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Sample records for persistent mitochondrial damage

  1. Mitochondrial DNA damage induced autophagy, cell death, and disease.

    PubMed

    Van Houten, Bennett; Hunter, Senyene E; Meyer, Joel N

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian mitochondria contain multiple small genomes. While these organelles have efficient base excision removal of oxidative DNA lesions and alkylation damage, many DNA repair systems that work on nuclear DNA damage are not active in mitochondria. What is the fate of DNA damage in the mitochondria that cannot be repaired or that overwhelms the repair system? Some forms of mitochondrial DNA damage can apparently trigger mitochondrial DNA destruction, either via direct degradation or through specific forms of autophagy, such as mitophagy. However, accumulation of certain types of mitochondrial damage, in the absence of DNA ligase III (Lig3) or exonuclease G (EXOG), can directly trigger cell death. This review examines the cellular effects of persistent damage to mitochondrial genomes and discusses the very different cell fates that occur in response to different kinds of damage.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA Damage as a Peripheral Biomarker for Mitochondrial Toxin Exposure in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Laurie H.; Howlett, Evan H.; McCoy, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Demonstrating or verifying a current or past exposure to an environmental mitochondrial toxin or toxicant is extraordinarily difficult. Thus, there is a pressing need to develop a biomarker for exposure to environmental mitochondrial inhibitors. Rotenone, an environmental toxicant, is a potent inhibitor of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain. Rotenone specifically inhibits complex I throughout the body and brain, thereby producing systemic mitochondrial impairment. As such, rotenone is a prototypical clinically relevant, environmental mitochondrial toxicant that may be used as an ideal initial platform to develop accessible biomarkers of exposure. The over-arching goal of this work is to explore and validate peripheral (blood and skeletal muscle) DNA damage as a biomarker of mitochondrial toxicant exposure using the rat rotenone model. In this effort, we utilized an extremely sensitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR)-based assay that simultaneously allows the assessment of multiple forms of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) damage. We found mtDNA damage in blood is detected after subclinical rotenone exposure and the damage persists even after complex I activity has returned to normal. With a more sustained rotenone exposure, mtDNA damage is also detected in skeletal muscle, suggesting that mtDNA damage in this tissue simply lags behind blood. Using the QPCR-based assay, we have no evidence for nDNA damage in peripheral tissues after rotenone exposure either acutely or chronically. Overall, these data support the idea that mtDNA damage in peripheral tissues in the rotenone model may provide a biomarker of past or ongoing mitochondrial toxin exposure. PMID:25237061

  3. Mitochondrial DNA Damage and its Consequences for Mitochondrial Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cline, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    How mitochondria process DNA damage and whether a change in the steady-state level of mitochondrial DNA damage (mtDNA) contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction are questions that fuel burgeoning areas of research into aging and disease pathogenesis. Over the past decade, researchers have identified and measured various forms of endogenous and environmental mtDNA damage and have elucidated mtDNA repair pathways. Interestingly, mitochondria do not appear to contain the full range of DNA repair mechanisms that operate in the nucleus, although mtDNA contains types of damage that are targets of each nuclear DNA repair pathway. The reduced repair capacity may, in part, explain the high mutation frequency of the mitochondrial chromosome. Since mtDNA replication is dependent on transcription, mtDNA damage may alter mitochondrial gene expression at three levels: by causing DNA polymerase γ nucleotide incorporation errors leading to mutations, by interfering with the priming of mtDNA replication by the mitochondrial RNA polymerase, or by inducing transcriptional mutagenesis or premature transcript termination. This review summarizes our current knowledge of mtDNA damage, its repair, and its effects on mtDNA integrity and gene expression. PMID:22728831

  4. Understanding and preventing mitochondrial oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative damage has long been known to contribute to damage in conditions such as ischaemia–reperfusion (IR) injury in heart attack. Over the past years, we have developed a series of mitochondria-targeted compounds designed to ameliorate or determine how this damage occurs. I will outline some of this work, from MitoQ to the mitochondria-targeted S-nitrosating agent, called MitoSNO, that we showed was effective in preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in IR injury with therapeutic implications. In addition, the protection by this compound suggested that ROS production in IR injury was mainly coming from complex I. This led us to investigate the mechanism of the ROS production and using a metabolomic approach, we found that the ROS production in IR injury came from the accumulation of succinate during ischaemia that then drove mitochondrial ROS production by reverse electron transport at complex I during reperfusion. This surprising mechanism led us to develop further new therapeutic approaches to have an impact on the damage that mitochondrial ROS do in pathology and also to explore how mitochondrial ROS can act as redox signals. I will discuss how these approaches have led to a better understanding of mitochondrial oxidative damage in pathology and also to the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:27911703

  5. Mitochondrial DNA damage induces apoptosis in senescent cells

    PubMed Central

    Laberge, R-M; Adler, D; DeMaria, M; Mechtouf, N; Teachenor, R; Cardin, G B; Desprez, P-Y; Campisi, J; Rodier, F

    2013-01-01

    Senescence is a cellular response to damage and stress. The senescence response prevents cancer by suppressing the proliferation of cells with a compromised genome and contributes to optimal wound healing in normal tissues. Persistent senescent cells are also thought to drive aging and age-associated pathologies through their secretion of inflammatory factors that modify the tissue microenvironment and alter the function of nearby normal or transformed cells. Understanding how senescent cells alter the microenvironment would be aided by the ability to induce or eliminate senescent cells at will in vivo. Here, we combine the use of the synthetic nucleoside analog ganciclovir (GCV) with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) activity to create or eliminate senescent human cells. We show that low concentrations of GCV induce senescence through the accumulation of nuclear DNA damage while higher concentrations of GCV, similar to those used in vivo, kill non-dividing senescent cells via mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Using this system, we effectively eliminated xenografted normal human senescent fibroblasts or induced senescence in human breast cancer cells in vivo. Thus, cellular senescence and mtDNA damage are outcomes of synthetic nucleoside analog treatment, indicating that the GCV–HSVtk combination can be used effectively to promote the targeted formation or eradication of senescent cells. PMID:23868060

  6. Mitochondrial DNA damage induces apoptosis in senescent cells.

    PubMed

    Laberge, R-M; Adler, D; DeMaria, M; Mechtouf, N; Teachenor, R; Cardin, G B; Desprez, P-Y; Campisi, J; Rodier, F

    2013-07-18

    Senescence is a cellular response to damage and stress. The senescence response prevents cancer by suppressing the proliferation of cells with a compromised genome and contributes to optimal wound healing in normal tissues. Persistent senescent cells are also thought to drive aging and age-associated pathologies through their secretion of inflammatory factors that modify the tissue microenvironment and alter the function of nearby normal or transformed cells. Understanding how senescent cells alter the microenvironment would be aided by the ability to induce or eliminate senescent cells at will in vivo. Here, we combine the use of the synthetic nucleoside analog ganciclovir (GCV) with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) activity to create or eliminate senescent human cells. We show that low concentrations of GCV induce senescence through the accumulation of nuclear DNA damage while higher concentrations of GCV, similar to those used in vivo, kill non-dividing senescent cells via mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Using this system, we effectively eliminated xenografted normal human senescent fibroblasts or induced senescence in human breast cancer cells in vivo. Thus, cellular senescence and mtDNA damage are outcomes of synthetic nucleoside analog treatment, indicating that the GCV-HSVtk combination can be used effectively to promote the targeted formation or eradication of senescent cells.

  7. Hepatitis C virus triggers mitochondrial fission and attenuates apoptosis to promote viral persistence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Jun; Syed, Gulam H.; Khan, Mohsin; Chiu, Wei-Wei; Sohail, Muhammad A.; Gish, Robert G.; Siddiqui, Aleem

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics is crucial for the regulation of cell homeostasis. Our recent findings suggest that hepatitis C virus (HCV) promotes Parkin-mediated elimination of damaged mitochondria (mitophagy). Here we show that HCV perturbs mitochondrial dynamics by promoting mitochondrial fission followed by mitophagy, which attenuates HCV-induced apoptosis. HCV infection stimulated expression of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and its mitochondrial receptor, mitochondrial fission factor. HCV further induced the phosphorylation of Drp1 (Ser616) and caused its subsequent translocation to the mitochondria, followed by mitophagy. Interference of HCV-induced mitochondrial fission and mitophagy by Drp1 silencing suppressed HCV secretion, with a concomitant decrease in cellular glycolysis and ATP levels, as well as enhanced innate immune signaling. More importantly, silencing Drp1 or Parkin caused significant increase in apoptotic signaling, evidenced by increased cytochrome C release from mitochondria, caspase 3 activity, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. These results suggest that HCV-induced mitochondrial fission and mitophagy serve to attenuate apoptosis and may contribute to persistent HCV infection. PMID:24733894

  8. PCR-based analysis of mitochondrial DNA copy number, mitochondrial DNA damage, and nuclear DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Hunt, Claudia P.; Rooney, John P.; Ryde, Ian T.; Anbalagan, Charumathi; Joglekar, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Because of the role DNA damage and depletion play in human disease, it is important to develop and improve tools to assess these endpoints. This unit describes PCR-based methods to measure nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage and copy number. Long amplicon quantitative polymerase chain reaction (LA-QPCR) is used to detect DNA damage by measuring the number of polymerase-inhibiting lesions present based on the amount of PCR amplification; real-time PCR (RT-PCR) is used to calculate genome content. In this unit we provide step-by-step instructions to perform these assays in Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Danio rerio, Oryzias latipes, Fundulus grandis, and Fundulus heteroclitus, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these assays. PMID:26828332

  9. Cancer cells recovering from damage exhibit mitochondrial restructuring and increased aerobic glycolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Akakura, Shin; Ostrakhovitch, Elena; Sanokawa-Akakura, Reiko; Tabibzadeh, Siamak

    2014-06-13

    Highlights: • Some cancer cells recover from severe damage that causes cell death in majority of cells. • Damage-Recovered (DR) cancer cells show reduced mitochondria, mDNA and mitochondrial enzymes. • DR cells show increased aerobic glycolysis, ATP, cell proliferation, and resistance to damage. • DR cells recovered from in vivo damage also show increased glycolysis and proliferation rate. - Abstract: Instead of relying on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most cancer cells rely heavily on aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon termed as “the Warburg effect”. We considered that this effect is a direct consequence of damage which persists in cancer cells that recover from damage. To this end, we studied glycolysis and rate of cell proliferation in cancer cells that recovered from severe damage. We show that in vitro Damage-Recovered (DR) cells exhibit mitochondrial structural remodeling, display Warburg effect, and show increased in vitro and in vivo proliferation and tolerance to damage. To test whether cancer cells derived from tumor microenvironment can show similar properties, we isolated Damage-Recovered (T{sup DR}) cells from tumors. We demonstrate that T{sup DR} cells also show increased aerobic glycolysis and a high proliferation rate. These findings show that Warburg effect and its consequences are induced in cancer cells that survive severe damage.

  10. Commentary: Mitochondrial DNA damage and loss in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gilkerson, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This commentary discusses damage and loss of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in type 2 diabetes mellitus from both the clinical and experimental perspectives. Increasingly, an array of studies in experimental models and patients suggests that the cellular stresses of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes damage mtDNA, leading to loss of mitochondrial genetic content. As such, mtDNA is emerging as both a valuable monitoring tool and translational preventive target for metabolic disease. PMID:27253402

  11. FUS Interacts with HSP60 to Promote Mitochondrial Damage

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jianwen; Yang, Mengxue; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Jianghong; Sun, Shufeng; Cheng, Haipeng; Li, Yang; Bigio, Eileen H.; Mesulam, Marsel; Xu, Qi; Du, Sidan; Fushimi, Kazuo; Zhu, Li; Wu, Jane Y.

    2015-01-01

    FUS-proteinopathies, a group of heterogeneous disorders including ALS-FUS and FTLD-FUS, are characterized by the formation of inclusion bodies containing the nuclear protein FUS in the affected patients. However, the underlying molecular and cellular defects remain unclear. Here we provide evidence for mitochondrial localization of FUS and its induction of mitochondrial damage. Remarkably, FTLD-FUS brain samples show increased FUS expression and mitochondrial defects. Biochemical and genetic data demonstrate that FUS interacts with a mitochondrial chaperonin, HSP60, and that FUS translocation to mitochondria is, at least in part, mediated by HSP60. Down-regulating HSP60 reduces mitochondrially localized FUS and partially rescues mitochondrial defects and neurodegenerative phenotypes caused by FUS expression in transgenic flies. This is the first report of direct mitochondrial targeting by a nuclear protein associated with neurodegeneration, suggesting that mitochondrial impairment may represent a critical event in different forms of FUS-proteinopathies and a common pathological feature for both ALS-FUS and FTLD-FUS. Our study offers a potential explanation for the highly heterogeneous nature and complex genetic presentation of different forms of FUS-proteinopathies. Our data also suggest that mitochondrial damage may be a target in future development of diagnostic and therapeutic tools for FUS-proteinopathies, a group of devastating neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26335776

  12. Oxidative DNA damage causes mitochondrial genomic instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Doudican, Nicole A; Song, Binwei; Shadel, Gerald S; Doetsch, Paul W

    2005-06-01

    Mitochondria contain their own genome, the integrity of which is required for normal cellular energy metabolism. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by normal mitochondrial respiration can damage cellular macromolecules, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and have been implicated in degenerative diseases, cancer, and aging. We developed strategies to elevate mitochondrial oxidative stress by exposure to antimycin and H(2)O(2) or utilizing mutants lacking mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (sod2Delta). Experiments were conducted with strains compromised in mitochondrial base excision repair (ntg1Delta) and oxidative damage resistance (pif1Delta) in order to delineate the relationship between these pathways. We observed enhanced ROS production, resulting in a direct increase in oxidative mtDNA damage and mutagenesis. Repair-deficient mutants exposed to oxidative stress conditions exhibited profound genomic instability. Elimination of Ntg1p and Pif1p resulted in a synergistic corruption of respiratory competency upon exposure to antimycin and H(2)O(2). Mitochondrial genomic integrity was substantially compromised in ntg1Delta pif1Delta sod2Delta strains, since these cells exhibit a total loss of mtDNA. A stable respiration-defective strain, possessing a normal complement of mtDNA damage resistance pathways, exhibited a complete loss of mtDNA upon exposure to antimycin and H(2)O(2). This loss was preventable by Sod2p overexpression. These results provide direct evidence that oxidative mtDNA damage can be a major contributor to mitochondrial genomic instability and demonstrate cooperation of Ntg1p and Pif1p to resist the introduction of lesions into the mitochondrial genome.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA damage: molecular marker of vulnerable nigral neurons in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Laurie H; McCoy, Jennifer; Hu, Xiaoping; Mastroberardino, Pier G; Dickinson, Bryan C; Chang, Christopher J; Chu, Charleen T; Van Houten, Bennett; Greenamyre, J T

    2014-10-01

    DNA damage can cause (and result from) oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment, both of which are implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). We therefore examined the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in human postmortem brain tissue and in in vivo and in vitro models of PD, using a newly adapted histochemical assay for abasic sites and a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR)-based assay. We identified the molecular identity of mtDNA damage to be apurinic/apyrimidinic (abasic) sites in substantia nigra dopamine neurons, but not in cortical neurons from postmortem PD specimens. To model the systemic mitochondrial impairment of PD, rats were exposed to the pesticide rotenone. After rotenone treatment that does not cause neurodegeneration, abasic sites were visualized in nigral neurons, but not in cortex. Using a QPCR-based assay, a single rotenone dose induced mtDNA damage in midbrain neurons, but not in cortical neurons; similar results were obtained in vitro in cultured neurons. Importantly, these results indicate that mtDNA damage is detectable prior to any signs of degeneration - and is produced selectively in midbrain neurons under conditions of mitochondrial impairment. The selective vulnerability of midbrain neurons to mtDNA damage was not due to differential effects of rotenone on complex I since rotenone suppressed respiration equally in midbrain and cortical neurons. However, in response to complex I inhibition, midbrain neurons produced more mitochondrial H2O2 than cortical neurons. We report selective mtDNA damage as a molecular marker of vulnerable nigral neurons in PD and suggest that this may result from intrinsic differences in how these neurons respond to complex I defects. Further, the persistence of abasic sites suggests an ineffective base excision repair response in PD.

  14. Commentary: Mitochondrial DNA damage and loss in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gilkerson, Robert

    2016-10-01

    This commentary discusses damage and loss of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in type 2 diabetes mellitus from both the clinical and experimental perspectives. Increasingly, an array of studies in experimental models and patients suggests that the cellular stresses of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes damage mtDNA, leading to loss of mitochondrial genetic content. As such, mtDNA is emerging as both a valuable monitoring tool and translational preventive target for metabolic disease. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Mitochondrial Aging: Focus on Mitochondrial DNA Damage in Atherosclerosis - A Mini-Review.

    PubMed

    Sobenin, Igor A; Zhelankin, Andrey V; Sinyov, Vasily V; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a complex disease which can be described as an excessive fibrofatty, proliferative, inflammatory response to damage to the artery wall involving several cell types such as smooth muscle cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, lymphocytes, dendritic cells and platelets. On the other hand, atherosclerosis is a typical age-related degenerative pathology, which is characterized by signs of cell senescence in the arterial wall including reduced cell proliferation, irreversible growth arrest and apoptosis, increased DNA damage, the presence of epigenetic modifications, shortening of telomere length and mitochondrial dysfunction. The most prominent characteristics of mitochondrial aging are their structural alterations and mitochondrial DNA damage. The mechanisms of mitochondrial genome damage in the development of chronic age-related diseases such as atherosclerosis are not yet well understood. This review focuses on the latest findings from studies of those mutations of the mitochondrial genome which may play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis and which are, at the same time, also markers of mitochondrial aging and cell senescence. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Mitochondrial injury and dysfunction in hypertension-induced cardiac damage

    PubMed Central

    Eirin, Alfonso; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension remains an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Deciphering the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension is critical, as its prevalence continues increasing worldwide. Mitochondria, the primary cellular energy producers, are numerous in parenchymal cells of the heart, kidney, and brain, major target organs in hypertension. These membrane-bound organelles not only maintain cellular respiration but also modulate several functions of the cell including proliferation, apoptosis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and intracellular calcium homeostasis. Therefore, mitochondrial damage and dysfunction compromise overall cell functioning. In recent years, significant advances increased our understanding of mitochondrial morphology, bioenergetics, and homeostasis, and in turn of their role in several diseases, so that mitochondrial abnormalities and dysfunction have been identified in experimental models of hypertension. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the contribution of dysfunctional mitochondria to the pathophysiology of hypertension-induced cardiac damage, as well as available evidence of mitochondrial injury-induced damage in other organs. Finally, we discuss the capability of antihypertensive therapy to ameliorate hypertensive mitochondrial injury, and the potential position of mitochondria as therapeutic targets in patients with hypertension. PMID:25385092

  17. Mitochondrial transfer of mesenchymal stem cells effectively protects corneal epithelial cells from mitochondrial damage

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dan; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Yuelin; Wong, David Sai Hung; Li, Qing; Tse, Hung-fat; Xu, Goufeng; Yu, Zhendong; Lian, Qizhou

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can donate mitochondria to airway epithelial cells and rescue mitochondrial damage in lung injury. We sought to determine whether MSCs could donate mitochondria and protect against oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in the cornea. Co-culturing of MSCs and corneal epithelial cells (CECs) indicated that the efficiency of mitochondrial transfer from MSCs to CECs was enhanced by Rotenone (Rot)-induced oxidative stress. The efficient mitochondrial transfer was associated with increased formation of tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) between MSCs and CECs, tubular connections that allowed direct intercellular communication. Separation of MSCs and CECs by a transwell culture system revealed no mitochiondrial transfer from MSCs to CECs and mitochondrial function was impaired when CECs were exposed to Rot challenge. CECs with or without mitochondrial transfer from MSCs displayed a distinct survival capacity and mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate. Mechanistically, increased filopodia outgrowth in CECs for TNT formation was associated with oxidative inflammation-activated NFκB/TNFαip2 signaling pathways that could be attenuated by reactive oxygen species scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment. Furthermore, MSCs grown on a decellularized porcine corneal scaffold were transplanted onto an alkali-injured eye in a rabbit model. Enhanced corneal wound healing was evident following healthy MSC scaffold transplantation. And transferred mitochondria was detected in corneal epithelium. In conclusion, mitochondrial transfer from MSCs provides novel protection for the cornea against oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial damage. This therapeutic strategy may prove relevant for a broad range of mitochondrial diseases. PMID:27831562

  18. Mitochondrial DNA damage by bleomycin induces AML cell death.

    PubMed

    Yeung, ManTek; Hurren, Rose; Nemr, Carine; Wang, Xiaoming; Hershenfeld, Samantha; Gronda, Marcela; Liyanage, Sanduni; Wu, Yan; Augustine, Jeevan; Lee, Eric A; Spagnuolo, Paul A; Southall, Noel; Chen, Catherine; Zheng, Wei; Jeyaraju, Danny V; Minden, Mark D; Laposa, Rebecca; Schimmer, Aaron D

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria contain multiple copies of their own 16.6 kb circular genome. To explore the impact of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage on mitochondrial (mt) function and viability of AML cells, we screened a panel of DNA damaging chemotherapeutic agents to identify drugs that could damage mtDNA. We identified bleomycin as an agent that damaged mtDNA in AML cells at concentrations that induced cell death. Bleomycin also induced mtDNA damage in primary AML samples. Consistent with the observed mtDNA damage, bleomycin reduced mt mass and basal oxygen consumption in AML cells. We also demonstrated that the observed mtDNA damage was functionally important for bleomycin-induced cell death. Finally, bleomycin delayed tumor growth in xenograft mouse models of AML and anti-leukemic concentrations of the drug induced mtDNA damage in AML cells preferentially over normal lung tissue. Taken together, mtDNA-targeted therapy may be an effective strategy to target AML cells and bleomycin could be useful in the treatment of this disease.

  19. Amphetamines promote mitochondrial dysfunction and DNA damage in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pin-I; Cao, Aiqin; Miyagawa, Kazuya; Tojais, Nancy F.; Hennigs, Jan K.; Li, Caiyun G.; Sweeney, Nathaly M.; Inglis, Audrey S.; Wang, Lingli; Li, Dan; Ye, Matthew; Feldman, Brian J.

    2017-01-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH) or methamphetamine (METH) abuse can cause oxidative damage and is a risk factor for diseases including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) from AMPH-associated-PAH patients show DNA damage as judged by γH2AX foci and DNA comet tails. We therefore hypothesized that AMPH induces DNA damage and vascular pathology by interfering with normal adaptation to an environmental perturbation causing oxidative stress. Consistent with this, we found that AMPH alone does not cause DNA damage in normoxic PAECs, but greatly amplifies DNA damage in hypoxic PAECs. The mechanism involves AMPH activation of protein phosphatase 2A, which potentiates inhibition of Akt. This increases sirtuin 1, causing deacetylation and degradation of HIF1α, thereby impairing its transcriptional activity, resulting in a reduction in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 and impaired cytochrome c oxidase 4 isoform switch. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is inappropriately enhanced and, as a result of impaired electron transport and mitochondrial ROS increase, caspase-3 is activated and DNA damage is induced. In mice given binge doses of METH followed by hypoxia, HIF1α is suppressed and pulmonary artery DNA damage foci are associated with worse pulmonary vascular remodeling. Thus, chronic AMPH/METH can induce DNA damage associated with vascular disease by subverting the adaptive responses to oxidative stress. PMID:28138562

  20. Distribution Patterns of Postmortem Damage in Human Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders J.; Barnes, Ian; Rudbeck, Lars; Lynnerup, Niels; Cooper, Alan

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of postmortem damage in mitochondrial DNA retrieved from 37 ancient human DNA samples was analyzed by cloning and was compared with a selection of published animal data. A relative rate of damage (ρv) was calculated for nucleotide positions within the human hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) and cytochrome oxidase subunit III genes. A comparison of damaged sites within and between the regions reveals that damage hotspots exist and that, in the HVR1, these correlate with sites known to have high in vivo mutation rates. Conversely, HVR1 subregions with known structural function, such as MT5, have lower in vivo mutation rates and lower postmortem-damage rates. The postmortem data also identify a possible functional subregion of the HVR1, termed “low-diversity 1,” through the lack of sequence damage. The amount of postmortem damage observed in mitochondrial coding regions was significantly lower than in the HVR1, and, although hotspots were noted, these did not correlate with codon position. Finally, a simple method for the identification of incorrect archaeological haplogroup designations is introduced, on the basis of the observed spectrum of postmortem damage. PMID:12489041

  1. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in coronary artery bypass graft surgery: effects of antioxidant treatments.

    PubMed

    Milei, J; Ferreira, R; Grana, D R; Boveris, A

    2001-01-01

    We examined antioxidant actions in 73 patients undergoing coronary artery surgery by assessing mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress in ventricular biopsies obtained at preischemia and postreperfusion. Those patients who received antioxidant therapy benefited by less oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage.

  2. Isolating the segment of the mitochondrial electron transport chain responsible for mitochondrial damage during cardiac ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Qun; Yin, Guotian; Stewart, Sarah; Hu, Ying; Lesnefsky, Edward J.

    2010-07-09

    Ischemia damages the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), mediated in part by damage generated by the mitochondria themselves. Mitochondrial damage resulting from ischemia, in turn, leads to cardiac injury during reperfusion. The goal of the present study was to localize the segment of the ETC that produces the ischemic mitochondrial damage. We tested if blockade of the proximal ETC at complex I differed from blockade distal in the chain at cytochrome oxidase. Isolated rabbit hearts were perfused for 15 min followed by 30 min stop-flow ischemia at 37 {sup o}C. Amobarbital (2.5 mM) or azide (5 mM) was used to block proximal (complex I) or distal (cytochrome oxidase) sites in the ETC. Time control hearts were buffer-perfused for 45 min. Subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) and interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM) were isolated. Ischemia decreased cytochrome c content in SSM but not in IFM compared to time control. Blockade of electron transport at complex I preserved the cytochrome c content in SSM. In contrast, blockade of electron transport at cytochrome oxidase with azide did not retain cytochrome c in SSM during ischemia. Since blockade of electron transport at complex III also prevented cytochrome c loss during ischemia, the specific site that elicits mitochondrial damage during ischemia is likely located in the segment between complex III and cytochrome oxidase.

  3. Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease: Implications for Mitochondrially Targeted Antioxidant Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2006-01-01

    The overall aim of this article is to review current therapeutic strategies for treating AD, with a focus on mitochondrially targeted antioxidant treatments. Recent advances in molecular, cellular, and animal model studies of AD have revealed that amyloid precursor protein derivatives, including amyloid beta (Aβ) monomers and oligomers, are likely key factors in tau hyperphosphorylation, mitochondrial oxidative damage, inflammatory changes, and synaptic failure in the brain tissue of AD patients. Several therapeutic strategies have been developed to treat AD, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiamyloid approaches. Among these, mitochondrial antioxidant therapy has been found to be the most efficacious in reducing pathological changes and in not producing adverse effects; thus, mitochondrial antioxidant therapy is promising as a treatment for AD patients. However, a major limitation in applying mitochondrial antioxidants to AD treatment has been the inability of researchers to enhance antioxidant levels in mitochondria. Recently, however, there has been a breakthrough. Researchers have recently been able to promote the entry of certain antioxidants—including MitoQ, MitoVitE, MitoPBN, MitoPeroxidase, and amino acid and peptide-based SS tetrapeptides—into mitochondria, several hundred-fold more than do natural antioxidants. Once in the mitochondria, they rapidly neutralize free radicals and decrease mitochondrial toxicity. Thus, mitochondrially targeted antioxidants are promising candidates for treating AD patients. PMID:17047303

  4. Tamoxifen inhibits mitochondrial oxidative stress damage induced by copper orthophenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Buelna-Chontal, Mabel; Hernández-Esquivel, Luz; Correa, Francisco; Díaz-Ruiz, Jorge Luis; Chávez, Edmundo

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we studied the effect of tamoxifen and cyclosporin A on mitochondrial permeability transition caused by addition of the thiol-oxidizing pair Cu(2+) -orthophenanthroline. The findings indicate that tamoxifen and cyclosporin A circumvent the oxidative membrane damage manifested by matrix Ca(2+) release, mitochondrial swelling, and transmembrane electrical gradient collapse. Furthermore, it was found that tamoxifen and cyclosporin A prevent the generation of TBARs promoted by Cu(2+) -orthophenanthroline, as well as the inactivation of the mitochondrial enzyme aconitase and disruption of mDNA. Electrophoretic analysis was unable to demonstrate a cross-linking reaction between membrane proteins. Yet, it was found that Cu(2+) -orthophenanthroline induced the generation of reactive oxygen species. It is thus plausible that membrane leakiness is due to an oxidative stress injury.

  5. Mitochondrial damage: a target for new therapeutic horizons.

    PubMed

    Soustiel, Jean F; Larisch, Sarit

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a leading cause of death and morbidity, as well as a considerable social and economical burden in western countries, and has thus emerged as a formidable therapeutic challenge. Yet despite tremendous efforts enlightening the mechanisms of neuronal death, hopes for the "magic bullet" have been repeatedly deceived, and TBI management has remained focused on the control of increased intracranial pressure. Indeed, impairment of cerebral metabolism is traditionally attributed to impaired oxygen delivery mediated by reduced cerebral perfusion in the swollen cerebral parenchyma. Although intuitively appealing, this hypothesis is not entirely supported by physiological facts and does not take into consideration mitochondrial dysfunction that has been repeatedly reported in both human and animal TBI. Although the nature and origin of the events leading to mitochondrial damage may be different, most share a permeabilization of mitochondrial membrane, which therefore may represent a logical target for new therapeutic strategies. Therefore, the proteins mediating these events may represent promising targets for new TBI therapies. Furthermore, mimicking anti-apoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2 or XIAP, or inhibiting mitochondrial pro-apoptotic proteins, such as Smac/DIABLO, Omi/HTRA2, and ARTS (septin 4 isoform 2) may represent useful novel therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on mechanisms of the mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and its consequences and discusses the current and possible future therapeutic implications of this key event of neuronal death. Copyright 2010 The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Damage in Keratinocytes by Pemphigus Vulgaris Antibodies*

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari-Dehaghi, Mina; Chen, Yumay; Deng, Wu; Chernyavsky, Alex; Marchenko, Steve; Wang, Ping H.; Grando, Sergei A.

    2013-01-01

    The development of nonhormonal treatment of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) has been hampered by a lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms leading to keratinocyte (KC) detachment and death in pemphigus. In this study, we sought to identify changes in the vital mitochondrial functions in KCs treated with the sera from PV patients and healthy donors. PV sera significantly increased proton leakage from KCs, suggesting that PV IgGs increase production of reactive oxygen species. Indeed, measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species production showed a drastic increase of cell staining in response to treatment by PV sera, which was confirmed by FACS analysis. Exposure of KCs to PV sera also caused dramatic changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential detected with the JC-1 dye. These changes can trigger the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptosis. Although sera from different PV patients elicited unique patterns of mitochondrial damage, the mitochondria-protecting drugs nicotinamide (also called niacinamide), minocycline, and cyclosporine A exhibited a uniform protective effect. Their therapeutic activity was validated in the passive transfer model of PV in neonatal BALB/c mice. The highest efficacy of mitochondrial protection of the combination of these drugs found in mitochondrial assay was consistent with the ability of the same drug combination to abolish acantholysis in mouse skin. These findings provide a theoretical background for clinical reports of the efficacy of mitochondria-protecting drugs in PV patients. Pharmacological protection of mitochondria and/or compensation of an altered mitochondrial function may therefore become a novel approach to development of personalized nonhormonal therapies of patients with this potentially lethal autoimmune blistering disease. PMID:23599429

  7. Mechanisms of mitochondrial damage in keratinocytes by pemphigus vulgaris antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kalantari-Dehaghi, Mina; Chen, Yumay; Deng, Wu; Chernyavsky, Alex; Marchenko, Steve; Wang, Ping H; Grando, Sergei A

    2013-06-07

    The development of nonhormonal treatment of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) has been hampered by a lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms leading to keratinocyte (KC) detachment and death in pemphigus. In this study, we sought to identify changes in the vital mitochondrial functions in KCs treated with the sera from PV patients and healthy donors. PV sera significantly increased proton leakage from KCs, suggesting that PV IgGs increase production of reactive oxygen species. Indeed, measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species production showed a drastic increase of cell staining in response to treatment by PV sera, which was confirmed by FACS analysis. Exposure of KCs to PV sera also caused dramatic changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential detected with the JC-1 dye. These changes can trigger the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptosis. Although sera from different PV patients elicited unique patterns of mitochondrial damage, the mitochondria-protecting drugs nicotinamide (also called niacinamide), minocycline, and cyclosporine A exhibited a uniform protective effect. Their therapeutic activity was validated in the passive transfer model of PV in neonatal BALB/c mice. The highest efficacy of mitochondrial protection of the combination of these drugs found in mitochondrial assay was consistent with the ability of the same drug combination to abolish acantholysis in mouse skin. These findings provide a theoretical background for clinical reports of the efficacy of mitochondria-protecting drugs in PV patients. Pharmacological protection of mitochondria and/or compensation of an altered mitochondrial function may therefore become a novel approach to development of personalized nonhormonal therapies of patients with this potentially lethal autoimmune blistering disease.

  8. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Due to Oxidative Mitochondrial DNA Damage Is Reduced through Cooperative Actions of Diverse Proteins

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, Thomas W.; Doudican, Nicole A.; Mackereth, Melinda D.; Doetsch, Paul W.; Shadel, Gerald S.

    2002-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome is a significant target of exogenous and endogenous genotoxic agents; however, the determinants that govern this susceptibility and the pathways available to resist mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage are not well characterized. Here we report that oxidative mtDNA damage is elevated in strains lacking Ntg1p, providing the first direct functional evidence that this mitochondrion-localized, base excision repair enzyme functions to protect mtDNA. However, ntg1 null strains did not exhibit a mitochondrial respiration-deficient (petite) phenotype, suggesting that mtDNA damage is negotiated by the cooperative actions of multiple damage resistance pathways. Null mutations in ABF2 or PIF1, two genes implicated in mtDNA maintenance and recombination, exhibit a synthetic-petite phenotype in combination with ntg1 null mutations that is accompanied by enhanced mtDNA point mutagenesis in the corresponding double-mutant strains. This phenotype was partially rescued by malonic acid, indicating that reactive oxygen species generated by the electron transport chain contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction in abf2Δ strains. In contrast, when two other genes involved in mtDNA recombination, CCE1 and NUC1, were inactivated a strong synthetic-petite phenotype was not observed, suggesting that the effects mediated by Abf2p and Pif1p are due to novel activities of these proteins other than recombination. These results document the existence of recombination-independent mechanisms in addition to base excision repair to cope with oxidative mtDNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Such systems are likely relevant to those operating in human cells where mtDNA recombination is less prevalent, validating yeast as a model system in which to study these important issues. PMID:12024022

  9. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in parkin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Palacino, James J; Sagi, Dijana; Goldberg, Matthew S; Krauss, Stefan; Motz, Claudia; Wacker, Maik; Klose, Joachim; Shen, Jie

    2004-04-30

    Loss-of-function mutations in parkin are the predominant cause of familial Parkinson's disease. We previously reported that parkin-/- mice exhibit nigrostriatal deficits in the absence of nigral degeneration. Parkin has been shown to function as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Loss of parkin function, therefore, has been hypothesized to cause nigral degeneration via an aberrant accumulation of its substrates. Here we employed a proteomic approach to determine whether loss of parkin function results in alterations in abundance and/or modification of proteins in the ventral midbrain of parkin-/- mice. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry revealed decreased abundance of a number of proteins involved in mitochondrial function or oxidative stress. Consistent with reductions in several subunits of complexes I and IV, functional assays showed reductions in respiratory capacity of striatal mitochondria isolated from parkin-/- mice. Electron microscopic analysis revealed no gross morphological abnormalities in striatal mitochondria of parkin-/- mice. In addition, parkin-/- mice showed a delayed rate of weight gain, suggesting broader metabolic abnormalities. Accompanying these deficits in mitochondrial function, parkin-/- mice also exhibited decreased levels of proteins involved in protection from oxidative stress. Consistent with these findings, parkin-/- mice showed decreased serum antioxidant capacity and increased protein and lipid peroxidation. The combination of proteomic, genetic, and physiological analyses reveal an essential role for parkin in the regulation of mitochondrial function and provide the first direct evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in the absence of nigral degeneration in a genetic mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

  10. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Onuki, Janice; Chen, Yiming; Teixeira, Priscila C; Schumacher, Robert I; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Van Houten, Bennett; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2004-12-15

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a heme precursor accumulated in plasma and in organs in acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), a disease associated with neuromuscular dysfunction and increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Liver biopsies of AIP patients showed odd-shaped mitochondria and autophagic vacuoles containing well-preserved mitochondria. ALA yields reactive oxygen species upon metal-catalyzed oxidation and causes in vivo and in vitro impairment of rat liver mitochondria and DNA damage. Using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, we demonstrated that ALA induces a dose-dependent damage in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in human SVNF fibroblasts and rat PC12 cells. CHO cells treated with ALA also show nuclear DNA damage and human HepG2 cells entered in apoptosis and necrosis induced by ALA and its dimerization product, DHPY. The present data provide additional information on the genotoxicity of ALA, reinforcing the hypothesis that it may be involved in the development of HCC in AIP patients.

  11. Role of mitochondrial DNA damage and dysfunction in veterans with Gulf War Illness.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Meyer, Joel N; Hill, Helene Z; Lange, Gudrun; Condon, Michael R; Klein, Jacquelyn C; Ndirangu, Duncan; Falvo, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multi-symptom illness not currently diagnosed by standard medical or laboratory test that affects 30% of veterans who served during the 1990-1991 Gulf War. The clinical presentation of GWI is comparable to that of patients with certain mitochondrial disorders-i.e., clinically heterogeneous multisystem symptoms. Therefore, we hypothesized that mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to both the symptoms of GWI as well as its persistence over time. We recruited 21 cases of GWI (CDC and Kansas criteria) and 7 controls to participate in this study. Peripheral blood samples were obtained in all participants and a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) based assay was performed to quantify mitochondrial and nuclear DNA lesion frequency and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number (mtDNAcn) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Samples were also used to analyze nuclear DNA lesion frequency and enzyme activity for mitochondrial complexes I and IV. Both mtDNA lesion frequency (p = 0.015, d = 1.13) and mtDNAcn (p = 0.001; d = 1.69) were elevated in veterans with GWI relative to controls. Nuclear DNA lesion frequency was also elevated in veterans with GWI (p = 0.344; d = 1.41), but did not reach statistical significance. Complex I and IV activity (p > 0.05) were similar between groups and greater mtDNA lesion frequency was associated with reduced complex I (r2 = -0.35, p = 0.007) and IV (r2 = -0.28, p < 0.01) enzyme activity. In conclusion, veterans with GWI exhibit greater mtDNA damage which is consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction.

  12. Role of mitochondrial DNA damage and dysfunction in veterans with Gulf War Illness

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yang; Meyer, Joel N.; Hill, Helene Z.; Lange, Gudrun; Condon, Michael R.; Klein, Jacquelyn C.; Ndirangu, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multi-symptom illness not currently diagnosed by standard medical or laboratory test that affects 30% of veterans who served during the 1990–1991 Gulf War. The clinical presentation of GWI is comparable to that of patients with certain mitochondrial disorders–i.e., clinically heterogeneous multisystem symptoms. Therefore, we hypothesized that mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to both the symptoms of GWI as well as its persistence over time. We recruited 21 cases of GWI (CDC and Kansas criteria) and 7 controls to participate in this study. Peripheral blood samples were obtained in all participants and a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) based assay was performed to quantify mitochondrial and nuclear DNA lesion frequency and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number (mtDNAcn) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Samples were also used to analyze nuclear DNA lesion frequency and enzyme activity for mitochondrial complexes I and IV. Both mtDNA lesion frequency (p = 0.015, d = 1.13) and mtDNAcn (p = 0.001; d = 1.69) were elevated in veterans with GWI relative to controls. Nuclear DNA lesion frequency was also elevated in veterans with GWI (p = 0.344; d = 1.41), but did not reach statistical significance. Complex I and IV activity (p > 0.05) were similar between groups and greater mtDNA lesion frequency was associated with reduced complex I (r2 = -0.35, p = 0.007) and IV (r2 = -0.28, p < 0.01) enzyme activity. In conclusion, veterans with GWI exhibit greater mtDNA damage which is consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:28910366

  13. Deficiency in the inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase 2-like (Immp21) gene increases ischemic brain damage and impairs mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi; Mehta, Suresh L.; Lu, Baisong; Andy Li, P.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in mediating ischemic brain damage. Immp2l is an inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase that processes mitochondrial proteins cytochrome c1 (Cyc1). Homozygous mutation of Immp2l (Immp2lTg(Tyr)979Ove or Immp2l−/−) elevates mitochondrial membrane potential, increases superoxide (•O2−) production in the brain and impairs fertility. The objectives of this study are to explore the effects of heterozygous mutation of lmmp2l (Immp2l+/−) on ischemic outcome and to determine the influence of Immp2l deficiency on brain mitochondria after stroke. Male Immp2l+/− and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to 1-h focal cerebral ischemia. Their brains were harvested after 5 and 24-h of reperfusion. The results showed that infarct volume and DNA oxidative damage significantly increased in the Immp2l+/− mice. There were no obvious cerebral vasculature abnormalities between the two types of mice viewed by Indian ink perfusion. The increased damage in Immp2l+/− mice was associated with early increase in •O2− production. Mitochondrial respiratory rate, total mitochondrial respiratory capacity and mitochondrial respiratory complex activities were decreased at 5-h of recirculation in Immp2l+/− mice compared to WT mice. Our results suggest that lmmp2l deficiency increases ischemic brain damage by enhancing •O2− production and damaging mitochondrial functional performance. PMID:21824519

  14. Deficiency in the inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase 2-like (Immp21) gene increases ischemic brain damage and impairs mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Mehta, Suresh L; Lu, Baisong; Li, P Andy

    2011-12-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in mediating ischemic brain damage. Immp2l is an inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase that processes mitochondrial protein cytochrome c1 (Cyc1). Homozygous mutation of Immp2l (Immp2l(Tg(Tyr)979Ove) or Immp2l(-/-)) elevates mitochondrial membrane potential, increases superoxide (O(2)(-)) production in the brain and impairs fertility. The objectives of this study are to explore the effects of heterozygous mutation of Immp2l (Immp2l(+/-)) on ischemic outcome and to determine the influence of Immp2l deficiency on brain mitochondria after stroke. Male Immp2l(+/-) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to 1-h focal cerebral ischemia. Their brains were harvested after 5 and 24-h of reperfusion. The results showed that infarct volume and DNA oxidative damage significantly increased in the Immp2l(+/-) mice. There were no obvious cerebral vasculature abnormalities between the two types of mice viewed by Indian ink perfusion. The increased damage in Immp2l(+/-) mice was associated with early increase in O(2)(-) production. Mitochondrial respiratory rate, total mitochondrial respiratory capacity and mitochondrial respiratory complex activities were decreased at 5-h of recirculation in Immp2l(+/-) mice compared to WT mice. Our results suggest that Immp2l deficiency increases ischemic brain damage by enhancing O(2)(-) production and damaging mitochondrial functional performance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. [Role of rotenone in mitochondrial oxidative damage and the underlying mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Deng, Yong; Lu, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Rotenone is one of the typical inhibitors of the complex I on the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Numerous studies showed when applied to live animals or cells, rotenone could lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS augment, and thus oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Through exploring the process of ROS generation in mitochondria, the relationship between rotenone and mitochondrial ROS generation and the role of rotenone in DNA damage, we elucidated the mechanisms of rotenone induced-mitochondrial oxidative damage. At the same time, we attempted to explore the mtDNA damage and the mutation induced by rotenone.

  16. Perinatal tobacco smoke exposure increases vascular oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, David G; Anderson, Peter G; Pinkerton, Kent E; Ballinger, Scott W

    2010-09-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that events occurring during fetal and early childhood development influence disease susceptibility. Similarly, molecular studies in mice have shown that in utero exposure to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) increased adult atherogenic susceptibility and mitochondrial damage; however, the molecular effects of similar exposures in primates are not yet known. To determine whether perinatal ETS exposure increased mitochondrial damage, dysfunction and oxidant stress in primates, archived tissues from the non-human primate model Macaca mulatta (M. mulatta) were utilized. M. mulatta were exposed to low levels of ETS (1 mg/m(3) total suspended particulates) from gestation (day 40) to early childhood (1 year), and aortic tissues were assessed for oxidized proteins (protein carbonyls), antioxidant activity (SOD), mitochondrial function (cytochrome oxidase), and mitochondrial damage (mitochondrial DNA damage). Results revealed that perinatal ETS exposure resulted in significantly increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and damage which were accompanied by significantly decreased mitochondrial antioxidant capacity and mitochondrial copy number in vascular tissue. Increased mitochondrial damage was also detected in buffy coat tissues in exposed M. mulatta. These studies suggest that perinatal tobacco smoke exposure increases vascular oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in primates, potentially increasing adult disease susceptibility.

  17. Methoxychlor causes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in the mouse ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.K.; Schuh, R.A.; Fiskum, G.; Flaws, J.A. . E-mail: jflaws@epi.umaryland.edu

    2006-11-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by causing ovarian atrophy, persistent estrous cyclicity, and antral follicle atresia (apoptotic cell death). Oxidative damage resulting from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been demonstrated to lead to toxicant-induced cell death. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that MXC causes oxidative damage to the mouse ovary and affects mitochondrial respiration in a manner that stimulates ROS production. For the in vitro experiments, mitochondria were collected from adult cycling mouse ovaries, treated with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or MXC, and subjected to polarographic measurements of respiration. For the in vivo experiments, adult cycling CD-1 mice were dosed with either vehicle (sesame oil) or MXC for 20 days. After treatment, ovarian mitochondria were isolated and subjected to measurements of respiration and fluorimetric measurements of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. Some ovaries were also fixed and processed for immunohistochemistry using antibodies for ROS production markers: nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHG). Ovaries from in vivo experiments were also used to measure the mRNA expression and activity of antioxidants such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT). The results indicate that MXC significantly impairs mitochondrial respiration, increases production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, causes more staining for nitrotyrosine and 8-OHG in antral follicles, and decreases the expression and activity of SOD1, GPX, and CAT as compared to controls. Collectively, these data indicate that MXC inhibits mitochondrial respiration, causes ROS production, and decreases antioxidant expression and activity in the ovary, specifically in the antral follicles. Therefore, it is possible that MXC causes atresia of ovarian antral follicles by inducing oxidative stress through mitochondrial production of ROS.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA Damage in Iron Overload*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xueshan; Campian, Jian Li; Qian, Mingwei; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Eaton, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic iron overload has slow and insidious effects on heart, liver, and other organs. Because iron-driven oxidation of most biologic materials (such as lipids and proteins) is readily repaired, this slow progression of organ damage implies some kind of biological “memory.” We hypothesized that cumulative iron-catalyzed oxidant damage to mtDNA might occur in iron overload, perhaps explaining the often lethal cardiac dysfunction. Real time PCR was used to examine the “intactness” of mttDNA in cultured H9c2 rat cardiac myocytes. After 3–5 days exposure to high iron, these cells exhibited damage to mtDNA reflected by diminished amounts of near full-length 15.9-kb PCR product with no change in the amounts of a 16.1-kb product from a nuclear gene. With the loss of intact mtDNA, cellular respiration declined and mRNAs for three electron transport chain subunits and 16 S rRNA encoded by mtDNA decreased, whereas no decrements were found in four subunits encoded by nuclear DNA. To examine the importance of the interactions of iron with metabolically generated reactive oxygen species, we compared the toxic effects of iron in wild-type and rhoo cells. In wild-type cells, elevated iron caused increased production of reactive oxygen species, cytostasis, and cell death, whereas the rhoo cells were unaffected. We conclude that long-term damage to cells and organs in iron-overload disorders involves interactions between iron and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species resulting in cumulative damage to mtDNA, impaired synthesis of respiratory chain subunits, and respiratory dysfunction. PMID:19095657

  19. Lamivudine/telbivudine-associated neuromyopathy: neurogenic damage, mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial DNA depletion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Zhaoxia; Zheng, Lemin; Zhang, Wei; Lv, He; Jin, Suqin; Yuan, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Aims Myopathy or neuropathy has been associated with lamivudine/telbivudine therapy in hepatitis B patients. We aim to describe the pathological changes of lamivudine/telbivudine-associated neuromyopathy. Methods We retrospectively recruited six patients who were diagnosed with nucleotide analogues-associated myopathy or neuropathy. Muscle and nerve biopsy were performed, and the specimens were prepared for the light microscopy and electron microscopy. Genomic DNA was extracted from frozen muscle specimens, and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content was quantified by real-time PCR. Results Recovery of the myopathy can be achieved after the discontinuation or changing the drugs to entecavir. Muscle and nerve biopsy revealed similar changes under either the light or electronic microscopy in all the subjects. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed decrease of mtDNA content in the affected muscle. Conclusions MtDNA depletion results in mitochondrial dysfunction in the lamivudine/telbivudine-associated neuromyopathy. Myopathy was characterised by mitochondrial dysfunction accompanied with neurogenic damage due to axonal neuropathy. Ultrastructure changes of mitochondria included vacuolisation, simplification of the cristae and homogenised matrix. PMID:25190818

  20. Mitochondrial damage and ageing using skin as a model organ.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Laura; Bowman, Amy; Rashdan, Eyman; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    Ageing describes the progressive functional decline of an organism over time, leading to an increase in susceptibility to age-related diseases and eventually to death, and it is a phenomenon observed across a wide range of organisms. Despite a vast repertoire of ageing studies performed over the past century, the exact causes of ageing remain unknown. For over 50 years it has been speculated that mitochondria play a key role in the ageing process, due mainly to correlative data showing an increase in mitochondrial dysfunction, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) with age. However, the exact role of the mitochondria in the ageing process remains unknown. The skin is often used to study human ageing, due to its easy accessibility, and the observation that the ageing process is able to be accelerated in this organ via environmental insults, such as ultra violet radiation (UVR). This provides a useful tool to investigate the mechanisms regulating ageing and, in particular, the role of the mitochondria. Observations from dermatological and photoageing studies can provide useful insights into chronological ageing of the skin and other organs such as the brain and liver. Moreover, a wide range of diseases are associated with ageing; therefore, understanding the cause of the ageing process as well as regulatory mechanisms involved could provide potentially advantageous therapeutic targets for the prevention or treatment of such diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA damage and oxidative damage in HL-60 cells exposed to 900MHz radiofrequency fields.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yulong; Zong, Lin; Gao, Zhen; Zhu, Shunxing; Tong, Jian; Cao, Yi

    2017-03-01

    HL-60 cells, derived from human promyelocytic leukemia, were exposed to continuous wave 900MHz radiofrequency fields (RF) at 120μW/cm(2) power intensity for 4h/day for 5 consecutive days to examine whether such exposure is capable damaging the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mediated through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the effect of RF exposure was examined on 8-hydroxy-2'-dexoyguanosine (8-OHdG) which is a biomarker for oxidative damage and on the mitochondrial synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is the energy required for cellular functions. The results indicated a significant increase in ROS and significant decreases in mitochondrial transcription factor A, mtDNA polymerase gamma, mtDNA transcripts and mtDNA copy number in RF-exposed cells compared with those in sham-exposed control cells. In addition, there was a significant increase in 8-OHdG and a significant decrease in ATP in RF-exposed cells. The response in positive control cells exposed to gamma radiation (GR, which is also known to induce ROS) was similar to those in RF-exposed cells. Thus, the overall data indicated that RF exposure was capable of inducing mtDNA damage mediated through ROS pathway which also induced oxidative damage. Prior-treatment of RF- and GR-exposed the cells with melatonin, a well-known free radical scavenger, reversed the effects observed in RF-exposed cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mitochondrial Damage: A Diagnostic and Metabolic Approach in Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-Traumatic Disorder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-29

    performed in 50-100 ul blood ( depend on the severity of mitochondrial damage). The data of dipstick test in blood for complex I and PDH is shown in... mitochondrial dysfunction are induced by chronic stress in rat brain. Neuropsychopharmacology 2001;24:420-9. 13. Manoli I, Alesci S, Blackman MR, Su YA, Rennert...REPORT Mitochondrial Damage: A Diagnostic and Metabolic Approach in Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-Traumatic Disorder 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY

  3. Increased mitochondrial functions in human glioblastoma cells persistently infected with measles virus.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Megumi; Wolf, Alexander M; Watari, Eiji; Norose, Yoshihiko; Ohta, Shigeo; Takahashi, Hidemi

    2013-09-01

    Measles virus (MV) is known for its ability to cause an acute infection with a potential of development of persistent infection. However, knowledge of how viral genes and cellular factors interact to cause or maintain the persistent infection has remained unclear. We have previously reported the possible involvement of mitochondrial short chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS), which is localized at mitochondria, in the regulation of MV replication. In this study we found increased functions of mitochondria in MV-persistently infected cells compared with uninfected or acutely infected cells. Furthermore, impairment of mitochondrial functions by treatment with mitochondrial inhibitors such as ethidium bromide (EtBr) or carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) induced the cytopathic effects of extensive syncytial formation in persistently infected cells. These findings suggest that mitochondria are one of the subcellular organelles contributing to regulate persistent infection of MV. Recent studies showed mitochondria provide an integral platform for retinoic acid-inducible protein (RIG-I)-like cytosolic receptors (RLRs) signaling and participate in cellular innate antiviral immunity. Our findings not only reveal a role of mitochondria in RLR mediated antiviral signaling but also suggest that mitochondria contribute to the regulation of persistent viral infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mitochondrial NADP(+)-Dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Exacerbates Mitochondrial and Cell Damage after Kidney Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Jun; Jang, Hee-Seong; Noh, Mi Ra; Kim, Jinu; Kong, Min Jung; Kim, Jee In; Park, Jeen-Woo; Park, Kwon Moo

    2017-04-01

    Mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate, synthesizing NADPH, which is essential for mitochondrial redox balance. Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is one of most common causes of AKI. I/R disrupts the mitochondrial redox balance, resulting in oxidative damage to mitochondria and cells. Here, we investigated the role of IDH2 in I/R-induced AKI. I/R injury in mice led to the inactivation of IDH2 in kidney tubule cells. Idh2 gene deletion exacerbated the I/R-induced increase in plasma creatinine and BUN levels and the histologic evidence of tubule injury, and augmented the reduction of NADPH levels and the increase in oxidative stress observed in the kidney after I/R. Furthermore, Idh2 gene deletion exacerbated I/R-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and morphologic fragmentation, resulting in severe apoptosis in kidney tubule cells. In cultured mouse kidney proximal tubule cells, Idh2 gene downregulation enhanced the mitochondrial damage and apoptosis induced by treatment with hydrogen peroxide. This study demonstrates that Idh2 gene deletion exacerbates mitochondrial damage and tubular cell death via increased oxidative stress, suggesting that IDH2 is an important mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme that protects cells from I/R insult. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Prevention of mitochondrial oxidative damage as a therapeutic strategy in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Green, Katherine; Brand, Martin D; Murphy, Michael P

    2004-02-01

    Hyperglycemia causes many of the pathological consequences of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Much of this damage is suggested to be a consequence of elevated production of reactive oxygen species by the mitochondrial respiratory chain during hyperglycemia. Mitochondrial radical production associated with hyperglycemia will also disrupt glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells, because pancreatic beta-cells are particularly susceptible to oxidative damage. Therefore, mitochondrial radical production in response to hyperglycemia contributes to both the progression and pathological complications of diabetes. Consequently, strategies to decrease mitochondrial radical production and oxidative damage may have therapeutic potential. This could be achieved by the use of antioxidants or by decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential. Here, we outline the background to these strategies and discuss how antioxidants targeted to mitochondria, or selective mitochondrial uncoupling, may be potential therapies for diabetes.

  6. Reduced calcium-dependent mitochondrial damage underlies the reduced vulnerability of excitotoxicity-tolerant hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Pivovarova, Natalia B; Stanika, Ruslan I; Watts, Charlotte A; Brantner, Christine A; Smith, Carolyn L; Andrews, S Brian

    2008-03-01

    In central neurons, over-stimulation of NMDA receptors leads to excessive mitochondrial calcium accumulation and damage, which is a critical step in excitotoxic death. This raises the possibility that low susceptibility to calcium overload-induced mitochondrial damage might characterize excitotoxicity-resistant neurons. In this study, we have exploited two complementary models of preconditioning-induced excitotoxicity resistance to demonstrate reduced calcium-dependent mitochondrial damage in NMDA-tolerant hippocampal neurons. We have further identified adaptations in mitochondrial calcium handling that account for enhanced mitochondrial integrity. In both models, enhanced tolerance was associated with improved preservation of mitochondrial membrane potential and structure. In the first model, which exhibited modest neuroprotection, mitochondria-dependent calcium deregulation was delayed, even though cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium loads were quantitatively unchanged, indicating that enhanced mitochondrial calcium capacity accounts for reduced injury. In contrast, the second model, which exhibited strong neuroprotection, displayed further delayed calcium deregulation and reduced mitochondrial damage because downregulation of NMDA receptor surface expression depressed calcium loading. Reducing calcium entry also modified the chemical composition of the calcium-buffering precipitates that form in calcium-loaded mitochondria. It thus appears that reduced mitochondrial calcium loading is a major factor underlying the robust neuroprotection seen in highly tolerant cells.

  7. Alcohol Dehydrogenase Accentuates Ethanol-Induced Myocardial Dysfunction and Mitochondrial Damage in Mice: Role of Mitochondrial Death Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Ren, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Binge drinking and alcohol toxicity are often associated with myocardial dysfunction possibly due to accumulation of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde although the underlying mechanism is unknown. This study was designed to examine the impact of accelerated ethanol metabolism on myocardial contractility, mitochondrial function and apoptosis using a murine model of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Methods ADH and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p.) for 3 days. Myocardial contractility, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis (death receptor and mitochondrial pathways) were examined. Results Ethanol led to reduced cardiac contractility, enlarged cardiomyocyte, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, the effects of which were exaggerated by ADH transgene. In particular, ADH exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction manifested as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and accumulation of mitochondrial O2•−. Myocardium from ethanol-treated mice displayed enhanced Bax, Caspase-3 and decreased Bcl-2 expression, the effect of which with the exception of Caspase-3 was augmented by ADH. ADH accentuated ethanol-induced increase in the mitochondrial death domain components pro-caspase-9 and cytochrome C in the cytoplasm. Neither ethanol nor ADH affected the expression of ANP, total pro-caspase-9, cytosolic and total pro-caspase-8, TNF-α, Fas receptor, Fas L and cytosolic AIF. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that enhanced acetaldehyde production through ADH overexpression following acute ethanol exposure exacerbated ethanol-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction, cardiomyocyte enlargement, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, indicating a pivotal role of ADH in ethanol-induced cardiac dysfunction possibly through mitochondrial death pathway of apoptosis. PMID:20090911

  8. Alcohol dehydrogenase accentuates ethanol-induced myocardial dysfunction and mitochondrial damage in mice: role of mitochondrial death pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Ren, Jun

    2010-01-18

    Binge drinking and alcohol toxicity are often associated with myocardial dysfunction possibly due to accumulation of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde although the underlying mechanism is unknown. This study was designed to examine the impact of accelerated ethanol metabolism on myocardial contractility, mitochondrial function and apoptosis using a murine model of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). ADH and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p.) for 3 days. Myocardial contractility, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis (death receptor and mitochondrial pathways) were examined. Ethanol led to reduced cardiac contractility, enlarged cardiomyocyte, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, the effects of which were exaggerated by ADH transgene. In particular, ADH exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction manifested as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and accumulation of mitochondrial O(2) (*-). Myocardium from ethanol-treated mice displayed enhanced Bax, Caspase-3 and decreased Bcl-2 expression, the effect of which with the exception of Caspase-3 was augmented by ADH. ADH accentuated ethanol-induced increase in the mitochondrial death domain components pro-caspase-9 and cytochrome C in the cytoplasm. Neither ethanol nor ADH affected the expression of ANP, total pro-caspase-9, cytosolic and total pro-caspase-8, TNF-alpha, Fas receptor, Fas L and cytosolic AIF. Taken together, these data suggest that enhanced acetaldehyde production through ADH overexpression following acute ethanol exposure exacerbated ethanol-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction, cardiomyocyte enlargement, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, indicating a pivotal role of ADH in ethanol-induced cardiac dysfunction possibly through mitochondrial death pathway of apoptosis.

  9. Mitochondrial division ensures the survival of postmitotic neurons by suppressing oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, Yusuke; Zhang, Zhongyan; Roda, Ricardo; Fukaya, Masahiro; Wakabayashi, Junko; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Kensler, Thomas W.; Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria divide and fuse continuously, and the balance between these two processes regulates mitochondrial shape. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics are associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Here we investigate the physiological and cellular functions of mitochondrial division in postmitotic neurons using in vivo and in vitro gene knockout for the mitochondrial division protein Drp1. When mouse Drp1 was deleted in postmitotic Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, mitochondrial tubules elongated due to excess fusion, became large spheres due to oxidative damage, accumulated ubiquitin and mitophagy markers, and lost respiratory function, leading to neurodegeneration. Ubiquitination of mitochondria was independent of the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin in Purkinje cells lacking Drp1. Treatment with antioxidants rescued mitochondrial swelling and cell death in Drp1KO Purkinje cells. Moreover, hydrogen peroxide converted elongated tubules into large spheres in Drp1KO fibroblasts. Our findings suggest that mitochondrial division serves as a quality control mechanism to suppress oxidative damage and thus promote neuronal survival. PMID:22564413

  10. Mitochondrial division ensures the survival of postmitotic neurons by suppressing oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Yusuke; Zhang, Zhongyan; Roda, Ricardo; Fukaya, Masahiro; Wakabayashi, Junko; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Kensler, Thomas W; Reddy, P Hemachandra; Iijima, Miho; Sesaki, Hiromi

    2012-05-14

    Mitochondria divide and fuse continuously, and the balance between these two processes regulates mitochondrial shape. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics are associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Here we investigate the physiological and cellular functions of mitochondrial division in postmitotic neurons using in vivo and in vitro gene knockout for the mitochondrial division protein Drp1. When mouse Drp1 was deleted in postmitotic Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, mitochondrial tubules elongated due to excess fusion, became large spheres due to oxidative damage, accumulated ubiquitin and mitophagy markers, and lost respiratory function, leading to neurodegeneration. Ubiquitination of mitochondria was independent of the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin in Purkinje cells lacking Drp1. Treatment with antioxidants rescued mitochondrial swelling and cell death in Drp1KO Purkinje cells. Moreover, hydrogen peroxide converted elongated tubules into large spheres in Drp1KO fibroblasts. Our findings suggest that mitochondrial division serves as a quality control mechanism to suppress oxidative damage and thus promote neuronal survival.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA damage and vascular function in patients with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, Jessica L; Holbrook, Monica; Westbrook, David G; Brown, Jamelle A; Feeley, Kyle P; Bretón-Romero, Rosa; Linder, Erika A; Berk, Brittany D; Weisbrod, Robert M; Widlansky, Michael E; Gokce, Noyan; Ballinger, Scott W; Hamburg, Naomi M

    2016-03-31

    Prior studies demonstrate mitochondrial dysfunction with increased reactive oxygen species generation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress-mediated damage to mitochondrial DNA promotes atherosclerosis in animal models. Thus, we evaluated the relation of mitochondrial DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells s with vascular function in patients with diabetes mellitus and with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We assessed non-invasive vascular function and mitochondrial DNA damage in 275 patients (age 57 ± 9 years, 60 % women) with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease alone (N = 55), diabetes mellitus alone (N = 74), combined atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus (N = 48), and controls age >45 without diabetes mellitus or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (N = 98). Mitochondrial DNA damage measured by quantitative PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was higher with clinical atherosclerosis alone (0.55 ± 0.65), diabetes mellitus alone (0.65 ± 1.0), and combined clinical atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus (0.89 ± 1.32) as compared to control subjects (0.23 ± 0.64, P < 0.0001). In multivariable models adjusting for age, sex, and relevant cardiovascular risk factors, clinical atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus remained associated with higher mitochondrial DNA damage levels (β = 0.14 ± 0.13, P = 0.04 and β = 0.21 ± 0.13, P = 0.002, respectively). Higher mitochondrial DNA damage was associated with higher baseline pulse amplitude, a measure of arterial pulsatility, but not with flow-mediated dilation or hyperemic response, measures of vasodilator function. We found greater mitochondrial DNA damage in patients with diabetes mellitus and clinical atherosclerosis. The association of mitochondrial DNA damage and baseline pulse amplitude may suggest a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive small artery pulsatility with potentially adverse microvascular impact.

  12. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Their Role in Age-Related Vascular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Mikhed, Yuliya; Daiber, Andreas; Steven, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is significantly increased in the older population. Risk factors and predictors of future cardiovascular events such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, or diabetes are observed with higher frequency in elderly individuals. A major determinant of vascular aging is endothelial dysfunction, characterized by impaired endothelium-dependent signaling processes. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative stress, loss of nitric oxide (•NO) signaling, loss of endothelial barrier function and infiltration of leukocytes to the vascular wall, explaining the low-grade inflammation characteristic for the aged vasculature. We here discuss the importance of different sources of ROS for vascular aging and their contribution to the increased cardiovascular risk in the elderly population with special emphasis on mitochondrial ROS formation and oxidative damage of mitochondrial DNA. Also the interaction (crosstalk) of mitochondria with nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases is highlighted. Current concepts of vascular aging, consequences for the development of cardiovascular events and the particular role of ROS are evaluated on the basis of cell culture experiments, animal studies and clinical trials. Present data point to a more important role of oxidative stress for the maximal healthspan (healthy aging) than for the maximal lifespan. PMID:26184181

  13. Assessment of the significance of mitochondrial DNA damage by chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Lo, Soo; Tolner, Berend; Taanman, Jan-Willem; Cooper, J Mark; Gu, Mei; Hartley, John A; Schapira, Anthony H V; Hochhauser, Daniel

    2005-08-01

    The pathways which are activated following damage to nuclear DNA in cancer cells are well understood. There is evidence that treatment with several chemotherapeutic agents may result in damage to mitochondrial DNA. This study investigated the contribution of mitochondrial DNA to cytotoxicity of DNA-interactive agents. To understand the significance of drug interactions with mitochondrial DNA, we investigated A549 non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and their rho0 derivatives in which mitochondrial DNA has been eradicated. The parental cell line showed increased sensitivity to the anthracycline daunorubicin when compared with the A549 rho0 line. In addition, the A549 rho0 line was resistant to the rhodacyanine derivative, MKT-077, which has been shown to interact with mitochondrial DNA. Southern blotting demonstrated that MKT-077 mediated damage to mitochondrial but not nuclear DNA. Restoration of mitochondrial DNA by formation of cybrids restored sensitivity to these agents. The mitochondrial DNA damage, following treatment of A549 rho0 cells with MKT-077, resulted in G2 arrest which was not mediated by expression of p53. Mitochondrial DNA is a critical target for MKT-077 and daunorubicin, and is a potential target for novel chemotherapeutic agents.

  14. Mitochondrial dysfunction, a probable cause of persistent oxidative stress after exposure to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takako; Goto, Shinji; Kawakatsu, Miho; Urata, Yoshishige; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2012-02-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from mitochondria contribute to genomic instability after exposure of the cells to ionizing radiation, but the mechanism of this process is not yet fully understood. We examined the hypothesis that irradiation induces mitochondrial dysfunction to cause persistent oxidative stress, which contributes to genomic instability. After the exposure of cells to 5 Gy gamma-ray irradiation, we found that the irradiation induced the following changes in a clear pattern of time courses. First, a robust increase of intracellular ROS levels occurred within minutes, but the intracellular ROS disappeared within 30 min. Then the mitochondrial dysfunction was detected at 12 h after irradiation, as indicated by the decreased activity of NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), the most important enzyme in regulating the release of ROS from the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). Finally, a significant increase of ROS levels in the mitochondria and the oxidation of mitochondrial DNA were observed in cells at 24 h or later after irradiation. Although further experiments are required, results in this study support the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction causes persistent oxidative stress that may contribute to promote radiation-induced genomic instability.

  15. Mitochondrial respiration protects against oxygen-associated DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Ho Joong; Ma, Wenzhe; Wang, Ping-yuan; Hynes, James; O'Riordan, Tomas C.; Combs, Christian A.; McCoy, J. Philip; Bunz, Fred; Kang, Ju-Gyeong; Hwang, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen is not only required for oxidative phosphorylation but also serves as the essential substrate for the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is implicated in ageing and tumorigenesis. Although the mitochondrion is known for its bioenergetic function, the symbiotic theory originally proposed that it provided protection against the toxicity of increasing oxygen in the primordial atmosphere. Using human cells lacking Synthesis of Cytochrome c Oxidase 2 (SCO2 –/–), we have tested the oxygen toxicity hypothesis. These cells are oxidative phosphorylation defective and glycolysis dependent; they exhibit increased viability under hypoxia and feature an inverted growth response to oxygen compared with wild-type cells. SCO2 –/– cells have increased intracellular oxygen and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) levels, which result in increased ROS and oxidative DNA damage. Using this isogenic cell line, we have revealed the genotoxicity of ambient oxygen. Our study highlights the importance of mitochondrial respiration both for bioenergetic benefits and for maintaining genomic stability in an oxygen-rich environment. PMID:20975668

  16. Repeated Administration of Mercury Intensifies Brain Damage in Multiple Sclerosis through Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kahrizi, Farzad; Salimi, Ahmad; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Faizi, Mehrdad; Mehri, Freshteh; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Naderi, Nima; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the additive effect of mercury on the brain mitochondrial dysfunction in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. Experimental animals (female C57BL/6 mice) are divided into four groups (n = 8); control, Hg, EAE, EAE with Hg. EAE model of MS induced by injecting myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Neurobehavioral alterations are recorded and then mice were sacrificed at day 28 and brain mitochondria were isolated and mitochondrial toxicity parameters including mitochondrial swelling, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cytochrome c release were measured. Our results showed that repeated treatment of mercury following induction of EAE in mice significantly increased the neurobehavioral scores, as well as mitochondrial toxicity through ROS formation, mitochondrial swelling, collapse of MMP and cytochrome c release. Our findings proved that repeated exposure with mercury accelerates progression of MS through mitochondrial damage related to oxidative stress and finally apoptosis. PMID:28243280

  17. Histological correlates of post mortem mitochondrial DNA damage in degraded hair.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, M T P; Janaway, R C; Tobin, D J; Cooper, A; Wilson, A S

    2006-01-27

    We have assessed the histological preservation of naturally degraded human hair shafts, and then assayed each for levels of amplifiable mitochondrial DNA and damage-associated DNA miscoding lesions. The results indicate that as sample histology is altered (i.e. as hairs degrade) levels of amplifiable mitochondrial DNA decrease, but no correlation is seen between histology and absolute levels of mitochondrial DNA miscoding lesions. Nevertheless, amplifiable mitochondrial DNA could be recovered across the complete range of the histological preservation spectrum. However, when template copy number is taken into consideration, a correlation of miscoding lesions with histology is again apparent. These relationships indicate that a potential route for the generation of misleading mitochondrial sequence data exists in samples of poor histology. Therefore, we argue that in the absence of molecular cloning, the histological screening of hair may be necessary in order to confirm the reliability of mitochondrial DNA sequences amplified from hair, and thus represents a useful tool in forensic mitochondrial DNA analyses.

  18. Strenuous exercise induces mitochondrial damage in skeletal muscle of old mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sangho; Kim, Minjung; Lim, Wonchung; Kim, Taeyoung; Kang, Chounghun

    2015-05-29

    Strenuous exercise is known to cause excessive ROS generation and inflammation. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of mitochondrial integrity in the senescent muscle during high-intensity exercise (HE) are not well studied. Here, we show that HE suppresses up-regulation of mitochondrial function despite increase in mitochondrial copy number, following excessive ROS production, proinflammatory cytokines and NFκB activation. Moreover, HE in the old group resulted in the decreasing of both fusion (Mfn2) and fission (Drp1) proteins that may contribute to alteration of mitochondrial morphology. This study suggests that strenuous exercise does not reverse age-related mitochondrial damage and dysfunction by the increased ROS and inflammation. - Highlights: • Effect of exercise on mitochondrial function of aged skeletal muscles was studied. • Strenuous exercise triggered excessive ROS production and inflammatory cytokines. • Strenuous exercise suppressed mitochondrial function in senescent muscle.

  19. Common effects of lithium and valproate on mitochondrial functions: protection against methamphetamine-induced mitochondrial damage.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Rosilla F; Wang, Yun; Yuan, Peixiong; Zhou, Rulun; Li, Xiaoxia; Alesci, Salvatore; Du, Jing; Manji, Husseini K

    2009-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the progression of a variety of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Thus, enhancing mitochondrial function could potentially help ameliorate the impairments of neural plasticity and cellular resilience associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. A series of studies was undertaken to investigate the effects of mood stabilizers on mitochondrial function, and against mitochondrially mediated neurotoxicity. We found that long-term treatment with lithium and valproate (VPA) enhanced cell respiration rate. Furthermore, chronic treatment with lithium or VPA enhanced mitochondrial function as determined by mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial oxidation in SH-SY5Y cells. In-vivo studies showed that long-term treatment with lithium or VPA protected against methamphetamine (Meth)-induced toxicity at the mitochondrial level. Furthermore, these agents prevented the Meth-induced reduction of mitochondrial cytochrome c, the mitochondrial anti-apoptotic Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity. Oligoarray analysis demonstrated that the gene expression of several proteins related to the apoptotic pathway and mitochondrial functions were altered by Meth, and these changes were attenuated by treatment with lithium or VPA. One of the genes, Bcl-2, is a common target for lithium and VPA. Knock-down of Bcl-2 with specific Bcl-2 siRNA reduced the lithium- and VPA-induced increases in mitochondrial oxidation. These findings illustrate that lithium and VPA enhance mitochondrial function and protect against mitochondrially mediated toxicity. These agents may have potential clinical utility in the treatment of other diseases associated with impaired mitochondrial function, such as neurodegenerative diseases and schizophrenia.

  20. Common effects of lithium and valproate on mitochondrial functions: protection against methamphetamine-induced mitochondrial damage

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Rosilla F.; Wang, Yun; Yuan, Peixiong; Zhou, Rulun; Li, Xiaoxia; Alesci, Salvatore; Du, Jing; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the progression of a variety of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Thus, enhancing mitochondrial function could potentially help ameliorate the impairments of neural plasticity and cellular resilience associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. A series of studies was undertaken to investigate the effects of mood stabilizers on mitochondrial function, and against mitochondrially mediated neurotoxicity. We found that long-term treatment with lithium and valproate (VPA) enhanced cell respiration rate. Furthermore, chronic treatment with lithium or VPA enhanced mitochondrial function as determined by mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial oxidation in SH-SY5Y cells. In-vivo studies showed that long-term treatment with lithium or VPA protected against methamphetamine (Meth)-induced toxicity at the mitochondrial level. Furthermore, these agents prevented the Meth-induced reduction of mitochondrial cytochrome c, the mitochondrial anti-apoptotic Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity. Oligoarray analysis demonstrated that the gene expression of several proteins related to the apoptotic pathway and mitochondrial functions were altered by Meth, and these changes were attenuated by treatment with lithium or VPA. One of the genes, Bcl-2, is a common target for lithium and VPA. Knock-down of Bcl-2 with specific Bcl-2 siRNA reduced the lithium- and VPA-induced increases in mitochondrial oxidation. These findings illustrate that lithium and VPA enhance mitochondrial function and protect against mitochondrially mediated toxicity. These agents may have potential clinical utility in the treatment of other diseases associated with impaired mitochondrial function, such as neurodegenerative diseases and schizophrenia. PMID:19149911

  1. Mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 protects against mutant huntingtin-induced abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and neuronal damage in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Manczak, Maria; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2015-12-20

    The objective of this study was to determine the protective effects of the mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi1) in striatal neurons that stably express mutant Htt (STHDhQ111/Q111) and wild-type (WT) Htt (STHDhQ7/Q7). Using gene expression analysis, biochemical methods, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal microscopy methods, we studied (i) mitochondrial and synaptic activities by measuring mRNA and the protein levels of mitochondrial and synaptic genes, (ii) mitochondrial function and (iii) ultra-structural changes in mutant Htt neurons relative to WT Htt neurons. We also studied these parameters in Mdivil-treated and untreated WT and mutant Htt neurons. Increased expressions of mitochondrial fission genes, decreased expression of fusion genes and synaptic genes were found in the mutant Htt neurons relative to the WT Htt neurons. Electron microscopy of the mutant Htt neurons revealed a significantly increased number of mitochondria, indicating that mutant Htt fragments mitochondria. Biochemical analysis revealed defective mitochondrial functioning. In the Mdivil-treated mutant Htt neurons, fission genes were down-regulated, and fusion genes were up-regulated, suggesting that Mdivil decreases fission activity. Synaptic genes were up-regulated, and mitochondrial function was normal in the Mdivi1-treated mutant Htt neurons. Immunoblotting findings of mitochondrial and synaptic proteins agreed with mRNA findings. The TEM studies revealed that increased numbers of structurally intact mitochondria were present in Mdivi1-treated mutant Htt neurons. Increased synaptic and mitochondrial fusion genes and decreased fission genes were found in the Mdivi1-treated WT Htt neurons, indicating that Mdivi1 beneficially affects healthy neurons. Taken together, these findings suggest that Mdivi1 is protective against mutant Htt-induced mitochondrial and synaptic damage in HD neurons and that Mdivi1 may be a promising molecule for the treatment of HD patients.

  2. Tetramethylpyrazine protects palmitate-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in C2C12 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Zhao, Xiao-long; Zhu, Yan-hui; Li, Xiao-mu; Xu, Qiong; Lin, Huan-dong; Wang, Ming-wei

    2011-04-25

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), one of the active ingredients isolated from a Chinese herbal prescription, possesses protective effects against oxidative stress caused by high glucose in endothelial cells. In this study, the role of TMP in preventing muscle cells from palmitate-induced oxidative damage was investigated and the possible mechanisms of action elucidated. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured in C2C12 myotubes, a palmitate-induced oxidative stress cell model, with or without TMP. Both mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and oxygen consumption were assessed in conjunction with quantification of mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial biogenesis-related factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1 α (PGC1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III as an index of mitochondrial function was evaluated by immunoblotting, and glucose transport into the C2C12 myotube examined by analyzing 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose uptake. TMP significantly alleviated palmitate-induced mitochondrial ROS production, mitigated mitochondrial dysfunction and increased D-loop mRNA expression as compared with the control. This was accompanied by a marked reversal of palmitate-induced down-regulation in the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis-related factors (PGC1α, NRF1 and Tfam) and decreased glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. As a result, cell respiration, as reflected by the elevated expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III and oxygen consumption, was enhanced. TMP is capable of protecting C2C12 myotubes against palmitate-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, and improving glucose uptake in muscle cells partially through the up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Persistent mucosal damage and risk of fracture in celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Lebwohl, Benjamin; Michaëlsson, Karl; Green, Peter H R; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2014-02-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is associated with an increased fracture risk, an increase that persists after diagnosis. A significant proportion of patients with CD have persistent villous atrophy (VA) on follow-up biopsy. The objective of the study was to determine whether persistent VA impacts long-term fracture risk. This was a cohort study. We identified all patients in Sweden with histological evidence of CD who underwent a follow-up biopsy and compared patients with persistent VA with those with mucosal healing. The following were measured: 1) any fracture; 2) likely osteoporotic fracture (defined as fractures of the hip, distal forearm, thoracic and lumbar spine, or proximal humerus); and 3) hip fracture. Of 7146 patients, VA was present on follow-up biopsy in 43%. There was no significant association between persistent VA and overall fractures [hazard ratio (HR) of persistent VA compared with those with healing 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82-1.06] or with likely osteoporotic fractures (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.84-1.46). Persistent VA was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture (HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.05-2.66). Hip fracture risk increased, depending on the degree of VA (HR for partial VA compared with those with healing 1.70, 95% CI 0.82-3.49, HR for subtotal/total VA compared with those with healing 2.16, 95% CI 1.06-4.41). Persistent VA on follow-up biopsy is predictive of hip fracture risk. The association between persistent VA and hip fractures, but not fractures overall, implies that thinner sc tissue and fall or trauma may be mechanisms by which persistent VA confers an increased fracture risk.

  4. Persistent Mucosal Damage and Risk of Fracture in Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lebwohl, Benjamin; Michaëlsson, Karl; Green, Peter H. R.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Celiac disease (CD) is associated with an increased fracture risk, an increase that persists after diagnosis. A significant proportion of patients with CD have persistent villous atrophy (VA) on follow-up biopsy. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether persistent VA impacts long-term fracture risk. Design: This was a cohort study. Setting and Patients: We identified all patients in Sweden with histological evidence of CD who underwent a follow-up biopsy and compared patients with persistent VA with those with mucosal healing. Main Outcome Measures: The following were measured: 1) any fracture; 2) likely osteoporotic fracture (defined as fractures of the hip, distal forearm, thoracic and lumbar spine, or proximal humerus); and 3) hip fracture. Results: Of 7146 patients, VA was present on follow-up biopsy in 43%. There was no significant association between persistent VA and overall fractures [hazard ratio (HR) of persistent VA compared with those with healing 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82–1.06] or with likely osteoporotic fractures (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.84–1.46). Persistent VA was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture (HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.05–2.66). Hip fracture risk increased, depending on the degree of VA (HR for partial VA compared with those with healing 1.70, 95% CI 0.82–3.49, HR for subtotal/total VA compared with those with healing 2.16, 95% CI 1.06–4.41). Conclusions: Persistent VA on follow-up biopsy is predictive of hip fracture risk. The association between persistent VA and hip fractures, but not fractures overall, implies that thinner sc tissue and fall or trauma may be mechanisms by which persistent VA confers an increased fracture risk. PMID:24432993

  5. Retinol binding protein 4 induces mitochondrial dysfunction and vascular oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Chen, Hongen; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Wenjing; Sun, Ruifang; Xia, Min

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in cardiovascular diseases. Elevation of serum retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) in patients has been linked to cardiovascular disease. However, the role of RBP4 on mitochondrial oxidative stress and vascular oxidative damage is not well demonstrated. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of RBP4 on the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and dynamics in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. RBP4 treatment increased mitochondrial superoxide generation in a dose-dependent manner in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Exposure to RBP4 also promoted mitochondrial dysfunction as determined by decreased mitochondrial content and integrity as well as membrane potential in HAECs. Incubation with RBP4 suppressed mitofusin (Mfn)-1 protein expression, but enhanced dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) and fission-1 (Fis1) protein expression in HAECs, suggesting an impairment of mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics. Moreover, RBP4 treatment significantly induced endothelial apoptosis, increased the expression of Cytochrome C and Bax, but decreased the expression of Bcl-2. Furthermore, RBP4 stimulation suppressed phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling in HAECs. Finally, RBP4-Tg mice exhibited severe mitochondrial dysfunction and vascular oxidative damage in aorta compared with wide-type C57BL/6J mice. The present study uncovers a novel mechanism through which RBP4 induces vascular oxidative damage and accelerates the development of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mitochondrial damage contributes to Pseudomonas aeruginosa activation of the inflammasome and is downregulated by autophagy.

    PubMed

    Jabir, Majid Sakhi; Hopkins, Lee; Ritchie, Neil D; Ullah, Ihsan; Bayes, Hannah K; Li, Dong; Tourlomousis, Panagiotis; Lupton, Alison; Puleston, Daniel; Simon, Anna Katharina; Bryant, Clare; Evans, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    The nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing family caspase recruitment domain containing 4 (NLRC4) inflammasome can be activated by pathogenic bacteria via products translocated through the microbial type III secretion apparatus (T3SS). Recent work has shown that activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is downregulated by autophagy, but the influence of autophagy on NLRC4 activation is unclear. We set out to determine how autophagy might influence this process, using the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which activates the NLRC4 inflammasome via its T3SS. Infection resulted in T3SS-dependent mitochondrial damage with increased production of reactive oxygen intermediates and release of mitochondrial DNA. Inhibiting mitochondrial reactive oxygen release or degrading intracellular mitochondrial DNA abrogated NLRC4 inflammasome activation. Moreover, macrophages lacking mitochondria failed to activate NLRC4 following infection. Removal of damaged mitochondria by autophagy significantly attenuated NLRC4 inflammasome activation. Mitochondrial DNA bound specifically to NLRC4 immunoprecipitates and transfection of mitochondrial DNA directly activated the NLRC4 inflammasome; oxidation of the DNA enhanced this effect. Manipulation of autophagy altered the degree of inflammasome activation and inflammation in an in vivo model of P. aeruginosa infection. Our results reveal a novel mechanism contributing to NLRC4 activation by P. aeruginosa via mitochondrial damage and release of mitochondrial DNA triggered by the bacterial T3SS that is downregulated by autophagy.

  7. Quality control of oxidatively damaged mitochondrial proteins is mediated by p97 and the proteasome.

    PubMed

    Hemion, Charles; Flammer, Josef; Neutzner, Albert

    2014-10-01

    Protein quality control is essential for maintaining mitochondrial fidelity. Proteins damaged by reactive oxygen species necessitate quality control to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction connected to aging and neurodegeneration. Here we report a role for the AAA ATPase p97/VCP and the proteasome in the quality control of oxidized mitochondrial proteins under low oxidative stress as well as normal conditions. Proteasomal inhibition and blocking p97-dependent protein retrotranslocation interfered with degradation of oxidized mitochondrial proteins. Thus, ubiquitin-dependent, p97-, and proteasome-mediated degradation of oxidatively damaged proteins plays a key role in maintaining mitochondrial fidelity and is likely an important defense mechanism against aging and neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tamoxifen inhibits mitochondrial membrane damage caused by disulfiram.

    PubMed

    Pavón, Natalia; Buelna-Chontal, Mabel; Correa, Francisco; Yoval-Sánchez, Belem; Belmont, Javier; Hernández-Esquivel, Luz; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S; Chávez, Edmundo

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we studied the protective effects of tamoxifen (TAM) on disulfiram (Dis)-induced mitochondrial membrane insult. The results indicate that TAM circumvents the inner membrane leakiness manifested as Ca(2+) release, mitochondrial swelling, and collapse of the transmembrane electric gradient. Furthermore, it was found that TAM prevents inactivation of the mitochondrial enzyme aconitase and detachment of cytochrome c from the inner membrane. Interestingly, TAM also inhibited Dis-promoted generation of hydrogen peroxide. Given that TAM is an antioxidant molecule, it is plausible that its protection may be due to the inhibition of Dis-induced oxidative stress.

  9. The Opa1-Dependent Mitochondrial Cristae Remodeling Pathway Controls Atrophic, Apoptotic, and Ischemic Tissue Damage

    PubMed Central

    Varanita, Tatiana; Soriano, Maria Eugenia; Romanello, Vanina; Zaglia, Tania; Quintana-Cabrera, Rubén; Semenzato, Martina; Menabò, Roberta; Costa, Veronica; Civiletto, Gabriele; Pesce, Paola; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo; Di Lisa, Fabio; Mongillo, Marco; Sandri, Marco; Scorrano, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mitochondrial morphological and ultrastructural changes occur during apoptosis and autophagy, but whether they are relevant in vivo for tissue response to damage is unclear. Here we investigate the role of the optic atrophy 1 (OPA1)-dependent cristae remodeling pathway in vivo and provide evidence that it regulates the response of multiple tissues to apoptotic, necrotic, and atrophic stimuli. Genetic inhibition of the cristae remodeling pathway in vivo does not affect development, but protects mice from denervation-induced muscular atrophy, ischemic heart and brain damage, as well as hepatocellular apoptosis. Mechanistically, OPA1-dependent mitochondrial cristae stabilization increases mitochondrial respiratory efficiency and blunts mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, and reactive oxygen species production. Our results indicate that the OPA1-dependent cristae remodeling pathway is a fundamental, targetable determinant of tissue damage in vivo. PMID:26039448

  10. A novel approach for organelle-specific DNA damage targeting reveals different susceptibility of mitochondrial DNA to the anticancer drugs camptothecin and topotecan

    PubMed Central

    de la Loza, M. C. Díaz; Wellinger, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    DNA is susceptible of being damaged by chemicals, UV light or gamma irradiation. Nuclear DNA damage invokes both a checkpoint and a repair response. By contrast, little is known about the cellular response to mitochondrial DNA damage. We designed an experimental system that allows organelle-specific DNA damage targeting in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DNA damage is mediated by a toxic topoisomerase I allele which leads to the formation of persistent DNA single-strand breaks. We show that organelle-specific targeting of a toxic topoisomerase I to either the nucleus or mitochondria leads to nuclear DNA damage and cell death or to loss of mitochondrial DNA and formation of respiration-deficient ‘petite’ cells, respectively. In wild-type cells, toxic topoisomerase I–DNA intermediates are formed as a consequence of topoisomerase I interaction with camptothecin-based anticancer drugs. We reasoned that targeting of topoisomerase I to the mitochondria of top1Δ cells should lead to petite formation in the presence of camptothecin. Interestingly, camptothecin failed to generate petite; however, its derivative topotecan accumulates in mitochondria and induces petite formation. Our findings demonstrate that drug modifications can lead to organelle-specific DNA damage and thus opens new perspectives on the role of mitochondrial DNA-damage in cancer treatment. PMID:19151088

  11. Fructose-Rich Diet Affects Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Repair in Rats.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Federica; Senese, Rosalba; Lasala, Pasquale; Ziello, Angela; Mazzoli, Arianna; Crescenzo, Raffaella; Liverini, Giovanna; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando; Iossa, Susanna

    2017-03-24

    Evidence indicates that many forms of fructose-induced metabolic disturbance are associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria are prominent targets of oxidative damage; however, it is not clear whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and/or its lack of repair are events involved in metabolic disease resulting from a fructose-rich diet. In the present study, we evaluated the degree of oxidative damage to liver mtDNA and its repair, in addition to the state of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in the liver of rats fed a high-fructose diet. We used male rats feeding on a high-fructose or control diet for eight weeks. Our results showed an increase in mtDNA damage in the liver of rats fed a high-fructose diet and this damage, as evaluated by the expression of DNA polymerase γ, was not repaired; in addition, the mtDNA copy number was found to be significantly reduced. A reduction in the mtDNA copy number is indicative of impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, as is the finding of a reduction in the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. In conclusion, a fructose-rich diet leads to mitochondrial and mtDNA damage, which consequently may have a role in liver dysfunction and metabolic diseases.

  12. Chronic mild stress damages mitochondrial ultrastructure and function in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yu; Chai, Yi; Ding, Jian-Hua; Sun, Xiu-Lan; Hu, Gang

    2011-01-13

    Increasing evidence implicates mitochondrial failure as a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of mental disorders, such as depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS), a paradigm developed in the late 1980s as an animal model of depression, on the mitochondrial function and mitochondrial ultrastructure in the mouse brain. The results showed that the CMS regime induced depressive-like symptoms in mice characterized by reduced sucrose preference and body weight. Moreover, CMS exposure was associated with a significant increase in immobility time in the tail suspension test. Exposure to the CMS paradigm inhibited mitochondrial respiration rates and dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential in hippocampus, cortex and hypothalamus of mice. In addition, we found a damaged mitochondrial ultrastructure in brains of mice exposed to CMS. These findings provide evidence for brain mitochondrial dysfunction and ultrastructural damage in a mouse model of depression. Moreover, these findings suggest that mitochondrial malfunction-induced oxidative injury could play a role in stress-related disorders such as depression.

  13. DNA Damage Links Mitochondrial Dysfunction to Atherosclerosis and the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, John R.; Cheng, Kian-Kai; Figg, Nichola; Gorenne, Isabelle; Mahmoudi, Melli; Griffin, Julian; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Logan, Angela; Murphy, Michael P.; Bennett, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Rationale DNA damage is present in both genomic and mitochondrial DNA in atherosclerosis. However, whether DNA damage itself promotes atherosclerosis, or is simply a byproduct of the risk factors that promote atherosclerosis, is unknown. Objective To examine the effect of DNA damage on atherosclerosis, we studied apolipoprotein (Apo)E−/− mice that were haploinsufficient for the protein kinase ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), which coordinates DNA repair. Methods and Results ATM+/−/ApoE−/− mice developed accelerated atherosclerosis and multiple features of the metabolic syndrome, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, steatohepatitis, and glucose intolerance. Transplantation with ATM+/+ bone marrow attenuated atherosclerosis but not the metabolic syndrome. ATM+/− smooth muscle cells and macrophages showed increased nuclear DNA damage and defective DNA repair signaling, growth arrest, and apoptosis. Metabolomic screening of ATM+/−/ApoE−/− mouse tissues identified metabolic changes compatible with mitochondrial defects, with increased β-hydroxybutyrate but reduced lactate, reduced glucose, and alterations in multiple lipid species. ATM+/−/ApoE−/− mouse tissues showed an increased frequency of a mouse mitochondrial “common” deletion equivalent and reduced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Conclusions We propose that failure of DNA repair generates defects in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction. This in turn leads to ketosis, hyperlipidemia, and increased fat storage, promoting atherosclerosis and the metabolic syndrome. Prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction may represent a novel target in cardiovascular disease. PMID:20705925

  14. Mitochondrial DNA damage and the aging process: facts and imaginations.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Rudolf J; Zsurka, Gábor; Kunz, Wolfram S

    2006-12-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a circular double-stranded molecule organized in nucleoids and covered by the histone-like protein mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). Even though mtDNA repair capacity appears to be adequate the accumulation of mtDNA mutations has been shown to be at least one important molecular mechanism of human aging. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are generated at the FMN moiety of mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) complex I, should be considered to be important at least for the generation of age-dependent mtDNA deletions. However, the accumulation of acquired mutations to functionally relevant levels in aged tissues seems to be a consequence of clonal expansions of single founder molecules and not of ongoing mutational events.

  15. NLRP3 inflammasome activation is involved in Ang II-induced kidney damage via mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yi; Liu, Yiran; Tang, Taotao; Lv, Linli; Liu, Hong; Ma, Kunling; Liu, Bicheng

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence has shown that NLRP3 inflammasome activation promotes the development of tubulointerstitial inflammation and progression of renal injury. We previously found that mitochondrial dysfunction is a critical determinant for the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in albumin-overload rats. Angiotensin (Ang) II plays an important role in mitochondrial homeostasis. Here, we investigated the role of Ang II in NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in this process. In vitro, Ang II triggered NLRP3 inflammasome activation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and this effect is mediated by AT1 receptor rather than AT2 receptor. MitoTEMPO, a mitochondrial targeted antioxidant, attenuated Ang II induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) production and NLRP3 inflammation activation. Following chronic Ang II infusion for 28 days, we observed remarkable tubular epithelial cells (TECs) injury, mitochondrial damage, and albuminuria in WT mice. However, these abnormalities were significantly attenuated in AT1 receptor KO mice. Then, we examined the role of mitochondria in Ang II-infused mice with or without mitoTEMPO treatment. As expected, Ang II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and NLRP3 inflammasome activation was markedly inhibited by mitoTEMPO. Notably, NLRP3 deletion signally protected TECs from Ang II-triggered mitochondrial dysfunction and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that Ang II induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation in TECs which is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:27509058

  16. Reoxygenation-induced mitochondrial damage is caused by the Ca2+-dependent mitochondrial inner membrane permeability transition.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, T; Hakoda, S; Takeyama, N

    1998-07-01

    Anoxia/reoxygenation injury of isolated rat liver mitochondria was investigated. During anoxia of up to 60 min, the membrane potential was largely preserved and mitochondrial swelling was not observed. Reoxygenation of anoxic mitochondria rapidly caused swelling, cyclosporin A-sensitive Ca2+ efflux, [14C]sucrose trapping, and loss of the membrane potential along with increased generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI). Although pretreatment with catalase and superoxide dismutase completely abolished reoxygenation-induced generation of ROI, mitochondrial damage was not prevented, as indicated by swelling, loss of the membrane potential, a decrease of the ATP content, and cyclosporin A-sensitive Ca2+ efflux. However, addition of the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A or addition of ADP completely prevented the mitochondrial damage induced by reoxygenation. The same protective effect was noted when Ca2+ cycling was prevented, either by chelating Ca2+ with EGTA or by inhibiting Ca2+ reuptake with ruthenium red. These findings indicate that mitochondrial anoxia/reoxygenation injury is caused by the cyclosporin A-sensitive and Ca2+-dependent membrane permeability transition. In contrast, reoxygenation injury does not appear to be triggered by the enhanced production of ROI.

  17. Mitochondrial fission and fusion in secondary brain damage after CNS insults.

    PubMed

    Balog, Justin; Mehta, Suresh L; Vemuganti, Raghu

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondria are dynamically active organelles, regulated through fission and fusion events to continuously redistribute them across axons, dendrites, and synapses of neurons to meet bioenergetics requirements and to control various functions, including cell proliferation, calcium buffering, neurotransmission, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. However, following acute or chronic injury to CNS, altered expression and function of proteins that mediate fission and fusion lead to mitochondrial dynamic imbalance. Particularly, if the fission is abnormally increased through pro-fission mediators such as Drp1, mitochondrial function will be impaired and mitochondria will become susceptible to insertion of proapototic proteins. This leads to the formation of mitochondrial transition pore, which eventually triggers apoptosis. Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction is a major promoter of neuronal death and secondary brain damage after an insult. This review discusses the implications of mitochondrial dynamic imbalance in neuronal death after acute and chronic CNS insults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Mitochondrial ferritin limits oxidative damage regulating mitochondrial iron availability: hypothesis for a protective role in Friedreich ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Campanella, Alessandro; Rovelli, Elisabetta; Santambrogio, Paolo; Cozzi, Anna; Taroni, Franco; Levi, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) is a nuclear-encoded iron-sequestering protein that specifically localizes in mitochondria. In mice it is highly expressed in cells characterized by high-energy consumption, while is undetectable in iron storage tissues like liver and spleen. FtMt expression in mammalian cells was shown to cause a shift of iron from cytosol to mitochondria, and in yeast it rescued the defects associated with frataxin deficiency. To study the role of FtMt in oxidative damage, we analyzed the effect of its expression in HeLa cells after incubation with H2O2 and Antimycin A, and after a long-term growth in glucose-free media that enhances mitochondrial respiratory activity. FtMt reduced the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased the level of adenosine 5'triphosphate and the activity of mitochondrial Fe-S enzymes, and had a positive effect on cell viability. Furthermore, FtMt expression reduces the size of cytosolic and mitochondrial labile iron pools. In cells grown in glucose-free media, FtMt level was reduced owing to faster degradation rate, however it still protected the activity of mitochondrial Fe-S enzymes without affecting the cytosolic iron status. In addition, FtMt expression in fibroblasts from Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) patients prevented the formation of ROS and partially rescued the impaired activity of mitochondrial Fe-S enzymes, caused by frataxin deficiency. These results indicate that the primary function of FtMt involves the control of ROS formation through the regulation of mitochondrial iron availability. They are consistent with the expression pattern of FtMt observed in mouse tissues, suggesting a FtMt protective role in cells characterized by defective iron homeostasis and respiration, such as in FRDA. PMID:18815198

  19. XPD localizes in mitochondria and protects the mitochondrial genome from oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Fang, Hongbo; Chi, Zhenfen; Wu, Zan; Wei, Di; Mo, Dongliang; Niu, Kaifeng; Balajee, Adayabalam S; Hei, Tom K; Nie, Linghu; Zhao, Yongliang

    2015-06-23

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD/ERCC2) encodes an ATP-dependent helicase that plays essential roles in both transcription and nucleotide excision repair of nuclear DNA, however, whether or not XPD exerts similar functions in mitochondria remains elusive. In this study, we provide the first evidence that XPD is localized in the inner membrane of mitochondria, and cells under oxidative stress showed an enhanced recruitment of XPD into mitochondrial compartment. Furthermore, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and levels of oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) common deletion were significantly elevated, whereas capacity for oxidative damage repair of mtDNA was markedly reduced in both XPD-suppressed human osteosarcoma (U2OS) cells and XPD-deficient human fibroblasts. Immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify interacting factor(s) with XPD and TUFM, a mitochondrial Tu translation elongation factor was detected to be physically interacted with XPD. Similar to the findings in XPD-deficient cells, mitochondrial common deletion and oxidative damage repair capacity in U2OS cells were found to be significantly altered after TUFM knock-down. Our findings clearly demonstrate that XPD plays crucial role(s) in protecting mitochondrial genome stability by facilitating an efficient repair of oxidative DNA damage in mitochondria.

  20. Acute focal brain damage alters mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy in axotomized neurons.

    PubMed

    Cavallucci, V; Bisicchia, E; Cencioni, M T; Ferri, A; Latini, L; Nobili, A; Biamonte, F; Nazio, F; Fanelli, F; Moreno, S; Molinari, M; Viscomi, M T; D'Amelio, M

    2014-11-27

    Mitochondria are key organelles for the maintenance of life and death of the cell, and their morphology is controlled by continual and balanced fission and fusion dynamics. A balance between these events is mandatory for normal mitochondrial and neuronal function, and emerging evidence indicates that mitochondria undergo extensive fission at an early stage during programmed cell death in several neurodegenerative diseases. A pathway for selective degradation of damaged mitochondria by autophagy, known as mitophagy, has been described, and is of particular importance to sustain neuronal viability. In the present work, we analyzed the effect of autophagy stimulation on mitochondrial function and dynamics in a model of remote degeneration after focal cerebellar lesion. We provided evidence that lesion of a cerebellar hemisphere causes mitochondria depolarization in axotomized precerebellar neurons associated with PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 accumulation and Parkin translocation to mitochondria, block of mitochondrial fusion by Mfn1 degradation, increase of calcineurin activity and dynamin-related protein 1 translocation to mitochondria, and consequent mitochondrial fission. Here we suggest that the observed neuroprotective effect of rapamycin is the result of a dual role: (1) stimulation of autophagy leading to damaged mitochondria removal and (2) enhancement of mitochondria fission to allow their elimination by mitophagy. The involvement of mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy in brain injury, especially in the context of remote degeneration after acute focal brain damage, has not yet been investigated, and these findings may offer new target for therapeutic intervention to improve functional outcomes following acute brain damage.

  1. Reversal of Mitochondrial Damage Caused by Environmental Neurotoxins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    on electron transport and respiration of mitochondria. In turn, damage to mitochondria can contribute to the progression of Parkinson’s disease and...leads concerning thiol redox status (viz., oxidation of GSH, formation of PrSSG) can lead to improved methods to protect DA neurons from damage by environmental neurotoxins or from the ravages of Parkinson’s disease .

  2. Reversal of Mitochondrial Damage Caused by Environmental Neurotoxins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    the progression of Parkinson’s disease and to the damaging effects of environmental neurotoxins. In year 1, we showed that MAO suppressed respiration...that reverse damage, can lead to improved methods to protect DA neurons from environmental neurotoxins and from the ravages of Parkinson’s disease .

  3. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species induces NLRP3-dependent lysosomal damage and inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Heid, Michelle E; Keyel, Peter A; Kamga, Christelle; Shiva, Sruti; Watkins, Simon C; Salter, Russell D

    2013-11-15

    The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome drives many inflammatory processes and mediates IL-1 family cytokine release. Inflammasome activators typically damage cells and may release lysosomal and mitochondrial products into the cytosol. Macrophages triggered by the NLRP3 inflammasome activator nigericin show reduced mitochondrial function and decreased cellular ATP. Release of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to subsequent lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). NLRP3-deficient macrophages show comparable reduced mitochondrial function and ATP loss, but maintain lysosomal acidity, demonstrating that LMP is NLRP3 dependent. A subset of wild-type macrophages undergo subsequent mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and die. Both LMP and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization are inhibited by potassium, scavenging mitochondrial ROS, or NLRP3 deficiency, but are unaffected by cathepsin B or caspase-1 inhibitors. In contrast, IL-1β secretion is ablated by potassium, scavenging mitochondrial ROS, and both cathepsin B and caspase-1 inhibition. These results demonstrate interplay between lysosomes and mitochondria that sustain NLRP3 activation and distinguish cell death from IL-1β release.

  4. Reversal of Mitochondrial Damage Caused by Environmental Neurotoxins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    Addition of DA to isolated rat brain mitochondria leads to a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. The DA dose - response curve for... response curve the majority of inhibition of respiration arises from MAO mediated oxidation of DA, but at higher DA concentrations MAO-independent...independent inhibitory pathway which accounts for about 25%-35% of the total inhibitory contribution. These results show that throughout the DA dose

  5. Assessment of mitochondrial DNA damage in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) collected near a mercury-contaminated river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; White, Carl; Perkins, Christopher R.; Schmerfeld, John J.; Yates, David

    2014-01-01

    Historical discharges of Hg into the South River near the town of Waynesboro, VA, USA, have resulted in persistently elevated Hg concentrations in sediment, surface water, ground water, soil, and wildlife downstream of the discharge site. In the present study, we examined mercury (Hg) levels in in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from this location and assessed the utility of a non-destructively collected tissue sample (wing punch) for determining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in Hg exposed bats. Bats captured 1 and 3 km from the South River, exhibited significantly higher levels of total Hg (THg) in blood and fur than those from the reference location. We compared levels of mtDNA damage using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of two distinct regions of mtDNA. Genotoxicity is among the many known toxic effects of Hg, resulting from direct interactions with DNA or from oxidative damage. Because it lacks many of the protective protein structures and repair mechanisms associated with nuclear DNA, mtDNA is more sensitive to the effects of genotoxic chemicals and therefore may be a useful biomarker in chronically exposed organisms. Significantly higher levels of damage were observed in both regions of mtDNA in bats captured 3 km from the river than in controls. However, levels of mtDNA damage exhibited weak correlations with fur and blood THg levels, suggesting that other factors may play a role in the site-specific differences.

  6. Assessment of mitochondrial DNA damage in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) collected near a mercury-contaminated river.

    PubMed

    Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; White, Carl; Perkins, Christopher R; Schmerfeld, John J; Yates, David

    2014-10-01

    Historical discharges of Hg into the South River near the town of Waynesboro, VA, USA, have resulted in persistently elevated Hg concentrations in sediment, surface water, ground water, soil, and wildlife downstream of the discharge site. In the present study, we examined mercury (Hg) levels in in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from this location and assessed the utility of a non-destructively collected tissue sample (wing punch) for determining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in Hg exposed bats. Bats captured 1 and 3 km from the South River, exhibited significantly higher levels of total Hg (THg) in blood and fur than those from the reference location. We compared levels of mtDNA damage using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of two distinct regions of mtDNA. Genotoxicity is among the many known toxic effects of Hg, resulting from direct interactions with DNA or from oxidative damage. Because it lacks many of the protective protein structures and repair mechanisms associated with nuclear DNA, mtDNA is more sensitive to the effects of genotoxic chemicals and therefore may be a useful biomarker in chronically exposed organisms. Significantly higher levels of damage were observed in both regions of mtDNA in bats captured 3 km from the river than in controls. However, levels of mtDNA damage exhibited weak correlations with fur and blood THg levels, suggesting that other factors may play a role in the site-specific differences.

  7. Focal damage to macaque photoreceptors produces persistent visual loss

    PubMed Central

    Strazzeri, Jennifer M.; Hunter, Jennifer J.; Masella, Benjamin D.; Yin, Lu; Fischer, William S.; DiLoreto, David A.; Libby, Richard T.; Williams, David R.; Merigan, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Insertion of light-gated channels into inner retina neurons restores neural light responses, light evoked potentials, visual optomotor responses and visually-guided maze behavior in mice blinded by retinal degeneration. This method of vision restoration bypasses damaged outer retina, providing stimulation directly to retinal ganglion cells in inner retina. The approach is similar to that of electronic visual protheses, but may offer some advantages, such as avoidance of complex surgery and direct targeting of many thousands of neurons. However, the promise of this technique for restoring human vision remains uncertain because rodent animal models, in which it has been largely developed, are not ideal for evaluating visual perception. On the other hand, psychophysical vision studies in macaque can be used to evaluate different approaches to vision restoration in humans. Furthermore, it has not been possible to test vision restoration in macaques, the optimal model for human-like vision, because there has been no macaque model of outer retina degeneration. In this study, we describe development of a macaque model of photoreceptor degeneration that can in future studies be used to test restoration of perception by visual prostheses. Our results show that perceptual deficits caused by focal light damage are restricted to locations at which photoreceptors are damaged, that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to track such lesions, and that adaptive optics retinal imaging, which we recently used for in vivo recording of ganglion cell function, can be used in future studies to examine these lesions. PMID:24316158

  8. Troglitazone, but not rosiglitazone, damages mitochondrial DNA and induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rachek, Lyudmila I.; Yuzefovych, Larysa V.; LeDoux, Susan P.; Julie, Neil L.; Wilson, Glenn L.

    2009-11-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), such as troglitazone (TRO) and rosiglitazone (ROSI), improve insulin resistance by acting as ligands for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). TRO was withdrawn from the market because of reports of serious hepatotoxicity. A growing body of evidence suggests that TRO caused mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of apoptosis in human hepatocytes but its mechanisms of action remain unclear. We hypothesized that damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an initiating event involved in TRO-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatotoxicity. Primary human hepatocytes were exposed to TRO and ROSI. The results obtained revealed that TRO, but not ROSI at equimolar concentrations, caused a substantial increase in mtDNA damage and decreased ATP production and cellular viability. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetyl cystein (NAC), significantly diminished the TRO-induced cytotoxicity, suggesting involvement of ROS in TRO-induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity. The PPARgamma antagonist (GW9662) did not block the TRO-induced decrease in cell viability, indicating that the TRO-induced hepatotoxicity is PPARgamma-independent. Furthermore, TRO induced hepatocyte apoptosis, caspase-3 cleavage and cytochrome c release. Targeting of a DNA repair protein to mitochondria by protein transduction using a fusion protein containing the DNA repair enzyme Endonuclease III (EndoIII) from Escherichia coli, a mitochondrial translocation sequence (MTS) and the protein transduction domain (PTD) from HIV-1 TAT protein protected hepatocytes against TRO-induced toxicity. Overall, our results indicate that significant mtDNA damage caused by TRO is a prime initiator of the hepatoxicity caused by this drug.

  9. Troglitazone, but not rosiglitazone, damages mitochondrial DNA and induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Rachek, Lyudmila I; Yuzefovych, Larysa V; Ledoux, Susan P; Julie, Neil L; Wilson, Glenn L

    2009-11-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), such as troglitazone (TRO) and rosiglitazone (ROSI), improve insulin resistance by acting as ligands for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). TRO was withdrawn from the market because of reports of serious hepatotoxicity. A growing body of evidence suggests that TRO caused mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of apoptosis in human hepatocytes but its mechanisms of action remain unclear. We hypothesized that damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an initiating event involved in TRO-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatotoxicity. Primary human hepatocytes were exposed to TRO and ROSI. The results obtained revealed that TRO, but not ROSI at equimolar concentrations, caused a substantial increase in mtDNA damage and decreased ATP production and cellular viability. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetyl cystein (NAC), significantly diminished the TRO-induced cytotoxicity, suggesting involvement of ROS in TRO-induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity. The PPARgamma antagonist (GW9662) did not block the TRO-induced decrease in cell viability, indicating that the TRO-induced hepatotoxicity is PPARgamma-independent. Furthermore, TRO induced hepatocyte apoptosis, caspase-3 cleavage and cytochrome c release. Targeting of a DNA repair protein to mitochondria by protein transduction using a fusion protein containing the DNA repair enzyme Endonuclease III (EndoIII) from Escherichia coli, a mitochondrial translocation sequence (MTS) and the protein transduction domain (PTD) from HIV-1 TAT protein protected hepatocytes against TRO-induced toxicity. Overall, our results indicate that significant mtDNA damage caused by TRO is a prime initiator of the hepatoxicity caused by this drug.

  10. Troglitazone, but not rosiglitazone, damages mitochondrial DNA and induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rachek, Lyudmila I.; Yuzefovych, Larysa V.; LeDoux, Susan P.; Julie, Neil L.; Wilson, Glenn L.

    2009-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), such as troglitazone (TRO) and rosiglitazone (ROSI), improve insulin resistance by acting as ligands for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). TRO was withdrawn from the market because of reports of serious hepatotoxicity. A growing body of evidence suggests that TRO caused mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of apoptosis in human hepatocytes but its mechanisms of action remain unclear. We hypothesized that damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an initiating event involved in TRO-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatotoxicity. Primary human hepatocytes were exposed to TRO and ROSI. The results obtained revealed that TRO, but not ROSI at equimolar concentrations, caused a substantial increase in mtDNA damage and decreased ATP production and cellular viability. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetyl cystein (NAC), significantly diminished the TRO-induced cytotoxicity, suggesting involvement of ROS in TRO-induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity. The PPARγ antagonist (GW9662) did not block the TRO-induced decrease in cell viability, indicating that the TRO-induced hepatotoxicity is PPARγ-independent. Furthermore, TRO induced hepatocyte apoptosis, caspase-3 cleavage and cytochrome c release. Targeting of a DNA repair protein to mitochondria by protein transduction using a fusion protein containing the DNA repair enzyme Endonuclease III (EndoIII) from Escherichia coli, a mitochondrial translocation sequence (MTS) and the protein transduction domain (PTD) from HIV-1 TAT protein protected hepatocytes against TRO-induced toxicity. Overall, our results indicate that significant mtDNA damage caused by TRO is a prime initiator of the hepatoxicity caused by this drug. PMID:19632256

  11. Ultrastructural study of mitochondrial damage in CHO cells exposed to hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Cole, A; Armour, E P

    1988-09-01

    A unique direct-view stereo electron microscope technique was used to visualize the structure and three-dimensional distributions of mitochondria in CHO cells in situ following hyperthermic treatments. Aberrations induced by various heating regimens were recorded. The protocol included a trypsin digestion that may have enhanced the expression of the initial heat damage. The developed damage was observed as increasing levels of mitochondrial distortion, swelling, and dissociation. Minimal damage was induced at 42 degrees C for exposures of up to 4 h, while significant damage was induced at 43 degrees C for exposures of more than 30 min and at 45 degrees C for exposures of more than 10 min. For moderate exposures, a partial recovery of mitochondrial integrity was observed when the heat treatment was followed by incubation at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Mitochondrial damage was related to the heat dose in that increasing treatment temperature resulted in greater damage, but when compared to cell survival the damage did not parallel cell killing under all time-temperature conditions.

  12. Alpha-lipoic acid prevents mitochondrial damage and neurotoxicity in experimental chemotherapy neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Melli, Giorgia; Taiana, Michela; Camozzi, Francesca; Triolo, Daniela; Podini, Paola; Quattrini, Angelo; Taroni, Franco; Lauria, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    The study investigates if alpha-lipoic acid is neuroprotective against chemotherapy induced neurotoxicity, if mitochondrial damage plays a critical role in toxic neurodegenerative cascade, and if neuroprotective effects of alpha-lipoic acid depend on mitochondria protection. We used an in vitro model of chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy that closely mimic the in vivo condition by exposing primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons to paclitaxel and cisplatin, two widely used and highly effective chemotherapeutic drugs. This approach allowed investigating the efficacy of alpha-lipoic acid in preventing axonal damage and apoptosis and the function and ultrastructural morphology of mitochondria after exposure to toxic agents and alpha-lipoic acid. Our results demonstrate that both cisplatin and paclitaxel cause early mitochondrial impairment with loss of membrane potential and induction of autophagic vacuoles in neurons. Alpha-lipoic acid exerts neuroprotective effects against chemotherapy induced neurotoxicity in sensory neurons: it rescues the mitochondrial toxicity and induces the expression of frataxin, an essential mitochondrial protein with anti-oxidant and chaperone properties. In conclusion mitochondrial toxicity is an early common event both in paclitaxel and cisplatin induced neurotoxicity. Alpha-lipoic acid protects sensory neurons through its anti-oxidant and mitochondrial regulatory functions, possibly inducing the expression of frataxin. These findings suggest that alpha-lipoic acid might reduce the risk of developing peripheral nerve toxicity in patients undergoing chemotherapy and encourage further confirmatory clinical trials.

  13. Depletion of Mitofusin-2 Causes Mitochondrial Damage in Cisplatin-Induced Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bobylev, Ilja; Joshi, Abhijeet R; Barham, Mohammed; Neiss, Wolfram F; Lehmann, Helmar C

    2017-01-21

    Sensory neuropathy is a relevant side effect of the antineoplastic agent cisplatin. Mitochondrial damage is assumed to play a critical role in cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy, but the pathomechanisms underlying cisplatin-induced mitotoxicity and neurodegeneration are incompletely understood. In an animal model of cisplatin-induced neuropathy, we determined in detail the extent and spatial distribution of mitochondrial damage during cisplatin treatment. Changes in the total number of axonal mitochondria during cisplatin treatment were assessed in intercostal nerves from transgenic mice that express cyan fluorescent protein. Further, we explored the impact of cisplatin on the expression of nuclear encoded molecules of mitochondrial fusion and fission, including mitofusin-2 (MFN2), optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), and dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1). Cisplatin treatment resulted in a loss of total mitochondrial mass in axons and in an abnormal mitochondrial morphology including atypical enlargement, increased vacuolization, and loss of cristae. These changes were observed in distal and proximal nerve segments and were more prominent in axons than in Schwann cells. Transcripts of fusion and fission proteins were reduced in distal nerve segments. Significant reduced expression levels of the fusion protein MFN2 was detected in nerves of cisplatin-exposed animals. In summary, we provide for the first time an evidence that cisplatin alters mitochondrial dynamics in peripheral nerves. Loss of MFN2, previously implicated in the pathogenesis of other neurodegenerative diseases, also contributes to the pathogenesis in cisplatin-induced neuropathy.

  14. Quercetin Attenuates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Mitochondrial Damage through Enhanced Mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao; Xu, Yanyan; Zhang, Shanshan; Sun, Jian; Liu, Peiyi; Xiao, Lin; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping

    2016-01-05

    Emerging evidence suggested mitophagy activation mitigates ethanol-induced liver injury. However, the effect of ethanol on mitophagy is inconsistent. Importantly, the understanding of mitophagy status after chronic ethanol consumption is limited. This study evaluated the effect of quercetin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid, on chronic ethanol-induced mitochondrial damage focused on mitophagy. An ethanol regime to mice for 15 weeks (accounting for 30% of total calories) led to significant mitochondrial damage as evidenced by changes of the mitochondrial ultrastructure, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and remodeling of membrane lipid composition, which was greatly attenuated by quercetin (100 mg/kg.bw). Moreover, quercetin blocked chronic ethanol-induced mitophagy suppression as denoted by mitophagosomes-lysosome fusion and mitophagy-related regulator elements, including LC3II, Parkin, p62 and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), paralleling with increased FoxO3a nuclear translocation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2), instead of AKT and Sirtuin 1, were involved in quercetin-mediated mitophagy activation. Quercetin alleviated ethanol-elicited mitochondrial damage through enhancing mitophagy, highlighting a promising preventive strategy for alcoholic liver disease.

  15. Quercetin Attenuates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Mitochondrial Damage through Enhanced Mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao; Xu, Yanyan; Zhang, Shanshan; Sun, Jian; Liu, Peiyi; Xiao, Lin; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggested mitophagy activation mitigates ethanol-induced liver injury. However, the effect of ethanol on mitophagy is inconsistent. Importantly, the understanding of mitophagy status after chronic ethanol consumption is limited. This study evaluated the effect of quercetin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid, on chronic ethanol-induced mitochondrial damage focused on mitophagy. An ethanol regime to mice for 15 weeks (accounting for 30% of total calories) led to significant mitochondrial damage as evidenced by changes of the mitochondrial ultrastructure, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and remodeling of membrane lipid composition, which was greatly attenuated by quercetin (100 mg/kg.bw). Moreover, quercetin blocked chronic ethanol-induced mitophagy suppression as denoted by mitophagosomes-lysosome fusion and mitophagy-related regulator elements, including LC3II, Parkin, p62 and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), paralleling with increased FoxO3a nuclear translocation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2), instead of AKT and Sirtuin 1, were involved in quercetin-mediated mitophagy activation. Quercetin alleviated ethanol-elicited mitochondrial damage through enhancing mitophagy, highlighting a promising preventive strategy for alcoholic liver disease. PMID:26742072

  16. The Roles of Mitochondrial Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns in Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nakahira, Kiichi; Hisata, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Mitochondria, vital cellular power plants to generate energy, are involved in immune responses. Mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are molecules that are released from mitochondria to extracellular space during cell death and include not only proteins but also DNA or lipids. Mitochondrial DAMPs induce inflammatory responses and are critically involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Recent Advances: Recent studies elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which mitochondrial DAMPs are released and initiate immune responses by use of genetically modulated cells or animals. Importantly, the levels of mitochondrial DAMPs in patients are often associated with severity and prognosis of human diseases, such as infection, asthma, ischemic heart disease, and cancer. Critical Issues: Although mitochondrial DAMPs can represent proinflammatory molecules in various experimental models, their roles in human diseases may be multifunctional and complex. It remains unclear where and how mitochondrial DAMPs are liberated into extracellular spaces and exert their biological functions particularly in vivo. In addition, while mitochondria can secrete several types of DAMPs during cell death, the interaction of each mitochondrial DAMP (e.g., synergistic effects) remains unclear. Future Directions: Regulation of mitochondrial DAMP-mediated immune responses may be important to alter the progression of human diseases. In addition, measuring mitochondrial DAMPs in patients may be clinically useful as biomarkers to predict prognosis or response to therapies. Further studies of the mechanisms by which mitochondrial DAMPs impact the initiation and progression of diseases may lead to the development of therapeutics specifically targeting this pathway. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 1329–1350. PMID:26067258

  17. Mitochondrial ROS regulate oxidative damage and mitophagy but not age-related muscle fiber atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Sakellariou, Giorgos K.; Pearson, Timothy; Lightfoot, Adam P.; Nye, Gareth A.; Wells, Nicola; Giakoumaki, Ifigeneia I.; Vasilaki, Aphrodite; Griffiths, Richard D.; Jackson, Malcolm J.; McArdle, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is a major contributor to morbidity and has a profound effect on the quality of life of older people. The potential role of age-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and cumulative oxidative stress as the underlying cause of muscle aging remains a controversial topic. Here we show that the pharmacological attenuation of age-related mitochondrial redox changes in muscle with SS31 is associated with some improvements in oxidative damage and mitophagy in muscles of old mice. However, this treatment failed to rescue the age-related muscle fiber atrophy associated with muscle atrophy and weakness. Collectively, these data imply that the muscle mitochondrial redox environment is not a key regulator of muscle fiber atrophy during sarcopenia but may play a key role in the decline of mitochondrial organelle integrity that occurs with muscle aging. PMID:27681159

  18. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine Protects the Enterocyte against Oxidative Damage by Modulation of Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hao; Wu, Miaomiao; Shao, Fangyuan; Guan, Guiping; Huang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The neonatal small intestine is susceptible to damage caused by oxidative stress. This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in intestinal epithelial cells against oxidative damage induced by H2O2. IPEC-J2 cells were cultured in DMEM-H with NAC and H2O2. After 2-day incubation, IPEC-J2 cells were collected for analysis of DNA synthesis, antioxidation capacity, mitochondrial respiration, and cell apoptosis. The results showed that H2O2 significantly decreased (P < 0.05) proliferation rate, mitochondrial respiration, and antioxidation capacity and increased cell apoptosis and the abundance of associated proteins, including cytochrome C, Bcl-XL, cleaved caspase-3, and total caspase-3. NAC supplementation remarkably increased (P < 0.05) proliferation rate, antioxidation capacity, and mitochondrial bioenergetics but decreased cell apoptosis. These findings indicate that NAC might rescue the intestinal injury induced by H2O2. PMID:28003713

  19. Mitochondrial damage associated with long-term antiretroviral treatment: associated alteration or causal disorder?

    PubMed

    Vittecoq, Daniel; Jardel, Claude; Barthélémy, Cyrille; Escaut, Lélia; Cheminot, Nathalie; Chapin, Sandrine; Sternberg, Damien; Maisonobe, Thierry; Lombès, Anne

    2002-11-01

    Combination of antiretroviral drugs has dramatically improved the prognosis of human HIV infection but is also associated with many adverse effects, the mitochondrial origin of which is discussed. In this study using extensive diagnostic procedures set up for inherited mitochondrial disorders, we analyzed HIV patients under active antiretroviral therapy who complained of severe adverse symptoms unexplained by HIV. All these patients had been treated for at least 5 years. They all had significant mitochondrial damage as evidenced by the diverse combination of lactate accumulation in blood or cerebrospinal fluid, mitochondrial morphologic alterations in muscle, and biochemical defects in muscle and liver, which designated mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as the main target of the toxic mechanisms. Southern blot and/or polymerase chain reaction -based analyses disclosed multiple deletions of the muscle mtDNA and reduction of the muscle and/or liver mtDNA copy number in a majority of the patients. In opposition to muscle and liver, blood mononuclear cells were devoid of significant biochemical or genetic alterations. Whether the mitochondrial toxicity is directly responsible for the patients' adverse symptoms remains disputable, because the investigations were transversal. Its severity argues for its clinical relevance, however. The skewed tissue distribution of mitochondrial alterations indicates potential pitfalls in the needed future prospective studies.

  20. Mitochondrial ROS induces NLRP3-dependent lysosomal damage and inflammasome activation1

    PubMed Central

    Heid, Michelle E.; Keyel, Peter A.; Kamga, Christelle; Shiva, Sruti; Watkins, Simon C.; Salter, Russell D.

    2013-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome drives many inflammatory processes and mediates IL-1 family cytokine release. Inflammasome activators typically damage cells, and may release lysosomal and mitochondrial products into the cytosol. Macrophages triggered by the NLRP3 inflammasome activator nigericin show reduced mitochondrial function and decreased cellular ATP. Release of mitochondrial ROS leads to subsequent lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). NLRP3-deficient macrophages show comparable reduced mitochondrial function and ATP loss, but maintain lysosomal acidity, demonstrating that LMP is NLRP3 dependent. A subset of WT macrophages undergo subsequent mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) and die. Both LMP and MMP are inhibited by potassium, scavenging mitochondrial ROS, or NLRP3 deficiency, but are unaffected by cathepsin B or caspase-1 inhibitors. In contrast, IL-1β secretion is ablated by potassium, scavenging mitochondrial ROS, and both cathepsin B and caspase-1 inhibition. These results demonstrate interplay between lysosomes and mitochondria that sustain NLRP3 activation, and distinguish cell death from IL-1β release. PMID:24089192

  1. Multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions and persistent hyperthermia in a patient with Brachmann-de Lange phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Melegh, B.; Bock, I.; Mehes, K.

    1996-10-02

    In a newborn boy with characteristics of Brachmann-de Lange syndrome (BDLS), high temperatures were observed on the second day after birth and recurred 2-6 times daily during the 7 months of the patient`s life. After, transient hypertonia hypotonia developed. In muscle biopsy specimen taken on the 51st day of life, serious and progressive distortion of mitochondria was observed. In several mitochondria the cristae structure was broken, other mitochondria were shrunken and the damage progressed towards further deterioration in other organelles. At several points between the myofibrils, amorphous material was seen, possibly debris of destroyed mitochondria. Most myofibrils seemed to be intact; however, in some areas myolytic signs were present. Analysis of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) showed multiple deletions in skeletal and heart muscles, liver, lung and kidney. Since the mtDNA encodes several proteins of the respiratory complexes, the deleted mtDNA certainly affected the integrity of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation process by synthesis of abnormal proteins. In the present case the hyperthermia may have been a result of the mtDNA damage. 13 refs.

  2. PM2.5-Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Damage in the Nasal Mucosa of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiqiang; Hong, Zhicong; Dong, Weiyang; Deng, Congrui; Zhao, Renwu; Xu, Jian; Zhuang, Guoshun; Zhang, Ruxin

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm) increases the risk of nasal lesions, but the underlying mechanisms, especially the mechanisms leading to mitochondrial damage, are still unclear. Thus, we investigated the in vivo effects of PM2.5 exposure on the inflammatory response, oxidative stress, the enzyme activities of Na+K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, and the morphology and function of mitochondria in the nasal mucosa of rats. Exposure to PM2.5 occurred through inhalation of a PM2.5 solution aerosol. The results show that the PM2.5 exposure induced increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and levels of proinflammatory mediators, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). These changes were accompanied by decreases in the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), Na+K+-ATPase, and Ca2+-ATPase in rat nasal mucosa. PM2.5 significantly affected the expression of specific mitochondrial fission/fusion genes (OPA1, Mfn1, Fis1, and Drp1) in nasal mucosa. These changes were accompanied by abnormal alterations of mitochondrial structures, including mitochondrial swelling, cristae disorder, and even fission resulting from higher doses of PM2.5. Our data shows that oxidative damage, inflammatory response, and mitochondrial dysfunction may be the toxic mechanisms that cause nasal lesions after exposure to PM2.5. PMID:28146064

  3. Cranberry flavonoids prevent toxic rat liver mitochondrial damage in vivo and scavenge free radicals in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lapshina, Elena A; Zamaraeva, Maria; Cheshchevik, Vitali T; Olchowik-Grabarek, Ewa; Sekowski, Szymon; Zukowska, Izabela; Golovach, Nina G; Burd, Vasili N; Zavodnik, Ilya B

    2015-06-01

    The present study was undertaken for further elucidation of the mechanisms of flavonoid biological activity, focusing on the antioxidative and protective effects of cranberry flavonoids in free radical-generating systems and those on mitochondrial ultrastructure during carbon tetrachloride-induced rat intoxication. Treatment of rats with cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) during chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication led to prevention of mitochondrial damage, including fragmentation, rupture and local loss of the outer mitochondrial membrane. In radical-generating systems, cranberry flavonoids effectively scavenged nitric oxide (IC50  = 4.4 ± 0.4 µg/ml), superoxide anion radicals (IC50  = 2.8 ± 0.3 µg/ml) and hydroxyl radicals (IC50  = 53 ± 4 µg/ml). The IC50 for reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH) was 2.2 ± 0.3 µg/ml. Flavonoids prevented to some extent lipid peroxidation in liposomal membranes and glutathione oxidation in erythrocytes treated with UV irradiation or organic hydroperoxides as well as decreased the rigidity of the outer leaflet of the liposomal membranes. The hepatoprotective potential of cranberry flavonoids could be due to specific prevention of rat liver mitochondrial damage. The mitochondria-addressed effects of flavonoids might be related both to radical-scavenging properties and modulation of various mitochondrial events.

  4. Molecular pathophysiology of impaired glucose metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative DNA damage in Alzheimer's disease brain.

    PubMed

    Abolhassani, Nona; Leon, Julio; Sheng, Zijing; Oka, Sugako; Hamasaki, Hideomi; Iwaki, Toru; Nakabeppu, Yusaku

    2017-01-01

    In normal brain, neurons in the cortex and hippocampus produce insulin, which modulates glucose metabolism and cognitive functions. It has been shown that insulin resistance impairs glucose metabolism and mitochondrial function, thus increasing production of reactive oxygen species. Recent progress in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research revealed that insulin production and signaling are severely impaired in AD brain, thereby resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress. Among possible oxidative DNA lesions, 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is highly accumulated in the brain of AD patients. Previously we have shown that incorporating 8-oxoG in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA promotes MUTYH (adenine DNA glycosylase) dependent neurodegeneration. Moreover, cortical neurons prepared from MTH1 (8-oxo-dGTPase)/OGG1 (8-oxoG DNA glycosylase)-double deficient adult mouse brains is shown to exhibit significantly poor neuritogenesis in vitro with increased 8-oxoG accumulation in mitochondrial DNA in the absence of antioxidants. Therefore, 8-oxoG can be considered involved in the neurodegenerative process in AD brain. In mild cognitive impairment, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage may induce synaptic dysfunction due to energy failures in neurons thus resulting in impaired cognitive function. If such abnormality lasts long, it can lead to vicious cycles of oxidative damage, which may then trigger the neurodegenerative process seen in Alzheimer type dementia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. SIRT1 activation by curcumin pretreatment attenuates mitochondrial oxidative damage induced by myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Duan, Weixun; Lin, Yan; Yi, Wei; Liang, Zhenxing; Yan, Juanjuan; Wang, Ning; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Song; Li, Yue; Chen, Wensheng; Yu, Shiqiang; Yi, Dinghua; Jin, Zhenxiao

    2013-12-01

    Ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury (IRI) is harmful to the cardiovascular system and causes mitochondrial oxidative stress. Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), a type of histone deacetylase, contributes to IRI. Curcumin (Cur) is a strong natural antioxidant and is the active component in Curcuma longa; Cur has protective effects against IRI and may regulate the activity of SIRT1. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of Cur pretreatment on myocardial IRI and to elucidate this potential mechanism. Isolated and in vivo rat hearts and cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were subjected to IR. Prior to this procedure, the hearts or cardiomyocytes were exposed to Cur in the absence or presence of the SIRT1 inhibitor sirtinol or SIRT1 siRNA. Cur conferred a cardioprotective effect, as shown by improved postischemic cardiac function, decreased myocardial infarct size, decreased myocardial apoptotic index, and several biochemical parameters, including the up-regulation of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl2 and the down-regulation of the proapoptotic protein Bax. Sirtinol and SIRT1 siRNA each blocked the Cur-mediated cardioprotection by inhibiting SIRT1 signaling. Cur also resulted in a well-preserved mitochondrial redox potential, significantly elevated mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activity, and decreased formation of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde. These observations indicated that the IR-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage was remarkably attenuated. However, this Cur-elevated mitochondrial function was reversed by sirtinol or SIRT1 siRNA treatment. In summary, our results demonstrate that Cur pretreatment attenuates IRI by reducing IR-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage through the activation of SIRT1 signaling.

  6. Cardiac mitochondrial damage and biogenesis in a chronic model of type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xia; Zheng, Shirong; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Xu, Ming; Pierce, William M; Klein, Jon B; Epstein, Paul N

    2004-11-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a common complication leading to heightened risk of heart failure and death. In the present report, we performed proteomic analysis on total cardiac proteins from the OVE26 mouse model of type 1 diabetes to identify protein changes that may contribute to diabetic cardiomyopathy. This analysis revealed that a surprising high proportion (12 of 20) of the altered proteins that could be identified by mass spectrometry were of mitochondrial origin. All but one of these proteins were upregulated by diabetes. Quantitative RT-PCR, performed for two of these proteins, indicated that part of the upregulation was attributed to increased messenger RNA levels. Morphological study of diabetic hearts showed significantly increased mitochondrial area and number as well as focal regions with severe damage to mitochondria. Diabetic mitochondria also showed reduced respiratory control ratio (9.63 +/- 0.20 vs. 6.13 +/- 0.41, P < 0.0001), apparently due to reduced state 3 rate, and diminished GSH level (5.5 +/- 0.9 vs. 8.2 +/- 2.5 micromol/mg protein, P < 0.05), indicating impaired mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress. Further examination revealed increased mitochondrial DNA (1.03 +/- 0.18 vs. 0.69 +/- 0.13 relative copy number, P < 0.001) and a tendency to higher protein yield in OVE26 cardiac mitochondria, as well as increased mRNA level for mitochondrial transcription factor A and two mitochondrial encoded proteins. Taken together, these results show that mitochondria are a primary target in the diabetic heart, probably due to oxidative stress, and that this damage coincides with and may stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis.

  7. Screening SIRT1 Activators from Medicinal Plants as Bioactive Compounds against Oxidative Damage in Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Liang, Xinying; Chen, Yaqi; Zhao, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuin type 1 (SIRT1) belongs to the family of NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases and plays a critical role in cellular metabolism and response to oxidative stress. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), as an important part of natural products, have been reported to exert protective effect against oxidative stress in mitochondria. In this study, we screened SIRT1 activators from TCMs and investigated their activities against mitochondrial damage. 19 activators were found in total by in vitro SIRT1 activity assay. Among those active compounds, four compounds, ginsenoside Rb2, ginsenoside F1, ginsenoside Rc, and schisandrin A, were further studied to validate the SIRT1-activation effects by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and confirm their activities against oxidative damage in H9c2 cardiomyocytes exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). The results showed that those compounds enhanced the deacetylated activity of SIRT1, increased ATP content, and inhibited intracellular ROS formation as well as regulating the activity of Mn-SOD. These SIRT1 activators also showed moderate protective effects on mitochondrial function in t-BHP cells by recovering oxygen consumption and increasing mitochondrial DNA content. Our results suggested that those compounds from TCMs attenuated oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes through activation of SIRT1. PMID:26981165

  8. A persistent mitochondrial deletion reduces fitness and sperm performance in heteroplasmic populations of C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Liau, Wei-Siang; Gonzalez-Serricchio, Aidyl S; Deshommes, Cleonique; Chin, Kara; LaMunyon, Craig W

    2007-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are of increasing interest due to their involvement in aging, disease, fertility, and their role in the evolution of the mitochondrial genome. The presence of reactive oxygen species and the near lack of repair mechanisms cause mtDNA to mutate at a faster rate than nuclear DNA, and mtDNA deletions are not uncommon in the tissues of individuals, although germ-line mtDNA is largely lesion-free. Large-scale deletions in mtDNA may disrupt multiple genes, and curiously, some large-scale deletions persist over many generations in a heteroplasmic state. Here we examine the phenotypic effects of one such deletion, uaDf5, in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our study investigates the phenotypic effects of this 3 kbp deletion. Results The proportion of uaDf5 chromosomes in worms was highly heritable, although uaDf5 content varied from worm to worm and within tissues of individual worms. We also found an impact of the uaDf5 deletion on metabolism. The deletion significantly reduced egg laying rate, defecation rate, and lifespan. Examination of sperm bearing the uaDf5 deletion revealed that sperm crawled more slowly, both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion Worms harboring uaDf5 are at a selective disadvantage compared to worms with wild-type mtDNA. These effects should lead to the rapid extinction of the deleted chromosome, but it persists indefinitely. We discuss both the implications of this phenomenon and the possible causes of a shortened lifespan for uaDf5 mutant worms. PMID:17394659

  9. Deletion of conserved protein phosphatases reverses defects associated with mitochondrial DNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Garipler, Görkem; Mutlu, Nebibe; Lack, Nathan A; Dunn, Cory D

    2014-01-28

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is regulated by signaling pathways sensitive to extracellular conditions and to the internal environment of the cell. Therefore, treatments for disease caused by mutation of mtDNA may emerge from studies of how signal transduction pathways command mitochondrial function. We have examined the role of phosphatases under the control of the conserved α4/Tap42 protein in cells lacking a mitochondrial genome. We found that deletion of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) or of protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) protects cells from the reduced proliferation, mitochondrial protein import defects, lower mitochondrial electrochemical potential, and nuclear transcriptional response associated with mtDNA damage. Moreover, PP2A or PP6 deletion allows viability of a sensitized yeast strain after mtDNA loss. Interestingly, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog of the mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase was required for the full benefits of PP6 deletion and also for proliferation of otherwise wild-type cells lacking mtDNA. Our work highlights the important role that nutrient-responsive signaling pathways can play in determining the response to mitochondrial dysfunction.

  10. Deletion of conserved protein phosphatases reverses defects associated with mitochondrial DNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Garipler, Görkem; Mutlu, Nebibe; Lack, Nathan A.; Dunn, Cory D.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is regulated by signaling pathways sensitive to extracellular conditions and to the internal environment of the cell. Therefore, treatments for disease caused by mutation of mtDNA may emerge from studies of how signal transduction pathways command mitochondrial function. We have examined the role of phosphatases under the control of the conserved α4/Tap42 protein in cells lacking a mitochondrial genome. We found that deletion of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) or of protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) protects cells from the reduced proliferation, mitochondrial protein import defects, lower mitochondrial electrochemical potential, and nuclear transcriptional response associated with mtDNA damage. Moreover, PP2A or PP6 deletion allows viability of a sensitized yeast strain after mtDNA loss. Interestingly, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog of the mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase was required for the full benefits of PP6 deletion and also for proliferation of otherwise wild-type cells lacking mtDNA. Our work highlights the important role that nutrient-responsive signaling pathways can play in determining the response to mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:24474773

  11. The interplay between inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, DNA repair and mitochondrial dysfunction in depression.

    PubMed

    Czarny, Piotr; Wigner, Paulina; Galecki, Piotr; Sliwinski, Tomasz

    2017-06-29

    A growing body of evidence suggests that inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidant-antioxidant imbalance may play a significant role in the development and progression of depression. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species - a result of oxidant-antioxidant imbalance - may lead to increased damage of biomolecules, including DNA. This was confirmed in depressed patients in a research study conducted by our team and other scientists. 8-oxoguanine - a marker of oxidative DNA damage - was found in the patients' lymphocytes, urine and serum. These results were confirmed using a comet assay on lymphocytes. Furthermore, it was shown that the patients' cells repaired peroxide-induced DNA damage less efficiently than controls' cells and that some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the genes involved in oxidative DNA damage repair may modulate the risk of depression. Lastly, less efficient DNA damage repair observed in the patients can be, at least partly, attributed to the presence of specific SNP variants, as it was revealed through a genotype-phenotype analysis. In conclusion, the available literature shows that both oxidative stress and less efficient DNA damage repair may lead to increased DNA damage in depressed patients. A similar mechanism may result in mitochondrial dysfunction, which is observed in depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of oxidative DNA damage in mitochondrial dysfunction and Huntington's disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Peña, Sylvette

    2013-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with an autosomal dominant expression pattern and typically a late-onset appearance. HD is a movement disorder with a heterogeneous phenotype characterized by involuntary dance-like gait, bioenergetic deficits, motor impairment, and cognitive and psychiatric deficits. Compelling evidence suggests that increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction may underlie HD pathogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms underlying mutant huntingtin-induced neurological toxicity remain unclear. The objective of this paper is to review recent literature regarding the role of oxidative DNA damage in mitochondrial dysfunction and HD pathogenesis.

  13. Age-related differences in experimental stroke: possible involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Nanlin; Kong, Xiangwei; Ye, Ruidong; Yang, Qianzi; Han, Junliang; Xiong, Lize

    2011-06-01

    Age is the single most important risk factor for cerebral stroke. Unfortunately, the effect of age on ischemic brain damage is less clear. In this study, we sought to examine the potential influence of aging on the histologic and functional outcomes after ischemia. Juvenile (4 weeks of age), young adult (4 months of age), mid-aged (11-12 months of age), and aged (18-19 months of age) mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. There was no remarkable difference of infarct volume on postoperative days 1 and 3. However, on postoperative day 7, aged mice exhibited significantly worsened infarct volume compared with juvenile and young mice. Intriguingly, the increase of infarct volume was most prominent in the striatal area rather than in cortex. Accordingly, aged mice displayed a slower and incomplete functional recovery after stroke. We further evaluated the effects of aging on the oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction following ischemia. Brain tissues were assayed for lipid, DNA, and protein peroxidation products, mitochondrial enzyme activities, mitochondrial membrane potential, production of reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant activities. Aging was associated with declined mitochondrial function and antioxidant detoxification following ischemia, thereby inducing a deteriorated oxidative damage. Regional subanalyses demonstrated that, in accordance with infarct area, the pro-oxidant/antioxidant imbalance occurred more prominently in subcortical areas. Collectively, these findings suggest mitochondria-mediated oxidative damage may be involved in the age-related aggravated injury in subcortical areas. Mitochondrial protection could be a promising target for neuroprotective therapy, especially in the aged population.

  14. Acetaldehyde-induced mitochondrial dysfunction sensitizes hepatocytes to oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Farfán Labonne, Blanca Eugenia; Gutiérrez, Mario; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Konigsberg Fainstein, Mina; Bucio, Leticia; Souza, Verónica; Flores, Oscar; Ortíz, Victor; Hernández, Elizabeth; Kershenobich, David; Gutiérrez-Ruíz, María Concepción

    2009-12-01

    Acetaldehyde (Ac), the main metabolite of ethanol oxidation, is a very reactive compound involved in alcohol-induced liver damage. In the present work, we studied the effect of Ac in mitochondria functionality. Mitochondria from Wistar rats were isolated and treated with Ac. Ac decreased respiratory control by 50% which was associated with a decrease in adenosine triphosphate content (28.5%). These results suggested that Ac could be inducing changes in cell redox status. We determined protein oxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and glutathione ratio, indicating that Ac induced an enhanced oxidation of proteins and a decrease in SOD activity (90%) and glutathione/oxidized GSH ratio (36%). The data suggested that Ac-induced oxidative stress mediated by mitochondria dysfunction can lead to cell sensitization and to a second oxidative challenge. We pretreated hepatocytes with Ac followed by treatment with antimycin A, and this experiment revealed a noticeable decrease in cell viability, determined by neutral red assay, in comparison with cells treated with Ac alone. Our data demonstrate that Ac impairs mitochondria functionality generating oxidative stress that sensitizes cells to a second damaging signal contributing to the development of alcoholic liver disease.

  15. Methionine restriction decreases mitochondrial oxygen radical generation and leak as well as oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA and proteins.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Alberto; Caro, Pilar; Ayala, Victoria; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Pamplona, Reinald; Barja, Gustavo

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies have consistently shown that caloric restriction (CR) decreases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) (mitROS) generation and oxidative damage to mtDNA and mitochondrial proteins, and increases maximum longevity, although the mechanisms responsible for this are unknown. We recently found that protein restriction (PR) also produces these changes independent of energy restriction. Various facts link methionine to aging, and methionine restriction (MetR) without energy restriction increases, like CR, maximum longevity. We have thus hypothesized that MetR is responsible for the decrease in mitROS generation and oxidative stress in PR and CR. In this investigation we subjected male rats to exactly the same dietary protocol of MetR that is known to increase their longevity. We have found, for the first time, that MetR profoundly decreases mitROS production, decreases oxidative damage to mtDNA, lowers membrane unsaturation, and decreases all five markers of protein oxidation measured in rat heart and liver mitochondria. The concentration of complexes I and IV also decreases in MetR. The decrease in mitROS generation occurs in complexes I and III in liver and in complex I in heart mitochondria, and is due to an increase in efficiency of the respiratory chain in avoiding electron leak to oxygen. These changes are strikingly similar to those observed in CR and PR, suggesting that the decrease in methionine ingestion is responsible for the decrease in mitochondrial ROS production and oxidative stress, and possibly part of the decrease in aging rate, occurring during caloric restriction.

  16. Mechanisms of MDMA (ecstasy)-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and organ damage.

    PubMed

    Song, Byoung-Joon; Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Upreti, Vijay V; Eddington, Natalie D; Lee, Insong J

    2010-08-01

    Despite numerous reports about the acute and sub-chronic toxicities caused by MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy), the underlying mechanism of organ damage is poorly understood. The aim of this review is to present an update of the mechanistic studies on MDMA-mediated organ damage partly caused by increased oxidative/nitrosative stress. Because of the extensive reviews on MDMA-mediated oxidative stress and tissue damage, we specifically focus on the mechanisms and consequences of oxidative-modifications of mitochondrial proteins, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. We briefly describe a method to systematically identify oxidatively-modified mitochondrial proteins in control and MDMA-exposed rats by using biotin-N-maleimide (biotin-NM) as a sensitive probe for oxidized proteins. We also describe various applications and advantages of this Cys-targeted proteomics method and alternative approaches to overcome potential limitations of this method in studying oxidized proteins from MDMA-exposed tissues. Finally we discuss the mechanism of synergistic drug-interaction between MDMA and other abused substances including alcohol (ethanol) as well as application of this redox-based proteomics method in translational studies for developing effective preventive and therapeutic agents against MDMA-induced organ damage.

  17. Mechanisms of MDMA (Ecstasy)-Induced Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, and Organ Damage

    PubMed Central

    Song, Byoung-Joon; Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Upreti, Vijay V.; Eddington, Natalie D.; Lee, Insong J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite numerous reports about the acute and sub-chronic toxicities caused by MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy), the underlying mechanism of organ damage is poorly understood. The aim of this review is to present an update of the mechanistic studies on MDMA-mediated organ damage partly caused by increased oxidative/nitrosative stress. Because of the extensive reviews on MDMA-mediated oxidative stress and tissue damage, we specifically focus on the mechanisms and consequences of oxidative-modifications of mitochondrial proteins, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. We briefly describe a method to systematically identify oxidatively-modified mitochondrial proteins in control and MDMA-exposed rats by using biotin-N-maleimide (biotin-NM) as a sensitive probe for oxidized proteins. We also describe various applications and advantages of this Cys-targeted proteomics method and alternative approaches to overcome potential limitations of this method in studying oxidized proteins from MDMA-exposed tissues. Finally we discuss the mechanism of synergistic drug-interaction between MDMA and other abused substances including alcohol (ethanol) as well as application of this redox-based proteomics method in translational studies for developing effective preventive and therapeutic agents against MDMA-induced organ damage. PMID:20420575

  18. Iron deficiency and iron excess damage mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA in rats.

    PubMed

    Walter, Patrick B; Knutson, Mitchell D; Paler-Martinez, Andres; Lee, Sonia; Xu, Yu; Viteri, Fernando E; Ames, Bruce N

    2002-02-19

    Approximately two billion people, mainly women and children, are iron deficient. Two studies examined the effects of iron deficiency and supplementation on rats. In study 1, mitochondrial functional parameters and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage were assayed in iron-deficient (< or =5 microg/day) and iron-normal (800 microg/day) rats and in both groups after daily high-iron supplementation (8,000 microg/day) for 34 days. This dose is equivalent to the daily dose commonly given to iron-deficient humans. Iron-deficient rats had lower liver mitochondrial respiratory control ratios and increased levels of oxidants in polymorphonuclear-leukocytes, as assayed by dichlorofluorescein (P < 0.05). Rhodamine 123 fluorescence of polymorphonuclear-leukocytes also increased (P < 0.05). Lowered respiratory control ratios were found in daily high-iron-supplemented rats regardless of the previous iron status (P < 0.05). mtDNA damage was observed in both iron-deficient rats and rats receiving daily high-iron supplementation, compared with iron-normal rats (P < 0.05). Study 2 compared iron-deficient rats given high doses of iron (8,000 microg) either daily or every third day and found that rats given iron supplements every third day had less mtDNA damage on the second and third day after the last dose compared to daily high iron doses. Both inadequate and excessive iron (10 x nutritional need) cause significant mitochondrial malfunction. Although excess iron has been known to cause oxidative damage, the observation of oxidant-induced damage to mitochondria from iron deficiency has been unrecognized previously. Untreated iron deficiency, as well as excessive-iron supplementation, are deleterious and emphasize the importance of maintaining optimal iron intake.

  19. Cockayne syndrome group B protein prevents the accumulation of damaged mitochondria by promoting mitochondrial autophagy.

    PubMed

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Ramamoorthy, Mahesh; Sykora, Peter; Maynard, Scott; Lin, Ping-Chang; Minor, Robin K; Wilson, David M; Cooper, Marcus; Spencer, Richard; de Cabo, Rafael; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2012-04-09

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a devastating autosomal recessive disease characterized by neurodegeneration, cachexia, and accelerated aging. 80% of the cases are caused by mutations in the CS complementation group B (CSB) gene known to be involved in DNA repair and transcription. Recent evidence indicates that CSB is present in mitochondria, where it associates with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We report an increase in metabolism in the CSB(m/m) mouse model and CSB-deficient cells. Mitochondrial content is increased in CSB-deficient cells, whereas autophagy is down-regulated, presumably as a result of defects in the recruitment of P62 and mitochondrial ubiquitination. CSB-deficient cells show increased free radical production and an accumulation of damaged mitochondria. Accordingly, treatment with the autophagic stimulators lithium chloride or rapamycin reverses the bioenergetic phenotype of CSB-deficient cells. Our data imply that CSB acts as an mtDNA damage sensor, inducing mitochondrial autophagy in response to stress, and that pharmacological modulators of autophagy are potential treatment options for this accelerated aging phenotype.

  20. Cockayne syndrome group B protein prevents the accumulation of damaged mitochondria by promoting mitochondrial autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Ramamoorthy, Mahesh; Sykora, Peter; Maynard, Scott; Lin, Ping-Chang; Minor, Robin K.; Wilson III, David M.; Cooper, Marcus; Spencer, Richard; de Cabo, Rafael; Croteau, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a devastating autosomal recessive disease characterized by neurodegeneration, cachexia, and accelerated aging. 80% of the cases are caused by mutations in the CS complementation group B (CSB) gene known to be involved in DNA repair and transcription. Recent evidence indicates that CSB is present in mitochondria, where it associates with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We report an increase in metabolism in the CSBm/m mouse model and CSB-deficient cells. Mitochondrial content is increased in CSB-deficient cells, whereas autophagy is down-regulated, presumably as a result of defects in the recruitment of P62 and mitochondrial ubiquitination. CSB-deficient cells show increased free radical production and an accumulation of damaged mitochondria. Accordingly, treatment with the autophagic stimulators lithium chloride or rapamycin reverses the bioenergetic phenotype of CSB-deficient cells. Our data imply that CSB acts as an mtDNA damage sensor, inducing mitochondrial autophagy in response to stress, and that pharmacological modulators of autophagy are potential treatment options for this accelerated aging phenotype. PMID:22473955

  1. Iron(III)-salen damages DNA and induces apoptosis in human cell via mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Woldemariam, Getachew A; Mandal, Subhrangsu S

    2008-04-01

    We synthesized a water soluble Fe(III)-salen complex and investigated its biochemical effects on DNA in vitro and on cultured human cells. We showed that Fe(III)-salen produces free radicals in the presence of reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) and induces DNA damage in vitro. Interestingly, upon treatment with Fe(III)-salen at concentration as low as 10microM, HEK293 human cells showed morphological changes, nuclear fragmentation, and nuclear condensation that are typical features of apoptotic cell death. The cytotoxicity measurement showed that IC(50) of Fe(III)-salen is 2.0microM for HEK293 cells. Furthermore, treatment with Fe(III)-salen resulted in translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol affecting mitochondrial membrane permeability. Our results demonstrated that Fe(III)-salen not only damages DNA in vitro, but also induces apoptosis in human cells via mitochondrial pathway.

  2. A Novel MitoTimer Reporter Gene for Mitochondrial Content, Structure, Stress, and Damage in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Laker, Rhianna C.; Xu, Peng; Ryall, Karen A.; Sujkowski, Alyson; Kenwood, Brandon M.; Chain, Kristopher H.; Zhang, Mei; Royal, Mary A.; Hoehn, Kyle L.; Driscoll, Monica; Adler, Paul N.; Wessells, Robert J.; Saucerman, Jeffrey J.; Yan, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays important roles in many diseases, but there is no satisfactory method to assess mitochondrial health in vivo. Here, we engineered a MitoTimer reporter gene from the existing Timer reporter gene. MitoTimer encodes a mitochondria-targeted green fluorescent protein when newly synthesized, which shifts irreversibly to red fluorescence when oxidized. Confocal microscopy confirmed targeting of the MitoTimer protein to mitochondria in cultured cells, Caenorhabditis elegans touch receptor neurons, Drosophila melanogaster heart and indirect flight muscle, and mouse skeletal muscle. A ratiometric algorithm revealed that conditions that cause mitochondrial stress led to a significant shift toward red fluorescence as well as accumulation of pure red fluorescent puncta of damaged mitochondria targeted for mitophagy. Long term voluntary exercise resulted in a significant fluorescence shift toward green, in mice and D. melanogaster, as well as significantly improved structure and increased content in mouse FDB muscle. In contrast, high-fat feeding in mice resulted in a significant shift toward red fluorescence and accumulation of pure red puncta in skeletal muscle, which were completely ameliorated by voluntary wheel running. Hence, MitoTimer allows for robust analysis of multiple parameters of mitochondrial health under both physiological and pathological conditions and will be highly useful for future research of mitochondrial health in multiple disciplines in vivo. PMID:24644293

  3. Persistent DNA damage signaling triggers senescence-associated inflammatory cytokine secretion

    PubMed Central

    Rodier, Francis; Coppé, Jean-Philippe; Patil, Christopher K.; Hoeijmakers, Wieteke A. M.; Muñoz, Denise P.; Raza, Saba R.; Freund, Adam; Campeau, Eric; Davalos, Albert R.; Campisi, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by stably arresting the proliferation of damaged cells1. Paradoxically, senescent cells also secrete factors that alter tissue microenvironments2. The pathways regulating this secretion are unknown. We show that damaged human cells develop persistent chromatin lesions bearing hallmarks of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which initiate increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). Cytokine secretion occurred only after establishment of persistent DNA damage signaling, usually associated with senescence, not after transient DNA damage responses (DDR). Initiation and maintenance of this cytokine response required the DDR proteins ATM, NBS1 and CHK2, but not the cell cycle arrest enforcers p53 and pRb. ATM was also essential for IL-6 secretion during oncogene-induced senescence and by damaged cells that bypass senescence. Further, DDR activity and IL-6 were elevated in human cancers, and ATM-depletion suppressed the ability of senescent cells to stimulate IL-6-dependent cancer cell invasiveness. Thus, in addition to orchestrating cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair, a novel and important role of the DDR is to allow damaged cells to communicate their compromised state to the surrounding tissue. PMID:19597488

  4. Abnormal interaction between the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 and hyperphosphorylated tau in Alzheimer's disease neurons: implications for mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Manczak, Maria; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2012-06-01

    We recently reported increased mitochondrial fission and decreased fusion, increased amyloid beta (Aβ) interaction with the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, increased mitochondrial fragmentation, impaired axonal transport of mitochondria and synaptic degeneration in neurons affected by AD. In the present study, we extended our previous investigations to determine whether phosphorylated tau interacts with Drp1 and to elucidate mitochondrial damage in the progression of AD. We also investigated GTPase activity, which is critical for mitochondrial fragmentation, in postmortem brain tissues from patients with AD and brain tissues from APP, APP/PS1 and 3XTg.AD mice. Using co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence analyses, for the first time, we demonstrated the physical interaction between phosphorylated tau and Drp1. Mitochondrial fission-linked GTPase activity was significantly elevated in the postmortem frontal cortex tissues from AD patients and cortical tissues from APP, APP/PS1 and 3XTg.AD mice. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that Drp1 interacts with Aβ and phosphorylated tau, likely leading to excessive mitochondrial fragmentation, and mitochondrial and synaptic deficiencies, ultimately possibly leading to neuronal damage and cognitive decline. Treatment designed to reduce the expression of Drp1, Aβ and/or phosphorylated tau may decrease the interaction between Drp1 and phosphorylated tau and the interaction between Drp1 and Aβ, conferring protection to neurons from toxic insults of excessive Drp1, Aβ and/or phosphorylated tau.

  5. Alveolar overdistension is an important mechanism of persistent lung damage following severe protracted ARDS.

    PubMed

    Finfer, S; Rocker, G

    1996-10-01

    It is now widely accepted that mechanical ventilation may damage the lung, but the mechanism of lung damage is not clear. Possible causes include overdistension of aerated alveoli by inappropriately large tidal volumes (volutrauma), shear stresses generated during the recruitment and de-recruitment of lung units at the junction of aerated and collapsed lung, and infective or ischaemic necrosis of persistently collapsed lung. Computerized tomography allows noninvasive assessment of lung structure during and after acute lung injury, and may provide insight into the mechanism of lung damage. Using serial high resolution computed tomography we documented lung structure one month after recovery from severe protracted adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in three patients who required mechanical ventilation for between 86 and 97 days; the computed tomograms were repeated at between 5 and 14 months. All three patients had persistent abnormalities of lung structure which were most marked in the anterior regions of the lung. These findings suggest that overdistension of non-dependent lung regions in the main mechanism of lung damage persisting after recovery from severe protracted ARDS.

  6. Defects associated with mitochondrial DNA damage can be mitigated by increased vacuolar pH in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Garipler, Görkem; Dunn, Cory D

    2013-05-01

    While searching for mutations that alleviate detrimental effects of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage, we found that disrupting vacuolar biogenesis permitted survival of a sensitized yeast background after mitochondrial genome loss. Furthermore, elevating vacuolar pH increases proliferation after mtDNA deletion and reverses the protein import defect of mitochondria lacking DNA.

  7. Defects Associated with Mitochondrial DNA Damage Can Be Mitigated by Increased Vacuolar pH in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Garipler, Görkem; Dunn, Cory D.

    2013-01-01

    While searching for mutations that alleviate detrimental effects of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage, we found that disrupting vacuolar biogenesis permitted survival of a sensitized yeast background after mitochondrial genome loss. Furthermore, elevating vacuolar pH increases proliferation after mtDNA deletion and reverses the protein import defect of mitochondria lacking DNA. PMID:23502676

  8. Peripheral Blood Mitochondrial DNA Damage as a Potential Noninvasive Biomarker of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Manish; Lillvis, John; Seyoum, Berhane; Kowluru, Renu A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the development of diabetic retinopathy, retinal mitochondria become dysfunctional, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is damaged. Because retinopathy is a progressive disease, and circulating glucose levels are high in diabetes, our aim was to investigate if peripheral blood mtDNA damage can serve as a potential biomarker of diabetic retinopathy. Methods Peripheral blood mtDNA damage was investigated by extended-length PCR in rats and mice, diabetic for 10 to 12 months (streptozotocin-induced, type 1 model), and in 12- and 40-week-old Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF, type 2). Mitochondrial copy number (in gDNA) and transcription (in cDNA) were quantified by qPCR. Similar parameters were measured in blood from diabetic patients with/without retinopathy. Results Peripheral blood from diabetic rodents had significantly increased mtDNA damage and decreased copy numbers and transcription. Lipoic acid administration in diabetic rats, or Sod2 overexpression or MMP-9 knockdown in mice, the therapies that prevent diabetic retinopathy, also ameliorated blood mtDNA damage and restored copy numbers and transcription. Although blood from 40-week-old ZDF rats had significant mtDNA damage, 12-week-old rats had normal mtDNA. Diabetic patients with retinopathy had increased blood mtDNA damage, and decreased transcription and copy numbers compared with diabetic patients without retinopathy and nondiabetic individuals. Conclusions Type 1 diabetic rodents with oxidative stress modulated by pharmacologic/genetic means, and type 2 animal model and patients with/without diabetic retinopathy, demonstrate a strong relation between peripheral blood mtDNA damage and diabetic retinopathy, and suggest the possibility of use of peripheral blood mtDNA as a noninvasive biomarker of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:27494345

  9. [Resveratrol attenuates oxidant-induced mitochondrial damage in embryonic rat cardiomyocytes via inactivating GSK-3β].

    PubMed

    He, Yong-gui; Sun, Yu-jie; Xie, Yu-xi; Zheng, Huan; Zhang, Yi-dong; Guo, Jing; Xi, Jin-kun

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the underlying mechanism of the protective effects of resveratrol on oxidant-induced mitochondrial damage in embryonic rat cardiomyocytes. H9c2 cells, a permanent cell line derived from embryonic rat cardiac tissue, and then randomly divided into control group [PBS, cells exposed to H2O2 (600 µmol/L) for 20 min to induce mitochondrial oxidant damage], resveratrol group (0.01, 0.1, 1, 5, 10 and 20 µmol/L for 20 min at 20 min before exposing to H2O2), resveratrol plus inhibitor group (1 µmol/L KT5823 for 10 min at 10 min before 5 µmol/L resveratrol treatment) and inhibitor group (1 µmol/L KT5823 for 10 min). Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was measured by staining cells with tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening was evaluated by measuring the decrease of TMRE fluorescence intensity. Immunofluorescence assay was used to observe GSK-3β phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of GSK-3β and VASP were determined by Western blot. To detect intracellular NO, cells were loaded with DAF-FM DA (specific fluorescent dye of NO) and imaged with confocal microscopy. Compared to the control group, resveratrol (0.01-5 µmol/L) attenuated H2O2-induced mitochondrial damage reflected by attenuating the H2O2-induced TMRE fluorescence intensity decrease in a dose-dependent manner and the efficacy of 10 and 20 µmol/L resveratrol was significantly lower than that of 5 µmol/L resveratrol. Resveratrol also significantly upregulated the protein expression of VASP and increased GSK-3β Ser(9) phosphorylation, which could lead the inactivation of GSK-3β. These effects of resveratrol could be significantly abolished by protein kinase G inhibitor KT5823, while KT5823 alone did not affect GSK-3β and VASP phosphorylation. Confocal microscopy showed that DAF-FM (specific NO indicator) was similar between resveratrol and control group, suggesting that resveratrol did not produce NO. Resveratrol could

  10. Copper sulfate pretreatment prevents mitochondrial electron transport chain damage and apoptosis against MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Osornio, Moisés; Orozco-Ibarra, Marisol; Díaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Brambila, Eduardo; Boll, Marie-Catherine; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio; Guevara, Jorge; Montes, Sergio; Ríos, Camilo

    2017-06-01

    Intrastriatal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) is considered a model to reproduce some biochemical alterations observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Among those alterations, inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity, increased free radical production and reduced antioxidant responses have been reported. Copper (Cu) plays an important role in the metabolism and antioxidative responses through its participation as a cofactor in the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme (COX), Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), and metallothioneins. We tested the effect of copper sulfate (CuSO4) pretreatment on the mitochondrial electron transport chain (METC) in the striatum after MPP(+) toxicity in rats. The results showed that the MPP(+) intrastriatal injection reduced mitochondrial complex I, II, IV and V activities; while 10 μmol of CuSO4 pretreatment counteracted this damage. Activities of complexes I, II and IV, were coincident with ATP recovery. Moreover, Cu/Zn-SOD activity was reduced as a consequence of MPP(+) damage; however, copper pre-treatment kept the striatal Cu/Zn-SOD activity unchanged in MPP(+)-damaged animals. We observed that MPP(+) also reduced the metallothionein (MT) content and that CuSO4 pretreatment maintained baseline values. CuSO4 pretreatment also reduced the striatal caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities that were increased three days after MPP(+)-induced damage. The present study provided evidence that copper pretreatment reduced MPP(+)-induced apoptotic damage, probably through direct action on copper-dependent proteins or indirectly on proteins in the apoptotic pathway. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. SIRT3 blocks myofibroblast differentiation and pulmonary fibrosis by preventing mitochondrial DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Bindu, Samik; Pillai, Vinodkumar B; Kanwal, Abhinav; Samant, Sadhana; Mutlu, Gökhan M; Verdin, Eric; Dulin, Nickolai; Gupta, Mahesh P

    2017-01-01

    Myofibroblast differentiation is a key process in the pathogenesis of fibrotic diseases. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a powerful inducer of myofibroblast differentiation and is implicated in pathogenesis of tissue fibrosis. This study was undertaken to determine the role of mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 in TGF-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation in vitro and lung fibrosis in vivo. Treatment of human lung fibroblasts with TGF-β1 resulted in increased expression of fibrosis markers, smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA), collagen-1, and fibronectin. TGF-β1 treatment also caused depletion of endogenous SIRT3, which paralleled with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, and subsequent reduction in levels of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), an enzyme that hydrolyzes oxidized guanine (8-oxo-dG) and thus protects DNA from oxidative damage. Overexpression of SIRT3 by adenovirus-mediated transduction reversed the effects of TGF-β1 on ROS production and mitochondrial DNA damage and inhibited TGF-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation. To determine the antifibrotic role of SIRT3 in vivo, we used the bleomycin-induced mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis. Compared with wild-type controls, Sirt3-knockout mice showed exacerbated fibrosis after intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. Increased lung fibrosis was associated with decreased levels of OGG1 and concomitant accumulation of 8-oxo-dG and increased mitochondrial DNA damage. In contrast, the transgenic mice with whole body Sirt3 overexpression were protected from bleomycin-induced mtDNA damage and development of lung fibrosis. These data demonstrate a critical role of SIRT3 in the control of myofibroblast differentiation and lung fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Oxidative Stress Induces Persistent Telomeric DNA Damage Responsible for Nuclear Morphology Change in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Coluzzi, Elisa; Colamartino, Monica; Cozzi, Renata; Leone, Stefano; Meneghini, Carlo; O’Callaghan, Nathan; Sgura, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    One main function of telomeres is to maintain chromosome and genome stability. The rate of telomere shortening can be accelerated significantly by chemical and physical environmental agents. Reactive oxygen species are a source of oxidative stress and can produce modified bases (mainly 8-oxoG) and single strand breaks anywhere in the genome. The high incidence of guanine residues in telomeric DNA sequences makes the telomere a preferred target for oxidative damage. Our aim in this work is to evaluate whether chromosome instability induced by oxidative stress is related specifically to telomeric damage. We treated human primary fibroblasts (MRC-5) in vitro with hydrogen peroxide (100 and 200 µM) for 1 hr and collected data at several time points. To evaluate the persistence of oxidative stress-induced DNA damage up to 24 hrs after treatment, we analysed telomeric and genomic oxidative damage by qPCR and a modified comet assay, respectively. The results demonstrate that the genomic damage is completely repaired, while the telomeric oxidative damage persists. The analysis of telomere length reveals a significant telomere shortening 48 hrs after treatment, leading us to hypothesise that residual telomere damage could be responsible for the telomere shortening observed. Considering the influence of telomere length modulation on genomic stability, we quantified abnormal nuclear morphologies (Nucleoplasmic Bridges, Nuclear Buds and Micronuclei) and observed an increase of chromosome instability in the same time frame as telomere shortening. At subsequent times (72 and 96 hrs), we observed a restoration of telomere length and a reduction of chromosome instability, leaving us to conjecture a correlation between telomere shortening/dysfunction and chromosome instability. We can conclude that oxidative base damage leads to abnormal nuclear morphologies and that telomere dysfunction is an important contributor to this effect. PMID:25354277

  13. Profiling mitochondrial proteins in radiation-induced genome-unstable cell lines with persistent oxidative stress by mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John H.; Jin, Shuangshuang; Morgan, William F.; Yang, Austin; Wan, Yunhu; Aypar, Umut; Peters, Jonathan S.; Springer, David L.

    2008-06-01

    Radiation-induced genome instability (RIGI) is a response to radiation exposure in which the progeny of surviving cells exhibit increased frequency of chromosomal changes many generations after the initial insult. Persistently elevated oxidative stress accompanying RIGI and the ability of free-radical scavengers, given before irradiation, to reduce the incidence of instability suggest that radiation induced alterations to mitochondrial function likely play a role in RIGI. To further elucidate this mechanism, we performed high-throughput quantitative mass spectrometry on samples enriched in mitochondrial proteins from three chromosomally-unstable GM10115 Chinese-hamster-ovary cell lines and their stable parental cell line. Out of several hundred identified proteins, sufficient data were collected on 74 mitochondrial proteins to test for statistically significant differences in their abundance between unstable and stable cell lines. Each of the unstable cell lines showed a distinct profile of statistically-significant differential abundant mitochondrial proteins. The LS-12 cell line was characterized by 8 downregulated proteins, whereas the CS-9 cell line exhibited 5 distinct up-regulated proteins. The unstable 115 cell line had two down-regulated proteins, one of which was also downregulated in LS-12, and one up-regulated protein relative to stable parental cells. The mitochondrial protein profiles for LS-12 and C-9 provide further evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the genome instability of these cell lines.

  14. Mitochondrial Peroxiredoxin-3 protects against hyperglycemia induced myocardial damage in Diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Arkat, Silpa; Umbarkar, Prachi; Singh, Sarojini; Sitasawad, Sandhya L

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress has emerged as a key contributor towards the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Peroxiredoxin-3 (Prx-3), a mitochondrial antioxidant, scavenges H2O2 and offers protection against ROS related pathologies. We observed a decrease in the expression of Prx-3 in the hearts of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats, and also high glucose treated H9c2 cardiac cells, which may augment oxidative stress mediated damage. Hence we hypothesized that overexpression of Prx-3 could prevent the cardiac damage associated with diabetes. In this study we used quercetin (QUE) to achieve Prx-3 induction in vivo, while a Prx-3 overexpressing H9c2 cell line was employed for carrying out in vitro studies. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Quercetin (50mg/kg body weight) was delivered orally to hyperglycemic and age matched control rats for 2 months. Quercetin treatment induced the myocardial expression of Prx-3 but not Prx-5 both in control and STZ rats. Prx-3 induction by quercetin prevented diabetes induced oxidative stress as confirmed by decrease in expression of markers such as 4-HNE and mitochondrial uncoupling protein, UCP-3. It was also successful in reducing cardiac cell apoptosis, hypertrophy and fibrosis leading to amelioration of cardiac contractility defects. Overexpression of Prx-3 in cultured H9c2 cardiac cells could significantly diminish high glucose inflicted mitochondrial oxidative damage and apoptosis, thus strengthening our hypothesis. These results suggest that diabetes induced cardiomyopathy can be prevented by elevating Prx-3 levels thereby providing extensive protection to the diabetic heart.

  15. Desmin loss and mitochondrial damage precede left ventricular systolic failure in volume overload heart failure.

    PubMed

    Guichard, Jason L; Rogowski, Michael; Agnetti, Giulio; Fu, Lianwu; Powell, Pamela; Wei, Chih-Chang; Collawn, James; Dell'Italia, Louis J

    2017-07-01

    architecture throughout the progression of volume overload heart failure, suggesting a causal link between desmin cleavage and mitochondrial disorganization and damage.

  16. Naringin protects memory impairment and mitochondrial oxidative damage against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Atish; Shur, Bhargabi; Kumar, Anil

    2013-09-01

    Aluminum has been indicated in neurodegenerative disorders and naringin, a bioflavonoid has been used to reduce neurotoxic effects of aluminum against aluminum chloride-induced rats. Therefore, present study has been designed to explore the possible role of naringin against aluminum-induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage in rats. Aluminum (100 mg/kg) and naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg) drug treatment were administered orally for six weeks to male wistar rats. Various behavioral performance tasks, biochemical, mitochondrial oxidative parameters, and aluminum concentration in the brain were assessed. Aluminum chloride treatment significantly caused cognitive dysfunction and mitochondria oxidative damage as compared to vehicle treated control group. Besides, aluminum chloride treatment significantly increased acetyl cholinesterase activity and aluminum concentration in the brain as compared to sham. Chronic administration of naringin significantly improved cognitive performance and attenuated mitochondria oxidative damage, acetyl cholinesterase activity, and aluminum concentration in aluminum-treated rats as compared to control rats. Results of the study demonstrate neuroprotective potential of naringin against aluminum chloride-induced cognitive dysfunction and mitochondrial oxidative damage.

  17. Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA in primary cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shangcheng; Zhou, Zhou; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zhengping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Xubu; Li, Maoquan; Chen, Yang; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Zhang, Guangbin; Zhong, Min

    2010-01-22

    Increasing evidence indicates that oxidative stress may be involved in the adverse effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation on the brain. Because mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects are closely associated with various nervous system diseases and mtDNA is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress, the purpose of this study was to determine whether radiofrequency radiation can cause oxidative damage to mtDNA. In this study, we exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to pulsed RF electromagnetic fields at a frequency of 1800 MHz modulated by 217 Hz at an average special absorption rate (SAR) of 2 W/kg. At 24 h after exposure, we found that RF radiation induced a significant increase in the levels of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OHdG), a common biomarker of DNA oxidative damage, in the mitochondria of neurons. Concomitant with this finding, the copy number of mtDNA and the levels of mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) transcripts showed an obvious reduction after RF exposure. Each of these mtDNA disturbances could be reversed by pretreatment with melatonin, which is known to be an efficient antioxidant in the brain. Together, these results suggested that 1800 MHz RF radiation could cause oxidative damage to mtDNA in primary cultured neurons. Oxidative damage to mtDNA may account for the neurotoxicity of RF radiation in the brain.

  18. Persistent bloodstream infection with Kocuria rhizophila related to a damaged central catheter.

    PubMed

    Moissenet, Didier; Becker, Karsten; Mérens, Audrey; Ferroni, Agnès; Dubern, Béatrice; Vu-Thien, Hoang

    2012-04-01

    A case of persistent bloodstream infection with Kocuria rhizophila related to a damaged central venous catheter in a 3-year-old girl with Hirschsprung's disease is reported. The strain was identified as K. rhizophila by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Arbitrarily primed PCR analysis showed a clonal strain. The repeated septic episodes were resolved with the catheter repair.

  19. Determination of the Action Spectrum of UVR-Induced Mitochondrial DNA Damage in Human Skin Cells.

    PubMed

    Latimer, Jennifer A; Lloyd, James J; Diffey, Brian L; Matts, Paul J; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2015-10-01

    Biological responses of human skin to UVR including cancer and aging are largely wavelength-dependent, as shown by the action spectra of UVR-induced erythema and nuclear DNA (nDNA) damage. A molecular dosimeter of UVR exposure is therefore required. Although mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage has been shown to be a reliable and sensitive biomarker of UVR exposure in human skin, its wavelength dependency is unknown. The current study solves this problem by determining the action spectrum of UVR-induced mtDNA damage in human skin. Human neonatal dermal fibroblasts and primary human adult keratinocyte cells were irradiated with increasing doses of UVR. Dose-response curves of mtDNA damage were produced for each of the UVR sources and cell types, and an action spectrum for each cell type was determined by mathematical induction. Similarities between these mtDNA damage action spectra and previously determined nDNA damage were observed, with the most detrimental effects occurring over the shorter UVR wavelengths. Notably, a statistically significant (P<0.0001) greater sensitivity to mtDNA damage was observed in dermal fibroblasts compared with keratinocytes at wavelengths >300 nm, possibly indicating a wider picture of depth dependence in sensitivity. This finding has implications for disease/photodamage mechanisms and interventions.

  20. Nitric oxide-mediated mitochondrial damage in the brain: mechanisms and implications for neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, J P; Almeida, A; Stewart, V; Peuchen, S; Land, J M; Clark, J B; Heales, S J

    1997-06-01

    Within the CNS and under normal conditions, nitric oxide (.NO) appears to be an important physiological signalling molecule. Its ability to increase cyclic GMP concentration suggests that .NO is implicated in the regulation of important metabolic pathways in the brain. Under certain circumstances .NO synthesis may be excessive and .NO may become neurotoxic. Excessive glutamate-receptor stimulation may lead to neuronal death through a mechanism implicating synthesis of both .NO and superoxide (O2.-) and hence peroxynitrite (ONOO-) formation. In response to lipopolysaccharide and cytokines, glial cells may also be induced to synthesize large amounts of .NO, which may be deleterious to the neighbouring neurones and oligodendrocytes. The precise mechanism of .NO neurotoxicity is not fully understood. One possibility is that it may involve neuronal energy deficiency. This may occur by ONOO- interfering with key enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial respiratory chain, mitochondrial calcium metabolism, or DNA damage with subsequent activation of the energy-consuming pathway involving poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase. Possible mechanisms whereby ONOO- impairs the mitochondrial respiratory chain and the relevance for neurotoxicity are discussed. The intracellular content of reduced glutathione also appears important in determining the sensitivity of cells to ONOO- production. It is concluded that neurotoxicity elicited by excessive .NO production may be mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction leading to an energy deficiency state.

  1. Mitochondrial and DNA damage in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Sun; Bae, Hyo-Kyung; Cheong, Hee-Tae

    2013-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent mitochondrial and DNA damage in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos were examined. Bovine enucleated oocytes were electrofused with donor cells and then activated by a combination of Ca-ionophore and 6-dimethylaminopurine culture. The H2O2 and ˙OH radical levels, mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential (ΔΨ), and DNA fragmentation of SCNT and in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos at the zygote stage were analyzed. The H2O2 (35.6 ± 1.1 pixels/embryo) and ˙OH radical levels (44.6 ± 1.2 pixels/embryo) of SCNT embryos were significantly higher than those of IVF embryos (19.2 ± 1.5 and 23.8 ± 1.8 pixels/embryo, respectively, p < 0.05). The mitochondria morphology of SCNT embryos was diffused within the cytoplasm. The ΔΨ of SCNT embryos was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of IVF embryos (0.95 ± 0.04 vs. 1.21 ± 0.06, red/green). Moreover, the comet tail length of SCNT embryos was longer than that of IVF embryos (515.5 ± 26.4 μm vs. 425.6 ± 25.0 μm, p < 0.05). These results indicate that mitochondrial and DNA damage increased in bovine SCNT embryos, which may have been induced by increased ROS levels.

  2. Nickel(II)-induced nasal epithelial toxicity and oxidative mitochondrial damage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Lim, Soo-Sung; Baek, Byoung Joon; An, Je-Min; Nam, Hae-Seon; Woo, Kee-Min; Cho, Moon-Kyun; Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Han

    2016-03-01

    In probing the underlying mechanisms of nickel(II)-induced cytotoxicity on nasal epithelium, we investigated the effects of nickel(II) acetate on nasal epithelial RPMI-2650 cells. Nickel(II) elicited apoptosis, as signified by pyknotic and fragmented nuclei, increased caspase-3/7 activity, and an increase in annexin V binding, hypodiploid DNA, and Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio. Nickel(II)-induced G2/M arrest was associated with up-regulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression, decrease in phosphorylation at Thr(161) of Cdc2, and down-regulation of cyclin B1. Associated with these responses, ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization increased in a nickel(II) concentration-dependent fashion. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) attenuated these changes. p53 reporter gene assay and analyses of p53, Puma, Bax, and Bcl-2 protein levels indicated that NAC inhibited nickel(II)-induced activation of p53-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Collectively, our study provides evidences that nickel(II) may induce oxidative damage on nasal epithelium in which antioxidant NAC protects cells against nickel(II)-induced apoptosis through the prevention of oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial damage.

  3. Method for assessing damage to mitochondrial DNA caused by radiation and epichlorohydrin

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.; Hauswirth, W.W.; Ross, W.E.; Neims, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a rapid and reliable method for quantification of damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), especially strand breaks. The degree of damage to mtDNA is assessed by the proportion of physical forms (i.e., supercoiled versus open-circular and linear forms) upon agarose gel electrophoresis, blotting, and visualization by hybridization with (/sup 32/P)mtDNA probes. The use of a radiolabeled probe is a crucial step in the procedure because it provides both a means to quantify by radioautography and to obtain the mtDNA specificity required to eliminate misinterpretation due to nuclear DNA contamination. To demonstrate the utility of this technique, X-irradiation and epichlorohydrin are shown to damage both isolated mtDNA and mtDNA in whole cells in a dose-dependent fashion.

  4. Persistence of DNA damage following exposure of human bladder cells to chronic monomethylarsonous acid

    PubMed Central

    Wnek, S.M.; Medeiros, M.K.; Eblin, K.E.; Gandolfi, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Malignant transformation was demonstrated in UROtsa cells following 52 wk exposure to 50 nM monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII); the result was the malignantly transformed cell line, URO-MSC. URO-MSC cells were used to study the induction of DNA damage and the alteration of DNA repair enzymes in both the presence of MMAIII [URO-MSC(+)] and after subsequent removal of MMAIII [URO-MSC(-)] following chronic, low-level exposure. In the presence of MMAIII, URO-MSC(+) cells demonstrated a sustained increase in DNA damage following 12 wk exposure; in particular, a significant increase in DNA single strand breaks at 12 wk exposure consistently elevated through 52 wk. The persistence of DNA damage in URO-MSC cells was assessed after a 2 wk removal of MMAIII. URO-MSC(-) cells demonstrated a decrease in DNA damage compared to URO-MSC(+); however, DNA damage in URO-MSC(-) remained significantly elevated when compared to untreated UROtsa and increased in a time-dependent manner. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were demonstrated to be a critical component in the generation of DNA damage determined through the incubation of ROS scavengers with URO-MSC cells. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a key repair enzyme in DNA single strand break repair. URO-MSC(+) resulted in a slight increase in PARP activity after 36 wk MMAIII exposure, suggesting the presence of MMAIII is inhibiting the increase in PARP activity. In support, PARP activity in URO-MSC(-) increased significantly, coinciding with a subsequent decrease in DNA damage demonstrated in URO-MSC(-) compared to URO-MSC(+). These data demonstrate that chronic, low-level exposure of UROtsa cells to 50 nM MMAIII results in: the induction of DNA damage that remains elevated upon removal of MMAIII; increased levels of ROS that play a role in MMAIII induced-DNA damage; and decreased PARP activity in the presence of MMAIII. PMID:19699219

  5. Shock-induced damage to mitochondrial function and some cellular antioxidant mechanisms in humans.

    PubMed

    Corbucci, G G; Gasparetto, A; Candiani, A; Crimi, G; Antonelli, M; Bufi, M; De Blasi, R A; Cooper, M B; Gohil, K

    1985-01-01

    The effects of circulatory shock on skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative activity in various substrates and cytochrome oxidase activity have been investigated using samples of muscle obtained by the needle biopsy technique from human subjects. The effect of shock on superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione content of skeletal muscle was also examined. The results show that there is a large decrease in cytochrome oxidase activity during shock and also in the capacity of the mitochondria to oxidize either succinate, or pyruvate, or palmitoyl carnitine. There is a fall in the tissue content of superoxide dismutase and in the total glutathione present. Furthermore, an increased oxidized glutathione content causes a decrease in the molar ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione present in the muscle. These findings suggest that mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) oxidative damage can play a relevant role in the pathogenesis of circulatory shock and support the hypothesis of oxygen-free radical involvement in the cellular injury.

  6. Diazoxide prevents reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial damage, leading to anti-hypertrophic effects.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Aline M; Caldas, Francisco R; da Silva, Amanda P; Ventura, Maximiano M; Leite, Iago M; Filgueiras, Ana B; Silva, Claúdio G L; Kowaltowski, Alicia J; Facundo, Heberty T

    2017-01-05

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by wall thickening or chamber enlargement of the heart in response to pressure or volume overload, respectively. This condition will, initially, improve the organ contractile function, but if sustained will render dysfunctional mitochondria and oxidative stress. Mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (mitoKATP) modulate the redox status of the cell and protect against several cardiac insults. Here, we tested the hypothesis that mitoKATP opening (using diazoxide) will avoid isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo by decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial Ca(2+)-induced swelling. To induce cardiac hypertrophy, Swiss mice were treated intraperitoneally with isoproterenol (30 mg/kg/day) for 8 days. Diazoxide (5 mg/kg/day) was used to open mitoKATP and 5-hydroxydecanoate (5 mg/kg/day) was administrated as a mitoKATP blocker. Isoproterenol-treated mice had elevated heart weight/tibia length ratios and increased myocyte cross-sectional areas. Additionally, hypertrophic hearts produced higher levels of H2O2 and had lower glutathione peroxidase activity. In contrast, mitoKATP opening with diazoxide blocked all isoproterenol effects in a manner reversed by 5-hydroxydecanoate. Isolated mitochondria from Isoproterenol-induced hypertrophic hearts had increased susceptibility to Ca(2+)-induced swelling secondary to mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. MitokATP opening was accompanied by lower Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling, an effect blocked by 5-hydroxydecanoate. Our results suggest that mitoKATP opening negatively regulates cardiac hypertrophy by avoiding oxidative impairment and mitochondrial damage.

  7. Joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and cadmium on the oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming-Yuan; Wang, Pan; Sun, Ying-Jian; Yang, Lin; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2017-05-01

    Pesticides and heavy metals can be easily biomagnified in food chains and bioaccumulated in individuals, thus pose significant threat to human health. However, their joint toxicity for long-term exposure at low dose has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we investigated the oxidative damages in brain of rats exposed subchronically to organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and heavy metal cadmium (Cd), and their mixtures at the environmentally relevant doses. Rats were given different doses of CPF and Cd by oral gavage for three months. After treatment, brain tissues were subjected for biochemical analysis. Mitochondrial damage and reactive oxidative species were also measured in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with CPF, Cd and their mixtures. The results showed that CPF and Cd generated protein and lipid peroxidation, disturbed the total antioxidant capability, and altered mitochondria ultrastructure in the brain. Lipids and proteins were sensitive to the oxidative damage induced by CPF and Cd. CPF and Cd decreased mitochondrial potential and induced reactive oxygen species in SH-SY5Y cells. However, the mixture did not display higher toxicity than the sum of that of the individual treatments. Thus, CPF and Cd could have a potential antagonistic interaction on the induction of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxidative damage of DNA induced by X-irradiation decreases the uterine endometrial receptivity which involves mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Liang, Jin-Xiao; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Chang; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Yan, Qiu

    2015-01-01

    X irradiation may lead to female infertility and the mechanism is still not clear. After X irradiation exposure, significantly morphological changes and functional decline in endometrial epithelial cells were observed. The mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction and oxidative DNA damage were noticed after X irradiation. In addition, pretreatment with NAC, NH4Cl or Pep A reduced the X irradiation induced damages. These studies demonstrate that the oxidative DNA damage which involved dysfunctional lysosomal and mitochondrial contribute to X irradiation-induced impaired receptive state of uterine endometrium and proper protective reagents can be helpful in improving endometrial function. PMID:26064230

  9. Oxidative damage of DNA induced by X-irradiation decreases the uterine endometrial receptivity which involves mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Liang, Jin-Xiao; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Chang; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Yan, Qiu

    2015-01-01

    X irradiation may lead to female infertility and the mechanism is still not clear. After X irradiation exposure, significantly morphological changes and functional decline in endometrial epithelial cells were observed. The mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction and oxidative DNA damage were noticed after X irradiation. In addition, pretreatment with NAC, NH4Cl or Pep A reduced the X irradiation induced damages. These studies demonstrate that the oxidative DNA damage which involved dysfunctional lysosomal and mitochondrial contribute to X irradiation-induced impaired receptive state of uterine endometrium and proper protective reagents can be helpful in improving endometrial function.

  10. Differential Effect of Endurance Training on Mitochondrial Protein Damage, Degradation, and Acetylation in the Context of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew L.; Irving, Brian A.; Lanza, Ian R.; Vendelbo, Mikkel H.; Konopka, Adam R.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Henderson, Gregory C.; Klaus, Katherine A.; Morse, Dawn M.; Heppelmann, Carrie; Bergen, H. Robert; Dasari, Surendra; Schimke, Jill M.; Jakaitis, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Acute aerobic exercise increases reactive oxygen species and could potentially damage proteins, but exercise training (ET) enhances mitochondrial respiration irrespective of age. Here, we report a differential impact of ET on protein quality in young and older participants. Using mass spectrometry we measured oxidative damage to skeletal muscle proteins before and after 8 weeks of ET and find that young but not older participants reduced oxidative damage to both total skeletal muscle and mitochondrial proteins. Young participants showed higher total and mitochondrial derived semitryptic peptides and 26S proteasome activity indicating increased protein degradation. ET however, increased the activity of the endogenous antioxidants in older participants. ET also increased skeletal muscle content of the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 in both groups. A reduction in the acetylation of isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 was observed following ET that may counteract the effect of acute oxidative stress. In conclusion aging is associated with an inability to improve skeletal muscle and mitochondrial protein quality in response to ET by increasing degradation of damaged proteins. ET does however increase muscle and mitochondrial antioxidant capacity in older individuals, which provides increased buffering from the acute oxidative effects of exercise. PMID:25504576

  11. Dimethyl sulfoxide damages mitochondrial integrity and membrane potential in cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chan; Gao, Junying; Guo, Jichao; Bai, Lei; Marshall, Charles; Cai, Zhiyou; Wang, Linmei; Xiao, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a polar organic solvent that is used to dissolve neuroprotective or neurotoxic agents in neuroscience research. However, DMSO itself also has pharmacological and pathological effects on the nervous system. Astrocytes play a central role in maintaining brain homeostasis, but the effect and mechanism of DMSO on astrocytes has not been studied. The present study showed that exposure of astrocyte cultures to 1% DMSO for 24 h did not significantly affect cell survival, but decreased cell viability and glial glutamate transporter expression, and caused mitochondrial swelling, membrane potential impairment and reactive oxygen species production, and subsequent cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. DMSO at concentrations of 5% significantly inhibited cell variability and promoted apoptosis of astrocytes, accompanied with more severe mitochondrial damage. These results suggest that mitochondrial impairment is a primary event in DMSO-induced astrocyte toxicity. The potential cytotoxic effects on astrocytes need to be carefully considered during investigating neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects of hydrophobic agents dissolved by DMSO.

  12. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Damages Mitochondrial Integrity and Membrane Potential in Cultured Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chan; Gao, Junying; Guo, Jichao; Bai, Lei; Marshall, Charles; Cai, Zhiyou; Wang, Linmei; Xiao, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a polar organic solvent that is used to dissolve neuroprotective or neurotoxic agents in neuroscience research. However, DMSO itself also has pharmacological and pathological effects on the nervous system. Astrocytes play a central role in maintaining brain homeostasis, but the effect and mechanism of DMSO on astrocytes has not been studied. The present study showed that exposure of astrocyte cultures to 1% DMSO for 24 h did not significantly affect cell survival, but decreased cell viability and glial glutamate transporter expression, and caused mitochondrial swelling, membrane potential impairment and reactive oxygen species production, and subsequent cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. DMSO at concentrations of 5% significantly inhibited cell variability and promoted apoptosis of astrocytes, accompanied with more severe mitochondrial damage. These results suggest that mitochondrial impairment is a primary event in DMSO-induced astrocyte toxicity. The potential cytotoxic effects on astrocytes need to be carefully considered during investigating neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects of hydrophobic agents dissolved by DMSO. PMID:25238609

  13. Elimination of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy reduces mitochondrial oxidative stress and increases tolerance to trichothecenes.

    PubMed

    Bin-Umer, Mohamed Anwar; McLaughlin, John E; Butterly, Matthew S; McCormick, Susan; Tumer, Nilgun E

    2014-08-12

    Trichothecene mycotoxins are natural contaminants of small grain cereals and are encountered in the environment, posing a worldwide threat to human and animal health. Their mechanism of toxicity is poorly understood, and little is known about cellular protection mechanisms against trichothecenes. We previously identified inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis as a novel mechanism for trichothecene-induced cell death. To identify cellular functions involved in trichothecene resistance, we screened the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion library for increased sensitivity to nonlethal concentrations of trichothecin (Tcin) and identified 121 strains exhibiting higher sensitivity than the parental strain. The largest group of sensitive strains had significantly higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels relative to the parental strain. A dose-dependent increase in ROS levels was observed in the parental strain treated with different trichothecenes, but not in a petite version of the parental strain or in the presence of a mitochondrial membrane uncoupler, indicating that mitochondria are the main site of ROS production due to toxin exposure. Cytotoxicity of trichothecenes was alleviated after treatment of the parental strain and highly sensitive mutants with antioxidants, suggesting that oxidative stress contributes to trichothecene sensitivity. Cotreatment with rapamycin and trichothecenes reduced ROS levels and cytotoxicity in the parental strain relative to the trichothecene treatment alone, but not in mitophagy deficient mutants, suggesting that elimination of trichothecene-damaged mitochondria by mitophagy improves cell survival. These results reveal that increased mitophagy is a cellular protection mechanism against trichothecene-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and a potential target for trichothecene resistance.

  14. Modulation of mitochondrial function and autophagy mediates carnosine neuroprotection against ischemic brain damage.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung-Hoon; Noh, Ah Reum; Kim, Kyeong-A; Akram, Muhammad; Shin, Young-Jun; Kim, Eun-Sun; Yu, Seong Woon; Majid, Arshad; Bae, Ok-Nam

    2014-08-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing global burden of ischemic stroke, no therapeutic options for neuroprotection against stroke currently exist. Recent studies have shown that autophagy plays a key role in ischemic neuronal death, and treatments that target autophagy may represent a novel strategy in neuroprotection. We investigated whether autophagy is regulated by carnosine, an endogenous pleiotropic dipeptide that has robust neuroprotective activity against ischemic brain damage. We examined the effect of carnosine on mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic processes in rat focal ischemia and in neuronal cultures. Autophagic pathways such as reduction of phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6K and the conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-I to LC3-II were enhanced in the ischemic brain. However, treatment with carnosine significantly attenuated autophagic signaling in the ischemic brain, with improvement of brain mitochondrial function and mitophagy signaling. The protective effect of carnosine against autophagy was also confirmed in primary cortical neurons. Taken together, our data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of carnosine is at least partially mediated by mitochondrial protection and attenuation of deleterious autophagic processes. Our findings shed new light on the mechanistic pathways that this exciting neuroprotective agent influences. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Antioxidant properties of Neu2000 on mitochondrial free radicals and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Visavadiya, Nishant P; McEwen, Melanie L; Pandya, Jignesh D; Sullivan, Patrick G; Gwag, Byoung Joo; Springer, Joe E

    2013-03-01

    Neu2000 [2-hydroxy-5-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4 trifluoromethylbenzylamino) benzoic acid] is a dual-acting neuroprotective agent that functions both as a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist and a free radical scavenger. In the present study, we investigated the scavenging activity of Neu2000 on various classes of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) as well as its efficacy for reducing free radicals and oxidative stress/damage induced in spinal cord mitochondrial preparations. Neu2000 exerted scavenging activity against superoxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals, and efficiently scavenged peroxynitrite. In the mitochondrial studies, Neu2000 markedly inhibited ROS/RNS and hydrogen peroxide levels following antimycin treatment. In addition, Neu2000 effectively scavenged hydroxyl radicals generated by iron(III)-ascorbate, reduced protein carbonyl formation mediated by hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite, and prevented glutathione oxidation caused by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in isolated mitochondria. Interestingly, incubation of isolated mitochondria with Neu2000 followed by centrifugation and removal of the supernatant also resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in lipid peroxidation. This observation suggests that Neu2000 enters mitochondria to target free radicals or indirectly affects mitochondrial function in a manner that promotes antioxidant activity. The results of the present study demonstrate that Neu2000 possesses potent in vitro antioxidant activity due, most likely, to its active phenoxy group.

  16. Modulation of mitochondrial function and autophagy mediates carnosine neuroprotection against ischemic brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyeong-A; Akram, Muhammad; Shin, Young-Jun; Kim, Eun-Sun; Yu, Seong Woon; Majid, Arshad; Bae, Ok-Nam

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Despite the rapidly increasing global burden of ischemic stroke, no therapeutic options for neuroprotection against stroke currently exist. Recent studies have shown that autophagy plays a key role in ischemic neuronal death and treatments that target autophagy may represent a novel strategy in neuroprotection. We investigated whether autophagy is regulated by carnosine, an endogenous pleiotropic dipeptide which has robust neuroprotective activity against ischemic brain damage. Methods We examined the effect of carnosine on mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic processes in rat focal ischemia and in neuronal cultures. Results Autophagic pathways such as reduction of phosphorylated mTOR/p70S6K and the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II were enhanced in the ischemic brain. However, treatment with carnosine significantly attenuated autophagic signaling in the ischemic brain, with improvement of brain mitochondrial function and mitophagy signaling. The protective effect of carnosine against autophagy was also confirmed in primary cortical neurons. Conclusion Taken together, our data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of carnosine is at least partially mediated by mitochondrial protection, and attenuation of deleterious autophagic processes. Our findings shed new light on the mechanistic pathways that this exciting neuroprotective agent influences. PMID:24938837

  17. Salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiuqiang; Liou, Liang-Chun; Ren, Qun; Bao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhaojie

    2014-03-03

    The yeast cell wall plays an important role in maintaining cell morphology, cell integrity and response to environmental stresses. Here, we report that salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA (ρ(0)). Upon salt treatment, the cell wall is thickened, broken and becomes more sensitive to the cell wall-perturbing agent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Also, SCW11 mRNA levels are elevated in ρ(0) cells. Deletion of SCW11 significantly decreases the sensitivity of ρ(0) cells to SDS after salt treatment, while overexpression of SCW11 results in higher sensitivity. In addition, salt stress in ρ(0) cells induces high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which further damages the cell wall, causing cells to become more sensitive towards the cell wall-perturbing agent.

  18. Salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qiuqiang; Liou, Liang-Chun; Ren, Qun; Bao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhaojie

    2014-01-01

    The yeast cell wall plays an important role in maintaining cell morphology, cell integrity and response to environmental stresses. Here, we report that salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA (ρ0). Upon salt treatment, the cell wall is thickened, broken and becomes more sensitive to the cell wall-perturbing agent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Also, SCW11 mRNA levels are elevated in ρ0 cells. Deletion of SCW11 significantly decreases the sensitivity of ρ0 cells to SDS after salt treatment, while overexpression of SCW11 results in higher sensitivity. In addition, salt stress in ρ0 cells induces high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which further damages the cell wall, causing cells to become more sensitive towards the cell wall-perturbing agent. PMID:28357227

  19. p38 MAPK inhibits nonsense-mediated RNA decay in response to persistent DNA damage in noncycling cells.

    PubMed

    Nickless, Andrew; Cheruiyot, Abigael; Flanagan, Kevin C; Piwnica-Worms, David; Stewart, Sheila A; You, Zhongsheng

    2017-09-15

    Persistent DNA damage induces profound alterations in gene expression that, in turn, influence tissue homeostasis, tumorigenesis, and cancer treatment outcome. However, the underlying mechanism for gene expression reprogramming induced by persistent DNA damage remains poorly understood. Here, using a highly effective bioluminescence-based reporter system and other tools, we report that persistent DNA damage inhibits nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD), an RNA surveillance and gene-regulatory pathway, in noncycling cells. NMD suppression by persistent DNA damage required the activity of the p38α MAPK. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), an NMD target and a key stress-inducible transcription factor, was stabilized in a p38α- and NMD-dependent manner following persistent DNA damage. Our results reveal a novel p38α-dependent pathway that regulates NMD activity in response to persistent DNA damage, which, in turn, controls ATF3 expression in affected cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Bmi1 regulates mitochondrial function and the DNA damage response pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Cao, Liu; Chen, Jichun; Song, Shiwei; Lee, In Hye; Quijano, Celia; Liu, Hongjun; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Chen, Haoqian; Cao, Long-Yue; Ahn, Bong-Hyun; Kumar, Neil G; Rovira, Ilsa I; Xu, Xiao-Ling; van Lohuizen, Maarten; Motoyama, Noboru; Deng, Chu-Xia; Finkel, Toren

    2009-05-21

    Mice deficient in the Polycomb repressor Bmi1 develop numerous abnormalities including a severe defect in stem cell self-renewal, alterations in thymocyte maturation and a shortened lifespan. Previous work has implicated de-repression of the Ink4a/Arf (also known as Cdkn2a) locus as mediating many of the aspects of the Bmi1(-/-) phenotype. Here we demonstrate that cells derived from Bmi1(-/-) mice also have impaired mitochondrial function, a marked increase in the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and subsequent engagement of the DNA damage response pathway. Furthermore, many of the deficiencies normally observed in Bmi1(-/-) mice improve after either pharmacological treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or genetic disruption of the DNA damage response pathway by Chk2 (also known as Chek2) deletion. These results demonstrate that Bmi1 has an unexpected role in maintaining mitochondrial function and redox homeostasis and indicate that the Polycomb family of proteins can coordinately regulate cellular metabolism with stem and progenitor cell function.

  1. Mitochondrial damage elicits a TCDD-inducible poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-mediated antiviral response

    PubMed Central

    Kozaki, Tatsuya; Komano, Jun; Kanbayashi, Daiki; Takahama, Michihiro; Misawa, Takuma; Satoh, Takashi; Takeuchi, Osamu; Kawai, Taro; Shimizu, Shigeomi; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Akira, Shizuo; Saitoh, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    The innate immune system senses RNA viruses by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and protects the host from virus infection. PRRs mediate the production of immune modulatory factors and direct the elimination of RNA viruses. Here, we show a unique PRR that mediates antiviral response. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-inducible poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (TIPARP), a Cysteine3 Histidine (CCCH)-type zinc finger-containing protein, binds to Sindbis virus (SINV) RNA via its zinc finger domain and recruits an exosome to induce viral RNA degradation. TIPARP typically localizes in the nucleus, but it accumulates in the cytoplasm after SINV infection, allowing targeting of cytoplasmic SINV RNA. Redistribution of TIPARP is induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent oxidization of the nuclear pore that affects cytoplasmic-nuclear transport. BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) and BCL2 antagonist/killer 1 (BAK1), B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) family members, mediate mitochondrial damage to generate ROS after SINV infection. Thus, TIPARP is a viral RNA-sensing PRR that mediates antiviral responses triggered by BAX- and BAK1-dependent mitochondrial damage. PMID:28213497

  2. Ca2+ toxicity and mitochondrial damage in acute pancreatitis: translational overview

    PubMed Central

    Maléth, József; Hegyi, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a leading cause of hospitalization among non-malignant gastrointestinal disorders. The mortality of severe AP can reach 30–50%, which is most probably owing to the lack of specific treatment. Therefore, AP is a major healthcare problem, which urges researchers to identify novel drug targets. Studies from the last decades highlighted that the toxic cellular Ca2+ overload and mitochondrial damage are key pathogenic steps in the disease development affecting both acinar and ductal cell functions. Moreover, recent observations showed that modifying the cellular Ca2+ signalling might be beneficial in AP. The inhibition of Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum or the activity of plasma membrane Ca2+ influx channels decreased the severity of AP in experimental models. Similarly, inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening also seems to improve the outcome of AP in in vivo animal models. At the moment MPTP blockers are under detailed clinical investigation to test whether interventions in MPTP openings and/or Ca2+ homeostasis of the cells can be specific targets in prevention or treatment of cell damage in AP. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolution brings Ca2+ and ATP together to control life and death’. PMID:27377719

  3. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce strong oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in glial cells.

    PubMed

    Huerta-García, Elizabeth; Pérez-Arizti, José Antonio; Márquez-Ramírez, Sandra Gissela; Delgado-Buenrostro, Norma Laura; Chirino, Yolanda Irasema; Iglesias, Gisela Gutiérrez; López-Marure, Rebeca

    2014-08-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in the chemical, electrical, and electronic industries. TiO2 NPs can enter directly into the brain through the olfactory bulb and can be deposited in the hippocampus region; therefore, we determined the toxic effect of TiO2 NPs on rat and human glial cells, C6 and U373, respectively. We evaluated some events related to oxidative stress: (1) redox-signaling mechanisms by oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate; (2) peroxidation of lipids by cis-parinaric acid; (3) antioxidant enzyme expression by PCR in real time; and (4) mitochondrial damage by MitoTracker Green FM staining and Rh123. TiO2 NPs induced a strong oxidative stress in both glial cell lines by mediating changes in the cellular redox state and lipid peroxidation associated with a rise in the expression of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase 2. TiO2 NPs also produced morphological changes, damage of mitochondria, and an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating toxicity. TiO2 NPs had a cytotoxic effect on glial cells; however, more in vitro and in vivo studies are required to ascertain that exposure to TiO2 NPs can cause brain injury and be hazardous to health.

  4. The novel mitochondrial iron chelator 5-((methylamino)methyl)-8-hydroxyquinoline protects against mitochondrial-induced oxidative damage and neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Mena, Natalia P; García-Beltrán, Olimpo; Lourido, Fernanda; Urrutia, Pamela J; Mena, Raúl; Castro-Castillo, Vicente; Cassels, Bruce K; Núñez, Marco T

    2015-08-07

    Abundant evidence indicates that iron accumulation, oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction are common features of Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, Friedreich's ataxia and a group of disorders known as Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of two novel 8-OH-quinoline-based iron chelators, Q1 and Q4, to decrease mitochondrial iron accumulation and oxidative damage in cellular and animal models of PD. We found that at sub-micromolar concentrations, Q1 selectively decreased the mitochondrial iron pool and was extremely effective in protecting against rotenone-induced oxidative damage and death. Q4, in turn, preferentially chelated the cytoplasmic iron pool and presented a decreased capacity to protect against rotenone-induced oxidative damage and death. Oral administration of Q1 to mice protected substantia nigra pars compacta neurons against oxidative damage and MPTP-induced death. Taken together, our results support the concept that oral administration of Q1 is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of NBIA.

  5. Inhibition of HAS2 induction enhances the radiosensitivity of cancer cells via persistent DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yan Nan; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Joo, Hyun-Yoo; Park, Eun-Ran; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Chun-Ho; Lee, Kee-Ho

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •HAS2 may be a promising target for the radiosensitization of human cancer. •HAS2 is elevated (up to ∼10-fold) in irradiated radioresistant and -sensitive cancer cells. •HAS2 knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to radiation. •HAS2 knockdown potentiates irradiation-induced DNA damage and apoptotic death. •Thus, the irradiation-induced up-regulation of HAS2 contributes to the radioresistance of cancer cells. -- Abstract: Hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), a synthetic enzyme for hyaluronan, regulates various aspects of cancer progression, including migration, invasion and angiogenesis. However, the possible association of HAS2 with the response of cancer cells to anticancer radiotherapy, has not yet been elucidated. Here, we show that HAS2 knockdown potentiates irradiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in cancer cells. Upon exposure to radiation, all of the tested human cancer cell lines exhibited marked (up to 10-fold) up-regulation of HAS2 within 24 h. Inhibition of HAS2 induction significantly reduced the survival of irradiated radioresistant and -sensitive cells. Interestingly, HAS2 depletion rendered the cells to sustain irradiation-induced DNA damage, thereby leading to an increase of apoptotic death. These findings indicate that HAS2 knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to radiation via persistent DNA damage, further suggesting that the irradiation-induced up-regulation of HAS2 contributes to the radioresistance of cancer cells. Thus, HAS2 could potentially be targeted for therapeutic interventions aimed at radiosensitizing cancer cells.

  6. Severe mitochondrial damage associated with low-dose radiation sensitivity in ATM- and NBS1-deficient cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Junya; Komatsu, Kenshi; Kunugita, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Low-dose radiation risks remain unclear owing to a lack of sufficient studies. We previously reported that low-dose, long-term fractionated radiation (FR) with 0.01 or 0.05 Gy/fraction for 31 d inflicts oxidative stress in human fibroblasts due to excess levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). To identify the small effects of low-dose radiation, we investigated how mitochondria respond to low-dose radiation in radiosensitive human ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)- and Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS)1-deficient cell lines compared with corresponding cell lines expressing ATM and NBS1. Consistent with previous results in normal fibroblasts, low-dose, long-term FR increased mitochondrial mass and caused accumulation of mitochondrial ROS in ATM- and NBS1-complemented cell lines. Excess mitochondrial ROS resulted in mitochondrial damage that was in turn recognized by Parkin, leading to mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy). In contrast, ATM- and NBS1-deficient cells showed defective induction of mitophagy after low-dose, long-term FR, leading to accumulation of abnormal mitochondria; this was determined by mitochondrial fragmentation and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Consequently, apoptosis was induced in ATM- and NBS1-deficient cells after low-dose, long-term FR. Antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine was effective as a radioprotective agent against mitochondrial damage induced by low-dose, long-term FR among all cell lines, including radiosensitive cell lines. In conclusion, we demonstrated that mitochondria are target organelles of low-dose radiation. Mitochondrial response influences radiation sensitivity in human cells. Our findings provide new insights into cancer risk estimation associated with low-dose radiation exposure. PMID:26940879

  7. Severe mitochondrial damage associated with low-dose radiation sensitivity in ATM- and NBS1-deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Junya; Komatsu, Kenshi; Kunugita, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Low-dose radiation risks remain unclear owing to a lack of sufficient studies. We previously reported that low-dose, long-term fractionated radiation (FR) with 0.01 or 0.05 Gy/fraction for 31 d inflicts oxidative stress in human fibroblasts due to excess levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). To identify the small effects of low-dose radiation, we investigated how mitochondria respond to low-dose radiation in radiosensitive human ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)- and Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS)1-deficient cell lines compared with corresponding cell lines expressing ATM and NBS1. Consistent with previous results in normal fibroblasts, low-dose, long-term FR increased mitochondrial mass and caused accumulation of mitochondrial ROS in ATM- and NBS1-complemented cell lines. Excess mitochondrial ROS resulted in mitochondrial damage that was in turn recognized by Parkin, leading to mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy). In contrast, ATM- and NBS1-deficient cells showed defective induction of mitophagy after low-dose, long-term FR, leading to accumulation of abnormal mitochondria; this was determined by mitochondrial fragmentation and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Consequently, apoptosis was induced in ATM- and NBS1-deficient cells after low-dose, long-term FR. Antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine was effective as a radioprotective agent against mitochondrial damage induced by low-dose, long-term FR among all cell lines, including radiosensitive cell lines. In conclusion, we demonstrated that mitochondria are target organelles of low-dose radiation. Mitochondrial response influences radiation sensitivity in human cells. Our findings provide new insights into cancer risk estimation associated with low-dose radiation exposure.

  8. Bactericidal Antibiotics Induce Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Damage in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Costello, James C.; Liesa, Marc; Morones-Ramirez, J Ruben; Slomovic, Shimyn; Molina, Anthony; Shirihai, Orian S.; Collins, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged antibiotic treatment can lead to detrimental side effects in patients, including ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and tendinopathy, yet the mechanisms underlying the effects of antibiotics in mammalian systems remain unclear. It has been suggested that bactericidal antibiotics induce the formation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in bacteria. We show that clinically relevant doses of bactericidal antibiotics—quinolones, aminoglycosides, and β-lactams—cause mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS overproduction in mammalian cells. We demonstrate that these bactericidal antibiotic–induced effects lead to oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and membrane lipids. Mice treated with bactericidal antibiotics exhibited elevated oxidative stress markers in the blood, oxidative tissue damage, and up-regulated expression of key genes involved in antioxidant defense mechanisms, which points to the potential physiological relevance of these antibiotic effects. The deleterious effects of bactericidal antibiotics were alleviated in cell culture and in mice by the administration of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine or prevented by preferential use of bacteriostatic antibiotics. This work highlights the role of antibiotics in the production of oxidative tissue damage in mammalian cells and presents strategies to mitigate or prevent the resulting damage, with the goal of improving the safety of antibiotic treatment in people. PMID:23825301

  9. Bactericidal antibiotics induce mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in Mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Kalghatgi, Sameer; Spina, Catherine S; Costello, James C; Liesa, Marc; Morones-Ramirez, J Ruben; Slomovic, Shimyn; Molina, Anthony; Shirihai, Orian S; Collins, James J

    2013-07-03

    Prolonged antibiotic treatment can lead to detrimental side effects in patients, including ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and tendinopathy, yet the mechanisms underlying the effects of antibiotics in mammalian systems remain unclear. It has been suggested that bactericidal antibiotics induce the formation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in bacteria. We show that clinically relevant doses of bactericidal antibiotics-quinolones, aminoglycosides, and β-lactams-cause mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS overproduction in mammalian cells. We demonstrate that these bactericidal antibiotic-induced effects lead to oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and membrane lipids. Mice treated with bactericidal antibiotics exhibited elevated oxidative stress markers in the blood, oxidative tissue damage, and up-regulated expression of key genes involved in antioxidant defense mechanisms, which points to the potential physiological relevance of these antibiotic effects. The deleterious effects of bactericidal antibiotics were alleviated in cell culture and in mice by the administration of the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine or prevented by preferential use of bacteriostatic antibiotics. This work highlights the role of antibiotics in the production of oxidative tissue damage in mammalian cells and presents strategies to mitigate or prevent the resulting damage, with the goal of improving the safety of antibiotic treatment in people.

  10. Phosphorylation of the BNIP3 C-Terminus Inhibits Mitochondrial Damage and Cell Death without Blocking Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Katherine E.; Frazier, William A.

    2015-01-01

    BNIP3 is a dual function protein, able to activate autophagy and induce cell death. Upon expression of BNIP3, which is upregulated by hypoxia, the protein induces mitochondrial dysfunction, often leading to cell death. However, some highly respiring cells and cancer cells tolerate BNIP3 expression, suggesting that a yet unknown mechanism exists to restrain the lethal effects of BNIP3 on mitochondria. Here we present evidence that BNIP3 undergoes several phosphorylation events at its C-terminus, adjacent to the transmembrane domain. Phosphorylation at these residues inhibits BNIP3-induced mitochondrial damage, preventing a loss of mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as preventing an increase in reactive oxygen species. This decrease in mitochondrial damage, as well as the reduction of cell death upon C-terminal BNIP3 phosphorylation, can be explained by a diminished interaction between BNIP3 and OPA1, a key regulator of mitochondrial fusion and mitochondrial inner membrane structure. Importantly, phosphorylation of these C-terminal BNIP3 residues blocks cell death without preventing autophagy, providing evidence that the two functional roles of BNIP3 can be regulated independently. These findings establish phosphorylation as a switch to determine the pro-survival and pro-death effects of the protein. Our findings also suggest a novel target for the regulation of these activities in transformed cells where BNIP3 is often highly expressed. PMID:26102349

  11. Persistence of DNA damage following exposure of human bladder cells to chronic monomethylarsonous acid

    SciTech Connect

    Wnek, S.M.; Medeiros, M.K.; Eblin, K.E.; Gandolfi, A.J.

    2009-12-01

    Malignant transformation was demonstrated in UROtsa cells following 52-weeks of exposure to 50 nM monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}); the result was the malignantly transformed cell line, URO-MSC. URO-MSC cells were used to study the induction of DNA damage and the alteration of DNA repair enzymes in both the presence of MMA{sup III} [URO-MSC(+)] and after subsequent removal of MMA{sup III} [URO-MSC(-)] following chronic, low-level exposure. In the presence of MMA{sup III}, URO-MSC(+) cells demonstrated a sustained increase in DNA damage following 12-weeks of exposure; in particular, a significant increase in DNA single-strand breaks at 12-weeks of exposure consistently elevated through 52 weeks. The persistence of DNA damage in URO-MSC cells was assessed after a 2-week removal of MMA{sup III}. URO-MSC(-) cells demonstrated a decrease in DNA damage compared to URO-MSC(+); however, DNA damage in URO-MSC(-) remained significantly elevated when compared to untreated UROtsa and increased in a time-dependent manner. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were demonstrated to be a critical component in the generation of DNA damage determined through the incubation of ROS scavengers with URO-MSC cells. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a key repair enzyme in DNA single-strand break repair. URO-MSC(+) resulted in a slight increase in PARP activity after 36-weeks of MMA{sup III} exposure, suggesting the presence of MMA{sup III} is inhibiting the increase in PARP activity. In support, PARP activity in URO-MSC(-) increased significantly, coinciding with a subsequent decrease in DNA damage demonstrated in URO-MSC(-) compared to URO-MSC(+). These data demonstrate that chronic, low-level exposure of UROtsa cells to 50 nM MMA{sup III} results in: the induction of DNA damage that remains elevated upon removal of MMA{sup III}; increased levels of ROS that play a role in MMA{sup III} induced-DNA damage; and decreased PARP activity in the presence of MMA{sup III}.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA damage and a hypoxic response are induced by CoCl2 in rat neuronal PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guichun; Hazra, Tapas K.; Mitra, Sankar; Lee, Heung-Man; Englander, Ella W.

    2000-01-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of a transcriptional program that mimics the hypoxic response have been documented in cultured cells in the presence of cobalt chloride. We found that in the presence of hypoxia-mimicking concentrations of CoCl2, mitochondrial but not nuclear DNA damage is induced in rat neuronal, PC12 cells. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of induction of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage under these conditions. Likewise, we provide the first evidence for elevation of MYH, the mammalian homolog of the Escherichia coli MutY DNA glycosylase, in mammalian cells. Recently, the human MYH was implicated in repair of oxidative DNA damage and shown to carry a mitochondrial localization sequence. Here, an induction of mtDNA damage and a time-dependent increase in the MYH level were detected with exposure of cells to 100 µM CoCl2. In addition, the levels of proteins involved in cellular responses to hypoxia, ROS and nuclear DNA damage; hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), p53, p21 and PCNA were also modulated temporally. Earlier studies suggested that the mtDNA is a primary target for oxidative damage. Our findings extend these observations and suggest that activation of DNA repair processes is associated with the presence of mtDNA damage. PMID:10773083

  13. Mitochondrial DNA damage and a hypoxic response are induced by CoCl(2) in rat neuronal PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Hazra, T K; Mitra, S; Lee, H M; Englander, E W

    2000-05-15

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of a transcriptional program that mimics the hypoxic response have been documented in cultured cells in the presence of cobalt chloride. We found that in the presence of hypoxia-mimicking concentrations of CoCl(2), mitochondrial but not nuclear DNA damage is induced in rat neuronal, PC12 cells. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of induction of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage under these conditions. Likewise, we provide the first evidence for elevation of MYH, the mammalian homolog of the Escherichia coli MutY DNA glycosylase, in mammalian cells. Recently, the human MYH was implicated in repair of oxidative DNA damage and shown to carry a mitochondrial localization sequence. Here, an induction of mtDNA damage and a time-dependent increase in the MYH level were detected with exposure of cells to 100 microM CoCl(2). In addition, the levels of proteins involved in cellular responses to hypoxia, ROS and nuclear DNA damage; hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha(HIF-1alpha), p53, p21 and PCNA were also modulated temporally. Earlier studies suggested that the mtDNA is a primary target for oxidative damage. Our findings extend these observations and suggest that activation of DNA repair processes is associated with the presence of mtDNA damage.

  14. Persistent DNA Damage after High Dose In Vivo Gamma Exposure of Minipig Skin

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Emad A.; Agay, Diane; Schrock, Gerrit; Drouet, Michel; Meineke, Viktor; Scherthan, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation (IR) can lead to localized radiation injury of the skin and exposed cells suffer dsDNA breaks that may elicit cell death or stochastic changes. Little is known about the DNA damage response after high-dose exposure of the skin. Here, we investigate the cellular and DNA damage response in acutely irradiated minipig skin. Methods and Findings IR-induced DNA damage, repair and cellular survival were studied in 15 cm2 of minipig skin exposed in vivo to ∼50 Co-60 γ rays. Skin biopsies of control and 4 h up to 96 days post exposure were investigated for radiation-induced foci (RIF) formation using γ-H2AX, 53BP1, and active ATM-p immunofluorescence. High-dose IR induced massive γ-H2AX phosphorylation and high 53BP1 RIF numbers 4 h, 20 h after IR. As time progressed RIF numbers dropped to a low of <1% of keratinocytes at 28–70 days. The latter contained large RIFs that included ATM-p, indicating the accumulation of complex DNA damage. At 96 days most of the cells with RIFs had disappeared. The frequency of active-caspase-3-positive apoptotic cells was 17-fold increased 3 days after IR and remained >3-fold elevated at all subsequent time points. Replicating basal cells (Ki67+) were reduced 3 days post IR followed by increased proliferation and recovery of epidermal cellularity after 28 days. Conclusions Acute high dose irradiation of minipig epidermis impaired stem cell replication and induced elevated apoptosis from 3 days onward. DNA repair cleared the high numbers of DBSs in skin cells, while RIFs that persisted in <1% cells marked complex and potentially lethal DNA damage up to several weeks after exposure. An elevated frequency of keratinocytes with persistent RIFs may thus serve as indicator of previous acute radiation exposure, which may be useful in the follow up of nuclear or radiological accident scenarios. PMID:22761813

  15. Microwave Processing for Sample Preparation to Evaluate Mitochondrial Ultrastructural Damage in Hemorrhagic Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephsen, Gary D.; Josephsen, Kelly A.; Beilman, Greg J.; Taylor, Jodie H.; Muiler, Kristine E.

    2005-12-01

    This is a report of the adaptation of microwave processing in the preparation of liver biopsies for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to examine ultrastructural damage of mitochondria in the setting of metabolic stress. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in pigs via 35% total blood volume bleed and a 90-min period of shock followed by resuscitation. Hepatic biopsies were collected before shock and after resuscitation. Following collection, biopsies were processed for TEM by a rapid method involving microwave irradiation (Giberson, 2001). Samples pre- and postshock of each of two animals were viewed and scored using the mitochondrial ultrastructure scoring system (Crouser et al., 2002), a system used to quantify the severity of ultrastructural damage during shock. Results showed evidence of increased ultrastructural damage in the postshock samples, which scored 4.00 and 3.42, versus their preshock controls, which scored 1.18 and 1.27. The results of this analysis were similar to those obtained in another model of shock (Crouser et al., 2002). However, the amount of time used to process the samples was significantly shortened with methods involving microwave irradiation.

  16. Expression changes in mRNAs and mitochondrial damage in lens epithelial cells with selenite.

    PubMed

    Belusko, P B; Nakajima, T; Azuma, M; Shearer, T R

    2003-10-13

    An overdose of sodium selenite induces cataracts in young rats. The mid-stage events producing the cataract include calpain-induced hydrolysis and precipitation of lens proteins. Apoptosis in lens epithelial cells has been suggested as an initial event in selenite cataracts. Expression levels of two genes associated with apoptosis were altered in lens epithelial cells from selenite-injected rats. The purpose of the present experiment was to perform a more comprehensive search for changes in expression of mRNAs in lens epithelial cells in order to more fully delineate the early events in selenite-induced cataracts. Lens epithelial cells were harvested at 1 and 2 days after a single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (30 mumol/kg body weight) into 12-day-old rats. Gene expression was analyzed using a commercial DNA array (Rat Genome U34A GeneChip array, Affymetrix). Of approximately 8000 genes assayed by hybridization, 13 genes were decreased and 27 genes were increased in the rat lens epithelial cells after injection of selenite. Some of the up-regulated genes included apoptosis-related genes, and a majority of the down-regulated genes were mitochondrial genes. Previously observed changes in expression of EGR-1 mRNA were also confirmed. Changes in the expression patterns of mRNAs were also confirmed by RT-PCR. To determine the mechanism for damage of lens epithelial cells (alpha TN4 cell) by culture in selenite, leakage of cytochrome c from mitochondria was measured. Selenite caused significant leakage of cytochrome c into the cytosol of alpha TN4 cells. Our data suggested that the loss of integrity of lens epithelial cells by selenite might be caused by preferential down-regulation of mitochondrial RNAs, release of cytochrome c, and impaired mitochondrial function. Up-regulation of mRNAs involved in maintenance of DNA, regulation of metabolism, and induction of apoptosis may also play roles.

  17. Ascorbic acid extends replicative life span of human embryonic fibroblast by reducing DNA and mitochondrial damages.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Won-Sang; Park, Seong-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Kang, Hong-Jun; Kim, Min-Ju; Oh, Soo-Jin; Park, Jae-Bong; Kim, Jaebong; Kim, Sung Chan; Lee, Jae-Yong

    2007-01-01

    Ascorbic acid has been reported to extend replicative life span of human embryonic fibroblast (HEF). Since the detailed molecular mechanism of this phenomenon has not been investigated, we attempted to elucidate. Continuous treatment of HEF cells with ascorbic acid (at 200 microM) from 40 population doubling (PD) increased maximum PD numbers by 18% and lowered SA-beta-gal positive staining, an aging marker, by 2.3 folds, indicating that ascorbic acid extends replicative life span of HEF cells. Ascorbic acid treatment lowered DCFH by about 7 folds and Rho123 by about 70%, suggesting that ascorbic acid dramatically decreased ROS formation. Ascorbic acid also increased aconitase activity, a marker of mitochondrial aging, by 41%, indicating that ascorbic acid treatment restores age-related decline of mitochondrial function. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry revealed that ascorbic acid treatment decreased G1 population up to 12%. Further western blot analysis showed that ascorbic acid treatment decreased levels of p53, phospho-p53 at ser 15, and p21, indicating that ascorbic acid relieved senescence-related G1 arrest. Analysis of AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) sites showed that ascorbic acid treatment decreased AP site formation by 35%. We also tested the effect of hydrogen peroxide treatment, as an additional oxidative stress. Continuous treatment of 20 microM of hydrogen peroxide from PD 40 of HEF cells resulted in premature senescence due to increased ROS level, and increased AP sites. Taken together, the results suggest that ascorbic acid extends replicative life span of HEF cells by reducing mitochondrial and DNA damages through lowering cellular ROS.

  18. Long-lived Indy induces reduced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    Neretti, Nicola; Wang, Pei-Yu; Brodsky, Alexander S.; Nyguyen, Hieu H.; White, Kevin P.; Rogina, Blanka; Helfand, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    Decreased Indy activity extends lifespan in D. melanogaster without significant reduction in fecundity, metabolic rate, or locomotion. To understand the underlying mechanisms leading to lifespan extension in this mutant strain, we compared the genome-wide gene expression changes in the head and thorax of adult Indy mutant with control flies over the course of their lifespan. A signature enrichment analysis of metabolic and signaling pathways revealed that expression levels of genes in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway are significantly lower in Indy starting at day 20. We confirmed experimentally that complexes I and III of the electron transport chain have lower enzyme activity in Indy long-lived flies by Day 20 and predicted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria could be reduced. Consistently, we found that both ROS production and protein damage are reduced in Indy with respect to control. However, we did not detect significant differences in total ATP, a phenotype that could be explained by our finding of a higher mitochondrial density in Indy mutants. Thus, one potential mechanism by which Indy mutants extend life span could be through an alteration in mitochondrial physiology leading to an increased efficiency in the ATP/ROS ratio. PMID:19164521

  19. Kalpaamruthaa ameliorates mitochondrial and metabolic alterations in diabetes mellitus induced cardiovascular damage.

    PubMed

    Latha, Raja; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanadham

    2014-12-01

    Efficacy of Kalpaamruthaa on the activities of lipid and carbohydrate metabolic enzymes, electron transport chain complexes and mitochondrial ATPases were studied in heart and liver of experimental rats. Cardiovascular damage (CVD) was developed in 8 weeks after type 2 diabetes mellitus induction with high fat diet (2 weeks) and low dose of streptozotocin (2 × 35 mg/kg b.w. i.p. in 24 hr interval). In CVD-induced rats, the activities of total lipase, cholesterol ester hydrolase and cholesterol ester synthetase were increased, while lipoprotein lipase and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activities were decreased. The activities of lipid-metabolizing enzymes were altered by Kalpaamruthaa in CVD-induced rats towards normal. Kalpaamruthaa modulated the activities of glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, phosphogluco-isomerase, aldolase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase) and glycogenolytic enzyme (glycogen phosphorylase) along with increased glycogen content in the liver of CVD-induced rats. The activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, Complexes and ATPases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase) were decreased in CVD-induced rats, which were ameliorated by the treatment with Kalpaamruthaa. This study ascertained the efficacy of Kalpaamruthaa for the treatment of CVD in diabetes through the modulation of metabolizing enzymes and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  20. Investigating photoexcitation-induced mitochondrial damage by chemotherapeutic corroles using multimode optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Lubow, David J.; Sims, Jessica D.; Gray, Harry B.; Mahammed, Atif; Gross, Zeev; Medina-Kauwe, Lali K.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported that a targeted, brightly fluorescent gallium corrole (HerGa) is highly effective for breast tumor detection and treatment. Unlike structurally similar porphryins, HerGa exhibits tumor-targeted toxicity without the need for photoexcitation. We have now examined whether photoexcitation further modulates HerGa toxicity, using multimode optical imaging of live cells, including two-photon excited fluorescence, differential interference contrast (DIC), spectral, and lifetime imaging. Using two-photon excited fluorescence imaging, we observed that light at specific wavelengths augments the HerGa-mediated mitochondrial membrane potential disruption of breast cancer cells in situ. In addition, DIC, spectral, and fluorescence lifetime imaging enabled us to both validate cell damage by HerGa photoexcitation and investigate HerGa internalization, thus allowing optimization of light dose and timing. Our demonstration of HerGa phototoxicity opens the way for development of new methods of cancer intervention using tumor-targeted corroles.

  1. Alzheimer's disease: roles for mitochondrial damage, the hydroxyl radical, and cerebrospinal fluid deficiency of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Maurizi, C P

    2001-08-01

    A deficiency of cerebrospinal fluid melatonin is postulated to be critical for the development of Alzheimer's disease. Some melatonin is normally secreted directly into the fluid inducing higher levels than in simultaneously sampled blood. Melatonin is carried into the ventricular system via choroid plexus portals. The neurohormone is a potent antioxidant that passes through cell membranes with ease and is concentrated in mitochondria. Neural tissue in contact with the ventricular system will have high levels of cellular melatonin. In Alzheimer's disease, inadequate melatonin allows hydroxyl radicals produced by mitochondrial complex IV to damage mitochondria and initiate a cascade of oxygen radicals that causes the neuropathological changes in Alzheimer's disease. Results from initial therapeutic trials of melatonin in Alzheimer's disease patients have demonstrated improved function, decreased 'sundowning', improved sleep, and a significant slowing of the progression of the disease. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  2. Mitochondrial Staining Allows Robust Elimination of Apoptotic and Damaged Cells during Cell Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarev, Eugeny D.; Tsytsykova, Alla; Armant, Myriam; Vorobjev, Ivan A.

    2014-01-01

    High-speed fluorescence-activated cell sorting is relevant for a plethora of applications, such as PCR-based techniques, microarrays, cloning, and propagation of selected cell populations. We suggest a simple cell-sorting technique to eliminate early and late apoptotic and necrotic cells, with good signal-to-noise ratio and a high-purity yield. The mitochondrial potential dye, TMRE (tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester perchlorate), was used to separate viable and non-apoptotic cells from the cell sorting samples. TMRE staining is reversible and does not affect cell proliferation and viability. Sorted TMRE+ cells contained a negligible percentage of apoptotic and damaged cells and had a higher proliferative potential as compared with their counterpart cells, sorted on the basis of staining with DNA viability dye. This novel sorting technique using TMRE does not interfere with subsequent functional assays and is a method of choice for the enrichment of functionally active, unbiased cell populations. PMID:24394470

  3. Mitochondrial staining allows robust elimination of apoptotic and damaged cells during cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Barteneva, Natasha S; Ponomarev, Eugeny D; Tsytsykova, Alla; Armant, Myriam; Vorobjev, Ivan A

    2014-04-01

    High-speed fluorescence-activated cell sorting is relevant for a plethora of applications, such as PCR-based techniques, microarrays, cloning, and propagation of selected cell populations. We suggest a simple cell-sorting technique to eliminate early and late apoptotic and necrotic cells, with good signal-to-noise ratio and a high-purity yield. The mitochondrial potential dye, TMRE (tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester perchlorate), was used to separate viable and non-apoptotic cells from the cell sorting samples. TMRE staining is reversible and does not affect cell proliferation and viability. Sorted TMRE(+) cells contained a negligible percentage of apoptotic and damaged cells and had a higher proliferative potential as compared with their counterpart cells, sorted on the basis of staining with DNA viability dye. This novel sorting technique using TMRE does not interfere with subsequent functional assays and is a method of choice for the enrichment of functionally active, unbiased cell populations.

  4. Development of a qPCR Method to Measure Mitochondrial and Genomic DNA Damage with Application to Chemotherapy-Induced DNA Damage and Cryopreserved Cells.

    PubMed

    Evans, Stephen O; Jameson, Michael B; Cursons, Ray T M; Peters, Linda M; Bird, Steve; Jacobson, Gregory M

    2016-10-08

    DNA damage quantitation assays such as the comet assay have focused on the measurement of total nuclear damage per cell. The adoption of PCR-based techniques to quantify DNA damage has enabled sequence- and organelle-specific assessment of DNA lesions. Here we report on an adaptation of a qPCR technique to assess DNA damage in nuclear and mitochondrial targets relative to control. Novel aspects of this assay include application of the assay to the Rotor-Gene platform with optimized DNA polymerase/fluorophore/primer set combination in a touchdown PCR protocol. Assay validation was performed using ultraviolet C radiation in A549 and THP1 cancer cell lines. A comparison was made to the comet assay applied to peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and an estimation of the effects of cryopreservation on ultraviolet C-induced DNA damage was carried out. Finally, dose responses for DNA damage were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells following exposure to the cytotoxic agents bleomycin and cisplatin. We show reproducible experimental outputs across the tested conditions and concordance with published findings with respect to mitochondrial and nuclear genotoxic susceptibilities. The application of this DNA damage assay to a wide range of clinical and laboratory-derived samples is both feasible and resource-efficient.

  5. Development of a qPCR Method to Measure Mitochondrial and Genomic DNA Damage with Application to Chemotherapy-Induced DNA Damage and Cryopreserved Cells

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Stephen O.; Jameson, Michael B.; Cursons, Ray T. M.; Peters, Linda M.; Bird, Steve; Jacobson, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage quantitation assays such as the comet assay have focused on the measurement of total nuclear damage per cell. The adoption of PCR-based techniques to quantify DNA damage has enabled sequence- and organelle-specific assessment of DNA lesions. Here we report on an adaptation of a qPCR technique to assess DNA damage in nuclear and mitochondrial targets relative to control. Novel aspects of this assay include application of the assay to the Rotor-Gene platform with optimized DNA polymerase/fluorophore/primer set combination in a touchdown PCR protocol. Assay validation was performed using ultraviolet C radiation in A549 and THP1 cancer cell lines. A comparison was made to the comet assay applied to peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and an estimation of the effects of cryopreservation on ultraviolet C-induced DNA damage was carried out. Finally, dose responses for DNA damage were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells following exposure to the cytotoxic agents bleomycin and cisplatin. We show reproducible experimental outputs across the tested conditions and concordance with published findings with respect to mitochondrial and nuclear genotoxic susceptibilities. The application of this DNA damage assay to a wide range of clinical and laboratory-derived samples is both feasible and resource-efficient. PMID:27740596

  6. Mitochondrial stress-induced dopamine efflux and neuronal damage by malonate involves the dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Moy, Lily Y; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Sonsalla, Patricia K

    2007-02-01

    Endogenous striatal dopamine (DA) overflow has been associated with neuropathological conditions resulting from ischemia, psychostimulants, and metabolic inhibition. Malonate, a reversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, models the effects of energy impairment in neurodegenerative disorders. We have previously reported that the striatal DA efflux and damage to DA nerve terminals resulting from intrastriatal malonate infusions is prevented by prior DA depletion, suggesting that DA plays a role in the neuronal damage. We presently report that the malonate-induced DA efflux is partially mediated by reverse transport of DA from the cytosol to the extracellular space via the DA transporter (DAT). Pharmacological blockade of the DAT with a series of structurally different inhibitors [cocaine, mazindol, 1-(2-(bis(4-fluophenyl methoxy) ethyl)-4-(3-(4-fluorophenyl)-propyl)piperazine) dimethane sulfonate (GBR 13098) and methyl(-)-3beta-(p-fluorophenyl)-1alphaH,5alphaH-tropane-2beta-carboxylate1,5-naphthalene (Win 35,428)] attenuated malonate-induced DA overflow in vivo and protected mice against subsequent damage to DA nerve terminals. Consistent with these findings, the DAT inhibitors prevented malonate-induced damage to DA neurons in mesencephalic cultures and also protected against the loss of GABA neurons in this system. The DAT inhibitors did not modify malonate-induced formation of reactive oxygen species or lactate production, indicating that the DAT inhibitors neither exert antioxidant effects nor interfere with the actions of malonate. Taken together, these findings provide direct evidence that mitochondrial impairment and metabolic stress cause striatal DA efflux via the DAT and suggest that disruptions in DA homeostasis resulting from energy impairment may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Cardiac Mitochondrial Respiratory Dysfunction and Tissue Damage in Chronic Hyperglycemia Correlate with Reduced Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Mandar; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A.; Xu, Jiang; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Palaniyandi, Suresh S.

    2016-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 is a mitochondrial isozyme of the heart involved in the metabolism of toxic aldehydes produced from oxidative stress. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia-mediated decrease in ALDH2 activity may impair mitochondrial respiration and ultimately result in cardiac damage. A single dose (65 mg/kg; i.p.) streptozotocin injection to rats resulted in hyperglycemia with blood glucose levels of 443 ± 9 mg/dl versus 121 ± 7 mg/dl in control animals, p<0.0001, N = 7–11. After 6 months of diabetes mellitus (DM) induction, the rats were sacrificed after recording the functionality of their hearts. Increase in the cardiomyocyte cross sectional area (446 ± 32 μm2 Vs 221 ± 10 μm2; p<0.0001) indicated cardiac hypertrophy in DM rats. Both diastolic and systolic dysfunctions were observed with DM rats compared to controls. Most importantly, myocardial ALDH2 activity and levels were reduced, and immunostaining for 4HNE protein adducts was increased in DM hearts compared to controls. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR), an index of mitochondrial respiration, was decreased in mitochondria isolated from DM hearts compared to controls (p<0.0001). Furthermore, the rate of mitochondrial respiration and the increase in carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP)-induced maximal respiration were also decreased with chronic hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia reduced mitochondrial OXPHOS proteins. Reduced ALDH2 activity was correlated with mitochondrial dysfunction, pathological remodeling and cardiac dysfunction, respectively. Our results suggest that chronic hyperglycemia reduces ALDH2 activity, leading to mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and consequently cardiac damage and dysfunction. PMID:27736868

  8. Mitochondria-targeted Ogg1 and aconitase-2 prevent oxidant-induced mitochondrial DNA damage in alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok-Jo; Cheresh, Paul; Williams, David; Cheng, Yuan; Ridge, Karen; Schumacker, Paul T; Weitzman, Sigmund; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Kamp, David W

    2014-02-28

    Mitochondria-targeted human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (mt-hOgg1) and aconitase-2 (Aco-2) each reduce oxidant-induced alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis, but it is unclear whether protection occurs by preventing AEC mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage. Using quantitative PCR-based measurements of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage, mtDNA damage was preferentially noted in AEC after exposure to oxidative stress (e.g. amosite asbestos (5-25 μg/cm(2)) or H2O2 (100-250 μM)) for 24 h. Overexpression of wild-type mt-hOgg1 or mt-long α/β 317-323 hOgg1 mutant incapable of DNA repair (mt-hOgg1-Mut) each blocked A549 cell oxidant-induced mtDNA damage, mitochondrial p53 translocation, and intrinsic apoptosis as assessed by DNA fragmentation and cleaved caspase-9. In contrast, compared with controls, knockdown of Ogg1 (using Ogg1 shRNA in A549 cells or primary alveolar type 2 cells from ogg1(-/-) mice) augmented mtDNA lesions and intrinsic apoptosis at base line, and these effects were increased further after exposure to oxidative stress. Notably, overexpression of Aco-2 reduced oxidant-induced mtDNA lesions, mitochondrial p53 translocation, and apoptosis, whereas siRNA for Aco-2 (siAco-2) enhanced mtDNA damage, mitochondrial p53 translocation, and apoptosis. Finally, siAco-2 attenuated the protective effects of mt-hOgg1-Mut but not wild-type mt-hOgg1 against oxidant-induced mtDNA damage and apoptosis. Collectively, these data demonstrate a novel role for mt-hOgg1 and Aco-2 in preserving AEC mtDNA integrity, thereby preventing oxidant-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, p53 mitochondrial translocation, and intrinsic apoptosis. Furthermore, mt-hOgg1 chaperoning of Aco-2 in preventing oxidant-mediated mtDNA damage and apoptosis may afford an innovative target for the molecular events underlying oxidant-induced toxicity.

  9. Impact of a novel phosphoinositol-3 kinase inhibitor in preventing mitochondrial DNA damage and damage-associated molecular pattern accumulation: Results from the Biochronicity Project.

    PubMed

    Black, George Edward; Sokol, Kyle K; Moe, Donald M; Simmons, Jon D; Muscat, David; Pastukh, Victor; Capley, Gina; Gorodnya, Olena; Ruchko, Mykhaylo; Roth, Mark B; Gillespie, Mark; Martin, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Despite improvements in the management of severely injured patients, development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) remains a morbid complication of traumatic shock. One of the key attributes of MODS is a profound bioenergetics crisis, for which the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that metabolic uncoupling using an experimental phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor, LY294002 (LY), may prevent mitochondrial abnormalities that lead to the generation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and the release of mtDNA damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Sixteen swine were studied using LY, a nonselective PI3-K inhibitor. Animals were assigned to trauma only (TO, n = 3), LY drug only (LYO, n = 3), and experimental (n = 10), trauma + drug (LY + T) groups. Both trauma groups underwent laparotomy, 35% hemorrhage, severe ischemia-reperfusion injury, and protocolized resuscitation. A battery of hemodynamic, laboratory, histological, and bioenergetics parameters were monitored. Mitochondrial DNA damage was determined in lung, liver, and kidney using Southern blot analyses, whereas plasma mtDNA DAMP analysis used polymerase chain reaction amplification of a 200-bp sequence of the mtDNA D-loop region. Relative to control animals, H + I/R (hemorrhage and ischemia/reperfusion) produced severe, time-dependent decrements in hepatic, renal, cardiovascular, and pulmonary function accompanied by severe acidosis and lactate accumulation indicative of bioenergetics insufficiency. The H-I/R animals displayed prominent oxidative mtDNA damage in all organs studied, with the most prominent damage in the liver. Mitochondrial DNA damage was accompanied by accumulation of mtDNA DAMPs in plasma. Pretreatment of H + I/R animals with LY resulted in profound metabolic suppression, with approximately 50% decreases in O2 consumption and CO2 production. In addition, it prevented organ and bioenergetics dysfunction and was associated with a

  10. Persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-11-01

    Eudora Welty, the famous writer, was once asked what should be done by society or government to encourage young writers. Her response, which surprised the questioner, and me when I heard it, was "Nothing". Welty contended that a person who was really a writer would be persistent enough to overcome whatever obstacles were in the way, needing no interference or support from others.

  11. Impaired mitochondrial dynamics and abnormal interaction of amyloid beta with mitochondrial protein Drp1 in neurons from patients with Alzheimer's disease: implications for neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Manczak, Maria; Calkins, Marcus J; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to better understand the relationship between mitochondrial structural proteins, particularly dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and amyloid beta (Aβ) in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using qRT-PCR and immunoblotting analyses, we measured mRNA and protein levels of mitochondrial structural genes in the frontal cortex of patients with early, definite and severe AD and in control subjects. We also characterized monomeric and oligomeric forms of Aβ in these patients. Using immunoprecipitation/immunoblotting analysis, we investigated the interaction between Aβ and Drp1. Using immunofluorescence analysis, we determined the localization of Drp1 and intraneuronal and oligomeric Aβ in the AD brains and primary hippocampal neurons from Aβ precursor protein (AβPP) transgenic mice. We found increased expression of the mitochondrial fission genes Drp1 and Fis1 (fission 1) and decreased expression of the mitochondrial fusion genes Mfn1 (mitofusin 1), Mfn2 (mitofusin 2), Opa1 (optic atrophy 1) and Tomm40. The matrix gene CypD was up-regulated in AD patients. Results from our qRT-PCR and immunoblotting analyses suggest that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics increase as AD progresses. Immunofluorescence analysis of the Drp1 antibody and the Aβ antibodies 6E10 and A11 revealed the colocalization of Drp1 and Aβ. Drp1 immunoprecipitation/immunoblotting analysis of Aβ antibodies 6E10 and A11 revealed that Drp1 interacts with Aβ monomers and oligomers in AD patients, and these abnormal interactions are increased with disease progression. Primary neurons that were found with accumulated oligomeric Aβ had lost branches and were degenerated, indicating that oligomeric Aβ may cause neuronal degeneration. These findings suggest that in patients with AD, increased production of Aβ and the interaction of Aβ with Drp1 are crucial factors in mitochondrial fragmentation, abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and synaptic damage. Inhibiting, these

  12. Endothelial Cell Bioenergetics and Mitochondrial DNA Damage Differ in Humans Having African or West Eurasian Maternal Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Krzywanski, David M.; Moellering, Douglas R.; Westbrook, David G.; Dunham-Snary, Kimberly J.; Brown, Jamelle; Bray, Alexander W.; Feeley, Kyle P.; Sammy, Melissa J.; Smith, Matthew R.; Schurr, Theodore G.; Vita, Joseph A.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Calhoun, David; Dell’Italia, Louis; Ballinger, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that endothelial cells having distinct mitochondrial genetic backgrounds would show variation in mitochondrial function and oxidative stress markers concordant with known differential cardiovascular disease susceptibilities. To test this hypothesis, mitochondrial bioenergetics were determined in endothelial cells from healthy individuals with African versus European maternal ancestries. Methods and Results Bioenergetics and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage were assessed in single donor human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) belonging to mtDNA haplogroups H and L, representing West Eurasian and African maternal ancestry, respectively. HUVECs from haplogroup L utilized less oxygen for ATP production and had increased levels of mtDNA damage compared to those in haplogroup H. Differences in bioenergetic capacity were also observed in that HUVECs belonging to haplogroup L had decreased maximal bioenergetic capacities compared to haplogroup H. Analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from age-matched healthy controls with West Eurasian or African maternal ancestries showed that haplogroups sharing an A to G mtDNA mutation at nucleotide pair (np) 10,398 had increased mtDNA damage compared to those lacking this mutation. Further study of angiographically proven coronary artery disease patients and age-matched healthy controls revealed that mtDNA damage was associated with vascular function and remodeling, and that age of disease onset was later in individuals from haplogroups lacking the A to G mutation at np 10,398. Conclusions Differences in mitochondrial bioenergetics and mtDNA damage associated with maternal ancestry may contribute to endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. PMID:26787433

  13. Endothelial Cell Bioenergetics and Mitochondrial DNA Damage Differ in Humans Having African or West Eurasian Maternal Ancestry.

    PubMed

    Krzywanski, David M; Moellering, Douglas R; Westbrook, David G; Dunham-Snary, Kimberly J; Brown, Jamelle; Bray, Alexander W; Feeley, Kyle P; Sammy, Melissa J; Smith, Matthew R; Schurr, Theodore G; Vita, Joseph A; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Calhoun, David; Dell'Italia, Louis; Ballinger, Scott W

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesized that endothelial cells having distinct mitochondrial genetic backgrounds would show variation in mitochondrial function and oxidative stress markers concordant with known differential cardiovascular disease susceptibilities. To test this hypothesis, mitochondrial bioenergetics were determined in endothelial cells from healthy individuals with African versus European maternal ancestries. Bioenergetics and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage were assessed in single-donor human umbilical vein endothelial cells belonging to mtDNA haplogroups H and L, representing West Eurasian and African maternal ancestries, respectively. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells from haplogroup L used less oxygen for ATP production and had increased levels of mtDNA damage compared with those in haplogroup H. Differences in bioenergetic capacity were also observed in that human umbilical vein endothelial cells belonging to haplogroup L had decreased maximal bioenergetic capacities compared with haplogroup H. Analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from age-matched healthy controls with West Eurasian or African maternal ancestries showed that haplogroups sharing an A to G mtDNA mutation at nucleotide pair 10398 had increased mtDNA damage compared with those lacking this mutation. Further study of angiographically proven patients with coronary artery disease and age-matched healthy controls revealed that mtDNA damage was associated with vascular function and remodeling and that age of disease onset was later in individuals from haplogroups lacking the A to G mutation at nucleotide pair 10398. Differences in mitochondrial bioenergetics and mtDNA damage associated with maternal ancestry may contribute to endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Persistent DNA Damage in Spermatogonial Stem Cells After Fractionated Low-Dose Irradiation of Testicular Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Grewenig, Angelika; Schuler, Nadine; Rübe, Claudia E.

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Testicular spermatogenesis is extremely sensitive to radiation-induced damage, and even low scattered doses to testis from radiation therapy may pose reproductive risks with potential treatment-related infertility. Radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent the greatest threat to the genomic integrity of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which are essential to maintain spermatogenesis and prevent reproduction failure. Methods and Materials: During daily low-dose radiation with 100 mGy or 10 mGy, radiation-induced DSBs were monitored in mouse testis by quantifying 53 binding protein 1 (53BP-1) foci in SSCs within their stem cell niche. The accumulation of DSBs was correlated with proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of testicular germ cell populations. Results: Even very low doses of ionizing radiation arrested spermatogenesis, primarily by inducing apoptosis in spermatogonia. Eventual recovery of spermatogenesis depended on the survival of SSCs and their functional ability to proliferate and differentiate to provide adequate numbers of differentiating spermatogonia. Importantly, apoptosis-resistant SSCs resulted in increased 53BP-1 foci levels during, and even several months after, fractionated low-dose radiation, suggesting that surviving SSCs have accumulated an increased load of DNA damage. Conclusions: SSCs revealed elevated levels of DSBs for weeks after radiation, and if these DSBs persist through differentiation to spermatozoa, this may have severe consequences for the genomic integrity of the fertilizing sperm.

  15. Persistent Peripheral Nervous System Damage in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, Jamie L; Mangus, Lisa M; Hauer, Peter; Ebenezer, Gigi J; Queen, Suzanne E; Laast, Victoria A; Adams, Robert J; Mankowski, Joseph L

    2015-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurologic complication associated with HIV infection. In addition to virus-mediated injury of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), treatment of HIV infection with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may induce toxic neuropathy as a side effect. Antiretroviral toxic neuropathy is clinically indistinguishable from the sensory neuropathy induced by HIV; in some patients, these 2 processes are likely superimposed. To study these intercurrent PNS disease processes, we first established a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/pigtailed macaque model in which more than 90% of animals developed PNS changes closely resembling those seen in HIV-infected individuals with distal sensory neuropathy. To determine whether cART alters the progression of SIV-induced PNS damage, dorsal root ganglia and epidermal nerve fibers were evaluated in SIV-infected macaques after long-term suppressive cART. Although cART effectively suppressed SIV replication and reduced macrophage activation in the dorsal root ganglia, PGP 9.5 immunostaining and measurements of epidermal nerve fibers in the plantar surface of the feet of treated SIV-infected macaques clearly showed that cART did not normalize epidermal nerve fiber density. These findings illustrate that significant PNS damage persists in SIV-infected macaques on suppressive cART.

  16. Ferricytochrome c protects mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Sedlák, Erik; Fabian, Marian; Robinson, Neal C; Musatov, Andrej

    2010-11-30

    An excess of ferricytochrome c protects purified mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and bound cardiolipin from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative modification. All of the peroxide-induced changes within cytochrome c oxidase, such as oxidation of Trp(19,IV) and Trp(48,VIIc), partial dissociation of subunits VIa and VIIa, and generation of cardiolipin hydroperoxide, no longer take place in the presence of ferricytochrome c. Furthermore, ferricytochrome c suppresses the yield of H(2)O(2)-induced free radical detectable by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy within cytochrome c oxidase. These protective effects are based on two mechanisms. The first involves the peroxidase/catalase-like activity of ferricytochrome c, which results in the decomposition of H(2)O(2), with the apparent bimolecular rate constant of 5.1±1.0M(-1)s(-1). Although this value is lower than the rate constant of a specialized peroxidase, the activity is sufficient to eliminate H(2)O(2)-induced damage to cytochrome c oxidase in the presence of an excess of ferricytochrome c. The second mechanism involves ferricytochrome c-induced quenching of free radicals generated within cytochrome c oxidase. These results suggest that ferricytochrome c may have an important role in protection of cytochrome c oxidase and consequently the mitochondrion against oxidative damage.

  17. Therapeutic time window for musicokinetic therapy in a persistent vegetative state after severe brain damage.

    PubMed

    Noda, Ryo; Maeda, Yukio; Yoshino, Atsuo

    2004-05-01

    To determine the therapeutic time window in which musicokinetic therapy (MKT) could be of potential benefit for a persistent vegetative state (PVS), this study analysed the relationship between the timing of MKT and changes in PVS score following MKT. Twenty-six patients who fulfilled the definition of PVS were treated consecutively by MKT employing a trampoline with live music performance for 3 months. The PVS score ranges from 0-30 and the condition which meets the definition of PVS is never scored greater than 20. As compared to patients with brain damage caused by trauma (n=12) or subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH; n=9), those caused by other cerebrovascular accidents (n=3) or anoxic encephalopathy (n=2) appeared to demonstrate a much smaller improvement in their PVS score. When the patients caused by trauma or SAH were analysed in isolation, the effects of MKT were clearly better in those patients in whom the MKT was initiated within 6 months after brain damage. Among nine patients caused by trauma or SAH who had been in a PVS for more than 12 months, however, six (66.7%) demonstrated improvement of their PVS score by 5 or more and four (33.3%) reached a post-MKT score of greater than 20. These findings suggest that, contrary to the commonly held belief, the therapeutic time window for MKT is far greater than 6 months, insofar as patients with brain damage caused by trauma or SAH are concerned. Although the benefits of MKT were not proven directly, this inference is consistent with the hypothesis that MKT can induce an improvement in the clinical condition of PVS patients.

  18. Inhibition of REV3 Expression Induces Persistent DNA Damage and Growth Arrest in Cancer Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Knobel, Philip A; Kotov, Ilya N; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela; Stahel, Rolf A; Marti, Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    REV3 is the catalytic subunit of DNA translesion synthesis polymerase ζ. Inhibition of REV3 expression increases the sensitivity of human cells to a variety of DNA-damaging agents and reduces the formation of resistant cells. Surprisingly, we found that short hairpin RNA-mediated depletion of REV3 per se suppresses colony formation of lung (A549, Calu-3), breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231), mesothelioma (IL45 and ZL55), and colon (HCT116 +/-p53) tumor cell lines, whereas control cell lines (AD293, LP9-hTERT) and the normal mesothelial primary culture (SDM104) are less affected. Inhibition of REV3 expression in cancer cells leads to an accumulation of persistent DNA damage as indicated by an increase in phospho-ATM, 53BP1, and phospho-H2AX foci formation, subsequently leading to the activation of the ATM-dependent DNA damage response cascade. REV3 depletion in p53-proficient cancer cell lines results in a G1 arrest and induction of senescence as indicated by the accumulation of p21 and an increase in senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. In contrast, inhibition of REV3 expression in p53-deficient cells results in growth inhibition and a G2/M arrest. A small fraction of the p53-deficient cancer cells can overcome the G2/M arrest, which results in mitotic slippage and aneuploidy. Our findings reveal that REV3 depletion per se suppresses growth of cancer cell lines from different origin, whereas control cell lines and a mesothelial primary culture were less affected. Thus, our findings indicate that depletion of REV3 not only can amend cisplatin-based cancer therapy but also can be applied for susceptible cancers as a potential monotherapy. PMID:22028621

  19. Association of mitochondrial haplogroup J and mtDNA oxidative damage in two different North Spain elderly populations.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Garrido, Elena; Martínez-Redondo, Diana; Martín-Ruiz, Carmen; Gómez-Durán, Aurora; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Madero, Pilar; Tamparillas, Manuel; Montoya, Julio; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; López-Pérez, Manuel J

    2009-08-01

    This work investigates the association between longevity, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants and oxidative DNA damage in an older than 85 years population. The participants, similar in genetic and cultural background as well as gender distribution, come from villages near to the Pyrenees Mountains (900-1,400 m altitude) (n = 69) and the Ebro's Valley (200-300 m altitude) (n = 69) in Spain. Our results show an accumulation of the haplogroup J in elderly individuals with an over-representation of J2 in Pyrenees group but not in the Ebro's Valley, the former associating with a diminished DNA damage. In conclusion, our results suggest that J mitochondrial variant, that induce lower mtDNA damage, could present a phenotypic survival advantage to environmental conditions and, thus, accumulate in elderly population.

  20. Caloric restriction protects livers from ischemia/reperfusion damage by preventing Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition.

    PubMed

    Menezes-Filho, Sergio L; Amigo, Ignacio; Prado, Fernanda M; Ferreira, Natalie C; Koike, Marcia K; Pinto, Isabella F D; Miyamoto, Sayuri; Montero, Edna F S; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2017-09-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) promotes lifespan extension and protects against many pathological conditions, including ischemia/reperfusion injury to the brain, heart and kidney. In the liver, ischemia/reperfusion damage is related to excessive mitochondrial Ca(2+) accumulation, leading to the mitochondrial permeability transition. Indeed, liver mitochondria isolated from animals maintained on CR for 4 months were protected against permeability transition and capable of taking up Ca(2+) at faster rates and in larger quantities. These changes were not related to modifications in mitochondrial respiratory activity, but rather to a higher proportion of ATP relative to ADP in CR liver mitochondria. Accordingly, both depletion of mitochondrial adenine nucleotides and loading mitochondria with exogenous ATP abolished the differences between CR and ad libitum (AL) fed groups. The prevention against permeability transition promoted by CR strongly protected against in vivo liver damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion. Overall, our results show that CR strongly protects the liver against ischemia/reperfusion and uncover a mechanism for this protection, through a yet undescribed diet-induced change in liver mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling related to elevated intramitochondrial ATP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cardiac Light Chain Amyloidosis: The Role of Metal Ions in Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Damage.

    PubMed

    Diomede, Luisa; Romeo, Margherita; Rognoni, Paola; Beeg, Marten; Foray, Claudia; Ghibaudi, Elena; Palladini, Giovanni; Cherny, Robert A; Verga, Laura; Capello, Gian Luca; Perfetti, Vittorio; Fiordaliso, Fabio; Merlini, Giampaolo; Salmona, Mario

    2017-09-20

    The knowledge of the mechanism underlying the cardiac damage in immunoglobulin light chain (LC) amyloidosis (AL) is essential to develop novel therapies and improve patients' outcome. Although an active role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LC-induced cardiotoxicity has already been envisaged, the actual mechanisms behind their generation remain elusive. This study was aimed at further dissecting the action of ROS generated by cardiotoxic LC in vivo and investigating whether transition metal ions are involved in this process. In the absence of reliable vertebrate model of AL, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, whose pharynx is an "ancestral heart." LC purified from patients with severe cardiac involvement intrinsically generated high levels of ROS and when administered to C. elegans induced ROS production, activation of the DAF-16/forkhead transcription factor (FOXO) pathway, and expression of proteins involved in stress resistance and survival. Profound functional and structural ROS-mediated mitochondrial damage, similar to that observed in amyloid-affected hearts from AL patients, was observed. All these effects were entirely dependent on the presence of metal ions since addition of metal chelator or metal-binding 8-hydroxyquinoline compounds (chelex, PBT2, and clioquinol) permanently blocked the ROS production and prevented the cardiotoxic effects of amyloid LC. Innovation and Conclusion: Our findings identify the key role of metal ions in driving the ROS-mediated toxic effects of LC. This is a novel conceptual advance that paves the way for new pharmacological strategies aimed at not only counteracting but also totally inhibiting the vicious cycle of redox damage. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 567-582.

  2. The mitochondrial uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol attenuates tissue damage and improves mitochondrial homeostasis following transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Korde, Amit S; Pettigrew, L Creed; Craddock, Susan D; Maragos, William F

    2005-09-01

    Ischemic stroke is caused by acute neuronal degeneration provoked by interruption of cerebral blood flow. Although the mechanisms contributing to ischemic neuronal degeneration are myriad, mitochondrial dysfunction is now recognized as a pivotal event that can lead to either necrotic or apoptotic neuronal death. Lack of suitable 'upstream' targets to prevent loss of mitochondrial homeostasis has, so far, restricted the development of mechanistically based interventions to promote neuronal survival. Here, we show that the uncoupling agent 2,4 dinitrophenol (DNP) reduces infarct volume approximately 40% in a model of focal ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat brain. The mechanism of protection involves an early decrease in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species formation and calcium uptake leading to improved mitochondrial function and a reduction in the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. The observed effects of DNP were not associated with enhanced cerebral perfusion. These findings indicate that compounds with uncoupling properties may confer neuroprotection through a mechanism involving stabilization of mitochondrial function.

  3. Vitamin E protects against the mitochondrial damage caused by cyclosporin A in LLC-PK1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Arriba, G. de Perez de Hornedo, J.; Ramirez Rubio, S.; Calvino Fernandez, M.; Benito Martinez, S.; Maiques Camarero, M.; Parra Cid, T.

    2009-09-15

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) has nephrotoxic effects known to involve reactive oxygen species (ROS), since antioxidants prevent the kidney damage induced by this drug. Given that mitochondria are among the main sources of intracellular ROS, the aims of our study were to examine the mitochondrial effects of CsA in the porcine renal endothelial cell line LLC-PK1 and the influence of the antioxidant Vitamin E (Vit E). Following the treatment of LLC-PK1 cells with CsA, we assessed the mitochondrial synthesis of superoxide anion, permeability transition pore opening, mitochondrial membrane potential, cardiolipin peroxidation, cytochrome c release and cellular apoptosis, using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy procedures. Similar experiments were done after Vit E preincubation of cells. CsA treatment increased superoxide anion in a dose-dependent way. CsA opened the permeability transition pores, caused Bax migration to mitochondria, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and cardiolipin content. Also CsA released cytochrome c into cytosol and provoked cellular apoptosis. Vit E pretreatment inhibited the effects that CsA induced on mitochondrial structure and function in LLC-PK1 cells and avoided apoptosis. CsA modifies mitochondrial LLC-PK1 cell physiology with loss of negative electrochemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane and increased lipid peroxidation. These features are related to apoptosis and can explain the cellular damage that CsA induces. As Vit E inhibited these effects, our results suggest that they were mediated by an increase in ROS production by mitochondria.

  4. Influence of heavy ions on cell survival, cytogenetic damage and mitochondrial function of human endothelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Sylvia; Helm, Alexander; Lee, Ryonfa; Pollet, Dieter; Durante, Marco

    There is increasing evidence that there is an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease among atomic bomb survivors and radiotherapy patients, typically developing with a long latency. However, essentially no information is available on the potential cardiovascular risks associated with space radiation, in particular heavy ions. To address this issue, we have chosen human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) as a model system. Cells at an early passage number were irradiated with 0.1 to 4 Gy of either 9.8 MeV/u C-ions (LET=170 keV/µm), 91 MeV/u C-ions (LET=29 keV/µm) or 250 kV X-rays. Cells were regularly subcultured up to 40 days (20 population doublings) post-irradiation. Immediately after exposure cell inactivation was deter-mined by the colony forming assay. Furthermore, at selected time-points cytogenetic damage (formation of micronuclei in binucleated cells) and the mitochondrial membrane potential ΨM (flow cytometric analysis following JC-1 staining) were assessed. Measurement of the directly induced radiation damage showed that 9.8 MeV/u and 91 MeV/u C-ions were more effective than X-rays (i.e. about 3 and 2 times, respectively) with respect to cell inactivation or the in-duction of cytogenetic damage. At the subsequent days in the irradiated cultures the number of cells with micronuclei declined to the control level (3-5Altogether our data indicate that under the applied radiation conditions the integrity of mitochondria which play a significant role in the regulation of cardiovascular cell function is not impaired. With respect to directly induced genetic damage C-ions are more effective than X-rays as observed in other cell systems. If the effectiveness of charged particles for the occurrence of late chromosomal damage in endothelial cells is higher than that of sparsely ionizing radiation needs further clarification. The data obtained up to now indicate that sophisticated cytogenetic techniques have to be applied in order to draw any firm

  5. Declines in Drp1 and parkin expression underlie DNA damage-induced changes in mitochondrial length and neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Wang, David B; Garden, Gwenn A; Kinoshita, Chizuru; Wyles, Cody; Babazadeh, Nasim; Sopher, Bryce; Kinoshita, Yoshito; Morrison, Richard S

    2013-01-23

    Maintaining proper mitochondrial length is essential for normal mitochondrial function in neurons. Mitochondrial fragmentation has been associated with neuronal cell death caused by a variety of experimental toxic stressors. Despite the fact that oxidative stress is a hallmark of neurodegenerative conditions and aging and the resulting activation of p53 is believed to contribute to the neuropathology, little is still known regarding changes in mitochondrial morphology in p53-dependent neuronal death. Therefore, we specifically addressed the relationship between genotoxic stress, p53 activation, and the regulation of mitochondrial morphology in neurons. In cultured postnatal mouse cortical neurons, treatment with the DNA-damaging agent camptothecin (CPT) resulted in elongated mitochondria, in contrast to fragmented mitochondria observed upon staurosporine and glutamate treatment. In fibroblasts, however, CPT resulted in fragmented mitochondria. CPT treatment in neurons suppressed expression of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin. The presence of elongated mitochondria and the declines in Drp1 and parkin expression occurred before the commitment point for apoptosis. The CPT-induced changes in Drp1 and parkin were not observed in p53-deficient neurons, while p53 overexpression alone was sufficient to reduce the expression of the two proteins. Elevating Drp1 or parkin expression before CPT treatment enhanced neuronal viability and restored a normal pattern of mitochondrial morphology. The present findings demonstrate that genotoxic stress in neurons results in elongated mitochondria in contrast to fission induced by other forms of stress, and p53-dependent declines in Drp1 and parkin levels contribute to altered mitochondrial morphology and cell death.

  6. HMGB1 facilitates repair of mitochondrial DNA damage and extends the lifespan of mutant ataxin-1 knock-in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hikaru; Fujita, Kyota; Tagawa, Kazuhiko; Chen, Xigui; Homma, Hidenori; Sasabe, Toshikazu; Shimizu, Jun; Shimizu, Shigeomi; Tamura, Takuya; Muramatsu, Shin-ichi; Okazawa, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Mutant ataxin-1 (Atxn1), which causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), binds to and impairs the function of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a crucial nuclear protein that regulates DNA architectural changes essential for DNA damage repair and transcription. In this study, we established that transgenic or virus vector-mediated complementation with HMGB1 ameliorates motor dysfunction and prolongs lifespan in mutant Atxn1 knock-in (Atxn1-KI) mice. We identified mitochondrial DNA damage repair by HMGB1 as a novel molecular basis for this effect, in addition to the mechanisms already associated with HMGB1 function, such as nuclear DNA damage repair and nuclear transcription. The dysfunction and the improvement of mitochondrial DNA damage repair functions are tightly associated with the exacerbation and rescue, respectively, of symptoms, supporting the involvement of mitochondrial DNA quality control by HMGB1 in SCA1 pathology. Moreover, we show that the rescue of Purkinje cell dendrites and dendritic spines by HMGB1 could be downstream effects. Although extracellular HMGB1 triggers inflammation mediated by Toll-like receptor and receptor for advanced glycation end products, upregulation of intracellular HMGB1 does not induce such side effects. Thus, viral delivery of HMGB1 is a candidate approach by which to modify the disease progression of SCA1 even after the onset. PMID:25510912

  7. High intake of saturated fat, but not polyunsaturated fat, improves survival in heart failure despite persistent mitochondrial defects.

    PubMed

    Galvao, Tatiana F; Brown, Bethany H; Hecker, Peter A; O'Connell, Kelly A; O'Shea, Karen M; Sabbah, Hani N; Rastogi, Sharad; Daneault, Caroline; Des Rosiers, Christine; Stanley, William C

    2012-01-01

    The impact of a high-fat diet on the failing heart is unclear, and the differences between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and saturated fat have not been assessed. Here, we compared a standard low-fat diet to high-fat diets enriched with either saturated fat (palmitate and stearate) or PUFA (linoleic and α-linolenic acids) in hamsters with genetic cardiomyopathy. Male δ-sarcoglycan null Bio TO2 hamsters were fed a standard low-fat diet (12% energy from fat), or high-fat diets (45% fat) comprised of either saturated fat or PUFA. The median survival was increased by the high saturated fat diet (P< 0.01; 278 days with standard diet and 361 days with high saturated fat)), but not with high PUFA (260 days) (n = 30-35/group). Body mass was modestly elevated (∼10%) in both high fat groups. Subgroups evaluated after 24 weeks had similar left ventricular chamber size, function, and mass. Mitochondrial oxidative enzyme activity and the yield of interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM) were decreased to a similar extent in all TO2 groups compared with normal F1B hamsters. Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening was enhanced in IFM in all TO2 groups compared with F1B hamsters, but to a significantly greater extent in those fed the high PUFA diet compared with the standard or high saturated fat diet. These results show that a high intake of saturated fat improves survival in heart failure compared with a high PUFA diet or low-fat diet, despite persistent mitochondrial defects.

  8. Irreparable telomeric DNA damage and persistent DDR signalling as a shared causative mechanism of cellular senescence and ageing.

    PubMed

    Rossiello, Francesca; Herbig, Utz; Longhese, Maria Pia; Fumagalli, Marzia; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio

    2014-06-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) orchestrates DNA repair and halts cell cycle. If damage is not resolved, cells can enter into an irreversible state of proliferative arrest called cellular senescence. Organismal ageing in mammals is associated with accumulation of markers of cellular senescence and DDR persistence at telomeres. Since the vast majority of the cells in mammals are non-proliferating, how do they age? Are telomeres involved? Also oncogene activation causes cellular senescence due to altered DNA replication and DDR activation in particular at the telomeres. Is there a common mechanism shared among apparently distinct types of cellular senescence? And what is the role of telomeric DNA damage?

  9. Mutations of the Thyroid Hormone Transporter MCT8 Cause Prenatal Brain Damage and Persistent Hypomyelination

    PubMed Central

    López-Espíndola, Daniela; Morales-Bastos, Carmen; Grijota-Martínez, Carmen; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Lev, Dorit; Sugo, Ella; Verge, Charles F.; Refetoff, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Context: Mutations in the MCT8 (SLC16A2) gene, encoding a specific thyroid hormone transporter, cause an X-linked disease with profound psychomotor retardation, neurological impairment, and abnormal serum thyroid hormone levels. The nature of the central nervous system damage is unknown. Objective: The objective of the study was to define the neuropathology of the syndrome by analyzing brain tissue sections from MCT8-deficient subjects. Design: We analyzed brain sections from a 30th gestational week male fetus and an 11-year-old boy and as controls, brain tissue from a 30th and 28th gestational week male and female fetuses, respectively, and a 10-year-old girl and a 12-year-old boy. Methods: Staining with hematoxylin-eosin and immunostaining for myelin basic protein, 70-kDa neurofilament, parvalbumin, calbindin-D28k, and synaptophysin were performed. Thyroid hormone determinations and quantitative PCR for deiodinases were also performed. Results: The MCT8-deficient fetus showed a delay in cortical and cerebellar development and myelination, loss of parvalbumin expression, abnormal calbindin-D28k content, impaired axonal maturation, and diminished biochemical differentiation of Purkinje cells. The 11-year-old boy showed altered cerebellar structure, deficient myelination, deficient synaptophysin and parvalbumin expression, and abnormal calbindin-D28k expression. The MCT8-deficient fetal cerebral cortex showed 50% reduction of thyroid hormones and increased type 2 deiodinase and decreased type 3 deiodinase mRNAs. Conclusions: The following conclusions were reached: 1) brain damage in MCT8 deficiency is diffuse, without evidence of focal lesions, and present from fetal stages despite apparent normality at birth; 2) deficient hypomyelination persists up to 11 years of age; and 3) the findings are compatible with the deficient action of thyroid hormones in the developing brain caused by impaired transport to the target neural cells. PMID:25222753

  10. Persistence of Space Radiation Induced Cytogenetic Damage in the Blood Lymphocytes of Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2008-01-01

    Cytogenetic damage in astronaut's peripheral blood lymphocytes is a useful in vivo marker of space radiation induced damage. Moreover, if radiation induced chromosome translocations persist in peripheral blood lymphocytes for many years, as has been assumed, they could potentially be used to measure retrospective doses or prolonged low dose rate exposures. However, as more data becomes available, evidence suggests that the yield of translocations may decline with time after exposure, at least in the case of space radiation exposures. We present our latest follow-up measurements of chromosome aberrations in astronauts blood lymphocytes assessed by FISH painting and collected a various times beginning directly after return from space to several years after flight. For most individuals the analysis of individual time-courses for translocations revealed a temporal decline of yields with different half-lives. Since the level of stable aberrations depends on the interplay between natural loss of circulating T-lymphocytes and replenishment from the stem or progenitor cells, the differences in the rates of decay could be explained by inter-individual variation in lymphocyte turn over. Biodosimetry estimates derived from cytogenetic analysis of samples collected a few days after return to earth lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry. However, a temporal decline in yields may indicate complications with the use of stable aberrations for retrospective dose reconstruction, and the differences in the decay time may reflect individual variability in risk from space radiation exposure. In addition, limited data on multiple flights show a lack of correlation between time in space and translocation yields. Data from one crewmember who has participated in two separate long-duration space missions and has been followed up for over 10 years provides limited information on the effect of repeat flights and show a possible adaptive response to space radiation exposure.

  11. Mutations of the thyroid hormone transporter MCT8 cause prenatal brain damage and persistent hypomyelination.

    PubMed

    López-Espíndola, Daniela; Morales-Bastos, Carmen; Grijota-Martínez, Carmen; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Lev, Dorit; Sugo, Ella; Verge, Charles F; Refetoff, Samuel; Bernal, Juan; Guadaño-Ferraz, Ana

    2014-12-01

    Mutations in the MCT8 (SLC16A2) gene, encoding a specific thyroid hormone transporter, cause an X-linked disease with profound psychomotor retardation, neurological impairment, and abnormal serum thyroid hormone levels. The nature of the central nervous system damage is unknown. The objective of the study was to define the neuropathology of the syndrome by analyzing brain tissue sections from MCT8-deficient subjects. We analyzed brain sections from a 30th gestational week male fetus and an 11-year-old boy and as controls, brain tissue from a 30th and 28th gestational week male and female fetuses, respectively, and a 10-year-old girl and a 12-year-old boy. Staining with hematoxylin-eosin and immunostaining for myelin basic protein, 70-kDa neurofilament, parvalbumin, calbindin-D28k, and synaptophysin were performed. Thyroid hormone determinations and quantitative PCR for deiodinases were also performed. The MCT8-deficient fetus showed a delay in cortical and cerebellar development and myelination, loss of parvalbumin expression, abnormal calbindin-D28k content, impaired axonal maturation, and diminished biochemical differentiation of Purkinje cells. The 11-year-old boy showed altered cerebellar structure, deficient myelination, deficient synaptophysin and parvalbumin expression, and abnormal calbindin-D28k expression. The MCT8-deficient fetal cerebral cortex showed 50% reduction of thyroid hormones and increased type 2 deiodinase and decreased type 3 deiodinase mRNAs. The following conclusions were reached: 1) brain damage in MCT8 deficiency is diffuse, without evidence of focal lesions, and present from fetal stages despite apparent normality at birth; 2) deficient hypomyelination persists up to 11 years of age; and 3) the findings are compatible with the deficient action of thyroid hormones in the developing brain caused by impaired transport to the target neural cells.

  12. Exposure to environmentally persistent free radicals during gestation lowers energy expenditure and impairs skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Erin J.; Ragauskas, Alyse; Jaligama, Sridhar; Redd, JeAnna R.; Parvathareddy, Jyothi; Peloquin, Matthew J.; Saravia, Jordy; Han, Joan C.; Cormier, Stephania A.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of in utero exposure to environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) on growth, metabolism, energy utilization, and skeletal muscle mitochondria in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Pregnant mice were treated with laboratory-generated, combustion-derived particular matter (MCP230). The adult offspring were placed on a high-fat diet for 12 wk, after which we observed a 9.8% increase in their body weight. The increase in body size observed in the MCP230-exposed mice was not associated with increases in food intake but was associated with a reduction in physical activity and lower energy expenditure. The reduced energy expenditure in mice indirectly exposed to MCP230 was associated with reductions in skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA copy number, lower mRNA levels of electron transport genes, and reduced citrate synthase activity. Upregulation of key genes involved in ameliorating oxidative stress was also observed in the muscle of MCP230-exposed mice. These findings suggest that gestational exposure to MCP230 leads to a reduction in energy expenditure at least in part through alterations to mitochondrial metabolism in the skeletal muscle. PMID:27117006

  13. Mitochondrial Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Mitochondrial diseases are a group of metabolic disorders. Mitochondria are ... cells and cause damage. The symptoms of mitochondrial disease can vary. It depends on how many mitochondria ...

  14. Reverse of age-dependent memory impairment and mitochondrial DNA damage in microglia by an overexpression of human mitochondrial transcription factor a in mice.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Masayoshi; Yamato, Mayumi; Ide, Tomomi; Wu, Zhou; Ochi-Shindou, Mayumi; Kanki, Tomotake; Kang, Dongchon; Sunagawa, Kenji; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2008-08-20

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is highly susceptible to injury induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). During aging, mutations of mtDNA accumulate to induce dysfunction of the respiratory chain, resulting in the enhanced ROS production. Therefore, age-dependent memory impairment may result from oxidative stress derived from the respiratory chain. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is now known to have roles not only in the replication of mtDNA but also its maintenance. We herein report that an overexpression of TFAM in HeLa cells significantly inhibited rotenone-induced mitochondrial ROS generation and the subsequent NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappaB) nuclear translocation. Furthermore, TFAM transgenic (TG) mice exhibited a prominent amelioration of an age-dependent accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and a decline in the activities of complexes I and IV in the brain. In the aged TG mice, deficits of the motor learning memory, the working memory, and the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) were also significantly improved. The expression level of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and mtDNA damages, which were predominantly found in microglia, significantly decreased in the aged TG mice. The IL-1beta amount markedly increased in the brain of the TG mice after treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), whereas its mean amount was significantly lower than that of the LPS-treated aged wild-type mice. At the same time, an increased mtDNA damage in microglia and an impaired hippocampal LTP were also observed in the LPS-treated aged TG mice. Together, an overexpression of TFAM is therefore considered to ameliorate age-dependent impairment of the brain functions through the prevention of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in microglia.

  15. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    SciTech Connect

    Cheshchevik, V.T.; Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V.; Reiter, R.J.; Prokopchik, N.I.; Zavodnik, I.B.

    2012-06-15

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage

  16. Melatonin reduces oxidant damage and promotes mitochondrial respiration: implications for aging.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Russel J; Tan, Dun Xian; Manchester, Lucien C; El-Sawi, Mamdouh R

    2002-04-01

    Melatonin has a number of properties as a consequence of which it could be beneficial to animals as they age. Of particular interest are its ubiquitous actions as a direct and indirect antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Besides directly detoxifying a variety of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, at least one product that is formed as a result of these interactions is also a potent free radical scavenger. Thus, the product that is formed when melatonin detoxifies hydrogen peroxide, that is, N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine is an efficient scavenger, at least equivalent to melatonin itself. This antioxidant cascade increases the ability of melatonin to resist oxidative damage. Other actions of melatonin, such as stimulation of antioxidative enzymes also improves its status as an antioxidant. Finally, recent observations documenting melatonin's ability to stimulate electron transport and ATP production in the inner-mitochondrial membrane also has relevance for melatonin as an agent that could alter processes of aging. These findings, coupled with diminished melatonin production in advanced age, has prompted scientists to consider melatonin in the context of aging. As of this writing there is no definitive evidence to prove that melatonin alters the rate of aging, although data relating to melatonin deferring some age-related degenerative conditions is accumulating rapidly.

  17. Mitochondrial support of persistent presynaptic vesicle mobilization with age-dependent synaptic growth after LTP

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Heather L; Bourne, Jennifer N; Cao, Guan; Chirillo, Michael A; Ostroff, Linnaea E; Watson, Deborah J; Harris, Kristen M

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria support synaptic transmission through production of ATP, sequestration of calcium, synthesis of glutamate, and other vital functions. Surprisingly, less than 50% of hippocampal CA1 presynaptic boutons contain mitochondria, raising the question of whether synapses without mitochondria can sustain changes in efficacy. To address this question, we analyzed synapses from postnatal day 15 (P15) and adult rat hippocampus that had undergone theta-burst stimulation to produce long-term potentiation (TBS-LTP) and compared them to control or no stimulation. At 30 and 120 min after TBS-LTP, vesicles were decreased only in presynaptic boutons that contained mitochondria at P15, and vesicle decrement was greatest in adult boutons containing mitochondria. Presynaptic mitochondrial cristae were widened, suggesting a sustained energy demand. Thus, mitochondrial proximity reflected enhanced vesicle mobilization well after potentiation reached asymptote, in parallel with the apparently silent addition of new dendritic spines at P15 or the silent enlargement of synapses in adults. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15275.001 PMID:27991850

  18. Contribution of inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthases to mitochondrial damage and melatonin rescue in LPS-treated mice.

    PubMed

    García, José Antonio; Ortiz, Francisco; Miana, Javier; Doerrier, Carolina; Fernández-Ortiz, Marisol; Rusanova, Iryna; Escames, Germaine; García, José Joaquín; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2017-05-01

    NOS isoform activation is related to liver failure during sepsis, but the mechanisms driving mitochondrial impairment remain unclear. We induced sepsis by LPS administration to inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS(-/-)) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS(-/-)) mice and their respective wild-type controls to examine the contribution of iNOS to mitochondrial failure in the absence of nNOS. To achieve this goal, the determination of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and protein content of iNOS in cytosol and mitochondria, the mitochondrial respiratory complex content, and the levels of nitrosative and oxidative stress (by measuring 3-nitrotyrosine residues and carbonyl groups, respectively) were examined in the liver of control and septic mice. We detected strongly elevated iNOS mRNA expression and protein levels in liver cytosol and mitochondria of septic mice, which were related to enhanced oxidative and nitrosative stress, and with fewer changes in respiratory complexes. The absence of the iNOS, but not nNOS, gene absolutely prevented mitochondrial impairment during sepsis. Moreover, the nNOS gene did not modify the expression and the effects of iNOS here shown. Melatonin administration counteracted iNOS activation and mitochondrial damage and enhanced the expression of the respiratory complexes above the control values. These effects were unrelated to the presence or absence of nNOS. iNOS is a main target to prevent liver mitochondrial impairment during sepsis, and melatonin represents an efficient antagonist of these iNOS-dependent effects whereas it may boost mitochondrial respiration to enhance liver survival.

  19. Extracellular Mitochondria and Mitochondrial Components Act as Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules in the Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Heather M; Koppel, Scott J; Weidling, Ian W; Roy, Nairita; Ryan, Lauren N; Stanford, John A; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondria and mitochondrial debris are found in the brain's extracellular space, and extracellular mitochondrial components can act as damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules. To characterize the effects of potential mitochondrial DAMP molecules on neuroinflammation, we injected either isolated mitochondria or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into hippocampi of C57BL/6 mice and seven days later measured markers of inflammation. Brains injected with whole mitochondria showed increased Tnfα and decreased Trem2 mRNA, increased GFAP protein, and increased NFκB phosphorylation. Some of these effects were also observed in brains injected with mtDNA (decreased Trem2 mRNA, increased GFAP protein, and increased NFκB phosphorylation), and mtDNA injection also caused several unique changes including increased CSF1R protein and AKT phosphorylation. To further establish the potential relevance of this response to Alzheimer's disease (AD), a brain disorder characterized by neurodegeneration, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuroinflammation we also measured App mRNA, APP protein, and Aβ1-42 levels. We found mitochondria (but not mtDNA) injections increased these parameters. Our data show that in the mouse brain extracellular mitochondria and its components can induce neuroinflammation, extracellular mtDNA or mtDNA-associated proteins can contribute to this effect, and mitochondria derived-DAMP molecules can influence AD-associated biomarkers.

  20. Supplementation of T3 Recovers Hypothyroid Rat Liver Cells from Oxidatively Damaged Inner Mitochondrial Membrane Leading to Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sutapa; Samanta, Luna; Roy, Anita; Bhanja, Shravani; Chainy, Gagan B. N.

    2014-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a growing medical concern. There are conflicting reports regarding the mechanism of oxidative stress in hypothyroidism. Mitochondrial oxidative stress is pivotal to thyroid dysfunction. The present study aimed to delineate the effects of hepatic inner mitochondrial membrane dysfunction as a consequence of 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in rats. Increased oxidative stress predominance in the submitochondrial particles (SMP) and altered antioxidant defenses in the mitochondrial matrix fraction correlated with hepatocyte apoptosis. In order to check whether the effects caused by hypothyroidism are reversed by T3, the above parameters were evaluated in a subset of T3-treated hypothyroid rats. Complex I activity was inhibited in hypothyroid SMP, whereas T3 supplementation upregulated electron transport chain complexes. Higher mitochondrial H2O2 levels in hypothyroidism due to reduced matrix GPx activity culminated in severe oxidative damage to membrane lipids. SMP and matrix proteins were stabilised in hypothyroidism but exhibited increased carbonylation after T3 administration. Glutathione content was higher in both. Hepatocyte apoptosis was evident in hypothyroid liver sections; T3 administration, on the other hand, exerted antiapoptotic and proproliferative effects. Hence, thyroid hormone level critically regulates functional integrity of hepatic mitochondria; hypothyroidism injures mitochondrial membrane lipids leading to hepatocyte apoptosis, which is substantially recovered upon T3 supplementation. PMID:24987693

  1. Supplementation of T3 recovers hypothyroid rat liver cells from oxidatively damaged inner mitochondrial membrane leading to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sutapa; Samanta, Luna; Roy, Anita; Bhanja, Shravani; Chainy, Gagan B N

    2014-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a growing medical concern. There are conflicting reports regarding the mechanism of oxidative stress in hypothyroidism. Mitochondrial oxidative stress is pivotal to thyroid dysfunction. The present study aimed to delineate the effects of hepatic inner mitochondrial membrane dysfunction as a consequence of 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in rats. Increased oxidative stress predominance in the submitochondrial particles (SMP) and altered antioxidant defenses in the mitochondrial matrix fraction correlated with hepatocyte apoptosis. In order to check whether the effects caused by hypothyroidism are reversed by T3, the above parameters were evaluated in a subset of T3-treated hypothyroid rats. Complex I activity was inhibited in hypothyroid SMP, whereas T3 supplementation upregulated electron transport chain complexes. Higher mitochondrial H2O2 levels in hypothyroidism due to reduced matrix GPx activity culminated in severe oxidative damage to membrane lipids. SMP and matrix proteins were stabilised in hypothyroidism but exhibited increased carbonylation after T3 administration. Glutathione content was higher in both. Hepatocyte apoptosis was evident in hypothyroid liver sections; T3 administration, on the other hand, exerted antiapoptotic and proproliferative effects. Hence, thyroid hormone level critically regulates functional integrity of hepatic mitochondria; hypothyroidism injures mitochondrial membrane lipids leading to hepatocyte apoptosis, which is substantially recovered upon T3 supplementation.

  2. Patterns of persistent DNA damage associated with sun exposure and the glutathione S-transferase M1 genotype in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Mark L; Hubbard, Karen; Utti, Charles; Clas, Brian; Hwang, Bor-Jang; Hill, Helene Z; Orlow, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Solar radiation can lead to changes affecting DNA metabolism resulting in loss of DNA integrity. Skin specimens obtained from melanoma patients treated at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center were used to study patterns of DNA fragmentation using the comet assay and levels of deletions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) using real-time PCR. Skin specimens were classified according to the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) genotype (either wild type [WT] or null) and patient sunburn history. GSTM1 null individuals with a sunburn history showed increased levels of both DNA fragmentation by comet assays and mtDNA deletions relative to GSTM1 WT patients with little or no sunburn history. Microarray analyses identified a number of genes whose expression was upregulated >or=5-fold in cells from GSTM1-null patients or from those reporting histories of sunburn. These genes encoded small molecule transporters, various growth factor/chemokine receptors, transcription factors and tumor suppressors. Of 17 genes directly involved in DNA repair, three DNA ligases were highly upregulated while the RAD23 UV excision repair gene and the Growth Arrest and DNA Damage gene (GADD45) were downregulated. These findings support the idea that exposure to solar radiation early in life may induce long-term cellular changes that lead to persistent DNA damage and altered patterns of gene expression.

  3. Short-term exercise training protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiac mitochondrial damage independent of HSP72.

    PubMed

    Kavazis, Andreas N; Smuder, Ashley J; Min, Kisuk; Tümer, Nihal; Powers, Scott K

    2010-11-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an antitumor agent used in cancer treatment, but its clinical use is limited due to cardiotoxicity. Although exercise training can defend against Dox-mediated cardiac damage, the means for this cardioprotection remain unknown. To investigate the mechanism(s) responsible for exercise training-induced cardioprotection against Dox-mediated cardiotoxicity, we tested a two-pronged hypothesis: 1) exercise training protects against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity by preventing Dox-mediated mitochondrial damage/dysfunction and increased oxidative stress and 2) exercise training-induced cardiac expression of the inducible isoform of the 70-kDa heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) is essential to achieve exercise training-induced cardioprotection against Dox toxicity. Animals were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise groups and paired with either placebo or Dox treatment (i.e., 20 mg/kg body wt ip Dox hydrochloride 24 h before euthanasia). Dox administration resulted in cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction, activation of proteases, and apoptosis. Exercise training increased cardiac antioxidant enzymes and HSP72 protein abundance and protected cardiac myocytes against Dox-induced mitochondrial damage, protease activation, and apoptosis. To determine whether exercise-induced expression of HSP72 in the heart is required for this cardioprotection, we utilized an innovative experimental strategy that successfully prevented exercise-induced increases in myocardial HSP72 levels. However, prevention of exercise-induced increases in myocardial HSP72 did not eliminate the exercise-induced cardioprotective phenotype that is resistant to Dox-mediated injury. Our results indicate that exercise training protects against the detrimental side effects of Dox in cardiac myocytes, in part, by protecting mitochondria against Dox-mediated damage. However, this exercise-induced cardioprotection is independent of myocardial HSP72 levels. Finally, our data are consistent with the

  4. Impact of a Novel PI3-KINASE Inhibitor in Preventing Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Damage Associated Molecular Pattern Accumulation: Results from the Biochronicity Project.

    PubMed

    Black, George E; Sokol, Kyle K; Moe, Donald M; Simmons, Jon; Muscat, David; Pastukh, Victor; Capley, Gina; Gorodnya, Olena; Ruchko, Mykhalo; Roth, Mark B; Gillespie, Mark; Martin, Matthew J

    2017-05-22

    Despite improvements in the management of severely injured patients, development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) remains a morbid complication of traumatic shock. One of the key attributes of MODS is a profound bioenergetics crisis, for which the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that metabolic uncoupling using an experimental PI3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002 (LY), may prevent mitochondrial abnormalities that lead to the generation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and the release of mtDNA damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) METHODS: 16 swine were studied using LY294002 (LY), a non-selective PI3-KI: Animals were assigned to Trauma only (TO, N=3); LY drug only (LYO, N=3); and Experimental (N=10), trauma + drug (LY+T) groups. Both trauma groups underwent laparotomy, 35% hemorrhage, severe ischemia/reperfusion injury, and protocolized resuscitation. A battery of hemodynamic, laboratory, histologic, and bioenergetic parameters were monitored. mtDNA damage was determined in lung, liver, and kidney using Southern blot analyses, while plasma mtDNA DAMP analysis employed PCR amplification of a 200 bp sequence of the mtDNA D-loop region. Relative to control animals, H+I/R produced severe, time dependent decrements in hepatic, renal, cardiovascular, and pulmonary function accompanied by severe acidosis and lactate accumulation indicative of bioenergetics insufficiency. The H-I/R-animals displayed prominent oxidative mtDNA damage in all organs studied, with the most prominent damage in the liver. mtDNA damage was accompanied by accumulation of mtDNA DAMPs in plasma. Pre-treatment of H+I/R animals with LY294002 resulted in profound metabolic suppression, with approximate 50% decreases in O2 consumption and CO2 production. In addition, it prevented organ and bioenergetics dysfunction and was associated with a significant decrease in plasma mtDNA DAMPs to the levels of control animals. These findings show that H+I/R injury in

  5. SIRT4 has tumor suppressive activity and regulates the cellular metabolic response to DNA damage by inhibiting mitochondrial glutamine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seung Min; Xiao, Cuiying; Finley, Lydia W.S; Lahusen, Tyler; Souza, Amanda L.; Pierce, Kerry; Li, Ying-Hua; Wang, Xiaoxu; Laurent, Gaëlle; German, Natalie J.; Xu, Xiaoling; Li, Cuiling; Wang, Rui-Hong; Lee, Jaewon; Csibi, Alfredo; Cerione, Richard; Blenis, John; Clish, Clary B.; Kimmelman, Alec; Deng, Chu-Xia; Haigis, Marcia C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY DNA damage elicits a cellular signaling response that initiates cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. Here we find that DNA damage triggers a critical block in glutamine metabolism, which is required for proper DNA damage responses. This block requires the mitochondrial SIRT4, which is induced by numerous genotoxic agents and represses the metabolism of glutamine into TCA cycle. SIRT4 loss leads to both increased glutamine-dependent proliferation and stress-induced genomic instability, resulting in tumorigenic phenotypes. Moreover, SIRT4 knockout mice spontaneously develop lung tumors. Our data uncover SIRT4 as an important component of the DNA damage response pathway that orchestrates a metabolic block in glutamine metabolism, cell cycle arrest and tumor suppression. PMID:23562301

  6. Effects of airborne toxicants on pulmonary function and mitochondrial DNA damage in rodent lungs.

    PubMed

    Rumsey, William L; Bolognese, Brian; Davis, Alicia B; Flamberg, Pearl L; Foley, Joseph P; Katchur, Steven R; Kotzer, Charles J; Osborn, Ruth R; Podolin, Patricia L

    2017-05-01

    Inhalation of airborne toxicants such as cigarette smoke and ozone is a shared health risk among the world's populations. The use of toxic herbicides like paraquat (PQ) is restricted by many countries, yet in the developing world PQ has demonstrable ill effects. The present study examined changes in pulmonary function, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity and markers of DNA repair induced by acute or repeated exposure of PQ to rats. Similar to cigarette smoke and ozone, PQ promotes oxidative stress, and the impact of PQ on mtDNA was compared with that obtained with these agents. Tracheal instillation (i.t.) of PQ (0.01-0.075 mg/kg) dose dependently increased Penh (dyspnoea) by 48 h while body weight and temperature declined. Lung wet weight and the wet/dry weight ratio rose; for the latter, by as much as 52%. At low doses (0.02 and 0.03 mg/kg), PQ increased Penh by about 7.5-fold at 72 h. It quickly waned to near baseline levels. The lung wet/dry weight ratio remained elevated 7 days after administration coincident with marked inflammatory cell infiltrate. Repeated administration of PQ (1 per week for 8 weeks) resulted in a similar rise in Penh on the first instillation, but the magnitude of this response was markedly attenuated upon subsequent exposures. Pulmonary [lactate] and catalase activity, [8-oxodG] and histone fragmentation (cell death) were significantly increased. Repeated PQ instillation downregulated the expression of the mitochondrial-encoded genes, mtATP8, mtNd2 and mtcyB and nuclear ones for the DNA glycosylases, Ogg1, Neil1, Neil2 and Neil3. Ogg1 protein content decreased after acute and repeated PQ administration. mtDNA damage or changes in mtDNA copy number were evident in lungs of PQ-, cigarette smoke- and ozone-exposed animals. Taken together, these data indicate that loss of pulmonary function and inflammation are coupled to the loss of mtDNA integrity and DNA repair capability following exposure to airborne toxicants. © The Author 2016

  7. Parallel damage in mitochondrial and lysosomal compartments promotes efficient cell death with autophagy: The case of the pentacyclic triterpenoids

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Waleska K.; Costa, Érico T.; Cruz, Mário C.; Stolf, Beatriz S.; Miotto, Ronei; Cordeiro, Rodrigo M.; Baptista, Maurício S.

    2015-01-01

    The role of autophagy in cell death is still controversial and a lot of debate has concerned the transition from its pro-survival to its pro-death roles. The similar structure of the triterpenoids Betulinic (BA) and Oleanolic (OA) acids allowed us to prove that this transition involves parallel damage in mitochondria and lysosome. After treating immortalized human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) with either BA or OA, we evaluated cell viability, proliferation and mechanism of cell death, function and morphology of mitochondria and lysosomes, and the status of the autophagy flux. We also quantified the interactions of BA and OA with membrane mimics, both in-vitro and in-silico. Essentially, OA caused mitochondrial damage that relied on autophagy to rescue cellular homeostasis, which failed upon lysosomal inhibition by Chloroquine or Bafilomycin-A1. BA caused parallel damage on mitochondria and lysosome, turning autophagy into a destructive process. The higher cytotoxicity of BA correlated with its stronger efficiency in damaging membrane mimics. Based on these findings, we underlined the concept that autophagy will turn into a destructive outcome when there is parallel damage in mitochondrial and lysosomal membranes. We trust that this concept will help the development of new drugs against aggressive cancers. PMID:26213355

  8. Parallel damage in mitochondrial and lysosomal compartments promotes efficient cell death with autophagy: The case of the pentacyclic triterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Martins, Waleska K; Costa, Érico T; Cruz, Mário C; Stolf, Beatriz S; Miotto, Ronei; Cordeiro, Rodrigo M; Baptista, Maurício S

    2015-07-27

    The role of autophagy in cell death is still controversial and a lot of debate has concerned the transition from its pro-survival to its pro-death roles. The similar structure of the triterpenoids Betulinic (BA) and Oleanolic (OA) acids allowed us to prove that this transition involves parallel damage in mitochondria and lysosome. After treating immortalized human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) with either BA or OA, we evaluated cell viability, proliferation and mechanism of cell death, function and morphology of mitochondria and lysosomes, and the status of the autophagy flux. We also quantified the interactions of BA and OA with membrane mimics, both in-vitro and in-silico. Essentially, OA caused mitochondrial damage that relied on autophagy to rescue cellular homeostasis, which failed upon lysosomal inhibition by Chloroquine or Bafilomycin-A1. BA caused parallel damage on mitochondria and lysosome, turning autophagy into a destructive process. The higher cytotoxicity of BA correlated with its stronger efficiency in damaging membrane mimics. Based on these findings, we underlined the concept that autophagy will turn into a destructive outcome when there is parallel damage in mitochondrial and lysosomal membranes. We trust that this concept will help the development of new drugs against aggressive cancers.

  9. Lanatoside C suppressed colorectal cancer cell growth by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and increased radiation sensitivity by impairing DNA damage repair.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mi Ae; Kim, Mi-Sook; Kim, Wonwoo; Um, Jee-Hyun; Shin, Young-Joo; Song, Jie-Young; Jeong, Jae-Hoon

    2016-02-02

    Cardiac glycosides are clinically used for cardiac arrhythmias. In this study, we investigated the mechanism responsible for anti-cancer and radiosensitizing effects of lanatoside C in colorectal cancer cells. Lanatoside C-treated cells showed classic patterns of autophagy, which may have been caused by lanatoside C-induced mitochondrial aggregation or degeneration. This mitochondrial dysfunction was due to disruption of K+ homeostasis, possibly through inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase activity. In addition, lanatoside C sensitized HCT116 cells (but not HT-29 cells) to radiation in vitro. γ-H2AX, a representative marker of DNA damage, were sustained longer after combination of irradiation with lanatoside C, suggesting lanatoside C impaired DNA damage repair processes. Recruitment of 53BP1 to damaged DNA, a critical initiation step for DNA damage repair signaling, was significantly suppressed in lanatoside C-treated HCT116 cells. This may have been due to defects in the RNF8- and RNF168-dependent degradation of KDM4A/JMJD2A that increases 53BP1 recruitment to DNA damage sites. Although lanatoside C alone reduced tumor growth in the mouse xenograft tumor model, combination of lanatoside C and radiation inhibited tumor growth more than single treatments. Thus, lanatoside C could be a potential molecule for anti-cancer drugs and radiosensitizing agents.

  10. Lanatoside C suppressed colorectal cancer cell growth by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and increased radiation sensitivity by impairing DNA damage repair

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mi Ae; Kim, Mi-Sook; Kim, Wonwoo; Um, Jee-Hyun; Shin, Young-Joo; Song, Jie-Young; Jeong, Jae-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides are clinically used for cardiac arrhythmias. In this study, we investigated the mechanism responsible for anti-cancer and radiosensitizing effects of lanatoside C in colorectal cancer cells. Lanatoside C-treated cells showed classic patterns of autophagy, which may have been caused by lanatoside C-induced mitochondrial aggregation or degeneration. This mitochondrial dysfunction was due to disruption of K+ homeostasis, possibly through inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase activity. In addition, lanatoside C sensitized HCT116 cells (but not HT-29 cells) to radiation in vitro. γ-H2AX, a representative marker of DNA damage, were sustained longer after combination of irradiation with lanatoside C, suggesting lanatoside C impaired DNA damage repair processes. Recruitment of 53BP1 to damaged DNA, a critical initiation step for DNA damage repair signaling, was significantly suppressed in lanatoside C-treated HCT116 cells. This may have been due to defects in the RNF8- and RNF168-dependent degradation of KDM4A/JMJD2A that increases 53BP1 recruitment to DNA damage sites. Although lanatoside C alone reduced tumor growth in the mouse xenograft tumor model, combination of lanatoside C and radiation inhibited tumor growth more than single treatments. Thus, lanatoside C could be a potential molecule for anti-cancer drugs and radiosensitizing agents. PMID:26756216

  11. Benefits of invasion prevention: Effect of time lags, spread rates, and damage persistence

    Treesearch

    Rebecca S. Epanchin-Niell; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying economic damages caused by invasive species is crucial for cost-benefit analyses of biosecurity measures. Most studies focus on short-term damage estimates, but evaluating exclusion or prevention measures requires estimates of total anticipated damages from the time of establishment onward. The magnitude of such damages critically depends on the timing of...

  12. Transgenic expression of the deoxynucleotide carrier causes mitochondrial damage that is enhanced by NRTIs for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lewis, William; Haase, Chad P; Miller, Yoon K; Ferguson, Brandy; Stuart, Tami; Ludaway, Tomika; McNaught, Jamie; Russ, Rodney; Steltzer, Jeffrey; Santoianni, Robert; Long, Robert; Fiermonte, Giuseppe; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2005-08-01

    Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are antiretrovirals for AIDS with limiting mitochondrial side effects. The mitochondrial deoxynucleotide carrier (DNC) transports phosphorylated nucleosides for mitochondrial DNA replication and can transport phosphorylated NRTIs into mitochondria. Transgenic mice (TG) that exclusively overexpress DNC in the heart tested DNC's role in mitochondrial dysfunction from NRTIs. Two TG lines were created that overexpressed the human DNC gene in murine myocardium. Cardiac and mitochondrial structure and function were examined by magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, electrocardiography, transmission electron microscopy, and plasma lactate. Antiretroviral combinations (HAART) that contained NRTIs (stavudine (2', 3'-didehydro-2', 3'-deoxythymidine or d4T)/lamivudine/indinavir; or zidovudine (3' azido-3'-deoxythymidine or AZT)/lamivudine/indinavir; 35 days) were administered to simulate AIDS therapy. In parallel, a HAART combination without NRTIs (nevirapine/efavirenz/indinavir; 35 days) served as an NRTI-sparing, control regimen. Untreated DNC TGs exhibited normal cardiac function but abnormal mitochondrial ultrastructure. HAART that contained NRTIs caused cardiomyopathy in TGs with increased left ventricle mass and volume, heart rate variability, and worse mitochondrial ultrastructural defects. In contrast, treatment with an NRTI-sparing HAART regimen caused no cardiac changes. Data suggest the DNC is integral to mitochondrial homeostasis in vivo and may relate mechanistically to mitochondrial dysfunction in patients treated with HAART regimens that contain NRTIs.

  13. Persistent T-wave inversion predicts myocardial damage after ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Reindl, Martin; Reinstadler, Sebastian Johannes; Feistritzer, Hans-Josef; Niess, Lea; Koch, Constantin; Mayr, Agnes; Klug, Gert; Metzler, Bernhard

    2017-08-15

    Persistent T-wave inversion (PTI) after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is associated with worse clinical outcome; however, the underlying mechanism between PTI and poor prognosis is incompletely understood. We sought to investigate the relationship between PTI and myocardial damage assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) following STEMI. In this prospective observational study, we included 142 consecutive revascularized STEMI patients. Electrocardiography to determine the presence and amplitude of PTI and pathological Q-waves was conducted 4months after infarction. CMR was performed within 1week after infarction and at 4months follow-up to evaluate infarct characteristics and myocardial function. Patients with PTI (n=103, 73%) showed a larger acute (21[11-29] vs. 6[1-13]%; p<0.001) and chronic infarct size (IS) (14[8-19] vs. 3[1-8]%; p<0.001) and more frequently microvascular obstruction (59 vs. 33%; p=0.02). The association between PTI and chronic IS remained significant (odds ratio: 9.02, 95%CI 3.49-23.35; p<0.001) after adjustment for pathological Q-wave and other IS estimators (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T and C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, culprit vessel, pre-interventional TIMI flow). The value of PTI amplitude for the prediction of large chronic IS>11% (AUC: 0.84, 95%CI 0.77-0.90) was significantly higher compared to Q-wave amplitude (AUC: 0.72, 95%CI 0.63-0.80; p=0.009); the combination of PTI with pathological Q-wave (Q-wave/T-wave score) led to a net reclassification improvement of 0.43 (95% CI 0.29-0.57; p<0.001) as compared to PTI alone. PTI following STEMI is independently and incrementally associated with more extensive myocardial damage as visualized by CMR. An electrocardiographic score combining PTI with pathological Q-wave allows for a highly accurate IS estimation post-STEMI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. DAF-16/FoxO and EGL-27/GATA promote developmental growth in response to persistent somatic DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Vipin; Ermolaeva, Maria A.; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Frommolt, Peter; Williams, Ashley B.; Greiss, Sebastian; Schneider, Jennifer I.; Benzing, Thomas; Schermer, Bernhard; Schumacher, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Genome maintenance defects cause complex disease phenotypes characterized by developmental failure, cancer susceptibility, and premature aging. It remains poorly understood how DNA damage responses function during organismal development and maintain tissue functionality when DNA damage accumulates with aging. Here we show that the FoxO transcription factor DAF-16 is activated in response to DNA damage during development while the DNA damage responsiveness of DAF-16 declines with aging. We find that in contrast to its established role in mediating starvation arrest, DAF-16 alleviates DNA damage-induced developmental arrest and even in the absence of DNA repair promotes developmental growth and enhances somatic tissue functionality. We demonstrate that the GATA transcription factor EGL-27 co-regulates DAF-16 target genes in response to DNA damage and together with DAF-16 promotes developmental growth. We propose that EGL-27/GATA activity specifies DAF-16 mediated DNA damage responses to enable developmental progression and to prolong tissue functioning when DNA damage persists. PMID:25419847

  15. Extensive and evolutionarily persistent mitochondrial tRNA editing in Velvet Worms (phylum Onychophora).

    PubMed

    Segovia, Romulo; Pett, Walker; Trewick, Steve; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2011-10-01

    Mitochondrial genomes of onychophorans (velvet worms) present an interesting problem: Some previous studies reported them lacking several transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, whereas others found that all their tRNA genes were present but severely reduced. To resolve this discrepancy, we determined complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of the onychophorans Oroperipatus sp. and Peripatoides sympatrica as well as cDNA sequences from 14 and 10 of their tRNAs, respectively. We show that tRNA genes in these genomes are indeed highly reduced and encode truncated molecules, which are restored to more conventional structures by extensive tRNA editing. During this editing process, up to 34 nucleotides are added to the tRNA sequences encoded in Oroperipatus sp. mtDNA, rebuilding the aminoacyl acceptor stem, the TΨC arm, and in some extreme cases, the variable arm and even a part of the anticodon stem. The editing is less extreme in P. sympatrica in which at least a part of the TΨC arm is always encoded in mtDNA. When the entire TΨC arm is added de novo in Oroperipatus sp., the sequence of this arm is either identical or similar among different tRNA species, yet the sequences show substantial variation for each tRNA. These observations suggest that the arm is rebuilt, at least in part, by a template-independent mechanism and argue against the alternative possibility that tRNA genes or their parts are imported from the nucleus. By contrast, the 3' end of the aminoacyl acceptor stem is likely restored by a template-dependent mechanism. The extreme tRNA editing reported here has been preserved for >140 My as it was found in both extant families of onychophorans. Furthermore, a similar type of tRNA editing may be present in several other groups of arthropods, which show a high degree of tRNA gene reduction in their mtDNA.

  16. Protective effect of boldine on oxidative mitochondrial damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jang, Y Y; Song, J H; Shin, Y K; Han, E S; Lee, C S

    2000-10-01

    Increased oxidative stress has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic tissue damage. Several antioxidants have been described as beneficial for oxidative stress-associated diseases. Boldine ([s]-2,9-dihydroxy-1, 10-dimethoxyaporphine) is a major alkaloid found in the leaves and bark of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina), and has been shown to possess antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effects. From this point of view, the possible anti-diabetic effect of boldine and its mechanism were evaluated. The experiments were performed on male rats divided into four groups: control, boldine (100 mg kg(-1), daily in drinking water), diabetic [single dose of 80 mg kg(-1)of streptozotocin (STZ), i.p.] and diabetic simultaneously fed with boldine for 8 weeks. Diabetic status was evaluated periodically with changes of plasma glucose levels and body weight in rats. The effect of boldine on the STZ-induced diabetic rats was examined with the formation of malondialdehydes and carbonyls and the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) in mitochondria of the pancreas, kidney and liver. The scavenging action of boldine on oxygen free radicals and the effect on mitochondrial free-radical production were also investigated. The treatment of boldine attenuated the development of hyperglycemia and weight loss induced by STZ injection in rats. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyls in liver, kidney and pancreas mitochondria were significantly increased in STZ-treated rats and decreased after boldine administration. The activities of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the liver, pancreas and kidney were significantly elevated in STZ-treated rats. Boldine administration decreased STZ-induced elevation of MnSOD activity in kidney and pancreas mitochondria, but not in liver mitochondria. In the STZ-treated group, glutathione peroxidase activities decreased in liver

  17. Phosphorylated tau potentiates Aβ-induced mitochondrial damage in mature neurons.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla, Rodrigo A; von Bernhardi, Rommy; Godoy, Juan A; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C; Johnson, Gail V W

    2014-11-01

    Tau phosphorylated at the PHF-1 epitope (S396/S404) is likely involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms by which tau phosphorylated at these sites negatively impacts neuronal functions are still under scrutiny. Previously, we showed that expression of tau truncated at D421 enhances mitochondrial dysfunction induced by Aβ in cortical neurons. To extend these findings, we expressed tau pseudo-phosphorylated at S396/404 (T42EC) in mature and young cortical neurons and evaluated different aspects of mitochondrial function in response to Aβ. Expression of T42EC did not induce significant changes in mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial length, or mitochondrial transport, compared to GFP and full-length tau. However, T42EC expression enhanced Aβ-induced mitochondrial membrane potential loss and increased superoxide levels compared to what was observed in mature neurons expressing full-length tau. The same effect was observed in mature neurons that expressed both pseudo-phosphorylated and truncated tau when they were treated with Aβ. Interestingly, the mitochondrial failure induced by Aβ in mature neurons that expressed T42EC, was not observed in young neurons expressing T42EC. These novel findings suggest that phosphorylated tau (PHF-1 epitope) enhances Aβ-induced mitochondrial injury, which contributes to neuronal dysfunction and to the pathogenesis of AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neuropeptide Y damages the integrity of mitochondrial structure and disrupts energy metabolism in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guochang; Xu, Xuehua; Guo, Wei; Luo, Chengliang; Wang, Hao; Meng, Xiangzhi; Zhu, Shaohua; Wei, Yan

    2015-09-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays an important role in cardiovascular diseases including stress cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, heart failure, diabetic cardiomyopathy, hypertension, and so on. However, inconsistent results related to the role of NPY in the different types of cardiomyopathies make the exact involvement of the peptide elusive. Considering these effects are known to be involved in energy balance, as the hearts energy producer, the mitochondria, should be investigated, and not only mitochondrial structure but also its potential. Up to now, the impact of NPY on energy metabolism and mitochondria in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes has not been reported. The main objective of our study was to test the role of NPY in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. After 24-h stimulation of NPY, the ATP content and activity of the cardiomyocytes were determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 and ATP-dependent bioluminescence assay kit, respectively. To further measure these effects, mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by JC-1 staining, the change of mitochondrial structure was detected by transmission electron microscopy, and the levels of PGC-1α (a marker of mitochondrial energy metabolism) mRNA and protein expression were determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The results showed that after 24-h stimulation of NPY, ATP content and activity in the cardiomyocytes were decreased. Moreover, cardiomyocyte mitochondria were changed in morphology. Further, a decline of mitochondrial membrane potential was induced in a dose-dependent manner and the levels of PGC-1α mRNA and protein expression were up-regulated after being treated by different dose of NPY. The results indicate that energy metabolism is suppressed, mitochondrial structure and membrane potential damaged, and PGC-α is changed in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes after being treated by NPY. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Persistence of the mitochondrial permeability transition in the absence of subunit c of human ATP synthase

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiuya; Ford, Holly C.; Carroll, Joe; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M.

    2017-01-01

    The permeability transition in human mitochondria refers to the opening of a nonspecific channel, known as the permeability transition pore (PTP), in the inner membrane. Opening can be triggered by calcium ions, leading to swelling of the organelle, disruption of the inner membrane, and ATP synthesis, followed by cell death. Recent proposals suggest that the pore is associated with the ATP synthase complex and specifically with the ring of c-subunits that constitute the membrane domain of the enzyme’s rotor. The c-subunit is produced from three nuclear genes, ATP5G1, ATP5G2, and ATP5G3, encoding identical copies of the mature protein with different mitochondrial-targeting sequences that are removed during their import into the organelle. To investigate the involvement of the c-subunit in the PTP, we generated a clonal cell, HAP1-A12, from near-haploid human cells, in which ATP5G1, ATP5G2, and ATP5G3 were disrupted. The HAP1-A12 cells are incapable of producing the c-subunit, but they preserve the characteristic properties of the PTP. Therefore, the c-subunit does not provide the PTP. The mitochondria in HAP1-A12 cells assemble a vestigial ATP synthase, with intact F1-catalytic and peripheral stalk domains and the supernumerary subunits e, f, and g, but lacking membrane subunits ATP6 and ATP8. The same vestigial complex plus associated c-subunits was characterized from human 143B ρ0 cells, which cannot make the subunits ATP6 and ATP8, but retain the PTP. Therefore, none of the membrane subunits of the ATP synthase that are involved directly in transmembrane proton translocation is involved in forming the PTP. PMID:28289229

  20. Low molecular weight guluronate prevents TNF-α-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Dun, Yun-lou; Zhou, Xiao-lin; Guan, Hua-shi; Yu, Guang-li; Li, Chun-xia; Hu, Ting; Zhao, Xia; Cheng, Xiao-lei; He, Xiao-xi; Hao, Jie-jie

    2015-09-01

    Muscle wasting is associated with a variety of chronic or inflammatory disorders. Evidence suggests that inflammatory cytokines play a vital role in muscle inflammatory pathology and this may result in oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. In our study, we used microwave degradation to prepare a water-soluble low molecular weight guluronate (LMG) of 3000 Da from Fucus vesiculosus obtained from Canada, the Atlantic Ocean. We demonstrated the structural characteristics, using HPLC, FTIR and NMR of LMG and investigated its effects on oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), a cell inflammatory cytokine. The results indicated that LMG could alleviate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, increase the activities of antioxidant enzymes (GSH and SOD), promote mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and upregulate the expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain protein in TNF-α-induced C2C12 cells. LMG supplement also increased the mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial biogenesis related genes in TNF-α-induced C2C12 cells. LMG may exert these protective effects through the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. These suggest that LMG is capable of protecting TNF-α-induced C2C12 cells against oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  1. Mentha piperita essential oil induces apoptosis in yeast associated with both cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS-mediated damage.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Patrícia; Cardoso, Teresa; Ferreira, Filipa; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Piper, Peter; Sousa, Maria João

    2014-11-01

    Mentha piperita (MP), also known as peppermint, is an aromatic and medicinal plant widely used in the food industry, perfumery and cosmetic, pharmacy and traditional medicine. Its essential oil (EO) displays antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria and fungi. In this study, we found that MP EO lethal cytotoxicity is associated with increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial fragmentation and chromatin condensation, without loss of the plasma membrane integrity, indicative of an apoptotic process. Overexpression of cytosolic catalase and superoxide dismutases reverted the lethal effects of the EO and of its major component menthol. Conversely, deficiency in Sod1p (cytosolic copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase) greatly increased sensitivity to both agents, but deficiency in Sod2p (mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase) only induced sensitivity under respiratory growth conditions. Mentha piperita EO increased the frequency of respiratory deficient mutants indicative of damage to the mitochondrial genome, although increase in mitochondrial thiol oxidation does not seem to be involved in the EO toxicity. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor protects against apoptotic neuronal death and mitochondrial damage in ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaowan; Li, Hailong; Ding, Shinghua

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF), also known as nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme in mammalian NAD+ biosynthesis pathway, plays a brain and neuronal protective role in ischemic stroke. In this study, we further investigated the mechanism of its neuroprotective effect after ischemia in the primary cultured mouse cortical neurons. Using apoptotic cell death assay, fluorescent imaging, molecular biology, mitochondrial biogenesis measurements and Western blotting analysis, our results show that the overexpression of PBEF in neurons can significantly promote neuronal survival, reduce the translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to nuclei and inhibit the activation of capase-3 after glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. We further found that the overexpression of PBEF can suppress glutamate-induced mitochondrial fragmentation, the loss of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and the reduction of PGC-1 and NRF-1 expressions. Furthermore, these beneficial effects by PBEF are dependent on its enzymatic activity of NAD+ synthesis. In summary, our study demonstrated that PBEF ameliorates ischemia-induced neuronal death through inhibiting caspase-dependent and independent apoptotic signaling pathways and suppressing mitochondrial damage and dysfunction. Our study provides novel insights into the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of PBEF, and helps to identify potential targets for ischemic stroke therapy. PMID:27576732

  3. Testosterone replacement attenuates mitochondrial damage in a rat model of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengyue; Yang, Jing; Sun, Junfeng; Dong, Yanli; Zhao, Hong; Shi, Hui; Fu, Lu

    2015-05-01

    Testosterone can affect cardiovascular disease, but its effects on mitochondrial dynamics in the post-infarct myocardium remain unclear. To observe the effects of testosterone replacement, a rat model of castration-myocardial infarction (MI) was established by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery 2 weeks after castration with or without testosterone treatment. Expression of mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins was detected by western blot and immunofluorescence 14 days after MI. Cardiac function, myocardial inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, mitochondrial microstructure, and ATP levels were also assessed. Compared with MI rats, castrated rats showed aggravated mitochondrial and myocardial insults, including mitochondrial swelling and disordered arrangement; loss of cristae, reduced mitochondrial length; decreased ATP levels; cardiomyocyte apoptosis; and impaired cardiac function. Results of western blotting analyses indicated that castration downregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1A) and mitofusin 2, but upregulated dynamin-related protein 1. The results were also supported by results obtained using immunofluorescence. However, these detrimental effects were reversed by testosterone supplementation, which also elevated the upstream AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation of PGC1A. Thus, testosterone can protect mitochondria in the post-infarct myocardium, partly via the AMPK-PGC1A pathway, thereby decreasing mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The effects of testosterone were confirmed by the results of ELISA analyses.

  4. Persistent activation of DNA damage signaling in response to complex mixtures of PAHs in air particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, Ian W.H.; Bergvall, Christoffer; Bottai, Matteo; Westerholm, Roger; Stenius, Ulla; Dreij, Kristian

    2013-02-01

    Complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in air particulate matter (PM) and have been associated with many adverse human health effects including cancer and respiratory disease. However, due to their complexity, the risk of exposure to mixtures is difficult to estimate. In the present study the effects of binary mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and complex mixtures of PAHs in urban air PM extracts on DNA damage signaling was investigated. Applying a statistical model to the data we observed a more than additive response for binary mixtures of BP and DBP on activation of DNA damage signaling. Persistent activation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) was observed at significantly lower BP equivalent concentrations in air PM extracts than BP alone. Activation of DNA damage signaling was also more persistent in air PM fractions containing PAHs with more than four aromatic rings suggesting larger PAHs contribute a greater risk to human health. Altogether our data suggests that human health risk assessment based on additivity such as toxicity equivalency factor scales may significantly underestimate the risk of exposure to complex mixtures of PAHs. The data confirms our previous findings with PAH-contaminated soil (Niziolek-Kierecka et al., 2012) and suggests a possible role for Chk1 Ser317 phosphorylation as a biological marker for future analyses of complex mixtures of PAHs. -- Highlights: ► Benzo[a]pyrene (BP), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and air PM PAH extracts were compared. ► Binary mixture of BP and DBP induced a more than additive DNA damage response. ► Air PM PAH extracts were more potent than toxicity equivalency factor estimates. ► Larger PAHs (> 4 rings) contribute more to the genotoxicity of PAHs in air PM. ► Chk1 is a sensitive marker for persistent activation of DNA damage signaling from PAH mixtures.

  5. DNA Damage and Repair in Vascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Uryga, Anna; Gray, Kelly; Bennett, Martin

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage affecting both genomic and mitochondrial DNA is present in a variety of both inherited and acquired vascular diseases. Multiple cell types show persistent DNA damage and a range of lesions. In turn, DNA damage activates a variety of DNA repair mechanisms, many of which are activated in vascular disease. Such DNA repair mechanisms either stall the cell cycle to allow repair to occur or trigger apoptosis or cell senescence to prevent propagation of damaged DNA. Recent evidence has indicated that DNA damage occurs early, is progressive, and is sufficient to impair function of cells composing the vascular wall. The consequences of persistent genomic and mitochondrial DNA damage, including inflammation, cell senescence, and apoptosis, are present in vascular disease. DNA damage can thus directly cause vascular disease, opening up new possibilities for both prevention and treatment. We review the evidence for and the causes, types, and consequences of DNA damage in vascular disease.

  6. BAG5 Interacts with DJ-1 and Inhibits the Neuroprotective Effects of DJ-1 to Combat Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jie-qiong; Zhang, Hai-nan; Rizwana, Kousar; Lu, Jia-hong; Tang, Jian-guang; Jiang, Bo; Shen, Xiang-min; Guo, Ji-feng; Tang, Bei-sha; Tan, Li-ming

    2017-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in gene encoding DJ-1 contribute to the pathogenesis of autosomal recessive early-onset familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). DJ-1 is a multifunctional protein and plays a protective role against oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial damage and cell death, but the exact mechanism underlying this is not yet clearly understood. Here, using coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and immunofluorescence methods, we prove that Bcl-2-associated athanogene 5 (BAG5), a BAG family member, interacts with DJ-1 in mammalian cells. Moreover, we show that BAG5 could decrease stability of DJ-1 and weaken its role in mitochondrial protection probably by influencing dimerization in stress condition. Our study reveals the relationship of BAG5 and DJ-1 suggesting a potential role for BAG5 in the pathogenesis of PD through its functional interactions with DJ-1. PMID:28348719

  7. The Parkinson's disease-associated gene PINK1 protects neurons from ischemic damage by decreasing mitochondrial translocation of the fission promoter Drp1.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanxin; Chen, Fangzhe; Chen, Shufen; Liu, Xueyuan; Cui, Mei; Dong, Qiang

    2013-12-01

    Our previous study has shown that PTEN-induced novel kinase 1 (PINK1) knocking down significantly induced mitochondrial fragmentation. Although PINK1 is proved to be associated with autosomal recessive parkinsonism and its function in this chronic pathological process is widely studied, its role in acute energy crisis such as ischemic stroke is poorly known. In this study by employing an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) neuronal model, we explored the function of PINK1 in cerebral ischemia. Human PINK1, two PINK1 mutants W437X and K219M, or Pink1 shRNA were transduced before OGD using lentiviral delivery. Our results showed that over-expression of wild-type PINK1 significantly ameliorated OGD induced cell death and energy disturbance including reduced ATP generation and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. PINK1 over-expression also reversed OGD increased mitochondrial fragmentation, and suppressed the translocation of the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) from the cytosol to the mitochondria. Transduction of the mutant PINK1 failed to provide any protective effect, while knockdown of Pink1 significantly increased the severity of OGD-induced neuronal damage. Importantly, inhibition of Drp1 reversed the effects of knocking down Pink1 on neuronal death and ATP production in response to OGD. This study demonstrates that PINK1 prevents ischemic damage in neurons by attenuating mitochondrial translocation of Drp1, which maintains mitochondrial function and inhibits ischemia-induced mitochondrial fission. These novel findings implicate a pivotal role of PINK1 regulated mitochondrial dynamics in the pathology of ischemic stroke. In this study by employing an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) neuronal model, we explored the function of PINK1 in cerebral ischemia. We indicated that PINK1 significantly ameliorated OGD induced cell death and energy disturbance including reduced ATP generation and collapse of mitochondrial membrane

  8. Oxidative DNA damage drives carcinogenesis in MUTYH-associated-polyposis by specific mutations of mitochondrial and MAPK genes.

    PubMed

    Venesio, Tiziana; Balsamo, Antonella; Errichiello, Edoardo; Ranzani, Guglielmina N; Risio, Mauro

    2013-10-01

    MUTYH is a DNA-base-excision-repair gene implicated in the activation of nuclear and mitochondrial cell-death pathways. MUTYH germline mutations cause an inherited polyposis, MUTYH-associated-polyposis, characterized by multiple adenomas and increased susceptibility to colorectal cancer. Since this carcinogenesis remains partially unknown, we searched for nuclear and mitochondrial gene alterations that may drive the tumorigenic process. Ninety-six adenomas and 7 carcinomas from 12 MUTYH-associated-polyposis and 13 classical/attenuated adenomatous polyposis patients were investigated by sequencing and pyrosequencing for the presence of mutations in KRAS, BRAF, MT-CO1/MT-CO2 and MT-TD genes. KRAS mutations were identified in 24% MUTYH-associated-polyposis vs 15% classical/attenuated familial polyposis adenomas; mutated MUTYH-associated-polyposis adenomas exhibited only c.34G>T transversions in codon 12, an alteration typically associated with oxidative DNA damage, or mutations in codon 13; neither of these mutations was found in classical/attenuated familial polyposis adenomas (P<0.001). Mutated MUTYH-associated-polyposis carcinomas showed KRAS c.34G>T transversions, prevalently occurring with BRAFV600E; none of the classical/attenuated familial polyposis carcinomas displayed these alterations. Comparing mitochondrial DNA from lymphocytes and adenomas of the same individuals, we detected variants in 82% MUTYH-associated-polyposis vs 38% classical/attenuated familial polyposis patients (P=0.040). MT-CO1/MT-CO2 missense mutations, which cause aminoacid changes, were only found in MUTYH-associated-polyposis lesions and were significantly associated with KRAS mutations (P=0.0085). We provide evidence that MUTYH-associated-polyposis carcinogenesis is characterized by the occurrence of specific mutations in both KRAS and phylogenetically conserved genes of mitochondrial DNA which are involved in controlling oxidative phosphorylation; this implies the existence of a

  9. Therapeutic effect of green tea extract on alcohol induced hepatic mitochondrial DNA damage in albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Reddyvari, Hymavathi; Govatati, Suresh; Matha, Sumanth Kumar; Korla, Swapna Vahini; Malempati, Sravanthi; Pasupuleti, Sreenivasa Rao; Bhanoori, Manjula; Nallanchakravarthula, Varadacharyulu

    2017-05-01

    The present study principally sought to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in alcohol receiving rats. MtDNA was isolated from hepatic tissues of albino wistar rats after alcohol treatment with and without GTE supplementation. Entire displacement loop (D-loop) of mtDNA was screened by PCR-Sanger's sequencing method. In addition, mtDNA deletions and antioxidant activity were measured in hepatic tissue of all rats. Results showed increased frequency of D-loop mutations in alcoholic rats (ALC). DNA mfold analysis predicted higher free energy for 15507C and 16116C alleles compared to their corresponding wild alleles which represents less stable secondary structures with negative impact on overall mtDNA function. Interestingly, D-loop mutations observed in ALC rats were successfully restored on GTE supplementation. MtDNA deletions were observed in ALC rats, but intact native mtDNA was found in ALC + GTE group suggesting alcohol induced oxidative damage of mtDNA and ameliorative effect of GTE. Furthermore, markedly decreased activities of glutathione peroxidise, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione content were identified in ALC rats; however, GTE supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) restored these levels close to normal. In conclusion, green tea could be used as an effective nutraceutical against alcohol induced mitochondrial DNA damage.

  10. Accumulation of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage in the frontal cortex cells of patients with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulin; Wang, Meixia; Li, Hongjun; Zhang, Honghai; Shi, Ying; Wei, Feili; Liu, Daojie; Liu, Kai; Chen, Dexi

    2012-06-06

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a key role in the neuropathogenesis of HIV infection. HIV proteins (gp120, Tat) and proinflammatory cytokines can trigger the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in DNA and RNA lesions. Among all the lesions induced by ROS, one of the most abundant lesions in DNA and RNA is 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-oxoG). Here, we studied accumulated DNA oxidative damage induced by ROS in the central nervous system (CNS) in tissue from neuro-AIDS patients. The frontal cortex of autopsy tissue from HIV-1 infected patients was adopted for analysis for HIV-1 subtype, nuclear and mitochondrial DNA lesions by immunofluorescence staining, qPCR and sequencing of PCR cloning. This study provides evidence that HIV infection in the CNS leads to nuclear and mitochondrial genomic DNA damage in the brain. High level of nuclear and mtDNA 8-oxoG damage were identified in the cortex autopsy tissue of HAND patients. Increased accumulation of mtDNA mutations and depletion occurs in brain tissue in a subset of HAND cases, and is significantly different from that observed in control cases. These findings suggest that higher level of ROS in the CNS of HAND patients would contribute to the HIV induced neuro-inflammation and apoptosis of neuronal and glial cells.

  11. EndoG Links Bnip3-Induced Mitochondrial Damage and Caspase-Independent DNA Fragmentation in Ischemic Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jisheng; Ye, Junmei; Altafaj, Albert; Cardona, Maria; Bahi, Núria; Llovera, Marta; Cañas, Xavier; Cook, Stuart A.; Comella, Joan X.; Sanchis, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, caspase activation and caspase-dependent DNA fragmentation are involved in cell damage in many tissues. However, differentiated cardiomyocytes repress the expression of the canonical apoptotic pathway and their death during ischemia is caspase-independent. The atypical BH3-only protein Bnip3 is involved in the process leading to caspase-independent DNA fragmentation in cardiomyocytes. However, the pathway by which DNA degradation ensues following Bnip3 activation is not resolved. To identify the mechanism involved, we analyzed the interdependence of Bnip3, Nix and EndoG in mitochondrial damage and DNA fragmentation during experimental ischemia in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Our results show that the expression of EndoG and Bnip3 increases in the heart throughout development, while the caspase-dependent machinery is silenced. TUNEL-positive DNA damage, which depends on caspase activity in other cells, is caspase-independent in ischemic cardiomyocytes and ischemia-induced DNA high and low molecular weight fragmentation is blocked by repressing EndoG expression. Ischemia-induced EndoG translocation and DNA degradation are prevented by silencing the expression of Bnip3, but not Nix, or by overexpressing Bcl-xL. These data establish a link between Bnip3 and EndoG-dependent, TUNEL-positive, DNA fragmentation in ischemic cardiomyocytes in the absence of caspases, defining an alternative cell death pathway in postmitotic cells. PMID:21437288

  12. The nephroprotection exerted by curcumin in maleate-induced renal damage is associated with decreased mitochondrial fission and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Molina-Jijón, Eduardo; Aparicio-Trejo, Omar Emiliano; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rafael; León-Contreras, Juan Carlos; Del Carmen Cárdenas-Aguayo, María; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Tapia, Edilia; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Reyes, José L; Arreola-Mendoza, Laura; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2016-11-12

    We have previously reported that the antioxidant curcumin exerts nephroprotection in maleate-induced renal damage, a model associated with oxidative stress. However, the mechanisms involved in curcumin protective effect were not explored, to assess this issue, curcumin was administered daily by gavage (150 mg/kg) five days before a single maleate (400 mg/kg)-injection. Curcumin prevented maleate-induced proteinuria, increased heat shock protein of 72 KDa (Hsp72) expression, and decreased plasma glutathione peroxidase activity. Maleate-induced oxidative stress by increasing the nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4) and mitochondrial complex I-dependent superoxide anion (O2 •(-) ) production, formation of malondialdehyde (MDA)- and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT)-protein adducts and protein carbonylation and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio. Curcumin treatment ameliorated all the above-described changes. The maleate-induced epithelial damage, evaluated by claudin-2 and occludin expressions, was ameliorated by curcumin. It was found that maleate-induced oxidative stress promoted mitochondrial fission, evaluated by dynamin-related protein (Drp) 1 and fission (Fis) 1 expressions and by electron-microscopy, and autophagy, evaluated by phospho-threonine 389 from p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p-Thr 389 p70S6K), beclin 1, microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 phosphatidylethanolamine conjugate (LC3-II), autophagy-related gene 5 and 12 (Atg5-Atg12) complex, p62, and lysosomal-associated membrane protein (LAMP)-2 expressions in isolated proximal tubules and by electron-microscopy and LC-3 immunolabelling. Curcumin treatment ameliorated these changes. Moreover, curcumin alone induced autophagy in proximal tubules. These data suggest that the nephroprotective effect exerted by curcumin in maleate-induced renal damage is associated with decreased mitochondrial fission and autophagy. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(6):686-702, 2016.

  13. Protection by apple peel polyphenols against indometacin-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Gotteland, Martin; Speisky, Hernán

    2010-07-01

    Exposure of Caco-2 cells to indometacin can be a useful model to assess some of the cytotoxic events that appear to underlie the gastrointestinal lesions associated with the use of this anti-inflammatory agent. Using such a cellular model, we addressed here the cytoprotective potential of a recently standardized apple peel polyphenol extract, APPE. We firstly characterized APPE in terms of its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, and subsequently investigated its potential to protect Caco-2 cells against the deleterious effects of indometacin on cellular oxidative status (redox state, malondialdehyde, glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels), mitochondrial function (ATP and mitochondrial membrane potential) and cell viability (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage). For comparative purposes, the free radical scavenging properties and reducing capacity of quercetin, epicatechin and rutin were also estimated. In the absence of APPE, indometacin induced mitochondrial perturbations (reducing ATP and the mitochondrial membrane potential), enhanced the oxidative status (decreasing the GSH/GSSG ratio and increasing dichlorofluorescein oxidation and malondialdehyde) and lowered the cell viability (decreasing MTT reduction and increasing LDH leakage). APPE, whether pre-added or co-incubated with indometacin, concentration-dependently prevented these mitochondrial, oxidative and cell viability alterations. Prompted by the recently recognized ability of indometacin to enhance the mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species, APPE was also characterized in terms of its free radical-scavenging capacity. APPE was found to actively scavenge O(2).(-), HO. and peroxyl radicals. Such free radical-scavenging activity of APPE suggests that its ability to protect mitochondria and prevent the oxidative and lytic damage induced by indometacin arises from its potent

  14. Persistent activation of DNA damage signaling in response to complex mixtures of PAHs in air particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Ian W H; Bergvall, Christoffer; Bottai, Matteo; Westerholm, Roger; Stenius, Ulla; Dreij, Kristian

    2013-02-01

    Complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in air particulate matter (PM) and have been associated with many adverse human health effects including cancer and respiratory disease. However, due to their complexity, the risk of exposure to mixtures is difficult to estimate. In the present study the effects of binary mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and complex mixtures of PAHs in urban air PM extracts on DNA damage signaling was investigated. Applying a statistical model to the data we observed a more than additive response for binary mixtures of BP and DBP on activation of DNA damage signaling. Persistent activation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) was observed at significantly lower BP equivalent concentrations in air PM extracts than BP alone. Activation of DNA damage signaling was also more persistent in air PM fractions containing PAHs with more than four aromatic rings suggesting larger PAHs contribute a greater risk to human health. Altogether our data suggests that human health risk assessment based on additivity such as toxicity equivalency factor scales may significantly underestimate the risk of exposure to complex mixtures of PAHs. The data confirms our previous findings with PAH-contaminated soil (Niziolek-Kierecka et al., 2012) and suggests a possible role for Chk1 Ser317 phosphorylation as a biological marker for future analyses of complex mixtures of PAHs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antibiotic drug levofloxacin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells through inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Song, Meijun; Wu, Hongcheng; Wu, Shibo; Ge, Ting; Wang, Guoan; Zhou, Yingyan; Sheng, Shimo; Jiang, Jingbo

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and its clinical management remains challenge. Here, we repurposed antibiotic levofloxacin for lung cancer treatment. We show that levofloxacin is effectively against a panel of lung cancer cell lines via inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis, regardless of cellular origin and genetic pattern, in in vitro cell culture system and in vivo xenograft lung tumor model. Mechanistically, levofloxacin inhibits activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I and III, leading to inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and reduction of ATP production. In addition, levofloxacin significantly increases levels of ROS, mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in vitro and oxidative stress markers (HEL and 4-HNE) in vivo. Antioxidants, such as NAC and vitamin C, prevent the inhibitory effects of levofloxacin, confirming the induction of oxidative damage as the mechanism of its action in lung cancer cells. Our work demonstrates that levofloxacin is a useful addition to the treatment of lung cancer. Our work also suggests that targeting mitochondria may be an alternative therapeutic strategy for lung cancer treatment.

  16. Persistent DNA damage-induced premature senescence alters the functional features of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Minieri, Valentina; Saviozzi, Silvia; Gambarotta, Giovanna; Lo Iacono, Marco; Accomasso, Lisa; Cibrario Rocchietti, Elisa; Gallina, Clara; Turinetto, Valentina; Giachino, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are adult multipotent stem cells located in various tissues, including the bone marrow. In contrast to terminally differentiated somatic cells, adult stem cells must persist and function throughout life to ensure tissue homeostasis and repair. For this reason, they must be equipped with DNA damage responses able to maintain genomic integrity while ensuring their lifelong persistence. Evaluation of hMSC response to genotoxic insults is of great interest considering both their therapeutic potential and their physiological functions. This study aimed to investigate the response of human bone marrow MSCs to the genotoxic agent Actinomycin D (ActD), a well-known anti-tumour drug. We report that hMSCs react by undergoing premature senescence driven by a persistent DNA damage response activation, as hallmarked by inhibition of DNA synthesis, p21 and p16 protein expression, marked Senescent Associated β-galactosidase activity and enlarged γH2AX foci co-localizing with 53BP1 protein. Senescent hMSCs overexpress several senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) genes and promote motility of lung tumour and osteosarcoma cell lines in vitro. Our findings disclose a multifaceted consequence of ActD treatment on hMSCs that on the one hand helps to preserve this stem cell pool and prevents damaged cells from undergoing neoplastic transformation, and on the other hand alters their functional effects on the surrounding tissue microenvironment in a way that might worsen their tumour-promoting behaviour. PMID:25619736

  17. Persistent DNA damage-induced premature senescence alters the functional features of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Minieri, Valentina; Saviozzi, Silvia; Gambarotta, Giovanna; Lo Iacono, Marco; Accomasso, Lisa; Cibrario Rocchietti, Elisa; Gallina, Clara; Turinetto, Valentina; Giachino, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are adult multipotent stem cells located in various tissues, including the bone marrow. In contrast to terminally differentiated somatic cells, adult stem cells must persist and function throughout life to ensure tissue homeostasis and repair. For this reason, they must be equipped with DNA damage responses able to maintain genomic integrity while ensuring their lifelong persistence. Evaluation of hMSC response to genotoxic insults is of great interest considering both their therapeutic potential and their physiological functions. This study aimed to investigate the response of human bone marrow MSCs to the genotoxic agent Actinomycin D (ActD), a well-known anti-tumour drug. We report that hMSCs react by undergoing premature senescence driven by a persistent DNA damage response activation, as hallmarked by inhibition of DNA synthesis, p21 and p16 protein expression, marked Senescent Associated β-galactosidase activity and enlarged γH2AX foci co-localizing with 53BP1 protein. Senescent hMSCs overexpress several senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) genes and promote motility of lung tumour and osteosarcoma cell lines in vitro. Our findings disclose a multifaceted consequence of ActD treatment on hMSCs that on the one hand helps to preserve this stem cell pool and prevents damaged cells from undergoing neoplastic transformation, and on the other hand alters their functional effects on the surrounding tissue microenvironment in a way that might worsen their tumour-promoting behaviour. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  18. NADPH oxidase expression in active multiple sclerosis lesions in relation to oxidative tissue damage and mitochondrial injury.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marie T; Sharma, Rakhi; Lim, Jamie L; Haider, Lukas; Frischer, Josa M; Drexhage, Joost; Mahad, Don; Bradl, Monika; van Horssen, Jack; Lassmann, Hans

    2012-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, associated with demyelination and neurodegeneration. The mechanisms of tissue injury are poorly understood, but recent data suggest that mitochondrial injury may play an important role in this process. Mitochondrial injury can be triggered by reactive oxygen and nitric oxide species, and we recently provided evidence for oxidative damage of oligodendrocytes and dystrophic axons in early stages of active multiple sclerosis lesions. In this study, we identified potential sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species through gene expression in carefully staged and dissected lesion areas and by immunohistochemical analysis of protein expression. Genome-wide microarrays confirmed mitochondrial injury in active multiple sclerosis lesions, which may serve as an important source of reactive oxygen species. In addition, we found differences in the gene expression levels of various nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits between initial multiple sclerosis lesions and control white matter. These results were confirmed at the protein level by means of immunohistochemistry, showing upregulation of the subunits gp91phox, p22phox, p47phox, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase organizer 1 in activated microglia in classical active as well as slowly expanding lesions. The subunits gp91phox and p22phox were constitutively expressed in microglia and were upregulated in the initial lesion. In contrast, p47phox, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase organizer 1 expression were more restricted to the zone of initial damage or to lesions from patients with acute or early relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis. Double labelling showed co-expression of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits in activated microglia and

  19. Pioglitazone alleviates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and mito-oxidative damage in the d-galactose-induced mouse model.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Atish; Kumar, Anil

    2013-09-01

    Chronic injection of d-galactose can cause gradual deterioration in learning and memory capacity, and activates oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death in the brain of mice. Thus, it serves as an animal model of ageing. Recent evidence has shown that mild cognitive impairment in humans might be alleviated by treatment with piogliatzone (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists). To continue exploring the effects of piogliatzone in this model, we focused on behavioural alteration, oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in d-galactose-induced mice. The ageing model was established by administration of d-galactose (100 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. Pioglitazone (10 and 30 mg/kg) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (15 mg/kg) were given daily to d-galactose-induced senescent mice. The cognitive behaviour of mice was monitored using the Morris water maze. The anti-oxidant status and apoptotic activity in the ageing mice was measured by determining mito-oxidative parameters and caspase-3 activity in brain tissue. Systemic administration of d-galactose significantly increased behavioural alterations, biochemical parameters, mitochondrial enzymes, and activations of caspase-3 and acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity as compared with the control group. Piogliatzone treatment significantly improved behavioural abnormalities, biochemical, cellular alterations, and attenuated the caspase-3 and acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity as compared with the control. Furthermore, pretreatment of BADGE (PPARγ antagonist) with pioglitazone reversed the protective effect of pioglitazone in d-galactose-induced mice. The present study highlights the protective effects of pioglitzone against d-galactose-induced memory dysfunction, mito-oxidative damage and apoptosis through activation of PPARγ receptors. These findings suggest that pioglitazone might be helpful for the prevention or alleviation of ageing.

  20. NADPH oxidase expression in active multiple sclerosis lesions in relation to oxidative tissue damage and mitochondrial injury

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Marie T.; Sharma, Rakhi; Lim, Jamie L.; Haider, Lukas; Frischer, Josa M.; Drexhage, Joost; Mahad, Don; Bradl, Monika; van Horssen, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, associated with demyelination and neurodegeneration. The mechanisms of tissue injury are poorly understood, but recent data suggest that mitochondrial injury may play an important role in this process. Mitochondrial injury can be triggered by reactive oxygen and nitric oxide species, and we recently provided evidence for oxidative damage of oligodendrocytes and dystrophic axons in early stages of active multiple sclerosis lesions. In this study, we identified potential sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species through gene expression in carefully staged and dissected lesion areas and by immunohistochemical analysis of protein expression. Genome-wide microarrays confirmed mitochondrial injury in active multiple sclerosis lesions, which may serve as an important source of reactive oxygen species. In addition, we found differences in the gene expression levels of various nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits between initial multiple sclerosis lesions and control white matter. These results were confirmed at the protein level by means of immunohistochemistry, showing upregulation of the subunits gp91phox, p22phox, p47phox, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase organizer 1 in activated microglia in classical active as well as slowly expanding lesions. The subunits gp91phox and p22phox were constitutively expressed in microglia and were upregulated in the initial lesion. In contrast, p47phox, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase organizer 1 expression were more restricted to the zone of initial damage or to lesions from patients with acute or early relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis. Double labelling showed co-expression of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits in activated microglia and

  1. Perfluorooctanoic acid induces oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Suh, Kwang Sik; Choi, Eun Mi; Kim, Yu Jin; Hong, Soo Min; Park, So Yong; Rhee, Sang Youl; Oh, Seungjoon; Kim, Sung Woon; Pak, Youngmi Kim; Choe, Wonchae; Chon, Suk

    2017-06-01

    Several environmental contaminants have been linked to the development of diabetes and increased diabetes‑associated mortality. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a widely used perfluoroalkane found in surfactants and lubricants, and in processing aids used in the production of polymers. Furthermore, PFOA has been detected in humans, wildlife and the environment. The present study investigated the toxic effects of PFOA on rat pancreatic β‑cell‑derived RIN‑m5F cells. Cell viability, apoptosis, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, cytokine release and mitochondrial parameters, including membrane potential collapse, reduced adenosine triphosphate levels, cardiolipin peroxidation and cytochrome c release were assessed. PFOA significantly decreased RIN‑m5F cell viability and increased apoptosis. Exposure to PFOA increased the formation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial superoxide, nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, PFOA induced mitochondrial membrane potential collapse and reduced adenosine triphosphate levels, cardiolipin peroxidation and cytochrome c release. These results indicate that PFOA is associated with the induction of apoptosis in RIN-m5F cells, and induces cytotoxicity via increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  2. Oxidative Stress in Cardiac Mitochondria Caused by Copper Deficiency May Be Insufficient to Damage Mitochondrial Proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Copper (Cu) deficiency may promote the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the mitochondrial electron transport chain through inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) and increased reduction of respiratory complexes upstream from CCO. In the present study, respiration, H2O2 production and...

  3. Chronically ischemic mouse skeletal muscle exhibits myopathy in association with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Pipinos, Iraklis I; Swanson, Stanley A; Zhu, Zhen; Nella, Aikaterini A; Weiss, Dustin J; Gutti, Tanuja L; McComb, Rodney D; Baxter, B Timothy; Lynch, Thomas G; Casale, George P

    2008-07-01

    A myopathy characterized by mitochondrial pathology and oxidative stress is present in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Patients with PAD differ in disease severity, mode of presentation, and presence of comorbid conditions. In this study, we used a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia to isolate and directly investigate the effects of chronic inflow arterial occlusion on skeletal muscle microanatomy, mitochondrial function and expression, and oxidative stress. Hindlimb ischemia was induced by staged ligation/division of the common femoral and iliac arteries in C57BL/6 mice, and muscles were harvested 12 wk later. Muscle microanatomy was examined by bright-field microscopy, and mitochondrial content was determined as citrate synthase activity in muscle homogenates and ATP synthase expression by fluorescence microscopy. Electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I through IV were analyzed individually by respirometry. Oxidative stress was assessed as total protein carbonyls and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) adducts and altered expression and activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Ischemic muscle exhibited histological features of myopathy and increased mitochondrial content compared with control muscle. Complex-dependent respiration was significantly reduced for ETC complexes I, III, and IV in ischemic muscle. Protein carbonyls, HNE adducts, and MnSOD expression were significantly increased in ischemic muscle. MnSOD activity was not significantly changed, suggesting MnSOD inactivation. Using a mouse model, we have demonstrated for the first time that inflow arterial occlusion alone, i.e., in the absence of other comorbid conditions, causes myopathy with mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress, recapitulating the muscle pathology of PAD patients.

  4. Using Circulating miRNAs as Biomarkers for the Evaluation and Monitoring of the Mitochondrial Damage in the Critically Ill Polytrauma Patients.

    PubMed

    Bedreag, Ovidiu H; Papurica, Marius; Rogobete, Alexandru F; Sandesc, Dorel; Dumache, Raluca; Cradigati, Carmen A; Sarandan, Mirela; Bratu, Lavinia M; Popovici, Sonia E; Sima, Laurentiu V

    2016-08-01

    The multiple-traumatic critical patient presents a variety of pathophysiological, cellular, and molecular dysfunctions. One of the most important is represented by mitochondrial damage which afterwards is responsible for the augmentation and worsening of a series of pathologies that lead to the worsening of the clinical status of the patient. The severe inflammatory response, sepsis, and the redox imbalance are other pathologies that together with the multiple traumas are responsible for the mitochondrial dysfunctions. As an overview, we can say that both the mitochondrial damage as well as the clinical statuses of those patients are responsible for an increase in the chances of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death of critical patients with multiple trauma from the Intensive Care Units (ICU). In this paper we wish to summarize the microRNAs that can be used as biomarkers for evaluation and monitoring of the mitochondrial activity in critical patients with multiple traumas. For the paper, literature available in the international databases PubMed and Scopus until the year 2015 has been consulted. The key words used for the article search were "mitochondrial damage", "microRNAs biomarkers", and "critically ill polytrauma patients". As a result of the research based on the key words presented above, we found 234 papers. From those, after rigorous analysis 64 were selected as being in conformity with the needs of this paper. The critical polytrauma patient needs a specific evaluation and monitoring due to the complexity of the dysfunctions that appear at the cellular level. The use of microRNAs as biomarkers for the mitochondrial damage can be of real use for intensive care medicine. Nevertheless, more studies are required in order to determine a larger panel of microRNAs which can have an impact on mitochondrial damage.

  5. A novel single-cell method provides direct evidence of persistent DNA damage in senescent cells and aged mammalian tissues.

    PubMed

    Galbiati, Alessandro; Beauséjour, Christian; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio

    2017-01-26

    The DNA damage response (DDR) arrests cell cycle progression until DNA lesions, like DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), are repaired. The presence of DSBs in cells is usually detected by indirect techniques that rely on the accumulation of proteins at DSBs, as part of the DDR. Such detection may be biased, as some factors and their modifications may not reflect physical DNA damage. The dependency on DDR markers of DSB detection tools has left questions unanswered. In particular, it is known that senescent cells display persistent DDR foci, that we and others have proposed to be persistent DSBs, resistant to endogenous DNA repair activities. Others have proposed that these peculiar DDR foci might not be sites of damaged DNA per se but instead stable chromatin modifications, termed DNA-SCARS. Here, we developed a method, named 'DNA damage in situ ligation followed by proximity ligation assay' (DI-PLA) for the detection and imaging of DSBs in cells. DI-PLA is based on the capture of free DNA ends in fixed cells in situ, by ligation to biotinylated double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides, which are next recognized by antibiotin anti-bodies. Detection is enhanced by PLA with a partner DDR marker at the DSB. We validated DI-PLA by demonstrating its ability to detect DSBs induced by various genotoxic insults in cultured cells and tissues. Most importantly, by DI-PLA, we demonstrated that both senescent cells in culture and tissues from aged mammals retain true unrepaired DSBs associated with DDR markers.

  6. Decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and function contribute to impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative stress in fetal lambs with persistent pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Eis, Annie; Alexander, Maxwell; Michalkiewicz, Teresa; Teng, Ru-Jeng; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan; Konduri, Girija G.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired vasodilation in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction. We investigated the hypothesis that a decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase level leads to impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and function in a lamb model of PPHN induced by prenatal ductus arteriosus constriction. We ventilated PPHN lambs with 100% O2 alone or with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). We treated pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) from normal and PPHN lambs with detaNONOate, an NO donor. We observed decreased mitochondrial (mt) DNA copy number, electron transport chain (ETC) complex subunit levels, and ATP levels in PAECs and lung tissue of PPHN fetal lambs at baseline compared with gestation matched controls. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) and sirtuin-1, which facilitate mitochondrial biogenesis, were decreased in PPHN. Ventilation with 100% O2 was associated with larger decreases in ETC subunits in the lungs of PPHN lambs compared with unventilated PPHN lambs. iNO administration, which facilitated weaning of FiO2, partly restored mtDNA copy number, ETC subunit levels, and ATP levels. DetaNONOate increased eNOS phosphorylation and its interaction with heat shock protein 90 (HSP90); increased levels of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) mRNA, protein, and activity; and decreased the mitochondrial superoxide levels in PPHN-PAECs. Knockdown of eNOS decreased ETC protein levels in control PAECs. We conclude that ventilation with 100% O2 amplifies oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in PPHN, which are partly improved by iNO and weaning of oxygen. PMID:26519208

  7. Topoisomerase IIalpha-dependent induction of a persistent DNA damage response in response to transient etoposide exposure.

    PubMed

    Soubeyrand, Sébastien; Pope, Louise; Haché, Robert J G

    2010-02-01

    Cytotoxicity of the topoisomerase II (topoII) poison etoposide has been ascribed to the persistent covalent trapping of topoII in DNA cleavage complexes that become lethal as cells replicate their DNA. However, short term etoposide treatment also leads to subsequent cell death, suggesting that the lesions that lead to cytotoxicity arise rapidly and prior to the onset DNA replication. In the present study 1h treatment with 25muM etoposide was highly toxic and initiated a double-stranded DNA damage response as reflected by the recruitment of ATM, MDC1 and DNA-PKcs to gammaH2AX foci. While most DNA breaks were rapidly repaired upon withdrawal of the etoposide treatment, the repair machinery remained engaged in foci for at least 24h following withdrawal. TopoII siRNA ablation showed the etoposide toxicity and gammaH2AX response to correlate with the inability of the cell to correct topoIIalpha-initiated DNA damage. gammaH2AX induction was resistant to the inhibition of DNA replication and transcription, but was increased by pre-treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. These results link the lethality of etoposide to the generation of persistent topoIIalpha-dependent DNA defects within topologically open chromatin domains.

  8. Persistence of space radiation induced cytogenetic damage in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts.

    PubMed

    George, K; Chappell, L J; Cucinotta, F A

    2010-08-14

    Cytogenetic damage was assessed in blood lymphocytes from 16 astronauts before and after they participated in long-duration space missions of 3 months or more. The frequency of chromosome damage was measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting before flight and at various intervals from a few days to many months after return from the mission. For all individuals, the frequency of chromosome exchanges measured within a month of return from space was higher than their preflight yield. However, some individuals showed a temporal decline in chromosome damage with time after flight. Statistical analysis using combined data for all astronauts indicated a significant overall decreasing trend in total chromosome exchanges with time after flight, although this trend was not seen for all astronauts and the yield of chromosome damage in some individuals actually increased with time after flight. The decreasing trend in total exchanges was slightly more significant when statistical analysis was restricted to data collected more than 220 days after return from flight. When analysis was restricted to data collected within 220 days of return from the mission there was no relationship between total exchanges and time. Translocation yields varied more between astronauts and there was only a slight non-significant decrease with time after flight that was similar for both later and earlier sampling times. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Isoliquiritigenin reduces oxidative damage and alleviates mitochondrial impairment by SIRT1 activation in experimental diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Yerra, Veera Ganesh; Kalvala, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2017-09-01

    Sirtuin (SIRT1) inactivation underlies the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia-associated vascular complications, but its role in diabetic neuropathy (DN) has not been yet explored. We have evaluated hyperglycaemia-induced alteration of SIRT1 signalling and the effect of isoliquiritigenin (ILQ) on SIRT1-directed AMP kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) signalling in peripheral nerves of streptozotocin (STZ) (55 mg/kg, ip)-induced diabetic rats and in high glucose (30 mM)-exposed neuro2a (N2A) cells. Diabetic rats and high glucose-exposed N2A cells showed reduction in SIRT1 expression with consequent decline in mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy. ILQ (10 & 20 mg/kg, po) administration to diabetic rats for 2 weeks and exposure to glucose-insulted N2A cells resulted in significant SIRT1 activation with concurrent increase in mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy. ILQ administration also enhanced NAD(+)/NADH ratio in peripheral sciatic nerves which explains its possible SIRT1 modulatory effect. Functional and behavioural studies show beneficial effect of ILQ as it alleviated nerve conduction and nerve blood flow deficits in diabetic rats along with improvement in behavioural parameters (hyperalgesia and allodynia). ILQ treatment to N2A cells reduced high glucose-driven ROS production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Further, ILQ-mediated SIRT1 activation facilitated the Nrf2-directed antioxidant signalling. Overall, results from this study suggest that SIRT1 activation by ILQ mimic effects of calorie restriction, that is, PGC-1α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis, FOXO3a mediated stress resistance and AMPK mediated autophagy effects to counteract the multiple manifestations in experimental DN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Enhances Ultrasound-mediated Antitumor Activity via Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Yoshiki; Tamatani, Dai; Kuniyasu, Syota; Mizuki, Yusuke; Suzuki, Takuma; Katsura, Hanayo; Yamada, Hisatsugu; Endo, Yoshio; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ishizuka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tohru; Yamanaka, Nobuyasu; Kurahashi, Tsukasa; Uto, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), a precursor of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), is now used for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of pre-cancers of the skin and photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) of brain tumors. Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) of cancers with ultrasound has been studied using 5-ALA as a sonosensitizer. In this article, we evaluated the sonosensitizing activity and mode of action of 5-ALA/PpIX by using mouse mammary tumor EMT6 cells. 5-ALA-SDT showed significant antitumor effects toward EMT6 cells in vitro and in vivo. The fluorescence of MitoSOX Red, an indicator specific for mitochondrial superoxide, was significantly increased by 5-ALA-SDT. Moreover, the fluorescence derived from JC-1, an indicator of mitochondrial membrane potential, was also significantly increased by 5-ALA-SDT. These findings suggest that mitochondria are one of the target organelles of 5-ALA-SDT. PpIX enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP), suggesting that PpIX might stabilize or promote ROS generation from tBHP. 5-ALA-SDT showed an antitumor effect in mouse mammary tumor EMT6 cells through oxidation of the mitochondrial membrane via ROS production. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Impaired enzymatic defensive activity, mitochondrial dysfunction and proteasome activation are involved in RTT cell oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Cervellati, Carlo; Sticozzi, Claudia; Romani, Arianna; Belmonte, Giuseppe; De Rasmo, Domenico; Signorile, Anna; Cervellati, Franco; Milanese, Chiara; Mastroberardino, Pier Giorgio; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Savelli, Vinno; Forman, Henry J; Hayek, Joussef; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    A strong correlation between oxidative stress (OS) and Rett syndrome (RTT), a rare neurodevelopmental disorder affecting females in the 95% of the cases, has been well documented although the source of OS and the effect of a redox imbalance in this pathology has not been yet investigated. Using freshly isolated skin fibroblasts from RTT patients and healthy subjects, we have demonstrated in RTT cells high levels of H2O2 and HNE protein adducts. These findings correlated with the constitutive activation of NADPH-oxidase (NOX) and that was prevented by a NOX inhibitor and iron chelator pre-treatment, showing its direct involvement. In parallel, we demonstrated an increase in mitochondrial oxidant production, altered mitochondrial biogenesis and impaired proteasome activity in RTT samples. Further, we found that the key cellular defensive enzymes: glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductases activities were also significantly lower in RTT. Taken all together, our findings suggest that the systemic OS levels in RTT can be a consequence of both: increased endogenous oxidants as well as altered mitochondrial biogenesis with a decreased activity of defensive enzymes that leads to posttranslational oxidant protein modification and a proteasome activity impairment.

  12. HO-1 Signaling Activation by Pterostilbene Treatment Attenuates Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage Induced by Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Jiayi; Li, Yue; Fan, Chongxi; Jiang, Shuai; Zhao, Lei; Di, Shouyin; Xin, Zhenlong; Wang, Bodong; Wu, Guiling; Li, Xia; Li, Zhiqing; Gao, Xu; Dong, Yushu; Qu, Yan

    2016-05-01

    reducing IR-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage through the activation of HO-1 signaling.

  13. Mitochondrial dysfunctions during progression of dystrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kyrychenko, Victoria; Poláková, Eva; Janíček, Radoslav; Shirokova, Natalia

    2015-08-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive muscle disease with severe cardiac complications. It is believed that cellular oxidative stress and augmented Ca(2+) signaling drives the development of cardiac pathology. Some mitochondrial and metabolic dysfunctions have also been reported. Here we investigate cellular mechanisms responsible for impaired mitochondrial metabolism in dystrophic cardiomyopathy at early stages of the disease. We employed electrophysiological and imaging techniques to study mitochondrial structure and function in cardiomyocytes from mdx mice, an animal model of DMD. Here we show that mitochondrial matrix was progressively oxidized in myocytes isolated from mdx mice. Moreover, an abrupt increase in workload resulted in significantly more pronounced oxidation of mitochondria in dystrophic cells. Electron micrographs revealed a gradually increased number of damaged mitochondria in mdx myocytes. Degradation in mitochondrial structure was correlated with progressive increase in mitochondrial Ca(2+) sequestration and mitochondrial depolarization, despite a substantial and persistent elevation in resting cytosolic sodium levels. Treatment of mdx cells with cyclosporine A, an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), shifted both resting and workload-dependent mitochondrial redox state to the levels recorded in control myocytes. It also significantly reduced workload dependent depolarization of mitochondrial membrane in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. Overall, our studies highlight age dependent deterioration of mitochondrial function in dystrophic cardiomyocytes, which seems to be associated with excessive opening of mPTP due to oxidative stress and cellular Ca(2+) overload.

  14. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ agonists protect oligodendrocyte progenitors against tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced damage: Effects on mitochondrial functions and differentiation.

    PubMed

    De Nuccio, C; Bernardo, A; Cruciani, C; De Simone, R; Visentin, S; Minghetti, L

    2015-09-01

    The activation of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) is known to exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects and PPAR-γ agonists are considered potential therapeutic agents in brain diseases including those affecting myelin. In demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), inflammation is one of the causes of myelin and axonal damage. Oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation is highly dependent on mitochondria, which are major targets of inflammatory insult. Here we show that PPAR-γ agonists protect OL progenitors against the maturational arrest induced by the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α by affecting mitochondrial functions. We demonstrate that the inhibition of OL differentiation by TNF-α is associated with i) increased mitochondrial superoxide production; ii) decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (mMP); and iii) decreased ADP-induced Ca(2+) oscillations, which we previously showed to be dependent on efficient mitochondria. The TNF-α effects were comparable to those of the mitochondrial toxin rotenone, further suggesting that TNF-α damage is mediated by mitochondrial function impairment. PPAR-γ agonists protected OL progenitors against the inhibitory activities of both TNF-α and rotenone on mMP, mitochondrial ROS production, Ca(2+) oscillations and OL differentiation. Finally, the PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone increased the expression of PGC-1α (a mitochondrial biogenesis master regulator), UCP2 (a mitochondrial protein known to reduce ROS production), and cytochrome oxidase subunit COX1. These findings confirm the central role of mitochondria in OL differentiation and point to mitochondria as major targets of PPAR-γ agonist protection against TNF-α damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. HPV 5 and 8 E6 Abrogate ATR Activity Resulting in Increased Persistence of UVB Induced DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Nicholas A.; Robinson, Kristin; Howie, Heather L.; Galloway, Denise A.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the E6 oncoprotein from high-risk members of the α human papillomavirus genus in anogenital cancer has been well established. However, far less is known about the E6 protein from the β human papillomavirus genus (β-HPVs). Some β-HPVs potentially play a role in non-melanoma skin cancer development, although they are not required for tumor maintenance. Instead, they may act as a co-factor that enhances the carcinogenic potential of UV damage. Indeed, the E6 protein from certain β-HPVs (HPV 5 and 8) promotes the degradation of p300, a histone acetyl transferase involved in UV damage repair. Here, we show that the expression of HPV 5 and 8 E6 increases thymine dimer persistence as well as the likelihood of a UVB induced double strand break (DSB). Importantly, we provide a mechanism for the increased DNA damage by showing that both extended thymine dimer persistence as well as elevated DSB levels are dependent on the ability of HPV 8 E6 to promote p300 degradation. We further demonstrate that HPV 5 and 8 E6 expression reduces the mRNA and protein levels of ATR, a PI3 kinase family member that plays a key role in UV damage signaling, but that these levels remain unperturbed in cells expressing a mutated HPV 8 E6 incapable of promoting p300 degradation. We confirm that the degradation of p300 leads to a reduction in ATR protein levels, by showing that ATR levels rebound when a p300 mutant resistant to HPV 8 mediated degradation and HPV 8 E6 are co-transfected. Conversely, we show that ATR protein levels are reduced when p300 is targeted for degradation by siRNA. Moreover, we show the reduced ATR levels in HPV 5 and 8 E6 expressing cells results in delayed ATR activation and an attenuated ability of cells to phosphorylate, and as a result accumulate, p53 in response to UVB exposure, leading to significantly reduced cell cycle arrest. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that β-HPV E6 expression can enhance the carcinogenic potential of UVB exposure by

  16. Vascular Damage: A Persisting Pathology Common to Alzheimer’s Disease and Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Franzblau, Max; Gonzales-Portillo, Chiara; Gonzales-Portillo, Gabriel S.; Diamandis, Theo; Borlongan, Mia C.; Tajiri, Naoki; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) are both significant clinical problems characterized by debilitating symptoms with limited available treatments. Interestingly, both neurological diseases are characterized by neurovascular damage. This impaired brain vasculature correlates with the onset of dementia, a symptom associated with hippocampal degeneration seen in both diseases. We posit that vascular damage is a major pathological link between TBI and AD, in that TBI victims are predisposed to AD symptoms due to altered brain vasculature; vice versa, the progression of AD pathology may be accelerated by TBI especially when the brain insult worsens hippocampal degeneration. Our hypothesis is supported by recent data reporting expedited AD pathology in presymptomatic transgenic AD mice subjected to TBI. If our hypothesis is correct, treatments targeted at repairing the vasculature may prove effective at treating both diseases and preventing the evolution of AD symptoms in TBI victims. PMID:24074832

  17. Persistent damaged bases in DNA allow mutagenic break repair in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jessica M.; Correa, Raul; Rosenberg, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria, yeast and human cancer cells possess mechanisms of mutagenesis upregulated by stress responses. Stress-inducible mutagenesis potentially accelerates adaptation, and may provide important models for mutagenesis that drives cancers, host pathogen interactions, antibiotic resistance and possibly much of evolution generally. In Escherichia coli repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) becomes mutagenic, using low-fidelity DNA polymerases under the control of the SOS DNA-damage response and RpoS general stress response, which upregulate and allow the action of error-prone DNA polymerases IV (DinB), II and V to make mutations during repair. Pol IV is implied to compete with and replace high-fidelity DNA polymerases at the DSB-repair replisome, causing mutagenesis. We report that up-regulated Pol IV is not sufficient for mutagenic break repair (MBR); damaged bases in the DNA are also required, and that in starvation-stressed cells, these are caused by reactive-oxygen species (ROS). First, MBR is reduced by either ROS-scavenging agents or constitutive activation of oxidative-damage responses, both of which reduce cellular ROS levels. The ROS promote MBR other than by causing DSBs, saturating mismatch repair, oxidizing proteins, or inducing the SOS response or the general stress response. We find that ROS drive MBR through oxidized guanines (8-oxo-dG) in DNA, in that overproduction of a glycosylase that removes 8-oxo-dG from DNA prevents MBR. Further, other damaged DNA bases can substitute for 8-oxo-dG because ROS-scavenged cells resume MBR if either DNA pyrimidine dimers or alkylated bases are induced. We hypothesize that damaged bases in DNA pause the replisome and allow the critical switch from high fidelity to error-prone DNA polymerases in the DSB-repair replisome, thus allowing MBR. The data imply that in addition to the indirect stress-response controlled switch to MBR, a direct cis-acting switch to MBR occurs independently of DNA breakage, caused by ROS

  18. Persistent damaged bases in DNA allow mutagenic break repair in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jessica M; Correa, Raul; Rosenberg, Susan M; Hastings, P J

    2017-07-01

    Bacteria, yeast and human cancer cells possess mechanisms of mutagenesis upregulated by stress responses. Stress-inducible mutagenesis potentially accelerates adaptation, and may provide important models for mutagenesis that drives cancers, host pathogen interactions, antibiotic resistance and possibly much of evolution generally. In Escherichia coli repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) becomes mutagenic, using low-fidelity DNA polymerases under the control of the SOS DNA-damage response and RpoS general stress response, which upregulate and allow the action of error-prone DNA polymerases IV (DinB), II and V to make mutations during repair. Pol IV is implied to compete with and replace high-fidelity DNA polymerases at the DSB-repair replisome, causing mutagenesis. We report that up-regulated Pol IV is not sufficient for mutagenic break repair (MBR); damaged bases in the DNA are also required, and that in starvation-stressed cells, these are caused by reactive-oxygen species (ROS). First, MBR is reduced by either ROS-scavenging agents or constitutive activation of oxidative-damage responses, both of which reduce cellular ROS levels. The ROS promote MBR other than by causing DSBs, saturating mismatch repair, oxidizing proteins, or inducing the SOS response or the general stress response. We find that ROS drive MBR through oxidized guanines (8-oxo-dG) in DNA, in that overproduction of a glycosylase that removes 8-oxo-dG from DNA prevents MBR. Further, other damaged DNA bases can substitute for 8-oxo-dG because ROS-scavenged cells resume MBR if either DNA pyrimidine dimers or alkylated bases are induced. We hypothesize that damaged bases in DNA pause the replisome and allow the critical switch from high fidelity to error-prone DNA polymerases in the DSB-repair replisome, thus allowing MBR. The data imply that in addition to the indirect stress-response controlled switch to MBR, a direct cis-acting switch to MBR occurs independently of DNA breakage, caused by ROS

  19. Hydroquinone induces oxidative and mitochondrial damage to human retinal Müller cells (MIO-M1).

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Claudio; Pham, Khoa; Franco, Maria Fernanda Estragó; Chwa, Marilyn; Limb, Astrid; Kuppermann, Baruch D; Kenney, M Cristina

    2013-12-01

    Smoking is a risk factor in the development of a variety of neuroretinal diseases. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of hydroquinone (HQ), a toxicant that is present in high concentrations in cigarette smoke, on a human retinal Müller cell line (MIO-M1). MIO-M1 cells were treated for 24h with four different concentrations of HQ (200μM, 100μM, 50μM, and 25μM). Assays were used to measure cell viability, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity (WST assay), caspase-3/7 activity and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Western blot analyses with anti-LC3 and anti-GAPDH antibodies were performed on HQ-treated samples. Some cultures were treated with 4μM rapamycin, to induce autophagy, with and without the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyl-adenine (3MA), and levels of ROS/RNS and LDH were measured. Our findings show that HQ reduced cell viability at four different concentrations tested (200, 100, 50 and 25μM); decreased mitochondrial function at concentrations of 200 and 100μM; increased ROS/RNS activity at all the concentrations tested and increased LDH levels at concentrations of 200, 100 and 50μM. Caspase-3/7 activities were not modified by HQ. However, treatment of these cells with this agent resulted in the appearance of the autophagy associated LC3-II band. Pre-treatment with 3MA reduced the ROS/RNS and LDH levels of the HQ-treated and rapamycin-treated cells. Our study suggests that HQ damages the MIO-M1 cells through oxidative, mitochondrial and autophagic pathways and not caspase-related apoptosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Striatal Dysfunctions Associated with Mitochondrial DNA Damage in Dopaminergic Neurons in a Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pickrell, Alicia M.; Pinto, Milena; Hida, Aline; Moraes, Carlos T.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common progressive neurodegenerative disorders, characterized by resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. These symptoms are associated with massive loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) causing an estimated 70–80% depletion of dopamine (DA) in the striatum, where their projections are located. Although the etiology of PD is unknown, mitochondrial dysfunctions have been associated with the disease pathophysiology. We used a mouse model expressing a mitochondria-targeted restriction enzyme, PstI or mito-PstI, to damage mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in dopaminergic neurons. The expression of mito-PstI induces double-strand breaks in the mtDNA, leading to an oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, mostly due to mtDNA depletion. Taking advantage of a dopamine transporter (DAT) promoter-driven tetracycline transactivator protein (tTA), we expressed mito-PstI exclusively in dopaminergic neurons, creating a novel PD transgenic mouse model (PD-mito-PstI mouse). These mice recapitulate most of the major features of PD: they have a motor phenotype that is reversible with l-DOPA treatment, a progressive neurodegeneration of the SN dopaminergic population, and striatal DA depletion. Our results also showed that behavioral phenotypes in PD-mito-PstI mice were associated with striatal dysfunctions preceding SN loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons and that other neurotransmitter systems [noradrenaline (NE) and serotonin (5-HT)] were increased after the disruption of DA neurons, potentially as a compensatory mechanism. This transgenic mouse model provides a novel model to study the role of mitochondrial defects in the axonal projections of the striatum in the pathophysiology of PD. PMID:22131425

  1. Arsenic-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage is mediated by decreased PGC-1α expression and its downstream targets in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Chandra; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-08-25

    The present study was carried out to investigate the molecular mechanism of arsenic-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage and its relation to biogenesis in rat brain. Chronic sodium arsenite (25 ppm, orally) administration for 12 weeks decreased mitochondrial complexes activities and mRNA expression of selective complexes subunits. The expression of mitochondrial biogenesis regulator PGC-1α, and its downstream targets NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam were decreased significantly both at mRNA and protein levels suggesting impaired biogenesis following chronic arsenic-exposure. In addition to this, protein expression analysis also revealed activation of Bax and caspase-3, leading to translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol suggesting induction of apoptotic pathway under oxidative stress. This was further confirmed by electron microscopy study which depicted morphological changes in mitochondria in terms of altered nuclear and mitochondrial shape and chromatin condensation in arsenic-treated rats. The immunohistochemical studies showed both nuclear and cytosolic localization of NRF-1 and NRF-2 in arsenic-exposed rat brain further suggesting regulatory role of these transcription factors under arsenic neurotoxicity. The results of present study indicate that arsenic-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage is associated with decreased mitochondrial biogenesis in rat brain that may present as important target to reveal the mechanism for arsenic-induced neurotoxicity.

  2. Rewiring yeast acetate metabolism through MPC1 loss of function leads to mitochondrial damage and decreases chronological lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Orlandi, Ivan; Coppola, Damiano Pellegrino; Vai, Marina

    2014-01-01

    During growth on fermentable substrates, such as glucose, pyruvate, which is the end-product of glycolysis, can be used to generate acetyl-CoA in the cytosol via acetaldehyde and acetate, or in mitochondria by direct oxidative decarboxylation. In the latter case, the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is responsible for pyruvate transport into mitochondrial matrix space. During chronological aging, yeast cells which lack the major structural subunit Mpc1 display a reduced lifespan accompanied by an age-dependent loss of autophagy. Here, we show that the impairment of pyruvate import into mitochondria linked to Mpc1 loss is compensated by a flux redirection of TCA cycle intermediates through the malic enzyme-dependent alternative route. In such a way, the TCA cycle operates in a “branched” fashion to generate pyruvate and is depleted of intermediates. Mutant cells cope with this depletion by increasing the activity of glyoxylate cycle and of the pathway which provides the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA. Moreover, cellular respiration decreases and ROS accumulate in the mitochondria which, in turn, undergo severe damage. These acquired traits in concert with the reduced autophagy restrict cell survival of the mpc1∆ mutant during chronological aging. Conversely, the activation of the carnitine shuttle by supplying acetyl-CoA to the mitochondria is sufficient to abrogate the short-lived phenotype of the mutant. PMID:28357219

  3. Comparative kinetics of damage to the plasma and mitochondrial membranes by intra-cellularly synthesized and externally-provided photosensitizers using multi-color FACS.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Sara; Malik, Zvi; Ehrenberg, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer involves inflicting lethal damage to the cells of malignant tumors, primarily by singlet oxygen that is generated following light-absorption in a photosensitizer molecule. Dysfunction of cells is manifested in many ways, including peroxidation of cellular components, membrane rupture, depolarization of electric potentials, termination of mitochondrial activity, onset of apoptosis and necrosis and eventually cell lysis. These events do not necessarily occur in linear fashion and different types of damage to cell components occur, most probably, in parallel. In this report we measured the relative rates of damage to two cellular membranes: the plasma membrane and the mitochondrial membrane. We employed photosensitizers of diverse hydrophobicities and used different incubation procedures, which lead to their different intra-cellular localizations. We monitored the damage that was inflicted on these membranes, by employing optical probes of membrane integrity, in a multi-color FACS experiment. The potentiometric indicator JC-1 monitored the electric cross-membrane potential of the mitochondria and the fluorometric indicator Draq7 monitored the rupture of the plasma membrane. We show that the electric depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and the damage to the enveloping plasma membrane proceed with different kinetics that reflect the molecular character and intracellular location of the sensitizer: PpIX that is synthesized in the cells from ALA causes rapid mitochondrial damage and very slow damage to the plasma membrane, while externally added PpIX has an opposite effect. The hydrophilic sensitizer HypS4 can be taken up by the cells by different incubation conditions, and these affect its intracellular location, and as a consequence either the plasma membrane or the mitochondria is damaged first. A similar correlation was found for additional extracellularly-provided photosensitizers HP and PpIX.

  4. Involvement of seminal leukocytes, reactive oxygen species, and sperm mitochondrial membrane potential in the DNA damage of the human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Lobascio, A M; De Felici, M; Anibaldi, M; Greco, P; Minasi, M G; Greco, E

    2015-03-01

    Measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing leukocytes in semen has been a standard component of the semen analysis, but its true significance remains still unknown. In this study, we have correlated the number of seminal leukocytes to various semen parameters. We found a negative correlation between the leukocyte number and sperm concentration (rs  = -0.22; p = 0.01) and motility (rs  = -0.20; p = 0.02). In contrast, a positive correlation between the number of leukocytes and both seminal ROS (rs  = 0.70, p < 0.001; n = 125) and the number of spermatozoa with DNA fragmentation (rs  = 0.43, p = 0.032; n = 25) was found. However, only a trend of positive correlation between ROS and the number of spermatozoa with TUNEL-detected DNA fragmentation was observed. Moreover, this latter was not correlated with loss of sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) (10% vs 35%, rs  = 0.25, p = 0.08; n = 50). Overall these results indicate that the presence of high number of leukocytes in the ejaculate negatively affects key semen parameters, as sperm concentration and motility, associated with infertility conditions. Moreover, they suggest that leukocytes are the major source of the seminal ROS and cause of sperm DNA fragmentation. However, the absence of a clear correlation between ROS and sperm DNA fragmentation, and spermatozoa with damaged DNA and MMP loss, suggest that ROS produced by leukocytes might be not the only cause of DNA damage in spermatozoa and that intrinsic mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathways might not have a major impact on sperm DNA fragmentation.

  5. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage cooperatively fuel axonal degeneration in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Fourcade, Stéphane; López-Erauskin, Jone; Ruiz, Montserrat; Ferrer, Isidre; Pujol, Aurora

    2014-03-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most frequent inherited monogenic demyelinating disease (minimal incidence 1:17,000). It is often lethal and currently lacks a satisfactory therapy. The disease is caused by loss of function of the ABCD1 gene, a peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter, resulting in the accumulation of VLCFA (very long-chain fatty acids) in organs and plasma. Understanding of the aetiopathogenesis is a prerequisite for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Functional genomics analysis of an ABCD1 null mouse, a mouse model for adrenomyeloneuropathy, has revealed presymptomatic alterations in several metabolic pathways converging on redox and bioenergetic homeostasis, with failure of mitochondrial OXPHOS disruption and mitochondrial depletion. These defects could be major contributors to the neurodegenerative cascade, as has been reported in several neurodegenerative disorders. Drugs targeting the redox imbalance/mitochondria dysfunction interplay have shown efficacy at halting axonal degeneration and associated disability in the mouse, and thus offer therapeutic hope. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain zinc chelation by diethyldithiocarbamate increased the behavioral and mitochondrial damages in zebrafish subjected to hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Marcos M.; Silva, Emerson S.; Moraes, Tarsila B.; Schirmbeck, Gabriel Henrique; Rico, Eduardo P.; Pinto, Charles B.; Rosemberg, Denis B.; Dutra-Filho, Carlos S.; Dias, Renato D.; Oliveira, Diogo L.; T. Rocha, João Batista; Souza, Diogo O.

    2016-01-01

    The increase in brain levels of chelatable zinc (Zn) in dysfunctions involving oxygen deprivation has stimulated the treatment with Zn chelators, such as diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC). However, DEDTC is a redox-active compound and it should be better evaluated during hypoxia. We use the hypoxia model in zebrafish to evaluate DEDTC effects. The exploratory behavior, chelatable Zn content, activities of mitochondrial dehydrogenases, reactive species levels (nitric oxide, superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical scavenger capacity) and cellular antioxidants (sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase) of zebrafish brain were assessed after recovery, with or without 0.2 mM DEDTC. The increased brain levels of chelatable Zn induced by hypoxia were mitigated by DEDTC. However, the novel tank task indicated that DEDTC did further enhance the exploratory deficit caused by hypoxia. Furthermore, these behavioral impairments caused by DEDTC were more associated with a negative action on mitochondrial activity and brain oxidative balance. Thus, due to apparent pro-oxidant action of DEDTC, our data do not support its use for neuroprotection in neuropathologies involving oxygen deprivation. PMID:26854133

  7. Identification of interacting partners of Human Mpv17-like protein with a mitigating effect of mitochondrial dysfunction through mtDNA damage.

    PubMed

    Iida, Reiko; Ueki, Misuzu; Yasuda, Toshihiro

    2015-10-01

    Human Mpv17-like protein (M-LPH) has been suggested to participate in mitochondrial function. In this study, we investigated the proteins that interact with M-LPH, and identified four: H2A histone family, member X (H2AX), ribosomal protein S14 (RPS14), ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3) and B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (Bap31). Immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation studies revealed that M-LPH is localized predominantly in the nucleus, to some extent in a subset of mitochondria, and marginally in the cytosol. Mitochondrial M-LPH appeared as punctate foci, and these were co-localized with a subset of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and mtDNA, indicating that M-LPH is localized in or in close proximity to mitochondrial nucleoids. RNAi-mediated knockdown of M-LPH resulted in an increase of mtDNA damage and reduced the expression of mtDNA-encoded genes. A ROS inducer, antimycin A, caused an increase in both the number and size of the mitochondrial M-LPH foci, and these foci were co-localized with two enzymes, DNA polymerase γ (POLG) and DNA ligase III (LIG3), both involved in mtDNA repair. Furthermore, knockdown of M-LPH hampered mitochondrial localization of these enzymes. Taken together, these observations suggest that M-LPH is involved in the maintenance of mtDNA and protects cells from mitochondrial dysfunction.

  8. Analysis of the Possible Persistent Genotoxic Damage in Workers Linked to the Ardystil Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Montoro, Alegria; Sebastià, Natividad; Hervás, David; Esteban, Valentín; Bonafont, Jose; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Almonacid, Miguel; Cervera, Jose; Such, Esperanza; Verdú, Gumersindo; Soriano, José Miguel; Villaescusa, Juan Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    A combination of several factors including a change in the paint application system; a lack of proper hygiene; and inadequate safety measures caused a severe health impact in the workers of some textile painting factories. This outbreak, mainly characterized by respiratory disorders, caused the death of six people and it has been classified as Ardystil syndrome. Fifty-two workers involved in the outbreak and 48 healthy subjects not known to have exposed to the potentially mutagenic agents participated in the study. The program evaluated possible genotoxic damage through the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) cytogenetic biomarker assay. We determined the frequency of SCE, high-frequency cells (HFCs), and a ratio, which can be considered as a new parameter, allowing for the study of the SCE distribution pattern among the chromosomes. There was no statistically significant difference in the SCE frequency and in the mean number of HFCs between the control and the Ardystil-affected groups. However, smoking increased the incidence of all parameters studied in both the case and control groups. This study shows that workers involved in the Ardystil syndrome did not suffer genotoxic damage as measured by SCE and HFCs when compared with the control group.

  9. Final report- Links between persistent DNA damage, genome instability, and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Dynan, William S.

    2016-11-30

    The goal of the project was to determine whether high linear energy transfer (LET) space radiation produces the same or different effects as low doses of terrestrial (low-LET) radiation. The work used the Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) as a vertebrate model organism that can be maintained in large numbers at low cost for lifetime studies. To determine whether simulated space radiation produced the same of different effects as low doses of low-LET radiation, medaka embryos were irradiated at doses ranging from 0.1 to 9 Gray (Gy) of high-LET charged particle radiation (1000 MeV/nucleon 56-Fe ions) or 0.1 Gy to 27 Gy of low-LET gamma-rays. To examine the effect of irradiation on potential biomarkers, the population was sampled at intervals from 8 to 28 months post-irradiation and liver tissue was subjected to histological and molecular analysis. Charged particle radiation and aging contributed synergistically to accumulation of lipid oxidation products, which are a marker of chronic oxidative stress. This was mirrored by a decline in mRNA encoding the transcriptional activator, PPARGC1A which is required for mitochondrial maintenance and for defense against oxidative stress. Additionally, mitochondria had an elongated and enlarged ultrastructure. Depending on the endpoint, effects of gamma-rays in the same dose range were either lesser or not detected. Together, results indicate that a single exposure to high-LET, but not low-LET radiation, early in life, leads to increased oxidative stress throughout the normal lifespan of the individual.

  10. STING-IRF3 Triggers Endothelial Inflammation in Response to Free Fatty Acid-Induced Mitochondrial Damage in Diet-Induced Obesity.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yun; Luo, Wei; Zhang, Lin; Wu, Weiwei; Yuan, Liangshuai; Xu, Hao; Song, Juhee; Fujiwara, Keigi; Abe, Jun-Ichi; LeMaire, Scott A; Wang, Xing Li; Shen, Ying H

    2017-05-01

    Metabolic stress in obesity induces endothelial inflammation and activation, which initiates adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying endothelial inflammation induction are not completely understood. Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is an important molecule in immunity and inflammation. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of STING in palmitic acid-induced endothelial activation/inflammation. In cultured endothelial cells, palmitic acid treatment activated STING, as indicated by its perinuclear translocation and binding to interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), leading to IRF3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. The activated IRF3 bound to the promoter of ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) and induced ICAM-1 expression and monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. When analyzing the upstream signaling, we found that palmitic acid activated STING by inducing mitochondrial damage. Palmitic acid treatment caused mitochondrial damage and leakage of mitochondrial DNA into the cytosol. Through the cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS (cyclic GMP-AMP synthase), the mitochondrial damage and leaked cytosolic mitochondrial DNA activated the STING-IRF3 pathway and increased ICAM-1 expression. In mice with diet-induced obesity, the STING-IRF3 pathway was activated in adipose tissue. However, STING deficiency (Sting(gt/gt) ) partially prevented diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation, obesity, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. The mitochondrial damage-cGAS-STING-IRF3 pathway is critically involved in metabolic stress-induced endothelial inflammation. STING may be a potential therapeutic target for preventing cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance in obese individuals. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Indicators of Acute and Persistent Renal Damage in Adult Thrombotic Microangiopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sucker, Christoph; Kuhr, Kathrin; Hollenbeck, Markus; Hetzel, Gerd R.; Burst, Volker; Teschner, Sven; Rump, Lars C.; Benzing, Thomas; Grabensee, Bernd; Kurschat, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) in adults such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) are life-threatening disorders if untreated. Clinical presentation is highly variable and prognostic factors for clinical course and outcome are not well established. Methods We performed a retrospective observational study of 62 patients with TMA, 22 males and 40 females aged 16 to 76 years, treated with plasma exchange at one center to identify clinical risk factors for the development of renal insufficiency. Results On admission, 39 of 62 patients (63%) had acute renal failure (ARF) with 32 patients (52%) requiring dialysis treatment. High systolic arterial pressure (SAP, p = 0.009) or mean arterial pressure (MAP, p = 0.027) on admission was associated with acute renal failure. Patients with SAP>140 mmHg on admission had a sevenfold increased risk of severe kidney disease (OR 7.464, CI 2.097–26.565). MAP>100 mmHg indicated a fourfold increased risk for acute renal failure (OR 4.261, CI 1.400–12.972). High SAP, diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), and MAP on admission were also independent risk factors for persistent renal insufficiency with the strongest correlation for high MAP. Moreover, a high C-reactive protein (CRP) level on admission correlated with renal failure in the course of the disease (p = 0.003). At discharge, renal function in 11 of 39 patients (28%) had fully recovered, 14 patients (23%) remained on dialysis, and 14 patients (23%) had non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease. Seven patients (11%) died. We identified an older age as risk factor for death. Conclusions High blood pressure as well as high CRP serum levels on admission are associated with renal insufficiency in TMA. High blood pressure on admission is also a strong predictor of sustained renal insufficiency. Thus, adult TMA patients with high blood pressure may require special attention to prevent persistent renal failure

  12. Persistent cerebrovascular damage after stroke in type two diabetic rats measured by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guangliang; Yan, Tao; Chen, Jieli; Chopp, Michael; Li, Lian; Li, Qingjiang; Cui, Chengcheng; Ning, Ruizhuo; Jiang, Quan

    2015-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease with vascular components. Consequently, the blood-brain barrier disruption after stroke may differ between diabetic and nondiabetic animals. However, few studies have documented the longitudinal blood-brain barrier disruption afte stroke in diabetic animals. In this study, using MRI, we noninvasively evaluated the blood-brain barrier damage after middle cerebral artery occlusion in diabetic and nondiabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was induced in adult male Wistar rats by administration of a high-fat diet in combination with a single intraperitoneal injection (35 mg/kg) of streptozotocin. T2DM rats (n=9) and nondiabetic wild-type (WT) rats (n=9) were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 hours using the filament model. MRI was performed 1 day and then weekly for 5 weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion for all rats. The ischemic lesion volumes after stroke as measured using T2 maps were not significantly different between the T2DM and WT rats. Compared with the WT rats, the volumes of blood-brain barrier disruption evaluated using contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging with gadolinium-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid and the cerebral hemorrhagic volumes measured with susceptibility-weighted imaging were significantly (P<0.05) larger in the T2DM rats from 1 to 5 weeks after stroke; values of diffusion fractional anisotropy were significantly lower in T2DM rats (P<0.03) than in WT rats after stroke. These MRI measurements were consistent with histological data. Using MRI, T2-weighted imaging did not detect significant differences of the ischemic lesion volumes between T2DM and WT rats. In contrast to the WT rats, however, contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging and susceptibility-weighted imaging identified much more severe ischemic vascular damage, whereas fractional anisotropy demonstrated lower axonal density in the T2DM rats after stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Liver ultrastructural morphology and mitochondrial DNA levels in HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfection: no evidence of mitochondrial damage with highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Matsukura, Motoi; Chu, Fanny F S; Au, May; Lu, Helen; Chen, Jennifer; Rietkerk, Sonja; Barrios, Rolando; Farley, John D; Montaner, Julio S; Montessori, Valentina C; Walker, David C; Côté, Hélène C F

    2008-06-19

    Liver mitochondrial toxicity is a concern, particularly in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection. Liver biopsies from HIV/HCV co-infected patients, 14 ON-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and nine OFF-HAART, were assessed by electron microscopy quantitative morphometric analyses. Hepatocytes tended to be larger ON-HAART than OFF-HAART (P = 0.05), but mitochondrial volume, cristae density, lipid volume, mitochondrial DNA and RNA levels were similar. We found no evidence of increased mitochondrial toxicity in individuals currently on HAART, suggesting that concomitant HAART should not delay HCV therapy.

  14. Persistence of Gender Related-Effects on Visuo-Spatial and Verbal Working Memory in Right Brain-Damaged Patients

    PubMed Central

    Piccardi, Laura; Matano, Alessandro; D’Antuono, Giovanni; Marin, Dario; Ciurli, Paola; Incoccia, Chiara; Verde, Paola; Guariglia, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify if gender differences in verbal and visuo-spatial working memory would persist following right cerebral lesions. To pursue our aim we investigated a large sample (n. 346) of right brain-damaged patients and healthy participants (n. 272) for the presence of gender effects in performing Corsi and Digit Test. We also assessed a subgroup of patients (n. 109) for the nature (active vs. passive) of working memory tasks. We tested working memory (WM) administering the Corsi Test (CBT) and the Digit Span (DS) using two different versions: forward (fCBT and fDS), subjects were required to repeat stimuli in the same order that they were presented; and backward (bCBT and bDS), subjects were required to repeat stimuli in the opposite order of presentation. In this way, passive storage and active processing of working memory were assessed. Our results showed the persistence of gender-related effects in spite of the presence of right brain lesions. We found that men outperformed women both in CBT and DS, regardless of active and passive processing of verbal and visuo-spatial stimuli. The presence of visuo-spatial disorders (i.e., hemineglect) can affect the performance on Corsi Test. In our sample, men and women were equally affected by hemineglect, therefore it did not mask the gender effect. Generally speaking, the persistence of the men’s superiority in visuo-spatial tasks may be interpreted as a protective factor, at least for men, within other life factors such as level of education or kind of profession before retirement. PMID:27445734

  15. Ameliorative efficacy of tetrahydrocurcumin against arsenic induced oxidative damage, dyslipidemia and hepatic mitochondrial toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Muthumani, M; Miltonprabu, S

    2015-06-25

    Arsenic (As) is a well-known human carcinogen and a potent hepatotoxin. Environmental exposure to arsenic imposes a serious health hazard to humans and other animals worldwide. Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), one of the major metabolites of curcumin, exhibits many of the same physiological and pharmacological activities as curcumin and in some systems may exert greater antioxidant activity than the curcumin. It has been reported that THC has antioxidant efficacy attributable to the presence of identical β-diketone of 3rd and 5th substitution in heptane moiety. In the present study, rats were orally treated with arsenic alone (5 mg kg(-1) bw/day) with THC (80 mg kg(-1) bw/day) for 28 days. Hepatotoxicity was measured by the increased activities of serum hepatospecific enzymes, namely aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin along with increased elevation of lipid peroxidative markers, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. And also elevated levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids were observed in arsenic intoxicated rats. These effects of arsenic were coupled with enhanced mitochondrial swelling, inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase, Ca(2+)ATPase and a decrease in mitochondrial calcium content. The toxic effect of arsenic was also indicated by significantly decreased activities of enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase along with non-enzymatic antioxidant such as reduced glutathione. Administration of THC exhibited significant reversal of arsenic induced toxicity in hepatic tissue. All these changes were supported by the reduction of arsenic concentration and histopathological observations of the liver. These results suggest that THC has a protective effect over arsenic induced toxicity in rat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mitochondrial Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (MTDs) Are Released during Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion and Induce Inflammatory Responses.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qianni; Wood, Caroline Ruth; Cimen, Sanem; Venkatachalam, Ananda Baskaran; Alwayn, Ian Patrick Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia / reperfusion injury (IRI) during the course of liver transplantation enhances the immunogenicity of allografts and thus impacts overall graft outcome. This sterile inflammatory insult is known to activate innate immunity and propagate organ damage through the recognition of damage-associate molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of mitochondrial DAMPs (MTDs) in the pathogenesis of hepatic IRI. Using in vitro models we observed that levels of MTDs were significantly higher in both transplantation-associated and warm IR, and that co-culture of MTDs with human and rat hepatocytes significantly increased cell death. MTDs were also released in an in vivo rat model of hepatic IRI and associated with increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10) and increased liver injury compared to the sham group. Our results suggest that hepatic IR results in a significant increase of MTDs both in vitro and in vivo suggesting that MTDs may serve as a novel marker in hepatic IRI. Co-culture of MTDs with hepatocytes showed a decrease in cell viability in a concentration dependent manner, which indicates that MTDs is a toxic mediator participating in the pathogenesis of liver IR injury.

  17. Oxidants and not alkylating agents induce rapid mtDNA loss and mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Furda, Amy M.; Marrangoni, Adele M.; Lokshin, Anna; Van Houten, Bennett

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is essential for proper mitochondrial function and encodes 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and 13 polypeptides that make up subunits of complex I, III, IV, in the electron transport chain and complex V, the ATP synthase. Although mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in processes such as premature aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer, it has not been shown whether persistent mtDNA damage causes a loss of oxidative phosphorylation. We addressed this question by treating mouse embryonic fibroblasts with either hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and measuring several endpoints, including mtDNA damage and repair rates using QPCR, levels of mitochondrial- and nuclear-encoded proteins using antibody analysis, and a pharmacologic profile of mitochondria using the Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer. We show that a 60 min treatment with H2O2 causes persistent mtDNA lesions, mtDNA loss, decreased levels of a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial subunit, a loss of ATP-linked oxidative phosphorylation and a loss of total reserve capacity. Conversely, a 60 min treatment with 2 mM MMS causes persistent mtDNA lesions but no mtDNA loss, no decrease in levels of a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial subunit, and no mitochondrial dysfunction. These results suggest that persistent mtDNA damage is not sufficient to cause mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:22766155

  18. Persistent and heritable structural damage induced in heterochromatic DNA from rat liver by N-nitrosodimethylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, E.J.; Stewart, B.W.

    1987-03-24

    Analysis, by benzoylated DEAE-cellulose chromatography, has been made of structural change in eu- and heterochromatic DNA from rat liver following administration of the carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine. Either hepatic DNA was prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine administered 2-3 weeks before injection of the carcinogen or the labeled precursor was given during regenerative hyperplasia in rats treated earlier with N-nitrosodimethylamine. Following phenol extraction of either whole liver homogenate or nuclease-fractionated eu- and heterochromatin, carcinogen-modified DNA was examined by stepwise or caffeine gradient elution from benzoylated DEAE-cellulose. In whole DNA, nitrosamine-induced single-stranded character was maximal 4-24 h after treatment, declining rapidly thereafter; gradient elution of these DNA preparations also provided short-term evidence of structural change. Caffeine gradient chromatography suggested short-term nitrosamine-induced structural change in euchromatic DNA, while increased binding of heterochromatic DNA was evident for up to 3 months after carcinogen treatment. Preparations of newly synthesized heterochromatic DNA from animals subjected to hepatectomy up to 2 months after carcinogen treatment provided evidence of heritable structural damage. Carcinogen-induced binding of heterochromatic DNA to benzoylated DEAE-cellulose was indicative of specific structural lesions whose affinity equalled that of single-stranded DNA up to 1.0 kilobase in length. The data suggest that structural lesions in heterochromatin, which may be a consequence of incomplete repair, are preferentially degraded by endogenous nuclease(s).

  19. Mitochondrial Enzyme Plays Critical Role in Chemotherapy-Induced Heart Damage | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective drug for treating cancers ranging from leukemia and lymphoma to solid tumors, such as breast cancer. DOX kills dividing cells in two ways: inserting between the base pairs of DNA and trapping a complex of DNA and an enzyme that cuts DNA, topoisomerase 2α, preventing DNA repair. However, DOX also causes congestive heart failure in about 30 percent of adult cancer patients and delayed onset heart failure in a significant number of pediatric cancer patients. The mechanism of this DOX-mediated cardiotoxicity is not well understood since heart muscle cells neither divide nor express Top2α, and there are currently no genetic factors that identify patients who are susceptible to cardiac damage from DOX. However, a recent study showed that mice lacking another topoisomerase, Top2β, did not experience cardiac damage after treatment with DOX.

  20. DNA damage persistence as determinant of tumor sensitivity to the combination of Topo I inhibitors and telomere-targeting agents.

    PubMed

    Biroccio, Annamaria; Porru, Manuela; Rizzo, Angela; Salvati, Erica; D'Angelo, Carmen; Orlandi, Augusto; Passeri, Daniela; Franceschin, Marco; Stevens, Malcolm F G; Gilson, Eric; Beretta, Giovanni; Zupi, Gabriella; Pisano, Claudio; Zunino, Franco; Leonetti, Carlo

    2011-04-15

    We previously reported that the G-quadruplex (G4) ligand RHPS4 potentiates the antitumor activity of camptothecins both in vitro and in tumor xenografts. The present study aims at investigating the mechanisms involved in this specific drug interaction. Combination index test was used to evaluate the interaction between G4 ligands and standard or novel Topo I inhibitors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed to study the presence at telomeres of various types of topisomerase, while immunolabeling experiments were performed to measure the activation of DNA damage both in vitro and in tumor xenografts. We report that integration of the Topo I inhibitor SN-38, but not the Topo II poison doxorubicin with telomere-based therapy is strongly effective and the sequence of drug administration is critical in determining the synergistic interaction, impairing the cell ability to recover from drug-induced cytotoxicity. The synergistic effect of this combination was also observed by using novel camptothecins and, more interestingly, mice treated with ST1481/RHPS4 combination showed an inhibition and delay of tumor growth as well as an increased survival. The study of the mechanism(s) revealed that treatment with G4 ligands increased Topo I at the telomeres and the functional relevance of this observation was directly assessed by showing that standard and novel camptothecins stabilized DNA damage both in vitro and in xenografts. Our results demonstrate an outstanding efficacy of Topo I inhibitors/G4 ligands combination, which likely reflects an enhanced and persistent activation of DNA damage response as a critical determinant of the therapeutic improvement. ©2011 AACR.

  1. Ultra-sensitive sequencing reveals an age-related increase in somatic mitochondrial mutations that are inconsistent with oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Scott R; Salk, Jesse J; Schmitt, Michael W; Loeb, Lawrence A

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is believed to be highly vulnerable to age-associated damage and mutagenesis by reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, somatic mtDNA mutations have historically been difficult to study because of technical limitations in accurately quantifying rare mtDNA mutations. We have applied the highly sensitive Duplex Sequencing methodology, which can detect a single mutation among >10(7) wild type molecules, to sequence mtDNA purified from human brain tissue from both young and old individuals with unprecedented accuracy. We find that the frequency of point mutations increases ~5-fold over the course of 80 years of life. Overall, the mutation spectra of both groups are comprised predominantly of transition mutations, consistent with misincorporation by DNA polymerase γ or deamination of cytidine and adenosine as the primary mutagenic events in mtDNA. Surprisingly, G → T mutations, considered the hallmark of oxidative damage to DNA, do not significantly increase with age. We observe a non-uniform, age-independent distribution of mutations in mtDNA, with the D-loop exhibiting a significantly higher mutation frequency than the rest of the genome. The coding regions, but not the D-loop, exhibit a pronounced asymmetric accumulation of mutations between the two strands, with G → A and T → C mutations occurring more often on the light strand than the heavy strand. The patterns and biases we observe in our data closely mirror the mutational spectrum which has been reported in studies of human populations and closely related species. Overall our results argue against oxidative damage being a major driver of aging and suggest that replication errors by DNA polymerase γ and/or spontaneous base hydrolysis are responsible for the bulk of accumulating point mutations in mtDNA.

  2. Persistence and protection of mitochondrial DNA in the generative cell of cucumber is consistent with its paternal transmission

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber, unlike most plants, shows paternal inheritance of its mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); however, the mechanisms regulating this unique transmission mode are unclear. Here we monitored the amounts of mtDNA through the development of cucumber microspores to pollen and observed that mtDNA decreases ...

  3. The mitochondria targeted antioxidant MitoQ protects against fluoroquinolone-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial membrane damage in human Achilles tendon cells.

    PubMed

    Lowes, Damon A; Wallace, Carol; Murphy, Michael P; Webster, Nigel R; Galley, Helen F

    2009-04-01

    Tendinitis and tendon rupture during treatment with fluoroquinolone antibiotics is thought to be mediated via oxidative stress. This study investigated whether ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin cause oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in cultured normal human Achilles' tendon cells and whether an antioxidant targeted to mitochondria (MitoQ) would protect against such damage better than a non-mitochondria targeted antioxidant. Human tendon cells from normal Achilles' tendons were exposed to 0-0.3 mM antibiotic for 24 h and 7 days in the presence of 1 microM MitoQ or an untargeted form, idebenone. Both moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin resulted in up to a 3-fold increase in the rate of oxidation of dichlorodihydrofluorescein, a marker of general oxidative stress in tenocytes (p<0.0001) and loss of mitochondrial membrane permeability (p<0.001). In cells treated with MitoQ the oxidative stress was less and mitochondrial membrane potential was maintained. Mitochondrial damage to tenocytes during fluoroquinolone treatment may be involved in tendinitis and tendon rupture.

  4. Decreased in vitro fertility in male rats exposed to fluoride-induced oxidative stress damage and mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss

    SciTech Connect

    Izquierdo-Vega, Jeannett A.; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Manuel; Razo, Luz Maria del

    2008-08-01

    Fluorosis, caused by drinking water contamination with inorganic fluoride, is a public health problem in many areas around the world. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of environmentally relevant doses of fluoride on in vitro fertilization (IVF) capacity of spermatozoa, and its relationship to spermatozoa mitochondrial transmembrane potential ({delta}{psi}{sub m}). Male Wistar rats were administered at 5 mg fluoride/kg body mass/24 h, or deionized water orally for 8 weeks. We evaluated several spermatozoa parameters in treated and untreated rats: i) standard quality analysis, ii) superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, iii) the generation of superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}}{sup -}), iv) lipid peroxidation concentration, v) ultrastructural analyses of spermatozoa using transmission electron microscopy, vi) {delta}{psi}{sub m}, vii) acrosome reaction, and viii) IVF capability. Spermatozoa from fluoride-treated rats exhibited a significant decrease in SOD activity ({approx} 33%), accompanied with a significant increase in the generation of O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}} ({approx} 40%), a significant decrease in {delta}{psi}{sub m} ({approx} 33%), and a significant increase in lipid peroxidation concentration ({approx} 50%), relative to spermatozoa from the control group. Consistent with this finding, spermatozoa from fluoride-treated rats exhibited altered plasmatic membrane. In addition, the percentage of fluoride-treated spermatozoa capable of undergoing the acrosome reaction was decreased relative to control spermatozoa (34 vs. 55%), while the percentage fluoride-treated spermatozoa capable of oocyte fertilization was also significantly lower than the control group (13 vs. 71%). These observations suggest that subchronic exposure to fluoride causes oxidative stress damage and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, resulting in reduced fertility.

  5. Lung endothelial barrier protection by resveratrol involves inhibition of HMGB1 release and HMGB1-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage via an Nrf2-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen-Wen; Liu, Yu-Jian; Lv, Zhou; Mao, Yan-Fei; Wang, Ying-Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Jiang, Lai

    2015-11-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) contributes to lung vascular hyperpermeability during ventilator-induced lung injury. We aimed to determine whether the natural antioxidant resveratrol protected against HMGB1-induced endothelial hyperpermeability both in vitro and in vivo. We found that HMGB1 decreased vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin expression and increased endothelial permeability, leading to mitochondrial oxidative damage in primary cultured mouse lung vascular endothelial cells (MLVECs). Both the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 mimetic MnTBAP and resveratrol blocked HMGB1-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage, VE-cadherin downregulation, and endothelial hyperpermeability. In in vivo studies, anesthetized male ICR mice were ventilated for 4h using low tidal volume (6 ml/kg) or high tidal volume (HVT; 30 ml/kg) ventilation. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with resveratrol immediately before the onset of ventilation. We found that resveratrol attenuated HVT-associated lung vascular hyperpermeability and HMGB1 production. HVT caused a significant increase in nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and Nrf2 target gene expression in lung tissues, which was further enhanced by resveratrol treatment. HMGB1 had no effect on Nrf2 activation, whereas resveratrol treatment activated the Nrf2 signaling pathway in HMGB1-treated MLVECs. Moreover, Nrf2 knockdown reversed the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on HMGB1-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage and endothelial hyperpermeability. The inhibitory effect of resveratrol on cyclic stretch-induced HMGB1 mRNA expression in primary cultured MLVECs was also abolished by Nrf2 knockdown. In summary, this study demonstrates that resveratrol protects against lung endothelial barrier dysfunction initiated by HVT. Lung endothelial barrier protection by resveratrol involves inhibition of mechanical stretch-induced HMGB1 release and HMGB1-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage

  6. CDP-choline circumvents mercury-induced mitochondrial damage and renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Buelna-Chontal, Mabel; Franco, Martha; Hernández-Esquivel, Luz; Pavón, Natalia; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S; Correa, Francisco; Jasso, Ricardo; Pichardo-Ramos, Gregorio; Santamaría, José; González-Pacheco, Héctor; Soto, Virgilia; Díaz-Ruíz, Jorge L; Chávez, Edmundo

    2017-09-08

    Heavy metal ions are known to produce harmful alterations on kidney function. Specifically, the accumulation of Hg(2+) in kidney tissue may induce renal failure. In this work, the protective effect of CDP-choline against the deleterious effects induced by Hg(2+) on renal function was studied. CDP-choline administered ip at a dose of 125 mg/kg body weight prevented the damage induced by Hg(2+) administration at a dose of 3 mg/kg body weight. The findings indicate that CDP-choline guards mitochondria against Hg(2+) -toxicity by preserving their ability to retain matrix content, such as accumulated Ca(2+) . This nucleotide also protected mitochondria from Hg(2+) -induced loss of the transmembrane electric gradient and from the generation of hydrogen peroxide and membrane TBARS. In addition, CDP-choline avoided the oxidative damage of mtDNA and inhibited the release of the interleukins IL-1 and IL6, recognized as markers of acute inflammatory reaction. After the administration of Hg(2+) and CDP, CDP-choline maintained nearly normal levels of renal function and creatinine clearance, as well as blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  7. Carbon Monoxide-Saturated Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers Attenuate High-Altitude-Induced Cardiac Injury by Amelioration of the Inflammation Response and Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingshu; Hu, Ling; Hu, Yu; Gong, Gu; Tan, Hua; Deng, Li; Sun, Xiaoqin; Yi, Xiaobo; Sun, Yangyang; Wu, Wei; Li, Tao

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on high-altitude hypoxia-induced cardiac damage. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups. The mice were exposed to normoxia or simulated 5,500-meter high-altitude hypoxia in a hypobaric chamber for 7 days. During the first 3 days, the mice were pretreated with CO-saturated hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carrier (CO-HBOC), oxygen-saturated hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (O2-HBOC) at a dose of 0.3 g Hb/kg/day or an equivalent volume of saline. The in vivo left ventricle function, cardiac enzyme release, histopathological changes, apoptosis and inflammation were also measured. High-altitude hypoxia induced significant cardiac damage, as demonstrated by impaired cardiac function and increased proapoptotic, proinflammatory and pro-oxidant markers. Pretreatment with CO-HBOC significantly improved cardiac performance, reduced cardiac enzyme release and limited myocardial apoptosis. The increased inflammatory response was also suppressed. In addition to the preserved mitochondrial structure, hypobaric hypoxia-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage was remarkably attenuated. Moreover, these antiapoptotic and antioxidative effects were accompanied by an upregulated phosphorylation of Akt, ERK and STAT3. This study demonstrated that CO-HBOC provides a promising protective effect on high-altitude hypoxia-induced myocardial injury, which is mediated by the inhibition of inflammation and mitochondrial oxidative damage. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The mitochondrial uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol improves mitochondrial function, attenuates oxidative damage, and increases white matter sparing in the contused spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ying; McEwen, Melanie L; Nottingham, Stephanie A; Maragos, William F; Dragicevic, Natasha B; Sullivan, Patrick G; Springer, Joe E

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective efficacy of the mitochondrial uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) in rats following a mild to moderate spinal cord contusion injury. Animals received intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (DMSO) or 5 mg/mL of DNP prior to injury. Twenty-four hours following surgery, mitochondrial function was assessed in mitochondria isolated from spinal cord synaptosomes. In addition, synaptosomes were used to measure indicators of reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation. Relative to vehicle-treated animals, pretreatment with DNP maintained mitochondrial bioenergetics and significantly decreased reactive oxygen species levels, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl content following spinal cord injury. Furthermore, pretreatment with DNP significantly increased the amount of remaining white matter at the injury epicenter 6 weeks after injury. These results indicate that treatment with mitochondrial uncoupling agents may provide a novel approach for the treatment of secondary injury following spinal cord contusion.

  9. Periodic monitoring of persistent organic pollutants and molecular damage in Cyprinus carpio from Büyük Menderes River.

    PubMed

    Çağdaş, Beste; Kocagöz, Rasih; Onat, İlgen; Perçin, Fatih; Özaydın, Okan; Orhan, Hilmi

    2017-02-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were quantified in river water and sediment, as well as in the liver and muscle tissues of Cyprinus carpio that were sampled four times in a year at three stations in the Büyük Menderes River (BMR). Potential biomarkers of possible cellular molecular damage, namely lipid peroxidation (LPO) degradation products, protein carbonyls (PCO) and DNA repair product 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), were analysed. All the targeted pollutants were measurable both in biotic and abiotic samples. Interestingly, the results suggested that there was recent organochlorine pesticide (OCP) input into the river water in the first two sampling periods in all stations in contrast to prohibition, while input of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) was not detected. Liver POP concentrations were higher than in muscle, as expected, and were found to decrease from the first to the fourth sampling period in all stations, except PBDEs. Levels of LPO degradation products in the liver and in muscle tissues decreased from the first to the fourth sampling period. This suggests that these markers reflect the lipid damage in respective tissues due to the tissue burden of targeted POPs. Protein carbonyls were the highest in the first sampling period, followed by a dramatic decrease in the second, and then a gradual increase towards the fourth sampling period in all stations. 8-OHdG levels were lower in Sarayköy station in the first sampling period. Among the measured biomarkers, only several LPO degradation products were significantly correlated with OCPs and PCBs in liver tissue.

  10. Role of chemokines and their receptors in viral persistence and liver damage during chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Larrubia, Juan R; Benito-Martínez, Selma; Calvino, Miryam; Sanz-de-Villalobos, Eduardo; Parra-Cid, Trinidad

    2008-01-01

    Chemokines produced in the liver during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induce migration of activated T cells from the periphery to infected parenchyma. The milieu of chemokines secreted by infected hepatocytes is predominantly associated with the T-helper/T-cytotoxic type-1 cell (Th1/Tc1) response. These chemokines consist of CCL3 (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α; MIP-1α), CCL4 (MIP-1β), CCL5 (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted; RANTES), CXCL10 (interferon-γ−inducible protein-10; IP-10), CXCL11 (interferon-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant; I-TAC), and CXCL9 (monokine induced by interferon γ; Mig) and they recruit T cells expressing either CCR5 or CXCR3 chemokine receptors. Intrahepatic and peripheral blood levels of these chemokines are increased during chronic hepatitis C. The interaction between chemokines and their receptors is essential in recruiting HCV-specific T cells to control the infection. When the adaptive immune response fails in this task, non-specific T cells without the capacity to control the infection are also recruited to the liver, and these are ultimately responsible for the persistent hepatic damage. The modulation of chemokine receptor expression and chemokine secretion could be a viral escape mechanism to avoid specific T cell migration to the liver during the early phase of infection, and to maintain liver viability during the chronic phase, by impairing non-specific T cell migration. Some chemokines and their receptors correlate with liver damage, and CXCL10 (IP-10) and CXCR3 levels have shown a clinical utility as predictors of treatment response outcome. The regulation of chemokines and their receptors could be a future potential therapeutic target to decrease liver inflammation and to increase specific T cell migration to the infected liver. PMID:19084927

  11. Juliprosopine and juliprosine from prosopis juliflora leaves induce mitochondrial damage and cytoplasmic vacuolation on cocultured glial cells and neurons.

    PubMed

    Silva, Victor Diogenes A; Pitanga, Bruno P S; Nascimento, Ravena P; Souza, Cleide S; Coelho, Paulo Lucas C; Menezes-Filho, Noélio; Silva, André Mário M; Costa, Maria de Fátima D; El-Bachá, Ramon S; Velozo, Eudes S; Costa, Silvia L

    2013-12-16

    Prosopis juliflora is a shrub largely used for animal and human consumption. However, ingestion has been shown to induce intoxication in animals, which is characterized by neuromuscular alterations induced by mechanisms that are not yet well understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of a total alkaloid extract (TAE) and one alkaloid fraction (F32) obtained from P. juliflora leaves to rat cortical neurons and glial cells. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of F32 showed that this fraction is composed of a mixture of two piperidine alkaloids, juliprosopine (majority constituent) and juliprosine. TAE and F32 at concentrations between 0.3 and 45 μg/mL were tested for 24 h on neuron/glial cell primary cocultures. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test revealed that TAE and F32 were cytotoxic to cocultures, and their IC50 values were 31.07 and 7.362 μg/mL, respectively. Exposure to a subtoxic concentration of TAE or F32 (0.3-3 μg/mL) induced vacuolation and disruption of the astrocyte monolayer and neurite network, ultrastructural changes, characterized by formation of double-membrane vacuoles, and mitochondrial damage, associated with changes in β-tubulin III and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression. Microglial proliferation was also observed in cultures exposed to TAE or F32, with increasing levels of OX-42-positive cells. Considering that F32 was more cytotoxic than TAE and that F32 reproduced in vitro the main morphologic and ultrastructural changes of "cara torta" disease, we can also suggest that piperidine alkaloids juliprosopine and juliprosine are primarily responsible for the neurotoxic damage observed in animals after they have consumed the plant.

  12. Mitochondria-Division Inhibitor 1 Protects Against Amyloid-β induced Mitochondrial Fragmentation and Synaptic Damage in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P Hemachandra; Manczak, Maria; Yin, XiangLing

    2017-01-01

    The purpose our study was to determine the protective effects of mitochondria division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi1) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mdivi1 is hypothesized to reduce excessive fragmentation of mitochondria and mitochondrial dysfunction in AD neurons. Very little is known about whether Mdivi1 can confer protective effects in AD. In the present study, we sought to determine the protective effects of Mdivi1 against amyloid-β (Aβ)- and mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-induced excessive fragmentation of mitochondria in AD progression. We also studied preventive (Mdivi1+Aβ42) and intervention (Aβ42+Mdivi1) effects against Aβ42 in N2a cells. Using real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis, we measured mRNA and protein levels of mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial biogenesis, and synaptic genes. We also assessed mitochondrial function by measuring H2O2, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome oxidase activity, and mitochondrial ATP. MTT assays were used to assess the cell viability. Aβ42 was found to impair mitochondrial dynamics, lower mitochondrial biogenesis, lower synaptic activity, and lower mitochondrial function. On the contrary, Mdivi1 enhanced mitochondrial fusion activity, lowered fission machinery, and increased biogenesis and synaptic proteins. Mitochondrial function and cell viability were elevated in Mdivi1-treated cells. Interestingly, Mdivi1 pre- and post-treated cells treated with Aβ showed reduced mitochondrial dysfunction, and maintained cell viability, mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial biogenesis, and synaptic activity. The protective effects of Mdivi1 were stronger in N2a+Aβ42 pre-treated with Mdivi1, than in N2a+Aβ42 cells than Mdivi1 post-treated cells, indicating that Mdivi1 works better in prevention than treatment in AD like neurons.

  13. TCDD-induced mitochondrial superoxide production does not lead to mitochondrial degeneration or genomic instability in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Luukkonen, Jukka; Höytö, Anne; Viluksela, Matti; Juutilainen, Jukka; Naarala, Jonne

    2017-10-01

    Several genotoxic and non-genotoxic agents have been reported to cause delayed genetic damage in the progeny of the exposed cells. Such induced genomic instability (IGI) may be a driving force in carcinogenesis, and it is thus highly important to understand the cellular events accompanying it. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) affects mitochondrial integrity and can consequently induce genomic instability. Mitochondrial integrity was evaluated by measuring mitochondrial superoxide production, mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial activity. Micronucleus formation was used to assess immediate genetic damage and IGI. The assays were performed either immediately, 8 or 15d after the exposure. Mitochondrial superoxide production was increased by TCDD immediately after the exposure. No consistent effects on mitochondrial integrity were observed at later time points, although slightly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential at 8d and increased mitochondrial superoxide potential production at 15 after exposure were observed in the TCDD-exposed cells. TCDD did not cause immediate genetic damage, and significant IGI was not observed. In conclusion, the present results suggest that immediate TCDD-induced increase in mitochondrial superoxide level does not lead to persistent loss of mitochondrial integrity or IGI in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Polyphenol-rich strawberry extract protects human dermal fibroblasts against hydrogen peroxide oxidative damage and improves mitochondrial functionality.

    PubMed

    Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, José M; Mazzoni, Luca; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Gonzàlez-Paramàs, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Quiles, José L; Bompadre, Stefano; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2014-06-11

    Strawberry bioactive compounds are widely known to be powerful antioxidants. In this study, the antioxidant and anti-aging activities of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract were evaluated using human dermal fibroblasts exposed to H2O2. Firstly, the phenol and flavonoid contents of strawberry extract were studied, as well as the antioxidant capacity. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to determine the vitamin C and β-carotene concentration, while HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis was used for anthocyanin identification. Strawberry extract presented a high antioxidant capacity, and a relevant concentration of vitamins and phenolics. Pelargonidin- and cyanidin-glycosides were the most representative anthocyanin components of the fruits. Fibroblasts incubated with strawberry extract and stressed with H2O2 showed an increase in cell viability, a smaller intracellular amount of ROS, and a reduction of membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Strawberry extract was also able to improve mitochondrial functionality, increasing the basal respiration of mitochondria and to promote a regenerative capacity of cells after exposure to pro-oxidant stimuli. These findings confirm that strawberries possess antioxidant properties and provide new insights into the beneficial role of strawberry bioactive compounds on protecting skin from oxidative stress and aging.

  15. TIAM1-RAC1 signalling axis-mediated activation of NADPH oxidase-2 initiates mitochondrial damage in the development of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Kowluru, Renu A; Kowluru, Anjaneyulu; Veluthakal, Rajakrishnan; Mohammad, Ghulam; Syed, Ismail; Santos, Julia M; Mishra, Manish

    2014-05-01

    In diabetes, increased retinal oxidative stress is seen before the mitochondria are damaged. Phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase-2 (NOX2) is the predominant cytosolic source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Activation of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1), a NOX2 holoenzyme member, is necessary for NOX2 activation and ROS generation. In this study we assessed the role of T cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis (TIAM1), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RAC1, in RAC1 and NOX2 activation and the onset of mitochondrial dysfunction in in vitro and in vivo models of glucotoxicity and diabetes. RAC1 and NOX2 activation, ROS generation, mitochondrial damage and cell apoptosis were quantified in bovine retinal endothelial cells exposed to high glucose concentrations, in the retina from normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and mice, and the retina from human donors with diabetic retinopathy. High glucose activated RAC1 and NOX2 (expression and activity) and increased ROS in endothelial cells before increasing mitochondrial ROS and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage. N6-[2-[[4-(diethylamino)-1-methylbutyl]amino]-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl]-2-methyl-4,6-quinolinediamine, trihydrochloride (NSC23766), a known inhibitor of TIAM1-RAC1, markedly attenuated RAC1 activation, total and mitochondrial ROS, mtDNA damage and cell apoptosis. An increase in NOX2 expression and membrane association of RAC1 and p47(phox) were also seen in diabetic rat retina. Administration of NSC23766 to diabetic mice attenuated retinal RAC1 activation and ROS generation. RAC1 activation and p47(phox) expression were also increased in the retinal microvasculature from human donors with diabetic retinopathy. The TIAM1-RAC1-NOX2 signalling axis is activated in the initial stages of diabetes to increase intracellular ROS leading to mitochondrial damage and accelerated capillary cell apoptosis. Strategies targeting TIAM1-RAC1 signalling could have the potential to halt the progression of

  16. Effects of benzo[a]pyrene on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a creosote-contaminated and reference site.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dawoon; Cho, Youngeun; Collins, Leonard B; Swenberg, James A; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2009-10-19

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a known genotoxicant that affects both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (mtDNA, nDNA). Here, we examined mtDNA and nDNA damage in the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a highly contaminated Superfund site (Elizabeth River, VA, USA) and from a reference site (King's Creek, VA, USA) that were dosed with 10 mg/kg BaP. Using the long amplicon quantitative PCR technique, we observed similar increases in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage in King's Creek fish treated with BaP. Killifish from the Elizabeth River showed high levels of basal nDNA and mtDNA damage compared to fish from the reference site, but the level of damage induced due to BaP treatment was much lower in Elizabeth River killifish compared to King's Creek fish. Laboratory-reared offspring from both populations showed increased BaP-induced damage in mtDNA, relative to nDNA. Similar to the adult experiment, the Elizabeth River larvae had higher levels of basal DNA damage than those from the reference site, but were less impacted by BaP exposure. Measurements of oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-deoxyguanine by LC-MS/MS) showed no differences among treatment groups, suggesting that the majority of DNA damage is from covalent binding of BaP metabolites to DNA. This study shows for the first time that mitochondria can be an important target of BaP toxicity in fish, indicating that BaP exposures could have important energetic consequences. Results also suggest that multi-generational exposures in the wild may lead to adaptations that dampen DNA damage arising from BaP exposure.

  17. Effects of benzo[a]pyrene on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a creosote-contaminated and reference site

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dawoon; Cho, Youngeun; Collins, Leonard B.; Swenberg, James A.; Di Giulio, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a known genotoxicant that affects both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (mtDNA, nDNA). Here, we examined mtDNA and nDNA damage in the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a highly contaminated Superfund site (Elizabeth River, VA, USA) and from a reference site (King’s Creek, VA, USA) that were dosed with 10 mg/kg BaP. Using the long amplicon quantitative PCR technique, we observed similar increases in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage in King’s Creek fish treated with BaP. Killifish from the Elizabeth River showed high levels of basal nDNA and mtDNA damage compared to fish from the reference site, but the level of damage induced due to BaP treatment was much lower in Elizabeth River killifish compared to King’s Creek fish. Laboratory-reared offspring from both populations showed increased BaP-induced damage in mtDNA, relative to nDNA. Similar to the adult experiment, the Elizabeth River larvae had higher levels of basal DNA damage than those from the reference site, but were less impacted by BaP exposure. Measurements of oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-deoxyguanine by LC-MS/MS) showed no differences among treatment groups, suggesting that the majority of DNA damage is from covalent binding of BaP metabolites to DNA. This study shows for the first time that mitochondria can be an important target of BaP toxicity in fish, indicating that BaP exposures could have important energetic consequences. Results also suggest that multi-generational exposures in the wild may lead to adaptations that dampen DNA damage arising from BaP exposure. PMID:19726093

  18. Mitochondria-targeted molecules MitoQ and SS31 reduce mutant huntingtin-induced mitochondrial toxicity and synaptic damage in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiangling; Manczak, Maria; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the protective effects of the mitochondria-targeted molecules MitoQ and SS31 in striatal neurons that stably express mutant huntingtin (Htt) (STHDhQ111/Q111) in Huntington's disease (HD). We studied mitochondrial and synaptic activities by measuring mRNA and the protein levels of mitochondrial and synaptic genes, mitochondrial function, and ultra-structural changes in MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons relative to untreated mutant Htt neurons. We used gene expression analysis, biochemical methods, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal microscopy methods. In the MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons, fission genes Drp1 and Fis1 were down-regulated, and fusion genes Mfn1, Mfn2 and Opa1 were up-regulated relative to untreated neurons, suggesting that mitochondria-targeted molecules reduce fission activity. Interestingly, the mitochondrial biogenesis genes PGC1α, PGC1β, Nrf1, Nrf2 and TFAM were up-regulated in MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons. The synaptic genes synaptophysin and PSD95 were up-regulated, and mitochondrial function was normal in the MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons. Immunoblotting findings of mitochondrial and synaptic proteins agreed with the mRNA findings. TEM studies revealed decreased numbers of structurally intact mitochondria in MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons. These findings suggest that mitochondria-targeted molecules MitoQ and SS31 are protective against mutant Htt-induced mitochondrial and synaptic damage in HD neurons, and these mitochondria-targeted molecules are potential therapeutic molecules for the treatment of HD neurons.

  19. Degraded mitochondrial DNA is a newly identified subtype of the damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP) family and possible trigger of neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Alex; Lindsley, Tara A; Sheridan, Anna; Bhoiwala, Devang L; Hushmendy, Shazaan F; Yager, Eric J; Ruggiero, Elizabeth A; Crawford, Dana R

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed a preferential degradation and down-regulation of mitochondrial DNA and RNA in hamster fibroblasts in response to hydrogen peroxide. Subsequent studies by others demonstrated that mitochondrial DNA can stimulate immune cells as a DAMP (damage associated molecular patterns) family member. However, the actual physical structure of this mitochondrial DNA DAMP and its importance in non-immune cell types are poorly understood. Here we report that transfected oxidant-initiated degraded mitochondrial polynucleotides, which we term "DeMPs", strongly induce the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and tumor necrosis factor α in mouse primary astrocytes. Additionally, proinflammatory IL1β was induced, implicating DeMPs in inflammasome activation. Furthermore, human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma were found to contain detectable DeMP signal. Finally, significant degradation of mitochondrial DNA was observed in response to either a bolus or steady state hydrogen peroxide. Combined, these studies demonstrate, all for the first time, that a pathophysiologically relevant form of mitochondrial DNA (degraded) can elicit a proinflammatory cytokine induction; that a brain cell type (astrocytes) elicits a proinflammatory cytokine induction in response to these DeMPs; that this induction includes the inflammasome; that astrocytes are capable of inflammasome activation by DeMPs; that DeMPs are detectable in CSF and plasma; and that hydrogen peroxide can stimulate an early stage cellular degradation of mitochondrial DNA. These results provide new insights and are supportive of our hypothesis that DeMPs are a newly identified trigger of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, which are known to be associated with early stage inflammation and oxidation.

  20. The Mitochondrial SDHD Gene Is Required for Early Embryogenesis, and Its Partial Deficiency Results in Persistent Carotid Body Glomus Cell Activation with Full Responsiveness to Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Piruat, José I.; Pintado, C. Oscar; Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia; Roche, Marta; López-Barneo, José

    2004-01-01

    The SDHD gene encodes one of the two membrane-anchoring proteins of the succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. This gene has recently been proposed to be involved in oxygen sensing because mutations that cause loss of its function produce hereditary familiar paraganglioma, a tumor of the carotid body (CB), the main arterial chemoreceptor that senses oxygen levels in the blood. Here, we report the generation of a SDHD knockout mouse, which to our knowledge is the first mammalian model lacking a protein of the electron transport chain. Homozygous SDHD−/− animals die at early embryonic stages. Heterozygous SDHD+/− mice show a general, noncompensated deficiency of succinate dehydrogenase activity without alterations in body weight or major physiological dysfunction. The responsiveness to hypoxia of CBs from SDHD+/− mice remains intact, although the loss of an SDHD allele results in abnormal enhancement of resting CB activity due to a decrease of K+ conductance and persistent Ca2+ influx into glomus cells. This CB overactivity is linked to a subtle glomus cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia. These observations indicate that constitutive activation of SDHD+/− glomus cells precedes CB tumor transformation. They also suggest that, contrary to previous beliefs, mitochondrial complex II is not directly involved in CB oxygen sensing. PMID:15572694

  1. Nrf2-ARE activator carnosic acid decreases mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative damage and neuronal cytoskeletal degradation following traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Miller, Darren M; Singh, Indrapal N; Wang, Juan A; Hall, Edward D

    2015-02-01

    The importance of free radical-induced oxidative damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been well documented. Despite multiple clinical trials with radical-scavenging antioxidants that are neuroprotective in TBI models, none is approved for acute TBI patients. As an alternative antioxidant target, Nrf2 is a transcription factor that activates expression of antioxidant and cytoprotective genes by binding to antioxidant response elements (AREs) within DNA. Previous research has shown that neuronal mitochondria are susceptible to oxidative damage post-TBI, and thus the current study investigates whether Nrf2-ARE activation protects mitochondrial function when activated post-TBI. It was hypothesized that administration of carnosic acid (CA) would reduce oxidative damage biomarkers in the brain tissue and also preserve cortical mitochondrial respiratory function post-TBI. A mouse controlled cortical impact (CCI) model was employed with a 1.0mm cortical deformation injury. Administration of CA at 15 min post-TBI reduced cortical lipid peroxidation, protein nitration, and cytoskeletal breakdown markers in a dose-dependent manner at 48 h post-injury. Moreover, CA preserved mitochondrial respiratory function compared to vehicle animals. This was accompanied by decreased oxidative damage to mitochondrial proteins, suggesting the mechanistic connection of the two effects. Lastly, delaying the initial administration of CA up to 8h post-TBI was still capable of reducing cytoskeletal breakdown, thereby demonstrating a clinically relevant therapeutic window for this approach. This study demonstrates that pharmacological Nrf2-ARE induction is capable of neuroprotective efficacy when administered after TBI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. RUG3 and ATM synergistically regulate the alternative splicing of mitochondrial nad2 and the DNA damage response in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chao; Zhao, Hongtao; Zhao, Yankun; Ji, Hongtao; Wang, Youning; Zhi, Liya; Li, Xia

    2017-01-01

    The root apical meristem (RAM) determines both RAM activity and the growth of roots. Plant roots are constantly exposed to adverse environmental stresses that can cause DNA damage or cell cycle arrest in the RAM; however, the mechanism linking root meristematic activity and RAM size to the DNA damage response (DDR) is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a loss of function in RCC1/UVR8/GEF-Like 3 (RUG3) substantially augmented the DDR and produced a cell cycle arrest in the RAM in rug3 mutant, leading to root growth retardation. Furthermore, the mutation of RUG3 caused increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and ROS scavengers improved the observed cell cycle arrest and reduced RAM activity level in rug3 plants. Most importantly, we detected a physical interaction between RUG3 and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a key regulator of the DDR, suggesting that they synergistically modulated the alternative splicing of nad2. Our findings reveal a novel synergistic effect of RUG3 and ATM on the regulation of mitochondrial function, redox homeostasis, and the DDR in the RAM, and outline a protective mechanism for DNA damage repair and the restoration of mitochondrial function that involves RUG3-mediated mitochondrial retrograde signaling and the activation of an ATM-mediated DDR pathway. PMID:28262819

  3. RUG3 and ATM synergistically regulate the alternative splicing of mitochondrial nad2 and the DNA damage response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Su, Chao; Zhao, Hongtao; Zhao, Yankun; Ji, Hongtao; Wang, Youning; Zhi, Liya; Li, Xia

    2017-03-06

    The root apical meristem (RAM) determines both RAM activity and the growth of roots. Plant roots are constantly exposed to adverse environmental stresses that can cause DNA damage or cell cycle arrest in the RAM; however, the mechanism linking root meristematic activity and RAM size to the DNA damage response (DDR) is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a loss of function in RCC1/UVR8/GEF-Like 3 (RUG3) substantially augmented the DDR and produced a cell cycle arrest in the RAM in rug3 mutant, leading to root growth retardation. Furthermore, the mutation of RUG3 caused increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and ROS scavengers improved the observed cell cycle arrest and reduced RAM activity level in rug3 plants. Most importantly, we detected a physical interaction between RUG3 and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a key regulator of the DDR, suggesting that they synergistically modulated the alternative splicing of nad2. Our findings reveal a novel synergistic effect of RUG3 and ATM on the regulation of mitochondrial function, redox homeostasis, and the DDR in the RAM, and outline a protective mechanism for DNA damage repair and the restoration of mitochondrial function that involves RUG3-mediated mitochondrial retrograde signaling and the activation of an ATM-mediated DDR pathway.

  4. PPD-induced monocyte mitochondrial damage is associated with a protective effect to develop tuberculosis in BCG vaccinated individuals: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Diana; Marín, Nancy; del Corral, Helena; López, Lucelly; Ramirez-Agudelo, María Elena; Rojas, Carlos A.; Arbeláez, María P.; García, Luis F.; Rojas, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The mechanisms of mononuclear phagocyte death have been associated with the permissiveness and resistance to mycobacterial replication, but it remains unknown whether or not they help predict the risk of developing TB. Objective To describe the factors associated with the induction of monocyte mitochondrial and membrane damage in response to PPD as well as determine if this type of damage might predict the susceptibility of developing active tuberculosis in a cohort of household contacts (HHCs) from Medellin, Colombia from 2005 to 2008. Methods The prospective cohort study contains 2060 HHCs patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who were meticulously followed for two years. A survey of the socio-demographic, clinical, epidemiological factors and blood samples were collected. Mononuclear cell cultures were stimulated with or without PPD and the type of monocyte death was determined by the flow of cytometry, an indicator was also used for its analysis. Logistic regression was adjusted by the Generalized Estimations Equations and the survival was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression. Confidence intervals were used for estimating the association. Results 1,859 out of 2,060 blood samples of the HHCs patients analyzed showed monocyte death. In response to PPD, 83.4% underwent mitochondrial damage while 50.9% had membrane damage. The membrane damage in response to PPD was higher in children under 4 years (OR: 1.57; (95% CI: 1.1 to 2.4) and the HHCs who slept regularly in the same household has an index case of (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.3). After adjustment by age, comorbidities, nutritional status, proximity to index case and overcrowding, the risk of developing active TB among BCG vaccinated HHCs individuals with induction of mitochondrial damage was HR = 0.19 (95% CI: 0.1 to 0.5). Conclusions The induction of monocytes mitochondrial damage by PPD stimulation correlates with protection of TB disease development in BCG-vaccinated HHCs. This

  5. PPD-induced monocyte mitochondrial damage is associated with a protective effect to develop tuberculosis in BCG vaccinated individuals: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Marín, Diana; Marín, Nancy; Del Corral, Helena; López, Lucelly; Ramirez-Agudelo, María Elena; Rojas, Carlos A; Arbeláez, María P; García, Luis F; Rojas, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms of mononuclear phagocyte death have been associated with the permissiveness and resistance to mycobacterial replication, but it remains unknown whether or not they help predict the risk of developing TB. To describe the factors associated with the induction of monocyte mitochondrial and membrane damage in response to PPD as well as determine if this type of damage might predict the susceptibility of developing active tuberculosis in a cohort of household contacts (HHCs) from Medellin, Colombia from 2005 to 2008. The prospective cohort study contains 2060 HHCs patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who were meticulously followed for two years. A survey of the socio-demographic, clinical, epidemiological factors and blood samples were collected. Mononuclear cell cultures were stimulated with or without PPD and the type of monocyte death was determined by the flow of cytometry, an indicator was also used for its analysis. Logistic regression was adjusted by the Generalized Estimations Equations and the survival was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression. Confidence intervals were used for estimating the association. 1,859 out of 2,060 blood samples of the HHCs patients analyzed showed monocyte death. In response to PPD, 83.4% underwent mitochondrial damage while 50.9% had membrane damage. The membrane damage in response to PPD was higher in children under 4 years (OR: 1.57; (95% CI: 1.1 to 2.4) and the HHCs who slept regularly in the same household has an index case of (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.3). After adjustment by age, comorbidities, nutritional status, proximity to index case and overcrowding, the risk of developing active TB among BCG vaccinated HHCs individuals with induction of mitochondrial damage was HR = 0.19 (95% CI: 0.1 to 0.5). The induction of monocytes mitochondrial damage by PPD stimulation correlates with protection of TB disease development in BCG-vaccinated HHCs. This represents a potential tool to predict susceptibility

  6. Time courses of post-injury mitochondrial oxidative damage and respiratory dysfunction and neuronal cytoskeletal degradation in a rat model of focal traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hill, Rachel L; Singh, Indrapal N; Wang, Juan A; Hall, Edward D

    2017-03-23

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in rapid reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative damage to essential brain cellular components leading to neuronal dysfunction and cell death. It is increasingly appreciated that a major player in TBI-induced oxidative damage is the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) peroxynitrite (PN) which is produced in large part in injured brain mitochondria. Once formed, PN decomposes into highly reactive free radicals that trigger membrane lipid peroxidation (LP) of polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g. arachidonic acid) and protein nitration (3-nitrotyrosine, 3-NT) in mitochondria and other cellular membranes causing various functional impairments to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and calcium (Ca(2+)) buffering capacity. The LP also results in the formation of neurotoxic reactive aldehyde byproducts including 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and propenal (acrolein) which exacerbates ROS/RNS production and oxidative protein damage in the injured brain. Ultimately, this results in intracellular Ca(2+) overload that activates proteolytic degradation of α-spectrin, a neuronal cytoskeletal protein. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the temporal evolution of mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative damage and cytoskeletal degradation in the brain following a severe controlled cortical impact (CCI) TBI in young male adult rats. In mitochondria isolated from an 8 mm diameter cortical punch including the 5 mm wide impact site and their respiratory function studied ex vivo, we observed an initial decrease in complex I and II mitochondrial bioenergetics within 3 h (h). For complex I bioenergetics, this partially recovered by 12-16 h, whereas for complex II respiration the recovery was complete by 12 h. During the first 24 h, there was no evidence of an injury-induced increase in LP or protein nitration in mitochondrial or cellular homogenates. However, beginning at 24 h, there was a gradual secondary decline in complex

  7. Persistence of the mitochondrial lineage responsible for the Irish potato famine in extant new world phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Martin, Michael D; Ho, Simon Y W; Wales, Nathan; Ristaino, Jean B; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2014-06-01

    The plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans emerged in Europe in 1845, triggering the Irish potato famine and massive European potato crop losses that continued until effective fungicides were widely employed in the 20th century. Today the pathogen is ubiquitous, with more aggressive and virulent strains surfacing in recent decades. Recently, complete P. infestans mitogenome sequences from 19th-century herbarium specimens were shown to belong to a unique lineage (HERB-1) predicted to be rare or extinct in modern times. We report 44 additional P. infestans mitogenomes: four from 19th-century Europe, three from 1950s UK, and 37 from modern populations across the New World. We use phylogenetic analyses to identify the HERB-1 lineage in modern populations from both Mexico and South America, and to demonstrate distinct mitochondrial haplotypes were present in 19th-century Europe, with this lineage initially diversifying 75 years before the first reports of potato late blight.

  8. Dermal γδ T-Cells Can Be Activated by Mitochondrial Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Schwacha, Martin G.; Rani, Meenakshi; Nicholson, Susannah E.; Lewis, Aaron M.; Holloway, Travis L.; Sordo, Salvador; Cap, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Gamma delta T-cells have been shown to be important to the early immunoinflammatory response to injury, independent of infection. This unique T-cell population acts to regulate cell trafficking and the release of cytokines and growth factors. We propose this sterile inflammatory response is in part associated with damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) generated by major injury, such as burn, and mediated via toll-like receptors (TLRs). It is unknown whether DAMPs can activate resident γδ T-cells that reside in skin. Methods Gamma delta T-cells were isolated from the skin of male C57BL/6 mice by enzymatic digestion. Mitochondrial DAMPs (MTDs) were generated from mitochondria isolated from mouse livers by sonication and centrifugation. Dermal γδ T-cells were incubated with MTDs (0–500 μg/ml) for 24 hr and cells and supernatants were collected for analysis. Results MTDs activated dermal γδ T-cells, as evidenced by increased TLR2 and TLR4 expression following in vitro exposure. MTDs also induced the production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6), and growth factors (PDGF and VEGF) by γδ T-cells. Conclusions These findings herein support the concept that MTDs released after tissue/cellular injury are capable of activating dermal γδ T-cells. We propose that the activation of this unique T-cell population is central in the initiation of sterile inflammation and also contributes to the subsequent healing processes. PMID:27403524

  9. Glutathione administration reduces mitochondrial damage and shifts cell death from necrosis to apoptosis in ageing diabetic mice hearts during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, S; Botta, A; Gottfred, S; Nusrat, A; Laher, I; Ghosh, S

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The effect of antioxidants on ageing type 2 diabetic (T2D) hearts during exercise is unclear. We hypothesized that GSH therapy during exercise reduces mitochondrial oxidative stress (mOXS) and cell death in ageing db/db mice hearts. Experimental Approach The effect of GSH on cardiac mOXS and cell death was evaluated both in vivo and in vitro. Key Results During exercise, GSH treatment protected db/db hearts from exaggerated mOXS without reducing total cell death. Despite similar cell death, investigations on apoptosis-specific single-stranded DNA breaks and necrosis-specific damage provided the first in vivo evidence of a shift from necrosis to apoptosis, with reduced fibrosis following GSH administration in exercised db/db hearts. Further support for a GSH-regulated ‘switch’ in death phenotypes came from NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and H9c2 cardiomyocytes treated with H2O2, a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Similar to in vivo findings, augmenting GSH by overexpressing glutamyl cysteine ligase (GCLc) protected fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes from necrosis induced by H2O2, but elevated caspase-3 and apoptosis instead. Similar to in vivo findings, where GSH therapy in normoglycaemic mice suppressed endogenous antioxidants and augmented caspase-3 activity, GCLc overexpression during staurosporine-induced death, which was not characterized by ROS, increased GSH efflux and aggravated death in fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes, confirming that oxidative stress is required for GSH-mediated cytoprotection. Conclusions and Implications While GSH treatment is useful for reducing mOXS and attenuating necrosis and fibrosis in ageing T2D hearts during exercise, such antioxidant treatment could be counterproductive in the healthy heart during exercise. PMID:25039894

  10. Deficiency of methionine sulfoxide reductase A causes cellular dysfunction and mitochondrial damage in cardiac myocytes under physical and oxidative stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Nan, Changlong; Li, Yuejin; Jean-Charles, Pierre-Yves; Chen, Guozhen; Kreymerman, Alexander; Prentice, Howard; Weissbach, Herbert; Huang, Xupei

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} Deficiency of MsrA in the heart renders myocardial cells more sensitive to oxidative stress. {yields} Mitochondrial damage happens in the heart lacking MsrA. {yields} More protein oxidation in myocardial cells lacking MsrA. {yields} MsrA protects the heart against oxidative stress. -- Abstract: Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) is an enzyme that reverses oxidation of methionine in proteins. Using a MsrA gene knockout (MsrA{sup -/-}) mouse model, we have investigated the role of MsrA in the heart. Our data indicate that cellular contractility and cardiac function are not significantly changed in MsrA{sup -/-} mice if the hearts are not stressed. However, the cellular contractility, when stressed using a higher stimulation frequency (2 Hz), is significantly reduced in MsrA{sup -/-} cardiac myocytes. MsrA{sup -/-} cardiac myocytes also show a significant decrease in contractility after oxidative stress using H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Corresponding changes in Ca{sup 2+} transients are observed in MsrA{sup -/-} cardiomyocytes treated with 2 Hz stimulation or with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Electron microscope analyses reveal a dramatic morphological change of mitochondria in MsrA{sup -/-} mouse hearts. Further biochemical measurements indicate that protein oxidation levels in MsrA{sup -/-} mouse hearts are significantly higher than those in wild type controls. Our study demonstrates that the lack of MsrA in cardiac myocytes reduces myocardial cell's capability against stress stimulations resulting in a cellular dysfunction in the heart.

  11. The simultaneous detection of mitochondrial DNA damage from sun-exposed skin of three whale species and its association with UV-induced microscopic lesions and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Amy; Martinez-Levasseur, Laura M; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Gendron, Diane; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    Due to life history and physiological constraints, cetaceans (whales) are unable to avoid prolonged exposure to external environmental insults, such as solar ultraviolet radiation (UV). The majority of studies on the effects of UV on skin are restricted to humans and laboratory animals, but it is important to develop tools to understand the effects of UV damage on large mammals such as whales, as these animals are long-lived and widely distributed, and can reflect the effects of UV across a large geographical range. We and others have used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a reliable marker of UV-induced damage particularly in human skin. UV-induced mtDNA strand breaks or lesions accumulate throughout the lifespan of an individual, thus constituting an excellent biomarker for cumulative exposure. Based on our previous studies in human skin, we have developed for the first time in the literature a quantitative real-time PCR methodology to detect and quantify mtDNA lesions in skin from sun-blistered whales. Furthermore the methodology allows for simultaneous detection of mtDNA damage in different species. Therefore using 44 epidermal mtDNA samples collected from 15 blue whales, 10 fin whales, and 19 sperm whales from the Gulf of California, Mexico, we quantified damage across 4.3 kilobases, a large region of the ~16,400 base pair whale mitochondrial genome. The results show a range of mtDNA damage in the skin of the three different whale species. This previously unreported observation was correlated with apoptotic damage and microscopic lesions, both of which are markers of UV-induced damage. As is the case in human studies, this suggests the potential use of mtDNA as a biomarker for measuring the effect of cumulative UV exposure in whales and may provide a platform to help understand the effects of changing global environmental conditions.

  12. Persistence of autoantibodies against recombinant mitochondrial and nuclear pore proteins after orthotopic liver transplantation for primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Mattalia, A; Lüttig, B; Rosina, F; Leung, P S; Van de Water, J; Bauducci, M; Ciancio, A; Böker, K H; Worman, H; Cooper, R L; Manns, M; Ansari, A; Rizzetto, M; Gershwin, M E

    1997-10-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by high titer autoantibodies predominantly against mitochondrial antigens PDC-E2, BCOADC-E2 and OGDC-E2. Currently orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) is the major form of treatment for end-stage primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), but it is still unclear whether the autoimmune response continues post-transplantation. In this study we took advantage of a well-defined collection of sera collected serially before and after liver transplantation. We assayed these sera for quantitative and isotype-specific titers of antibodies against a set of recombinant mitochondrial autoantigens. We also studied reactivity to gp210. Serum samples were taken before transplantation and at intervals of 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years after OLT. Before OLT 24/35 patients were AMA-positive, including seven out of the 35 to PDC-E2 alone, eight to both PDC-E2 and OGDC-E2, six to both PDC-E2 and BCOADC-E2, two to BCOADC-E2 alone and one to OGDC-E2. Following OLT, the frequency of sera that responded to PDC-E2 alone increased from seven to 12/35. Similarly, reactivity to BCOADC-E2 slightly increased from two to four out of 35. However, there was an overall decrease in sera that responded to more than one antigen. Neither Ig isotype nor subclass of the autoimmune response changed following OLT. Findings with gp210 were similar, in that reactivity to gp210 was found in nine out of 35 patients pre-OLT; following OLT the frequency decreased to seven out of 35 patients. Overall, the titers of AMAs decline slightly during the first year post-OLT, but are equivalent to pre-OLT values by 6 months. Moreover, the antibody subclass/ isotype remained unchanged. These data suggest that the removal of a diseased PBC liver has little, if any, impact on the serological characteristics of PBC. Moreover, it provides information regarding the natural history of PBC, particularly on the long latency time for disease development. Copyright 1997 Academic

  13. The autophagy inhibitor chloroquine targets cancer stem cells in triple negative breast cancer by inducing mitochondrial damage and impairing DNA break repair.

    PubMed

    Liang, Diana H; Choi, Dong Soon; Ensor, Joe E; Kaipparettu, Benny A; Bass, Barbara L; Chang, Jenny C

    2016-07-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), characterized by an abundance of treatment-resistant breast cancer stem cells (CSCs), has a poorer prognosis than other types of breast cancers. Despite its aggressiveness, no effective targeted therapy exists for TNBC. Here, we demonstrate that CQ effectively targets CSCs via autophagy inhibition, mitochondrial structural damage, and impairment of double-stranded DNA break repair. Electron microscopy demonstrates CQ-induced mitochondrial cristae damage, which leads to mitochondrial membrane depolarization with a significant reduction in the activity of cytochrome c oxidase and accumulation of superoxide and double-stranded DNA breaks. CQ effectively diminishes the TNBC cells' ability to metastasize in vitro and in a TNBC xenograft model. When administered in combination with carboplatin, CQ effectively inhibits carboplatin-induced autophagy. This combination treatment significantly diminishes the expression of DNA repair proteins in CSC subpopulations, resulting in tumor growth reduction in carboplatin-resistant BRCA1 wild-type TNBC orthotopic xenografts. As TNBC's high treatment failure rate has been attributed to enrichment of CSCs, CQ, an autophagy inhibitor with anti-CSC effects, may be an effective adjunct to current TNBC chemotherapy regimens with carboplatin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The use of nano-quercetin to arrest mitochondrial damage and MMP-9 upregulation during prevention of gastric inflammation induced by ethanol in rat.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Somsuta; Stalin, Sami; Das, Nirmalendu; Choudhury, Somsubhra Thakur; Ghosh, Swarupa; Swarnakar, Snehasikta

    2012-04-01

    Gastric ulcer is a multifaceted process that involves reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, extracellular matrix degradation and mitochondrial damage. Mitochondria play a crucial role for homeostasis of ROS and cell survival. In our study, we investigated the efficacy and mechanism of polymeric nanocapsuled quercetin (NQC) over the free quercetin (QC) molecule in prevention of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rat. NQC possessed significantly higher efficacy (~20 fold) than free QC while preventing gastric ulcers. Our data show that prior administration of NQC and/or QC significantly blocked synthesis and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 as well as infiltration of inflammatory cells and oxidative damage in rat gastric tissues. As compared to free QC, NQC protected much better the mitochondrial integrity and size along with mitochondrial functions by controlling succinate dehydrogenase and NADH oxidase in rat gastric tissues. In addition, both free QC and NQC down regulated PARP-1 as well as apoptosis during protection against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. Herein, the effect of NQC was greater than QC on expression of enzymes like cyclooxygenase and nitric oxidase synthase (NOS)-2. We conclude that NQC with greater bioavailability offers significantly higher potency in downregulating MMP-9 and NOS-2 as well as oxidative stress in blocking ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effective Characterisation of the Complete Orang-Utan Mitochondrial DNA Control Region, in the Face of Persistent Focus in Many Taxa on Shorter Hypervariable Regions

    PubMed Central

    Galdikas, Biruté M. F.

    2016-01-01

    The hypervariable region I (HVRI) is persistently used to discern haplotypes, to distinguish geographic subpopulations, and to infer taxonomy in a range of organisms. Numerous studies have highlighted greater heterogeneity elsewhere in the mitochondrial DNA control region, however–particularly, in some species, in other understudied hypervariable regions. To assess the abundance and utility of such potential variations in orang-utans, we characterised 36 complete control-region haplotypes, of which 13 were of Sumatran and 23 of Bornean maternal ancestry, and compared polymorphisms within these and within shorter HVRI segments predominantly analysed in prior phylogenetic studies of Sumatran (~385 bp) and Bornean (~323 bp) orang-utans. We amplified the complete control region in a single PCR that proved successful even with highly degraded, non-invasive samples. By using species-specific primers to produce a single large amplicon (~1600 bp) comprising flanking coding regions, our method also serves to better avoid amplification of nuclear mitochondrial insertions (numts). We found the number, length and position of hypervariable regions is inconsistent between orang-utan species, and that prior definitions of the HVRI were haphazard. Polymorphisms occurring outside the predominantly analysed segments were phylogeographically informative in isolation, and could be used to assign haplotypes to comparable clades concordant with geographic subpopulations. The predominantly analysed segments could discern only up to 76% of all haplotypes, highlighting the forensic utility of complete control-region sequences. In the face of declining sequencing costs and our proven application to poor-quality DNA extracts, we see no reason to ever amplify only specific ‘hypervariable regions’ in any taxa, particularly as their lengths and positions are inconsistent and cannot be reliably defined–yet this strategy predominates widely. Given their greater utility and consistency, we

  16. Oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is associated with reduced volumes of hippocampus and subcortical gray matter in chronically HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Kallianpur, Kalpana J.; Gerschenson, Mariana; Mitchell, Brooks I.; LiButti, Daniel E.; Umaki, Tracie M.; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C.; Nakamoto, Beau K.; Chow, Dominic C.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional relationships were examined between regional brain volumes and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 47 HIV patients [mean age 51 years; 81% with HIV RNA ≤50 copies/mL] on combination antiretroviral therapy. The gene-specific DNA damage and repair assay measured mtDNA 8-oxo-dG break frequency. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 3 T. Higher mtDNA 8-oxo-dG was associated with lateral ventricular enlargement and with decreased volumes of hippocampus, pallidum, and total subcortical gray matter, suggesting the involvement of systemic mitochondrial-specific oxidative stress in chronic HIV-related structural brain changes and cognitive difficulties. Clarification of the mechanism may provide potential therapeutic targets. PMID:26923169

  17. CoQ10-containing eye drops prevent UVB-induced cornea cell damage and increase cornea wound healing by preserving mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Mencucci, Rita; Favuzza, Eleonora; Boccalini, Carlotta; Lapucci, Andrea; Felici, Roberta; Resta, Francesco; Chiarugi, Alberto; Cavone, Leonardo

    2014-10-09

    We evaluated the potential protective effects of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on human corneal cells and rabbit eyes after ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure and a model of wound healing in rabbit eyes after corneal epithelium removal. Human corneal epithelium cells (HCE) were exposed to a source of UVB radiation (312 nM) in the presence of different CoQ10 concentrations or vehicle. The mitochondrial function and cell survival were evaluated by means of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium (MTT) reduction and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Furthermore, quantitation of oxygen consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential were conducted. In vivo rabbit models were adopted to evaluate the effect of CoQ10 on UVB-induced conjunctival vessel hyperemia and corneal recovery after ethanol induced corneal lesion. In UVB-exposed HCE cells, CoQ10 addition led to an increased survival rate and mitochondrial function. Furthermore, oxygen consumption was maintained at control levels and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) decline was completely prevented in the CoQ10-treated cells. Interestingly, in an in vivo model, CoQ10 was able dose-dependently to reduce UVB-induced vessel hyperemia. Finally, in a model of corneal epithelium removal, 12 hours from surgery, animals treated with CoQ10 showed a reduction of damaged area in respect to vehicle controls, which lasted until 48 hours. We demonstrated that CoQ10 reduces corneal damages after UVB exposure in vivo and in vitro by preserving mitochondrial function. Also, for the first time to our knowledge we showed that the administration of CoQ10 after corneal epithelium removal promotes corneal wound healing. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  18. Hydroxytyrosol protects against oxidative damage by simultaneous activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and phase II detoxifying enzyme systems in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lu; Liu, Zhongbo; Feng, Zhihui; Hao, Jiejie; Shen, Weili; Li, Xuesen; Sun, Lijuan; Sharman, Edward; Wang, Ying; Wertz, Karin; Weber, Peter; Shi, Xianglin; Liu, Jiankang

    2010-11-01

    Studies in this laboratory have previously shown that hydroxytyrosol, the major antioxidant polyphenol in olives, protects ARPE-19 human retinal pigment epithelial cells from oxidative damage induced by acrolein, an environmental toxin and endogenous end product of lipid oxidation, that occurs at increased levels in age-related macular degeneration lesions. A proposed mechanism for this is that protection by hydroxytyrosol against oxidative stress is conferred by the simultaneous activation of two critically important pathways, viz., induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes and stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Cultured ARPE-19 cells were pretreated with hydroxytyrosol and challenged with acrolein. The protective effects of hydroxytyrosol on key factors of mitochondrial biogenesis and phase II detoxifying enzyme systems were examined. Hydroxytyrosol treatment simultaneously protected against acrolein-induced inhibition of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1α) in ARPE-19 cells. The activation of Nrf2 led to activation of phase II detoxifying enzymes, including γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl-ligase, NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)-quinone-oxidoreductase 1, heme-oxygenase-1, superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin and thioredoxin as well as other antioxidant enzymes, while the activation of PPARGC1α led to increased protein expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A, uncoupling protein 2 and mitochondrial complexes. These results suggest that hydroxytyrosol is a potent inducer of phase II detoxifying enzymes and an enhancer of mitochondrial biogenesis. Dietary supplementation of hydroxytyrosol may contribute to eye health by preventing the degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by oxidative stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The protective effect of acerola (Malpighia emarginata) against oxidative damage in human dermal fibroblasts through the improvement of antioxidant enzyme activity and mitochondrial functionality.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Suarez, José M; Giampieri, Francesca; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Mazzoni, Luca; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; González-Paramás, Ana M; Forbes-Hernández, Tamara Y; Afrin, Sadia; Páez-Watson, Timothy; Quiles, José L; Battino, Maurizio

    2017-09-20

    Acerola fruits (Malpighia emarginata DC.) from the central region of Cuba were analyzed to determine their chemical composition and protective capacity against oxidative damage using an in vitro human dermal fibroblast (HDFa) model. The chemical composition analyses showed a high content of vitamin C, total polyphenols, β-carotene and folates in the acerola fruit. From the HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n) analyses, two anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-O-rhamnoside and pelargonidin 3-O-rhamnoside), three hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives (caffeoyl hexoside, dihydrocaffeoylquinic acid and coumaroyl hexoside) and fifteen flavonols (mostly glycosylated forms of quercetin and kaempferol) were detected. HDFa were pre-incubated with an acerola crude extract (ACExt) and subsequently subjected to oxidative stress induced by AAPH. Apoptosis, intracellular ROS and the biomarkers of lipid and protein oxidation significantly increased after inducing stress, while the activities of the antioxidant enzyme catalase and superoxide dismutase and mitochondrial functionality were markedly affected. However, ACExt was able to protect against oxidative damage through decreasing apoptosis, intracellular ROS levels and lipid and protein damage, besides improving antioxidant enzyme activities and mitochondrial functionality. The obtained results support acerola fruits as relevant sources of functional compounds with promising effects on human health.

  20. P2Y1R-initiated, IP3R-dependent stimulation of astrocyte mitochondrial metabolism reduces and partially reverses ischemic neuronal damage in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Talley Watts, Lora; Holstein, Deborah M; Wewer, Jimmy; Lechleiter, James D

    2013-01-01

    Glia-based neuroprotection strategies are emerging as promising new avenues to treat brain damage. We previously reported that activation of the glial-specific purinergic receptor, P2Y1R, reduces both astrocyte swelling and brain infarcts in a photothrombotic mouse model of stroke. These restorative effects were dependent on astrocyte mitochondrial metabolism. Here, we extend these findings and report that P2Y1R stimulation with the purinergic ligand 2-methylthioladenosine 5′ diphosphate (2MeSADP) reduces and partially reverses neuronal damage induced by photothrombosis. In vivo neuronal morphology was confocally imaged in transgenic mice expressing yellow fluorescent protein under the control of the Thy1 promoter. Astrocyte mitochondrial membrane potentials, monitored with the potential sensitive dye tetra-methyl rhodamine methyl ester, were depolarized after photothrombosis and subsequently repolarized when P2Y1Rs were stimulated. Mice deficient in the astrocyte-specific type 2 inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP3) receptor exhibited aggravated ischemic dendritic damage after photothrombosis. Treatment of these mice with 2MeSADP did not invoke an intracellular Ca2+ response, did not repolarize astrocyte mitochondria, and did not reduce or partially reverse neuronal lesions induced by photothrombotic stroke. These results demonstrate that IP3-Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes is not only critical for P2Y1R-enhanced protection, but suggest that IP3-Ca2+ signaling is also a key component of endogenous neuroprotection. PMID:23321785

  1. Exposure to Mitochondrial Genotoxins and Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Bodhicharla, Rakesh K.; McKeever, Madeline G.; Arrant, Andrew E.; Margillo, Kathleen M.; Ryde, Ian T.; Cyr, Derek D.; Kosmaczewski, Sara G.; Hammarlund, Marc; Meyer, Joel N.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegeneration has been correlated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and exposure to environmental toxins, but causation is unclear. We investigated the ability of several known environmental genotoxins and neurotoxins to cause mtDNA damage, mtDNA depletion, and neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that paraquat, cadmium chloride and aflatoxin B1 caused more mitochondrial than nuclear DNA damage, and paraquat and aflatoxin B1 also caused dopaminergic neurodegeneration. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) caused similar levels of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage. To further test whether the neurodegeneration could be attributed to the observed mtDNA damage, C. elegans were exposed to repeated low-dose ultraviolet C radiation (UVC) that resulted in persistent mtDNA damage; this exposure also resulted in dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Damage to GABAergic neurons and pharyngeal muscle cells was not detected. We also found that fasting at the first larval stage was protective in dopaminergic neurons against 6-OHDA-induced neurodegeneration. Finally, we found that dopaminergic neurons in C. elegans are capable of regeneration after laser surgery. Our findings are consistent with a causal role for mitochondrial DNA damage in neurodegeneration, but also support non mtDNA-mediated mechanisms. PMID:25486066

  2. Augmenter of liver regeneration, a protective factor against ROS-induced oxidative damage in muscle tissue of mitochondrial myopathy affected patients.

    PubMed

    Polimeno, Lorenzo; Rossi, Roberta; Mastrodonato, Maria; Montagnani, Monica; Piscitelli, Domenico; Pesetti, Barbara; De Benedictis, Leonarda; Girardi, Bruna; Resta, Leonardo; Napoli, Anna; Francavilla, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondria-related myopathies (MM) are a group of different diseases defined by a varying degree of dysfunctions of the mitochondrial respiratory chain which leads to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation followed by oxidative stress and cellular damage. In mitochondrial myopathy muscle tissue an overexpression of antioxidant enzymes has been documented probably as an attempt to counteract the free radical generation. We previously documented, in human non-pathological muscle fibres, the expression of the augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR), a sulfhydryl oxidase enzyme, whose presence is related to the mitochondria; indeed it has been demonstrated that ALR mainly localizes in the mitochondrial inter-membrane space. Furthermore we reported, in different experimental models, in vivo and in vitro, the anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative capacities of ALR, achieved by up-regulating Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic family factors and the anti-apoptotic/anti-oxidative secretory isoform of clusterin (sClu). With the present study we aimed to determine ALR, Bcl-2 protein, clusterin and ROS expression in muscle tissue biopsies from MM-affected patients. Non-pathological muscle tissue was used as control. Enzymatic, histochemical, immunohistochemical and immune electron microscopy techniques were performed. The data obtained revealed in MM-derived muscle tissue, compared to non-pathological tissue, the over-expression of ROS, ALR and Bcl-2 and the induction of the nuclear, pro-apoptotic, isoform of clusterin (nCLU).

  3. Predominance of released mitochondrial enzymes by partial hepatectomy-induced rat regenerating liver is controlled by hemodynamic changes and not related to mitochondrial damage.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Juárez, Julieta; Rivera-Valerdi, Lorena; Bernal-Cerrillo, Delia E; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2006-02-01

    Serum activities of assumed organ-specific enzymes are useful protein markers in the diagnosis of necrotic liver diseases. However, after partial hepatectomy (PH) in rats, remaining hepatocytes proliferate to restore the lost liver mass, even when there is a drastic but selective elevation of serum enzyme activities. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in this PH-induced enhancement of enzyme release. Routine spectrophotometric methods were used to measure nine "marker" enzyme activities in sera, in effluents from isolated perfused livers, as well as in the incubation media used for liver slices and isolated cells from either sham-operated or 70%-PH rats. PH induced a drastic increase in serum activities of liver enzymes, predominantly of mitochondrial localization. In the control and 70%-PH groups, liver enzymes were differentially released by varying in vitro flow rate/liver mass ratio, using livers perfused at variable flow rates. This event was reversible and not associated with liver structural or functional alterations, but was dependent on the flow-bearing physical forces and independent of production of extra-hepatic factors. Liver slices and isolated cells were used to identify additional flow-independent enzyme release. The 70%-PH-induced drastic release of specific enzymes (predominantly those from mitochondria) could be mimicked in control livers by changing the hepatic blood flow/mass ratio, and closely resembled urea production by these livers. PH-induced effects were not associated with liver necrosis or mitochondrial dysfunction and evidenced previously unrecognized mechanisms controlling the rate of enzyme release into the bloodstream, which might have clear clinical implications.

  4. Space Radiation Induced Cytogenetic Damage in the Blood Lymphocytes of Astronauts: Persistence of Damage After Flight and the Effects of Repeat Long Duration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry; Rhone, Jordan; Chappell, L. J.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2010-01-01

    Cytogenetic damage was assessed in blood lymphocytes from astronauts before and after they participated in long-duration space missions of three months or more. The frequency of chromosome damage was measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting before flight and at various intervals from a few days to many months after return from the mission. For all individuals, the frequency of chromosome exchanges measured within a month of return from space was higher than their prefight yield. However, some individuals showed a temporal decline in chromosome damage with time after flight. Statistical analysis using combined data for all astronauts indicated a significant overall decreasing trend in total chromosome exchanges with time after flight, although this trend was not seen for all astronauts and the yield of chromosome damage in some individuals actually increased with time after flight. The decreasing trend in total exchanges was slightly more significant when statistical analysis was restricted to data collected more than 220 days after return from flight. In addition, limited data on multiple flights show a lack of correlation between time in space and translocation yields. Data from three crewmembers who has participated in two separate long-duration space missions provide limited information on the effect of repeat flights and show a possible adaptive response to space radiation exposure.

  5. Different dynamic movements of wild-type and pathogenic VCPs and their cofactors to damaged mitochondria in a Parkin-mediated mitochondrial quality control system.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoko; Fukushi, Junpei; Hori, Seiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki; Okatsu, Kei; Kakiyama, Yukie; Kawawaki, Junko; Kakizuka, Akira; Tanaka, Keiji

    2013-12-01

    VCP/p97 is a hexameric ring-shaped AAA(+) ATPase that participates in various ubiquitin-associated cellular functions. Mis-sense mutations in VCP gene are associated with the pathogenesis of two inherited diseases: inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget's disease of the bone and front-temporal dementia (IBMPFD) and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These pathogenic VCPs have higher affinities for several cofactors, including Npl4, Ufd1 and p47. In Parkin-dependent mitochondrial quality control systems, VCP migrates to damaged mitochondria (e.g., those treated with uncouplers) to aid in the degradation of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins and to eliminate mitochondria. We showed that endogenous Npl4 and p47 also migrate to mitochondria after uncoupler treatment, and Npl4, Ufd1 or p47 silencing causes defective mitochondria clearance after uncoupler treatment. Moreover, pathogenic VCPs show impaired migration to mitochondria, and the exogenous pathogenic VCP expression partially inhibits Npl4 and p47 localization to mitochondria. These results suggest that the increased affinities of pathogenic VCPs for these cofactors cause the impaired movement of pathogenic VCPs. In adult flies, exogenous expression of wild-type VCP, but not pathogenic VCPs, reduces the number of abnormal mitochondria in muscles. Failure of pathogenic VCPs to function on damaged mitochondria may be related to the pathogenesis of IBMPFD and ALS.

  6. Size-Dependent Neurotoxicity of Aluminum Oxide Particles: a Comparison Between Nano- and Micrometer Size on the Basis of Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage.

    PubMed

    Mirshafa, Atefeh; Nazari, Mehdi; Jahani, Daniel; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2017-08-30

    Aluminum nanoparticles (AlNPs) are among the most abundantly produced nanosized particles in the market. There is limited information about the potential harmful effects of aluminum oxide due to its particle size on human health. Considering the toxic effects of Al on brain as its target tissue, in this study, the toxicity of nanoparticles, microparticles, and ionic forms of Al on rat brain and isolated mitochondria was evaluated. Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into ten groups (six rats each), in which group I was the control, and the other groups were administered different doses of Al nanoparticles, Al microparticles (AlMP), and Al ionic forms (2, 4, and 8 mg/kg, i.p.) for 28 days. After 24 h, the animals were killed, brain tissue was separated, the mitochondrial fraction was isolated, and oxidative stress markers were measured. Also, mitochondrial function was assayed by MTT test. The results showed that all forms of Al particles induced ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial dysfunction, and gait abnormalities in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Al particles decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. These data indicated that oxidative stress might contribute to the toxicity effects of Al. Comparison of oxidative stress markers between all forms of Al revealed that the toxic effect of AlNP on brain tissue was substantially more than that caused by AlMP and bulk form. This study showed more neurotoxicity of AlNPs compared to other forms on brain oxidative damage that probably is due to more penetration into the brain.

  7. Mitochondrial Aging: Is There a Mitochondrial Clock?

    PubMed

    Zorov, Dmitry B; Popkov, Vasily A; Zorova, Ljubava D; Vorobjev, Ivan A; Pevzner, Irina B; Silachev, Denis N; Zorov, Savva D; Jankauskas, Stanislovas S; Babenko, Valentina A; Plotnikov, Egor Y

    2017-09-01

    Fragmentation (fission) of mitochondria, occurring in response to oxidative challenge, leads to heterogeneity in the mitochondrial population. It is assumed that fission provides a way to segregate mitochondrial content between the "young" and "old" phenotype, with the formation of mitochondrial "garbage," which later will be disposed. Fidelity of this process is the basis of mitochondrial homeostasis, which is disrupted in pathological conditions and aging. The asymmetry of the mitochondrial fission is similar to that of their evolutionary ancestors, bacteria, which also undergo an aging process. It is assumed that mitochondrial markers of aging are recognized by the mitochondrial quality control system, preventing the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria, which normally are subjected to disposal. Possibly, oncocytoma, with its abnormal proliferation of mitochondria occupying the entire cytoplasm, represents the case when segregation of damaged mitochondria is impaired during mitochondrial division. It is plausible that mitochondria contain a "clock" which counts the degree of mitochondrial senescence as the extent of flagging (by ubiquitination) of damaged mitochondria. Mitochondrial aging captures the essence of the systemic aging which must be analyzed. We assume that the mitochondrial aging mechanism is similar to the mechanism of aging of the immune system which we discuss in detail. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Ardisianone, a natural benzoquinone, efficiently induces apoptosis in human hormone-refractory prostate cancers through mitochondrial damage stress and survivin downregulation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chia-Chun; Wu, Ping-Jung; Hsu, Jui-Ling; Ho, Yunn-Fang; Hsu, Lih-Ching; Chang, Yu-Jia; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Guh, Jih-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that mitochondria play a central role in regulating cell apoptosis. Survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family member, mediates resistance to cancer chemotherapy particularly in prostate cancers. Therefore, development of anticancer agents targeting mitochondria and survivin is a potential strategy. Cell proliferation was examined by sulforhodamine B, CFSE staining, and clonogenic assays. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m) ) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by flow cytometric analysis. Protein expression was detected by Western blot. RNA levels were examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. Overexpression of constitutively active Akt was also used in this study. Ardisianone, a natural benzoquinone derivative, displayed anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities against human hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells (HRPC), PC-3, and DU-145. Ardisianone dramatically induced mitochondrial damage, identified by downregulation of Bcl-2 family proteins, ROS production, and loss of ΔΨ(m) . Ardisianone also inhibited Akt and mTOR/p70S6K pathways and induced a fast downregulation of survivin, leading to activation of mitochondria-involved caspase cascades. Overexpression of constitutively active Akt partly rescued ardisianone-mediated apoptotic signaling cascades. Furthermore, a long-term treatment of ardisianone caused an increase of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, upregulation of cIAP1 and cIAP2, and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF)-mediated caspase-independent apoptosis. The data suggest that the ardisianone induces apoptosis in human prostate cancers through mitochondrial damage stress, leading to the inhibition of mTOR/p70S6K pathway, downregulation of Bcl-2 family members, degradation of survivin, and activation of caspase cascades. The data provide evidence supporting that ardisianone is a potential anticancer agent against HRPCs. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cytoplasmic irradiation results in mitochondrial dysfunction and DRP1-dependent mitochondrial fission.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Davidson, Mercy M; Zhou, Hongning; Wang, Chunxin; Walker, Winsome F; Hei, Tom K

    2013-11-15

    Direct DNA damage is often considered the primary cause of cancer in patients exposed to ionizing radiation or environmental carcinogens. Although mitochondria are known to play an important role in radiation-induced cellular response, the mechanisms by which cytoplasmic stimuli modulate mitochondrial dynamics and functions are largely unknown. In the present study, we examined changes in mitochondrial dynamics and functions triggered by α particle damage to the mitochondria in human small airway epithelial cells, using a precision microbeam irradiator with a beam width of 1 μm. Targeted cytoplasmic irradiation using this device resulted in mitochondrial fragmentation and a reduction of cytochrome c oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase activity, when compared with nonirradiated controls, suggesting a reduction in respiratory chain function. In addition, mitochondrial fragmentation or fission was associated with increased expression of the dynamin-like protein DRP1, which promotes mitochondrial fission. DRP1 inhibition by the drug mdivi-1 prevented radiation-induced mitochondrial fission, but respiratory chain function in mitochondria inhibited by radiation persisted for 12 hours. Irradiated cells also showed an increase in mitochondria-derived superoxide that could be quenched by dimethyl sulfoxide. Taken together, our results provide a mechanistic explanation for the extranuclear, nontargeted effects of ionizing radiation.

  10. Significant accumulation of persistent organic pollutants and dysregulation in multiple DNA damage repair pathways in the electronic-waste-exposed populations

    SciTech Connect

    He, Xiaobo; Jing, Yaqing; Wang, Jianhai; Li, Keqiu; Yang, Qiaoyun; Zhao, Yuxia; Li, Ran; Ge, Jie; Qiu, Xinghua; Li, Guang

    2015-02-15

    Electronic waste (e-waste) has created a worldwide environmental and health problem, by generating a diverse group of hazardous compounds such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Our previous studies demonstrated that populations from e-waste exposed region have a significantly higher level of chromosomal aberrancy and incidence of DNA damage. In this study, we further demonstrated that various POPs persisted at a significantly higher concentration in the exposed group than those in the unexposed group. The level of reactive oxygen species and micronucleus rate were also significantly elevated in the exposed group. RNA sequencing analysis revealed 31 genes in DNA damage responses and repair pathways that were differentially expressed between the two groups (Log 2 ratio >1 or <−1). Our data demonstrated that both females and males of the exposed group have activated a series of DNA damage response genes; however many important DNA repair pathways have been dysregulated. Expressions of NEIL1/3 and RPA3, which are critical in initiating base pair and nucleotide excision repairs respectively, have been downregulated in both females and males of the exposed group. In contrast, expression of RNF8, an E3 ligase involved in an error prone non-homologous end joining repair for DNA double strand break, was upregulated in both genders of the exposed group. The other genes appeared to be differentially expressed only when the males or females of the two groups were compared respectively. Importantly, the expression of cell cycle regulatory gene CDC25A that has been implicated in multiple kinds of malignant transformation was significantly upregulated among the exposed males while downregulated among the exposed females. In conclusion, our studies have demonstrated significant correlations between e-waste disposing and POPs accumulation, DNA lesions and dysregulation of multiple DNA damage repair mechanisms in the residents of the e-waste exposed region. - Highlights:

  11. HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate sensitizes E1A+Ras-transformed cells to DNA damaging agents by facilitating formation and persistence of γH2AX foci.

    PubMed

    Abramova, Maria V; Svetlikova, Svetlana B; Kukushkin, Alexander N; Aksenov, Nikolai D; Pospelova, Tatiana V; Pospelov, Valery A

    2011-12-15

    HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) suppress the growth of tumor cells due to induction of cell cycle arrest, senescence or apoptosis. Recent data demonstrate that HDACi can interfere with DNA Damage Response (DDR) thereby sensitizing the cells to DNA damaging agents. Here, we show that HDACi sodium butyrate (NaBut) potentiates the formation of γH2AX foci predominantly in S-phase E1A+Ras cells. Accumulation of γH2AX foci sensitizes the cells toward such DNA damaging agents as irradiation (IR) and adriamycin. In fact, NaBut potentiates the persistence of γH2AX foci induced by genotoxic agents. The synergizing effects depend on DNA damaging factors and on the order of NaBut treatment. Indeed, NaBut treatment for 24 h leads to an accumulation of G 1-phase cells and a lack of S-phase cells, therefore, adriamycin, a powerful S-phase-specific inhibitor, when added to NaBut-treated cells, is unable to substantially add γH2AX foci. In contrast, IR produces both single- and double-strand DNA breaks at any stage of the cell cycle and was shown to increase γH2AX foci in NaBut-treated cells. Further, a lifetime of IR-induced γH2AX foci depends on the subsequent presence of HDACi. Correspondingly, NaBut withdrawal leads to the extinction of IR-induced γH2AX foci. This necessitates HDACi to hold the IR-induced γH2AX foci unrepaired. However, the IR-induced γH2AX foci persist after long-term NaBut treatment (72 h) even after washing the drug. Thus, although signaling pathways regulating H2AX phosphorylation in NaBut-treated cells remain to be investigated, the obtained results show that NaBut potentiates effects of DNA damaging agents by facilitating formation and persistence of γH2AX foci.

  12. Myristicin from nutmeg induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and down regulates genes of the DNA damage response pathways in human leukaemia K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Martins, Célia; Doran, Carolina; Silva, Inês C; Miranda, Claudia; Rueff, José; Rodrigues, António S

    2014-07-25

    Myristicin, an allylbenzene, is a major active component of various spices, such as nutmeg and cinnamon, plants from the Umbelliferae family or in some essential oils, such as oils of clove or marjoram. Human exposure to myristicin is low but widespread due to consumption of these spices and essential oils, added to food (e.g. cola drinks) or in traditional medicine. Occasionally high dose exposure occurs, leading to various clinical symptoms, however the molecular mechanisms underlying them are unknown. Our previous studies revealed that myristicin is not genotoxic and yet presented apoptotic activity. Therefore, in this work we assessed the apoptotic mechanisms induced by myristicin in human leukaemia cells. In order to gain further insight on the potential of myristicin to modulate gene expression we also analysed alterations in expression of 84 genes associated with the DNA damage response pathway. The results obtained show that myristicin can induce apoptosis as characterised by alterations in the mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, PARP-cleavage and DNA fragmentation. The gene expression profile revealed an overall down regulation of DNA damage response genes after exposure to myristicin, with significant under-expression of genes associated with nucleotide excision repair (ERCC1), double strand break repair (RAD50, RAD51) and DNA damage signalling (ATM) and stress response (GADD45A, GADD45G). On the whole, we demonstrate that myristicin can alter mitochondrial membrane function, induce apoptosis and modulate gene expression in human leukaemia K562 cells. This study provides further detail on the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological activity of myristicin.

  13. Mitochondrial fusion, fission, and mitochondrial toxicity.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joel N; Leuthner, Tess C; Luz, Anthony L

    2017-08-05

    Mitochondrial dynamics are regulated by two sets of opposed processes: mitochondrial fusion and fission, and mitochondrial biogenesis and degradation (including mitophagy), as well as processes such as intracellular transport. These processes maintain mitochondrial homeostasis, regulate mitochondrial form, volume and function, and are increasingly understood to be critical components of the cellular stress response. Mitochondrial dynamics vary based on developmental stage and age, cell type, environmental factors, and genetic background. Indeed, many mitochondrial homeostasis genes are human disease genes. Emerging evidence indicates that deficiencies in these genes often sensitize to environmental exposures, yet can also be protective under certain circumstances. Inhibition of mitochondrial dynamics also affects elimination of irreparable mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and transmission of mtDNA mutations. We briefly review the basic biology of mitodynamic processes with a focus on mitochondrial fusion and fission, discuss what is known and unknown regarding how these processes respond to chemical and other stressors, and review the literature on interactions between mitochondrial toxicity and genetic variation in mitochondrial fusion and fission genes. Finally, we suggest areas for future research, including elucidating the full range of mitodynamic responses from low to high-level exposures, and from acute to chronic exposures; detailed examination of the physiological consequences of mitodynamic alterations in different cell types; mechanism-based testing of mitotoxicant interactions with interindividual variability in mitodynamics processes; and incorporating other environmental variables that affect mitochondria, such as diet and exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluence- and time-dependant lysosomal and mitochondrial damage induced by LS11 PDT characterized with light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jeremy D.; Foster, Thomas H.

    2007-02-01

    Light scattering from cells originates from sub-cellular organelles. Our measurements of angularly resolved light scattering have demonstrated that at 633 nm, the dominant scattering centers within EMT6 cells are mitochondria and lysosomes. To assess their specific contributions, we have used photodynamic therapy (PDT) to induce organelle-specific perturbations within intact cells. We have developed a coated sphere scattering model for mitochondrial swelling in response to ALA- and Pc 4-PDT, and in the case of Pc 4-PDT we have used this model to map the scattering responses into clonogenic cell survival. More recently, we demonstrated the ability to measure the size, scattering contribution, and refractive index of lysosomes within cells by exploiting the localization and high extinction of the photosensitizer LS11 and an absorbing sphere scattering model. Here we report on time- and fluence-dependant scattering measurements from cells treated with LS11-PDT. LS11-PDT causes rapid lysosomal disruption, as quantified by uptake of acridine orange, and can induce downstream effects including release of mitochondrial cytochrome c preceding the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Reiners et al., Cell Death Differ. 9:934, 2002). Using scattering and these various methods of analysis, we observed that the induction of lysosomal morphology changes requires a fluence significantly higher than that reported for cell killing. At lower fluences, we observe that at 1 h after irradiation there is significant mitochondrial swelling, consistent with the onset of cytochrome c-induced cell death, while the morphology of lysosomes remains unchanged. We also expand on the ideas of lysosomal staining to demonstrate the sensitivity of scattering measurements at different wavelengths to different organelle populations.

  15. Activation of sirtuin 1/3 improves vascular hyporeactivity in severe hemorrhagic shock by alleviation of mitochondrial damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengyun; Meng, Xianzhong; Bian, Huining; Burns, Nana; Zhao, Ke-seng; Song, Rui

    2015-11-10

    Vascular hyporeactivity is one of the major causes responsible for refractory hypotension and associated mortality in severe hemorrhagic shock. Mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) pore opening in arteriolar smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) is involved in the pathogenesis of vascular hyporeactivity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying mitochondrial injury in ASMCs during hemorrhagic shock is not well understood. Here we produced an in vivo model of severe hemorrhagic shock in adult Wistar rats. We found that sirtuin (SIRT)1/3 protein levels and deacetylase activities were decreased in ASMCs following severe shock. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed reduced levels of SIRT1 in the nucleus and SIRT3 in the mitochondria, respectively. Acetylation of cyclophilin D (CyPD), a component of mPT pore, was increased. SIRT1 activators suppressed mPT pore opening and ameliorated mitochondrial injury in ASMCs after severe shock. Furthermore, administration of SIRT1 activators improved vasoreactivity in rats under severe shock. Our data suggest that epigenetic mechanisms, namely histone post-translational modifications, are involved in regulation of mPT by SIRT1/SIRT3- mediated deacetylation of CyPD. SIRT1/3 is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of severe hemorrhagic shock.

  16. Activation of sirtuin 1/3 improves vascular hyporeactivity in severe hemorrhagic shock by alleviation of mitochondrial damage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengyun; Meng, Xianzhong; Bian, Huining; Burns, Nana; Zhao, Ke-seng; Song, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Vascular hyporeactivity is one of the major causes responsible for refractory hypotension and associated mortality in severe hemorrhagic shock. Mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) pore opening in arteriolar smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) is involved in the pathogenesis of vascular hyporeactivity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying mitochondrial injury in ASMCs during hemorrhagic shock is not well understood. Here we produced an in vivo model of severe hemorrhagic shock in adult Wistar rats. We found that sirtuin (SIRT)1/3 protein levels and deacetylase activities were decreased in ASMCs following severe shock. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed reduced levels of SIRT1 in the nucleus and SIRT3 in the mitochondria, respectively. Acetylation of cyclophilin D (CyPD), a component of mPT pore, was increased. SIRT1 activators suppressed mPT pore opening and ameliorated mitochondrial injury in ASMCs after severe shock. Furthermore, administration of SIRT1 activators improved vasoreactivity in rats under severe shock. Our data suggest that epigenetic mechanisms, namely histone post-translational modifications, are involved in regulation of mPT by SIRT1/SIRT3- mediated deacetylation of CyPD. SIRT1/3 is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of severe hemorrhagic shock. PMID:26473372

  17. Up-Regulation of Mitochondrial Antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase Underpins Persistent Cardiac Nutritional-Preconditioning by Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Abdukeyum, Grace G.; Owen, Alice J.; Larkin, Theresa A.; McLennan, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species paradoxically underpin both ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) damage and ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) cardioprotection. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA) are highly susceptible to peroxidation, but are paradoxically cardioprotective. This study tested the hypothesis that LCn-3 PUFA cardioprotection is underpinned by peroxidation, upregulating antioxidant activity to reduce I/R-induced lipid oxidation, and the mechanisms of this nutritional preconditioning contrast to mechanisms of IPC. Rats were fed: fish oil (LCn-3 PUFA); sunflower seed oil (n-6 PUFA); or beef tallow (saturated fat, SF) enriched diets for six weeks. Isolated hearts were subject to: 180 min normoxic perfusion; a 30 min coronary occlusion ischaemia protocol then 120 min normoxic reperfusion; or a 3 × 5 min global IPC protocol, 30 min ischaemia, then reperfusion. Dietary LCn-3 PUFA raised basal: membrane docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA); fatty acid peroxidisability index; concentrations of lipid oxidation products; and superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity (but not CuZnSOD or glutathione peroxidase). Infarct size correlated inversely with basal MnSOD activity (r2 = 0.85) in the ischaemia protocol and positively with I/R-induced lipid oxidation (lipid hydroperoxides (LPO), r2 = 0.475; malondialdehyde (MDA), r2 = 0.583) across ischaemia and IPC protocols. While both dietary fish oil and IPC infarct-reduction were associated with reduced I/R-induced lipid oxidation, fish oil produced nutritional preconditioning by prior LCn-3 PUFA incorporation and increased peroxidisability leading to up-regulated mitochondrial SOD antioxidant activity. PMID:26959067

  18. Mitochondrial DNA Damage Initiates Acute Lung Injury and Multi-Organ System Failure Evoked in Rats by Intra-Tracheal Pseudomonas Aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yann-Leei; Obiako, Boniface; Gorodnya, Olena M; Ruchko, Mykhaylo V; Kuck, Jamie L; Pastukh, Viktor M; Wilson, Glenn L; Simmons, Jon D; Gillespie, Mark N

    2017-01-25

    Although studies in rat cultured pulmonary artery endothelial cells, perfused lungs, and intact mice support the concept that oxidative mitochondrial (mt) DNA damage triggers acute lung injury (ALI), it has not yet been determined whether enhanced mtDNA repair forestalls development of ALI and its progression to multiple organ system failure (MOSF). Accordingly, here we examined the effect of a fusion protein construct targeting the DNA glycosylase, Ogg1, to mitochondria in a rat model intra-tracheal P. aeruginosa (strain 103; PA103)-induced ALI and MOSF. Relative to controls, animals given PA103 displayed increases in lung vascular filtration coefficient accompanied by transient lung tissue oxidative mtDNA damage and variable changes in mtDNA copy number without evidence of nuclear DNA damage. The approximate 40% of animals surviving 24 h after bacterial administration exhibited multiple organ dysfunction, manifest as increased serum and tissue-specific indices of kidney and liver failure, along with depressed heart rate and blood pressure. While administration of mt-targeted Ogg1 to control animals was innocuous, the active fusion protein, but not a DNA repair-deficient mutant, prevented bacteria-induced increases in lung tissue oxidative mtDNA damage, failed to alter mtDNA copy number, and attenuated lung endothelial barrier degradation. These changes were associated with suppression of liver, kidney, and cardiovascular dysfunction and with decreased 24 h mortality. Collectively, the present findings indicate that oxidative mtDNA damage in lung tissue initiates PA103-induced ALI and MOSF in rats.

  19. Low doses of ultraviolet radiation and oxidative damage induce dramatic accumulation of mitochondrial DNA replication intermediates, fork regression, and replication initiation shift.

    PubMed

    Torregrosa-Muñumer, Rubén; Goffart, Steffi; Haikonen, Juha A; Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O

    2015-11-15

    Mitochondrial DNA is prone to damage by various intrinsic as well as environmental stressors. DNA damage can in turn cause problems for replication, resulting in replication stalling and double-strand breaks, which are suspected to be the leading cause of pathological mtDNA rearrangements. In this study, we exposed cells to subtle levels of oxidative stress or UV radiation and followed their effects on mtDNA maintenance. Although the damage did not influence mtDNA copy number, we detected a massive accumulation of RNA:DNA hybrid-containing replication intermediates, followed by an increase in cruciform DNA molecules, as well as in bidirectional replication initiation outside of the main replication origin, OH. Our results suggest that mitochondria maintain two different types of replication as an adaptation to different cellular environments; the RNA:DNA hybrid-involving replication mode maintains mtDNA integrity in tissues with low oxidative stress, and the potentially more error tolerant conventional strand-coupled replication operates when stress is high.

  20. Obtusilactone A and (-)-sesamin induce apoptosis in human lung cancer cells by inhibiting mitochondrial Lon protease and activating DNA damage checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Min; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Jung; Hsu, Shu-Wei; Fang, Wei-Cheng; Hsu, Tai-Feng; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Hsu, Chun-Hua; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen

    2010-12-01

    Several compounds from Cinnamomum kotoense show anticancer activities. However, the detailed mechanisms of most compounds from C. kotoense remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of obtusilactone A (OA) and (-)-sesamin in lung cancer. Our results show that human Lon is upregulated in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, and downregulation of Lon triggers caspase-3 mediated apoptosis. Through enzyme-based screening, we identified two small-molecule compounds, obtusilactone A (OA) and (-)-sesamin from C. kotoense, as potent Lon protease inhibitors. Obtusilactone A and (-)-sesamin interact with Ser855 and Lys898 residues in the active site of the Lon protease according to molecular docking analysis. Thus, we suggest that cancer cytotoxicity of the compounds is partly due to the inhibitory effects on Lon protease. In addition, the compounds are able to cause DNA double-strand breaks and activate checkpoints. Treatment with OA and (-)-sesamin induced p53-independent DNA damage responses in NSCLC cells, including G(1) /S checkpoint activation and apoptosis, as evidenced by phosphorylation of checkpoint proteins (H2AX, Nbs1, and Chk2), caspase-3 cleavage, and sub-G(1) accumulation. In conclusion, OA and (-)-sesamin act as both inhibitors of human mitochondrial Lon protease and DNA damage agents to activate the DNA damage checkpoints as well induce apoptosis in NSCLC cells. These dual functions open a bright avenue to develop more selective chemotherapy agents to overcome chemoresistance and sensitize cancer cells to other chemotherapeutics.

  1. Ultraviolet B, melanin and mitochondrial DNA: Photo-damage in human epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes modulated by alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Markus; Hill, Helene Z.

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) increases melanogenesis and protects from UV-induced DNA damage. However, its effect on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is unknown. We have addressed this issue in a pilot study using human epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes incubated with alpha-MSH and irradiated with UVB. Real-time touchdown PCR was used to quantify total and deleted mtDNA. The deletion detected encompassed the common deletion but was more sensitive to detection. There were 4.4 times more mtDNA copies in keratinocytes than in melanocytes. Irradiation alone did not affect copy numbers. Alpha-MSH slightly increased copy numbers in both cell types in the absence of UVB and caused a similar small decrease in copy number with dose in both cell types. Deleted copies were nearly twice as frequent in keratinocytes as in melanocytes. Alpha-MSH reduced the frequency of deleted copies by half in keratinocytes but not in melanocytes. UVB dose dependently led to an increase in the deleted copy number in alpha-MSH-treated melanocytes. UVB irradiation had little effect on deleted copy number in alpha-MSH-treated keratinocytes. In summary, alpha-MSH enhances mtDNA damage in melanocytes presumably by increased melanogenesis, while α-MSH is protective in keratinocytes, the more so in the absence of irradiation. PMID:27303631

  2. Ultraviolet B, melanin and mitochondrial DNA: Photo-damage in human epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes modulated by alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Markus; Hill, Helene Z

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) increases melanogenesis and protects from UV-induced DNA damage. However, its effect on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is unknown. We have addressed this issue in a pilot study using human epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes incubated with alpha-MSH and irradiated with UVB. Real-time touchdown PCR was used to quantify total and deleted mtDNA. The deletion detected encompassed the common deletion but was more sensitive to detection. There were 4.4 times more mtDNA copies in keratinocytes than in melanocytes. Irradiation alone did not affect copy numbers. Alpha-MSH slightly increased copy numbers in both cell types in the absence of UVB and caused a similar small decrease in copy number with dose in both cell types. Deleted copies were nearly twice as frequent in keratinocytes as in melanocytes. Alpha-MSH reduced the frequency of deleted copies by half in keratinocytes but not in melanocytes. UVB dose dependently led to an increase in the deleted copy number in alpha-MSH-treated melanocytes. UVB irradiation had little effect on deleted copy number in alpha-MSH-treated keratinocytes. In summary, alpha-MSH enhances mtDNA damage in melanocytes presumably by increased melanogenesis, while α-MSH is protective in keratinocytes, the more so in the absence of irradiation.

  3. UV-induced histone H2AX phosphorylation and DNA damage related proteins accumulate and persist in nucleotide excision repair-deficient XP-B cells

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kyu-Seon; Bustin, Michael; Mazur, Sharlyn J.; Appella, Ettore; Kraemer, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSB) may be caused by ionizing radiation. In contrast, UV exposure forms dipyrimidine photoproducts and is not considered an inducer of DSB. We found that uniform or localized UV treatment induced phosphorylation of the DNA damage related (DDR) proteins H2AX, ATM and NBS1 and co-localization of γ-H2AX with the DDR proteins p-ATM, p-NBS1, Rad51 and FANCD2 that persisted for about 6 h in normal human fibroblasts. This post-UV phosphorylation was observed in the absence of nucleotide excision repair (NER), since NER deficient XP-B cells (lacking functional XPB DNA repair helicase) and global genome repair-deficient rodent cells also showed phosphorylation and localization of these DDR proteins. Resolution of the DDR proteins was dependent on NER, since they persisted for 24 h in the XP-B cells. In the normal and XP-B cells p53 and p21 was detected at 6 h and 24 h but Mdm2 was not induced in the XP-B cells. Post-UV induction of Wip1 phosphatase was detected in the normal cells but not in the XP-B cells. DNA DSB were detected with a neutral comet assay at 6 h and 24 h post-UV in the normal and XP-B cells. These results indicate that UV damage can activate the DDR pathway in the absence of NER. However, a later step in DNA damage processing involving induction of Wip1 and resolution of DDR proteins was not observed in the absence of NER. PMID:20947453

  4. UV-induced histone H2AX phosphorylation and DNA damage related proteins accumulate and persist in nucleotide excision repair-deficient XP-B cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyu-Seon; Bustin, Michael; Mazur, Sharlyn J; Appella, Ettore; Kraemer, Kenneth H

    2011-01-02

    DNA double strand breaks (DSB) may be caused by ionizing radiation. In contrast, UV exposure forms dipyrimidine photoproducts and is not considered an inducer of DSB. We found that uniform or localized UV treatment induced phosphorylation of the DNA damage related (DDR) proteins H2AX, ATM and NBS1 and co-localization of γ-H2AX with the DDR proteins p-ATM, p-NBS1, Rad51 and FANCD2 that persisted for about 6h in normal human fibroblasts. This post-UV phosphorylation was observed in the absence of nucleotide excision repair (NER), since NER deficient XP-B cells (lacking functional XPB DNA repair helicase) and global genome repair-deficient rodent cells also showed phosphorylation and localization of these DDR proteins. Resolution of the DDR proteins was dependent on NER, since they persisted for 24h in the XP-B cells. In the normal and XP-B cells p53 and p21 was detected at 6h and 24h but Mdm2 was not induced in the XP-B cells. Post-UV induction of Wip1 phosphatase was detected in the normal cells but not in the XP-B cells. DNA DSB were detected with a neutral comet assay at 6h and 24h post-UV in the normal and XP-B cells. These results indicate that UV damage can activate the DDR pathway in the absence of NER. However, a later step in DNA damage processing involving induction of Wip1 and resolution of DDR proteins was not observed in the absence of NER. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Interleukin-22 restored mitochondrial damage and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through down-regulation of uncoupling protein-2 in INS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Minling; Lin, Hanxiao; Yang, Li; Cheng, Yanzhen; Zhang, Hua

    2017-05-01

    Defective glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) induced by chronic exposure to fatty acids is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Interleukin-22 (IL-22) has been shown to exert beneficial effects on insulin secretion and to protect pancreatic β-cells from stress. Moreover, uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) plays a central role in the regulation of GSIS and β-cell dysfunction, whereas the role of UCP-2 in IL-22-enhanced glycemic control under conditions of lipotoxicity remains unclear. In this present study, we investigated the effects of IL-22 on rat insulin-secreting cells (INS-1 cells) and the mechanisms that underlie IL-22 and lipotoxicity-impaired GSIS in vitro. Chronic palmitate (PA) treatment impaired insulin secretion and activated UCP-2 expression in INS-1 cells. Furthermore, in INS-1 cells, both reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and impaired GSIS induced by PA treatment were effectively reversed by an inhibitor of UCP-2 (genipin). Additionally, compared with the PA-treated group, INS-1 cells treated with IL-22 down-regulated UCP-2 expression, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, and restored GSIS. Together, our findings indicate that chronic exposure to PA could activate UCP-2, resulting in mitochondrial damage and impaired GSIS in INS-1 cells. We also suggest that IL-22 plays a protective role in this process via the down-regulation of UCP-2. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancement of IUdR Radiosensitization by Low-Energy Photons Results from Increased and Persistent DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Bayart, Emilie; Pouzoulet, Frédéric; Calmels, Lucie; Dadoun, Jonathan; Allot, Fabien; Plagnard, Johann; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Bridier, André; Denozière, Marc; Bourhis, Jean; Deutsch, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Low-energy X-rays induce Auger cascades by photoelectric absorption in iodine present in the DNA of cells labeled with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR). This photoactivation therapy results in enhanced cellular sensitivity to radiation which reaches its maximum with 50 keV photons. Synchrotron core facilities are the only way to generate such monochromatic beams. However, these structures are not adapted for the routine treatment of patients. In this study, we generated two beams emitting photon energy means of 42 and 50 keV respectively, from a conventional 225 kV X-ray source. Viability assays performed after pre-exposure to 10 μM of IUdR for 48h suggest that complex lethal damage is generated after low energy photons irradiation compared to 137Cs irradiation (662KeV). To further decipher the molecular mechanisms leading to IUdR-mediated radiosensitization, we analyzed the content of DNA damage-induced foci in two glioblastoma cell lines and showed that the decrease in survival under these conditions was correlated with an increase in the content of DNA damage-induced foci in cell lines. Moreover, the follow-up of repair kinetics of the induced double-strand breaks showed the maximum delay in cells labeled with IUdR and exposed to X-ray irradiation. Thus, there appears to be a direct relationship between the reduction of radiation survival parameters and the production of DNA damage with impaired repair of these breaks. These results further support the clinical potential use of a halogenated pyrimidine analog combined with low-energy X-ray therapy.

  7. Enhancement of IUdR Radiosensitization by Low-Energy Photons Results from Increased and Persistent DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Bayart, Emilie; Pouzoulet, Frédéric; Calmels, Lucie; Dadoun, Jonathan; Allot, Fabien; Plagnard, Johann; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Bridier, André; Denozière, Marc; Bourhis, Jean; Deutsch, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Low-energy X-rays induce Auger cascades by photoelectric absorption in iodine present in the DNA of cells labeled with 5-iodo-2’-deoxyuridine (IUdR). This photoactivation therapy results in enhanced cellular sensitivity to radiation which reaches its maximum with 50 keV photons. Synchrotron core facilities are the only way to generate such monochromatic beams. However, these structures are not adapted for the routine treatment of patients. In this study, we generated two beams emitting photon energy means of 42 and 50 keV respectively, from a conventional 225 kV X-ray source. Viability assays performed after pre-exposure to 10 μM of IUdR for 48h suggest that complex lethal damage is generated after low energy photons irradiation compared to 137Cs irradiation (662KeV). To further decipher the molecular mechanisms leading to IUdR-mediated radiosensitization, we analyzed the content of DNA damage-induced foci in two glioblastoma cell lines and showed that the decrease in survival under these conditions was correlated with an increase in the content of DNA damage-induced foci in cell lines. Moreover, the follow-up of repair kinetics of the induced double-strand breaks showed the maximum delay in cells labeled with IUdR and exposed to X-ray irradiation. Thus, there appears to be a direct relationship between the reduction of radiation survival parameters and the production of DNA damage with impaired repair of these breaks. These results further support the clinical potential use of a halogenated pyrimidine analog combined with low-energy X-ray therapy. PMID:28045991

  8. Persistent neurological damage associated with spontaneous recurrent seizures and atypical aggressive behavior of domoic acid epileptic disease.

    PubMed

    Tiedeken, Jessica A; Ramsdell, John S

    2013-05-01

    The harmful alga Pseudo-nitzschia sp. is the cause of human amnesic shellfish poisoning and the stranding of thousands of sea lions with seizures as a hallmark symptom. A human case study and epidemiological report of hundreds of stranded sea lions found individuals presenting months after recovery with a neurological disease similar to temporal lobe epilepsy. A rat model developed to establish and better predict how epileptic disease results from domoic acid poisoning demonstrated that a single episode of status epilepticus (SE), after a latent period, leads to a progressive state of spontaneous recurrent seizure (SRS) and expression of atypical aggressive behaviors. Structural damage associated with domoic acid-induced SE is prominent in olfactory pathways. Here, we examine structural damage in seven rats that progressed to epileptic disease. Diseased animals show progressive neuronal loss in the piriform cortex and degeneration of terminal fields in these layers and the posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus. Animals that display aggressive behavior had additional neuronal damage to the anterior olfactory cortex. This study provides insight into the structural basis for the progression of domoic acid epileptic disease and relates to the California sea lion, where poisoned animals progress to a disease characterized by SRS and aggressive behaviors.

  9. A fraction of yeast Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase and its metallochaperone, CCS, localize to the intermembrane space of mitochondria. A physiological role for SOD1 in guarding against mitochondrial oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Sturtz, L A; Diekert, K; Jensen, L T; Lill, R; Culotta, V C

    2001-10-12

    Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is an abundant, largely cytosolic enzyme that scavenges superoxide anions. The biological role of SOD1 is somewhat controversial because superoxide is thought to arise largely from the mitochondria where a second SOD (manganese SOD) already resides. Using bakers' yeast as a model, we demonstrate that Cu,Zn-SOD1 helps protect mitochondria from oxidative damage, as sod1Delta mutants show elevated protein carbonyls in this organelle. In accordance with this connection to mitochondria, a fraction of active SOD1 localizes within the intermembrane space (IMS) of mitochondria together with its copper chaperone, CCS. Neither CCS nor SOD1 contains typical N-terminal presequences for mitochondrial uptake; however, the mitochondrial accumulation of SOD1 is strongly influenced by CCS. When CCS synthesis is repressed, mitochondrial SOD1 is of low abundance, and conversely IMS SOD1 is very high when CCS is largely mitochondrial. The mitochondrial form of SOD1 is indeed protective against oxidative damage because yeast cells enriched for IMS SOD1 exhibit prolonged survival in the stationary phase, an established marker of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Cu,Zn-SOD1 in the mitochondria appears important for reactive oxygen physiology and may have critical implications for SOD1 mutations linked to the fatal neurodegenerative disorder, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  10. Restorative effect of Kalpaamruthaa, an indigenous preparation, on oxidative damage in mammary gland mitochondrial fraction in experimental mammary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Arulkumaran, Shanmugam; Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2006-10-01

    Cancer prevention and treatment using phytochemicals have attracted increased interest. Recent studies have shown that Semecarpus anacardium Linn nut milk extract (SA), a promising antioxidant and anticancer drug, exerts its anticancer effect through reducing or quenching reactive oxygen species under different conditions. The present study examined whether Phyllanthus emblica Linn fruit, rich in vitamin C content synergistically in combination can enhance both the antioxidant and anticancer activity of S. anacardium nut milk extract in 7, 12-dimethyl benz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced experimental mammary carcinoma in rat model. Female Sprague Dawley rats of 180 +/- 10 g were categorized into six groups. Three groups were administered DMBA (25mg/rat, orally) dissolved in olive oil to induce mammary carcinoma. One of these groups received Kalpaamruthaa (KA) (300 mg/kg b.wt, orally) and other group received SA (200mg/kg b.wt, orally) for 14 days after 90 days of DMBA induction. A vehicle treated control and drug control groups were also included. The mitochondrial fraction of untreated DMBA-induced mammary gland showed 2.61-fold increase in lipid peroxidation level and abnormal changes in the activities/levels of mitochondrial enzymic (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and non-enzymic (glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E) antioxidants were observed. DMBA treated rats also showed decline in the activities of mitochondrial enzymes such as succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. In contrast, rats treated with Kalpaamruthaa showed normal lipid peroxide level and antioxidant defenses. The results of the present study highlight the improved antioxidant property of KA than sole treatment of S. anacardium nut milk extract.

  11. Incorporation of marine lipids into mitochondrial membranes increases susceptibility to damage by calcium and reactive oxygen species: evidence for enhanced activation of phospholipase A2 in mitochondria enriched with n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Malis, C D; Weber, P C; Leaf, A; Bonventre, J V

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate the susceptibility of mitochondrial membranes enriched with n-3 fatty acids to damage by Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species. Fatty acid content and respiratory function were assessed in renal cortical mitochondria isolated from fish-oil- and beef-tallow-fed rats. Dietary fish oils were readily incorporated into mitochondrial membranes. After exposure to Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species, mitochondria enriched in n-3 fatty acids, and using pyruvate and malate as substrates, had significantly greater changes in state 3 and uncoupled respirations, when compared with mitochondria from rats fed beef tallow. Mitochondrial site 1 (NADH coenzyme Q reductase) activity was reduced to 45 and 85% of control values in fish-oil- and beef-tallow-fed groups, respectively. Exposure to Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species enhance the release of polyunsaturated fatty acids enriched at the sn-2 position of phospholipids from mitochondria of fish-oil-fed rats when compared with similarly treated mitochondria of beef-tallow-fed rats. This release of fatty acids was partially inhibited by dibucaine, the phospholipase A2 inhibitor, which we have previously shown to protect mitochondria against damage associated with Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species. The results indicate that phospholipase A2 is activated in mitochondria exposed to Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species and is responsible, at least in part, for the impairment of respiratory function. Phospholipase A2 activity and mitochondrial damage are enhanced when mitochondrial membranes are enriched with n-3 fatty acids. PMID:2123344

  12. Mapping time-course mitochondrial adaptations in the kidney in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Melinda T; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Penfold, Sally A; Higgins, Gavin C; Thallas-Bonke, Vicki; Tan, Sih Min; Van Bergen, Nicole J; Sourris, Karly C; Harcourt, Brooke E; Thorburn, David R; Trounce, Ian A; Cooper, Mark E; Forbes, Josephine M

    2016-05-01

    Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) drives ATP production by mitochondria, which are dynamic organelles, constantly fusing and dividing to maintain kidney homoeostasis. In diabetic kidney disease (DKD), mitochondria appear dysfunctional, but the temporal development of diabetes-induced adaptations in mitochondrial structure and bioenergetics have not been previously documented. In the present study, we map the changes in mitochondrial dynamics and function in rat kidney mitochondria at 4, 8, 16 and 32 weeks of diabetes. Our data reveal that changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamics precede the development of albuminuria and renal histological changes. Specifically, in early diabetes (4 weeks), a decrease in ATP content and mitochondrial fragmentation within proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTECs) of diabetic kidneys were clearly apparent, but no changes in urinary albumin excretion or glomerular morphology were evident at this time. By 8 weeks of diabetes, there was increased capacity for mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) by pore opening, which persisted over time and correlated with mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation and glomerular damage. Late in diabetes, by week 16, tubular damage was evident with increased urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) excretion, where an increase in the Complex I-linked oxygen consumption rate (OCR), in the context of a decrease in kidney ATP, indicated mitochondrial uncoupling. Taken together, these data show that changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamics may precede the development of the renal lesion in diabetes, and this supports the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction is a primary cause of DKD.

  13. Intraplatelet reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial damage and platelet apoptosis augment non-surgical bleeding in heart failure patients supported by continuous-flow left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Nandan K; Sorensen, Erik N; Hiivala, Nicholas J; Feller, Erika D; Pham, Si M; Griffith, Bartley P; Wu, Zhongjun J

    2015-01-01

    Non-surgical bleeding (NSB) is the most common clinical complication among heart failure (HF) patients supported by continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs). Understanding the role of platelet functionality contributing to NSB after CF-LVAD implantation is crucial for prevention and management of this adverse event. The aim of this study was to examine the role of intraplatelet reactive oxygen species (ROS) and platelet damage on the incidence of bleeding events after CF-LVAD implantation in HF patients. We recruited 25 HF patients implanted with CF-LVADs and 11 healthy volunteers as the control. Intraplatelet ROS generation, platelet mitochondrial damage and platelet apoptosis were quantified by flow cytometry. Among 25 patients, 8 patients developed non-surgical bleeding within one month after CF-LVAD implantation. Intraplatelet ROS, depolarized and apoptotic platelet were found to be pre-existing conditions in all baseline samples of the 25 HF patients when compared to the healthy volunteers. There was no significant difference in the levels of ROS between the non-bleeder and the bleeder groups prior to CF-LVAD implantation, although we noticed 2-fold and 1.5-fold rise in depolarized and apoptotic platelets, respectively, in the bleeder group compared to those in the non-bleeder group. Post implant levels of intraplatelet ROS, depolarized and apoptotic platelets increased and remained elevated in the bleeder group, whereas periodic decreases were noticed in the non-bleeder group, suggesting the potential role of platelet damage on bleeding incidence. ROS generation after CF-LVAD implantation positively associated with platelet apoptosis (ρ = 0.4263, p = 0.0023) and depolarized platelets (ρ = 0.4774, p = 0.0002), especially the latter. In conclusion, elevated intraplatelet ROS and platelet damage may be linked to the NSB among HF patients supported by CF-LVAD. These results provide mechanistic insights into the bleeding complication in

  14. 17β-estradiol impedes Bax-involved mitochondrial apoptosis of retinal nerve cells induced by oxidative damage via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongbo; Wang, Baoying; Zhu, Chunhui; Feng, Yan; Wang, Shaolan; Shahzad, Muhammad; Hu, Chenghu; Mo, Mingshu; Du, Fangying; Yu, Xiaorui

    2013-07-01

    Oxidative stress leading to retinal nerve cells (RNCs) apoptosis is a major cause of neurodegenerative disorders of the retina. 17β-Estradiol (E2) has been suggested to be a neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system; however, at present, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood, and the related research on the RNCs is less reported. Here, in order to investigate the protective role and mechanism of E2 against oxidative stress-induced damage on RNCs, the transmission electron microscopy and annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide assay were applied to detect the RNCs apoptosis. Western blot and real-time PCR were used to determine the expression of the critical molecules in Bcl-2 and caspase family associated with apoptosis. The transmission electron microscopy results showed that H(2)O(2) could induce typical features of apoptosis in RNCs, including formation of the apoptosome. E2 could, however, suppress the H(2)O(2)-induced morphological changes of apoptosis. Intriguingly, we observed E2-mediated phagocytic scavenging of apoptosome. In response to H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis, Bax, acting as one of the pivotal pro-apoptotic members of Bcl-2 family, increased significantly, which directly resulted in an increased ratio of Bax to anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 (Bax/Bcl-2). Additionally, caspases 9 and 3, which are the critical molecules of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, were activated by H(2)O(2). In contrast, E2 exerted anti-apoptotic effects by reducing the expression of Bax to decrease the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and impeded the caspases 9/3 activation. Moreover, LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, could sharply block the effect of E2 in reducing the percentage of apoptotic cells resistance to H(2)O(2). And the attenuation of Bax, the reduced activities of caspases 9/3 and the impeded release of mitochondrial cytochrome c mediated by E2 resistance to H(2)O(2) damage were significantly retrieved by LY294002 administration. Taken

  15. Evidence that carbonyl stress by methylglyoxal exposure induces DNA damage and spindle aberrations, affects mitochondrial integrity in mammalian oocytes and contributes to oocyte ageing.

    PubMed

    Tatone, Carla; Heizenrieder, Tanja; Di Emidio, Giovanna; Treffon, Patrick; Amicarelli, Fernanda; Seidel, Thorsten; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula

    2011-07-01

    )/glutathion disulfide (GSSG)-dependent redox potential. Part A revealed that mRNA for glyoxalases decreases during meiotic maturation. Importantly, cumulus from aged mice in CEO obtained from stimulated cycles does not protect oocytes efficiently from MG-induced meiotic arrest during in vitro maturation. Part B showed that the MG-induced meiotic delay or arrest is associated with significant rises in spindle aberrations, chromosome congression failure and aberrant telophase I in oocytes. MG exposure of meiotically arrested GV-stage oocytes significantly increases the numbers of γ-H2AX spots in the nucleus suggesting increased DNA damage, while MG exposure during maturation affects chromatin condensation and induces chromosome lagging at anaphase I. Moreover, Part C revealed that carbonyl stress by chronic exposure to MG is associated with delays in changes in mitochondrial distribution and altered inner-mitochondrial GSH/GSSG redox potential, which might be particularly relevant for cytoskeletal dynamics as well as processes after fertilization. Sensitivity to a meiotic block by MG appears dependent on the genetic background. The sensitivity to carbonyl stress by MG appears to increase with maternal age. Since MG-exposure induces DNA damage, meiotic delay, spindle aberrations, anaphase I lagging and epimutation, aged oocytes are particularly at risk for such disturbances in the absence of efficient protection by cumulus. Furthermore, disturbances in mitochondrial distribution and redox regulation may be especially critical for fertilization and developmental competence of oocytes exposed to MG and carbonyl stress before or during maturation, for instance, in aged females, or in PCOS or diabetic patients, in agreement with recent suggestions of correlations between poor follicular and embryonic development, lower pregnancy rate and presence of toxic AGEs in serum, irrespective of age.

  16. Persistence of repair proteins at unrepaired DNA damage distinguishes diseases with ERCC2 (XPD) mutations: cancer-prone xeroderma pigmentosum vs. non-cancer-prone trichothiodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Jennifer; Ueda, Takahiro; Oh, Kyu-Seon; Imoto, Kyoko; Tamura, Deborah; Jagdeo, Jared; Khan, Sikandar G; Nadem, Carine; Digiovanna, John J; Kraemer, Kenneth H

    2008-10-01

    Patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) have a 1,000-fold increase in ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin cancers while trichothiodystrophy (TTD) patients, despite mutations in the same genes, ERCC2 (XPD) or ERCC3 (XPB), are cancer-free. Unlike XP cells, TTD cells have a nearly normal rate of removal of UV-induced 6-4 photoproducts (6-4PP) in their DNA and low levels of the basal transcription factor, TFIIH. We examined seven XP, TTD, and XP/TTD complex patients and identified mutations in the XPD gene. We discovered large differences in nucleotide excision repair (NER) protein recruitment to sites of localized UV damage in TTD cells compared to XP or normal cells. XPC protein was rapidly localized in all cells. XPC was redistributed in TTD, and normal cells by 3 hr postirradiation, but remained localized in XP cells at 24-hr postirradiation. In XP cells recruitment of other NER proteins (XPB, XPD, XPG, XPA, and XPF) was also delayed and persisted at 24 hr (p<0.001). In TTD cells with defects in the XPD, XPB, or GTF2H5 (TTDA) genes, in contrast, recruitment of these NER proteins was reduced compared to normals at early time points (p<0.001) and remained low at 24 hr postirradiation. These data indicate that in XP persistence of NER proteins at sites of unrepaired DNA damage is associated with greatly increased skin cancer risk possibly by blockage of translesion DNA synthesis. In contrast, in TTD, low levels of unstable TFIIH proteins do not accumulate at sites of unrepaired photoproducts and may permit normal translesion DNA synthesis without increased skin cancer.

  17. Persistence of Repair Proteins at Unrepaired DNA Damage Distinguishes Diseases with ERCC2 (XPD) Mutations: Cancer-Prone Xeroderma Pigmentosum vs. Non-Cancer-Prone Trichothiodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Jennifer; Ueda, Takahiro; Oh, Kyu-Seon; Imoto, Kyoko; Tamura, Deborah; Jagdeo, Jared; Khan, Sikandar G.; Nadem, Carine; DiGiovanna, John J.; Kraemer, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) have a 1,000-fold increase in ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin cancers while trichothiodystrophy (TTD) patients, despite mutations in the same genes, ERCC2 (XPD) or ERCC3 (XPB), are cancer-free. Unlike XP cells, TTD cells have a nearly normal rate of removal of UV-induced 6-4 photoproducts (6-4PP) in their DNA and low levels of the basal transcription factor, TFIIH. We examined seven XP, TTD, and XP/TTD complex patients and identified mutations in the XPD gene. We discovered large differences in nucleotide excision repair (NER) protein recruitment to sites of localized UV damage in TTD cells compared to XP or normal cells. XPC protein was rapidly localized in all cells. XPC was redistributed in TTD, and normal cells by 3 hr postirradiation, but remained localized in XP cells at 24-hr postirradiation. In XP cells recruitment of other NER proteins (XPB, XPD, XPG, XPA, and XPF) was also delayed and persisted at 24 hr (p < 0.001). In TTD cells with defects in the XPD, XPB, or GTF2H5 (TTDA) genes, in contrast, recruitment of these NER proteins was reduced compared to normals at early time points (p < 0.001) and remained low at 24 hr postirradiation. These data indicate that in XP persistence of NER proteins at sites of unrepaired DNA damage is associated with greatly increased skin cancer risk possibly by blockage of translesion DNA synthesis. In contrast, in TTD, low levels of unstable TFIIH proteins do not accumulate at sites of unrepaired photoproducts and may permit normal translesion DNA synthesis without increased skin cancer. PMID:18470933

  18. Selenium (sodium selenite) causes cytotoxicity and apoptotic mediated cell death in PLHC-1 fish cell line through DNA and mitochondrial membrane potential damage.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Vellaisamy; Tomblin, Justin; Yeager Armistead, Mindy; Murray, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Elevated concentration of selenium poses a toxic threat to organisms inhabiting aquatic ecosystems influenced by excessive inputs from anthropogenic sources. Selenium is also an essential micronutrient in living things, particularly in fish, and provides antioxidant properties to tissues. Whole fish and hepatocytes in primary culture show selenite toxicity above threshold levels. The present study was designed to investigate the process by which selenite exposure causes cellular toxicity and apoptotic and necrotic cell death in fish hepatoma cell line PLHC-1. PLHC-1 cells were exposed to various selenite concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 μM) for 10, 20 and 40 h intervals. The 24h inhibitory concentration 50 (IC₅₀) of selenite in PLHC-1 cell line was found to be 237 μM. Flow cytometery data showed that selenite exposed cells promote apoptotic and necrotic mediated cell death when selenite concentrations were ≥10 μM compared to control. Selenite exposure was associated with a significant increase of caspase-3 activities suggesting the induction of apoptosis. Selenite exposure at high levels (≥10 μM) and longer exposure times (≥20 h) induces mitochondrial membrane potential damage (ΔΨ(m)), DNA damage and elevated production of ROS which could be associated with cell death. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. beta-sitosterol decreases irradiation-induced thymocyte early damage by regulation of the intracellular redox balance and maintenance of mitochondrial membrane stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun Rong; Zhou, Zhe; Lin, Ru Xin; Zhu, Dan; Sun, Yu Ning; Tian, Lin Lin; Li, Lu; Gao, Yue; Wang, Sheng Qi

    2007-10-15

    Both radiation injury and oxidation toxicity occur when cells are exposed to ion irradiation (IR), ultimately leading to apoptosis. This study was designed to determine the effect of beta-sitosterol (BSS) on early cellular damage in irradiated thymocytes and a possible mechanism of effect on irradiation-mediated activation of the apoptotic pathways. Thymocytes were irradiated (6 Gy) with or without BSS. Cell apoptosis and apoptosis-related proteins were evaluated. BSS decreased irradiation-induced cell death and nuclear DNA strand breaks while attenuating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). BSS decreased the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol and the mitochondrio-nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Furthermore, BSS partially inhibited the radiation-induced increase of cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved PARP, and attenuated the activation of JNK and AP-1. In addition, evidence suggests that ROS generated by irradiation are involved in this course of cell damage. The results indicate that BSS confers a radioprotective effect on thymocytes by regulation of the intracellular redox balance which is carried out via the scavenging of ROS and maintenance of mitochondrial membrane stability.

  20. Poly(GR) in C9ORF72-Related ALS/FTD Compromises Mitochondrial Function and Increases Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in iPSC-Derived Motor Neurons.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Lu, Yubing; Gendron, Tania F; Karydas, Anna; Tran, Helene; Yang, Dejun; Petrucelli, Leonard; Miller, Bruce L; Almeida, Sandra; Gao, Fen-Biao

    2016-10-19

    GGGGCC repeat expansions in C9ORF72 are the most common genetic cause of both ALS and FTD. To uncover underlying pathogenic mechanisms, we found that DNA damage was greater, in an age-dependent manner, in motor neurons differentiated from iPSCs of multiple C9ORF72 patients than control neurons. Ectopic expression of the dipeptide repeat (DPR) protein (GR)80 in iPSC-derived control neurons increased DNA damage, suggesting poly(GR) contributes to DNA damage in aged C9ORF72 neurons. Oxidative stress was also increased in C9ORF72 neurons in an age-dependent manner. Pharmacological or genetic reduction of oxidative stress partially rescued DNA damage in C9ORF72 neurons and control neurons expressing (GR)80 or (GR)80-induced cellular toxicity in flies. Moreover, interactome analysis revealed that (GR)80 preferentially bound to mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and caused mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, poly(GR) in C9ORF72 neurons compromises mitochondrial function and causes DNA damage in part by increasing oxidative stress, revealing another pathogenic mechanism in C9ORF72-related ALS and FTD.

  1. Melatonin prevents cytosolic calcium overload, mitochondrial damage and cell death due to toxically high doses of dexamethasone-induced oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Suwanjang, Wilasinee; Abramov, Andrey Y; Charngkaew, Komgrid; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Chetsawang, Banthit

    2016-07-01

    Stressor exposure activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and causes elevations in the levels of glucocorticoids (GC) from the adrenal glands. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that prolonged exposure to high GC levels can lead to oxidative stress, calcium deregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in a number of cell types. However, melatonin, via its antioxidant activity, exhibits a neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress-induced cell death. Therefore, in the present study, we explored the protective effect of melatonin in GC-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Cellular treatment with the toxically high doses of the synthetic GC receptor agonist, dexamethasone (DEX) elicited marked decreases in the levels of glutathione and increases in ROS production, lipid peroxidation and cell death. DEX toxicity also induced increases in the levels of cytosolic calcium and mitochondrial fusion proteins (Mfn1 and Opa1) but decreases in the levels of mitochondrial fission proteins (Fis1 and Drp1). Mitochondrial damage was observed in large proportions of the DEX-treated cells. Pretreatment of the cells with melatonin substantially prevented the DEX-induced toxicity. These results suggest that melatonin might exert protective effects against oxidative stress, cytosolic calcium overload and mitochondrial damage in DEX-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Apoptosis and age-dependant induction of nuclear and mitochondrial etheno-DNA adducts in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats: enhanced DNA damage by dietary curcumin upon copper accumulation.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jagadeesan; Strand, Susanne; Frank, Norbert; Knauft, Jutta; Wesch, Horst; Galle, Peter R; Bartsch, Helmut

    2005-07-01

    Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, a model for human Wilson's disease, develop chronic hepatitis and liver tumors owing to accumulation of copper and induced oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation (LPO)-induced etheno-DNA adducts in nuclear- and mitochondrial-DNA along with apoptosis was measured in LEC rat liver. Levels of etheno-DNA adducts (1,N6-ethenodeoxyadenosine and 3,N4-ethenodeoxycytidine) increased with age reaching a peak at 8 and 12 weeks in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, respectively. This is the first demonstration that etheno-DNA adducts are also formed in mitochondrial DNA. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL+ cells in liver sections. CD95L RNA expression was also measured by in situ hybridization in the same sections. The highest nuclear DNA adduct levels coincided with a reduced apoptotic rate at 8 weeks. Mitochondrial-DNA adducts peaked at 12 weeks that coincided with the highest apoptotic rate, suggesting a link of etheno-DNA adducts in mitochondrial DNA to apoptosis. The DNA damage in liver was further enhanced and sustained by 0.5% curcumin in the diet. Treatment for 2 weeks elevated etheno-DNA adducts 9- to 25-fold in nuclear DNA and 3- to 4-fold in mitochondrial-DNA, providing a plausible explanation as to why in our earlier study [Frank et al. (2003) Mutat. Res., 523-524, 127-135], curcumin failed to prevent liver tumors in LEC rats. Our results also confirm the reported in vitro DNA damaging potential of curcumin in the presence of copper ions by reactive oxygen species. LPO-induced adduct formation in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA appear as early lesions in LEC rat liver carcinogenesis and are discussed in relation to apoptotic events in the progression of malignant disease.

  3. Higher Initial DNA Damage and Persistent Cell Cycle Arrest after Carbon Ion Irradiation Compared to X-irradiation in Prostate and Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Suetens, Annelies; Konings, Katrien; Moreels, Marjan; Quintens, Roel; Verslegers, Mieke; Soors, Els; Tabury, Kevin; Grégoire, Vincent; Baatout, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The use of charged-particle beams, such as carbon ions, is becoming a more and more attractive treatment option for cancer therapy. Given the precise absorbed dose-localization and an increased biological effectiveness, this form of therapy is much more advantageous compared to conventional radiotherapy, and is currently being used for treatment of specific cancer types. The high ballistic accuracy of particle beams deposits the maximal dose to the tumor, while damage to the surrounding healthy tissue is limited. In order to better understand the underlying mechanisms responsible for the increased biological effectiveness, we investigated the DNA damage and repair kinetics and cell cycle progression in two p53 mutant cell lines, more specifically a prostate (PC3) and colon (Caco-2) cancer cell line, after exposure to different radiation qualities. Cells were irradiated with various absorbed doses (0, 0.5, and 2 Gy) of accelerated 13C-ions at the Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds facility (Caen, France) or with X-rays (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 Gy). Microscopic analysis of DNA double-strand breaks showed dose-dependent increases in γ-H2AX foci numbers and foci occupancy after exposure to both types of irradiation, in both cell lines. However, 24 h after exposure, residual damage was more pronounced after lower doses of carbon ion irradiation compared to X-irradiation. Flow cytometric analysis showed that carbon ion irradiation induced a permanent G2/M arrest in PC3 cells at lower doses (2 Gy) compared to X-rays (5 Gy), while in Caco-2 cells the G2/M arrest was transient after irradiation with X-rays (2 and 5 Gy) but persistent after exposure to carbon ions (2 Gy). PMID:27148479

  4. Cytotoxicity of Manganese (III) Complex in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma Cell Line Is Mediated by the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species Followed by Mitochondrial Damage.

    PubMed

    Al-Anbaky, Qudes; Al-Karakooly, Zeiyad; Kilaparty, Surya P; Agrawal, Megha; Albkuri, Yahya M; RanguMagar, Ambar B; Ghosh, Anindya; Ali, Nawab

    2016-11-01

    Manganese (Mn) complexes are widely studied because of their important catalytic properties in synthetic and biochemical reactions. A Mn (III) complex of an amidoamine ligand was synthesized using a tetradentate amidoamine ligand. In this study, the Mn (III) complex was evaluated for its biological activity by measuring its cytotoxicity in human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). Cytotoxic effects of the Mn (III) complex were determined using established biomarkers in an attempt to delineate the mechanism of action and the utility of the complex as a potential anticancer drug. The Mn (III) complex induces cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner as shown by microculture tetrazolium assay, a measure of cytotoxic cell death. Our results demonstrated that cytotoxic effects were significantly increased at higher concentrations of Mn (III) complex and with longer time of treatment. The IC50 (Inhibitor concentration that results in 50% cell death) value of Mn (III) complex in MCF-7 cells was determined to be 2.5 mmol/L for 24 hours of treatment. In additional experiments, we determined the Mn (III) complex-mediated cell death was due to both apoptotic and nonspecific necrotic cell death mechanisms. This was assessed by ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining and flow cytometry techniques. The Mn (III) complex produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggering the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase 1 and ultimately damaging the mitochondrial function as is evident by a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential. Treatment of the cells with free radical scavenger, N, N-dimethylthiourea decreased Mn (III) complex-mediated generation of ROS and attenuated apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that the Mn (III) complex-mediated MCF-7 cell death utilizes combined mechanism involving apoptosis and necrosis perhaps due to the generation of ROS.

  5. Persistent Mitochondrial Hyperpolarization, Increased Reactive Oxygen Intermediate Production, and Cytoplasmic Alkalinization Characterize Altered IL-10 Signaling in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus1

    PubMed Central

    Gergely, Peter; Niland, Brian; Gonchoroff, Nick; Pullmann, Rudolf; Phillips, Paul E.; Perl, Andras

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal death signaling in lymphocytes of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients has been associated with elevation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm) and increased production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI). The resultant ATP depletion sensitizes T cells for necrosis that may significantly contribute to inflammation in patients with SLE. In the present study, the role of mitochondrial signal processing in T cell activation was investigated. CD3/CD28 costimulation of PBL elicited transient mitochondrial hyperpolarization and intracellular pH (pHi) elevation, followed by increased ROI production. Baseline Δψm, ROI production, and pHi were elevated, while T cell activation-induced changes were blunted in 15 patients with SLE in comparison with 10 healthy donors and 10 rheumatoid arthritis patients. Similar to CD3/CD28 costimulation, treatment of control PBL with IL-3, IL-10, TGF-β1, and IFN-γ led to transient Δψm elevation. IL-10 had diametrically opposing effects on mitochondrial signaling in lupus and control donors. Unlike healthy or rheumatoid arthritis PBL, cells of lupus patients were resistant to IL-10-induced mitochondrial hyperpolarization. By contrast, IL-10 enhanced ROI production and cell death in lupus PBL without affecting ROI levels and survival of control PBL. Ab-mediated IL-10 blockade or stimulation with antagonistic lymphokine IL-12 normalized baseline and CD3/CD28-induced changes in ROI production and pHi with no impact on Δψm of lupus PBL. The results suggest that mitochondrial hyperpolarization, increased ROI production, and cytoplasmic alkalinization play crucial roles in altered IL-10 responsiveness in SLE. PMID:12097418

  6. Tenuifolide B from Cinnamomum tenuifolium Stem Selectively Inhibits Proliferation of Oral Cancer Cells via Apoptosis, ROS Generation, Mitochondrial Depolarization, and DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Ching-Yu; Wang, Hui-Ru; Yang, Hui-Ping; Tang, Jen-Yang; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Hsu, Shih-Hsien; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2016-11-05

    The development of drugs that selectively kill oral cancer cells but are less harmful to normal cells still provide several challenges. In this study, the antioral cancer effects of tenuifolide B (TFB), extracted from the stem of the plant Cinnamomum tenuifolium are evaluated in terms of their effects on cancer cell viability, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. Cell viability of oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27) was found to be significantly inhibited by TFB in a dose-responsive manner in terms of ATP assay, yielding IC50 = 4.67 and 7.05 μM (24 h), but are less lethal to normal oral cells (HGF-1). Dose-responsive increases in subG1 populations as well as the intensities of flow cytometry-based annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) analysis and pancaspase activity suggested that apoptosis was inducible by TFB in these two types of oral cancer cells. Pretreatment with the apoptosis inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) reduced the annexin V intensity of these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells, suggesting that TFB induced apoptosis-mediated cell death to oral cancer cells. Cleaved-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and cleaved-caspases 3, 8, and 9 were upregulated in these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells over time but less harmful for normal oral HGF-1 cells. Dose-responsive and time-dependent increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential (MitoMP) in these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells suggest that TFB may generate oxidative stress as measured by flow cytometry. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment reduced the TFB-induced ROS generation and further validated that ROS was relevant to TFB-induced cell death. Both flow cytometry and Western blotting demonstrated that the DNA double strand marker γH2AX dose-responsively increased in TFB-treated Ca9-22 cells and time-dependently increased in two TFB-treated oral cancer cells. Taken together, we infer that TFB can selectively inhibit cell proliferation of

  7. Tenuifolide B from Cinnamomum tenuifolium Stem Selectively Inhibits Proliferation of Oral Cancer Cells via Apoptosis, ROS Generation, Mitochondrial Depolarization, and DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Ching-Yu; Wang, Hui-Ru; Yang, Hui-Ping; Tang, Jen-Yang; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Hsu, Shih-Hsien; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The development of drugs that selectively kill oral cancer cells but are less harmful to normal cells still provide several challenges. In this study, the antioral cancer effects of tenuifolide B (TFB), extracted from the stem of the plant Cinnamomum tenuifolium are evaluated in terms of their effects on cancer cell viability, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. Cell viability of oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27) was found to be significantly inhibited by TFB in a dose-responsive manner in terms of ATP assay, yielding IC50 = 4.67 and 7.05 μM (24 h), but are less lethal to normal oral cells (HGF-1). Dose-responsive increases in subG1 populations as well as the intensities of flow cytometry-based annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) analysis and pancaspase activity suggested that apoptosis was inducible by TFB in these two types of oral cancer cells. Pretreatment with the apoptosis inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) reduced the annexin V intensity of these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells, suggesting that TFB induced apoptosis-mediated cell death to oral cancer cells. Cleaved-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and cleaved-caspases 3, 8, and 9 were upregulated in these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells over time but less harmful for normal oral HGF-1 cells. Dose-responsive and time-dependent increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential (MitoMP) in these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells suggest that TFB may generate oxidative stress as measured by flow cytometry. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment reduced the TFB-induced ROS generation and further validated that ROS was relevant to TFB-induced cell death. Both flow cytometry and Western blotting demonstrated that the DNA double strand marker γH2AX dose-responsively increased in TFB-treated Ca9-22 cells and time-dependently increased in two TFB-treated oral cancer cells. Taken together, we infer that TFB can selectively inhibit cell proliferation of

  8. Neolignans from leaves of Nectandra leucantha (Lauraceae) display in vitro antitrypanosomal activity via plasma membrane and mitochondrial damages.

    PubMed

    Grecco, Simone S; Costa-Silva, Thais A; Jerz, Gerold; de Sousa, Fernanda S; Londero, Vinicius S; Galuppo, Mariana K; Lima, Marta L; Neves, Bruno J; Andrade, Carolina H; Tempone, Andre G; Lago, João Henrique G

    2017-08-31

    Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which affects more than eight million people in Tropical and Subtropical countries especially in Latin America. Current treatment is limited to nifurtimox and benznidazole, both with reduced effectiveness and high toxicity. In this work, the n-hexane extract from leaves of Nectandra leucantha (Lauraceae) displayed in vitro antitrypanosomal activity against T. cruzi. Using several chromatographic steps, four related neolignans were isolated and chemically characterized as dehydrodieugenol B (1), 1-(8-propenyl)-3-[3'-methoxy-1'-(8-propenyl)-phenoxy]-4,5-dimethoxybenzene (2), 1-[(7S)-hydroxy-8-propenyl]-3-[3'-methoxy-1'-(8'-propenyl)-phenoxy]-4-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzene (3), and 1-[(7S)-hydroxy-8-propenyl]-3-[3'-methoxy-1'-(8'-propenyl)-phenoxy]-4,5-dimethoxybenzene (4). These compounds were tested against intracellular amastigotes and extracellular trypomastigotes of T. cruzi and for mammalian cytotoxicity. Neolignan 4 showed the higher selectivity index (SI) against trypomastigotes (>5) and amastigotes (>13) of T. cruzi. The investigation of the mechanism of action demonstrated that neolignan 4 caused substantial alteration of the plasma membrane permeability, together with mitochondrial dysfunctions in trypomastigote forms. In silico studies of pharmacokinetics and toxicity (ADMET) properties predicted that all compounds were non-mutagenic, non-carcinogenic, non-genotoxic, weak hERG blockers, with acceptable volume of distribution (1.66-3.32 L/kg), and low rodent oral toxicity (LD50 810-2200 mg/kg). Considering some clinical events of cerebral Chagas disease, the compounds also demonstrated favorable properties, such as blood-brain barrier penetration. Unfavorable properties were also predicted as high promiscuity for P450 isoforms, high plasma protein binding affinity (>91%), and moderate-to-low oral bioavailability. Finally, none of the isolated neolignans was

  9. Enhanced antiviral T cell function in the absence of B7-H1 is insufficient to prevent persistence but exacerbates axonal bystander damage during viral encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Phares, Timothy W; Stohlman, Stephen A; Hinton, David R; Atkinson, Roscoe; Bergmann, Cornelia C

    2010-11-01

    The T cell inhibitory ligand B7-H1 hinders T cell-mediated virus control, but also ameliorates clinical disease during autoimmune and virus-induced CNS disease. In mice infected with gliatropic demyelinating coronavirus, B7-H1 expression on oligodendroglia delays virus control, but also dampens clinical disease. To define the mechanisms by which B7-H1 alters pathogenic outcome, virus-infected B7-H1-deficient (B7-H1(-/-)) mice were analyzed for altered peripheral and CNS immune responses. B7-H1 deficiency did not affect peripheral T or B cell activation or alter the magnitude or composition of CNS-infiltrating cells. However, higher levels of IFN-γ mRNA in CNS-infiltrating virus-specific CD8 T cells as well as CD4 T cells contributed to elevated IFN-γ protein in the B7-H1(-/-) CNS. Increased effector function at the single-cell level was also evident by elevated granzyme B expression specifically in virus-specific CNS CD8 T cells. Although enhanced T cell activity accelerated virus control, 50% of mice succumbed to infection. Despite enhanced clinical recovery, surviving B7-H1(-/-) mice still harbored persisting viral mRNA, albeit at reduced levels compared with wild-type mice. B7-H1(-/-) mice exhibited extensive loss of axonal integrity, although demyelination, a hallmark of virus-induced tissue damage, was not increased. The results suggest that B7-H1 hinders viral control in B7-H1 expressing glia cells, but does not mediate resistance to CD8 T cell-mediated cytolysis. These data are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate that B7-H1-mediated protection from viral-induced immune pathology associated with encephalomyelitis resides in limiting T cell-mediated axonal bystander damage rather than direct elimination of infected myelinating cells.

  10. Mitochondrial ROS Induces Cardiac Inflammation via a Pathway through mtDNA Damage in a Pneumonia-Related Sepsis Model

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiao; Carlson, Deborah; Sun, Yuxiao; Ma, Lisha; Wolf, Steven E.; Minei, Joseph P.; Zang, Qun S.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that mitochondria-targeted vitamin E (Mito-Vit-E), a mtROS specific antioxidant, improves cardiac performance and attenuates inflammation in a pneumonia-related sepsis model. In this study, we applied the same approaches to decipher the signaling pathway(s) of mtROS-dependent cardiac inflammation after sepsis. Sepsis was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by intratracheal injection of S. pneumoniae. Mito-Vit-E, vitamin E or vehicle was administered 30 minutes later. In myocardium 24 hours post-inoculation, Mito-Vit-E, but not vitamin E, significantly protected mtDNA integrity and decreased mtDNA damage. Mito-Vit-E alleviated sepsis-induced reduction in mitochondria-localized DNA repair enzymes including DNA polymerase γ, AP endonuclease, 8-oxoguanine glycosylase, and uracil-DNA glycosylase. Mito-Vit-E dramatically improved metabolism and membrane integrity in mitochondria, suppressed leakage of mtDNA into the cytoplasm, inhibited up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) pathway factors MYD88 and RAGE, and limited RAGE interaction with its ligand TFAM in septic hearts. Mito-Vit-E also deactivated NF-κB and caspase 1, reduced expression of the essential inflammasome component ASC, and decreased inflammatory cytokine IL–1β. In vitro, both Mito-Vit-E and TLR9 inhibitor OND-I suppressed LPS-induced up-regulation in MYD88, RAGE, ASC, active caspase 1, and IL–1β in cardiomyocytes. Since free mtDNA escaped from damaged mitochondria function as a type of DAMPs to stimulate inflammation through TLR9, these data together suggest that sepsis-induced cardiac inflammation is mediated, at least partially, through mtDNA-TLR9-RAGE. At last, Mito-Vit-E reduced the circulation of myocardial injury marker troponin-I, diminished apoptosis and amended morphology in septic hearts, suggesting that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants are a potential cardioprotective approach for sepsis. PMID:26448624

  11. Methotrexate Promotes Platelet Apoptosis via JNK-Mediated Mitochondrial Damage: Alleviation by N-Acetylcysteine and N-Acetylcysteine Amide

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Manoj; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Thushara, Ram M.; Sundaram, Mahalingam S.; NaveenKumar, Somanathapura K.; Naveen, Shivanna; Devaraja, Sannaningaiah; Somyajit, Kumar; West, Robert; Basappa; Nayaka, Siddaiah C.; Zakai, Uzma I.; Nagaraju, Ganesh; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Girish, Kesturu S.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia in methotrexate (MTX)-treated cancer and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients connotes the interference of MTX with platelets. Hence, it seemed appealing to appraise the effect of MTX on platelets. Thereby, the mechanism of action of MTX on platelets was dissected. MTX (10 μM) induced activation of pro-apoptotic proteins Bid, Bax and Bad through JNK phosphorylation leading to ΔΨm dissipation, cytochrome c release and caspase activation, culminating in apoptosis. The use of specific inhibitor for JNK abrogates the MTX-induced activation of pro-apoptotic proteins and downstream events confirming JNK phosphorylation by MTX as a key event. We also demonstrate that platelet mitochondria as prime sources of ROS which plays a central role in MTX-induced apoptosis. Further, MTX induces oxidative stress by altering the levels of ROS and glutathione cycle. In parallel, the clinically approved thiol antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and its derivative N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) proficiently alleviate MTX-induced platelet apoptosis and oxidative damage. These findings underpin the dearth of research on interference of therapeutic drugs with platelets, despite their importance in human health and disease. Therefore, the use of antioxidants as supplementary therapy seems to be a safe bet in pathologies associated with altered platelet functions. PMID:26083398

  12. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA damage using 8-hydroxy 2'deoxyguanosine on in vitro and in vivo exposure of biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Tinu, S K; Vaman, V S Anjana; Geetha, C S; Mohanan, P V

    2013-02-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of HAP-EVA, fibrin glue, HA-BG, Latex and Dental material on oxidative stress related mtDNA damage by in vitro and in vivo methods. In vivo studies of these biomaterials were carried out by implanting biomaterials (five materials) on animals for period of 1, 4, 12, 26 and 52 weeks. At the end of observations, animals were anesthetized, sacrificed and tissues surrounding the implanted materials were collected. Brain, bone and muscles were used for the extraction of mtDNA. Similarly mtDNA was extracted from the homogenate of fresh brain, bone and muscles on exposure to the physiological saline extract of all the above five biomaterials (In vitro). The extracted mtDNA were subjected to analyse the presence of 8-OHdG. The results of study indicated that there was no significant increase in the level of 8-OHdG and thereby does not influence on the GC-TA transversions.

  13. Tracking the processing of damaged DNA double-strand break ends by ligation-mediated PCR: increased persistence of 3'-phosphoglycolate termini in SCAN1 cells.

    PubMed

    Akopiants, Konstantin; Mohapatra, Susovan; Menon, Vijay; Zhou, Tong; Valerie, Kristoffer; Povirk, Lawrence F

    2014-03-01

    To track the processing of damaged DNA double-strand break (DSB) ends in vivo, a method was devised for quantitative measurement of 3'-phosphoglycolate (PG) termini on DSBs induced by the non-protein chromophore of neocarzinostatin (NCS-C) in the human Alu repeat. Following exposure of cells to NCS-C, DNA was isolated, and labile lesions were chemically stabilized. All 3'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl ends were enzymatically capped with dideoxy termini, whereas 3'-PG ends were rendered ligatable, linked to an anchor, and quantified by real-time Taqman polymerase chain reaction. Using this assay and variations thereof, 3'-PG and 3'-phosphate termini on 1-base 3' overhangs of NCS-C-induced DSBs were readily detected in DNA from the treated lymphoblastoid cells, and both were largely eliminated from cellular DNA within 1 h. However, the 3'-PG termini were processed more slowly than 3'-phosphate termini, and were more persistent in tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1-mutant SCAN1 than in normal cells, suggesting a significant role for tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 in removing 3'-PG blocking groups for DSB repair. DSBs with 3'-hydroxyl termini, which are not directly induced by NCS-C, were formed rapidly in cells, and largely eliminated by further processing within 1 h, both in Alu repeats and in heterochromatic α-satellite DNA. Moreover, absence of DNA-PK in M059J cells appeared to accelerate resolution of 3'-PG ends.

  14. Inhibitors of mitochondrial fission as a therapeutic strategy for diseases with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential cytoplasmic organelles, critical for cell survival and death. Recent mitochondrial research revealed that mitochondrial dynamics-the balance of fission and fusion in normal mitochondrial dynamics--is an important cellular mechanism in eukaryotic cell and is involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology, structure, number, distribution, and function. Research into mitochondria and cell function has revealed that mitochondrial dynamics is impaired in a large number of aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and in several inherited mitochondrial diseases, and that this impairment involves excessive mitochondrial fission, resulting in mitochondrial structural changes and dysfunction, and cell damage. Attempts have been made to develop molecules to reduce mitochondrial fission while maintaining normal mitochondrial fusion and function in those diseases that involve excessive mitochondrial fission. This review article discusses mechanisms of mitochondrial fission in normal and diseased states of mammalian cells and discusses research aimed at developing therapies, such as Mdivi, Dynasore and P110, to prevent or to inhibit excessive mitochondrial fission.

  15. The Resistance of Electron Transport Chain Fe-S Clusters to Oxidative Damage during the Reaction of Peroxynitrite with Mitochondrial Complex II and Rat Heart Pericardium

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Linda L.; Martinez-Bosch, Sandra; Manzano, Elisenda Lopez; Winnica, Daniel E.; Epperly, Michael W.; Peterson, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The effects of peroxynitrite and nitric oxide on the iron-sulfur clusters in complex II (succinate dehydrogenase) isolated from bovine heart have been studied primarily by EPR spectroscopy and no measurable damage to the constitutive 2Fe-2S, 3Fe-4S, or 4Fe-4S clusters was observed. The enzyme can be repeatedly oxidized with a slight excess of peroxynitrite and then quantitatively re-reduced with succinate. When added in large excess, peroxynitrite reacted with at least one tyrosine in each subunit of complex II to form 3-nitrotyrosines, but activity was barely compromised. Examination of rat-heart pericardium subjected to conditions leading to peroxynitrite production showed a small inhibition of complex II (16%) and a greater inhibition of aconitase (77%). In addition, experiments performed with excesses of sodium citrate and sodium succinate on rat-heart pericardium indicated that the “g ~2.01” EPR signal observed immediately following the beginning of conditions modeling oxidative/nitrosative stress, could be a consequence of both reversible oxidation of the constitutive 3Fe-4S cluster in complex II and degradation of the 4Fe-4S cluster in aconitase. However, the net signal envelope, which becomes apparent in less than one minute following the start of oxidative/nitrosative conditions, is dominated by the component arising from complex II. Taking into account the findings of a previous study concerning complexes I and III [L.L. Pearce, A.J. Kanai, M.W. Epperly, J. Peterson (2005) Nitric Oxide 13, 254-63] it is now apparent that, with the exception of the cofactor in aconitase, mammalian (mitochondrial) iron-sulfur clusters are surprisingly resistant to degradation stemming from oxidative/nitrosative stress. PMID:19118636

  16. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dongchon; Hamasaki, Naotaka

    2003-10-01

    Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) under physiological conditions in association with activity of the respiratory chain in aerobic ATP production. The production of ROS is essentially a function of O2 consumption. Hence, increased mitochondrial activity per se can be an oxidative stress to cells. Furthermore, production of ROS is markedly enhanced in many pathological conditions in which the respiratory chain is impaired. Because mitochondrial DNA, which is essential for execution of normal oxidative phosphorylation, is located in proximity to the ROS-generating respiratory chain, it is more oxidatively damaged than is nuclear DNA. Cumulative damage of mitochondrial DNA is implicated in the aging process and in the progression of such common diseases as diabetes, cancer, and heart failure.

  17. Methamphetamine causes acute hyperthermia-dependent liver damage.

    PubMed

    Halpin, Laura E; Gunning, William T; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2013-10-01

    Methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity has been correlated with damage to the liver but this damage has not been extensively characterized. Moreover, the mechanism by which the drug contributes to liver damage is unknown. This study characterizes the hepatocellular toxicity of methamphetamine and examines if hyperthermia contributes to this liver damage. Livers from methamphetamine-treated rats were examined using electron microscopy and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Methamphetamine increased glycogen stores, mitochondrial aggregation, microvesicular lipid, and hydropic change. These changes were diffuse throughout the hepatic lobule, as evidenced by a lack of hematoxylin and eosin staining. To confirm if these changes were indicative of damage, serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase were measured. The functional significance of methamphetamine-induced liver damage was also examined by measuring plasma ammonia. To examine the contribution of hyperthermia to this damage, methamphetamine-treated rats were cooled during and after drug treatment by cooling their external environment. Serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, as well as plasma ammonia were increased concurrently with these morphologic changes and were prevented when methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia was blocked. These findings support that methamphetamine produces changes in hepatocellular morphology and damage persisting for at least 24 h after drug exposure. At this same time point, methamphetamine treatment significantly increases plasma ammonia concentrations, consistent with impaired ammonia metabolism and functional liver damage. Methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia contributes significantly to the persistent liver damage and increases in peripheral ammonia produced by the drug.

  18. Physiological roles of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Sena, Laura A; Chandel, Navdeep S

    2012-10-26

    Historically, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) were thought to exclusively cause cellular damage and lack a physiological function. Accumulation of ROS and oxidative damage have been linked to multiple pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, cancer, and premature aging. Thus, mROS were originally envisioned as a necessary evil of oxidative metabolism, a product of an imperfect system. Yet few biological systems possess such flagrant imperfections, thanks to the persistent optimization of evolution, and it appears that oxidative metabolism is no different. More and more evidence suggests that mROS are critical for healthy cell function. In this Review, we discuss this evidence following some background on the generation and regulation of mROS.

  19. Sepsis: links between pathogen sensing and organ damage.

    PubMed

    Crouser, Elliott; Exline, Matthew; Knoell, Daren; Wewers, Mark D

    2008-01-01

    The host's inflammatory response to sepsis can be divided into two phases, the initial detection and response to the pathogen initiated by the innate immune response, and the persistent inflammatory state characterized by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). New therapies aimed at pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) particularly the TLRs and the NOD-like receptors offer hope to suppress the initial inflammatory response in early sepsis and to bolster this response in late sepsis. The persistence of MODS after the initial inflammatory surge can also be a determining factor to host survival. MODS is due to the cellular damage and death induced by sepsis. The mechanism of this cell death depends in part upon mitochondrial dysfunction. Damaged mitochondria have increased membrane permeability prompting their autophagic removal if few mitochondria are involved but apoptotic cell death may occur if the mitochondrial losses are more extensive. In addition. severe loss of mitochondria results in low cell energy stores, necrotic cell death, and increased inflammation driven by the release of cell components such as HMGB1. Therapies, which aim at improving cellular energy reserves such as the promotion of mitochondrial biogenesis by insulin, may have a role in future sepsis therapies. Finally, both the inflammatory responses and the susceptibility to organ failure may be modulated by nutritional status and micronutrients, such as zinc, Therapies aimed at micronutrient repletion may further augment approaches targeting PRR function and mitochondrial viability.

  20. Persistent Persister Misperceptions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun-Seob; Wood, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Persister cells survive antibiotic treatment due to their lack of metabolism, rather than through genetic change, as shown via four seminal experiments conducted by the discoverers of the phenotype (Hobby et al., 1942; Bigger, 1944). Unfortunately, over seven decades of persister cell research, the literature has been populated by misperceptions that do not withstand scrutiny. This opinion piece examines some of those misunderstandings in the literature with the hope that by shining some light on these inaccuracies, the field may be advanced and subsequent manuscripts may be reviewed more critically. PMID:28082974

  1. Mitochondrial regulation of epigenetics and its role in human diseases.

    PubMed

    Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Tollefsbol, Trygve O; Singh, Keshav K

    2012-04-01

    Most pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations induce defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). However, phenotypic effects of these mutations show a large degree of variation depending on the tissue affected. These differences are difficult to reconcile with OXPHOS as the sole pathogenic factor suggesting that additional mechanisms contribute to lack of genotype and clinical phenotype correlationship. An increasing number of studies have identified a possible effect on the epigenetic landscape of the nuclear genome as a consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction. In particular, these studies demonstrate reversible or irreversible changes in genomic DNA methylation profiles of the nuclear genome. Here we review how mitochondria damage checkpoint (mitocheckpoint) induces epigenetic changes in the nucleus. Persistent pathogenic mutations in mtDNA may also lead to epigenetic changes causing genomic instability in the nuclear genome. We propose that "mitocheckpoint" mediated epigenetic and genetic changes may play key roles in phenotypic variation related to mitochondrial diseases or host of human diseases in which mitochondrial defect plays a primary role.

  2. Ginsenoside Re rescues methamphetamine-induced oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, microglial activation, and dopaminergic degeneration by inhibiting the protein kinase Cδ gene.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Shin, Seung Woo; Nguyen, Thuy-Ty Lan; Park, Dae Hun; Wie, Myung-Bok; Jang, Choon-Gon; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Yang, Byung Wook; Ko, Sung Kwon; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2014-06-01

    Ginsenoside Re, one of the main constituents of Panax ginseng, possesses novel antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the pharmacological mechanism of ginsenoside Re in dopaminergic degeneration remains elusive. We suggested that protein kinase C (PKC) δ mediates methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. Treatment with ginsenoside Re significantly attenuated methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic degeneration in vivo by inhibiting impaired enzymatic antioxidant systems, mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial translocation of protein kinase Cδ, mitochondrial dysfunction, pro-inflammatory microglial activation, and apoptosis. These protective effects were comparable to those observed with genetic inhibition of PKCδ in PKCδ knockout (-/-) mice and with PKCδ antisense oligonucleotides, and ginsenoside Re did not provide any additional protective effects in the presence of PKCδ inhibition. Our results suggest that PKCδ is a critical target for ginsenoside Re-mediated protective activity in response to dopaminergic degeneration induced by MA.

  3. Prolonged Exposure of Primary Human Muscle Cells to Plasma Fatty Acids Associated with Obese Phenotype Induces Persistent Suppression of Muscle Mitochondrial ATP Synthase β Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Lee; Hanavan, Paul D.; Campbell, Latoya E.; De Filippis, Elena; Lake, Douglas F.; Coletta, Dawn K.; Roust, Lori R.; Mandarino, Lawrence J.; Carroll, Chad C.; Katsanos, Christos S.

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies show reduced abundance of the β-subunit of mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase (β-F1-ATPase) in skeletal muscle of obese individuals. The β-F1-ATPase forms the catalytic core of the ATP synthase, and it is critical for ATP production in muscle. The mechanism(s) impairing β-F1-ATPase metabolism in obesity, however, are not completely understood. First, we studied total muscle protein synthesis and the translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase in obese (BMI, 36±1 kg/m2) and lean (BMI, 22±1 kg/m2) subjects. Both total protein synthesis (0.044±0.006 vs 0.066±0.006%·h-1) and translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase (0.0031±0.0007 vs 0.0073±0.0004) were lower in muscle from the obese subjects when compared to the lean controls (P<0.05). We then evaluated these same responses in a primary cell culture model, and tested the specific hypothesis that circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in obesity play a role in the responses observed in humans. The findings on total protein synthesis and translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase in primary myotubes cultured from a lean subject, and after exposure to NEFA extracted from serum of an obese subject, were similar to those obtained in humans. Among candidate microRNAs (i.e., non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression), we identified miR-127-5p in preventing the production of β-F1-ATPase. Muscle expression of miR-127-5p negatively correlated with β-F1-ATPase protein translation efficiency in humans (r = – 0.6744; P<0.01), and could be modeled in vitro by prolonged exposure of primary myotubes derived from the lean subject to NEFA extracted from the obese subject. On the other hand, locked nucleic acid inhibitor synthesized to target miR-127-5p significantly increased β-F1-ATPase translation efficiency in myotubes (0.6±0.1 vs 1.3±0.3, in control vs exposure to 50 nM inhibitor; P<0.05). Our experiments implicate circulating NEFA in obesity in suppressing muscle protein metabolism, and establish

  4. In the mitochondrial CMSII mutant of Nicotiana sylvestris photosynthetic activity remains higher than in the WT under persisting mild water stress.

    PubMed

    Rzigui, Touhami; De Paepe, Rosine; Cornic, Gabriel; Streb, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Photosynthetic responses to persisting mild water stress were compared between the wild type (WT) and the respiratory complex I mutant CMSII of Nicotiana sylvestris. In both genotypes, plants kept at 80% leaf-RWC (WT80 and CMSII80) had lower photosynthetic activity and stomatal/mesophyll conductances compared to well-watered controls. While the stomatal conductance and the chloroplastic CO2 molar ratio were similar in WT80 and CMSII80 leaves, net photosynthesis was higher in CMSII80. Carboxylation efficiency was lowest in WT80 leaves both, on the basis of the same internal and chloroplastic CO2 molar ratio. Photosynthetic and fluorescence parameters indicate that WT80 leaves were only affected in the presence of oxygen. Photorespiration, as estimated by electron flux to oxygen, increased slightly in CMSII80 and WT80 leaves in accordance with increased glycerate contents but maximum photorespiration at low chloroplastic CO2 was markedly lowest in WT80 leaves. This suggests that carbon assimilation of WT80 leaves is impaired by limited photorespiratory activity. The results are discussed with respect to a possible pre-acclimation of complex I deficient leaves in CMSII to drive photosynthesis and photorespiration at low CO2 partial pressure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bezafibrate prevents mitochondrial dysfunction, antioxidant system disturbance, glial reactivity and neuronal damage induced by sulfite administration in striatum of rats: Implications for a possible therapeutic strategy for sulfite oxidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Grings, Mateus; Moura, Alana Pimentel; Parmeggiani, Belisa; Pletsch, Julia Tauana; Cardoso, Gabriela Miranda Fernandez; August, Pauline Maciel; Matté, Cristiane; Wyse, Angela T S; Wajner, Moacir; Leipnitz, Guilhian

    2017-09-01

    Sulfite accumulates in tissues of patients affected by sulfite oxidase (SO) deficiency, a neurometabolic disease characterized by seizures and progressive encephalopathy, often resulting in early death. We investigated the effects of sulfite on mitochondrial function, antioxidant system, glial reactivity and neuronal damage in rat striatum, as well as the potential protective effects of bezafibrate on sulfite-induced toxicity. Thirty-day-old rats were intrastriatally administered with sulfite (2μmol) or NaCl (2μmol; control) and euthanized 30min after injection for evaluation of biochemical parameters and western blotting, or 7days after injection for analysis of glial reactivity and neuronal damage. Treatment with bezafibrate (30 or 100mg/kg/day) was performed by gavage during 7days before (pre-treatment) or after sulfite administration. Sulfite decreased creatine kinase and citrate synthase activities, mitochondrial mass, and PGC-1α nuclear content whereas bezafibrate pre-treatment prevented these alterations. Sulfite also diminished cytochrome c oxidase (COX) IV-1 content, glutathione levels and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). On the other hand, catalase activity was increased by sulfite. Bezafibrate pre-treatment prevented the reduction of GPx, GR, GST and G6PDH activities. Finally, sulfite induced glial reactivity and neuronal damage, which were prevented by bezafibrate when administered before or after sulfite administration. Our findings provide strong evidence that sulfite induces neurotoxicity that leads to glial reactivity and neuronal damage. Since bezafibrate exerts neuroprotective effects against sulfite toxicity, it may be an attractive agent for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for SO-deficient patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A reduction in Drp1-mediated fission compromises mitochondrial health in autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix Saguenay

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Lisa E.L.; Duncan, Emma J.; Nethisinghe, Suran; Abeti, Rosella; Michael, Gregory J.; Giunti, Paola; Vermeer, Sascha; Chapple, J. Paul

    2016-01-01

    The neurodegenerative disease autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix Saguenay (ARSACS) is caused by loss of function of sacsin, a modular protein that is required for normal mitochondrial network organization. To further understand cellular consequences of loss of sacsin, we performed microarray analyses in sacsin knockdown cells and ARSACS patient fibroblasts. This identified altered transcript levels for oxidative phosphorylation and oxidative stress genes. These changes in mitochondrial gene networks were validated by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Functional impairment of oxidative phosphorylation was then demonstrated by comparison of mitochondria bioenergetics through extracellular flux analyses. Moreover, staining with the mitochondrial-specific fluorescent probe MitoSox suggested increased levels of superoxide in patient cells with reduced levels of sacsin. Key to maintaining mitochondrial health is mitochondrial fission, which facilitates the dynamic exchange of mitochondrial components and separates damaged parts of the mitochondrial network for selective elimination by mitophagy. Fission is dependent on dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), which is recruited to prospective sites of division where it mediates scission. In sacsin knockdown cells and ARSACS fibroblasts, we observed a decreased incidence of mitochondrial associated Drp1 foci. This phenotype persists even when fission is induced by drug treatment. Mitochondrial-associated Drp1 foci are also smaller in sacsin knockdown cells and ARSACS fibroblasts. These data suggest a model for ARSACS where neurons with reduced levels of sacsin are compromised in their ability to recruit or retain Drp1 at the mitochondrial membrane leading to a decline in mitochondrial health, potentially through impaired mitochondrial quality control. PMID:27288452

  7. Melatonin prevents abnormal mitochondrial dynamics resulting from the neurotoxicity of cadmium by blocking calcium-dependent translocation of Drp1 to the mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shangcheng; Pi, Huifeng; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Nixian; Li, YuMing; Zhang, Huiliang; Tang, Ju; Li, Huijuan; Feng, Min; Deng, Ping; Guo, Pan; Tian, Li; Xie, Jia; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Zhong, Min; Zhang, Yanwen; Wang, Wang; Reiter, Russel J; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a persistent environmental toxin and occupational pollutant that is considered to be a potential risk factor in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Abnormal mitochondrial dynamics are increasingly implicated in mitochondrial damage in various neurological pathologies. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the disturbance of mitochondrial dynamics contributed to Cd-induced neurotoxicity and whether melatonin has any neuroprotective properties. After cortical neurons were exposed to 10 μM cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ) for various periods (0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hr), the morphology of their mitochondria significantly changed from the normal tubular networks into punctuated structures within 3 hr. Following this pronounced mitochondrial fragmentation, Cd treatment led to signs of mitochondrial dysfunction, including excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, decreased ATP content, and mitochondrial membrane potential (▵Ψm) loss. However, 1 mM melatonin pretreatment efficiently attenuated the Cd-induced mitochondrial fragmentation, which improved the turnover of mitochondrial function. In the brain tissues of rats that were intraperitoneally given 1 mg/kg CdCl2 for 7 days, melatonin also ameliorated excessive mitochondrial fragmentation and mitochondrial damage in vivo. Melatonin's protective effects were attributed to its roles in preventing cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i ) overload, which blocked the recruitment of Drp1 from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria. Taken together, our results are the first to demonstrate that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics is involved in cadmium-induced neurotoxicity. Melatonin has significant pharmacological potential in protecting against the neurotoxicity of Cd by blocking the disbalance of mitochondrial fusion and fission.

  8. Mitochondrial dysfunction related to cell damage induced by 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid: Non-dependent-effect of early reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Ocampo, J; Ramírez-Ortega, D; Cervantes, G I Vázquez; Pineda, B; Balderas, Pavel Montes de Oca; González-Esquivel, D; Sánchez-Chapul, L; Lugo-Huitrón, R; Silva-Adaya, D; Ríos, C; Jiménez-Anguiano, A; Pérez-de la Cruz, V

    2015-09-01

    The kynurenines 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HANA) and its precursor 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) are metabolites derived from tryptophan degradation. 3-HK, has been related to diverse neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases that share mitochondrial metabolic dysregulation. Nevertheless, the direct effect of these kynurenines on mitochondrial function has not been investigated despite it could be regulated by their redox properties that are controversial. A body of literature has suggested a ROS mediated cell death induced by 3-HK and 3-HANA. On the other hand, some works have supported that both kynurenines have antioxidant effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate 3-HK and 3-HANA effects on mitochondrial and cellular function in rat cultured cortical astrocytes (rCCA) and in animals intrastriatally injected with these kynurenines as well as to determinate the ROS role on these effects. First, we evaluated 3-HK and 3-HANA effect on cellular function, ROS production and mitochondrial membrane potential in vivo and in vitro in rCCA. Our results show that both kynurenines decreased MTT reduction in a concentration-dependent manner together with mitochondrial membrane potential. These observations were accompanied with increased cell death in rCCA and in circling behavior and morphological changes of injected animals. Interestingly, we found that ROS production was not increased in both in vitro and in vivo experiments, and accordingly lipid peroxidation (LP) was neither increased in striatal tissue of animals injected with both kynurenines. The lack of effect on these oxidative markers is in agreement with the ·OH and ONOO(-) scavenging capacity of both kynurenines detected by chemical combinatorial assays. Altogether, these data indicate that both kynurenines exert toxic effects through mechanisms that include impairment of cellular energy metabolism which are not related to early ROS production

  9. Methods for Efficient Elimination of Mitochondrial DNA from Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Spadafora, Domenico; Kozhukhar, Nataliya; Chouljenko, Vladimir N.; Kousoulas, Konstantin G.; Alexeyev, Mikhail F.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we document that persistent mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) damage due to mitochondrial overexpression of the Y147A mutant uracil-N-glycosylase as well as mitochondrial overexpression of bacterial Exonuclease III or Herpes Simplex Virus protein UL12.5M185 can induce a complete loss of mtDNA (ρ0 phenotype) without compromising the viability of cells cultured in media supplemented with uridine and pyruvate. Furthermore, we use these observations to develop rapid, sequence-independent methods for the elimination of mtDNA, and demonstrate utility of these methods for generating ρ0 cells of human, mouse and rat origin. We also demonstrate that ρ0 cells generated by each of these three methods can serve as recipients of mtDNA in fusions with enucleated cells. PMID:27136098

  10. Exposure to Heavy Ion Radiation Induces Persistent Oxidative Stress in Mouse Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Kamal; Suman, Shubhankar; Kallakury, Bhaskar V. S.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation-induced oxidative stress is attributed to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to radiolysis of water molecules and is short lived. Persistent oxidative stress has also been observed after radiation exposure and is implicated in the late effects of radiation. The goal of this study was to determine if long-term oxidative stress in freshly isolated mouse intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) is dependent on radiation quality at a dose relevant to fractionated radiotherapy. Mice (C57BL/6J; 6 to 8 weeks; female) were irradiated with 2 Gy of γ-rays, a low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, and intestinal tissues and IEC were collected 1 year after radiation exposure. Intracellular ROS, mitochondrial function, and antioxidant activity in IEC were studied by flow cytometry and biochemical assays. Oxidative DNA damage, cell death, and mitogenic activity in IEC were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Effects of γ radiation were compared to 56Fe radiation (iso-toxic dose: 1.6 Gy; energy: 1000 MeV/nucleon; LET: 148 keV/µm), we used as representative of high-LET radiation, since it's one of the important sources of high Z and high energy (HZE) radiation in cosmic rays. Radiation quality affected the level of persistent oxidative stress with higher elevation of intracellular ROS and mitochondrial superoxide in high-LET 56Fe radiation compared to unirradiated controls and γ radiation. NADPH oxidase activity, mitochondrial membrane damage, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential were greater in 56Fe-irradiated mice. Compared to γ radiation oxidative DNA damage was higher, cell death ratio was unchanged, and mitotic activity was increased after 56Fe radiation. Taken together our results indicate that long-term functional dysregulation of mitochondria and increased NADPH oxidase activity are major contributing factors towards heavy ion radiation-induced persistent oxidative stress in IEC with potential for neoplastic transformation. PMID

  11. Olaquindox induces DNA damage via the lysosomal and mitochondrial pathway involving ROS production and p53 activation in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Jiang, Liping; She, Yan; Chen, Min; Li, Qiujuan; Yang, Guang; Geng, Chengyan; Tang, Liyun; Zhong, Laifu; Jiang, Lijie; Liu, Xiaofang

    2015-11-01

    Olaquindox (OLA) is a potent antibacterial agent used as a feed additive and growth promoter. In this study, the genotoxic potential of OLA was investigated in the human embryonic kidney cell line 293 (HEK293). Results showed that OLA caused significant increases of DNA migration. Lysosomal membrane permeability and mitochondrial membrane potential were reduced after treatment with OLA. OLA was shown to induce ROS production and GSH depletion. The expression of p53 protein is increased in cells incubated with OLA. The activation of p53 and ATM gene was assessed by exposure to OLA. Furthermore, NAC reduced DNA migration, ROS formation, GSH depletion and the expression of the p53 protein and gene. And desipramine significantly decreased AO fluorescence intensity and the expression of the p53 protein and gene. These results support the assumption that OLA exerted genotoxic effects and induced DNA strand breaks in HEK293 cells, possibly through lysosomal-mitochondrial pathway involving ROS production and p53 activation.

  12. Mitochondrial capacity, oxidative damage and hypoxia gene expression are associated with age-related division of labor in honey bee, Apis mellifera L., workers.

    PubMed

    Cervoni, Mário S; Cardoso-Júnior, Carlos A M; Craveiro, Giovana; Souza, Anderson de O; Alberici, Luciane C; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2017-09-14

    During adult life, honeybee workers undergo a succession of behavioral states. Nurses bees perform tasks inside the nest, and when they are about 2-3 weeks old they initiate foraging. This switch is associated with alterations in diet, and with the levels of juvenile hormone and vitellogenin circulating in hemolymph. Less clear is whether this behavioral maturation involves major changes at the cellular level, such as mitochondrial activity and the redox environment in the head, thorax and abdomen. Using high-resolution respirometry, biochemical assays and RT-qPCR, we evaluated the association of these parameters with this behavioral change. We found that tissues from the head and abdomen of nurses have a higher OXPHOS capacity than those of foragers, while for the thorax we found an opposite situation. Since higher mitochondrial activity tends to generate more H2O2 and H2O2 is known to stabilize HIF-1α, this would be expected to stimulate hypoxia signaling. The positive correlation that we observed between mitochondrial activity and hif-1α gene expression in abdomen and head tissue of nurses would be in line with this hypothesis. Higher expression of antioxidant enzyme genes was observed in foragers, which could explain their low levels of protein carbonylation. No alterations were seen in NO levels, suggesting that NO signaling is unlikely to be involved in behavioral maturation. We conclude that the behavioral change seen in honeybee workers is reflected in differential mitochondrial activities and redox parameters, and we consider that this can provide insights into the underlying aging process. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. The role of mitochondrial DNA damage and repair in the resistance of BCR/ABL-expressing cells to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Sylwester; Synowiec, Ewelina; Blasiak, Janusz

    2013-08-07

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematological malignancy that arises from the transformation of stem hematopoietic cells by the fusion oncogene BCR/ABL and subsequent clonal expansion of BCR/ABL-positive progenitor leukemic cells. The BCR/ABL protein displays a constitutively increased tyrosine kinase activity that alters many regulatory pathways, leading to uncontrolled growth, impaired differentiation and increased resistance to apoptosis featured by leukemic cells. Current CML therapy is based on tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), primarily imatinib, which induce apoptosis in leukemic cells. However, some patients show primary resistance to TKIs while others develop it in the course of therapy. In both cases, resistance may be underlined by perturbations in apoptotic signaling in leukemic cells. As mitochondria may play an important role in such signaling, alteration in mitochondrial metabolism may change resistance to pro-apoptotic action of TKIs in BCR/ABL-positive cells. Because BCR/ABL may induce reactive oxygen species and unfaithful DNA repair, it may affect the stability of mitochondrial DNA, influencing mitochondrial apoptotic signaling and in this way change the sensitivity of CML cells to TKIs. Moreover, cancer cells, including BCR/ABL-positive cells, show an increased level of glucose metabolism, resulting from the shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis to supply ATP for extensive proliferation. Enhanced level of glycolysis may be associated with TKI resistance and requires change in the expression of several genes regulated mostly by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, HIF-1α. Such regulation may be associated with the impaired mitochondrial respiratory system in CML cells. In summary, mitochondria and mitochondria-associated molecules and pathways may be attractive targets to overcome TKI resistance in CML.

  14. Mitochondrial approaches for neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Rajnish K.; Beal, M. Flint

    2008-01-01

    A large body of evidence from post-mortem brain tissue and genetic analysis in man and biochemical and pathological studies in animal models (transgenic and toxin) of neurodegeneration suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a common pathological mechanism. Mitochondrial dysfunction due to oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA deletions, pathological mutations, altered mitochondrial morphology and interaction of pathogenic proteins with mitochondria leads to neuronal demise. Therefore, therapeutic approaches targeting mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage hold great promise in neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses the potential therapeutic efficacy of creatine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone, synthetic triterpenoids, and mitochondrial targeted antioxidants (MitoQ) and peptides (SS-31) in in vitro studies and in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have also reviewed the current status of clinical trials of creatine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone and MitoQ in neurodegenerative disorders. Further, we discuss newly identified therapeutic targets including PGC-1α and Sirtuins, which provide promise for future therapeutic developments in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19076459

  15. Mitochondrial energetics in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Pallavi; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2017-10-01

    The kidney requires a large number of mitochondria to remove waste from the blood and regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. Mitochondria provide the energy to drive these important functions and can adapt to different metabolic conditions through a number of signalling pathways (for example, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways) that activate the transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator 1α (PGC1α), and by balancing mitochondrial dynamics and energetics to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to a decrease in ATP production, alterations in cellular functions and structure, and the loss of renal function. Persistent mitochondrial dysfunction has a role in the early stages and progression of renal diseases, such as acute kidney injury (AKI) and diabetic nephropathy, as it disrupts mitochondrial homeostasis and thus normal kidney function. Improving mitochondrial homeostasis and function has the potential to restore renal function, and administering compounds that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis can restore mitochondrial and renal function in mouse models of AKI and diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, inhibiting the fission protein dynamin 1-like protein (DRP1) might ameliorate ischaemic renal injury by blocking mitochondrial fission.

  16. Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated mitochondrial damage plays a critical role in T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis and growth hormone deficiency in rat anterior pituitary GH3 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianglian; Guo, Pu; Liu, Aimei; Wu, Qinghua; Xue, Xijuan; Dai, Menghong; Hao, Haihong; Qu, Wei; Xie, Shuyu; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2017-04-01

    T-2 toxin, a major compound of trichothecenes, induces cell apoptosis and growth hormone (GH) deficiency and causes considerable growth retardation in animals and human cells. However, the mechanism underlying its growth suppression still remains unclear. Recent studies have suggested that ROS induced cell apoptosis and animal feed intake reduction, but there are limited reports on the role of RNS in T-2 toxin-mediated mitochondrial damage, cell apoptosis and growth retardation. Herein, T-2 toxin-induced GH3 cell damage and apoptosis were tested by MTT assay, LDH leakage and flow cytometry, respectively. Intracellular NO and antioxidant enzyme activity, ΔΨm, morphometric changes of mitochondria, the caspase pathway, and inflammatory factors were investigated. Free radical scavengers NAC, SOD and NO scavenger haemoglobin were used to explore the role of oxidative stress and the relationship between NO production and caspase pathway. The results clearly revealed that T-2 toxin caused significant increases in NO generation, cell apoptosis, GH deficiency, increased iNOS activity, upregulation of inflammatory factors and caspase pathway, decreases in ΔΨm and morphosis damage. These data suggest that mitochondria are a primary target of T-2 toxin-induced NO, and NO is a key mediator of T-2 toxin-induced cell apoptosis and GH deficiency via the mitochondria-dependent pathway in cells.

  17. Agmatine effects on mitochondrial membrane potential and NF-κB activation protect against rotenone-induced cell damage in human neuronal-like SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Condello, Salvatore; Currò, Monica; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Caccamo, Daniela; Satriano, Joseph; Ientile, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Agmatine, an endogenous arginine metabolite, has been proposed as a novel neuromodulator that