons showed narrow variation, ranging from 0.67 to 3.36 μg/g dry weight. The maximum value was observed in silver pomfret. Anchovy and silver pomfret with the highest content of petroleum hydrocarbons were known as good indicator for oil pollution in the studied area. From public health point of view, the detected concentrations for total petroleum hydrocarbons were lower than hazardous guidelines. The results were recorded as background data and information in the studied area; the continuous monitoring of pollutants is recommended, according to the rapid extension of industrial and oily activities in Hormozgan Province.

  5. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from the coastline and mangroves of the northern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mohebbi-Nozar, Seyedeh Laili; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Ismail, Wan Ruslan; Mortazawi, Mohammad Seddiq; Salimizadeh, Maryam; Momeni, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Gholamali

    2015-06-15

    To provide baseline information for the marine ecosystem of Hormozgan province, the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons was evaluated in 52 stations involved in the mangrove and coastline ecosystem. Coastline sampling sites included areas facing harbor, river, domestic and industrial discharge. Sediment samples were analyzed based on ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy. Petroleum hydrocarbons showed narrow variations ranging from non-detectable (ND) to 1.71 and from 0.2 to 0.63μg/g dry weight for coastline and mangrove sediments, respectively. The detected concentrations for total petroleum hydrocarbons were lower than guideline values for ecological risk. Furthermore, the minimum environmental risk was confirmed by background levels for the Persian Gulf, the Sea of Oman, and detected values for reference areas. The results were regarded as background data in the studied area, and, considering the rapid expansion of activities related to the petroleum industry in Hormozgan province, the continuous monitoring of pollutants is recommended.

  6. Spouses of Persian Gulf War I veterans: medical evaluation of a U.S. cohort.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Seth A; Karlinsky, Joel; Jackson, Leila W; Blanchard, Melvin; Kang, Han K; Murphy, Frances M; Alpern, Renee; Reda, Domenic J; Toomey, Rosemary; Battistone, Michael J; Parks, Becky J; Klimas, Nancy; Pak, Hon S; Hunter, Joyce; Lyons, Michael J; Henderson, William G

    2006-07-01

    Ten years after the 1991 Persian Gulf War (GW I), a comprehensive evaluation of a national cohort of deployed veterans (DV) demonstrated a higher prevalence of several medical conditions, in comparison to a similarly identified cohort of nondeployed veterans (NDV). The present study determined the prevalence of medical conditions among nonveteran spouses of these GW I DV and NDV. A cohort of 490 spouses of GW I DV and 537 spouses of GW I NDV underwent comprehensive face-to-face examinations. No significant differences in health were detected except that spouses of DV were less likely to have one or more of a group of six common skin conditions. We conclude that, 10 years after GW I, the general physical health of spouses of GW I DV is similar to that of spouses of NDV.

  7. Observations and trends of emissions from gas flaring in the Persian Gulf region using OMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, H.; Soltanieh, M.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Gas flaring associated with oil production is common where there is no local market for natural gas (mostly methane) and emits large amount of air pollutants and greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. OMI NO2, SO2 and Aerosol Index (AI) observations from 2005 to 2013 were analyzed, and successfully characterize emissions from major flaring sources in the Persian Gulf region. The SO2/NO2 ratio can distinguish flaring regions with relatively high SO2 component, from urban and industrial areas, where domestic heating, internal combustion of motor vehicles and power generation with a relatively high NO2 component dominate. Concentrations of these gases over facilities for production and export of oil reflect the economic recession of 2008/9 and reduced oil exports due to sanctions imposed in 2012. A nearby site involved primarily in copper smelting show no such trend. These temporal trends are being analyzed to improve emissions estimates.

  8. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from the coastline and mangroves of the northern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mohebbi-Nozar, Seyedeh Laili; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Ismail, Wan Ruslan; Mortazawi, Mohammad Seddiq; Salimizadeh, Maryam; Momeni, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Gholamali

    2015-06-15

    To provide baseline information for the marine ecosystem of Hormozgan province, the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons was evaluated in 52 stations involved in the mangrove and coastline ecosystem. Coastline sampling sites included areas facing harbor, river, domestic and industrial discharge. Sediment samples were analyzed based on ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy. Petroleum hydrocarbons showed narrow variations ranging from non-detectable (ND) to 1.71 and from 0.2 to 0.63μg/g dry weight for coastline and mangrove sediments, respectively. The detected concentrations for total petroleum hydrocarbons were lower than guideline values for ecological risk. Furthermore, the minimum environmental risk was confirmed by background levels for the Persian Gulf, the Sea of Oman, and detected values for reference areas. The results were regarded as background data in the studied area, and, considering the rapid expansion of activities related to the petroleum industry in Hormozgan province, the continuous monitoring of pollutants is recommended. PMID:25843439

  9. Mercury distribution in contaminated surface sediments from four estuaries, Khuzestan shore, north part of Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Sarasiab, Abdolah Raeisi; Hosseini, Mehdi; Mirsalari, Zohreh

    2014-11-01

    The distribution of mercury in surface sediment from four estuaries along the Khuzestan shore, north part of Persian Gulf, was measured. The concentration of mercury varied among sampling stations (p < 0.05). The concentrations of mercury in all estuaries were from 0.01 to 2.16 µg g(-1). Relatively high mercury concentrations were observed in sediments from Musa estuary. The percentage of mercury associated with different fractions in the sediment from all stations were in the order of residual (70.4 %) > organic matter (16.6 %) > easily and exchangeable (2.2 %) > acid reduction (0.8 %). I geo values calculated for mercury (1.5) showed higher values in Musa estuary than in the other stations. The bioavailability of mercury in sediments could be controlled by physicochemical factors such as pH, oxidation and reduction potential, organic carbon content and cation exchange capacity.

  10. Phylogeny of Symbiodinium populations in zoantharians of the northern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Noori Koupaei, Atoosa; Dehghani, Hamed; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Mashini, Amirhossein Gheitanchi

    2016-04-30

    Zoantharians of the Persian Gulf (PG) experience periods of anomalous high temperature, irradiance and desiccation. Their survival largely relies on the symbiotic relationship with single celled dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. However, the phylogeny of symbionts of zoantharians has not been investigated in the region. In this study, the second internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS2) was used to recognize in hospite populations of Symbiodinium in Palythoa aff. mutuki, Palythoa tuberculosa and Zoanthus sansibaricus colonies from Hengam, Kish, Larak, and Qeshm Islands, in the PG. The results showed subclade D1-4 and a variant of A1, were the most prevalent subclades of Symbiodinium. Predominance of stress tolerant subclade D1-4 and putatively radiation tolerant variant of A1 of Symbiodinium in zoantharian species might suggest an adaptation strategy to the extreme physical environment of the PG. PMID:26948294

  11. Data of heavy metals biosorption onto Sargassum oligocystum collected from the northern coast of Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Delshab, Sedigheh; Kouhgardi, Esmaeil; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2016-09-01

    This data article presents a simple method for providing a biosorbent from Sargassum oligocystum harvested from the northern coast of Persian Gulf, Bushehr, Iran. The characterization data of Sargassum oligocystum biochar (SOB) were analyzed using various instrumental techniques (FTIR and XPS). The kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamics data of Hg(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) ions onto SOB were presented. The maximum biosorption capacity of SOB to uptake Hg(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) ions from aqueous solution was obtained 60.25, 153.85, and 45.25 mg/g, respectively. The experimental data showed that biochar prepared from Sargassum oligocystum is an efficient and promising biosorbent for the treatment of heavy metals-bearing wastewaters. PMID:27331094

  12. Life events in health care providers before and during Persian Gulf War deployment: the USNS Comfort.

    PubMed

    Slusarcick, A L; Ursano, R J; Fullerton, C S; Dinneen, M P

    1999-10-01

    Just before the onset of Operation Desert Storm, health care personnel (N = 250) onboard the USNS Comfort reported the occurrence of life events for the preceding year, including before deployment and during the Persian Gulf War. Study participants noted both total and negative life events. The mean number of negative life events during the preceding year was 1.44; a sizable proportion of participants (38%) reported no negative life events during this time. There were no differences in the mean number of total or negative life events by gender, although women checked significantly more life event items related to interpersonal factors and men noted more life events concerning financial issues. Women, nurses, the childless, and lower ranking officers noted significantly greater negative life events during predeployment than deployment. Negative life events were moderately related to anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Both research and policy implications are discussed.

  13. Unhealthy lifestyles and ischaemic electrocardiographic abnormalities: the Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Nabipour, I; Amiri, M; Imami, S R; Jahfari, S M; Nosrati, A; Iranpour, D; Soltanian, A R

    2008-01-01

    We assessed prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and unhealthy lifestyles in 3723 participants aged > or = 25 years in the northern Persian Gulf region; 96.0% had > or = 1 cardiovascular risk factor. Over 60% had unhealthy body weight, only 8.3% ate the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables, 70.6% were physically inactive and 19.0% were current smokers. Prevalence of electrocardiogram (ECG) with evidence of IHD was 12.7%. Present or past smoking and truncal obesity were independently associated with IHD ECGs in men, and past or present smoking and obesity in women. Hypertension and diabetes were independently associated with increased risk of IHD ECG.

  14. The impact of the Persian Gulf crisis on household energy consumption and expenditure patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, L.; Poyer, D.; Teotia, A.

    1994-09-01

    The Iraqi invasion of the Kingdom of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, and the subsequent war between Iraq and an international alliance led by the United States triggered first immediate and then fluctuating world petroleum prices. Increases in petroleum prices and in U.S. petroleum imports resulted in increases in the petroleum prices paid by U.S. residential, commercial, and industrial consumers. The result was an immediate price shock that reverberated throughout the U.S. economy. The differential impact of these price increases and fluctuations on poor and minority households raised immediate, significant, and potentially long-term research, policy, and management issues for a variety of federal, state, and local government agencies, including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Among these issues are (1) the measurement of variations in the impact of petroleum price changes on poor, nonpoor, minority, and majority households; (2) how to use the existing policy resources and policy innovation to mitigate regressive impacts of petroleum price increases on lower-income households; and (3) how to pursue such policy mitigation through government agencies severely circumscribed by tax and expenditure limitations. Few models attempt to assess household energy consumption and energy expenditure under various alternative price scenarios and with respect to the inclusion of differential household choices correlated with such variables as race, ethnicity, income, and geographic location. This paper provides a preliminary analysis of the nature and extent of potential impacts of petroleum price changes attributable to the Persian Gulf War and its aftermath on majority, black, and Hispanic households and on overlapping poor and nonpoor households. At the time this was written, the Persian Gulf War had concluded with Iraq`s total surrender to all of the resolutions and demands of the United Nations and United States.

  15. Mesoscale eddies and submesoscale structures of Persian Gulf Water off the Omani coast in spring 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Hégaret, Pierre; Carton, Xavier; Louazel, Stephanie; Boutin, Guillaume

    2016-05-01

    The Persian Gulf produces high-salinity water (Persian Gulf Water, PGW hereafter), which flows into the Sea of Oman via the Strait of Hormuz. Beyond the Strait of Hormuz, the PGW cascades down the continental slope and spreads in the Sea of Oman under the influence of the energetic mesoscale eddies. The PGW outflow has different thermohaline characteristics and pathways, depending on the season. In spring 2011, the Phys-Indien experiment was carried out in the Arabian Sea and in the Sea of Oman. The Phys-Indien 2011 measurements, as well as satellite observations, are used here to characterize the circulation induced by the eddy field and its impact on the PGW pathway and evolution. During the spring intermonsoon, an anticyclonic eddy is often observed at the mouth of the Sea of Oman. It creates a front between the eastern and western parts of the basin. This structure was observed in 2011 during the Phys-Indien experiment. Two energetic eddies were also present along the southern Omani coast in the Arabian Sea. At their peripheries, ribbons of freshwater and cold water were found due to the stirring created by the eddies. The PGW characteristics are strongly influenced by these eddies. In the western Sea of Oman, in 2011, the PGW was fragmented into filaments and submesoscale eddies. It also recirculated locally, thus creating salty layers with different densities. In the Arabian Sea, a highly saline submesoscale lens was recorded offshore. Its characteristics are analyzed here and possible origins are proposed. The recurrence of such lenses in the Arabian Sea is also briefly examined.

  16. First time isolation of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae from Caranx sexfasciatus in Persian Gulf, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzadeh, Yashgin; Bahador, Nima; Baseri-Salehi, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae is a marine pathogenic bacterium which causes disease in marine animals and human. This bacterium mostly found in coastal shallow seawater. So, the aim of this study was isolation and characterization of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae from edible fish of Persian Gulf, Bandar Abbas. Material and Methods: Totally 100 fish from different species were evaluated and out of that 5 different types of fish with external symptoms including: Caranx sexfasciatus, Lethrinus olivaceus, Scomberoid tol, Auxis thazard and Liza macrolepis, were collected from Bandar Abbas local fish market in September 2013. The samples were cultured on Marin Agar 2216 and Thiosulfate Citrate Bile salts Sucrose Agar media and incubated at 25°C for 48 hrs. Then the isolates were characterized using biochemical (API 20 NE system) and molecular techniques. In addition, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of poly β hydroxy butyrate and hemolysis activity of isolates were evaluated. Results and Conclusion: Entirely, 30 Gram negative bacterial colonies were isolated from the selected fish. Among the isolates, two suspected colonies were identified as Photobacterium damselae from Caranx sexfasciatus with API 20NE biochemical test. This results confirmed by 16s rRNA sequencing method. Both isolates showed α hemolytic with existence of β hydroxyl butyrate. Furthermore, the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid. Conclusion: Overall, the study indicated first time isolation of this bacterium from one type of fish caught from Persian Gulf, which warns us to pay more attention to fishery in this geographical area. PMID:26668707

  17. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of marine macro algae (Dictyotaceae and Ulvaceae) from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mashjoor, Sakineh; Yousefzadi, Morteza; Esmaeili, Mohamad Ali; Rafiee, Roya

    2016-10-01

    Pharmaceutical industry now accept the worlds ocean which contains a vast array of organisms with unique biological properties, as a major frontier for medical investigation. Bioactive compounds with different modes of action, such as, antiproliferative, antioxidant, antimicrotubule, have been isolated from marine sources, specifically macro and micro algae, and cyanobacteria. The aim of this work was to investigate antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the extracts of marine macro algae Ulva flexuosa, Padina antillarum and Padina boergeseni from the northern coasts of the Persian Gulf, Qeshm Island, Iran, against three cell lines including MCF7, HeLa and Vero, as well as their inhibitory effects against a wide array (i.e. n = 11) of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Antimicrobial activity of the marine macro algal extracts was assessed using a disc diffusion method; an MTT cytotoxicity assay was employed to test the effects of the extracts on each cancer cell line. The algal extracts showed considerable antimicrobial activity against the majority of the tested bacteria and fungi. Both ethyl acetate and methanol extracts at the highest concentration (100 µg/ml) caused cell death, with the IC50 values calculated for each cell type and each algal extracts. Results are exhibited a higher decrease in the viability of the cells treated at the highest concentration of marine macro algal ethyl acetate extracts compared to the methanol extracts (78.9 % death in Vero cells by ethyl acetate extracts from U. flexuosa). Despite, the ethyl acetate extracts with lower dose- response of cells, exhibited better cytotoxic activity than methanol extracts (IC50: 55.26 μg/ml in Vero cells by ethyl acetate extracts from U. flexuosa). Based on the findings, it is concluded that the marine macro algal extracts from the Persian Gulf possess antibacterial and cytotoxic potential, which could be considered for future applications in medicine and identifying novel drugs from the

  18. Photosynthetic response of Persian Gulf acroporid corals to summer versus winter temperature deviations

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Abolfazl; Mehdinia, Ali; Shirvani, Arash; Kayal, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    With on-going climate change, coral susceptibility to thermal stress constitutes a central concern in reefconservation. In the Persian Gulf, coral reefs are confronted with a high seasonal variability in water temperature, and both hot and cold extremes have been associated with episodes of coral bleaching and mortality. Using physiological performance as a measure of coral health, we investigated the thermal susceptibility of the common acroporid, Acropora downingi, near Hengam Island where the temperature oscillates seasonally in the range 20.2–34.2 °C. In a series of two short-term experiments comparing coral response in summer versus winter conditions, we exposed corals during each season (1) to the corresponding seasonal average and extreme temperature levels in a static thermal environment, and (2) to a progressive temperature deviation from the annual mean toward the corresponding extreme seasonal value and beyond in a dynamic thermal environment. We monitored four indictors of coral physiological performance: net photosynthesis (Pn), dark respiration (R), autotrophic capability (Pn/R), and survival. Corals exposed to warming during summer showed a decrease in net photosynthesis and ultimately died, while corals exposed to cooling during winter were not affected in their photosynthetic performance and survival. Coral autotrophic capability Pn/R was lower at the warmer thermal level within eachseason, and during summer compared to winter. Corals exposed to the maximum temperature of summer displayed Pn/R < 1, inferring that photosynthetic performance could not support basal metabolic needs under this environment. Our results suggest that the autotrophic performance of the Persian Gulf A. downingi is sensitive to the extreme temperatures endured in summer, and therefore its populations may be impacted by future increases in water temperature. PMID:26157627

  19. Photosynthetic response of Persian Gulf acroporid corals to summer versus winter temperature deviations.

    PubMed

    Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Saleh, Abolfazl; Mehdinia, Ali; Shirvani, Arash; Kayal, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    With on-going climate change, coral susceptibility to thermal stress constitutes a central concern in reefconservation. In the Persian Gulf, coral reefs are confronted with a high seasonal variability in water temperature, and both hot and cold extremes have been associated with episodes of coral bleaching and mortality. Using physiological performance as a measure of coral health, we investigated the thermal susceptibility of the common acroporid, Acropora downingi, near Hengam Island where the temperature oscillates seasonally in the range 20.2-34.2 °C. In a series of two short-term experiments comparing coral response in summer versus winter conditions, we exposed corals during each season (1) to the corresponding seasonal average and extreme temperature levels in a static thermal environment, and (2) to a progressive temperature deviation from the annual mean toward the corresponding extreme seasonal value and beyond in a dynamic thermal environment. We monitored four indictors of coral physiological performance: net photosynthesis (Pn), dark respiration (R), autotrophic capability (Pn/R), and survival. Corals exposed to warming during summer showed a decrease in net photosynthesis and ultimately died, while corals exposed to cooling during winter were not affected in their photosynthetic performance and survival. Coral autotrophic capability Pn/R was lower at the warmer thermal level within eachseason, and during summer compared to winter. Corals exposed to the maximum temperature of summer displayed Pn/R < 1, inferring that photosynthetic performance could not support basal metabolic needs under this environment. Our results suggest that the autotrophic performance of the Persian Gulf A. downingi is sensitive to the extreme temperatures endured in summer, and therefore its populations may be impacted by future increases in water temperature. PMID:26157627

  20. Word-finding impairment in veterans of the 1991 Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Moffett, Kristin; Crosson, Bruce; Spence, Jeffrey S; Case, Kimberly; Levy, Ilana; Gopinath, Kaundinya; Shah, Parina; Goyal, Aman; Fang, Yan; Briggs, Richard W; Hart, John; Moore, Anna; Haley, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    Approximately one quarter of 1991 Persian Gulf War Veterans experience cognitive and physiological sequelae that continue to be unexplained by known medical or psychological conditions. Difficulty coming up with words and names, familiar before the war, is a hallmark of the illness. Three Gulf War Syndrome subtypes have been identified and linked to specific war-time chemical exposures. The most functionally impaired veterans belong to the Gulf War Syndrome 2 (Syndrome 2) group, for which subcortical damage due to toxic nerve gas exposure is the suspected cause. Subcortical damage is often associated with specific complex language impairments, and Syndrome 2 veterans have demonstrated poorer vocabulary relative to controls. 11 Syndrome 1, 16 Syndrome 2, 9 Syndrome 3, and 14 age-matched veteran controls from the Seabees Naval Construction Battalion were compared across three measures of complex language. Additionally, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was collected during a covert category generation task, and whole-brain functional activity was compared between groups. Results demonstrated that Syndrome 2 veterans performed significantly worse on letter and category fluency relative to Syndrome 1 veterans and controls. They also exhibited reduced activity in the thalamus, putamen, and amygdala, and increased activity in the right hippocampus relative to controls. Syndrome 1 and Syndrome 3 groups tended to show similar, although smaller, differences than the Syndrome 2 group. Hence, these results further demonstrate specific impairments in complex language as well as subcortical and hippocampal involvement in Syndrome 2 veterans. Further research is required to determine the extent of language impairments in this population and the significance of altered neurologic activity in the aforementioned brain regions with the purpose of better characterizing the Gulf War Syndromes.

  1. A model of the general circulation in the Persian Gulf and in the Strait of Hormuz: Intraseasonal to interannual variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pous, Stéphane; Lazure, Pascal; Carton, Xavier

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies modeling the circulation and thermohaline structure in the Persian Gulf have suggested that interannual variability and vertical mixing processes could explain the model biases when compared to the few observations available. Here, a realistic, interannual, high-resolution model of the Persian Gulf is presented, validated against observations and then used to describe the intraseasonal to interannual variability in the circulation, water mass formation and exchange through the Strait of Hormuz. Sensitivity experiments to model settings, in particular vertical mixing parameterizations, have been performed in order to have the best comparison with all available observations. Main circulation and water mass characteristics correspond well to observations and previous modeling studies on the seasonal timescale. A barotropic cyclonic gyre dominates the general circulation in the Gulf from April to July then breaks down into smaller features as wind intensifies and stratification decreases due to winter cooling. Dense salty water is formed in the northwest part of the Gulf and in the southern banks, but the latter reaches the Strait of Hormuz from November to April only. While temperature fluctuations are mostly seasonal, salinity has substantial fluctuations on the interannual timescale that cannot be directly related to atmospheric fluxes because of the importance of the exchanges at Hormuz for the salt budget within the Gulf. This advocates the use of atmospheric conditions including interannual variations when running models of the Persian Gulf. On the other hand, the interannual variations in the net transport at Hormuz directly follow variations in the evaporation minus precipitation over the Gulf. Thermohaline structure and circulation also vary on intraseasonal timescale, induced by the high-frequency tidal and atmospheric forcings. Finally, some biases remain in the simulations presented here, mostly due to the lack of observations of the

  2. Evaluation of the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) along the Persian Gulf coast.

    PubMed

    Dadar, Maryam; Peyghan, Rahim; Memari, Hamid Rajabi

    2014-09-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals in Persian Gulf are low, but petrochemical and refinery activities have caused an increase in heavy metal wastes, especially in coastal regions. The present study was done to determine the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the muscle of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The experiment was conducted in four important coastal regions of the Persian Gulf: Bushehr, Deylam, Mahshahr, and Abadan. Amounts of seven heavy metals such as Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd), and Cobalt (Co), were measured as µg/g heavy metal in dry weight in the muscle of white shrimp from the afore-mentioned regions during 2011. This study revealed information that the primary risk for human health and the marine life chain was lead in the muscles of white shrimp in Mahshahr, where intense petrochemical and refinery activities are conducted. Concentrations of other heavy metals were lower than world standards. PMID:25029962

  3. Biomonitoring of trace metal bioavailabilities to the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite along the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Nasrolahi, A; Smith, B D; Ehsanpour, M; Afkhami, M; Rainbow, P S

    2014-10-01

    The fouling barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite is a cosmopolitan biomonitor of trace metal bioavailabilities, with an international comparative data set of body metal concentrations. Bioavailabilities of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V and Zn to A. amphitrite were investigated at 19 sites along the Iranian coast of the understudied Persian Gulf. Commercial and fishing ports showed extremely high Cu bioavailabilities, associated with high Zn bioavailabilities, possibly from antifouling paints and procedures. V availability was raised at one port, perhaps associated with fuel leakage. Cd bioavailabilities were raised at sites near the Strait of Hormuz, perhaps affected by adjacent upwelling off Oman. The As data allow a reinterpretation of the typical range of accumulated As concentrations in A. amphitrite. The Persian Gulf data add a new region to the A. amphitrite database, confirming its importance in assessing the ecotoxicologically significant trace metal contamination of coastal waters across the world.

  4. Two new species of Palapedia Ng, 1993 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura,
    Xanthidae) from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Naderloo, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Palapedia Ng, 1993, are described based on material collected from Abu-Musa Island, Persian Gulf during the present study, from Bahrain by the 1937/38 Danish Expedition, and from the Saudi Arabian coast of the Persian Gulf by Michael Apel in 1992-1995. Palapedia persica n. sp. is distinguishable from its congeners by having distinctly large denticles on the upper margin of the palm and fingers of the chelae and anterior margin of the ambulatory dactyli, and by the markedly sickle-shaped dactylus of the ambulatory legs. Palapedia apeli n. sp. is similar to P. valentini Ng, 1993, and P. nitida (Stimpson, 1858), by having relatively smooth appendages. PMID:26250272

  5. Credibility of neuropsychological performances of Persian Gulf War veterans and military control subjects participating in clinical epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Barrash, Joseph; Denburg, Natalie L; Moser, David J; Woolson, Robert F; Schumacher, Amy J; Doebbeling, Bradley N

    2007-07-01

    We investigated whether Persian Gulf War veterans (GWVs) were more likely than Persian Gulf War-era veterans deployed elsewhere (GEVs) to have noncredible neuropsychological examinations. A total of 301 GWVs and 99 GEVs underwent neuropsychological testing. The credibility of 173 examinations showing impairment was evaluated based on test performances, clinical background, psychometric measures, and other self-report data. All 11 examinations judged less than fully credible by one neuropsychologist, plus 19 examinations judged impaired but credible, were then evaluated independently by two more neuropsychologists. Noncredibility was judged with excellent reliability (93% agreement). Seven examinations were judged noncredible. Rates of noncredibility did not differ between GWVs (1%) and GEVs (4%). The pattern of associations of noncredible examinations with cognitive, psychological, and clinical variables generally indicated defective neuropsychological scores, with no coherent pattern, and personality disorder. Findings supported the validity of noncredibility judgments and suggested that noncredible examinations are not a significant problem in neuropsychological investigations of GWVs.

  6. Evaluation of the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) along the Persian Gulf coast.

    PubMed

    Dadar, Maryam; Peyghan, Rahim; Memari, Hamid Rajabi

    2014-09-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals in Persian Gulf are low, but petrochemical and refinery activities have caused an increase in heavy metal wastes, especially in coastal regions. The present study was done to determine the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the muscle of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The experiment was conducted in four important coastal regions of the Persian Gulf: Bushehr, Deylam, Mahshahr, and Abadan. Amounts of seven heavy metals such as Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd), and Cobalt (Co), were measured as µg/g heavy metal in dry weight in the muscle of white shrimp from the afore-mentioned regions during 2011. This study revealed information that the primary risk for human health and the marine life chain was lead in the muscles of white shrimp in Mahshahr, where intense petrochemical and refinery activities are conducted. Concentrations of other heavy metals were lower than world standards.

  7. First Palaearctic Record of the Bird Parasite Passeromyia heterochaeta (Diptera: Muscidae) from the Iranian Persian Gulf Islands

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Andrzej; Khoobdel, Mehdi; Akbarzadeh, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Passeromyia is a muscid genus previously known from the Old World Afrotropical and Oriental regions and eastwards from Australia and the West Pacific. The genus is known from nest-dwelling larvae which may be parasites of the nestlings. This study was aimed to identify of the Passeromyia species in the Iranian Persian Gulf Islands. Methods: The flies were collected during April 2010 to March 2011 on the 4 Iranian Persian Gulf islands, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb, Abu-Mousa and Qeshm with fly bottle trap and entomological net. Results: During this sampling, 18 representatives of P. heterochaeta, a species with free-living haematophagous larvae, have been collected. The species is reported herein from Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb, Abu-Mousa and Qeshm islands. Conclusions: This is the first Palaearctic record of the species as well as the first report of the genus Passeromyia from the Palaearctic Region. PMID:26114137

  8. Methods of monitoring the Persian Gulf oil spill using digital and hardcopy multiband data. Technical report, January-July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, R.S.; Satterwhite, M.B.; Davis, D.A.; Anderson, J.E.

    1992-08-01

    A quick response demonstration was performed during the Persian Gulf War that showed a capability to monitor the path of oil dumped into the bay near Kuwait City using commercial satellite imagery. Both manual and semi-automated methods of image analysis were performed on AVHRR and Landsat TM imagery. Estimates of the oil area coverage were obtained using conventional classification methods. A hardcopy generation and reproduction capability was also demonstrated.

  9. Strategic plan for the Persian Gulf region: Options for deterring and/or defeating an emerging threat. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, M.W.

    1992-12-17

    The Persian Gulf region is, in all likelihood, going to remain crucial to American interests through the next several decades. The world depends on the petroleum reserves of the Gulf region to fuel its economic engine. The recent history of the region has been rife with conflict, and the U.S. has had to intervene militarily on several occasions to ensure its vital interests were protected. This thesis examines the strategic circumstances in the Gulf region and ways in which American political, diplomatic, and military policy can help shape the environment to conform to its interests. Several scenarios are developed which attempt to forecast the results of different environments on regional stability. The thesis reaches the conclusion that the United States must take a proactive role if its short- and long-term interests are to be protected. The short-term goal of U.S. policy must be to maintain a balance of power and regional correlation of forces which serves to deter any would-be aggressor nations. In the long run, the United States must seek a comprehensive regional peace. Various methods of achieving these goals are examined....Persian Gulf, Arms Proliferation, Strategic Planning, Gulf Cooperation Council, GCC, Regional Deterrence, Middle East, Arms Control, Scenario Development, Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Regional Security Strategy.

  10. Unexplained illnesses among Desert Storm veterans. A search for causes, treatment, and cooperation. Persian Gulf Veterans Coordinating Board.

    PubMed

    1995-02-13

    Between August 1990 and March 1991, the United States deployed 697,000 troops to the Persian Gulf to liberate Kuwait from Iraqi occupation. Since the Gulf War, most veterans seeking medical care at Departments of Veterans Affairs and Defense medical facilities have had diagnosable conditions, but the symptoms of several thousand veterans have not been readily explained. The most commonly reported, unexplained complaints have been chronic fatigue, rash, headache, arthralgias/myalgias, difficulty concentrating, forgetfulness, and irritability. These symptoms have not been localized to any one organ system, and there has been no consistent physical sign or laboratory abnormality that indicates a single specific disease. Because of the unexplained illnesses being experienced by some Gulf War troops, a comprehensive clinical and research effort has been organized by the Departments of Veterans Affairs, Defense, and Health and Human Services to provide care for veterans and to evaluate their medical problems. To determine the causes and most effective treatments of illnesses among Gulf War veterans, a thorough understanding of all potential health risks associated with service in the Persian Gulf is necessary. These risks are reviewed in this article and include possible reactions to prophylactic drugs and vaccines, infectious diseases, and exposures to chemicals, radiation, and smoke from oil fires.

  11. Investigation and validation of MODIS SST in the northern Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanea, Mohsen; Moradi, Masoud; Kabiri, Keivan; Mehdinia, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Validation of satellite derived sea surface temperature (SST) is necessary since satellite minus buoy SST (= bias) relies on atmospheric and oceanographic conditions and time periods. This research validates MODIS (Terra and Aqua) satellite daytime SST with buoy SST at the northern Persian Gulf. Sixteen dates during June 2011 to June 2015 were selected for validation. The buoy-satellite matchups were gained within one image pixel (1 km at nadir) and ±6 h in time. For most matchups, time interval was ±3 h. Effects of total column water vapor, aerosol optical depth, wind speed, glint, and satellite zenith angle on bias are then investigated. These parameters are classified based on root mean square (RMS) difference between satellite and buoy SST. Final results represent a near-perfect R2 (>0.989) for both satellites. The bias was 0.07 ± 0.53 °C and -0.06 ± 0.44 °C for MODIS-Aqua and -Terra, respectively.

  12. Tidal asymmetry in a tidal creek with mixed mainly semidiurnal tide, Bushehr Port, Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Taleb; Chegini, Vahid; Sadrinasab, Masoud; Siadatmousavi, Seyed Mostafa; Yari, Sadegh

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the tidal asymmetry imposed by both the interaction of principal tides and the higher harmonics generated by distortions within a tidal creek network with mixed mainly semidiurnal tide in the Bushehr Port, Persian Gulf. Since velocity and water-level imposed by principal triad tides K1-O1-M2 are in quadrature, duration asymmetries during a tidal period in this short, shallow inverse estuary should be manifest as skewed velocities. The principal tides produce periodic asymmetries including a strong ebb-dominance and a weak flood-dominance condition during spring and neap tides respectively. The higher harmonics induced by nonlinearities engender a flood-dominance condition where the convergence effects are higher than frictional effects, and an ebbdominance condition where intertidal storage are extended. Since the triad K1-O1-M2 driven asymmetry is not overcome by higher harmonics close to the mouth, the periodic asymmetry dominates within the creek in which higher harmonics reinforce the weak flood-dominance (strong ebb-dominance) condition in the convergent channel (divergent area). Also, the maximum flood and the maximum ebb from all harmonic constituents occurred close to high water slack time during both spring and neap tides in this short creek. Since occational wetting of intertidal areas happened close to the high water (HW) time during spring tide, the water level flooded slowly close to the HW time of the spring tide.

  13. Heavy metals' concentration in sediment, shrimp and two fish species from the northwest Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Monikh, Fazel Abdolahpur; Maryamabadi, Ammar; Savari, Ahmad; Ghanemi, Kamal

    2015-06-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)) were measured in hepatopancreas and muscle of a commercial shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis), in the muscle, liver and gills of two fish species (Thryssa vitrirostris and Johnius belangerii) and in the sediment samples taken from the mouth of the Arvand river, Meleh estuary and Musa estuary in the northeast Persian Gulf. Concentration of heavy metals varied depending on different tissues, species and sampling sites. Liver of fish and hepatopancreas of shrimp exhibited higher metals' concentration than the other tissues. Generally, in the mouth of the Arvand river, the highest concentration of metals was found in benthic species; while in the mouth of Musa estuary, the highest level of the metals was found in pelagic fish species. Bioaccumulation factors were observed to follow the order: J. belangerii-liver-Cd > T. vitrirostris-liver-Pb > M. affinis-hepatopancreas-Zn >M. affinis-hepatopancreas-Cu >M. affinis- hepatopancreas-Ni. The analysed heavy metals were found in sediment samples at mean concentration in the sediment quality guideline proposed by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Regional Organization for the Protection of The Marine Environment (ROPME), except for Ni concentration in some cases.

  14. Wartime stressors and health outcomes: women in the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Bell, E A; Roth, M A; Weed, G

    1998-08-01

    This descriptive correlational study of war time stressors and stress responses of women from the Persian Gulf War examined numerous stressors both physical and psychological. The psychological stressors more directly impacted postwar physical and psychological symptoms than did physical stressors. These findings add to our understanding of women's reactions to wartime stress and the types of stressors affecting women. The study provides more data to support the contention that sexual harassment is widely prevalent in the military. The study did not find data to support concerns about maternal guilt on leaving children, nor any significant evidence of stress symptomology from this situation. The results of this study confirmed the call by Wolfe, Brown, Furey, and Levin (1993) for more precise evaluation of wartime stressors in view of the changing gender composition of military forces and the subsequent increase of women in combat roles. Clinicians should be alerted to recognize gender-specific experiences. Education of military women about stressors and coping mechanisms should be broadened to address the development issue of intimacy versus isolation. Nurses, both military and civilian, must understand the effect of isolation and discrimination on women both in combat and in other high stress situations. The need for continued study of the problem of sexual harassment is confirmed. Understanding the scope of the problem and the health care outcomes strengthens the role of prevention and intervention for nurses and their clients.

  15. Enzymatic and histopathologic biomarkers in the flatfish Euryglossa orientalis from the northwestern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Chupani, Latifeh; Savari, Ahmad; Zolgharnein, Hossein; Rezaie, Anahita; Zeinali, Majid

    2016-05-01

    Most of the chemicals in the petrochemical sewages cause oxidative stress in marine organisms. Antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) as biomarkers of oxidative stress and liver histopathological alterations were investigated in the current study to evaluate the toxic effects of petrochemical pollutions in flatfish, Euryglossa orientalis The enzymatic and histopathological changes were assessed in the liver of E. orientalis from Khowr-e Jafari (one of the creeks from Khowr-e Musa estuary) and Sajafi harbor as polluted and clean areas, respectively. A significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities was observed in response to aquatic pollutions of Khowr-e Jafari. Liver lesions were diagnosed and categorized using standard methods. The results of histopathological examinations showed more lesion scores in the fish from Khowr-e Jafari. Various histopathological changes including hepatocyte degeneration, inflammatory lesions, peliosis hepatis and pancreatic acinar cell adenoma, and increase in the number of pigmented macrophage aggregates were observed in the fish from polluted site. It is suggested that activities of CAT and SOD along with semi-quantitative histopathologic analysis of E. orientalis can be used for biomonitoring programs in Persian Gulf.

  16. Cytotoxic, antioxidant and phytochemical analysis of Gracilaria species from Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Ghannadi, Alireza; Shabani, Leila; Yegdaneh, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Marine algae, also called seaweeds, are abundantly present in the coastal area of Iran, especially in Persian Gulf. These plants contain important phytochemical constituents and have potential biological activities. The present study investigated the presence of phytochemical constituents and total phenolic quantification of the seaweeds Gracilaria salicornia and Gracilaria corticata. Cytotoxicity of seaweeds was tested against HT-29, HeLa, and MCF-7 cell lines. Antioxidant potential of these two Gracilaria species was also analyzed. Materials and Methods: Extracts of G. salicornia and G. corticata were subjected to phytochemical and cytotoxicity tests. Phytochemical screenings were employed to identify the chemical constituents and total phenolic content. Cytotoxicity was characterized by IC50 of human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa, and HT-29) using sulforhodamine assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Results: The analysis revealed that tannins were the most abundant compounds in G. corticata while sterols and triterpenes were the most abundant ones in G. salicornia, but the total phenolic content of the two seaweeds was similar. Cytotoxic results showed that both species could inhibit cell growth effectively, especially against HT-29 cell line. Conclusion: Considerable phytochemicals, high antioxidant potential, and moderate cytotoxic activity of G. salicornia and G. corticata make them appropriate candidates for further studies and identification of their bioactive principles.

  17. Cytotoxic, antioxidant and phytochemical analysis of Gracilaria species from Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Ghannadi, Alireza; Shabani, Leila; Yegdaneh, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Marine algae, also called seaweeds, are abundantly present in the coastal area of Iran, especially in Persian Gulf. These plants contain important phytochemical constituents and have potential biological activities. The present study investigated the presence of phytochemical constituents and total phenolic quantification of the seaweeds Gracilaria salicornia and Gracilaria corticata. Cytotoxicity of seaweeds was tested against HT-29, HeLa, and MCF-7 cell lines. Antioxidant potential of these two Gracilaria species was also analyzed. Materials and Methods: Extracts of G. salicornia and G. corticata were subjected to phytochemical and cytotoxicity tests. Phytochemical screenings were employed to identify the chemical constituents and total phenolic content. Cytotoxicity was characterized by IC50 of human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa, and HT-29) using sulforhodamine assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Results: The analysis revealed that tannins were the most abundant compounds in G. corticata while sterols and triterpenes were the most abundant ones in G. salicornia, but the total phenolic content of the two seaweeds was similar. Cytotoxic results showed that both species could inhibit cell growth effectively, especially against HT-29 cell line. Conclusion: Considerable phytochemicals, high antioxidant potential, and moderate cytotoxic activity of G. salicornia and G. corticata make them appropriate candidates for further studies and identification of their bioactive principles. PMID:27656608

  18. Biological Activity and Chemical Constituents of Red and Brown Algae from the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Jassbi, Amir Reza; Mohabati, Maryam; Eslami, Saba; Sohrabipour, Jelveh; Miri, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Different solvent extracts of a red algae, Hypnea flagelliformis, and two brown algae, Cystoseira myrica and Sargassum boveanum, which were collected from the Persian Gulf coast were subjected to different bioassays, including: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, antibacterial and antifungal activity by thin layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography, agar disc diffusion (ADD) and nutrient-broth micro-dilution (NBMD) bioassays. The water extracts were found to have the most antioxidant activity. The antibacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the active extracts were determined for the susceptible organisms, Staphylococcus aurous and Bacillus subtilis, using NBMD bioassays. The active substances were identified as free fatty acids (FFA), by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After derivatization to their methyl esters, their concentrations were measured by using GC- lame ionization detection (GC-FID). In addition to the fatty acids, fucosterol, cholesterol and 22-dehydroxychlosterol were detected as the major sterols in S. boveanum extract using GC-MS analyses. PMID:24250640

  19. Isolation of moderately halophilic pseudoalteromonas producing extracellular hydrolytic enzymes from persian gulf.

    PubMed

    Ardakani, M Roayaie; Poshtkouhian, A; Amoozegar, M A; Zolgharnein, H

    2012-03-01

    Extracellular hydrolytic enzymes such as amylases, proteases, lipases and DNases have quite diverse potential usages in different areas such as food industry, biomedical sciences and chemical industries, also it would be of great importance to have available enzymes showing optimal activities at different values of salt concentrations and temperature. Halophiles are the most likely source of such enzymes, because not only their enzymes are salt-tolerant, but many are also thermotolerant. The purpose of this study was isolation of hydrolytic extracellular enzyme producing halophilic bacteria from water and sediment of the Persian Gulf. Isolated bacteria from water and sediment were inoculated in media with concentration of 0-20% NaCl to determine the optimum salt concentration for growth, isolates were also inoculated in 4 types of solid medium containing substrates of 3 extracellular hydrolytic enzymes including amylase, Protease and Lipase, to determine the quantitative detection of enzyme production, selected strains after more accurate physiological and biochemical studies were identified regarding phylogeny and molecular characteristics using 16S rRNA technique. Isolated enzyme producing bacteria belong to Pseudoalteromonas genera. PMID:23450116

  20. Heavy metal in water and aquatic organisms from different intertidal ecosystems, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Rahmanpour, Shirin; Ghorghani, Nasrin Farzaneh; Lotfi Ashtiyani, Seyede Masoumeh

    2014-09-01

    Intertidal ecosystems are being damaged by anthropogenic activities, particularly in the developing countries. In this study, the load of heavy metals was determined in water, fish, shrimp, and crab collected from four intertidal ecosystems, including coral reef, rocky shore, mangrove forest, and muddy habitat along the Persian Gulf coasts. Generally, the sequence of metal accumulation in the water of coral reef and mangrove forest was Ni > Pb > V > Cd > As > Hg, whereas in muddy habitats and rocky shores, the sequence was Ni > Pb > V > Cd > Hg > As and Ni > V > Pb > As > Hg > Cd, respectively. Water of the coral reef had the highest level of Ni (97.44 μg l(-1)), Pb (3.92 μg l(-1)), V (10.42 μg l(-1)), Cd (3.92 μg l(-1)), As (1.87 μg l(-1)), and Hg (0.74 μg l(-1)). For the most part, the highest concentrations of the studied metals were found in the liver and the gills of Johnius belangerii and the hepatopancreas of Portunus pelagicus and Metapenaus affinis collected from the coral reef ecosystem. PMID:24802589

  1. Assessment of survival, mortality and recovery of coral reefs of East Kish Island, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Jami, M J; Salehduost, A; Negarestan, H

    2010-10-15

    Coral reefs are specialized communities that develop clear, well-lit tropical and subtropical water; they provide shelter and canopy for great variety of organisms, living in mean temperature of 20 degrees C. Coral Bleaching and mortality have been associated with elevated seawater temperature. The aim of the study was to investigate coral bleaching and evaluate health condition of the corals. Distribution of coral reefs around Kish Island was determined by the Timed Swim (TS) technique. This survey carried out in 2 times (May and October, 2009) in 2 depths of 3-5 m and 6-10 m. Two Divers swam in constant speed for a set amount of time in three dive sites. The timed swim survey around the Kish Island showed that the most healthy live hard coral assemblages were found in the site called Persian Gulf seaport, whereas the greatest percentage of bleached corals were located in Jurassic Park station, located at the southeast of the Island. Branching corals (Acropora sp.) were bleached among all 3 stations and no sign of recovery could be detected. In Big coral site suitable substrate for accumulation of living organisms including Echinometra mathaie (sea urchin) existed due to presence of great amount of algae on dead corals and rocks. Based on the observation, it seems that the cause of reef destruction in Kish Island fall in to two categories, natural and human impacts. PMID:21319458

  2. Assessment of survival, mortality and recovery of coral reefs of East Kish Island, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Jami, M J; Salehduost, A; Negarestan, H

    2010-10-15

    Coral reefs are specialized communities that develop clear, well-lit tropical and subtropical water; they provide shelter and canopy for great variety of organisms, living in mean temperature of 20 degrees C. Coral Bleaching and mortality have been associated with elevated seawater temperature. The aim of the study was to investigate coral bleaching and evaluate health condition of the corals. Distribution of coral reefs around Kish Island was determined by the Timed Swim (TS) technique. This survey carried out in 2 times (May and October, 2009) in 2 depths of 3-5 m and 6-10 m. Two Divers swam in constant speed for a set amount of time in three dive sites. The timed swim survey around the Kish Island showed that the most healthy live hard coral assemblages were found in the site called Persian Gulf seaport, whereas the greatest percentage of bleached corals were located in Jurassic Park station, located at the southeast of the Island. Branching corals (Acropora sp.) were bleached among all 3 stations and no sign of recovery could be detected. In Big coral site suitable substrate for accumulation of living organisms including Echinometra mathaie (sea urchin) existed due to presence of great amount of algae on dead corals and rocks. Based on the observation, it seems that the cause of reef destruction in Kish Island fall in to two categories, natural and human impacts.

  3. Assessment of health risk from heavy metal contamination of shellfish from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Raissy, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    The present study assessed the risk of consumption of shrimp and lobster contaminated with mercury, arsenic, cadmium, and lead from the Persian Gulf. The concentrations of mercury, arsenic, lead, and cadmium in shrimp was 62.5, 178.2, 325.2, and 193.5 μg kg(-1) and in lobsters was 53.2, 103.9, 640.6, and 163.1 μg kg(-1), respectively. The maximum daily consumption of shrimp and lobster was calculated to estimate health risks associated with their consumption. The results showed that the maximum allowable consumption of shrimp and lobster was 18-140 g/day for mercury, 33-214 g/day for arsenic, 59-454 g/day for cadmium, and 72-916 g/day for lead. The concentration of metals was within recommended limits for human consumption with the exception of lead, which was found to be above acceptable levels and represents a health risk. PMID:26703978

  4. Numerical model of circulation and residence times in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donncha, Fearghal; Ragnoli, Emanuele

    2014-05-01

    The Persian Gulf is a semi-enclosed, marginal sea that is exposed to arid, subtropical climate. As a consequence of the extreme climate, evaporation is greater than freshwater inflow resulting in a net loss of water and associated, reverse flow, estuarine circulation as the highly saline waters exit the basin through the Straits of Hormuz, into the Gulf of Oman. Because of their consistent direction, these density currents are central in the distribution and removal of pollutants from the gulf. Tidal forcing impacts circulation in the region, particularly on smaller scales of length and time. Wind forcing can be significant, particularly the Shamal weather phenomenon; wind that sets in with great abruptness and force, and is related to synoptic weather systems to the Northwest. Output from high resolution (~1km) numerical simulations, using NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean), provide insight into the physical oceanography of the region. The model was forced by 0.75° European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric data and tidal constituents extracted from the Oregon State University Tidal Prediction Software (OTPS/TPXO). Model results permit a detailed examination of the three primary forcing processes, namely: tidal forces, wind forces, and density differences. To assess fundamental model performance, results are compared with two historical observation datasets: (1) a comprehensive dataset of velocity and CTD measurements collected by Reynolds (1993) and (2) time series measurements recorded in the Strait of Hormuz from December 1996 to March 1998 by Johns et al. (2003). Model results exhibit close agreement to field values validating the model for a more detailed analysis of circulations patterns within the gulf. To better elucidate the dominant forcing processes, classical tidal analysis decomposed the flow currents by fitting the flow profile to a finite set of sinusoids at specific frequencies related to astronomical

  5. The role of the sand in chemical warfare agent exposure among Persian Gulf War veterans: Al Eskan disease and "dirty dust".

    PubMed

    Korényi-Both, A L; Svéd, L; Korényi-Both, G E; Juncer, D J; Korényi-Both, A L; Székely, A

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inquire into the relationship between Al Eskan disease and the probable exposure to chemical warfare agents by Persian Gulf War veterans. Al Eskan disease, first reported in 1991, compromises the body's immunological defense and is a result of the pathogenic properties of the extremely fine, dusty sand located in the central and eastern region of the Arabian peninsula. The disease manifests with localized expression of multisystem disorder. Signs and symptoms of Al Eskan disease have been termed by the news media "Persian Gulf syndrome." The dust becomes a warfare agent when toxic chemicals are microimpregnated into inert particles. The "dirty dust" concept, that the toxicity of an agent could be enhanced by absorption into inactive particles, dates from World War I. A growing body of evidence shows that coalition forces have encountered Iraqi chemical warfare in the theater of operation/Persian Gulf War to a much greater extent than early U.S. Department of Defense information had indicated. Veterans of that war were exposed to chemical warfare agents in the form of direct (deliberate) attacks by chemical weapons, such as missiles and mines, and indirect (accidental) contamination from demolished munition production plants and storage areas, or otherwise. We conclude that the microimpregnated sand particles in the theater of operation/Persian Gulf War depleted the immune system and simultaneously acted as vehicles for low-intensity exposure to chemical warfare agents and had a modifying-intensifying effect on the toxicity of exposed individuals. We recommend recognition of a new term, "dirty sand," as a subcategory of dirty dust/dusty chemical warfare agents. Our ongoing research efforts to investigate the health impact of chemical warfare agent exposure among Persian Gulf War veterans suggest that Al Eskan disease is a plausible and preeminent explanation for the preponderance of Persian Gulf War illnesses.

  6. Fault zone identification in the eastern part of the Persian Gulf based on combined seismic attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirkamali, M. S.; Keshavarz FK, N.; Bakhtiari, M. R.

    2013-02-01

    Faults, as main pathways for fluids, play a critical role in creating regions of high porosity and permeability, in cutting cap rock and in the migration of hydrocarbons into the reservoir. Therefore, accurate identification of fault zones is very important in maximizing production from petroleum traps. Image processing and modern visualization techniques are provided for better mapping of objects of interest. In this study, the application of fault mapping in the identification of fault zones within the Mishan and Aghajari formations above the Guri base unconformity surface in the eastern part of Persian Gulf is investigated. Seismic single- and multi-trace attribute analyses are employed separately to determine faults in a vertical section, but different kinds of geological objects cannot be identified using individual attributes only. A mapping model is utilized to improve the identification of the faults, giving more accurate results. This method is based on combinations of all individual relevant attributes using a neural network system to create combined attributes, which gives an optimal view of the object of interest. Firstly, a set of relevant attributes were separately calculated on the vertical section. Then, at interpreted positions, some example training locations were manually selected in each fault and non-fault class by an interpreter. A neural network was trained on combinations of the attributes extracted at the example training locations to generate an optimized fault cube. Finally, the results of the fault and nonfault probability cube were estimated, which the neural network applied to the entire data set. The fault probability cube was obtained with higher mapping accuracy and greater contrast, and with fewer disturbances in comparison with individual attributes. The computed results of this study can support better understanding of the data, providing fault zone mapping with reliable results.

  7. Evolution and timing of salt diapirism in the Iranian sector of the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perotti, Cesare; Chiariotti, Luca; Bresciani, Ilenia; Cattaneo, Luciano; Toscani, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    The Iranian sector of the Persian Gulf is affected by more than 30 large diapiric structures triggered by the mobilization of the Infracambrian Hormuz Complex, an evaporite-rich unit that overlies Precambrian basement at the base of the sedimentary succession. Nineteen non-piercing diapirs, without any appreciable salt intrusion into the upper succession, were studied in detail and retro-deformed by the decompaction and unfolding of 13 seismic horizons that were identified by the interpretation of a dense grid of 2D seismic lines and calibrated by well data. Salt uplift had begun by the Early Palaeozoic and persists to the present day, with major pulses of intensity during the Middle Triassic, Cenomanian, Late Oligocene, and post-Middle Miocene. The structural reconstructions and the analysis of the progressive deformation of the study diapirs do not show any link between diapiric uplift and local tectonic structures, and no clear correlation with the regional geodynamic events acting at the boundary of the Arabian plate. On the contrary, the salt uplift seems strongly influenced by the differential rate of sedimentation that affected the whole study basin (more than 40,000 km2), with a coefficient of correlation between the salt uplift rate and the differential rate of sedimentation (expressed by the standard deviation of the sedimentation rate calculated over the entire basin) of 0.95. This downbuilding mechanism of diapiric growth is apparently induced by differential sedimentation over long distances (several tens of kilometers), showing that the flow of salt affected the whole basin and not just the areas around the single diapiric structures.

  8. Mean trophic level of coastal fisheries landings in the Persian Gulf (Hormuzgan Province), 2002-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzaghi, Marzieh; Mashjoor, Sakineh; Kamrani, Ehsan

    2016-06-01

    Fishing activities can alter the structure of marine food webs by the selective removal of some species. The changes in the marine food webs of the Hormuzgan waters of the Persian Gulf, Iran were assessed, based on estimates of the mean trophic index (MTI) and Fishing in Balance index (FiB), and on landing profile of the exploited marine community (49 species) during the period, 2002-2011. The total landings (Y t) (R=0.88, P<0.001) increased gradually while the Y t of carnivores has slightly declined, and the Y t of herbivores, detritivores and omnivores has increased. Consequently, the MTI significantly decreased (R =-0.69, P<0.05) at a rate of 0.11 during this decade. The MTI showed a decreasing trend, which indicates exploitation of marine resources. The FiB index also showed a downward trend and negative values from 2002 to 2009, which may be associated with unbalanced structure in the fisheries, but an upward trend from 2009 to 2011. The time variation of the landing profile showed two periods with significant diff erences in their species composition (R=0.88; P =0.005), and based on analysis of similarity, species have been identified as discriminator species, namely Thunnus albacores and Benthosema pterotum. Results indicate that changes in MTI reflected changes in the Hormuzgan landing structure. The examination of the MTI, FBI, and landing profile (LP) temporal pattern suggests that the status of fishery resources in Hormuzgan inshore waters is overexploited, and provides evidence of the probability that a fishing down process is occurring in this area, and that this trend may continue in the long-term. Therefore, environmental fisheries management and conservation programs should be prioritized for these valuable resources.

  9. Effect of subseabed salt domes on Tidal Residual currents in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashayekh Poul, Hossein; Backhaus, Jan; Dehghani, Ali; Huebner, Udo

    2016-05-01

    Geological studies in the Persian Gulf (PG) have revealed the existence of subseabed salt-domes. With suitable filtering of a high-resolution PG seabed topography, it is seen that the domes leave their signature in the seabed, i.e., numerous hills and valleys with amplitudes of several tens of meters and radii from a few up to tens of kilometers. It was suspected that the "shark skin" of the PG seabed may affect the tidal residual flow. The interaction of tidal dynamics and these obstacles was investigated in a nonlinear hydrodynamic numerical tidal model of the PG. The model was first used to characterize flow patterns of residual currents generated by a tidal wave passing over symmetric, elongated and tilted obstacles. Thereafter it was applied to the entire PG. The model was forced at its open boundary by the four dominant tidal constituents residing in the PG. Each tidal constituent was simulated separately. Results, i.e., tidal residual currents in the PG, as depicted by Lagrangian trajectories reveal a stationary flow that is very rich in eddies. Each eddy can be identified with a topographic obstacle. This confirms that the tidal residual flow field is strongly influenced by the nonlinear interaction of the tidal wave with the bottom relief which, in turn, is deformed by salt-domes beneath the seabed. Different areas of maximum residual current velocities are identified for major tidal constituents. The pattern of trajectories indicates the presence of two main cyclonic gyres and several adjacent gyres rotating in opposite directions and a strong coastal current in the northern PG.

  10. Fidelity of life and death molluscan assemblages from carbonate tidal flats in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ramos, Diego A.; Albano, Paolo G.; Harzhauser, Mathias; Piller, Werner E.; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Live-dead (LD) studies aim to help understand how faithfully fossil assemblages can be used to quantitatively infer the structure of the original living communities that generated them. To this purpose, LD comparisons have been conducted in different terrestrial and aquatic environments to assess how environment-specific differences in quality and intensity of taphonomic factors affect LD fidelity. In sub-tropical and tropical settings, most LD studies have focused on hard substrates or seagrass bottoms. Here we present results on molluscan assemblages from soft carbonate sediments in tidal flats of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf (Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province). We analyzed a total of 7193 mollusks collected from six sites comprising time-averaged death assemblages (DAs) and snapshot living assemblages (LAs). All analyses were performed at site and at habitat scales after correcting for sample-size differences. We found a good match in proportional abundance and a notable mismatch in species composition. In fact, species richness in DAs is 6 times larger than in LAs at site scale, and 4 times at habitat scale. Additionally, we found a good fidelity of evenness, and rank abundance of feeding guilds. Other studies have shown that molluscan DAs from subtidal carbonate environments can display lower time-averaging than those from siliciclastic environments due to high rates of shell loss to bioerosion and dissolution. For our case study of tidal flat carbonate settings, we interpret that despite temporal autocorrelation (good fidelity of proportional abundance), substantial differences in species richness and composition can be explained by early cementation, lateral mixing, intense bioturbation and moderate sedimentation rates. Our results suggest that tidal flat carbonate environments can potentially lead to a wider window of time-averaging in comparison with subtidal carbonate settings.

  11. A novel method for characterizing harmful algal blooms in the Persian Gulf using MODIS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanea, Mohsen; Moradi, Masoud; Kabiri, Keivan

    2016-10-01

    Biophysical properties of water undergo meaningful variations under red tide (RT) outbreak. A massive Cochlodinium polykrikoids RT began in the eastern Persian Gulf (PG) in October 2008 and extended to the northern PG in December 2008. It killed large fish and hampered marine industries and water desalination appliances. Yet monthly averages of satellite-derived Chl-a (Chlorophyll-a), nFLH (normalized Fluorescence Line Height), and Kd490 (diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm) have not been compared in the PG. MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor provides global coverage, with short revisit time, and accessible, well validated ocean color products. This study compares the behavior of MODIS Chl-a, nFLH, and Kd490 in both normal and RT conditions. In doing so, their color maps are shown during normal and RT periods. Then, monthly variations of these products are shown as time-series between 2002 and 2008. HOCI (Hybrid Ocean Color Index) is defined by integrating these products to detect RT affected areas. The results gained from 100 locations in the PG show that HOCI >0.18 mW cm-2 μm-1 sr-1 mg m-4 and nFLH >0.04 mW cm-2 μm-1 sr-1 discriminates non-bloom waters from algal blooms. Rrs(443)/Rrs(412) > 1 is a proper statement to separate Trichodesmium erythtraeum from Noctiluca millaris, Noctiluca scintillans, and diatoms. Rrs(667)/Rrs(443) > 1 can differentiate Cochlodinium polykrikoids from T. erythtraeum, N. millaris, N. scintillans, and diatoms as well. So, the combination of HOCI and Rrs(667)/Rrs(443) ratio is useful for detection and quantization of C. polykrikoids.

  12. Geochemical speciation and ecological risk assessment of selected metals in the surface sediments of the northern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Neyestani, Mahmoud Reza; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Esmaeilzadeh, Marjan; Shemirani, Farzaneh; Khazaali, Aida; Molamohyeddin, Neda; Afkhami, Majid; Nourbakhsh, Shahram; Dehghani, Mohsen; Aghaei, Sina; Firouzbakht, Mohammad

    2016-08-15

    The present study aimed to geochemical speciation of metals in the surface sediments of the northern Persian Gulf. Metal contents in the sediment were observed in the order: Al>Fe>Cr>Ni>V>Zn>Cu>Co>As>Pb>Cd. The results of sequential extraction procedure revealed that all metals were predominantly associated with the residual fraction. Among the metals, Cu and As exhibited higher bioavailability. The risk assessment code (RAC) indicated that Cu, As and Cd had medium environmental risk at some sampling sites. Based on enrichment factor (EF), Cd and As had moderate to significant enrichment. PMID:27210564

  13. The Persian Gulf War: civilian war-related stress and the influence of age, religious faith, and war attitudes.

    PubMed

    Plante, T G; Manuel, G M

    1992-03-01

    This study examined the stress response of 86 civilian subjects at the onset of the Persian Gulf War. The Impact of Events Scale (IES) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) were used to measure participants' subjective stress response and symptoms of psychological distress. Subjects also completed a demographic questionnaire that included questions that ranged from religious affiliation to approval of the war effort. The study describes war-related stress and the influence of age, religious faith, and attitudes about war on reported levels of stress. Results indicate measurable levels of war-related stress in this civilian population.

  14. Two new species of Acanthobothrium (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) from Pastinachus cf. sephen (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Loghman; Malek, Masoumeh; Palm, Harry W

    2013-11-01

    Two new species of Acanthobothrium van Beneden, 1850 from the spiral intestine of Pastinachus cf. sephen Forsskål from the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman are described. To analyse the surface ultrastructure the worms were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. Acanthobothrium jalalii sp. n. belongs to the category 1 species of the genus so far including 43 species. This tiny new species differs from the other category 1 species by its small total length (2.18 +/- 0.49 mm), number of proglottids (4.7 +/- 0.9) and testes (24 +/- 3), terminal segments in an apolytic condition and the shape of the cirrus-sac. Acanthobothrium sphaera sp. n. is a small worm that belongs to the category 2 species of the genus so far including 36 species. A. sphaera sp. n. differs from the other category 2 species by its small total length (1.6 +/- 0.2 mm), number of proglottids (9.6 +/- 1.2) and testes (12 +/- 1), the presence of a vaginal sphincter and the shape of the ovary. This is the first report of Acanthobothrium from the cowtail stingray, P cf. sephen, from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. Pastinachus sephen sensu lato has been reported as a common host of species of Acanthobothrium. Most recently, the host genus Pastinachus Rüppell has been split into five nominal species and several Acanthobothrium species infect the newly described congeners but not P. sephen. The real identity of the host studied within the present study is still in question, since sequence data of three specimens from the Gulf of Oman do not correspond to P. sephen sensu stricto. PMID:24471287

  15. Study the symbiotic crude oil-degrading bacteria in the mussel Mactra stultorum collected from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2016-04-15

    Symbiotic associations are complex partnerships that can lead to new metabolic capabilities and the establishment of novel organisms. The diversity of these associations is very broad and there are still many mysteries about the origin and the exact relationship between the organisms that are involved in a symbiosis. The aim of the present study is to find symbiotic crude-oil degrading bacteria in the mussels that collected from the Persian Gulf. Fifteen crude-oil degrading bacteria were isolated from Mactra stultorum mussel that collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth rate on crude oil five strains were selected from 15 isolated strains for more study. Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Alcanivorax dieselolei strain BHA25, Idiomarina baltica strain BHA28, A. dieselolei strain BHA30, Alcanivorax sp. strain BHA32 and Vibrio azureus strain BHA36. Analysis of remaining of crude oil by Gas Chromatography (GC) confirmed that these strains can degrade: 64%, 63%, 71%, 58% and 75% of crude oil respectively.

  16. Applying Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity in a soft bottom ecosystem in North of the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Doustshenas, B; Savari, A; Nabavi, S M B; Kochanian, P; Sadrinasab, M

    2009-06-15

    In this study, the Chesapeake Bay Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (B-IBI) was selected in an attempt to describe ecological health of soft bottom channels (Khowr-e Musa) in North of the Persian Gulf. Most of study area was found to be in degraded or severely degraded conditions. B-IBI scores were ranged between 1 and 3.86. Comparison ofmacrobenthos abundance and organic content between two developmental periods showed significant difference (p < 0.05). After the establishment and development of petrochemical industries, the abundance of macrofauna decreased (809 to 239 individuals m(-2)) and organic content increased leading to organic enrichment (15.3 to 22.4%). Three new sources of organic matter were found to be important namely industrial waste, sewage and mangrove litter. After 1999 about 6 millions Avicennia marina tree were planted near petrochemical zone in the area. Study area changed rapidly in the last decade and region is under severely anthropogenic impacts. The present study showed that Khowr-e Musa is under both natural stress and anthropogenic impacts and two main impacts could be attributed to the organic enrichment and to the dredging. Choice of suitable management plans and metric controls could help to the salvage of the largest tidal channel complex in Persian Gulf.

  17. Spatio-temporal variability of SST and Chlorophyll-a from MODIS data in the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Masoud; Kabiri, Keivan

    2015-09-15

    Spatio-temporal variability of SST and Chl-a evaluated using MODIS products from 2002 to 2013 in the Persian Gulf. Wavelet Transform was utilized to analyze the spatio-temporal stability and abnormality of MODIS SST and Chl-a. The stationary level of SST decreases from west to the east during summer to early autumn, and increases from late autumn to spring. The stationary level of Chl-a is higher in the coastal areas, while its average ranged from 0.1 to 0.5mgm(-3). No meaningful major oscillating period observed in the abnormal variability of SST and Chl-a. The winter and summer peaks of SST and Chl-a were observed in the central parts and north-west regions. The timing of maximum SST was observed in August, which is not correlated with Chl-a maxima. The variability of SST and Chl-a in the whole Persian Gulf is seasonal, and related to river outflows, water circulation and climate regimes.

  18. Study the symbiotic crude oil-degrading bacteria in the mussel Mactra stultorum collected from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2016-04-15

    Symbiotic associations are complex partnerships that can lead to new metabolic capabilities and the establishment of novel organisms. The diversity of these associations is very broad and there are still many mysteries about the origin and the exact relationship between the organisms that are involved in a symbiosis. The aim of the present study is to find symbiotic crude-oil degrading bacteria in the mussels that collected from the Persian Gulf. Fifteen crude-oil degrading bacteria were isolated from Mactra stultorum mussel that collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth rate on crude oil five strains were selected from 15 isolated strains for more study. Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Alcanivorax dieselolei strain BHA25, Idiomarina baltica strain BHA28, A. dieselolei strain BHA30, Alcanivorax sp. strain BHA32 and Vibrio azureus strain BHA36. Analysis of remaining of crude oil by Gas Chromatography (GC) confirmed that these strains can degrade: 64%, 63%, 71%, 58% and 75% of crude oil respectively. PMID:26922360

  19. Tidal flat molluscan life and death assemblages from the Persian (Arabian) Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ramos, Diego A.; Albano, Paolo G.; Harzhauser, Mathias; Piller, Werner E.; Zuschin, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The comparison of life assemblages (LAs) and death assemblages (DAs) of marine invertebrate fauna is of great importance to analyze how accurately fossil assemblages provide information on the original living communities. Furthermore, since death assemblages are originated by accumulation and preservation of dead shells subjected to time averaging, they can also be used to describe the biodiversity of an area with less sampling effort than that required in surveys focused exclusively on LAs. The current note presents an overview of our study on molluscan LAs and DAs from the Persian Gulf, a shallow sea situated in the northwestern part of the tropical Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province. The study of a subtropical fauna is especially interesting, because most of the research on this subject has been conducted in temperate regions. In particular, our samples were retrieved from tidal flat settings, which undergo high temporal variations as regards salinity, oxygen content and temperature. Samples were collected from two localities in Dubai. Seven samples were taken from stations which cover different sub-environments: upper intertidal (close to the algal mat zone), tidal flat in the proximity of a major channel, tidal channel, outer tidal flat, "beachrock" surface in the upper intertidal, and a tidal flat close to Avicennia shrubs (mangrove). Environmental parameters such as salinity, pH, and temperature of air and water, have been recorded. The samples consist of bulks of the uppermost 1-3 cm of sediment at the interface with sea water to avoid subfossil material as far as possible. The shell fraction > 1 mm has been sorted and segregated into morphospecies, and identified to species level whenever possible. Over 1000 specimens have been counted per sample. We found, as in many other studies that most of the specimens belong to the DA. In this sample, however, there is still a good match between the DA and the LA. The most important taxa are the gastropods

  20. The environmental impacts of oil platforms in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf: the conservation paleobiology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, Paolo G.; Tomašových, Adam; Kaufman, Darrell; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Persian (Arabian) Gulf is a semi-enclosed basin that currently hosts the highest concentration of infrastructures for oil and gas extraction in the world. Moreover, major oil spills have occurred here due to accidents and conflicts. The disjunction between recent environmental monitoring programmes and industry-scale oil exploration and extraction dating back to the mid-20th century means a lack of data on pre-impact ecosystem conditions. This shortcoming hampers quantifying disturbance and ecosystem shifts and calls for novel approaches to reconstruct baselines. Conservation palaeobiology is such a new research field. It uses the accumulations of hard skeletal parts left by organisms in the sediments after death (e.g., mollusk shells) to gain information on past community states. These so-called "death assemblages" contain skeletons produced over tens to thousands of years and change very slowly in comparison to living assemblages. Accordingly, under anthropogenic pressures, living assemblages change their structure and composition faster than their corresponding death assemblages. This increases the differences between the two beyond those caused by purely natural processes. When coupled with dating of dead shells (using radiocarbon calibrated amino acid racemization), such live-dead comparisons help assess the magnitude and timing of environmental impacts and ecosystem change when baseline data are not available. We applied these approaches to two major oil platforms off the United Arab Emirates coastline. We found a mismatch between living and death assemblages, with death assemblages dominated by a single bivalve species, the semelid Ervilia purpurea. However, the frequency distributions of post-mortem shell ages of this bivalve show that the mismatch can be mainly attributed to natural extreme demographic fluctuations in its population. We conclude that, at the field scale, decadal and century-level changes in the molluscan community composition were weak

  1. Salt-Tectonics Plays Major Role in Contributing High Seawater Salinity in Arabian/persian Gulf: a Constant Constrain on Seawater Desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaigham, N. A.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Nayyar, Z. A.; Mahar, G. A.; Siddique, A.

    2012-12-01

    Literature research indicates that Arabian/Persian Gulf is the second smallest and saltiest marine body in the world. In general, it is believed that anomalously high salinity of the Gulf is due to low precipitation, high rate of evaporation and limited freshwater pouring from rivers of Iraq and Iran. But present research study has identified that the geotectonic setup and the associated resulting active salt-tectonic processes are mainly causing constant enhancement of salinity in Arabian/Persian Gulf. The results indicate presence of numerous penetrations of salt domes, plugs and other diapiric structures almost all over the bottom and surrounding coastline areas, particularly coastal-belt of Iran, Strait of Hormuz and coastal areas of Qatar and UAE, which are the main inherent contributors for high salinity in seawater of the Gulf. Other factors, like, low precipitation, high evaporation, poor freshwater pouring of Iraq and Iran rivers and discharging back of highly concentrated brines, etc., are further augmenting Gulf's high-salinity. From the assessed salinity environment, it is inferred that present level of salinity will be 'higher to highest' in future affecting considerably the desalination activities in time to come. As the level of seawater salinity plays an important role for the efficient and cost effective seawater desalination activities, the present priorities should be reevaluated for efficient and sustainable water from desalination of highly salted-water of Arabian/Persian Gulf.

  2. A new Imogine species (Turbellaria: Polycladida: Stylochidae) associated with rock oysters (Saccostrea cucullata) from the Persian Gulf, with a review of the genus.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudlou, Abdolvahab

    2014-01-01

    A new species of acotylean polyclad, Imogine qeshmensis sp. nov. is described from Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf, Iran. I. qeshmensis is characterized by the number and arrangement of the tentacular, cerebral and frontal eyes, a body margin with opaque white bands and eyespots and a male genital complex with an highly muscular seminal vesicle equal in size to the prostatic vesicle. PMID:24872306

  3. The Effect of Parental Participation on the Academic Achievement of Female English as a Second Language Middle School Students in the Persian Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baydoun, Nada

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the problem of underachieving female English as second language students in the Persian Gulf Region. The purpose of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between parental participation, as measured by a middle school parent-participation survey, and students' academic achievement, as measured by parent…

  4. Local adaptation constrains the distribution potential of heat-tolerant Symbiodinium from the Persian/Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Cecilia; Hume, Benjamin C C; Burt, John; Smith, Edward G; Achterberg, Eric P; Wiedenmann, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    The symbiotic association of corals and unicellular algae of the genus Symbiodinium in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) display an exceptional heat tolerance, enduring summer peak temperatures of up to 36 °C. As yet, it is not clear whether this resilience is related to the presence of specific symbiont types that are exclusively found in this region. Therefore, we used molecular markers to identify the symbiotic algae of three Porites species along >1000 km of coastline in the PAG and the Gulf of Oman and found that a recently described species, Symbiodinium thermophilum, is integral to coral survival in the southern PAG, the world's hottest sea. Despite the geographic isolation of the PAG, we discovered that representatives of the S. thermophilum group can also be found in the adjacent Gulf of Oman providing a potential source of thermotolerant symbionts that might facilitate the adaptation of Indian Ocean populations to the higher water temperatures expected for the future. However, corals from the PAG associated with S. thermophilum show strong local adaptation not only to high temperatures but also to the exceptionally high salinity of their habitat. We show that their superior heat tolerance can be lost when these corals are exposed to reduced salinity levels common for oceanic environments elsewhere. Consequently, the salinity prevailing in most reefs outside the PAG might represent a distribution barrier for extreme temperature-tolerant coral/Symbiodinium associations from the PAG.

  5. Local adaptation constrains the distribution potential of heat-tolerant Symbiodinium from the Persian/Arabian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, Cecilia; Hume, Benjamin C C; Burt, John; Smith, Edward G; Achterberg, Eric P; Wiedenmann, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The symbiotic association of corals and unicellular algae of the genus Symbiodinium in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) display an exceptional heat tolerance, enduring summer peak temperatures of up to 36 °C. As yet, it is not clear whether this resilience is related to the presence of specific symbiont types that are exclusively found in this region. Therefore, we used molecular markers to identify the symbiotic algae of three Porites species along >1000 km of coastline in the PAG and the Gulf of Oman and found that a recently described species, Symbiodinium thermophilum, is integral to coral survival in the southern PAG, the world's hottest sea. Despite the geographic isolation of the PAG, we discovered that representatives of the S. thermophilum group can also be found in the adjacent Gulf of Oman providing a potential source of thermotolerant symbionts that might facilitate the adaptation of Indian Ocean populations to the higher water temperatures expected for the future. However, corals from the PAG associated with S. thermophilum show strong local adaptation not only to high temperatures but also to the exceptionally high salinity of their habitat. We show that their superior heat tolerance can be lost when these corals are exposed to reduced salinity levels common for oceanic environments elsewhere. Consequently, the salinity prevailing in most reefs outside the PAG might represent a distribution barrier for extreme temperature-tolerant coral/Symbiodinium associations from the PAG. PMID:25989370

  6. Local adaptation constrains the distribution potential of heat-tolerant Symbiodinium from the Persian/Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Cecilia; Hume, Benjamin C C; Burt, John; Smith, Edward G; Achterberg, Eric P; Wiedenmann, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    The symbiotic association of corals and unicellular algae of the genus Symbiodinium in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) display an exceptional heat tolerance, enduring summer peak temperatures of up to 36 °C. As yet, it is not clear whether this resilience is related to the presence of specific symbiont types that are exclusively found in this region. Therefore, we used molecular markers to identify the symbiotic algae of three Porites species along >1000 km of coastline in the PAG and the Gulf of Oman and found that a recently described species, Symbiodinium thermophilum, is integral to coral survival in the southern PAG, the world's hottest sea. Despite the geographic isolation of the PAG, we discovered that representatives of the S. thermophilum group can also be found in the adjacent Gulf of Oman providing a potential source of thermotolerant symbionts that might facilitate the adaptation of Indian Ocean populations to the higher water temperatures expected for the future. However, corals from the PAG associated with S. thermophilum show strong local adaptation not only to high temperatures but also to the exceptionally high salinity of their habitat. We show that their superior heat tolerance can be lost when these corals are exposed to reduced salinity levels common for oceanic environments elsewhere. Consequently, the salinity prevailing in most reefs outside the PAG might represent a distribution barrier for extreme temperature-tolerant coral/Symbiodinium associations from the PAG. PMID:25989370

  7. Feasibility Study of LANDSAT-8 Imagery for Retrieving Sea Surface Temperature (case Study Persian Gulf)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayat, F.; Hasanlou, M.

    2016-06-01

    previous Landsat sensors. Third, TIRS is one of the best space born and high spatial resolution with 30 m. in this regards, Landsat-8 can use the Split-Window (SW) algorithm for retrieving SST dataset. Although several SWs have been developed to use with other sensors, some adaptations are required in order to implement them for the TIRS spectral bands. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to develop a SW, adapted for use with Landsat-8 TIRS data, along with its accuracy assessment. In this research, that has been done for modelling SST using thermal Landsat 8-imagery of the Persian Gulf. Therefore, by incorporating contemporary in situ data and SST map estimated from other sensors like MODIS, we examine our proposed method with coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) on check point to model SST retrieval for Landsat-8 imagery. Extracted results for implementing different SW's clearly shows superiority of utilized method by R2 = 0.95 and RMSE = 0.24.

  8. Biomarker responses in mudskipper (Periophthalmus waltoni) from the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf with oil pollution.

    PubMed

    Shirani, Mehrnoosh; Mirvaghefi, Alireza; Farahmand, Hamid; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    A suite of 5 different biomarker responses were selected and measured in 3 different phases of detoxification process in mudskipper Periophthalmus waltoni from 3 different stations including Soltani Inlet, Shif Island and Ameri Port in Bushehr coastal area of the Persian Gulf. The selected biomarkers were 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs), DNA damage using the Comet assay and micronucleus (MN). Spatial variations in biomarker responses were observed in different sites. EROD, GST, FACs, DNA damage and MN were significantly elevated in mudskippers in the most oil impacted site (Soltani inlet). Based on the assessments, bile metabolites, EROD and GST induction appear to be sensitive to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and can be considered as complementary biomarkers; therefore P. waltoni has the potential to be used as a bioindicator in these types of ecosystems.

  9. Mercury pollution in three species of waders from Shadegan wetlands at the head of the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, Rasool; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud; Bahramifar, Nader

    2010-03-01

    Persian Gulf supports diverse ecosystems and biota in need of remediation and protection, and metal data from this region is needed. Mercury (Hg) in tissues of three waders (Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantous, Red-wattled Plover Hoplopterus indicus, and White-tailed Plover Vanellus leucurus) from Shadegan Wetlands is reported. Black-winged Stilt had higher Hg in feather (6.6 +/- 0.6 microg/g dry weight), liver (3.5 +/- 1 microg/g dry weight), kidney (4.5 +/- 0.8 microg/g dry weight) and muscle (1.2 +/- 0.2 microg/g dry weight) (not statistically significant). Differences in Hg among waders could have resulted from diverse feeding habitats and dissimilar foraging sites.

  10. Developing a bioindicator in the northwestern Persian Gulf, Iran: trace elements in bird eggs and in coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Khademi, Nastaran; Riyahi-Bakhtiari, Alireza; Sobhanardakani, Soheil; Rezaie-Atagholipour, Mohsen; Burger, Joanna

    2015-02-01

    Levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and vanadium (V) were evaluated in coastal sediments, egg contents, and eggshells of crab plover (Dromas ardeola), bridled tern (Sterna anaethetus), lesser crested tern (S. bengalensis), and western reef heron (Egretta gularis) breeding in the northwestern Persian Gulf. Levels of Cd, Pb, Ni, V, and Se were greater in eggs of terns than in eggs of crab plover, perhaps due to the higher trophic level of terns. Levels of all elements were lower than known effects levels for birds. However, levels of Se in eggs were greater than those known to cause toxic effects in birds. Eggs of terns are ideal for monitoring metal contaminants on the breeding grounds because the bioaccumulation ratios (egg/sediment) of some metals (As, Co, Se) in the eggs of terns are significantly greater compared with those of crab plovers.

  11. Mercury pollution in three species of waders from Shadegan wetlands at the head of the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, Rasool; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud; Bahramifar, Nader

    2010-03-01

    Persian Gulf supports diverse ecosystems and biota in need of remediation and protection, and metal data from this region is needed. Mercury (Hg) in tissues of three waders (Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantous, Red-wattled Plover Hoplopterus indicus, and White-tailed Plover Vanellus leucurus) from Shadegan Wetlands is reported. Black-winged Stilt had higher Hg in feather (6.6 +/- 0.6 microg/g dry weight), liver (3.5 +/- 1 microg/g dry weight), kidney (4.5 +/- 0.8 microg/g dry weight) and muscle (1.2 +/- 0.2 microg/g dry weight) (not statistically significant). Differences in Hg among waders could have resulted from diverse feeding habitats and dissimilar foraging sites. PMID:20098979

  12. Assessment of metal accumulation in two fish species (Tenualosa ilisha and Otolithes ruber), captured from the north of Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Niri, Ali Sadough; Sharifian, Salim; Ahmadi, Rezvan

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between size (length and weight) and metal concentrations in different tissues of two commercially valuable fish species (Hilsa shad, Tenualosa ilisha and tiger tooth croaker, Otolithes ruber) from the north of Persian Gulf were evaluated. Concentrations of the metals in fish species ranged as follows: Cd 0.08-1.34; Pb 0.67-4.43; Cu 3.07-23.38; Co 0.64-5.03; Ni 2.15-7.69 μg/g dry weight, respectively. Metal content in both fish varied with type of metals and tissues. Results showed significant positive relationships between metals and fish size in T. ilisha, while those in O. ruber were not significant in most cases.

  13. Determination of the Earth gravity Field Parameters in Persian Gulf and Oman Sea with the Satellite Altimetry Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emadi, S. R.; Najafi-Alamardi, M.; Toosi, K. N.; Sedighi, M.; Nankali, H. R.

    2006-07-01

    Satellite altimetry provides continuous, accur ate, and homogenous data ser ies in marine areas .Th e Sea Surf ace Heigh ts (SSH) ex tracted from altimetry data w as used in a method sear ching for the least squares of the sea surface topography to simultaneously d etermine the geoidal height and the sea surface topography as well in the Persian Gulf and the Oman sea. This is contrary to th e methods wh ich r equire the knowledge of one parameter to estimate the other. The North and East componen ts of the deflections of vertical w ere also estimated by differentiating the der ived geoid al heights in the corresponding directions, and finally the free- air grav ity anomalies w ere computed utilizing the inverse V ening- Meinesz integral.

  14. "Tip of the spear" physical therapy during a 6-month deployment to the Persian Gulf: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Ziemke, G W; Koffman, R L; Wood, D P

    2001-06-01

    When a U.S. Navy aircraft carrier battle group deploys overseas, the ship's medical department is responsible for more than 10,000 personnel and their numerous musculoskeletal injuries. This paper reviews the effectiveness of having a U.S. Navy physical therapist and physical therapy technician onboard the USS Carl Vinson during its most recent deployment to the Persian Gulf. Physical therapy had 3,373 patient visits during the ship's 1998-1999 Western Pacific deployment. Having physical therapy personnel onboard resulted in fewer patient visits to sick call for musculoskeletal problems and fewer evacuations compared with other similar carrier deployments. Providing physical therapy at the "tip of the spear" is an effective, beneficial, and cost-saving landmark improvement in providing quality medical care to the fleet. The lessons learned from this experience will assist in clarifying the role of physical therapy in future military support operations and sustained deployments.

  15. Isolation of a potent antibiotic producer bacterium, especially against MRSA, from northern region of the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Darabpour, Esmaeil; Ardakani, Mohammad Roayaei; Motamedi, Hossein; Ronagh, Mohammad Taghi

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, emergence and prevalence of MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) strain have become a great global concern in 21st century, so, it is necessary to discover new antibiotics against this pathogen. The aim of this study was isolation and evaluation marine bacteria from the Persian Gulf in order to finding antibiotic compounds against some pathogenic bacteria. For this purpose, water and sediment samples were collected from the Persian Gulf during March to October 2009. The antibacterial activity of the isolated bacteria was assessed using disc diffusion method. The Growth Curve Interference (GCI) parameter against MRSA was determined for the high potential antibiotic producing strain. The most important factors affecting fermentation conditions in antibiotic production were also optimized. Definite identification of intended isolate was confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Altogether, 51 bacterial colony was isolated and among them only 3 bacterium showed antibacterial activity. Pseudoalteromonaspiscicida PG-01 isolated from a sediment sample was chosen as the best antibiotic producing strain. This strain was effective against all tested Gram-positive bacteria, had good anti-MRSA activity and also GCI value against MRSA was two times lower than MIC value. Among the optimized fermentation parameters, carbon and nitrogen sources play major role in efficacy of optimized antibiotic production. Ultrastructural study on the effect of intended antibiotic compounds on MRSA using TEM revealed that the target site for this compound is cell wall. Considering the antibacterial effect of PG-01 strain especially against MRSA, intended antibiotic compounds can gives hope for treatment of diseases caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria. PMID:22642595

  16. Effects of Three Types of Oil Dispersants on Biodegradation of Dispersed Crude Oil in Water Surrounding Two Persian Gulf Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani, Azadeh; Emtyazjoo, Mozhgan; Poursafa, Parinaz; Mehrabian, Sedigheh; Bijani, Samira; Farkhani, Daryoush; Mirmoghtadaee, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. Methods. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of the above-mentioned dispersants, as exclusive sources of carbon, the bacteria were grown in culture medium for 28 days at 120 rpm, 30°C, and their optical density was measured by spectrophotometry. Then, we tested biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in microorganisms. Results. The highest growth rate was documented for the growth of microorganisms on either Pars 1 or Pars 2 dispersants or their mixtures with oil. However, the culture having microorganisms grown on Pars 1 had higher BOD and COD than the other two dispersants (9200 and 16800 versus 500 and 960, P < 0.05). Mixture of oil and Pars 2 as well as oil and Pars 1 dispersants showed the highest BODs and CODs, respectively. In the Bahregan province, microorganisms grown on Pars 2 had maximum amount of BOD and COD in comparison with Pars 1 and Gamlen dispersants (7100 and 15200 versus 6000 and 10560, P < 0.05). Conclusion. Pars 1 and Pars 2 were the most effective dispersants with highest degradability comparing Gamlen. In each region, the most suitable compound for removing oil spill from offshores with least secondary contamination should be investigated. PMID:22363352

  17. Elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Nabipour, Iraj; Vahdat, Katayoun; Jafari, Seyed Mojtaba; Beigi, Saeideh; Assadi, Majid; Azizi, Fatemeh; Sanjdideh, Zahra

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that low-grade systemic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, limited information is available about the relationship of diabetes mellitus and inflammation in Asia. We examined the association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and diabetes in a general Iranian population. In an ancillary study to the Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Study, a cohort study of men and women aged > or = 25 years, a random sample of 1754 (49.2 percent males, 50.8 percent females) subjects were evaluated. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Elevated serum CRP was defined as more than 3.0 mg/l. The diabetes classification was based on the criteria of the American Diabetes Association. A total of 8.6 percent of the subjects (8.0 percent of males & 9.1 percent of females; p>0.05) had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Geometric mean of CRP was 1.94 mg/l (3.80 SD) in the studied population. The subjects with diabetes had a higher geometric mean of CRP levels than the subjects with no diabetes [3.67 (SD 3.71) versus 1.85 (3.83) respectively; p<0.0001)]. In multiple logistic regression analysis, diabetes showed a significant age-adjusted association with elevated CRP levels [Odds Ratio = 2.03, Confidence Interval (1.38-2.98); p<0.0001] after adjusting for sex, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol blood pressure, smoking and body mass index. In conclusion, beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors, elevated CRP is significantly correlated with diabetes in general population of the northern Persian Gulf. Further insight into the specific effects of proinflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins will be essential for the development of new preventive strategies for diabetes mellitus. PMID:18493107

  18. Two-way multi-band optical/IR transmission measurements in the Persian Gulf coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Arie N.; Fritz, Peter J.

    2005-10-01

    The atmospheric conditions in the Persian Gulf region are significantly different from other places in the world. The particle size distribution may vary daily and during the day. The aerosols can contribute to the amount of rainfall over land, important for the nations around the Gulf. In 2004 NASNGSFC and NRL (Naval Research Laboratory) introduced a proposal to improve the modelling of aerosol transport for the Persian Gulf area. The proposal included a measurement campaign in the UAE (United Arabian Emirates), held in the summer/fall of 2004, sponsored by the DWRS (Department of Water Resources Studies) in Abu Dhabi: UAEz (Unified Aerosol Experiment in the UAE). In this campaign NASA installed a number of multi-spectral sun-photometers at various locations in the UAE (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov). NRL installed ground based and airborne particle samplers. In addition, TNO (the Netherlands) installed its multi-band opticaUIR transmissometer, in order to collect horizontal, path-integrated transmission data. This device provides additional information on the scattering behaviour of the aerosols compared to the other instruments, which either integrate scattering over the full vertical path (the NASA sun-photometers, providing the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)) or sample the particles in-situ (the NRL particle samplers, providing size distribution and composition). This paper deals with our transmission measurement set-up, which was located in a coastal area near Abu Dhabi. This location allowed the investigation of the local variability of the atmospheric conditions: from desert dust to pollution, such as fossil fuel and biomass burning, depending on the wind direction. For logistic reasons a set-up was chosen with a retro-reflector. This choice implies consequences for the calibration procedure and measurement accuracy, which are discussed in detail. Also the effects of path-inhomogeneity and scintillation for such a two-way set-up are considered. Results are

  19. Baseline of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface sediment and sea cucumbers (Holothuria leucospilota and Stichopus hermanni) in the northern parts of Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Khazaali, Aida; Kunzmann, Andreas; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Baniamam, Mehrnaz

    2016-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the surface sediments and in the sea cucumbers (Holothuria leucospilota and Stichopus hermanni) from around six Islands in the northern parts of Persian Gulf. The ranges of the average concentrations of PAHs in surface sediments, H. leucospilota and S. hermanni were 10.33-186.16ngg(-1) dw, 12.49-505.44ngg(-1) dw and 8.08-389.39ngg(-1) dw, respectively. The spatial distribution of PAHs reveals that pollutant concentration is relatively higher at the western parts of Persian Gulf. International sedimentary quality guidelines (TEL-PEL) indicated a low probability of harmful effects to benthic organisms. PAH source identification showed that the PAHs in the sediments come from pyrogenic and mixed origin. PMID:27216041

  20. Two squat lobster species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura) from the Persian Gulf, with description of a new species of Raymunida Macpherson & Machordom, 2000.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Masayuki; Safaie, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Galathea ternatensis De Man, 1902 and Raymunida iranica n. sp., are reported from the Iranian coast as the first records of squat lobster species from the Persian Gulf. The new species morphologically resembles R. cagnetei Macpherson & Machordom, 2000, but is unique in the genus in having a small spine near the base of each supraocular spine and a spine ventral to the second branchial marginal spine of the carapace. PMID:25283407

  1. Ocean Color Retrieval Using LANDSAT-8 Imagery in Coastal Case 2 Waters (case Study Persian and Oman Gulf)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, N.; Hasanlou, M.; Saadatseresht, M.

    2016-06-01

    Ocean color (OC) monitoring using satellite imageries provides an appropriate tool for a better understanding of marine processes and changes in the coastal environment. Radiance measurements in the range of visible light of the electromagnetic spectrum provides information of ocean color that is associated with the water constituents. This measurements are used to monitor the level of biological activity and the presence of particles in the water. Ocean features such as the concentration of chlorophyll, suspended sediment concentration and sea surface temperature have a significant impact on the dynamics of the ocean. The concentration of chlorophyll (chla), active pigments of phytoplankton photosynthesis, as a key indicator applied for assessment of water quality and biochemistry. Experimental algorithms chla related to internal communication various optical components in the water that may be change in space and time in the water with different optical characteristics. Therefore, the algorithms have been developed for one area may not work for other places and each region according to its specific characteristics needs that determined by an algorithm may be appropriate to local. We have tried treatment several algorithms for determination of chlorophyll, including experimental algorithms with a simple band ratio of blue-green band (i.e. OCx) and algorithms includes two bands ratio with variable 𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ2)/𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ1), the three bands ratio with variable [𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ1)-1-𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ2)-1]×𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ3) and four bands ratio with variable [𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ1)-1-𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ2)-1]/[𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ4)-1-𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ3)-1] that desired wavelength (i.e. λ1, λ2, λ3 and λ4) in the range of red and near-infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum are in the region of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea look

  2. Intensities of drilling predation of molluscan assemblages in intertidal and subtidal soft substrates in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, Sabine M.; Albano, Paolo G.; Bentlage, Rudolf; Drummond, Hannah; García-Ramos, Diego A.; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Intensities of drilling predation of molluscan assemblages in intertidal and subtidal soft substrates in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf Sabine Maria Handler1, Paolo G. Albano1, Rudolf Bentlage2, Hannah Drummond2, D.A. García-Ramos1, Martin Zuschin1 1 Department of Paleontology, University of Vienna, Austria 2 St. Lawrence University, Canton, New York 13617, USA Trace fossils left by predators in the skeleton of their prey are arguably one of the most powerful sources of direct data on predator-prey interactions available in the fossil record. Drill holes, especially those attributed to naticid and muricid gastropods, are unambiguous marks of predation and allow discriminating between successful and unsuccessful predation attempts (complete and incomplete holes, respectively). Latitude and water depth influence drilling frequency. We inspected death assemblages of an intertidal flat and of two subtidal (water depth between 6 and 20 m) sandy sites in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf, off the coast of the United Arab Emirates, to determine the patterns of predation on shelled molluscs along the depth gradient. The study is based on ~7,000 and ~60,000 shells from the intertidal and subtidal, respectively. Drilling Frequency (DF, the number of drilled individuals), Incomplete Drilling Frequency (IDF, number of incomplete drill holes), and Prey Effectiveness (ratio between the number of incomplete drill holes and the total number of drilling attempts) were used as metrics of drilling intensity. We observed major differences between the intertidal and subtidal study areas. Drilling frequencies were generally remarkably low and intertidal flats showed a much lower drilling frequency than the subtidal (1.4% and 6.7%, respectively). In the subtidal, we observed significant differences of drilling intensity among bivalve species and between the two sites. However, predation metrics did not correlate with environmental factors such as substrate type and depth, nor with species life

  3. Symbiodinium thermophilum sp. nov., a thermotolerant symbiotic alga prevalent in corals of the world's hottest sea, the Persian/Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Hume, B C C; D'Angelo, C; Smith, E G; Stevens, J R; Burt, J; Wiedenmann, J

    2015-02-27

    Coral reefs are in rapid decline on a global scale due to human activities and a changing climate. Shallow water reefs depend on the obligatory symbiosis between the habitat forming coral host and its algal symbiont from the genus Symbiodinium (zooxanthellae). This association is highly sensitive to thermal perturbations and temperatures as little as 1°C above the average summer maxima can cause the breakdown of this symbiosis, termed coral bleaching. Predicting the capacity of corals to survive the expected increase in seawater temperatures depends strongly on our understanding of the thermal tolerance of the symbiotic algae. Here we use molecular phylogenetic analysis of four genetic markers to describe Symbiodinium thermophilum, sp. nov. from the Persian/Arabian Gulf, a thermally tolerant coral symbiont. Phylogenetic inference using the non-coding region of the chloroplast psbA gene resolves S. thermophilum as a monophyletic lineage with large genetic distances from any other ITS2 C3 type found outside the Gulf. Through the characterisation of Symbiodinium associations of 6 species (5 genera) of Gulf corals, we demonstrate that S. thermophilum is the prevalent symbiont all year round in the world's hottest sea, the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf.

  4. Symbiodinium thermophilum sp. nov., a thermotolerant symbiotic alga prevalent in corals of the world's hottest sea, the Persian/Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Hume, B C C; D'Angelo, C; Smith, E G; Stevens, J R; Burt, J; Wiedenmann, J

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are in rapid decline on a global scale due to human activities and a changing climate. Shallow water reefs depend on the obligatory symbiosis between the habitat forming coral host and its algal symbiont from the genus Symbiodinium (zooxanthellae). This association is highly sensitive to thermal perturbations and temperatures as little as 1°C above the average summer maxima can cause the breakdown of this symbiosis, termed coral bleaching. Predicting the capacity of corals to survive the expected increase in seawater temperatures depends strongly on our understanding of the thermal tolerance of the symbiotic algae. Here we use molecular phylogenetic analysis of four genetic markers to describe Symbiodinium thermophilum, sp. nov. from the Persian/Arabian Gulf, a thermally tolerant coral symbiont. Phylogenetic inference using the non-coding region of the chloroplast psbA gene resolves S. thermophilum as a monophyletic lineage with large genetic distances from any other ITS2 C3 type found outside the Gulf. Through the characterisation of Symbiodinium associations of 6 species (5 genera) of Gulf corals, we demonstrate that S. thermophilum is the prevalent symbiont all year round in the world's hottest sea, the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf. PMID:25720577

  5. A New Landscape: Opportunities and Pitfalls for Universities Expanding in the Persian Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiConsiglio, John

    2009-01-01

    Dozens of universities--primarily from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia--are eyeing the Gulf region as a largely untapped reservoir of academic potential and economic opportunity. During the last few years, UAE states like Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Qatar, and Ras al Khaymah have spent billions to entice top universities. And many colleges…

  6. Structural violence and the state: HIV and labour migration from Pakistan to the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Ayaz

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the biopolitics of HIV and labour migration from Pakistan (a country classified by UNAIDS as at 'high risk' of a generalised epidemic) to the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The remittances by the labour migrants in the Gulf are an invaluable source of foreign exchange for Pakistan and a large number of households are entirely dependent upon them. At the same time, the National AIDS Control Programme regards Gulf migrants as a key risk factor for an HIV epidemic. The majority of HIV positive people in clinics comprise Gulf returnee migrants and their family members. This paper suggests that in the process of migrating, prospective migrants are subjected to structural violence that increases their HIV vulnerabilities. In this process, they are subjected to regimes of medical inspection, reduced to their certifiable labour power, inscribed with nationalist ideologies identifying HIV as a disease that strikes 'the other', and exposed to exploitation that increases their vulnerabilities. After migration, they are made to undergo compulsory periodic medical examinations in the GCC and, if found to be HIV positive, they are forcibly deported without papers, proper diagnosis or healthcare - only to return as 'failed subjects'. Taking a disaggregated view of the state, the paper argues that, in order to be effective, debates on structural violence and the HIV epidemic must make explicit the role of the state in producing migrants' vulnerabilities.

  7. Mesoscale variability in the Arabian Sea from HYCOM model results and observations: impact on the Persian Gulf Water path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Hégaret, P.; Duarte, R.; Carton, X.; Vic, C.; Ciani, D.; Baraille, R.; Corréard, S.

    2015-09-01

    The Arabian Sea and Sea of Oman circulation and water masses, subject to monsoon forcing, reveal a strong seasonal variability and intense mesoscale features. We describe and analyze this variability and these features, using both meteorological data (from ECMWF reanalyses), in situ observations (from the ARGO float program and the GDEM - Generalized Digital Environmental mode - climatology), satellite altimetry (from AVISO) and a regional simulation with a primitive equation model (HYCOM - the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model). The model and observations display comparable variability, and the model is then used to analyze the three-dimensional structure of eddies and water masses with higher temporal and spatial resolutions than the available observations. The mesoscale features are highly seasonal, with the formation of coastal currents, destabilizing into eddies, or the radiation of Rossby waves from the Indian coast. The mesoscale eddies have a deep dynamical influence and strongly drive the water masses at depth. In particular, in the Sea of Oman, the Persian Gulf Water presents several offshore ejection sites and a complex recirculation, depending on the mesoscale eddies. The associated mechanisms range from coastal ejection via dipoles, alongshore pulses due to a cyclonic eddy, to the formation of lee eddies downstream of Ra's Al Hamra. This water mass is also captured inside the eddies via several mechanisms, keeping high thermohaline characteristics in the Arabian Sea. The variations of the outflow characteristics near the Strait of Hormuz are compared with variations downstream.

  8. Description of two new Discocelis species (Polycladida: Acotylea: Discocelidae) from the Persian Gulf with a review of the genus.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudlou, Abdolvahab; Rahimian, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Two new polyclad species, from northern intertidal zone and shallow rocky shores of the Persian Gulf, Discocelispersica sp. nov. and Discocelis hollemani sp. nov., are described. D. persica possesses a thick and broadly oval body tapering somewhat posteriorly, without any obvious color pattern; with marginal eyes extended around the anterior margin of the body; cerebral eyes forming two clusters, each further subdivided into anterior and posterior groups, about 100 eyespots at the anterior group and 55 eyespots at the posterior groups; mouth at the posterior end of the pharynx; male atrium with three to four distinct lobes, with numerous prostatoid organs of two distinct sizes, without villus-like projections; and with a horseshoe-shaped Lang's vesicle. D. hollemani characterized by a thick and broadly oval body, not tapering antro-posteriorly, without any obvious color pattern; marginal eyes extended to the vicinity of the posterior end of pharynx; the cerebral eyes forming two clusters, each further subdivided into anterior and posterior groups in relation to the cerebral organ, about 50 eyespots at the anterior group and 20 eyespots at the posterior groups; mouth at the posterior end of the pharynx; the male atrium with two distinct lobes, with numerous prostatoids of two distinct sizes and different contents; villus-like projections absent, and with a horseshoe-shaped Lang's vesicle. PMID:25250450

  9. First Report of Anterior Pallial Tentacles in Solen dactylus (Bivalvia: Solenidae) from the Northern Persian Gulf, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Saeedi, Hanieh; Costello, Mark J.; von Cosel, Rudo

    2013-01-01

    Solenidae are deep burrowing bivalves inhabiting intertidal and shallow sub-tidal soft bottom sediments mostly in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Solen dactylus has a restricted distribution within the Indian Ocean. Solen dactylus is frequently found on the sandy-muddy coast of the northern Persian Gulf, Iran. Specimens of S. dactylus were collected since 2006 from Bandar Abbas to study their biology and ecology. During these studies, an unexpected pair of anterior pallial tentacles at the dorsal end of the anterior pallial crest of the mantle was found. In the tentacles, two kinds of epithelial cells (pyramidal and vacuolated) and fibres (radial and longitudinal), and a branch of the pallial nerve located in the centre of a haemocoel, were determined. A possible coherence of a furrow parallel to the anterior shell margin with the presence of anterior pallial tentacles is discussed. All species with long anterior pallial tentacles have anterior shell furrows. Anterior pallial tentacles were found in 10 species of Solenidae from Asia to the Middle East and Europe. The function of the tentacles is unknown. However, more species need to be examined for anterior pallial tentacles and anterior shell furrows to determine if they reflect a common evolutionary history or ecology. PMID:23691053

  10. Assessing the trace metal pollution in the sediments of Mahshahr Bay, Persian Gulf, via a novel pollution index.

    PubMed

    Vaezi, A R; Karbassi, A R; Fakhraee, M

    2015-10-01

    Sediment samples were collected from the Petrochemical Special Economic Zone of Mahshahr Bay, Persian Gulf, and analyzed for possible trace metal contamination by means of a chemical partitioning method. The heavy metal contents in the sediments follow the order of Al > Sr > Mn > Zn > Ni > Ba > Cr > Cu > As > Co. The degree of sediment contamination was evaluated using pollution load index (PLI), modified degree of contamination (mC d), geo-accumulation index (I geo), and enrichment factor (EF). All these indices compare present concentrations of metals to their background levels in crust and shale. In a specific area with high geological background like Mahshahr Bay, such a comparison may lead to erroneous conclusions. Due to the remarkable contribution of lithogenous fraction, as the natural component, to the bulk concentration of trace metals in the sediments of such an area, assessment of chemical hazard to the surrounding aquatic environment should not be carried out through traditional approaches. In the present study, anthropogenic portion of the metals was determined through one-step chemical sequential extraction and lithogenous portion substituted for the mean crust and shale levels in the new pollution index (RIAquatic). PLI, mC d, and I geo revealed overall low values, but EF, pollution index (I POLL), and newly developed pollution index were relatively high for all samples.

  11. The first report on some toxic effects of green scat, Scatophagus argus an Iranian Persian Gulf venomous fish.

    PubMed

    Ghafari, Seyedeh Maryam; Jamili, Shahla; Bagheri, Kamran Pooshang; Ardakani, Esmat Mirabzadeh; Fatemi, Mohamad Reza; Shahbazzadeh, Fahimeh; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar

    2013-05-01

    Green scat namely as Scatophagus argus is a venomous aquarium fish belonging to Scatophagidae family. It can induce painful wounds in injured hand with partial paralysis to whom that touch the spines. Dorsal and ventral rough spines contain cells that produce venom with toxic activities. According to unpublished data collected from local hospitals in southern coastal region of Iran, S. argus is reported as a venomous fish. Envenomation induces clinical symptoms such as local pain, partial paralysis, erythema and itching. In the present study green scat (spotted scat) was collected from Persian Gulf coastal waters. SDS-PAGE indicated 12 distinct bands in the venom ranged between 7 and 250 kDa. The crude venom had hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes (1%) with an LC100 (Lytic Concentration) of about 1.7 μg. The crude venom can release 813 μg protein from 0.5% casein. Phospholipase C activity was recorded at 3.125 μg of total venom. Our findings showed that the edematic activity remained over 24 h after injection. The results demonstrated that crude venom extracted from Iranian coastal border has different toxic and enzymatic activities. This study is pending to further investigation on animal model regarding protein purification and in vivo studies.

  12. The effect of economic sanctions on the mortality of Iraqi children prior to the 1991 Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed Central

    Daponte, B O; Garfield, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effect of sanctions on mortality among Iraqi children. METHODS: The effects of economic sanctions on health are not well known. Past studies on the effect of economic sanctions on mortality have suffered from unreliable data sources and the collinearity of sanctions with other negative economic events. We overcame these weaknesses by using individual child records from a retrospective survey of mothers conducted after the 1991 Persian Gulf War to examine the effect of sanctions on mortality among Iraqi children. Multivariate proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the effect of economic sanctions prior to war (from August through December 1990). RESULTS: We found that after controlling for child and maternal characteristics, when economic sanctions were entered into the proportional hazards equation, the risk of dying increased dramatically. This increase was highly significant statistically. CONCLUSIONS: Innovative application of robust epidemiologic research tools can contribute to assessments of health and well-being even under the methodological and practical constraints of comprehensive economic sanctions, but more research is needed. PMID:10754968

  13. Evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects of Holothuria scabra from the North Coast of the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mohammadizadeh, F; Ehsanpor, M; Afkhami, M; Mokhlesi, A; Khazaali, A; Montazeri, S

    2013-12-01

    Bioactive compounds of the gonad, respiration tree, and body wall of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra collected from the North Coast of the Persian Gulf were extracted using ethyl acetate, methanol and water-methanol mixtures. Extracts were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The activity was determined using the disc diffusion test. Cytotoxic activities of the extracts were determined by brine shrimp lethality assay. Results showed the existence of an antifungal activity of all extracts against A. niger with MIC ranging from 3 to 9μg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was found in respiration tree (methanol) with an inhibition zone of about 50mm against A. niger at 18μg/mL extract concentration. Cytotoxic activity was obtained for methanolic extracts only. Methanol extract of the gonads showed the highest cytotoxic effect (LC50=50.5μg/mL) continuing with RT methanol extract (LC50=70μg/mL). PMID:24054089

  14. Stress and coping in male and female health care providers during the Persian Gulf War: the USNS Comfort hospital ship.

    PubMed

    Slusarcick, A L; Ursano, R J; Fullerton, C S; Dinneen, M P

    1999-03-01

    The development of the USNS Comfort hospital ship during the Persian Gulf War provided an opportunity to examine the relationship of gender to stress and coping in health care providers exposed to wartime stressors. Just before the outbreak of Operation Desert Storm, medical personnel (N = 250) rated the stressfulness of current wartime experiences and the helpfulness of stress-reducing resources onboard ship in a combat theater. The responses of men and women were compared; to identify the dimensions of these responses, a principal factor analysis (orthogonal rotation) was performed. Generally, men and women ranked stressors and stress reducers similarly; women scored higher on the stress ratings. Two factors, similar for men and women, were identified in the stress ratings: fear of injury and trauma-related work demands. The dimensions of the stress reducers, however, were different for men and women. The findings support retrospective studies and suggest that different mechanisms of stress reduction may be operative even though men and women are performing the same activity.

  15. Drug use treatment and harm reduction programs in Iran: A unique model of health in the most populated Persian Gulf country.

    PubMed

    Alam-Mehrjerdi, Zahra; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Higgs, Peter; Dolan, Kate

    2015-08-01

    Because of the proximity of Persian Iran to Afghanistan, the main opium producer in the world, drug use especially opium use has a long history in Iran. Opium and its residues are the traditional drugs while heroin, heroin Kerack, norgesic, temgesic, and methamphetamine use and injection have emerged more recently. In recent decades, heroin smoking and injection have presented challenges to the Persian health policy makers to accept and develop the internationally-approved programs of drug use treatment and harm reduction. The current paper summarizes the overall picture of main drugs used and the history of establishing the nationwide movement of drug use treatment and harm reduction programs after the 1979 revolution until the end of 2014. The paper concludes that Persian Iran has a well-developed healthcare system in the provision of drug use treatment and harm reduction programs in the south-west of Asia especially the Persian Gulf region. These therapeutic and harm reduction-related programs are required to be strengthened by opium supply reduction and eradicating drug production in Afghanistan. The provision of prevention programs, drug education via mass-media, employment and inexpensive leisure activities are required in Iran. In addition, conducting household surveys of the prevalence of drug use and evaluating the clinical effectiveness and treatment outcomes of the provided drug treatment and harm reduction programs are required. National and regional collaborations are rigorously suggested to manage supply reduction along the borders and implement demand reduction inside the borders.

  16. Drug use treatment and harm reduction programs in Iran: A unique model of health in the most populated Persian Gulf country.

    PubMed

    Alam-Mehrjerdi, Zahra; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Higgs, Peter; Dolan, Kate

    2015-08-01

    Because of the proximity of Persian Iran to Afghanistan, the main opium producer in the world, drug use especially opium use has a long history in Iran. Opium and its residues are the traditional drugs while heroin, heroin Kerack, norgesic, temgesic, and methamphetamine use and injection have emerged more recently. In recent decades, heroin smoking and injection have presented challenges to the Persian health policy makers to accept and develop the internationally-approved programs of drug use treatment and harm reduction. The current paper summarizes the overall picture of main drugs used and the history of establishing the nationwide movement of drug use treatment and harm reduction programs after the 1979 revolution until the end of 2014. The paper concludes that Persian Iran has a well-developed healthcare system in the provision of drug use treatment and harm reduction programs in the south-west of Asia especially the Persian Gulf region. These therapeutic and harm reduction-related programs are required to be strengthened by opium supply reduction and eradicating drug production in Afghanistan. The provision of prevention programs, drug education via mass-media, employment and inexpensive leisure activities are required in Iran. In addition, conducting household surveys of the prevalence of drug use and evaluating the clinical effectiveness and treatment outcomes of the provided drug treatment and harm reduction programs are required. National and regional collaborations are rigorously suggested to manage supply reduction along the borders and implement demand reduction inside the borders. PMID:26168763

  17. Four new species of Acanthobothrium van Benden, 1850(Cestoda: Onchoproteocephalidea) from the guitarfish, Rhynchobatus cf. djiddensis (Elasmobranchii: Rhynchobatidae), from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Loghman; Malek, Masoumeh; Palm, Harry W

    2015-01-01

    Four new species of Acanthobothrium van Beneden, 1850 are described from guitarfish, Rhynchobatus cf. djiddensis (Forsskål), collected from the Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf. Acanthobothrium janineae sp. n., a category 1 species, differs from all congeners in category 1 by having a long vagina extending into the vas deferens and different, proglottid and testis number except Acanthobothrium hypermekkolpos Fyler et Caira, 2010. Acanthobothrium fylerae sp. n., a category 1 species, can be differentiated by a combination of characters including the total length, proglottid and testis number, cirrus sac shape, and the length of the vagina and ovarian lobes. Both new species are similar to A. hypermekkolpos reported from Rhynchobatus laevis (Bloch et Schneider) from Australia in their scolex proper length, hook size and muscular pad, respectively. Acanthobothrium asrinae sp. n., a category 1 species, differs from other category 1 species by the shape of its hooks and the position of the tubercle at the mid-length of the axial prongs; in this respect it resembles A. bartonae Campbell et Beveridge, 2002 reported from Australia. Acanthobothrium jamesi sp. n. is among six category 1 species with post-ovarian testes. It differs from these species by total length, proglottid and testis number and the extension of the ovarian lobes. Although it is thought that R. djiddensis occurs in the region, the identities of the hosts of the newly described Acanthobothrium species await verification. There are two forms of host in the region and were designated as R. cf. djiddensis 1 and R. cf. djiddensis 2. More taxonomic work and the use of molecular techniques are needed to resolve the true identity of the host species. PMID:25960556

  18. Stress and stressors of the early phases of the Persian Gulf War

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Robert K; Ursano, Robert J; Stuart, John A; Engel, Charles C

    2006-01-01

    Soldiers who deployed to Saudi Arabia in support of Operation Desert Shield were exposed to a wide variety of stressors. These stressors from the pre-combat phase of the deployment undoubtedly affect the current health of Gulf War veterans, but the exact mechanisms and linkages are not known. This article examines the nature of those stressors and possible effects on later health of veterans. PMID:16687263

  19. Ferrocene functionalized nanoscale mixed-oxides as a potent phosphate adsorbent from the synthetic and real (Persian Gulf) waters.

    PubMed

    Arshadi, M; Zandi, H; Akbari, J; Shameli, A

    2015-07-15

    The application of covalently attached ferrocene groups to the aluminum-silicate nanoparticles (ASNPs) for phosphate (P) removal from the synthetic and real waters has been studied and the prepared nanomaterials were analyzed by XPS, EDS, BET, TEM, chemical analysis (CHN), FTIR, and ICP-AES. The immobilization of the ferrocene on the surface of the inorganic support (mixed oxides) can lead to reduce the drawback of the pristine ferrocene molecules which may have strong tendency to agglomerate into larger particles, resulting in the negative effect on both available active sites and catalyst performance. XPS of Fe ions evidenced that most of the active sites of the nano-adsorbent is in the form of Fe(III) ions at the surface. The heterogeneous Fe(III) ions were effective toward removal of phosphate. The contact time to obtain equilibrium for maximum adsorption of phosphate (100%) was found to be 120 min. The adsorption kinetics of P has been evaluated in terms of pseudo-first- and -second-order kinetics, and the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models have also been tested to the equilibrium adsorption results. The adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature and followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. FTIR, EDS and XPS results confirmed the formation of Fe-O-P bond on the Si/Al@Fe surface after adsorption of P from aqueous media. The Si/Al@Fe displayed high reusability due to its high removal capacity after 10th adsorption-desorption runs. The proposed adsorbent could also be utilized to adsorb the P ions from the real sample (Persian Gulf water). The high removal capacity of P ions from the real water and the high levels of reusability confirmed the versatility of the heterogenized ferrocene groups on the ASNPs.

  20. The first report on coagulation and phospholipase A2 activities of Persian Gulf lionfish, Pterois russelli, an Iranian venomous fish.

    PubMed

    Memar, Bahareh; Jamili, Shahla; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Bagheri, Kamran Pooshang

    2016-04-01

    Pterois russelli is a venomous fish belonging to scorpionidae family. Regarding to high significance value for tracing potential therapeutic molecules and special agents from venomous marine creatures, the present study was aimed to characterization of the Persian Gulf lionfish venom. Proteolytic, phospholipase, hemolytic, coagulation, edematogenic and dermonecrotic activities were determined for extracted venom. The LD50 of P. russelli venom was determined by intravenous injection in white Balb/c mice. Phospholipase A2 activity was recorded at 20 μg of total venom. Coagulation activity on human plasma was shown by Prothrombin Time (PT) and activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assays and coagulation visualized after 7 and 14 s respectively for 60 μg of crude venom. LD50 was calculated as 10.5 mg/kg. SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of major and minor protein bands between 6 and 205 kDa. Different amounts of crude venom ranged from 1.87 to 30 μg showed proteolytic activity on casein. The highest edematic activity was detected at 20 μg. Our findings showed that the edematic activity was dose dependent and persisted for 48 h after injection. The crude venom did not induce dermonecrotic activity on rabbit skin and showed no hemolytic activity on human, mouse and rabbit erythrocytes. This is the first report for phospholipase A2 and coagulation activity in venomous fish and venomous marine animals respectively. Proteolytic activity of P. russelli venom is in accordance with the other genara of scorpionidae family. According to venom activity on intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways, lionfish venom would be contained an interesting pharmaceutical agent. This study is pending to further characterization of phospholipase A2, coagulation, and protease activities and also in vivo activity on animal model of surface and internal bleeding.

  1. Radioactivity concentrations in sediments on the coast of the Iranian province of Khuzestan in the Northern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Pourahmad, Jalal; Motallebi, Abbasali; Asgharizadeh, Farid; Eskandari, Gholam Reza; Shafaghi, Bijan

    2008-10-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometric analyses were performed on sediment samples from the coast of Khuzestan province (south west of Iran, neighbor to Iraq and Kuwait) to study the concentration of natural as well as man-made radioactive sources. The coast of Khuzestan, which extends for approximately 400 km is mainly soft areas of mud flats within different ecosystems including river mouth, estuaries, creeps, and small bays. Suspended material from the Iranian rivers including Arvand (Karun), Bahmanshir, Jarrahi, and Zohreh has settled to form these extensive soft areas. Eighty three samples were taken at different points along the coast in undisturbed areas at intervals of about 5 km since Fall 2005 to Winter 2006. Collection was carried out during low-tide, where it was possible to collect sediments from the wet region that was covered by sea water during the high tide. At each of the sample sites, a sampling area of about 1 m(2) was considered. All samples were of a muddy nature, and were left to dry in open air before drying in the oven at 105 degrees C for 2-3 days to remove all water content. The average activity concentration of the radionuclides (226)Ra (30 Bq/Kg), (232)Th (11 Bq/kg), (238)U (18 Bq/kg), and (137)Cs (2.6 Bq/kg) along the shore of Khuzestan reaches are much less than the values commonly assigned as the world average. Nevertheless in case of (40)K which is a long lived naturally occurring radionuclide, the result (481 Bq/kg) was higher than the world average which could be due to a large Kuwaiti oil spill and also fallout and deposition of tremendous amount of fly ashes which resulted from ignited Kuwaiti oil fields during the 2nd Persian Gulf war (1990-91). For man-made (137)Cs and naturally occurring (232)Th, the western and eastern parts of Khuzestan shore showed higher concentrations than the middle part (Khooriat or creeps). For the long lived naturally occurring radionuclide (40)K and Gulf war (238)U (anti armor shells), there were no significant

  2. Corals from the Persian/Arabian Gulf as models for thermotolerant reef-builders: prevalence of clade C3 Symbiodinium, host fluorescence and ex situ temperature tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hume, B; D'Angelo, C; Burt, J; Baker, A C; Riegl, B; Wiedenmann, J

    2013-07-30

    Corals in the Arabian/Persian Gulf endure summer temperatures of up to 36°C, making them ideal subjects to study the mechanisms underlying thermal tolerance. Unexpectedly, we found the "generalist" Symbiodinium clade C3 to be the prevalent symbiont among seven coral species from Abu Dhabi (UAE) waters. Moreover, C3 represented the only dominant symbiont type in Porites spp. from this region. The "thermotolerant" symbionts D1a and C15 were not encountered, indicating that the association with these symbionts cannot be the sole reason for the heat tolerance of Gulf corals. The association of Porites lobata with specific symbiont types (C3 vs. C15) in samples from habitats with very different temperature regimes (Abu Dhabi vs. Fiji) remained unaffected by laboratory culture. During temperature stress experiments specimens from both locations strongly downregulated green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like pigments. However, the Abu Dhabi samples were less prone to bleaching and showed lower mortality.

  3. Rapid late Pleistocene/Holocene uplift and coastal evolution of the southern Arabian (Persian) Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Warren W.; Bailey, Richard M.; Hampton, Brian A.; Kraemer, Thomas F.; Lu, Zhong; Clark, David W.; James, Rhodri H. R.; Al Ramadan, Khalid

    2012-03-01

    The coastline along the southern Arabian Gulf between Al Jubail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and Dubai, UAE, appears to have risen at least 125 m in the last 18,000 years. Dating and topographic surveying of paleo-dunes (43-53 ka), paleo-marine terraces (17-30 ka), and paleo-marine shorelines (3.3-5.5 ka) document a rapid, > 1 mm/a subsidence, followed by a 6 mm/a uplift that is decreasing with time. The mechanism causing this movement remains elusive but may be related to the translation of the coastal area through the backbasin to forebulge hinge line movement of the Arabian plate or, alternatively, by movement of the underlying Infracambrian-age Hormuz salt in response to sea-level changes associated with continental glaciation. Independent of the mechanism, rapid and episodic uplift may impact the design of engineering projects such as nuclear power plants, airports, and artificial islands as well as the interpretation of sedimentation and archeology of the area.

  4. Project swiftsure final report: Destruction of chemical agent waste at Defence Research Establishment Suffield. Suffield special publication No. 170

    SciTech Connect

    McAndless, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Swiftsure was a project to destroy old chemical warfare agent waste at the Defence Research Establishment Suffield Experimental Proving Ground. This report begins with an overview of the project and the consultation process, and describes the project planning and development process, the methods used to destroy the nerve agents, the contracting of a waste incinerator, the environmental protection plan, incinerator installation and testing, waste preparation and incineration operations, final waste product disposal and the environmental monitoring program. Appendices include details on the properties of the agents destroyed, sampling and analysis methods, and air quality monitoring specifications.

  5. Psychiatric medevacs during a 6-month aircraft carrier battle group deployment to the Persian Gulf: a Navy Force Health Protection preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Wood, Dennis Patrick; Koffman, Robert L; Arita, Anthony A

    2003-01-01

    When a U.S. Navy Aircraft Carrier battle group deploys overseas, the aircraft carrier's medical department is responsible for the medical needs of over 12,000 personnel with their indigenous developmental, stress, family, alcohol, drug, and interpersonal and intrapersonal relationship difficulties. This article reviews the effectiveness of having a U.S. Navy clinical psychologist and a psychiatric technician onboard the USS Carl Vinson, the flag ship of Vinson's battle group, during this battle group's 1998/1999 Persian Gulf deployment (i.e., Western Pacific Deployment). Importantly, these two individuals reported to the USS Vinson as permanent members of the ship's company. The clinical psychologist logged 448 individual outpatient-care consults and 79 individual consults with sailors who had a history of overusing or abusing alcohol. Additionally, nine sailors with acute disabling psychiatric diagnoses were hospitalized on the ship's medical ward, and four sailors were medically evacuated (medevaced), by fixed wing aircraft, from USS Vinson to a Navy Hospital in the United States for definitive evaluation, treatment, and disposition. These four medevacs were less than the number of medevacs from two previous Aircraft Carrier Battle Group Persian Gulf deployments. Importantly, these two previous WESTPAC deployments were made without having a clinical psychologist as a full-time member of the respective aircraft carrier's medical department. Providing clinical psychology/mental health services at the "tip of the spear" is an effective, beneficial, and cost-saving landmark improvement in providing quality medical care to the fleet.

  6. Histological characterization of the special venom secretory cells in the stinger of rays in the northern waters of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Hadi; Sajjadi, Mir Masoud; Parto, Paria; Rajaian, Hamid; Mokhlesi, Amin

    2010-06-01

    Rays are common elasmobranches in the northern waters of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea that may have one or more mineralized serrated stingers on the whip-like tail. The stingers are covered by epidermal cells among which some can produce venom. When these animals are dorsally touched, the stinger can be introduced into the aggressor by a whip reflex mechanism of the tail when the pectoral fins are touched, causing severe mechanical injuries and inoculating the venom. The exact localization of the venom secretory cells in the stinger of different species is controversial, but it is known that the cells are preferentially located in the ventro-lateral grooves in marine stingrays. A comparative morphological characterization of the stinger epidermal tissue of different ray species in the northern part of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea was carried out in this study. EDTA was used for decalcification of stings and conventional histological processes were subsequently employed. The results indicated that structure of dermis and epidermis layers of stings in all species are similar to the structure of corresponding layers in other parts of fish's body. The results of the present study have shown that all examined species of Dasyatidae family, but not Myliobatidae and Gymnuridae families, had venom secretory cells. Distribution of venom secretory cells varies in each species and is often located around or inside the stinger ventro-lateral grooves. These differences among the stingers of various species may explain the envenomation severity in these species.

  7. Psychiatric medevacs during a 6-month aircraft carrier battle group deployment to the Persian Gulf: a Navy Force Health Protection preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Wood, Dennis Patrick; Koffman, Robert L; Arita, Anthony A

    2003-01-01

    When a U.S. Navy Aircraft Carrier battle group deploys overseas, the aircraft carrier's medical department is responsible for the medical needs of over 12,000 personnel with their indigenous developmental, stress, family, alcohol, drug, and interpersonal and intrapersonal relationship difficulties. This article reviews the effectiveness of having a U.S. Navy clinical psychologist and a psychiatric technician onboard the USS Carl Vinson, the flag ship of Vinson's battle group, during this battle group's 1998/1999 Persian Gulf deployment (i.e., Western Pacific Deployment). Importantly, these two individuals reported to the USS Vinson as permanent members of the ship's company. The clinical psychologist logged 448 individual outpatient-care consults and 79 individual consults with sailors who had a history of overusing or abusing alcohol. Additionally, nine sailors with acute disabling psychiatric diagnoses were hospitalized on the ship's medical ward, and four sailors were medically evacuated (medevaced), by fixed wing aircraft, from USS Vinson to a Navy Hospital in the United States for definitive evaluation, treatment, and disposition. These four medevacs were less than the number of medevacs from two previous Aircraft Carrier Battle Group Persian Gulf deployments. Importantly, these two previous WESTPAC deployments were made without having a clinical psychologist as a full-time member of the respective aircraft carrier's medical department. Providing clinical psychology/mental health services at the "tip of the spear" is an effective, beneficial, and cost-saving landmark improvement in providing quality medical care to the fleet. PMID:12546245

  8. Two new species of Paraorygmatobothrium Ruhnke, 1994 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from the carcharhinid shark Carcharhinus cf. dussumieri (Müller & Henle) in the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Malek, M; Caira, J N; Haseli, M

    2010-05-01

    New collections of tapeworms from the carcharhinid shark species Carcharhinus cf. dussumieri (Müller & Henle), the whitecheek shark, in the Persian Gulf have yielded two new species belonging to the tetraphyllidean genus Paraorygmatobothrium Ruhnke, 1994 (Phyllobothriidae). Both new species resemble the subset of Paraorygmatobothrium species that bear gongylate columnar spinitriches, rather than serrate gladiate spinitriches, on their distal bothridial surfaces. In combination, their shorter lengths, smaller number of testes and smaller bothridial apical suckers distinguish both Paraorygmatobothrium mobedii n. sp. and Paraorygmatobothrium sinuspersicense n. sp. from all but two of their congeners. They conspicuously differ from P. exiguum (Yamaguti, 1935), in that the spinitriches on their distal surfaces are not arranged on 'bumps' and from P. filiforme (Yamaguti, 1952) in their possession of fewer proglottids. The two new species differ from one another in cirrus-sac shape, testicular shape and arrangement, and vitelline follicle arrangement (i.e. 2 vs 4-6 follicles in each lateral band). In addition, statistically significant differences were seen in terminal proglottid length, ovarian length and apical sucker diameter. This brings the total number of species of Paraorygmatobothrium to 14, and extends the number of carcharhiniform host genera known to host members of the genus to seven. This is also the first description of tapeworms from an elasmobranch in the Persian Gulf. PMID:20401579

  9. The impact of rising energy prices on household energy consumption and expenditure patterns: The Persian Gulf crisis as a case example

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, L.J.; Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1992-09-01

    The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the subsequent war between Iraq and an international alliance led by the United States triggered immediate increases in world oil prices. Increases in world petroleum prices and in US petroleum imports resulted in higher petroleum prices for US customers. In this report, the effects of the Persian Gulf War and its aftermath are used to demonstrate the potential impacts of petroleum price changes on majority, black, and Hispanic households, as well as on poor and nonpoor households. The analysis is done by using the Minority Energy Assessment Model developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The differential impacts of these price increases and fluctuations on poor and minority households raise significant issues for a variety of government agencies, including DOE. Although the Persian Gulf crisis is now over and world oil prices have returned to their prewar levels, the differential impacts of rising energy prices on poor and minority households as a result of any future crisis in the world oil market remains a significant long-term issue.

  10. Evidence for the existence of Persian Gulf Water and Red Sea Water in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Vineet; Shankar, D.; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Kankonkar, A.; Chatterjee, Abhisek; Amol, P.; Almeida, A. M.; Michael, G. S.; Mukherjee, A.; Chatterjee, Meenakshi; Fernandes, R.; Luis, R.; Kamble, Amol; Hegde, A. K.; Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Das, Umasankar; Neema, C. P.

    2016-07-01

    The high-salinity water masses that originate in the North Indian Ocean are Arabian Sea High-Salinity Water (ASHSW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW), and Red Sea Water (RSW). Among them, only ASHSW has been shown to exist in the Bay of Bengal. We use CTD data from recent cruises to show that PGW and RSW also exist in the bay. The presence of RSW is marked by a deviation of the salinity vertical profile from a fitted curve at depths ranging from 500 to 1000 m; this deviation, though small (of the order of ~0.005 psu and therefore comparable to the CTD accuracy of 0.003 psu), is an order of magnitude larger than the ~0.0003 psu fluctuations associated with the background turbulence or instrument noise in this depth regime, allowing us to infer the existence of RSW throughout the bay. PGW is marked by the presence of a salinity maximum at 200-450 m; in the southwestern bay, PGW can be distinguished from the salinity maximum due to ASHSW because of the intervening Arabian Sea Salinity Minimum. This salinity minimum and the maximum associated with ASHSW disappear east and north of the south-central bay (85°E, 8°N) owing to mixing between the fresher surface waters that are native to the bay (Bay of Bengal Water or BBW) with the high-salinity ASHSW. Hence, ASHSW is not seen as a distinct water mass in the northern and eastern bay and the maximum salinity over most of the bay is associated with PGW. The surface water over most of the bay is therefore a mixture of ASHSW and the low-salinity BBW. As a corollary, we can also infer that the weak oxygen peak seen within the oxygen-minimum zone in the bay at a depth of 250-400 m is associated with PGW. The hydrographic data also show that these three high-salinity water masses are advected into the bay by the Summer Monsoon Current, which is seen to be a deep current extending to 1000 m. These deep currents extend into the northern bay as well, providing a mechanism for spreading ASHSW, PGW, and RSW throughout the bay.

  11. Improved gravity anomaly fields from retracked multimission satellite radar altimetry observations over the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaki, M.; Forootan, E.; Sharifi, M. A.; Awange, J.; Kuhn, M.

    2015-09-01

    Satellite radar altimetry observations are used to derive short wavelength gravity anomaly fields over the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea, where in situ and ship-borne gravity measurements have limited spatial coverage. In this study the retracking algorithm `Extrema Retracking' (ExtR) was employed to improve sea surface height (SSH) measurements that are highly biased in the study regions due to land contaminations in the footprints of the satellite altimetry observations. ExtR was applied to the waveforms sampled by the five satellite radar altimetry missions: TOPEX/POSEIDON, JASON-1, JASON-2, GFO and ERS-1. Along-track slopes have been estimated from the improved SSH measurements and used in an iterative process to estimate deflections of the vertical, and subsequently, the desired gravity anomalies. The main steps of the gravity anomaly computations involve estimating improved SSH using the ExtR technique, computing deflections of the vertical from interpolated SSHs on a regular grid using a biharmonic spline interpolation and finally estimating gridded gravity anomalies. A remove-compute-restore algorithm, based on the fast Fourier transform, has been applied to convert deflections of the vertical into gravity anomalies. Finally, spline interpolation has been used to estimate regular gravity anomaly grids over the two study regions. Results were evaluated by comparing the estimated altimetry-derived gravity anomalies (with and without implementing the ExtR algorithm) with ship-borne free air gravity anomaly observations, and free air gravity anomalies from the Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008). The comparison indicates a range of 3-5 mGal in the residuals, which were computed by taking the differences between the retracked altimetry-derived gravity anomaly and the ship-borne data. The comparison of retracked data with ship-borne data indicates a range in the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) between approximately 1.8 and 4.4 mGal and a bias between 0

  12. Assessing the magnitude of recent compositional changes in marine ecosystems: a conservation paleobiology case study from the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, Paolo G.; Tomašových, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Nearly every modern marine ecosystem has experienced major changes due to anthropogenic stressors such as habitat modification, pollution, overexploitation and climate change. However, our knowledge of ecosystem dynamics in a historical time-frame (decades to few centuries) is restricted by the lack of direct, recorded human observations: properly designed ecological surveys have been conducted for comparatively short durations in the last few decades only, and in merely a few localities, poorly representative of large-scale phenomena. A unique but under-exploited source of information is hidden in death assemblages (DAs), the taxonomically identifiable, dead or discarded organic remains in a seabed. Due to the slow degradation of hard skeletal parts such as shells in the sea, DAs represent archives that accumulate information on species composition and community states over time and are inert to recent changes. Assessing the degree in compositional and ecological similarity between living (LAs) and death assemblages can be used to reconstruct the degree of recent community disturbances. Previous studies have shown that live-dead (LD) agreement tends to be poorer in anthropogenically disturbed settings, because LAs respond faster than DAs to pressures, thus increasing the LD disagreement in composition. As a complementary approach, age dating of shells (using radiocarbon calibrated amino acid racemization) allows identifying the timing of ecosystem change. These approaches help recognize community shifts in time, overcoming the lack of direct observation. As a case study, we present the results of applying these techniques to the impacts of oil platforms on the benthic assemblages in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf. This semi-enclosed basin originated 12,500 years ago and currently hosts the highest concentration of infrastructures for oil and gas extraction in the world. Moreover, it has been affected by major oil spills. Contaminants show a weak gradient within each

  13. Occurrence of ascaridoid nematodes in selected edible fish from the Persian Gulf and description of Hysterothylacium larval type XV and Hysterothylacium persicum n. sp. (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae).

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Ghadam, Masoumeh; Suthar, Jaydipbhai; Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi, Hoseinali; Soltani, Mehdi; Mirzargar, Saeed

    2016-11-01

    Despite several reports on the presence of the potentially zoonotic nematodes among edible fishes in the Persian Gulf, there is still no study on the specific identification of these parasites or their genetic characterisation. In the present study, a total of 600 fish belonging to five popular species of fish in the region, including Otolithes ruber, Psettodes erumei, Saurida tumbil, Scomberomorus commerson and Sphyraena jello were examined for infection with nematode parasites. Detailed microscopy of nematodes found in the present study followed by characterisation of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, respectively) showed that they belong to five distinct taxa that could be potentially zoonotic. Anisakis type I was found in four species of fish, had identical ITS sequences as Anisakis typica previously reported in Australian waters and was different from those reported in the Nearctic. Hysterothylacium type VI in the present study was morphologically similar to those previously described from Australasian waters and ITS sequences were identical among Australian specimens and those found in the present study. Another Hysterothylacium larval type was also found in the present study which had identical ITS sequences and similar morphology to those previously reported and identified as H. amoyense in China Sea. Since no ITS sequence data from a well identified adult H. amoyense with an identifiable museum voucher number is yet available and due to some other issues discussed in the article we suggest assignment of this larval type from the China Sea and the Persian Gulf to H. amoyense is doubtful until future studies on a well identified male specimen of H. amoyense or other species reveals the specific identity of this larval type. We propose to refer to this larval type as Hysterothylacium larval type XV. In the present study we also describe a new species, Hysterothylacium persicum and discuss how to differentiate it from closely

  14. Selective Toxicity of Persian Gulf Sea Cucumber (Holothuria parva) and Sponge (Haliclona oculata) Methanolic Extracts on Liver Mitochondria Isolated from an Animal Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Seydi, Enayatollah; Motallebi, Abbasali; Dastbaz, Maryam; Dehghan, Sahar; Salimi, Ahmad; Nazemi, Melika; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Natural products isolated from marine environments are well known for their pharmacodynamic potential in diverse disease treatments, such as for cancer or inflammatory conditions. Sea cucumbers are marine animals of the phylum Echinoderm and the class Holothuroidea, with leathery skin and gelatinous bodies. Sponges are important components of Persian Gulf animal communities, and the marine sponges of the genus Haliclona have been known to display broad-spectrum biological activity. Many studies have shown that sea cucumbers and sponges contain antioxidants and anti-cancer compounds. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the selective toxicity of Persian Gulf sea cucumber (Holothuria parva) and sponge (Haliclona oculata) methanolic extracts on liver mitochondria isolated from an animal model of hepatocellular carcinoma, as part of a national project that hopes to identify novel potential anticancer candidates among Iranian Persian Gulf flora and fauna. Materials and Methods: To induce hepatocarcinogenesis, rats were given diethylnitrosamine (DEN) injections (200 mg/kg i.p. by a single dose), and then the cancer was promoted with 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) (0.02 w/w) for two weeks. Histopathological evaluations were performed, and levels of liver injury markers and a specific liver cancer marker (alpha-fetoprotein), were determined for confirmation of hepatocellular carcinoma induction. Finally, mitochondria were isolated from cancerous and non-cancerous hepatocytes. Results: Our results showed that H. parva methanolic extracts (250, 500, and 1000 µg/mL) and H. oculata methanolic extracts (200, 400, and 800 µg/mL) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial swelling, and cytochrome c release in the mitochondria obtained from cancerous hepatocytes, but not in mitochondria obtained from non-cancerous liver hepatocytes. These extracts also induced caspase-3 activation, which is

  15. Occurrence of ascaridoid nematodes in selected edible fish from the Persian Gulf and description of Hysterothylacium larval type XV and Hysterothylacium persicum n. sp. (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae).

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Ghadam, Masoumeh; Suthar, Jaydipbhai; Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi, Hoseinali; Soltani, Mehdi; Mirzargar, Saeed

    2016-11-01

    Despite several reports on the presence of the potentially zoonotic nematodes among edible fishes in the Persian Gulf, there is still no study on the specific identification of these parasites or their genetic characterisation. In the present study, a total of 600 fish belonging to five popular species of fish in the region, including Otolithes ruber, Psettodes erumei, Saurida tumbil, Scomberomorus commerson and Sphyraena jello were examined for infection with nematode parasites. Detailed microscopy of nematodes found in the present study followed by characterisation of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, respectively) showed that they belong to five distinct taxa that could be potentially zoonotic. Anisakis type I was found in four species of fish, had identical ITS sequences as Anisakis typica previously reported in Australian waters and was different from those reported in the Nearctic. Hysterothylacium type VI in the present study was morphologically similar to those previously described from Australasian waters and ITS sequences were identical among Australian specimens and those found in the present study. Another Hysterothylacium larval type was also found in the present study which had identical ITS sequences and similar morphology to those previously reported and identified as H. amoyense in China Sea. Since no ITS sequence data from a well identified adult H. amoyense with an identifiable museum voucher number is yet available and due to some other issues discussed in the article we suggest assignment of this larval type from the China Sea and the Persian Gulf to H. amoyense is doubtful until future studies on a well identified male specimen of H. amoyense or other species reveals the specific identity of this larval type. We propose to refer to this larval type as Hysterothylacium larval type XV. In the present study we also describe a new species, Hysterothylacium persicum and discuss how to differentiate it from closely

  16. Structural evolution of the Namakdan salt diapir in the Zagros fold-thrust belt: The Persian Gulf, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahpasandzadeh, Majid; Hashemifar, Ghasem; Shafiei Bafti, Amir

    2016-04-01

    Intersalt and host roch structures of the the Namakdan diapir were studied and compared with available 14C and OSL dated sediments to determine the structural evolution and uplift pattern of the diapir. The Namakdan salt diapir is situated on Qeshm Island in the east of the Zagros fold-thrust belt of Iran, north of the Persian Gulf. This nearly circular diapir with ~ 7 km diameter penetrates the crest of Salkh anticline and is embedded by steep-dip bedding of the Miocene Mishan and Aghajari Formations, which demonstrates the concentric internal structure of the diapir. The intraformational unconformities of country rocks were developed due to the Zagros shortening and salt diapirism, which demonstrate their syn-tectonic sedimentation. In addition, the dip of these unconfromities and also bedding of the country rocks decrease upward. The Namakdan diapir is partly covered by gypsum/anhydrite residuals, dolomite, marine limestone, and tilted marine terraces. The salt belong to the Hormuz Complex, consisted of predominantly halite, gypsum, anhydrite, dolomite, shale, sandstone, and volcanic-volanoclastic blocks, which was deposited in the Late Proterozoic-Middle Cambrian evaporitic rift basins. The Hormuz Complex is not only the cause of many salt diapir oil/gas fields but is also considered to have been a major source rock for generation of younger reservoirs. Thus, the salt diapirs of the Zagros play an important role in generation of the oil/gas reservoirs in this strategic area, so determination of structural style and evolution of the salt diapirs are vital in oil/gas exploration and development. The upright folds are developed in the salt beds due to upward movement and minor extrusion of the salt rocks due to its low viscosity. The dip of country rock beds increase toward to the diapir rim, so that the beds shows a vertical and even overturned attitude in vicinity of the diapir. Differential uplift pattern of the diapir was deduced in rim-to-center profiles by

  17. Investigation the Behavior of Modis Ocean Color Products Under the 2008 Red Tide in the Eastern Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanea, M.; Moradi, M.; Kabiri, K.

    2015-12-01

    Biophysical properties of water undergo serious variations under red tide (RT) outbreak. During RT conditions, algal blooms spread out in the estuarine, marine and fresh waters due to different triggering factors such as nutrient loading, marine currents, and monsoonal winds. The Persian Gulf (PG) was a talent region subjected to different RTs in recent decade. A massive RT started from the Strait of Hormuz in October 2008 and extended towards the northern parts of the PG covering more than 1200 km of coastlines. The bloom of microorganism C. Polykrikoides was the main specie that generated large fish mortalities, and hampered marine industries, and water desalination appliances. Ocean color satellite data have many advantages to monitor and alarm RT occurrences, such as wide and continuous extent, short time of imagery, high accessibility, and appropriate estimation of ocean color parameters. Since 1999, MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor has estimated satellite derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), normalized fluorescence line height (nFLH), and diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm (kd490). It provides a capability to study the behavior of these parameters during RT and normal conditions. This study monitors variations in satellite derived Chl-a, nFLH, and kd490 under both RT and normal conditions of the PG between 2002 and 2008. Up to now, daily and monthly variations in these products were no synchronously investigated under RT conditions in the PG. In doing so, the MODIS L1B products were provided from NASA data archive. They were corrected for Rayleigh scattering and gaseous absorption, and atmospheric interference in turbid coastal waters, and then converted to level 2 data. In addition, Enhanced Red Green Blue (ERGB) image was used to illustrate better water variations. ERGB image was built with three normalized leaving water radiance between 443 to 560nm. All the above data processes were applied by SeaDAS 7 software

  18. Heavy metal accumulation in tissues of two sea cucumbers, Holothuria leucospilota and Holothuria scabra in the northern part of Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mohammadizadeh, Maria; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Ehsanpour, Maryam; Afkhami, Majid; Mohammadizadeh, Flora; Esmaeilzadeh, Marjan

    2016-02-15

    The concentrations of some heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn andPb) were investigated in the sediments and the two species of sea cucumber (Holothuria leucospilota and Holothuria scabra) from northern part of Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf. The levels of Cu, Zn and Pb in sediment varied significantly among sampling sites (p<0.05). The highest levels of Zn and Pb in H. leucospilota were recorded in body wall whereas the highest contents of Zn and Pb in H. scabra were measured in respiratory tree organ, respectively. Cu and Cd were the most abundant elements in gonads of H. leucospilota while highest levels of Cd and Cu in H. scabra were measured in the gonad and derm, respectively. Cu and Zn concentrations were below permissible limits for human consumption while Cd and Pb were above permissible limits for human consumption. PMID:26769107

  19. Assessment of degradation in coral reef communities using multi-temporal QuickBird imagery in Kish Island, the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabiri, Keivan

    Differential image processing analysis were utilized to detect changes occurred in the significant coral reef communities located around the Kish Island in the northern side of the Persian Gulf. In this regard, multi-temporal bands of two QuickBird images (for years 2005 and 2008) were applied to implement change detection analysis. The methodology conducted in this research was based on integration of class-wised and pixel-wised change detection methodologies to highlight the variations in situation of corals. Moreover, some historical field observations from the study area were employed to fulfill required image classifications, as well as for assessment and validation of the obtained results. The results demonstrated that most of coral reefs of the study area were under stress between 2005 and 2008. Furthermore, field observations proved that most of these stresses come from the bleaching happened in August 2007, which caused a massive degradation and mass moralities in coral reef communities. Finally, it is resulted that multi-temporal/multi-spectral high resolution satellite imagery is beneficial to utilize for investigation of degradation in the coral reefs, particularly for inaccessible islands and in absence of field observations.

  20. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), mercury, methyl mercury, and arsenic in blue crab Portunus segnis from Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Ghaeni, Mansoreh; Pour, Nasrin Adami; Hosseini, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), mercury (Hg), methyl mercury (MMHg), and arsenic (As) in the hepatopancreas and muscle of blue swimming crab Portunus segnis from Bushehr shore, north Part of Persian Gulf, were investigated. In addition, the relationships between crab size (carapace width) and PCBs, PAH, Hg, MMHg, and As levels in tissues were investigated by linear regression analysis. There were significant correlation between pollutants levels and crab size which were positive. The pollutants' concentrations were highest in hepatopancreas whereas lowest in the muscle of all crab species. The mean concentrations were 0.51 ng g(-1)PCB 16, 0.64 ng g(-1) PCB 99, 1.2 μg g(-1) Hg, 0.81 μg g(-1) MMHg, and 0.14 μg g(-1) As. Also, mean concentrations of different PAHs were 0.31 ng g(-1) Acenaphthylene, 0.51 ng g(-1) Acenaphthene, and 0.71 ng g(-1) Anthracene. Comparison between male and female indicated that the average PCBs, PAH, Hg, MMHg, and As concentrations in tissues of male crab were found to be significantly higher than those found in the female crab.

  1. Application of wavelet transform for evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs: example from Iranian oil fields in the north of the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadatinejad, M. R.; Hassani, H.

    2013-04-01

    The Persian Gulf and its surrounding area are some of the biggest basins and have a very important role in producing huge amounts of hydrocarbon, and this potential was evaluated in order to explore the target for geoscientists and petroleum engineers. Wavelet transform is a useful and applicable technique to reveal frequency contents of various signals in different branches of science and especially in petroleum studies. We applied two major capacities of continuous mode of wavelet transform in seismic investigations. These investigations were operated to detect reservoir geological structures and some anomalies related to hydrocarbon to develop and explore new petroleum reservoirs in at least 4 oilfields in the southwest of Iran. It had been observed that continuous wavelet transform results show some discontinuities in the location of faults and are able to display them more clearly than other seismic methods. Moreover, continuous wavelet transform, utilizing Morlet wavelet, displays low-frequency shadows on 4 different iso-frequency vertical sections to identify reservoirs containing gas. By comparing these different figures, the presence of low-frequency shadows under the reservoir could be seen and we can relate these variations from anomalies at different frequencies as an indicator of the presence of hydrocarbons in the target reservoir.

  2. Garra mondica, a new species from the Mond River drainage with remarks on the genus Garra from the Persian Gulf basin in Iran (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Sayyadzadeh, Golnaz; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Freyhof, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Garra mondica, new species, from the Mond River drainage in Iran is distinguished from its congeners by having 7½ branched dorsal-fin rays; the breast, belly and back in front of the dorsal-fin origin naked and 9+8 branched caudal-fin rays. Garra mondica is also distinguished from all other congeners in the Persian Gulf basin, except an unidentified species from the Kol River, by having two fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region. The identity of G. gymnothorax, a nominal species from the Karun River drainage, and G. crenulata, a nominal species from Central Iran, are discussed. Garra populations examined from the Karun have a unique mtDNA COI barcode sequence, but their diagnostic characters are not consistent with the description and syntypes of G. gymnothorax. G. crenulata is considered as a synonym of G. rufa. Two populations of Garra from the Kol River have a sequence of the COI barcode region very similar to G. mondica, but cannot be identified as G. mondica and their identity cannot be resolved here.

  3. AATSR Single View Satellite Aerosol Retrievals Over the Persian Gulf During the 2004 United Arabic Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoemaker, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    During the months of August and September 2004 the United Arabic Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2) mission took place in the marine and desert region of the United Arabic Emirates. One of the primary goals of the mission was to evaluate and improve scientific based satellite aerosol and ocean retrieval products. Important aspect was the calibration and validation of remote sensing systems in order to gain more insight in space-based retrievals over this part of the region. This paper contributes to part of the space-based mission objectives and governs the retrieval of atmospheric aerosol properties over water through data from the AATSR instrument on board the European ENVISAT satellite. At TNO Defence, Security and Safety the retrieval of aerosol properties from AATSR is performed by means of the dual view algorithm for application over land and the single view algorithm for application over ocean. Both algorithms have been merged into a fast and efficient algorithm that allows for near real-time processing and which is suitable for semi-operational use. Data from retrievals over water have been compared with ground-truth measurements from the AERONET sun photometers present for the three water sites in the Persian Gulf during the campaign. The properties retrieved are a) aerosol optical depth for the visible wavelengths of AATSR and b) the Ångström wavelength coefficient α as an indicator for the size distribution. Different aerosol types have been pre-modeled by means of AERONET phase function information, and saved as look-up tables for the retrieval procedure. By comparing the satellite retrieved information with the ground-truth data for each of the modeled aerosol type more insight in the retrieval procedure and in the aerosol make-up in this region is obtained.

  4. Use of Solen brevis as a biomonitor for Cd, Pb and Zn on the intertidal zones of Bushehr-Persian Gulf, Iran.

    PubMed

    Salahshur, Sara; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Kochanian, Preeta

    2012-06-01

    The concentrations of Zn, Cd and Pb were determined in tissues (shell and soft tissue) of 144 of bivalve mollusks (Solen brevis) and 15 samples of surface sediment collected from three locations in intertidal zones of Bushehr coast, Persian Gulf, Iran in May 2011. The mean concentrations of Zn, Cd and Pb in the sediment samples were 26.2, 1.25, and 21.1 μg/g dw, respectively. The mean levels of Zn, Cd and Pb in the clam samples were 63.3, 0.67, and 4.38 μg/g dw in soft tissue and 10. 7, 1.53, and 15.6 μg/g dw in shell, respectively. The degrees of variability (CV %) for Cd and Pb within the shells were lower than for soft tissues, whereas the CV for Zn was lower in the soft tissue than in the shell, indicating that there is more precision (lower CV) in the determination of Cd and Pb in the shells and Zn in the soft tissues. Significant correlation were found between Cd (r = 0.63; p < 0.05) and Pb (r = 0.78; p < 0.01) concentrations in the shell of S. brevis and their concentrations in the surface sediments. Indeed, Zn concentrations in the soft tissue of S. brevis significantly (r = 0.63; p < 0.05) correlated with Zn concentrations in surface sediments. The results of this study suggest that the shell of S. brevis may serve as a reliable biomonitor for Cd and Pb, and the soft tissue for Zn.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the coastal sea water, the surface sediment and Mudskipper Boleophthalmus dussumieri from coastal areas of the Persian Gulf: source investigation, composition pattern and spatial distribution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Persian Gulf is an exposed and stressed area as a result of oil pollution and other fossil fuels containing PAHs. The susceptibility of using mudskippers to monitor marine pollution, like PAHs, points to the fact that mudskippers are able to accumulate and record the PAHs presented in the coastal environments. Methods Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined in the coastal waters, the sediments and biota (i.e., Boleophthalmus dussumieri) along the coast of the Persian Gulf. PAHs concentrations were measured with HPLC method. Results Total PAH concentrations in the sea water, the sediments, the liver and the gill tissues ranged between 0.80-18.34 μg/l, 113.50-3384.34 ng g-1 (d w), 3.99-46.64 ng g-1 (d w) and 3.11-17.76 ng g-1 (d w), respectively. PAHs distribution patterns in the sediment and the liver tissue samples were dominated by three-and four-ring structures whereas two-and three-rings were dominated in the water and the gill. Conclusions This finding revealed a negative eco-risk effects occasionally occur in this area. The higher presence of low condensate ring structures reflected a predominant origin of petrogenic and some cases of pyrolitic sources. PMID:24612928

  6. Microphytobenthos sustain fish food webs in intertidal arid habitats: A comparison between mangrove-lined and un-vegetated creeks in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahraki, M.; Fry, B.; Krumme, U.; Rixen, T.

    2014-08-01

    The dietary importance of mangroves for fish production often seems to be minor. However, robust comparisons of fish food webs at mangrove vs. non-mangrove sites are largely lacking. We analyzed stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope values of dominant fishes (in terms of abundance) and their potential food sources in summer and winter from arid mangrove-lined and un-vegetated intertidal creeks in Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf, Northern Indian Ocean (26.8°N, 55.75°E). Detritivores Liza klunzingeri (47%) and Anodontostoma chacunda (34%) dominated the abundance at the un-vegetated site; at the mangrove site L. klunzingeri (41%) also dominated, while the zooplanktivores Leiognathus daura (18%), Thryssa vitrirostris (8%) and macrobenthivores Pentaprion longimanus (10%), Acanthopagrus latus (4%) also contributed. There was high dietary reliance by fish on food items associated with non-mangrove sources as indicated by 2 source mixing models. Mangrove-derived organic matter contributed a maximum of 36% to the fish tissue whereas organic matter produced by microphytobenthos and plankton played a major role in the diet of the most abundant fish species with contributions of 64-100%. Two trophic pathways, a pelagic pathway and a benthic pathway, were present in the fish food webs at both sites. The pelagic and benthic food sources of the un-vegetated site were 13C-enriched, consistent with stronger contributions of abundant benthic cyanobacteria found within that food web. Spatial δ13C variation of microphytobenthos and plankton was also reflected in the δ13C values of the feeding guilds and some fish species, suggesting that fish were relatively resident at each site. The isotope values of most food sources and fish did not differ significantly between seasons. Overall, regardless of habitat type and season, microphytobenthos and plankton largely sustained fishes in this region while mangroves, where present, were of minor importance. Our results suggest both

  7. Palaeoecology of well-preserved coral communities in a siliciclastic environment from the Late Pleistocene (MIS 7), Kish Island, Persian Gulf (Iran): the development of low-relief reef frameworks (biostromes) in increasingly restricted environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossadegh, Zahra Karimi; Parker, Justin; Gischler, Eberhard; Oschmann, Wolfgang; Blakeway, David; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2013-03-01

    Major changes in community structure and depositional relief of high-latitude coral communities in the southern Persian Gulf between marine isotope stage (MIS) 7 and the present day suggest that the area has become increasingly restricted. Corals and bivalves from outcrops on Kish Island, Iran, were identified in order to interpret the Late Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental setting. U/Th disequilibrium dating was used to constrain the ages of the stratigraphic units. During MIS 7, two coral-bearing sequences were deposited on what is now Kish Island. The lower sequence is dated as MIS 7.5 and changes laterally from an assemblage dominated by Cyphastrea sp. and Platygyra daedalea in the west to one characterized by branching Montipora in the east. By contrast, the upper sequence, dated as MIS 7.1, transitions from an assemblage dominated by platy Montipora in the west to a diverse assemblage of Platygyra and other faviids in the east. The assemblages of both sequences are within a marl matrix and bounded by thin lithified mollusc-rich layers. Corals and bivalves indicate that the sequences were deposited on gentle slopes in sheltered environments less than 20 m deep. The MIS 7 deposits may be classified as coral carpets or biostromes that developed a low-relief framework. During MIS 5, coral communities were no longer framework building and are now limited to an Acropora-rich layer of coral rubble that covers large parts of the island, and two small incipient reefs with sparse faviids. Similarities between the MIS 5 and modern nearshore coral communities suggest that the environmental conditions during MIS 5 were comparable to those of today. The late Pleistocene coral carpets and non-framework coral communities of the southern Persian Gulf may serve as models for coral biostromes in the fossil record, which formed under restricted environmental conditions such as elevated terrigenous input, high turbidity, and strong seasonal changes in temperature and/or salinity.

  8. Effects of natural gas development on three grassland bird species in CFB Suffield, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Laura Elizabeth

    I investigated the effect of energy sector development and introduced crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) on grassland birds on Canadian Forces Base Suffield. I conducted point counts and mapped breeding territories in 2007 and 2008 for Savannah sparrows ( Passerculus sandwichensis), chestnut-collared longspurs ( Calcarius ornatus), and Sprague's pipits (Anthus spragueii ). I found that Savannah sparrows favored areas with taller vegetation, human disturbances and crested wheatgrass in both years. Longspurs used shorter vegetation and in were tolerant of disturbance. Crested wheatgrass was avoided by longspurs in both years. Pipit territories contained similar vegetation to longspurs, were sensitive to disturbance, and avoided placing territories in areas containing crested wheatgrass or trails in both years. Well sites, pipelines and junctions were not avoided by the three species. My research suggests that reducing the number of trails and the spread of crested wheatgrass will increase habitat availability for sensitive species of grassland birds.

  9. Insertion in Persian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambuziya, Aliyeh Kord-e Zafaranlu; Dehghan, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates epenthesis process in Persian to catch some results in relating to vowel and consonant insertion in Persian lexicon. This survey has a close relationship to the description of epenthetic consonants and the conditions in which these consonants are used. Since no word in Persian may begin with a vowel, so that hiatus can't be…

  10. Persian; An Introduction to Colloquial Kabul Persian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This beginning text is designed to teach the student to speak and understand modern Kabul (Afghan) Persian. (It is suggested that the materials be studied with a native speaker of Kabul Persian.) Chapter I presents the vowels and consonants in initial, medial, and final position, with a brief description of their articulation and their closest…

  11. Defence Research and Development Canada: Suffield research on nuclear methods for detection of buried bulk explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Faust, Anthony A.

    2011-06-01

    Defence R&D Canada - Suffield has conducted research and development on nuclear methods for detection of bulk explosives since 1994. Initial efforts were directed at confirmation of the presence of bulk explosives in land mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). In close collaboration with a few key Canadian companies, methods suitable for vehicle-mounted or fixed position applications and those suitable for person- or small robotportable roles have been studied. Vehicle-mounted systems mainly employ detection of characteristic radiation, whereas person-portable systems use imaging of back scattered radiation intensity distributions. Two key design tenets have been reduction of personnel shielding by the use of teleoperation and custom design of sensors to address the particular problem, rather than adapting an existing sensor to a problem. This is shown in a number of recent research examples. Among vehicle-mounted systems, recent research to improve the thermal neutron analysis (TNA) sensors, which were put into service with the Canadian Forces in 2002, are discussed. Research on fast neutron analysis (FNA) and associated particle imaging (API), which can augment or replace TNA, depending on the application, are described. Monoenergetic gamma ray induced photoneutron spectroscopy is a novel method which has a number of potential advantages and disadvantages over TNA and FNA. Sources, detectors and geometries have been identified and modelling studies have suggested feasibility. Among person-portable systems, research on neutron backscatter imaging and X-ray coded aperture backscatter imaging are discussed.

  12. Pattern of mercury accumulation in different tissues of migratory and resident birds: Western reef heron (Egretta gularis) and Siberian gull (Larus heuglini) in Hara International Wetland-Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Majidi, Yousef; Bahramifar, Nader; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The Hara Mangrove Forest of the Persian Gulf is undergoing increasing pollution from industrial, municipal, and petroleum sources; however, little research in ecotoxicology has been carried out in this ecosystem. In the present study, mercury distribution and accumulation were investigated in muscle, liver, kidney, and feather of the resident Western reef heron (n = 15) and the migratory Siberian gull (n = 15). We also evaluated the relation between Hg concentrations, sex, and age (juvenile vs. adult). Results showed that the highest concentrations of Hg were recorded in the feather (35 ± 0.14-3.0 ± 0.27 mg kg(-1) dw) and at 3.7-, 1.6-, and 1.3-fold in muscle, kidney, and liver, respectively. Concentrations of mercury in tissues of migratory birds were two times higher than in resident birds; geographical differences and feeding habits were used to explain these variations. We found a weak relationship between Hg concentrations in feathers and internal tissues (r ≤ 0.50); conversely, liver presented strong positive correlations with other soft tissues, especially kidney (p > 0.05; r = 0.82). Results showed that sex and age have no significant effects on T-Hg accumulation in these birds (p > 0.05; r < -0.01). Based on these findings, Hg concentrations were low in both species. Therefore, Hg contamination of this aquatic ecosystem is not a threat. Accordingly, we recommend the use of the Western reef heron as a bioindicator of mercury pollution in this region. PMID:25492705

  13. Dollfusiella qeshmiensis n. sp. (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) from the cowtail stingray Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål) in the Persian Gulf, with a key to the species of Dollfusiella Campbell & Beveridge, 1994.

    PubMed

    Haseli, Mohammad; Palm, Harry W

    2015-10-01

    A new species of the genus Dollfusiella Campbell & Beveridge, 1994 is described from Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål) in the Persian Gulf. Dollfusiella qeshmiensis n. sp. is allocated to the genus Dollfusiella based on the possession of two bothria, prebulbar organs, a heteroacanthous typical armature with tightly spaced rows of hollow hooks, a basal swelling and a characteristic basal armature without prominent macrohooks. The presence of an enlarged external seminal vesicle in Dollfusiella qeshmiensis n. sp. distinguishes this species from D. michiae (Southwell, 1929), D. bareldsi (Beveridge, 1990), D. owensi (Beveridge, 1990), D. geraschmidti (Dollfus, 1974), D. angustiformis Schaeffner & Beveridge, 2013, D. hemispinosa Schaeffner & Beveridge, 2013, D. spinosa Schaeffner & Beveridge, 2013 and D. taminii Menoret & Ivanov, 2014. The new species is distinguished from the remaining species within the genus by a combination of the following morphological features: the number of testes per segment, the number of testis columns and the number of homeomorphous hooks per half spiral row in the metabasal region. In the most recent taxonomic key to the species of Dollfusiella, the presence or absence of enlarged, microscopically visible spinitriches on the scolex was used as the first distinguishing character dividing the congeners into two groups. Since the existence of visible microtriches on the scolex peduncle of D. vooremi (São Clemente & Gomes, 1989), a species so far grouped among the species lacking visible microtriches on the scolex, has been recently demonstrated, and given the fact that the presence of microscopically visible microtriches on the scolex is variable in some eutetrarhynchid species, a new key to the species of Dollfusiella is provided in which the spinitriches have been given less priority. PMID:26358075

  14. Artificial neural network modeling and cluster analysis for organic facies and burial history estimation using well log data: A case study of the South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Bahram; Najjari, Saeid; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali

    2012-08-01

    Intelligent and statistical techniques were used to extract the hidden organic facies from well log responses in the Giant South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran. Kazhdomi Formation of Mid-Cretaceous and Kangan-Dalan Formations of Permo-Triassic Data were used for this purpose. Initially GR, SGR, CGR, THOR, POTA, NPHI and DT logs were applied to model the relationship between wireline logs and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The correlation coefficient (R2) between the measured and ANN predicted TOC equals to 89%. The performance of the model is measured by the Mean Squared Error function, which does not exceed 0.0073. Using Cluster Analysis technique and creating a binary hierarchical cluster tree the constructed TOC column of each formation was clustered into 5 organic facies according to their geochemical similarity. Later a second model with the accuracy of 84% was created by ANN to determine the specified clusters (facies) directly from well logs for quick cluster recognition in other wells of the studied field. Each created facies was correlated to its appropriate burial history curve. Hence each and every facies of a formation could be scrutinized separately and directly from its well logs, demonstrating the time and depth of oil or gas generation. Therefore potential production zone of Kazhdomi probable source rock and Kangan- Dalan reservoir formation could be identified while well logging operations (especially in LWD cases) were in progress. This could reduce uncertainty and save plenty of time and cost for oil industries and aid in the successful implementation of exploration and exploitation plans.

  15. A new species of decorator crabs, genus Menaethiops Alcock, 1895 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Majoidea: Epialthidae), from Abu-Musa Island, Persian Gulf, Iran.

    PubMed

    Naderloo, Reza

    2015-03-02

    Menaethiops abumusa n. sp. is closely similar to M. bicornis Alcock, 1985, and M. gadaniensis Kazmi & Tirmizi, 1999, regarding the relatively contiguous rostral spines. The new species is easily distinguishable from its two congeners by having distinctly round angles of orbital eaves and distally divergent rostral spines. Whereas in M. bicornis, and M. gadaniensis, the angles of orbital eaves are anteriorly produced and rostral spines are closely attached to each other along their entire length.  Other morphological differences include the carapace spination/granulation, basal antennal segments, and morphology of the male's first gonopod. Menaethiops gadaniensis was described from Gadani, Pakistan and was only known from the type locality, but is here recorded for the first time from the Gulf of Oman.

  16. Gulf cooperation council: Problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S.

    1985-01-01

    Few other regions in the world have as much strategic, economic, and political significance for the Western world as does the Persian Gulf. Oil and economics are only two factors. Geopolitics and strategic location are also critical.

  17. 75 FR 10867 - Determinations Concerning Illnesses Discussed in the Institute of Medicine Report on Gulf War and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... of service connection for any disease discussed in that report. See 66 FR 35702 (2001). IV. Gulf War... Health: Updated Literature Review of Depleted Uranium AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION... uranium in the Persian Gulf during the Persian Gulf War, for any of the diseases, illnesses, or...

  18. Emergency planning for the Persian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.

    1980-06-01

    This was a talk given by Edward Teller for the LAMPF Users Group, Inc. The subjects discussed included: the SALT Treaty, military strengths of the USSR and USA, civil defense preparedness, the present Iranian-Afghanistan situations, and the possibility that the USSR will gain control of the mid-east oil industry. He suggested the following possibilities in preparing for the latter situation: the synthesis of oil from wood; the use of Alaskan coal by coal-slurry transport; the use of metha-coal; the use of in-situ coal gasification; the use of wind power; and the use of nuclear power. Several innovations currently underway in the state of Washington under the direction of Governor Dixie Lee Ray are pointed out. (DC)

  19. Academic Building Boom Transforms the Persian Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, Zvika

    2008-01-01

    As the small states that line the Arabian Peninsula spend their billions of petrodollars picking up luxury hotels, first-class airlines, and high-tech weaponry, three of the emirates--Dubai, Abu Dhabi, and Qatar--have been engaged in a high-stakes game of one-upmanship involving universities, American universities in particular. Recent reports…

  20. Persian Language & Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir-Djalali, Elahe

    Designed to be used as complementary instructional material for American students as well as second-generation Iranians in America, this work presents a collection of material for teaching Persian language and culture. Research and analysis of some relevant linguistic issues, interactive methodology of language teaching and acquisition, and models…

  1. Vaguely Speaking in Persian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parvaresh, Vahid; Tayebi, Tahmineh

    2014-01-01

    The present study sets out to investigate the structures and functions of vague expressions in Persian. The data under scrutiny include a 15-hour corpus of informal conversations. The corpus reveals some unique vague expressions including "rhyming words," "replacing expressions," and "the affective completer."…

  2. CEOs: Gulf crisis hits hospitals' bottom line.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, J

    1990-12-01

    Hospital CEOs say the Persian Gulf crisis could hit them hard where it counts. In fact, hospitals are already seeing some adverse impact from events in the Middle East. From fundraising to plant management to strategic planning, the confrontations in the Gulf are having an impact on the hospital's bottom line.

  3. Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-18

    This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail.

  4. Botfly (Diptera:Oestridae) parasitism of Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gummer, D L; Forbes, M R; Bender, D J; Barclay, R M

    1997-08-01

    During field study of Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada, a high prevalence of parasitism by botfly (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae was observed. Botflies have not previously been documented as parasites of kangaroo rats. Botfly parasitism could have a significant impact on the growth, survival, and reproduction of Ord's kangaroo rat, which is considered a vulnerable species in Canada. Therefore, it is important to investigate how botfly parasitism varies with season and with gender or age of host. In 1995, 525 individual kangaroo rats were caught by nightlighting and live trapping for a total of 952 capture records. Upon capture, each kangaroo rat was ear-tagged and thoroughly examined for parasites and wounds. Third-instar botfly (Cuterebra polita) larvae were observed in kangaroo rats between 16 June and 23 August. Prevalence was 34% based on 454 kangaroo rats sampled during that time, whereas the mean intensity was 2.3 larvae per infested host (n = 156, range = 1-11). In contrast to some other studies of botfly parasitism of rodents, there were no gender or age biases in either prevalence or intensity of infestation. The index of dispersion was 2.8, indicating that the parasites were aggregated in hosts. Botfly parasitism could be an important factor affecting northern populations of kangaroo rats; future investigations into the potential effects of botfly larvae on host fitness are warranted.

  5. An American Honors Program in the Arab Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yyelland, Byrad

    2012-01-01

    The first Western honors program to be established in the Arab Gulf is offered in Doha, Qatar, on a small satellite campus of an American university. Doha is the capital city of Qatar, a sovereign Arab state physically located on a small peninsula bordering Saudi Arabia in the south and jutting into the Persian Gulf. With a population of only 1.7…

  6. Modern Persian: Intermediate Level, Vol. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windfuhr, Gernot; And Others

    The second of three volumes of an intergrated course in intermediate Persian is presented. This volume encompasses material appropriate for students entering the second year of Persian studies who have strong preparation in elementary Persian. Verbal skills should be on a level which will allow comprehensive discussion of a topic using simple,…

  7. Recognizing emotional speech in Persian: a validated database of Persian emotional speech (Persian ESD).

    PubMed

    Keshtiari, Niloofar; Kuhlmann, Michael; Eslami, Moharram; Klann-Delius, Gisela

    2015-03-01

    Research on emotional speech often requires valid stimuli for assessing perceived emotion through prosody and lexical content. To date, no comprehensive emotional speech database for Persian is officially available. The present article reports the process of designing, compiling, and evaluating a comprehensive emotional speech database for colloquial Persian. The database contains a set of 90 validated novel Persian sentences classified in five basic emotional categories (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness), as well as a neutral category. These sentences were validated in two experiments by a group of 1,126 native Persian speakers. The sentences were articulated by two native Persian speakers (one male, one female) in three conditions: (1) congruent (emotional lexical content articulated in a congruent emotional voice), (2) incongruent (neutral sentences articulated in an emotional voice), and (3) baseline (all emotional and neutral sentences articulated in neutral voice). The speech materials comprise about 470 sentences. The validity of the database was evaluated by a group of 34 native speakers in a perception test. Utterances recognized better than five times chance performance (71.4 %) were regarded as valid portrayals of the target emotions. Acoustic analysis of the valid emotional utterances revealed differences in pitch, intensity, and duration, attributes that may help listeners to correctly classify the intended emotion. The database is designed to be used as a reliable material source (for both text and speech) in future cross-cultural or cross-linguistic studies of emotional speech, and it is available for academic research purposes free of charge. To access the database, please contact the first author.

  8. Data on heavy metals and selected anions in the Persian popular herbal distillates.

    PubMed

    Keshtkar, Mozhgan; Dobaradaran, Sina; Soleimani, Farshid; Karbasdehi, Vahid Noroozi; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad; Mirahmadi, Roghayeh; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Faraji

    2016-09-01

    In this data article, we determined the concentration levels of heavy metals including Pb, Co, Cd, Mn, Mg, Fe and Cu as well as selected anions including [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in the most used and popular herbal distillates in Iran. It is well known that heavy metals may pose a serious health hazard due to their bioaccumulation throughout the trophic chain ("Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) content in two fish species of Persian Gulf in Bushehr Port, Iran" (Dobaradaran et al., 2013) [1]; "Comparative investigation of heavy metal, trace, and macro element contents in commercially valuable fish species harvested off from the Persian Gulf" (Abadi et al., 2015) [2]) as well as some other environmental pollutions, "Assessment of sediment quality based on acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in heavily industrialized area of Asaluyeh, Persian Gulf: concentrations, spatial distributions, and sediment bioavailability/toxicity" (Arfaeinia et al., 2016) [3]. The concentration levels of heavy metals and anions in herbal distillates samples were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, Varian AA240, Australia) and a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK) respectively. PMID:27274526

  9. Russian Loanword Adaptation in Persian; Optimal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambuziya, Aliye Kord Zafaranlu; Hashemi, Eftekhar Sadat

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed some of the phonological rules of Russian loanword adaptation in Persian, on the view of Optimal Theory (OT) (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). It is the first study of phonological process on Russian loanwords adaptation in Persian. By gathering about 50 current Russian loanwords, we selected some of them to analyze. We…

  10. The New Unabridged English-Persian Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryanpur, Abbas; Saleh, Jahan Shah

    This five-volume English-Persian dictionary is based on Webster's International Dictionary (1960 and 1961) and The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (1959); it attempts to provide Persian equivalents of all the words of Oxford and all the key-words of Webster. Pronunciation keys for the English phonetic transcription and for the difficult Persian…

  11. Ancient Persian Skywatching and Calendars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz

    The peoples of Iran used lunisolar calendars until the early fifth century BCE when the 365-day calendar with 30 months and 5 epagomenal days was introduced. This calendar was not corrected to the actual length of the tropical year, and therefore, seasonal festivals gradually moved away from their seasons. Finally, around the turn of the fifth century CE, a partially successful calendar reform was undertaken, and the feasts were restored to their original seasons. In that time, Sasanian kings were interested in astrology, and some Greek and Hindu astrological texts were translated into Persian, but there is no evidence of indigenous contributions to skywatching.

  12. Higher Education and Development in the Lower Gulf States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, K. E.

    1993-01-01

    The complex issues concerning expansion of higher education in the smaller states bordering the Persian Gulf (Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, and Oman) are examined, including who provides higher education and why, cultural vs. national identity, the role of mass education, and the difference between growth and development. (MSE)

  13. Turbine airfoil degradation in the persian gulf war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smialek, James L.; Archer, Frances A.; Garlick, Ralph G.

    1994-12-01

    Helicopter turbine engines used in the Desert Shield and Desert Storm operations experienced excessive sand ingestion. Fine particles were able to bypass filters and proceed through the combustor or cooling gaspaths. The first-stage turbine vanes were impacted with viscous silicate particles, forming a deposit on the leading-edge root platform and resulting in overheating and oxidation. The chemistry of the raw sand determines that of the ingested powders, the deposits, and the material reactions.

  14. An Academic Building Boom Transforms the Persian Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, Zvika

    2008-01-01

    As the small states that line the Arabian Peninsula spend billions of petrodollars picking up luxury hotels, satellite television stations, first-class airlines, and high-tech weaponry, three of the emirates (Dubai, Abu Dhabi, and Qatar) are engaged in a high-stakes game of one-upmanship involving universities, American universities in particular.…

  15. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of selected persian gulf algae.

    PubMed

    Namvar, F; Baharara, J; Mahdi, A A

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of red (Gracillaria corticata), green (Ulva fasciata) and brown (Sargassum ilicifolium) seaweeds alcoholic extract, against five important human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, HepG2, and HT-29) proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were evaluated. The reducing activity and total polyphenol content were also investigated. MTT assay was used for cytotoxicity test. Morphological alterations were examined using phase contrast, fluorescent and electron microscopy. All the extracts were antiproliferative against all the cancer cell lines, dose-dependently, with G. corticata methanol extract (GCME) having the greatest inhibition activity against MCF-7 cell line. The percentage of apoptosis increased from 18 to 78 %. The cell cycle analysis also showed that GCME can induce apoptosis which confirm by TEM. Algal extract reducing activities were as follows: G. corticata > S. ilicifolium > U. fasciata. The GCME is a good source of potential complementary and alternative functional food for prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:24478544

  16. Evidence of selection signatures that shape the Persian cat breed.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Francesca; Gandolfi, Barbara; Kim, Eui Soo; Haase, Bianca; Lyons, Leslie A; Rothschild, Max F

    2016-04-01

    The Persian cat is mainly characterized by an extremely brachycephalic face as part of the standard body conformation. Despite the popularity, world-wide distribution, and economic importance of the Persian cat as a fancy breed, little is known about the genetics of their hallmark morphology, brachycephaly. Over 800 cats from different breeds including Persian, non-Persian breeds (Abyssinian, Cornish Rex, Bengal, La Perm, Norwegian Forest, Maine Coon, Manx, Oriental, and Siamese), and Persian-derived breeds (British Shorthair, Scottish Fold, Selkirk Rex) were genotyped with the Illumina 63 K feline DNA array. The experimental strategy was composed of three main steps: (i) the Persian dataset was screened for runs of homozygosity to find and select highly homozygous regions; (ii) selected Persian homozygous regions were evaluated for the difference of homozygosity between Persians and those considered non-Persian breeds, and, (iii) the Persian homozygous regions most divergent from the non-Persian breeds were investigated by haplotype analysis in the Persian-derived breeds. Four regions with high homozygosity (H > 0.7) were detected, each with an average length of 1 Mb. Three regions can be considered unique to the Persian breed, with a less conservative haplotype pattern in the Persian-derived breeds. Moreover, two genes, CHL1 and CNTN6 known to determine face shape modification in humans, reside in one of the identified regions and therefore are positional candidates for the brachycephalic face in Persians. In total, the homozygous regions contained several neuronal genes that could be involved in the Persian cat behavior and can provide new insights into cat domestication. PMID:26956354

  17. Evidence of selection signatures that shape the Persian cat breed.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Francesca; Gandolfi, Barbara; Kim, Eui Soo; Haase, Bianca; Lyons, Leslie A; Rothschild, Max F

    2016-04-01

    The Persian cat is mainly characterized by an extremely brachycephalic face as part of the standard body conformation. Despite the popularity, world-wide distribution, and economic importance of the Persian cat as a fancy breed, little is known about the genetics of their hallmark morphology, brachycephaly. Over 800 cats from different breeds including Persian, non-Persian breeds (Abyssinian, Cornish Rex, Bengal, La Perm, Norwegian Forest, Maine Coon, Manx, Oriental, and Siamese), and Persian-derived breeds (British Shorthair, Scottish Fold, Selkirk Rex) were genotyped with the Illumina 63 K feline DNA array. The experimental strategy was composed of three main steps: (i) the Persian dataset was screened for runs of homozygosity to find and select highly homozygous regions; (ii) selected Persian homozygous regions were evaluated for the difference of homozygosity between Persians and those considered non-Persian breeds, and, (iii) the Persian homozygous regions most divergent from the non-Persian breeds were investigated by haplotype analysis in the Persian-derived breeds. Four regions with high homozygosity (H > 0.7) were detected, each with an average length of 1 Mb. Three regions can be considered unique to the Persian breed, with a less conservative haplotype pattern in the Persian-derived breeds. Moreover, two genes, CHL1 and CNTN6 known to determine face shape modification in humans, reside in one of the identified regions and therefore are positional candidates for the brachycephalic face in Persians. In total, the homozygous regions contained several neuronal genes that could be involved in the Persian cat behavior and can provide new insights into cat domestication.

  18. Contrastive Analysis of Sentence Patterns in English and Persian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajizadeh, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Complements, adjuncts and predicator are the three main elements of the clause structure. This paper primarily aims at presenting a general classification of clause structure in Persian. In this context, transitive and intransitive structures in Modern Persian are also analyzed. In this research, five canonical Persian constructions are identified…

  19. The influence of extreme winds on coastal oceanography and its implications for coral population connectivity in the southern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Feary, David A; Burt, John A

    2016-04-30

    Using long-term oceanographic surveys and a 3-D hydrodynamic model we show that localized peak winds (known as shamals) cause fluctuation in water current speed and direction, and substantial oscillations in sea-bottom salinity and temperature in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf. Results also demonstrate that short-term shamal winds have substantial impacts on oceanographic processes along the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf coastline, resulting in formation of large-scale (52 km diameter) eddies extending from the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to areas near the off-shore islands of Iran. Such eddies likely play an important role in transporting larvae from well-developed reefs of the off-shore islands to the degraded reef systems of the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf, potentially maintaining genetic and ecological connectivity of these geographically distant populations and enabling enhanced recovery of degraded coral communities in the UAE.

  20. The influence of extreme winds on coastal oceanography and its implications for coral population connectivity in the southern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Feary, David A; Burt, John A

    2016-04-30

    Using long-term oceanographic surveys and a 3-D hydrodynamic model we show that localized peak winds (known as shamals) cause fluctuation in water current speed and direction, and substantial oscillations in sea-bottom salinity and temperature in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf. Results also demonstrate that short-term shamal winds have substantial impacts on oceanographic processes along the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf coastline, resulting in formation of large-scale (52 km diameter) eddies extending from the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to areas near the off-shore islands of Iran. Such eddies likely play an important role in transporting larvae from well-developed reefs of the off-shore islands to the degraded reef systems of the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf, potentially maintaining genetic and ecological connectivity of these geographically distant populations and enabling enhanced recovery of degraded coral communities in the UAE. PMID:26506023

  1. Supportive Discourse Moves in Persian Requests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Allami, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the types of supportive discourse moves employed by Persian speakers in their Requestive Speech Acts. 372 respondents took a Discourse Completion Test (DCT) with six scenarios ranging from formal to informal degrees of Perceived Situational Seriousness, and returned 2232 Requestive…

  2. Compound Verbs in Persian: An Euphemistic Phraseology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salies, Tania Gastao

    An analysis of the compound verb system of Persian marks constructions euphemistically by producing an indirect order effect and by alternating different compound and simple forms that bear the same denotation but are governed by a rigorous code of ethics. What really carries the semantic reference in these cases is the process of construing…

  3. Afghan Persian (Dari). Materials Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language/Area Reference Center.

    The materials status report for Dari, the dialect of Persian (Farsi) spoken in Afghanistan, is one of a series intended to provide the nonspecialist with a picture of the availability and quality of texts for teaching various languages to English speakers. The report consists of: (1) a brief narrative description of Dari, the areas where it is…

  4. Authoritative Voices and the Vietnam Experience: Teaching about Vietnam during the Gulf War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Laurie J.

    1991-01-01

    Experiences of a college teacher teaching a course on the Vietnam War during the Persian Gulf Crisis illustrate the impact that teaching history can have on the consciousness of students. Respect for other cultures and other races are essential before students can stop glorifying war. (SLD)

  5. Adolescents' Response to Unconventional War Threat Prior to the Gulf War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingman, Avigdor; Goldstein, Zehava

    1994-01-01

    Examined Israeli adolescents' responses to impending unconventional warfare by administering Nuclear Threat Index to 269 junior high school students 2 months prior to Persian Gulf War. Younger adolescents and females reported more activity, pessimistic thoughts, and concerns than older adolescents and males, respectively; and "internal" females…

  6. English as a Medium of Instruction in the Gulf: When Students and Teachers Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belhiah, Hassan; Elhami, Maha

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in the Arabian/Persian Gulf, with special focus on the situation in the United Arab Emirates. The study, undertaken at six universities located in major cities of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Al Ain, Sharjah, Ajman, and Ras Al Khaimah, examines students' and teachers'…

  7. Prevalence of polycystic kidney disease in Persian and Persian related cats in France.

    PubMed

    Barthez, P Y; Rivier, P; Begon, D

    2003-12-01

    The prevalence of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) has been estimated in the USA, Australia, UK, and Germany, but no data are available to date in France. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence of PKD in Persian and Persian related breeds of cats in France. Medical records of all healthy cats presented for ultrasonographic screening of PKD between December 2000 and April 2002 were analysed from two centres (ENVL and ENVA). Cats were classified as positive when at least one anechoic cavity was found in at least one kidney. Prevalence of PKD was compared between the two screening centres, between different breeds evaluated, and between male and female using Chi-square test. A total of 310 cats were examined, including 92 at ENVL (57 Persians, 22 Exotic Shorthairs, 7 Chartreux, 4 Norwegian Forest Cats, and 2 Abyssins) and 218 at ENVA (163 Persians, 42 Exotic Shorthairs, 4 Chartreux, 4 British Shorthairs, 2 American Whirehairs, 2 Norwegian Forest Cats, and 1 American Shorthair). Prevalence of PKD was 41.8% in Persian cats and 39.1% in Exotic Shorthair. No PKD was detected in cats from other breeds. There was no significant difference between prevalence of PKD found in ENVL and ENVA, between prevalence of PKD in Persians and in Exotic Shorthairs, and prevalence of PKD in male and in female. Prevalence of PKD in Persians and Exotic Shorthair cats in France is currently high but is similar to prevalence in other parts of the world. Selection based on ultrasonographic detection of cysts should decrease prevalence of PKD in the future. PMID:14623204

  8. Dermal mass aspirate from a Persian cat.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Feldman, Bernard; Robertson, John; Herring, Erin S; Manning, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    A 1-year-old spayed female Persian cat with alopecia and weight loss had numerous variably ulcerated dermal nodules. Cytologic examination of an aspirate of one of the nodules revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation along with septate hyphae and basophilic round bodies, 0.5-1.0 microm in diameter, surrounded by a thin clear halo (arthrospores). The cytologic diagnosis was dermatophytic pseudomycetoma. Histologically, there were dermal granulomas containing poorly staining, septate hyphae with bulbous spores embedded within abundant amorphous eosinophilic material (Splendore-Hoeppli reaction), and the histologic diagnosis was pseudomycetoma-associated chronic multifocal severe granulomatous dermatitis with lymphocytic perifolliculitis and furunculosis. Microsporum canis was cultured from the lesion. Pseudomycetomas are distinguished from fungal mycetomas, or eumycotic mycetomas, by the findings of multiple lesions, lack of a history of skin trauma, an association with dermatophytes, most commonly Microsporum canis, and, histologically, lack of true cement material and a more abundant Splendore-Hoeppli reaction in pseudomycetomas. Additionally, pseudomycetomas differ from dermatophytosis, in which lesions are restricted to epidermal structures. Persian cats have a high incidence of pseudomycetoma formation, suggesting a heritable predisposition. The prognosis is fair with systemic antifungal therapy. When examining cytologic specimens from Persian cats with single or multiple dermal nodules, especially if pyogranulomatous inflammation is present, a diagnosis of pseudomycetoma should be suspected and is warranted if arthrospores and refractile septate hyphae are present.

  9. Treatment of Persian Materials in the National Union Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khosh-khui, Abolghasem Z.

    This study investigates the treatment of Persian materials in the National Union Catalog (NUC) using Library of Congress (LC) subject headings. A history and review of the literature on cataloging, classification, and the NUC are provided, and a comparison is made of samples of Persian and American materials in order to determine whether the two…

  10. The Development of the Causative Construction in Persian Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family, Neiloufar; Allen, Shanley E. M.

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of systematic patterns and exceptions in different languages can be readily examined using the causative construction. Persian allows four types of causative structures, including one productive multiword structure (i.e. the light verb construction). In this study, we examine the development of all four structures in Persian child…

  11. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  12. Persian Native Speakers Reading Persian and English Texts: Their Strategic Behavior to Overcome Syntactic and Semantic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alimorad, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to discover semantic and syntactic problems Persian native speakers might have while reading English and Persian texts and different strategies they use to overcome those problems. To this end, a convenient sample of 40 intermediate students studying English Literature at Shiraz University was selected. Twenty of them were asked…

  13. Parathyroid adenocarcinoma in a nephropathic Persian cat.

    PubMed

    Cavana, Paola; Vittone, Valentina; Capucchio, Maria T; Farca, Anna M

    2006-10-01

    This report describes an uncommon clinical case of cystic parathyroid adenocarcinoma. A 17-year-old male Persian cat was presented for evaluation of a ventral cervical mass. The cat was inappetent and showed weight loss, polydipsia and vomiting. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis revealed moderate hypercalcaemia, a mild increase of creatinine, isosthenuria and proteinuria. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-agarose gel electrophoresis showed a mixed tubular proteinuric pattern, in accordance with histological examination that revealed interstitial nephritis and glomerulonephritis. Diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was based on histopathological findings. PMID:16651017

  14. Reproductive health and pregnancy outcomes among French gulf war veterans

    PubMed Central

    Verret, Catherine; Jutand, Mathe-Aline; De Vigan, Catherine; Bégassat, Marion; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Brochard, Patrick; Salamon, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Background Since 1993, many studies on the health of Persian Gulf War veterans (PGWVs) have been undertaken. Some authors have concluded that an association exists between Gulf War service and reported infertility or miscarriage, but that effects on PGWV's children were limited. The present study's objective was to describe the reproductive outcome and health of offspring of French Gulf War veterans. Methods The French Study on the Persian Gulf War (PGW) and its Health Consequences is an exhaustive cross-sectional study on all French PGWVs conducted from 2002 to 2004. Data were collected by postal self-administered questionnaire. A case-control study nested in this cohort was conducted to evaluate the link between PGW-related exposures and fathering a child with a birth defect. Results In the present study, 9% of the 5,666 Gulf veterans who participated reported fertility disorders, and 12% of male veterans reported at least one miscarriage among their partners after the PGW. Overall, 4.2% of fathers reported at least one child with a birth defect conceived after the mission. No PGW-related exposure was associated with any birth defect in children fathered after the PGW mission. Concerning the reported health of children born after the PGW, 1.0% of children presented a pre-term delivery and 2.7% a birth defect. The main birth defects reported were musculoskeletal malformations (0.5%) and urinary system malformations (0.3%). Birth defect incidence in PGWV children conceived after the mission was similar to birth defect incidence described by the Paris Registry of Congenital Malformations, except for Down syndrome (PGWV children incidence was lower than Registry incidence). Conclusion This study did not highlight a high frequency of fertility disorders or miscarriage among French PGW veterans. We found no evidence for a link between paternal exposure during the Gulf War and increased risk of birth defects among French PGWV children. PMID:18442369

  15. Nutritional aspects to prevent heart diseases in traditional Persian medicine.

    PubMed

    Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Kenari, Hoorieh Mohammadi; Esfahani, Mohammad Mehdi; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Nazem, Esmaeil; Moghimi, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are major health complications currently in various societies. Management of heart diseases as a prevention step or as treatment with low-cost procedures like lifestyle modifications including nutrition are important current trends. Although the term nutrition dates back to 2 past centuries, Persian physicians contributed to this term at least from 1000 years ago. Rhazes (865-925 AD) was one of the pioneers in this field. He preferred using foods in treating illnesses. "Foods and drinks" were 1 subject from 6 principles (Setteh Zarorieh) that Persian physicians believed can affect human health. In this review, we described some medieval Persian views on the role of nutrition in heart diseases and compare their prescriptions with current findings. Interestingly, current investigations mostly support Persian medicine principles. Historically, this work shows that the concept of nutrition in heart diseases has had a successful background at least from 1000 years ago in Persia.

  16. Comparison of Leiomyoma of Modern Medicine and Traditional Persian Medicine.

    PubMed

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Tajadini, Haleh

    2016-04-01

    Leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of the pelvic that is associated with reproductive problems such as infertility, frequent abortions, and undesirable prenatal outcomes. High prevalence of leiomyoma and its relation with important gynecological complications, especially during reproductive ages, on the one hand, and high medical expenses and significant complications of common treatments, on the other, made us search traditional Persian medicine texts for a similar disease. In traditional Persian medicine, a condition has been introduced similar to leiomyoma (Oram-e-rahem). In this article, by collecting materials from traditional medicine texts on leiomyoma, we aim to provide theories for further studies on this topic, as there is an obvious difference between traditional Persian medicine and modern medicine with regard to leiomyoma. When modern medicine has not found a suitable response to treatment, reviewing of traditional Persian medicine for finding better treatment strategies is wise.

  17. Physiopathology of dementia from the perspective of traditional Persian medicine.

    PubMed

    Seifaddini, Rostam; Tajadini, Haleh; Choopani, Rasool

    2015-07-01

    The most common cognitive disorder that is disabling is dementia. During the medieval period, traditional Persian medicine was an outstanding source of medicine that was used as standard references in medical schools of in the West and Middle East. In ancient manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine, a condition has been introduced similar to dementi (raoonat and homgh). In this article, by collecting materials of traditional medicine texts on dementia, we aim to provide theories for further studies on this topics, as there is an obvious difference between traditional Persian medicine and modern medicine with regard to dementia; however, since modern medicine has not found a suitable response to treatment for all diseases, reviewing traditional Persian medicine for finding better treatment strategies is wise. Use of all medical potentials approved by the World Health Organization beside classic medicine like traditional medicine and considering the availability and acceptability among people is recommended.

  18. Biggest oil spill tackled in gulf amid war, soft market

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-04

    Industry is scrambling to cope with history's biggest oil spill against the backdrop of a Persian Gulf war and a softening oil market. U.S. and Saudi Arabian officials accused Iraq of unleashing an oil spill of about 11 million bbl into the Persian Gulf off Kuwait last week by releasing crude from the giant Sea Island tanker loading terminal at Mina al Ahmadi. Smart bombs delivered by U.S. aircraft hit two onshore tank farm manifold stations, cutting off the terminal's source of oil flow Jan. 26. A small volume of oil was still leaking from 13 mile feeder pipelines to the terminal at presstime. Press reports quoted U.S. military and Saudi officials as estimating the slick at 35 miles long and 10 miles wide but breaking up in some areas late last week. Meantime, Iraq reportedly opened the valves at its Mina al Bakr marine terminal at Fao to spill crude into the northern gulf. BBC reported significant volumes of crude in the water off Fao 24 hr after the terminal valves were opened. Mina al Bakr is a considerably smaller terminal than Sea Island, suggesting that the resulting flow of oil would be smaller than that at Sea Island.

  19. Space View of the 1991 Gulf War Kuwaiti Oil Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Larko, D.

    2014-12-01

    During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, over 700 oil wells in Kuwait were set ablaze by the withdrawing Iraqi army with the apparent intent of hindering satellite reconnaissance and intelligence gathering activities by the coalition of forces repelling Iraq from occupied Kuwait. The oil fires that burned for an estimated 10 months, created a huge smoke plume whose spatial extent went at times beyond the Persian Gulf region, mobilized across the Saharan Desert reaching as far west as the North Atlantic Ocean. The Nimbus-7 TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, in operation from October 1978 to May 1993, measured the near UV radiances that in the mid-1990's became the input in the calculation of the well know Absorbing Aerosol Index that represented a major breakthrough in satellite-based aerosol remote sensing. Thus, unknowingly to the world, the N7-TOMS sensor was collecting in 1991 an unprecedented daily record of what can be considered the worst environmental catastrophe affecting the atmosphere since the beginning of the era of space-based remote sensing in the 1970's. An overview of the temporal and spatial extent of the synoptic scale 1991 Gulf War smoke plume as seen by the Nimbus-7 TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index will be presented.

  20. Venezuela positioning itself to take key market role in wake of Gulf War

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-19

    This paper reports on Venezuela which continues efforts to position itself in world markets to capitalize on fallout from the Persian Gulf war. The central government and state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA have accelerated already ambitious plans to expand activities in upstream and downstream oil and gas sectors. Pvdsa has sharply increased its 1991-96 investment program from the level planned at the end of last year. The goal is to put Venezuela on a par with major Persian Gulf oil exporters in terms of productive capacity. Linchpin of those efforts could well be further steps toward privatization of Venezuela's oil sector. For the first time since nationalization in 1976, private foreign and domestic companies are being permitted to participate in Venezuelan exploration and development. In addition, the government is trimming the onerous tax burden the oil sector has carried in Venezuela, as well as its heavy subsidy of domestic petroleum products.

  1. Word Frequency Effects in Naming for Experienced and Previously Experienced Adult Readers of Persian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baluch, Bahman

    1996-01-01

    Reports that in a word naming experiment, experienced readers of Persian named high frequency transparent Persian words significantly faster than matched low frequency words. Finds no such effects for adults who had, for 10 years, little experience in reading Persian due to emigration to the West; overall, previously experienced adults named words…

  2. Persian At-Risk Women and Barriers to Receiving HIV Services in Drug Treatment: First Report From Iran

    PubMed Central

    Samiei, Mercedeh; Moradi, Afsaneh; Noori, Roya; Aryanfard, Sepideh; Rafiey, Hassan; Naranjiha, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Background As the most populated Persian Gulf country, in Iran, engagement with drug injection and unsafe sex are the main routes of HIV transmission among some drug-dependent women. Objectives The current study explored the barriers that a group of drug-dependent women reported in accessing and adhering to HIV services in drug use treatment. Patients and Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 47 Persian women at five outpatient drug treatment centers between January and December 2011. Five focus group interviews were conducted with ten key informants (KI). The interviews made use of a semi-structured interview guide, which facilitated discussion regarding the barriers. The interview transcripts were analyzed thematically using Atlas-ti software. Results The interview accounts highlighted a number of barriers, including stigmatization, a considerable lack of knowledge about free HIV centers in the community, previous traumatic events, misconceptions about the quality of HIV services, and a poor supportive referral system among drug treatment and HIV centers. Conclusions The findings highlight a need for removing stigma and providing high quality women-only HIV services. Increasing trust and knowledge of available HIV services are needed for this group of women. Increasing staff knowledge is a priority. An integrated supportive network among drug treatment and HIV centers is suggested in Iran. PMID:27622170

  3. Persian Traditional Medicine and Ocular Health

    PubMed Central

    Namdar, Hasan; Emaratkar, Elham; Hadavand, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-01-01

    The Persian Traditional Medicine (PTM) system pays special attention to disease prevention. In PTM, physicians believe that overeating may cause accumulation of unhealthy substances in the body and diseases called “Emtela.” With respect to ocular health, foods can be categorized as beneficial and harmful. Harmful foods such as beef, geese, eggplant, cauliflower, and cheese can cause reduced vision. Dehydrating foods such as walnut and salty fish and hot foods such as garlic, onion, and pepper can cause dry eye. Food items that have beneficial effects on ocular health include thyme and saffron and fruits such as grape, fig, apple, plum, and berries. PTM stipulates that one should not drink water with meals or immediately afterwards, since drinking cold (icy) water causes difficulty in absorption of nutrients. Gulping water may have harmful effects on the eyes; therefore, PTM physicians recommend drinking water at a suitable temperature. It is not safe to drink water first at the morning. Sleeping right after eating is harmful too. Avicenna believes that sleeping on one’s belly after a full meal is very harmful for the eyes. Galen says that old people need deep and continuous sleep more than others. From the view of PTM, moving eyes in different directions, making delicate expressions, trying to look at delicate and find pictures and reading small letters would remove ocular fatigue. There have been mentions of local medicine for improving vision as well; for instance, fennel extracts, pomegranate juice, and honey which are suitable for vision improvement. Local administration of pomegranate blossoms is suitable for treating inflammatory reactions. PMID:27800504

  4. Chemical arms not cause of Gulf War syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Ember, L.

    1994-07-11

    A task force commissioned by the Pentagon's Defense Science Board has found no evidence that US troops were exposed to chemical or biological weapons or to any other environmental hazard during the Persian gulf War that could resolve the mystery of unexplained symptoms now dubbed the Gulf War Syndrome.'' A Czech chemical weapons monitoring team reported detecting the nerve gas sarin and sulfur mustard at two sites in Saudi Arabia near the Iraqi border in mid-January 1991. Despite the Pentagon's uncertainties about the Czech reports, many US soldiers believe they were exposed to low levels of chemical agents. They are not convinced that all of the many chemical sensor alarms that went off during the air war were false alarms.

  5. Persian Speakers' Use of Refusal Strategies across Politeness Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the preferred refusal strategies in Persian. 3047 refusals collected by 108 field workers as well as 376 refusals collected through face to face interviews were analyzed and classified according to the descriptions proposed by Liao (1994) and Liao and Bresnahan (1996). The frequencies of the resulting direct and…

  6. Persian EFL Students' Developmental versus Fossilized Prepositional Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalali, Hassan; Shojaei, Mahdiyeh

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental and fossilized prepositional errors in Persian EFL learners' compositions at three levels of proficiency; participants were divided into lower-intermediate, upper-intermediate, and advanced levels. For each participant, four compositions were collected, and after identifying the prepositional errors for…

  7. A Contrastive Analysis of the American and Persian Newspaper Editorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homayounzadeh, Maryam; Mehrpour, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Based on the principles of critical discourse analysis this contrastive study sought to investigate the effect of culture on the journalistic style and the strategies used to report news in the American and Persian newspaper editorials. To this end, articles were selected from the New York Times, the Washington Post, Kayhan and Ettelaat,…

  8. An Investigation into the Prehistory of the Persian Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fekri-Ershad, J.; Mehrabi, F.

    2006-01-01

    Persian Languages is one of the widespread branches of Indo-European languages that for long have comprised several important languages. The importance of these languages which lies in the strength of Median, Achamenian, Parthian, and Sasanid Empires during different eras caused a number of researchers to increase their studies about these…

  9. Persian Basic Course: Volume I, Lesson 1-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    The first of 10 volumes of a basic course in Persian is presented that is designed for use in the Defense Language Institute's intensive programs. The course, employing the audiolingual methodology, is designed to train native English speakers to level three proficiency in comprehension and speaking and level two proficiency in reading and writing…

  10. Persian version of frontal assessment battery: Correlations with formal measures of executive functioning and providing normative data for Persian population

    PubMed Central

    Asaadi, Sina; Ashrafi, Farzad; Omidbeigi, Mahmoud; Nasiri, Zahra; Pakdaman, Hossein; Amini-Harandi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) mainly involves executive function (EF). The frontal assessment battery (FAB) is an efficient tool for the assessment of EFs. The aims of this study were to determine the validity and reliability of the psychometric properties of the Persian version of FAB and assess its correlation with formal measures of EFs to provide normative data for the Persian version of FAB in patients with PD. Methods: The study recruited 149 healthy participants and 49 patients with idiopathic PD. In PD patients, FAB results were compared to their performance on EF tests. Reliability analysis involved test-retest reliability and internal consistency, whereas validity analysis involved convergent validity approach. FAB scores compared in normal controls and in PD patients matched for age, education, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. Results: In PD patients, FAB scores were significantly decreased compared to normal controls, and correlated with Stroop test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). In healthy subjects, FAB scores varied according to the age, education, and MMSE. In the FAB subtest analysis, the performances of PD patients were worse than the healthy participants on similarities, fluency tasks, and Luria’s motor series. Conclusion: Persian version of FAB could be used as a reliable scale for the assessment of frontal lobe functions in Iranian patients with PD. Furthermore, normative data provided for the Persian version of this test improve the accuracy and confidence in the clinical application of the FAB. PMID:27141272

  11. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A.; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A.; Anderson, Donald M.; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L.; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M.; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M.; Jones, David A.; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/ Persian Gulf (thereafter ‘Gulf’) coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407

  12. The Institute of Medicine's independent scientific assessment of Gulf War health issues.

    PubMed

    Joellenbeck, Lois M; Hernandez, Lyla M

    2002-03-01

    The Institute of Medicine has frequently been the source of expert advice to the government and others on questions related to health and medicine. Such has been the case as Congress, federal agencies, and veterans attempt to resolve conflicts and develop policies to address the health concerns of Persian Gulf War veterans. Twelve reports issued by Institute of Medicine committees address what is known about exposures and illnesses in Gulf War veterans and what additional information is needed, how clinical programs for Gulf War veterans could be improved, and what strategies could help prevent or better address similar health problems in the future. The Institute of Medicine reports recommend guidelines and interventions to treat sufferers of medically unexplained symptoms, longitudinal studies to measure changes in health status, and improved risk communication. They emphasize the need for the maintenance of retrievable electronic records of baseline health status, of exposures, and of health events that occur during a service member's career.

  13. Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS): a Study on Persian Language Websites

    PubMed Central

    BIGDELI, Imanollah; CORAZZA, Ornella; ASLANPOUR, Zoe; SCHIFANO, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Background During the past few years, there has been an increasing recognition that Internet is playing a significant role in the synthesis, the distribution and the consumption of Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS).The aim of this study was to assess the online availability of NPS in Persian language websites. Methods: The Google search engine was used to carry out an accurate qualitative assessment of information available on NPS in a sample of 104 websites. Results: The monitoring has led to the identification of 14 NPS including herbal, synthetic, pharmaceutical and combination drugs that have been sold online. Conclusion: The availability of online marketing of NPS in Persian language websites may constitute a public health challenge at least across three Farsi-speaking countries in the Middle East. Hence, descriptions of this phenomenon are valuable to clinicians and health professional in this region. Further international collaborative efforts may be able to tackle the growth and expansion of regular offer of NPS. PMID:23802109

  14. 38 CFR 3.317 - Compensation for certain disabilities occurring in Persian Gulf veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as: (1) Chronic fatigue syndrome; (2) Fibromyalgia; (3) Functional gastrointestinal disorders... fever) • Chronic hepatitis. • Endocarditis. • Osteomyelitis. • Post-Q-fever chronic fatigue syndrome.... • Chronic meningitis and meningoencephalitis. • Deafness. • Demyelinating meningovascular...

  15. 75 FR 59968 - Presumptions of Service Connection for Persian Gulf Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... are defined by a cluster of signs or symptoms: (1) Chronic fatigue syndrome; (2) Fibromyalgia; (3.... Endocarditis. Osteomyelitis. Post-Q-fever chronic fatigue syndrome. Vascular infection. Malaria Demyelinating... syndromes. Episcleritis. Fatigue, inattention, amnesia, and depression. Guillain-Barr syndrome....

  16. 75 FR 13051 - Presumptions of Service Connection for Persian Gulf Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    .... Osteomyelitis. post-Q-fever chronic fatigue syndrome. Vascular infection. Malaria Demyelinating polyneuropathy... fatigue syndrome; (2) Fibromyalgia; (3) Irritable bowel syndrome; or (4) Any other illness that the... unexplained chronic multisymptom illness include, but are not limited to: (1) Fatigue. (2) Signs or...

  17. 75 FR 70162 - Presumptive Service Connection for Diseases Associated With Persian Gulf War Service: Functional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... chronic multisymptom illness (such as chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome... 75 FR 61995. FGIDs are medically unexplained chronic multisymptom illnesses within the meaning of the... concerning presumptive service connection for medically unexplained chronic multisymptom illnesses...

  18. 38 CFR 3.317 - Compensation for certain disabilities occurring in Persian Gulf veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as: (1) Chronic fatigue syndrome; (2) Fibromyalgia; (3) Functional gastrointestinal disorders... fever) • Chronic hepatitis. • Endocarditis. • Osteomyelitis. • Post-Q-fever chronic fatigue syndrome.... • Chronic meningitis and meningoencephalitis. • Deafness. • Demyelinating meningovascular...

  19. Poughkeepsie to Persian Gulf Revisited: ICONS, The Internet, and Teaching International Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrina, Vernon J.

    1995-01-01

    Recommends using the International Communication and Negotiation Simulations (ICONS) computer program in teaching international politics. Utilizing computers and telecommunications, students play the roles of diplomats, corresponding and negotiating with other students from around the world. Includes program information and a discussion of other…

  20. Camels and Camshafts: Career and Technical Education in the Persian Gulf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnish, Dorothy

    2003-01-01

    Describes a cooperative project of the University of Georgia and the Ministry of Education and Youth in the United Arab Emirates to improve the secondary technical education system. Provides background information, describes project activities, looks at cultural issues, and discusses similarities and differences in education. (JOW)

  1. Phytochemical and biological evaluation of some Sargassum species from Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mehdinezhad, Negin; Ghannadi, Alireza; Yegdaneh, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    Sea algae are widely consumed in the world. There are several seaweeds including brown algae which are authorized for human consumption. These plants contain important phytochemical constituents and have various potential biological activities. The present study investigated the presence of phytochemical constituents and total phenolic quantity of the seaweeds Sargassum angustifolium, Sargassum oligocystum and Sargassum boveanum. Cytotoxicity of seaweeds was tested against HT-29, HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. Antioxidant potential of these 3 Sargassum species was also analyzed. Cytotoxicity was characterized by IC50 of human cancer cell lines using sulforhodamine assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazil. The analysis revealed that tannins, saponins, sterols and triterpenes were the most abundant compounds in these Sargassum species while cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides were the least ones. Sargassum angustifolium had the highest content of total phenolics (0.061 mg/g) and showed the highest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0.231). Cytotoxic results showed that all species could inhibit cell growth effectively, especially MCF-7 cell line (IC50 = 67.3, 56.9, 60.4 for S. oligocystum, S. angustifolium and S. boveanum respectively). Considerable phytochemicals and moderate cytotoxic activity of S. angustifolium, S. oligocystum and S. boveanum make them appropriate candidate for further studies and identification of their bioactive principles. PMID:27499794

  2. Internal bioerosion in dead and live hard corals in intertidal zone of Hormuz Island (Persian Gulf).

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mohammad Ali; Seyfabadi, Jafar; Shokri, Mohammad Reza

    2016-04-30

    Internal macrobioeroders and their erosion rate in three live and dead coral genera (Favia, Platygyra and Porites) from the intertidal zone of the Hormuz Island were studied by collecting five live and five dead colonies from each genus, from which 4 mm cross-sections were cut and photographed. Photos were analyzed using the Coral Point Count with Excel extensions. Totally, 9 taxa were identified: four bivalve species, one sponge, three polychaetes, and one barnacle. Bioerosion rate did not significantly differ among the three live corals, but among the dead ones only Porites was significantly more eroded than Favia. Sponge had the highest role in the erosion of the dead Platygyra, while barnacles were the most effective eroding organism in the live Platygyra. Polychaetes, followed by bivalves, were the most destructive bioeroders on the dead and live Porites. Further, none of the bioeroding organisms had selectively chosen either the dead or live Favia.

  3. Phytochemical and biological evaluation of some Sargassum species from Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Mehdinezhad, Negin; Ghannadi, Alireza; Yegdaneh, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    Sea algae are widely consumed in the world. There are several seaweeds including brown algae which are authorized for human consumption. These plants contain important phytochemical constituents and have various potential biological activities. The present study investigated the presence of phytochemical constituents and total phenolic quantity of the seaweeds Sargassum angustifolium, Sargassum oligocystum and Sargassum boveanum. Cytotoxicity of seaweeds was tested against HT-29, HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. Antioxidant potential of these 3 Sargassum species was also analyzed. Cytotoxicity was characterized by IC50 of human cancer cell lines using sulforhodamine assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazil. The analysis revealed that tannins, saponins, sterols and triterpenes were the most abundant compounds in these Sargassum species while cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides were the least ones. Sargassum angustifolium had the highest content of total phenolics (0.061 mg/g) and showed the highest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0.231). Cytotoxic results showed that all species could inhibit cell growth effectively, especially MCF-7 cell line (IC50 = 67.3, 56.9, 60.4 for S. oligocystum, S. angustifolium and S. boveanum respectively). Considerable phytochemicals and moderate cytotoxic activity of S. angustifolium, S. oligocystum and S. boveanum make them appropriate candidate for further studies and identification of their bioactive principles. PMID:27499794

  4. Internal bioerosion in dead and live hard corals in intertidal zone of Hormuz Island (Persian Gulf).

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mohammad Ali; Seyfabadi, Jafar; Shokri, Mohammad Reza

    2016-04-30

    Internal macrobioeroders and their erosion rate in three live and dead coral genera (Favia, Platygyra and Porites) from the intertidal zone of the Hormuz Island were studied by collecting five live and five dead colonies from each genus, from which 4 mm cross-sections were cut and photographed. Photos were analyzed using the Coral Point Count with Excel extensions. Totally, 9 taxa were identified: four bivalve species, one sponge, three polychaetes, and one barnacle. Bioerosion rate did not significantly differ among the three live corals, but among the dead ones only Porites was significantly more eroded than Favia. Sponge had the highest role in the erosion of the dead Platygyra, while barnacles were the most effective eroding organism in the live Platygyra. Polychaetes, followed by bivalves, were the most destructive bioeroders on the dead and live Porites. Further, none of the bioeroding organisms had selectively chosen either the dead or live Favia. PMID:26654335

  5. Using histopathological changes as a biomarker to trace contamination loading of Musa Creeks (Persian Gulf).

    PubMed

    Salamat, Negin; Soleimani, Zahra; Safahieh, Alireza; Savari, Ahmad; Ronagh, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-08-01

    Gill histological changes were used as a biomarker to evaluate the health of yellowfin seabream, Acanthopagrus latus (A. latus), collected from different sites in Musa Creeks including: (A) Petrochemical, (B) Jaafari, (C) Ghazaleh, (D) Majidieh, and (E) Zangi creeks. Also Genaveh with relatively clean water was selected as reference. The gills of 60 A. latus were fixed in Bouin's solution for 12 hr, dehydrated in a graded series of ethanol, and embedded in paraffin. Five micrometer thick sections were stained in H&E and Periodic Acid Schiff for microscopic examination. Also, the presence of gill histological alterations was assessed by the histopathologic alteration index (HAI). The gill morphological abnormalities include mucus secretion increase, debris, blood plaque, and shortening of filaments. The gill pathological changes included lamellar cells hyperplasia, aneurysm, lamellar fusion, and epithelial lifting. The HAI means were varied from moderate to severe in sites A and B, thus these sites are considered as being of low quality. Some severe pathological alterations were observed in site D, but their distribution was lower than sites A and B. The least HAI means of sites C and E demonstrated their good environmental quality. The results suggest that there is close relation between amounts of pathological alterations and environmental contamination.

  6. 75 FR 61356 - Presumptions of Service Connection for Persian Gulf Service; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... of that document, VA inadvertently omitted a comma following the word ``etiology'' in the first... published in the Federal Register (75 FR 59968), an amendment to 38 CFR 3.317 to implement a decision of the... Sec. 3.317(a)(2)(ii), we inadvertently omitted a comma following the word ``etiology.''...

  7. Antifungal and antibacterial activity of Haliclona sp. from the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nazemi, M; Alidoust Salimi, M; Alidoust Salimi, P; Motallebi, A; Tamadoni Jahromi, S; Ahmadzadeh, O

    2014-09-01

    In this study, antifungal and antibacterial activities of diethyl ether, methanol and aqueous extracts of Haliclona sp. were assessed (in vitro). The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by broth dilution methods against clinical Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus aureus, Bacillus subtilis spizizenii. The antifungal activity of the extracts was determined by using a broth microdilution test against clinical fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Our results showed diethyl ether extract of Haliclona sp. was active on Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, methanol extract in comparison with diethyl ether extract had better activity against C. albicans (MIC: 0.75 mg/mL, MFC: 1.5mg/mL) and A. fumigatus (MIC: 2mg/mL, MFC: 3mg/mL). Aqueous extract had neither antifungal nor antibacterial activities. Based our results, Haliclona sp. can be considered as a source of novel antibiotic and antifungal.

  8. Taxonomy and structure of Persian personality-descriptive trait terms.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Mohammad N; De Raad, Boele; Farzad, Valiolla; Fotoohie, Mahmood

    2016-04-01

    We described the development of a taxonomy of Persian personality-descriptive terms in two studies. In Study 1, judges scanned Persian dictionaries and several Persian novels for person-descriptive terms. The resulting set of person-descriptive terms was classified into different categories of description, including the category of dispositional trait-descriptive adjectives. Of the 544 most familiar traits, 126 traits were selected to collect self-ratings. In Study 2, self-ratings were provided by 2400 students. Ratings were factor analysed (Principal Components Analysis) followed by Varimax rotation. Factor structures with two to six factors were discussed. The two-factor structure and the three-factor structure confirm the Big Two and the Big Three, respectively. Of the structures with five and six factors, the five-factor structure appears to be the more appropriate choice, with the factors labelled Morality, Positive versus Negative Emotionality, Achievement, Thoughtfulness and Affection. Gender differences were measured on both the five-factor structure and the six-factor structure. The discussion section emphasised both cross-cultural commonalities and cultural deviations in reference to the Big Five.

  9. Estrous cycle synchronization in the Persian onager (Equus hemionus onager).

    PubMed

    Ter Beest, Julia M; Schook, Mandi W

    2016-01-01

    The endangered Persian onager (Equus hemionus onager) has experienced significant population declines over the past century due to poaching, habitat destruction, and resource competition. Remaining animals in zoos and the wild are regionally isolated. Artificial insemination (AI) may be particularly useful as a means of aiding in global genetic management of these isolated populations. The first successful AI in onagers was performed in 2009 utilizing urinary hormone analyses and regular transrectal ultrasound examinations that required specialized handling devices. A method for estrous synchronization in this species would alleviate the need for daily handling and provide a more feasible approach to AI. This study tested long-acting controlled-release preparations of estradiol and progesterone, followed by a single injection of prostaglandin 10 days later, in six adult female Persian onagers to determine whether ovulation would occur within a narrow window of time. Serial transrectal ultrasound exams were performed to determine the day of ovulation following hormone treatment. Means and standard deviations were determined for the lengths of follicular and luteal phases, follicle sizes, and time to ovulation, and compared to historical data in this species. All six onagers ovulated between Days 18 and 22, with three females ovulating on Day 19, as determined by the presence of a corpus luteum. This is an apparently safe and effective method for the synchronization of estrous cycles in the Persian onager, and may be used to develop a timed AI protocol for use at institutions that do not have specialized handling facilities to enable regular transrectal ultrasound.

  10. Functional dyspepsia: A new approach from traditional Persian medicine

    PubMed Central

    Pasalar, Mehdi; Nimrouzi, Majid; Choopani, Rasool; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: One of the most common global disorders is related to gastrointestinal system. Functional dyspepsia (FD) defined as upper abdominal pain and discomfort in the absence of organic ailments is a prevalent disease without any confirmed medication. The purpose of this study was to find gastric disorders which might be coincidental to FD based on traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Materials and Methods: We searched the main textbooks of TPM including Al-Havi (by Rhazes), Canon of medicine (by Avicenna), ZakhireKhawrazmshahi (by Ismail Jorjani), Moalijat-e Aghili and Makhzan Al-adviya (by Mohammad Hosein AghiliShirazi), and ExirAzam (by Hakim Azam Khan). Also, we searched Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct, Medline, scientific information database (SID), Iranmedex and Google Scholar from 1980 to 1 August 2014 for dyspepsia, gastrointestinal disease, traditional Persian medicine, and gastric dystemperaments. Results: There is no equivalent term for FD in traditional Persian medicine although similar signs and symptoms are visible in terms like simple cold dystemperament of stomach, indigestion, and digestion debility in TPM sources. Some treatments mentioned in TPM have shown promising results in the current experimental tests. Conclusion: Finding these similarities in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) textbooks may lead to discovering new remedies for this widespread disease. PMID:27222829

  11. Learning to Read and Spell in Persian: A Cross-Sectional Study from Grades 1 to 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbari, Noriyeh; Senechal, Monique

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the reading and spelling development of 140 Persian children attending Grades 1-4 in Iran. Persian has very consistent letter-sound correspondences, but it varies in transparency because 3 of its 6 vowel phonemes are not marked with letters. Persian also varies in spelling consistency because 6 phonemes have more than one…

  12. Toxoplasmosis May Lead to Road Kills of Persian Leopards ( Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Golestan National Park, Iran.

    PubMed

    Namroodi, Somayeh; Gholami, Alireza; Shariat-Bahadori, Ehsan

    2016-04-28

    Three Persian leopards ( Panthera pardus saxicolor) that died from car accidents in Golestan National Park, Iran, were tested for Toxoplasma gondii and rabies virus infection. Acute T. gondii infection was diagnosed in two Persian leopards; no rabies virus was detected. Acute toxoplasmosis may be a factor in Persian leopard road kills.

  13. Toxoplasmosis May Lead to Road Kills of Persian Leopards ( Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Golestan National Park, Iran.

    PubMed

    Namroodi, Somayeh; Gholami, Alireza; Shariat-Bahadori, Ehsan

    2016-04-28

    Three Persian leopards ( Panthera pardus saxicolor) that died from car accidents in Golestan National Park, Iran, were tested for Toxoplasma gondii and rabies virus infection. Acute T. gondii infection was diagnosed in two Persian leopards; no rabies virus was detected. Acute toxoplasmosis may be a factor in Persian leopard road kills. PMID:26981691

  14. Lexical and Nonlexical Processes in the Skilled Reading and Spelling of Persian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbari, Noriyeh; Senechal, Monique

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of lexical and nonlexical processes to skilled reading and spelling in Persian. Persian is a mixed orthography that allows one to study within one language characteristics typically found in shallow orthographies as well as those found in deeper orthographies. 61 senior high-school…

  15. An Analysis of Adjuncts: A Syntacto-Discoursal Approach (A Case Study in Contemporary Persian)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jafari, Azita; Sedigh Ziabari, Roya

    2008-01-01

    In broad terms, this paper is concerned with adjunct construction in Persian, which is an Indo-Iranian Language. During the recent century, specially in its final decades, different researches have been done about adjuncts and adjunction among different languages, but despite the fact that they are very important in Persian language, no attempts…

  16. Investigation of the Reliability of the SSI-3 for Preschool Persian-Speaking Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiar, Mehdi; Seifpanahi, Sadegh; Ansari, Hossein; Ghanadzade, Mehdi; Packman, Ann

    2010-01-01

    There is a pressing need in Iran for the translation of widely used speech-language assessment tools into Persian. This study reports the interjudge and intrajudge reliability of a Persian translation of the Stuttering Severity Instrument-3 (SSI-3) (Riley, 1994). There was greater than 80% interjudge and intrajudge agreement on scale scores for…

  17. Validity and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Persian Version of the Oxford Elbow Score

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H.; Kachooei, Amir Reza; Vahedi, Ehsan; Moradi, Ali; Mashayekhi, Zeinab; Hallaj-Moghaddam, Mohammad; Azami, Mehran; Birjandinejad, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Oxford Elbow Score (OES) is a patient-reported questionnaire used to assess outcomes after elbow surgery. The aim of this study was to validate and adapt the OES into Persian language. After forward-backward translation of the OES into Persian, a total number of 92 patients after elbow surgeries completed the Persian OES along with the Persian DASH and SF-36. To assess test-retest reliability, 31 randomly selected patients (34%) completed the Persian OES again after three days while abstaining from all forms of therapeutic regimens. Reliability of the Persian OES was assessed by measuring intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for test-retest reliability and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to test the construct validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.92 showing excellent reliability. Cronbach's alpha for function, pain, and social-psychological subscales was 0.95, 0.86, and 0.85, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.85 for the overall questionnaire and 0.90, 0.76, and 0.75 for function, pain, and social-psychological subscales, respectively. Construct validity was confirmed as the Spearman correlation between OES and DASH was 0.80. Persian OES is a valid and reliable patient-reported outcome measure to assess postsurgical elbow status in Persian speaking population. PMID:25214845

  18. A SVM-based method for sentiment analysis in Persian language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajmohammadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Ibrahim, Roliana

    2013-03-01

    Persian language is the official language of Iran, Tajikistan and Afghanistan. Local online users often represent their opinions and experiences on the web with written Persian. Although the information in those reviews is valuable to potential consumers and sellers, the huge amount of web reviews make it difficult to give an unbiased evaluation to a product. In this paper, standard machine learning techniques SVM and naive Bayes are incorporated into the domain of online Persian Movie reviews to automatically classify user reviews as positive or negative and performance of these two classifiers is compared with each other in this language. The effects of feature presentations on classification performance are discussed. We find that accuracy is influenced by interaction between the classification models and the feature options. The SVM classifier achieves as well as or better accuracy than naive Bayes in Persian movie. Unigrams are proved better features than bigrams and trigrams in capturing Persian sentiment orientation.

  19. Estrous cycle synchronization in the Persian onager (Equus hemionus onager).

    PubMed

    Ter Beest, Julia M; Schook, Mandi W

    2016-01-01

    The endangered Persian onager (Equus hemionus onager) has experienced significant population declines over the past century due to poaching, habitat destruction, and resource competition. Remaining animals in zoos and the wild are regionally isolated. Artificial insemination (AI) may be particularly useful as a means of aiding in global genetic management of these isolated populations. The first successful AI in onagers was performed in 2009 utilizing urinary hormone analyses and regular transrectal ultrasound examinations that required specialized handling devices. A method for estrous synchronization in this species would alleviate the need for daily handling and provide a more feasible approach to AI. This study tested long-acting controlled-release preparations of estradiol and progesterone, followed by a single injection of prostaglandin 10 days later, in six adult female Persian onagers to determine whether ovulation would occur within a narrow window of time. Serial transrectal ultrasound exams were performed to determine the day of ovulation following hormone treatment. Means and standard deviations were determined for the lengths of follicular and luteal phases, follicle sizes, and time to ovulation, and compared to historical data in this species. All six onagers ovulated between Days 18 and 22, with three females ovulating on Day 19, as determined by the presence of a corpus luteum. This is an apparently safe and effective method for the synchronization of estrous cycles in the Persian onager, and may be used to develop a timed AI protocol for use at institutions that do not have specialized handling facilities to enable regular transrectal ultrasound. PMID:26849100

  20. Diabetes and related remedies in medieval Persian medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad M.; Khademian, Sedigheh; Moein, Mahmoodreza

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a common metabolic disorder presenting increased amounts of serum glucose and will cover 5.4% of population by year 2025. Accordingly, this review was performed to gather and discuss the stand points on diagnosis, pathophysiology, non-pharmacological therapy and drug management of diabetes this disorder as described in medieval Persian medicine. To this, reports on diabetes were collected and analyzed from selected medical and pharmaceutical textbooks of Traditional Persian Medicine. A search on databases as Pubmed, Sciencedirect, Scopus and Google scholar was also performed to reconfirm the Anti diabetic activities of reported herbs. The term, Ziabites, was used to describe what is now spoken as diabetes. It was reported that Ziabites, is highly associated with kidney function. Etiologically, Ziabites was characterized as kidney hot or cold dystemperament as well as diffusion of fluid from other organs such as liver and intestines into the kidneys. This disorder was categorized into main types as hot (Ziabites-e-har) and cold (Ziabites-e-barid) as well as sweet urine (Bole-e-shirin). Most medieval cite signs of Ziabites were remarked as unusual and excessive thirst, frequent urination and polydipsia. On the management, life style modification and observing the essential rules of prevention in Persian medicine as well as herbal therapy and special simple manipulations were recommended. Current investigation was done to clarify the knowledge of medieval scientists on diabetes and related interventions. Reported remedies which are based on centuries of experience might be of beneficial for- further studies to the management of diabetes. PMID:24741508

  1. Acyanotic tetralogy of Fallot in a Persian cat.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Jin; Suh, Sang-Il; Choi, Ran; Hyun, Changbaig

    2016-06-01

    An 8-year-old, intact male Persian cat was presented with a prominent heart murmur, exercise intolerance, anorexia, and periodontitis. There was no cyanosis and no laboratory evidence for systemic hypoxemia. Echocardiography showed a dextropositioned aorta, moderate pulmonic stenosis (maximal velocity 4.06 m/s), ventricular septal defect, and right ventricular hypertrophy. The shunt direction was predominantly left-to-right in systole and minimally right-to-left in diastole. The cat was diagnosed with acyanotic (pink) tetralogy of Fallot and was managed medically with atenolol. PMID:27247457

  2. The Writing System of Modern Persian. American Council of Learned Societies Program in Oriental Languages, Publication Series B - Aids - Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paper, Herbert H.; Jazayery, Mohammad Ali

    This manual describes and illustrates the writing system of modern Persian. It is modelled after Frank A. Rice's "Classical Arabic: The Writing System." Five sections concerning the writing system are provided: (1) printed Persian, (2) typewritten Persian, (3) handwritten Persian, (4) the combination of words, and (5) punctuation. (RL)

  3. Innovation in veterans' health care and assistance: the Department of Veterans Affairs 10 years after the Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark A; Murphy, Frances M; Mather, Susan H

    2002-03-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has responded to significant challenges in treating and compensating Persian Gulf War veterans by adapting existing programs and developing new ones. The VA established a Gulf War health examination registry and expanded existing "Vet Centers" to provide assistance to Gulf War veterans. Health care eligibility income limitations were eliminated. Outreach efforts included a national newsletter, veterans' organization briefings, and other products. The VA is developing targeted training programs and continuing medical education for health care providers. Numerous major research initiatives have begun. Innovations include the establishment of environmental hazards research centers, clinical demonstration projects, and centers for the study of war-related illness. These efforts required increased coordination among federal agencies and collaboration with other countries. In a precedent-setting development, Congress gave the VA authority to compensate certain veterans with undiagnosed illnesses. Veterans from future conflicts and peacekeeping missions can expect improved services from the VA as a result of these initiatives. PMID:11901564

  4. Gulf of Mexico

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... article title:  Continued Spread of Gulf of Mexico Oil Slick       View Larger ... on NASA's Terra spacecraft passed over the Deepwater Horizon oil slick in the Gulf of Mexico on May 8, 2010, at approximately 16:50 UTC ...

  5. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and Gulf War illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Golomb, Beatrice Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests excess illness in Persian Gulf War veterans (GWV) can be explained in part by exposure of GWV to organophosphate and carbamate acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEis), including pyridostigmine bromide (PB), pesticides, and nerve agents. Evidence germane to the relation of AChEis to illness in GWV was assessed. Many epidemiological studies reported a link between AChEi exposure and chronic symptoms in GWV. The link is buttressed by a dose–response relation of PB pill number to chronic symptoms in GWV and by a relation between avidity of AChEi clearance and illness, based on genotypes, concentrations, and activity levels of enzymes that detoxify AChEis. Triangulating evidence derives from studies linking occupational exposure to AChEis to chronic health symptoms that mirror those of ill GWV. Illness is again linked to lower activity of AChEi detoxifying enzymes and genotypes conferring less-avid AChEi detoxification. AChEi exposure satisfies Hill's presumptive criteria for causality, suggesting this exposure may be causally linked to excess health problems in GWV. PMID:18332428

  6. Rings dominate western Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  7. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium).

    PubMed

    Soroush, Setareh; Taherikalani, Morovat; Asadollahi, Parisa; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Taran, Mojtaba; Emaneini, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Sajjad

    2012-01-01

    Allium hirtifolium is a Persian native plant grown in cool mountain slopes of Iran. It has been used as a spice in Iran for many years. According to the literature review, there are no considerable reports on the antimicrobial properties of this plant. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of Persian shallot hydroalcoholic extract and F1 fraction of the plant (containing amino acid derivatives and/or other cationic compounds) was investigated on some Gram positive cocci and bacilli, Gram negative bacilli, two protozoa, a yeast and a fungus. Excellent activity against Candida albicans (MIC = 64 microg/ml, MBC = 128 microg/ml), Leishmania infantum (MIC = 0.2 mg/ml on the first day of study) and Trichomonas vaginalis (MIC = 5 microg/ml in PSDE form) and a moderate activity against Bacillus spp and Pseudomonas aeroginosa (MIC = 128 microg/ml) was observed. The results showed that this plant contains some anti-trichomonas and anti-leishmania components.

  8. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium).

    PubMed

    Soroush, Setareh; Taherikalani, Morovat; Asadollahi, Parisa; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Taran, Mojtaba; Emaneini, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Sajjad

    2012-01-01

    Allium hirtifolium is a Persian native plant grown in cool mountain slopes of Iran. It has been used as a spice in Iran for many years. According to the literature review, there are no considerable reports on the antimicrobial properties of this plant. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of Persian shallot hydroalcoholic extract and F1 fraction of the plant (containing amino acid derivatives and/or other cationic compounds) was investigated on some Gram positive cocci and bacilli, Gram negative bacilli, two protozoa, a yeast and a fungus. Excellent activity against Candida albicans (MIC = 64 microg/ml, MBC = 128 microg/ml), Leishmania infantum (MIC = 0.2 mg/ml on the first day of study) and Trichomonas vaginalis (MIC = 5 microg/ml in PSDE form) and a moderate activity against Bacillus spp and Pseudomonas aeroginosa (MIC = 128 microg/ml) was observed. The results showed that this plant contains some anti-trichomonas and anti-leishmania components. PMID:23210319

  9. Bioaccumulation of 210Po in common gastropod and bivalve species from the northern Gulf.

    PubMed

    Uddin, S; Bebhehani, M

    2014-06-01

    This study sets the baseline for the concentration of the natural-series radionuclide polonium-210 in two species of gastropods and four species of bivalves that are common to the Northern Arabian/Persian Gulf. (210)Po is primarily absorbed from water and via ingestion of detrital material by gastropoda and bivalves. This concentrated (210)Po can then be passed along to the next trophic level of the marine food web. The lowest (210)Po concentration was measured in the gastropod Stomatella auricular (10.36-12.39Bq kg(-1)dry) and the highest in the bivalve Marica marmorata (193.51-215.60Bq kg(-1)dry). The measured concentration factor for these molluscs in the northern Gulf varied between 4.8 and 115×10(3), values very similar to the IAEA recommended value for bivalves and gastropods of 2×10(4).

  10. Bioaccumulation of 210Po in common gastropod and bivalve species from the northern Gulf.

    PubMed

    Uddin, S; Bebhehani, M

    2014-06-01

    This study sets the baseline for the concentration of the natural-series radionuclide polonium-210 in two species of gastropods and four species of bivalves that are common to the Northern Arabian/Persian Gulf. (210)Po is primarily absorbed from water and via ingestion of detrital material by gastropoda and bivalves. This concentrated (210)Po can then be passed along to the next trophic level of the marine food web. The lowest (210)Po concentration was measured in the gastropod Stomatella auricular (10.36-12.39Bq kg(-1)dry) and the highest in the bivalve Marica marmorata (193.51-215.60Bq kg(-1)dry). The measured concentration factor for these molluscs in the northern Gulf varied between 4.8 and 115×10(3), values very similar to the IAEA recommended value for bivalves and gastropods of 2×10(4). PMID:24675441

  11. Gulf Sturgeon Facts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Randall, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Sturgeon: An ancient type of fish, with 5 rows of armor scutes, a cartilaginous skeleton, long snout, suction mouth, no teeth, and 4 barbels. Photograph of a Gulf sturgeon. The total length of a 5-month old is 313 mm.

  12. Gulf operations still recovering

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-09-21

    This paper reports that reports of damage caused by Hurricane Andrew were leveling off last week at the U.S. Minerals Management Service as Gulf of Mexico operators pressed ahead with repairs. The hurricane struck South Florida Aug. 4, churned west into the gulf, then swung north and hit the South Louisiana coast Aug. 5. By the close of business Sept. 8 MMS had received damage reports covering 83 pipeline segments and 193 platforms and satellite installations. MMS last week estimated about 500 MMcfd of gas production had been restored in the gulf and 100,000-150,000 b/d of oil. Production still lost as a result of Andrew was estimated at 2-2.5 bcfd of gas and 90,000-120 b/d of oil. MMS estimates Gulf of Mexico wells before the storm were producing about 12.5-13 bcfd of gas and 750,000 b/d of oil.

  13. UAVSAR_Gulf_Oil

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Gulfstream III research aircraft carrying the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s sophisticated UAVSAR synthetic aperture radar under its belly surveyed the spread of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill du...

  14. Persian turquoise glazed bodies: reproduction and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesbahinia, Alimohammad; Rashidi-Huyeh, Majid; Shafiee Afarani, Mahdi

    2015-03-01

    Ancient turquoise Persian glazed ceramics, which are well known as Khar-Mohreh, belonged to several centuries ago. In this research, reproduction of ancient glazed bodies was performed, and the products were studied by different techniques. Experimental evaluations were focused on elemental, structural, morphological, and colorimetric characteristics. SEM micrographs illustrated a thin (10 μm) uniform composite glazed layer on a porous composite thicker layer (500 μm). The layers consist of microneedle-shaped and nanospherical particles of copper oxide distributed in an amorphous silicate medium. Modeling of this architecture was used for determination of the visual aspect of the ceramic via the reflectance coefficient. Structural and colorimetric results showed that the shape and distribution of copper oxide particles do not play a crucial role on the color of these ceramics.

  15. Medical Mucilage Used in Traditional Persian Medicine Practice

    PubMed Central

    Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehdi, Pasalar; Jafari, Jamileh Mahdavi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mucilage compounds are pharmaceutically important polysaccharides that have an extensive range of applications, including binding agents, thickeners, water retention agents, emulsion stabilizers, suspending agents, disintegrates, film formers, and gelling agents. A historical approach to medical science written by Iranian scholars could help in identifying excellent ideas and provide valuable information in this field for proper application. The aim of the current study was to introduce some mucilage uses derived from traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Methods: In this literature review, we assessed a few main traditional manuscripts of Iranian medicine, including the books Al Havi, Canon of Medicine, Qarabadine-kabir, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazm shahi, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Makhzan-ul-Adwiah. The word “loab” in the aforementioned books were searched and all data about mucilage compounds were collected. Results: The use of medicinal plants containing mucilage in Iran dates back to ancient times. In traditional Persian manuscripts, mucilage is one of the most cited applications of medicinal plants for therapeutic objectives. There are various mucilage-producing plants in TPM such as Malva silvestris, Linum usitissimum, Althaea officinalis, Plantago psyllium, Descureania sophia and Ziziphus vulgaris. They have been used traditionally via oral or topical routes for respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, musculoskeletal, and genital systems as well as skin disorders. Certain applications are unique and promising for today’s chronic ailments. Conclusion: A scientific assessment of these valuable manuscripts would provide a better insight into the thoughts of the past sages and applicable for clinical use of the mucilage compounds. This may lead to research opportunities in the future. PMID:27516674

  16. After the oil boom: The holiday ends in the gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Zanoyan, V.

    1995-11-01

    The most unmanageable risk facing American interests in the Persian Gulf is the slow but sure decay of the economic and political structure of the United States` key regional allies. They are the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states: Saudia Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). External threats to these friendly governments and the direct risks to the continued flow of oil has blinded Washington to the end of these countries 20-year holiday from politics and economics. The holiday from economics was characterized by, among other syndromes, the lack of binding budget constraints, which reduced and sometimes even eliminated the need to set spending priorities and allocate scarce economic resources. It is no longer possible to cover up structural weaknesses and policy inconsistencies. All major interest groups, including governments, ruling families, merchant families, and the population at large, are under pressure to earn not only their privileges but their keep. The need for Washington to address these new threats is examined.

  17. Carnosine Treatment for Gulf War Illness: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N.; El-Amin, Suliman; Corey, Rebecca; Rayhan, Rakib U.; Timbol, Christian R.

    2013-01-01

    About 25% of 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War veterans experience disabling fatigue, widespread pain, and cognitive dysfunction termed Gulf War illness (GWI) or Chronic Multisymptom Illness (CMI). A leading theory proposes that wartime exposures initiated prolonged production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and central nervous system injury. The endogenous antioxidant L-carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is a potential treatment since it is a free radical scavenger in nervous tissue. To determine if nutritional supplementation with L-carnosine would significantly improve pain, cognition and fatigue in GWI, a randomized double blind placebo controlled 12 week dose escalation study involving 25 GWI subjects was employed. L-carnosine was given as 500, 1000, and 1500 mg increasing at 4 week intervals. Outcomes included subjective fatigue, pain and psychosocial questionnaires, and instantaneous fatigue and activity levels recorded by ActiWatch Score devices. Cognitive function was evaluated by WAIS-R digit symbol substitution test. Carnosine had 2 potentially beneficial effects: WAIS-R scores increased significantly, and there was a decrease in diarrhea associated with irritable bowel syndrome. No other significant incremental changes were found. Therefore, 12 weeks of carnosine (1500 mg) may have beneficial cognitive effects in GWI. Fatigue, pain, hyperalgesia, activity and other outcomes were resistant to treatment. PMID:23618477

  18. Oxford Shoulder Score: A Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation Study of the Persian Version in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H.; Birjandinejad, Ali; Razi, Shiva; Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen; Reza Kachooei, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxford shoulder score is a specific 12-item patient-reported tool for evaluation of patients with inflammatory and degenerative disorders of the shoulder. Since its introduction, it has been translated and culturally adapted in some Western and Eastern countries. The aim of this study was to translate the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) in Persian and to test its validity and reliability in Persian speaking population in Iran. Methods: One hundred patients with degenerative or inflammatory shoulder problem participated in the survey in 2012. All patients completed the Persian version of OSS, Persian DASH and the SF-36 for testing validity. Randomly, 37 patients filled out the Persian OSS again three days after the initial visit to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. Results: Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.93. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93. In terms of validity, there was a significant correlation between the Persian OSS and DASH and SF-36 scores (P<0.001). Conclusion: The Persian version of the OSS proved to be a valid, reliable, and reproducible tool as demonstrated by high Cronbach’s alpha and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. The Persian transcript of OSS is administrable to Persian speaking patients with shoulder condition and it is understandable by them. PMID:26379346

  19. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport scale to Persian language.

    PubMed

    Naghdi, Soofia; Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Farhadi, Yasaman; Ebadi, Safoora; Entezary, Ebrahim; Glazer, Douglas

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and provide validation statistics for the Persian Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport scale (I-PRRS) following a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study design. The I-PRRS was forward/back-translated and culturally adapted into Persian language. The Persian I-PRRS was administered to 100 injured athletes (93 male; age 26.0 ± 5.6 years; time since injury 4.84 ± 6.4 months) and 50 healthy athletes (36 male; mean age 25.7 ± 6.0 years). The Persian I-PRRS was re-administered to 50 injured athletes at 1 week to examine test-retest reliability. There were no floor or ceiling effects confirming the content validity of Persian I-PRRS. The internal consistency reliability was good. Excellent test-retest reliability and agreement were demonstrated. The statistically significant difference in Persian I-PRRS total scores between the injured athletes and healthy athletes provides an evidence of discriminative validity. The Persian I-PRRS total scores were positively correlated with the Farsi Mood Scale (FARMS) total scores, showing construct validity. The principal component analysis indicated a two-factor solution consisting of "Confidence to play" and "Confidence in the injured body part and skill level". The Persian I-PRRS showed excellent reliability and validity and can be used to assess injured athletes' psychological readiness to return to sport among Persian-speaking populations. PMID:27618418

  20. Obesity in gulf countries.

    PubMed

    ALNohair, Sultan

    2014-01-01

    Globally obesity has reached to epidemic proportions, and the people of the Gulf countries have also affected, especially high-income, oil-producing countries. The prevalence of obesity in Gulf Countries among children and adolescents ranges from 5% to 14% in males and from 3% to 18% in females. In adult females there is a significant increase of obesity with a prevalence of 2%-55% and in adult males 1%-30% in countries of gulf region. Over the last two decades there is increased consumption of fast foods and sugar-dense beverages (e.g., sodas). Simultaneously, technological advances - cars, elevators, escalators, and remotes have lead to a decrease in level of activity. Traditional dependence on locally grown natural products such as dates, vegetables, wheat and has also shifted. Changes in food consumption, socioeconomic and demographic factors, physical activity, and urbanization are being important factors that contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity in the region.

  1. Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12, translation, adaptation and validation for the Persian language population.

    PubMed

    Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Naghdi, Soofia; Mohammadi, Roghaye; Hasson, Scott

    2015-02-01

    The Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12) is a multi-item rating scale used to assess the perspectives of patients about the impact of MS on their walking ability. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the MSWS-12 in Persian speaking patients with MS. The MSWS-12 questionnaire was translated into Persian language according to internationally adopted standards involving forward-backward translation, reviewed by an expert committee and tested on the pre-final version. In this cross-sectional study, 100 participants (50 patients with MS and 50 healthy subjects) were included. The MSWS-12 was administered twice 7 days apart to 30 patients with MS for test and retest reliability. Internal consistency reliability was Cronbach's α 0.96 for test and 0.97 for retest. There were no significant floor or ceiling effects. Test-retest reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] agreement of 0.98, 95% CI, 0.95-0.99) confirming the reproducibility of the Persian MSWS-12. Construct validity using known group methods was demonstrated through a significant difference in the Persian MSWS-12 total score between the patients with MS and healthy subjects. Factor analysis extracted 2 latent factors (79.24% of the total variance). A second factor analysis suggested the 9-item Persian MSWS as a unidimensional scale for patients with MS. The Persian MSWS-12 was found to be valid and reliable for assessing walking ability in Persian speaking patients with MS. PMID:25444584

  2. 16 CFR 301.8 - Use of terms “Persian Lamb,” “Broadtail Lamb,” and “Persian-broadtail Lamb” permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) The term Persian Lamb may be used to describe the skin of the young lamb of the Karakul breed of sheep or top-cross breed of such sheep, having hair formed in knuckled curls. (b) The term Broadtail Lamb... breed of sheep or top-cross breed of such sheep, having flat light-weight fur with a moire pattern....

  3. 16 CFR 301.8 - Use of terms “Persian Lamb,” “Broadtail Lamb,” and “Persian-broadtail Lamb” permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) The term Persian Lamb may be used to describe the skin of the young lamb of the Karakul breed of sheep or top-cross breed of such sheep, having hair formed in knuckled curls. (b) The term Broadtail Lamb... breed of sheep or top-cross breed of such sheep, having flat light-weight fur with a moire pattern....

  4. 16 CFR 301.8 - Use of terms “Persian Lamb,” “Broadtail Lamb,” and “Persian-broadtail Lamb” permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) The term Persian Lamb may be used to describe the skin of the young lamb of the Karakul breed of sheep or top-cross breed of such sheep, having hair formed in knuckled curls. (b) The term Broadtail Lamb... breed of sheep or top-cross breed of such sheep, having flat light-weight fur with a moire pattern....

  5. 16 CFR 301.8 - Use of terms “Persian Lamb,” “Broadtail Lamb,” and “Persian-broadtail Lamb” permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) The term Persian Lamb may be used to describe the skin of the young lamb of the Karakul breed of sheep or top-cross breed of such sheep, having hair formed in knuckled curls. (b) The term Broadtail Lamb... breed of sheep or top-cross breed of such sheep, having flat light-weight fur with a moire pattern....

  6. 16 CFR 301.8 - Use of terms “Persian Lamb,” “Broadtail Lamb,” and “Persian-broadtail Lamb” permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) The term Persian Lamb may be used to describe the skin of the young lamb of the Karakul breed of sheep or top-cross breed of such sheep, having hair formed in knuckled curls. (b) The term Broadtail Lamb... breed of sheep or top-cross breed of such sheep, having flat light-weight fur with a moire pattern....

  7. Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Schuetz, K.I. )

    1988-08-01

    The Gulf of Suez is an intracratonic rift basin which originated in the early Miocene on the once-continuous Arabo-African plate. The Precambrian crystalline basement is overlain by a platform cover of Early Cambrian to Eocene age. There is no evidence of tectonic precursors to the Miocene breakup. Marine transgressions, for example during the Carboniferous and Cretaceous, followed wide embayments caused by long-wavelength oscillations trending northwest-southeast on the North African craton. This article discusses the geologic history of the Gulf.

  8. Craniofacial morphologic parameters in a Persian population: an anthropometric study.

    PubMed

    Amini, Fariborz; Mashayekhi, Ziba; Rahimi, Hajir; Morad, Golnaz

    2014-09-01

    Limited data are available regarding the reference ranges of facial proportions of the Persian population in Iran. This study aimed to establish the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements in an adult Iranian population. On 100 individuals (men = women), aged 18 to 30 years with normal faces and occlusions, 34 linear and 7 angular measurements as well as 24 indices were calculated. The difference of measurements between men and women were evaluated by paired t-test. The data were compared with the norms of North American whites using 1-sample t-test. The subjects belonged to 5 ethnic groups (57% from Fars, 14% from Kord, 11% from Azari, 10% from Gilaki-Mazani, and 2% from Lor). All head measurements were greater in men except for the head index and the head height. The subjects had leptoprosopic faces. The intercanthal width was almost one third of the biocular width and greater than the eye fissure length. Although the nose width of women was significantly smaller, both sexes had leptorrhine noses. The chin height and lower chin height were greater in men. In comparison with North American whites, considerable differences were found regarding head height and width, biocular width, nose height, face height, mouth width, and upper chin height. In conclusion, the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements established for the Iranian population might be efficiently used for esthetic treatments.

  9. Types of headache and those remedies in traditional persian medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad M.; Petramfar, Peyman; Firoozabadi, Ali; Moein, Mahmood Reza; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    The history of headache, as a common neurological complication, goes back to almost 9000 years ago. Many ancient civilizations present references to headaches and the coherent treatment strategies. Accordingly, several documents comprising headache complications embodying precise medical information stem from Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) that can provide useful opportunities for more comprehensive treatment. We conducted a survey on headache through original important pharmacopeias and other important medical manuscripts of TPM which were written during 9th to 19th centuries and have derived all headache categories and herbal remedies. An extensive search of scientific data banks, such as Medline and Scopus, has also been exercised to find results relating to the anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and analgesic effects of denoted medicinal herbs. The concept of headache and treatments in TPM covers over 20 various types of headache and more than 160 different medicinal plants administered for oral, topical, and nasal application according to 1000 years of the subject documents. Nearly, 60% of remarked medicinal herbs have related anti-inflammatory or analgesic effects and some current headache types have similarities and conformities to those of traditional types. Beside historical approaches, there are many possible and available strategies that can lead to development of new and effective headache treatment from medicinal plants so that this study can provide beneficial information on clinical remedies based on centuries of experience in the field of headache which can stand as a new candidate for further investigations. PMID:23922452

  10. Monitoring and assessment of toxic metals in Gulf War oil spill contaminated soil using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hussain, T; Gondal, M A

    2008-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied for the detection of toxic metals in oil spill contaminated soil (OSCS). The OSCS samples were collected from Khursania Saudi Arabia along the coast of Persian Gulf exposed to oil spills in 1991 Gulf war. Environmentally important elements like Aluminum Magnesium, Calcium, Chromium, Titanium, Strontium, Iron, Barium, Sodium, potassium, Zirconium and Vanadium from the contaminated soil have been detected. Optimal experimental conditions for analysis were investigated. The LIBS system was calibrated using standard samples containing these trace elements. The results obtained using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) were compared with the results obtained using Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICP). The concentrations of some elements (Ba and Cr) were found higher than permissible safe limits. Health risks associated with exposure to such toxic elements are also discussed.

  11. Persian mHealth Apps: A Cross Sectional Study Based on Use Case Classification.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Marjan Ghazi; Kalhori, Sharareh Rostam Niakan; Nouria, Rasool; Yasini, Mobin

    2016-01-01

    Mobile health apps play an important role in healthcare processes and health promotion. In recent years many Persian mhealth apps were developed and are available in various national app markets. Cafebazaar is the largest Persian app store that contains more than 3500 android apps in medical and health & fitness categories. In this study some characteristics of 200 top Persian medical apps of Cafebazaar were investigated and then categorized by their use cases. Results showed that only 6% of apps declare the involvement of at least one health professional in the conception or development of the apps. In 35% of studied apps, no contact information was provided for the users and 10.5% applied reliable sources for their content. 13 distinct use cases were found in all 200 apps of which two were new to an already published use-case model. This study shows that Persian mHealth apps, like other existing apps in the world, have a long way to improve and reach some basic standards. Lack of regulatory agencies and absence of a dynamic evaluation system for mHealth apps might be the main reason of these defects. This study also shows that 20 use cases existing in international health related apps are not yet used in Persian apps and therefore there is a reach potential of creating new apps in mHealth field. PMID:27577377

  12. "Dry mouth" from the perspective of traditional Persian medicine and comparison with current management.

    PubMed

    Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Choopani, Rasool

    2015-04-01

    Xerostomia is a common problem, particularly in an elderly population, with a range of causes that affect important aspects of life, such as chewing, swallowing, and speaking. Xerostomia has been explained in traditional medicine throughout history. Traditional Persian medicine, with more than 4000 years of history, consists of the sum total of all the knowledge and practices used in diagnosis, prevention, and exclusion in Iran from ancient times to the present. Based on leading Persian medical manuscripts, the current study focuses on the medieval concept of xerostomia as an important general disorder to review the aetiology of xerostomia and xerostomia types, the control and treatment of xerostomia by lifestyle modification, and medicinal plants for xerostomia suppression according to the theory and practice of traditional Persian medicine. Xerostomia was treated with 3 major approaches in traditional Persian medicine: lifestyle modification, simple single herbal remedies, and compound medicines. It appears that all the factors that cause xerostomia in current studies can be described by using the theories of traditional Persian medicine; furthermore, therapies aimed at both medicines (current and traditional) focus on protecting salivary glands and salivary flow. As a conclution while current managements of xerostomia are still inadequate and traditional approaches have found experimental support over the centuries, some of these traditional treatments may still be useful to current medicine as alternative medicine.

  13. Gulf Coast Wetlands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... of the lake. The distinctive shape of the Mississippi River Delta can be seen to the southeast of New Orleans. Other coastal cities are ... the Gulf of Mexico. Major features include the Mississippi Delta, where large amounts of land-derived sediments have been deposited in ...

  14. The Psychometric Analysis of the Persian Version of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning of Rebecca L. Oxford

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2012-01-01

    The current study aims to analyze the psychometric qualities of the Persian adapted version of Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) developed by Rebecca L. Oxford (1990). Three instruments were used: Persian adapted version of SILL, a Background Questionnaire, and Test of English as a Foreign Language. Two hundred and thirteen Iranian…

  15. Comparison of Iranian Monolingual and Bilingual EFL Students' Listening Comprehension in Terms of Watching English Movie with Latinized Persian Subtitles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamchi, Roghayeh; Kumar, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    The main concern of the present study was to compare Iranian monolingual and bilingual EFL students' listening comprehension in terms of Latinized Persian subtitling of English movie to see whether there was a significant difference between monolinguals and bilinguals on immediate linguistic comprehension of the movie. Latinized Persian subtitling…

  16. The Role of Orthographic and Phonological Processing Skills in the Reading and Spelling of Monolingual Persian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbari, Noriyeh; Senechal, Monique; Arab-Moghaddam, Narges

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of phonological and orthographic skills to Persian reading and spelling. The Persian language is of interest because it has very consistent grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences, but somewhat inconsistent phoneme-to-grapheme correspondences. Reading, spelling, phonological, and…

  17. Cross-cultural equivalence and evaluation of psychometric properties of voice handicap index into Persian.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Negin; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Soltani, Majid; Javadipour, Shiva; Hashemi, Hedieh; Soltaninejad, Nasibeh

    2013-03-01

    Quality of life is one of the important aspects in the assessment of health and treatment data output. The purpose of this study was to adapt and determine reliability and validity of Voice Handicap Index (VHI) in Persian. The subjects were 80 patients with voice disorders and 80 volunteers without any voice disorders as a control group. All subjects filled in the Persian version of VHI. The test was repeated 2 weeks later. The reliability and validity were studied. All items had significant discrimination coefficient. The internal consistency and reliability of test and retest in VHI total score and three subtests were achieved. It seems that the Persian version of VHI is a valid and reliable questionnaire, which voice therapists may use for completing their evaluation for patients with voice disorders, and it gives more information about the nature of voice disorder to specialists.

  18. Upper Texas Gulf Coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The upper Texas Gulf Coast (29.0N, 95.5W), though mostly cloud covered in this view, is still readily identifiable because of the distinctive features of the Texas Gulf Coast. Galveston Island, Galveston Bay and the coastal prairie are in the clear. Most of the city of Houston is cloud covered but the Gulf Freeeway connecting Houston and Galveston can be traced for most of it's route.

  19. Thunderstorm, Texas Gulf Coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This thunderstorm along the Texas Gulf Coast (29.0N, 95.0W), USA is seen as the trailing edge of a large cloud mass formed along the leading edge of a spring frontal system stretching northwest to southeast across the Texas Gulf Coast. This system brought extensive severe weather and flooding to parts of Texas and surrounding states. Muddy water discharging from coastal streams can be seen in the shallow Gulf of Mexico as far south as Lavaca Bay.

  20. Hurricane slams gulf operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-07

    This paper reports that reports of damage by Hurricane Andrew escalated last week as operators stepped up inspections of oil and gas installations in the Gulf of Mexico. By midweek, companies operating in the gulf and South Louisiana were beginning to agree that earlier assessments of damage only scratched the surface. Damage reports included scores of lost, toppled, or crippled platforms, pipeline ruptures, and oil slicks. By midweek the U.S. coast Guard had received reports of 79 oil spills. Even platforms capable of resuming production in some instances were begin curtailed because of damaged pipelines. Offshore service companies the another 2-4 weeks could be needed to fully assess Andrew's wrath. Lack of personnel and equipment was slowing damage assessment and repair.

  1. Gulf operators resuming production

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-09-14

    This paper reports that Gulf of Mexico operators last week were gradually restoring production at installations struck by Hurricane Andrew. The Minerals Management Service continued receiving reports of more damage. By the end of the day Sept. 8, MMS had received reports of damage to 83 pipeline segments and 193 platforms and satellite installations. Damage reports listed 112 installations with structural damage, 13 platforms toppled and five leaning, and 30 satellite platforms toppled and 33 leaning. But despite the extent of damage the storm inflicted on oil and gas installations in the gulf, it pales in comparison to the misery and suffering the storm caused in Florida and Louisiana, an oil company official said.

  2. Determination of mercury and vanadium concentration in Johnius belangerii (C) fish in Musa estuary in Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Fard, Neamat Jaafarzadeh Haghighi; Ravanbakhsh, Maryam; Ramezani, Zahra; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Angali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Javid, Ahmad Zare

    2015-08-15

    The main aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of mercury and vanadium in Johnius belangerii (C) fish in the Musa estuary. A total of 67 fishes were caught from the Musa estuary during five intervals of 15days in the summer of 2013. After biometric measurements were conducted, the concentrations of mercury and vanadium were measured in the muscle tissue of fish using a direct method analyzer (DMA) and a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. The mean concentration of mercury and vanadium in the muscle tissue of fish was 3.154±1.981 and 2.921±0.873mg/kg w.w, respectively. The generalized linear model (GLM) analysis showed a significantly positive relationship among mercury concentration, length, and weight (P=0.000). In addition, there was a significantly negative relationship between vanadium concentration and fish length (P=0.000). A reverse association was found between concentrations of mercury and vanadium. Mercury concentration exceeded the allowable standards of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in J. belangerii (C). PMID:26117818

  3. Development and organization for casualty management on a 1,000-bed hospital ship in the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Ochsner, M G; Harviel, J D; Stafford, P W; Blankenship, C; Bosse, M J; Timberlake, G A; McSwain, N E

    1992-04-01

    A 1,000-bed hospital ship designed for trauma patients was deployed to the Middle East with the objectives of preparing for large numbers of casualties resulting from Operation Desert Storm from conventional, chemical, and biological weapons. Plans for receipt and decontamination of casualties, triage, and optimal utilization of the 1,000-bed facility were developed. Mass casualty drills were conducted, involving all aspects of patient care from the flight deck to the wards. Trauma and critical care registries were developed to collect casualty data that could then be analyzed for specific military purposes and compared with current civilian registries. Attempts were made to identify the advances in shock resuscitation, systems management, and operative treatment from the civilian community that could be applied to care of combat casualties. Difficulties with accomplishing these objectives included limited trauma experience and supplies and poorly defined medical regulating and evacuation policies. The development of these programs, as well as the unique difficulties encountered, are discussed.

  4. The origin of oil in the Cretaceous succession from the South Pars Oil Layer of the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Omeid; Aali, Jafar; Junin, Radzuan; Mohseni, Hassan; Padmanabhan, Eswaran; Azdarpour, Amin; Zarza, Sahar; Moayyed, Mohsen; Ghazanfari, Parviz

    2013-07-01

    The origin of the oil in Barremian-Hauterivian and Albian age source rock samples from two oil wells (SPO-2 and SPO-3) in the South Pars oil field has been investigated by analyzing the quantity of total organic carbon (TOC) and thermal maturity of organic matter (OM). The source rocks were found in the interval 1,000-1,044 m for the Kazhdumi Formation (Albian) and 1,157-1,230 m for the Gadvan Formation (Barremian-Hauterivian). Elemental analysis was carried out on 36 samples from the source rock candidates (Gadvan and Kazhdumi formations) of the Cretaceous succession of the South Pars Oil Layer (SPOL). This analysis indicated that the OM of the Barremian-Hauterivian and Albian samples in the SPOL was composed of kerogen Types II and II-III, respectively. The average TOC of analyzed samples is less than 1 wt%, suggesting that the Cretaceous source rocks are poor hydrocarbon (HC) producers. Thermal maturity and Ro values revealed that more than 90 % of oil samples are immature. The source of the analyzed samples taken from Gadvan and Kazhdumi formations most likely contained a content high in mixed plant and marine algal OM deposited under oxic to suboxic bottom water conditions. The Pristane/nC17 versus Phytane/nC18 diagram showed Type II-III kerogen of mixture environments for source rock samples from the SPOL. Burial history modeling indicates that at the end of the Cretaceous time, pre-Permian sediments remained immature in the Qatar Arch. Therefore, lateral migration of HC from the nearby Cretaceous source rock kitchens toward the north and south of the Qatar Arch is the most probable origin for the significant oils in the SPOL.

  5. Origin, distribution and toxicological potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Bushehr coast, the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mehdinia, Ali; Aghadadashi, Vahid; Fumani, Neda Sheijooni

    2015-01-15

    To evaluate the hazards of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Bushehr coastal zones, 12 surface sediments were analyzed. The ∑14PAHs concentrations varied from 371 to 611 ng g(-1) dw. The primary sources of the observed PAHs were pyrolytic processes, demonstrating the dominance of petroleum-related combustion inputs. The ERL/ERM and TEL/PEL values showed that there was a moderate level of toxicity risk for some PAHs. The toxicological significance of the pollutants was assessed using the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) to calculate both the toxic equivalent for dioxins (TEQTCDD) and the TEQ carcinogenic risks. Dibenz(a,h)anthracene exhibited the highest proportion in the TEQs, ranging from 49% to 56% (TEQcarc) and from 29% to 39% (TEQTCDD) regarding the overall toxicity in the sampled sediments. This result suggests that the ambient dibenz(a,h)anthracene concentration represents the risk posed by PAHs in the sediments. Moreover, using a specific sediment criterion demonstrated the bioaccumulation potential of benzo(a)pyrene for humans in the sampled sediments. PMID:25440895

  6. Sexual Harassment and Assault as Predictors of PTSD Symptomatology among U.S. Female Persian Gulf Military Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Jessica; Sharkansky, Erica J.; Read, Jennifer P.; Dawson, Ree; Ouimette, Paige Crosby; Martin, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines sexual harassment and assault of women in a wartime military example. Explores the impacts of these stressors and combat exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. Harassment and assault were higher than in civilian and peacetime military samples. The number of postwar stressful life events mediated the relationship…

  7. Determination of mercury and vanadium concentration in Johnius belangerii (C) fish in Musa estuary in Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Fard, Neamat Jaafarzadeh Haghighi; Ravanbakhsh, Maryam; Ramezani, Zahra; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Angali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Javid, Ahmad Zare

    2015-08-15

    The main aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of mercury and vanadium in Johnius belangerii (C) fish in the Musa estuary. A total of 67 fishes were caught from the Musa estuary during five intervals of 15days in the summer of 2013. After biometric measurements were conducted, the concentrations of mercury and vanadium were measured in the muscle tissue of fish using a direct method analyzer (DMA) and a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. The mean concentration of mercury and vanadium in the muscle tissue of fish was 3.154±1.981 and 2.921±0.873mg/kg w.w, respectively. The generalized linear model (GLM) analysis showed a significantly positive relationship among mercury concentration, length, and weight (P=0.000). In addition, there was a significantly negative relationship between vanadium concentration and fish length (P=0.000). A reverse association was found between concentrations of mercury and vanadium. Mercury concentration exceeded the allowable standards of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in J. belangerii (C).

  8. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadolahi-Sohrab, A.; Garavand-Karimi, M.; Riahi, H.; Pashazanoosi, H.

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney`s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m - 2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m - 2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m - 2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m - 2), respectively.

  9. Study on Lexical Cohesion in English and Persian Research Articles (A Comparative Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirzapour, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to analyze comparatively English and Persian research articles (Linguistics, Literature, and Library and Information disciplines) in terms of number and degree of utilization of sub-types of lexical cohesion in order to appreciate textualization processes in the two languages concerned. The study analyzes 60 research…

  10. History of Medicine in Iran The Oldest Known Medical Treatise in the Persian Language

    PubMed Central

    Nayernouri, T; Azizi, MH

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe some features of a rediscovered medical text written in old Persian (Farsi Dari) over one thousand years ago and discuss some of its significant attributes in relation to the historical background of the Iranian scientific and literary renaissance of that era. PMID:25197537

  11. Classroom Has a Heart: Teachers and Students Affective Alignment in a Persian Heritage Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atoofi, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    This research study investigated how the teachers and students at a Persian heritage language class acknowledged and modified their affective behavior based on the affective feedback they received from one another. The notion that interactants can modify their affective output in such fashion is referred in the literature as affective alignment…

  12. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Persian Adaptation of Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatami, Gissou; Motamed, Niloofar; Ashrafzadeh, Mahshid

    2010-01-01

    Validity and reliability of Persian adaptation of MSLSS in the 12-18 years, middle and high school students (430 students in grades 6-12 in Bushehr port, Iran) using confirmatory factor analysis by means of LISREL statistical package were checked. Internal consistency reliability estimates (Cronbach's coefficient [alpha]) were all above the…

  13. Prevention and Treatment of Flatulence From a Traditional Persian Medicine Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Larijani, Bagher; Esfahani, Mohammad Medhi; Moghimi, Maryam; Shams Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Nazem, Esmaiel; Hasani Ranjbar, Shirin; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Zargaran, Arman

    2016-01-01

    Context The feeling of abdominal fullness, bloating, and movement of gas in the abdomen is a very uncomfortable sensation termed flatulence. Since flatulence is one of the most common gastrointestinal symptoms that is bothersome to patients, it is important to identify effective methods to resolve this issue. In modern medicine, management of flatulence is often not satisfactory. On the other hand, traditional systems of medicine can be considered good potential sources to find new approaches for preventing and treating flatulence. The aim of this study is to review flatulence treatments from a traditional Persian medicine (TPM) viewpoint. Evidence Acquisition In this study, the reasons for flatulence and methods for its prevention and treatment are reviewed in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) texts and then related with evidence from modern medicine by searching in databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and IranMedex. Results From a traditional Persian scholar viewpoint, one of the most important causes of flatulence is an incorrect manner of eating; valuable advice to correct bad eating habits will be illustrated. In addition, traditional practitioners describe some herbs and vegetables as well as herbal compounds that are effective food additives to relieve flatulence. The anti-flatulent effect of most of these herbs has been experimentally verified using modern medicine. Conclusions Attention to TPM can lead to the identification of new preventive and curative approaches to avoid and treat flatulence. In addition, Persian viewpoints from the medieval era regarding flatulence are historically important. PMID:27275398

  14. Analysis of 49 autosomal SNPs in three ethnic groups from Iran: Persians, Lurs and Kurds.

    PubMed

    Sharafi Farzad, M; Tomas, C; Børsting, C; Zeinali, Z; Malekdoost, M; Zeinali, S; Morling, N

    2013-07-01

    A total number of 149 individuals from Iran (Persians, Lurs and Kurds) were analyzed for 49 autosomal SNPs using PCR, SBE and capillary electrophoresis. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was observed. One SNP pair (rs1015250-rs251934) showed significant linkage disequilibrium in Kurds. However, this was most likely due to chance. High intrapopulation variability and no significant population structure were observed among the three ethnic groups from Iran. Pairwise FST values obtained from the mean numbers of pairwise differences between SNP profiles were calculated for Persians, Lurs, Kurds and eighteen other worldwide populations. For each of the three Iranian ethnic groups, the lowest FST values calculated between an Iranian and non-Iranian populations were observed between Iranians and populations in Iraq and Turkey. The three Iranian ethnic groups grouped together with other West Asian populations in the MDS plot drawn from the FST values. Statistical parameters of forensic interest calculated for the Iranian ethnic groups showed values of the same order of magnitudes as those obtained for Asians. The mean match probability calculated for the 49 SNPs ranged from 1.7x10(-18) for Kurds to 1.3x10(-19) for Persians. Despite the low level of genetic structure observed among Persians, Lurs and Kurds, a single autosomal SNP database should be used with care when extending its forensic application to other Iranian ethnic groups. PMID:23648204

  15. Recasts, Metalinguistic Feedback, and Learners' Perceptions: A Case of Persian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassaei, Ehsan; Moinzadeh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we present the results of an experiment with 30 Persian EFL learners in which we explored the learners' perceptions of recasts and metalinguistic corrective feedback. The participant learners received either recasts or metalinguistic feedback for their errors during task-based interactions with their interlocutors and then…

  16. Schema-Based Analysis of Gendered Self-Disclosure in Persian: Writing for Dating Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khodadady, Ebrahim; Mehr, Somayeh Javadi

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a textual analysis of letters written by 21 male and 21 female participants in Persian. Each writer wrote two letters, one to a dating service and another one to a hypothetical person chosen and introduced by the center. Therefore, a total of 84 letters were collected from the participants. Schema theory was used to find the…

  17. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Gratitude Expressions in Persian, Chinese and American English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pishghadam, Reza; Zarei, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Granted the fact that different cultures have different speaking styles, knowledge of these styles can help people grasp the essence of social cultural knowledge to communicate with others more successfully. In this regard, the present paper aims at comparing the use of speech act of gratitude in Persian and Chinese EFL learners and English native…

  18. Syntactic Priming Effects between Modalities: A Study of Indirect Questions/Requests among Persian English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biria, Reza; Ameri-Golestan, Ahmad; Antón-Méndez, Inés

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the impact of syntactic priming on production of indirect questions/requests by Persian learners of English as a foreign language. Eighty learners participated in two experiments investigating the impact of syntactic priming on oral production and the possibility of transfer of the priming effects to a different modality.…

  19. Conversational Dari: An Introductory Course in Dari (=Farsi=Persian) As Spoken in Afghanistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Eugene H.

    This course in Dari, also known as Farsi or Persian, concentrates on development of conversational skills. Twenty-five lessons, reflecting current linguistic theories of language learning, include pronunciation drills, grammar study, vocabulary development, and exercises. Appendixes contain 14 sections of cultural material concerning Afghan social…

  20. A Comparative Study on Basic Emotion Conceptual Metaphors in English and Persian Literary Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashak, Shahrzad Pirzad; Pazhakh, Abdolreza; Hayati, Abdolmajid

    2012-01-01

    Metaphor becomes the subject of interest for many researchers in recent decades. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the universality of emotion metaphorical conceptualization and the dominant pattern in English and Persian based on Kovecses's (2003) model for Linguistic expression of Metaphor. The emotions under study were…

  1. A Persian version of the parental bonding instrument: factor structure and psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Behzadi, Behnaz; Parker, Gordon

    2015-02-28

    The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) is a widely used self-report measure for quantifying key parenting styles as perceived by the child during its first 16 years. While its development study identified two key parental dimensions, subsequent studies have variably confirmed those two or argued for one or more additional parental constructs. We developed a Persian translation of the PBI and administered it to a sample of 340 high school students. The construct validity of the Persian PBI was examined by Exploratory Factor Analysis while Confirmatory Factor Analysis was used to identify the most adequate model. Analyses of the Persian PBI favored a four-factor model for both parental forms. The Persian PBI has a factorial structure consistent with constructs identified in western cultures, as well as high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Multivariate analyses indicated significant differences between boys and girls across some factors. The PBI appears an acceptable and appropriate measure for quantifying parent-child bonding in Iranian samples.

  2. Psychometric Characteristics of the Persian Version of the Multidimensional School Anger Inventory-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryadoust, Vahid; Akbarzadeh, Sanaz; Akbarzedeh, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The Multidimensional School Anger Inventory-Revised (MSAI-R) is a measurement tool to evaluate high school students' anger. Its psychometric features have been tested in the USA, Australia, Japan, Guatemala, and Italy. This study investigates the factor structure and psychometric quality of the Persian version of the MSAI-R using data from an…

  3. A Contrastive Study on Metadiscourse Elements Used in Humanities vs. Non Humanities across Persian and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Gholam Reza; Mansoori, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The present study studied contrastively the use of metadiscourse in two disciplines (applied linguistics vs. computer engineering) across two languages (Persian and English). The selected corpus was analyzed through the model suggested by Hyland and Tse (2004). The results revealed the metadiscursive resources are used differently both within and…

  4. Rheological and Quality Characteristics of Taftoon Bread as Affected by Salep and Persian Gums

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, R.; Hamidi Esfehani, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of salep gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/w flour basis) and the Persian gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, and 3% (w/w flour basis) and combination of the two gums at concentrations of 0.5% + 0.5%, 0.75% + 0.25%, and 0.25% + 0.75% on rheological properties of the wheat flour dough and quality of Taftoon bread were studied with regard to retardation of staling. Rheological (farinograph and extensograph) characteristics, staling, and organoleptic evaluations were performed on the dough and the resulting Taftoon bread. Statistical results showed that the salep gum at 5% and Persian gum at 3% (w/w flour basis) had a significant effect on the dough properties. Salep and Persian gums when each separately added increased and decreased dough water absorption, respectively. Both hydrocolloids increased the dough resistance to extension and decreased its extensibility. Persian gum shows dual nature in water absorption and some other baking properties. Textural studies revealed that addition of 5% salep gum (w/w flour basis) reduced the bread crumb firmness and delayed the staling process of the Taftoon bread. X-ray diffraction study also confirmed this result. PMID:26904649

  5. Simultaneous Learning of Two Foreign Languages, English and French, by Adult Persian-Speaking Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahmatian, Rouhollah; Farshadjou, Mahdieh

    2013-01-01

    In today's world, a good command of more than two foreign languages is a commonplace necessity. However, this is not the case for the majority of language learners in Iran. The foreign languages which could be of any avail to them are neither close to Persian nor have any daily social usage. The present research aims at promoting this linguistic…

  6. The Effect of Non-Sentential Context Prosody on Homographs' Lexical Activation in Persian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Bijankhan, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of non-sentential context prosody pattern on lexical activation in Persian. For this purpose a questionnaire including target and non-target words is used. The target words are homographs with two possible stress patterns belonging to different syntactic categories. Participants are asked to read out the words aloud…

  7. Reading Aloud in Persian: ERP Evidence for an Early Locus of the Masked Onset Priming Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmer, Kalinka; Vahid-Gharavi, Narges; Schiller, Niels O.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates reading aloud words in Persian, a language that does not mark all its vowels in the script. Behaviorally, a "masked onset priming effect" (MOPE) was revealed for transparent words, with faster speech onset latencies in the phoneme-matching condition (i.e. phonological prime and target onset overlap; e.g. [image…

  8. A Persian version of the parental bonding instrument: factor structure and psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Behzadi, Behnaz; Parker, Gordon

    2015-02-28

    The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) is a widely used self-report measure for quantifying key parenting styles as perceived by the child during its first 16 years. While its development study identified two key parental dimensions, subsequent studies have variably confirmed those two or argued for one or more additional parental constructs. We developed a Persian translation of the PBI and administered it to a sample of 340 high school students. The construct validity of the Persian PBI was examined by Exploratory Factor Analysis while Confirmatory Factor Analysis was used to identify the most adequate model. Analyses of the Persian PBI favored a four-factor model for both parental forms. The Persian PBI has a factorial structure consistent with constructs identified in western cultures, as well as high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Multivariate analyses indicated significant differences between boys and girls across some factors. The PBI appears an acceptable and appropriate measure for quantifying parent-child bonding in Iranian samples. PMID:25530418

  9. Hypermedia Reading Strategies Used by Persian Graduate Students in TEFL: A Think-Aloud Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketabi, Saeed; Ghavamnia, Maedeh; Rezazadeh, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the cognitive strategies used by Persian EFL (English as a foreign language) graduate students while reading a hypermedia text. Prior to the start of the study, the Nelson-Denny Reading Test was used in order to measure the reading ability of the students. Data was collected through think-aloud protocols, and the strategies…

  10. Health Information on Internet: Quality, Importance, and Popularity of Persian Health Websites

    PubMed Central

    Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Ahmadi, Maryam; Mohammadi, Ali; Mohseni Saravi, Beniamin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Internet has provided great opportunities for disseminating both accurate and inaccurate health information. Therefore, the quality of information is considered as a widespread concern affecting the human life. Despite the increasingly substantial growth in the number of users, Persian health websites and the proportion of internet-using patients, little is known about the quality of Persian medical and health websites. Objectives: The current study aimed to first assess the quality, popularity and importance of websites providing Persian health-related information, and second to evaluate the correlation of the popularity and importance ranking with quality score on the Internet. Materials and Methods: The sample websites were identified by entering the health-related keywords into four most popular search engines of Iranian users based on the Alexa ranking at the time of study. Each selected website was assessed using three qualified tools including the Bomba and Land Index, Google PageRank and the Alexa ranking. Results: The evaluated sites characteristics (ownership structure, database, scope and objective) really did not have an effect on the Alexa traffic global rank, Alexa traffic rank in Iran, Google PageRank and Bomba total score. Most websites (78.9 percent, n = 56) were in the moderate category (8 ≤ x ≤ 11.99) based on their quality levels. There was no statistically significant association between Google PageRank with Bomba index variables and Alexa traffic global rank (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The Persian health websites had better Bomba quality scores in availability and usability guidelines as compared to other guidelines. The Google PageRank did not properly reflect the real quality of evaluated websites and Internet users seeking online health information should not merely rely on it for any kind of prejudgment regarding Persian health websites. However, they can use Iran Alexa rank as a primary filtering tool of these websites

  11. A New Approach for Scoring Relevant Documents by Applying a Farsi Stemming Method in Persian Web Search Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazi, Hamed; Mokhtaripour, Alireza; Dalvi, Mohammad; Tork Ladani, Behrouz

    In this paper, we will introduce a new approach for scoring Farsi (also called Persian) documents in a Persian Search engine. This approach is based on a new stemming method for Farsi language. Our new stemming method works without any dictionary. Evaluation results show significant improvement in performance (precision/ recall) of the Information Retrieval (IR) system using this stemmer. we have combine our stemming method with a mathematical scoring approach named FDS to obtain a powerful scoring policy for relevant documents in a Persian search engine.

  12. Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Gulf of Aqaba separates the Sinai peninsula from Saudi Arabia in this scene of the Middle East (29.0N, 34.5E) showing the geomorphology and geology of this region including portions of Egypt, Israel, Jordon and Saudi Arabia. A small portion of the Gulf of Suez can be seen on the opposite side of the Sinai peninsula.

  13. Hurricane shuts down gulf activity

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-08-31

    This paper reports that producers in the Gulf of Mexico and plant operators in South Louisiana last week were checking for damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew. In its wake Andrew left evacuated rigs and platforms in the gulf and shuttered plants across a wide swath of the Gulf Coast. Operations were beginning to return to normal late last week. Not all gulf operators, especially in the central gulf, expected to return to offshore facilities. And even producers able to book helicopters did not expect to be able to fully assess damage to all offshore installations before the weekend. MMS officials in Washington estimated that 37,500 offshore workers were evacuated from 700 oil and gas installations on the gulf's Outer Continental Shelf. Gulf oil and gas wells account for about 800,000 b/d of oil and one fourth of total U.S. gas production. MMS was awaiting an assessment of hurricane damage before estimating how soon and how much gulf oil and gas production would be restored.

  14. The oil policies of the Gulf Arab Nations

    SciTech Connect

    Ripple, R.D.; Hagen, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    At its heart, Arab oil policy is inseparable from Arab economic and social policy. This holds whether we are talking about the Arab nations as a group or each separately. The seven Arab nations covered in this report-Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates--participate in several organizations focusing on regional cooperation regarding economic development, social programs, and Islamic unity, as well as organizations concerned with oil policies. This report focuses on the oil-related activities of the countries that may reveal the de facto oil policies of the seven Persian Gulf nations. Nevertheless it should be kept in mind that the decision makers participating in the oil policy organizations are also involved with the collaborative efforts of these other organizations. Oil policies of five of the seven Arab nations are expressed within the forums of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC). Only Oman, among the seven, is not a member of either OAPEC or OPEC; Bahrain is a member of OAPEC but not of OPEC. OPEC and OAPEC provide forums for compromise and cooperation among their members. Nevertheless, each member state maintains its own sovereignty and follows its own policies. Each country deviates from the group prescription from time to time, depending upon individual circumstances.

  15. The Persian methamphetamine use in methadone treatment in Iran: implication for prevention and treatment in an upper-middle income country.

    PubMed

    Alam-Mehrjerdi, Zahra; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    As the most populated Persian Gulf country in West Asia, methamphetamine use in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is a new health concern in Iran. Methamphetamine use in MMT can originate in methadone misconceptions or the stimulant effects of methamphetamine use. Several research studies have highlighted the prevalence of methamphetamine use in Iran and conducting further studies on this issue is being developed. Opiate use is treated with MMT. But, there is no effective pharmacological treatment for methamphetamine use and cognitive-behavioral interventions have still remained the best practice. As a psychostimulant drug, methamphetamine use can lead to poor treatment outcomes or even treatment failure among patients in MMT. Therefore, the implementation of methamphetamine education and prevention programs in MMT is required. Prescribing adequate methadone dose and the treatment of comorbidities as well as, doing a series of activities outside treatment is underscored. Methamphetamine use has a chronic nature and methamphetamine treatment is a long-term procedure with a high rate of relapse. Therefore, the implementation of long-term motivational interviewing, teaching necessary skills to prevent relapse and case management is highlighted. A long-term collaboration between treatment teams, patients and their families is suggested to manage methamphetamine use in MMT.

  16. Gulf War agent exposure causes impairment of long-term memory formation and neuropathological changes in a mouse model of Gulf War Illness.

    PubMed

    Zakirova, Zuchra; Tweed, Miles; Crynen, Gogce; Reed, Jon; Abdullah, Laila; Nissanka, Nadee; Mullan, Myles; Mullan, Michael J; Mathura, Venkatarajan; Crawford, Fiona; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania

    2015-01-01

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multisymptom illness with a central nervous system component such as memory deficits, neurological, and musculoskeletal problems. There are ample data that demonstrate that exposure to Gulf War (GW) agents, such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and pesticides such as permethrin (PER), were key contributors to the etiology of GWI post deployment to the Persian GW. In the current study, we examined the consequences of acute (10 days) exposure to PB and PER in C57BL6 mice. Learning and memory tests were performed at 18 days and at 5 months post-exposure. We investigated the relationship between the cognitive phenotype and neuropathological changes at short and long-term time points post-exposure. No cognitive deficits were observed at the short-term time point, and only minor neuropathological changes were detected. However, cognitive deficits emerged at the later time point and were associated with increased astrogliosis and reduction of synaptophysin staining in the hippocampi and cerebral cortices of exposed mice, 5 months post exposure. In summary, our findings in this mouse model of GW agent exposure are consistent with some GWI symptom manifestations, including delayed onset of symptoms and CNS disturbances observed in GWI veterans.

  17. Gulf War Agent Exposure Causes Impairment of Long-Term Memory Formation and Neuropathological Changes in a Mouse Model of Gulf War Illness

    PubMed Central

    Zakirova, Zuchra; Tweed, Miles; Crynen, Gogce; Reed, Jon; Abdullah, Laila; Nissanka, Nadee; Mullan, Myles; Mullan, Michael J.; Mathura, Venkatarajan; Crawford, Fiona; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania

    2015-01-01

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multisymptom illness with a central nervous system component such as memory deficits, neurological, and musculoskeletal problems. There are ample data that demonstrate that exposure to Gulf War (GW) agents, such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and pesticides such as permethrin (PER), were key contributors to the etiology of GWI post deployment to the Persian GW. In the current study, we examined the consequences of acute (10 days) exposure to PB and PER in C57BL6 mice. Learning and memory tests were performed at 18 days and at 5 months post-exposure. We investigated the relationship between the cognitive phenotype and neuropathological changes at short and long-term time points post-exposure. No cognitive deficits were observed at the short-term time point, and only minor neuropathological changes were detected. However, cognitive deficits emerged at the later time point and were associated with increased astrogliosis and reduction of synaptophysin staining in the hippocampi and cerebral cortices of exposed mice, 5 months post exposure. In summary, our findings in this mouse model of GW agent exposure are consistent with some GWI symptom manifestations, including delayed onset of symptoms and CNS disturbances observed in GWI veterans. PMID:25785457

  18. The perception of Arabic and Japanese short and long vowels by native speakers of Arabic, Japanese, and Persian.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Kimiko

    2011-02-01

    This study examines the perception of short and long vowels in Arabic and Japanese by three groups of listeners differing in their first languages (L1): Arabic, Japanese, and Persian. While Persian uses the same alphabet as Arabic and Iranian students learn Arabic in school, the two languages are typologically unrelated. Further, unlike Arabic or Japanese, vowel length may no longer be contrastive in modern Persian. In this study, a question of interest was whether Persian listeners' foreign language learning experience or Japanese listeners' L1 phonological experience might help them to accurately process short and long vowels in Arabic. In Experiment 1, Arabic and Japanese listeners were more accurate than Persian listeners in discriminating vowel length contrasts in their own L1 only. In Experiment 2, Arabic and Japanese listeners were more accurate than Persian listeners in identifying the length categories in the "other" unknown language as well as in their own L1. The difference in the listeners' perceptual performance between the two experiments supports the view that long-term L1 representations may be invoked to a greater extent in the identification than discrimination test. The present results highlight the importance of selecting the appropriate test for assessing cross-language speech perception. PMID:21361455

  19. Validation of the Persian version of Functional Index Questionnaire (FIQ) and Modified FIQ in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Negahban, Hossein; Pouretezad, Mohammad; Sohani, Soheil Mansour; Mazaheri, Masood; Salavati, Mahyar; Mohammadi, Farshid

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to culturally translate and validate the Functional Index Questionnaire (FIQ) and Modified FIQ (MFIQ) in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). A sample of 100 patients with PFPS completed the FIQ and MFIQ, and Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey in the first session. The FIQ and MFIQ were re-administered to a sample of 47 patients to evaluate test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were evaluated by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient, respectively. Corrected item-total correlations and construct validity were assessed by Spearman's rank correlation. Factor analysis was performed on all items of the Persian FIQ and MFIQ to determine the number of underlying factors and the items which load on each factor. An acceptable level of test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.84, 0.85) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.79, 0.82) was obtained for both the Persian FIQ and MFIQ, respectively. Item-total correlations were greater than 0.40 for all but two questions of the Persian FIQ and all but four questions of the Persian MFIQ. A total of two factors were detected for each questionnaire. There were moderate to low correlations between the Persian FIQ/MFIQ and SF-36. Persian FIQ and MFIQ are two reliable and valid outcome measures of functional limitation and it seems that they are suitable for use in clinical practice of patients with chronic PFPS. PMID:23362844

  20. Lifestyle Methods for Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease From the Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine.

    PubMed

    Tajadini, Haleh; Choopani, Rasool; Saifadini, Rostam

    2016-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease is considered as a major problem for society health since it affects interpersonal and social relationships. With regard to the global attention toward complementary medicine, search for preventive, diagnostic, and treatment strategies in complementary medicine schools such as the old dynamic doctrine of traditional Persian medicine seems to be necessary. In this type of medicine, description and analysis of the disease and preventive and treatment methods have great importance. The present study provides a useful classification of recommendations for prevention and control of Alzheimer's disease. Prevention is prior to the treatment and is easier and less costly. Recommendations mentioned in traditional Persian medicine texts for prevention of Alzheimer's disease provide fields of clinical and complementary studies for researches.

  1. Identity processing styles and language proficiency among Persian learners of English as a foreign language.

    PubMed

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah; Neissi, Sina

    2010-12-01

    The relationship between identity processing styles and language proficiency in English as foreign language (EFL) was investigated among the Persian EFL learners. 266 Persian candidates taking part in a Ph.D. examination at Shiraz University took part. The Language Proficiency Test was used to measure language proficiency in English. The Identity Styles Inventory was used to measure normative, informational, and diffuse-avoidant identity processing styles. Relationships between normative and informational styles and language proficiency and its subscales (grammar, vocabulary, and reading) were positive and significant. Negative relationships between diffuse-avoidant style and language proficiency and its subscales (grammar, vocabulary, and reading) were observed. There were significant sex differences for diffuse-avoidant style and for vocabulary.

  2. Reliability and validity of the Persian (Farsi) version of the Risk Perception Survey-Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Soltanipour, S; Heidarzadeh, A; Jafarinezhad, A

    2014-04-03

    Knowledge of patients' risk perceptions is essential for the management of chronic diseases. This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of a Persian (Farsi) language translation of the Risk Perception Survey-Diabetes Mellitus. After forward-backward translation the RPS-DM was randomly administered to 106 adult patients with diabetes who were enrolled in a teaching referral clinic in the north of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Rasht). Internal consistency and exploratory factor analysis were applied. The minimum value for internal consistency was 0.50 for risk knowledge and the highest value was 0.88 on the optimistic bias subscale. Principal component analysis showed that the items of the composite risk score matched with the same items in the English language version, except for question numbers 16, 24 and 25. The Persian version of RPS-DM is the first standardized tool for measuring risk perception and knowledge about diabetes complications in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

  3. Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Circumstances, Motivation, and Readiness Scale

    PubMed Central

    Norozi, Ensiyeh; Miri, Mohammad Reza; Soltani, Raheleh; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Harivandi, Ali Reza; Dastjerdi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment motivation has always been an important issue in substance abuse treatment. In recent decades, several instruments have been developed to measure this concept. Objectives In this study, cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Persian version of the circumstances, motivation and readiness scale (CMR) are illustrated in a sample of Iranian addicts. Materials and Methods The translation process followed Beaton et al.’s (2000) guideline for the cross-cultural adaptation of self-administered questionnaires, including the steps of translation, synthesis, back translation, expert committee review, and pre-testing. The final version of the Persian CMR was assessed for internal consistency and construct validity (n = 203). Results There was one eliminated item in the cross-cultural adaptation process. Also, four items that had low correlation with the total score were excluded from the questionnaire during the initial analysis. Using the remaining items, Principle axis factoring with Promax rotation was performed and three factors, circumstance, motivation, and readiness, were identified. The secondary order three factor model provided a good statistical and conceptual fit for the data. Internal consistency met the criterion for a reliable measure (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.840). The α range for these identified factors was 0.597 to 0.837. Conclusions Although the CMR was originally designed for use in TC treatment, this study suggests that it is also applicable, with some modifications, in short-term residential camps. Also, it is concluded that the Persian translation of the CMR can be applied for studies among Persian addicts. PMID:27622165

  4. Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Circumstances, Motivation, and Readiness Scale

    PubMed Central

    Norozi, Ensiyeh; Miri, Mohammad Reza; Soltani, Raheleh; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Harivandi, Ali Reza; Dastjerdi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment motivation has always been an important issue in substance abuse treatment. In recent decades, several instruments have been developed to measure this concept. Objectives In this study, cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Persian version of the circumstances, motivation and readiness scale (CMR) are illustrated in a sample of Iranian addicts. Materials and Methods The translation process followed Beaton et al.’s (2000) guideline for the cross-cultural adaptation of self-administered questionnaires, including the steps of translation, synthesis, back translation, expert committee review, and pre-testing. The final version of the Persian CMR was assessed for internal consistency and construct validity (n = 203). Results There was one eliminated item in the cross-cultural adaptation process. Also, four items that had low correlation with the total score were excluded from the questionnaire during the initial analysis. Using the remaining items, Principle axis factoring with Promax rotation was performed and three factors, circumstance, motivation, and readiness, were identified. The secondary order three factor model provided a good statistical and conceptual fit for the data. Internal consistency met the criterion for a reliable measure (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.840). The α range for these identified factors was 0.597 to 0.837. Conclusions Although the CMR was originally designed for use in TC treatment, this study suggests that it is also applicable, with some modifications, in short-term residential camps. Also, it is concluded that the Persian translation of the CMR can be applied for studies among Persian addicts.

  5. First report of Ancylostoma tubaeforme in Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor).

    PubMed

    Youssefi, Mr; Hoseini, Sh; Hoseini, Sm; Zaheri, Ba; Tabari, M Abouhosseini

    2010-03-01

    Ancylostoma tubaeforme was originally described as a separate species parasitizing the cat. The adults of A. tubaeforme are 7 to 12 mm long. A. tubaeforme can be differentiated from the adults of A. braziliense and A. ceylanicum by the presence of three teeth. Here we describe the first report of A. tubaeforme in a Persian young female leopard, 2-3 years old, with head and trunk length 120 centimeters, length of tail 98 centimeters and body weight 35 kilograms.

  6. An investigation into water usage and water efficient design for Persian Gardens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Shaghayegh Moalemzadeh

    Investigation and research into the Persian Gardens, leading this project into a step that these World Heritage Sites might have been known as sustainable construction, but the fact that water scarcity of their region is a serious threaten for all these amazing Gardens. Thus, enhancing and improving these gardens by merging, adding and adapting todays technologies can make them considered as constructions with water and energy conservation design. Based on nowadays world environment concerns, recognizing renewable and non-renewable sources of energies in a region or site can cause a miracle. Since, almost all Persian Gardens located in regions with arid and semi-arid climate, water poverty as a biggest issue and nonrenewable energy should be included as a problematic concern. There are many available active and passive strategies that can be applied in these heritage sites which decrease water consumption either directly or indirectly. Such as water harvesting, greywater reuse, photovoltaic panels and material changes. Water known as a vital element of each garden for irrigation purposes, but in Persian Garden water is more than a functional element. Thus, finding a way to provide and recycle water beside the underground sources is necessary. Subterranean, springs and wells are resources of water for Persian gardens which renew so slowly or non-renew these days. Being so close to a city with considerable population lunches and idea of using greywater for irrigation in these gardens. In this research, the doable options for energy conservation design for these sites will be discussed, then comparing some case studies in all over world where greywater reusing water system for irrigation is happening will be next step. In conclusion, greywater reusing system in urban scale in order to irrigate a filed or garden will be investigate on a Shazdeh Garden as a main case study of this research.

  7. Validity and reliability of the Persian version of the dizziness handicap inventory

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadeh, Sadegh; Bahrami, Eshagh; Pourbakht, Akram; Jalaie, Shohreh; Daneshi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dizziness as a common symptom affecting many aspects of the patient's life and it is hard to be fully evaluated. The dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) is a reliable self-perceived questionnaire in the evaluation of dizziness impacts. The purposes of this study are translation of the DHI to Persian language and measuring its psychometric properties, including face, content, discriminate and construct validity, internal consistency and reliability. Materials and Methods: The English version of the DHI is translated to Persian language based on international quality of life assessment protocol. 97 participants, including 57 patients with mean age of 44.5-year-old and 40 healthy people (mean age of 34.1) participated in this study during the period of November 2012 to June 2013 in audiology clinics of Tehran University of medical sciences. Results: The Persian version of DHI showed good face and content validity. The internal consistency of DHI-P was good, the Cronbach's alpha was 0.79, 0.82, 0.83, and 0.90 for total and emotional, physical and functional subscales; respectively, in reliability, There was a high correlation between test re-test scores (r = 0.90, P = 0.000). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.96 for total score and 0.92, 0.92, and 0.96 for emotional, physical and functional subscales; respectively. Conclusion: Considering good psychometric properties, we suggest that DHI-P can use for evaluating the dizziness effects on quality of life in Persian population. PMID:25422664

  8. Translation and Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Dialysis Symptom Index in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zamanian, Hadi; Taheri Kharameh, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hemodialysis patients have a high physical and psychosocial symptom burden. There is no valid and reliable tool for assessing symptoms of hemodialysis patients in Iran. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine psychometric properties of the Persian version of the dialysis symptom index (DSI). Patients and Methods: The forward-backward procedure was applied to translate the DSI from English into Persian (Iranian language). The scale (Persian Version) was tested with a convenience sample of 95 patients with end-stage renal disease referred to main hemodialysis centers from December 2012 to June 2013. Validity was assessed using content, face and convergent validity. To test reliability, the kappa values were calculated for test-retest stability and the Cronbach alpha coefficients were also calculated for internal consistency. Results: The mean age of patients was 50.4 (SD = 15.72) years and % 61.1 of patients were male. The most commonly reported symptoms were fatigue, being irritable and nervous. Divergent validity was mostly supported by the pattern of association between DSI and SF-36 (r = -0.18– -0.48, P< 0.05). Cronbach’s alpha of the DSI was 0.90 and the weighted kappa ranged from 0.21 to 0.93, and it was greater than 0.4 for 25 of the 30 items. Conclusions: The Iranian version of the DSI had good psychometric properties and can be used to assess symptoms of hemodialysis patients. PMID:25738123

  9. Validation of the Persian version of the dysphagia handicap index in patients with neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Barzegar-Bafrooei, Ebrahim; Bakhtiary, Jalal; Khatoonabadi, Ahmad Reza; Fatehi, Farzad; Maroufizadeh, Saman; Fathali, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dysphagia as a common condition affecting many aspects of the patient’s life. The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) is a reliable self-reported questionnaire developed specifically to measure the impact of dysphagia on the patient’s quality of life. The aim of this study was to translate the questionnaire to Persian and to measure its validity and reliability in patients with neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia. Methods: A formal forward-backward translation of DHI was performed based on the guidelines for the cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. A total of 57 patients with neurogenic dysphagia who were referred to the neurology clinics of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, participated in this study. Internal consistency reliability of the DHI was examined using Cronbach’s alpha, and test-retest reliability of the scale was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The internal consistency of the Persian DHI (P-DHI) was considered to be good; Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the total P-DHI was 0.88. The test-retest reliability for the total and three subscales of the P-DHI ranged from 0.95 to 0.98 using ICC. Conclusion: The P-DHI demonstrated a good reliability, and it can be a valid instrument for evaluating the dysphagia effects on quality of life among Persian language population. PMID:27648173

  10. On the Intercourse Between Indian and the Arabic/Persian Astrologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beinorius, Audrius

    2015-05-01

    The history of astrology offers to its students a primary challenge: the complexity of its career in transmission from one cultural area to another and in transformation of its doctrines and methods to fit the interests and cultural circumstances of its eager recipients. The translation movement between the Indian and Arabic/Persian cultures is still rarely studied. In this paper I am discussing the relations (intellectual voyages) between Indian and Arabic/Persian astrological traditions from historical and cultural perspectives. By using the various examples from Sanskrit, Pahlavī, Arabic and Persian sources I try to display the intimate scientific exchanges, by emphasizing the field of astrology and divination, between two geographically close, but in a religious and philosophical sense, very different cultural areas. The conclusion is made that the influence of Hindu astro-sciences on Islamic culture was comparatively greater but the impact of the Islamic sciences on Hindus was no less significant. On both sides a fruitful process of enculturation and integration of technical astral concepts and applied methods took place.

  11. Melancholia in medieval Persian literature: The view of Hidayat of Al-Akhawayni

    PubMed Central

    Dalfardi, Behnam; Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    “Melancholia” seems to be the oldest term used to describe the manifestations of depression. Throughout the history of medicine, melancholia has been the focus of consideration of many scholars who have provided varying definitions of this disorder and its manifestations. This continual process has resulted in the gradual development of the concept of melancholia over time. Persian scholars were among the scientists who have studied the melancholia and contributed to its concept. One figure, Al-Akhawayni Bukhari (?-983 AD), a Persian physician whose reputation was based on the treatment of patients with mental problems, investigated this disorder. He described Melancholia and explained its clinical manifestations and treatment methods. Al-Akhawayni provided an early classification of the patients suffering from this disorder. Since the medieval Persian concept of melancholia is not well-known, this paper aims to review Al-Akhawayni’s 10th century knowledge on melancholia which can represent the early concept of this disorder in the Near East. PMID:25019055

  12. Standardization of European Medical Risk Related History questionnaire for use with Persian-speaking population

    PubMed Central

    Pooyafared, Adeleh; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Baharloey, Kheyzaran; Shafiei, Leili; Montajeb, Forogheh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Today, the dental practitioners are finding many more medically compromised patients in their practice. Aims: The aim of this study was standardization of the European Medical Risk Related History (EMRRH) questionnaire for use among Persian population. Materials and Methods: The English original version of the EMRRH questionnaire was translated into Persian language by a forward–backward translation method. Then reliability was tested on 50 subjects. Also, the sensitivity, specificity, and validity of the questionnaire were assessed. Statistical Analysis Used: Cohen's kappa, a measure of agreement between observers that includes an adjustment for chance agreement, was likewise calculated. Results: The reliability coefficient (Cronbach's alpha) of the EMRRH was above the recommended 0.7 threshold and considered excellent (alpha 0.87). Specificity of the questions was 94% and of per EMRRH item was 93%. Sensitivity per question was 86.1% and of per EMRRH item was 94%. Cohen's kappa for the questionnaire was 0.89 and for subsequent questions was 0.82. Conclusions: The EMRRH (Persian version) has been shown to be valid in comparison with the gold standard (a medical history taken by a physician experienced) and this instrument would be an effectual method of history taking for the dentist. PMID:26097855

  13. Validation of the Persian version of the dysphagia handicap index in patients with neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Barzegar-Bafrooei, Ebrahim; Bakhtiary, Jalal; Khatoonabadi, Ahmad Reza; Fatehi, Farzad; Maroufizadeh, Saman; Fathali, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dysphagia as a common condition affecting many aspects of the patient’s life. The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) is a reliable self-reported questionnaire developed specifically to measure the impact of dysphagia on the patient’s quality of life. The aim of this study was to translate the questionnaire to Persian and to measure its validity and reliability in patients with neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia. Methods: A formal forward-backward translation of DHI was performed based on the guidelines for the cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. A total of 57 patients with neurogenic dysphagia who were referred to the neurology clinics of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, participated in this study. Internal consistency reliability of the DHI was examined using Cronbach’s alpha, and test-retest reliability of the scale was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The internal consistency of the Persian DHI (P-DHI) was considered to be good; Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the total P-DHI was 0.88. The test-retest reliability for the total and three subscales of the P-DHI ranged from 0.95 to 0.98 using ICC. Conclusion: The P-DHI demonstrated a good reliability, and it can be a valid instrument for evaluating the dysphagia effects on quality of life among Persian language population.

  14. Psychometric properties of the Persian spiritual coping strategies scale in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Saffari, Mohsen; Koenig, Harold G; Ghanizadeh, Ghader; Pakpour, Amir H; Baldacchino, Donia R

    2014-08-01

    Spiritual strategies may provide an effective way of coping with disease. This study sought to investigate the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the spiritual coping strategies (SCS) scale among Iranian hemodialysis patients. A convenience sample of 204 hemodialysis patients was recruited to participate in the study. A forward-backward translation method was used to produce the Persian version of the scale. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha and item-total score correlation. Two-week test-retest reliability was also assessed. The convergent and divergent validity of the scale was evaluated using the Duke University Religion Index and a visual analogue scale for health status. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to assess the factor structure. Participants consisted of 113 males and 91 females (mean age 57.2 [SD = 9.7]). Cronbach's alpha was acceptable (0.87). We found two underlying factors similar to the original scale. The correlations between the study scales confirmed the convergent and divergent validity of the SCS. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit to the data (GFI = 0.923, CFI = 0.948 and RMSEA = 0.068). The Persian version of the SCS has sound psychometric properties in Iranian hemodialysis patients. Future research should consider applying the scale to populations with other religious/cultural backgrounds. PMID:23504574

  15. Methodologic issues in a population-based health survey of Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    Doebbeling, Bradley N; Jones, Martha F; Hall, Daniel B; Clarke, William R; Woolson, Robert F; Torner, James C; Burmeister, Leon F; Snyders-Crumley, Terri; Barrett, Drue H; Falter, Kenneth H; Merchant, James A; Nusser, Sarah; Anderson, Dianne; Schwartz, David A

    2002-05-01

    This report describes the principal methods used in the development, conduct, and analysis of the research study "Health Assessment of Persian Gulf War Veterans from Iowa" (Iowa Gulf War Study). The methods presented include an outline of the organizational structure, study timeline, hypotheses, outcome definitions, and study design. Adhering to a strict timeline, the study protocol and instruments were developed, and a stratified sample of 3,695 military personnel (76% participation) was located and surveyed by structured telephone interview. The study tracked personnel from all service branches residing nationally and internationally, including those discharged from service. This study required development and implementation of methods appropriate to analysis of data collected in a complex sampling framework and methodological procedures to ensure scientific rigor in a highly public and politicized environment. Statistical analyses were conducted on a priori health outcomes and required development of methods to compute Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel adjusted rate differences. This environment facilitated rapid implementation, critique by scientific and public advisors, a high participation rate, and rapid publication. PMID:12007551

  16. Methodologic issues in a population-based health survey of Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    Doebbeling, Bradley N; Jones, Martha F; Hall, Daniel B; Clarke, William R; Woolson, Robert F; Torner, James C; Burmeister, Leon F; Snyders-Crumley, Terri; Barrett, Drue H; Falter, Kenneth H; Merchant, James A; Nusser, Sarah; Anderson, Dianne; Schwartz, David A

    2002-05-01

    This report describes the principal methods used in the development, conduct, and analysis of the research study "Health Assessment of Persian Gulf War Veterans from Iowa" (Iowa Gulf War Study). The methods presented include an outline of the organizational structure, study timeline, hypotheses, outcome definitions, and study design. Adhering to a strict timeline, the study protocol and instruments were developed, and a stratified sample of 3,695 military personnel (76% participation) was located and surveyed by structured telephone interview. The study tracked personnel from all service branches residing nationally and internationally, including those discharged from service. This study required development and implementation of methods appropriate to analysis of data collected in a complex sampling framework and methodological procedures to ensure scientific rigor in a highly public and politicized environment. Statistical analyses were conducted on a priori health outcomes and required development of methods to compute Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel adjusted rate differences. This environment facilitated rapid implementation, critique by scientific and public advisors, a high participation rate, and rapid publication.

  17. Quality Assessment of Persian Mental Disorders Websites Using the Webmedqual Scale

    PubMed Central

    Shahrzadi, Leila; Mojiri, Shahin; Janatian, Sima; Taheri, Behjat; Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan; Shahrzadi, Zeinab; Zahedi, Razieh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, anyone with any level of Internet knowledge can act as producer and distributor of information. It differs from most traditional media of information transmission, lack of information control and lack of quality management to contents. This leads to quality of health information on the internet is doubtful. The object of this study is guidance patients to select valid mental disorders and determine the quality of Persian mental disorders websites. Methods: The sample of this study comprised 29 Persian mental disorders websites that were chosen by searching the Google, Yahoo and AltaVista search engines for the Persian equivalents of the three concepts “depression,” “anxiety,” and “obsession”. website was created by individuals or organizations. Data collection was performed with the WebMedQual checklist. Websites was assessed based on indicators as content, authority of source, design, accessibility and availability, links, user support, and confidentiality and privacy (Maximum score for any website was 83, mean score 41.5 and minimum score was 0). Collected data analyzed by one sample T- test in SPSS 20. Findings presented by Mean score and optimal score. Results: Based on the WebMedQual scale the mean score of Persian mental disorders websites in sex constructs including “content” (7.02±2.10), “authority of source” (4.71±1.96),”accessibility and availability” (2.19±0.47), “links” (1.45±0.97), “user support” (4.28±1.33), and”confidentiality and privacy” (2.81±2.81) are poor and below average, but the score for the “design” (9.17± 1.59) is above average. The best website of mental disorders was that of the “IranianPsychological Association”. Conclusions: According to the results, only one website obtained the average score, so the quality of Persian mental disorders websites is low. Therefore, it is essential for users to criticize websites’ content and not trust them before evaluating

  18. Gulf Petro Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Fathi Boukadi

    2011-02-05

    In this report, technologies for petroleum production and exploration enhancement in deepwater and mature fields are developed through basic and applied research by: (1) Designing new fluids to efficiently drill deepwater wells that can not be cost-effectively drilled with current technologies. The new fluids will be heavy liquid foams that have low-density at shallow dept to avoid formation breakdown and high density at drilling depth to control formation pressure. The goal of this project is to provide industry with formulations of new fluids for reducing casing programs and thus well construction cost in deepwater development. (2) Studying the effects of flue gas/CO{sub 2} huff n puff on incremental oil recovery in Louisiana oilfields bearing light oil. An artificial neural network (ANN) model will be developed and used to map recovery efficiencies for candidate reservoirs in Louisiana. (3) Arriving at a quantitative understanding for the three-dimensional controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) geophysical response of typical Gulf of Mexico hydrocarbon reservoirs. We will seek to make available tools for the qualitative, rapid interpretation of marine CSEM signatures, and tools for efficient, three-dimensional subsurface conductivity modeling.

  19. Temperature of the Gulf Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Gulf Stream is one of the strong ocean currents that carries warm water from the sunny tropics to higher latitudes. The current stretches from the Gulf of Mexico up the East Coast of the United States, departs from North America south of the Chesapeake Bay, and heads across the Atlantic to the British Isles. The water within the Gulf Stream moves at the stately pace of 4 miles per hour. Even though the current cools as the water travels thousands of miles, it remains strong enough to moderate the Northern European climate. The image above was derived from the infrared measurements of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on a nearly cloud-free day over the east coast of the United States. The coldest waters are shown as purple, with blue, green, yellow, and red representing progressively warmer water. Temperatures range from about 7 to 22 degrees Celsius. The core of the Gulf Stream is very apparent as the warmest water, dark red. It departs from the coast at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The cool, shelf water from the north entrains the warmer outflows from the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. The north wall of the Gulf Stream reveals very complex structure associated with frontal instabilities that lead to exchanges between the Gulf Stream and inshore waters. Several clockwise-rotating warm core eddies are evident north of the core of the Gulf Stream, which enhance the exchange of heat and water between the coastal and deep ocean. Cold core eddies, which rotate counter clockwise, are seen south of the Gulf Stream. The one closest to Cape Hatteras is entraining very warm Gulf Stream waters on its northwest circumference. Near the coast, shallower waters have warmed due to solar heating, while the deeper waters offshore are markedly cooler (dark blue). MODIS made this observation on May 8, 2000, at 11:45 a.m. EDT. For more information, see the MODIS-Ocean web page. The sea surface temperature image was created at the University of Miami using

  20. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Gulf menhaden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christmas, J.Y.; McBee, James T.; Waller, Richard S.; Sutter, Frederick C.

    1982-01-01

    The gulf menhaden is an estuarine-dependent marine species that inhabits northern Gulf of ~1exico waters. The species is generally replaced at the southernmost extent of its range by the finescale menhaden (Brevoortia gunteri) in Texas and the yellowfin menhaden (~. smithi) in Florida. According to mark and recapture studies, there is little along-shore movement of gulf menhaden. Few gulf menhaden cross from one side of the Mississippi River Delta to the other (Kroger and Pristas 1979).

  1. Polyphenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of heartnut (Juglans ailanthifolia Var. cordiformis) and Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Tsao, Rong; Yang, Raymond; Liu, Chunming; Zhu, Honghui; Young, J Christopher

    2006-10-18

    The polyphenolic compositions of three heartnut (Juglans ailanthifolia var. cordiformis) varieties (Imshu, Campbell CW1, and Campbell CW3) were examined and compared with those of two Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) varieties (Combe and Lake). The nuts were defatted, extracted, and separated into three different fractions, the free phenolic acid (FPA), acid-hydrolyzable phenolic acid (AHPA), and bound phenolic acid (BPA) fractions. The total phenolic contents (TPCs) in both FPA and AHPA of the Persian walnuts were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than those of the heartnuts, but not in the BPA (P = 0.20). LC-ESI-MS(n)() studies revealed that except for the FPA fraction, the major polyphenolics in both heartnut and Persian walnut were ellagic acid and valoneic acid dilactone. Persian walnuts contained an average of 0.29 and 1.31 mg of ellagic acid/g nut in the 80% methanol extractable fractions FPA and AHPA, respectively. Heartnuts contained an average of 0.16 and 0.60 mg of ellagic acid/g nut in the respective fractions. Bound ellagic acid in the residue was 0.93 and 0.70 mg/g of nut in the Persian walnut and in the heartnut, respectively. Valoneic acid dilactone was tentatively identified and quantified as milligrams of ellagic acid equivalent per gram of nut. These components were found to contribute to the strong total antioxidant activities measured using ferric reducing antioxidant power and photochemiluminescence methods.

  2. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) in Persian Speaking Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Makhmalbaf, Hadi; Birjandinejad, Ali; Keshtan, Farideh Golhasani; Hoseini, Hosein A; Mazloumi, Seyed Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis of the knee is the most common chronic joint disease that involves middle aged and elderly persons. There are different clinical instruments to quantify the health status of patients with knee osteoarthritis and one example is the WOMAC score that has been translated and adapted into different languages. The purpose of this study was cultural adaptation, validation and reliability testing of the Persian version of the WOMAC index in Iranians with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: We translated the original WOMAC questionnaire into Persian by the forward and backward technique, and then its psychometric study was done on 169 native Persian speaking patients with knee degenerative joint disease. Mean age of patients was 53.9 years. The SF-36 and KOOS were used to assess construct validity. Results: Reliability testing resulted in a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.917, showing the internal consistency of the questionnaire to be a reliable tool. Inter-correlation matrix among different scales of the Persian WOMAC index yielded a highly significant correlation between all subscales including stiffness, pain, and physical function. In terms of validity, Pearson`s correlation coefficient was significant between three domains of the WOMAC with PF, RP, BP, GH, VT, and PCS dimensions of the SF-36 health survey (P<0.005) and KOOS (P<0.0001) . Conclusions: The Persian WOMAC index is a valid and reliable patient- reported clinical instrument for knee osteoarthritis. PMID:25207315

  3. Morphology and Late Quaternary sedimentation in the Gulf of Oman Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchupi, Elazar; Swift, S. A.; Ross, D. A.

    The morphology of the Gulf of Oman Basin, a 3,400 m deep oceanic basin between Oman and southern Pakistan and southern Iran, ranges from a convergent margin (Makran margin) along the north side, a passive type (Oman margin) along the south side, translation types along the basin's west (Zendan Fault-Oman Line) and east (Murray Ridge) sides and a narrow continental rise and a wide abyssal plain in the centre of the basin. Sediment input into the basin during the Late Quaternary has been mainly from the north as a result of the uplift of the Coast Makran Mountains in the Late Miocene-Pliocene. Today most of this detritrus is deposited on the shelf and upper continental slope and perched basins behind the fold/fault ridges on the lower slope. The presence of fans and channels on the continental rise on the north side of the basin indicate, however, that continental derived debris was, and possibly is, being transported to the deep-sea by turbidity currents via gaps in the ridges on the lower slope. In addition to land derived terrigenous sediments, the basin deposits also contain biogenic (organic matter and calcium carbonate), eolian detritus and hydrates and authigenic carbonates from the tectonic dewatering of the Makran accretionary wedge. The eolian sediment is carried into the Gulf of Oman Basin from Arabia and the Mesopotamia Valley by the northwesterly Shamal winds. This type of detritus was particularly abundant during the glacial arid periods 21,000-20,000 and 11,000 (Younger Dryas) years ago when exposure of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf increased the area of dust entrainment and shifted the position of the source of the eolian sediments closer to the basin.

  4. Gulf trough: the Atlantic connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popenoe, Peter; Henry, Vernon J.; Idris, Faisal M.

    1987-01-01

    Analyses of seismic reflection profiles and stratigraphic data indicate a continuation of the Gulf trough trend across eastern South Carolina and offshore between Cape Fear and Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Seismic profiles show a linear northeast-trending zone of nondeposition and erosion and areas of chaotic deposition in the Eocene and Oligocene sections. The character of deposition and erosion along this trend is similar to that produced by bottom currents under the core of the present Gulf Stream. The trend separates deep-water from shallower water deposits, indicating that the erosion was produced by strong marine currents flowing through the Gulf trough in the high sea levels of middle Eocene through early Oligocene time.

  5. The USGS and the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dausman, Alyssa M.; Spear, Kate

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is committed to mapping, monitoring, and conducting research in the Gulf of Mexico and adjacent watersheds. Through a network of science centers in the five Gulf States and across the Nation, the USGS applies its biologic, geologic, geographic, and hydrologic expertise to provide unbiased scientific findings to decisionmakers, particularly members and supporters of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance (Gulf Alliance). The overarching goal of USGS Gulf Coast activities is to provide the scientific information, knowledge, and tools required to facilitate management decisions that promote restoration, increase coastal resilience, and mitigate risks associated with both artificial and natural hazards.

  6. Psychometric properties of the Persian version of the “Hospital Ethical Climate Survey”

    PubMed Central

    Khalesi, Nader; Arabloo, Jalal; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Taghizadeh, Sanaz; Heyrani, Ali; Ebrahimian, Abbasali

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the ethical climate in health care organizations, it is important to apply a valid measure. This study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Hospital Ethical Climate Survey (HECS) and to assess nurses’ perceptions of the ethical climate in teaching hospitals of Iran. A cross-sectional study of randomly selected nurses (n = 187) was conducted in three teaching general hospitals of Tehran, capital of Iran. Olson’s Hospital Ethical Climate Survey (HECS), a self-administered questionnaire, was used to assess the nurses’ perceptions of the hospital ethical climate. Descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), internal consistency, and correlation were used to analyze the data. CFA showed acceptable model fit: an standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) of 0.064, an non-normalized fit index (NNFI) of 0.96, a comparative fit index (CFI) of 0.96, and an root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) of 0.075. The Cronbach’s alpha values were acceptable and ranging from 0.69 to 0.85. The overall Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.94. The factor loadings for all ethical climate items were between 0.50 and 0.80, which revealed good structure of the Persian version of the HECS. Survey findings showed that the “managers” subscale had the highest score and the subscale of “doctors” had the lowest score. This study shows that the Persian version of the HECS is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring nurses’ perceptions of the ethical climate in hospitals of Iran PMID:25512834

  7. Psychometric Properties of The Persian Version of The Prenatal Attachment Inventory in Pregnant Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Omani Samani, Reza; Maroufizadeh, Saman; Ezabadi, Zahra; Alizadeh, Leila; Vesali, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Background In 1993, Muller developed the Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI) which has been used widely in many studies and translated into several languages. The current study aimed to translate the PAI into Persian, assess the underlying structure of the PAI, and the appropriateness of the one-factor solution proposed by Muller. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, we recruited a total of 322 primi- gravidae in their 27th to 34th gestational weeks that referred to private and governmental prenatal clinics in Tehran, Iran. All participants completed the Persian versions of the PAI and a demographic questionnaire. Participants were re-tested 2 weeks after the initial test- ing. The following psychometric properties of the PAI were investigated: construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), internal consistency reliability with Cronbach’s alpha, and test-retest reliability according to the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results The CFA results indicated that a single-factor model provided good fit to the data, which confirmed the original model by its developer. The Cronbach’s alpha coef- ficient for PAI was 0.856 and the test-retest reliability with ICC was 0.784. Consider- ing the duration between marriage and pregnancy, women with low duration scored significantly higher than women with high duration on PAI (P=0.043). Conclusion The Persian version of the PAI showed that one factor structure was ad- equate and could be used for measuring psychological affectionate attachment between Iranian mothers and their fetuses. PMID:27441051

  8. Exposure of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) to cadmium results in biochemical, histological and transcriptional alterations.

    PubMed

    Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Niknejad, Mahtab; Shabani, Ali; Safari, Roghieh

    2016-01-01

    Sturgeon is one of the endangered families of fish in the Caspian Sea region, where there is up to 80% of their global caching. Unfortunately, in recent years, increase of pollutants has been resulted in their total population reduction. Due to their benthic nature, sturgeons are at great risk of exposing to contaminants such as cadmium. Despite their endangered status in the Caspian Sea, there are only a few studies on characterizing the relative sensitivity of sturgeons to cadmium. Adverse effects associated with pollution on angiogenesis are mediated by hypoxia inducing factor-1 (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this investigation, gene expression of two distinct HIFs-1, HIF-1α and HIF-2α, and VEGF was investigated at the mRNA transcript levels after exposure of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) to cadmium. VEGF, HIF-1α and HIF-2α expressions in treated Persian sturgeon were greater than controls. Significant increases (P<0.05) were also observed in cortisol and glucose levels compared to the control group especially in the fish exposed to higher cadmium concentration (800 μg/L). Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were increased in the cadmium-exposed fish, although the observed increases were not significant between the control and 200 μg/L cadmium treatment at some sampling time points. Gill tissues also showed histopathological changes in the cadmium treatments. Overall, results indicated that cadmium resulted in some alterations in biochemical parameters, mRNA transcript level expression of two important angiogenesis related genes as well as histological alterations in Persian sturgeon.

  9. The Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview Short Form (ZBI-12) in spouses of Veterans with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury, Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi-Mashhadi, Mohammad T; Mashhadinejad, Hosein; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Golhasani-Keshtan, Farideh; Ebrahimi, Hanieh; Zarei, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: To test the psychometric properties of the Persian version of Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI-12) in the Iranian population. Methods: After translating and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire into Persian, 100 caregiver spouses of Iran- Iraq war (1980-88) veterans with chronic spinal cord injury who live in the city of Mashhad, Iran, invited to participate in the study. The Persian version of ZBI-12 accompanied with the Persian SF-36 was completed by the caregivers to test validity of the Persian ZBI-12.A Pearson`s correlation coefficient was calculated for validity testing. In order to assess reliability of the Persian ZBI-12, we administered the ZBI-12 randomly in 48 caregiver spouses again 3 days later. Results: Generally, the internal consistency of the questionnaire was found to be strong (Cronbach's alpha 0.77). Intercorrelation matrix between the different domains of ZBI-12 at test-retest was 0.78. The results revealed that majority of questions the Persian ZBI_12 have a significant correlation to each other. In terms of validity, our results showed that there is significant correlations between some domains of the Persian version the Short Form Health Survey -36 with the Persian Zarit Burden Interview such as Q1 with Role Physical (P=0.03),General Health (P=0.034),Social Functional (0.037), Mental Health (0.023) and Q3 with Physical Function (P=0.001),Viltality (0.002), Socil Function (0.001). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the Zarit Burden Interview Persian version is both a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the burden of caregivers of individuals with chronic spinal cord injury. PMID:25692171

  10. Modeling of Abrasion Resistance Performance of Persian Handmade Wool Carpets Using Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shravan Kumar; Goswami, Kamal Kanti

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modeling for the prediction of abrasion resistance of Persian handmade wool carpets. Four carpet constructional parameters, namely knot density, pile height, number of ply in pile yarn and pile yarn twist have been used as input parameters for ANN model. The prediction performance was judged in terms of statistical parameters like correlation coefficient ( R) and Mean Absolute Percentage Error ( MAPE). Though the training performance of ANN was very good, the generalization ability was not up to the mark. This implies that large number of training data should be used for the adequate training of ANN models.

  11. 50 CFR 622.25 - Exemptions for Gulf groundfish trawling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.25 Exemptions for Gulf groundfish trawling. Gulf groundfish trawling means fishing in the Gulf EEZ by a vessel that uses a bottom trawl, the unsorted......

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Love of Life Scale.

    PubMed

    Vahid, Mohammad Kazem Atef; Dadfar, Mahboubeh; Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Lester, David

    2016-10-01

    A love of life is defined as an overall positive attitude toward life and a liking for life. The present study was designed to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of a Persian version of the Love of Life Scale using a convenience sample of 145 Iranian female volunteer college students (M age = 23.0 years, SD = 3.4). The mean score on the Love of Life Scale was 61.08 (SD = 11.40). A principal component analysis with a Varimax rotation yielded two factors labeled (a) Positive Attitude Towards Life and Happy Consequences of Love of Life and (b) Meaningfulness of Life. Cronbach's alpha was .94 and the one-week test-retest reliability was .85. Love of Life Scale scores had significant positive correlations with scores on the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Adult Hope Scale. The scale displayed negative correlations with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and the Wish to be Dead Scale. It was concluded that the Persian form of the Love of Life Scale can be recommended for future research on positive psychology.

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Short Beck Depression Inventory with Iranian Psychiatric Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Dadfar, Mahboubeh; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa

    2016-01-01

    The short form of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13) is useful for the screening and assessment of depression in clinical and research settings. The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Persian (Farsi) version of BDI-13 in an Iranian clinical sample. The sample consisted of 52 Iranian psychiatric outpatients who received services at psychiatric and psychological clinics at the School of Behavioral Sciences & Mental Health-Tehran Institute of Psychiatry, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) in Tehran, Iran. The study examined the reliability, construct validity, and factor structure of the instrument. The instrument indicated good reliability with Cronbach's alpha of .85 and strong construct validity based on moderate to strong positive correlations with other measures of mental health issues. Using a Principal Component Analysis and Varimax Rotation with Kaiser Normalization, three factors were identified and labeled Affective (F1), Somatic/Vegetative (F2), and Cognitive/Loss of Functioning (F3). The current factor structure suggests that depression is a multidimensional construct in an Iranian clinical sample. This study provides further evidence that the Persian version of the BDI-13 is a psychometrically sound instrument that can be used for clinical and research purposes in Iran. PMID:27293979

  14. Validation of the Persian Translation of the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire in Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rajaei, Ali; Azargoon, S. Abolfazl; Nilforoush, Mohammad Hussein; Barzegar Bafrooei, Ebrahim; Ashtari, Fereshteh; Chitsaz, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Dysphagia, as a common finding in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, was estimated to be present in 80–95% of this population during different stages of the disease. The Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ) was created as a self-rated dysphagia screening tool in PD. According to the guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation, Persian version of this questionnaire (SDQ-P) was developed. 59 Persian patients (39 men and 20 women) participated in the study. They responded to the SDQ-P and underwent videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS). Aspiration during VFSS was compared with questionnaire results for each individual. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the questionnaire was 0.86 and based on SDQ-P 15 patients (25.4%) were dysphagic, while 10 patients (16.9%) showed aspiration during VFSS. SDQ-P sensitivity and specificity in predicting aspiration were 96.7 and 91.2%; therefore, the SDQ-P could be a prognostic tool for aspiration. The positive predictive value (PPV), the negative predictive value (NPV), and the pre- and posttest probabilities of aspiration were 0.67, 1, 16.9%, and 66.7%, respectively. In summary, this study demonstrated the reliability and also the feasibility of SDQ-P for screening of aspiration in Iranian patients with PD. Further evaluation of SDQ-P in larger subject population would be suggested. PMID:25405058

  15. Morphological development in the speech of a Persian-English bilingual child.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein

    2007-07-01

    The present study aims at testing the two dominant hypotheses regarding the development of inflections and other functional categories namely the Structure-Building Model and the Continuity Hypothesis within the generative theory. According to the first view, functional categories are entirely absent in children's early grammars, which contain only projections of lexical categories, most importantly 'nouns' and 'verbs.' This hypothesis holds that utterances produced by children are actually small clauses or verb phrases, and functional categories such as copula, determiners, and genitive are not acquired during the single-word or early multiword stages, but are implemented in the course of further acquisition, at around age 2 or later. The proponents of the second, i.e., the 'Continuity Hypothesis,' on the other hand, argue that functional categories are in fact present in children's early syntax. These two hypotheses will be tested here against empirical data in English and Persian. Thus, longitudinal data will be provided on the acquisition of a few morphemes in the two languages acquired by the subject of the present study (i.e., English and Persian) including determiners, plural marker, genitive, and copula. The significance of the present study lies in the fact that it provides data on two typologically different languages in bilingual first language acquisition and thereby making a contribution to the field. PMID:17318436

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Short Beck Depression Inventory with Iranian Psychiatric Outpatients.

    PubMed

    Dadfar, Mahboubeh; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa

    2016-01-01

    The short form of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13) is useful for the screening and assessment of depression in clinical and research settings. The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Persian (Farsi) version of BDI-13 in an Iranian clinical sample. The sample consisted of 52 Iranian psychiatric outpatients who received services at psychiatric and psychological clinics at the School of Behavioral Sciences & Mental Health-Tehran Institute of Psychiatry, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) in Tehran, Iran. The study examined the reliability, construct validity, and factor structure of the instrument. The instrument indicated good reliability with Cronbach's alpha of .85 and strong construct validity based on moderate to strong positive correlations with other measures of mental health issues. Using a Principal Component Analysis and Varimax Rotation with Kaiser Normalization, three factors were identified and labeled Affective (F1), Somatic/Vegetative (F2), and Cognitive/Loss of Functioning (F3). The current factor structure suggests that depression is a multidimensional construct in an Iranian clinical sample. This study provides further evidence that the Persian version of the BDI-13 is a psychometrically sound instrument that can be used for clinical and research purposes in Iran. PMID:27293979

  17. Development and Validation of a Persian Version of Dichotic Emotional Word Test

    PubMed Central

    Davudzade, Atefe; Shaibanizadeh, Abdolreza; Jafari, Zahra; Fahimnia, Farzin; Haghani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Emotional words in comparison with neutral words have different hemispheric specialization. It is assumed that the right hemisphere has a role in processing every kind of emotional word. The objective of the present study was the development of a Persian version of the dichotic emotional word test and evaluate its validation among adult Persian speakers. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 60 adults, with the age ranging from 18-30 years for both genders, who had no history of neurological disorders with normal hearing. The developed test included eight main lists; each had several dichotic emotional/ neutral pairs of words. Participants were asked to recall as many words in each list as they could after they listened to them. A content validity index was used to analyze the validity of the test. Results: The mean content validity index score was 0.94. The findings showed that in the left ear, emotional words were remembered more than neutral ones (P=0.007). While in the right ear, neutral words were remembered more (P=0.009). There were no significant differences in male and female scores. Conclusion: Dichotic emotional word test has a high content validity. The ability to remember emotional words better in the left ear supports the dominant role of the right hemisphere in emotional word perception. PMID:27280097

  18. [Nitrogen composition of the fruit juice of the Persian lime in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Nuñez, M; Stenz, S

    1991-01-01

    In 1987 to 1989 the composition was studied of the nitrogen compounds (nitrogen and free amino acids) in the fruit juice of Persian lime during its commercial harvesting period. Adult Persian lime trees grafted on Citrus macrophylla and C. volkameriana were used, planted on a groundwater-affected red ferrilytic soil in the La Habana Province. Determination of the total nitrogen and of the free proline was carried out in May to July of each experimental year. The amino acid spectrum was established from juice samples in May 1987 and in July 1988. With the nitrogen concentrations varying between 14 and 90 mg/100 ml of juice, no consistent behaviour or pattern could be detected either in the total nitrogen content or the proline content in the juice during the 3 experimental years. 14 free amino acids were found, with about 90% of the total content formed from asparagine acid, glutamic acid, alanine, proline, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and arginine, regardless of the experimental year or the grafting basis.

  19. Translation and validation of the Persian version of the treatment adherence questionnaire for patients with hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Mahlagha; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Iranmanesh, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hypertension is a global public health crisis. Poorly controlled high blood pressure is one of the major factors contributed to this crisis. As lack of treatment adherence is often considered the main reason for this failure, the Treatment Adherence Questionnaire for Patient with Hypertension (TAQPH) was developed. Since this questionnaire should be reliable and strongly valid to be used in clinics and research, this study was performed to test the reliability and validity of the TAQPH. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted to validate the Persian version of TAQPH after using a modified forward/backward translation procedure. A total of 330 hypertensive patients were participated in this study. Construct and criterion validity, Cronbach¢s alpha, and test-retest reliability were used to validate the Persian scale. RESULTS Data analysis showed that the scale had excellent stability (intraclass correlation = 0.95) and good acceptability of internal consistency (α = 0.80). The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was meaningful but was not confirmed with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The scale score was correlated with Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) score (Ρ = 0.27). CONCLUSION In total, most of the psychometric properties of the 25-item P-TAQHP achieved the standard level and were sufficient to recommend for general use. PMID:27429627

  20. Processing Conventional Conceptual Metaphors in Persian: A Corpus-Based Psycholinguistic Study.

    PubMed

    Golshaie, Ramin; Golfam, Arsalan

    2015-10-01

    Research on the psycholinguistic processing of conceptual metaphors has produced contrasting results in recent years. There have also been criticisms that in experimental studies of metaphor processing, linguistic stimuli are mostly intuition-based and not designed objectively based on the original language use data. To address these issues, we studied the processing of conventional metaphoric expressions in Persian language using corpus data. A reading time experiment was designed to test whether conventional metaphoric expressions activated conceptual metaphors. A corpus of 50 million word tokens was used to study the conventional patterns of metaphoric expressions usages and construct experimental items. Fifty five Persian speakers read a set of scenarios containing non-conventional metaphor, conventional metaphor and non-metaphor expressions on computer and the reading times of the following novel target sentence in each condition were recorded by DMDX stimulus presenter program. Comparing mean reading times using one-way ANOVA revealed that reading target sentence after conventional metaphor scenarios had been significantly faster than non-metaphor scenarios, but slower than non-conventional scenarios. The results show that conventionality has a weakening effect on the strength of metaphoric expressions to activate conceptual metaphors.

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Love of Life Scale.

    PubMed

    Vahid, Mohammad Kazem Atef; Dadfar, Mahboubeh; Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Lester, David

    2016-10-01

    A love of life is defined as an overall positive attitude toward life and a liking for life. The present study was designed to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of a Persian version of the Love of Life Scale using a convenience sample of 145 Iranian female volunteer college students (M age = 23.0 years, SD = 3.4). The mean score on the Love of Life Scale was 61.08 (SD = 11.40). A principal component analysis with a Varimax rotation yielded two factors labeled (a) Positive Attitude Towards Life and Happy Consequences of Love of Life and (b) Meaningfulness of Life. Cronbach's alpha was .94 and the one-week test-retest reliability was .85. Love of Life Scale scores had significant positive correlations with scores on the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Adult Hope Scale. The scale displayed negative correlations with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and the Wish to be Dead Scale. It was concluded that the Persian form of the Love of Life Scale can be recommended for future research on positive psychology. PMID:27597796

  2. Morphological development in the speech of a Persian-English bilingual child.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein

    2007-07-01

    The present study aims at testing the two dominant hypotheses regarding the development of inflections and other functional categories namely the Structure-Building Model and the Continuity Hypothesis within the generative theory. According to the first view, functional categories are entirely absent in children's early grammars, which contain only projections of lexical categories, most importantly 'nouns' and 'verbs.' This hypothesis holds that utterances produced by children are actually small clauses or verb phrases, and functional categories such as copula, determiners, and genitive are not acquired during the single-word or early multiword stages, but are implemented in the course of further acquisition, at around age 2 or later. The proponents of the second, i.e., the 'Continuity Hypothesis,' on the other hand, argue that functional categories are in fact present in children's early syntax. These two hypotheses will be tested here against empirical data in English and Persian. Thus, longitudinal data will be provided on the acquisition of a few morphemes in the two languages acquired by the subject of the present study (i.e., English and Persian) including determiners, plural marker, genitive, and copula. The significance of the present study lies in the fact that it provides data on two typologically different languages in bilingual first language acquisition and thereby making a contribution to the field.

  3. 75 FR 54445 - Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era... problems of Gulf War Veterans. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed collection of...: Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans, VA Form 10-0488, and Consent...

  4. 75 FR 54965 - Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era... problems of Gulf War Veterans. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed collection of...: Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans, VA Form 10-0488, and Consent...

  5. 76 FR 75488 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... (spiny lobster) in the EEZ in the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico off the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico... Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South... 10 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and...

  6. Effects of Persian leek (Allium ampeloprasum) on hepatic lipids and the expression of proinflammatory gene in hamsters fed a high-fat/ high-cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Fatoorechi, Vahideh; Rismanchi, Marjan; Nasrollahzadeh, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Persian leek is one of the most widely used herbal foods among Iranians. In this study, effects of oral administration of Persian leek on plasma and liver lipids were examined in hamster. Materials and Methods: Male Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into three groups: control (standard diet), high fat control (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet), Persian leek (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet + 1% per weight of diet from dried powdered Persian leek) for 14 weeks. Results: High fat diet increased plasma and liver lipids as compared to standard diet. Adding Persian leek to the high-fat/high-cholesterol diet resulted in no significant changes in the concentration of the plasma lipids or liver cholesterol. However, liver triglycerides (TG), plasma Alanine aminotransferase and gene expression of tumor necrosis factor- α were decreased in hamsters fed high-fat diet containing Persian leek as compared to high-fat diet only. Conclusion: Persian leek might be considered as a herbal food that can reduce liver TG accumulation induced by high fat diets. PMID:27516982

  7. Comparison of KIR gene content profiles revealed a difference between northern and southern Persians in the distribution of KIR2DS5 and its linked loci.

    PubMed

    Solgi, Ghasem; Ghafari, Hamidreza; Ashouri, Elham; Alimoghdam, Kamran; Rajalingam, Raja; Amirzargar, Aliakbar

    2011-11-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are the key receptors of human natural killer (NK) cells that mount an early immune response against infection and tumors. The number and type of KIR genes are substantially variable between individuals and populations. Recently we reported KIR gene content diversity in a Persian population living in the southern province of Fars, which is comparable to that of European Caucasians. These results are consistent with the ethnic ancestry and affinity between Persians and Caucasians. Herein we analyzed another Persian population living in the northern province of Tehran and discovered an unexpected increase in the distribution of KIR2DS5 and its linked loci KIR3DS1, -2DS1, and -2DL5 in northern Persians compared with that reported in the southern Persian population. Although the geographic barriers may have limited the gene flow, the impact of the local environment on the natural selection of KIR2DS5 and its linked loci in the northern Persians cannot be completely ruled out. The difference in northern and southern populations in activating KIR gene content creates an appealing hypothesis that KIR2DS5-enriched northern Persians are more resistant to developing clinical conditions demonstrated to be associated with KIR2DS5, such as psoriasis vulgaris, endometriosis, ankylosing spondylitis, and acute rejection of kidney grafts, compared with those living in the southern part of the country. PMID:21867738

  8. Refusal Strategies in L1 and L2: A Study of Persian-Speaking Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babai Shishavan, Homa; Sharifian, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore pragmalinguistic strategies employed by a group of Iranian English language learners when making refusals to invitations, requests, offers and suggestions in their first (Persian) and second (English) languages. Data were collected from 86 participants through a Discourse Completion Test (DCT). The social…

  9. Design and Validation of a Photographic Expressive Persian Grammar Test for Children Aged 4-6 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haresabadi, Fatemeh; Ebadi, Abbas; Shirazi, Tahereh Sima; Dastjerdi Kazemi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Syntax has a high importance among linguistic parameters, and syntax-related problems are the most common in language disorders. Therefore, the present study aimed to design a Photographic Expressive Persian Grammar Test for Iranian children in the age group of 4-6 years and to determine its validity and reliability. First, the target…

  10. Validity and reliability of the Persian version of the Brief Aging Perceptions Questionnaire in Iranian older adults

    PubMed Central

    Sadegh Moghadam, Leila; Foroughan, Mahshid; Mohammadi Shahboulaghi, Farahnaz; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Sajjadi, Moosa; Farhadi, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Background Perceptions of aging refer to individuals’ understanding of aging within their sociocultural context. Proper measurement of this concept in various societies requires accurate tools. Objective The present study was conducted with the aim to translate and validate the Brief Aging Perceptions Questionnaire (B-APQ) and assess its psychometric features in Iranian older adults. Method In this study, the Persian version of B-APQ was validated for 400 older adults. This questionnaire was translated into Persian according to the Wild et al’s model. The Persian version was validated using content, face, and construct (using confirmatory factor analysis) validities, and then its internal consistency and test–retest reliability were measured. Data were analyzed using the statistical software programs SPSS 18 and EQS-6.1. Results The confirmatory factor analysis confirmed construct validity and five subscales of B-APQ. Test–retest reliability with 3-week interval produced r=0.94. Cronbach’s alpha was found to be 0.75 for the whole questionnaire, and from 0.53 to 0.77 for the five factors. Conclusion The Persian version of B-APQ showed favorable validity and reliability, and thus it can be used for measuring different dimensions of perceptions of aging in Iranian older adults. PMID:27194907

  11. Reading in L2 (English) and L1 (Persian): An Investigation into Reverse Transfer of Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talebi, Seyed Hassan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of reading strategies instruction in L2 (English) on raising reading strategies awareness and use and reading ability of Iranian EFL learners in L2 (English) and L1 (Persian) as a result of transfer of reading strategies from L2 to L1. To this purpose, 120 students of intermediate and advanced English proficiency…

  12. A Comparative Study of Allusions in the Poetry of English Poet John Milton and Persian Poet Hafiz Sherazi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleem, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Comparative literary studies characterize similarities and dissimilarities found in poetic works of two writers of different cultures. This study focuses on the use of allusions in poetry of John Milton particularly with reference to Paradise Lost and poetry of Persian Poet Hafiz Sherazi. Using allusions in poetry has been a common style of poets…

  13. 76 FR 54375 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange... establishing a temporary safety zone for a portion of the Gulf of Mexico for the waters off Orange Beach... Mexico, south of Orange Beach, Alabama to occur from October 6, 2011 through October 9, 2011. This...

  14. Fatty acid profiles, tocopherol contents, and antioxidant activities of heartnut (Juglans ailanthifolia Var. cordiformis) and Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Tsao, Rong; Yang, Raymond; Kramer, John K G; Hernandez, Marta

    2007-02-21

    The fatty acid and tocopherol compositions of three heartnut (Juglans ailanthifolia var. cordiformis) varieties (Imshu, Campbell CW1, and Campbell CW3) were examined and compared with those of two Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) varieties (Combe and Lake). The major fatty acids found in heartnuts and walnuts were identified by gas chromatography as linoleic (18:2n-6), alpha-linolenic (18:3n-3), oleic (18:1n-9), palmitic (16:0), and stearic acid (18:0). Polyunsaturated fatty acids were the main group of fatty acids found in both heartnut and walnut, ranging from 73.07 to 80.98%, and were significantly higher in heartnut than in Persian walnuts (P < 0.001). In addition, heartnuts had significantly higher levels of 18:2n-6 and lower levels of 18:3n-3 compared to the Persian walnuts. gamma-Tocopherol was the main tocopherol homologue present in both types of nuts, followed by delta- and alpha-tocopherol. The highest concentration of gamma-tocopherol was found in Combe Persian walnut at 267.87 mug/g, followed by Lake Persian walnut and Imshu, Campbell CW1, and CW3 heartnut at 205.45, 187.33, 161.84, and 126.46 mug/g, respectively. Tocopherols, particularly the gamma-tocopherol, were found to contribute the most to the strong total antioxidant activities of both walnut and heartnut oils using either the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay or the photochemiluminescence method.

  15. Validity and reliability of a Persian version of the quality of masticatory function questionnaire for edentulous patients

    PubMed Central

    Khodaeian, Niloufar; Rismanchian, Mansour; Behzadi, Ali; Jowkar, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Questionnaire is a suitable tool for evaluating the subjective masticatory function in edentulous patients. However, there is no validated Persian version of masticatory function questionnaire. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the translated Persian version of the quality of masticatory function (QMF) questionnaire in terms of validity and reliability. Materials and Methods: After translation of QMF questionnaire to Persian, its validity was evaluated by four expert prosthodontists. The tool was applied on 62 complete denture wearers (31 men and 31 women, mean age 64.85 ± 1.98 years, mean time of edentulism 12.17 ± 3.21 years) via face-to-face interviews. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to measure internal consistency. Construct validity was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis. The Spearman's correlation coefficient between the summary scores of the tool and the years of edentulism and sex was also calculated for concurrent validity (α = 0.05) Results: It has been found that the Persian version of the questionnaire had an acceptable reliability (α = 0.910). Exploratory factor analysis extracted five domains: Masticatory problems with dentures, problems while consuming apple and carrot, meat products, fruits and vegetables, and changes need for better swallowing. A correlation was found between the tool scores and the years of edentulism (P = 0.001), but there was no correlation between sex and the tool scores (P = 0.841). Conclusion: The Persian version of QMF questionnaire for edentulous patients showed acceptable validity and reliability but further studies are needed to verify this tool. PMID:27076831

  16. Why the Gulf War still matters: Foreign perspectives on the war and the future of international security. Report No. 16

    SciTech Connect

    Garrity, P.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report summarizes the main findings of a Center for National Security Studies (CNSS) project that examined how a number of nations other than the United States have reacted to the course and outcome of the Persian Gulf War of 1991. The project was built around studies of key countries on which the Gulf War might reasonably be expected to have had a significant impact: Argentina, the ASEAN states, Brazil, China, Cuba, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Libya, North Korea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Spain, Syria, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, Vietnam, and the states of the former Yugoslavia. These country studies were written by well-recognized independent experts following a common set of guidelines provided by CNSS. When the country studies were completed, they were reviewed and supplemented through a series of peer assessments and workshops. The report represents a synthesis of material generated through this process, and is intended to stimulate thought and further analysis on the critical topics discussed herein.

  17. Upper Texas Gulf Coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Upper Texas Gulf Coast (29.0N, 95.5W) is clearly represented in this view from space. The area covered stretches almost 300 miles from Aransas Pass, on the Texas coast in the south to Cameron, Louisiana in the north. The sharp detail of both the natural and cultural features throughout the scene is especially evident in the Houston area where highways, major streets, airport runways and even some neighborhood lanes can be easily seen.

  18. The Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version Test of Mobile Phone Dependency (TMD)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mohammadreza; Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Farokhzad, Pegah; Jannatifard, Fereshteh; Mohammadi Kalhori, Soroush; Sepahbodi, Ghazal; Baba Reisi, Mohammad; Sajedi, Sanaz; Farshchi, Mojtaba; Khoda Karami, Rasul; Hatami Kasvaee, Vahid; Sepasi, Neda; Alavi, Samaneh Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: ‎‏ ‏Despite the fact that ‎the mobile phone has become a ‎pervasive technology of our time, ‎little research has been done on ‎mobile dependency. A valid and ‎reliable assessment instrument ‎corresponding to the Persian ‎culture is essential. This study ‎aimed to describe the ‎construction and validation of the ‎Persian version of TMD (Test of ‎Mobile phone Dependency) to ‎assess the addictive use of ‎mobile phone.‎ Methods: This was a cross-‎sectional study, for which data ‎were collected from 350 students ‎who were studying at Tehran ‎universities. Sampling method ‎was quota sampling. The ‎participants anonymously ‎completed the demographic ‎questionnaire, and CPDQ as a ‎valid questionnaire and gold ‎standard. Finally, clinical ‎interview [based on DSM-IV-TR] ‎was performed. To analyze the ‎data, concurrent validity, factor ‎analysis, internal consistency ‎‎(Cronbachα), split half; test-retest ‎and ROC Curve by SPSS18 ‎Software were used.‎ Results: As a result of the ‎reliability analysis and factor ‎analysis by principal component ‎and Varimax rotation, three ‎factors (“salient”, “preoccupation” ‎and “Spend a lot of time and ‎money”) for both male and ‎female participants were ‎extracted. Internal consistency ‎‎(Cronbach's alpha) of the TMD ‎was .92 (Cronbach alpha of the ‎factors is .88, .82, and .84, ‎respectively). The test-retest ‎correlation of the TMD was ‎‎.56.The best cut off point for this ‎questionnaire (TMD) is 38.‎ Conclusion: The TMD proved to ‎have an acceptable internal ‎consistency with adequate factor ‎models to assess the extent of ‎problems caused by the "misuse" ‎of the mobile phone in the ‎Iranian society. Therefore, it can ‎be concluded that the Persian ‎version of the test was reliable ‎and valid; however, further ‎analysis is needed.‎ PMID:27006671

  19. MANAGEMENT OF ANOREXIA IN ELDERLY AS REMARKED BY MEDIEVAL PERSIAN PHYSICIANS.

    PubMed

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2015-01-01

    Normal ageing is often accompanied by loss of appetite and decrease in food intake. Weight loss of senescence is called anorexia of ageing. As an outstanding scientist and physician of Traditional Persian Medicine, Avicenna has introduced an unconventional approach to seniors. He also believed that the elderly should consider special schemes in order to maintain their health. These schemes include consideration of nutrition, mental states, sleep, bathing, and physical activities, and even choosing some appropriate hobbies. The elderly should consume foods and fruits with laxative and stool-softening properties to prevent constipation. They would also do better to decrease the amount of food eaten at meals, but at the same time increasing the number of meals to compensate for low food intake. Moreover, they should maintain their vital force and avoid any activities that tax the body. Furthermore, considering the principles of hifz-al-sehah can help secure long and healthy lives for the elderly. PMID:26959636

  20. MANAGEMENT OF ANOREXIA IN ELDERLY AS REMARKED BY MEDIEVAL PERSIAN PHYSICIANS.

    PubMed

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2015-01-01

    Normal ageing is often accompanied by loss of appetite and decrease in food intake. Weight loss of senescence is called anorexia of ageing. As an outstanding scientist and physician of Traditional Persian Medicine, Avicenna has introduced an unconventional approach to seniors. He also believed that the elderly should consider special schemes in order to maintain their health. These schemes include consideration of nutrition, mental states, sleep, bathing, and physical activities, and even choosing some appropriate hobbies. The elderly should consume foods and fruits with laxative and stool-softening properties to prevent constipation. They would also do better to decrease the amount of food eaten at meals, but at the same time increasing the number of meals to compensate for low food intake. Moreover, they should maintain their vital force and avoid any activities that tax the body. Furthermore, considering the principles of hifz-al-sehah can help secure long and healthy lives for the elderly.

  1. BORZOUYEH, AN ANCIENT PERSIAN PHYSICIAN WHO FIRST REPORTED UTERINE CONTRACTIONS IN NORMAL VAGINAL DELIVERY.

    PubMed

    Zargaran, Arman; Mehdizadeh, Alireza; Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Kiani, Hossein; Mohagheghzadehl, Abdolali

    2015-01-01

    During the final hours of pregnancy, uterine contractions cause the foetus to move through the birth canal and leave the mother's body. Haly Abbas (died 982-994 CE), is believed to be the first writer to explain the role of these contractions. However, this concept had in fact been described in the text titled Bab-e-Borzouyeh, written four centuries earlier by the physician Borzouyeh (Perzoes in Latin) as a prologue to his translation of the Indian collection of fables known as the Panchatantra. Because Haly Abbas probably had access to ancient Persian medical texts, the earliest report of uterine contractions may need to be re-attributed to this earlier author.

  2. Rabies in medieval Persian literature – the Canon of Avicenna (980–1037 AD)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ibn Sina (980–1037 AD), known by his full name Abu Ali al-Hussain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina and the Latin name ‘Avicenna’, was a Persian scholar who is primarily remembered for his contributions to the science of medicine. He authored Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine). Sections of his work are devoted to detailed descriptions of a number of infectious illnesses, particularly rabies. Avicenna described rabies in humans and animals and explained its clinical manifestations, route of transmission, and treatment methods. In this article, our goal is to discuss Avicenna’s 11th-century points of view on rabies and compare them with modern medical knowledge. PMID:24533686

  3. Challenges in modelling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedigh Marvasti, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Dunne, J. P.; Ghader, S.

    2015-07-01

    We examine interannual variability of phytoplankton blooms in northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color) shows two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. A pronounced anti-correlation between the AVISO sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and chlorophyll is found during the wintertime bloom. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is thus dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. These results were compared against the outputs from three different 3-D Earth System models. We show that two coarse (1°) models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ) capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6) with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING) displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The southern part of the domain is a region with a much sharper thermocline and nutricline relatively close to the surface, in which eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature). We suggest that for the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf.

  4. Challenges in modeling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedigh Marvasti, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Dunne, J. P.; Ghader, S.

    2016-02-01

    Recent years have shown an increase in harmful algal blooms in the Northwest Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman, raising the question of whether climate change will accelerate this trend. This has led us to examine whether the Earth System Models used to simulate phytoplankton productivity accurately capture bloom dynamics in this region - both in terms of the annual cycle and interannual variability. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color) show two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. Two coarse (1°) models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ) capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6) with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING) displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The models fail to capture both the magnitude of the wintertime bloom and its modulation by eddies in part because of their failure to capture the observed sharp thermocline and/or nutricline in this region. When CM2.6 is able to capture such features in the Southern part of the basin, eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature). For the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf - something that is poorly done in global models.

  5. Cytokine expression provides clues to the pathophysiology of Gulf War illness and myalgic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Khaiboullina, Svetlana F; DeMeirleir, Kenny L; Rawat, Shanti; Berk, Grady S; Gaynor-Berk, Rory S; Mijatovic, Tatjana; Blatt, Natalia; Rizvanov, Albert A; Young, Sheila G; Lombardi, Vincent C

    2015-03-01

    Gulf War illness (GWI) is a chronic disease of unknown etiology characterized by persistent symptoms such as cognitive impairment, unexplained fatigue, pervasive pain, headaches, and gastrointestinal abnormalities. Current reports suggest that as many as 200,000 veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War were afflicted. Several potential triggers of GWI have been proposed including chemical exposure, toxins, vaccines, and unknown infectious agents. However, a definitive cause of GWI has not been identified and a specific biological marker that can consistently delineate the disease has not been defined. Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is a disease with similar and overlapping symptomology, and subjects diagnosed with GWI typically fit the diagnostic criteria for ME. For these reasons, GWI is often considered a subgroup of ME. To explore this possibility and identify immune parameters that may help to understand GWI pathophysiology, we measured 77 serum cytokines in subjects with GWI and compared these data to that of subjects with ME as well as healthy controls. Our analysis identified a group of cytokines that identified ME and GWI cases with sensitivities of 92.5% and 64.9%, respectively. The five most significant cytokines in decreasing order of importance were IL-7, IL-4, TNF-α, IL-13, and IL-17F. When delineating GWI and ME cases from healthy controls, the observed specificity was only 33.3%, suggesting that with respect to cytokine expression, GWI cases resemble control subjects to a greater extent than ME cases across a number of parameters. These results imply that serum cytokines are representative of ME pathology to a greater extent than GWI and further suggest that the two diseases have distinct immune profiles despite their overlapping symptomology.

  6. Validation of fibromyalgia survey questionnaire and polysymptomatic distress scale in a Persian population.

    PubMed

    Bidari, Ali; Ghavidel-Parsa, Banafsheh; Amir Maafi, Alireza; Montazeri, Ali; Ghalehbaghi, Babak; Hassankhani, Amir; Aarabi, Yasaman; Haghdoost, Afrooz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess validity of the fibromyalgia survey questionnaire (FSQ) and polysymptomatic distress scale (PSD) in an Iranian population. We also sought to classify the severity levels of fibromyalgia (FM) symptoms according to the PSD scale. Participants were divided into FM and non-FM chronic pain disorder groups according to expert physician diagnosis. Patients in both groups answered to Persian-translated version of FSQ, fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ) and Short-Form-12 (SF-12). Both 1990 ACR criteria and FSDC were assessed in participates of two groups. Internal consistency and construct validity were evaluated. There was good internal consistency measured by Cronbach's alpha (0.814 for FSQ). FSQ and its subscales correlated significantly with FIQ scores and SF-12 subscales, indicating acceptable construct validity. The concordance rates of FSQ with 1990 ACR criteria and expert diagnosis were 61.2 and 75.7, respectively (convergence validity). The mean score of PSD and its components in FM group were significantly more than in control groups (discriminative validity). Using lower PSD score cutoff (≥8.5) for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia appeared to be the most effective approach in our population. ROC analysis of the PSD scores revealed 8.5-11.5, 11.5-15 and more than 15, respectively, as a mild, moderate and severe FM. Persian version of FSQ was a valid instrument for application in survey research among Iranian patients with chronic pain disorders. The current study revealed that PSD could be used as a valid tool for assessment of symptoms intensity regardless of fibromyalgia diagnosis. PMID:26581782

  7. Validity and reliability of the Persian version of spatial hearing questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Delphi, Maryam; Zamiri Abdolahi, Farzaneh; Tyler, Richard; Bakhit, Mahsa; Saki, Nader; Nazeri, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Our hearing ability in space is critical for hearing speech in noisy environment and localization. The Spatial Hearing Questionnaire (SHQ) has been devised to focus only on spatial haring tasks (e.g., lateralization, distance detection and binaural detection). The aim of the present study was to determine the reliability and validity of the Persian translation of the SHQ (Spatial Hearing Questionnaire). Methods: Translation and back-translation, reliability, content and construct validity were investigated. Eighty patients with sensory neural hearing loss (SNHL) (52.50% female and 47.5 % male) with the mean±SD age of 49.02±13.60 years completed SHQ, and they were categorized into mild, moderate, moderate to severe and severe groups based on their hearing threshold. Inclusion criteria in this study were the MMSE questionnaire score of higher than 21, good general health, no history of psychiatric disorders, dizziness or vertigo, dementia or alcohol abuse. Results: The reliability was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and found to be 0.99. Item-total correlation was between r= 0.84 and 0.92. There was a significant difference between the mean score of PSHQ in the four groups. Based on the factor analysis, two factors were extracted from the questions in P-SHQ: sound localization; and music and speech understanding in noise and quiet. These factors could explain 82.1% and 9.3% of the total variance, respectively. Conclusion: The present study proved the reliability and validity of the Persian version of SHQ (PSHQ). This provides a suitable tool for spatial hearing assessment in clinical/research environments. PMID:26793624

  8. Validation of fibromyalgia survey questionnaire and polysymptomatic distress scale in a Persian population.

    PubMed

    Bidari, Ali; Ghavidel-Parsa, Banafsheh; Amir Maafi, Alireza; Montazeri, Ali; Ghalehbaghi, Babak; Hassankhani, Amir; Aarabi, Yasaman; Haghdoost, Afrooz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess validity of the fibromyalgia survey questionnaire (FSQ) and polysymptomatic distress scale (PSD) in an Iranian population. We also sought to classify the severity levels of fibromyalgia (FM) symptoms according to the PSD scale. Participants were divided into FM and non-FM chronic pain disorder groups according to expert physician diagnosis. Patients in both groups answered to Persian-translated version of FSQ, fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ) and Short-Form-12 (SF-12). Both 1990 ACR criteria and FSDC were assessed in participates of two groups. Internal consistency and construct validity were evaluated. There was good internal consistency measured by Cronbach's alpha (0.814 for FSQ). FSQ and its subscales correlated significantly with FIQ scores and SF-12 subscales, indicating acceptable construct validity. The concordance rates of FSQ with 1990 ACR criteria and expert diagnosis were 61.2 and 75.7, respectively (convergence validity). The mean score of PSD and its components in FM group were significantly more than in control groups (discriminative validity). Using lower PSD score cutoff (≥8.5) for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia appeared to be the most effective approach in our population. ROC analysis of the PSD scores revealed 8.5-11.5, 11.5-15 and more than 15, respectively, as a mild, moderate and severe FM. Persian version of FSQ was a valid instrument for application in survey research among Iranian patients with chronic pain disorders. The current study revealed that PSD could be used as a valid tool for assessment of symptoms intensity regardless of fibromyalgia diagnosis.

  9. Validity and reliability of the Persian version of mobile phone addiction scale

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi; Karbasi, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Background: With regard to large number of mobile users especially among college students in Iran, addiction to mobile phone is attracting increasing concern. There is an urgent need for reliable and valid instrument to measure this phenomenon. This study examines validity and reliability of the Persian version of mobile phone addiction scale (MPAIS) in college students. Materials and Methods: this methodological study was down in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. One thousand one hundred and eighty students were selected by convenience sampling. The English version of the MPAI questionnaire was translated into Persian with the approach of Jones et al. (Challenges in language, culture, and modality: Translating English measures into American Sign Language. Nurs Res 2006; 55: 75-81). Its reliability was tested by Cronbach's alpha and its dimensionality validity was evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients with other measures of mobile phone use and IAT. Construct validity was evaluated using Exploratory subscale analysis. Results: Cronbach's alpha of 0.86 was obtained for total PMPAS, for subscale1 (eight items) was 0.84, for subscale 2 (five items) was 0.81 and for subscale 3 (two items) was 0.77. There were significantly positive correlations between the score of PMPAS and IAT (r = 0.453, P < 0.001) and other measures of mobile phone use. Principal component subscale analysis yielded a three-subscale structure including: inability to control craving; feeling anxious and lost; mood improvement accounted for 60.57% of total variance. The results of discriminate validity showed that all the item's correlations with related subscale were greater than 0.5 and correlations with unrelated subscale were less than 0.5. Conclusion: Considering lack of a valid and reliable questionnaire for measuring addiction to the mobile phone, PMPAS could be a suitable instrument for measuring mobile phone addiction in future research. PMID:24778668

  10. Effect of freezing rate for cryopreservation of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Aramli, Mohammad Sadegh; Golshahi, Karim; Nazari, Rajab Mohammad; Sotoudeh, Ebrahim; Aramli, Salim; Habibi, Ensieh

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the effect of freezing rate (-10 °C, -15 °C, -20 °C, -30 °C, and -40 °C/min) on motility parameters, rates of fertilization and hatching, ATP content, and indices of oxidative stress including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and carbonyl derivatives of proteins in Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) sperm. After sampling, sperm was diluted in an extender composed of 23.4-mM sucrose, 0.25-mM KCl, and 30-mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, containing 10% methanol and subsequently frozen in a programmable freezer. For postthaw sperm that were frozen at a rate of -40 °C/min, sperm motile duration (134 ± 27.01 seconds), sperm motile percent (60 ± 4.1%), fertilizability (72 ± 8.36% for fertilization rate and 65 ± 7.58% for hatching rate), and ATP content (4.8 ± 0.57 nmol/10(8) sperm) were significantly higher than for sperm frozen at any of the four slower rates (P < 0.05). Moreover, sperm cryopreserved using the fastest freezing rate had significantly lower levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (0.5 ± 0.05 nmol/10(8) sperm) and carbonyl derivatives of proteins (41.3 ± 4.9 nmol/10(8) sperm) than sperm cryopreserved using all other freezing rates (P < 0.05). In addition, there is a significant difference (P < 0.05) between fresh sperm and the recovery of cryopreserved Persian sturgeon sperm using programmable freezing with -40 °C/min being the optimal freezing rate among those tested.

  11. Validity, reliability and factor analysis of Persian version of schizophrenia quality of life scale

    PubMed Central

    Masaeli, Nasrin; Omranifard, Victoria; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Kheirabadi, Gholam Reza; Khedri, Anahita

    2016-01-01

    Context: Exact measurement of quality of life (QOL) in schizophrenia patients for evaluation of the patient's deterioration and also to assess the efficacy of therapeutic Interventions has become a daily task, which requires accurate assessment tools. Aims: This study was aimed to assess the psychometric properties of a Persian version of schizophrenia QOL scale (SQLS) as a common transcultural instrument. Settings and Design: One hundred and fifty schizophrenia patients who referred to Psychiatric Clinic in Noor Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) have been selected using simple sampling method. Subjects and Methods: Aside with SQLS, short form-36 general health (SF-36) and World Health Organization QOL-brief-26 (WHOQOL-BREF-26). Questionnaires were completed by the cases for determination of correlation coefficients. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, Pearson correlation coefficient by Statistical Package for Social Sciences software, version 18 (SPSS-18). Results: Total reliability of the questionnaire was reported by using Cronbach's coefficient alpha 0.84, reliability of individual relationships subscales was 0.91, signs 0/87, symptoms 0/72 and motivation/energy 0/61. Correlation coefficients of SF-36 with a total scale of SQLS and correlation coefficient of WHOQOL-BREF-26 with a total scale of SQLS were acceptable. Exploratory factor analysis using varimax rotation identified four principle components (interpersonal relationship, symptoms, signs, motivation, and energy), which will determine QOL at 52.7% variance. Conclusions: Persian version of the SQLS can be used as a simple, reliable and valid tool in Iranian population. PMID:27512702

  12. GULF OF MEXICO AQUATIC MORTALITY NETWORK (GMNET)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five U.S. states share the northern coast of the Gulf, and each has a program to monitor mortalities of aquatic organisms (fish, shellfish, birds). However, each state has different standards, procedures, and documentation of mortality events. The Gulf of Mexico Aquatic Mortality...

  13. 77 FR 56749 - Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... HOUSE, Washington, September 10, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-22807 Filed 9-12-12; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2... Documents#0;#0; ] Executive Order 13626 of September 10, 2012 Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration By the..., Executive Order 13554 established a Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Task Force (Task Force) to...

  14. Gulf Coast Community College's Memory Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Matthew D.

    2005-01-01

    Gulf Coast Community College in Panama City, Florida, is celebrating a fifty-year anniversary in 2007. Maintained by the library, the school's archives represent the historical contributions on a local and national level. Gulf Coast Community College library is ensuring the school's historical significance through the digitization of its…

  15. A Chronic Longitudinal Characterization of Neurobehavioral and Neuropathological Cognitive Impairment in a Mouse Model of Gulf War Agent Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zakirova, Zuchra; Crynen, Gogce; Hassan, Samira; Abdullah, Laila; Horne, Lauren; Mathura, Venkatarajan; Crawford, Fiona; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania

    2016-01-01

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multisymptom illness with a central nervous system component that includes memory impairment as well as neurological and musculoskeletal deficits. Previous studies have shown that in the First Persian Gulf War conflict (1990–1991) exposure to Gulf War (GW) agents, such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and permethrin (PER), were key contributors to the etiology of GWI. For this study, we used our previously established mouse model of GW agent exposure (10 days PB+PER) and undertook an extensive lifelong neurobehavioral characterization of the mice from 11 days to 22.5 months post exposure in order to address the persistence and chronicity of effects suffered by the current GWI patient population, 24 years post-exposure. Mice were evaluated using a battery of neurobehavioral testing paradigms, including Open Field Test (OFT), Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), Three Chamber Testing, Radial Arm Water Maze (RAWM), and Barnes Maze (BM) Test. We also carried out neuropathological analyses at 22.5 months post exposure to GW agents after the final behavioral testing. Our results demonstrate that PB+PER exposed mice exhibit neurobehavioral deficits beginning at the 13 months post exposure time point and continuing trends through the 22.5 month post exposure time point. Furthermore, neuropathological changes, including an increase in GFAP staining in the cerebral cortices of exposed mice, were noted 22.5 months post exposure. Thus, the persistent neuroinflammation evident in our model presents a platform with which to identify novel biological pathways, correlating with emergent outcomes that may be amenable to therapeutic targeting. Furthermore, in this work we confirmed our previous findings that GW agent exposure causes neuropathological changes, and have presented novel data which demonstrate increased disinhibition, and lack of social preference in PB+PER exposed mice at 13 months after exposure. We also extended upon our previous work to

  16. Gulf war depleted uranium risks.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Albert C

    2008-01-01

    US and British forces used depleted uranium (DU) in armor-piercing rounds to disable enemy tanks during the Gulf and Balkan Wars. Uranium particulate is generated by DU shell impact and particulate entrained in air may be inhaled or ingested by troops and nearby civilian populations. As uranium is slightly radioactive and chemically toxic, a number of critics have asserted that DU exposure has resulted in a variety of adverse health effects for exposed veterans and nearby civilian populations. The study described in this paper used mathematical modeling to estimate health risks from exposure to DU during the 1991 Gulf War for both US troops and nearby Iraqi civilians. The analysis found that the risks of DU-induced leukemia or birth defects are far too small to result in an observable increase in these health effects among exposed veterans or Iraqi civilians. The analysis indicated that only a few ( approximately 5) US veterans in vehicles accidentally targeted by US tanks received significant exposure levels, resulting in about a 1.4% lifetime risk of DU radiation-induced fatal cancer (compared with about a 24% risk of a fatal cancer from all other causes). These veterans may have also experienced temporary kidney damage. Iraqi children playing for 500 h in DU-destroyed vehicles are predicted to incur a cancer risk of about 0.4%. In vitro and animal tests suggest the possibility of chemically induced health effects from DU internalization, such as immune system impairment. Further study is needed to determine the applicability of these findings for Gulf War exposure to DU. Veterans and civilians who did not occupy DU-contaminated vehicles are unlikely to have internalized quantities of DU significantly in excess of normal internalization of natural uranium from the environment.

  17. 75 FR 16577 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review of VA's approach to and programs addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans' illnesses. The Gulf...

  18. Lack of genetic association among coat colors, progressive retinal atrophy and polycystic kidney disease in Persian cats.

    PubMed

    Rah, HyungChul; Maggs, David J; Lyons, Leslie A

    2006-10-01

    An inherited form of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is recognized in Persian cats; however, the prevalence of PRA in the breed has not been determined. Breeders suggest that cats from only brown ('chocolate') or Himalayan ('pointed') lines are at risk for PRA, suggesting the disease is not widespread. This study was designed to evaluate whether PRA in Persian cats is associated with three coat colors, including chocolate, or with a highly prevalent inherited disease in this breed--polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Sixty related cats were evaluated for PRA by ophthalmic examination and genetically typed for PKD and the mutations that cause coat color variants in agouti, brown and color (producing the pointed coloration in Himalayan). No associations were identified among any of the traits, including between PRA and chocolate. These data suggest that PRA is not limited to cats with chocolate coat coloration and breeders and veterinarians should be aware that the prevalence of the disease may be higher than currently claimed.

  19. 77 FR 40561 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Amendment 34 AGENCY.... ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management... the Gulf of Mexico (FMP) for review, approval, and implementation by NMFS. Amendment 34 proposes...

  20. 76 FR 43250 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Stone Crab Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Stone Crab Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Removal of Regulations... Management Plan for the Stone Crab Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (FMP) and remove its implementing regulations, as requested by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (Council). The stone crab...

  1. 78 FR 34586 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... interest because the recreational fishing season opened 1 day after the Court set aside the emergency rule... zone (EEZ) of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) for the 2013 fishing season through this temporary rule. On May..., instead of closing the EEZ on different days off individual Gulf states. This Gulf-wide EEZ closure...

  2. 78 FR 49440 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Red Snapper Management...). If implemented, this rule would increase the 2013 commercial and recreational quotas for red snapper in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) reef fish fishery and re-open the red snapper recreational season...

  3. 75 FR 2469 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Amendment 31 AGENCY... Amendment 31 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico (FMP) prepared by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (Council). This proposed rule would...

  4. The Gulf of Lions' hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, Claude

    1990-09-01

    From an hydrodynamical point of view, the Gulf of Lions can be considered as a very complex region, because several intense and highly variable phenomena compete simultaneously. These processes include the powerful general circulation along the continental slope, the formation of dense water both on the shelf and offshore, a seasonal variation of stratification and the extreme energies associated with meteorological conditions. The cloudless atmospheric conditions encountered generally in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea have enabled us to make use of, over more than 10 years, large use of various satellite imageries. The large space and time variability of the hydrodynamical features, a complex topography and a noticeable fishing activity, represent certain difficulties to the collection of observations in situ. We have obtained, therefore, only a few current time series on the slope; those obtained on the shelf only cover the summer period. Models have been elaborated to help us understand the reasons for the general circulation. Observational programmes to be carried out in the forthcoming years will probably provide us with more definitive results on the Gulf of Lions' hydrodynamics.

  5. Comparison between ultrasound and genetic testing for the early diagnosis of polycystic kidney disease in Persian and Exotic Shorthair cats.

    PubMed

    Bonazzi, Mattia; Volta, Antonella; Gnudi, Giacomo; Cozzi, Maria C; Strillacci, Maria G; Polli, Michele; Longeri, Maria; Manfredi, Sabrina; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2009-06-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (AD-PKD) is common in Persians and Persians-related breeds. The aims of this study were to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of early ultrasound examination and to compare ultrasound and genetic testing for early diagnosis. Sixty-three Persians and seven Exotic Shorthairs were considered. All underwent ultrasonographic and genetic testing (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay) between 2.5 and 3.5 months of age (10-14 weeks). With ultrasound, 41.4% showed renal cysts, while 37.1% were PKD positive by genetic testing and DNA sequencing. Six cats with at least one renal cyst were negative by genetic testing, while only one cat negative at ultrasound resulted positive at genetic test. DNA sequencing of three polycystic cats, negative by genetic test, revealed they were heterozygous for the mutation. Agreement was described by Cohen's kappa that resulted 0.85, considering genetic test and DNA sequencing. Sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound were 96.2% and 91%, respectively. Sensitivity was higher and specificity lower than reported previously. The higher sensitivity could be due to improved technical capabilities of ultrasound machines and transducers. Other causes of PKD could explain the lower specificity. In conclusion, ultrasound resulted in a reliable diagnostic method for feline AD-PKD1 at early age and it should always be used with genetic testing, in order to reach a complete screening programme and eventually to identify other genetic mutations. PMID:19046910

  6. Influence of Glutamine Supplementation on Motility and Fertilization Success of Frozen-Thawed Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) Sperm.

    PubMed

    Aramli, M S; Golshahi, K; Nazari, R M; Golpour, A; Aramli, S

    2016-08-01

    Amino acids have an important biological role for the prevention of cell damage during cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of glutamine on post-thaw sperm motility and fertilization success in the Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus). Sperm collected from six fish was cryopreserved in extenders containing different glutamine concentrations (2.5, 5 and 10 mm). Sperm samples diluted at the ratio of 1 : 1 using the extenders were subjected to cryopreservation. After dilution, the sperm suspensions were sucked into 250-μl straws; the straws were placed on the tray, frozen in nitrogen vapour and plunged into liquid nitrogen. Then, sperm were thawed in a water bath at 40°C for 5 s and used for analysis. Our results revealed that an increase in the concentration of glutamine caused a significant increase in the motility percentage, curvilinear velocity (VCL) and also fertilization success in the Persian sturgeon (p < 0.05). Comparing all concentrations of glutamine, the best concentration for sperm motility and fertilization rate was 10 mm. In addition, higher post-thaw motility percentage, VCL, and fertilization and hatching rates were obtained with the extender at the concentration of 10 mm (p < 0.05). The findings of this study showed that glutamine was of greater benefit to Persian sturgeon sperm motility during frozen-thawed process.

  7. Gulf War illness: a view from Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Malcolm; Kelsall, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Australia sent a small, mostly naval, deployment to the 1991 Gulf War. When papers and media concerns arose about unexplained Gulf War illnesses in Gulf War troops from other countries, Australia decided to undertake its own study of Australian veterans. Undertaking a later study, more than 10 years after the Gulf War, allowed us to incorporate some methodological improvements on previous research, such as the inclusion of a face-to-face health assessment where more objective health data could be collected in addition to using a postal questionnaire. Despite the different Gulf War experience for the mostly naval Australian group, there were remarkable consistencies in the patterns of multiple symptom reporting found in overseas studies, including the fact that no unique symptom clusters were identified. In general, this excess symptom reporting was not found to occur with excesses in more objective measures of physical health. These objective physical measures included a wide range of haematological, biochemical and serological markers, a physical examination, spirometry and a step test of fatigability. In contrast, several psychological disorders, including anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and substance abuse, were found to occur in excess in the Australian Gulf War group and were associated with Gulf War psychological stressors. These findings have helped raise awareness in Australia of psychological health problems in deployed military personnel. PMID:16687266

  8. Gulf of Mexico production still recovering

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-10-12

    This paper reports that the extent of damage caused by Hurricane Andrew to Gulf of Mexico oil and gas installations continues coming into focus. A preliminary tally by Minerals Management Service offers a reasonably complete summary of gulf production and pipeline systems damage detectable at the surface. MMS requires Outer Continental Shelf operators to inspect for underwater damage all platforms, pipelines, risers, and other structures within an 85 mile corridor along the path of Andrew's eye as it churned through the gulf. OCS operators have until Oct. 16 to submit plans for the Level II surveys.

  9. Long-term epigenetic alterations in a rat model of Gulf War Illness.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Lisa M; Kurata, Wendy E; Matsumoto, Karen W; Clark, Margaret E; Farmer, Douglas M

    2016-07-01

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic, multisymptom illness that affects 25% of the 700,000 US veterans deployed to the Persian Gulf during the 1990-1991 Gulf War. Central nervous system impairments are among the most common symptoms reported, including memory dysfunction and depression. After 25 years, the diagnosis remains elusive, useful treatments are lacking, and the cause is poorly understood, although exposures to pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and pesticides are consistently identified to be among the strongest risk factors. Epigenetic changes including altered microRNA (miRNA) expression and DNA methylation play an important role in learning, memory, and emotion regulation and have been implicated in various neurological disorders. In this study, we used an established rat model of GWI to determine whether 1) chronic alterations in miRNA expression and global DNA methylation and DNA hydroxymethylation are mechanisms involved in the pathobiology of GWI, and 2) plasma exosome small RNAs may serve as potential noninvasive biomarkers of this debilitating disease. One year after a 28-day exposure regimen of PB, DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide), permethrin, and mild stress, expression of 84 mature miRNAs and global 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) content were analyzed in the brains of GWI rats and vehicle controls by PCR array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Plasma exosome RNA next-generation sequencing analysis was performed in pooled samples to discover potential noninvasive biomarkers. We found that combined exposure to low doses of GW-related chemicals and mild stress caused epigenetic modifications in the brain that persisted one year after exposure, including increased expression of miR-124-3p and miR-29b-3p in the hippocampus and regional alterations in global 5mC and 5hmC content. GW-relevant exposures also induced the differential expression of two piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in circulation (piR-007899

  10. Psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Ambulatory Care Learning Educational Environment Measure (ACLEEM) questionnaire, Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Parvizi, Mohammad Mahdi; Amini, Mitra; Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Peyman; Parvizi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Evaluation is the main component in design and implementation of educational activities and rapid growth of educational institution programs. Outpatient medical education and clinical training environment is one of the most important parts of training of medical residents. This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the Persian version of Ambulatory Care Learning Educational Environment Measure (ACLEEM) questionnaire, as an instrument for assessment of educational environments in residency medical clinics. Materials and methods This study was performed on 180 residents in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, in 2014–2015. The questionnaire designers’ electronic permission (by email) and the residents’ verbal consent were obtained before distributing the questionnaires. The study data were gathered using ACLEEM questionnaire developed by Arnoldo Riquelme in 2013. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software, version 14, and MedCalc® software. Then, the construct validity, including convergent and discriminant validities, of the Persian version of ACLEEM questionnaire was assessed. Its internal consistency was also checked by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Results Five team members who were experts in medical education were consulted to test the cultural adaptation, linguistic equivalency, and content validity of the Persian version of the questionnaire. Content validity indexes were >0.9 in all items. In factor analysis of the instrument, the Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin index was 0.928 and Barlett’s sphericity test yielded the following results: X2=6,717.551, df =1,225, and P≤0.001. Besides, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of ACLEEM questionnaire was 0.964. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were also >0.80 in all the three domains of the questionnaire. Overall, the Persian version of ACLEEM showed excellent convergent validity and acceptable discriminant validity, except for the clinical training domain

  11. SAR observations in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheres, David

    1992-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) exhibits a wealth of energetic ocean features; they include the Loop Current with velocities of about 2 m/s and strong shear fronts, mesoscale eddies, double vortices, internal waves, and the outflow of the 'Mighty Mississippi' river. These energetic features can have a strong impact on the economies of the states surrounding the Gulf. Large fisheries, oil and gas production as well as pollution transport are relevant issues. These circulation features in the Gulf are invisible to conventional IR and visible satellite imagery during the Summer months due to cloud cover and uniform surface temperatures. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery of the Gulf does penetrate the cloud cover and shows a rich assembly of features there year-round. Below are preliminary results from GOM SAR imagery taken by SEASAT in 1978 and by the AIRSAR program in 1991.

  12. Satellites View Growing Gulf Oil Spill (Update)

    NASA Video Gallery

    On April 30, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, triggering the largest oil spill in U.S. history. The MODIS instrument, on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, c...

  13. NASA Satellites View Gulf Oil Spill

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two NASA satellites are capturing images of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, which began April 20, 2010, with the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. This series of images shows a space...

  14. Hurricane Isaac Moving Towards Northern Gulf Coast

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is an animation of GOES-13 satellite imagery from Aug. 26-28, 2012 of Hurricane Isaac's track through the Gulf of Mexico. Isaac is headed for New Orleans, exactly 7 years after hurricane Katri...

  15. 78 FR 12303 - Gulf Crossing Pipeline Company LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gulf Crossing Pipeline Company LLC; Notice of Application On February 1, 2013, Gulf Crossing Pipeline Company (Gulf Crossing) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory... auxiliary facilities. The pipeline would extend from Gulf Crossing's Sherman Compressor Station,...

  16. Local bleaching thresholds established by remote sensing techniques vary among reefs with deviating bleaching patterns during the 2012 event in the Arabian/Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Shuail, Dawood; Wiedenmann, Jörg; D'Angelo, Cecilia; Baird, Andrew H; Pratchett, Morgan S; Riegl, Bernhard; Burt, John A; Petrov, Peter; Amos, Carl

    2016-04-30

    A severe bleaching event affected coral communities off the coast of Abu Dhabi, UAE in August/September, 2012. In Saadiyat and Ras Ghanada reefs ~40% of the corals showed signs of bleaching. In contrast, only 15% of the corals were affected on Delma reef. Bleaching threshold temperatures for these sites were established using remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST) data recorded by MODIS-Aqua. The calculated threshold temperatures varied between locations (34.48 °C, 34.55 °C, 35.05 °C), resulting in site-specific deviations in the numbers of days during which these thresholds were exceeded. Hence, the less severe bleaching of Delma reef might be explained by the lower relative heat stress experienced by this coral community. However, the dominance of Porites spp. that is associated with the long-term exposure of Delma reef to elevated temperatures, as well as the more pristine setting may have additionally contributed to the higher coral bleaching threshold for this site.

  17. Local bleaching thresholds established by remote sensing techniques vary among reefs with deviating bleaching patterns during the 2012 event in the Arabian/Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Shuail, Dawood; Wiedenmann, Jörg; D'Angelo, Cecilia; Baird, Andrew H; Pratchett, Morgan S; Riegl, Bernhard; Burt, John A; Petrov, Peter; Amos, Carl

    2016-04-30

    A severe bleaching event affected coral communities off the coast of Abu Dhabi, UAE in August/September, 2012. In Saadiyat and Ras Ghanada reefs ~40% of the corals showed signs of bleaching. In contrast, only 15% of the corals were affected on Delma reef. Bleaching threshold temperatures for these sites were established using remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST) data recorded by MODIS-Aqua. The calculated threshold temperatures varied between locations (34.48 °C, 34.55 °C, 35.05 °C), resulting in site-specific deviations in the numbers of days during which these thresholds were exceeded. Hence, the less severe bleaching of Delma reef might be explained by the lower relative heat stress experienced by this coral community. However, the dominance of Porites spp. that is associated with the long-term exposure of Delma reef to elevated temperatures, as well as the more pristine setting may have additionally contributed to the higher coral bleaching threshold for this site. PMID:26971815

  18. Total petroleum systems of the Paleozoic and Jurassic, Greater Ghawar Uplift and adjoining provinces of central Saudi Arabia and northern Arabian-Persian Gulf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    Oil of the Arabian Sub-Basin Tuwaiq/Hanifa-Arab TPS is sourced by organic-rich, marine carbonates of the Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain and Hanifa Formations. These source rocks were deposited in two of three intraplatform basins during the Jurassic and, where thermally mature, have generated a superfamily of oils with distinctive geochemical characteristics. Oils were generated and expelled from these source rocks beginning in the Cretaceous at about 75 Ma. Hydrocarbon production is from 3 cyclic carbonate-rock reservoirs of the Arab Formation that are sealed by overlying anhydrite. Several giant and supergiant fields, including the world's largest oil field at Ghawar, Saudi Arabia, produce mostly from the Arab carbonate-rock reservoirs. Two assessment units are also recognized in the Arabian Sub-Basin Tuwaiq/Hanifa-Arab TPS that are similarly related to structural trap style and presence of underlying Infracambrian salt: (1) an onshore Horst-Block Anticlinal Oil AU, and (2) a mostly offshore Salt-Involved Structural Oil AU. The mean total volume of undiscovered resource for the Arabian Sub-Basin Tuwaiq/Hanifa-Arab TPS is estimated at about 49 billion barrels of oil equivalent (42 billion barrels of oil, 34 trillion feet of gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural gas liquids).

  19. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea: gold nanoparticles fiber for a head space solid phase micro extraction.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mohammad; Aboufazeli, Forouzan; Zhad, Hamid Reza Lotfi Zadeh; Sadeghi, Omid; Najafi, Ezzatollah

    2013-03-01

    A gold nanoparticles modified fused silica fiber was developed and used for the head space solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including naphthalene, anthracene, acenaphthylene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene. The effects of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency including extraction temperature, extraction time, ionic strength, stirring rate and sample volume were examined and optimized. Linear ranges of 1-300 μg L(-1) for naphthalene, 0.5-250 μg L(-1) for anthracene, acenaphthylene and phenanthrene and 0.05-200 μg L(-1) for fluoranthene and pyrene were obtained. Detection limits were in the range of 10-200 μg L(-1). Single fiber repeatability and fiber to fiber reproducibility were less than 2.5 %-6.0 % and 8.5 %-13.6 %, respectively. Seawater samples were analyzed as real samples and good recoveries (91.9 %-105.3 %) were obtained for target analytes.

  20. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea: gold nanoparticles fiber for a head space solid phase micro extraction.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mohammad; Aboufazeli, Forouzan; Zhad, Hamid Reza Lotfi Zadeh; Sadeghi, Omid; Najafi, Ezzatollah

    2013-03-01

    A gold nanoparticles modified fused silica fiber was developed and used for the head space solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including naphthalene, anthracene, acenaphthylene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene. The effects of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency including extraction temperature, extraction time, ionic strength, stirring rate and sample volume were examined and optimized. Linear ranges of 1-300 μg L(-1) for naphthalene, 0.5-250 μg L(-1) for anthracene, acenaphthylene and phenanthrene and 0.05-200 μg L(-1) for fluoranthene and pyrene were obtained. Detection limits were in the range of 10-200 μg L(-1). Single fiber repeatability and fiber to fiber reproducibility were less than 2.5 %-6.0 % and 8.5 %-13.6 %, respectively. Seawater samples were analyzed as real samples and good recoveries (91.9 %-105.3 %) were obtained for target analytes. PMID:23183967

  1. Data on metal contents (As, Ag, Sr, Sn, Sb, and Mo) in sediments and shells of Trachycardium lacunosum in the northern part of the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Karbasdehi, Vahid Noroozi; Dobaradaran, Sina; Nabipour, Iraj; Arfaeinia, Hossein; Mirahmadi, Roghayeh; Keshtkar, Mozhgan

    2016-09-01

    In this data article, by using inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry (ICP-OES), we aimed to (1) determine the concentration levels of As, Ag, Sr, Sn, Sb, and Mo in the sediments and the shells of Trachycardium lacunosum simultaneously in two separated areas (unpolluted and polluted areas) (2) comparison between the metal contents of sediments in the unpolluted and polluted areas as well as shells. Analysis of data showed that sediment as well as shell samples in polluted area contained significantly higher concentration levels of all measured metals compared with unpolluted area. PMID:27508251

  2. Detection of Hepatozoon sp. in a Persian leopard (Panthera pardus ciscaucasica).

    PubMed

    Khoshnegah, Javad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Mirshahi, Ali; Mousavi, Seyed Javad

    2012-07-01

    A free-ranging, adult, male Persian leopard (Panthera pardus ciscaucasica) was found at Geloul-Sarani protected zone, province of North-Khorasan, Iran and transported to the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The leopard had normal temperature and respiratory and cardiac frequency, but was significantly dehydrated and had elevated capillary perfusion. The animal also was cachectic, with pale mucus membranes, third-eyelid protrusion, and bilaterally enlarged submandibular lymph nodes. The leopard was stabilized by intensive fluid and electrolyte therapy and hospitalized. In 2 days, the leopard had improved clinically but had severe ataxia and head pressing. Blood smears revealed gamonts of Hepatozoon sp. within some neutrophils. Hematologic and plasma chemistry abnormalities included moderate anemia, leukocytosis, hypocholestrolemia, and hypophosphatemia. In radiographic evaluations, no sign of periosteal reactions or new bone formation was seen on the skull, spine, long bones, pelvis, or vertebrae. The leopard was treated successfully with Tazocin and clindamycin for 1 mo. This is the first detection of a Hepatozoon sp. in wild Felidae in Iran. Because most Iranian wild felids and canids are endangered, knowing whether Hepatozoon infection represents a threat for these animals is important.

  3. Antiproliferative activity of chloroformic extract of Persian Shallot, Allium hirtifolium, on tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ghodrati Azadi, Hamideh; Ghaffari, Seyed Mahmood; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Ahmadian, Shahin; Vahedi, Fatemeh

    2008-03-01

    Allium hirtifolim (Persian Shallot) belongs to Allium genus (Alliaceae family). We investigated the in vitro effects of chloroformic extract of A. hirtifolium and its Allicin on the proliferation of HeLa (cervical cancer), MCF7 (human, caucasion, breast, adenocarcinoma) and L929 (mouse, C3H/An, connective) cell lines. Our results showed that components of A. hirtifolium might inhibit proliferation of tumor cell lines. This inhibition in HeLa and MCF-7 cells was dose-dependent. The presence of Allicin was evaluated by TLC method in bulbs and the extract of A. hirtifolium was analyzed by HPLC. MTT test was performed 24, 48 and 72 h after cell culture. A significant decrease in cell lines was observed in HeLa and MCF-7 as compared to L929 cell lines. DNA fragmentation analysis revealed a large number of apoptotic cells in treated HeLa and MCF-7 cell groups, but no effects in L929 cells. Therefore A. hirtifolium might be a candidate for tumor suppression.

  4. Variability analysis of 'Persian' acid lime tree selections using agronomic and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Santos, M G; Passos, O S; Soares Filho, W S; Girardi, E A; Gesteira, A S; Ferreira, C F

    2013-01-01

    'Persian' acid lime (PAL) is the most important triploid commercial citrus crop planted in the world. Little is known about the genetic variability of the selections used in Brazil. Therefore, 25 genotypes originating from the PAL, and three control species, Citrus sunki, C. limon, and C. aurantiifolia, were assessed using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) molecular markers and agronomic traits of the fruit. The dendrograms were designed using the mean Euclidean distance for the physicochemical attributes of the fruit (weight, length, diameter, peel color, peel thickness, number of seeds, juice yield, titratable acidity, soluble solids, and ratio) and the Jaccard distances using the data from the ISSR and IRAP molecular markers. In the physicochemical analysis, the genotypes were grouped according to species. The trait that contributed most to the diversity among accessions was the number of seeds. The 17 ISSR primers produced 69 polymorphic bands in the molecular analysis, and the seven IRAP primers generated 30 polymorphic bands. The markers detected polymorphisms within and among the PALs; two groups were formed within the PALs. PMID:24222236

  5. Effects of Abnormal Oral Reflexes on Speech Articulation in Persian Speaking Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    DADGAR, Hooshang; HADIAN, Mohammad Reza; LIRA, Ortega Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the presence of abnormal oral reflexes and speech sound production in children with severe cerebral palsy. Materials & Methods Seven oral reflexes such as, rooting, mouth-opening, biting, chewing, lip, tongue, and suckling were examined in 52Persian-speaking monolingual children with spastic cerebral palsy (ages 5-10 yr).Phonetic information tests were administered to investigate their ability for articulation of the speech sounds. Results A significant relationship between three (i.e. the chewing, lip, and biting reflexes) out of the seven abnormal oral reflexes and the speech articulation was noticed. The presence of the chewing reflex was associated with deficits in production of /s, z, š,č/ sounds. The lip reflex was associated with deficits in the production of /p, m, r, j, f, č/ sounds. The biting reflex was associated with deficits in the production of /z, l, y and š/ sounds. No significant relationship was found between the rooting, mouth-opening, tongue, and suckling reflexes and sound articulation. Conclusion The presence of abnormal reflexes in the children with spastic cerebral palsy would suggest a correlation between these reflexes and sound articulation in Iranian children with spastic cerebral palsy. Hence, these observations might suggest some disturbances in normal speech development. PMID:27375753

  6. First description of naturally acquired Tritrichomonas foetus infection in a Persian cattery in Spain.

    PubMed

    Miró, Guadalupe; Hernández, Leticia; Montoya, Ana; Arranz-Solís, David; Dado, Diana; Rojo-Montejo, Silvia; Mendoza-Ibarra, Jesús Alberto; Ortega-Mora, Luís Miguel; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana

    2011-10-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus has been identified as the causative agent of feline intestinal trichomonosis, characterized by clinical signs of chronic large bowel diarrhoea. This disease has been reported in cats from the USA, Europe and Australia. However, its epidemiology is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to describe T. foetus infection in a Persian cattery in Spain. T. foetus infection was sequentially diagnosed in 20 cats by direct faecal smear examined under the microscope, specific culture (In Pouch TF medium) and PCR. A standard coprological sedimentation method was also performed in order to screen for other intestinal parasites in all the cats included. In addition, sera were tested for IgG antibodies against Leishmania infantum, Toxoplasma gondii, and for the detection of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV). Five out of 20 cats were positive for T. foetus (25%), two of them by microscopy, culture and PCR and three by culture and PCR. No association was found between T. foetus infection and age or sex. L. infantum and T. gondii seroprevalence rates were 15% and 10%, respectively. The prevalence of FeLV p27 antigen and of FIV antibodies in the study population was zero. Cystoisospora spp. oocysts were detected in one cat. These preliminary results show that the transmission of T. foetus infection in cluster conditions may occur between asymptomatic cats and young or immunocompromised animals.

  7. Development of emulsifying property in Persian gum using octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA).

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, S; Abbasi, S; Scanlon, M G

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, the influence of octenyle succinic anhydride (OSA),gum concentration, pH, temperature and reaction time on esterification of Persian gum (PG), and its soluble (SFPG) and insoluble (IFPG) fractions, were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM) in order to optimize the reaction conditions based on the degree of substitution (DS). The individual effect of all independent variables as well as the interactive effects of temperature-OSA concentration, and OSA-PG concentrations on DS was significant. However, the latter interactive effect (OSA-SFPG) was not significant in case of SFPG. The IFPG did not have any esterification reaction with OSA. The highest DS for PG and SFPG were 0.0285 and 0.0303 at the optimal conditions, respectively. The FTIR spectrums also confirmed the carbonyl group attachment in OSA-PG and OSA-SFPG. The enhancement of emulsifying capability was also confirmed by ECI and EAI values, microscopic images as well as rheological measurements. PMID:27138859

  8. Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    PubMed

    Sadati, Seyede Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Ebadi, Nastaran; Yakhchali, Maryam; Dana, Azadeh Raees; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ramezany, Farid

    2016-01-01

    One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort), the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory), and Apium graveolens (celery) seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and Cucumis melo (melon) seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper longum (long pepper), red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea), hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal), Anethum graveolens (dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM.

  9. Environmental and Pathogenic Factors Inducing Brown Apical Necrosis on Fruit of English (Persian) Walnut.

    PubMed

    Scotton, Michele; Bortolin, Enrico; Fiorin, Antonio; Belisario, Alessandra

    2015-11-01

    Brown apical necrosis (BAN) is a most recently described disease affecting English (Persian) walnut fruit. BAN was only recorded in intensively managed walnut orchards and was found to be a disease complex mainly caused by Fusarium species. All fungi associated with this disease are polyphagous and ubiquitous, not specific to walnut. Consequently, BAN occurrence is more strictly dependent, than generally, on the interaction between pathological features and environmental conditions. Environmental variables identified with regression analysis showed that maximum temperature, angle of main wind direction versus tree row orientation, and orchard distance to the closest river/canal, all representative of climatic conditions occurring in the orchard, were related to fruit drop. The factor displaying the highest influence on severity of BAN fruit drop was maximum temperature and only subordinately factors are associated with relative humidity. BAN symptoms were reproduced with in planta artificial inoculation, and fruit drop of symptomatic fruit was significantly higher than that of the noninoculated trees for each type of inoculum (Fusarium semitectum, F. graminearum, and Alternaria spp.). F. semitectum and F. graminearum were more aggressive than Alternaria species, and the earliest artificial inoculations in mid-May resulted in the highest fruit drop. The extension of walnut fruit susceptibility and the conducive environmental factors to BAN are discussed.

  10. Antiproliferative activity of chloroformic extract of Persian Shallot, Allium hirtifolium, on tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ghodrati Azadi, Hamideh; Ghaffari, Seyed Mahmood; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Ahmadian, Shahin; Vahedi, Fatemeh

    2008-03-01

    Allium hirtifolim (Persian Shallot) belongs to Allium genus (Alliaceae family). We investigated the in vitro effects of chloroformic extract of A. hirtifolium and its Allicin on the proliferation of HeLa (cervical cancer), MCF7 (human, caucasion, breast, adenocarcinoma) and L929 (mouse, C3H/An, connective) cell lines. Our results showed that components of A. hirtifolium might inhibit proliferation of tumor cell lines. This inhibition in HeLa and MCF-7 cells was dose-dependent. The presence of Allicin was evaluated by TLC method in bulbs and the extract of A. hirtifolium was analyzed by HPLC. MTT test was performed 24, 48 and 72 h after cell culture. A significant decrease in cell lines was observed in HeLa and MCF-7 as compared to L929 cell lines. DNA fragmentation analysis revealed a large number of apoptotic cells in treated HeLa and MCF-7 cell groups, but no effects in L929 cells. Therefore A. hirtifolium might be a candidate for tumor suppression. PMID:19002856

  11. Inhibitory Activity of Avicennia marina, a Medicinal Plant in Persian Folk Medicine, against HIV and HSV.

    PubMed

    Namazi, Rahele; Zabihollahi, Rezvan; Behbahani, Mandana; Rezaei, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Avicennia marina (Avicenniaceae) is a species of mangrove tree used for treatment of small pox lesions in Persian folk medicine. The antiviral activity of methanol, ethanol, water, chloroform and n-hexane extracts was evaluated against HIV-1 and HSV. Methanol extract had the highest antiviral activity and the most polar fraction of this extract (fraction D) inhibited HSV with TI and SI values of 57.1 and 133; however, it showed mild activity against HIV with SI value of 6.25 (fraction 3). The anti-HSV activity of active fraction was confirmed using FLASH-PCR. Phytochemical investigation revealed that fraction D encompasses flavonoids compounds. The time-of-addition study demonstrated that fraction D disturbs viral replication after penetrating to the cell. A. marina was endowed with fragments by which found to be able to inhibit replication of HSV after entry but did not show significant potency against HIV-1. This promotes further investigation in anti-HSV drug discovery.

  12. Environmental and Pathogenic Factors Inducing Brown Apical Necrosis on Fruit of English (Persian) Walnut.

    PubMed

    Scotton, Michele; Bortolin, Enrico; Fiorin, Antonio; Belisario, Alessandra

    2015-11-01

    Brown apical necrosis (BAN) is a most recently described disease affecting English (Persian) walnut fruit. BAN was only recorded in intensively managed walnut orchards and was found to be a disease complex mainly caused by Fusarium species. All fungi associated with this disease are polyphagous and ubiquitous, not specific to walnut. Consequently, BAN occurrence is more strictly dependent, than generally, on the interaction between pathological features and environmental conditions. Environmental variables identified with regression analysis showed that maximum temperature, angle of main wind direction versus tree row orientation, and orchard distance to the closest river/canal, all representative of climatic conditions occurring in the orchard, were related to fruit drop. The factor displaying the highest influence on severity of BAN fruit drop was maximum temperature and only subordinately factors are associated with relative humidity. BAN symptoms were reproduced with in planta artificial inoculation, and fruit drop of symptomatic fruit was significantly higher than that of the noninoculated trees for each type of inoculum (Fusarium semitectum, F. graminearum, and Alternaria spp.). F. semitectum and F. graminearum were more aggressive than Alternaria species, and the earliest artificial inoculations in mid-May resulted in the highest fruit drop. The extension of walnut fruit susceptibility and the conducive environmental factors to BAN are discussed. PMID:26214123

  13. Cryopreservation of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) embryos by DMSO-based vitrificant solutions.

    PubMed

    Keivanloo, Saeide; Sudagar, Mohammad

    2016-03-15

    Vitrification could provide a promising tool for the cryopreservation of fish embryos. To achieve successful cryopreservation, several parameters should be taken into account in the design of a vitrification protocol. In the present study, some relevant factors were investigated (choice of a proper vitrificant solutions and temperature for thawing) using neurulation-stage embryos. Six DMSO-based vitrificant solutions (V1-V6) were tested using a 6-step incorporation protocol. DMSO-based vitrificant solutions contained DMSO + permeable cryoprotectants + nonpermeable cryoprotectants. Embryos were immersed in vitrificant solutions for 7 minutes and directly plunged into liquid nitrogen. After vitrification (-196 °C for 10 minutes), the thawing was performed in a water bath at 0 or 20 °C and then embryos incubated until hatched. Our results demonstrated that some embryos vitrified in 5 of 6 vitrification solutions survived and hatched out, but none survived after vitrification in V2. The highest survival rate (45.45%) was observed in samples frozen with the best vitrificant solution (V6) and thawing combination (20 °C). These results establish that cryopreservation of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) embryos by DMSO-based vitrificant solutions is possible.

  14. The effect of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.) extract on blood sugar and serum levels of some hormones in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Mahmoodi; Javad, Hosseini; Seyed-Mostafa, Hosseini-Zijoud; Mohammadreza, Mirzaee; Ebrahim, Mirzajani

    2013-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is caused by hyperglycemia, resulting from defective insulin secretion or function. It is widely believed that the antioxidant micronutrients obtained from plants afford significant protection against diseases like diabetes mellitus. Present study was aimed to examine the effects of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium Boiss) on FBS, HbA1c, insulin, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels in type 1 diabetic rats. Thirty two male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 8. The diabetic groups received 100 and 200 mg/kg Persian shallot extract, diabetic control and normal control received %0.9 saline for 30 days. At the end of treatments, fasting blood specimens were collected. The levels of FBS, HbA1c, insulin, T3 and T4 were measured. Our findings indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of Persian shallot significantly decreased serum levels of FBS and HbA1c in treated groups (in a dose dependent manner) (p<0.05). The serum levels of insulin and T3 slightly increased by Persian shallot but the T4 serum level was declined. These beneficial effects of Persian shallot extracts in diabetic rats could probably be due to the antioxidant capacity of its phenolic and diallyl disulfide content.

  15. The effect of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.) extract on blood sugar and serum levels of some hormones in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Mahmoodi; Javad, Hosseini; Seyed-Mostafa, Hosseini-Zijoud; Mohammadreza, Mirzaee; Ebrahim, Mirzajani

    2013-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is caused by hyperglycemia, resulting from defective insulin secretion or function. It is widely believed that the antioxidant micronutrients obtained from plants afford significant protection against diseases like diabetes mellitus. Present study was aimed to examine the effects of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium Boiss) on FBS, HbA1c, insulin, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels in type 1 diabetic rats. Thirty two male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 8. The diabetic groups received 100 and 200 mg/kg Persian shallot extract, diabetic control and normal control received %0.9 saline for 30 days. At the end of treatments, fasting blood specimens were collected. The levels of FBS, HbA1c, insulin, T3 and T4 were measured. Our findings indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of Persian shallot significantly decreased serum levels of FBS and HbA1c in treated groups (in a dose dependent manner) (p<0.05). The serum levels of insulin and T3 slightly increased by Persian shallot but the T4 serum level was declined. These beneficial effects of Persian shallot extracts in diabetic rats could probably be due to the antioxidant capacity of its phenolic and diallyl disulfide content. PMID:23455213

  16. Translation, Assessment and Deployment of Stuttering Instruments into Different Languages: Comments Arising from Bakhtiar et al., "Investigation of the Reliability of the SSI-3 for Preschool Persian-Speaking Children Who Stutter" ["J. Fluency Disord." 35 (2010) 87-91

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Hamid; Nilipour, Reza; Shafiei, Bijan; Howell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Bakhtiar, Seifpanahi, Ansari, Ghanadzade and Packman (2010) reported high inter-, and intra-judge agreement of a translation of the Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI-3) for preschool Persian-speaking children who stutter. Translation of SSI-3 into Persian is desirable as there is no standardised stuttering severity test for that language.…

  17. Chemical warfare and the Gulf War: a review of the impact on Gulf veterans' health.

    PubMed

    Riddle, James R; Brown, Mark; Smith, Tyler; Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Brix, Kelley Ann; Romano, James

    2003-08-01

    It is unlikely that Gulf War veterans are suffering chronic effects from illnesses caused by chemical warfare nerve agent exposure. Extensive investigation and review by several expert panels have determined that no evidence exists that chemical warfare nerve agents were used during the Gulf War. At no time before, during, or after the war was there confirmation of symptoms among anyone, military or civilian, caused by chemical warfare nerve agent exposure. However, studies of Gulf War veterans have found belief that chemical weapons were used, significantly associated with both severe and mild-moderate illnesses. The psychological impact of a chemical warfare attack, either actual or perceived, can result in immediate and long-term health consequences. The deployment or war-related health impact from life-threatening experiences of the Gulf War, including the perceived exposure to chemical warfare agents, should be considered as an important cause of morbidity among Gulf War veterans.

  18. Comparing the production of complex sentences in Persian patients with post-stroke aphasia and non-damaged people with normal speaking

    PubMed Central

    Mehri, Azar; Ghorbani, Askar; Darzi, Ali; Jalaie, Shohreh; Ashayeri, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cerebrovascular disease leading to stroke is the most common cause of aphasia. Speakers with agrammatic non-fluent aphasia have difficulties in production of movement-derived sentences such as passive sentences, topicalized constituents, and Wh-questions. To assess the production of complex sentences, some passive, topicalized and focused sentences were designed for patients with non-fluent Persian aphasic. Afterwards, patients’ performance in sentence production was tested and compared with healthy non-damaged subjects. Methods: In this cross sectional study, a task was designed to assess the different types of sentences (active, passive, topicalized and focused) adapted to Persian structures. Seven Persian patients with post-stroke non-fluent agrammatic aphasia (5 men and 2 women) and seven healthy non-damaged subjects participated in this study. The computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that all the patients had a single left hemisphere lesion involved middle cerebral artery (MCA), Broca`s area and in its white matter. In addition, based on Bedside version of Persian Western Aphasia Battery (P-WAB-1), all of them were diagnosed with moderate Broca aphasia. Then, the production task of Persian complex sentences was administered. Results: There was a significant difference between four types of sentences in patients with aphasia [Degree of freedom (df) = 3, P < 0.001]. All the patients showed worse performance than the healthy participants in all the four types of sentence production (P < 0.050). Conclusion: In general, it is concluded that topicalized and focused sentences as non-canonical complex sentences in Persian are very difficult to produce for patients with agrammatic non-fluent aphasia. It seems that sentences with A-movement are simpler for the patients than sentences involving A`-movement; since they include shorter movements in compare to topicalized and focused sentences. PMID:27141274

  19. Quantitative analysis of the nutritional components in leaves and seeds of the Persian Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Gholamreza; Palizban, Abbasali; Bakhshaei, Behnosh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Moringa peregrina (M. peregrina) is an important tropical tree recognized for its nutritional and medicinal properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the nutritional component in the leaves and seeds of the Persian M. peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. Materials and Methods: The M. peregrina leaves and seeds of wild cultivated trees were collected from the areas of arid environment located in the South-East of the Iran. The leaves and seeds of M. peregrina were dried and grounded to a fine powder and kept in dark for the day of experiment. The acidic digested leaves and seeds were analyzed for Vitamins C and A, calcium, and potassium using atomic adsorption and flame emission spectrophotometer. Results: The analytical data revealed that the leaves and seeds of the Persian M. peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori contain sufficient amounts of Vitamin C: 83 ± 0.5 and 14 ± 0.6 mg/100 g/DW; and Vitamin A: 6.8 ± 0.7 and 24.8 ± 0.7 mg/100 g/DW, respectively. The elemental analysis in the leaves and seeds showed that the calcium content are 764.8 ± 1.6 and 1164.8 ± 43.4 mg/100 g/DW and for potassium content are 900.2 ± 14 and 572 ± 10 mg/100 g/DW, respectively. Conclusions: The nutritional characteristics of the Persian M. peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori, investigated in this study revealed that, daily use of leaves and seeds of this plant could significantly provide the recommended dietary allowance for the Vitamins C and A, and minerals, such as calcium and potassium. PMID:26130935

  20. The Persian Checklist of Pleasant Events (PCPE): Development, Validity and Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Bakht, Sepideh; Mahdavi Haji, Tahereh; Ghasemian Shirvan, Ensiyeh; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Experiencing ‎pleasant events during daily life ‎has a significant positive role in ‎the personal mental health and ‎acts as a keystone for “behavioral ‎activation” (BA) interventions. ‎There are serious differences in ‎the pleasant event schedules in ‎different cultures and countries. ‎We aimed to develop a Persian ‎checklist of pleasant events ‎‎(PCPE) to provide and validate a ‎culturally compatible checklist for ‎Iranians.‎ Methods: To develop a checklist ‎of pleasant events, inspired by ‎Pleasant Events Schedule (PES) ‎‎(MacPhillamy & Lewinsohn, ‎‎1982), we held three focused ‎group discussions with 24 normal ‎healthy participants from both ‎genders (female = 12) and asked ‎them to mention as much ‎pleasant events as possible. ‎When the list reached saturation ‎level, the inappropriate items with ‎respect to legal, cultural and ‎religious concerns were omitted. ‎The final checklist of PCPE ‎consists of two subscales: ‎Frequency (frequency of events ‎during last month) and ‎pleasantness (perceived ‎pleasantness of events). The total ‎score consists of frequency ‎multiplied by pleasantness. To ‎test the reliability and validity of ‎the checklist, the PCPE, ‎Depression, Anxiety and Stress ‎Scale (DASS), the Persian ‎version of WHO Quality of Life ‎and the Demographic ‎Questionnaire were administered ‎in a sample of 104 participants ‎‎(50 male and 54 female).‎ Results: Frequency, ‎pleasantness and the total scores ‎of PCPE showed high levels of ‎internal consistency (Cronbach’s ‎alpha, .976, .976 & .974, ‎respectively). Further support for ‎the convergent validity of the ‎PCPE was obtained via ‎moderate negative correlations ‎with depression, anxiety, stress ‎scores in DASS and positive ‎correlation with quality of life as ‎well as respondent’s perceived ‎happiness. There were negative ‎correlations between frequency,

  1. Gulf of Mexico dead zone - the last 150 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, Lisa; Swarzenski, P.W.; Poore, R.Z.

    2006-01-01

    'Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone-The Last 150 Years' discusses the dead zone that forms seasonally in the northern Gulf of Mexico when subsurface waters become depleted in dissolved oxygen and cannot support most life.

  2. GULF MOBILE & OHIO WOOD TRESTLE BRIDGE LINKING TUSCALOOSA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GULF MOBILE & OHIO WOOD TRESTLE BRIDGE LINKING TUSCALOOSA AND NORTHPORT ACROSS THE WARRIOR RIVER. - Gulf, Mobile & Ohio Railroad Bridge, Spans Black Warrior River between Northport & Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  3. VIEW LOOKING TOWARDS NORTHPORT, GULF MOBILE & OHIO RAILROAD BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING TOWARDS NORTHPORT, GULF MOBILE & OHIO RAILROAD BRIDGE LINKS TUSCALOOSA AND NORTHPORT. - Gulf, Mobile & Ohio Railroad Bridge, Spans Black Warrior River between Northport & Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  4. Psychometric Characteristics of the Persian (Farsi) Version of Attachment Style Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Firoozabadi, Ali; Abedi, Zabihollah; Aliyari, Roqayeh; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attachment relationship provides a secure base for the infants from which to explore the environment and a safe haven to return to in times of danger. Attachment style shapes the behavior of individuals in adulthood. There are many different measures of attachment and a lot of controversy about what they measure and how they relate to each other. Hence, we tried to evaluate the psychometric properties of one of such questionnaires on a sample of the Iranian population. Methods: “Attachment style questionnaire” designed by Van Oudenhoven measures four dimensions: secure, preoccupied, fearful and dismissing. Psychometric properties of the questionnaire were evaluated in a cross sectional study on 730 adults in Isfahan, Iran. Statistical analysis of data was performed by the explanatory factor analysis with the principal component method, Cronbach’s alpha, Pearson correlation coefficients, and the multiple analysis of variance (MANCOVA). Results: The Cronbach’s alpha for all items was 0.704. As a whole, the internal consistency was good. There was a high inter-scale correlation between preoccupied and fearful, also the secure style correlated negatively with fearful and preoccupied. The stability coefficient of the attachment scales were 0.625, 0.685, 0.777 and 0.605 for secure, fearful, preoccupied and dismissing styles respectively (P<0.001). Regarding construct validity, factor analysis showed that some items require iterations to fit the Iranian population. Conclusion: This study showed that the Persian version of ASQ has a reasonable reliability and validity in general and the questionnaire is appropriate for use among the Iranian population in future studies. PMID:25429172

  5. Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    PubMed

    Sadati, Seyede Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Ebadi, Nastaran; Yakhchali, Maryam; Dana, Azadeh Raees; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ramezany, Farid

    2016-01-01

    One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort), the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory), and Apium graveolens (celery) seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and Cucumis melo (melon) seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper longum (long pepper), red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea), hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal), Anethum graveolens (dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM. PMID:27041871

  6. Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sadati, Seyede Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Ebadi, Nastaran; Yakhchali, Maryam; Dana, Azadeh Raees; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ramezany, Farid

    2016-01-01

    One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort), the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory), and Apium graveolens (celery) seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and Cucumis melo (melon) seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper longum (long pepper), red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea), hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal), Anethum graveolens (dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM. PMID:27041871

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of Self-Transcendence Scale: Adolescent Version

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Azam Shirinabadi; Rassouli, Maryam; Yaghmaie, Farideh; Majd, Hamid Alavi; Sajjadi, Moosa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given the greater tendency during adolescence toward risk-taking, identifying and measuring the factors affecting the adolescents’ health is highly important to ensure the efficacy of health promoting interventions. One of these factors is self-transcendence. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric features of the Self-Transcendence Scale (adolescents’ version) in students in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Methods: This research was conducted in 2015. For this purpose, 1210 high school students were selected through the multistage cluster sampling method. After the backward-forward translation, the psychometric properties of the scale were examined through the assessment of the (face and construct) validity and reliability (internal consistency and stability) of the scale. The construct validity was assessed using two methods, factor analysis, and convergence of the scale with the Hopefulness Scale for Adolescents. Results: The result of face validity was minor modifications in some words. The exploratory factor analysis resulted in the extraction of two dimensions, with explaining 52.79% of the variance collectively. In determining the convergent validity, the correlation between hopefulness score and self-transcendence score was r=0.47 (P<0.001). The internal consistency of the scale was determined using Cronbach’s alpha of 0.82 for the whole scale and 0.75 and 0.70 for each of the sub-scales. The stability reliability was found to have an ICC of 0.86 and a confidence interval of 95%. Conclusion: The Persian version of the Adolescents’ Self-Transcendence Scale showed an acceptable validity and reliability and can be used in the assessment of self-transcendence in Iranian adolescents. PMID:27218113

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Social Anxiety - Acceptance and Action Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Esmail; Bahrainian, Seyed Abdolmajid; Masjedi Arani, Abbas; Farhoudian, Ali; Gachkar, Latif

    2016-01-01

    Background Social anxiety disorder is often related to specific impairment or distress in different areas of life, including occupational, social and family settings. Objective The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the persian version of the social anxiety-acceptance and action questionnaire (SA-AAQ) in university students. Materials and Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 324 students from Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences participated via the cluster sampling method during year 2015. Factor analysis by the principle component analysis method, internal consistency analysis, and convergent and divergent validity were conducted to examine the validity of the SA-AAQ. To calculate the reliability of the SA-AAQ, Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest reliability were used. Results The results from factor analysis by principle component analysis method yielded three factors that were named acceptance, action and non-judging of experience. The three-factor solution explained 51.82% of the variance. Evidence for the internal consistency of SA-AAQ was obtained via calculating correlations between SA-AAQ and its subscales. Support for convergent and discriminant validity of the SA-AAQ via its correlations with the acceptance and action questionnaire - II, social interaction anxiety scale, cognitive fusion questionnaire, believability of anxious feelings and thoughts questionnaire, valued living questionnaire and WHOQOL- BREF was obtained. The reliability of the SA-AAQ via calculating Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest coefficients yielded values of 0.84 and 0.84, respectively. Conclusions The Iranian version of the SA-AAQ has acceptable levels of psychometric properties in university students. The SA-AAQ is a valid and reliable measure to be utilized in research investigations and therapeutic interventions. PMID:27803719

  9. Validity and reliability of “Persian Weaning Tool” in mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Bazrafshan, Fatemeh; Irajpour, Alireza; Abbasi, Saeed; Mahaki, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: “Persian Weaning Tool” (PWT) is the only specific, national protocol designed to assess patients’ readiness for weaning from mechanical ventilation in Iran. This study was developed to determine the validity and reliability of this protocol. Materials and Methods: This is a psychometric study conducted on 31 patients connected to mechanical ventilation were ready from weaning according to anesthesiologist's diagnosis and was selected through convenient sampling. The patients selected from Intensive Care Units (ICUs) of Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan. The sheet data collection includes demographic data, PWT; Burn's Wean Assessment Program (BWAP), and Morganroth's scale. To determine the inter-rater reliability between researcher and his partner, Pearson correlation and paired t-test were used. To assess the criterion validity of the PWT in relation to Burn's and Morganroth's weaning scales (as criteria), Pearson correlation and McNemar tests were used. To specify a minimum acceptable score of the PWT for weaning from mechanical ventilation, receiver operating characteristic curve was used. Results: The results showed that there was statistically significant correlation between score of PWT and BWAP (r = 0.370 with P < 0.05) and there were no statistically significant differences between these tools in terms of identification of patients’ readiness for weaning (P = 0.453). There was statistically significant correlation between PWT score obtained by researcher and his colleague (r = 0.928), and the reliability of this tool was approved. The PWTs cut of point was calculated as 57 (sensitivity = 0.679, specificity = 1). Conclusions: The reliability and validity of the PWT were confirmed for this study's sample size. Consequently, the findings of this study can be used to measure the PWTs effectiveness and applicability in ICUs. PMID:27761432

  10. Persian Diabetes Self-Management Education (PDSME) program: evaluation of effectiveness in Iran.

    PubMed

    Shakibazadeh, Elham; Bartholomew, Leona Kay; Rashidian, Arash; Larijani, Bagher

    2016-09-01

    Despite increasing rate of diabetes, no standard self-management education protocol has been developed in Iran. We designed Persian Diabetes Self-Management Education (PDSME) program using intervention mapping. Effectiveness of program was assessed in newly diagnosed people with type 2 diabetes and those who had received little self-management education. Individuals aged 18 and older (n = 350) were recruited in this prospective controlled trial during 2009-2011 in Tehran, Iran. Patients were excluded if they were pregnant, were housebound or had reduced cognitive ability. Participants were randomly allocated in intervention and control groups. PDSME patients attended eight workshops over 4-week period following two follow-up sessions. Validated questionnaires assessed cognitive outcomes at baseline, 2 and 8 weeks. HbA1c was assessed before and 18-21 months after intervention in both groups. The CONSORT statement was adhered to where possible. A total of 280 individuals (80%) attended the program. By 18-21 months, the PDSME group showed significant improvements in mean HbA1c (-1.1 versus +0.2%, p =0.008, repeated measure ANOVA (RMA)). Diabetes knowledge improved more in PDSME patients treated with oral antidiabetic agents than in those receiving usual care over time (RMA, F = 67.08, p < 0.001). Statistically significant improvements were seen in PDSME patients for self-care behaviors, health beliefs, attitudes toward diabetes, stigma, self-efficacy and patient satisfaction. PDSME program was effective in improving self-management cognitive and clinical outcomes. Results support use of intervention mapping for planning effective interventions. Given the large number of people with diabetes and lack of affordable diabetes education, PDSME deserves consideration for implementation.

  11. Effects of diazinon on adaptation to sea-water by the endangered Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Hajirezaee, Saeed; Mirvaghefi, Ali Reza; Farahmand, Hamid; Agh, Naser

    2016-11-01

    To replenish the depleting populations of sturgeon fishes especially Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus in the Caspian Sea, millions of Persian sturgeon fingerlings are farmed through artificial propagation and released into the Iranian river estuaries annually. Fish osmoregulation is a vital physiological process that can be affected during the release. Many Iranian river estuaries are under the influence of pesticides originating from farming activities that may affect osmoregulation. In this study, Persian sturgeon fingerlings were exposed to sublethal concentrations (0, 0.18, 0.54, 0.9mgL(-)(1)) of diazinon for 96h (short-term trial) and 12 days (long-term trial) in fresh water (FW) and then fish were exposed in brackish water (BW) for 24h. After 96h and 12 days of exposure in FW, the lower levels of plasma triidothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), Na(+), Cl(-), K(+), gill Na(+)/K(+)- ATPase activity and number of chloride cells were observed in exposed fish (0.54 and 0.9mgL(-)(1) diazinon) compared to control group and 0.18mgL(-)(1) diazinon treatment. Also, higher levels of plasma cortisol (except 0.18mgL(-)(1) diazinon treatment in long-term trial) were observed in diazinon exposed fish compared to control group. However, gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and the number of chloride cells were higher in fingerlings exposed to diazinon compared than control. When fish were exposed in BW for 24h, the following changes occurred: (a) in short-term trial: increases in cortisol and Cl(-) levels (0.54mgL(-)(1) diazinon ), Na(+) (0.9mgL(-)(1) diazinon ) and gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity (0.18mgL(-)(1) diazinon ). In control group, cortisol, T4, Na(+), gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and the number of chloride cells increased significantly. (b) In long-term trial: increases in K(+) levels in fish exposed to 0.9mgL(-)(1) diazinon, Na+ in all diazinon concentrations and decreases in chloride cells number in fish exposed to 0.18mgL(-)(1) diazinon. In control group

  12. Identification of two HEXA mutations causing infantile-onset Tay-Sachs disease in the Persian population.

    PubMed

    Haghighi, Alireza; Rezazadeh, Jamileh; Shadmehri, Azam Ahmadi; Haghighi, Amirreza; Kornreich, Ruth; Desnick, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    The β-hexosaminidase A (HEXA) mutations in the first reported cases of infantile Tay-Sachs disease in the Persian population were identified in two unrelated consanguineous families. The clinical diagnoses of the affected infants were confirmed by their markedly deficient levels of HEXA activity in plasma or peripheral leukocytes. The specific causative mutation in each family was determined by sequencing the HEXA alleles in both sets of related parents. Two mutations were identified: c.1A>G (p.MIV), which obliterated the initiating methionine in codon 1, and c.1177C>T (p.R393X), which predicted a termination codon or nonsense mutation.

  13. Identification of two HEXA mutations causing infantile-onset Tay-Sachs disease in the Persian population.

    PubMed

    Haghighi, Alireza; Rezazadeh, Jamileh; Shadmehri, Azam Ahmadi; Haghighi, Amirreza; Kornreich, Ruth; Desnick, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    The β-hexosaminidase A (HEXA) mutations in the first reported cases of infantile Tay-Sachs disease in the Persian population were identified in two unrelated consanguineous families. The clinical diagnoses of the affected infants were confirmed by their markedly deficient levels of HEXA activity in plasma or peripheral leukocytes. The specific causative mutation in each family was determined by sequencing the HEXA alleles in both sets of related parents. Two mutations were identified: c.1A>G (p.MIV), which obliterated the initiating methionine in codon 1, and c.1177C>T (p.R393X), which predicted a termination codon or nonsense mutation. PMID:21796138

  14. Effects of diazinon on adaptation to sea-water by the endangered Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Hajirezaee, Saeed; Mirvaghefi, Ali Reza; Farahmand, Hamid; Agh, Naser

    2016-11-01

    To replenish the depleting populations of sturgeon fishes especially Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus in the Caspian Sea, millions of Persian sturgeon fingerlings are farmed through artificial propagation and released into the Iranian river estuaries annually. Fish osmoregulation is a vital physiological process that can be affected during the release. Many Iranian river estuaries are under the influence of pesticides originating from farming activities that may affect osmoregulation. In this study, Persian sturgeon fingerlings were exposed to sublethal concentrations (0, 0.18, 0.54, 0.9mgL(-)(1)) of diazinon for 96h (short-term trial) and 12 days (long-term trial) in fresh water (FW) and then fish were exposed in brackish water (BW) for 24h. After 96h and 12 days of exposure in FW, the lower levels of plasma triidothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), Na(+), Cl(-), K(+), gill Na(+)/K(+)- ATPase activity and number of chloride cells were observed in exposed fish (0.54 and 0.9mgL(-)(1) diazinon) compared to control group and 0.18mgL(-)(1) diazinon treatment. Also, higher levels of plasma cortisol (except 0.18mgL(-)(1) diazinon treatment in long-term trial) were observed in diazinon exposed fish compared to control group. However, gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and the number of chloride cells were higher in fingerlings exposed to diazinon compared than control. When fish were exposed in BW for 24h, the following changes occurred: (a) in short-term trial: increases in cortisol and Cl(-) levels (0.54mgL(-)(1) diazinon ), Na(+) (0.9mgL(-)(1) diazinon ) and gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity (0.18mgL(-)(1) diazinon ). In control group, cortisol, T4, Na(+), gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and the number of chloride cells increased significantly. (b) In long-term trial: increases in K(+) levels in fish exposed to 0.9mgL(-)(1) diazinon, Na+ in all diazinon concentrations and decreases in chloride cells number in fish exposed to 0.18mgL(-)(1) diazinon. In control group

  15. Gulf War Illness: Challenges Persist

    PubMed Central

    Nettleman, Mary

    2015-01-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the United States and coalition forces entered Kuwait and Iraq. Actual combat was of remarkably short duration: less than 1 week of sustained ground activity and 6 weeks of air missions. Thus, it was surprising when approximately 200,000 returning US veterans were affected by a chronic multi-symptom illness that came to be known as Gulf War Illness (GWI). There were many challenges in investigating GWI, not least of which was that it took several years before the condition was officially taken seriously. There were multiple exposures to potentially causal agents on and off the battlefield, but these exposures were documented incompletely if at all, leaving epidemiologists to rely on self-report for information. In the past 2 years, significant controversy has arisen over the future directions of the field. Despite these challenges, several studies have implicated exposure to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as pyridostigmine bromide in the genesis of the condition. The story of GWI can inform research into other conditions and guide future work on veterans' health. PMID:26330683

  16. Parvalbumin and neuropeptide Y expressing hippocampal GABA-ergic inhibitory interneuron numbers decline in a model of Gulf War illness

    PubMed Central

    Megahed, Tarick; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Shuai, Bing; Shetty, Ashok K.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is amongst the most conspicuous symptoms in Gulf War illness (GWI). Combined exposure to the nerve gas antidote pyridostigmine bromide (PB), pesticides and stress during the Persian Gulf War-1 (PGW-1) are presumed to be among the major causes of GWI. Indeed, our recent studies in rat models have shown that exposure to GWI-related (GWIR) chemicals and mild stress for 4 weeks engenders cognitive impairments accompanied with several detrimental changes in the hippocampus. In this study, we tested whether reduced numbers of hippocampal gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons are among the pathological changes induced by GWIR-chemicals and stress. Animals were exposed to low doses of GWIR-chemicals and mild stress for 4 weeks. Three months after this exposure, subpopulations of GABA-ergic interneurons expressing the calcium binding protein parvalbumin (PV), the neuropeptide Y (NPY) and somatostatin (SS) in the hippocampus were stereologically quantified. Animals exposed to GWIR-chemicals and stress for 4 weeks displayed reduced numbers of PV-expressing GABA-ergic interneurons in the dentate gyrus and NPY-expressing interneurons in the CA1 and CA3 subfields. However, no changes in SS+ interneuron population were observed in the hippocampus. Furthermore, GABA-ergic interneuron deficiency in these animals was associated with greatly diminished hippocampus neurogenesis. Because PV+ and NPY+ interneurons play roles in maintaining normal cognitive function and neurogenesis, and controlling the activity of excitatory neurons in the hippocampus, reduced numbers of these interneurons may be one of the major causes of cognitive dysfunction and reduced neurogenesis observed in GWI. Hence, strategies that improve inhibitory neurotransmission in the hippocampus may prove beneficial for reversing cognitive dysfunction in GWI. PMID:25620912

  17. Object location and object recognition memory impairments, motivation deficits and depression in a model of Gulf War illness.

    PubMed

    Hattiangady, Bharathi; Mishra, Vikas; Kodali, Maheedhar; Shuai, Bing; Rao, Xiolan; Shetty, Ashok K

    2014-01-01

    Memory and mood deficits are the enduring brain-related symptoms in Gulf War illness (GWI). Both animal model and epidemiological investigations have indicated that these impairments in a majority of GW veterans are linked to exposures to chemicals such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB, an antinerve gas drug), permethrin (PM, an insecticide) and DEET (a mosquito repellant) encountered during the Persian Gulf War-1. Our previous study in a rat model has shown that combined exposures to low doses of GWI-related (GWIR) chemicals PB, PM, and DEET with or without 5-min of restraint stress (a mild stress paradigm) causes hippocampus-dependent spatial memory dysfunction in a water maze test (WMT) and increased depressive-like behavior in a forced swim test (FST). In this study, using a larger cohort of rats exposed to GWIR-chemicals and stress, we investigated whether the memory deficiency identified earlier in a WMT is reproducible with an alternative and stress free hippocampus-dependent memory test such as the object location test (OLT). We also ascertained the possible co-existence of hippocampus-independent memory dysfunction using a novel object recognition test (NORT), and alterations in mood function with additional tests for motivation and depression. Our results provide new evidence that exposure to low doses of GWIR-chemicals and mild stress for 4 weeks causes deficits in hippocampus-dependent object location memory and perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition memory. An open field test performed prior to other behavioral analyses revealed that memory impairments were not associated with increased anxiety or deficits in general motor ability. However, behavioral tests for mood function such as a voluntary physical exercise paradigm and a novelty suppressed feeding test (NSFT) demonstrated decreased motivation levels and depression. Thus, exposure to GWIR-chemicals and stress causes both hippocampus-dependent and hippocampus-independent memory

  18. 75 FR 33296 - Columbia Gulf Transmission Company; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gulf Transmission Company; Notice of Filing June 2, 2010. Take notice that on May 20, 2010, Columbia Gulf Transmission Company (Columbia Gulf), 5151 San Felipe, Suite... operate minor facilities required to isolate a portion of its existing transmission system to...

  19. 78 FR 28292 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review of VA's approach to and programs addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans' illnesses. The third...

  20. 76 FR 65321 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review of VA's approach to and programs addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans' illnesses. The second...